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Sample records for human tear film

  1. Divalent cations in tears, and their influence on tear film stability in humans and rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaojia Eric; Markoulli, Maria; Millar, Thomas J; Willcox, Mark D P; Zhao, Zhenjun

    2012-06-05

    Reduced tear film stability is reported to contribute to dry eye. Rabbits are known to have a more stable tear film than humans. Thus, we sought to examine the tears of rabbits and humans for metal cations, and to test how they influence tear film stability. Tears were collected from 10 healthy humans and 6 rabbits. Tear osmolality was measured by vapor pressure osmometer, and metals analyzed using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) mass spectrometry or ICP atomic emission spectroscopy. The influence of divalent cations on tears was analyzed by measuring surface tension using the Langmuir trough in vitro, using different concentrations of cations in the subphase, and grading the tear break-up in rabbits in vivo after instillation of chelating agents. Rabbit tears had a higher osmolality compared to humans. Major metals did not differ between species; however, rabbits had higher levels of Mg(2+) (1.13 vs. 0.39 mM) and Ca(2+) (0.75 vs. 0.36 mM). In rabbit tears in vitro, diminishing divalent cations resulted in a decrease in the maximum surface pressure from 37 to 30 mN/m. In vivo, an increase in the amount of tear film that was broken-up was found. In contrast, when changing divalent cation concentrations in human tears, the maximum surface pressure remained at 26 mN/m. The normal osmolality of rabbit tears is significantly higher than that in humans. While divalent cations had little influence on human tears, they appear to have an important role in maintaining tear film stability in rabbits.

  2. Adsorption of human tear lipocalin to human meibomian lipid films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Thomas J; Mudgil, Poonam; Butovich, Igor A; Palaniappan, Chendur K

    2009-01-01

    Tear lipocalin (Tlc) is a major lipid binding protein in tears and is thought to have an important role in stabilizing the Meibomian lipid layer by transferring lipids to it from the aqueous layer or ocular surface, or by adsorbing to it directly. These possible roles have been investigated in vitro using human Tlc. Tlc was purified from human tears by size exclusion chromatography followed by ion exchange chromatography. Three additional samples of the Tlc were prepared by lipidation, delipidation, and relipidation. The lipids extracted from the purified Tlc were analyzed by HPLC-MS followed by fragmentation. Adsorption of these different forms of Tlc to a human Meibomian lipid film spread on the surface of an artificial tear buffer in a Langmuir trough were observed by recording changes in the pressure with time (Pi-T profile) and monitoring the appearance of the film microscopically. These results were compared with similar experiments using a bovine Meibomian lipid film. The results indicated that Tlc binds slowly to a human Meibomian lipid film compared with lysozyme or lactoferrin, even at 37 degrees C. The adsorption of Tlc to a human Meibomian lipid film was very different from its adsorption to a bovine Meibomian lipid film, indicating the nature of the lipids in the film is critical to the adsorption process. Similarly, the different forms of Tlc had quite distinct adsorption patterns, as indicated both by changes in Pi-T profiles and the microscopic appearance of the films. It was concluded that human Tlc was capable of adsorbing to and penetrating into a Meibomian lipid layer, but this process is very complex and depends on both the types of lipids bound to Tlc and the lipid complement comprising the Meibomian lipid film.

  3. Adsorption of Human Tear Lipocalin to Human Meibomian Lipid Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Thomas J.; Mudgil, Poonam; Butovich, Igor A.; Palaniappan, Chendur K.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Tear lipocalin (Tlc) is a major lipid binding protein in tears and is thought to have an important role in stabilizing the Meibomian lipid layer by transferring lipids to it from the aqueous layer or ocular surface, or by adsorbing to it directly. These possible roles have been investigated in vitro using human Tlc. Methods Tlc was purified from human tears by size exclusion chromatography followed by ion exchange chromatography. Three additional samples of the Tlc were prepared by lipidation, delipidation, and relipidation. The lipids extracted from the purified Tlc were analyzed by HPLC-MS followed by fragmentation. Adsorption of these different forms of Tlc to a human Meibomian lipid film spread on the surface of an artificial tear buffer in a Langmuir trough were observed by recording changes in the pressure with time (∏-T profile) and monitoring the appearance of the film microscopically. These results were compared with similar experiments using a bovine Meibomian lipid film. Results The results indicated that Tlc binds slowly to a human Meibomian lipid film compared with lysozyme or lactoferrin, even at 37°C. The adsorption of Tlc to a human Meibomian lipid film was very different from its adsorption to a bovine Meibomian lipid film, indicating the nature of the lipids in the film is critical to the adsorption process. Similarly, the different forms of Tlc had quite distinct adsorption patterns, as indicated both by changes in ∏-T profiles and the microscopic appearance of the films. Conclusions It was concluded that human Tlc was capable of adsorbing to and penetrating into a Meibomian lipid layer, but this process is very complex and depends on both the types of lipids bound to Tlc and the lipid complement comprising the Meibomian lipid film. PMID:18757516

  4. Water-evaporation reduction by duplex films: application to the human tear film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerretani, Colin F; Ho, Nghia H; Radke, C J

    2013-09-01

    Water-evaporation reduction by duplex-oil films is especially important to understand the physiology of the human tear film. Secreted lipids, called meibum, form a duplex film that coats the aqueous tear film and purportedly reduces tear evaporation. Lipid-layer deficiency is correlated with the occurrence of dry-eye disease; however, in-vitro experiments fail to show water-evaporation reduction by tear-lipid duplex films. We review the available literature on water-evaporation reduction by duplex-oil films and outline the theoretical underpinnings of spreading and evaporation kinetics that govern behavior of these systems. A dissolution-diffusion model unifies the data reported in the literature and identifies dewetting of duplex films into lenses as a key challenge to obtaining significant evaporation reduction. We develop an improved apparatus for measuring evaporation reduction by duplex-oil films including simultaneous assessment of film coverage, stability, and temperature, all under controlled external mass transfer. New data reported in this study fit into the larger body of work conducted on water-evaporation reduction by duplex-oil films. Duplex-oil films of oxidized mineral oil/mucin (MOx/BSM), human meibum (HM), and bovine meibum (BM) reduce water evaporation by a dissolution-diffusion mechanism, as confirmed by agreement between measurement and theory. The water permeability of oxidized-mineral-oil duplex films agrees with those reported in the literature, after correction for the presence of mucin. We find that duplex-oil films of bovine and human meibum at physiologic temperature reduce water evaporation only 6-8% for a 100-nm film thickness pertinent to the human tear film. Comparison to in-vivo human tear-evaporation measurements is inconclusive because evaporation from a clean-water surface is not measured and because the mass-transfer resistance is not characterized. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Surface Chemistry Interactions of Cationorm with Films by Human Meibum and Tear Film Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgi As. Georgiev

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cationorm® (CN cationic nanoemulsion was demonstrated to enhance tear film (TF stability in vivo possibly via effects on tear film lipid layer (TFLL. Therefore the interactions of CN with human meibum (MGS and TFLL in vitro and in vivo deserve special study. MGS and CN were spread at the air/water interface of a Langmuir surface balance to ensure a range of MGS/CN oil phase ratios: 20/1, 10/1, 5/1, 3/1, 2/1 and 1/1. The films capability to reorganize during dynamic area changes was evaluated via the surface pressure-area compression isotherms and step/relaxation dilatational rheology studies. Films structure was monitored with Brewster angle microscopy. CN/TFLL interactions at the ocular surface were monitored with non-contact specular microscopy. The in vitro studies of MGS/CN layers showed that (i CN inclusion (at fixed MGS content increased film elasticity and thickness and that (ii CN can compensate for moderate meibum deficiency in MGS/CN films. In vivo CN mixed with TFLL in a manner similar to CN/MGS interactions in vitro, and resulted in enhanced thickness of TFLL. In vitro and in vivo data complement each other and facilitated the study of the composition-structure-function relationship that determines the impact of cationic nanoemulsions on TF.

  6. Duplex Tear Film Evaporation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapf, M R; Braun, R J; King-Smith, P E

    2017-12-01

    Tear film thinning, hyperosmolarity, and breakup can cause irritation and damage to the human eye, and these form an area of active investigation for dry eye syndrome research. Recent research demonstrates that deficiencies in the lipid layer may cause locally increased evaporation, inducing conditions for breakup. In this paper, we explore the conditions for tear film breakup by considering a model for tear film dynamics with two mobile fluid layers, the aqueous and lipid layers. In addition, we include the effects of osmosis, evaporation as modified by the lipid, and the polar portion of the lipid layer. We solve the system numerically for reasonable parameter values and initial conditions and analyze how shifts in these cause changes to the system's dynamics.

  7. Interferometer for measuring the dynamic surface topography of a human tear film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primeau, Brian C.; Greivenkamp, John E.

    2012-03-01

    The anterior refracting surface of the eye is the thin tear film that forms on the surface of the cornea. Following a blink, the tear film quickly smoothes and starts to become irregular after 10 seconds. This irregularity can affect comfort and vision quality. An in vivo method of characterizing dynamic tear films has been designed based upon a near-infrared phase-shifting interferometer. This interferometer continuously measures light reflected from the tear film, allowing sub-micron analysis of the dynamic surface topography. Movies showing the tear film behavior can be generated along with quantitative metrics describing changes in the tear film surface. This tear film measurement allows analysis beyond capabilities of typical fluorescein visual inspection or corneal topography and provides better sensitivity and resolution than shearing interferometry methods. The interferometer design is capable of identifying features in the tear film much less than a micron in height with a spatial resolution of about ten microns over a 6 mm diameter. This paper presents the design of the tear film interferometer along with the considerations that must be taken when designing an interferometer for on-eye diagnostics. Discussions include eye movement, design of null optics for a range of ocular geometries, and laser emission limits for on-eye interferometry.

  8. The effects of radiant cooling versus convective cooling on human eye tear film stability and blinking rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Linette; Uth, Simon C.; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov

    2014-01-01

    The effect of indoor temperature, radiant and convective cooling on tear film stability and eye blink frequency was examined. 24 human subjects were exposed to the non-uniform environment generated by localised chilled beam and a chilled ceiling combined with overhead mixing ventilation. The subj......The effect of indoor temperature, radiant and convective cooling on tear film stability and eye blink frequency was examined. 24 human subjects were exposed to the non-uniform environment generated by localised chilled beam and a chilled ceiling combined with overhead mixing ventilation....... The subjects participated in four two-hour experiments. The room air temperature was kept at 26 °C or 28 °C. Tear film samples were collected after 30 min of acclimatisation and at the end of the exposures. Eye blinking frequency was analysed for the first and last 15 min of each exposure. The tear film...... stability decreased as the temperature increased. The highest number of subjects with unchanged or improved tear film quality was observed with the localised chilled beam at 26 °C. A trend was found between subjects who reported eye irritation and had a bad tear film quality....

  9. Interferometric characterization of tear film dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primeau, Brian Christopher

    The anterior refracting surface of the eye is the thin tear film that forms on the surface of the cornea. When a contact lens is on worn, the tear film covers the contact lens as it would a bare cornea, and is affected by the contact lens material properties. Tear film irregularity can cause both discomfort and vision quality degradation. Under normal conditions, the tear film is less than 10 microns thick and the thickness and topography change in the time between blinks. In order to both better understand the tear film, and to characterize how contact lenses affect tear film behavior, two interferometers were designed and built to separately measure tear film behavior in vitro and in vivo. An in vitro method of characterizing dynamic fluid layers applied to contact lenses mounted on mechanical substrates has been developed using a phase-shifting Twyman-Green interferometer. This interferometer continuously measures light reflected from the surface of the fluid layer, allowing precision analysis of the dynamic fluid layer. Movies showing this fluid layer behavior can be generated. The fluid behavior on the contact lens surface is measured, allowing quantitative analysis beyond what typical contact angle or visual inspection methods provide. The in vivo interferometer is a similar system, with additional modules included to provide capability for human testing. This tear film measurement allows analysis beyond capabilities of typical fluorescein visual inspection or videokeratometry and provides better sensitivity and resolution than shearing interferometry methods.

  10. Tear film measurement by optical reflectometry technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hui; Wang, Michael R.; Wang, Jianhua; Shen, Meixiao

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Evaluation of tear film is performed by an optical reflectometer system with alignment guided by a galvanometer scanner. The reflectometer system utilizes optical fibers to deliver illumination light to the tear film and collect the film reflectance as a function of wavelength. Film thickness is determined by best fitting the reflectance-wavelength curve. The spectral reflectance acquisition time is 15 ms, fast enough for detecting film thickness changes. Fast beam alignment of 1 s is achieved by the galvanometer scanner. The reflectometer was first used to evaluate artificial tear film on a model eye with and without a contact lens. The film thickness and thinning rate have been successfully quantified with the minimum measured thickness of about 0.3 μm. Tear films in human eyes, with and without a contact lens, have also been evaluated. A high-contrast spectral reflectance signal from the precontact lens tear film is clearly observed, and the thinning dynamics have been easily recorded from 3.69 to 1.31 μm with lipid layer thickness variation in the range of 41 to 67 nm. The accuracy of the measurement is better than ±0.58% of the film thickness at an estimated tear film refractive index error of ±0.001. The fiber-based reflectometer system is compact and easy to handle. PMID:24500519

  11. Evaporation-driven instability of the precorneal tear film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Cheng-Chun; Cerretani, Colin; Braun, Richard J; Radke, C J

    2014-04-01

    Tear-film instability is widely believed to be a signature of eye health. When an interblink is prolonged, randomly distributed ruptures occur in the tear film. "Black spots" and/or "black streaks" appear in 15 to 40 s for normal individuals. For people who suffer from dry eye, tear-film breakup time (BUT) is typically less than a few seconds. To date, however, there is no satisfactory quantitative explanation for the origin of tear rupture. Recently, it was proposed that tear-film breakup is related to locally high evaporative thinning. A spatial variation in the thickness of the tear-film lipid layer (TFLL) may lead to locally elevated evaporation and subsequent tear-film breakup. We examine the local-evaporation-driven tear-film-rupture hypothesis in a one-dimensional (1-D) model for the evolution of a thin aqueous tear film overriding the cornea subject to locally elevated evaporation at its anterior surface and osmotic water influx at its posterior surface. Evaporation rate depends on mass transfer both through the coating lipid layer and through ambient air. We establish that evaporation-driven tear-film breakup can occur under normal conditions but only for higher aqueous evaporation rates. Predicted roles of environmental conditions, such as wind speed and relative humidity, on tear-film stability agree with clinical observations. More importantly, locally elevated evaporation leads to hyperosmolar spots in the tear film and, hence, vulnerability to epithelial irritation. In addition to evaporation rate, tear-film instability depends on the strength of healing flow from the neighboring region outside the breakup region, which is determined by the surface tension at the tear-film surface and by the repulsive thin-film disjoining pressure. This study provides a physically consistent and quantitative explanation for the formation of black streaks and spots in the human tear film during an interblink. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Human tears contain a chemosignal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelstein, Shani; Yeshurun, Yaara; Rozenkrantz, Liron; Shushan, Sagit; Frumin, Idan; Roth, Yehudah; Sobel, Noam

    2011-01-14

    Emotional tearing is a poorly understood behavior that is considered uniquely human. In mice, tears serve as a chemosignal. We therefore hypothesized that human tears may similarly serve a chemosignaling function. We found that merely sniffing negative-emotion-related odorless tears obtained from women donors induced reductions in sexual appeal attributed by men to pictures of women's faces. Moreover, after sniffing such tears, men experienced reduced self-rated sexual arousal, reduced physiological measures of arousal, and reduced levels of testosterone. Finally, functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed that sniffing women's tears selectively reduced activity in brain substrates of sexual arousal in men.

  13. TFOS DEWS II Tear Film Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcox, Mark D P; Argüeso, Pablo; Georgiev, Georgi A; Holopainen, Juha M; Laurie, Gordon W; Millar, Tom J; Papas, Eric B; Rolland, Jannick P; Schmidt, Tannin A; Stahl, Ulrike; Suarez, Tatiana; Subbaraman, Lakshman N; Uçakhan, Omür Ö; Jones, Lyndon

    2017-07-01

    The members of the Tear Film Subcommittee reviewed the role of the tear film in dry eye disease (DED). The Subcommittee reviewed biophysical and biochemical aspects of tears and how these change in DED. Clinically, DED is characterized by loss of tear volume, more rapid breakup of the tear film and increased evaporation of tears from the ocular surface. The tear film is composed of many substances including lipids, proteins, mucins and electrolytes. All of these contribute to the integrity of the tear film but exactly how they interact is still an area of active research. Tear film osmolarity increases in DED. Changes to other components such as proteins and mucins can be used as biomarkers for DED. The Subcommittee recommended areas for future research to advance our understanding of the tear film and how this changes with DED. The final report was written after review by all Subcommittee members and the entire TFOS DEWS II membership. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Tear-Film Evaporation Rate from Simultaneous Ocular-Surface Temperature and Tear-Breakup Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dursch, Thomas J; Li, Wing; Taraz, Baseem; Lin, Meng C; Radke, Clayton J

    2018-01-01

    A corneal heat-transfer model is presented to quantify simultaneous measurements of fluorescein tear-breakup area (TBA) and ocular-surface temperature (OST). By accounting for disruption of the tear-film lipid layer (TFLL), we report evaporation rates through lipid-covered tear. The modified heat-transfer model provides new insights into evaporative dry eye. A quantitative analysis is presented to assess human aqueous tear evaporation rate (TER) through intact TFLLs from simultaneous in vivo measurement of time-dependent infrared OST and fluorescein TBA. We interpret simultaneous OST and TBA measurements using an extended heat-transfer model. We hypothesize that TBAs are ineffectively insulated by the TFLL and therefore exhibit higher TER than does that for a well-insulting TFLL-covered tear. As time proceeds, TBAs increase in number and size, thereby increasing the cornea area-averaged TER and decreasing OST. Tear-breakup areas were assessed from image analysis of fluorescein tear-film-breakup video recordings and are included in the heat-transfer description of OST. Model-predicted OSTs agree well with clinical experiments. Percent reductions in TER of lipid-covered tear range from 50 to 95% of that for pure water, in good agreement with literature. The physical picture of noninsulating or ruptured TFLL spots followed by enhanced evaporation from underlying cooler tear-film ruptures is consistent with the evaporative-driven mechanism for local tear rupture. A quantitative analysis is presented of in vivo TER from simultaneous clinical measurement of transient OST and TBA. The new heat-transfer model accounts for increased TER through expanding TBAs. Tear evaporation rate varies strongly across the cornea because lipid is effectively missing over tear-rupture troughs. The result is local faster evaporation compared with nonruptured, thick lipid-covered tear. Evaporative-driven tear-film ruptures deepen to a thickness where fluorescein quenching commences and local

  15. Diet, nutraceuticals and the tear film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalbert, Isabelle

    2013-12-01

    Nutrition disorders and their correlates such as obesity are increasingly prevalent worldwide. A number of studies to date have suggested numerous potential associations between diet and tear film health; this paper will provide a summary of the available literature. The tear film is characterized through its protein and lipid content and through clinical measurements of characteristics such as osmolarity, volume and stability. Malnutrition, protein and vitamin-A deficiencies are extremely deleterious to tear film health and supplementation with oral vitamin A in this setting is of clear benefit. The relative impact of diet on tear film within what would be considered normal ranges of consumption is less clear. A number of population studies have suggested that hyperlipidemia and a diet low in omega-3 fatty acids are risks factor for dry eye disease. Numerous studies have investigated the effectiveness of oral supplementation with antioxidants, omega-3 (e.g. fish oil and linseed oil) and omega-6 (e.g. evening primrose oil) fatty acids in the last 10 years. Taken together, these suggest a small benefit of oral supplementation on tear film volume, stability and decreased ocular symptoms in patients previously diagnosed with diseases involving the ocular surface (e.g. Sjögren's syndrome, meibomian gland dysfunction, dry eye disease) and contact lens wearers suffering from dry eye. More research is required to determine the exact composition, dosage and indications for their use and to fully characterize how these nutraceuticals modulate the tear film. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Quantitative analysis of tear film fluorescence and discomfort during tear film instability and thinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begley, Carolyn; Simpson, Trefford; Liu, Haixia; Salvo, Eliza; Wu, Ziwei; Bradley, Arthur; Situ, Ping

    2013-04-12

    The purpose of this study was to test the association between tear film fluorescence changes during tear break-up (TBU) or thinning and the concurrent ocular sensory response. Sixteen subjects kept one eye open as long as possible (MBI), indicated their discomfort level continuously, and rated ocular sensations of irritation, stinging, burning, pricking, and cooling using visual analog scales (VAS). Fluorescence of the tear film was quantified by a pixel-based analysis of the median pixel intensity (PI), TBU, and percentage of dark pixels (DarkPix) over time. A cutoff of 5% TBU was used to divide subjects into either break-up (BU) or minimal break-up (BUmin) groups. Tear film fluorescence decreased (median PI) and the percentage of TBU and DarkPix increased in all trials, with the rate significantly greater in the BU than the BUmin group (Mann-Whitney U test, P film thinning best explains decreasing tear film fluorescence during trials. This was highly correlated with increasing ocular discomfort, suggesting that both tear film thinning and TBU stimulate underlying corneal nerves, although TBU produced more rapid stimulation. Slow increases in tear film hyperosmolarity may cause the gradual increase in discomfort during slow tear film thinning, whereas the sharp increases in discomfort during TBU suggest a more complex stimulus.

  17. Goldmann tonometry tear film error and partial correction with a shaped applanation surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCafferty, Sean J; Enikov, Eniko T; Schwiegerling, Jim; Ashley, Sean M

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the study was to quantify the isolated tear film adhesion error in a Goldmann applanation tonometer (GAT) prism and in a correcting applanation tonometry surface (CATS) prism. The separation force of a tonometer prism adhered by a tear film to a simulated cornea was measured to quantify an isolated tear film adhesion force. Acrylic hemispheres (7.8 mm radius) used as corneas were lathed over the apical 3.06 mm diameter to simulate full applanation contact with the prism surface for both GAT and CATS prisms. Tear film separation measurements were completed with both an artificial tear and fluorescein solutions as a fluid bridge. The applanation mire thicknesses were measured and correlated with the tear film separation measurements. Human cadaver eyes were used to validate simulated cornea tear film separation measurement differences between the GAT and CATS prisms. The CATS prism tear film adhesion error (2.74±0.21 mmHg) was significantly less than the GAT prism (4.57±0.18 mmHg, p film adhesion error was independent of applanation mire thickness ( R 2 =0.09, p =0.04). Fluorescein produces more tear film error than artificial tears (+0.51±0.04 mmHg; p film adhesion error (1.40±0.51 mmHg) was significantly less than that of the GAT prism (3.30±0.38 mmHg; p =0.002). Measured GAT tear film adhesion error is more than previously predicted. A CATS prism significantly reduced tear film adhesion error bŷ41%. Fluorescein solution increases the tear film adhesion compared to artificial tears, while mire thickness has a negligible effect.

  18. Meniscal Tear Film Fluid Dynamics Near Marx’s Line

    KAUST Repository

    Zubkov, V. S.; Breward, C. J. W.; Gaffney, E. A.

    2013-01-01

    meniscus. However, resolving tear film behaviour within the meniscus and especially its apices is required to characterise the flow dynamics where the tear film is especially thin, and thus most susceptible to evaporatively induced hyperosmolarity

  19. Tear film proteome in age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winiarczyk, Mateusz; Kaarniranta, Kai; Winiarczyk, Stanisław; Adaszek, Łukasz; Winiarczyk, Dagmara; Mackiewicz, Jerzy

    2018-06-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the main reason for blindness in elderly people in the developed countries. Current screening protocols have limitations in detecting the early signs of retinal degeneration. Therefore, it would be desirable to find novel biomarkers for early detection of AMD. Development of novel biomarkers would help in the prevention, diagnostics, and treatment of AMD. Proteomic analysis of tear film has shown promise in this research area. If an optimal set of biomarkers could be obtained from accessible body fluids, it would represent a reliable way to monitor disease progression and response to novel therapies. Tear films were collected on Schirmer strips from a total of 22 patients (8 with wet AMD, 6 with dry AMD, and 8 control individuals). 2D electrophoresis was used to separate tear film proteins prior to their identification with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight spectrometer (MALDI-TOF/TOF) and matching with functional databases. A total of 342 proteins were identified. Most of them were previously described in various proteomic studies concerning AMD. Shootin-1, histatin-3, fidgetin-like protein 1, SRC kinase signaling inhibitor, Graves disease carrier protein, actin cytoplasmic 1, prolactin-inducible protein 1, and protein S100-A7A were upregulated in the tear film samples isolated from AMD patients and were not previously linked with this disease in any proteomic analysis. The upregulated proteins supplement our current knowledge of AMD pathogenesis, providing evidence that certain specific proteins are expressed into the tear film in AMD. As far we are aware, this is the first study to have undertaken a comprehensive in-depth analysis of the human tear film proteome in AMD patients.

  20. Goldmann tonometry tear film error and partial correction with a shaped applanation surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCafferty SJ

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sean J McCafferty,1–4 Eniko T Enikov,5 Jim Schwiegerling,2,3 Sean M Ashley1,3 1Intuor Technologies, 2Department of Ophthalmology, University of Arizona College of Medicine, 3University of Arizona College of Optical Science, 4Arizona Eye Consultants, 5Department of Mechanical and Aerospace, University of Arizona College of Engineering, Tucson, AZ, USA Purpose: The aim of the study was to quantify the isolated tear film adhesion error in a Goldmann applanation tonometer (GAT prism and in a correcting applanation tonometry surface (CATS prism.Methods: The separation force of a tonometer prism adhered by a tear film to a simulated cornea was measured to quantify an isolated tear film adhesion force. Acrylic hemispheres (7.8 mm radius used as corneas were lathed over the apical 3.06 mm diameter to simulate full applanation contact with the prism surface for both GAT and CATS prisms. Tear film separation measurements were completed with both an artificial tear and fluorescein solutions as a fluid bridge. The applanation mire thicknesses were measured and correlated with the tear film separation measurements. Human cadaver eyes were used to validate simulated cornea tear film separation measurement differences between the GAT and CATS prisms.Results: The CATS prism tear film adhesion error (2.74±0.21 mmHg was significantly less than the GAT prism (4.57±0.18 mmHg, p<0.001. Tear film adhesion error was independent of applanation mire thickness (R2=0.09, p=0.04. Fluorescein produces more tear film error than artificial tears (+0.51±0.04 mmHg; p<0.001. Cadaver eye validation indicated the CATS prism’s tear film adhesion error (1.40±0.51 mmHg was significantly less than that of the GAT prism (3.30±0.38 mmHg; p=0.002.Conclusion: Measured GAT tear film adhesion error is more than previously predicted. A CATS prism significantly reduced tear film adhesion error by ~41%. Fluorescein solution increases the tear film adhesion compared to

  1. A Controlled Study on the Correlation between Tear Film Volume and Tear Film Stability in Diabetic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissa, Iman M; Khalil, Noha M; El-Gendy, Heba A

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the tear film quantity and correlate it with the quality and stability of the tear film in diabetics and compare them to age matched controls. Introduction. Diabetes affects tear film parameters in multiple ways. Poor metabolic control and neuropathy are postulated factors. To further understand how diabetes affects tear film parameters this study was conducted. Subjects and Methods. Tear meniscus height was measured by anterior segment OCT, along with tear thinning time, a subtype of noninvasive tear break-up time, and blinking rate per minute which were all recorded for 22 diabetic patients. Correlations between these tear film parameters were studied and then compared to 16 age matched controls. Results. A statistically significant difference was found in blinking rate between the diabetic and the control group (P = 0.002), with higher blinking rate among diabetics. All tear film parameters were negatively correlated with duration of diabetes. A positive correlation was found between tear film volume and stability. Conclusion. Diabetes affects the tear film in various ways. Diabetics should be examined for dry eye signs even in absence of symptoms which may be masked by associated neuropathy. Duration of diabetes has an impact on tear film status.

  2. A Controlled Study on the Correlation between Tear Film Volume and Tear Film Stability in Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman M. Eissa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To assess the tear film quantity and correlate it with the quality and stability of the tear film in diabetics and compare them to age matched controls. Introduction. Diabetes affects tear film parameters in multiple ways. Poor metabolic control and neuropathy are postulated factors. To further understand how diabetes affects tear film parameters this study was conducted. Subjects and Methods. Tear meniscus height was measured by anterior segment OCT, along with tear thinning time, a subtype of noninvasive tear break-up time, and blinking rate per minute which were all recorded for 22 diabetic patients. Correlations between these tear film parameters were studied and then compared to 16 age matched controls. Results. A statistically significant difference was found in blinking rate between the diabetic and the control group (P=0.002, with higher blinking rate among diabetics. All tear film parameters were negatively correlated with duration of diabetes. A positive correlation was found between tear film volume and stability. Conclusion. Diabetes affects the tear film in various ways. Diabetics should be examined for dry eye signs even in absence of symptoms which may be masked by associated neuropathy. Duration of diabetes has an impact on tear film status.

  3. Effects of tear film dynamics on quality of vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Shizuka; Tung, Cynthia I; Inoue, Yasushi; Jhanji, Vishal

    2018-06-15

    The precorneal tear film is maintained by blinking and exhibits different phases in the tear cycle. The tear film serves as the most anterior surface of the eye and plays an important role as a first refractive component of the eye. Alterations in tear film dynamics may cause both vision-related and ocular surface-related symptoms. Although the optical quality associated with the tear film dynamics previously received little attention, objective measurements of optical quality using wavefront sensors have enabled us to quantify optical aberrations induced by the tear film. This has provided an objective method for assessing reduced optical quality in dry eye; thus, visual disturbances were included in the definition of dry eye disease in the 2007 Dry Eye Workshop report. In addition, sequential measurements of wavefront aberrations have provided us with valuable insights into the dynamic optical changes associated with tear film dynamics. This review will focus on the current knowledge of the mechanisms of wavefront variations that are caused by different aspects of tear film dynamics: specifically, quality, quantity and properties of the tear film, demonstrating the respective effects of dry eye, epiphora and instillation of eye drops on the quality of vision. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Dynamic measurement of the corneal tear film with a Twyman-Green interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micali, Jason D.; Greivenkamp, John E.; Primeau, Brian C.

    2015-05-01

    An interferometer for measuring dynamic properties of the in vivo tear film on the human cornea has been developed. The system is a near-infrared instantaneous phase-shifting Twyman-Green interferometer. The laser source is a 785 nm solid-state laser, and the system has been carefully designed and calibrated to ensure that the system operates at eye-safe levels. Measurements are made over a 6 mm diameter on the cornea. Successive frames of interferometric height measurements are combined to produce movies showing both the quantitative and qualitative changes in the topography of the tear film surface and structure. To date, measurement periods of up to 120 s at 28.6 frames per second have been obtained. Several human subjects have been examined using this system, demonstrating a surface height resolution of 25 nm and spatial resolution of 6 μm. Examples of features that have been observed in these preliminary studies of the tear film include postblink disruption, evolution, and stabilization of the tear film; tear film artifacts generated by blinking; tear film evaporation and breakup; and the propagation of foreign objects in the tear film. This paper discusses the interferometer design and presents results from in vivo measurements.

  5. Tear film lipid layer: A molecular level view

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cwiklik, Lukasz

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 1858, č. 10 (2016), s. 2421-2430 ISSN 0005-2736 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-14292S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : tear film * tear film lipid layer * molecular dynamics simulations Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.498, year: 2016

  6. The Effect of Polar Lipids on Tear Film Dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Aydemir, E.; Breward, C. J. W.; Witelski, T. P.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present a mathematical model describing the effect of polar lipids, excreted by glands in the eyelid and present on the surface of the tear film, on the evolution of a pre-corneal tear film. We aim to explain the interesting

  7. Changes of tear film after trabeculectomy in glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Jun Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To learn the changes of the tear film before and after the trabeculectomy of glaucoma and explore the incidence of dry eye and the prevention and control measures.METHODS: The 36 patients(60 eyesof glaucoma were examined in detail before 3d of trabeculectomy and after the surgery at 3, 7, 14 and 30d. The examinations include lower eyelid central river of tears, break-up time(BUT, Schirmer Ⅰ test(SⅠtand staining scores of corneal fluorescein under slit lamp microscope.RESULTS:The tear meniscus height of central lower eyelid was increased and the tear film BUT was shortened at the same time, the scores of SⅠt was reduced and corneal fluorescein staining score was increased at postoperative 3 and 7d compared with that of preoperation. The tear meniscus height of central lower eyelid, tear film BUT and SIt and score of corneal fluorescein staining began to recover in most of the affected eyes after surgery 14d. At 30d after surgery, 22% of patients tear film failed to recover to the preoperative level; dry eye occured in 18% preoperative eyes with normal tear film.CONCLUSION:Trabeculectomy of glaucoma may affect the stability of the tear film and some patients showeing obvious dry eye and should be intervened and treatmented timely.

  8. The Effect of Polar Lipids on Tear Film Dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Aydemir, E.

    2010-06-17

    In this paper, we present a mathematical model describing the effect of polar lipids, excreted by glands in the eyelid and present on the surface of the tear film, on the evolution of a pre-corneal tear film. We aim to explain the interesting experimentally observed phenomenon that the tear film continues to move upward even after the upper eyelid has become stationary. The polar lipid is an insoluble surface species that locally alters the surface tension of the tear film. In the lubrication limit, the model reduces to two coupled non-linear partial differential equations for the film thickness and the concentration of lipid. We solve the system numerically and observe that increasing the concentration of the lipid increases the flow of liquid up the eye. We further exploit the size of the parameters in the problem to explain the initial evolution of the system. © 2010 Society for Mathematical Biology.

  9. On tear film breakup (TBU): dynamics and imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Richard J; Driscoll, Tobin A; Begley, Carolyn G; King-Smith, P Ewen; Siddique, Javed I

    2018-06-13

    We report the results of some recent experiments to visualize tear film dynamics. We then study a mathematical model for tear film thinning and tear film breakup (TBU), a term from the ocular surface literature. The thinning is driven by an imposed tear film thinning rate which is input from in vivo measurements. Solutes representing osmolarity and fluorescein are included in the model. Osmolarity causes osmosis from the model ocular surface, and the fluorescein is used to compute the intensity corresponding closely to in vivo observations. The imposed thinning can be either one-dimensional or axisymmetric, leading to streaks or spots of TBU, respectively. For a spatially-uniform (flat) film, osmosis would cease thinning and balance mass lost due to evaporation; for these space-dependent evaporation profiles TBU does occur because osmolarity diffuses out of the TBU into the surrounding tear film, in agreement with previous results. The intensity pattern predicted based on the fluorescein concentration is compared with the computed thickness profiles; this comparison is important for interpreting in vivo observations. The non-dimensionalization introduced leads to insight about the relative importance of the competing processes; it leads to a classification of large vs small TBU regions in which different physical effects are dominant. Many regions of TBU may be considered small, revealing that the flow inside the film has an appreciable influence on fluorescence imaging of the tear film.

  10. Impact of environmental adaptation on tear film assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagehi, R

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of ocular environmental adaptation on clinical tear film assessment. Thirty subjects (male, mean age 23±2.5) participated in this study. A number of clinical tear film tests were applied, including: fluorescein tear break-up time (FTBUT), Schirmer test and tear prism height test (TPH). The tear physiology of each subject was evaluated twice, once immediately when they arrived from the external environment, and then after 30minutes adaptation in the exam room environment. The mean values were: Schirmer test A (22.1±2.99), Schirmer test B (24.2±2.63), FTBUT A (8.00±1.94), FTBUT B (9.13±2.04), TPH A (0.179±0.026) and TPH B* (0.187±0.023). Statistical testing using Wilcoxon-signed rank test showed a significant difference between the Schirmer test results measured at the different times (P=0.008). Also, the FTBUT and tear prism height test results showed significant differences between the two evaluation times, (P=0.001, 0.011, respectively) (A: tear assessed when the subject comes from the outside environment, B: tear film assessed after 30min adaptation in the clinical environment). This study showed a significant difference between the tear film test results evaluated when the subjects were assessed immediately from the outside environment and after an adaptation time in the clinic environment. Practitioners must consider the effect of differences between external and clinical environment adaptation on clinical tear film physiology. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of non-invasive tear film stability measurement techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Michael Tm; Murphy, Paul J; Blades, Kenneth J; Craig, Jennifer P

    2018-01-01

    Measurement of tear film stability is commonly used to give an indication of tear film quality but a number of non-invasive techniques exists within the clinical setting. This study sought to compare three non-invasive tear film stability measurement techniques: instrument-mounted wide-field white light clinical interferometry, instrument-mounted keratoscopy and hand-held keratoscopy. Twenty-two subjects were recruited in a prospective, randomised, masked, cross-over study. Tear film break-up or thinning time was measured non-invasively by independent experienced examiners, with each of the three devices, in a randomised order, within an hour. Significant correlation was observed between instrument-mounted interferometric and keratoscopic measurements (p 0.05). Tear film stability values obtained from the hand-held device were significantly shorter and demonstrated narrower spread than the other two instruments (all p 0.05). Good clinical agreement exists between the instrument-mounted interferometric and keratoscopic measurements but not between the hand-held device and either of the instrument-mounted techniques. The results highlight the importance of specifying the instrument employed to record non-invasive tear film stability. © 2017 Optometry Australia.

  12. Human tears reveal insights into corneal neovascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Nadia; Van Grasdorff, Sigi; Wouters, Kristien; Rozema, Jos; Koppen, Carina; Lion, Eva; Cools, Nathalie; Berneman, Zwi; Tassignon, Marie-José

    2012-01-01

    Corneal neovascularization results from the encroachment of blood vessels from the surrounding conjunctiva onto the normally avascular cornea. The aim of this study is to identify factors in human tears that are involved in development and/or maintenance of corneal neovascularization in humans. This could allow development of diagnostic tools for monitoring corneal neovascularization and combination monoclonal antibody therapies for its treatment. In an observational case-control study we enrolled a total of 12 patients with corneal neovascularization and 10 healthy volunteers. Basal tears along with reflex tears from the inferior fornix, superior fornix and using a corneal bath were collected along with blood serum samples. From all patients, ocular surface photographs were taken. Concentrations of the pro-angiogenic cytokines interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 1 (MCP-1) and Fas Ligand (FasL) were determined in blood and tear samples using a flow cytometric multiplex assay. Our results show that the concentration of pro-angiogenic cytokines in human tears are significantly higher compared to their concentrations in serum, with highest levels found in basal tears. Interestingly, we could detect a significantly higher concentration of IL- 6, IL-8 and VEGF in localized corneal tears of patients with neovascularized corneas when compared to the control group. This is the first study of its kind demonstrating a significant difference of defined factors in tears from patients with neovascularized corneas as compared to healthy controls. These results provide the basis for future research using animal models to further substantiate the role of these cytokines in the establishment and maintenance of corneal neovascularization.

  13. Meniscal Tear Film Fluid Dynamics Near Marx’s Line

    KAUST Repository

    Zubkov, V. S.

    2013-07-03

    Extensive studies have explored the dynamics of the ocular surface fluid, though theoretical investigations are typically limited to the use of the lubrication approximation, which is not guaranteed to be uniformly valid a-priori throughout the tear meniscus. However, resolving tear film behaviour within the meniscus and especially its apices is required to characterise the flow dynamics where the tear film is especially thin, and thus most susceptible to evaporatively induced hyperosmolarity and subsequent epithelial damage. Hence, we have explored the accuracy of the standard lubrication approximation for the tear film by explicit comparisons with the 2D Navier-Stokes model, considering both stationary and moving eyelids. Our results demonstrate that the lubrication model is qualitatively accurate except in the vicinity of the eyelids. In particular, and in contrast to lubrication theory, the solution of the full Navier-Stokes equations predict a distinct absence of fluid flow, and thus convective mixing in the region adjacent to the tear film contact line. These observations not only support emergent hypotheses concerning the formation of Marx\\'s line, a region of epithelial cell staining adjacent to the contact line on the eyelid, but also enhance our understanding of the pathophysiological consequences of the flow profile near the tear film contact line. © 2013 Society for Mathematical Biology.

  14. Effectiveness of Combined Tear Film Therapy in Patients with Evaporative Dry Eye with Short Tear Film Breakup Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yung Hui; Kang, Yeon Soo; Lee, Hyo Seok; Choi, Won; You, In Cheon; Yoon, Kyung Chul

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of combined tear film therapy targeted to aqueous, mucin, and lipid layers in patients with refractory evaporative dry eye (EDE) with short tear film breakup time (TBUT). The patients who had EDE with short TBUT and severe symptoms refractory to artificial tears were treated with hyaluronic acid (HA) 0.15% and diquafosol tetrasodium (DQS) 3% (Group 1), HA and carbomer-based lipid-containing eyedrops (Liposic EDO Gel, LPO) (Group 2), or HA, DQS, and LPO (Group 3). Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) score, visual analog scale (VAS) symptom score, TBUT, Schirmer score, and corneal and conjunctival staining scores were evaluated, and noninvasive tear film breakup time (NIBUT) and tear meniscus height were measured using Keratograph ® 5 M before and 1 and 3 months after treatment. OSDI scores, VAS scores, TBUT, and NIBUT were improved at 1 and 3 months after treatment in all groups (all P film layers was most effective in improving ocular symptoms and tear film quality.

  15. Organization of lipids in the tear film: a molecular-level view.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Wizert

    Full Text Available Biophysical properties of the tear film lipid layer are studied at the molecular level employing coarse grain molecular dynamics (MD simulations with a realistic model of the human tear film. In this model, polar lipids are chosen to reflect the current knowledge on the lipidome of the tear film whereas typical Meibomian-origin lipids are included in the thick non-polar lipids subphase. Simulation conditions mimic those experienced by the real human tear film during blinks. Namely, thermodynamic equilibrium simulations at different lateral compressions are performed to model varying surface pressure, and the dynamics of the system during a blink is studied by non-equilibrium MD simulations. Polar lipids separate their non-polar counterparts from water by forming a monomolecular layer whereas the non-polar molecules establish a thick outermost lipid layer. Under lateral compression, the polar layer undulates and a sorting of polar lipids occurs. Moreover, formation of three-dimensional aggregates of polar lipids in both non-polar and water subphases is observed. We suggest that these three-dimensional structures are abundant under dynamic conditions caused by the action of eye lids and that they act as reservoirs of polar lipids, thus increasing stability of the tear film.

  16. Influence of preoperative artificial tears on tear film after phacoemulsification on dry eye of diabetes patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Su

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To discuss the artificial tears on the tear film of diabetic patients with dry eye preoperatively, and the influence on the tear film's fuctional after phacoemulsification.METHODS: Fifty-four diabetic patients with dry eye(60 eyeswere followed up before phacoemulsification. Preoperatively, group A(30 eyes in 28 caseswas treated with Hydroxyl Indican eye drops and group B(30 eyes in 26 caseswas not treated. Postoperatively, both group A and B were treated with Tobramycin Dexamethasone eye drops, Oprah Winfrey Ibuprofen eye drops and Hydroxyl Indican eye drops. Dry eye symptoms, break up time(BUT, Schirmer Ⅰ test(S Ⅰ t, fluorescein stain test(FIwere measured at 3d preoperatively, and 1, 7, 30, 90d postoperatively.RESULTS: At 3d preoperatively, there was no statistical differences between the two groups for dry eye symptoms, BUT, SⅠt, FI(P>0.05. At 1 and 7d postoperatively, there were significant statistical differents between the two groups for dry eye symptoms(PPP>0.05.CONCLUSION: Using artificial tears before phacoemulsification can improve symptoms of the diabetic patients with dry eye and accelerate the recovery of the tear film.

  17. Human tear film and meibum. Very long chain wax esters and (O-acyl)-omega-hydroxy fatty acids of meibum

    OpenAIRE

    Butovich, Igor A.; Wojtowicz, Jadwiga C.; Molai, Mike

    2009-01-01

    Human meibum was targetly analyzed for the presence of intact wax esters (WEs) and related compounds by means of reverse-phase HPLC in combination with ion trap mass spectrometry. The major detected WEs were based on C18:n (n = 1–4) unsaturated FAs ranking in the following order of abundance: C18:1>C18:2>C18:3>C18:4. The major fatty alcohols (FAls) found in WE were of saturated nature and varied from C18:0 to C28:0. The three most abundant species were C18:1-FA esters of C24:0, C25:0, and C26...

  18. Evaluation of the tear film stability after laser in situ keratomileusis using the tear film stability analysis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Tomoko; Zheng, Xiaodong; Klyce, Stephen D; Kataoka, Hisashi; Uno, Toshihiko; Yamaguchi, Masahiko; Karon, Mike; Hirano, Sumie; Okamoto, Shigeki; Ohashi, Yuichi

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the tear film stability of patients before and after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) using the tear film stability analysis system (TSAS). Prospective observational case series. New videokeratography software for a topographic modeling system (TMS-2N) was developed that can automatically capture consecutive corneal surface images every second for 10 seconds. Thirty-four subjects (64 eyes) who underwent myopia LASIK were enrolled in this study. All subjects were examined with the new system before LASIK and at 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months after the surgery. Corneal topographs were analyzed for tear breakup time (TMS breakup time) and breakup area (TMS breakup area). Based on pre-LASIK TSAS analysis, subjects were separated into normal and abnormal TSAS value groups. The criteria for the normal group were either TMS breakup time more than 5 seconds or TMS breakup area less than 0.2. The percentage of the occurrence of superficial punctuate keratitis was compared between the two groups with regard to subject's dry eye signs and symptoms. Tear film stability decreased significantly during the early period after LASIK, as indexed by decreased TMS breakup time and increased TMS breakup area. Tear film instability resolved at 6 months after surgery. Before LASIK, 22 subjects (43 eyes) had normal TSAS evaluation and 12 subjects (21 eyes) were abnormal. After LASIK, among normal TSAS value eyes, 8 of 43 (18.6%) eyes developed superficial punctuate keratitis. In sharp contrast, 14 of 21 (66.7%) eyes in the abnormal group displayed superficial punctuate keratitis, correlating well with the patients' dry eye symptoms. The difference in the presence of superficial punctuate keratitis after LASIK between normal and abnormal TSAS value groups was statistically significant (P <.001). Subjects with abnormal TSAS evaluation also displayed resistance to dry eye treatment and had extended period of recovery. Tear film stability analysis can be a useful

  19. Surface Properties of Squalene/Meibum Films and NMR Confirmation of Squalene in Tears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavyana Ivanova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Squalene (SQ possesses a wide range of pharmacological activities (antioxidant, drug carrier, detoxifier, hydrating, emollient that can be of benefit to the ocular surface. It can come in contact with human meibum (hMGS; the most abundant component of the tear film lipid layer as an endogenous tear lipid or from exogenous sources as eyelid sebum or pharmaceuticals. The aims of this study were to determine (i if SQ is in tear lipids and (ii its influence on the surface properties of hMGS films. Heteronuclear single quantum correlation NMR confirmed 7 mol % SQ in Schirmer’s strips extracts. The properties of SQ/hMGS pseudo-binary films at the air/water interface were studied with Langmuir surface balance, stress-relaxation dilatational rheology and Brewster angle microscopy. SQ does not possess surfactant properties. When mixed with hMGS squalene (i localized over the layers’ thinner regions and (ii did not affect the film pressure at high compression. Therefore, tear SQ is unlikely to instigate dry eye, and SQ can be used as a safe and “inert” ingredient in formulations to protect against dry eye. The layering of SQ over the thinner film regions in addition to its pharmacological properties could contribute to the protection of the ocular surface.

  20. Transient Tear Film Dysfunction after Cataract Surgery in Diabetic Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghong Jiang

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is an increasingly common systemic disease. Many diabetic patients seek cataract surgery for a better visual acuity. Unlike in the general population, the influence of cataract surgery on tear film function in diabetic patients remains elusive. The aim of this study was to evaluate the tear function in diabetic and nondiabetic patients following cataract surgery.In this prospective, interventional case series, 174 diabetic patients without dry eye syndrome (DES and 474 age-matched nondiabetic patients as control who underwent phacoemulsification were enrolled at two different eye centers between January 2011 and January 2013. Patients were followed up at baseline and at 7 days, 1 month, and 3 months postoperatively. Ocular symptom scores (Ocular Surface Disease Index, OSDI and tear film function including tear film stability (tear film break-up time, TBUT, corneal epithelium integrity (corneal fluorescein staining, CFS, and tear secretion (Schirmer's I test, SIT were evaluated.In total, 83.9% of the diabetic patients (146 cases with 185 eyes and 89.0% of the nondiabetic patients (422 cases with 463 eyes completed all check-ups after the interventions (P = 0.095. The incidence of DES was 17.1% in the diabetic patients and 8.1% in the nondiabetic patients at 7 days after cataract surgery. In the diabetic patients, the incidence of DES remained 4.8% at 1 month postoperatively and decreased to zero at 3 months after surgery. No DES was diagnosed in nondiabetic patients at either the 1-month or 3-month follow-up. Compared with the baseline, the diabetic patients had worse symptom scores and lower TBUT values at 7 days and 1 month but not at 3 months postoperatively. In the nondiabetic patients, symptom scores and TBUT values had returned to preoperative levels at 1-month check-up. CFS scores and SIT values did not change significantly postoperatively in either group (P = 0.916 and P = 0.964, respectively.Diabetic patients undergoing

  1. Mass spectrometric identification of phospholipids in human tears and tear lipocalin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Austin W; Glasgow, Ben J

    2012-04-02

    The purpose of this article was to identify by mass spectrometry phosphocholine lipids in stimulated human tears and determine the molecules bound to tear lipocalin or other proteins. Tear proteins were separated isocratically from pooled stimulated human tears by gel filtration fast performance liquid chromatography. Separation of tear lipocalin was confirmed by SDS tricine gradient PAGE. Protein fractions were extracted with chloroform/methanol and analyzed with electrospray ionization MS/MS triple quadrupole mass spectrometry in precursor ion scan mode for select leaving groups. For quantification, integrated ion counts were derived from standard curves of authentic compounds of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylserine. Linear approximation was possible from integration of the mass spectrometrically obtained ion peaks at 760 Da for the PC standard. Tears contained 194 ng/mL of the major intact PC (34:2), m/z 758.6. Ten other monoisotopic phosphocholines were found in tears. A peak at 703.3 Da was assigned as a sphingomyelin. Four lysophosphatidylcholines (m/z 490-540) accounted for about 80% of the total integrated ion count. The [M+H](+) compound, m/z 496.3, accounted for 60% of the signal intensity. Only the tear lipocalin-bearing fractions showed phosphocholines (104 ng/mL). Although the intact phospholipids bound to tear lipocalin corresponded precisely in mass and relative signal intensity to that found in tears, we did not identify phosphocholines between m/z 490 and 540 in any of the gel-filtration fractions. Phospholipids, predominantly lysophospholipids, are present in tears. The higher mass intact PCs in tears are native ligands of tear lipocalin.

  2. [The correlations between corneal sensation, tear meniscus volume, and tear film osmolarity after femtosecond laser-assisted LASIK].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luyan; Sun, Xiyu; Yu, Ye; Xiong, Yan; Cui, Yuxin; Wang, Qinmei; Hu, Liang

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the correlations between corneal sensation, tear meniscus volume, and tear film osmolarity after femtosecond laser-assisted LASIK (FS-LASIK) surgery. In this prospective clinical study, 31 patients undergoing FS-LASIK for myopia were recruited. The upper and lower tear meniscus volumes (UTMV and LTMV) were measured by customized anterior segment optical coherence tomography, tear film osmolarity was measured by a TearLab Osmolarity test device, central corneal sensation was measured by a Cochet-Bonner esthesiometer preoperatively, at 1 week, 1 and 3 months postoperatively. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to evaluate whether the tear film osmolarity, tear meniscus volume, and corneal sensation were changed after surgery. The correlations between these variables were analyzed by the Pearson correlation analysis. The tear film osmolarity was (310.03 ± 16.48) mOsms/L preoperatively, (323.51 ± 15.92) mOsms/L at 1 week, (319.93 ± 14.27) mOsms/L at 1 month, and (314.97±12.91) mOsms/L at 3 months. The UTMV was (0.42±0.15), (0.25± 0.09), (0.30±0.11), and (0.35±0.09) μL, respectively; the LTMV was (0.60±0.21),(0.37±0.08), (0.44± 0.14), and (0.52±0.17) μL, respectively. The tear film osmolarity was significantly higher at 1 week and 1 month postoperatively compared with the baseline (P=0.001, 0.004), and reduced to the preoperative level at 3 months (P=0.573). The UTMV, LTMV, and corneal sensation values presented significant decreases at all postoperative time points (all Psensation at 1 week after surgery (r=0.356,P=0.005). There were significant correlations between the preoperative LTMV and corneal sensation at 1 week, 1 and 3 months (respectively, r=0.422, 0.366, 0.352;P=0.001, 0.004, 0.006). No significant correlations were found between the tear film osmolarity, tear meniscus volume, and corneal sensation after surgery (all P>0.05). The tear film osmolarity, tear meniscus volume, and corneal sensation became aggravated due

  3. A new method for tear film stability analysis using videokeratography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Tomoko; Zheng, Xiaodong; Klyce, Stephen D; Kataoka, Hisashi; Uno, Toshihiko; Karon, Mike; Tatematsu, Yoshiyuki; Bessyo, Takeo; Tsubota, Kazuo; Ohashi, Yuichi

    2003-05-01

    To report a new tear film stability analysis system using videokeratography. Observational case series. New videokeratography software for TMS-2N (topographic modeling system; TOMEY Corporation, Nagoya, Japan) was developed that can automatically capture consecutive corneal surface images every second for 10 seconds. Forty-eight adult volunteers (80 eyes) were recruited for this study, and all subjects were examined with the new system. Corneal topographs were analyzed for tear breakup time (TMS-BUT) and the ratio of breakup area to entire color-code area (TMS-BUA) was calculated. Routine methods for tear film breakup time evaluation using slit-lamp microscope and fluorescence staining (SLE-BUT) were performed for comparison purposes. Regressive correlations of TMS-BUT or TMS-BUA with SLE-BUT were analyzed. Based on SLE results, subjects were separated into two groups with normal and short BUT, respectively. TMS-BUT and TMS-BUA were compared with SLE-BUT data with regard to the sensitivity and specificity of evaluation of dry eye symptoms. Topographic modeling system-tear breakup time (TMS-BUT) had a positive correlation with SLE-BUT (R = 0.7219, P TMS-BUA showed a negative correlation (R = 0.6317, P TMS-BUT, 9 (81.82%) of which were associated with dry eye symptoms. The sensitivities of TMS-BUT and TMS-BUA were 97.5% and 95%, respectively, significantly higher than that of SLE-BUT (75%), with P =.008 and 0.01, respectively. Topographic modeling system-BUT and TMS-BUA displayed a similar rate of specificity in comparison with SLE-BUT. This new videokeratography system is a noninvasive and objective method with increased sensitivity for tear film stability analysis.

  4. Interaction of lysozyme with a tear film lipid layer model: A molecular dynamics simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wizert, Alicja; Iskander, D Robert; Cwiklik, Lukasz

    2017-12-01

    The tear film is a thin multilayered structure covering the cornea. Its outermost layer is a lipid film underneath of which resides on an aqueous layer. This tear film lipid layer (TFLL) is itself a complex structure, formed by both polar and nonpolar lipids. It was recently suggested that due to tear film dynamics, TFLL contains inhomogeneities in the form of polar lipid aggregates. The aqueous phase of tear film contains lachrymal-origin proteins, whereby lysozyme is the most abundant. These proteins can alter TFLL properties, mainly by reducing its surface tension. However, a detailed nature of protein-lipid interactions in tear film is not known. We investigate the interactions of lysozyme with TFLL in molecular details by employing coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations. We demonstrate that lysozyme, due to lateral restructuring of TFLL, is able to penetrate the tear lipid film embedded in inverse micellar aggregates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Antioxidant content and ultraviolet absorption characteristics of human tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Camus Kar Man; Cho, Pauline; Benzie, Iris F F

    2011-04-01

    Dry eye syndrome is a common age-related disorder, and decreased antioxidant/ultraviolet (UV) radiation protection in tears may be part of the cause. This study aimed to compare the tear antioxidant content and flow rate in young and older adults. The total antioxidant content and UV absorbing properties of various commercially available ophthalmic solutions used to alleviate dry eye symptoms were also examined. Minimally stimulated tears were collected from 120 healthy Chinese adults with no ocular pathology. Two age groups were studied: 19 to 29 years (n = 58) and 50 to 75 years (n = 62). Tear samples from each subject and 13 ophthalmic solutions were analyzed for total antioxidant content (as the Ferric Reducing/Antioxidant Power value). Tear flow rates were estimated from time taken to collect a fixed volume of tear fluid. UV absorbance spectra of pooled fresh reflex tear fluid and the ophthalmic solutions were determined. Results showed that the antioxidant content of minimally stimulated tears from older subjects (398 ± 160 μmol/l) was not significantly lower than that of younger subjects (348 ± 159 μmol/l; p = 0.0915). However, there was a significant difference in the tear flow rates between the two groups (p tears. The effect of low flow rate on the dynamic antioxidant supply to the corneal surface indicates that older subjects have poorer overall defense against photooxidative and other oxidative processes. This could predispose older persons to corneal stress and development of dry eye syndrome. The commercially available artificial tears tested lack both the antioxidant content and UV absorbing characteristics of natural tears. Artificial tears formulations that help restore natural antioxidant and UV absorbing properties to the tear film of the aging eye may help prevent or improve dry eye symptoms and promote ocular health.

  6. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography study on dynamic changes of human tears after instillation of artificial tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoli, Pietro Emanuele; Satta, Giovanni Maria; Coronella, Franco; Fossarello, Maurizio

    2014-07-01

    To analyze in vivo the dynamic changes induced by different artificial tears (ATs) in the precorneal tear film (PCTF) and lower tear meniscus (LTM) by using spectral-domain (SD) anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT). We prospectively examined 42 normal human eyes by using SD-OCT imaging. On the day before OCT imaging, all enrolled subjects were evaluated for abnormalities of ocular surface. All tear film images were obtained before and after instillation of three different types of ATs (mucomimetic, lipid-based, and saline) in five serial scans: immediately (within 30 seconds), at the first, fifth, 10th, and 20th minute. Subjects received a drop of 35 μL in one randomly selected eye. All examinations were conducted in the same conditions of temperature, brightness, humidity, and time of day. Changes in the morphological pattern of both LTM and PCTF were associated with the type of artificial tear instilled on the ocular surface. Similarly, the radius of curvature (rc), the height (h), and the depth (d) showed dynamic variations depending on treatment. Although by the 20th minute, both h and d returned to baseline values in all groups, a significant difference in rc (compared with baseline) was detected for mucomimetic ATs (P = 0.04) and lipid ATs (P = 0.02). Spectral-domain OCT imaging has preliminarily proved to be a noninvasive tool to evaluate, in real time, the different changes induced by ATs instillation. An important stride in understanding the clinical response to various tear substitutes can be achieved by this objective and quantitative approach. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  7. Tear film dynamics with evaporation, wetting, and time-dependent flux boundary condition on an eye-shaped domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Longfei; Braun, R. J.; Maki, K. L.; Henshaw, W. D.; King-Smith, P. E.

    2014-01-01

    We study tear film dynamics with evaporation on a wettable eye-shaped ocular surface using a lubrication model. The mathematical model has a time-dependent flux boundary condition that models the cycles of tear fluid supply and drainage; it mimics blinks on a stationary eye-shaped domain. We generate computational grids and solve the nonlinear governing equations using the OVERTURE computational framework. In vivo experimental results using fluorescent imaging are used to visualize the influx and redistribution of tears for an open eye. Results from the numerical simulations are compared with the experiment. The model captures the flow around the meniscus and other dynamic features of human tear film observed in vivo. PMID:24926191

  8. Assessment of tear film osmolarity using the TearLab™ osmometer in normal dogs and dogs with keratoconjunctivitis sicca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebbag, Lionel; Park, Shin Ae; Kass, Philip H; Maggs, David J; Attar, Mayssa; Murphy, Christopher J

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate repeatability and reproducibility of tear osmolarity measured using the TearLab ™ osmometer in normal dogs and to assess its diagnostic potential in dogs with keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS). Beagle dogs; six normal and five with KCS. Tear osmolarity and Schirmer tear test-1 (STT-1) values were obtained at various times. Normal dogs were assessed for diurnal variation and repeatability and reproducibility of measurements. Dogs with KCS were evaluated before and after 5 months' topical twice-daily therapy with 2% cyclosporine. Mean ± SD tear osmolarity (mOsm/L) was significantly higher in normal dogs (337.4 ± 16.2) than in dogs with KCS before therapy (306.2 ± 18.0; P dogs, tear osmolarity readings were stable during the daytime (P = 0.99). Repeated measurements revealed high variability and typically poor-to-moderate repeatability and reproducibility, although this was improved by taking three successive measurements at each session. Considering combined data from all dogs, a positive correlation existed between STT-1 and tear osmolarity measurements (Pearson's correlation test, P = 0.04, r = 0.62). Canine tear osmolarity as determined by TearLab ™ osmometer was variable, required multiple readings to be informative, and differed from values reported for humans. Dogs with KCS had a lower tear osmolarity than did normal dogs, and this increased following cyclosporine therapy. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  9. Tear film and ocular surface assessment in psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragona, Emanuela; Rania, Laura; Postorino, Elisa Imelde; Interdonato, Alberto; Giuffrida, Roberta; Cannavò, Serafinella Patrizia; Puzzolo, Domenico; Aragona, Pasquale

    2018-03-01

    Psoriasis is a skin disease with also systemic involvement: its impact on the eye is not well established and often clinically underestimated. Aim of this study was to investigate the presence of ocular discomfort symptoms and of ocular surface changes in a population of patients with psoriasis. For this cross-sectional, comparative study, 66 patients with psoriasis were subdivided according to the presence of arthritis and to the use of biological therapy. All patients underwent clinical evaluation with the following tests: Ocular Surface Disease Index Questionnaire, Tearscope examination, meibometry, tear film breakup time, corneal and conjunctival fluorescein staining, Schirmer I test, corneal aesthesiometry, meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) assessment and conjunctival impression cytology. 28 healthy subjects were also enrolled and treated with the same clinical tests. A statistical analysis of the results was performed. Patients with psoriasis showed a significant deterioration of the ocular surface tests, if compared with healthy subjects, demonstrated by tear film lipid layer alteration, tear film instability, corneal and conjunctival epithelial suffering and mild squamous metaplasia at impression cytology. No differences were found in ocular surface test results of the psoriatic group when patients were divided according to the presence of arthritis, whereas the anti-inflammatory treatment with biological drugs demonstrated a significant improvement of corneal stain and MGD. Our findings suggest that the ocular surface involvement in patients with psoriasis indicates the need of periodic ophthalmological examinations to diagnose the condition and allow a proper treatment, so contributing to the amelioration of patients' quality of life. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Why only humans shed emotional tears : Evolutionary and cultural perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gracanin, A.; Bylsma, L.M.; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.

    Producing emotional tears is a universal and uniquely human behavior. Until recently, tears have received little serious attention from scientists. Here, we summarize recent theoretical developments and research findings. The evolutionary approach offers a solid ground for the analysis of the

  11. The importance of the precorneal tear film for the quality of optical imaging.

    OpenAIRE

    Rieger, G

    1992-01-01

    The optical function of the eye critically depends on the presence of an intact precorneal tear film. Abnormalities of the tear film such as those occurring in the dry eye syndrome or in otherwise irritated eyes may interfere with vision. In 30 patients with dry eyes artificial tears were found to produce statistically significant improvement of vision (p less than 0.001) while no significant changes were seen in the untreated partner eyes. Static perimetry in another 30 patients using the 'm...

  12. Shifting the IGF-axis: An age-related decline in human tear IGF-1 correlates with clinical signs of dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Roshni; Zhu, Meifang; Robertson, Danielle M

    2018-02-06

    The human corneal epithelium expresses both the insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptor (IGF-1R) and the IGF-1R/insulin receptor (INSR) hybrid. Despite the previous identification of IGF-1 in human tear fluid, little is known regarding the regulation of IGF-1 in tear fluid and its role in corneal epithelial homeostasis. In the present study, we investigated the impact of biological parameters on the concentration of human tear levels of IGF-1. Tear levels of IGF-1 were measured in 41 healthy, human volunteers without any reported symptoms of dry eye. All volunteers underwent standard biomicroscopic examination of the cornea and tear film. In a subgroup of volunteers, corneal staining with sodium fluorescein, tear film break up time and tear production using a Schirmer's test strip were measured to assess clinical signs of dry eye. Tears were collected from the inferior tear meniscus using glass microcapillary tubes and IGF-1 levels were measured using a solid phase sandwich ELISA. Tear levels of IGF-1 were highest in young adults and significantly decreased in older adults (P = 0.003). There were no differences in tear IGF-1 between males and females (P = 0.628). Tear IGF-1 levels were correlated with tear film break up time (R = 0.738) and tear production (R = 0.826). These data indicate that there is a progressive decline in tear IGF-1 due to aging that is associated with clinical signs of dry eye. This effect is likely due to age-related changes in the lacrimal gland. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Non-invasive pre-lens tear film assessment with high-speed videokeratoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorens-Quintana, Clara; Mousavi, Maryam; Szczesna-Iskander, Dorota; Iskander, D Robert

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate the effect of two types of daily contact lenses (delefilcon A and omafilcon A) on the tear film and establish whether it is dependent on pre-corneal tear film characteristics using a new method to analyse high-speed videokeratoscopy recordings, as well as to determine the sensitivity of the method in differentiating between contact lens materials on eye. High-speed videokeratoscopy recordings were analysed using a custom made automated algorithm based on a fractal dimension approach that provides a set of parameters directly related to tear film stability. Fifty-four subjects participated in the study. Baseline measurements, in suppressed and natural blinking conditions, were taken before subjects were fitted with two different daily contact lenses and after four hours of contact lens wear. The method for analysing the stability of the tear film provides alternative parameters to the non-invasive break up time to assess the quality of the pre-corneal and pre-lens tear film. Both contact lenses significantly decreased the quality of the tear film in suppressed and natural blinking conditions (pfilm characteristics were not correlated with the decrease in pre-lens tear film quality. High-speed videokeratoscopy equipped with an automated method to analyse the dynamics of the tear film is able to distinguish between contact lens materials in vivo. Incorporating the assessment of pre-lens tear film to the clinical practice could aid improving contact lens fitting and understand contact lens comfort. Copyright © 2017 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Global existence of solutions to a tear film model with locally elevated evaporation rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Ji, Hangjie; Liu, Jian-Guo; Witelski, Thomas P.

    2017-07-01

    Motivated by a model proposed by Peng et al. (2014) for break-up of tear films on human eyes, we study the dynamics of a generalized thin film model. The governing equations form a fourth-order coupled system of nonlinear parabolic PDEs for the film thickness and salt concentration subject to non-conservative effects representing evaporation. We analytically prove the global existence of solutions to this model with mobility exponents in several different ranges and present numerical simulations that are in agreement with the analytic results. We also numerically capture other interesting dynamics of the model, including finite-time rupture-shock phenomenon due to the instabilities caused by locally elevated evaporation rates, convergence to equilibrium and infinite-time thinning.

  15. Tear Film Break-Up Time: Comparison between Patients using Psychiatric Drugs and Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Dibajnia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ocular dryness is a well-recognized adverse side effect of many medications. The purpose of this study was to compare tear film stability between psychiatric patients that use lithium carbonate or carbamazepine and normal cases. Materials and Methods: Tear film break up time test was performed in three groups, 30 patients using lithium carbonate, 30 patients using carbamazepine and 30 normal cases. Values of the TBUTs were compared among groups by the independent t-test. Results: Differences between both of patients and control groups were significant (p<0.0001. Conclusion: The results show that these drugs contribute to decrease of tear film break up time.

  16. Peripheral Neuropathy and Tear Film Dysfunction in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuti L. Misra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare tear film metrics in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM and healthy controls and investigate the association between peripheral neuropathy and ocular surface quality. Methods. Dry eye symptoms were quantified in 53 patients with type 1 DM and 40 age-matched controls. Ocular examination included tear film lipid layer thickness grading, tear film stability and quantity measurement, and retinal photography. DM individuals additionally underwent a detailed neuropathy assessment. Results. Neither mean age nor dry eye symptom scores differed significantly between the DM and control groups (P=0.12 and P=0.33, resp.. Tear lipid thickness (P=0.02, stability (P<0.0001, and quantity (P=0.01 were significantly lower in the DM group. Corneal sensitivity was also reduced in the DM group (P<0.001 and tear film stability was inversely associated with total neuropathy score (r=-0.29, P=0.03. Conclusion. The DM group exhibited significantly reduced tear film stability, secretion, and lipid layer quality relative to the age-matched control group. The negative correlation between tear film parameters and total neuropathy score suggests that ocular surface abnormalities occur in parallel with diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

  17. Coupling Fluid and Solute Dynamics Within the Ocular Surface Tear Film: A Modelling Study of Black Line Osmolarity

    KAUST Repository

    Zubkov, V. S.

    2012-07-06

    We present a mathematical model describing the spatial distribution of tear film osmolarity across the ocular surface of a human eye during one blink cycle, incorporating detailed fluid and solute dynamics. Based on the lubrication approximation, our model comprises three coupled equations tracking the depth of the aqueous layer of the tear film, the concentration of the polar lipid, and the concentration of physiological salts contained in the aqueous layer. Diffusive boundary layers in the salt concentration occur at the thinnest regions of the tear film, the black lines. Thus, despite large Peclet numbers, diffusion ameliorates osmolarity around the black lines, but nonetheless is insufficient to eliminate the build-up of solute in these regions. More generally, a heterogeneous distribution of solute concentration is predicted across the ocular surface, indicating that measurements of lower meniscus osmolarity are not globally representative, especially in the presence of dry eye. Vertical saccadic eyelid motion can reduce osmolarity at the lower black line, raising the prospect that select eyeball motions more generally can assist in alleviating tear film hyperosmolarity. Finally, our results indicate that measured evaporative rates will induce excessive hyperosmolarity at the black lines, even for the healthy eye. This suggests that further evaporative retardation at the black lines, for instance due to the cellular glycocalyx at the ocular surface or increasing concentrations of mucus, will be important for controlling hyperosmolarity as the black line thins. © 2012 Society for Mathematical Biology.

  18. Post-blink tear film dynamics in healthy and dry eyes during spontaneous blinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczesna-Iskander, Dorota H

    2018-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the dynamics of post-blink tear film leveling in natural blinking conditions (NBC) for healthy subjects and those diagnosed with dry eye syndrome (DES) and to relate this phase to the tear film surface quality (TFSQ) before the following blink. The study included 19 healthy persons and 10 with dry eye, grouped according to symptoms and signs observed during examination. Lateral shearing interferometry was used to examine TFSQ. Post-blink tear film dynamics was modeled by an exponential function, characterized by the decay parameter b, and a constant, describing the level of the stabilized TFSQ. Pre-next-natural-blink TFSQ dynamics was modeled with a linear trend, described by a parameter A. The post-blink tear film dynamics reached its plateau at a significantly (P = 0.006) lower level in the normal tear film group than in the dry eye group. The median exponential decay parameter b was statistically significantly higher for the control group than for the DES group, P = 0.026. The parameter b calculated for each interblink interval was significantly correlated with the corresponding parameter A (Spearman's R = 0.35; P film fluorescein break-up time for each subject was also found (R = 0.41, P = 0.029). Significantly faster leveling of post-natural-blink tear film was observed in the group with DES than in healthy eyes. This dynamic was correlated with the pre-next-natural-blink TFSQ and tear film stability. The results of this pilot study support previous works that advocate the importance of polar lipids in the mechanism of tear film lipid spreading. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Application of texture analysis in tear film surface assessment based on videokeratoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Alonso-Caneiro

    2013-10-01

    Conclusions: Texture analysis of videokeratoscopy images is applicable to study tear film anomalies in dry eye subjects. The proposed technique appears to have demonstrated its clinical relevance and utility.

  20. Effect of castor oil emulsion eyedrops on tear film composition and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maïssa, Cécile; Guillon, Michel; Simmons, Peter; Vehige, Joseph

    2010-04-01

    An emulsion eyedrop containing castor oil has been shown to modify the tear film lipid layer and increase tear film stability. The primary objectives of this investigation were to measure the prevalence of castor oil in the tear fluid over time and quantify the effects on the lipid layer. A secondary objective was to quantify the initial effects on ocular symptomatology. The investigation was an open label pilot study on 5 normal and 10 dry eye subjects. A single eyedrop (Castor oil emulsion, Allergan) was instilled in each eye; the tear film appearance and composition were monitored for 4h via in vivo visualisation using the Tearscope and post in vivo tear samples analysis by HPLC. Combined results for both normal and dry eye subjects showed that castor oil was detected up to 4h after a single eyedrop instillation and associated with an increase in the level of tear film lipid. The relative amount of various lipid families was also changed. An increase in tear lipid layer thickness was significant up to one hour post-instillation for the symptomatic sub-population. The changes in tear film characteristics were associated with significantly lower symptoms up to four hours post-instillation for the symptomatic sub-population. This pilot investigation showed that castor oil eyedrops achieved a residence time of at least four hours post-instillation, producing a more stable tear film and an associated significant decrease in ocular symptoms over the entire follow-up period for the symptomatic subjects. 2009 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Facilitation of tear fluid secretion by 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution in normal human eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, Norihiko; Kato, Hiroaki; Kinoshita, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the increase in tear fluid volume induced by 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution in normal human eyes. Prospective, randomized, double-masked, comparative study. Twenty healthy adults (17 males and 3 females; mean age, 38.8 years) underwent topical instillation of 2 ophthalmic solutions, artificial tears in 1 eye and 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution in the fellow eye, in a masked manner. The radius of curvature of the central lower tear meniscus was measured at 5, 10, 15, 30, and 60 minutes after instillation by use of reflective meniscometry, and subjects' self-evaluated symptoms of wetness and stinging using a visual analog scale. Changes after instillation in the radius of curvature from baseline (artificial tear group vs diquafosol group; mean ± standard error of the mean) were as follows: at 5 minutes, -0.008 ± 0.012 vs 0.045 ± 0.013; at 10 minutes, 0.001 ± 0.014 vs 0.057 ± 0.016; at 15 minutes, -0.012 ± 0.014 vs 0.037 ± 0.019; at 30 minutes, -0.010 ± 0.016 vs 0.030 ± 0.025; and at 60 minutes, -0.029 ± 0.012 vs -0.020 ± 0.012. The diquafosol group showed significantly greater values from 5 to 30 minutes after instillation. Of the 40 eyes, 13 showed abnormal tear film breakup time (≤5 seconds). The diquafosol group had significantly more wetness at 15 minutes after instillation than did the artificial tear group. Topical instillation of 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution increases tear fluid on the ocular surface for up to 30 minutes in normal human eyes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Tear film stability analysis system: introducing a new application for videokeratography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Tomoko; Zheng, Xiaodong; Okamoto, Shigeki; Ohashi, Yuichi

    2004-11-01

    To review our previous studies regarding the development of a tear stability analysis system (TSAS) using videokeratography and the clinical application of TSAS for evaluation of tear film stability in patients subject to laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). New software, namely TSAS, was developed for the videokeratography system TMS-2N (topographic modeling system). TSAS automatically captures consecutive corneal surface images every second for 10 seconds. Corneal topographs were analyzed for tear breakup time (TMS-BUT) and tear breakup area (TMS-BUA, the ratio of breakup area to entire color-code area). First, we recruited volunteers to test the sensitivity and specificity of this new system in comparison with the routine method for tear stability analysis, tear film breakup time evaluation by slit-lamp microscope (SLE-BUT), with fluorescence staining. Second, we investigated the practicability of TSAS in dynamic evaluation of tear film stability before and after LASIK. TMS-BUT had a positive correlation with SLE-BUT, whereas TMS-BUA showed a negative correlation. Although they showed similar rates of specificity as SLE-BUT, the sensitivity rates of TMS-BUT and TMS-BUA were 97.5% and 95%, respectively, significantly higher than that of SLE-BUT (75%). The study on patients subject to LASIK showed that tear film stability significantly decreased during the early time period following LASIK and resolved at 6 months after surgery. Eyes that had abnormal TSAS evaluation tended to have higher risk of developing superficial punctuate keratitis and dry eye symptoms after LASIK, and their responses to treatment were slow. TSAS is a noninvasive and objective method with higher sensitivity for tear film stability analysis than SLE-BUT.

  3. Effectiveness and comfort of Oculus Keratograph on tear film function test before corneal refractive surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To explore correlation, consistency and comfort between traditional tear film examination methods and Oculus Keratograph. METHODS: A retrospective study. Totally 101 cases(101 eyeswere diagnosed myopia and then accepted LASEK(laser epithelial keratomileusis. Non-invasive tear film break-up time(NIBUT, lower tear meniscus height(LTMHwere measured with Oculus Keratograph, fluorescein tear film break-up time(fl-BUTand Schimer Ⅰ test(SⅠtwere performed on all cases. The correlations analysis between NIBUT and fl-BUT, LTMH and SⅠt were performed by Spearman rank correlation, consistency check between NIBUT and fl-BUT by Bland-Altman analysis. Visual analogue scale(VASwas applied on evaluating the comfort of two kinds of examination methods. RESULTS: LTMH and SⅠt showed positive correlation(rs=0.346, P=0.001. NIBUT and fl-BUT showed positive correlation(rs=0.393, P=0.001, 95% consistency limits range -9.62 to 14.18 in Bland-Altman Figure. There was significant difference between VAS of NIBUT and VAS of fl-BUT(z=-2.324, P=0.020. There was significant difference between VAS of LTMH and VAS of SⅠt(z=-8.845,P=0.001.CONCLUSION: Oculus Keratograph can objectively measure NIBUT and LTMH, and was more comfortable than traditional tear film examination methods. It can effectively assess tear film function before corneal refractive surgery.

  4. Effect of lipid-based dry eye supplements on the tear film in wearers of eye cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Michael T M; Cho, Irene Sung Hee; Jung, Soo Hee; Craig, Jennifer P

    2017-08-01

    To compare the effects on tear film parameters and contamination in cosmetic eyeliner wearers, after single application of two lipid-based dry eye treatments: a lipid-containing lubricant eye drop and a phospholipid liposomal spray. Fifty participants were enrolled in a prospective, randomised, paired-eye, investigator-masked trial. Pencil eyeliner (Body Shop ® Crayon Eye Definer) was applied to the upper eyelid periocular skin of both eyes, anterior to the lash line. Baseline tear film quality was assessed fifteen minutes after eyeliner application. A lubricant drop (Systane ® Balance) was then applied to one eye (randomised), and liposomal spray (Tears Again ® ) to the contralateral eye. Tear film contamination, lipid layer grade, non-invasive tear film break-up time and tear evaporation rate were evaluated fifteen minutes post-treatment and compared to pre-treatment values. Pre-treatment measurements did not differ between eyes assigned to lubricant drop and liposomal spray. Tear film contamination was observed in a greater proportion of eyes following both treatments (both p0.05). Changes in tear film parameters did not differ between treatments (all p>0.05). Both the lipid-containing lubricant eye drop and phospholipid liposomal spray result in clinically apparent tear film contamination in eyeliner cosmetic wearers. Although both treatments effected an increase in lipid layer thickness, neither displayed clinical efficacy in improving tear film stability. Copyright © 2017 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Corneal cell adhesion to contact lens hydrogel materials enhanced via tear film protein deposition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire M Elkins

    Full Text Available Tear film protein deposition on contact lens hydrogels has been well characterized from the perspective of bacterial adhesion and viability. However, the effect of protein deposition on lens interactions with the corneal epithelium remains largely unexplored. The current study employs a live cell rheometer to quantify human corneal epithelial cell adhesion to soft contact lenses fouled with the tear film protein lysozyme. PureVision balafilcon A and AirOptix lotrafilcon B lenses were soaked for five days in either phosphate buffered saline (PBS, borate buffered saline (BBS, or Sensitive Eyes Plus Saline Solution (Sensitive Eyes, either pure or in the presence of lysozyme. Treated contact lenses were then contacted to a live monolayer of corneal epithelial cells for two hours, after which the contact lens was sheared laterally. The apparent cell monolayer relaxation modulus was then used to quantify the extent of cell adhesion to the contact lens surface. For both lens types, lysozyme increased corneal cell adhesion to the contact lens, with the apparent cell monolayer relaxation modulus increasing up to an order of magnitude in the presence of protein. The magnitude of this increase depended on the identity of the soaking solution: lenses soaked in borate-buffered solutions (BBS, Sensitive Eyes exhibited a much greater increase in cell attachment upon protein addition than those soaked in PBS. Significantly, all measurements were conducted while subjecting the cells to moderate surface pressures and shear rates, similar to those experienced by corneal cells in vivo.

  6. Structure-function relationship of tear film lipid layer: A contemporary perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Georgi As; Eftimov, Petar; Yokoi, Norihiko

    2017-10-01

    Tear film lipid layer (TFLL) stabilizes the air/tear surface of the human eye. Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) resulting in quantitative and qualitative modifications of TFLL major (>93%) component, the oily secretion of meibomian lipids (MGS), is the world leading cause of dry eye syndrome (DES) with up to 86% of all DES patients showing signs of MGD. Caused by intrinsic factors (aging, ocular and general diseases) and by extrinsic everyday influences like contact lens wear and extended periods in front of a computer screen, DES (resulting in TF instability, visual disturbances and chronic ocular discomfort) is the major ophthalmic public health disease of the present time affecting the quality of life of 10-30% of the human population worldwide. Therefore there is a pressing need to summarize the present knowledge, contradictions and open questions to be resolved in the field of TFLL composition/structure/functions relationship. The following major aspects are covered by the review: (i) Do we have a reliable mimic for TFLL: MGS vs contact lens lipid extracts (CLLE) vs lipid extracts from whole tears. Does TFLL truly consist of lipids only or it is important to keep in mind the TF proteins as well?; (ii) Structural properties of TFLL and of its mimics in health and disease in vitro and in vivo. How the TFLL uniformity and thickness ensures the functionality of the lipid layer (barrier to evaporation, surface properties, TF stability etc.); (iii) What are the main functions of the TFLL? In this aspect an effort is done to emphasize that there is no single main function of TFLL but instead it simultaneously fulfills plethora of functions: suppresses the evaporation (alone or probably in cooperation with other TF constituents) of the aqueous tears; stabilizes (due to its surface properties) the air/tear surface at eye opening and during the interblink interval; and even acts as a first line of defense against bacterial invasion due to its detergency action on the

  7. The influence of non-polar lipids on tear film dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Bruna, M.; Breward, C.  J.  W.

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 Cambridge University Press. In this paper we examine the effect that physiological non-polar lipids, residing on the surface of an aqueous tear film, have on the film evolution. In our model we track the evolution of the thickness of the non

  8. Consistency analysis of Keratograph and traditional methods to evaluate tear film function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Yang Shen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate repeatability and accuracy of a latest Keratograph for evaluating the tear film stability and to compare its measurements with that of traditional examination methods. METHODS: The results of noninvasive tear film break-up time(NI-BUTincluding the first tear film break-up time(BUT-fand the average tear film break-up time(BUT-avewere measured by Keratograph. The repeatability of the measurements was evaluated by coefficient of variation(CVand intraclass correlation coefficient(ICC. Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test was used to compare NI-BUT with fluorescein tear film break-up time(FBUTto confirm the correlation between NI-BUT and FBUT, Schirmer I test values. Bland-Altman analysis was used to evaluate consistency. RESULTS: The study recruited 48 subjects(48 eyes(mean age 38.7±15.2 years. The CV and ICC of BUT-f were respectively 12.6% and 0.95, those of BUT-ave were 9.8% and 0.96. The value of BUT-f was lower than that of FBUT. The difference had statistical significance(6.16±2.46s vs 7.46±1.92s, PPCONCLUSION: Keratograph can provide NI-BUT data that has a better repeatability and reliability, which has great application prospects in diagnosis and treatment of dry eye and refractive corneal surgery.

  9. Poly(lactic acid (PLA Based Tear Resistant and Biodegradable Flexible Films by Blown Film Extrusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Mallegni

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly(lactic acid (PLA was melt mixed in a laboratory extruder with poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate (PBAT and poly(butylene succinate (PBS in the presence of polypropylene glycol di glycidyl ether (EJ400 that acted as both plasticizer and compatibilizer. The process was then scaled up in a semi-industrial extruder preparing pellets having different content of a nucleating agent (LAK. All of the formulations could be processed by blowing extrusion and the obtained films showed mechanical properties dependent on the LAK content. In particular the tearing strength showed a maximum like trend in the investigated composition range. The films prepared with both kinds of blends showed a tensile strength in the range 12–24 MPa, an elongation at break in the range 150–260% and a significant crystallinity.

  10. The ocular surface and tear film and their dysfunction in dry eye disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolando, M; Zierhut, M

    2001-03-01

    The ocular surface, tear film, lacrimal glands, and eyelids act as a functional unit to preserve the quality of the refractive surface of the eye and to resist injury and protect the eye against changing bodily and environmental conditions. Events that disturb the homeostasis of this functional unit can result in a vicious cycle of ocular surface disease. The tear film is the most dynamic structure of the functional unit, and its production and turnover is essential to maintaining the health of the ocular surface. Classically, the tear film is reported to be composed of three layers: the mucin, aqueous, and lipid layers. The boundaries and real thickness of such layers is still under discussion. A dysfunction of any of these layers can result in dry eye disease.

  11. Cytokine biomarkers in tear film for primary open-angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta D

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Divakar Gupta,1,* Joanne C Wen,2,* Janet L Huebner,3 Sandra Stinnett,1 Virginia B Kraus,3,4 Henry C Tseng,1 Molly Walsh1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, 2Department of Ophthalmology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, 3Duke Molecular Physiology Institute, 4Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: To determine the utility of tear film cytokines as biomarkers for early primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG. Methods: Patients without POAG and eye drop-naïve patients with newly diagnosed POAG were recruited from an academic hospital-based glaucoma practice. Tear films of recruited patients were obtained and analyzed using a multiplex, high-sensitivity electrochemiluminescent enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for proinflammatory cytokines (IFNγ, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, and TNFα. Results: Mean concentrations of tear film cytokines were lower in the glaucoma group for 8 of 10 cytokines tested. IL-12p70 (3.94±2.19 pg/mL in control vs 2.31±1.156 pg/mL in POAG; P=0.035 was significantly lower in the tear film of patients with newly diagnosed POAG. Conclusion: Proinflammatory cytokines were lower in eye drop-naïve newly diagnosed glaucoma patients. Tear film cytokine profiles may be used as biomarkers of early POAG. Keywords: glaucoma, biomarkers, tear film, cytokines, glaucoma diagnosis, lower limit of detection

  12. [Characteristics of exosomes andmicroparticles discovered in human tears].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigor'eva, A E; Tamkovich, S N; Eremina, A V; Tupikin, A E; Kabilov, M R; Chernykh, V V; Vlassov, V V; Laktionov, P P; Ryabchikova, E I

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes represent a sort of extracellular vesicles, which transfer molecular signals in organism and possess markers of producing cells. Our study was aimed at search of exosomes in the tears of healthy humans, confirmation of their nature and examination of exosome morphological and molecular-biological characteristics. The tears (110-340 ml) were collected from 24 healthy donors (aged 46-60 years); individual probes were centrifuged at 20000 g for 15 min to pellet cell debris. The supernatants were examined in electron microscope using negative staining; and they were also used for isolation and purification of the exosomes by filtration (100 nm pore-size) and double ultracentrifugation (90 min at 100000 g, 4°C). The "pellets" were subjected to electron microscopy, immunolabeling. The RNA and DNA were isolated from the samples, and their sizes were evaluated by capillary electrophoresis, the concentration and localization of nucleic acids were determined. Sequencing of DNA was performed using MiSeq ("Illumina", USA), data were analyzed using CLC GW 7.5 ("Qiagen", USA). Sequences were mapped on human genome (hg19). Electron microscopy revealed in supernatants of the tears cell debris, spherical microparticles (20-40 nm), membrane vesicles and macromolecular aggregates. The "pellets" obtained after ultracentrifugation, contained microparticles (17%), spherical and cup-shaped EVs (40-100 nm, 83%), which were positive for CD63, CD9 and CD24 receptors (specific markers of exosomes). Our study showed presence of high amount of exosomes in human tears, and relation of the exosomes with RNA (size less than 200 nt) and DNA (size was 3-9 kb). Sequencing of the DNA showed that about 92% of the reads mapped to human genome.

  13. Analysis of the correlation between tear film changes of allergic conjunctivitis and dry eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Li

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To analyze the correlation between tear film changes of allergic conjunctivitis and dry eye, then provide clinical references for better treatment. METHODS: Fifty patients with allergic conjunctivitis were taken as the observation group, the control group was selected based on 1:1 case control theory, and we chose 50 health volunteers without ocular surface diseases, xerophthalmia and systematic diseases randomly, then fluorescein(FLstaining, break-up time(BUT, Schirner I test(SⅠt, tear meniscus high(TMHand slit-lamp examinations were performed in the two groups. RESULTS: In the observation group, FL, BUT, SIt, TMH of right eyes and left eyes were statistically significant correlated(PPPCONCLUSION: Due to inflammatory mediators participation, allergic conjunctivitis could lead to the stability changes of tear film which cause in dry eye. The stability changes of allergic conjunctivitis correlate to the damage degree of epithelium.

  14. Computed tear film and osmolarity dynamics on an eye-shaped domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Longfei; Braun, Richard J.; Driscoll, Tobin A.; Henshaw, William D.; Banks, Jeffrey W.; King-Smith, P. Ewen

    2016-01-01

    The concentration of ions, or osmolarity, in the tear film is a key variable in understanding dry eye symptoms and disease. In this manuscript, we derive a mathematical model that couples osmolarity (treated as a single solute) and fluid dynamics within the tear film on a 2D eye-shaped domain. The model includes the physical effects of evaporation, surface tension, viscosity, ocular surface wettability, osmolarity, osmosis and tear fluid supply and drainage. The governing system of coupled non-linear partial differential equations is solved using the Overture computational framework, together with a hybrid time-stepping scheme, using a variable step backward differentiation formula and a Runge–Kutta–Chebyshev method that were added to the framework. The results of our numerical simulations provide new insight into the osmolarity distribution over the ocular surface during the interblink. PMID:25883248

  15. Novel Nano-Liposome Formulation for Dry Eyes with Components Similar to the Preocular Tear Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Vicario-de-la-Torre

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Dry eye is commonly treated with artificial tears; however, developing artificial tears similar to natural tears is difficult due to the complex nature of tears. We characterized and evaluated a novel artificial tear formulation with components similar to the lipid and aqueous constituents of natural tears. Nano-liposomes, composed in part of phosphatidylcholine, were dispersed in an aqueous solution of bioadhesive sodium hyaluronate. Liposome size, zeta potential, and physicochemical properties of the fresh and stored (4 °C liposomal formulation were analyzed. In vitro tolerance was tested using human corneal and conjunctival cell lines by exposures of 15 min to 4 h. The tolerance of the liposomal formulation was evaluated in animals (rabbits. The average liposome size was 186.3 ± 7.0 nm, and the zeta potential was negative. The osmolarity of the formulation was 198.6 ± 1.7 mOsm, with a surface tension of 36.5 ± 0.4 mN/m and viscosity of 3.05 ± 0.02 mPa·s. Viability values in the human corneal and conjunctival cell lines were always >80%, even after liposomal formulation storage for 8 weeks. Discomfort and clinical signs after instillation in rabbit eyes were absent. The new formulation, based on phosphatidylcholine-liposomes dispersed in sodium hyaluronate has suitable components and characteristics, including high in vitro cell viability and good in vivo tolerance, to serve as a tear substitute.

  16. Behavior of sphingomyelin and ceramide in a tear film lipid layer model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Olžyńska, A.; Cwiklik, Lukasz

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 210, March (2017), s. 128-134 ISSN 0940-9602 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : tear film lipid layer * molecular dynamics simulations * Langmuir balance * sphingomyelin * ceramide Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 1.864, year: 2016

  17. Behavior of sphingomyelin and ceramide in a tear film lipid layer model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Olžyńska, Agnieszka; Cwiklik, Lukasz

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 210, MAR 2017 (2017), s. 128-134 ISSN 0940-9602 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-14292S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Molecular dynamics simulations * Sphingomyelin * Tear film lipid layer Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 1.864, year: 2016

  18. Management of the ocular surface and tear film before, during, and after laser in situ keratomileusis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albietz, Julie M; Lenton, Lee M

    2004-01-01

    To identify evidence-based, best practice strategies for managing the ocular surface and tear film before, during, and after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). After a comprehensive review of relevant published literature, evidence-based recommendations for best practice management strategies are presented. Symptoms of ocular irritation and signs of dysfunction of the integrated lacrimal gland/ocular surface functional gland unit are common before and after LASIK. The status of the ocular surface and tear film before LASIK can impact surgical outcomes in terms of potential complications during and after surgery, refractive outcome, optical quality, patient satisfaction, and the severity and duration of dry eye after LASIK. Before LASIK, the health of the ocular surface should be optimized and patients selected appropriately. Dry eye before surgery and female gender are risk factors for developing chronic dry eye after LASIK. Management of the ocular surface during LASIK can minimize ocular surface damage and the risk of adverse outcomes. Long-term management of the tear film and ocular surface after LASIK can reduce the severity and duration of dry eye symptoms and signs. Strategies to manage the integrated ocular surface/lacrimal gland functional unit before, during, and after LASIK can optimize outcomes. As problems with the ocular surface and tear film are relatively common, attention should focus on the use and improvement of evidence-based management strategies.

  19. Dysfunctional tear syndrome: dry eye disease and associated tear film disorders – new strategies for diagnosis and treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Mark S.; Beckman, Kenneth A.; Luchs, Jodi I.; Allen, Quentin B.; Awdeh, Richard M.; Berdahl, John; Boland, Thomas S.; Buznego, Carlos; Gira, Joseph P.; Goldberg, Damien F.; Goldman, David; Goyal, Raj K.; Jackson, Mitchell A.; Katz, James; Kim, Terry; Majmudar, Parag A.; Malhotra, Ranjan P.; McDonald, Marguerite B.; Rajpal, Rajesh K.; Raviv, Tal; Rowen, Sheri; Shamie, Neda; Solomon, Jonathan D.; Stonecipher, Karl; Tauber, Shachar; Trattler, William; Walter, Keith A.; Waring, George O.; Weinstock, Robert J.; Wiley, William F.; Yeu, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Dysfunctional tear syndrome (DTS) is a common and complex condition affecting the ocular surface. The health and normal functioning of the ocular surface is dependent on a stable and sufficient tear film. Clinician awareness of conditions affecting the ocular surface has increased in recent years because of expanded research and the publication of diagnosis and treatment guidelines pertaining to disorders resulting in DTS, including the Delphi panel treatment recommendations for DTS (2006), the International Dry Eye Workshop (DEWS) (2007), the Meibomian Gland Dysfunction (MGD) Workshop (2011), and the updated Preferred Practice Pattern guidelines from the American Academy of Ophthalmology pertaining to dry eye and blepharitis (2013). Since the publication of the existing guidelines, new diagnostic techniques and treatment options that provide an opportunity for better management of patients have become available. Clinicians are now able to access a wealth of information that can help them obtain a differential diagnosis and treatment approach for patients presenting with DTS. This review provides a practical and directed approach to the diagnosis and treatment of patients with DTS, emphasizing treatment that is tailored to the specific disease subtype as well as the severity of the condition. PMID:28099212

  20. Dysfunctional tear syndrome: dry eye disease and associated tear film disorders - new strategies for diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Mark S; Beckman, Kenneth A; Luchs, Jodi I; Allen, Quentin B; Awdeh, Richard M; Berdahl, John; Boland, Thomas S; Buznego, Carlos; Gira, Joseph P; Goldberg, Damien F; Goldman, David; Goyal, Raj K; Jackson, Mitchell A; Katz, James; Kim, Terry; Majmudar, Parag A; Malhotra, Ranjan P; McDonald, Marguerite B; Rajpal, Rajesh K; Raviv, Tal; Rowen, Sheri; Shamie, Neda; Solomon, Jonathan D; Stonecipher, Karl; Tauber, Shachar; Trattler, William; Walter, Keith A; Waring, George O; Weinstock, Robert J; Wiley, William F; Yeu, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Dysfunctional tear syndrome (DTS) is a common and complex condition affecting the ocular surface. The health and normal functioning of the ocular surface is dependent on a stable and sufficient tear film. Clinician awareness of conditions affecting the ocular surface has increased in recent years because of expanded research and the publication of diagnosis and treatment guidelines pertaining to disorders resulting in DTS, including the Delphi panel treatment recommendations for DTS (2006), the International Dry Eye Workshop (DEWS) (2007), the Meibomian Gland Dysfunction (MGD) Workshop (2011), and the updated Preferred Practice Pattern guidelines from the American Academy of Ophthalmology pertaining to dry eye and blepharitis (2013). Since the publication of the existing guidelines, new diagnostic techniques and treatment options that provide an opportunity for better management of patients have become available. Clinicians are now able to access a wealth of information that can help them obtain a differential diagnosis and treatment approach for patients presenting with DTS. This review provides a practical and directed approach to the diagnosis and treatment of patients with DTS, emphasizing treatment that is tailored to the specific disease subtype as well as the severity of the condition.

  1. Solute Dynamics and Imaging in the Tear Film on an Eye-shaped Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, R. J.; Li, Longfei; Henshaw, William; Driscoll, Tobin; King-Smith, P. E.

    2015-11-01

    The concentration of ions in the tear film (osmolarity) is a key variable in understanding dry eye symptoms and disease, yet its global distribution is not available; direct measurements are restricted to a region near the temporal canthus. It has been suggested that imaging methods that use solutes such as fluorescein can be used as a proxy for estimating the osmolarity. The concentration of fluorescein is not measured directly either but the intensity as a function of concentration and thickness of the film is well established. We derived a mathematical model that couples multiple solutes and fluid dynamics within the tear film on a 2D eye-shaped domain. The model includes the physical effects of evaporation, surface tension, viscosity, ocular surface wettability, osmolarity, osmosis, fluorescence and tear fluid supply and drainage. We solved the governing system of coupled nonlinear PDEs using the Overture computational framework developed at LLNL, together with a hybrid time stepping scheme (using variable step BDF and RKC). Results of our numerical simulations provide new insight about the osmolarity distribution and its connection with images obtained in vivo over the whole ocular surface and in local regions of tear thinning due to evaporation and other effects. This work was supported in part by NSF grants 1022706 and 1412085, and NIH grant 1R01EY021794.

  2. Comparative Analysis of Tear Film Levels of Inflammatory Mediators in Contact Lens Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksel Elgin, Cansu; İskeleli, Güzin; Talaz, Serap; Akyol, Sibel

    2016-04-01

    To compare tear films levels of various inflammatory cytokines in asymptomatic contact lens (CL) users. CL users of rigid gas-permeable CLs (RGPCL) (group 1) or silicone hydrogel CLs (SiHCL) (group 2) were compared with non-CL-using healthy subjects (group 3). Tear samples were collected from subjects in each group after ensuring that there were no complications secondary to CL wear in the CL-wearing participants. Tear-film levels of interleukins (ILs)-1β, -6, and -8; granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) (using the Luminex method); and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) (using the ELISA method) were determined. Cytokine levels were compared among the three groups using analysis-of-variance (ANOVA) and Kruskall-Wallis tests. There were significant differences in concentrations of IL-1β, GM-CSF and LTB4 among the three groups (p = 0.002, p = 0.021 and p = 0.009, respectively), as shown by the Kruskall-Wallis test comparing all three groups for the three cytokines. There were no significant differences for IL-6 and IL-8 (p = 0.079 and 0.094, respectively) when all three groups were compared. There were substantial statistically significant differences between RGPCL users, SiHCL users and control subjects in levels of tear film cytokines. Although CL users were asymptomatic, changes in tear-film levels of several important inflammatory mediators revealed that a chronic inflammatory process occurs during CL wear.

  3. Effects of diquafosol sodium eye drops on tear film stability in short BUT type of dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazaki-Den, Seika; Iseda, Hiroyuki; Dogru, Murat; Shimazaki, Jun

    2013-08-01

    To investigate the effects of diquafosol sodium (DQS) eye drops, a purinergic P2Y2 receptor agonist, on tear film stability in patients with unstable tear film (UTF). Two prospective studies were conducted. One was an exploratory nonrandomized trial on 39 eyes with dry eye symptoms and short tear film break-up time (BUT), but without epithelial damage. Changes in symptoms, BUT, Schirmer value, and ocular surface fluorescein staining (FS) scores were studied for 3 months. The other was a randomized clinical trial of DQS and artificial tears (AT) in 17 eyes with short BUT. Eyes with decreased Schirmer values (≤ 5 mm) were excluded. Changes in symptoms, BUT, FS scores, and tear film stability using continuous corneal topographic analysis were studied for 4 weeks. In the exploratory study, while Schirmer values were not significantly increased, significant improvements in symptoms and BUT were noted at both 1 and 3 months. In the randomized clinical trial, significant improvements in symptoms were noted in the DQS group, but not in the AT group, at 2 weeks. BUT was significantly prolonged in the DQS group at 4 weeks but not in the AT group. No significant changes were noted in FS scores or tear film stability. DQS improved subjective symptoms and prolonged BUT in eyes with UTF not associated with low tear secretion and ocular surface epithelial damage. Because many patients who have UTF are refractory to conventional treatments, DQS may offer benefits in the treatment of dry eyes.

  4. Diquafosol Ophthalmic Solution Increases Pre- and Postlens Tear Film During Contact Lens Wear in Rabbit Eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahara, Yukiko; Koh, Shizuka; Oshita, Yoshihiro; Nagano, Takashi; Mano, Hidetoshi; Nishida, Kohji; Watanabe, Hitoshi

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the behavior of prelens tear film (PLTF) and postlens tear film (PoLTF) after the instillation of diquafosol using an experimental rabbit model of eyes with contact lens. Cross-sectional, anterior segment optical coherence tomographic images of the inferior midperipheral cornea were obtained at baseline and at 5, 15, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after the instillation of 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution in 10 Japanese white rabbits wearing contact lenses. From the obtained images, the areas of the PLTF and PoLTF were calculated. Both artificial tear solution and 0.1% sodium hyaluronate ophthalmic solution were used for comparison. Significant fluid accumulation in both the PLTF and PoLTF was observed after diquafosol instillation, whereas no fluid accumulation was visible after the instillation of artificial tear or sodium hyaluronate. The increase in PLTF area after diquafosol instillation was significantly higher (Pophthalmic solution increases PLTF and PoLTF in rabbit eyes with contact lenses. Diquafosol has potential as a treatment option for contact lens-related dry eye.

  5. Tear Film and Ocular Surface Changes in Patients Receiving Systemic Isotretinoin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Nevin Çetin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Our aim in this study was to assess the ocular surface and tear film changes in acne vulgaris patients receiving systemic isotretinoin. Material and Method: Twenty-two eyes of 22 patients who received oral isotretinoin (roaccutane®, 0.7 mg/kg/day for nodular acne vulgaris were enrolled in this prospective study. Tear film break-up time (BUT, Schirmer 1 test scores with anesthesia, ocular surface disease index (OSDI scores and conjunctival impression cytology scores were recorded before treatment and at 3- and 6-month visits following the beginning of treatment. Results: BUT values decreased and OSDI scores significantly increased at 3 months after treatment (p=0.007 and p=0.018, paired samples test. Schirmer scores did not significantly change by isotretinoin treatment. Of 9 eyes with impression cytology specimens, 4 revealed normal conjunctival findings before treatment. At the 3rd month, there was an increase in the scores characterized by decrease of Goblet cells, and at 6 months of treatment, normal conjunctival findings did not exist in any of the patients (p=0.004, Friedman test. Discussion: Systemic isotretinoin treatment can cause alterations in the tear film and cause dry eye symptoms. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 309-12

  6. Comparative study on fractal analysis of interferometry images with application to tear film surface quality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyperski, Piotr D

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the applicability of the fractal dimension (FD) estimators to assess lateral shearing interferometric (LSI) measurements of tear film surface quality. Retrospective recordings of tear film measured with LSI were used: 69 from healthy subjects and 41 from patients diagnosed with dry eye syndrome. Five surface quality descriptors were considered, four based on FD and a previously reported descriptor operating in a spatial frequency domain (M 2 ), presenting temporal kinetics of post-blink tear film. A set of 12 regression parameters has been extracted and analyzed for classification purposes. The classifiers are assessed in terms of receiver operating characteristics and areas under their curves (AUC). Also, the computational loads are estimated. The maximum AUC of 82.4% was achieved for M 2 , closely followed by the binary box-counting (BBC) FD estimator with AUC=78.6%. For all descriptors, statistically significant differences between the subject groups were found (pfilm kinetics. They provide a viable alternative to previously used spectral counter parameters, and at the same time allow higher computational efficiency.

  7. Adsorption of apo- and holo-tear lipocalin to a bovine Meibomian lipid film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgil, Poonam; Millar, Thomas J

    2008-04-01

    Adsorption of apo- and holo-tear lipocalin (Tlc) to bovine Meibomian lipid film was studied. A Langmuir trough was used for these studies and the adsorption of protein was observed by recording changes in the pressure with time (pi-T profile). The films were photographed at different stages of adsorption by doping Meibomian lipids with a fluorescently tagged lipid. The results indicated that apo-Tlc adsorbed much more quickly than holo-Tlc to the Meibomian lipid film. Contrary to the expectation that holo-Tlc would release lipids to the surface and surface pressure would be higher, it was found that the surface pressure was higher with the adsorption of apo-Tlc to the surface. Photography of the films showed that apo- and holo-Tlc interacted differently with the Meibomian lipid layer. Adsorption of holo-Tlc resulted in big bright patches and adsorption of apo-Tlc resulted in many small patches along with the big patches. Both forms of Tlc produced a more stable film as indicated by decreased movement of the protein adsorbed films, and a higher maximum surface pressure upon compression of these films compared with Meibomian lipid films alone. Isocyles of apo-Tlc adsorbed films gave a higher surface pressure than that of holo-Tlc. From these results, it is concluded that both apo- and holo-Tlc adsorbed to the Meibomian lipid layer and the delivery of the lipids from Tlc to the outer lipid layer could not be detected by our techniques. Its scavenging role to remove lipids from the corneal surface and bind with them might be beneficial for increasing tear viscosity but whether those lipids are delivered to the outermost lipid layer still remains unclear.

  8. Changes of tear film after LASIK with corneal flap created by femtosecond laser and microkeratome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zhang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the changes of tear film on the patients after laser in situ keratomileusis(LASIKwith corneal flap created by femtosecond laser and microkeratome.METHODS: Totally 150 patients(300 eyeswith myopia received operation of LASIK. Patients were divided into two groups according to the methods of making corneal flap. The patients of group one were assigned to receiving LASIK with corneal flap creation by Intralase femtosecond laser(190 eyes of 95 patients, group two were assigned to receiving LASIK with corneal flap creation by microkeratome(110 eyes of 55 patients. Dry eye symptom score, tear break-up time(BUT, Schirmer Ⅰ test(S I t, corneal fluorescein staining(FLwere recorded preoperatively and postoperatively at 1wk; 1, 3 and 6mo. RESULTS: Dry eye symptom score: there existed obvious differences at 1wk; 1, 3mo between two groups(PP>0.05. BUT: there existed obvious differences at 1wk, 1, 3mo between two groups(PP>0.05. SchirmerⅠ test: there existed obvious differences in the 1wk, 1, 3mo between two groups(PP>0.05. FL: there existed obvious differences in the 1wk, 1, 3mo between two groups(PP>0.05.CONCLUSION: The early stability of tear film decrease after operation in both of the two groups. The dry eye symptoms are lighter and recover faster.

  9. The effect of smoking on the ocular surface and the precorneal tear film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyothi Thomas

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundSmoking, both active and passive, creates a plethora ofhealth‐related problems, which primarily affect thecardiovascular and respiratory systems. There is very littleevidence on the effects of tobacco smoke on the eye,especially regarding anterior ocular surface relatedpathology. This study was undertaken to determine theeffects of smoking on the ocular surface and the tear film insmokers.MethodsA total of 51 (102 eyes smokers and 50 (100 eyes age‐ andgender‐matched healthy non‐smokers were included in thisstudy. The ocular surface was evaluated by measuring tearfilm break‐up time, surface staining with fluorescein, andcorneal and conjunctival sensitivities, and by completing theSchirmer’s II test. Data was analysed using StatisticalPackage for Social Sciences (SPSS version 11.5. A p valueless than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.ResultsThe smoker group had significantly lower tear film break‐uptime, and corneal and conjunctival sensitivity than the nonsmokergroup. Punctate staining was significantly higher inthe smoker group than the non‐smoker group. There wasno statistically significant difference in Schirmer’s II testresults between the smoker and non‐smoker group.ConclusionSmoking caused adverse effects on the precorneal tear filmand there was strong association between smoking and tearfilm instability. Although a causative relationship could notbe determined, there is a need for further longitudinalstudies.

  10. Modelling the evaporation of a tear film over a contact lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbott, Kevin; Xu, Amber; Anderson, Daniel M; Seshaiyer, Padmanabhan

    2015-06-01

    A contact lens (CL) separates the tear film into a pre-lens tear film (PrLTF), the fluid layer between the CL and the outside environment, and a post-lens tear film (PoLTF), the fluid layer between the CL and the cornea. We examine a model for evaporation of a PrLTF on a modern permeable CL allowing fluid transfer between the PrLTF and the PoLTF. Evaporation depletes the PrLTF, and continued evaporation causes depletion of the PoLTF via fluid loss through the CL. Governing equations include Navier-Stokes, heat and Darcy's equations for the fluid flow and heat transfer in the PrLTF and porous layer. The PoLTF is modelled by a fixed pressure condition on the posterior surface of the CL. The original model is simplified using lubrication theory for the PrLTF and CL applied to a sagittal plane through the eye. We obtain a partial differential equation (PDE) for the PrLTF thickness that is first-order in time and fourth-order in space. This model incorporates evaporation, conjoining pressure effects in the PrLTF, capillarity and heat transfer. For a planar film, we find that this PDE can be reduced to an ordinary differential equation (ODE) that can be solved analytically or numerically. This reduced model allows for interpretation of the various system parameters and captures most of the basic physics contained in the model. Comparisons of ODE and PDE models, including estimates for the loss of fluid through the lens due to evaporation, are given. © The Authors 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications. All rights reserved.

  11. A novel technique of contrast-enhanced optical coherence tomography imaging in evaluation of clearance of lipids in human tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoli, Pietro Emanuele; Coronella, Franco; Satta, Giovanni Maria; Fossarello, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to gather preliminary data in different conditions of healthy eyes, aqueous tear deficient dry eyes, obstructive meibomian gland disease (MGD) and non-obvious obstructive MGD (NOMGD) individuals, using a new, contrast-enhanced optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging method to evaluate the clearance of lipids in human tears. Eighty-two adult patients presenting with complaints of ocular irritation were studied for abnormalities of the ocular surface and classified as healthy (n = 21), aqueous tear deficient dry eyes (n = 20), obstructive MGD (n = 15) and NOMGD (n = 26) individuals. A lipid-based tracer, containing an oil-in-water emulsion, was used to obtain an enhanced OCT imaging of the lower tear meniscus. After instillation, a dramatic initial increase of reflectivity of the lower tear meniscus was detected by OCT, followed by a decay back to baseline values over time. Based on this finding, the clearance of lipids was measured in real-time by Fourier-domain anterior segment OCT. The differences in the clearance of lipids among the four groups as well as the correlations between symptom questionnaire score, standardized visual scale test, fluorescein break-up time, ocular surface fluorescein staining score, Schirmer I test scores were found to be statistically significant. The individual areas under the curve of the clearance of lipids calculated by the receiver operating characteristic curve technique ranged from 0.66 to 0.98, suggesting reliable sensitivity and specificity of lipid-enhanced OCT imaging. This new technique of contrast-enhanced OCT imaging of the tear film following lipid-based tracer instillation provides a measure of the clearance of lipids. The quantitative values found are in agreement with other methods of evaluation of the lacrimal system. An improvement of the clinician's ability in the diagnosis and understanding of abnormalities of the ocular surface may be achieved by this simple approach.

  12. Effect of three different liposomal eye sprays on ocular comfort and tear film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pult, Heiko; Gill, Felicity; Riede-Pult, Britta H

    2012-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of three different liposomal eye sprays on ocular comfort and tear film stability. OptrexActiMist (AM, Optima-Pharma, Germany) was applied onto one, randomly selected eye of 80 subjects (female=49; mean age=49 years±18.6 SD) in a multi-centred, double-masked study. DryEyesMist (DEM, Boots) or TearMist (TM, Tesco) was applied onto the contralateral eye in randomized order. Over-all symptoms were investigated using the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI). Ocular comfort (visual-analogue scale 0-100 [100=perfect]) and non-invasive tear film stability (NIBUT) of each eye was evaluated before application (randomized order) and were again measured 10 min after application. Effects of products on ocular comfort and NIBUT were calculated as "factor" (=after-treatment/before-treatment). Differences between measurements were analysed by ANOVA repeated measurements and differences between groups by the dependent t-test (or the non-parametric equivalent). OSDI-scores (mean=8.1±9.0 SD), comfort (65±24) and NIBUT (12 s±12.3) were statistically similar between centres (p>0.400). Comfort and NIBUT were not different (p>0.14) between product groups before application. Comfort and NIBUT improved significantly after application of AM (p<0.001) but worsened with the comparing products (p<0.058). Comfort improved by a mean factor of 1.5 (±0.82 SD) after application of AM but decreased after application of the comparing products (DEM: 0.9±0.33; TM: 0.9±0.34). Both factors were significantly better in AM (p<0.027). The original liposomal eye-spray 'OptrexActiMist' significantly improved ocular comfort and tear film stability while 'TearMist' or 'DryEyesMist' worsened both criteria. The latter two products may not be clinically effective in the treatment of dry eye. Copyright © 2012 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. High melt strength, tear resistant blown film based on poly(lactic acid)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Neil R.; Plimmer, Peter N.; Tanner, Chris

    2015-05-01

    A major problem associated with the commercial manufacture of thin films from PLA is inferior processing characteristics on blown film lines compared to low density polyethylene. PLA has poor melt strength (leading to bubble instability) and develops a permanent crease in the flattened film as it exits the tower of the film line. In addition, the thin film product has poor tear strength and an unacceptable `noise' level when converted into flexible packaging. Furthermore, fabricated articles based on PLA are known to show an unattractive tendency toward dimensional instability. This behaviour is associated with `cold crystallization', a phenomenon which also causes exudation of any plasticizer added for improving flexibility. Blow moulded articles based on PLA also exhibit dimensional sensitivity above 60°C. All of these issues have been overcome by the technology described in this paper. This has been accomplished without loss of the valuable compostability characteristic of PLA; this was confirmed by evaluation of film in a commercial composting operation. These results have been achieved through novel reactive compounding technology which: (a) Creates a PLA-rich structure containing long chain crosslinks, (b) generates a low glass transition temperature phase covalently bonded to the PLA structure, and (c) provides a material which performs like LDPE in a blown film manufacturing operation. The technology developed is covered by NZ Patent 580231 (3). The patent is held by UniServices Ltd, The University of Auckland, New Zealand.

  14. Oxidative Stress Measures of Lipid and DNA Damage in Human Tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haworth, Kristina M; Chandler, Heather L

    2017-05-01

    We evaluate feasibility and repeatability of measures for lipid peroxidation and DNA oxidation in human tears, as well as relationships between outcome variables, and compared our findings to previously reported methods of evaluation for ocular sun exposure. A total of 50 volunteers were seen for 2 visits 14 ± 2 days apart. Tear samples were collected from the inferior tear meniscus using a glass microcapillary tube. Oxidative stress biomarkers were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA): lipid peroxidation by measurement of hexanoyl-lysine (HEL) expression; DNA oxidation by measurement of 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguinosone (8OHdG) expression. Descriptive statistics were generated. Repeatability estimates were made using Bland-Altman plots with mean differences and 95% limits of agreement were calculated. Linear regression was conducted to evaluate relationships between measures. Mean (±SD) values for tear HEL and 8OHdG expression were 17368.02 (±9878.42) nmol/L and 66.13 (±19.99) ng/mL, respectively. Repeatability was found to be acceptable for both HEL and 8OHdG expression. Univariate linear regression supported tear 8OHdG expression and spring season of collection to be predictors of higher tear HEL expression; tear HEL expression was confirmed as a predictor of higher tear 8OHdG expression. We demonstrate feasibility and repeatability of estimating previously unreported tear 8OHdG expression. Seasonal temperature variation and other factors may influence tear lipid peroxidation. Support is demonstrated to suggest lipid damage and DNA damage occur concurrently on the human ocular surface.

  15. Regional Differences in Tear Film Stability and Meibomian Glands in Patients With Aqueous-Deficient Dry Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Shizuka; Ikeda, Chikako; Fujimoto, Hisataka; Oie, Yoshinori; Soma, Takeshi; Maeda, Naoyuki; Nishida, Kohji

    2016-07-01

    To noninvasively investigate regional differences in tear film stability and meibomian glands in patients with aqueous-deficient dry eye. Forty-nine dry eyes and 31 normal eyes were analyzed. A corneal topographer with a tear film scanning function was used for noninvasive tear film break-up time (NI-TFBUT) measurements and meibomian gland observations. The NI-TFBUT values and location of the first tear film break-up point were recorded in four quadrants. Meibomian gland loss was graded for each eyelid using meiboscores. Lid margin abnormality was scored from zero to four according to the number of existing abnormalities. The NI-TFBUT values and meiboscores were compared between two groups, and regional differences in NI-TFBUT values and meiboscores were analyzed. Also, the correlation between the NI-TFBUT and ocular surface examination results were investigated. The NI-TFBUT values and meiboscores were significantly lower and higher, respectively, for the dry eye group than for the normal group. In the dry eye group, the occurrence rate for first tear film break-up was the highest in the inferior nasal quadrant, and the mean meiboscore was significantly higher for the upper eyelids than for the lower eyelids. The NI-TFBUT and lid margin abnormality scores showed a weak negative correlation, and the NI-TFBUT values and meiboscores showed no correlation. Compared to normal eyes, aqueous-deficient dry eyes show significant regional differences in tear film stability and meibomian glands. Considering these regional differences, the overall observation of the ocular surface, including both upper and lower eyelids, will aid clinicians in understanding this condition better.

  16. Parallel definition of tear film maps on distributed-memory clusters for the support of dry eye diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Domínguez, Jorge; Remeseiro, Beatriz; Martín, María J

    2017-02-01

    The analysis of the interference patterns on the tear film lipid layer is a useful clinical test to diagnose dry eye syndrome. This task can be automated with a high degree of accuracy by means of the use of tear film maps. However, the time required by the existing applications to generate them prevents a wider acceptance of this method by medical experts. Multithreading has been previously successfully employed by the authors to accelerate the tear film map definition on multicore single-node machines. In this work, we propose a hybrid message-passing and multithreading parallel approach that further accelerates the generation of tear film maps by exploiting the computational capabilities of distributed-memory systems such as multicore clusters and supercomputers. The algorithm for drawing tear film maps is parallelized using Message Passing Interface (MPI) for inter-node communications and the multithreading support available in the C++11 standard for intra-node parallelization. The original algorithm is modified to reduce the communications and increase the scalability. The hybrid method has been tested on 32 nodes of an Intel cluster (with two 12-core Haswell 2680v3 processors per node) using 50 representative images. Results show that maximum runtime is reduced from almost two minutes using the previous only-multithreaded approach to less than ten seconds using the hybrid method. The hybrid MPI/multithreaded implementation can be used by medical experts to obtain tear film maps in only a few seconds, which will significantly accelerate and facilitate the diagnosis of the dry eye syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of contact lens wear and a near task on tear film break-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Meredith E; Begley, Carolyn G; Himebaugh, Nikole H; Port, Nicholas L

    2010-05-01

    To study the effect of extrinsic controls on blinking by examining blink parameters and tear stability among adapted soft contact lens (CL) wearers performing tasks that require varying amounts of visual concentration. The Demographic Questionnaire, Contact Lens Dry Eye Questionnaire, and Current Symptoms Questionnaire were completed by 15 adapted soft CL wearers (nine females). Three 55 s simultaneous measurements of tear film stability via retroillumination and blinking were obtained with a slit-lamp biomicroscope and 200 Hz video camera while subjects listened to music and played a video game with and without their habitual CLs. Interblink interval (IBI) and blink amplitude (BA) were calculated. The area of break-up (AB) was calculated for the retroillumination image before each blink. The Current Symptoms Questionnaire was completed four times throughout testing. With the game compared to music, IBI was significantly longer and BA significantly decreased without CLs (p or = 0.5579, p or = 0.6262, p or = 0.5064, p film instability increased. Blinking frequency also increased, but it remained high when subjects played the game, and symptoms of ocular irritation increased. This suggests that wearing soft CLs, even when fully adapted, provides enough extrinsic ocular surface stimulation to override internal controls and affect blink parameters.

  18. Muscle architectural changes after massive human rotator cuff tear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Michael C; Sato, Eugene J; Bachasson, Damien; Cheng, Timothy; Azimi, Hassan; Schenk, Simon; Engler, Adam J; Singh, Anshuman; Ward, Samuel R

    2016-12-01

    Rotator cuff (RC) tendon tears lead to negative structural and functional changes in the associated musculature. The structural features of muscle that predict function are termed "muscle architecture." Although the architectural features of "normal" rotator cuff muscles are known, they are poorly understood in the context of cuff pathology. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of tear and repair on RC muscle architecture. To this end thirty cadaveric shoulders were grouped into one of four categories based on tear magnitude: Intact, Full-thickness tear (FTT), Massive tear (MT), or Intervention if sutures or hardware were present, and key parameters of muscle architecture were measured. We found that muscle mass and fiber length decreased proportionally with tear size, with significant differences between all groups. Conversely, sarcomere number was reduced in both FTT and MT with no significant difference between these two groups, in large part because sarcomere length was significantly reduced in MT but not FTT. The loss of muscle mass in FTT is due, in part, to subtraction of serial sarcomeres, which may help preserve sarcomere length. This indicates that function in FTT may be impaired, but there is some remaining mechanical loading to maintain "normal" sarcomere length-tension relationships. However, the changes resulting from MT suggest more severe limitations in force-generating capacity because sarcomere length-tension relationships are no longer normal. The architectural deficits observed in MT muscles may indicate deeper deficiencies in muscle adaptability to length change, which could negatively impact RC function despite successful anatomical repair. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:2089-2095, 2016. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Ocular Surface and Tear Film Changes in Older Women Working with Computers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Ribelles

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to investigate changes in the ocular surface (OS and tear film (TF by means of questionnaire-based subjective symptoms, TF break-up time, Schirmer test, and TF analysis in women working with computers and to analyze the effects of the oral supplementation with antioxidants/omega 3 fatty acids (A/ω3 in the OS outcomes. Women aged 40–65 years (n=148 were recruited at the Administrative Offices of Valencia (Spain and distributed into two age groups, 40–52 years (AGE1; n=87 and 53–65 years (AGE2; n=61, and then subdivided according to being (or not computer users (CUG; NCUG during the workday. Homogeneous subgroups were randomly assigned (or not to the daily intake of three pills of A/ω3 for three months. At baseline and at the end of follow-up, personalized interviews and ocular examination were done. Reflex tear samples were collected from the inferior meniscus and processed for a multiplexed particle-based flow cytometry assay to measure proinflammatory molecules. Statistics were performed using the SPSS 15.0 program. The OS pathology was clinically evident in the AGE1-CUG (33% versus the AGE2-CUG (64% of women. Significantly higher interleukins-1β and -6 tear levels were found in the AGE1 versus the AGE2 women employees (P=0.006 and P=0.001, resp., as well as in the CUG versus the NCUG (P=0.001 and P=0.000, resp.. Supplementation with A/ω3 positively influenced the OS pathology as manifested by the amelioration of the clinical signs/symptoms related to computer uses. Strategies involving a safe environment and oral micronutrient supplements may be managed within eye-care standards in older women.

  20. [A study on the diagnostic value of tear film objective scatter index in dry eye].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Y D; Liang, Q F; Wang, N L; Antoine, Labbè

    2017-09-11

    Objective: To study the sensitivity and specificity of tear film objective scatter index to the diagnosis dry eye disease (DED). Methods: A prospective case-controlled study. Fifty-three patients with DED and 32 healthy age- and sex-matched control subjects were included from July to October 2016. All subjects underwent the examinations sequentially as follows: evaluation of ocular surface disease symptoms using the Ocular Surface Disease Index, optical quality detection, lipid layer thickness, tear film breakup time and SchirmerⅠtest. With Optical Quality Analysis SystemⅡ, the values of modulation transfer function cut off, basic objective scatter index (OSI) and total OSI were measured. To eliminate the influence of other refractive media, the tear film OSI (TF-OSI) was calculated, and the difference in TF-OSI between two groups was analyzed with the independent-samples t test. Spearman's correlation analysis was used to detect the correlation of each parameter in the DED group. With the receiver operating characteristic curve and the area under the curve (AUC), the specificity and sensitivity of TF-OSI and other parameters were described to differentiate DED from normal eyes. Results: In the dry eye group, the value of modulation transfer function cut off (32.07±11.95) was significantly lower than the normal group (39.38±9.44, t=- 3.096, P= 0.003) , and the mean value and dispersion of TF-OSI (0.50±0.43, 0.52±0.81) were higher than the normal group (0.21±0.16, 0.12±0.01) ( t= 4.300, P= 0.000, t= 3.546, P= 0.001) . The mean value of TF-OSI had a positive correlation with lipid layer thickness ( r= 0.365, P= 0.007) and dispersion of TF-OSI ( r= 0.581, P= 0.000), and a negative correlation with MTF cut off ( r=- 0.368, P= 0.007). To the diagnostic value of DED, the mean value of TF-OSI had a sensitivity of 0.736, a specificity of 0.762, and the AUC was 0.764. The dispersion of TF-OSI had a sensitivity of 0.811 and a specificity of 0.810, and the AUC was 0

  1. [Epidemiologic study of tear film lipid layer thickness measurement in the population of Taishitun Community in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Q F; Du, X H; Su, Y D; Wang, N L; Wei, Z J; Labbé, Antoine

    2017-07-11

    Objective: To investigate the distribution of tear film lipid layer thickness (LLT) and the relationship between symptoms and signs of dry eye and tear film LLT in the population of Taishitun Community in Beijing. Methods: A cross-sectional study. From May 2016 to August 2016, three streets of Taishitun Community were randomly selected as survey districts and 540 persons were taken as investigation subjects. Every participant completed 6 items of dry eye examinations as follows: questionnaire (Ocular Surface Disease Index, OSDI), measurement of tear film LLT, tear film break-up time (TBUT), corneal and conjunctival staining, SchirmerⅠtest and the infrared meibomian photography. According to their age, all participants were divided into four groups: junior group (analysis and multivariate Logistic regression analysis, distribution of the variables of LLT and the relationship between dry eye symptoms and LLT were studied. Results: A total of 473 residents finally participated in this study, and the response ratio was 87.6%. The values of LLT were normally distributed. The average LLT was (59.87±18.50) nm [(60.16±19.15) nm in males and (59.67±18.57) nm in females], and the comparison of LLT with different genders was not statistically significant ( t= 0.198, P= 0.843). The tear film LLT of four different age groups had statistical significance ( F= 15.092, P0.05. F= 0.538, P >0.05). In the OSDI symptom questionnaire, only blurred vision and decreased visual acuity were related to the tear film LLT ( Pfilm LLT ( P> 0.05). Conclusions: In Taishitun Community of Beijing, the values of tear film LLT had a normal distribution. The LLT was positively correlated with age, but inversely correlated with the severity of the symptoms of dry eye. There was no significant correlation between the LLT and the TBUT, SchirmerⅠtest result and meibomian gland loss rate. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2017, 53: 495-501) .

  2. [Clinical characteristics of short tear film breakup time (BUT) -type dry eye].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yuji; Yokoi, Norihiko; Higashihara, Hisayo; Inagaki, Kayoko; Sonomura, Yukiko; Komuro, Aoi; Kinoshita, Shigeru

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate the clinical characteristics and management of short tear film breakup time (BUT) -type dry eye. Clinical background and post-treatment changes of symptoms in 77 patients with short BUT -type dry eye were investigated. Treatment consisted of artificial-tear eye-drop instillation and, if necessary, the addition of a low-density-level steroid, hyaluronic acid, a low-density-level cyclopentolate prepared by ourselves and punctal plugs inserted into the upper and lower lacrimal puncta. There were three times more women than men among the patients, and the peak age of occurrence was in the twenties in the men and in the sixties in the women. Our findings show that visual display terminal (VDT) work, contact lens (CL) wear, and changes in the sex hormones may initiate subjective symptoms. Some patients had simultaneous conjunctivochalasis, allergic conjunctivitis, and meibomian gland dysfunction. Nineteen patients (24.7%) were effectively treated with eye-drop instillation alone. Thirty-seven patients (48.1%) required punctal-plug insertion, which was completely effective in only 8 of them (21.6%). Mainly young men and menopausal women contract short BUT -type dry eye. Changes in sex hormones, VDT work and CL wear may be causal, and the disease cannot be controlled by eyedrop and punctal-plug treatment alone.

  3. Tears from children with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection are infectious vehicles of HBV transmission: experimental transmission of HBV by tears, using mice with chimeric human livers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Haruki; Inui, Ayano; Sogo, Tsuyoshi; Tateno, Akihiko; Shimokawa, Reiko; Fujisawa, Tomoo

    2012-08-15

    Body fluids such as saliva, urine, sweat, and tears from hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers are potential sources of HBV transmission. Thirty-nine children and 8 adults who were chronically infected with HBV were enrolled. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used for the quantification of HBV DNA. HBV DNA was detected in 73.7% of urine samples (14 of 19), 86.8% of saliva samples (33 of 38), 100% of tear samples (11 of 11), and 100% of sweat samples (9 of 9). Mean HBV DNA levels (±SD) in urine, saliva, tears, and sweat were 4.3 ± 1.1 log copies/mL, 5.9 ± 1.2 log copies/mL, 6.2 ± 0.7 log copies/mL, and 5.2 ± 0.6 log copies/mL, respectively. A statistically significant correlation was observed between the HBV DNA level in serum specimens and HBV DNA levels in saliva and tear specimens (r = 0.88; P Tear specimens from a child were injected intravenously into 2 human hepatocyte-transplanted chimeric mice. One week after inoculation, both chimeric mice had serum positive for HBV DNA. The levels of HBV DNA in tear specimens from young children were high. Tears were confirmed to be infectious, using chimeric mice. Strict precautions should be taken against direct contact with body fluids from HBV carriers with high-level viremia.

  4. The influence of non-polar lipids on tear film dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Bruna, M.

    2014-04-04

    © 2014 Cambridge University Press. In this paper we examine the effect that physiological non-polar lipids, residing on the surface of an aqueous tear film, have on the film evolution. In our model we track the evolution of the thickness of the non-polar lipid layer, the thickness of the aqueous layer and the concentration of polar lipids which reside at the interface between the two. We also utilise a force balance in the non-polar lipid layer in order to determine its velocity. We show how to obtain previous models in the literature from our model by making particular choices of the parameters. We see the formation of boundary layers in some of these submodels, across which the concentration of polar lipid and the non-polar lipid velocity and film thickness vary. We solve our model numerically for physically realistic parameter values, and we find that the evolution of the aqueous layer and the polar lipid layer are similar to that described by previous authors. However, there are interesting dynamics for the non-polar lipid layer. The effects of altering the key parameters are highlighted and discussed. In particular, we see that the Marangoni number plays a key role in determining how far over the eye the non-polar lipid spreads.

  5. Effects of chemosignals from sad tears and postprandial plasma on appetite and food intake in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Tae Jung; Kim, Min Young; Park, Kyong Soo; Cho, Young Min

    2012-01-01

    Chemosignals from human body fluids may modulate biological functions in humans. The objective of this study was to examine whether chemosignals from human sad tears and postprandial plasma modulate appetite. We obtained fasting and postprandial plasma from male participants and sad tears and saline, which was trickled below the eyelids, from female volunteers. These samples were then randomly distributed to male participants to sniff with a band-aid containing 100 µl of each fluid on four consecutive days in a double-blind fashion. We checked appetite by a visual analogue scale (VAS) and food intake by measuring the consumption of a test meal. In addition, the serum levels of total testosterone and LH were measured. Twenty men (mean age 26.3±4.6 years) were enrolled in this study. They could not discriminate between the smell of fasting and postprandial plasma and the smell of sad tears and trickled saline. Appetite and the amount of food intake were not different between the groups. Although the VAS ratings of appetite correlated with the food intake upon sniffing fasting plasma, postprandial plasma, and trickled saline, there was no such correlation upon sniffing sad tears. In addition, the decrease in serum testosterone levels from the baseline was greater with sad tears than with the trickled saline (-28.6±3.3% vs. -14.0±5.2%; P = 0.019). These data suggest that chemosignals from human sad tears and postprandial plasma do not appear to reduce appetite and food intake. However, further studies are necessary to examine whether sad tears may alter the appetite-eating behavior relation.

  6. Diquafosol Tetrasodium Increases the Concentration of Mucin-like Substances in Tears of Healthy Human Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeyasu, Chika; Hirano, Shinichiro; Akune, Yoko; Yamada, Masakazu

    2015-09-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the effect of topical application of diquafosol tetrasodium on proteins and mucin-like substances from tears of clinically healthy subjects. Tears were collected from both the eyes of 10 healthy volunteers. Diquafosol tetrasodium solution (3%) was applied once to the right eye and 0.9% sodium chloride solution (saline) once to the left eye. Tear samples were collected by Schirmer test strips before application and 5, 15, 30 and 60 min after application. Sialic acid, a marker of mucin-like substances, and major tear proteins including secretory IgA, lactoferrin, lipocalin-1, and lysozyme were measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Levels of total protein, sIgA and lysozyme were transiently decreased in both groups but returned to baseline levels within 15 min after application. The concentration of lactoferrin and lipocalin-1 did not change significantly in both groups. Sialic acid in tears was significantly decreased 5 min after saline application, but significantly increased 5 min after diquafosol application. No significant difference in sialic acid was seen after 15 min in both groups. Topical application of saline and diquafosol resulted in transient decrease of tear proteins possibly due to wash out or dilution effects. In contrast, diquafosol application significantly increased sialic acid, although the effect was transient. This suggests diquafosol stimulates the secretion of mucins from ocular tissues of healthy human subjects.

  7. Dry eye evaluation and correlation analysis between tear film stability and corneal surface regularity after small incision lenticule extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Wang, Yan

    2017-09-22

    To investigate the dry eye after small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) and explore the correlations between changes in the tear film stability, the tear secretion and the corneal surface regularity. Sixty-two eyes of 22 men and 13 women who underwent SMILE were included in this study. Corneal topography was measured to assess the index of surface variance (ISV) and the index of vertical asymmetry (IVA). Dry eye tests including subjective symptom questionnaire, tear breakup time (TBUT), corneal fluorescein staining and Schirmer's test (ST) were evaluated before and at 1 and 6 months postoperatively. TBUT was found to be significantly decreased from 9.8 ± 3.4 s preoperatively to 7.4 ± 3.8 s at 1 month and 6.5 ± 3.6 s at 6 months (both P short-TBUT type of dry eye. Corneal surface regularity indices might be helpful in the assessment of tear film stability following SMILE procedure.

  8. Expression of Lipid Peroxidation Markers in the Tear Film and Ocular Surface of Patients with Non-Sjogren Syndrome: Potential Biomarkers for Dry Eye Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Won; Lian, Cui; Ying, Li; Kim, Ga Eon; You, In Cheon; Park, Soo Hyun; Yoon, Kyung Chul

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the expression of lipid peroxidation markers in the tear film and ocular surface and their correlation with disease severity in patients with dry eye disease. The concentrations of hexanoyl-lysine (HEL), 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in tears obtained from 44 patients with non-Sjogren syndrome dry eye and 33 control subjects. The correlations between the marker levels and the tear film and ocular surface parameters, including tear film break-up time (BUT), Schirmer tear value, tear clearance rate, keratoepitheliopathy scores, corneal sensitivity, conjunctival goblet cell density, and symptom score, were analyzed. The expression of the lipid peroxidation markers HEL, 4-HNE, and MDA in the conjunctiva was evaluated using immunohistochemistry. The concentrations of HEL, 4-HNE, and MDA were 279.84 ± 69.98 nmol/L, 0.02 ± 0.01 μg/mL, and 3.80 ± 1.05 pmol/mg in control subjects and 283.21 ± 89.67 nmol/L (p = 0.97), 0.20 ± 0.03 μg/mL (p dry eye patients. 4-HNE and MDA levels significantly correlated with BUT, Schirmer tear value, tear clearance rate, keratoepitheliopathy scores, conjunctival goblet cell density, and symptom score (p dry eye patients. The expression of late lipid peroxidation markers, 4-HNE and MDA, increases in the tear film and ocular surface of patients with dry eye. The levels correlate with various tear film and ocular surface parameters and may reflect the severity of dry eye disease.

  9. Realistic Facial Expression of Virtual Human Based on Color, Sweat, and Tears Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Hazim Alkawaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Generating extreme appearances such as scared awaiting sweating while happy fit for tears (cry and blushing (anger and happiness is the key issue in achieving the high quality facial animation. The effects of sweat, tears, and colors are integrated into a single animation model to create realistic facial expressions of 3D avatar. The physical properties of muscles, emotions, or the fluid properties with sweating and tears initiators are incorporated. The action units (AUs of facial action coding system are merged with autonomous AUs to create expressions including sadness, anger with blushing, happiness with blushing, and fear. Fluid effects such as sweat and tears are simulated using the particle system and smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (SPH methods which are combined with facial animation technique to produce complex facial expressions. The effects of oxygenation of the facial skin color appearance are measured using the pulse oximeter system and the 3D skin analyzer. The result shows that virtual human facial expression is enhanced by mimicking actual sweating and tears simulations for all extreme expressions. The proposed method has contribution towards the development of facial animation industry and game as well as computer graphics.

  10. Realistic facial expression of virtual human based on color, sweat, and tears effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim; Basori, Ahmad Hoirul; Mohamad, Dzulkifli; Mohamed, Farhan

    2014-01-01

    Generating extreme appearances such as scared awaiting sweating while happy fit for tears (cry) and blushing (anger and happiness) is the key issue in achieving the high quality facial animation. The effects of sweat, tears, and colors are integrated into a single animation model to create realistic facial expressions of 3D avatar. The physical properties of muscles, emotions, or the fluid properties with sweating and tears initiators are incorporated. The action units (AUs) of facial action coding system are merged with autonomous AUs to create expressions including sadness, anger with blushing, happiness with blushing, and fear. Fluid effects such as sweat and tears are simulated using the particle system and smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (SPH) methods which are combined with facial animation technique to produce complex facial expressions. The effects of oxygenation of the facial skin color appearance are measured using the pulse oximeter system and the 3D skin analyzer. The result shows that virtual human facial expression is enhanced by mimicking actual sweating and tears simulations for all extreme expressions. The proposed method has contribution towards the development of facial animation industry and game as well as computer graphics.

  11. Tear gasses CN, CR, and CS are potent activators of the human TRPA1 receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brone, Bert; Peeters, Pieter J.; Marrannes, Roger; Mercken, Marc; Nuydens, Ronny; Meert, Theo; Gijsen, Harrie J.M.

    2008-01-01

    The TRPA1 channel is activated by a number of pungent chemicals, such as allylisothiocyanate, present in mustard oil and thiosulfinates present in garlic. Most of the known activating compounds contain reactive, electrophilic chemical groups, reacting with cysteine residues in the active site of the TRPA1 channel. This covalent modification results in activation of the channel and has been shown to be reversible for several ligands. Commonly used tear gasses CN, CR and CS are also pungent chemicals, and in this study we show that they are extremely potent and selective activators of the human TRPA1 receptor. To our knowledge, these are the most potent TRPA1 agonists known to date. The identification of the molecular target for these tear gasses may open up possibilities to alleviate the effects of tear gasses via treatment with TRPA1 antagonists. In addition these results may contribute to the basic knowledge of the TRPA1 channel that is gaining importance as a pharmacological target

  12. Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) Based Tear Resistant and Biodegradable Flexible Films by Blown Film Extrusion

    OpenAIRE

    Norma Mallegni; Thanh Vu Phuong; Maria-Beatrice Coltelli; Patrizia Cinelli; Andrea Lazzeri

    2018-01-01

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) was melt mixed in a laboratory extruder with poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) and poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) in the presence of polypropylene glycol di glycidyl ether (EJ400) that acted as both plasticizer and compatibilizer. The process was then scaled up in a semi-industrial extruder preparing pellets having different content of a nucleating agent (LAK). All of the formulations could be processed by blowing extrusion and the obtained films showed me...

  13. Expression of matrix metrallproteinase-2 in human tears fluid after LASIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-Wei Chen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To monitor long-term changes of matrix metalloproteinase-2(MMP-2in human tears fluid after laser in situ keratomileusis(LASIK. METHODS: Thirty-two myopia cases(64 eyesunderwent uneventful LASIK were enrolled in the study. Tear fluid were collected and MMP-2 expression was analyzed by Western-bolt assay preoperatively and postoperatively on 15d, at 1, 3mo, and 1a. RESULTS: LASIK increased the concentration of MMP-2 in human tear fluid. At 15d postoperatively, the magnitude of MMP-2 was 1.4 times that of preoperative, thereafter subsided, but didn't return to preoperative level by 3mo(PP>0.05. CONCLUSION: MMP-2 is significantly expressed in human tear fluid after LASIK, then subsided with time, but didn't return to preoperative level by 3mo and almost recovered up to 1a, indicating wound healing of LASIK would continue up at least 3mo after surgery and almost recovered 1a postoperatively.

  14. Clinical performance of an objective methodology to categorize tear film lipid layer patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Resua, Carlos; Pena-Verdeal, Hugo; Giraldez, Maria J.; Yebra-Pimentel, Eva

    2017-08-01

    Purpose: To validate the performance of a new objective application designated iDEAS (Dry Eye Assessment System) to categorize different zones of lipid layer patterns (LLPs) in one image. Material and methods: Using the Tearscopeplus and a digital camera attached to a slit-lamp, 50 images were captured and analyzed by 4 experienced optometrists. In each image the observers outlined tear film zones that they clearly identified as a specific LLP. Further, the categorization made by the 4 optometrists (called observer 1, 2, 3 and 4) was compared with the automatic system included in iDEAS (5th observer). Results: In general, observer 3 classified worse than all observers (observers 1, 2, 4 and automatic application, Wilcoxon test, 0.05). Furthermore, we obtained a set of photographs per LLP category for which all optometrists showed agreement by using the new tool. After examining them, we detected the more characteristic features for each LLP to enhance the description of the patterns implemented by Guillon. Conclusions: The automatic application included in the iDEAS framework is able to provide zones similar to the annotations made by experienced optometrists. Thus, the manual process done by experts can be automated with the benefits of being unaffected by subjective factors.

  15. Chemosignalling effects of human tears revisited: Does exposure to female tears decrease males' perception of female sexual attractiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gračanin, Asmir; van Assen, Marcel A L M; Omrčen, Višnja; Koraj, Ivana; Vingerhoets, Ad J J M

    2017-01-01

    Gelstein et al. reported the results of three experiments suggesting a dampening influence of inhalation of female emotional tears on males' arousal and perception of female sexual attractiveness, specifically in non-sexual situations. This prompted the hypothesis that crying exerts its influence on others not only via the auditory and visual mode but also via chemosignals. In three studies, we attempted to replicate and extend Gelstein et al.'s findings by including an additional condition with irritant tears, by using pictures of sexually attractive women, and by testing related hypotheses on the pro-social effects of exposure to tears. All three studies, separately or combined in a meta-analysis, failed to replicate the original inhibitory effects of tears. In addition, sniffing tears did not affect measures of connectedness, aggression and pro-social behaviour. It is concluded that the effects of female tears on male arousal and perception of female sexual attractiveness, if any, are very weak at best. Rather, it seems that crying exerts its strong inter-personal effects through the visual and auditory sensory channels.

  16. Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acids Dietary Supplementation on Ocular Surface and Tear Film in Diabetic Patients with Dry Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakopoulos, Constantine D; Makri, Olga E; Pagoulatos, Dionisios; Vasilakis, Panagiotis; Peristeropoulou, Politimi; Kouli, Vasiliki; Eliopoulou, Maria I; Psachoulia, Caterina

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids on ocular surface and tear film in patients with type 2 diabetes suffering from dry eye. Thirty-six patients suffering from type 2 diabetes and moderate to severe dry eye syndrome were included in the study. Patients were assigned to receive omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids for 3 months. Tear film break-up time test, Schirmer-I test, and conjunctival impression cytology analysis were performed on all patients at baseline and after 1 and 3 months. The subjective symptoms of dry eye were evaluated with the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire at the same time points. Patients' average age was 65.57 ± 4.27 years and the mean duration of diabetes was 14.85 ± 5.4 years. There was a statistically significant increase in Schirmer-I test results and tear break-up time score after 3 months of supplementary intake of omega-3 fatty acids compared to baseline (p dry eye syndrome in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  17. Short-term effect of topical antiglaucoma medication on tear-film stability, tear secretion, and corneal sensitivity in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terai, Naim; Müller-Holz, Matthias; Spoerl, Eberhard; Pillunat, Lutz E

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the short-term effect of topical antiglaucoma medication on tear-film stability, tear secretion, and corneal sensitivity in healthy subjects. In this prospective, double-blind crossover trial, break-up time and basal secretion (Jones test) were measured 60 minutes before, and 30, 60, and 90 minutes after topical antiglaucoma drop application in 30 healthy subjects. Corneal sensitivity was measured 60 minutes before, and five, 10, and 15 minutes after drop application using a Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer. Reduction of break-up time in the latanoprost group was -23.8% after 30 minutes (P = 0.21), -26.7% after 60 minutes (P = 0.03) and -51.4% after 90 minutes (P ≤ 0.003), which was statistically significant. Reduction of break-up time in all other treatment groups was not statistically significant. The Jones test revealed a significant reduction of basal secretion after application of brimonidine (-17.8%, P = 0.002; -22.5%, P < 0.001; -30.5%, P < 0.001), followed by apraclonidine (-10%, P = 0.06; -20.1%, P = 0.02; -22.1%, P = 0.002), latanoprost (-2.4%, P = 0.64; -18.6%, P = 0.001; -20.1%, P = 0.001) and dorzolamide (-0.5%, P = 0.9; 14.3%, P = 0.018; -17.3%, P = 0.004) at 30, 60, and 90 minutes after drop application. Reduction of basal secretion in all other treatment groups was not statistically significant. Latanoprost showed the most statistically significant reduction in break-up time, and brimonidine showed the most significant reduction in basal secretion of all the glaucoma medications used in this study. In conclusion, our data may be helpful for treatment decisions in glaucoma patients who also suffer from ocular surface problems.

  18. Levels of the Novel Glycoprotein Lacritin in Human Tears After Laser Refractive Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    et al. Lacritin and other new proteins of the lacrimal functional unit . Exp Eye Res 2009;88(5):848. 6. McKown RL, et al. Mutational analysis of...Ryan COL MC USA 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER email:Kraig.Bower@amedd.army.mil 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING...mitogenesis in human corneal epithelial cells and promoting production of tears in lacrimal gland acinar cells. Heparanase (HPSE) acts as a regulator for

  19. Chemosignalling effects of human tears revisited: Does exposure to female tears decrease males' perception of female sexual attractiveness?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gračanin, Asmir; van Assen, Marcel A L M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/407629971; Omrčen, Višnja; Koraj, Ivana; Vingerhoets, Ad J J M

    2016-01-01

    Gelstein et al. reported the results of three experiments suggesting a dampening influence of inhalation of female emotional tears on males' arousal and perception of female sexual attractiveness, specifically in non-sexual situations. This prompted the hypothesis that crying exerts its influence on

  20. Chemosignalling effects of human tears revisited : Does exposure to female tears decrease males' perception of female sexual attractiveness?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gracanin, A.; van Assen, M.A.L.M.; Omrčen, Višnja; Koraj, Ivana; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Gelstein et al. reported the results of three experiments suggesting a dampening influence of inhalation of female emotional tears on males' arousal and perception of female sexual attractiveness, specifically in non-sexual situations. This prompted the hypothesis that crying exerts its influence on

  1. Corneal sensitivity, ocular surface health and tear film stability after punctal plug therapy of aqueous deficient dry eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azza Mohamed Ahmed Said

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the effect of punctal occlusion using thermosensitive (smart plug versus silicone plug for management of aqueous deficient dry eye on corneal sensitivity, ocular surface health and tear film stability. METHODS: A comparative prospective interventional case study included 45 patients with bilateral severe form of aqueous deficient dry eye. In each patient, the smart plug was inserted in the lower punctum of the right eye which was considered as study group 1 and silicone plug was inserted in the lower punctum of the left eye of the same patient which was considered as study group 2. All patients were subjected to careful history taking and questionnaire for subjective assessment of severity of symptoms. Corneal sensitivity, corneal fluorescein, rose bengal staining, Schirmer’s I test, tear film break up time and conjunctival impression cytology were performed pre and 1, 3 and 6mo post plug insertion. RESULTS: A statistically significant improvement in subjective and objective manifestations occurred following treatment with both types of plugs (P<0.01. The thermosensitive plug caused significant overall improvement, decrease in frequency of application of tear substitutes and improvement of conjunctival impression cytology parameters in the inserted side (P<0.01. Canaliculitis was reported in two eyes (4.4% following punctal occlusion using thermosensitive plug (study group 1. Spontaneous plug loss occurred in 21 eyes (46.6% in the silicone plug group (study group 2. CONCLUSION: Improvement of subjective and objective manifestations of aqueous deficient dry eye occurs following punctal plug occlusion. Thermosensitive plug has good patient's compliance with fewer complications and lower rates of loss compared to the silicone plug.

  2. Effects of wearing a daily disposable lens on tear film: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Pamela Qin Yi; Yeo, Sharon; Too, Cheah Loon; Boo, Cynthia; Tong, Louis

    2016-05-01

    Contact lens-induced dry eye is commonly encountered, although its extent is not well documented with daily disposable lenses. A novel type of contact lens system incorporating moisturising agent (alginic acid) has been developed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of wearing daily 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate disposable contact lenses for seven days on tear stability, conjunctival and limbal redness and dry eye symptoms. Then, we aimed to determine whether lens solutions containing alginic acid had any influence on tear parameters. This was a seven-day parallel group double-masked clinical trial of previous contact lens wearers, where participants were randomly assigned to wearing SEED 1dayPure moisture contact lenses with (n = 15) or without alginic acid (n = 15). Tear lipid layer thickness (LLT), non-invasive tear break-up time (NIBUT), conjunctival redness, corneal fluorescein staining, tear break-up time and Schirmer I readings were measured. Symptom severity and frequency were evaluated and combined using a global score from visual analogue scales. The mean age and standard deviation of the participants was 25 ± 3.8 years. There were 24 females and six males. After reintroduction of contact lens wear for one week, there was significant improvement in the global symptom score; however, this may not be clinically significant. There were small and clinically insignificant changes in limbal and conjunctival hyperaemia but no significant changes in lipid layer thickness, Schirmer I and NIBUT in overall participants. The use of alginic acid in lens solutions did not affect these parameters compared to control lenses (p > 0.05). After seven days of wearing a modern daily disposable lens, there was no significant deterioration of tear function in a group of young contact lens wearers. In this short-term study, there was no evidence of significant benefit of lens solutions containing alginic acid used with HEMA lenses. © 2016 The Authors Clinical and

  3. [Assessment of lipid layer thickness of tear film in the diagnosis of dry-eye syndrome in children after the hematopoietic stem cell transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurpińska, Małgorzata; Gorczyńska, Ewa; Owoc-Lempach, Joanna; Bernacka, Aleksandra; Misiuk-Hojło, Marta; Chybicka, Alicja

    2011-01-01

    Dry eye syndrome (DES), also known as keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) is recognized as the most frequent ocular complication after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). KCS can appear either due to insufficient tear production or excessive tear evaporation, both resulting in tears hyperosmolarity that leads to ocular damage. The evaporation rate and better film stability is determined primarily by the status of the lipid layer. Observation and classification of tear film lipid layer interference patterns in normal and dry eyes in patients after allogeneic stem cell transplantation with a follow-up time of 6 months-5 years (median 26.54 months). Investigation of the relation between the lipid layer interference patterns in normal and dry eyes and the results of other dry eye examinations and complaints. Relation between DES and conditioning regimes, including total body irradiation and high-dose chemotherapy, immunosuppressive drugs, the time after allogeneic stem cell transplantation and chronic graft-versus-host disease. Precorneal tears lipid layer interference patterns, were examined in 114 eyes in treatment group with the Tearscope-plus. Patient with dry eye were identified on the basis of Schirmer test scores and/or tear breakup time, and positive lissamine and/or fluorescein staining. 42 of 114 eyes (36.8%) developed DES after allo-SCT A significant correlation between thickness of lipid layer and BUT, Schirmer test, lissamine green and fluorescein staining was found in the treatment group. A significant association was found between present chronic GVHD and DES in children. DES was not associated with TBI, corticosteroids, immunosuppressive drugs and the time in the present study. Tears lipid layer interference patterns are highly correlated with the diagnosis of DES. Tears lipid layer interference patterns ( noninvasive method), can be used to diagnose early DES in children after allo-SCT. Chronic GVHD play a major role in development of DES

  4. Repair of Avascular Meniscus Tears with Electrospun Collagen Scaffolds Seeded with Human Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Jihye; Sovani, Sujata; Glembotski, Nicholas E; Du, Jiang; Jin, Sungho; Grogan, Shawn P; D'Lima, Darryl D

    2016-03-01

    The self-healing capacity of an injured meniscus is limited to the vascularized regions and is especially challenging in the inner avascular regions. As such, we investigated the use of human meniscus cell-seeded electrospun (ES) collagen type I scaffolds to produce meniscal tissue and explored whether these cell-seeded scaffolds can be implanted to repair defects created in meniscal avascular tissue explants. Human meniscal cells (derived from vascular and avascular meniscal tissue) were seeded on ES scaffolds and cultured. Constructs were evaluated for cell viability, gene expression, and mechanical properties. To determine potential for repair of meniscal defects, human meniscus avascular cells were seeded and cultured on aligned ES collagen scaffolds for 4 weeks before implantation. Surgical defects resembling "longitudinal tears" were created in the avascular zone of bovine meniscus and implanted with cell-seeded collagen scaffolds and cultured for 3 weeks. Tissue regeneration and integration were evaluated by histology, immunohistochemistry, mechanical testing, and magentic resonance imaging. Ex vivo implantation with cell-seeded collagen scaffolds resulted in neotissue that was significantly better integrated with the native tissue than acellular collagen scaffolds or untreated defects. Human meniscal cell-seeded ES collagen scaffolds may therefore be useful in facilitating meniscal repair of avascular meniscus tears.

  5. Rotator cuff tear state modulates self-renewal and differentiation capacity of human skeletal muscle progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kelsey A; Gibbons, Michael C; Lane, John G; Singh, Anshuman; Ward, Samuel R; Engler, Adam J

    2017-08-01

    Full thickness rotator cuff tendon (RCT) tears have long-term effects on RC muscle atrophy and fatty infiltration, with lasting damage even after surgical tendon repair. Skeletal muscle progenitor cells (SMPs) are critical for muscle repair in response to injury, but the inability of RC muscles to recover from chronic RCT tear indicates possible deficits in repair mechanisms. Here we investigated if muscle injury state was a crucial factor during human SMP expansion and differentiation ex vivo. SMPs were isolated from muscles in patients with no, partial-thickness (PT), or full-thickness (FT) RCT tears. Despite using growth factors, physiological niche stiffness, and muscle-mimetic extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, we found that SMPs isolated from human RC muscle with RCT tears proliferated slower but fused into myosin heavy chain (MHC)-positive myotubes at higher rates than SMPs from untorn RCTs. Proteomic analysis of RC muscle tissue revealed shifts in muscle composition with pathology, as muscle from massive RCT tears had increased ECM deposition compared with no tear RC muscle. Together these data imply that the remodeled niche in a torn RCT primes SMPs not for expansion but for differentiation, thus limiting longer-term self-renewal necessary for regeneration after surgical repair. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:1816-1823, 2017. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Levels of the Novel Glycoprotein Lacritin in Human Tears After Laser Refractive Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    be done at the 1 day and 1 week post-operative visit. Each of these tests has been used in clinical practice for years. They are being done for...medical or command authorities. Your name will not appear in any published paper or presentation related to this study. A folder will be maintained...Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005;46:863–876. 19. Zhou L, Beuerman RW, Foo Y, Liu S, Ang LP, Tan DT. Character- isation of human tear proteins using high

  7. Lipid peroxidation is increased in tears from the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benlloch-Navarro, Soledad; Franco, Ilenia; Sánchez-Vallejo, Violeta; Silvestre, Dolores; Romero, Francisco Javier; Miranda, María

    2013-10-01

    We describe a procedure in which tears, obtained from Schirmer strips, are used to measure a marker of lipid peroxidation, malondialdehyde (MDA). We also compared the levels of proteins and MDA in tears from two groups of people: young adults (18-30 years old) and elderly adults (65-85 years old), because the data related to total protein concentration of human tears vary widely and because the majority of people over the age of 65 experience some symptoms of dry eyes and this condition has been recognized as an oxidative stress-induced disease. Our results show a significant difference in the protein concentration of the tears taken from the two age categories, younger adults (18-30 years old) and older adults (65-85 years old). Herein, we report for the first time an increase in MDA concentrations determined by HPLC in human tears based on age. It is possible that alterations in the tear lipid layer may lead to an increase in lipid peroxidation. Further studies are needed to understand the nature and function of tear film and stability in order to obtain new methods to analyze tears in patients with different diseases. In this sense, it would be interesting to compare MDA concentration in tears from control subjects and from people with meibomian gland dysfunction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of rb-bFGF eye drops and hydroxyl indican eye drops on tear film stability and dry eye symptoms after age-related cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Chen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To compare and analyze the effect of recombinant bovine basic fibroblast growth factor(bFGFeye drops and hydroxyl indican eye drops on the tear film stability and dry eye symptoms after age-related cataract surgery. METHODS: A total of 115 patients(115 affected eyeswith dry eyes after age-related cataract surgery were divided into the bFGF group, the hydroxyl indican group and the blank control group by the random number table method. The blank control group was only given routine anti-inflammatory treatment, and on the basis, the bFGF group and the hydroxyl indican group were treated with bFGF eye drops and hydroxyl indican eye drops respectively. The clinical efficacy, adverse reactions, changes in scores of dry eye symptoms, Schirmer test(SⅠt, tear film break-up time(BUTand corneal fluorescein staining(CFSscores at different time points were compared among the three groups. RESULTS: The total markedly effective rates in the bFGF group(89.5%was higher than that in the hydroxyl indican group(70.3%or the blank control group(47.5%(PPPCONCLUSION: The tear film is unstable in early stage after age-related cataract surgery, and there are dry eye symptoms. The intervention with bFGF eye drops and hydroxyl indican eye drops can effectively restore the tear film stability and significantly relieve dry eye symptoms, and the effect of bFGF eye drops is more significant.

  9. Treatment of the Cornea Using Transcytotic Delivery into the Tear Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    following popular refractive proce- dures, such as photorefractive keratectomy ( PRK ) and laser in situ keratomileusis ( LASIK ), directly rely on the...chronic inflammation of the eyelid) vs . normal tears [9]. LG-targeted delivery of this therapeutic within our novel delivery system is chosen for...particle compared to SI. If so, this might result from a larger hydro- philic fraction for KSI (66% vs . 48% for SI), which could result in a larger radius of

  10. Healing rates for challenging rotator cuff tears utilizing an acellular human dermal reinforcement graft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Vivek

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study presents a retrospective case series of the clinical and structural outcomes (1.5 T MRI) of arthroscopic rotator cuff repair with acellular human dermal graft reinforcement performed by a single surgeon in patients with large, massive, and previously repaired rotator cuff tears. Materials and Methods: Fourteen patients with mean anterior to posterior tear size 3.87 ± 0.99 cm (median 4 cm, range 2.5–6 cm) were enrolled in the study and were evaluated for structural integrity using a high-field (1.5 T) MRI at an average of 16.8 months after surgery. The Constant-Murley scores, the Flexilevel Scale of Shoulder Function (Flex SF), scapular plane abduction, and strength were analyzed. Results: MRI results showed that the rotator cuff repair was intact in 85.7% (12/14) of the patients studied. Two patients had a Sugaya Type IV recurrent tear (2 of 14; 14.3%), which were both less than 1 cm. The Constant score increased from a preoperative mean of 49.72 (range 13–74) to a postoperative mean of 81.07 (range 45–92) (P value = 0.009). Flexilevel Scale of Shoulder Function (Flex SF) Score normalized to a 100-point scale improved from a preoperative mean of 53.69 to a postoperative mean of 79.71 (P value = 0.003). The Pain Score improved from a preoperative mean of 7.73 to a postoperative mean of 13.57 (P value = 0.008). Scapular plane abduction improved from a preoperative mean of 113.64° to a postoperative mean of 166.43° (P value = 0.010). The strength subset score improved from a preoperative mean of 1.73 kg to a postoperative mean of 7.52 kg (P value = 0.006). Conclusions: This study presents a safe and effective technique that may help improve the healing rates of large, massive, and revision rotator cuff tears with the use of an acellular human dermal allograft. This technique demonstrated favorable structural healing rates and statistically improved functional outcomes in the near term. Level of Evidence: 4. Retrospective case series. PMID

  11. Effect of vitamin A palmitate ophthalmic gel adjunctive therapy on tear film stability and inflammatory cytokines in patients with dry eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Yuan Lu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the effect of sodium hyaluronate eye drops combined with vitamin A palmitate ophthalmic gel on levels of tear film stability and inflammatory cytokines in patients with dry eye. METHODS: A total of 100 patients with dry eye treated in our hospital from January 2015 to February 2017 were randomly divided into control group and observation group, 50 cases in each group. Patients in the control group were treated with sodium hyaluronate eye drops. Patients in the observation group were given vitamin A palmitate ophthalmic gel on the basis of the control group, and then the clinical efficacy, tear film stability and the level of inflammatory cytokines were detected in the two groups. RESULTS: After treatment, the levels of BUT and SⅠt in both groups increased significantly compared with that before treatment, and FL was significantly lower than that before treatment. The levels of BUT and SⅠt in the observation group after treatment were 11.24±0.22s and 11.4±0.17mm/5min respectively, which was high than that of control groups(PPPPCONCLUSION: Sodium hyaluronate eye drops combined with vitamin A palmitate ophthalmic gel can relieve the symptoms of patients with dry eye effectively, increase the stability of tear film, and reduce the levels of inflammatory factors in tears, which is reliable in clinical application.

  12. Tears of Wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugliotti, Marcos

    2004-01-01

    The unique occurrence of the upward motion of a thin film of wine, and its formation into drops inside the wall of a wine glass is explained. Evaporation of alcohol generates a surface tension gradient, moving the film of wine upwards on the internal sides of a wine glass, where it collects and forms into drops or tears.

  13. Ascorbic acid levels in human tears after photorefractive keratectomy, transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy, and laser in situ keratomileusis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgihan, A; Bilgihan, K; Toklu, Y; Konuk, O; Yis, O; Hasanreisoğlu, B

    2001-04-01

    To investigate the level of ascorbic acid in human tear fluid after photorefractive keratectomy (PRK), transepithelial PRK, and laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). Departments of Ophthalmology and Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey. Twenty patients (7 women and 13 men) were included in this study. Traditional PRK with epithelial scraping by a blunt spatula followed by surface ablation (7 eyes), transepithelial PRK (7 eyes), or LASIK (6 eyes) was performed. Tears were collected preoperatively and 1 and 5 days postoperatively. Ascorbic acid levels were measured using 2-4 dinitrophenylhydrazine. Ascorbic acid levels in the tear fluid were decreased significantly 1 day after PRK, transepithelial PRK, and LASIK (P <.05). On the fifth day, the ascorbic acid levels were significantly lower than preoperatively in all groups. After PRK, transepithelial PRK, and LASIK, the ascorbic acid levels of the tear fluid decreased significantly. Because ascorbic acid is the major scavenger of superoxide radicals in tears, topical ascorbic acid therapy may help eliminate the harmful effect of free radicals from excimer laser surgery.

  14. Analysis of Factors Associated With the Tear Film Lipid Layer Thickness in Normal Eyes and Patients With Dry Eye Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ji Won; Park, Si Yoon; Kim, Jin Sun; Kim, Eung Kweon; Seo, Kyoung Yul; Kim, Tae-Im

    2016-08-01

    To determine the effects of clinical variables, including age, sex, history of refractive or cataract surgery, contact lens use, and ocular surface and meibomian gland parameters on the lipid layer thickness (LLT) in normal subjects and patients with dry eye syndrome (DES). A total of 64 normal subjects and 326 patients with DES were enrolled, and they underwent measurements of LLT with a LipiView interferometer and tear meniscus height using optical coherence tomography, tear film break-up time (TBUT) determination, ocular surface staining, Schirmer's test, examination of the lid margins and meibomian glands, and assessment using the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI). In normal subjects, the median (range) LLT was 67 (33-100) nm, and age was the only factor that was significantly associated with LLT (β = 0.678, P = 0.028). In patients with DES, the median (range) LLT was 84 (20-100) nm, and 79.0% of the participants fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). In a multivariate analysis, increased age and female sex were significantly related to increased LLT (β = 0.282, P = 0.005 and β = 11.493, P < 0.001), and hypersecretory MGD and lid margin inflammation were independently associated with increased LLT (β = 11.299, P = 0.001 and β = 12.747, P = 0.001). Lipid layer thickness measurements using a new interferometer are significantly affected by demographic factors such as age, sex, ocular surgical history, and MGD type. Therefore, all of these factors must be considered in the diagnosis of ocular surface diseases.

  15. Tear ferning in normal dogs and dogs with keratoconjunctivitis sicca ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluates tear ferning as an ancillary technique for the evaluation of the canine tear film in normal eyes and eyes affected by keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS). Thirty dogs with KCS and 50 control dogs with normal tear film were evaluated with a full ophthalmoscopic examination and a Schirmer tear test type 1 ...

  16. Effect of laser in situ keratomileusis with corneal flap created by femtosecond laser on tear film detected by Keratograph in different age groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Xia Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To explore the changes of tear film detected by Keratograph in the patients after laser in situ keratomileusis(LASIKwith corneal flap created by femtosecond laser. METHODS: Totally 75 myopic patients(150 eyeswere enrolled who underwent femtosecond laser LASIK from July 2014 to June 2015, including patientsRESULTS: Before surgeries, the dry eye symptoms score of three groups had no significant difference(P>0.05. After surgeries, there were significant difference at each follow-up time among the three groups on symptoms score(PPCONCLUSION: LASIK can affect the dry eye symptoms and the stability of tear film, which decreased by postoperative time. And the index recovered to preoperative levels earlier in younger patients.

  17. Effect of diquafosol three per cent ophthalmic solution on tear film and corneal aberrations after cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hun; Kim, Sang Myung; Choi, Seonghee; Seo, Kyoung Yul; Kim, Eung Kweon; Kim, Tae-Im

    2017-11-01

    The aim was to evaluate the effect of diquafosol on tear film parameters and corneal aberrations after cataract surgery. This retrospective, comparative, observational case series included patients who underwent cataract surgery with or without peri-operative use of diquafosol three per cent ophthalmic solution. Patients in group I (31 eyes) were treated with diquafosol three per cent ophthalmic solution six times a day from one week before surgery to three months after surgery. Patients in group II (33 eyes) underwent cataract surgery without being administered diquafosol. Tear film break-up time (BUT), the ocular surface disease index (OSDI), the Oxford Scheme score, Schirmer's test I and corneal aberrations were determined before and at one and three months post-surgery. In group I, the BUT, OSDI and Oxford Scheme score showed significant improvement at one and three months post-surgery (p = 0.002 for BUT at one month and three months, p = 0.023 and p = 0.049 for OSDI at one month and three months and p = 0.001 and p = 0.026 for Oxford Scheme at one month and three months), compared to baseline. In group II, the BUT, OSDI and Oxford Scheme score did not show any significant improvement during the follow-up period. In both groups, Schirmer's test I significantly decreased at three months post-surgery (p = 0.011 for group I and p = 0.034 for group II), compared to baseline. There were significant differences in the BUT and OSDI between the groups at three months post-surgery (p = 0.037 for BUT and p = 0.011 for OSDI). Regarding the corneal aberration, there were no significant differences between the groups at three months post-surgery. Peri-operative application of diquafosol three per cent ophthalmic solution may prevent dry eye-related ocular surface changes accompanied by improvement of ocular symptom. No definite changes in corneal aberrations were noted. © 2017 Optometry Australia.

  18. Antimicrobial compounds in tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Alison M

    2013-12-01

    The tear film coats the cornea and conjunctiva and serves several important functions. It provides lubrication, prevents drying of the ocular surface epithelia, helps provide a smooth surface for refracting light, supplies oxygen and is an important component of the innate defense system of the eye providing protection against a range of potential pathogens. This review describes both classic antimicrobial compounds found in tears such as lysozyme and some more recently identified such as members of the cationic antimicrobial peptide family and surfactant protein-D as well as potential new candidate molecules that may contribute to antimicrobial protection. As is readily evident from the literature review herein, tears, like all mucosal fluids, contain a plethora of molecules with known antimicrobial effects. That all of these are active in vivo is debatable as many are present in low concentrations, may be influenced by other tear components such as the ionic environment, and antimicrobial action may be only one of several activities ascribed to the molecule. However, there are many studies showing synergistic/additive interactions between several of the tear antimicrobials and it is highly likely that cooperativity between molecules is the primary way tears are able to afford significant antimicrobial protection to the ocular surface in vivo. In addition to effects on pathogen growth and survival some tear components prevent epithelial cell invasion and promote the epithelial expression of innate defense molecules. Given the protective role of tears a number of scenarios can be envisaged that may affect the amount and/or activity of tear antimicrobials and hence compromise tear immunity. Two such situations, dry eye disease and contact lens wear, are discussed here. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Ocular surface and tear film status among contact lens wearers and non-wearers who use VDT at work: comparing three different lens types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauste, Ana; Ronda, Elena; Baste, Valborg; Bråtveit, Magne; Moen, Bente E; Seguí Crespo, María-Del-Mar

    2018-04-01

    To analyze differences in the ocular surface appearance and tear film status of contact lens wearers and non-wearers in a group of visual display terminals (VDT) workers and additionally to assess differences between lens materials. Cross-sectional study of 236 office workers, of whom 92 were contact lens wearers. Workers provided information on their contact lenses (conventional hydrogel, silicone hydrogel or rigid gas permeable lenses) and exposure to VDT at work. Ocular surface and tear film status were determined by the presence of bulbar, limbal and lid redness, lid roughness and corneal staining type, and by Schirmer's and tear break-up time tests (TBUT). A generalized linear model was used to calculate the crude (cRR) and age- and sex-adjusted (aRR) relative risk to measure the association between ocular surface and tear film abnormalities and contact lens use and type. The aRR of ocular surface abnormalities was higher in contact lens wearers compared to non-wearers: bulbar redness (aRR 1.69; 95% CI 1.25-2.30), limbal redness (aRR 2.87; 1.88-4.37), lid redness (aRR 2.53; 1.35-4.73) and lid roughness (aRR 7.03; 1.31-37.82). VDT exposure > 4 h/day increased wearers' risk of limbal and lid redness. Conventional hydrogel wearers had the highest risk of ocular surface abnormalities, followed by silicone hydrogel wearers. Both contact and non-contact lens wearers had a high prevalence of altered TBUT (77.3 and 75.7% respectively) and Schirmer (51.8 and 41.3%). Regular contact lens use during VDT exposure at work increases risk of bulbar, limbal and lid redness, and lid roughness, especially in soft contact lens wearers. The high prevalence of altered TBUT and Schirmer's results in all participants suggests that VDT use greatly affects tear film characteristics.

  20. Effect of rb-bFGF eye drops and hydroxyl indican eye drops on tear film stability and dry eye symptoms after age-related cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Ling

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the effect of recombinant bovine basic fibroblast growth factor(rb-bFGFeye drops and hydroxyl indican eye drops on tear film stability and dry eye symptoms after age-related cataract surgery. METHODS: Totally 80 patients with 80 affected eyes undergoing age-related cataract surgery in our hospital from January 2015 to October 2016 were selected as study subjects, and they were randomly divided into control group and experimental group with 40 patients(40 affected eyesin each group. The two groups were treated with hydroxyl indican eye drops and rb-bFGF eye drops, respectively. The clinical curative effect, inflammation related factors \\〖interleukin 6(IL-6, tumor necrosis factor α(TNF-α\\〗, Schirmer test(SⅠt, break-up time(BUTof tear film, corneal sodium fluorescein staining(FLand scores of dry eye symptoms in the two groups were observed. RESULTS: The total treatment effective rate of experimental group after treatment was significantly higher than that of the control group(90.0% vs 72.5%; χ2=4.021, PP>0.05. After treatment, IL-6, TNF-α, SⅠt, FL score and scores of dry eye symptoms in two groups significantly decreased while BUT significantly increased(PPCONCLUSION: In the treatment of patients after age-related cataract after surgery, rb-bFGF eye drops has more advantages over hydroxyl indican eye drops in regulating the expression of inflammatory factors, improving the tear film stability and relieving dry eye symptoms.

  1. Assessment of Corneal and Tear Film Parameters in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients Using Anterior Segment Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Fayoumi, Dina; Youssef, Maha Mohamed; Khafagy, Mohamed Mahmoud; Badr El Dine, Nashwa; Gaber, Wafaa

    2018-01-01

    To study the corneal changes in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients in vivo, using spectral domain anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT). A case-control study was done on 43 RA patients and 40 controls. The disease activity score (DAS28-ESR) was calculated and all participants had lower tear meniscus, corneal thickness, and epithelial thickness evaluation using AS-OCT. The lower tear meniscus height (LTMH) and the lower tear meniscus area (LTMA) were significantly lower in the RA patients than in controls (p < 0.001). RA patients also had a significantly thinner central corneal thickness (p = 0.02) and their epithelium was found to be thinner in the superotemporal peripheral sector. The LTMH and LTMA are significantly reduced in RA patients, despite the absence of clinical diagnosis of dry eye. RA patients have thinner corneal thickness and epithelial thickness than controls, which did not correlate with either disease duration or activity.

  2. Automated Measurement of Tear Film Dynamics and Lipid Layer Thickness for Assessment of Non-Sjögren Dry Eye Syndrome With Meibomian Gland Dysfunction.

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    Ji, Yong Woo; Lee, Jeihoon; Lee, Hun; Seo, Kyoung Yul; Kim, Eung Kweon; Kim, Tae-Im

    2017-02-01

    To investigate automated values from an advanced corneal topographer with a built-in real keratometer, color camera, and ocular surface interferometer for the evaluation of non-Sjögren dry eye syndrome (NSDES) with meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). Sixty-four patients (64 eyes) diagnosed with NSDES with MGD were enrolled. All eyes were evaluated using the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI), fluorescence staining score, tear film breakup time (TBUT), Schirmer test, and MGD grade. Noninvasive Keratograph average tear film breakup time (NIKBUTav), tear meniscus height (TMHk), meibomian gland (MG) dropout grade, and lipid layer thickness (LLT) using interferometry were measured. Among automated indexes, NIKBUTav (mean 7.68 ± 4.07 s) and the MG dropout grade (mean 1.0 ± 0.5) significantly correlated with the OSDI (mean 40.6 ± 22.9) (r = -0.337, P = 0.006; and r = 0.201, P = 0.023, respectively), as did all conventional indicators, except the Schirmer score (mean 9.1 ± 5.9 mm). TMHk (mean 0.21 ± 0.18 mm) had significant correlation with the Schirmer score, the staining score (mean 1.2 ± 0.7), TBUT (mean 3.8 ± 1.8 s), and NIKBUTav (r = 0.298, P = 0.007; r = -0.268, P = 0.016; r = 0.459, P < 0.001; and r = 0.439, P < 0.001, respectively), but not any MGD indicator, even the MG dropout grade. NIKBUTav showed significant correlations with all clinical parameters and other automated values, except the Schirmer score and LLT (mean 83.94 ± 20.82 nm) (all (Equation is included in full-text article.)≥ 0.25 and P < 0.01). The MG dropout grade highly correlated with all indexes except TMHk (all (Equation is included in full-text article.)≥ 0.25 and P < 0.05). LLT was significantly associated with TBUT, MGD grade (mean 2.0 ± 0.7), and MG dropout grade (r = 0.219, P = 0.047; r = -0.221, P = 0.039; and r = 0.433, P < 0.001, respectively), although it was not related to patient symptoms. Automated noninvasive measurements using an advanced corneal topographer and LLT

  3. The effect of Meibomian lipids and tear proteins on evaporation rate under controlled in vitro conditions.

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    Herok, George Henryk; Mudgil, Poonam; Millar, Thomas James

    2009-07-01

    The lipid layer of the tear film is associated with preventing evaporative loss. The ability of human Meibomian lipids to reduce evaporation in vitro was tested. Films of human or animal Meibomian lipids or mixtures of cholesterol and phosphatidylcholine were spread on the surface of either artificial buffer or on whole tears and placed on a mass balance that was enclosed in a sealed chamber. The temperature was adjusted to 37 degrees C and gas flow was controlled. Increasing the amounts of Meibomian lipids gave a very small reduction in evaporation. It was concluded from these in vitro experiments that prevention of evaporation from the tear film is not due to the Meibomian lipids alone, but is more likely to be due to a complex interaction between components of the aqueous and the Meibomian lipids.

  4. Changes in the evaporation rate of tear film after digital expression of meibomian glands in patients with and without dry eye.

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    Arciniega, Juan Carlos; Wojtowicz, Jadwiga Cristina; Mohamed, Engy Mostafa; McCulley, James Parker

    2011-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of excess meibum on tear evaporation rate in patients with and without dry eye. Eleven healthy subjects and 16 patients with dry eye were tested. The dry eye group was divided into 2 subgroups: classic keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) with clear and easily expressed meibum and KCS with meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) with turbid secretions and difficult-to-express meibum. Evaporative measurements were performed at baseline and after digital expression of meibomian glands at 12, 24, 36, and 48 minutes. Two ranges of relative humidity were used, 25% to 35% and 35% to 45%. The data were expressed as microliters per square centimeter per minute. An increase in the evaporation rate of the tear film was noted for all measurements at both relative humidities in the classic KCS and KCS with MGD groups compared with healthy subjects (P evaporation rates at relative humidities of 25% to 35% and 35% to 45% were 0.056 ± 0.016 and 0.040 ± 0.008 for the classic KCS group; 0.055 ± 0.026 and 0.037 ± 0.019 for the KCS with MGD group and 0.033 ± 0.012 and 0.023 ± 0.008 for the healthy group. Also, a decrease in the evaporation rate was observed in the healthy and KCS with MGD groups between baseline and the first measurement after digital expression for both relative humidities (P evaporation rates compared with the healthy group. Aqueous tear evaporation diminished in the healthy and KCS with MGD groups after expression of meibomian glands. However, this effect was transient and negligible after the second measurement.

  5. Human Tear Fluid Reduces Culturability of Contact Lens Associated Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms but Induces Expression of the Virulence Associated Type III Secretion System

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    Wu, Yvonne T.; Tam, Connie; Zhu, Lucia S.; Evans, David J.; Fleiszig, Suzanne M. J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The type III secretion system (T3SS) is a significant virulence determinant for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Using a rodent model, we found that contact lens (CL)-related corneal infections were associated with lens surface biofilms. Here, we studied the impact of human tear fluid on CL-associated biofilm growth and T3SS expression. Methods P. aeruginosa biofilms were formed on contact lenses for up to 7 days with or without human tear fluid, then exposed to tear fluid for 5 or 24 h. Biofilms were imaged using confocal microscopy. Bacterial culturability was quantified by viable counts, and T3SS gene expression measured by RT-qPCR. Controls included trypticase soy broth, PBS and planktonic bacteria. Results With or without tear fluid, biofilms grew to ~108 cfu viable bacteria by 24 h. Exposing biofilms to tear fluid after they had formed without it on lenses reduced bacterial culturability ~180-fold (pbacteria [5.46 ± 0.24-fold for T3SS transcriptional activitor exsA (p=.02), and 3.76 ± 0.36-fold for T3SS effector toxin exoS (p=.01)]. Tear fluid further enhanced exsA and exoS expression in CL-grown biofilms, but not planktonic bacteria, by 2.09 ± 0.38-fold (p = 0.04) and 1.89 ± 0.26-fold (p<.001), respectively. Conclusions Considering the pivitol role of the T3SS in P. aeruginosa infections, its induction in CL-grown P. aeruginosa biofilms by tear fluid might contribute to the pathogenesis of CL-related P. aeruginosa keratitis. PMID:27670247

  6. Evaluation of the transforming growth factor-beta activity in normal and dry eye human tears by CCL-185 cell bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaofen; De Paiva, Cintia S; Rao, Kavita; Li, De-Quan; Farley, William J; Stern, Michael; Pflugfelder, Stephen C

    2010-09-01

    To develop a new bioassay method using human lung epithelial cells (CCL-185) to assess activity of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) in human tear fluid from normal subjects and patients with dry eye. Two epithelial cell lines, mink lung cells (CCL-64) and human lung cells (CCL-185), were compared to detect the active form of TGF-beta by BrdU incorporation (quantitation of cell DNA synthesis) and WST assay (metabolic activity of viable cells). The effect of TGF-beta on the growth of CCL-185 cells was observed microscopically. Human tears from normal control subjects and patients with dry eye (DE) with and without Sjögren syndrome were evaluated for TGF-beta concentration by Luminex microbead assay, and TGF-beta activity by the CCL-185 cell growth inhibition bioassay. The metabolic activity of viable CCL-185 cells, measured by WST, was shown to be proportional to the TGF-beta1 concentration (R = 0.919) and confirmed by BrdU assay (R = 0.969). Compared with CCL-185, metabolic activity of viable cells and DNA synthesis, measured by WST and BrdU incorporation assays, were shown to be less proportional to the TGF-beta1 concentration in the CCL-64 line (R = 0.42 and 0.17, respectively). Coincubation with human anti-TGF-beta1 antibody (MAB-240) yielded a dose-dependent inhibition of TGF-beta1 (0.3 ng/mL) activity. CCL-185 cell growth observed microscopically was noted to decrease in response to increasing TGF-beta1 concentrations. Levels of immuodetectable TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta2 were similar in normal and DE tears. TGF-beta bioactivity in DE human tears measured by the CCL-185 cells assay was found to be higher (9777.5 +/- 10481.9 pg/mL) than those in normal controls (4129.3 +/- 1342.9 pg/mL) (P tears and 37.6% TGF-beta in normal tears were found to be biologically active. The CCL-185 cell assay was found to be a suitable tool for assessing TGF-beta activity in human tears. Tear TGF-beta bioactivity increases in DE, particularly in Sjögren syndrome, where

  7. Effects of Systane(®) Balance on noninvasive tear film break-up time in patients with lipid-deficient dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Alejandro J; Marquez, Maria I; Albera, Paula A; Tredicce, Jorge L; Berra, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the ability of Systane(®) Balance (SYSB) administered four times per day for 4 weeks to increase noninvasive tear film break-up time (NITFBUT) over baseline compared with a saline (SAL) control in patients with lipid-deficient dry eye (DE). Patients aged ≥18 years with DE and evidence of meibomian gland dysfunction (ie, abnormal gland expression and missing meibomian glands) were included in this randomized, parallel-group, controlled, investigator-masked comparison study. Patients were randomized to SYSB or SAL four times daily for 4 weeks. The primary efficacy variable was mean change in NITFBUT from baseline at week 4. Ocular surface staining, goblet cell density, and meibomian gland expression were also assessed. Safety assessments included adverse events (AEs), best-corrected visual acuity, and ocular signs. A total of 49 patients received study treatments (SYSB, n=25; SAL, n=24). Most patients were women (67.4%) and Caucasian (63.3%); mean ± standard deviation (SD) age was 44±19 years. DE characteristics at baseline were similar between groups. After 4 weeks of treatment, the mean ± SD NITFBUT increase from baseline was significantly greater with SYSB (2.83±0.74 seconds) compared with SAL (0.66±0.55 seconds; P<0.001, t-test). Improvements in conjunctival and corneal staining, percentage of patients with increased goblet cell density, and meibomian gland expression were also observed with 4 weeks of SYSB over SAL. No AEs were reported for either treatment group; best-corrected visual acuity and ocular signs remained stable or improved compared with baseline. SYSB restored tear film stability, improved ocular surface healing, and improved meibomian gland functionality after 4 weeks of use in patients with lipid-deficient DE. No AEs were reported with either SYSB or SAL.

  8. Effects of Systane® Balance on noninvasive tear film break-up time in patients with lipid-deficient dry eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguilar AJ

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Alejandro J Aguilar, Maria I Marquez, Paula A Albera, Jorge L Tredicce, Alejandro Berra Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina Purpose: To evaluate the ability of Systane® Balance (SYSB administered four times per day for 4 weeks to increase noninvasive tear film break-up time (NITFBUT over baseline compared with a saline (SAL control in patients with lipid-deficient dry eye (DE.Patients and methods: Patients aged ≥18 years with DE and evidence of meibomian gland dysfunction (ie, abnormal gland expression and missing meibomian glands were included in this randomized, parallel-group, controlled, investigator-masked comparison study. Patients were randomized to SYSB or SAL four times daily for 4 weeks. The primary efficacy variable was mean change in NITFBUT from baseline at week 4. Ocular surface staining, goblet cell density, and meibomian gland expression were also assessed. Safety assessments included adverse events (AEs, best-corrected visual acuity, and ocular signs.Results: A total of 49 patients received study treatments (SYSB, n=25; SAL, n=24. Most patients were women (67.4% and Caucasian (63.3%; mean ± standard deviation (SD age was 44±19 years. DE characteristics at baseline were similar between groups. After 4 weeks of treatment, the mean ± SD NITFBUT increase from baseline was significantly greater with SYSB (2.83±0.74 seconds compared with SAL (0.66±0.55 seconds; P<0.001, t-test. Improvements in conjunctival and corneal staining, percentage of patients with increased goblet cell density, and meibomian gland expression were also observed with 4 weeks of SYSB over SAL. No AEs were reported for either treatment group; best-corrected visual acuity and ocular signs remained stable or improved compared with baseline.Conclusion: SYSB restored tear film stability, improved ocular surface healing, and improved meibomian gland functionality after 4 weeks of use in patients with lipid-deficient DE. No AEs were reported

  9. Rotator cuff muscle degeneration and tear severity related to myogenic, adipogenic, and atrophy genes in human muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Shivam A; Kormpakis, Ioannis; Cavinatto, Leonardo; Killian, Megan L; Thomopoulos, Stavros; Galatz, Leesa M

    2017-12-01

    Large rotator cuff tear size and advanced muscle degeneration can affect reparability of tears and compromise tendon healing. Clinicians often rely on direct measures of rotator cuff tear size and muscle degeneration from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to determine whether the rotator cuff tear is repairable. The objective of this study was to identify the relationship between gene expression changes in rotator cuff muscle degeneration to standard data available to clinicians. Radiographic assessment of preoperative rotator cuff tear severity was completed for 25 patients with varying magnitudes of rotator cuff tears. Tear width and retraction were measured using MRI, and Goutallier grade, tangent (tan) sign, and Thomazeau grade were determined. Expression of myogenic-, adipogenic-, atrophy-, and metabolism-related genes in biopsied muscles were correlated with tear width, tear retraction, Goutallier grade, tan sign, and Thomazeau grade. Tear width positively correlated with Goutallier grade in both the supraspinatus (r = 0.73) and infraspinatus (r = 0.77), along with tan sign (r = 0.71) and Thomazeau grade (r = 0.68). Decreased myogenesis (Myf5), increased adipogenesis (CEBPα, Lep, Wnt10b), and decreased metabolism (PPARα) correlated with radiographic assessments. Gene expression changes suggest that rotator cuff tears lead to a dramatic molecular response in an attempt to maintain normal muscle tissue, increase adipogenesis, and decrease metabolism. Fat accumulation and muscle atrophy appear to stem from endogenous changes rather than from changes mediated by infiltrating cells. Results suggest that chronic unloading of muscle, induced by rotator cuff tear, disrupts muscle homeostasis. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:2808-2814, 2017. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Tear clearance implications for ocular surface health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paiva, Cintia Sade; Pflugfelder, Stephen C

    2004-03-01

    Tear clearance/turnover provides a global assessment of the function of the lacrimal functional unit and of tear exchange on the ocular surface. It is an indirect measure of dry eye induced inflammation on the ocular surface. It shows better correlation with the severity of ocular irritation symptoms and corneal epithelial disease in dry eye than the Schirmer 1 test. Delayed tear clearance may prove to be the best measure for identifying patients with tear film disorders who may respond to anti-inflammatory therapy.

  11. Bottom–up protein identifications from microliter quantities of individual human tear samples. Important steps towards clinical relevance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Raus

    2015-12-01

    With 375 confidently identified proteins in the healthy adult tear, the obtained results are comprehensive and in large agreement with previously published observations on pooled samples of multiple patients. We conclude that, to a limited extent, bottom–up tear protein identifications from individual patients may have clinical relevance.

  12. Evaluating tear clearance rate with optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaszczuk, Izabela K; Mousavi, Maryam; Cervino Exposito, Alejandro; Bartuzel, Maciej M; Montes-Micó, Robert; Iskander, D Robert

    2018-02-01

    To assess the early-phase of tear clearance rate (TCR) with anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT) and to determine the association between TCR and other clinical measures of the tear film in a group of young subjects with different levels of tear film quality. TCR was classified as the percentage decrease of subject's inferior tear meniscus height 30s after instillation of 5μl 0.9% saline solution. Fifty subjects (32F and 18M) aged (mean±standard deviation) 25.5±4.3 years volunteered for the study. It consisted of a review of medical history, Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire, tear film osmolarity measurements, slit lamp examination and TCR estimation based on dynamic measurements of the lower tear meniscus with OCT. Estimates of TCR were contrasted against subject age and tear film measures commonly used for dry eye diagnosis, which includes OSDI score, fluorescein tear film break-up time (FBUT), tear meniscus height (TMH), blinking frequency, tear film osmolarity and corneal staining. The group mean TCR was 29±13% and 36±19% respectively after 30 and 60s margin after saline solution instillation. Statistically significant correlations were found between TCR and FBUT (r 2 =0.319, placrimal functional unit. Copyright © 2017 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Ocular symptoms and tear film break up time (BUT) among junior high school students in Penang, Malaysia - Associations with fungal DNA in school dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbäck, Dan; Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Hashim, Zailina; Sooria, Vinoshini; Ismail, Syazwan Aizat; Wieslander, Gunilla

    2017-06-01

    There are few studies on ocular effects of indoor mould exposure in schools, especially in the tropics OBJECTIVE: To study associations between eye symptoms and tear film break up time (BUT) in students and demographic data and fungal DNA in schools. A school environment study was performed among randomly selected students in eight randomly selected secondary schools in Penang, Malaysia. Information on eye symptoms and demographic data was collected by a standardised questionnaire. BUT was measured by two methods, self-reported BUT (SBUT) and by the non-invasive Tearscope (NIBUT). Dust was collected by vacuuming in 32 classrooms and analysed for five fungal DNA sequences. Geometric mean (GM) for total fungal DNA was 7.31*10 4 target copies per gram dust and for Aspergillus/Penicillium DNA 3.34*10 4 target copies per gram dust. Linear mixed models and 3-level multiple logistic regression were applied adjusting for demographic factors. A total of 368 students (58%) participated and 17.4% reported weekly eye symptoms the last 3 months. The median SBUT and TBUT were 15 and 12s, respectively. Students wearing glasses (OR 2.41, p=0.01) and with a history of atopy (OR=2.67; p=0.008) had more eye symptoms. Girls had less eye symptoms than boys (OR=0.34; p=0.006) Indoor carbon dioxide in the classrooms was low (range 380-720ppm), temperature was 25-30°C and relative air humidity 70-88%. Total fungal DNA in vacuumed dust was associated with shorter SBUT (4s shorter per 10 5 target copies per gram dust; p=0.04) and NIBUT (4s shorter per 10 5 target copies per gram dust; p<0.001). Aspergillus/Penicillium DNA was associated with shorter NIBUT (5s shorter per 10 5 target copies per gram dust; p=0.01). Fungal contamination in schools in a tropical country can be a risk factor for impaired tear film stability among students. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Artificial tears potpourri: a literature review

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    Moshirfar M

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Majid Moshirfar,1 Kasey Pierson,2,* Kamalani Hanamaikai,3,* Luis Santiago-Caban,1 Valliammai Muthappan,1 Samuel F Passi11Department of Ophthalmology, John A Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 2University of Arizona College of Medicine, Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ, USA; 3A T Still University, School of Osteopathic Medicine in Arizona, Mesa, AZ, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Numerous brands and types of artificial tears are available on the market for the treatment of dysfunctional tear syndrome. Past literature has focused on comparing the components of these products on patient’s clinical improvement. The wide array of products on the market presents challenges to both clinicians and patients when trying to choose between available tear replacement therapies. Different formulations affect patients based on etiology and severity of disease. In order to provide an unbiased comparison between available tear replacement therapies, we conducted a literature review of existing studies and National Institutes of Health clinical trials on commercially available, brand name artificial tears. Outcomes evaluated in each study, as well as the percent of patients showing clinical and symptomatic improvement, were analyzed. Fifty-one studies evaluating different brands of artificial tears, and their efficacy were identified. Out of the 51 studies, 18 were comparison studies testing brand name artificial tears directly against each other. Nearly all formulations of artificial tears provided significant benefit to patients with dysfunctional tear syndrome, but some proved superior to others. From the study data, a recommended treatment flowchart was derived. Keywords: dry eye, tear film, dysfunctional tear syndrome, ophthalmic lubricant, artificial tears, lipid layer, tear osmolarity, TBUT, Systane®, Refresh®, Blink®, GenTeal®, Soothe®, Lacrisert®, ocular surface inflammatory disease, Sjogren

  15. Meniscus Tears (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Meniscus Tears KidsHealth / For Teens / Meniscus Tears What's in this ... surgery to fix it. What Is a Meniscus Tear? Your knee is made up of three bones: ...

  16. Avaliação da microbiota ocular em pacientes com disfunção do filme lacrimal Evaluation of conjunctival flora in patients with tear film dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Megumi Tomimatsu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a microbiota conjuntival em olhos com disfunção do filme lacrimal, e a modificação desta microbiota após a colocação de plug de silicone no canalículo inferior. MÉTODOS: Série de casos intervencionais não comparativos para avaliar 68 olhos de 41 pacientes com disfunção do filme lacrimal, durante o período de 2002 a 2007, na Universidade Federal de São Paulo. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos à colheita de amostras de raspado conjuntival de fundo-de-saco inferior para cultivo em Brain heart infusion broth. Os vinte e dois pacientes submetidos à colocação de plug de silicone repetiram a colheita de raspado conjuntival um mês após o procedimento. RESULTADOS: Dos 68 olhos avaliados, 47 apresentaram crescimento bacteriano nas amostras colhidas. Nove diferentes espécies de bactérias foram identificadas: Staphylococcus coagulase negativa em 66,66%, Staphylococcus aureus em 13,72%, Corynebacterium sp em 5,86%, Enterobacter aerogenes em 3,92%, Streptococcus hemolítico do grupo viridans em 1,96%, Serratia sp em 1,96%, Alcaligenes xylosoxidans spp em 1,96%, Corynebacterium xerosis em 1,96%, e Proteus mirabilis em 1,96%. Staphylococcus coagulase negativa (SCN foi o microrganismo mais frequentemente isolado tanto antes quanto após o plug de silicone. A sensibilidade do SCN à Oxacilina antes da colocação do plug era de 87,50%, e, após, de 73,68%. CONCLUSÃO: A microbiota em olhos com disfunção do filme lacrimal é bastante semelhante à encontrada em olhos normais. A resistência de SCN à Oxacilina foi um pouco maior após o implante do plug de silicone.PURPOSE: To evaluate conjunctival microbiota in eyes with tear film dysfunction and its modification after punctal occlusion with silicone plug. METHODS: Non comparative interventional case series study to evaluate 68 eyes of 41 patients with tear film dysfunction, from 2002 to 2007, followed in Federal University of Sao Paulo. Samples for culture were all

  17. Expression of IL-8, IL-6 and IL-1β in Tears as a Main Characteristic of the Immune Response in Human Microbial Keratitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santacruz, Concepcion; Linares, Marisela; Garfias, Yonathan; Loustaunau, Luisa M.; Pavon, Lenin; Perez-Tapia, Sonia Mayra; Jimenez-Martinez, Maria C.

    2015-01-01

    Corneal infections are frequent and potentially vision-threatening diseases, and despite the significance of the immunological response in animal models of microbial keratitis (MK), it remains unclear in humans. The aim of this study was to describe the cytokine profile of tears in patients with MK. Characteristics of ocular lesions such as size of the epithelial defect, stromal infiltration, and hypopyon were analyzed. Immunological evaluation included determination of interleukine (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in tear samples obtained from infected eyes of 28 patients with MK and compared with their contralateral non-infected eyes. Additionally, frequency of CD4+, CD8+, CD19+ and CD3−CD56+ cells was also determined in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in patients with MK, and compared with 48 healthy controls. Non-significant differences were observed in the size of the epithelial defect, stromal infiltration, and hypopyon. Nevertheless, we found an immunological profile apparently related to MK etiology. IL-8 > IL-6 in patients with bacterial keratitis; IL-8 > IL-6 > IL-1β and increased frequency of circulating CD3−CD56+ NK cells in patients with gram-negative keratitis; and IL-8 = IL-6 > IL-1β in patients with fungal keratitis. Characterization of tear cytokines from patients with MK could aid our understanding of the immune pathophysiological mechanisms underlying corneal damage in humans. PMID:25741769

  18. Investigation of pepsin in tears of children with laryngopharyngeal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannella, Giannicola; Di Nardo, Giovanni; Plateroti, Rocco; Rossi, Paolo; Plateroti, Andrea Maria; Mariani, Paola; Magliulo, Giuseppe

    2015-12-01

    Numerous investigations postulated that laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) is implicated in the pathogenesis of various upper airway inflammatory diseases as sinusitis or dacryostenosis. The presence of pepsin in tears might be confirmed the presuntive hypothesis of the arrival in the nasolacrimal ducts and precorneal tears film through the laryngopharyngeal reflux of either gastric acid or stomach secretions (pepsin) with inflammatory potentialities. The aim of this preliminary study was to identify the presence or absence of pepsin in the tears collected from children with a high suspicion of LPR who underwent 24-h pH (MII-pH) monitoring to confirm the disease. This study enrolled 20 patients suffering from symptoms of laryngopharyngeal reflux that underwent 24-h multichannel intraluminal impedance (MII)-pH monitoring to confirm the disease. The findings of the study group were compared with those of a control group of patients with negative pH monitoring. The quantitative analysis of human pepsin concentration in the tear samples was performed by ELISA method in both groups. Four children (20%) of the study group showed pepsin in the tears. All of the subjects belonging to the control group were negative for its presence. No difference differences in the total number of reflux episodes and the number of weakly basic reflux in the pepsin positive patients vs. pepsin negative children were present. 20% of the children with diagnosed LPR showed pepsin in the tears. Our specific investigation might provide information regarding sinusitis or dacryostenosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Inductores de lágrimas: andrógenos y gammaglobulinas humanas Tears inducers: androgens and human gammaglobulinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Nila Santos Lagresa

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Se comparan las respuestas terapéuticas en pacientes con diagnóstico de Síndrome de Sjögren que padecen de queratoconjuntivitis seca resistentes a los tratamientos tradicionales de lágrimas artificiales, lentes y otros, en dos grupos de pacientes de 18 y 32 casos con tratamientos de gammaglobulina humana: intacglobín (100 mg por kilo de peso cada 15 días por vía subcutánea interescapular por 3 meses y andrógenos de depósito (100 mg cada 15 días por vía im durante 3 meses. Se evaluaron los niveles de inmunoglobulinas IgG, IgA, IgM e IgE, recuento de células sanguíneas factor reumatoideo, proteína C reactiva y estudio microbiológico. Ambas terapéuticas muestran una mejoría estadísticamente significativa p Therapeutical responses are compared in patients diagnosed of Sjögren syndrome, presenting with keratoconjunctivitis sicca resistant to traditional treatments of artificial tears, lenses and others in two groups of patients (18 and 32 cases treated with human gammaglobulin: intacglobin (100 mg/body weight every 15 days in a intercapsular subcutaneos way for 3 months, and depot androgens (100 mg every 15 days in an intramuscular way for three months. Level of IgG, IgA, IgM, and IgE immunoglobulins, count of blood cells-rheumatoid factor, C-reactive protein, and microbiological study. Both treatments show an significant statistically improve p < 0,001 in results obtained in Shirmer I test, and in negative corneal injuries, assessed using slit lamp after fluorescein staining. We propose advantageous use of gammaglobulins because of contraindications on utilization of androgens.

  20. Tear exchange and contact lenses: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntz, Alex; Subbaraman, Lakshman N; Sorbara, Luigina; Jones, Lyndon

    2015-01-01

    Tear exchange beneath a contact lens facilitates ongoing fluid replenishment between the ocular surface and the lens. This exchange is considerably lower during the wear of soft lenses compared with rigid lenses. As a result, the accumulation of tear film debris and metabolic by-products between the cornea and a soft contact lens increases, potentially leading to complications. Lens design innovations have been proposed, but no substantial improvement in soft lens tear exchange has been reported. Researchers have determined post-lens tear exchange using several methods, notably fluorophotometry. However, due to technological limitations, little remains known about tear hydrodynamics around the lens and, to-date, true tear exchange with contact lenses has not been shown. Further knowledge regarding tear exchange could be vital in aiding better contact lens design, with the prospect of alleviating certain adverse ocular responses. This article reviews the literature to-date on the significance, implications and measurement of tear exchange with contact lenses. Copyright © 2014 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. [Alterations in tears aqueous layer during cytostatics treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowska, Katarzyna; Wieckowska-Szakiel, Marzena; Rózalska, Barbara; Jurowski, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate tears secretion, pH and lysozyme activity in tears aqueous layer during chemotherapy in lung, breast and bowel cancer. 36 patients were enrolled to the study. Depending on the type of cancer and type of chemotherapy patients were divided into three groups. Group I (12 patients) diagnosed with non-small-cell lung cancer treated with PE schema (cisplatin, etoposide), Group II (12 patients) with breast cancer treated with FAC schema (fluorouracil, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide), Group III (12 patients) with bowel cancer treated with FU/LV schema (fluorouracil, leucovorin). In all the patients: Schirmer's I test, pH measurements and lysozyme test were performed. Patients were examined before chemotherapy, after 2nd, 4th, 6th cycle. In group I and II lowering of tears secretion (p tears secretion (p tears film in all groups (p tears aqueous layer causing alterations of tears secretions. PH alterations depending on type of chemotherapy was observed. Lowering of lysozyme activity in tears was observed. All the deteriorations aggravate with duration of chemotherapy. Alterations of tears film parameters during chemotherapy may influence upon eye surface homeostasis and infectious complication. tears aqueous layer, Schirmer's test, lysozyme activity, tears pH.

  2. Interaction of tearing modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satya, Y.; Schmidt, G.

    1979-01-01

    A fully developed tearing mode modifies the magnetic field profile. The effect of this profile modification on the linear growth rate of a different tearing mode in a slab and cylindrical geometry is investigated

  3. Blocked Tear Duct

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the nose (lacrimal sac). From there tears travel down a duct (the nasolacrimal duct) draining into your nose. Once in the nose, tears are reabsorbed. A blockage can occur at any point in the tear drainage system, from the puncta ...

  4. Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography for Tear Meniscus Evaluation and its Correlation with other Tear Variables in Healthy Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhasmana, Renu; Nagpal, Ramesh Chander

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dry eye is one of the most common ocular diseases in this cyber era. Despite availability of multiple tests, no single test is accurate for the diagnosis of dry eye. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography is the recent tool which can be added in the armentarium of dry eye tests. Aim To evaluate tear meniscus with anterior segment optical coherence tomography and its correlation with other tear variables in normal healthy individuals. Materials and Methods In this prospective cross-sectional observational study, right eye of 203 consecutive patients were studied. All the patients were divided into three groups Group 1, 2 and 3 according to their age ≤20 years, 21-40 years and >40 years respectively. All patients underwent routine ophthalmologic examinations along with slit-lamp bio-microscopy for tear meniscus height measurement, tear film break up time, Schirmer’s I test (with anaesthesia) and optical coherence tomography imaging of inferior tear meniscus height. After focusing of the instrument with a Cross Line (CL) centered on lower tear meniscus at 6’0 clock of cornea, a 6 mm long scan was obtained. The tear meniscus height (μm) and tear meniscus area (mm2) were measured manually with help of callipers by joining upper corneo-meniscus junction to the lower lid-meniscus junction and tear meniscus height and area within the plotted line respectively and calculated by using the integrated analysis available in the custom software. Results There was significant decrease in the all tear variables with the increase in the age. According to age groups in group 1, the mean Schirmer’s (24.0±4.9)mm, tear film break up time (11.1±1.9) sec, tear meniscus height on slit lamp (600.2±167.3)mm were higher but decreased in group 2 (21.5±5.4,10.8±1.4, 597.5±186.3) and group 3 (19.8 ± 5.1, 10.2 ± 1.6, 485.6 ± 157.7) respectively. Schirmer’s test values and tear film break up time were similar in both sexes (p=0.1 and p= 0.9). Tear meniscus

  5. Streaming tearing mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeta, M.; Sato, T.; Dasgupta, B.

    1985-01-01

    The magnetohydrodynamic stability of streaming tearing mode is investigated numerically. A bulk plasma flow parallel to the antiparallel magnetic field lines and localized in the neutral sheet excites a streaming tearing mode more strongly than the usual tearing mode, particularly for the wavelength of the order of the neutral sheet width (or smaller), which is stable for the usual tearing mode. Interestingly, examination of the eigenfunctions of the velocity perturbation and the magnetic field perturbation indicates that the streaming tearing mode carries more energy in terms of the kinetic energy rather than the magnetic energy. This suggests that the streaming tearing mode instability can be a more feasible mechanism of plasma acceleration than the usual tearing mode instability.

  6. Human CD4+ T cell responses to the dog major allergen Can f 1 and its human homologue tear lipocalin resemble each other.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aino L K Liukko

    Full Text Available Lipocalin allergens form a notable group of proteins, as they contain most of the significant respiratory allergens from mammals. The basis for the allergenic capacity of allergens in the lipocalin family, that is, the development of T-helper type 2 immunity against them, is still unresolved. As immunogenicity has been proposed to be a decisive feature of allergens, the purpose of this work was to examine human CD4+ T cell responses to the major dog allergen Can f 1 and to compare them with those to its human homologue, tear lipocalin (TL. For this, specific T cell lines were induced in vitro from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of Can f 1-allergic and healthy dog dust-exposed subjects with peptides containing the immunodominant T cell epitopes of Can f 1 and the corresponding TL peptides. We found that the frequency of Can f 1 and TL-specific T cells in both subject groups was low and close to each other, the difference being about two-fold. Importantly, we found that the proliferative responses of both Can f 1 and TL-specific T cell lines from allergic subjects were stronger than those from healthy subjects, but that the strength of the responses within the subject groups did not differ between these two antigens. Moreover, the phenotype of the Can f 1 and TL-specific T cell lines, determined by cytokine production and expression of cell surface markers, resembled each other. The HLA system appeared to have a minimal role in explaining the allergenicity of Can f 1, as the allergic and healthy subjects' HLA background did not differ, and HLA binding was very similar between Can f 1 and TL peptides. Along with existing data on lipocalin allergens, we conclude that strong antigenicity is not decisive for the allergenicity of Can f 1.

  7. A mass and solute balance model for tear volume and osmolarity in the normal and the dry eye

    KAUST Repository

    Gaffney, E.A.; Tiffany, J.M.; Yokoi, N.; Bron, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    Tear hyperosmolarity is thought to play a key role in the mechanism of dry eye, a common symptomatic condition accompanied by visual disturbance, tear film instability, inflammation and damage to the ocular surface. We have constructed a model

  8. Human Nonverbal Behaviors, Empathy, and Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggers, T. Thorne

    Nonverbal behavior is an important aspect of the film and is one of the several tools that a director uses to communicate to an audience the characters' feelings and relationships. By adding to this information their own personal responses, viewers often experience strong feelings. With reference to the social psychological research of nonverbal…

  9. Tear proteomic analysis of patients with type 2 diabetes and dry eye syndrome by two-dimensional nano-liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing; Sheng, Minjie; Xie, Liqi; Liu, Feng; Yan, Guoquan; Wang, Weifang; Lin, Anjuan; Zhao, Fei; Chen, Yihui

    2014-01-09

    Diabetes mellitus has been shown to be associated with and complicated by dry eye syndrome. We sought to examine and compare the tear film proteome of type 2 diabetic patients with or without dry eye syndrome and normal subjects using two-dimensional nano-liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics. Tears were collected from eight type 2 diabetes patients with dry eye syndrome, eight type 2 diabetes patients without dry eye syndrome, and eight normal subjects. Tear breakup time (BUT) was determined, and tear proteins were prepared and analyzed using two-dimensional strong cation-exchange/reversed-phase nano-scale liquid chromatography MS. All MS/MS spectra were identified by using SEQUEST against the human International Protein Index (IPI) database and the relative abundance of individual proteins was assessed by spectral counting. Tear BUT was significantly lower in patients with diabetes and dry eye syndrome than in patients with diabetes only and normal subjects. Analysis of spectral counts of tear proteins showed that, compared to healthy controls, patients with diabetes and dry eye syndrome had increased expression of apoptosis-related proteins, like annexin A1, and immunity- and inflammation-related proteins, including neutrophil elastase 2 and clusterin, and glycometabolism-related proteins, like apolipoprotein A-II. Dry eye syndrome in diabetic patients is associated with aberrant expression of tear proteins, and the findings could lead to identification of novel pathways for therapeutic targeting and new diagnostic markers.

  10. Evaporation and Hydrocarbon Chain Conformation of Surface Lipid Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sledge, Samiyyah M.; Khimji, Hussain; Borchman, Douglas; Oliver, Alexandria; Michael, Heidi; Dennis, Emily K.; Gerlach, Dylan; Bhola, Rahul; Stephen, Elsa

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The inhibition of the rate of evaporation (Revap) by surface lipids is relevant to reservoirs and dry eye. Our aim was to test the idea that lipid surface films inhibit Revap. Methods Revap were determined gravimetrically. Hydrocarbon chain conformation and structure were measured using a Raman microscope. Six 1-hydroxyl hydrocarbons (11–24 carbons in length) and human meibum were studied. Reflex tears were obtained from a 62-year-old male. Results The Raman scattering intensity of the lipid film deviated by about 7 % for hydroxyl lipids and varied by 21 % for meibum films across the entire film at a resolution of 5 µm2. All of the surface lipids were ordered. Revap of the shorter chain hydroxyl lipids were slightly (7%) but significantly lower compared with the longer chain hydroxyl lipids. Revap of both groups was essentially similar to that of buffer. A hydroxyl lipid film did not influence Revap over an estimated average thickness range of 0.69 to >6.9 µm. Revap of human tears and buffer with and without human meibum (34.4 µm thick) was not significantly different. Revap of human tears was not significantly different from buffer. Conclusions Human meibum and hydroxyl lipids, regardless of their fluidity, chain length, or thickness did not inhibit Revap of buffer or tears even though they completely covered the surface. It is unlikely that hydroxyl lipids can be used to inhibit Revap of reservoirs. Our data do not support the widely accepted (yet unconfirmed) idea that the tear film lipid layer inhibits Revap of tears. PMID:27395776

  11. Nafsu Manusia Dalam Karya Film Tari Human Passions

    OpenAIRE

    Budi Dwi Arifianto

    2016-01-01

    Filmas an audio visual art has evolved into an important part of human civilization,especially in popular culture. One of genre simplying freedom of expression inaccordance with the purpose and desired by the creator of ideas is experimental film.On the one hand, the dancewas chosenas theembodiment ofthe expression ofthe bodywill beconveyed in thevoice of humanity aesthetic rules. Human Passions is a collaboratework ofa udio visual art and the art of dance. The initial idea is knitted from hu...

  12. Assessment of lamellar tearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEnerney, J.W.

    1978-03-01

    Information on lamellar tearing is summarized and related to proposed ASME Code requirements. Lamellar tearing is characterized as a complex phenomenon related to poor short transverse ductility and through-thickness strain. The material, welding, and design variables that affect lamellar tearing are shown to be complex and interrelated. The commonly reported tests for assessing material susceptibility are described, with the controversy over their validity being carefully detailed. Although the use of a nondestructive test such as ultrasonic examination is most desirable, a widely applicable test method does not appear to be available. Of the destructive tests, the short transverse tensile reduction-of-area currently offers the most applicable means of assessing material susceptibility. However, because of the importance of matrix toughness, the short transverse Charpy V-notch test should be considered for use as an additional test if acceptance limits are developed. The ultrasonic detection of lamellar tears is susceptible to interpretation errors, which can make it overly conservative and lead to unnecessary repairs. The repair of tears is described as costly, difficult, and sometimes ineffective. Current design requirements appear to preclude any failures during static and fatigue service loads. However, without improvement of short transverse ductility, certain dynamic service loads could cause lamellar tearing failures. Two alternate design paths are recommended to prevent tearing during fabrication or service loading. The current and proposed ASME requirements dealing with lamellar tearing are reviewed and recommendations are made

  13. Iatrogenic tracheal tear.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dias, A

    2010-10-01

    Large post intubation tracheal tears are usually detected intra-operatively due to unstable signs namely impaired ventilation and mediastinal emphysema and often require surgical management. Smaller tracheal tears are often missed during anaesthesia and recognized during the postoperative period. Conservative management should be considered in these latter cases.

  14. Nafsu Manusia Dalam Karya Film Tari Human Passions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Dwi Arifianto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Filmas an audio visual art has evolved into an important part of human civilization,especially in popular culture. One of genre simplying freedom of expression inaccordance with the purpose and desired by the creator of ideas is experimental film.On the one hand, the dancewas chosenas theembodiment ofthe expression ofthe bodywill beconveyed in thevoice of humanity aesthetic rules. Human Passions is a collaboratework ofa udio visual art and the art of dance. The initial idea is knitted from humanexperience as acreator who is accompanied by variouspassions. This film consist oftwo act, “The Birth of Passions”and”Live With Passion”.The body becomes the centralobject of the creation of this work. Choreography that plotshuman life is framed in acinematic composition. Human and the spirit are symbolized by oil lamp. Oil is thehuman’s soul as light forces for lightening the spirit of human passions. This dance filmis a personal statement from the creator about human passions. The audiences as humansare exaggerated to let them know about their spirit of passions. Keywords: dance,film, human passions

  15. Tearing instabilities in turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizawa, A.; Nakajima, N.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Effects of micro-turbulence on tearing instabilities are investigated by numerically solving a reduced set of two-fluid equations. Micro-turbulence excites both large-scale and small-scale Fourier modes through energy transfer due to nonlinear mode coupling. The energy transfer to large scale mode does not directly excite tearing instability but it gives an initiation of tearing instability. When tearing instability starts to grow, the excited small scale mode plays an important role. The mixing of magnetic flux by micro-turbulence is the dominant factor of non-ideal MHD effect at the resonant surface and it gives rise to magnetic reconnection which causes tearing instability. Tearing instabilities were investigated against static equilibrium or flowing equilibrium so far. On the other hand, the recent progress of computer power allows us to investigate interactions between turbulence and coherent modes such as tearing instabilities in magnetically confined plasmas by means of direct numerical simulations. In order to investigate effects of turbulence on tearing instabilities we consider a situation that tearing mode is destabilized in a quasi-equilibrium including micro-turbulence. We choose an initial equilibrium that is unstable against kinetic ballooning modes and tearing instabilities. Tearing instabilities are current driven modes and thus they are unstable for large scale Fourier modes. On the other hand kinetic ballooning modes are unstable for poloidal Fourier modes that are characterized by ion Larmor radius. The energy of kinetic ballooning modes spreads over wave number space through nonlinear Fourier mode coupling. We present that micro-turbulence affects tearing instabilities in two different ways by three-dimensional numerical simulation of a reduced set of two-fluid equations. One is caused by energy transfer to large scale modes, the other is caused by energy transfer to small scale modes. The former is the excitation of initial

  16. Idiopathic Bilateral Bloody Tearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emrullah Beyazyıldız

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bloody tear is a rare and distinct clinic phenomenon. We report a case presenting with the complaint of recurrent episodes of bilateral bloody tearing. A 16-year-old girl presented to our clinic with complaint of bloody tearing in both eyes for 3 months. Bloody tearing was not associated with her menses. A blood-stained discharge from the punctum was not observed during the compression of both nasolacrimal ducts. Nasolacrimal passage was not obstructed. Imaging studies such as dacryocystography and gradient-echo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of nasolacrimal canal were normal. Intranasal endoscopic evaluation was normal. We collected samples from bloody tears two times and pathological examination was performed. Pathological analysis showed lots of squamous cells and no endometrial cells; dysplastic cells were found. Further evaluations for underlying causes were unremarkable. No abnormalities were found in ophthalmologic, radiologic, and pathologic investigations. This condition is likely a rare abnormality and the least recognized aetiology for the idiopathic phenomenon.

  17. Age-related changes in the signal value of tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeifman, Debra M; Brown, Sarah A

    2011-08-12

    Emotional tears may be uniquely human and are an effective signal of distress in adults. The present study explored whether tears signal distress in younger criers and whether the effect of tears on observers is similar in magnitude across the life span. Participants rated photographs of crying infants, young children, and adults, with tears digitally removed or added. The effectiveness of tears in conveying sadness and eliciting sympathy was greatest for images of adults, intermediate for images of children, and least potent for images of infants. These findings suggest that the signal value of tears varies with the age of the crier. The results may shed light on the functional significance of crying at different stages of human development.

  18. Hand drawing of pencil electrodes on paper platforms for contactless conductivity detection of inorganic cations in human tear samples using electrophoresis chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas, Cyro L S; Costa Duarte, Lucas; Lobo-Júnior, Eulício O; Piccin, Evandro; Dossi, Nicolò; Coltro, Wendell K T

    2015-08-01

    This paper describes for the first time the fabrication of pencil drawn electrodes (PDE) on paper platforms for capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (C(4) D) on electrophoresis microchips. PDE-C(4) D devices were attached on PMMA electrophoresis chips and used for detection of K(+) and Na(+) in human tear samples. PDE-C(4) D devices were produced on office paper and chromatographic paper platforms and their performance were thoroughly investigated using a model mixture containing K(+) , Na(+) , and Li(+) . In comparison with chromatographic paper, PDE-C(4) D fabricated on office paper has exhibited better performance due to its higher electrical conductivity. Furthermore, the detector response was similar to that recorded with electrodes prepared with copper adhesive tape. The fabrication of PDE-C(4) D on office paper has offered great advantages including extremely low cost (paper). The proposed electrodes demonstrated excellent analytical performance with good reproducibility. For an inter-PDE comparison (n = 7), the RSD values for migration time, peak area, and separation efficiency were lower than 2.5, 10.5, and 14%, respectively. The LOD's achieved for K(+) , Na(+) , and Li(+) were 4.9, 6.8, and 9.0 μM, respectively. The clinical feasibility of the proposed approach was successfully demonstrated with the quantitative analysis of K(+) and Na(+) in tear samples. The concentration levels found for K(+) and Na(+) were, respectively, 20.8 ± 0.1 mM and 101.2 ± 0.1 mM for sample #1, and 20.4 ± 0.1 mM and 111.4 ± 0.1 mM for sample #2. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Tear function and ocular surface after Muller muscle-conjunctival resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uğurbaş, Suat Hayri; Alpay, Atilla; Bahadır, Burak; Uğurbaş, Sılay Cantürk

    2014-05-01

    Muller muscle-conjunctival resection (MCR) is a surgical technique to correct mild and moderate ptosis. In this study, tear function tests and ocular surface are evaluated in patients who underwent unilateral surgery. Sixteen patients with normal preoperative tear function who underwent unilateral MCR were evaluated prospectively. The fellow eyes of the patients were taken as the control group. A dry eye assessment questionnaire, Schirmer testing, tear film break-up time, fluorescein stain, Rose-Bengal stain, and conjunctival impression cytology were used to assess the tear film functions and ocular surface changes in the operated and non-operated eyes. There was no statistically significant difference in the tear function tests and goblet cell densities between the operated and non-operated eyes. The results indicate that an MCR procedure has no apparent effect on tear function tests and goblet cell density in patients with normal preoperative tear function.

  20. Reducing Short-Wavelength Blue Light in Dry Eye Patients with Unstable Tear Film Improves Performance on Tests of Visual Acuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaido, Minako; Toda, Ikuko; Oobayashi, Tomoo; Kawashima, Motoko; Katada, Yusaku; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    To investigate whether suppression of blue light can improve visual function in patients with short tear break up time (BUT) dry eye (DE). Twenty-two patients with short BUT DE (10 men, 12 women; mean age, 32.4 ± 6.4 years; age range, 23-43 years) and 18 healthy controls (10 men, 8 women; mean age, 30.1 ± 7.4 years; age range, 20-49 years) underwent functional visual acuity (VA) examinations with and without wearing eyeglasses with 50% blue light blocked lenses. The functional VA parameters were starting VA, functional VA, and visual maintenance ratio. The baseline mean values (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution, logMAR) of functional VA and the visual maintenance ratio were significantly worse in the DE patients than in the controls (P 0.05). The DE patients had significant improvement in mean functional VA and visual maintenance ratio while wearing the glasses (P 0.05). Protecting the eyes from short-wavelength blue light may help to ameliorate visual impairment associated with tear instability in patients with DE. This finding represents a new concept, which is that the blue light exposure might be harmful to visual function in patients with short BUT DE.

  1. Reducing Short-Wavelength Blue Light in Dry Eye Patients with Unstable Tear Film Improves Performance on Tests of Visual Acuity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minako Kaido

    Full Text Available To investigate whether suppression of blue light can improve visual function in patients with short tear break up time (BUT dry eye (DE.Twenty-two patients with short BUT DE (10 men, 12 women; mean age, 32.4 ± 6.4 years; age range, 23-43 years and 18 healthy controls (10 men, 8 women; mean age, 30.1 ± 7.4 years; age range, 20-49 years underwent functional visual acuity (VA examinations with and without wearing eyeglasses with 50% blue light blocked lenses. The functional VA parameters were starting VA, functional VA, and visual maintenance ratio.The baseline mean values (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution, logMAR of functional VA and the visual maintenance ratio were significantly worse in the DE patients than in the controls (P 0.05. The DE patients had significant improvement in mean functional VA and visual maintenance ratio while wearing the glasses (P 0.05.Protecting the eyes from short-wavelength blue light may help to ameliorate visual impairment associated with tear instability in patients with DE. This finding represents a new concept, which is that the blue light exposure might be harmful to visual function in patients with short BUT DE.

  2. Interactions of hydroxyapatite surfaces: conditioning films of human whole saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, Marité; Valle-Delgado, Juan José; Hamit, Jildiz; Rutland, Mark W; Arnebrant, Thomas

    2008-07-15

    Hydroxyapatite is a very interesting material given that it is the main component in tooth enamel and because of its uses in bone implant applications. Therefore, not only the characterization of its surface is of high relevance but also designing reliable methods to study the interfacial properties of films adsorbed onto it. In this paper we apply the colloidal probe atomic force microscopy method to investigate the surface properties of commercially available hydroxyapatite surfaces (both microscopic particles and macroscopic discs) in terms of interfacial and frictional forces. In this way, we find that hydroxyapatite surfaces at physiological relevant conditions are slightly negatively charged. The surfaces were then exposed to human whole saliva, and the surface properties were re-evaluated. A thick film was formed that was very resistant to mechanical stress. The frictional measurements demonstrated that the film was indeed highly lubricating, supporting the argument that this system may prove to be a relevant model for evaluating dental and implant systems.

  3. Response of human corneal fibroblasts on silk film surface patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Eun Seok; Park, Sang-Hyug; Marchant, Jeff; Omenetto, Fiorenzo; Kaplan, David L

    2010-06-11

    Transparent, biodegradable, mechanically robust, and surface-patterned silk films were evaluated for the effect of surface morphology on human corneal fibroblast (hCF) cell proliferation, orientation, and ECM deposition and alignment. A series of dimensionally different surface groove patterns were prepared from optically graded glass substrates followed by casting poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) replica molds. The features on the patterned silk films showed an array of asymmetric triangles and displayed 37-342 nm depths and 445-3 582 nm widths. hCF DNA content on all patterned films were not significantly different from that on flat silk films after 4 d in culture. However, the depth and width of the grooves influenced cell alignment, while the depth differences affected cell orientation; overall, deeper and narrower grooves induced more hCF orientation. Over 14 d in culture, cell layers and actin filament organization demonstrated that confluent hCFs and their cytoskeletal filaments were oriented along the direction of the silk film patterned groove axis. Collagen type V and proteoglycans (decorin and biglycan), important markers of corneal stromal tissue, were highly expressed with alignment. Understanding corneal stromal fibroblast responses to surface features on a protein-based biomaterial applicable in vivo for corneal repair potential suggests options to improve corneal tissue mimics. Further, the approaches provide fundamental biomaterial designs useful for bioengineering oriented tissue layers, an endemic feature in most biological tissue structures that lead to critical tissue functions.

  4. Sebum/Meibum Surface Film Interactions and Phase Transitional Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgil, Poonam; Borchman, Douglas; Gerlach, Dylan; Yappert, Marta C

    2016-05-01

    Sebum may contribute to the composition of the tear film lipid layer naturally or as a contaminant artifact from collection. The aims of this study were to determine: if sebum changes the rheology of meibum surface films; if the resonance near 5.2 ppm in the 1H-NMR spectra of sebum is due to squalene (SQ); and if sebum or SQ, a major component of sebum, interacts with human meibum. Human meibum was collected from the lid margin with a platinum spatula. Human sebum was collected using lipid absorbent tape. Langmuir trough technology was used to measure the rheology of surface films. Infrared spectroscopy was used to measure lipid conformation and phase transitions. We used 1H-NMR to measure composition and confirm the primary structure of SQ. The NMR resonance near 5.2 ppm in the spectra of human sebum was from SQ which composed 28 mole percent of sebum. Both sebum and SQ lowered the lipid order of meibum. Sebum expanded meibum films at lower concentrations and condensed meibum films at higher concentrations. Sebum caused meibum to be more stable at higher pressures (greater maximum surface pressure). Physiological levels of sebum would be expected to expand or fluidize meibum making it spread better and be more surface active (qualities beneficial for tear film stability). Sebum would also be expected to stabilize the tear film lipid layer, which may allow it to withstand the high shear pressure of a blink.

  5. Sebum/Meibum Surface Film Interactions and Phase Transitional Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgil, Poonam; Borchman, Douglas; Gerlach, Dylan; Yappert, Marta C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Sebum may contribute to the composition of the tear film lipid layer naturally or as a contaminant artifact from collection. The aims of this study were to determine: if sebum changes the rheology of meibum surface films; if the resonance near 5.2 ppm in the 1H-NMR spectra of sebum is due to squalene (SQ); and if sebum or SQ, a major component of sebum, interacts with human meibum. Methods Human meibum was collected from the lid margin with a platinum spatula. Human sebum was collected using lipid absorbent tape. Langmuir trough technology was used to measure the rheology of surface films. Infrared spectroscopy was used to measure lipid conformation and phase transitions. We used 1H-NMR to measure composition and confirm the primary structure of SQ. Results The NMR resonance near 5.2 ppm in the spectra of human sebum was from SQ which composed 28 mole percent of sebum. Both sebum and SQ lowered the lipid order of meibum. Sebum expanded meibum films at lower concentrations and condensed meibum films at higher concentrations. Sebum caused meibum to be more stable at higher pressures (greater maximum surface pressure). Conclusions Physiological levels of sebum would be expected to expand or fluidize meibum making it spread better and be more surface active (qualities beneficial for tear film stability). Sebum would also be expected to stabilize the tear film lipid layer, which may allow it to withstand the high shear pressure of a blink. PMID:27145473

  6. As tears go by : Baby tears trigger more brain activity than adult tears in nulliparous women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendricx-Riem, M.M.E.; De Carli, P.; van IJzendoorn, M.H.; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M.J.

    2017-01-01

    The current functional magnetic resonance imaging study examines brain activity during the perception of infant and adult tears. Infant tears evoke stronger responses in the visual cortex than adult tears, indicating that infant tears are highly salient. In addition, our study shows that infant

  7. Hip Labral Tear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that joint in the future. Prevention Hip labral tears are often associated with sports participation. If your sport puts a lot of strain on your hips, condition the surrounding muscles with strength and flexibility exercises. Try to avoid ...

  8. Haemolacria (bloody tears)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. EZECHUKWU

    2014-08-06

    Aug 6, 2014 ... menstruation, drugs, hyperthyroidism, nasolacrimal tu- berculosis ... no bleeding from any other body orifice. However ... All age groups can be affected from infancy to ... the system and thus lead to bloody tears emerging from.

  9. Meniscotibial (coronary) ligament tears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Khoury, G.Y.; Usta, H.Y.; Berger, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Preservation of the meniscus whenever possible is essential in maintaining knee stability and preventing premature osteoarthritis. Peripheral meniscal tears are the most amenable to surgical repair. This study evaluates the peripheral attachments of the medial meniscus and focuses on a specific tear limited to the meniscotibial ligament (coronary ligament). The diagnosis is made arthrographically when the medial meniscus floats above the tibial plateau without separating completely from the capsule. The lateral meniscus is rarely involved in this type of injury. (orig.)

  10. The tear turnover and tear clearance tests - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaszczuk, Izabela K; Montes Mico, Robert; Iskander, D Robert; Expósito, Alejandro Cerviño

    2018-03-01

    The aim is to provide a summary of methods available for the assessment of tear turnover and tear clearance rates. The review defines tear clearance and tear turnover and describes their implication for ocular surface health. Additionally, it describes main types of techniques for measuring tear turnover, including fluorescein tear clearance tests, techniques utilizing electromagnetic spectrum and tracer molecule and novel experimental techniques utilizing optical coherence tomography and fluorescein profilometry. Areas covered: Internet databases (PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar) and most frequently cited references were used as a principal resource of information on tear turnover rate and tear clearance rate, presenting methodologies and equipment, as well as their definition and implications for the anterior eye surface health and function. Keywords used for data-search were as follows: tear turnover, tear clearance, fluorescein clearance, scintigraphy, fluorophotometry, tear flow, drainage, tear meniscus dynamics, Krehbiel flow and lacrimal functional unit. Expert commentary: After decades, the topic of tear turnover assessment has been reintroduced. Recently, new techniques have been developed to propose less invasive, less time consuming and simpler methodologies for the assessment of tear dynamics that have the potential to be utilized in clinical practice.

  11. An evaluation of Retaine™ ophthalmic emulsion in the management of tear film stability and ocular surface staining in patients diagnosed with dry eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ousler III G

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available George Ousler III,1 Douglas K Devries,2 Paul M Karpecki,3 Joseph B Ciolino41Ora, Inc, Andover, MA, USA; 2Eye Care Associates of Nevada, Sparks, NV, USA; 3Koffler Vision Group, Lexington, KY, USA; 4Massachusetts Eye and Ear, Boston, MA, USAAbstract: A single-center, open-label study consisting of two visits over the course of approximately 2 weeks was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of Retaine™ ophthalmic emulsion in improving the signs and symptoms of dry eye. Forty-two subjects were enrolled and received 1–2 drops twice daily of Retaine™ beginning at the first visit (day 1 and ending at the second visit. Subjects were instructed to complete a symptomatology diary twice daily prior to drop instillation through the morning of the second visit. Ocular sign and symptom assessments, visual acuity procedures, and comfort assessments were conducted during both visits. A statistically significant reduction was observed in mean breakup area on the second visit between the predose time and the postdose time (P=0.026. On the second visit, subjects had significantly less corneal fluorescein staining in the superior (P=0.002, central (P=0.017, corneal sum (P=0.011, and all ocular regions combined (P=0.038 than on the first visit. On the second visit, statistically significant reductions in dryness (P<0.001, grittiness (P=0.0217, ocular discomfort (P=0.0017, and all symptoms (P<0.001 were also seen as measured by the Ora Calibra™ Ocular Discomfort and 4-Symptom Questionnaire (0–5 scale. Subjects reported a statistically significant improvement in their abilities to work with a computer at night (P=0.044. Mean drop comfort scores ranged from 1.29–1.81 on the Ora Calibra™ 0–10 Drop Comfort Scale, on which 0 is very comfortable and 10 is very uncomfortable. Retaine™ demonstrates promising results as a novel artificial tear option for individuals suffering from dry eye. The unique mechanism of action of Retaine™ provides enhanced comfort

  12. Tear secretion and tear stability of women on hormonal contraceptives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faustina Kemdinum Idu

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Injectable hormonal contraceptives had no significant effects on tear secretion and tear stability of healthy women of childbearing age. Further studies may be required to determine the effects of hormonal contraceptives on tear volume and stability of women with dry eyes.

  13. Randomized Controlled Study to Investigate the Effect of Topical Diquafosol Tetrasodium on Corneal Sensitivity in Short Tear Break-Up Time Dry Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaido, Minako; Kawashima, Motoko; Shigeno, Yuta; Yamada, Yoshiaki; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2018-05-01

    Complex mechanisms underlie dry eye (DE) symptom provocation. In particular, corneal hypersensitivity may provoke symptoms in short tear break-up time (BUT) DE characterized by tear film instability. We hypothesized that improved tear film stability may alleviate corneal sensitivity in patients with short tear BUT DE. Therefore, we investigated the effect of topical diquafosol tetrasodium (DQS) on corneal sensitivity in unstable tear film DE. This prospective, randomized study included 27 subjects (age: 39.1 ± 8.4 years; range: 25-59 years) with short tear BUT DE, defined based on the presence of DE symptoms and tear film instability. Subjects were randomly divided into DQS (3% DQS, 12 subjects) and artificial tear (AT; preservative-free AT, 15 subjects) groups. Subjects applied the medication 6 times a day for 5 weeks. The perception of touch (S-touch) and pain (S-pain) sensitivity was measured using a Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer. Tear evaluation, corneal sensitivity, and DE symptoms were compared before and after DQS or AT administration. The correlation between the improvement degrees of corneal sensitivity and DE symptoms following medication was analyzed. DQS significantly improved tear BUT and tear meniscus height (TMH) scores (p short tear BUT DE. However, DQS seems to be more effective to adjust tear environment, leading to the normalization of corneal sensitivity and DE symptoms. UMIN Clinical Trials Registry Identifier, UMIN000014536.

  14. Two- and three-dimensional characterizations of hot tears in a Al-Mg-Si alloy laser weld

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabregue, D. [Universite de Lyon, INSA-Lyon, MATEIS, CNRS UMR5510, 7 Avenue Jean Capelle, F-69621 Villeurbanne (France)], E-mail: damien.fabregue@insa-lyon.fr; Deschamps, A.; Suery, M. [SIMAP, Grenoble-INP, CNRS-UJF, BP 75, 38402 St Martin d' Heres Cedex (France); Proudhon, H. [Universite de Lyon, INSA-Lyon, MATEIS, CNRS UMR5510, 7 Avenue Jean Capelle, F-69621 Villeurbanne (France)

    2008-08-15

    Hot tears in 6xxx aluminium alloy laser welds are characterized. They are shown to be intergranular, originating from fracture of liquid films without plasticity of the surrounding grains. The hot tear initiates on both sides of the fusion zone, follows the liquid films between the columnar grains of the weld line and then propagates around the equiaxed grains of the fusion zone centre. By using three-dimensional X-ray tomography, the exact shape of the hot tears has been visualized.

  15. Two- and three-dimensional characterizations of hot tears in a Al-Mg-Si alloy laser weld

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabregue, D.; Deschamps, A.; Suery, M.; Proudhon, H.

    2008-01-01

    Hot tears in 6xxx aluminium alloy laser welds are characterized. They are shown to be intergranular, originating from fracture of liquid films without plasticity of the surrounding grains. The hot tear initiates on both sides of the fusion zone, follows the liquid films between the columnar grains of the weld line and then propagates around the equiaxed grains of the fusion zone centre. By using three-dimensional X-ray tomography, the exact shape of the hot tears has been visualized

  16. Nonlinear drift tearing mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelenyj, L.M.; Kuznetsova, M.M.

    1989-01-01

    Nonlinear study of magnetic perturbation development under single-mode conditions in collision-free plasma in configurations with the magnetic field shear is investigated. Results are obtained with regard of transverse component of electrical field and its effect on ion dynamics within wide range of ion Larmor radius value and values of magnetic field shear. Increments of nonlinear drift tearing mode are obtained and it is shown that excitation drastic conditions of even linearly stable modes are possible. Mechanism of instability nonlinear stabilization is considered and the value of magnetic island at the saturation threshold is estimeted. Energy of nonlinear drift tearing mode is discussed

  17. Cytokine changes in tears and relationship to contact lens discomfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcox, Mark D P; Zhao, Zhenjun; Naduvilath, Thomas; Lazon de la Jara, Percy

    2015-01-01

    To determine the reproducibility of a multiplex bead assay for measuring cytokines in tears and correlations between ocular discomfort with or without contact lens wear and the concentration of cytokines in tears. Ninety participants (divided into two groups) were enrolled in this prospective study. They were asked to rate their ocular comfort and collect their tears in the morning and just before sleep for 10 days with or without contact lenses. The participants collected their tears using a glass microcapillary tube for both stages. Galyfilcon A lenses were worn on a daily disposable basis during the contact lens stage, and comfort scores and tears were collected before lens insertion and prior to lens removal at the end of the day. Tears were analyzed for cytokine concentrations using a 27-plex multibead assay. Correlations were sought between cytokine concentrations and comfort. There was a significant (p-0.5 Log pg/ml, p-0.2 Log pg/ml, ptears was correlated to ocular comfort, but this was not changed by contact lens wear. Ocular comfort during the day is magnified by contact lens wear. However, the increase in the change in comfort during lens wear was not associated with changes in 15 cytokines in the tear film.

  18. Imaging the Tear Film: A Comparison Between the Subjective Keeler Tearscope-Plus™ and the Objective Oculus® Keratograph 5M and LipiView® Interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markoulli, Maria; Duong, Tran Bao; Lin, Margaret; Papas, Eric

    2018-02-01

    To compare non-invasive break-up time (NIBUT) when measured with the Tearscope-Plus™ and the Oculus® Keratograph 5M, and to compare lipid layer thicknesses (LLT) when measured with the Tearscope-Plus™ and the LipiView®. This study also set out to establish the repeatability of these methods. The following measurements were taken from both eyes of 24 participants on two occasions: non-invasive keratograph break-up time using the Oculus® (NIKBUT-1 and NIKBUT-average), NIBUT using the Tearscope-Plus™, and LLT using the LipiView® (minimum, maximum, and average) and Tearscope-Plus™. The Tearscope-Plus™ grades were converted to nanometers. There were no significant differences between eyes (Tearscope-Plus™ NIBUT: p = 0.52; NIKBUT-1: p = 0.052; NIKBUT-average: p = 0.73; Tearscope-Plus™ LLT: p = 0.13; LipiView® average, maximum, or minimum: p = 0.68, 0.39 and 0.50, respectively) or days (Tearscope-Plus™ NIBUT: p = 0.32; NIKBUT-1: p = 0.65; NIKBUT-average: p = 0.54; Tearscope-Plus™ LLT: p = 0.26; LipiView® average, maximum, or minimum: p = 0.20, 0.09, and 0.10, respectively). LLT was significantly greater with the Tearscope-Plus™ (80.4 ± 34.0 nm) compared with the LipiView® average (56.3 ± 16.1 nm, p = 0.007), minimum (50.1 ± 15.8 nm, p < 0.001) but not maximum (67.2 ± 19.6 nm, p = 0.55). NIBUT was significantly greater with the Tearscope-Plus™ (15.9 ± 10.7 seconds) compared to the NIKBUT-1 (8.2 ± 3.5 seconds, p = 0.006) but not NIKBUT-average (10.9 ± 3.9 seconds, p = 0.08). The Tearscope-Plus™ is not interchangeable with either the Oculus® K5M measurement of tear stability (NIKBUT-1) or the LipiView® maximum and minimum lipid thickness.

  19. Effects of topical cyclosporine a plus artificial tears versus artificial tears treatment on conjunctival goblet cell density in dysfunctional tear syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiryay, Elvan; Yaylali, Volkan; Cetin, Ebru Nevin; Yildirim, Cem

    2011-09-01

    The aim was to compare the effects of topical cyclosporine A and artificial tears combination with artificial tears alone in patients with dysfunctional tear syndrome (DTS). Forty-two eyes of 42 patients with DTS were enrolled in the study. The inclusion criteria for the study were Schirmer I (without anesthesia) scores below 10 mm/5 min and tear film break-up time (BUT) below 10 sec. The patients were randomly divided into two groups. The study group (22 patients) underwent 0.05% cyclosporine A treatment twice a day and preservative-free artificial tears for four times a day for 4 months. The control group (20 patients) was administered only preservative-free artificial tears four times a day for 4 months. The BUT, Schirmer test scores, corneal fluorescein staining, conjunctival lissamine green staining, and goblet cell density derived by impression cytology were recorded before and after treatment in each group. In the study group, all parameters improved statistically significantly after treatment at the 4-month follow-up compared with the pretreatment values (Ptears treatment significantly increases goblet cell density, decreases the signs of DTS, and improves ocular surface health.

  20. Software Simulation of Hot Tearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S.; Hansen, P.N.; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    1999-01-01

    The brittleness of a solidifying alloy in a temperature range near the solidus temperature has been recognised since the fifties as the mechanism responsible for hot tearing. Due to this brittlenes, the metal will crack under even small amounts of strain in that temperature range. We see these hot...... tears in castings close to hot centres, where the level of strain is often too high.Although the hot tearing mechanism is well understood, until now it has been difficult to do much to reduce the hot tearing tendency in a casting. In the seventies, good hot tearing criteria were developed by considering...... the solidification rate and the strain rate of the hot tear prone areas. But, until recently it was only possible to simulate the solidification rate, so that the criteria could not be used effectively.Today, with new software developments, it is possible to also simulate the strain rate in the hot tear prone areas...

  1. [Rotator cuff tear athropathy prevalence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Soriano, F; Encalada-Díaz, M I; Ruiz-Suárez, M; Valero-González, F S

    2017-01-01

    Glenohumeral arthritis secondary to massive rotator cuff tear presents with a superior displacement and femoralization of the humeral head with coracoacromial arch acetabularization. The purpose of this study was to establish prevalence of rotator cuff tear artropathy (CTA) at our institution. Four hundred electronic records were reviewed from which we identified 136 patients with rotator cuff tears. A second group was composed with patients with massive cuff tears that were analized and staged by the Seebauer cuff tear arthropathy classification. Thirty four patients with massive rotator cuff tears were identified, 8 male and 26 female (age 60.1 ± 10.26 years). Massive rotator cuff tear prevalence was 25%. CTA prevalence found in the rotator cuff group was 19 and 76% in the massive cuff tears group. Patients were staged according to the classification with 32% in stage 1a, 11% 1b, 32% 2a and 0% 2b. CTA prevalence in patients with rotator cuff tears and massive cuff tears is higher than the one reported in American population. We consider that a revision of the Seebauer classification to be appropriate to determine its reliability.

  2. Pele's tears and spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porritt, L. A.; Quane, S.; Russell, K.

    2011-12-01

    Pele's tears are a well known curiosity commonly associated with low viscosity basaltic explosive eruptions. However, these pyroclasts are rarely studied in detail and there is no full explanation for their formation. These intriguing pyroclasts have smooth glassy surfaces, vesiculated interiors, and fluidal morphologies tending towards droplets and then spheres as they decrease in size to Pele's tears from the 1959 fire-fountaining eruption of Kilauea Iki involving size and density measurements. Using thin section and SEM analysis we also consider their internal and external morphologies, porosity and bubble size distributions, and surface textures. Finally we consider the mechanisms of magma fragmentation, timescales of relaxation, and cooling rates that are responsible for their formation.

  3. 63 Film as an Agent of Human Rights Advancement in Nigeria: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tracie1

    film industry Nollywood,- Charles Offor's Bloody Night and. Kwame Boadu ... Nigeria notably in the areas of right to life, free speech, fair trial, etc (Human Rights ... "The media play an enormously important role in the protection of human rights.

  4. Immediate Effects of 3% Diquafosol and 0.1% Hyaluronic Acid Ophthalmic Solution on Tear Break-Up Time in Normal Human Eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Ki Tae; Ahn, So Min; Eom, Youngsub; Kim, Hyo Myung; Song, Jong Suk

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immediate effect of 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution on tear break-up time (TBUT) in normal human eyes, and to compare it with that of saline and 0.1% hyaluronate ophthalmic solution. Cross sectional comparative study in the first study, 10 healthy volunteers underwent topical application of 2 different ophthalmic solutions in each eye. Saline was randomly applied to one eye and 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution was added to the fellow eye. TBUT was measured and video recorded before application and at 5, 10, 15, and 20 min after. The TBUT in each eye was compared at each time point with regard to the 2 different ophthalmic solutions. In the second study, another 10 healthy volunteers were included. The same methods were used to compare the immediate effects of 0.1% hyaluronate and 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution application on TBUT. In the first study, topical instillation of saline did not increase TBUT. However, 3% diquafosol significantly increased TBUT for up to 15 min after application. At every time point, the TBUT increased more significantly from baseline in the diquafosol group than it did in the saline group. In the second study, 0.1% hyaluronate increased TBUT for up to 5 min after application, while 3% diquafosol increased TBUT for up to 15 min. Although the TBUT changes after 5 min were not significantly different between the 2 groups, the TBUT changes at 10, 15, and 20 min were significantly greater in the 3% diquafosol group than they were in the 0.1% hyaluronic acid group (+1.58 ± 0.82 vs. +0.53 ± 1.36 at 10 min, +0.67 ± 0.91 vs. -0.04 ± 1.29 at 15 min, and -0.06 ± 0.96 vs. -0.59 ± 0.90, diquafosol group vs. hyaluronic acid group). One drop of 3% diquafosol increased TBUT for up to 15 min after application. The immediate effect of 3% diquafosol on TBUT was greater than that of saline and even that of 1% hyaluronate ophthalmic solution.

  5. Comparative study of lubricating properties of tear substitutes Systane® Ultra and Visine® Clear Tears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Pavlova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare tear substitutive properties of Systane® Ultra and Visine® Clear Tears in dry eye therapy.Methods: 20 patients with dry eye due to chronic blepharoconjunctivitis and 20 patients with neurotrophic dry eye following corneal refractive surgery were examined. Treatment schedule was the following: in the first 7 days, Systane® Ultra was instilled in the right eye and Visine® Clear Tears was instilled in the left eye, while from day 8 to day 30, only one medicine selected by the patient was applied. Their efficacy was measured by tear film stability and patients’ subjective sensations.Results: Norn test results improved to day 7 in patients with dry eye following corneal refractive surgery and to day 30 in patients with dry eye due to blepharoconjunctivitis regardless of eye drops used. As to patients’ comfort, Systane® Ultra is preferable to Visine® Clear Tears.Conclusion: Systane® Ultra is therapeutically similar to but preferable to Visine® Clear Tears due to good tolerability.

  6. Comparative study of lubricating properties of tear substitutes Systane® Ultra and Visine® Clear Tears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Pavlova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare tear substitutive properties of Systane® Ultra and Visine® Clear Tears in dry eye therapy.Methods: 20 patients with dry eye due to chronic blepharoconjunctivitis and 20 patients with neurotrophic dry eye following corneal refractive surgery were examined. Treatment schedule was the following: in the first 7 days, Systane® Ultra was instilled in the right eye and Visine® Clear Tears was instilled in the left eye, while from day 8 to day 30, only one medicine selected by the patient was applied. Their efficacy was measured by tear film stability and patients’ subjective sensations.Results: Norn test results improved to day 7 in patients with dry eye following corneal refractive surgery and to day 30 in patients with dry eye due to blepharoconjunctivitis regardless of eye drops used. As to patients’ comfort, Systane® Ultra is preferable to Visine® Clear Tears.Conclusion: Systane® Ultra is therapeutically similar to but preferable to Visine® Clear Tears due to good tolerability.

  7. Proteases, proteolysis and inflammatory molecules in the tears of people with keratoconus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Sivaraman Arumugam; Mohan, Sujatha; Pye, David Cecil; Willcox, Mark Duncan Perry

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the expression of proteases, proteolytic activity and cytokines in the tear film of people with keratoconus. Basal tears from people with keratoconus, from individuals who had undergone corneal collagen cross-linking for the treatment of keratoconus, and from normal controls were collected using a capillary tube. Corneal curvature of each subject was mapped. The total protein in tears was estimated. Levels and activity of proteases in the tears were analysed using specific antibody arrays and activity assays. The total tear protein level was significantly reduced in keratoconus (4.1 ± 0.9 mg/ml) compared with normals (6.7 ± 1.4 mg/ml) (p tear expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) -1, -3, -7, -13, interleukins (IL) -4, -5, -6, -8 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) -α, -β were evident in keratoconus. Tear IL-6 was the only cytokine significantly (p tears of keratoconus subjects compared with the collagen cross-linked group. No significant difference in tear proteases were observed between the normal and the cross-linked groups, although the expression of TNF-α was significantly (p tears from keratoconus compared with normal subjects. The activity of tear gelatinases (69.6 ± 22.2 FIU) and collagenases (5.7 ± 3.3 FIU) in the collagen cross-linked group was not significantly different compared with either keratoconus or normals. Tears of people with keratoconus had 1.9 times higher levels of proteolytic activity and over expression of several MMPs and cytokines compared with tears from controls. Further investigations are required to study the possible implications of these changes and whether they can be used to monitor disease progression or determine the success of corneal collagen cross-linking. © 2012 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2012 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  8. Surfactant properties of human meibomian lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgil, Poonam; Millar, Thomas J

    2011-03-25

    Human meibomian lipids are the major part of the lipid layer of the tear film. Their surfactant properties enable their spread across the aqueous layer and help maintain a stable tear film. The purpose of this study was to investigate surfactant properties of human meibomian lipids in vitro and to determine effects of different physical conditions such as temperature and increased osmolarity, such as occur in dry eye, on these properties. Human meibomian lipids were spread on an artificial tear solution in a Langmuir trough. The lipid films were compressed and expanded to record the surface pressure-area (Π-A) isocycles. The isocycles were recorded under different physical conditions such as high pressure, increasing concentration and size of divalent cations, increasing osmolarity, and varying temperature. Π-A isocycles of meibomian lipids showed that they form liquid films that are compressible and multilayered. The isocycles were unaffected by increasing concentration or size of divalent cations and increasing osmolarity in the subphase. Temperature had a marked effect on the lipids. Increase in temperature caused lipid films to become fluid, an expected feature, but decrease in temperature unexpectedly caused expansion of lipids and an increase in pressure suggesting enhanced surfactant properties. Human meibomian lipids form highly compressible, non-collapsible, multilayered liquid films. These lipids have surfactants that allow them to spread across an aqueous subphase. Their surfactant properties are unaffected by increasing divalent cations or hyperosmolarity but are sensitive to temperature. Cooling of meibomian lipids enhances their surfactant properties.

  9. The Dao of human cloning: utopian/dystopian hype in the British press and popular films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Eric

    2008-04-01

    The issue of human cloning has featured in the national science policy agendas in both the United States and the United Kingdom since the announcement in 1997 of Dolly the cloned sheep's birth in Scotland. Such news stories suggesting the imminent cloning of humans have inspired fictional entertainment media over the years, including numerous popular films. Study 1 examines elite British press coverage of human cloning from 1997 to 2004 (n = 857). Study 2 focuses on five human cloning films released between 1978 and 2003. Two sharply divergent discourses emerged from these data. Unqualified hope and habitually hyped claims of future cures permeated the press discourse. In contrast, the films constructed human cloning as an inherently dangerous technology often wielded by hubristic scientists in the tradition of Frankenstein. Both the predominately positive hype in the broadsheet press and the largely negative hype in the films indicate an impoverished and "thin" public debate on the issue of human cloning.

  10. Sebum/Meibum Surface Film Interactions and Phase Transitional Differences

    OpenAIRE

    Mudgil, Poonam; Borchman, Douglas; Gerlach, Dylan; Yappert, Marta C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Sebum may contribute to the composition of the tear film lipid layer naturally or as a contaminant artifact from collection. The aims of this study were to determine: if sebum changes the rheology of meibum surface films; if the resonance near 5.2 ppm in the 1H-NMR spectra of sebum is due to squalene (SQ); and if sebum or SQ, a major component of sebum, interacts with human meibum. Methods Human meibum was collected from the lid margin with a platinum spatula. Human sebum was collecte...

  11. Tear dynamics in healthy and dry eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerretani, Colin F; Radke, C J

    2014-06-01

    Dry-eye disease, an increasingly prevalent ocular-surface disorder, significantly alters tear physiology. Understanding the basic physics of tear dynamics in healthy and dry eyes benefits both diagnosis and treatment of dry eye. We present a physiological-based model to describe tear dynamics during blinking. Tears are compartmentalized over the ocular surface; the blink cycle is divided into three repeating phases. Conservation laws quantify the tear volume and tear osmolarity of each compartment during each blink phase. Lacrimal-supply and tear-evaporation rates are varied to reveal the dependence of tear dynamics on dry-eye conditions, specifically tear osmolarity, tear volume, tear-turnover rate (TTR), and osmotic water flow. Predicted periodic-steady tear-meniscus osmolarity is 309 and 321 mOsM in normal and dry eyes, respectively. Tear osmolarity, volume, and TTR all match available clinical measurements. Osmotic water flow through the cornea and conjunctiva contribute 10 and 50% to the total tear supply in healthy and dry-eye conditions, respectively. TTR in aqueous-deficient dry eye (ADDE) is only half that in evaporative dry eye (EDE). The compartmental periodic-steady tear-dynamics model accurately predicts tear behavior in normal and dry eyes. Inclusion of osmotic water flow is crucial to match measured tear osmolarity. Tear-dynamics predictions corroborate the use of TTR as a clinical discriminator between ADDE and EDE. The proposed model is readily extended to predict the dynamics of aqueous solutes such as drugs or fluorescent tags.

  12. Film Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, Larry M.; Atwater, Lynn

    1987-01-01

    Reviews four Human Sexuality films and videos. These are: "Personal Decisions" (Planned Parenthood Federation of America, 1985); "The Touch Film" (Sterling Production, 1986); "Rethinking Rape" (Film Distribution Center, 1985); "Not A Love Story" (National Film Board of Canada, 1981). (AEM)

  13. Linear stability of tearing modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowley, S.C.; Kulsrud, R.M.; Hahm, T.S.

    1986-05-01

    This paper examines the stability of tearing modes in a sheared slab when the width of the tearing layer is much smaller than the ion Larmor radius. The ion response is nonlocal, and the quasineutrality retains its full integal form. An expansion procedure is introduced to solve the quasineutrality equation in powers of the width of the tearing layer over the ion Larmor radius. The expansion procedure is applied to the collisionless and semi-collisional tearing modes. The first order terms in the expansion we find to be strongly stabilizing. The physics of the mode and of the stabilization is discussed. Tearing modes are observed in experiments even though the slab theory predicts stability. It is proposed that these modes grow from an equilibrium with islands at the rational surfaces. If the equilibrium islands are wider than the ion Larmor radius, the mode is unstable when Δ' is positive

  14. Human action pattern monitor for telecare system utilizing magnetic thin film infrared sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osada, H.; Chiba, S.; Oka, H.; Seki, K.

    2002-01-01

    The magnetic thin film infrared sensor (MFI) is an infrared sensing device utilizing a temperature-sensitive magnetic thin film with marked temperature dependence in the room temperature range. We propose a human action pattern monitor (HPM) constructed with the MFI, without a monitor camera to save the clients' privacy, as a telecare system

  15. Glycan involvement in the adhesion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautto, Liisa; Nguyen-Khuong, Terry; Everest-Dass, Arun; Leong, Andrea; Zhao, Zhenjun; Willcox, Mark D P; Packer, Nicolle H; Peterson, Robyn

    2016-04-01

    The human eye is constantly bathed by tears, which protect the ocular surface via a variety of mechanisms. The O-linked glycans of tear mucins have long been considered to play a role in binding to pathogens and facilitating their removal in the tear flow. Other conjugated glycans in tears could similarly contribute to pathogen binding and removal but have received less attention. In the work presented here we assessed the contribution of glycan moieties, in particular the protein attached N-glycans, presented by the broad complement of tear proteins to the adhesion of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a leading cause of microbial keratitis and ulceration of the cornea. Our adhesion assay involved immobilising the macromolecular components of tears into the wells of a polyvinyl difluoride (PVDF) microtitre filter plate and probing the binding of fluorescently labelled bacteria. Three P. aeruginosa strains were studied: a cytotoxic strain (6206) and an invasive strain (6294) from eye infections, and an invasive strain (320) from a urinary tract infection (UTI). The ocular isolates adhered two to three times more to human tears than to human saliva or porcine gastric mucin, suggesting ocular niche-specific adaptation. Support for the role of the N-glycans carried by human tear proteins in the binding and removal of P. aeruginosa from the eye was shown by: 1) pre-incubation of the bacteria with free component sugars, galactose, mannose, fucose and sialyl lactose (or combination thereof) inhibiting adhesion of all the P. aeruginosa strains to the immobilised tear proteins, with the greatest inhibition of binding of the ocular cytotoxic 6206 and least for the invasive 6294 strain; 2) pre-incubation of the bacteria with N-glycans released from the commercially available human milk lactoferrin, an abundant protein that carries N-linked glycans in tears, inhibiting the adhesion to tears of the ocular bacteria by up to 70%, which was significantly more

  16. Film as an agent of Human Rights Advancement in Nigeria: A study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human rights are those inalienable rights that are basically accruable to every human person or citizen of a country. In Nigeria, the human rights situation is worrisome to say the least, as the nation goes on pursuing her phantom democratisation objectives. Against the background of a vibrant and popular film culture in ...

  17. Emotional tears facilitate the recognition of sadness and the perceived need for social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsters, Martijn J H; Krahmer, Emiel J; Swerts, Marc G J; Vingerhoets, Ad J J M

    2013-02-12

    The tearing effect refers to the relevance of tears as an important visual cue adding meaning to human facial expression. However, little is known about how people process these visual cues and their mediating role in terms of emotion perception and person judgment. We therefore conducted two experiments in which we measured the influence of tears on the identification of sadness and the perceived need for social support at an early perceptional level. In two experiments (1 and 2), participants were exposed to sad and neutral faces. In both experiments, the face stimuli were presented for 50 milliseconds. In experiment 1, tears were digitally added to sad faces in one condition. Participants demonstrated a significant faster recognition of sad faces with tears compared to those without tears. In experiment 2, tears were added to neutral faces as well. Participants had to indicate to what extent the displayed individuals were in need of social support. Study participants reported a greater perceived need for social support to both sad and neutral faces with tears than to those without tears. This study thus demonstrated that emotional tears serve as important visual cues at an early (pre-attentive) level.

  18. Two types of peak emotional responses to music: The psychophysiology of chills and tears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Kazuma; Iwanaga, Makoto

    2017-01-01

    People sometimes experience a strong emotional response to artworks. Previous studies have demonstrated that the peak emotional experience of chills (goose bumps or shivers) when listening to music involves psychophysiological arousal and a rewarding effect. However, many aspects of peak emotion are still not understood. The current research takes a new perspective of peak emotional response of tears (weeping, lump in the throat). A psychophysiological experiment showed that self-reported chills increased electrodermal activity and subjective arousal whereas tears produced slow respiration during heartbeat acceleration, although both chills and tears induced pleasure and deep breathing. A song that induced chills was perceived as being both happy and sad whereas a song that induced tears was perceived as sad. A tear-eliciting song was perceived as calmer than a chill-eliciting song. These results show that tears involve pleasure from sadness and that they are psychophysiologically calming; thus, psychophysiological responses permit the distinction between chills and tears. Because tears may have a cathartic effect, the functional significance of chills and tears seems to be different. We believe that the distinction of two types of peak emotions is theoretically relevant and further study of tears would contribute to more understanding of human peak emotional response. PMID:28387335

  19. Two types of peak emotional responses to music: The psychophysiology of chills and tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Kazuma; Iwanaga, Makoto

    2017-04-07

    People sometimes experience a strong emotional response to artworks. Previous studies have demonstrated that the peak emotional experience of chills (goose bumps or shivers) when listening to music involves psychophysiological arousal and a rewarding effect. However, many aspects of peak emotion are still not understood. The current research takes a new perspective of peak emotional response of tears (weeping, lump in the throat). A psychophysiological experiment showed that self-reported chills increased electrodermal activity and subjective arousal whereas tears produced slow respiration during heartbeat acceleration, although both chills and tears induced pleasure and deep breathing. A song that induced chills was perceived as being both happy and sad whereas a song that induced tears was perceived as sad. A tear-eliciting song was perceived as calmer than a chill-eliciting song. These results show that tears involve pleasure from sadness and that they are psychophysiologically calming; thus, psychophysiological responses permit the distinction between chills and tears. Because tears may have a cathartic effect, the functional significance of chills and tears seems to be different. We believe that the distinction of two types of peak emotions is theoretically relevant and further study of tears would contribute to more understanding of human peak emotional response.

  20. [Effects of acupuncture on lactoferrin content in tears and tear secretion in patients suffering from dry eyes: a randomized controlled trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jing-lin; Miao, Wan-hong

    2012-09-01

    With the understanding of the immune inflammatory response in the pathogenesis of dry eyes, and the limitations of widely used artificial tears and numerous pharmaceuticals and methods to promote tear secretion, clinicians pay more attention to the therapies that can promote tear secretion actively. Acupuncture treatment for dry eye may meet this requirement. To observe the clinical efficacy of acupuncture treatment on dry eye and the effects on duration, and to examine the mechanisms of acupuncture in treating patients with dye eyes. The study was performed at Department of Ophthalmology, Shuguang Hospital, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine from August 2010 to May 2011. Patients with the primary diagnosis of dry eye were enrolled. Sixty-five patients were randomly divided into treatment group and control group, and were given 3 weeks of acupuncture treatment or artificial tear therapy respectively. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect the lactoferrin content of the tears before and after treatment. In order to evaluate the efficacy of the treatment methods, the Schirmer I test and break-up time were also measured. Compared with before treatment, the lactoferrin content in the tears of patients in the treatment group increased, break-up time was prolonged and the result of the Schirmer I test showed improvement after 3 weeks of treatment. The indexes mentioned above did not change in the control group after treatment. There were no significant differences in tear lactoferrin and Schirmer I test between one week after treatment and after 3-week treatment in the treatment group, but break-up time was significantly shortened. The result of Schirmer I test in the treatment group was significantly higher than that in the control group one week after treatment. Acupuncture can increase tear lactoferrin level, extend tear film break-up time and promote tear secretion in patients with dry eye in a time-limited trial. With the end of

  1. Wearable strain sensors based on thin graphite films for human activity monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Takanari; Kihara, Yusuke; Shirakashi, Jun-ichi

    2017-12-01

    Wearable health-monitoring devices have attracted increasing attention in disease diagnosis and health assessment. In many cases, such devices have been prepared by complicated multistep procedures which result in the waste of materials and require expensive facilities. In this study, we focused on pyrolytic graphite sheet (PGS), which is a low-cost, simple, and flexible material, used as wearable devices for monitoring human activity. We investigated wearable devices based on PGSs for the observation of elbow and finger motions. The thin graphite films were fabricated by cutting small films from PGSs. The wearable devices were then made from the thin graphite films assembled on a commercially available rubber glove. The human motions could be observed using the wearable devices. Therefore, these results suggested that the wearable devices based on thin graphite films may broaden their application in cost-effective wearable electronics for the observation of human activity.

  2. A new crystal form of human tear lipocalin reveals high flexibility in the loop region and induced fit in the ligand cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breustedt, Daniel A.; Chatwell, Lorenz; Skerra, Arne

    2009-01-01

    The crystal structure of tear lipocalin determined in space group P2 1 revealed large structural deviations from the previously solved X-ray structure in space group C2, especially in the loop region and adjoining parts of the β-barrel which give rise to the ligand-binding site. These findings illustrate a novel mechanism for promiscuity in ligand recognition by the lipocalin protein family. Tear lipocalin (TLC) with the bound artificial ligand 1,4-butanediol has been crystallized in space group P2 1 with four protein molecules in the asymmetric unit and its X-ray structure has been solved at 2.6 Å resolution. TLC is a member of the lipocalin family that binds ligands with diverse chemical structures, such as fatty acids, phospholipids and cholesterol as well as microbial siderophores and the antibiotic rifampin. Previous X-ray structural analysis of apo TLC crystallized in space group C2 revealed a rather large bifurcated ligand pocket and a partially disordered loop region at the entrace to the cavity. Analysis of the P2 1 crystal form uncovered major conformational changes (i) in β-strands B, C and D, (ii) in loops 1, 2 and 4 at the open end of the β-barrel and (iii) in the extended C-terminal segment, which is attached to the β-barrel via a disulfide bridge. The structural comparison indicates high conformational plasticity of the loop region as well as of deeper parts of the ligand pocket, thus allowing adaptation to ligands that differ vastly in size and shape. This illustrates a mechanism for promiscuity in ligand recognition which may also be relevant for some other physiologically important members of the lipocalin protein family

  3. A mass and solute balance model for tear volume and osmolarity in the normal and the dry eye

    KAUST Repository

    Gaffney, E.A.

    2010-01-01

    Tear hyperosmolarity is thought to play a key role in the mechanism of dry eye, a common symptomatic condition accompanied by visual disturbance, tear film instability, inflammation and damage to the ocular surface. We have constructed a model for the mass and solute balance of the tears, with parameter estimation based on extensive data from the literature which permits the influence of tear evaporation, lacrimal flux and blink rate on tear osmolarity to be explored. In particular the nature of compensatory events has been estimated in aqueous-deficient (ADDE) and evaporative (EDE) dry eye. The model reproduces observed osmolarities of the tear meniscus for the healthy eye and predicts a higher concentration in the tear film than meniscus in normal and dry eye states. The differential is small in the normal eye, but is significantly increased in dry eye, especially for the simultaneous presence of high meniscus concentration and low meniscus radius. This may influence the interpretation of osmolarity values obtained from meniscus samples since they need not fully reflect potential damage to the ocular surface caused by tear film hyperosmolarity. Interrogation of the model suggests that increases in blink rate may play a limited role in compensating for a rise in tear osmolarity in ADDE but that an increase in lacrimal flux, together with an increase in blink rate, may delay the development of hyperosmolarity in EDE. Nonetheless, it is predicted that tear osmolarity may rise to much higher levels in EDE than ADDE before the onset of tear film breakup, in the absence of events at the ocular surface which would independently compromise tear film stability. Differences in the predicted responses of the pre-ocular tears in ADDE compared to EDE or hybrid disease to defined conditions suggest that no single, empirically-accessible variable can act as a surrogate for tear film concentration and the potential for ocular surface damage. This emphasises the need to measure

  4. A mass and solute balance model for tear volume and osmolarity in the normal and the dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, E A; Tiffany, J M; Yokoi, N; Bron, A J

    2010-01-01

    Tear hyperosmolarity is thought to play a key role in the mechanism of dry eye, a common symptomatic condition accompanied by visual disturbance, tear film instability, inflammation and damage to the ocular surface. We have constructed a model for the mass and solute balance of the tears, with parameter estimation based on extensive data from the literature which permits the influence of tear evaporation, lacrimal flux and blink rate on tear osmolarity to be explored. In particular the nature of compensatory events has been estimated in aqueous-deficient (ADDE) and evaporative (EDE) dry eye. The model reproduces observed osmolarities of the tear meniscus for the healthy eye and predicts a higher concentration in the tear film than meniscus in normal and dry eye states. The differential is small in the normal eye, but is significantly increased in dry eye, especially for the simultaneous presence of high meniscus concentration and low meniscus radius. This may influence the interpretation of osmolarity values obtained from meniscus samples since they need not fully reflect potential damage to the ocular surface caused by tear film hyperosmolarity. Interrogation of the model suggests that increases in blink rate may play a limited role in compensating for a rise in tear osmolarity in ADDE but that an increase in lacrimal flux, together with an increase in blink rate, may delay the development of hyperosmolarity in EDE. Nonetheless, it is predicted that tear osmolarity may rise to much higher levels in EDE than ADDE before the onset of tear film breakup, in the absence of events at the ocular surface which would independently compromise tear film stability. Differences in the predicted responses of the pre-ocular tears in ADDE compared to EDE or hybrid disease to defined conditions suggest that no single, empirically-accessible variable can act as a surrogate for tear film concentration and the potential for ocular surface damage. This emphasises the need to measure

  5. MRI diagnosis of meniscal tears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuga, Naoyuki; Oh, Toshihiro

    1996-01-01

    We studied the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the knee in fifty-six patients who were also examined arthroscopically. The accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity were 96%, 100%, and 95% for medial meniscal tears, and 91%, 67%, and 100% for lateral meniscal tears respectively. Two MRIs of the medial meniscus were false-positives. These MRI findings were both meniscocapsular separation of the medial meniscus, but the arthroscopic findings were normal. One case was an ACL injury and the other PCL and MCL injury. Hemorrhage and edema of the medial capsule caused by valgus stress at injury may look like a meniscal pseudo-tear on MRI. Five MRIs of the lateral meniscus were false-negatives. All menisci showed normal signal and shape on MRI but traumatic and stable tears of the lateral meniscus were identified arthroscopically. All were associated with ACL tears and lateral condylar bone bruise. The traumatic and stable tear of the meniscus tended to be overlooked on MRI because a meniscus without degeneration shows a normal signal. (author)

  6. Emotional tears facilitate the recognition of sadness and the perceived need for social support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balsters, M.J.H.; Krahmer, E.J.; Swerts, M.G.J.; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    The tearing effect refers to the relevance of tears as an important visual cue adding meaning to human facial expression. However, little is known about how people process these visual cues and their mediating role in terms of emotion perception and person judgment. We therefore conducted two

  7. The Form and Content of Human Rights Film: Teaching Larysa Kondracki’s The Whistleblower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Hamblin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This essay argues that the consistent association of human rights film with historical accuracy as a means of raising awareness has led human rights education to focus on filmic content, with fiction films being used primarily as case studies about particular atrocities or as opportunities to discuss more general ethical issues. While the subject matter of human rights films is certainly a major component of human rights education, I maintain that this singular focus prohibits students from examining how a film is situated within a specific matrix of geopolitical power relations and cultural presuppositions. This presumption of truth thus normalizes a westernized worldview, obscuring its ideological foundations and the geopolitical structures that give human rights discourse its universality and function. Using Larysa Kondracki’s The Whistleblower as a teaching case study, this essay demonstrates how an attention to stylistic and generic conventions helps us understand how a film may educate about a particular human rights issue while at the same time propagate the very logics of geopolitical inequality that are implicated in its emergence.

  8. [Neuronal and hormonal regulatory mechanisms of tears production and secretion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrugacz, Małgorzata; Zywalewska, Nella; Bakunowicz-Lazarczyk, Alina

    2005-01-01

    The ocular surface, tear film, lacrimal glands act as a functional unit to preserve the quality of the refractive surface of the eye, and to resist injury and protect the eye against bodily and environmental conditions. Homeostasis of this functional unit involves neuronal and hormonal regulatory mechanisms. The eye appears to be a target organ for sex hormones particulary the androgen, as they modulate the immune system and trophic functions of the lacrimal and Meibomian glands.

  9. Examination of rotator cuff re-tear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitahara, Hiroyuki; Yabe, Yoshihiro; Norimatsu, Takahiro; Adachi, Shinji; Sera, Keisuke

    2010-01-01

    The six-month post-operative re-tear rate in 72 arthroscopic rotator cuff repair cases was 16.3% by MRI. The re-tear rate of massive tears was 50%. We investigated the details of the re-tears by MRI and arthroscopic findings. High re-tear rates were connected with cuff tear size and fatty degeneration of muscle belly. Cases with poor cuff quality in arthroscopically showed high re-tear rate. These results suggest that surgery operation should be performed as soon as possible after diagnosis of cuff tear to obtain good results. Cases with damage of long head of the biceps (LHB) are likely to develop impingement causes of re-tears. Some type of rehabilitation is required to avoid impingement in such cases. (author)

  10. Postanaesthetic tear production and ocular irritation in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peche, N; Köstlin, R; Reese, S; Pieper, K

    2015-01-01

    General anaesthesia significantly reduces tear production and normal values are not immediately re-established on ending anaesthesia. Therefore, adequate protection of the cornea has to be assured during the perianaesthetic period. There are various methods available, including taping of the eyelids and the application of eye ointments, gels and drops. In human medicine studies, different formulations were found to induce signs of ocular irritation. The aim of the present study was to determine tear production in cats after general anaesthesia, and to identify possible causes of irritation. Tear production was determined in 41 cats after general anaesthesia and eyes were examined for signs of irritation. Two different anaesthetic protocols were used. To protect the cornea, an ointment and gel were applied to the right and left eyes, respectively. Postoperatively, tear production was significantly reduced for 6 hours and 18 hours in the right and left eyes, respectively. Two hours after anaesthesia, blepharospasm of the right eye was observed in 92.7% (n = 38) of the cats. In contrast, the left eye was always held open. This study demonstrated that tear production in cats is significantly decreased both during and after anaesthesia. The degree of reduction was independent of the anaesthetic protocol. Both the eye ointment and gel proved effective in protecting the corneal surface. However, eye gel use is recommended because the eye ointment consistently caused an irritation comparable to the foreign-body sensation reported in humans.

  11. Tearing modes in toroidal geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connor, J.W.; Cowley, S.C.; Hastie, R.J.; Hender, T.C.; Hood, A.; Martin, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    The separation of the cylindrical tearing mode stability problem into a resistive resonant layer calculation and an external marginal ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) calculation (Δ' calculation) is generalized to axisymmetric toroidal geometry. The general structure of this separation is analyzed and the marginal ideal MHD information (the toroidal generalization of Δ') required to discuss stability is isolated. This can then, in principle, be combined with relevant resonant layer calculations to determine tearing mode growth rates in realistic situations. Two examples are given: the first is an analytic treatment of toroidally coupled (m = 1, n = 1) and (m = 2, n = 1) tearing modes in a large aspect ratio torus; the second, a numerical treatment of the toroidal coupling of three tearing modes through finite pressure effects in a large aspect ratio torus. In addition, the use of a coupling integral approach for determining the stability of coupled tearing modes is discussed. Finally, the possibility of using initial value resistive MHD codes in realistic toroidal geometry to determine the necessary information from the ideal MHD marginal solution is discussed

  12. A comparison of basal and eye-flush tears for the analysis of cat tear proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petznick, Andrea; Evans, Margaret D M; Madigan, Michele C; Markoulli, Maria; Garrett, Qian; Sweeney, Deborah F

    2011-02-01

    To identify a rapid and effective tear collection method providing sufficient tear volume and total protein content (TPC) for analysis of individual proteins in cats. Domestic adult short-haired cats (12-37 months; 2.7-6.6 kg) were used in the study. Basal tears without stimulation and eye-flush tears after instillation of saline (10 μl) were collected using microcapillary tubes from animal eyes either unwounded control or wounded with 9-mm central epithelial debridement giving four groups with n = 3. Tear comparisons were based on total time and rate for tear collection, TPC using micro bicinchoninic acid (BCA), tear immunoglobulin A (IgA), total matrix-metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 concentration using sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and MMP-9 activity. Eye-flush tears were collected significantly faster than basal tears in wounded eyes with higher rates for tear collection in unwounded control and wounded eyes. TPC was significantly lower in eye-flush tears compared to basal tears. The relative proportion of tear IgA normalized to TPC (% IgA of TPC) was not significantly different between basal and eye-flush tears. In unwounded control eyes, MMP-9 was slightly higher in eye-flush than in basal tears; activity of MMP-9 in both tear types was similar. In wounded eyes, eye-flush tears showed highest MMP-9 levels and activity on Day 1, which subsequently decreased to Day 7. MMP-9 activity in basal tears from wounded eyes did not display changes in expression. Eye-flush tears can be collected rapidly providing sufficient tear volume and TPC. This study also indicates that eye-flush tears may be more suitable than basal tears for the analysis of MMPs following corneal wounding. © 2011 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2011 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  13. Anterior cruciate ligament tear: comparison of MR features between complete and partial tear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Ki Young; Lee, Joo Hyuk; Park, Jin Hee; Lee, Yu Jin; Rho, Eun Jin; Kim, Young Hoon; Yi, Jeong Geun; Ahn, Joong Mo

    1997-01-01

    To determine the MRI features which distinguish complete and partial tear of the anterior cruciate ligament(ACL) and to thus improve MRI interpretation. In 80 patients, we analyzed MR findings of direct and indirect signs of ACL tear (complete tear, 61 cases, partial tear, 19 cases) confirmed by arthroscopy or surgery, and compared the relative incidence of each sign in cases of complete and partial tear. Direct and indirect signs were found in 61 (100%) and 60 cases (98.4%), respectively, in complete tears, but in 16 (84.2%) and 15 cases (78.9%), respectively, in partial tears. Poor visualization, discontinuity and hyperintensity were seen in all complete tears but in only nine cases (47.4%) of partial tear. A wavy or abnormal contour was seen in 53 cases (86.9%) of complete tear and 14 (73.7%) of partial tear. A wavy contour without other direct signs was seen in only five cases (26.3%) of partial tear. Three cases (15.8%) of partial tear showed normal MR finding. Indirect signs, i.e. abnormal ACL angle, abnormal ACL-Blumensaat line angle, abnormal posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) line, abnormal PCL angle, PCL buckling, anterior displacement of tibia, posterior displacement of lateral meniscus, bone bruise, Segond fracture, tear of collateral ligaments, PCL, and tear of meniscus were commoner in complete than in partial tears. Two cases of O'Donoghue's triad and two of popliteus injury were seen only in complete tears. Direct and indirect signs of ACL tear were more commonly noted in complete than in partial tears. The latter showed MR features varying from normal to almost complete tear. We suggest that a wavy contour without other direct signs is indicative of a partial tear, and that O'Donoghue's triad and popliteus muscle injury are indirect signs of a complete tear

  14. Combinatorial MAPLE gradient thin film assemblies signalling to human osteoblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axente, Emanuel; Sima, Felix; Elena Sima, Livia; Serban, Natalia; Ristoscu, Carmen; Mihailescu, Ion N; Erginer, Merve; Toksoy Oner, Ebru; Eroglu, Mehmet S; Petrescu, Stefana M

    2014-01-01

    There is increased interest in smart bioactive materials to control tissue regeneration for the engineering of cell instructive scaffolds. We introduced combinatorial matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (C-MAPLE) as a new method for the fabrication of organic thin films with a compositional gradient. Synchronized C-MAPLE of levan and oxidized levan was employed to assemble a two-compound biopolymer film structure. The gradient of the film composition was validated by fluorescence microscopy. In this study, we investigated the cell response induced by the compositional gradient using imaging of early osteoblast attachment and analysis of signalling phosphoprotein expression. Cells attached along the gradient in direct proportion to oxidized levan concentration. During this process distinct areas of the binary gradient have been shown to modulate the osteoblasts’ extracellular signal-regulated kinase signalling with different propensity. The proposed fabrication method results in the preparation of a new bioactive material, which could control the cell signalling response. This approach can be extended to screen new bioactive interfaces for tissue regeneration. (papers)

  15. What emotional tears convey : Tearful individuals are seen as warmer, but also as less competent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Ven, Niels; Meijs, Maartje; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.

    Earlier research found that the mere sight of tears promotes the willingness to provide support to the person shedding the tears. Other research, however, found that deliberate responses towards tearful persons could be more negative as well. We think this is because tears have ambivalent effects on

  16. Tear Gas, Expanding Bullets and Plain-Clothed Personnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiesener, Cornelius Rust

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the interplay between human rights law and humanitarian law in relation to riot control agents (such as tear gas), expanding bullets and plain-clothed forces. While outlawed under humanitarian law, they are widely used by police in peace time and not subject to similar bans...

  17. Surface tearing modes in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takizuka, Tomonori; Kurita, Gen-ichi; Azumi, Masafumi; Takeda, Tatsuoki

    1985-10-01

    Surface tearing modes in tokamaks are studied numerically and analytically. The eigenvalue problem is solved to obtain the growth rate and the mode structure. We investigate in detail dependences of the growth rate of the m/n = 2/1 resistive MHD modes on the safety factor at the plasma surface, current profile, wall position, and resistivity. The surface tearing mode moves the plasma surface even when the wall is close to the surface. The stability diagram for these modes is presented. (author)

  18. Acute Medial Plantar Fascia Tear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoe, Stephanie C; Mazzola, Timothy J

    2016-06-01

    A 32-year-old man who participated in competitive soccer came to physical therapy via direct access for a chief complaint of plantar foot pain. The clinical examination findings and mechanism of injury raised a concern for a plantar fascia tear, so the patient was referred to the physician and magnetic resonance imaging was obtained. The magnetic resonance image confirmed a high-grade, partial-thickness, proximal plantar fascia tear with localized edema at the location of the medial band. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(6):495. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.0409.

  19. Detection of prosecretory mitogen lacritin in nonprimate tears primarily as a C-terminal-like fragment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurie, Diane E; Splan, Rebecca K; Green, Kari; Still, Katherine M; McKown, Robert L; Laurie, Gordon W

    2012-09-12

    Lacritin is a human tear glycoprotein that promotes basal tear protein secretion in cultured rat lacrimal acinar cells and proliferation of subconfluent human corneal epithelial cells. When topically added to rabbit eyes, lacritin promotes basal tearing. Despite these activities on several species, lacritin's presence in nonprimate tears or other tissues has not been explored. Here we probed for lacritin in normal horse tears. Sequences were collected from the Ensembl genomic alignment of human LACRT gene with high-quality draft horse genome (EquCab2.0) and analyzed. Normal horse tears were collected and assayed by Western blotting, ELISA, and mass spectrometry. Newly generated rabbit antibodies, respectively, against N- and C-terminal regions of human lacritin were employed. Identity was 75% and 45%, respectively, at nucleotide and protein levels. Structural features were conserved, including a C-terminal amphipathic α-helix. Anti-C-terminal antibodies strongly detected a ∼13 kDa band in horse tears that was validated by mass spectrometry. In human tears, the same antibody detected uncleaved lacritin (∼24 kDa) strongly and C-terminal fragments of ∼13 and ∼11 kDa weakly. Anti-N-terminal antibodies were slightly reactive with a ∼24 kDa horse antigen and showed no reaction with the anti-C-terminal-reactive ∼13 kDa species. Similar respective levels of horse C-terminal versus N-terminal immunoreactivity were apparent by ELISA. Lacritin is present in horse tears, largely as a C-terminal fragment homologous to the mitogenic and bactericidal region in human lacritin, suggesting potential benefit in corneal wound repair.

  20. A Special Tear Pattern of Anterior Horn of the Lateral Meniscus: Macerated Tear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jiapeng; Zhai, Wenliang; Li, Qiang; Jia, Qianxin; Lin, Dasheng

    2017-01-01

    We describe a special, interesting phenomenon found in the anterior horn of the lateral meniscus (AHLM): most tear patterns in the AHLM are distinctive, with loose fibers in injured region and circumferential fiber bundles were separated. We name it as macerated tear. The goal of this study was to bring forward a new type of meniscal tear in the AHLM and investigate its clinical value. AHLM tears underwent arthroscopic surgery from January 2012 to December 2014 were included. Data regarding the integrity of AHLM were prospectively recorded in a data registry. Tear morphology and treatment received were subsequently extracted by 2 independent reviewers from operative notes and arthroscopic surgical photos. A total of 60 AHLM tears in 60 patients (mean age 27.1 years) were grouped into horizontal tears (n = 15, 25%), vertical tears (n = 14, 23%), complex tears (n = 6, 10%), and macerated tears (n = 25, 42%). There were 6 patients with AHLM cysts in macerated tear group and one patient in vertical tear group. 60 patients were performed arthroscopic meniscus repairs and were followed-up with averaged 18.7 months. Each group had significant postoperative improvement in Lysholm and IKDC scores (p 0.05). This study demonstrated that the macerated tear is common in the tear pattern of AHLM. However, feasibility of the treatment of this type of meniscal tear, especially the meniscus repairs still requires further study.

  1. Kinetic theory of tearing instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, J.F.; Lee, Y.C.

    1977-01-01

    The transition of the tearing instability from the collisional to the collisionless regime is investigated kinetically using a Fokker--Planck collision operator to represent electron-ion collisions. As a function of the collisionality of the plasma, the tearing instability falls into three regions, which are referred to as collisionless, semi-collisional, and collisional. The width Δ of the singular layer around kxB 0 =0 is limited by electron thermal motion along B 0 in the collisional and semi-collisional regimes and is typically smaller than rho/sub i/, the ion Larmor radius. Previously accepted theories, which are based on the assumption Δvery-much-greater-thanrho/sub i/, are found to be valid only in the collisional regime. The effects of density and temperature gradients on the instabilities are also studied. The tearing instability is only driven by the temperature gradient in the collisional and semi-collisional regimes. Numerical calculations indicate that the semi-collisional tearing instability is particularly relevant to present day high temperature tokamak discharges

  2. Bifurcation of steady tearing states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saramito, B.; Maschke, E.K.

    1985-10-01

    We apply the bifurcation theory for compact operators to the problem of the nonlinear solutions of the 3-dimensional incompressible visco-resistive MHD equations. For the plane plasma slab model we compute branches of nonlinear tearing modes, which are stationary for the range of parameters investigated up to now

  3. Plate Tearing by a Cone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    1997-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with steady-state plate tearing by a cone. This is a scenario where a cone is forced through a ductile metal plate with a constant lateral tip penetration in a motion in the plane of the plate. The considered process could be an idealisaton of the damage, which...... as for the out-of-plane reaction force....

  4. Energy balance in tearing modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesson, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    The energy balance in tearing modes is described in terms of exact separate energy balance equations. Each of these equations describes identified physical processes, and their sum gives the conservation of total energy. One of the energy balance equations corresponds to Furth's description. (Author)

  5. Classification and localization of acetabular labral tears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blankenbaker, D.G.; De Smet, A.A.; Keene, J.S.; Fine, J.P.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the findings on hip MR arthrography (MRA) with the published MRA and arthroscopic classifications of hip labral tears and to evaluate a clock-face method for localizing hip labral tears. We retrospectively reviewed 65 hip MRA studies with correlative hip arthroscopies. Each labrum was evaluated on MRA using the classification system of Czerny and an MRA modification of the Lage arthroscopic classification. In addition, each tear was localized on MRA by using a clock-face description where 6 o'clock was the transverse ligament and 3 o'clock was anterior. These MRA findings were then correlated with the arthroscopic findings using the clock-face method of localization and the Lage arthroscopic classification of labral tears. At MRA, there were 42 Czerny grade 2 and 23 grade 3 labral tears and 22 MRA Lage type 1, 11 type 2, 22 type 3 and 10 type 4 tears. At arthroscopy, there were 10 Lage type 1 flap tears, 20 Lage type 2 fibrillated tears, 18 Lage type 3 longitudinal peripheral tears and 17 Lage type 4 unstable tears. The Czerny MRA classification and the modified MRA Lage classification had borderline correlation with the arthroscopic Lage classification. Localization of the tears using a clock-face description was within 1 o'clock of the arthroscopic localization of the tears in 85% of the patients. The Lage classification, which is the only published arthroscopic classification system for hip labral tears, does not correlate well with the Czerny MRA or an MRA modification of the Lage classification. Using a clock-face description to localize tears provides a way to accurately localize a labral tear and define its extent. (orig.)

  6. Meniscus tears -- aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Quickly stop moving and change direction while running, landing from a jump, or turning Kneel down Squat ... Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: 30 April 2018

  7. Tear Osmolarity and Correlation With Ocular Surface Parameters in Patients With Dry Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Priya M; Karakus, Sezen; Agrawal, Devika; Hindman, Holly B; Ramulu, Pradeep Y; Akpek, Esen K

    2017-11-01

    To analyze the distribution of tear film osmolarity in patients with dry eye and its association with other ocular surface parameters. Tear osmolarity and other quantitative dry eye parameters were obtained from patients with 1) clinically significant dry eye (significant symptoms and ocular surface staining, n = 131), 2) symptoms-only dry eye (significant symptoms but no significant ocular surface staining, n = 52), and 3) controls (no significant symptoms or staining, n = 42). Tear osmolarity varied significantly across groups (P = 0.01), with patients with clinically significant dry eye having the highest tear osmolarity (312.0 ± 16.9 mOsm/L), control patients having the lowest tear osmolarity (305.6 ± 9.7 mOsm/L), and patients with symptoms-only dry eye falling in between (307.4 ± 5.6 mOsm/L). Patients with clinically significant dry eye also tended to have a greater intereye difference in osmolarity (12.0 ± 13.4) than did the individuals with symptoms-only dry eye (9.1 ± 12.4) and controls (9.0 ± 7.4) (P = 0.06). In multivariable regression models, higher tear osmolarity was associated with higher Ocular Surface Disease Index, discomfort subscore (P = 0.02), and higher corneal and conjunctival staining scores (P eye tear osmolarity was not correlated with the corresponding tear film breakup time or Schirmer test (P > 0.05 for both). Individuals with symptomatic dry eye that is not yet clinically significant seem to have higher and more variable osmolarity measurements than controls, potentially indicating that changes in osmolarity precede clinical findings.

  8. Phospholipids and their degrading enzyme in the tears of soft contact lens wearers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Masakazu; Mochizuki, Hiroshi; Kawashima, Motoko; Hata, Seiichiro

    2006-12-01

    Low tear phospholipids levels are associated with tear film instability in soft contact lens wearers. We assayed levels of phospholipids and their degrading enzyme secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) both in tears and deposited on contact lenses composed of 2 hydrophilic materials after 1 day of routine use. Polymacon (Medalist; FDA group 1, low water/nonionic) and Etafilcon A (One Day Acuvue; group 4, high water/ionic) contact lenses were worn for 12 hours by 16 experienced contact lens wearers. Phospholipids in tear fluids and deposited on contact lenses were estimated by phosphorus determination with ammonium molybdate through enzymatic digestion. Double-antibody sandwich ELISA was used to determine group IIa sPLA2 concentrations, and sPLA2 activity was assayed using 1,2-diheptanoyl thio-phosphatidylcholine as substrate. Phospholipids concentrations in tears with Polymacon and Etafilcon A were 186 +/- 39 and 162 +/- 33 microg/mL, respectively. The latter concentration was significantly lower than that observed in the same subjects when not wearing contact lenses (P = 0.0023). In tears, both group IIa sPLA2 concentrations and enzymatic activity remained unchanged, regardless of lens wearing. However, Etafilcon A (0.57 +/- 0.09 microg/lens) showed more group IIa sPLA2 deposition than Polymacon (0.01 +/- 0.01 microg/lens; P < 0.001). Furthermore, group IIa sPLA2 deposited on Etafilcon A but not on Polymacon lenses retained its enzymatic activity. Significant differences of group IIa sPLA2 deposition were found in the 2 lenses tested. Such deposition might induce phospholipid hydrolysis in tears and thereby promote tear film instability in hydrophilic contact lens wearers.

  9. Aspergillus flavus induced alterations in tear protein profile reveal pathogen-induced host response to fungal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandhavelu, Jeyalakshmi; Demonte, Naveen Luke; Namperumalsamy, Venkatesh Prajna; Prajna, Lalitha; Thangavel, Chitra; Jayapal, Jeya Maheshwari; Kuppamuthu, Dharmalingam

    2017-01-30

    Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium sp. are primary causative agents of keratitis that results in corneal tissue damage leading to vision loss particularly in individuals from the tropical parts of the world. Proteins in the tear film collected from control and keratitis patients was profiled and compared. A total of 1873 proteins from control and 1400 proteins from patient tear were identified by mass spectrometry. While 847 proteins were found to be glycosylated in the patient tear, only 726 were glycosylated in control tear. And, some of the tear proteins showed alterations in their glycosylation pattern after infection. Complement system proteins, proteins specific for neutrophil extracellular traps and proteins involved in would healing were found only in the patient tear. The presence of these innate immune system proteins in the tear film of patients supports the previous data indicating the involvement of neutrophil and complement pathways in antifungal defense. High levels of wound healing proteins in keratitis patient tear implied activation of tissue repair during infection. The early appearance of the host defense proteins and wound healing response indicates that tear proteins could be used as an early marker system for monitoring the progression of pathogenesis. Identification of negative regulators of the above defense pathways in keratitis tear indicates an intricate balance of pro and anti-defense mechanisms operating in fungal infection of the eye. Tear proteins from control and mycotic keratitis patients were separated into glycoproteins and non-glycosylated proteins and then identified by mass spectrometry. Tear proteins from keratitis patients showed alteration in the glycosylation pattern indicating the alteration of glycosylation machinery due to infection. Neutrophil extracellular traps specific proteins, complement pathway proteins, as well as wound healing proteins, were found only in patient tear showing the activation of antifungal defense

  10. Ultrasound determination of rotator cuff tear repairability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Andrew K; Lam, Patrick H; Walton, Judie R; Hackett, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Background Rotator cuff repair aims to reattach the torn tendon to the greater tuberosity footprint with suture anchors. The present study aimed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound in predicting rotator cuff tear repairability and to assess which sonographic and pre-operative features are strongest in predicting repairability. Methods The study was a retrospective analysis of measurements made prospectively in a cohort of 373 patients who had ultrasounds of their shoulder and underwent rotator cuff repair. Measurements of rotator cuff tear size and muscle atrophy were made pre-operatively by ultrasound to enable prediction of rotator cuff repairability. Tears were classified following ultrasound as repairable or irreparable, and were correlated with intra-operative repairability. Results Ultrasound assessment of rotator cuff tear repairability has a sensitivity of 86% (p tear size (p tear size ≥4 cm2 or anteroposterior tear length ≥25 mm indicated an irreparable rotator cuff tear. Conclusions Ultrasound assessment is accurate in predicting rotator cuff tear repairability. Tear size or anteroposterior tear length and age were the best predictors of repairability. PMID:27582996

  11. Hot tearing studies in AA5182

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Haaften, W. M.; Kool, W. H.; Katgerman, L.

    2002-10-01

    One of the major problems during direct chill (DC) casting is hot tearing. These tears initiate during solidification of the alloy and may run through the entire ingot. To study the hot tearing mechanism, tensile tests were carried out in semisolid state and at low strain rates, and crack propagation was studied in situ by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These experimentally induced cracks were compared with hot tears developed in an AA5182 ingot during a casting trial in an industrial research facility. Similarities in the microstructure of the tensile test specimens and the hot tears indicate that hot tearing can be simulated by performing tensile tests at semisolid temperatures. The experimental data were compared with existing hot tearing models and it was concluded that the latter are restricted to relatively high liquid fractions because they do not take into account the existence of solid bridges in the crack.

  12. Assessment of tear osmolarity and other dry eye parameters in post-LASIK eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Ziad; Szalai, Eszter; Berta, Andras; Modis, Laszlo; Nemeth, Gabor

    2013-07-01

    To assess the tear osmolarity using the TearLab device after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) and to compare the values with those obtained by traditional tear film tests before and after the procedure. Thirty eyes of 15 refractive surgery candidates (5 men and 10 women of mean age: 30.55 ± 11.79 years) were examined. Using a special questionnaire (Ocular Surface Disease Index), subjective dry eye complaints were evaluated, and then, the tear osmolarity was measured with the TearLab system (TearLab Corporation) and conventional dry eye tests were carried out. Examinations were performed preoperatively and at 1, 30, and 60 days after the surgery. The mean value of tear osmolarity was 303.62 ± 12.29 mOsm/L before the surgery and 303.58 ± 20.14 mOsm/L at 60 days after the treatment (P = 0.69). Mean lid parallel conjunctival folds value was 0.68 ± 0.68 before the procedure and 0.58 ± 0.65 subsequent to surgery (P = 0.25). Meibomian gland dysfunction was not detected. No significant deviation was observed in the values of Schirmer test, corneal staining, tear break-up time, and lid parallel conjunctival folds when compared with postoperatively obtained values during the follow-up period (P > 0.05). During LASIK flap creation, intact corneal innervation is damaged, and the ocular surface lacrimal functional unit can be impaired. In our study, no abnormal dry eye test results were observed before or after the procedure. Based on our results, LASIK treatment is safe for dry eye involving the administration of adequate artificial tears for a minimum of 3 months.

  13. Cytokine and chemokine levels in tears from healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreño, Ester; Enríquez-de-Salamanca, Amalia; Tesón, Marisa; García-Vázquez, Carmen; Stern, Michael E; Whitcup, Scott M; Calonge, Margarita

    2010-11-01

    There is growing evidence for the existence of an 'immune tone' in normal tears. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of a large panel of cytokines and chemokines in tears obtained from healthy subjects. These levels can then serve as baseline values for comparison with patients suffering from ocular surface diseases. Nine healthy subjects participated in this study, and normal ocular surface health was documented by the results of a dry eye questionnaire, Schirmer strip wetting, and vital staining of the cornea. Four microliters of tears were collected from each eye and analysed separately with multiplex bead-based assays for the concentration of 30 cytokines and chemokines. Twenty-five cytokines/chemokines were detected. CCL11/Eotaxin1, GM-CSF, G-CSF, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13, IL-12p70, IL-15, CX3CL1/Fractalkine, TNF-α, epidermal growth factor, and CCL4/MIP-1β were present at 5-100 pg/ml. IL-1β, IL-6, IL-7A, CXCL8/IL-8, and CCL2/MCP-1 were present at 100-400 pg/ml. IL-1Ra, CXCL10/IP-10 and vascular endothelial growth factor were present at more than 1000 pg/ml. Multiplex bead-based assays are convenient for cytokine/chemokine detection in tears. Fracktalkine has been detected in human healthy tears for the first time. The knowledge of cytokine/chemokine concentrations in tears from normal subjects is an important reference for further comparison with patients suffering from ocular surface diseases. Variability in their levels can reflect a phenomenon of potential importance for the understanding of the ocular surface cytokine pattern. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Acta Ophthalmol.

  14. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE HUMAN MIND IN TWO FILMS: PI AND A BEAUTIFUL MIND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Aziz Göksel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a semiotic reading and the comparison of the films Pi and Beautiful Mind is made from various aspects. The study makes use of semiotics and attempts to analyze and match mutually, the verbal signifiers and their signifieds, contained in the films. Some common attributes of these two films and the contemporary character of the sign (signification types, determines the field of interest of the study. The fact that the “human mind” takes place as a major theme in both works, paves the way for the selection of the research material. The findings accessed through the research, shed light on the interpretation of the social, scientific and cultural events of the so-called informtion age -those can be qualified as a revolution- in the last decades.

  15. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE HUMAN MIND IN TWO FILMS: PI AND A BEAUTIFUL MIND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Aziz Göksel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a semiotic reading and the comparison of the films Pi and Beautiful Mind is made from various aspects. The study makes use of semiotics and attempts to analyze and match mutually, the verbal signifiers and their signifieds, contained in the films. Some common attributes of these two films and the contemporary character of the sign (signification types, determines the field of interest of the study. The fact that the “human mind” takes place as a major theme in both works, paves the way for the selection of the research material. The findings accessed through the research, shed light on the interpretation of the social, scientific and cultural events of the so-called informtion age -those can be qualified as a revolution- in the last decades

  16. Trabecular microstructure and surface changes in the greater tuberosity in rotator cuff tears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Yebin; Zhao, Jenny; Ouyang, Xiaolong; Genant, Harry K.; Holsbeeck, Marnix T. van; Flynn, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Objective. When planning surgery in patients with rotator cuff tear, strength of bone at the tendon insertion and trabecular bone structure in the greater tuberosity are usually taken into consideration. We investigated radiographic changes in bone structure of the greater tuberosity in rotator cuff tears.Design. Twenty-two human cadaveric shoulders from subjects ranging from 55 to 75 years of age were obtained. The integrity of the rotator cuff was examined by sonography to determine if it is intact without any tear, or torn partially or completely. The humeral head was sectioned in 3 mm thick coronal slab sections and microradiographed. After digitization of the microradiographs and imaging processing with in-house semi-automated image processing software tools developed using software interfaces on a Sun workstation, the trabecular histomorphometrical structural parameters and connectivity in the greater tuberosity were quantified. The degenerative changes on the surface of the greater tuberosity were interpreted blindly by 2 independent readers.Results. Among the 22 shoulder specimens, the rotator cuff was found intact in 10 shoulders, partially in 7 and fully torn in 5. Statistically significant loss in apparent trabecular bone volume fraction, number of trabecular nodes, and number of trabecular branches, and a statistically significant increase in apparent trabecular separation and number of trabecular free ends were found in the greater tuberosity of the shoulders with tears. The loss was greater in association with full tear than in partial tear. Thickening of the cortical margin of the enthesis, irregularity of its surface, and calcification beyond the tidemark were observed in 2 (20%) shoulders with intact rotator cuff, in 6 (86%) shoulders with partial tear, and in 5 (100%) shoulders with full tear.Conclusions. Rotator cuff tears are associated with degenerative changes on the bone surface and with disuse osteopenia of the greater tuberosity

  17. Plate Tearing by a Cone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    1998-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with steady-state plate tearing by a cone. This is a scenario where a cone is forced through a ductile metal plate with a constant lateral tip penetration in a motion in the plane of the plate. The considered process could be an idealisation of the damage, which...... as for the out-of-plane reaction force. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  18. In vitro adhesion of human dermal fibroblasts on iron cross-linked alginate films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machida-Sano, Ikuko; Namiki, Hideo; Matsuda, Yasushi

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the potential of alginate film incorporating ferric ions as a gelling agent (Fe-alginate) in comparison with that incorporating calcium ions (Ca-alginate) as a scaffold for culturing normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF). NHDF adhered to Fe-alginate and proliferated well, but no growth of the cells was observed on Ca-alginate. Since vitronectin and fibronectin play pivotal roles in cellular adhesion, their participation in NHDF behavior on alginate surfaces was investigated. We found that vitronectin was a critical element for initial attachment and spreading of NHDF on Fe-alginate. The surface properties of both alginate films were characterized in terms of protein adsorption ability and surface wettability, and it was revealed that Fe-alginate film adsorbed a significantly higher amount of proteins, including vitronectin and fibronectin, and had a higher surface hydrophobicity than Ca-alginate film. Moreover, under serum-free conditions, only a small number of NHDF were able to attach to the surface of Fe-alginate. Fe-alginate appeared to provide an appropriate surface for cellular attachment by adsorption of serum proteins such as vitronectin. These results suggest that Fe-alginate can serve as a scaffold for human fibroblasts and may be useful for tissue engineering research and other biomedical applications.

  19. Tear and decohesion of bovine pericardial tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobaruela, Almudena; Elices, Manuel; Bourges, Jean Yves; Rojo, Francisco Javier; Atienza, José Miguel; Guinea, Gustavo

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate quantitatively the fracture-by tear and delamination-of bovine pericardium tissues which are usually employed for the manufacture of bioprosthetic valves. A large number of samples (77) were tested in root-to-apex and circumferential directions, according to a standardised tear test (ASTM D 1938). Before performing the tear test, some samples were subjected to 1000 cycles of fatigue to a maximum stress of 3MPa. Fracture toughness of tearing and delamination were computed by following a simple fracture model. The study showed significantly lower values of delamination toughness compared with tear delamination. Moreover, tear forces were different in each test direction, revealing a clear orthotropic behaviour. All these results, as well as the testing procedure, could be of value for future research in the physiological function of pericardium tissues and clinical applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Tearing mode saturation with finite pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.K.

    1988-01-01

    With finite pressure, the saturation of the current-driven tearing mode is obtained in three-dimensional nonlinear resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations for Tokamak plasmas. To effectively focus on the tearing modes, the perturbed pressure effects are excluded while the finite equilibrium pressure effects are retained. With this model, the linear growth rates of the tearing modes are found to be very insensitive to the equilibrium pressure increase. The nonlinear aspects of the tearing modes, however, are found to be very sensitive to the pressure increase in that the saturation level of the nonlinear harmonics of the tearing modes increases monotonically with the pressure rise. The increased level is associated with enhanced tearing island sizes or increased stochastic magnetic field region. (author)

  1. MRI of meniscal bucket-handle tears

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magee, T.H.; Hinson, G.W. [Menorah Medical Center, Overland Park, KS (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    1998-09-01

    A meniscal bucket-handle tear is a tear with an attached fragment displaced from the meniscus of the knee joint. Low sensitivity of MRI for detection of bucket-handle tears (64% as compared with arthroscopy) has been reported previously. We report increased sensitivity for detecting bucket-handle tears with the use of coronal short tau inversion recovery (STIR) images. Results. By using four criteria for diagnosis of meniscal bucket-handle tears, our overall sensitivity compared with arthroscopy was 93% (28 of 30 meniscal bucket-handle tears seen at arthroscopy were detected by MRI). The meniscal fragment was well visualized in all 28 cases on coronal STIR images. The double posterior cruciate ligament sign was seen in 8 of 30 cases, the flipped meniscus was seen in 10 of 30 cases and a fragment in the intercondylar notch was seen in 18 of 30 cases. (orig.)

  2. Percentage Level of Tannin fur Rabbit for Leather Concerning Stitch Tearing Strength, Tearing Strength and Flexibility

    OpenAIRE

    Mustakim Mustakim; Aris Sri Widati; Lisa Purnaningtyas

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out the appropriate of tannin level for rabbit fur leather concerning stitch tearing strength, tearing strength, and flexibility. The result were expected to contribute good information for the society, leather craftsman, and further researchers about fur leather tanning especially rabbit fur leather with tannin concerning stitch tearing strength, tearing strength and flexibility. The material that used were 12 pieces of four months of rabbit skin. The re...

  3. Human exhaled air energy harvesting with specific reference to PVDF film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Rajesh Mhetre

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Spirometer is a medical equipment used to measure lung capacity of a human being. It leads to diagnosis of several diseases. The researchers worked on harvesting energy from human exhalation while carrying out measurements using spirometer. A prototype has been developed using piezoelectric material i.e. PVDF (polyvinylidene fluoride film as sensor. This paper presents the methodology and experimentation carried out for exhaled air energy harvesting using PVDF film. Experimental results obtained are encouraging. Measurements are also carried out on various subjects having different height, weight, age and gender. Data analysis shows variation in the energy harvested with different physical parameters and gender. Experimentation shows that voltage generated due to exhaled air is promising for harvesting.

  4. Artificial tears potpourri: a literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshirfar, Majid; Pierson, Kasey; Hanamaikai, Kamalani; Santiago-Caban, Luis; Muthappan, Valliammai; Passi, Samuel F

    2014-01-01

    Numerous brands and types of artificial tears are available on the market for the treatment of dysfunctional tear syndrome. Past literature has focused on comparing the components of these products on patient’s clinical improvement. The wide array of products on the market presents challenges to both clinicians and patients when trying to choose between available tear replacement therapies. Different formulations affect patients based on etiology and severity of disease. In order to provide an unbiased comparison between available tear replacement therapies, we conducted a literature review of existing studies and National Institutes of Health clinical trials on commercially available, brand name artificial tears. Outcomes evaluated in each study, as well as the percent of patients showing clinical and symptomatic improvement, were analyzed. Fifty-one studies evaluating different brands of artificial tears, and their efficacy were identified. Out of the 51 studies, 18 were comparison studies testing brand name artificial tears directly against each other. Nearly all formulations of artificial tears provided significant benefit to patients with dysfunctional tear syndrome, but some proved superior to others. From the study data, a recommended treatment flowchart was derived. PMID:25114502

  5. Lipid order, saturation and surface property relationships: a study of human meibum saturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgil, Poonam; Borchman, Douglas; Yappert, Marta C; Duran, Diana; Cox, Gregory W; Smith, Ryan J; Bhola, Rahul; Dennis, Gary R; Whitehall, John S

    2013-11-01

    Tear film stability decreases with age however the cause(s) of the instability are speculative. Perhaps the more saturated meibum from infants may contribute to tear film stability. The meibum lipid phase transition temperature and lipid hydrocarbon chain order at physiological temperature (33 °C) decrease with increasing age. It is reasonable that stronger lipid-lipid interactions could stabilize the tear film since these interactions must be broken for tear break up to occur. In this study, meibum from a pool of adult donors was saturated catalytically. The influence of saturation on meibum hydrocarbon chain order was determined by infrared spectroscopy. Meibum is in an anhydrous state in the meibomian glands and on the surface of the eyelid. The influence of saturation on the surface properties of meibum was determined using Langmuir trough technology. Saturation of native human meibum did not change the minimum or maximum values of hydrocarbon chain order so at temperatures far above or below the phase transition of human meibum, saturation does not play a role in ordering or disordering the lipid hydrocarbon chains. Saturation did increase the phase transition temperature in human meibum by over 20 °C, a relatively high amount. Surface pressure-area studies showing the late take off and higher maximum surface pressure of saturated meibum compared to native meibum suggest that the saturated meibum film is quite molecularly ordered (stiff molecular arrangement) and elastic (molecules are able to rearrange during compression and expansion) compared with native meibum films which are more fluid agreeing with the infrared spectroscopic results of this study. In saturated meibum, the formation of compacted ordered islands of lipids above the surfactant layer would be expected to decrease the rate of evaporation compared to fluid and more loosely packed native meibum. Higher surface pressure observed with films of saturated meibum compared to native meibum

  6. Contact geometry at the undersurface of the acromion with and without a rotator cuff tear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S B; Itoi, E; O'Driscoll, S W; An, K N

    2001-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the difference in contact geometry at the undersurface of acromion in shoulders with and without a rotator cuff (RC) tear. Case-control study. Forty fresh cadaveric shoulders (average age at death, 61 years) without gross osteoarthritic changes were divided into the intact RC group (n = 20) and the RC tear group (n = 20). Clinical impingement was simulated by compressing the humeral head and the intact portion of the RC against the coracoacromial arch with an axial compressive force of 25 kg while the humerus was held abducted 20 degrees in the scapular plane. The contact pattern between the acromion and the RC was measured with Fuji Prescale super low-pressure-sensitive film (Fuji Photo Film Co, Ltd, Tokyo, Japan). The imprint image was analyzed using Global Lab image software (Automatix, Marlboro, MA). The percentage of the maximum anteroposterior dimension of the imprint on Fuji film to the anteroposterior diameter of the acromial undersurface was 29% +/- 9% in intact RC shoulders, and 39% +/- 13% in shoulders with an RC tear (P >.05). The percentage of the maximum mediolateral dimension of the imprint to the mediolateral diameter of the corresponding part of the acromial undersurface was 27% +/- 12% in intact RC shoulders, and 48% +/- 11% in shoulders with an RC tear. This difference was statistically significant (P RC in the anteroposterior dimension, which might be related to the appearance in supraspinatus outlet view, was not significantly different between shoulders with and without an RC tear. These findings suggest that factors other than acromial shape play a significant role in the pathogenesis of RC tears. The implication regarding the role of acromioplasty remains to be clarified.

  7. Comparison of a novel bone-tendon allograft with a human dermis-derived patch for repair of chronic large rotator cuff tears using a canine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew J; Cook, James L; Kuroki, Keiichi; Jayabalan, Prakash S; Cook, Cristi R; Pfeiffer, Ferris M; Waters, Nicole P

    2012-02-01

    This study tested a bone-tendon allograft versus human dermis patch for reconstructing chronic rotator cuff repair by use of a canine model. Mature research dogs (N = 15) were used. Radiopaque wire was placed in the infraspinatus tendon (IST) before its transection. Three weeks later, radiographs showed IST retraction. Each dog then underwent 1 IST treatment: debridement (D), direct repair of IST to bone with a suture bridge and human dermis patch augmentation (GJ), or bone-tendon allograft (BT) reconstruction. Outcome measures included lameness grading, radiographs, and ultrasonographic assessment. Dogs were killed 6 months after surgery and both shoulders assessed biomechanically and histologically. BT dogs were significantly (P = .01) less lame than the other groups. BT dogs had superior bone-tendon, tendon, and tendon-muscle integrity compared with D and GJ dogs. Biomechanical testing showed that the D group had significantly (P = .05) more elongation than the other groups whereas BT had stiffness and elongation characteristics that most closely matched normal controls. Radiographically, D and GJ dogs showed significantly more retraction than BT dogs (P = .003 and P = .045, respectively) Histologically, GJ dogs had lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates, tendon degeneration and hypocellularity, and poor tendon-bone integration. BT dogs showed complete incorporation of allograft bone into host bone, normal bone-tendon junctions, and well-integrated allograft tendon. The bone-tendon allograft technique re-establishes a functional IST bone-tendon-muscle unit and maintains integrity of repair in this model. Clinical trials using this bone-tendon allograft technique are warranted. Copyright © 2012 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) hydrogel-based shape-adjustable polyimide films triggered by near-human-body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanqing Cui; Xuemin Du; Juan Wang; Tianhong Tang; Tianzhun Wu

    2016-08-01

    Hydrogel-based shape-adjustable films were successfully fabricated via grafting poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) onto one side of polyimide (PI) films. The prepared PI-g-PNIPAM films exhibited rapid, reversible, and repeatable bending/unbending property by heating to near-human-body temperature (37 °C) or cooling to 25 °C. The excellent property of PI-g-PNIPAM films resulted from a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of PNIPAM at about 32 °C. Varying the thickness of PNIPAM hydrogel layer regulated the thermo-responsive shape bending degree and response speed of PI-g-PNIPAM films. The thermo-induced shrinkage of hydrogel layers can tune the curvature of PI films, which have potential applications in the field of wearable and implantable devices.

  9. The Relationship Between Tear Ferning Patterns and Non-invasive Tear Break-up Time in Normal Asian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharanjeet-Kaur; Ho, Chien Yee; Mutalib, Haliza Abdul; Ghazali, Ahmad Rohi

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between tear ferning patterns (TFP) and non-invasive tear break-up time (NIBUT) in normal Asian subjects. One hundred and forty-five adults with no ocular surface disorders were recruited. TFP and NIBUT were determined. Tears were collected using a capillary tube and allowed to air dry at room temperature for 10min. TFP was later observed using a light microscope and classified according to Rolando's classification. Measurement for NIBUT was obtained using a Tearscope with the slit lamp magnification. It was found that there is no significant difference between gender in TFP (Z=-1.77, P>.05) and NIBUT (Z=-1.475, P>.05). There is also no significant difference between Malay, Chinese, Indian, and other races in TFP, (H(3)=4.85, P>.05) and NIBUT (H(3)=2.18, P>.05). However, there is a significant difference between age groups of 20-29, 30-39, 40-49,and 50-60 years old in both TFP (H(3)=28.25, P<.01) and NIBUT (H(3)=36.50, P<.001). Spearman's correlation showed there was a significant relationship between TFP and NIBUT (r=-0.55, P<.001), age and NIBUT (r=-0.50, P<.001), age and TFP (r=0.41, P<.001), McMonnies score and NIBUT (r=-0.40, P<.001), McMonnies score and TFP (r=0.31, P<.001), as well as age and McMonnies score (r=0.52, P<.001). TFP and NIBUT was age dependent but not gender and race dependent. Older subjects had higher grade of TFP and McMonnies questionnaire score but lower NIBUT value. TFP and NIBUT can be used to assess the tear film quality. Copyright © 2015 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of commercial glucometer test strips for potential measurement of glucose in tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Kyoung Ha; Jensen, Gary C; Balijepalli, Anant S; Cohan, Bruce E; Meyerhoff, Mark E

    2014-02-04

    Tear glucose measurements have been suggested as a potential alternative to blood glucose monitoring for diabetic patients. While previous work has reported that there is a correlation between blood and tear glucose levels in humans, this link has not been thoroughly established and additional clinical studies are needed. Herein, we evaluate the potential of using commercial blood glucose test strips to measure glucose in tears. Of several blood glucose strips evaluated, only one brand exhibits the low detection limit required for quantitating glucose in tears. Calibration of these strips in the range of 0-100 μM glucose with an applied potential of 150 mV to the working electrode yields a sensitivity of 0.127 nA/μM and a limit of quantitation (LOQ) of 9 μM. The strips also exhibit ≤13% error (n = 3) for 25, 50, and 75 μM glucose in the presence of 10 μM acetaminophen, 100 μM ascorbic acid, and 100 μM uric acid. Measurements of glucose in tears from nine normal (nondiabetic) fasting human subjects using strips yielded glucose values within the range of 5-148 μM (mean = 47 μM, median = 43 μM), similar to those for human tears reported by others with more complex LC-MS methods. The glucometer strip method could facilitate more clinical studies to determine whether tear glucose and blood glucose levels sufficiently correlate for application to routine measurements in tears to supplement blood glucose testing. This would be especially helpful for children, adolescents, other Type 1 diabetics, and also for Type 2 diabetics who require treatment with insulin and cannot tolerate multiple finger sticks per day.

  11. A review on hot tearing of magnesium alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangfeng Song

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hot tearing is often a major casting defect in magnesium alloys and has a significant impact on the quality of their casting products. Hot tearing of magnesium alloys is a complex solidification phenomenon which is still not fully understood, it is of great importance to investigate the hot tearing behaviour of magnesium alloys. This review attempts to summarize the investigations on hot tearing of magnesium alloys over the past decades. The hot tearing criteria including recently developed Kou's criterion are summarized and compared. The numeric simulation and assessing methods of hot tearing, factors influencing hot tearing, and hot tearing susceptibility (HTS of magnesium alloys are discussed.

  12. Influence of Ophthalmic Solutions on Tear Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeyasu, Chika; Yamada, Masakazu; Akune, Yoko

    2016-11-01

    Tear fluids are a mixture of secretions derived from lacrimal glands, accessory lacrimal glands, conjunctiva, and meibomian glands. Compositional changes to tears occur in the normal state and during ocular surface disease, such as dry eye conditions. We have investigated compositional changes to tears after topical application of ophthalmic solutions, with regard to tear-specific proteins (secretory immunoglobulin A, lactoferrin, lipocalin-1, and lysozyme) and ocular surface mucin in normal and dry eye conditions using high-performance liquid chromatography. After application of saline solution (0.9% sodium chloride) in normal subjects, transient but significant decreases in all tear components were observed. The recovery of protein concentrations took up to 30 minutes and lasted longer when the saline solution was applied more frequently. When applying ophthalmic solutions, a balance between washout and dilutional effects should be considered in addition to the therapeutic effect. Investigation of the effect of diquafosol solution (3%) in normal subjects revealed a significant increase in sialic acid concentration, a marker of ocular mucin, at 5 minutes after application, whereas a significant decrease was observed with saline. This result indicates the accelerated secretion of mucin from ocular tissues induced by diquafosol. A clinical study to determine the efficacy of diquafosol in patients with dry eye revealed improvements in tear breakup time, keratoconjunctival staining scores, and Schirmer test score, accompanied by an increase in sialic acid concentration in tears. Investigating normal and dry eye conditions through tear analysis may clarify the pathophysiology of dry eye conditions and support the efficacy of treatments.

  13. The social impact of emotional tears

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.; van de Ven, N.; van der Velden, Y.

    2016-01-01

    The question what specific functions the production of emotional tears fulfills has received only limited attention of behavioral scientists. We report the results of two studies on the social impact of emotional tears. In Study 1 (96 Dutch females), perceived helplessness and felt connectedness

  14. Detecting meniscal tears in primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoeker, B.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Although meniscal tears are a very common phenomenon uncertainty exists about the diagnosis and treatment of meniscal tears in primary care. This thesis aims to provide evidence for general practitioners and physical therapists regarding the diagnosis and management of patients with a suspected

  15. Identification of fatty acids and fatty acid amides in human meibomian gland secretions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Kelly K; Ham, Bryan M; Nichols, Jason J; Ziegler, Corrie; Green-Church, Kari B

    2007-01-01

    The complex superficial lipid layer of the tear film functions to prevent evaporation and maintain tear stability. Although classes of lipids found in the tear film have been reported, individual lipid species are currently being studied with more sophisticated. The purpose of this work was to show the identification of fatty acids and the fatty acid amides in human meibomian gland secretions by using electrospray mass spectrometry. methods. Human meibomian gland secretions (meibum) were analyzed by electrospray quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (positive- and negative-ion mode). Accurate mass determination and collision-induced dissociation of meibum, and lipid standards were used to identify lipid species. Mass analysis of meibum in an acidic chloroform-methanol solution in positive-ion mode revealed a mass peak of m/z 282.3, which was identified as the protonated molecule of oleamide [C(18)H(35)NO+H](+). The high-resolution mass analysis of the m/z 282.2788 peak (oleamide) demonstrated a mass accuracy of 3.2 parts per million (ppm). Collision-induced dissociation of this species from meibum, compared with an oleamide standard, confirmed its identification. Myristic, palmitic, stearic, and oleic free fatty acids were identified in a similar manner, as were the other fatty acid amides (myristamide, palmitamide, stearamide, and erucamide). The findings indicate that oleamide (cis-9-octadecenamide), an endogenous fatty acid primary amide, is a predominant component of meibum when examined by electrospray mass spectrometry. The novel finding of oleamide and other members of the fatty acid amide family in the tear film could lead to additional insights into the role of fatty acid amide activity in human biological systems and may indicate a new function for this lipid class of molecules in ocular surface signaling and/or in the maintenance of the complex tear film.

  16. Deltoid muscle and tendon tears in patients with chronic rotator cuff tears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilaslan, Hakan; Recht, Michael P.; Iannotti, Joseph P.

    2007-01-01

    To describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of tears of the deltoid muscle and tendon in patients with rotator cuff tears and without a prior history of shoulder surgery. Deltoid tears diagnosed on MR examinations were prospectively recorded between February 2003 through June 2004. The images of these patients were then retrospectively reviewed to determine the location of the deltoid tear, the presence of rotator cuff tears, tendon retraction, muscle atrophy, degree of humeral head subluxation, bony erosive changes involving the undersurface of the acromion, and the presence of edema or fluid-like signal intensity in the deltoid muscle and overlying subcutaneous tissues. There were 24 (0.3%) patients with deltoid tears; nine men and 15 women. The age range was 54 to 87 (average 73) years. The right side was involved in 20 cases, and the left in four cases. Fifteen patients had full thickness and nine had partial thickness tears of the deltoid. Shoulder pain was the most common presenting symptom. The physical examination revealed a defect in the region of the deltoid in two patients. Nineteen patients had tears in the muscle belly near the musculotendinous junction, and five had avulsion of the tendon from the acromial origin. Full thickness rotator cuff tears were present in all of the patients, and 22 patients had associated muscle atrophy. Subcutaneous edema and fluid-like signal was present in 15 patients. Tears of the deltoid muscle or tendon is an unusual finding, but they can be seen in patients with chronic massive rotator cuff tears. Partial thickness tears tend to involve the undersurface of the deltoid muscle and tendon. Associated findings such as intramuscular cyst or ganglion in the deltoid muscle belly and subcutaneous edema or fluid-like signal overlying the deltoid in a patient with a rotator cuff tear should raise the suspicion of a deltoid tear. (orig.)

  17. Deltoid muscle and tendon tears in patients with chronic rotator cuff tears

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilaslan, Hakan; Recht, Michael P. [Cleveland Clinic, Musculoskeletal Radiology/A21, Division of Radiology, Cleveland, OH (United States); Iannotti, Joseph P. [Cleveland Clinic, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2007-06-15

    To describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of tears of the deltoid muscle and tendon in patients with rotator cuff tears and without a prior history of shoulder surgery. Deltoid tears diagnosed on MR examinations were prospectively recorded between February 2003 through June 2004. The images of these patients were then retrospectively reviewed to determine the location of the deltoid tear, the presence of rotator cuff tears, tendon retraction, muscle atrophy, degree of humeral head subluxation, bony erosive changes involving the undersurface of the acromion, and the presence of edema or fluid-like signal intensity in the deltoid muscle and overlying subcutaneous tissues. There were 24 (0.3%) patients with deltoid tears; nine men and 15 women. The age range was 54 to 87 (average 73) years. The right side was involved in 20 cases, and the left in four cases. Fifteen patients had full thickness and nine had partial thickness tears of the deltoid. Shoulder pain was the most common presenting symptom. The physical examination revealed a defect in the region of the deltoid in two patients. Nineteen patients had tears in the muscle belly near the musculotendinous junction, and five had avulsion of the tendon from the acromial origin. Full thickness rotator cuff tears were present in all of the patients, and 22 patients had associated muscle atrophy. Subcutaneous edema and fluid-like signal was present in 15 patients. Tears of the deltoid muscle or tendon is an unusual finding, but they can be seen in patients with chronic massive rotator cuff tears. Partial thickness tears tend to involve the undersurface of the deltoid muscle and tendon. Associated findings such as intramuscular cyst or ganglion in the deltoid muscle belly and subcutaneous edema or fluid-like signal overlying the deltoid in a patient with a rotator cuff tear should raise the suspicion of a deltoid tear. (orig.)

  18. Tearing mode instability due to anomalous resistivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuya, Atsushi; Itoh, Sanae I.; Yagi, Masatoshi

    2000-01-01

    Tearing mode instability in the presence of microscopic truculence is investigates. The effects of microscopic turbulence on tearing mode are taken as drags which are calculated by one-point renormalization method and mean-field approximation. These effects are reduced to effective diffusivities in reduced MHD equations. Using these equations, the stability analyses of the tearing mode are performed. It is shown that a finite amplitude of fluctuation enhances the growth rate of tearing mode. For very high values of turbulent diffusivities, marginally stable state exists. The effects of each turbulent diffusivity on mode stability are examined near marginal stability boundary. Parameter dependence of the resistive ballooning mode turbulence on tearing mode is analyzed as an example. (author)

  19. Rapid quantification of free cholesterol in tears using direct insertion/electron ionization-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaojia Eric; Korth, John; Brown, Simon H J; Mitchell, Todd W; Truscott, Roger J W; Blanksby, Stephen J; Willcox, Mark D P; Zhao, Zhenjun

    2013-12-09

    To establish a simple and rapid analytical method, based on direct insertion/electron ionization-mass spectrometry (DI/EI-MS), for measuring free cholesterol in tears from humans and rabbits. A stable-isotope dilution protocol employing DI/EI-MS in selected ion monitoring mode was developed and validated. It was used to quantify the free cholesterol content in human and rabbit tear extracts. Tears were collected from adult humans (n = 15) and rabbits (n = 10) and lipids extracted. Screening, full-scan (m/z 40-600) DI/EI-MS analysis of crude tear extracts showed that diagnostic ions located in the mass range m/z 350 to 400 were those derived from free cholesterol, with no contribution from cholesterol esters. DI/EI-MS data acquired using selected ion monitoring (SIM) were analyzed for the abundance ratios of diagnostic ions with their stable isotope-labeled analogues arising from the D6-cholesterol internal standard. Standard curves of good linearity were produced and an on-probe limit of detection of 3 ng (at 3:1 signal to noise) and limit of quantification of 8 ng (at 10:1 signal to noise). The concentration of free cholesterol in human tears was 15 ± 6 μg/g, which was higher than in rabbit tears (10 ± 5 μg/g). A stable-isotope dilution DI/EI-SIM method for free cholesterol quantification without prior chromatographic separation was established. Using this method demonstrated that humans have higher free cholesterol levels in their tears than rabbits. This is in agreement with previous reports. This paper provides a rapid and reliable method to measure free cholesterol in small-volume clinical samples.

  20. Lessons from the biophysics of interfaces: Lung surfactant and tear fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rantamaki, A.; Telenius, J.; Koivuniemi, A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide insight into the biophysical properties and functions of tear fluid and lung surfactant - two similar fluids covering the epithelium of two distinctive organs. Both fluids form a layer-like structure that essentially comprise of an aqueous layer next......-active function of the fluid film. The lipid layer of lung surfactant comprises mainly of phospholipids, especially phosphatidylcholines, and only small amounts of non-polar lipids, mainly cholesterol. In contrast, tear fluid lipid layer comprises of a mixture of polar and non-polar lipids. However, the relative...... proportion and the spectrum of different polar and non-polar lipids seem to be more extensive in tear fluid than in lung surfactant. The differing lipid compositions generate distinctive lipid layer structures. Despite the structural differences, these lipid layers decrease the surface tension of the air...

  1. Changes in Contact Area in Meniscus Horizontal Cleavage Tears Subjected to Repair and Resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beamer, Brandon S; Walley, Kempland C; Okajima, Stephen; Manoukian, Ohan S; Perez-Viloria, Miguel; DeAngelis, Joseph P; Ramappa, Arun J; Nazarian, Ara

    2017-03-01

    To assess the changes in tibiofemoral contact pressure and contact area in human knees with a horizontal cleavage tear before and after treatment. Ten human cadaveric knees were tested. Pressure sensors were placed under the medial meniscus and the knees were loaded at twice the body weight for 20 cycles at 0°, 10°, and 20° of flexion. Contact area and pressure were recorded for the intact meniscus, the meniscus with a horizontal cleavage tear, after meniscal repair, after partial meniscectomy (single leaflet), and after subtotal meniscectomy (double leaflet). The presence of a horizontal cleavage tear significantly increased average peak contact pressure and reduced effective average tibiofemoral contact area at all flexion angles tested compared with the intact state (P contact pressure after creation of the horizontal cleavage tear. Repairing the horizontal cleavage tear restored peak contact pressures and areas to within 15% of baseline, statistically similar to the intact state at all angles tested (P contact pressure and reduced average contact area at all degrees of flexion compared with the intact state (P contact area and a significant elevation in contact pressure. These changes may accelerate joint degeneration. A suture-based repair of these horizontal cleavage tears returns the contact area and contact pressure to nearly normal, whereas both partial and subtotal meniscectomy lead to significant reductions in contact area and significant elevations in contact pressure within the knee. Repairing horizontal cleavage tears may lead to improved clinical outcomes by preserving meniscal tissue and the meniscal function. Understanding contact area and peak contact pressure resulting from differing strategies for treating horizontal cleavage tears will allow the surgeon to evaluate the best strategy for treating his or her patients who present with this meniscal pathology. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier

  2. Percentage Level of Tannin fur Rabbit for Leather Concerning Stitch Tearing Strength, Tearing Strength and Flexibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustakim Mustakim

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to find out the appropriate of tannin level for rabbit fur leather concerning stitch tearing strength, tearing strength, and flexibility. The result were expected to contribute good information for the society, leather craftsman, and further researchers about fur leather tanning especially rabbit fur leather with tannin concerning stitch tearing strength, tearing strength and flexibility. The material that used were 12 pieces of four months of rabbit skin. The research method was Completely Randomized Design, consist of three treatments of tannin, they were: M1 (mimosa 15%, M2 (mimosa 20%, and M3 (mimosa 25%. Each of treatment hold on four repetition, the variables which measured were stitch tearing strength, tearing strength, and flexibility of fur leather. Data were  analysed by analysis variance followed by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. The result of this research indicate that the use level of tannin give significant influence (P<0.05 among stitch tearing strength, tearing strength. It gave a very significant influence (P<0.01 for flexibility of rabbit fur leather. Based on the result, can be concluded that 25 % of tannin (mimosa, produce the best  result on stitch tearing strength and tearing strength. The increase of tannin offer will decrease the flexibility of fur leather but the lowest tannin produced the best flexibility of fur leather (15 percent. The best quality of rabbit fur leather produced by 25 % of tannin.   Keywords : leather, tannin, quality

  3. Effects of punctal occlusion on global tear proteins in patients with dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Louis; Zhou, Lei; Beuerman, Roger; Simonyi, Susan; Hollander, David A; Stern, Michael E

    2017-10-01

    To investigate effects of punctal occlusion on global tear protein levels in patients with dry eye. In this prospective, longitudinal, single-center study, nonabsorbable punctal plugs were inserted bilaterally into the lower punctum of 30 patients with moderate dry eye. Dry eye symptoms, fluorescein corneal staining, Schirmer I test, tear film break-up time, and safety were assessed in the more severely affected eye. Tear proteins at weeks 1 and 3 were quantified by iTRAQ relative to baseline preocclusion levels. Of 29 patients who completed the study, 23 (mean age 49.8 years) had sufficient tear samples for analysis. After 3 weeks, punctal occlusion significantly upregulated tear proteins, including glutathione synthase (mean of 1.6-fold, P = 0.01) and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (1.7-fold, P = 0.032) and downregulated cholinergic receptor (neuronal) alpha-7 (0.79-fold, P = 0.039) and lymphocyte cytosolic protein-1 (0.66-fold, P = 0.012). Clustering analysis of global tear proteins revealed two clear profile changes; the first group of patients (cluster 1, n = 10) had a reduction in the inflammatory proteins (e.g., S100A8) and rise in lacrimal proteins supporting the ocular surface (e.g., lysozyme), whereas the second group (cluster 2, n = 13) had an increase in inflammatory proteins and a decrease in lacrimal proteins. Logistic regression analysis revealed that cluster 1 patients had significantly (P = 0.006) lower Schirmer scores at baseline (mean [standard deviation]: 4.3 [4.3] mm) than cluster 2 (6.8 [2.6] mm). Punctal plugs produced a beneficial pattern of tear protein change in patients with relatively low Schirmer scores within 3 weeks of punctal occlusion. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Potential of FTIR spectroscopy for analysis of tears for diagnosis purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travo, Adrian; Paya, Clément; Déléris, Gérard; Colin, Joseph; Mortemousque, Bruno; Forfar, Isabelle

    2014-04-01

    It has been widely reported that the tear film, which is crucially important as a protective barrier of the eye, undergoes biochemical changes as a result of a wide range of ocular pathology. This tends to suggest the possibility of early detection of ocular diseases on the basis of biochemical analysis of tears. However, studies of tears by conventional methods of biomolecular and biochemical analysis are often limited by methodological difficulties. Moreover, such analysis could not be applied in the clinic, where structural and morphological analyses by, mainly, slit-lamp biomicroscopy remains the recommended method. In this study, we assessed, for the first time, the potential of FTIR spectroscopy combined with advanced chemometric processing of spectral data for analysis of raw tears for diagnosis purposes. We first optimized sampling and spectral acquisition (tears collection method, tear sample volume, and preservation of the samples) for accurate spectral measurement. On the basis of the results, we focused our study on the possibility of discriminating tears from normal individuals from those of patients with different ocular pathologies, and showed that the most discriminating spectral range is that corresponding to variations of CH2 and CH3 of lipid aliphatic chains. We also report more subtle discrimination of tears from patients with keratoconus and those from patients with non-specific inflammatory ocular diseases, on the basis of variations in spectral ranges attributed notably to lipid and carbohydrate vibrations. Finally, we also succeeded in distinguishing tears from patients with early-stage and late-stage keratoconus on the basis of spectral features attributed to protein structure. Therefore, this study strongly suggests that FTIR spectral analysis of tears could be developed as a valuable and cost-saving tool for biochemical-based detection of ocular diseases, potentially before the appearance of the first morphological signs of diseases

  5. Antimicrobial role of human meibomian lipids at the ocular surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgil, Poonam

    2014-10-14

    Human meibomian lipids form the outermost lipid layer of the tear film and serve many important functions to maintain its integrity. Although not investigated earlier, these lipids may have antimicrobial properties that help in strengthening the innate host defense of tears at the ocular surface. The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial role of human meibomian lipids. Ocular pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus 31, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 19, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 20, and Serratia marcescens 35, were grown in the presence and absence of human meibomian lipids in an artificial tear solution at the physiological temperature. Viable counts were obtained to note the number of bacteria surviving the treatment with meibomian lipids. Bacterial cells were imaged using scanning electron microscopy to observe the damages caused by meibomian lipids. Viable count results showed that in the presence of meibomian lipids, growth of all bacteria was considerably lower. Scanning electron microscopy showed that meibomian lipids caused extensive cellular damage to bacteria as manifested in smaller size, loss of aggregation, abnormal phenotype, cellular distortion, damaged cell wall, and cell lysis. This is the first-ever report of the antimicrobial role of human meibomian lipids. These lipids possess antimicrobial properties against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and are involved in the innate host defense of tears in protecting the ocular surface against microbial pathogens. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  6. Kinetic theory of tearing instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazeltine, R.D.; Dobrott, D.; Wang, T.S.

    1975-01-01

    The guiding-center kinetic equation with Fokker-Planck collision term is used to study, in cylindrical geometry, a class of dissipative instabilities of which the classical tearing mode is an archetype. Variational solution of the kinetic equation obviates the use of an approximate Ohm's law or adiabatic assumption, as used in previous studies, and it provides a dispersive relation which is uniformly valid for any ratio of wave frequency to collision frequency. One result of using the rigorous collision operator is the prediction of a new instability. This instability, driven by the electron temperature gradient, is predicted to occur under the long mean-free path conditions of present tokamak experiments, and has significant features in common with the kink-like oscillations observed in such experiments

  7. The Impact of Visual Guided Order Picking on Ocular Comfort, Ocular Surface and Tear Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Klein-Theyer

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of a visual picking system on ocular comfort, the ocular surface and tear function compared to those of a voice guided picking solution.Prospective, observational, cohort study.Institutional.A total of 25 young asymptomatic volunteers performed commissioning over 10 hours on two consecutive days.The operators were guided in the picking process by two different picking solutions, either visually or by voice while their subjective symptoms and ocular surface and tear function parameters were recorded.The visual analogue scale (VAS values, according to subjective dry eye symptoms, in the visual condition were significantly higher at the end of the commissioning than the baseline measurements. In the voice condition, the VAS values remained stable during the commissioning. The tear break-up time (BUT values declined significantly in the visual condition (pre-task: 16.6 sec and post-task: 9.6 sec in the right eyes, that were exposed to the displays, the left eyes in the visual condition showed only a minor decline, whereas the BUT values in the voice condition remained constant (right eyes or even increased (left eyes over the time. No significant differences in the tear meniscus height values before and after the commissioning were observed in either condition.In our study, the use of visually guided picking solutions was correlated with post-task subjective symptoms and tear film instability.

  8. Adsorption of lysozyme to phospholipid and meibomian lipid monolayer films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgil, Poonam; Torres, Margaux; Millar, Thomas J

    2006-03-15

    It is believed that a lipid layer forms the outer layer of the pre-ocular tear film and this layer helps maintain tear film stability by lowering its surface tension. Proteins of the aqueous layer of the tear film (beneath the lipid layer) may also contribute to reducing surface tension by adsorbing to, or penetrating the lipid layer. The purpose of this study was to compare the penetration of lysozyme, a tear protein, into films of meibomian lipids and phospholipids held at different surface pressures to determine if lysozyme were part of the surface layer of the tear film. Films of meibomian lipids or phospholipids were spread onto the surface of a buffered aqueous subphase. Films were compressed to particular pressures and lysozyme was injected into the subphase. Changes in surface pressure were monitored to determine adsorption or penetration of lysozyme into the surface film. Lysozyme penetrated a meibomian lipid film at all pressures tested (max=20 mN/m). It also penetrated phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylserine or phosphatidylethanolamine lipid films up to a pressure of 20 mN/m. It was not able to penetrate a phosphatidylcholine film at pressures >or=10 mN/m irrespective of the temperature being at 20 or 37 degrees C. However, it was able to penetrate it at very low pressures (<10 mN/m). Epifluorescence microscopy showed that the protein either adsorbs to or penetrates the lipid layer and the pattern of mixing depended upon the lipid at the surface. These results indicate that lysozyme is present at the surface of the tear film where it contributes to decreasing the surface tension by adsorbing and penetrating the meibomian lipids. Thus it helps to stabilize the tear film.

  9. US detection of rotator cuff tear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soble, M.G.; Guay, R.C.; Kaye, A.D.

    1988-01-01

    Between June 1986 and April 1988, 75 patients suspected of having a tear of the rotator cuff underwent shoulder sonography and arthrography. Compared with anthrography, US demonstrated 92% of rotor cuff tears, with a specificity of 84% and a negative predictive value of 95%. In 30 patients who underwent surgery for a rotator cuff tear or other soft-tissue abnormality, sonography demonstrated a sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 73%, while arthrography demonstrated a sensitivity of 87% and specificity of 100%. The above data indicate that US is a useful, noninvasive screening procedure for patients suspected of having rotator cuff injury

  10. Exchange of tears under a contact lens is driven by distortions of the contact lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Kara L; Ross, David S

    2014-12-01

    We studied the flow of the post-lens tear film under a soft contact lens to understand how the design parameters of contact lenses can affect ocular health. When a soft contact lens is inserted, the blinking eyelid causes the lens to stretch in order to conform to the shape of the eye. The deformed contact lens acts to assume its un-deformed shape and thus generates a suction pressure in the post-lens tear film. In consequence, the post-lens tear fluid moves; it responds to the suction pressure. The suction pressure may draw in fresh fluid from the edge of the lens, or it may eject fluid there, as the lens reassumes its un-deformed shape. In this article, we develop a mathematical model of the flow of the post-lens tear fluid in response to the mechanical suction pressure of a deformed contact lens. We predict the amount of exchange of fluid exchange under a contact lens and we explore the influence of the eye's shape on the rate of exchange of fluid. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Surface Hydrophilicity of Poly(l-Lactide Acid Polymer Film Changes the Human Adult Adipose Stem Cell Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Argentati

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Current knowledge indicates that the molecular cross-talk between stem cells and biomaterials guides the stem cells’ fate within a tissue engineering system. In this work, we have explored the effects of the interaction between the poly(l-lactide acid (PLLA polymer film and human adult adipose stem cells (hASCs, focusing on the events correlating the materials’ surface characteristics and the cells’ plasma membrane. hASCs were seeded on films of pristine PLLA polymer and on a PLLA surface modified by the radiofrequency plasma method under oxygen flow (PLLA+O2. Comparative experiments were performed using human bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs and human umbilical matrix stem cells (hUCMSCs. After treatment with oxygen-plasma, the surface of PLLA films became hydrophilic, whereas the bulk properties were not affected. hASCs cultured on pristine PLLA polymer films acquired a spheroid conformation. On the contrary, hASCs seeded on PLLA+O2 film surface maintained the fibroblast-like morphology typically observed on tissue culture polystyrene. This suggests that the surface hydrophilicity is involved in the acquisition of the spheroid conformation. Noteworthy, the oxygen treatment had no effects on hBM-MSC and hUCMSC cultures and both stem cells maintained the same shape observed on PLLA films. This different behavior suggests that the biomaterial-interaction is stem cell specific.

  12. Behavior of a Spontaneously Arising Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cell Line Cultivated on Thin Alginate Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafabadi, Hoda Shams; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila; Ganji, Shahla Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    A cell line spontaneously derived from human retinal pigment epithelium (hRPE) was cultured on alginate film gelatinized with different concentrations of neurobasal cell culture medium (NCCM) to assess its growth and morphological behavior on this naturally occurring polysaccharide. Neonatal human globes were used to isolate hRPE cells. They were cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's-medium-and-Ham's-F12-medium-(DMEM/F12) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). Cultures were continuously studied using phase contrast microscopy. After the nineth passage, cells were characterized through immunocytochemical analysis for Oct4, Chx10, and Pax6 and Ki67 markers. In each well of a 6-well microplate, 1 and 2% weight/volume (w/v) alginate in deionized water was added and gelatinized using 1× and 10× NCCM. hRPE cells were cultured at a density of 2 × 105 cells/well in alginate-coated microplates. After 5 days, hRPE colonies were harvested and re-plated on polystyrene substrates. Morphology and growth of hRPE cultures were determined during the next 2 weeks. The first few passages of the cultures were purely hRPE cells that revealed typical morphological features of the pigmented epithelium. They made spaces, devoid of cells, between hRPE cell monolayer and fill in the unoccupied spaces. They grew faster than native RPE cells and rapidly overgrew. Immunocytochemical test revealed that the founded cells expressed Chx10, Pax6, Ki67 and Oct4. The hRPE cells survived unlimitedly on alginate film and formed giant adjoining colonies. After re-plating, hRPE colonies adhered quickly on polystyrene and displayed native hRPE morphological features. Alginate film can support the survival and growth of hRPE cells and induce the cells to re-organize in tissue-like structures.

  13. Changes in Tear Volume after 3% Diquafosol Treatment in Patients with Dry Eye Syndrome: An Anterior Segment Spectral-domain Optical Coherence Tomography Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwan Bok; Koh, Kyung Min; Kwon, Young A; Song, Sang Wroul; Kim, Byoung Yeop; Chung, Jae Lim

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate changes in the tear meniscus area and tear meniscus height over time in patients with dry eye syndrome, using anterior segment spectral-domain optical coherence tomography after the instillation of 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution. Sixty eyes from 30 patients with mild to moderate dry eye syndrome were included. Tear meniscus images acquired by anterior segment spectral-domain optical coherence tomography were analyzed using National Institutes of Health's image-analysis software (ImageJ 1.44p). Tear meniscus area and tear meniscus height were measured at baseline, 5 minutes, 10 minutes, and 30 minutes after instillation of a drop of diquafosol in one eye and normal saline in the other eye. Changes in ocular surface disease index score, tear film break-up time, corneal staining score by Oxford schema, and meibomian expressibility were also evaluated at baseline, and after 1 week and 1 month of a diquafosol daily regimen. Sixty eyes from 30 subjects (mean age, 29.3 years; 8 men and 22 women) were included. In eyes receiving diquafosol, tear volume was increased at 5 and 10 minutes compared with baseline. It was also higher than saline instilled eyes at 5, 10, and 30 minutes. Changes in tear volume with respect to baseline were not statistically different after the use of diquafosol for 1 month. Ocular surface disease index score, tear film break-up time, and Oxford cornea stain score were significantly improved after 1 week and 1 month of daily diquafosol instillation, but meibomian expressibility did not change. Topical diquafosol ophthalmic solution effectively increased tear volume for up to 30 minutes, compared to normal saline in patients with dry eye syndrome. © 2017 The Korean Ophthalmological Society

  14. Classification of ulnar triangular fibrocartilage complex tears. A treatment algorithm for Palmer type IB tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atzei, A; Luchetti, R; Garagnani, L

    2017-05-01

    The classical definition of 'Palmer Type IB' triangular fibrocartilage complex tear, includes a spectrum of clinical conditions. This review highlights the clinical and arthroscopic criteria that enable us to categorize five classes on a treatment-oriented classification system of triangular fibrocartilage complex peripheral tears. Class 1 lesions represent isolated tears of the distal triangular fibrocartilage complex without distal radio-ulnar joint instability and are amenable to arthroscopic suture. Class 2 tears include rupture of both the distal triangular fibrocartilage complex and proximal attachments of the triangular fibrocartilage complex to the fovea. Class 3 tears constitute isolated ruptures of the proximal attachment of the triangular fibrocartilage complex to the fovea; they are not visible at radio-carpal arthroscopy. Both Class 2 and Class 3 tears are diagnosed with a positive hook test and are typically associated with distal radio-ulnar joint instability. If required, treatment is through reattachment of the distal radio-ulnar ligament insertions to the fovea. Class 4 lesions are irreparable tears due to the size of the defect or to poor tissue quality and, if required, treatment is through distal radio-ulnar ligament reconstruction with tendon graft. Class 5 tears are associated with distal radio-ulnar joint arthritis and can only be treated with salvage procedures. This subdivision of type IB triangular fibrocartilage complex tear provides more insights in the pathomechanics and treatment strategies. II.

  15. Electrostatic effect for the collisionless tearing mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, M.

    1987-01-01

    Electron dynamics has not been self-consistently considered in collisionless tearing mode theories to date because of the mathematical complexity of the Vlasov-Maxwell equations. We have found using computer simulations that electrostatic fields play an important role in the tearing mode. Vlasov theory, including the electrostatic field, is investigated for topologies with both antiparallel and nonantiparallel magnetic field lines. The electrostatic field influences the resonant current in the neutral sheet which is a non-MHD effect, and modifies the linear growth rate. At the magnetopause, where the field lines are not antiparallel, the electrostatic effect acts to raise the linear growth rate of the tearing mode. On the other hand, in the magnetotail, where magnetic field lines are antiparallel, the electrostatic effect reduces the tearing mode growth rate. copyright American Geophysical Union 1987

  16. Partial Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears: Current Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthewson, Graeme; Beach, Cara J.; Nelson, Atiba A.; Woodmass, Jarret M.; Ono, Yohei; Boorman, Richard S.; Lo, Ian K. Y.; Thornton, Gail M.

    2015-01-01

    Partial thickness rotator cuff tears are a common cause of pain in the adult shoulder. Despite their high prevalence, the diagnosis and treatment of partial thickness rotator cuff tears remains controversial. While recent studies have helped to elucidate the anatomy and natural history of disease progression, the optimal treatment, both nonoperative and operative, is unclear. Although the advent of arthroscopy has improved the accuracy of the diagnosis of partial thickness rotator cuff tears, the number of surgical techniques used to repair these tears has also increased. While multiple repair techniques have been described, there is currently no significant clinical evidence supporting more complex surgical techniques over standard rotator cuff repair. Further research is required to determine the clinical indications for surgical and nonsurgical management, when formal rotator cuff repair is specifically indicated and when biologic adjunctive therapy may be utilized. PMID:26171251

  17. Role of ultrasound in rotator cuff tears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqi, H.A.; Mirza, T.

    2010-01-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of ultrasound in rotator cuff tears and to compare it with MRI. Total number of patients was thirty. All of these were above thirty years of age and were referred by clinicians, with shoulder pain for diagnostic workup. Post operative patients were excluded. Ultrasound and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) were performed on each patient. Same operator performed ultrasound in all patients. Ultrasound (US) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) detected equal number of full thickness tears while two partial thickness tears were missed on US. Hypoechoic defect was the most important primary sign while cortical irregularity and fluid in subacromial and subdeltroid busra were the most important secondary signs on US. US was equally effective to MRI in detection of rotator cuff tears. It should be the primary investigation because of its availability, cost effective and real time evaluation provided significant expertise is developed, as it is highly operator dependent. (author)

  18. Influence of toroidal rotation on tearing modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Huishan; Cao, Jintao; Li, Ding

    2017-10-01

    Tearing modes stability analysis including toroidal rotation is studied. It is found that rotation affects the stability of tearing modes mainly through the interaction with resistive inner region of tearing mode. The coupling of magnetic curvature with centrifugal force and Coriolis force provides a perturbed perpendicular current, and a return parallel current is induced to affect the stability of tearing modes. Toroidal rotation plays a stable role, which depends on the magnitude of Mach number and adiabatic index Γ, and is independent on the direction of toroidal rotation. For Γ >1, the scaling of growth rate is changed for typical Mach number in present tokamaks. For Γ = 1 , the scaling keeps unchanged, and the effect of toroidal rotation is much less significant, compared with that for Γ >1. National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program and National Science Foundation of China under Grants No. 2014GB106004, No. 2013GB111000, No. 11375189, No. 11075161 and No. 11275260, and Youth Innovation Promotion Association CAS.

  19. An Athlete's Nightmare: Tearing the ACL

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on the balls of their feet. "If the calf muscles are not absorbing the force, and if the knee is not in the proper position, the knee buckles and tears the ACL," explains Dr. Boden. After her initial ...

  20. Partial Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears: Current Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme Matthewson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Partial thickness rotator cuff tears are a common cause of pain in the adult shoulder. Despite their high prevalence, the diagnosis and treatment of partial thickness rotator cuff tears remains controversial. While recent studies have helped to elucidate the anatomy and natural history of disease progression, the optimal treatment, both nonoperative and operative, is unclear. Although the advent of arthroscopy has improved the accuracy of the diagnosis of partial thickness rotator cuff tears, the number of surgical techniques used to repair these tears has also increased. While multiple repair techniques have been described, there is currently no significant clinical evidence supporting more complex surgical techniques over standard rotator cuff repair. Further research is required to determine the clinical indications for surgical and nonsurgical management, when formal rotator cuff repair is specifically indicated and when biologic adjunctive therapy may be utilized.

  1. Tearing mode analysis in tokamaks, revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Y.; Callen, J.D.; Hegna, C.C.

    1997-12-01

    A new Δ' shooting code has been developed to investigate tokamak plasma tearing mode stability in a cylinder and large aspect ratio (ε ≤ 0.25) toroidal geometries, neglecting toroidal mode coupling. A different computational algorithm is used (shooting out from the singular surface instead of into it) to resolve the strong singularities at the mode rational surface, particularly in the presence of finite pressure term. Numerical results compare favorably with Furth et al. results. The effects of finite pressure, which are shown to decrease Δ', are discussed. It is shown that the distortion of the flux surfaces by the Shafranov shift, which modifies the geometry metric element stabilizes the tearing mode significantly, even in a low β regime before the toroidal magnetic curvature effects come into play. Double tearing modes in toroidal geometries are examined as well. Furthermore, m ≥ 2 tearing mode stability criteria are compared with three dimensional initial value MHD simulation by the FAR code

  2. Efficacy of artificial tears for children xerophthalmia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To observe the efficacy and safety of artificial tears for children xerophthalmia.METHODS:Fifty-eight cases with 116 eyes were diagnosed as xerophthalmia by tear break-up time(BUT, Schirmer Ⅰ test(SⅠt, tear meniscus height, corneal staining, meibomian gland function test and were given artificial tears therapy for 1mo. Then the aforementioned tests were conducted again for statistical analysis.RESULTS:The mean BUT of all the children before treatments was 6.03±1.19s, SⅠt was 7.67±2.32mm/5min, tear meniscus height was 0.20±0.02mm, corneal staining was 1.02±0.13 scores and meibomian gland function was 2.45±0.86 scores. Sixty-two eyes in 31 cases were the lipid-deficient type, 40 eyes in 20 cases were aqueous-deficient type, and 14 eyes in 7 cases were other types. According to their types, corresponding artificial tears therapy was given. At 1mo after treatments, the clinical symptoms were improved significantly. BUT was 13.72±1.83s, SⅠt was 12.38±3.64mm/5min, tear meniscus height was 0.36±0.08mm, corneal fluorescein staining was 0.03±0.24 scores and meibomian gland function was 1.57±0.93 scores. Compared with those before treatments, the difference of each observed indicators was statistically significant(PCONCLUSION:Artificial tears treatment for children xerophthalmia is safe and effective.

  3. Ponderomotive modification of drift tearing modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urquijo, G.; Singh, R.; Sen, A.

    1997-01-01

    The linear characteristics of drift tearing modes are investigated in the presence of a significant background of radio-frequency (RF) waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies. The ponderomotive force, arising from the radial gradients in the RF field energy, is found to significantly modify the inner layer solutions of the drift tearing modes. It can have a stabilizing influence, even at moderate RF powers, provided the field energy has a decreasing radial profile at the mode rational surface. (author)

  4. Neoclassical tearing modes in a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahm, T.S.

    1988-08-01

    Linear tearing instability is studied in the banana collisionality regime in tokamak geometry. Neoclassical effects produce significant modifications of Ohm's law and the vorticity equation so that the growth rate of tearing modes driven by Δ' is dramatically reduced compared to the usual resistive MHD value. Consequences of this result, regarding the presence of pressure-gradient-driven neoclassical resistive interchange instabilities and the evolution of magnetic islands in the Rutherford regime, are discussed. 10 refs

  5. The Effect of Tear Supplementation on Ocular Surface Sensations during the Interblink Interval in Patients with Dry Eye.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lóránt Dienes

    Full Text Available To investigate the characteristics of ocular surface sensations and corneal sensitivity during the interblink interval before and after tear supplementation in dry eye patients.Twenty subjects (41.88±14.37 years with dry eye symptoms were included in the dry eye group. Fourteen subjects (39.13±11.27 years without any clinical signs and/or symptoms of dry eye were included in the control group. Tear film dynamics was assessed by non-invasive tear film breakup time (NI-BUT in parallel with continuous recordings of ocular sensations during forced blinking. Corneal sensitivity to selective stimulation of corneal mechano-, cold and chemical receptors was assessed using a gas esthesiometer. All the measurements were made before and 5 min after saline and hydroxypropyl-guar (HP-guar drops.In dry eye patients the intensity of irritation increased rapidly after the last blink during forced blinking, while in controls there was no alteration in the intensity during the first 10 sec followed by an exponential increase. Irritation scores were significantly higher in dry eye patients throughout the entire interblink interval compared to controls (p0.05.Ocular surface irritation responses due to tear film drying are considerably increased in dry eye patients compared to normal subjects. Although tear supplementation improves the protective tear film layer, and thus reduce unpleasant sensory responses, the rapid rise in discomfort is still maintained and might be responsible for the remaining complaints of dry eye patients despite the treatment.

  6. Thermal effects on tearing mode saturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.S.; Chu, M.S.; Greene, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of geometry on tearing modes, saturated states of tearing modes, and the thermal effect on tearing modes are presented. The configuration of current and magnetic fields are quite different in slabs and in Tokamaks. However, for any magnetic island regardless of geometry and heating conditions, at island saturation the product of resistivity and current is the same at magnetic O and X lines. The temperature perturbation effect on the nonlinear development of tearing modes is investigated. Thermal conduction along the field lines is much faster than that in the perpendicular direction, and thus the temperature profile follows the island structure. Utilizing Spitzer's conductivity relation, the temperature perturbation is modelled as helical components of resistivity. For a usual tearing mode unstable Tokamak, where shear is positive, the islands continue to grow to a larger size when the islands are cooled. When they are heated, the island sizes are reduced. The temperature perturbation can induce islands even for equilibria stable with respect to tearing modes. Again, the islands appear when cooling takes place. The equilibria with the cooled islands show enhanced field line stochasticity, thus enhanced heat transport. Therefore, thermal instability can be directly related to pressure disruptions. (author)

  7. Tear ferning test in healthy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriá, Arianne P; Raposo, Ana Claudia S; Araújo, Nayone L L C; Lima, Felipe B; Masmali, Ali M

    2017-11-07

    To evaluate and compare three tear sampling methods using two grading scales for administering the tear ferning test (TFT) to healthy dogs. In total, 90 dogs (180 eyes) were subjected to tear sampling using millimetered strips, reused after the Schirmer tear test (STT) (Schirmer group, SG). Then, the dogs were subdivided into three groups according to sampling approach: micropipette (MPG), microcapillary (MCG), and Schirmer sample 2 (S2G). The collected tears were dried on a clean microscope glass slide at room temperature and humidity. The ferning patterns were observed under a polarized light microscope and classified according to the Rolando and Masmali grading scales. Although all three methods were feasible, the STT was easier to perform in clinical settings. Type I and Grade 1 were the most commonly observed (64.17% and 61.7%, respectively) regardless of collection method. There was no significant difference between the STT median values and the TFT classifications. The TFT is appropriate for dogs and can be performed using the three suggested sampling methods, with a higher frequency of Type I and Grade 1. Thus, it is possible to use both grading scales in the classification of tear ferning in dogs. © 2017 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  8. Sonographic evaluation of digital annular pulley tears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinoli, C.; Derchi, L.E.; Bianchi, S.; Garcia, J.F.; Nebiolo, M.

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the sonographic (US) appearance of digital annular pulley (DAP) tears in high-level rock climbers. Design and patients. We performed a retrospective analysis of the US examinations of 16 high-level rock climbers with clinical signs of DAP lesions. MRI and surgical evaluation were performed in five and three patients respectively. The normal US and MRI appearances of DAP were evaluated in 40 and three normal fingers respectively. Results. Nine of 16 patients presented a DAP tear. In eight subjects (seven with complete tears involving the fourth finger and one the fifth finger), US diagnosis was based on the indirect sign of volar bowstringing of the flexor tendons. Injured pulleys were not appreciated by US. Tears concerned the A2 and A3 in six patients and the A3 and A4 in two patients. A2 pulley thickening and hypoechogenicity compatible with a partial tear was demonstrated in one patient. MRI and surgical data correlated well with the US findings. Four patients had tenosynovitis of the flexor tendons but no evidence of pulley disruption. US examinations of three patients were normal. In the healthy subjects US demonstrated DAP in 16 of 40 digits. Conclusion. US can diagnose DAP tears and correlates with the MRI and surgical data. Because of its low cost and non-invasiveness we suggest US as the first imaging modality in the evaluation of injuries of the digital pulley. (orig.)

  9. Sonographic evaluation of digital annular pulley tears

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinoli, C.; Derchi, L.E. [Istituto di Radiologia, Universita di Genova, Genoa (Italy); Bianchi, S.; Garcia, J.F. [Dept. de Radiologie, Hopital Cantonal Universitaire de Geneve (Switzerland); Nebiolo, M. [Reparto Pronto Soccorso Medico, Pietra Ligure (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    Objective. To evaluate the sonographic (US) appearance of digital annular pulley (DAP) tears in high-level rock climbers. Design and patients. We performed a retrospective analysis of the US examinations of 16 high-level rock climbers with clinical signs of DAP lesions. MRI and surgical evaluation were performed in five and three patients respectively. The normal US and MRI appearances of DAP were evaluated in 40 and three normal fingers respectively. Results. Nine of 16 patients presented a DAP tear. In eight subjects (seven with complete tears involving the fourth finger and one the fifth finger), US diagnosis was based on the indirect sign of volar bowstringing of the flexor tendons. Injured pulleys were not appreciated by US. Tears concerned the A2 and A3 in six patients and the A3 and A4 in two patients. A2 pulley thickening and hypoechogenicity compatible with a partial tear was demonstrated in one patient. MRI and surgical data correlated well with the US findings. Four patients had tenosynovitis of the flexor tendons but no evidence of pulley disruption. US examinations of three patients were normal. In the healthy subjects US demonstrated DAP in 16 of 40 digits. Conclusion. US can diagnose DAP tears and correlates with the MRI and surgical data. Because of its low cost and non-invasiveness we suggest US as the first imaging modality in the evaluation of injuries of the digital pulley. (orig.)

  10. MR imaging of rotator cuff tears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, Hideo

    1992-01-01

    A total of 115 patients with clinical symptoms and signs suggesting rotator cuff tears underwent MR imaging with a 1.5-Tesla system. The body coil was used as the receiver coil in 24 patients and a single 10 cm surface coil in 91. Arthrography or MR imaging with intra-articular Gd-DTPA (MR arthrography) was performed in 95 of the 115. T2-weighted images with the body coil showed high signal intensity lesions in rotator cuffs in only seven of the 10 patients who had tears demonstrated by arthrography or MR arthrography. On the other hand, T2-weighted images with the surface coil demonstrated high signal intensity lesions in cuffs in all 27 patients who were diagnosed to have tears by arthrography or MR arthrography. In 12 patietns, T2-wighted images with the surface coil showed high signal intensity lesions in cuffs, while arthrography and MR arthrography did not show tears. Surgery was performed in four of the 12 patients and partial tears were confirmed. A single 10 cm surface coil, 3 mm slice thickness and 2.5 second repetition time seem to account for the fine visualization of cuff tears by the T2-weighted images. These results suggest that T2-weighted images obtained with the surface coil are superior to arthrography and MR arthrography. (author)

  11. Magnetic resonance findings in skeletal muscle tears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Smet, A.A.

    1993-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) images of skeletal muscle tears can clearly delineate the severity of muscle injury. Although MR imaging is seldom necessary in patients with acute musle trauma, it can be helpful in deciding on clinical management. The two major MR findings in acute muscle tears are deformity of the muscle and the presence of abnormal signal reflecting hemorrhage and edema. In acute tears, methemoglobin within the extravascular blood causes high-signal areas on both T1- and T2-weighted images. With partial tears, the blood may dissect in a distinctive linear pattern along the muscle bundles and fibers. As healing begins, the muscle signal diminishes, first on the T1-weighted images and then on the T2-weighted images. When there is residual abnormal signal on images obtained more than several months after the injury, it is presumed to represent hemorrhage from recurrent tears. In patients with a questionable history of a remote injury, the clinical presentation may be that of persistent pain or a soft tissue mass. In these cases MR imaging may identify the cause of the pain and can exclude a neoplasm by proving that the mass is a hypertrophied or retracted musle. Thus, MR imaging has a limited, but occasionally important role in selected patients with skeletal muscle tears. (orig.)

  12. Rotator cuff tear: A detailed update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Pandey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rotator cuff tear has been a known entity for orthopaedic surgeons for more than two hundred years. Although the exact pathogenesis is controversial, a combination of intrinsic factors proposed by Codman and extrinsic factors theorized by Neer is likely responsible for most rotator cuff tears. Magnetic resonance imaging remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of rotator cuff tears, but the emergence of ultrasound has revolutionized the diagnostic capability. Even though mini-open rotator cuff repair is still commonly performed, and results are comparable to arthroscopic repair, all-arthroscopic repair of rotator cuff tear is now fast becoming a standard care for rotator cuff repair. Appropriate knowledge of pathology and healing pattern of cuff, strong and biological repair techniques, better suture anchors, and gradual rehabilitation of postcuff repair have led to good to excellent outcome after repair. As the healing of degenerative cuff tear remains unpredictable, the role of biological agents such as platelet-rich plasma and stem cells for postcuff repair augmentation is still under evaluation. The role of scaffolds in massive cuff tear is also being probed.

  13. Magnetic tearing in plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharkawy, W.

    1994-01-01

    A plasma focus device used is Mather type filled with hydrogen gas at pressure between 0.1 and 1 torr. When connected to a large capacitor ≤10 KV a discharge is started with peak current 100 KA. Under the influence of the radial electric field E r , due to the potential between electrodes, and B φ the plasma will drift in the axial direction with velocity cE r /B φ . An induced axial magnetic field B z has been detected which due to sheath velocity. A propagation of magnetosonic wave has been observed with velocity ≅10 3 m sec -1 . Such a wave might be excited when the magnetic pressure is much greater than the plasma kinetic pressure B 2 /8π>nKT. Assuming (MHD) to be stable, Tearing model was driven which generally has smaller growth rates than (MHD) modes. Using the designed theoretical model and the plasma parameters the electron energy dΦ/dt=Ba 2 /τ R was calculated to be 2.22 KeV, which is comparable with that detected from X-ray measurements. (author)

  14. Relationship of Corneal Pain Sensitivity With Dry Eye Symptoms in Dry Eye With Short Tear Break-Up Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaido, Minako; Kawashima, Motoko; Ishida, Reiko; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this prospective comparative study was to investigate corneal sensitivity in subjects with unstable tear film, with and without dry eye (DE) symptoms. Forty-one eyes of 41 volunteers (mean age: 45.1 ± 9.4 years; age range, 23-57 years), with normal tear function and ocular surface except for tear stability, were studied. The eyes were divided into two groups depending on the presence or absence of DE symptoms: 21 eyes with DE symptoms (symptomatic group); and 20 eyes without DE symptoms (asymptomatic group). Three types of corneal sensitivity values were measured using a Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer: the sensitivity for perception of touch (S-touch), the sensitivity for blinking (S-blink), and the sensitivity for pain (S-pain). Mean S-blink and S-pain were significantly higher in the symptomatic group than in the asymptomatic group (P 0.05). Corneal sensitivity for blinking and pain evoked by increased stimuli was higher in the symptomatic group (subjects with short break-up time DE) compared with subjects who have no DE symptoms despite decreased tear stability. The presence of both tear instability and hyperesthesia, rather than tear instability alone, may contribute to DE pathogenesis.

  15. Using films and television shows with a medical theme as a medium to accelerate the spread of medical humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenting; Qian, Haihong

    2017-05-23

    People have more visual experiences than ever before, and the same is true for situations in medicine. More mature films and television shows with a medical theme have been available over the past 20 years. In mainland China, the TV series "Angel Heart" has generated a wave of universal concern since it truly depicts the work of health care workers and it reflects the sharp distinction between doctors and patients to a certain extent. Riding this wave, many medical documentaries like The Human World have also been launched in China and have garnered sizable audiences. Such films and television shows with a medical theme strive to depict the lives of ordinary people. When watching these medical documentaries, audiences are able to better comprehend the work of health care workers in light of their life experiences and feelings towards current society. Audiences can gain a profound understanding of the medical humanities through films and television shows with a medical theme. We look forward to more such films and television shows with a medical theme that depict "hospitals-the realest place" on camera. Films and television shows with a medical theme can serve as a storytelling medium to accelerate the spread of medical humanities and to promote harmony among doctors, patients, and the public.

  16. Tear osmolarity measurements in dry eye related to primary Sjögren's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utine, Canan Asli; Bıçakçıgil, Müge; Yavuz, Sule; Çiftçi, Ferda

    2011-08-01

    To evaluate the tear osmolarity in patients with dry eye syndrome related to primary Sjögren's Syndrome (SS). Twenty eyes of 10 patients with dry eye and primary SS (Group 1) and 20 eyes of 20 subjects who do not have dry eye syndrome (Group 2) were included in this cross-sectional study. In all eyes, ophthalmic examination was performed in the same order: International Ocular Surface Disease Index survey, visual acuity assessment, conjunctival hyperemia scoring, tear osmolarity measurement with TearLab(™) Osmolarity System, tear film break-up time assessment, corneal fluorescein staining scoring, ocular surface Lissamine Green staining scoring, anesthetized Schirmer test. Dry eye severity was graded according to Dry Eye Workshop (DEWS) classification system. Four eyes with grade 1, four eyes with grade 2, seven eyes with grade 3, and five eyes with grade 4 dryness, according to DEWS system, were included. The mean tear osmolarity value was 301.9 ± 11.40 mOsm/L (range: 290-328) in Group 1, and 294.85 ± 8.33 mOsm/L (range: 283-311) in Group 2 (p = 0.03). In Group 1, tear osmolarity values were positively correlated with OSDI scores (r(18) = 0.55, r(2) = 0.31, p = 0.01), DEWS classification grades (r(18) = 0.73, r(2) = 0.54, p dry eye syndrome related to primary SS compared to control subjects, and positively correlated with the severity of dry eye.

  17. Alfuzosin hydrochloride transdermal films: evaluation of physicochemical, in vitro human cadaver skin permeation and thermodynamic parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyanarayan Pattnaik

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main objective of the investigation was to develop a transdermal therapeutic system for alfuzosin hydrochloride and to study the effects of polymeric system and loading dose on the in vitro skin permeation pattern. Materials and methods: Principles of experimental design have been exploited to develop the dosage form. Ratio of ethyl cellulose (EC and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP and loading dose were selected as independent variables and their influence on the cumulative amount of alfuzosin hydrochloride permeated per cm2 of human cadaver skin at 24 h (Q24, permeation flux (J and steady state permeability coefficient (P SS were studied using experimental design. Various physicochemical parameters of the transdermal films were also evaluated. Activation energy for in vitro transdermal permeation has been estimated. Results: Ratio of EC and PVP was found to be the main influential factor for all the dependent variables studied. Drug loading dose was also found to influence the dependent variables but to a lesser extent. Physicochemical parameters of the prepared films were evaluated and found satisfactory. Activation energy for alfuzosin permeation has also been estimated and reported. Conclusion: The therapeutic system was found to be dermatologically non-irritant and hence, a therapeutically effective amount of alfuzosin hydrochloride can be delivered via a transdermal route.

  18. Real-time monitoring of human blood clotting using a lateral excited film bulk acoustic resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Da; Wang, Jingjng; Wang, Peng; Guo, Qiuquan; Zhang, Zhen; Ma, Jilong

    2017-04-01

    Frequent assay of hemostatic status is an essential issue for the millions of patients using anticoagulant drugs. In this paper, we presented a micro-fabricated film bulk acoustic sensor for the real-time monitoring of blood clotting and the measurement of hemostatic parameters. The device was made of an Au/ZnO/Si3N4 film stack and excited by a lateral electric field. It operated under a shear mode resonance with the frequency of 1.42 GHz and had a quality factor of 342 in human blood. During the clotting process of blood, the resonant frequency decreased along with the change of blood viscosity and showed an apparent step-ladder curve, revealing the sequential clotting stages. An important hemostatic parameter, prothrombin time, was quantitatively determined from the frequency response for different dilutions of the blood samples. The effect of a typical anticoagulant drug (heparin) on the prothrombin time was exemplarily shown. The proposed sensor displayed a good consistency and clinical comparability with the standard coagulometric methods. Thanks to the availability of direct digital signals, excellent potentials of miniaturization and integration, the proposed sensor has promising application for point-of-care coagulation technologies.

  19. Danish translation and validation of the International Skin Tear Advisory Panel Skin Tear Classification System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skiveren, J; Bermark, S; LeBlanc, K

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to translate, validate and establish reliability of the International Skin Tear Classification System in Danish. METHOD: Phase 1 of the project involved the translation of the International Skin Tear Advisory Panel (ISTAP) Skin Tear Classification System......) and social and health-care assistants (non-RN) from both primary health care and a Danish university hospital in Copenhagen. Thirty photographs, with equal representation of the three types of skin tears, were selected to test validity. The photographs chosen were those originally used for internal...... and external validation by the ISTAP group. The subjects were approached in their place of work and invited to participate in the study and to attend an educational session related to skin tears. RESULTS: The Danish translation of the ISTAP classification system was tested on 270 non-wound specialists...

  20. Superior glenoid inclination and rotator cuff tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Peter N; Beck, Lindsay; Granger, Erin; Henninger, Heath; Tashjian, Robert Z

    2018-03-23

    The objectives of this study were to determine whether glenoid inclination (1) could be measured accurately on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using computed tomography (CT) as a gold standard, (2) could be measured reliably on MRI, and (3) whether it differed between patients with rotator cuff tears and age-matched controls without evidence of rotator cuff tears or glenohumeral osteoarthritis. In this comparative retrospective radiographic study, we measured glenoid inclination on T1 coronal MRI corrected into the plane of the scapula. We determined accuracy by comparison with CT and inter-rater reliability. We compared glenoid inclination between patients with full-thickness rotator cuff tears and patients aged >50 years without evidence of a rotator cuff tear or glenohumeral arthritis. An a priori power analysis determined adequate power to detect a 2° difference in glenoid inclination. (1) In a validation cohort of 37 patients with MRI and CT, the intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.877, with a mean difference of 0° (95% confidence interval, -1° to 1°). (2) For MRI inclination, the inter-rater intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.911. (3) Superior glenoid inclination was 2° higher (range, 1°-4°, P rotator cuff tear group of 192 patients than in the control cohort of 107 patients. Glenoid inclination can be accurately and reliably measured on MRI. Although superior glenoid inclination is statistically greater in those with rotator cuff tears than in patients of similar age without rotator cuff tears or glenohumeral arthritis, the difference is likely below clinical significance. Copyright © 2018 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Do Lipids Retard the Evaporation of the Tear Fluid?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rantamaki, A. H.; Javanainen, M.; Vattulainen, I.

    2012-01-01

    phosphatidylcholine (PC), nonpolar cholesteryl ester, triglycerides, and wax ester (WE). Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) and interfacial shear rheometry (ISR) were used to assess the lateral structure and shear stress response of the lipid layers, respectively. RESULTS. Olive oil and long-chain alcohol decreased......PURPOSE. We examined in vitro the potential evaporation-retarding effect of the tear film lipid layer (TFLL). The artificial TFLL compositions used here were based on the present knowledge of TFLL composition. METHODS. A custom-built system was developed to measure evaporation rates at 35 degrees C....... Lipids were applied to an air-water interface, and the evaporation rate through the lipid layer was defined as water loss from the interface. A thick layer of olive oil and a monolayer of long-chain alcohol were used as controls. The artificial TFLLs were composed of 1 to 4 lipid species: polar...

  2. Formation of a protection film on the human skin by microparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lademann, J; Schanzer, S; Richter, H; Knorr, F; Sterry, W; Patzelt, A; Antoniou, C

    2008-01-01

    Laser scanning microscopy and tape stripping, in combination with optical methods, were used to analyze the distribution and penetration of a barrier cream into the horny layer (stratum corneum) of the human skin under in vivo conditions. The barrier cream contained microparticles of 10 – 100 μm loaded with antioxidant substances. The cream was designed for protection of the skin surface against the destructive action of free radicals, produced by systemically applied chemotherapeutic agents reaching the skin surface via the sweat. Both methods were able to demonstrate that the barrier cream was distributed homogeneously on the skin surface forming a protection film. A penetration into deeper parts of the stratum corneum (SC) was not observed

  3. Energetic approach for ductile tearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marie, St.

    1999-01-01

    This study focuses on ductile crack initiation and propagation. It aims to propose an approach for the engineer allowing the prediction of the evolution of cracks in large scale components, from parameters determined on laboratory specimens. A crack initiation criterion, defining a J i tenacity related to crack tip blunting proposed in the literature is validated in the study. This criterion is shown to be transferable from laboratory specimens to structures. The literature review shows that an approach based on the dissipated energy in the fracture process during propagation offers an economical and simple solution to simulate large crack growth. A numerical method is proposed to estimate this fracture energy. The existence of an energy parameter G fr is shown, by simulating the propagation by the simultaneous release of several elements and by the use of the Rice integral with an original integration path. This parameter represents the needed energy for a unit crack extension and appears to be intrinsic to the material. A global energy statement allows to relate this parameter to a variation of the plastic part of J integral. It offers a second numerical method to simulate the propagation just from stationary numerical calculations, as well as the elaboration of a simplified method. This approach, using two parameters J i and G fr , intrinsic to the material and experimentally measurable on specimens, is validated on many tests such as crack pipes subjected to four points bending and cracked rings in compression. For example, this approach allows to model up to 90 mm ductile tearing in a pipe with a circumferential through-wall crack in ferritic steel, or to anticipate the evolution of a semi-elliptical crack in an aged austenitic ferritic steel plate subjected to bending. (author)

  4. Rotator cuff tears: An evidence based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambandam, Senthil Nathan; Khanna, Vishesh; Gul, Arif; Mounasamy, Varatharaj

    2015-01-01

    Lesions of the rotator cuff (RC) are a common occurrence affecting millions of people across all parts of the globe. RC tears are also rampantly prevalent with an age-dependent increase in numbers. Other associated factors include a history of trauma, limb dominance, contralateral shoulder, smoking-status, hypercholesterolemia, posture and occupational dispositions. The challenge lies in early diagnosis since a high proportion of patients are asymptomatic. Pain and decreasing shoulder power and function should alert the heedful practitioner in recognizing promptly the onset or aggravation of existing RC tears. Partial-thickness tears (PTT) can be bursal-sided or articular-sided tears. Over the course of time, PTT enlarge and propagate into full-thickness tears (FTT) and develop distinct chronic pathological changes due to muscle retraction, fatty infiltration and muscle atrophy. These lead to a reduction in tendon elasticity and viability. Eventually, the glenohumeral joint experiences a series of degenerative alterations - cuff tear arthropathy. To avert this, a vigilant clinician must utilize and corroborate clinical skill and radiological findings to identify tear progression. Modern radio-diagnostic means of ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging provide excellent visualization of structural details and are crucial in determining further course of action for these patients. Physical therapy along with activity modifications, anti-inflammatory and analgesic medications form the pillars of nonoperative treatment. Elderly patients with minimal functional demands can be managed conservatively and reassessed at frequent intervals. Regular monitoring helps in isolating patients who require surgical interventions. Early surgery should be considered in younger, active and symptomatic, healthy patients. In addition to being cost-effective, this helps in providing a functional shoulder with a stable cuff. An easily reproducible technique of maximal strength and

  5. Reduced muscle fiber force production and disrupted myofibril architecture in patients with chronic rotator cuff tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendias, Christopher L; Roche, Stuart M; Harning, Julie A; Davis, Max E; Lynch, Evan B; Sibilsky Enselman, Elizabeth R; Jacobson, Jon A; Claflin, Dennis R; Calve, Sarah; Bedi, Asheesh

    2015-01-01

    A persistent atrophy of muscle fibers and an accumulation of fat, collectively referred to as fatty degeneration, commonly occur in patients with chronic rotator cuff tears. The etiology of fatty degeneration and function of the residual rotator cuff musculature have not been well characterized in humans. We hypothesized that muscles from patients with chronic rotator cuff tears have reduced muscle fiber force production, disordered myofibrils, and an accumulation of fat vacuoles. The contractility of muscle fibers from biopsy specimens of supraspinatus muscles of 13 patients with chronic full-thickness posterosuperior rotator cuff tears was measured and compared with data from healthy vastus lateralis muscle fibers. Correlations between muscle fiber contractility, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) scores, and tear size were analyzed. Histology and electron microscopy were also performed. Torn supraspinatus muscles had a 30% reduction in maximum isometric force production and a 29% reduction in normalized force compared with controls. Normalized supraspinatus fiber force positively correlated with ASES score and negatively correlated with tear size. Disordered sarcomeres were noted, along with an accumulation of lipid-laden macrophages in the extracellular matrix surrounding supraspinatus muscle fibers. Patients with chronic supraspinatus tears have significant reductions in muscle fiber force production. Force production also correlates with ASES scores and tear size. The structural and functional muscle dysfunction of the residual muscle fibers is independent of the additional area taken up by fibrotic tissue. This work may help establish future therapies to restore muscle function after the repair of chronically torn rotator cuff muscles. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A case of recurrent bloody tears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karslıoğlu Ş

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Şafak Karslioğlu1, Ilke Bahçeci Şimşek2, Müslime Akbaba11Ìstanbul Oculoplastic and Orbital Surgery and Ocular Oncology Center, 2Ophthalmology Department, Medicine Hospital, Ìstanbul, TurkeyAbstract: Well-known causes of blood-tinged epiphora are conjunctival lesions, tumors of the lacrimal apparatus, and systemic bleeding disorders. We describe an unusual patient who presented with recurrent episodes of bloody tearing which began following an erythema multiforme-like drug eruption. He experienced chronic conjunctivitis which resulted in a few minor symblephara. One year later, the patient developed attacks of bloody tearing. All clinical, radiologic, and laboratory investigations related to bloody epiphora were within normal limits except for a mild, nonspecific chronic inflammatory reaction in the perivascular tissues of the lacrimal gland and orbital soft tissues. Also, an increase in vascular permeability and contrast extravasation on carotid angiography was detected. High-dose vitamin C was administered. The patient continued to have unilateral bloody tears intermittently for two years, but the episodes became much less frequent and had resolved by three years. It is conceivable that increased vascular permeability following the systemic inflammatory process could have played a role in the etiology of recurrent bloody tears in this atypical patient.Keywords: bloody tears, erythema multiforme, drug eruption, vitamin C

  7. Allergy and allergic mediators in tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Andrea

    2013-12-01

    The identification of inflammatory mediators in the tear fluid have been extensively used in ocular allergy to find either a 'disease marker', to better understand the immune mechanisms involved in the ocular surface inflammation, or to identify potential targets for therapeutic interventions. While the clinical characteristics allow a relatively convincing diagnosis of ocular allergic diseases, in the initial, non active phases, or in the chronic stages, the diagnosis may not be clear. Although not highly specific, total tear IgE can be measured with local tests by inserting a paper strip in the lower meniscus. The measurement of tear specific inflammatory markers, such as histamine, tryptase, ECP, IL-4, IL-5 and eotaxin, may be useful for the diagnosis or monitoring ocular allergy. New technologies such as multiplex bead assays, membrane-bound antibody array and proteomic techniques can characterize the distribution of a wide range of bioactive trace proteins in tears. Dozens of mediators, cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, angiogenic modulators, enzymes and inhibitors were thus identified in small tear samples using these techniques, providing the possible identification of specific biomarker for either specific disease or disease activity. However, to date, there is no a single specific laboratory test suitable for the diagnosis and monitoring of allergic conjunctivitis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Application of silver films with different roughness parameter for septic human serum albumin detection by Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyubin, A. Y.; Konstantinova, E. I.; Matveeva, K. I.; Slezhkin, V. A.; Samusev, I. G.; Demin, M. V.; Bryukhanov, V. V.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, the rough silver films parameters investigation, used as media for surface enhancement Raman spectroscopy for health and septic human serum albumin (HSA) study results have been presented. The detection of small concentrations of HSA isolated from blood serum and it main vibrational groups identification has been done.

  9. Plate Tearing Under Mixed Mode Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rasmus Grau; Nielsen, Kim Lau; Felter, Christian Lotz

    2016-01-01

    the mesh cannot accurately capture the localization process that precedes ductile failure. To fertilize accurate predictions of such sheet tearing, the energy dissipated during localization must, therefore, be accounted for in the cohesive traction-separation law. The fact is that the local thinning...... that takes place in front of an advancing crack can significantly enhance the crack growth resistanceas the energy going into thinning the sheet typically dominates the total fracture energy.This has been investigated in great details for the case of pure Mode I tearing and both the energy dissipation, peak...... stress, and shape of the cohesive traction-separation law have been laid out. In a similar fashion, the present study resolves the sequence of failure details related to steady-state sheet tearing under mixed mode loading by employing the micro-mechanics based Gurson model. But, the fracture process...

  10. Slab tears and intermediate-depth seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meighan, Hallie E.; ten Brink, Uri S.; Pulliam, Jay

    2013-01-01

    Active tectonic regions where plate boundaries transition from subduction to strike slip can take several forms, such as triple junctions, acute, and obtuse corners. Well-documented slab tears that are associated with high rates of intermediate-depth seismicity are considered here: Gibraltar arc, the southern and northern ends of the Lesser Antilles arc, and the northern end of Tonga trench. Seismicity at each of these locations occurs, at times, in the form of swarms or clusters, and various authors have proposed that each marks an active locus of tear propagation. The swarms and clusters start at the top of the slab below the asthenospheric wedge and extend 30–60 km vertically downward within the slab. We propose that these swarms and clusters are generated by fluid-related embrittlement of mantle rocks. Focal mechanisms of these swarms generally fit the shear motion that is thought to be associated with the tearing process.

  11. Bilateral Giant Retinal Tear and Sequential Vitrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Mushawiahti; Roufail Franzco, Edward

    2017-01-01

    To describe the excellent outcome of surgery for bilateral giant retinal tears (GRTs) with better options of endotamponade. This is a case report of a 62-year-old man who presented with bilateral GRTs and associated retinal detachment. The tear in the right eye was supero-temporal and silicone oil was used as an endotamponade. The tear in the left eye was infero-temporal and perfluorocarbon liquid was used as an endotamponade. The outcome at 6 months after surgery was excellent with visual acuities of 6/6 in both eyes. Improved availability of endotamponade agents allows repair of bilateral GRTs to be done at the same time, with good surgical outcomes.

  12. Rotator cuff tear measurement by arthropneumotomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilcoyne, R.F.; Matsen, F.A. III

    1983-01-01

    Five years of experience with a method of shoulder arthrography using upright tomography in cases of suspected or known rotator cuff tears has demonstrated its effectiveness. The value of the procedure lies in its ability to demonstrate the size of the cuff tear and the thickness of the remaining cuff tissue. This information provides the surgeon with a preoperative estimate of the difficulty of the repair and the prognosis for a good functional recovery. In 33 cases, there was good correlation between the upright thin-section tomogram findings and the surgical results. The tomograms provided better information about the size of the tear and the quality of the remaining cuff than did plain arthrograms

  13. Analysis of Th17-associated cytokines in tears of patients with dry eye syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, X; Sun, S; Liu, Y; Zhu, T; Wang, K; Ren, T; Wu, Z; Xu, H; Zhu, L

    2014-05-01

    To determine the levels of Th17-associated cytokines, particularly interleukin (IL)-17 and IL-22 in tears of patients with dry eye syndrome. Tear samples were collected from 20 healthy volunteers, 20 dry eye (DE) patients with non-Sjögren's syndrome (NSSDE) and 20 DE patients with Sjögren's syndrome (SSDE). Symptom questionnaire was self-administered and multiple dry eye disease (DED)-related clinical tests were performed. The levels of IL-17 and IL-22 in tears were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The levels of IL-17 and IL-22 were significantly increased in tears of DE patients compared with those of controls and also higher in SSDE patients compared with those of NSSDE patients (Ptear film break-up time and Schirmer I test in both NSSDE and SSDE patients (Ptears were significantly increased in DE patients, which were associated with the disease severity. Therefore, Th17 cell-associated cytokines, particularly IL-17 and IL-22, may have important roles in the immunopathogenesis of the DED.

  14. Tears Falling on Goosebumps: Co-occurrence of Emotional Lacrimation and Emotional Piloerection Indicates a Psychophysiological Climax in Emotional Arousal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassiliwizky, Eugen; Jacobsen, Thomas; Heinrich, Jan; Schneiderbauer, Manuel; Menninghaus, Winfried

    2017-01-01

    This psychophysiological study is the first to examine the relationship between emotional tears and emotional piloerection (i.e., goosebumps). Although both phenomena have been related to peak states of being moved, details about their temporal occurrence and the associated levels of physiological arousal have remained unknown. In our study, we used emotionally powerful film scenes that were self-selected by participants. Our findings show that even within peak moments of emotional arousal, a gradation of intensity is possible. The overlap of tears and goosebumps signifies a maximal climax within peak moments. On the side of the stimulus, we found that displays of prosocial behavior play a crucial role in the elicitation of tears and goosebumps. Finally, based on the results of a formal film analysis of the tears-eliciting clips provided by our participants, as compared to randomly extracted, equally long control clips from the same films, we show how the technical and artistic making of the clips was optimized for the display of social interaction and emotional expressions. PMID:28223946

  15. Calcium phosphate thin films enhance the response of human mesenchymal stem cells to nanostructured titanium surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mura M McCafferty

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of biomaterial surfaces possessing the topographical cues that can promote mesenchymal stem cell recruitment and, in particular, those capable of subsequently directing osteogenic differentiation is of increasing importance for the advancement of tissue engineering. While it is accepted that it is the interaction with specific nanoscale topography that induces mesenchymal stem cell differentiation, the potential for an attendant bioactive chemistry working in tandem with such nanoscale features to enhance this effect has not been considered to any great extent. This article presents a study of mesenchymal stem cell response to conformal bioactive calcium phosphate thin films sputter deposited onto a polycrystalline titanium nanostructured surface with proven capability to directly induce osteogenic differentiation in human bone marrow–derived mesenchymal stem cells. The sputter deposited surfaces supported high levels of human bone marrow–derived mesenchymal stem cell adherence and proliferation, as determined by DNA quantification. Furthermore, they were also found to be capable of directly promoting significant levels of osteogenic differentiation. Specifically, alkaline phosphatase activity, gene expression and immunocytochemical localisation of key osteogenic markers revealed that the nanostructured titanium surfaces and the bioactive calcium phosphate coatings could direct the differentiation towards an osteogenic lineage. Moreover, the addition of the calcium phosphate chemistry to the topographical profile of the titanium was found to induce increased human bone marrow–derived mesenchymal stem cell differentiation compared to that observed for either the titanium or calcium phosphate coating without an underlying nanostructure. Hence, the results presented here highlight that a clear benefit can be achieved from a surface engineering strategy that combines a defined surface topography with an attendant, conformal

  16. Introduction to the linear theory of tearing instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazeltine, R.D.

    1978-02-01

    The reasons why tearing instabilities might bear importantly on tokamak performance are considered. The mechanism of tearing is described and the method by which this mechanism is analyzed is outlined. A survey is given of typical growth rate predictions

  17. The role of tears in preventing protein deposition on contact lenses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, N.; Kok, J.; Kijlstra, A.

    1989-01-01

    Recently the presence of a coating inhibitory factor was described in human tears which can prevent the binding of proteins to a solid phase. In these earlier studies depositions of lactoferrin and IgG onto plastic was studied. In the study described here, peroxidase conjugated albumin was used as a

  18. Superior labrum anterior-to-posterior tear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sum, Jonathan C; Omid, Reza

    2012-12-01

    The patient was a 25-year-old male college student with a chief complaint of right shoulder pain. The patient was initially diagnosed with bicipital tendinitis by his physician and had been treated for 4 weeks by a physical therapist. However, his symptoms did not improve and he was unable to return to his preinjury activity levels, so he sought the services of another physical therapist for a second opinion. Due to concern for a labrum tear, the physical therapist referred the patient to an orthopaedic surgeon. Magnetic resonance arthrography revealed findings consistent with a superior labrum anterior-to-posterior tear.

  19. [The estimation of systemic chemotherapy treatment administered in breast cancer on lysozyme activity in tears--preliminary report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowska, Katarzyna; Jurowski, Piotr; Wieckowska-Szakiel, Marzena; Rózalska, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Estimation of cytostatics influence used in breast cancer treatment on lysozyme activity in human tears depend on time of treatment. 8 women were treated at the base of chemotherapy schema: docetaxel with doxorubicin and 4 women treated with schema CMF: cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil. Lysozyme activity in tears was assessed by measurement of diameter zone of Micrococcus lysodeicticus growth inhibition. It was revealed that both chemotherapy schema caused statistically significant reduction of diameter zone of M. lysodeicticus growth inhibition, after first and second course of chemotherapy treatment. After second chemotherapy course CMF schema induced loss of lysozyme activity in patient's tears (zero mm of M. lysodeicticus diameter zone growth inhibition). Systemic chemotherapy administered in breast cancer induce reduction of lysozyme activity in tears, that may cause higher morbidity of ocular surface infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria.

  20. Wear and Tear of Tyres: A Stealthy Source of Microplastics in the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Jan Kole

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Wear and tear from tyres significantly contributes to the flow of (micro-plastics into the environment. This paper compiles the fragmented knowledge on tyre wear and tear characteristics, amounts of particles emitted, pathways in the environment, and the possible effects on humans. The estimated per capita emission ranges from 0.23 to 4.7 kg/year, with a global average of 0.81 kg/year. The emissions from car tyres (100% are substantially higher than those of other sources of microplastics, e.g., airplane tyres (2%, artificial turf (12–50%, brake wear (8% and road markings (5%. Emissions and pathways depend on local factors like road type or sewage systems. The relative contribution of tyre wear and tear to the total global amount of plastics ending up in our oceans is estimated to be 5–10%. In air, 3–7% of the particulate matter (PM2.5 is estimated to consist of tyre wear and tear, indicating that it may contribute to the global health burden of air pollution which has been projected by the World Health Organization (WHO at 3 million deaths in 2012. The wear and tear also enters our food chain, but further research is needed to assess human health risks. It is concluded here that tyre wear and tear is a stealthy source of microplastics in our environment, which can only be addressed effectively if awareness increases, knowledge gaps on quantities and effects are being closed, and creative technical solutions are being sought. This requires a global effort from all stakeholders; consumers, regulators, industry and researchers alike.

  1. Wear and Tear of Tyres: A Stealthy Source of Microplastics in the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kole, Pieter Jan; Löhr, Ansje J.; Van Belleghem, Frank G. A. J.; Ragas, Ad M. J.

    2017-01-01

    Wear and tear from tyres significantly contributes to the flow of (micro-)plastics into the environment. This paper compiles the fragmented knowledge on tyre wear and tear characteristics, amounts of particles emitted, pathways in the environment, and the possible effects on humans. The estimated per capita emission ranges from 0.23 to 4.7 kg/year, with a global average of 0.81 kg/year. The emissions from car tyres (100%) are substantially higher than those of other sources of microplastics, e.g., airplane tyres (2%), artificial turf (12–50%), brake wear (8%) and road markings (5%). Emissions and pathways depend on local factors like road type or sewage systems. The relative contribution of tyre wear and tear to the total global amount of plastics ending up in our oceans is estimated to be 5–10%. In air, 3–7% of the particulate matter (PM2.5) is estimated to consist of tyre wear and tear, indicating that it may contribute to the global health burden of air pollution which has been projected by the World Health Organization (WHO) at 3 million deaths in 2012. The wear and tear also enters our food chain, but further research is needed to assess human health risks. It is concluded here that tyre wear and tear is a stealthy source of microplastics in our environment, which can only be addressed effectively if awareness increases, knowledge gaps on quantities and effects are being closed, and creative technical solutions are being sought. This requires a global effort from all stakeholders; consumers, regulators, industry and researchers alike. PMID:29053641

  2. Wear and Tear of Tyres: A Stealthy Source of Microplastics in the Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kole, Pieter Jan; Löhr, Ansje J; Van Belleghem, Frank G A J; Ragas, Ad M J

    2017-10-20

    Wear and tear from tyres significantly contributes to the flow of (micro-)plastics into the environment. This paper compiles the fragmented knowledge on tyre wear and tear characteristics, amounts of particles emitted, pathways in the environment, and the possible effects on humans. The estimated per capita emission ranges from 0.23 to 4.7 kg/year, with a global average of 0.81 kg/year. The emissions from car tyres (100%) are substantially higher than those of other sources of microplastics, e.g., airplane tyres (2%), artificial turf (12-50%), brake wear (8%) and road markings (5%). Emissions and pathways depend on local factors like road type or sewage systems. The relative contribution of tyre wear and tear to the total global amount of plastics ending up in our oceans is estimated to be 5-10%. In air, 3-7% of the particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) is estimated to consist of tyre wear and tear, indicating that it may contribute to the global health burden of air pollution which has been projected by the World Health Organization (WHO) at 3 million deaths in 2012. The wear and tear also enters our food chain, but further research is needed to assess human health risks. It is concluded here that tyre wear and tear is a stealthy source of microplastics in our environment, which can only be addressed effectively if awareness increases, knowledge gaps on quantities and effects are being closed, and creative technical solutions are being sought. This requires a global effort from all stakeholders; consumers, regulators, industry and researchers alike.

  3. Low levels of 17-β-oestradiol, oestrone and testosterone correlate with severe evaporative dysfunctional tear syndrome in postmenopausal women: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliano, Caterina; Caruso, Salvatore; Napolitano, Giuseppe; Malaguarnera, Giulia; Cicinelli, Maria Vittoria; Amato, Roberta; Reibaldi, Michele; Incarbone, Giuseppe; Bucolo, Claudio; Drago, Filippo; Avitabile, Teresio

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the role of 17-β-oestradiol, oestrone and total testosterone (TT) deficiency in the pathogenesis of severe evaporative dry eye syndrome (DES), investigating the relationship between tear osmolarity, tear film break-up time (TF-BUT), Schirmer test and serum sex hormones in postmenopausal women. 44 postmenopausal women were recruited for a case-control study: 22 women with severe evaporative DES (Group A) and 22 without DES (Group B). The tests performed included laboratory blood analysis: fasting plasma profile (17-β-oestradiol, oestrone and TT), glucose level and lipid profile. Detailed eye examinations, including corneal and conjunctival staining, tear osmolarity measurement, tear volume and TF-BUT, were performed. The Ocular Surface Disease Index Questionnaire was also administered. Values of Schirmer test and TF-BUT in Group A were significantly lower in comparison with Group B (p<0.001). Serum levels of 17-β-oestradiol, oestrone and TT were significantly lower in Group A compared with Group B (p<0.05). In women with severe evaporative DES, the levels of 17-β-oestradiol, oestrone and TT were inversely correlated with the tear film osmolarity (r=-0.7, -0.88, -0.81, respectively). In postmenopausal women with severe evaporative DES, sex hormone levels are lower than control and that tear osmolarity is negatively correlated with sex hormone levels.

  4. Tear progression of symptomatic full-thickness and partial-thickness rotator cuff tears as measured by repeated MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yang-Soo; Kim, Sung-Eun; Bae, Sung-Ho; Lee, Hyo-Jin; Jee, Won-Hee; Park, Chang Kyun

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the natural course of symptomatic full-thickness and partial-thickness rotator cuff tears treated non-operatively and to identify risk factors affecting tear enlargement. One hundred and twenty-two patients who received non-surgical treatment for a partial- or full-thickness supraspinatus tear were included in this study. All rotator cuff tears were diagnosed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and the same modality was used for follow-up studies. Follow-up MRI was performed after at least a 6-month interval. We evaluated the correlation between tear enlargement and follow-up duration. Eleven risk factors were analysed by both univariate and multivariate analyses to identify factors that affect enlargement of rotator cuff tears. The mean follow-up period was 24.4 ± 19.5 months. Out of 122 patients, 34 (27.9%) patients had an initial full-thickness tear and 88 (72.1%) patients had a partial-thickness tear. Considering all patients together, tear size increased in 51/122 (41.8%) patients, was unchanged in 65/122 (53.3%) patients, and decreased in 6/122 (4.9%) patients. Tear size increased for 28/34 (82.4%) patients with full-thickness tears and 23/88 (26.1%) patients with partial-thickness tears. From the two groups which were followed over 12 months, a higher rate of enlargement was observed in full-thickness tears than in partial-thickness tears (6-12 months, n.s.; 12-24 months, P = 0.002; over 24 months, P rotator cuff tears and 23/88 (26.1%) of symptomatic partial-thickness tears increased in size over a follow-up period of 6-100 months. Full-thickness tears showed a higher rate of enlargement than partial-thickness tears regardless of the follow-up duration. Univariate and multivariate analyses suggested that full-thickness tear was the most reliable risk factor for tear enlargement. The clinical relevance of these observations is that full-thickness rotator cuff tears treated conservatively should be

  5. The influence of nanotexturing of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) films upon human ovarian cancer cell attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaşayan, Gökçen; Xue, Xuan; Collier, Pamela; Clarke, Philip; Alexander, Morgan R.; Marlow, Maria

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we have produced nanotextured poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) films by using polystyrene (PS) particles as a template to make a polydimethylsiloxane mould against which PLGA is solvent cast. Biocompatible, biodegradable and nanotextured PLGA films were prepared with PS particles of diameter of 57, 99, 210, and 280 nm that produced domes of the same dimension in the PLGA surface. The effect of the particulate monolayer templating method was investigated to enable preparation of the films with uniformly ordered surface nanodomes. Cell attachment of a human ovarian cancer cell line (OVCAR3) alone and co-cultured with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) was evaluated on flat and topographically nano-patterned surfaces. Cell numbers were observed to increase on the nanotextured surfaces compared to non-textured surfaces both with OVCAR3 cultures and OVCAR3-MSC co-cultures at 24 and 48 h time points.

  6. Human serum albumin (HSA) adsorption onto a-SiC:H thin films deposited by hot wire chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swain, Bibhu P.

    2006-01-01

    In the present paper, we report the study of the adsorption behavior of human serum albumin (HSA) onto surfaces of a-SiC:H thin films deposited by using the hot wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) technique. The surface composition and surface energy of the various substrates as well as the evaluation of the adsorbed amount of protein has been carried out by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy, AFM and contact angle measurements. At the immediate effect of HSA interaction with a-SiC:H films N is adsorbed on the surface and stabilized after 3 days. Preliminary observation found that Si and O atom are desorbed from the surface while C and N set adsorbed to the surface of the a-SiC:H film

  7. Human serum albumin (HSA) adsorption onto a-SiC:H thin films deposited by hot wire chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swain, Bibhu P. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay (India) and Samtel Centre for Display Technologies, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, India, Kanpur 208016 (India)]. E-mail: bibhup@iitb.ac.in

    2006-12-15

    In the present paper, we report the study of the adsorption behavior of human serum albumin (HSA) onto surfaces of a-SiC:H thin films deposited by using the hot wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) technique. The surface composition and surface energy of the various substrates as well as the evaluation of the adsorbed amount of protein has been carried out by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy, AFM and contact angle measurements. At the immediate effect of HSA interaction with a-SiC:H films N is adsorbed on the surface and stabilized after 3 days. Preliminary observation found that Si and O atom are desorbed from the surface while C and N set adsorbed to the surface of the a-SiC:H film.

  8. Quasi-linear evolution of tearing modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellat, R.; Frey, M.; Tagger, M.

    1983-07-01

    The growth of a Tearing instability in Rutherford's nonlinear regime is investigated. Using a singular perturbation technique, lowest order Rutherford's result is recovered. To the following order it is shown that the mode generates a quasi-linear deformation of the equilibrium flux profile, whose resistive diffusion slows down the growth and shows the possibility of a saturation of the instability

  9. Simulation of saturated tearing modes in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Canh N.; Bateman, Glenn; Kritz, Arnold H.

    2004-01-01

    A quasi-linear model, which includes the effect of the neoclassical bootstrap current, is developed for saturated tearing modes in order to compute magnetic island widths in axisymmetric toroidal plasmas with arbitrary aspect ratio and cross-sectional shape. The model is tested in a simple stand-alone code and is implemented in the BALDUR [C. E. Singer et al., Comput. Phys. Commun. 49, 275 (1982)] predictive modeling code. It is found that the widths of tearing mode islands increase with decreasing aspect ratio and with increasing elongation. Also, the island widths increase when the gradient of the current density increases at the edge of the islands and when the current density inside the islands is suppressed, such as the suppression caused by the near absence of the bootstrap current within the islands. In simulations of tokamak discharges, it is found that tearing mode island widths oscillate in time in response to periodic sawtooth crashes. The local enhancements in the transport produced by magnetic islands have a noticeable effect on global plasma confinement in simulations of low aspect ratio, high beta tokamaks, where saturated tearing mode islands can occur with widths that are greater than 15% of the plasma minor radius

  10. Treatment for acute anterior cruciate ligament tear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frobell, Richard B; Roos, Harald P; Roos, Ewa M

    2013-01-01

    To compare, in young active adults with an acute anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear, the mid-term (five year) patient reported and radiographic outcomes between those treated with rehabilitation plus early ACL reconstruction and those treated with rehabilitation and optional delayed ACL...

  11. Glenohumeral stability in simulated rotator cuff tears

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbrink, F.; Groot, J.H.; Veeger, H.E.J.; Helm, F.C.; Rozing, P.M.

    2009-01-01

    Rotator cuff tears disrupt the force balance in the shoulder and the glenohumeral joint in particular, resulting in compromised arm elevation torques. The trade-off between glenohumeral torque and glenohumeral stability is not yet understood. We hypothesize that compensation of lost abduction torque

  12. Acute compartment syndrome after medial gastrocnemius tear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sit, Yan Kit; Lui, Tun Hing

    2015-02-01

    Acute compartment syndrome after medial gastrocnemius tear is very rare. It can involve the superficial posterior compartment alone or progress to involve all the 4 compartments of the lower legs. Those patients with high pain tolerance and minor trauma can lead to delayed presentation. Immediate fasciotomy is the treatment of choice. Therapeutic Level IV, Case Study. © 2014 The Author(s).

  13. Hierarchical templating in deposition of semi-covalently imprinted inverse opal polythiophene film for femtomolar determination of human serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrowski, Marcin; Cieplak, Maciej; Sharma, Piyush Sindhu; Borowicz, Pawel; Noworyta, Krzysztof; Lisowski, Wojciech; D'Souza, Francis; Kuhn, Alexander; Kutner, Wlodzimierz

    2017-08-15

    Nanostructured artificial receptor materials with unprecedented hierarchical structure for determination of human serum albumin (HSA) are designed and fabricated. For that purpose a new hierarchical template is prepared. This template allowed for simultaneous structural control of the deposited molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) film on three length scales. A colloidal crystal templating with optimized electrochemical polymerization of 2,3'-bithiophene enables deposition of an MIP film in the form of an inverse opal. Thickness of the deposited polymer film is precisely controlled with the number of current oscillations during potentiostatic deposition of the imprinted poly(2,3'-bithiophene) film. Prior immobilization of HSA on the colloidal crystal allows formation of molecularly imprinted cavities exclusively on the internal surface of the pores. Furthermore, all binding sites are located on the surface of the imprinted cavities at locations corresponding to positions of functional groups present on the surface of HSA molecules due to prior derivatization of HSA molecules with appropriate functional monomers. This synergistic strategy results in a material with superior recognition performance. Integration of the MIP film as a recognition unit with a sensitive extended-gate field-effect transistor (EG-FET) transducer leads to highly selective HSA determination in the femtomolar concentration range. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. MR accuracy and arthroscopic incidence of meniscal radial tears

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magee, Thomas; Shapiro, Marc; Williams, David [Department of Radiology, Neuroimaging Institute, 27 East Hibiscus Blvd., Melbourne, FL 32901 (United States)

    2002-12-01

    A meniscal radial tear is a vertical tear that involves the inner meniscal margin. The tear is most frequent in the middle third of the lateral meniscus and may extend outward in any direction. We report (1) the arthroscopic incidence of radial tears, (2) MR signs that aid in the detection of radial tears and (3) our prospective accuracy in detection of radial tears. Design and patients. Three musculoskeletal radiologists prospectively read 200 consecutive MR examinations of the knee that went on to arthroscopy by one orthopedic surgeon. MR images were assessed for location and MR characteristics of radial tears. MR criteria used for diagnosis of a radial tear were those outlined by Tuckman et al.: truncation, abnormal morphology and/or lack of continuity or absence of the meniscus on one or more MR images. An additional criterion used was abnormal increased signal in that area on fat-saturated proton density or T2-weighted coronal and sagittal images. Prospective MR readings were correlated with the arthroscopic findings.Results. Of the 200 consecutive knee arthroscopies, 28 patients had radial tears reported arthroscopically (14% incidence). MR readings prospectively demonstrated 19 of the 28 radial tears (68% sensitivity) when the criteria for diagnosis of a radial tear were truncation or abnormal morphology of the meniscus. With the use of the additional criterion of increased signal in the area of abnormal morphology on fat-saturated T2-weighted or proton density weighted sequences, the prospective sensitivity was 25 of 28 radial tears (89% sensitivity). There were no radial tears described in MR reports that were not demonstrated on arthroscopy (i.e., there were no false positive MR readings of radial tears in these 200 patients). Radial tears are commonly seen at arthroscopy. There was a 14% incidence in this series of 200 patients who underwent arthroscopy. Prospective detection of radial tears was 68% as compared with arthroscopy when the criteria as

  15. MR accuracy and arthroscopic incidence of meniscal radial tears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magee, Thomas; Shapiro, Marc; Williams, David

    2002-01-01

    A meniscal radial tear is a vertical tear that involves the inner meniscal margin. The tear is most frequent in the middle third of the lateral meniscus and may extend outward in any direction. We report (1) the arthroscopic incidence of radial tears, (2) MR signs that aid in the detection of radial tears and (3) our prospective accuracy in detection of radial tears. Design and patients. Three musculoskeletal radiologists prospectively read 200 consecutive MR examinations of the knee that went on to arthroscopy by one orthopedic surgeon. MR images were assessed for location and MR characteristics of radial tears. MR criteria used for diagnosis of a radial tear were those outlined by Tuckman et al.: truncation, abnormal morphology and/or lack of continuity or absence of the meniscus on one or more MR images. An additional criterion used was abnormal increased signal in that area on fat-saturated proton density or T2-weighted coronal and sagittal images. Prospective MR readings were correlated with the arthroscopic findings.Results. Of the 200 consecutive knee arthroscopies, 28 patients had radial tears reported arthroscopically (14% incidence). MR readings prospectively demonstrated 19 of the 28 radial tears (68% sensitivity) when the criteria for diagnosis of a radial tear were truncation or abnormal morphology of the meniscus. With the use of the additional criterion of increased signal in the area of abnormal morphology on fat-saturated T2-weighted or proton density weighted sequences, the prospective sensitivity was 25 of 28 radial tears (89% sensitivity). There were no radial tears described in MR reports that were not demonstrated on arthroscopy (i.e., there were no false positive MR readings of radial tears in these 200 patients). Radial tears are commonly seen at arthroscopy. There was a 14% incidence in this series of 200 patients who underwent arthroscopy. Prospective detection of radial tears was 68% as compared with arthroscopy when the criteria as

  16. Sensitization of trigeminal brainstem pathways in a model for tear deficient dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mostafeezur; Okamoto, Keiichiro; Thompson, Randall; Katagiri, Ayano; Bereiter, David A

    2015-05-01

    Chronic dry eye disease (DE) is associated with an unstable tear film and symptoms of ocular discomfort. The characteristics of symptoms suggest a key role for central neural processing; however, little is known about central neuroplasticity and DE. We used a model for tear deficient DE and assessed effects on eye blink behavior, orbicularis oculi muscle activity (OOemg), and trigeminal brainstem neural activity in male rats. Ocular-responsive neurons were recorded at the interpolaris/caudalis transition (Vi/Vc) and Vc/upper cervical cord (Vc/C1) regions under isoflurane, whereas OOemg activity was recorded under urethane. Spontaneous tear volume was reduced by ∼50% at 14 days after exorbital gland removal. Hypertonic saline-evoked eye blink behavior in awake rats was enhanced throughout the 14 days after surgery. Saline-evoked neural activity at the Vi/Vc transition and in superficial and deep laminae at the Vc/C1 region was greatly enhanced in DE rats. Neurons from DE rats classified as wide dynamic range displayed enlarged convergent periorbital receptive fields consistent with central sensitization. Saline-evoked OOemg activity was markedly enhanced in DE rats compared with controls. Synaptic blockade at the Vi/Vc transition or the Vc/C1 region greatly reduced hypertonic saline-evoked OOemg activity in DE and sham rats. These results indicated that persistent tear deficiency caused sensitization of ocular-responsive neurons at multiple regions of the caudal trigeminal brainstem and enhanced OOemg activity. Central sensitization of ocular-related brainstem circuits is a significant factor in DE and likely contributes to the apparent weak correlation between peripheral signs of tear dysfunction and symptoms of irritation.

  17. Upregulation of NLRP3 Inflammasome in the Tears and Ocular Surface of Dry Eye Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangliang Niu

    Full Text Available To evaluate the mRNA and protein expressions of NLRP3 inflammasome and its downstream inflammatory factors in human dry eye.We recruited 54 patients with Sjögren's syndrome dry eye (SSDE, 50 patients with non-Sjögren's syndrome dry eye (NSSDE, and 46 healthy controls. Tear film breakup time (TBUT, Schirmer I test, and fluorescein staining (FL were performed on all subjects. Tear samples were obtained to analyze the inflammatory cytokine levels of IL-1β and IL-18 via enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA. Conjunctival impression cytology (CIC specimens were collected to detect the mRNA expression of NLRP3, caspase-1, IL-1β, and IL-18 using quantitative RT-PCR, and the protein expression of NLRP3 and caspase-1 by Western blotting.NLRP3 mRNA expression showed higher levels in both dry eye groups compared with controls, with a comparably significant elevation in the SSDE group (relative 2.47-fold upregulation, p<0.05. NLRP3 protein expression was also increased in SSDE group (relative1.94-fold upregulation compared with the controls. mRNA expression of caspase-1 was significantly upregulated in both SSDE (relative 1.44-fold upregulation, p<0.05 and NSSDE (relative 1.32-fold upregulation, p<0.05. Procaspase-1 protein level was increased in SSDE (relative 1.84-fold upregulation and NSSDE (relative 1.12-fold upregulation versus controls; and caspase-1 protein expression was also increased in SSDE (relative 1.49-fold upregulation and NSSDE (relative 1.17-fold upregulation compared with the controls. The patients with SSDE and NSSDE had higher IL-1β and IL-18 mRNA values and protein expressions than the controls did. The relative mRNA expression of IL-1β upregulated 3.59-fold (p<0.001 in SSDE and 2.13-fold (p<0.01 in NSSDE compared with the controls. IL-1β protein level also showed significant upregulation in SSDE (p=0.01; vs. controls groups. IL-18 mRNA expression levels were significantly upregulated in the SSDE (relative 2.97-fold upregulation, p

  18. The Tear Osmolarity Changes After Cataract Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Öncel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: To determine the tear osmolarity changes in patients who had undergone phacoemulsification surgery. Ma te ri al and Met hod: Tear osmolarity measurements were performed in 30 eyes of 30 patients who had undergone cataract surgery without any complication. Measurements were performed before surgery and consecutively at 1st month, 3rd month, and 6th month after the surgery. TearLab osmometer (TearLab Corporation, San Diego, CA, USA device was used for the measurements and paired ttest was used for statistical analysis. Re sults: The mean age of the patients was 72.3±3.7 (67-78 years. Thirteen patients were men and 17 patients were women. The mean osmolarity values were 305.8±6.5 mOsm/L before the surgery and 312.3±6.4 mOsm/L at 1st month, 307.5±5.1 mOsm/L at 3rd month and 305.1±5.7 at 6th month after the surgery. The difference between the values before surgery and at 1st month was found statistically significant (p=0.001. Dis cus si on: The tear osmolarity increases at the first month after surgery but decreases to the levels measured before surgery at the 3rd month. The increase at the first month may be due to the corneal incisions and medication used after the surgery. We think that we have to take into account this similarity increase in all cataract patients, especially in those who also have dry eye disease. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: 35-7

  19. Tear Film Functions and Intraocular Pressure Changes in Pregnancy.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Skare TL, Gehlen ML, Silveira DMG, Uema MMDS. Pregnancy and lacrimal dysfunction. Rev. Bras. Ginecol. Obstet. 2012;34(4):170-4. 7. Ding C, Lu M, Huang J. Changes of the ocular surface and aquaporins in the lacrimal glands of rabbits. During pregnancy. Mol Vis. 2011;17:2847-55. 8. Goldich Y, Cooper M, Barkana Y, ...

  20. Posterior horn lateral meniscal tears simulating meniscofemoral ligament attachment in the setting of ACL tear: MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Lawrence S.; Jacobson, Jon A.; Jamadar, David A.; Caoili, Elaine; Kalume-Brigido, Monica; Wojtys, Edward

    2007-01-01

    We have noted apparent far lateral meniscal attachment of the meniscofemoral ligament (MFL) with an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear. This study evaluates MFL attachment and association with posterior horn lateral meniscus (PHLM) tear. Nine months of knee arthroscopy reports were reviewed to classify the PHLM and ACL as torn or normal. After excluding those with prior knee surgery, MR images were reviewed by two radiologists to determine the number of images lateral to PCL, which showed the ligaments of Humphrey and Wrisberg visible as structures separate from the PHLM. Any patient with abnormal PHLM surface signal not continuous with the MFL was excluded. MRI findings were compared with arthroscopy using Student's t test and Fisher's exact test. Of the 54 participants, 5 had PHLM tears and 49 were normal. Twenty-one had ACL tears; all those with an PHLM tear had an ACL tear. The ligament of Humphrey inserted on average 0.9 consecutive images lateral to the PCL without an PHLM tear and 4.7 with an PHLM tear; the ligament of Wrisberg inserted on average 3.0 consecutive images without an PHLM tear and 4.5 with an PHLM tear (slice thickness/gap = 3 mm/0.5 mm). There was a significant association between PHLM tear and number of images (p = 0.0028), and between ACL tear and this type of PHLM tear (p = 0.0064). Apparent far lateral meniscal extension of a meniscofemoral ligament (greater than or equal to four images lateral to the PCL) should be considered as a possible PHLM tear, especially in the setting of an ACL tear. (orig.)

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging of meniscal bucket-handle tears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dfouni, N.; Garcia, J.; Kindynis, Ph.; Bosson, D.

    1997-01-01

    To define MR signs of meniscal bucket-handle tears and evaluate the diagnostic efficiency of this technique. Retrospective study of 30 patients with a meniscal bucket-handle tear and 30 with a different type of tear, all proven by arthroscopy. The following MR signs of a bucket-handle tear were evaluated: 'separate meniscal fragment, 'double posterior cruciate ligament', 'snake sign' and 'double anterior horn'. A correct diagnosis of a bucket-handle tear was only made in 18/30 of patients. Several of the MR signs were seen in the same patient in 17 cases. A double posterior cruciate ligament was present only in cases of medial meniscus tears. The 12 menisci without these signs, and therefore not diagnosed as bucket-handle tears, were all classified as meniscal tears on the basis of signal extending to the meniscal surface. Nine of these were not displaced into the inter-condylar notch at arthroscopy. The interobserver agreement was excellent: kappa 0.88. The diagnosis of a bucket-handle meniscal tear, if it is displaced, can be made when one or more of the four MR evaluated signs are present. Other forms of meniscal tears are only exceptionally diagnosed as bucket-handle tears. (authors)

  2. MR imaging-based diagnosis and classification of meniscal tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Jie C; De Smet, Arthur A; Graf, Ben K; Rosas, Humberto G

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is currently the modality of choice for detecting meniscal injuries and planning subsequent treatment. A thorough understanding of the imaging protocols, normal meniscal anatomy, surrounding anatomic structures, and anatomic variants and pitfalls is critical to ensure diagnostic accuracy and prevent unnecessary surgery. High-spatial-resolution imaging of the meniscus can be performed using fast spin-echo and three-dimensional MR imaging sequences. Normal anatomic structures that can mimic a tear include the meniscal ligament, meniscofemoral ligaments, popliteomeniscal fascicles, and meniscomeniscal ligament. Anatomic variants and pitfalls that can mimic a tear include discoid meniscus, meniscal flounce, a meniscal ossicle, and chondrocalcinosis. When a meniscal tear is identified, accurate description and classification of the tear pattern can guide the referring clinician in patient education and surgical planning. For example, longitudinal tears are often amenable to repair, whereas horizontal and radial tears may require partial meniscectomy. Tear patterns include horizontal, longitudinal, radial, root, complex, displaced, and bucket-handle tears. Occasionally, meniscal tears can be difficult to detect at imaging; however, secondary indirect signs, such as a parameniscal cyst, meniscal extrusion, or linear subchondral bone marrow edema, should increase the radiologist's suspicion for an underlying tear. Awareness of common diagnostic errors can ensure accurate diagnosis of meniscal tears. Online supplemental material is available for this article. ©RSNA, 2014.

  3. T lymphocytes are not required for the development of fatty degeneration after rotator cuff tear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumucio, J.; Flood, M.; Harning, J.; Phan, A.; Roche, S.; Lynch, E.; Bedi, A.; Mendias, C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Rotator cuff tears are among the most common and debilitating upper extremity injuries. Chronic cuff tears result in atrophy and an infiltration of fat into the muscle, a condition commonly referred to as ‘fatty degeneration’. While stem cell therapies hold promise for the treatment of cuff tears, a suitable immunodeficient animal model that could be used to study human or other xenograft-based therapies for the treatment of rotator cuff injuries had not previously been identified. Methods A full-thickness, massive supraspinatus and infraspinatus tear was induced in adult T-cell deficient rats. We hypothesised that, compared with controls, 28 days after inducing a tear we would observe a decrease in muscle force production, an accumulation of type IIB fibres, and an upregulation in the expression of genes involved with muscle atrophy, fibrosis and inflammation. Results Chronic cuff tears in nude rats resulted in a 30% to 40% decrease in muscle mass, a 23% reduction in production of muscle force, and an induction of genes that regulate atrophy, fibrosis, lipid accumulation, inflammation and macrophage recruitment. Marked large lipid droplet accumulation was also present. Conclusions The extent of degenerative changes in nude rats was similar to what was observed in T-cell competent rats. T cells may not play an important role in regulating muscle degeneration following chronic muscle unloading. The general similarities between nude and T-cell competent rats suggest the nude rat is likely an appropriate preclinical model for the study of xenografts that have the potential to enhance the treatment of chronically torn rotator cuff muscles. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2014;3:262–72. PMID:25185444

  4. Oxidative stress induced inflammation initiates functional decline of tear production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Uchino

    Full Text Available Oxidative damage and inflammation are proposed to be involved in an age-related functional decline of exocrine glands. However, the molecular mechanism of how oxidative stress affects the secretory function of exocrine glands is unclear. We developed a novel mev-1 conditional transgenic mouse model (Tet-mev-1 using a modified tetracycline system (Tet-On/Off system. This mouse model demonstrated decreased tear production with morphological changes including leukocytic infiltration and fibrosis. We found that the mev-1 gene encodes Cyt-1, which is the cytochrome b(560 large subunit of succinate-ubiquinone oxidoreductase in complex II of mitochondria (homologous to succinate dehydrogenase C subunit (SDHC in humans. The mev-1 gene induced excessive oxidative stress associated with ocular surface epithelial damage and a decrease in protein and aqueous secretory function. This new model provides evidence that mitochondrial oxidative damage in the lacrimal gland induces lacrimal dysfunction resulting in dry eye disease. Tear volume in Tet-mev-1 mice was lower than in wild type mice and histopathological analyses showed the hallmarks of lacrimal gland inflammation by intense mononuclear leukocytic infiltration and fibrosis in the lacrimal gland of Tet-mev-1 mice. These findings strongly suggest that oxidative stress can be a causative factor for the development of dry eye disease.

  5. Efficacy of an artificial tear emulsion in patients with dry eye associated with meibomian gland dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindt, Christine W; Foulks, Gary N

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study reported here was to assess the efficacy of an artificial tear emulsion for the treatment of dry eye associated with meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). At five clinics, patients completed a 1-week treatment with their habitual topical therapy and then a 4-week treatment with open-label study medication: Systane® Balance Lubricant Eye Drops (Alcon, Alcon Inc, Fort Worth, TX, USA). Subjective assessments included a preference survey, the Impact of Dry Eye in Everyday Life questionnaire, and the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment questionnaire. Objective assessments by unmasked investigators included visual acuity, meibomian gland expression and dropout, tear film breakup time, corneal staining, and dosing frequency. At baseline, the 49 patients had mean meibomian gland expression grades and gland dropout that indicated mild to moderate MGD. Patients administered their habitual therapy 2.5 ± 1.3 times per day. After 4 weeks of study medication, the Impact of Dry Eye in Everyday Life questionnaire results indicated statistically and clinically significant improvements. Fewer than half of the participants were employed, limiting the usefulness of the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment questionnaire. Visual acuity remained statistically similar, while corneal staining and tear film breakup time improved significantly (P < 0.05) but modestly. The outcomes were achieved with 1.9 ± 1.1 doses per day of study medication, a significantly lower frequency than the habitual frequency (P < 0.001). The most common medication-related adverse event was blurred vision (3/49 patients, 6.1%). At study conclusion, 27/44 (61.4%) survey respondents preferred the study medication to their habitual therapy. The artificial tear emulsion was effective for treating the signs and symptoms of dry eye in MGD patients.

  6. Squeeze-Film Lubrication of the Human Ankle Joint Subjected to the Cyclic Loading Encountered in Walking

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlaváček, Miroslav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 127, č. 1 (2005), s. 141-147 ISSN 0742-4787 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA103/04/0150 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : cyclic loading * human ankle joint * squeeze-film lubrication * synovial fluid filtration * synovial gel formation Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials Impact factor: 0.682, year: 2005

  7. Interaction of human osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells with stainless steel coated by silicalite-1 films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirka, Ivan; Vandrovcová, Marta; Plšek, Jan; Bouša, Milan; Brabec, Libor; Dragounová, Helena; Bačáková, Lucie

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 76, JUL 2017 (2017), s. 775-781 ISSN 0928-4931 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-02681S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 ; RVO:67985823 Keywords : silicalite-1 film * biocompatibility * human osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry; EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics (FGU-C) OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry; Biomaterials (as related to medical implants, devices, sensors) (FGU-C)

  8. The effect of tear size and nerve injury on rotator cuff muscle fatty degeneration in a rodent animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H Mike; Galatz, Leesa M; Lim, Chanteak; Havlioglu, Necat; Thomopoulos, Stavros

    2012-07-01

    Irreversible muscle changes after rotator cuff tears is a well-known negative prognostic factor after shoulder surgery. Currently, little is known about the pathomechanism of fatty degeneration of the rotator cuff muscles after chronic cuff tears. The purposes of this study were to (1) develop a rodent animal model of chronic rotator cuff tears that can reproduce fatty degeneration of the cuff muscles seen clinically, (2) describe the effects of tear size and concomitant nerve injury on muscle degeneration, and (3) evaluate the changes in gene expression of relevant myogenic and adipogenic factors after rotator cuff tears using the animal model. Rotator cuff tears were created in rodents with and without transection of the suprascapular nerve. The supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles were examined at 2, 8, and 16 weeks after injury for histologic evidence of fatty degeneration and expression of myogenic and adipogenic genes. Histologic analysis revealed adipocytes, intramuscular fat globules, and intramyocellular fat droplets in the tenotomized and neurotomized supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles. Changes increased with time and were most severe in the muscles with combined tenotomy and neurotomy. Adipogenic and myogenic transcription factors and markers were upregulated in muscles treated with tenotomy or tenotomy combined with neurotomy compared with normal muscles. The rodent animal model described in this study produces fatty degeneration of the rotator cuff muscles similar to human muscles after chronic cuff tears. The severity of changes was associated with tear size and concomitant nerve injury. Copyright © 2012 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Stromal vascular stem cell treatment decreases muscle fibrosis following chronic rotator cuff tear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumucio, Jonathan P; Flood, Michael D; Roche, Stuart M; Sugg, Kristoffer B; Momoh, Adeyiza O; Kosnik, Paul E; Bedi, Asheesh; Mendias, Christopher L

    2016-04-01

    Rotator cuff injuries are associated with atrophy and fat infiltration into the muscle, commonly referred to as "fatty degeneration." As the poor function of chronically torn muscles may limit recovery after surgical repair, there is considerable interest in finding therapies to enhance muscle regeneration. Stromal vascular fraction stem cells (SVFCs) can improve muscle regeneration in other chronic injury states, and our objective was to evaluate the ability of SVFCs to reduce fibrosis and fat accumulation, and enhance muscle fibre specific force production after chronic rotator cuff tear. Chronic supraspinatus tears were induced in adult immunodeficient rats, and repaired one month following tear. Rats received vehicle control, or injections of 3 × 10(5) or 3 × 10(6) human SVFCs into supraspinatus muscles. Two weeks following repair, we detected donor human DNA and protein in SVFC treated muscles. There was a 40 % reduction in fibrosis in the treated groups compared to controls (p = 0.03 for 3 × 10(5), p = 0.04 for 3 × 10(6)), and no differences between groups for lipid content or force production were observed. As there has been much interest in the use of stem cell-based therapies in musculoskeletal regenerative medicine, the reduction in fibrosis and trend towards an improvement in single fiber contractility suggest that SVFCs may be beneficial to enhance the treatment and recovery of patients with chronic rotator cuff tears.

  10. Study on immobilizations of ovine anti-human IgG and MCAb against EHF on radiation-modified silicone films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jinhui, Guo; Hongfei, Ha; Yuhua, Zhang [Beijing Univ., BJ (China). Dept. of Technical Physics

    1990-08-01

    Films of silicone (silastic) were grafted by monomer acrylamide vis {gamma}-radiation technology and then the ovine anti-human IgG, Epidemic hemorrhagic fever (EHF)-MCAb were immobilized on the silastic-AAM films with different grafting yields passthrough associate reactions. Measruements of relationships between grafting yields. Contents of immobilized antibodies and immunoactivities for immobilized silastic-AAM films were performed by using {sup 125}I method ELISA method was used to measure the immunoactivities for the immobilized monoantibody. The results showed that the antibodies used can be immobilized on radiation-grafted silicone films and this immobilization method has its potential significance in clinical practice.

  11. Study on immobilizations of ovine anti-human IgG and MCAb against EHF on radiation-modified silicone films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Jinhui; Ha Hongfei; Zhang Yuhua

    1990-01-01

    Films of silicone (silastic) were grafted by monomer acrylamide vis γ-radiation technology and then the ovine anti-human IgG, Epidemic hemorrhagic fever (EHF)-MCAb were immobilized on the silastic-AAM films with different grafting yields passthrough associate reactions. Measruements of relationships between grafting yields. Contents of immobilized antibodies and immunoactivities for immobilized silastic-AAM films were performed by using 125 I method ELISA method was used to measure the immunoactivities for the immobilized monoantibody. The results showed that the antibodies used can be immobilized on radiation-grafted silicone films and this immobilization method has its potential significance in clinical practice

  12. Efficacy of an artificial tear emulsion in patients with dry eye associated with meibomian gland dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sindt CW

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Christine W Sindt,1 Gary N Foulks2 1Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA, 2Kentucky Lions Eye Center, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA Objectives: The aim of the study reported here was to assess the efficacy of an artificial tear emulsion for the treatment of dry eye associated with meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD. Methods: At five clinics, patients completed a 1-week treatment with their habitual topical therapy and then a 4-week treatment with open-label study medication: Systane® Balance Lubricant Eye Drops (Alcon, Alcon Inc, Fort Worth, TX, USA. Subjective assessments included a preference survey, the Impact of Dry Eye in Everyday Life questionnaire, and the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment questionnaire. Objective assessments by unmasked investigators included visual acuity, meibomian gland expression and dropout, tear film breakup time, corneal staining, and dosing frequency. Results: At baseline, the 49 patients had mean meibomian gland expression grades and gland dropout that indicated mild to moderate MGD. Patients administered their habitual therapy 2.5 ± 1.3 times per day. After 4 weeks of study medication, the Impact of Dry Eye in Everyday Life questionnaire results indicated statistically and clinically significant improvements. Fewer than half of the participants were employed, limiting the usefulness of the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment questionnaire. Visual acuity remained statistically similar, while corneal staining and tear film breakup time improved significantly (P < 0.05 but modestly. The outcomes were achieved with 1.9 ± 1.1 doses per day of study medication, a significantly lower frequency than the habitual frequency (P < 0.001. The most common medication-related adverse event was blurred vision (3/49 patients, 6.1%. At study conclusion, 27/44 (61.4% survey respondents

  13. Comparison of ophthalmic sponges and extraction buffers for quantifying cytokine profiles in tears using Luminex technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inic-Kanada, Aleksandra; Nussbaumer, Andrea; Montanaro, Jacqueline; Belij, Sandra; Schlacher, Simone; Stein, Elisabeth; Bintner, Nora; Merio, Margarethe; Zlabinger, Gerhard J; Barisani-Asenbauer, Talin

    2012-01-01

    proinflammatory cytokines, Th1/Th2 distinguishing cytokines, nonspecific acting cytokines, and chemokines. WE DEMONSTRATED THE FOLLOWING: (i) 25 cytokines/chemokines expressed highly variable interactions with buffers and matrices. Several buffers enabled recovery of similar cytokine values (regulated and normal T cell expressed and secreted [RANTES], interleukin [IL]-13, IL-6, IL-8, IL-2R, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor [GM-CSF]); others were highly variable (monocyte chemotactic protein-1 [MCP-1], monokine induced by interferon-gamma [MIG], IL-1β, IL-4, IL-7, and eotaxin). (ii) Various extraction buffers displayed significantly different recovery rates on the same sponge for the same cytokine/chemokine. (iii) The highest recovery rates were obtained with the Merocel ophthalmic sponge except for tumor necrosis factor-α: the Weck-Cel ophthalmic sponge showed the best results, either with cytokine standards loaded onto sponges or with tears collected from the inner canthus of the eye, using the sponge. (iv) IL-5, IL-10, and interferon-α were not detected in any tear sample from four normal human subjects. Twenty-two cytokines/chemokines that we detected were extracted from the Merocel sponge to a satisfactory recovery percentage. The recovery of IL-7 was significantly lower in the extracted Merocel sponge compared to the diluted tear samples. The cytokine/chemokine extraction from tears showed the same pattern of extraction that we observed for extracting the standards. Simultaneous measurement of various cytokines using ophthalmic sponges yielded diverse results for various cytokines as the level of extraction differs noticeably for certain cytokines. A second set of controls (standard curves "with sponges") should be used to delineate the extent of extraction for each cytokine to be analyzed. Many cytokines/chemokines were detected in tear samples collected with the Merocel sponge, including many that have been implicated in ocular surface disease

  14. Comparison of ophthalmic sponges and extraction buffers for quantifying cytokine profiles in tears using Luminex technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inic-Kanada, Aleksandra; Nussbaumer, Andrea; Montanaro, Jacqueline; Belij, Sandra; Schlacher, Simone; Stein, Elisabeth; Bintner, Nora; Merio, Margarethe; Zlabinger, Gerhard J.

    2012-01-01

    measurement of proinflammatory cytokines, Th1/Th2 distinguishing cytokines, nonspecific acting cytokines, and chemokines. Results We demonstrated the following: (i) 25 cytokines/chemokines expressed highly variable interactions with buffers and matrices. Several buffers enabled recovery of similar cytokine values (regulated and normal T cell expressed and secreted [RANTES], interleukin [IL]-13, IL-6, IL-8, IL-2R, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor [GM-CSF]); others were highly variable (monocyte chemotactic protein-1 [MCP-1], monokine induced by interferon-gamma [MIG], IL-1β, IL-4, IL-7, and eotaxin). (ii) Various extraction buffers displayed significantly different recovery rates on the same sponge for the same cytokine/chemokine. (iii) The highest recovery rates were obtained with the Merocel ophthalmic sponge except for tumor necrosis factor-α: the Weck-Cel ophthalmic sponge showed the best results, either with cytokine standards loaded onto sponges or with tears collected from the inner canthus of the eye, using the sponge. (iv) IL-5, IL-10, and interferon-α were not detected in any tear sample from four normal human subjects. Twenty-two cytokines/chemokines that we detected were extracted from the Merocel sponge to a satisfactory recovery percentage. The recovery of IL-7 was significantly lower in the extracted Merocel sponge compared to the diluted tear samples. The cytokine/chemokine extraction from tears showed the same pattern of extraction that we observed for extracting the standards. Conclusions Simultaneous measurement of various cytokines using ophthalmic sponges yielded diverse results for various cytokines as the level of extraction differs noticeably for certain cytokines. A second set of controls (standard curves “with sponges”) should be used to delineate the extent of extraction for each cytokine to be analyzed. Many cytokines/chemokines were detected in tear samples collected with the Merocel sponge, including many that have been

  15. Effect of tantalum content of titanium oxide film fabricated by magnetron sputtering on the behavior of cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.Y.; Leng, Y.X.; Zhang, X.

    2006-01-01

    In this work, we synthesized titanium oxide thin films containing different tantalum using magnetron sputtering to meet the challenge of enhanced biocompatibility. The structure characteristics of the films were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The biological behavior of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) on the film surface was investigated by in vitro cell culture. Study of cultured HUVEC onto films revealed that the growth and proliferation behavior of EC were varied significantly due to the different Ta content which resulting the characterization of films is different. The adherence, growth, shape and proliferation of EC on Ti-O film with high Ta content and smoother surface was excellent

  16. Thin films of single-walled carbon nanotubes promote human osteoblastic cells (Saos-2) proliferation in low serum concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akasaka, Tsukasa; Yokoyama, Atsuro; Matsuoka, Makoto; Hashimoto, Takeshi; Watari, Fumio

    2010-01-01

    One strategy used for the regeneration of bone is the development of cell culture substrates and scaffolds that can control osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. In recent investigations, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been utilized as scaffolds for osteoblastic cell cultures; however, there are only a few reports describing the proliferation of osteoblastic cells on thin CNT films; in particular, the effects of serum concentration on cell proliferation have not been studied. In the present study, we prepared culture dishes with homogeneous thin or thick films of non-modified CNTs and examined the effect of serum concentrations on human osteoblastic cells (Saos-2) proliferation in these culture dishes. We demonstrated that the ratio of cell proliferation was strongly affected by the concentration of serum. Interestingly, single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) thin films were found to be the most effective substrate for the proliferation of Saos-2 cells in low concentrations of serum. Thus, thin SWNT films may be used as an effective biomaterial for the culture of Saos-2 cells in low serum concentrations.

  17. Attachment and growth of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells on regenerated antheraea pernyi silk fibroin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luan Xiying [Institute of Medical Biotechnology, Jiangsu Province Key Laboratory of Stem Cell, Suzhou University, Suzhou 215007 (China); Wang Yong [Institute of Medical Biotechnology, Jiangsu Province Key Laboratory of Stem Cell, Suzhou University, Suzhou 215007 (China); Duan Xiang [Institute of Medical Biotechnology, Jiangsu Province Key Laboratory of Stem Cell, Suzhou University, Suzhou 215007 (China); Duan Qiaoyan [Institute of Medical Biotechnology, Jiangsu Province Key Laboratory of Stem Cell, Suzhou University, Suzhou 215007 (China); Li Mingzhong [School of Materials Engineering, Suzhou University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Lu Shenzhou [School of Materials Engineering, Suzhou University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Zhang Huanxiang [Institute of Medical Biotechnology, Jiangsu Province Key Laboratory of Stem Cell, Suzhou University, Suzhou 215007 (China); Zhang Xueguang [Institute of Medical Biotechnology, Jiangsu Province Key Laboratory of Stem Cell, Suzhou University, Suzhou 215007 (China)

    2006-12-15

    Silk fibroin of the silkworm Bombyx mori has been studied extensively, while the research on Antheraea pernyi silk fibroin (A. pernyi SF) in biomaterials is only at an early stage. In this study, the attachment, morphology, growth and phenotype of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) cultured on the regenerated A. pernyi SF films were studied in vitro. The results indicated that the attachment of hBMSCs on the regenerated A. pernyi SF films was almost the same as that on the collagen films. MTT and cell counting analyses demonstrated that the growth of hBMSCs on the regenerated A. pernyi SF films was better than that on controls. Moreover, electron scanning microscopy and fluorescence-activated cell sorting assays showed that the regenerated A. pernyi SF supported hBMSCs growth and functional maintenance compared with the controls. These data suggest that the regenerated A. pernyi SF, like Bombyx mori silk fibroin (B. mori SF) and collagen, can support hBMSCs attachment, growth and phenotypic maintenance, and has better biocompatibilities for hBMSCs in vitro culture.

  18. Attachment and growth of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells on regenerated antheraea pernyi silk fibroin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luan Xiying; Wang Yong; Duan Xiang; Duan Qiaoyan; Li Mingzhong; Lu Shenzhou; Zhang Huanxiang; Zhang Xueguang

    2006-01-01

    Silk fibroin of the silkworm Bombyx mori has been studied extensively, while the research on Antheraea pernyi silk fibroin (A. pernyi SF) in biomaterials is only at an early stage. In this study, the attachment, morphology, growth and phenotype of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) cultured on the regenerated A. pernyi SF films were studied in vitro. The results indicated that the attachment of hBMSCs on the regenerated A. pernyi SF films was almost the same as that on the collagen films. MTT and cell counting analyses demonstrated that the growth of hBMSCs on the regenerated A. pernyi SF films was better than that on controls. Moreover, electron scanning microscopy and fluorescence-activated cell sorting assays showed that the regenerated A. pernyi SF supported hBMSCs growth and functional maintenance compared with the controls. These data suggest that the regenerated A. pernyi SF, like Bombyx mori silk fibroin (B. mori SF) and collagen, can support hBMSCs attachment, growth and phenotypic maintenance, and has better biocompatibilities for hBMSCs in vitro culture

  19. Tear dysfunction and the cornea: LXVIII Edward Jackson Memorial Lecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflugfelder, Stephen C

    2011-12-01

    To describe the cause and consequence of tear dysfunction-related corneal disease. Perspective on effects of tear dysfunction on the cornea. Evidence is presented on the effects of tear dysfunction on corneal morphology, function, and health, as well as efficacy of therapies for tear dysfunction-related corneal disease. Tear dysfunction is a prevalent eye disease and the most frequent cause for superficial corneal epithelial disease that results in corneal barrier disruption, an irregular optical surface, light scattering, optical aberrations, and exposure and sensitization of pain-sensing nerve endings (nociceptors). Tear dysfunction-related corneal disease causes irritation and visual symptoms such as photophobia and blurred and fluctuating vision that may decrease quality of life. Dysfunction of 1 or more components of the lacrimal functional unit results in changes in tear composition, including elevated osmolarity and increased concentrations of matrix metalloproteinases, inflammatory cytokines, and chemokines. These tear compositional changes promote disruption of tight junctions, alter differentiation, and accelerate death of corneal epithelial cells. Corneal epithelial disease resulting from tear dysfunction causes eye irritation and decreases visual function. Clinical and basic research has improved understanding of the pathogenesis of tear dysfunction-related corneal epithelial disease, as well as treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Treatment of the subject of tearing instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paris, P.C.

    1977-07-01

    A simple approach is taken to the mechanics of potential instability associated with the steady tearing portion of J-Integral R-curves. The analysis is developed from simple examples of structural component (or test specimen) configurations with cracks, examining their instability possibilities individually, in order to draw more general conclusions about elastic-plastic cracking instability as contrasted to linear-elastic behavior. Finally, an attempt is made to model a more local cleavage-like instability for material in the fracture process zone just ahead of a crack tip. Results are then presented of a testing program which clearly demonstrates the appropriateness of the tearing instability analysis and which illustrates its broad potential for future application, as well as presenting guidelines for its further development. The material selected for analysis was Ni-Cr-Mo-V rotor steel

  1. Saturated tearing modes in tokamaks with divertors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, G.

    1982-12-01

    We have developed a self-consistent theory of saturated tearing modes capable of predicting multiple magnetic island widths in tokamaks with no assumptions on the cross-sectional shape, aspect ratio, or plasma pressure. We are in the process of implementing this algorithm in the form of a computer code. We propose: (1) to complete, refine, document and publish this computer code; (2) to carry out a survey in which we vary the current profile, aspect ratio, cross-sectional shape, and pressure profile in order to determine their effect on saturated tearing mode magnetic island widths; and (3) to determine the effect of some externally applied magnetic perturbation harmonics on these magnetic island widths. Particular attention will be paid to the coupling between different helical harmonics, the effect of multiple magnetic islands on the profiles of temperature, pressure and current, and the potential of magnetic island overlap leading to a disruptive instability

  2. Stability of tearing modes in tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegna, C.C.; Callen, J.D.

    1994-02-01

    The stability properties of m ≥ 2 tearing instabilities in tokamak plasmas are analyzed. A boundary layer theory is used to find asymptotic solutions to the ideal external kink equation which are used to obtain a simple analytic expression for the tearing instability parameter Δ'. This calculation generalizes previous work on this topic by considering more general toroidal equilibria (however, toroidal coupling effects are ignored). Constructions of Δ' are obtained for plasmas with finite beta and for islands that have nonzero width. A simple heuristic estimate is given for the value of the saturated island width when the instability criterion is violated. A connection is made between the calculation of the asymptotic matching parameter in the finite beta and island width case to the nonlinear analog of the Glasser effect

  3. Geometrical influences on neoclassical magnetohydrodynamic tearing modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, S.E.; Hegna, C.C.; Callen, J.D.

    1997-07-01

    The influence of geometry on the pressure drives of nonideal magnetohydrodynamic tearing modes is presented. In order to study the effects of elongation, triangularity, and aspect ratio, three different machines are considered to provide a range of tokamak configurations: TFTR (circular), DIII-D (D-shaped), and Pegasus (extremely low aspect ratio). For large aspect ratio tokamaks, shaping does very little to influence the pressure gradient drives, while at low aspect ratios, a very strong sensitivity to the profiles is found. In particular, this sensitivity is connected to the strong dependence on the magnetic shear. This suggests that at low aspect ratio it may be possible to stabilize neoclassical tearing modes by flattening the q profile near low order rational surfaces (e.g., q = 2/1) using a combination of shaping and localized current drive, whereas at large aspect ratio it is more difficult

  4. A Novel Technique of Rescuing Capsulorhexis Radial Tear-out using a Cystotome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Mizanur R.; Sleep, Tamsin; Hanifudin, Abdul

    2011-01-01

    Part 1 : Purpose: To demonstrate a capsulorhexis radial tear out rescue technique using a cystotome on a virtual reality cataract surgery simulator and in a human eye. Part 2 : Method: Steps: When a capsulorhexis begins to veer radially towards the periphery beyond the pupillary margin the following steps should be applied without delay. 2.1) Stop further capsulorhexis manoeuvre and reassess the situation. 2.2) Fill the anterior chamber with ophthalmic viscosurgical device (OVD). We recommend mounting the cystotome to a syringe containing OVD so that the anterior chamber can be reinflated rapidly. 2.3) The capsulorhexis flap is then left unfolded on the lens surface. 2.4) The cystotome tip is tilted horizontally to avoid cutting or puncturing the flap and is engaged on the flap near the leading edge of the tear but not too close to the point of tear. 2.5) Gently push or pull the leading edge of tear opposite to the direction of tear. 2.6) The leading tearing edge will start to do a 'U-Turn'. Maintain the tension on the flap until the tearing edge returns to the desired trajectory. Part 3 : Results: Using our technique, a surgeon can respond instantly to radial tear out without having to change surgical instruments. Changing surgical instruments at this critical stage runs a risk of further radial tear due to sudden shallowing of anterior chamber as a result of forward pressure from the vitreous. Our technique also has the advantage of reducing corneal wound distortion and subsequent anterior chamber collapse. Part 4 : Discussion The EYESI Surgical Simulator is a realistic training platform for surgeons to practice complex capsulorhexis tear-out techniques. Capsulorhexis is the most important and complex part of phacoemulsification and endocapsular intraocular lens implantation procedure. A successful cataract surgery depends on achieving a good capsulorhexis. During capsulorhexis, surgeons may face a challenging situation like a capsulorhexis radial tear-out. A

  5. Artificial tears potpourri: a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Moshirfar, Majid; Pierson, Kasey; Hanamaikai, Kamalani; Santiago-Caban, Luis; Muthappan, Valliammai; Passi, Samuel F

    2014-01-01

    Majid Moshirfar,1 Kasey Pierson,2,* Kamalani Hanamaikai,3,* Luis Santiago-Caban,1 Valliammai Muthappan,1 Samuel F Passi11Department of Ophthalmology, John A Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 2University of Arizona College of Medicine, Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ, USA; 3A T Still University, School of Osteopathic Medicine in Arizona, Mesa, AZ, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Numerous brands and types of artificial tears are available on the...

  6. Nonlinear growth of strongly unstable tearing modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waelbroeck, F.L.

    1993-11-01

    Rutherford's theory of the tearing instability is extended to cases where current nonlinearities are important, such as long wavelength modes in current slabs and the m = 1 instability in tokamaks with moderately large aspect-ratios. Of particular interest is the possibility that the associated magnetic islands, as a result of secondary instabilities, have a singular response to the Ohmic diffusion of the current. A family of islands is used to test this possibility; it is found that the response remains bounded

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging of muscle tears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Smet, A.A.; Fisher, D.R.; Heiner, J.P.; Keene, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    Magnetic resonance scans were obtained on 17 patients with acute, subacute, or chronic muscle tears. These patients presented with complaints of persistent pain or a palpable mass. Magnetic resonance findings were characterized according to alterations in muscle shape and the presence of abnormal high signal within the injured muscle. These areas of high signal were noted on both T1-weighted and T2-weighted scans and were presumed to represent areas of intramuscular hemorrhage. (orig.)

  8. Small-scale tearing mode in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, N.V.

    1983-01-01

    Considerations are given on the possible effect of small-scale tearing mode with m >> 1 on the plasma electron thermal conductivity in a tokamak. The estimate of the electron thermal conductivity coefficient is obtained. Calculation results are compared with experimental data. The calculated dependence of radial distribution of electron temperature is shown to vary weakly with the tn(m 2 /m 1 ) alteration everywhere, except for the vicinity of point r approximately 0

  9. SOCIAL FUNCTION OF TEARS: AN EMPIRICAL INQUIRY ABOUT THE TYPES OF EMOTIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OSCAR SIERRA FITZGERALD

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Human emotional interchange implicates expression/recognition of emotions. The human face is a conspicuousplace to express/read emotion. Certain emotions associate with emotional tearing, differentiable from basal and reflextearing. Murube, Murube and Murube (1999 classified emotional tearing in requesting- and offering -help. Thevalidity of that typology was evaluated using faces of people of both sexes crying because of their own suffering andbecause of other’s suffering. A group of judges classified the crying shown by those faces. Discrimination hit rates andqui-square tests were estimated by sex. Results do not support a human ability to distinguish two types of crying andare interpreted from a cultural point of view.

  10. Secretory phospholipase A2 in dromedary tears: a host defense against staphylococci and other gram-positive bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Bacha, Abir; Abid, Islem

    2013-03-01

    The best known physiologic function of secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) group IIA (sPLA2-IIA) is defense against bacterial infection through hydrolytic degradation of bacterial membrane phospholipids. In fact, sPLA2-IIA effectively kills Gram-positive bacteria and to a lesser extent Gram-negative bacteria and is considered a major component of the eye's innate immune defense system. The antibacterial properties of sPLA2 have been demonstrated in rabbit and human tears. In this report, we have analyzed the bactericidal activity of dromedary tears and the subsequently purified sPLA2 on several Gram-positive bacteria. Our results showed that the sPLA2 displays a potent bactericidal activity against all the tested bacteria particularly against the Staphylococcus strains when tested in the ionic environment of tears. There is a synergic action of the sPLA2 with lysozyme when added to the bacteria culture prior to sPLA2. Interestingly, lysozyme purified from dromedary tears showed a significant bactericidal activity against Listeria monocytogene and Staphylococcus epidermidis, whereas the one purified from human tears displayed no activity against these two strains. We have also demonstrated that Ca(2+) is crucial for the activity of dromedary tear sPLA2 and to a less extent Mg(2+) ions. Given the presence of sPLA2 in tears and intestinal secretions, this enzyme may play a substantial role in innate mucosal and systemic bactericidal defenses against Gram-positive bacteria.

  11. Conjunctival impression cytology versus routine tear function tests for dry eye evaluation in contact lens wearers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prachi; Bhargava, Rahul; Arora, Yogesh C; Kaushal, Sidharth; Kumar, Manjushri

    2015-01-01

    Prolonged contact lens wear is often accompanied by dryness of the eyes. The aim of this study was to compare conjunctival impression cytology (CIC) and tear film tests such as tear film break up time (TBUT) and Schirmer test for dry eye evaluation in contact lens wearers and measure their correlation with dry eye symptoms. A case control study was done at three referral eye centers. The eyes of 230 contact lens users were compared to 250 eyes of age- and sex-matched controls. Participants were recruited based on their response to a questionnaire of dry eye symptoms, (Dry Eye Scoring System, DESS(©)) and measurements of TBUT, Schirmer test, and CIC was done. A correlation analysis between symptom severity and tear film tests was performed. Pearson's coefficient, R(2) > 0.5 was considered significant. As compared to controls (r (2) = 0.010), Nelson grade correlated significantly with dry eye symptoms (r (2) = 0.765), among cases. However, there was moderate correlation between dry eye symptoms, Schirmer test, and TBUT (r (2) = 0.557 and 0.530, respectively) among cases and a weak correlation among controls (r (2) = 0.130 and 0.054, respectively). The sensitivity of TBUT was 86.4%, specificity was 82.4%, positive likelihood ratio (LR) was 4.50 [95% confidence interval (CI) 3.46-5.85)], and negative LR was 0.09. The sensitivity of the Schirmer test was 48.2%, specificity 88%, LR 2.12 (95% CI 1.48-2.96), and negative LR 0.83. CIC correlates better than Schirmer and TBUT with dry eye symptoms. It may be the most appropriate test for dry-eye evaluation in contact lens wearers.

  12. Tearing modes with pressure gradient effect in pair plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Huishan; Li Ding; Zheng Jian

    2009-01-01

    The general dispersion relation of tearing mode with pressure gradient effect in pair plasmas is derived analytically. If the pressure gradients of positron and electron are not identical in pair plasmas, the pressure gradient has significant influence at tearing mode in both collisionless and collisional regimes. In collisionless regime, the effects of pressure gradient depend on its magnitude. For small pressure gradient, the growth rate of tearing mode is enhanced by pressure gradient. For large pressure gradient, the growth rate is reduced by pressure gradient. The tearing mode can even be stabilized if pressure gradient is large enough. In collisional regime, the growth rate of tearing mode is reduced by the pressure gradient. While the positron and electron have equal pressure gradient, tearing mode is not affected by pressure gradient in pair plasmas.

  13. Meniscus tears of the knee: Postarthrogram high resolution CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Hyoung; Do, Young Soo; You, Jin Jong; Gong, Jae Chul; Kim, Hyung Jin; Chung, Sung Hoon

    1990-01-01

    Thirty-eight knees with clinically suspected meniscal tears were examined with high resolution computed tomography(HRCT) immediately following double contrast arthrography. All subsequently underwent arthroscopy. The findings of postarthrogram HRCT and arthroscopy were compared to evaluated the usefulness of postarthrogram HRCT in diagnosis of the meniscal tears. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of HRCT were 96.2%. 83.3% and 92.1% respectively. The anatomic details of the meniscal tears were clearly visible on the HRCT scans. Sagittal and coronal reformation views well visualized the horizontal tears and the relationship of torn meniscal fragments, and well differential the peripheral tears from the synovial recess. Our result indicate that postarthrogram HRCT not only is a sensitive and effective method for the detection and characterization of the meniscal tears, but also provides arthroscopists with the appropriate surgical plans

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging in acute and chronic rotator cuff tears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buirski, G.

    1990-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging has been assessed in patients with acute rotator cuff tears and normal radiographs (9 cases) and those with chronic tears and changes of cuff arthropathy (9 cases). All images were obtained using a low field strength system (FONAR 0.3 T). Particular attention was placed on the appearances of the tendon and the cuff muscles themselves. Six complete acute tears were clearly identified, but MRI failed to demonstrate two partial tears. Muscle bulk was preserved in all patients in this group. In contrast, all patients with cuff arthropathy had complete tears of the supraspinatus tendon with marked tendon retraction and associated muscle atrophy: These changes precluded primary surgical repair. MRI should be used to assess muscle atrophy preoperatively in those patients with acute tears. When plain radiographs demonstrate cuff arthropathy, the MRI appearances are predictable and primary repair is unlikely to be successful. Further imaging is therefore not indicated. (orig.)

  15. MR imaging of meniscal tears: correlation with history of trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jong Cheul; Yang, Seoung Oh; Choi, Sun Seob; Son, Seok Hyun; Lee, Yung Il; Chung, Duck Hwan; Kim, Kyung Taek; Sohn, Sung Keun; Lee, Jung Yoon

    1994-01-01

    The medial meniscus is injured much more than the lateral meniscus. Because the medial meniscus is much larger in diameter, is thinner in its periphery and narrower in body than the lateral meniscus, and dose not attach to either cruciate ligament. We evaluated correlations with sites of tear and history of trauma. We reviewed retrospectively in 43 patients with meniscal tears on MR(51 cases) and correlated them with history of trauma. The most common site of injury was the posterior horn of the medial meniscuc(32/51), but high incidence of lateral meniscal tear compared with previous reports was seen. In the cases which had history of trauma, the posterior horn of medial meniscus was most commonly injured(26/34) and 5 meniscal tears were combined with meniscal tear in the other site. The tear in the anterior horn of the medial meniscus was seen only in a patient which had history of trauma and combined with meniscal tear in the other site. But in the meniscal tears without definite history of trauma, the incidence of meniscal tear was different from the meniscal tear with history of trauma. The incidence of lateral meniscal tear(11/17) was higher than medial meniscal tear and the posterior horn of lateral meniscus was commonly injured. We concluded that the medial meniscus was commonly injured, especially posterior horn, but in the cases which had no definite history of trauma, the lateral meniscus was commonly injured. An awareness of prevalent site of meniscal injuries may be helpful in the diagnostic interpretation of MR imaging of knee

  16. Effect of blinking on tear elimination as evaluated by dacryoscintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, W.L.; Glover, A.T.; Buckner, A.B.

    1991-01-01

    To document the change in drainage of tears that occurs with blinking, the authors evaluated 17 lacrimal systems of 12 individuals with dacryoscintigraphy. A significant difference in tear drainage was found by keeping the eyelids closed during the first 2 minutes after drop placement (P less than 0.03), but not from 2 to 5 minutes (P greater than 0.4). Retardation of tear drainage after droplet placement can be achieved by simple eyelid closure for 2 minutes

  17. Accuracy of MR imaging in partial tears of rotator cuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eto, Masao; Ito, Nobuyuki; Tomonaga, Tadashi; Harada, Shin'ichi; Rabbi, M.E.; Iwasaki, Katsuro

    1997-01-01

    MRI is very useful for the diagnosis of the rotator cuff tear However. in case of partial tears it is sometimes controvertible. In this study, we studied the accuracy of MRI in the diagnosis of partial tears. 67 patients who underwent MRI investigation before operation were chosen for this study. There were 61 males and 6 females, ranging from 30 to 80 years (mean: 54.8 years at the time of operation). MRI was performed with 1.5T superconductive system with shoulder surface coil. MPGR T2-weighted images were performed in the coronal oblique and sagittal oblique planes. Complete tears were diagnosed when full thickness high intensity was observed in the rotator cuff, whereas with partial high intensity of the rotator cuff, was considered as partial tears. MRI demonstrated 77.8% sensitivity, 91.4% specificity and 89.6% accuracy in the diagnosis of partial tear. In 8 cases MRI had misinterpretation. In MPGR T2-weighted images, not only the partial tears but the degenerative changes also show high intensity of the rotator cuff. Therefore, it is difficult to differentiate and maybe this is the reason of misinterpretations of partial tears by MRI. MRI provided with useful pre-operative informations of partial tears of the rotator cuff. However, in few cases it is hard to differentiate for the degenerative changes of the rotator cuff. (author)

  18. Assessment and treatment strategies for rotator cuff tears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hakim, Wisam; Noorani, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Tears of the rotator cuff are common and becoming an increasingly frequent problem. There is a vast amount of literature on the merits and limitations of the various methods of clinical and radiological assessment of rotator cuff tears. This is also the case with regard to treatment strategies. Certain popular beliefs and principles practiced widely and the basis upon which they are derived may be prone to inaccuracy. We provide an overview of the historical management of rotator cuff tears, as well as an explanation for how and why rotator cuff tears should be managed, and propose a structured methodology for their assessment and treatment. PMID:27582960

  19. Progression of Fatty Muscle Degeneration in Atraumatic Rotator Cuff Tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert-Davies, Jonah; Teefey, Sharlene A; Steger-May, Karen; Chamberlain, Aaron M; Middleton, William; Robinson, Kathryn; Yamaguchi, Ken; Keener, Jay D

    2017-05-17

    The purpose of this prospective study was to examine the progression of fatty muscle degeneration over time in asymptomatic shoulders with degenerative rotator cuff tears. Subjects with an asymptomatic rotator cuff tear in 1 shoulder and pain due to rotator cuff disease in the contralateral shoulder were enrolled in a prospective cohort. Subjects were followed annually with shoulder ultrasonography, which evaluated tear size, location, and fatty muscle degeneration. Tears that were either full-thickness at enrollment or progressed to a full-thickness defect during follow-up were examined. A minimum follow-up of 2 years was necessary for eligibility. One hundred and fifty-six shoulders with full-thickness rotator cuff tears were potentially eligible. Seventy shoulders had measurable fatty muscle degeneration of at least 1 rotator cuff muscle at some time point. Patients with fatty muscle degeneration in the shoulder were older than those without degeneration (mean, 65.8 years [95% confidence interval (CI), 64.0 to 67.6 years] compared with 61.0 years [95% CI, 59.1 to 62.9 years]; p tears at baseline was larger in shoulders with degeneration than in shoulders that did not develop degeneration (13 and 10 mm wide, respectively, and 13 and 10 mm long; p Tears with fatty muscle degeneration were more likely to have enlarged during follow-up than were tears that never developed muscle degeneration (79% compared with 58%; odds ratio, 2.64 [95% CI, 1.29 to 5.39]; p muscle degeneration occurred more frequently in shoulders with tears that had enlarged (43%; 45 of 105) than in shoulders with tears that had not enlarged (20%; 10 of 51; p tears with enlargement and progression of muscle degeneration were more likely to extend into the anterior supraspinatus than were those without progression (53% and 17%, respectively; p tear size (p = 0.56). The median time from tear enlargement to progression of fatty muscle degeneration was 1.0 year (range, -2.0 to 6.9 years) for the

  20. MR imaging of the traumatic triangular fibrocartilaginous complex tear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, James F.; Fung, Cindy S. Y.; Lee, Ryan K. L.; Tong, Cina S. L.; Wong, Clara W. Y.; Tse, Wing Lim; Ho, Pak Cheong

    2017-01-01

    Triangular fibrocartilage complex is a major stabilizer of the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ). However, triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) tear is difficult to be diagnosed on MRI for its intrinsic small and thin structure with complex anatomy. The purpose of this article is to review the anatomy of TFCC, state of art MRI imaging technique, normal appearance and features of tear on MRI according to the Palmar’s classification. Atypical tear and limitations of MRI in diagnosis of TFCC tear are also discussed. PMID:28932701

  1. Immediate Effect of 3% Diquafosol Ophthalmic Solution on Tear MUC5AC Concentration and Corneal Wetting Ability in Normal and Experimental Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca Rat Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kwang-Eon; Song, Jong-Suk; Kang, Boram; Eom, Youngsub; Kim, Hyo-Myung

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the immediate effect of 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution on tear MUC5AC concentration, periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-positive goblet cells, and tear film stability in normal and keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) rat models. Rats were divided into normal and KCS groups. 3% of diquafosol solution was instilled into the right eye and normal saline into the left eye in both groups. To determine the peak time of tear MUC5AC concentration, tears were collected after 3% diquafosol instillation every 5 min up to 20 min. The tear film stability and the numbers of PAS-positive goblet cells were compared in both models. After diquafosol instillation, tear MUC5AC concentration increased steadily for 15 min, at which point the MUC5AC concentration reached its peak. In both normal and KCS groups, the MUC5AC concentration at 15 min was higher after instillation of 3% diquafosol solution (17.77 ± 2.09 ng/ml in the normal group, 9.65 ± 3.51 ng/ml in the KCS group) than that after saline instillation (13.74 ± 2.87 ng/ml in the normal group, 8.19 ± 3.99 ng/ml in the KCS group) (p = 0.018 for both). The corneal wetting ability was significantly longer after instillation of 3% diquafosol solution compared with that after instillation of normal saline in the normal group (p = 0.018). The percentage of PAS-positive goblet cells after the instillation of 3% diquafosol solution was significantly lower than that after instillation of normal saline in both models (p = 0.018 for both). Diquafosol ophthalmic solution was effective in stimulating mucin secretion in both normal and KCS rat models, and the peak time of tear MUC5AC concentration was 15 min after diquafosol instillation. The increased tear MUC5AC concentration was accompanied by improved tear film stability and a decreased percentage of PAS-positive goblet cells.

  2. In vivo confocal microscopy and tear cytokine analysis in post-LASIK ectasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahuja, Natasha Kishore; Shetty, Rohit; Deshmukh, Rashmi; Sharma, Anupam; Nuijts, Rudy M M A; Jhanji, Vishal; Sethu, Swaminathan; Ghosh, Arkasubhra

    2017-12-01

    Corneal keratectasia is one of the complications associated with laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) that results in vision impairment. The pathogenesis of post-LASIK ectasia (PLE) remains underexplored. We report the tear cytokine profile and in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) findings in eyes with PLE. This retrospective study included age-matched 7 (14 eyes) post-LASIK controls (PLCs) and 6 (12 eyes) PLE subjects. Corneal topography was used to categorise the subjects into PLC and PLE groups. Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) scores obtained were based on standard questionnaire and IVCM images were used to determine corneal dendritic cells density (DCD) and sub-basal nerve plexus morphology. Inflammatory cytokines/chemokines in the tears were quantified using flow cytometry based cytometric bead array. Pentacam-based scores, OSDI scores and corneal DCD were significantly (pPLE compared with PLC. Discomfort-related subscale of OSDI score exhibited a positive correlation with total corneal DCD in the PLE cohort. The fold difference of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand/monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (CCL2/MCP1) (3.4±0.6) was found to be significantly (pPLE cohorts and a positive correlation between CCL2/MCP1 levels and total corneal DCD was also observed in the PLE cohort. The current study found a significant difference in the tear film cytokine profile between normal and PLE eyes. Presence of increased corneal dendritic cells and altered tear cytokines suggests an ongoing inflammatory response in PLE. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Meniscal tears: comparison of half-Fourier technique and conventional MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabana, Wael; Maeseneer, Michel de; Machiels, Freddy; Ridder, Filip de; Osteaux, Michel

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether half-Fourier MR image acquisition technique can provide similar information to that of conventional MR acquisition technique for evaluation of meniscal tears. Materials and methods: We studied 101 menisci in 52 patients who were referred for evaluation of meniscal tears. Sagittal MR images of the knee were obtained for all patients by using proton density and T2-weighted SE sequences on a 1-T clinical system. The half-Fourier technique and conventional technique were used for all patients. All other imaging parameters were identical for both sequences (TR/TE=2400/20,70; 3 mm slice thickness; 200x256 matrix; field of view, 200; one signal acquired). Both sets of images were filmed with standard window and level settings. Images were randomised and interpreted independently by two radiologists for the presence of meniscal tears. Images were also subjectively assessed for image quality using a five-point grading scale. Results: On half-Fourier images, Reader 1 interpreted 23 menisci as torn, compared to 28 for Reader 2. On conventional images, Reader 1 interpreted 24 menisci as torn, compared to 26 for Reader 2. Agreement between interpretation of the conventional and that of the half-Fourier images was 99% for Reader 1, and 98% for Reader 2. Agreement between readers for the half-Fourier images was 95%, and for the conventional images 96%. No statistically significant difference was found in the subjective evaluation of image quality between the conventional and half-Fourier images. Conclusion: The half-Fourier acquisition technique compares favourably with the conventional technique for the evaluation of meniscal tears

  4. The levels of 12 cytokines and growth factors in tears: hyperthyreosis vs euthyreosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandić, Jelena Juri; Kozmar, Ana; Kusačić-Kuna, Sanja; Jazbec, Anamarija; Mandić, Krešimir; Mrazovac, Danijela; Vukojević, Nenad

    2018-04-01

    Simultaneous analyses of the contents and ratios of 12 cytokines and growth factors in single samples of human tears were performed, and the results were compared between a group of healthy subjects and a group of patients with Graves' hyperthyreosis (GH) without thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO). Determinations and concentration measurements of interleukins (IL-2, IL4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-1α, and IL-1β) interferon (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and epidermal growth factor (EGF) were performed with single tear samples from 21 patients with hyperthyreosis and 22 healthy subjects. The analyses were performed using a Randox microchip with an Evidence Biochip Array Analyzer. We found significant differences between the healthy donor group and the hyperthyreosis group in the levels of IL-6, IL-10, VEGF, IL-1α, and MCP-1. The concentration of IL-6 was considerably higher in the hyperthyreosis group, IL-10 was higher in the healthy donor group, and VEGF and MPC-1 were higher in the hyperthyreosis group. The IL-8 and IFN-γ levels were higher in the hyperthyreosis group. The ratios of all of the cytokines to anti-inflammatory IL-10 were significantly elevated in the hyperthyreosis group. There are clear differences in the levels of cytokines and growth factors in the tears of healthy subjects and patients with GH without TAO. Tear cytokine changes and related dysfunctional tear syndrome (DTS) could be an early sign of occult TAO in Graves' hyperthyreosis patients.

  5. Contemporary Films' Mini Course on Film Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillaci, Peter

    This minicourse on film study can be a unit in English, in arts, or in the humanities. It can help to launch a film study course or complement an introduction to theater. Whatever form it takes, it helps to build a bridge to the student's media environment. Part one, the language of images, utilizes four films which demonstrate the basic elements…

  6. Time course of changes in tear meniscus radius and blink rate after instillation of artificial tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandlitz, Stefan; Purslow, Christine; Murphy, Paul J; Pult, Heiko

    2014-08-26

    Using a novel digital meniscometer (PDM), alterations in tear meniscus radius (TMR) were measured simultaneously with blink rate (BR) following the instillation of artificial tears. Central TMR and BR of 22 subjects (11 male and 11 female; mean age, 24.3 ± 2.6 SD years) were measured at baseline, and 0, 1, 5, 10, and 30 minutes after instillation of an artificial tear containing hydroxypropyl-guar and glycol (SYS) or saline (SAL). A dose of 35 μL was applied in one eye in a randomized order with a washout period between each drop. For SAL, compared to baseline TMR (0.33 ± 0.08 mm), TMR significantly increased with drop instillation (1.55 ± 0.69 mm) and at 1 minute (0.66 ± 0.36 mm; P tears. Difference in residence time reflects the different viscosity of each drop. An overload with a large drop may result in an initially increased BR. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  7. Growth and Potential Damage of Human Bone-Derived Cells on Fresh and Aged Fullerene C60 Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Vacik

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Fullerenes are nanoparticles composed of carbon atoms arranged in a spherical hollow cage-like structure. Numerous studies have evaluated the therapeutic potential of fullerene derivates against oxidative stress-associated conditions, including the prevention or treatment of arthritis. On the other hand, fullerenes are not only able to quench, but also to generate harmful reactive oxygen species. The reactivity of fullerenes may change in time due to the oxidation and polymerization of fullerenes in an air atmosphere. In this study, we therefore tested the dependence between the age of fullerene films (from one week to one year and the proliferation, viability and metabolic activity of human osteosarcoma cells (lines MG-63 and U-2 OS. We also monitored potential membrane and DNA damage and morphological changes of the cells. After seven days of cultivation, we did not observe any cytotoxic morphological changes, such as enlarged cells or cytosolic vacuole formation. Furthermore, there was no increased level of DNA damage. The increasing age of the fullerene films did not cause enhancement of cytotoxicity. On the contrary, it resulted in an improvement in the properties of these materials, which are more suitable for cell cultivation. Therefore, fullerene films could be considered as a promising material with potential use as a bioactive coating of cell carriers for bone tissue engineering.

  8. Growth and potential damage of human bone-derived cells on fresh and aged fullerene c60 films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopova, Ivana; Bacakova, Lucie; Lavrentiev, Vasily; Vacik, Jiri

    2013-04-26

    Fullerenes are nanoparticles composed of carbon atoms arranged in a spherical hollow cage-like structure. Numerous studies have evaluated the therapeutic potential of fullerene derivates against oxidative stress-associated conditions, including the prevention or treatment of arthritis. On the other hand, fullerenes are not only able to quench, but also to generate harmful reactive oxygen species. The reactivity of fullerenes may change in time due to the oxidation and polymerization of fullerenes in an air atmosphere. In this study, we therefore tested the dependence between the age of fullerene films (from one week to one year) and the proliferation, viability and metabolic activity of human osteosarcoma cells (lines MG-63 and U-2 OS). We also monitored potential membrane and DNA damage and morphological changes of the cells. After seven days of cultivation, we did not observe any cytotoxic morphological changes, such as enlarged cells or cytosolic vacuole formation. Furthermore, there was no increased level of DNA damage. The increasing age of the fullerene films did not cause enhancement of cytotoxicity. On the contrary, it resulted in an improvement in the properties of these materials, which are more suitable for cell cultivation. Therefore, fullerene films could be considered as a promising material with potential use as a bioactive coating of cell carriers for bone tissue engineering.

  9. MR Imaging of Rotator Cuff Tears: Correlation with Arthroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandary, Sudarshan; Khandige, Ganesh; Kabra, Utkarsh

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Rotator cuff tears are quite common and can cause significant disability. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has now emerged as the modality of choice in the preoperative evaluation of patients with rotator cuff injuries, in view of its improved inherent soft tissue contrast and resolution. Aim To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of routine MRI in the detection and characterisation of rotator cuff tears, by correlating the findings with arthroscopy. Materials and Methods This prospective study was carried out between July 2014 and August 2016 at the AJ Institute of Medical Sciences, Mangalore, Karnataka, India. A total of 82 patients were diagnosed with rotator cuff injury on MRI during this period, out of which 45 patients who underwent further evaluation with arthroscopy were included in this study. The data collected was analysed for significant correlation between MRI diagnosis and arthroscopic findings using kappa statistics. The sensitivity, specificity, predictive value and accuracy of MRI for the diagnosis of full and partial thickness tears were calculated using arthroscopic findings as the reference standard. Results There were 27 males and 18 females in this study. The youngest patient was 22 years and the oldest was 74 years. Majority of rotator cuff tears (78%) were seen in patients above the age of 40 years. MRI showed a sensitivity of 89.6%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value of 100% and negative predictive value of 83.3% for the diagnosis of full thickness rotator cuff tears. For partial thickness tears, MRI showed a sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 86.6%, positive predictive value of 78.9% and negative predictive value of 100%. The accuracy was 93.1% for full thickness tears and 91.1% for partial thickness tears. The p-value was less than 0.01 for both full and partial thickness tears. There was good agreement between the MRI and arthroscopic findings, with kappa value of 0.85 for full thickness tears and 0.81 for partial

  10. Role of MRI in predicting meniscal tear reparability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felisaz, Paolo Florent [Universita degli Studi di Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Istituto di Radiologia, Pavia (Italy); Alessandrino, Francesco; Perelli, Simone [Universita degli Studi di Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Zanon, Giacomo; Benazzo, Francesco [Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Clinica Ortopedica e Traumatologica, Pavia (Italy); Calliada, Fabrizio; Sammarchi, Luigi [Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo Radiologia, Diagnostica per Immagini-Istituto di Radiologia, Pavia (Italy)

    2017-10-15

    To elucidate the role of MRI in predicting meniscal tear reparability according to tear type and location in relation to vascular zones. In this retrospective study, two readers evaluated 79 pre-surgical MRIs of meniscal tears arthroscopically treated with meniscectomy or meniscal repair. Tears were classified according to type into vertical, horizontal, radial, complex, flaps and bucket handle and were considered reparable if the distance measured from the tear to the menisco-capsular junction was less than or equal to 5 mm. Predictions were compared with the surgical procedure performed in arthroscopy. We assessed the diagnostic performance of MRI, agreement between MRI and arthroscopy, and interrater agreement. Then, we conducted an ROC analysis on the distances measured by the first reader and built a multivariate logistic regression model. MRI had a sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy, respectively, of 85%, 79%, 86%, 76% and 83% in predicting meniscal tear reparability. Correct predictions for the specific tear pattern were 76% for vertical, 84% for horizontal, 88% for radial, 86% for complex, 84% for flaps and 86% for bucket handle. Agreement between the two readers' predictions and arthroscopy was good (k = 0.65 and 0.61, respectively). Inter-rater agreement was almost excellent (k = 0.79). The ROC analysis revealed sensitivity and specificity of 73% and 83% with a cutoff value of <4 mm (p < 0.001). Anterior cruciate ligament injury and medial meniscal tear increased the likelihood of meniscal tear reparability. MRI can be a reliable and accurate tool to predict the reparability of meniscal tears, with higher prediction rates for bucket-handle tears. (orig.)

  11. Long-Term MRI Findings in Operated Rotator Cuff Tear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyroelae, K.; Niemitukia, L.; Jaroma, H.; Vaeaetaeinen, U.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To describe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings at long-term follow-up after rotator cuff (RC) tear using standard MRI sequences without fat saturation. Material and Methods: Twenty-eight patients aged 55.8±7.6 underwent MRI examination 4.6±2.1 years after surgery for RC tear. Standard sequences in oblique coronal, oblique sagittal, and axial planes were obtained. The RC, including re-tears and tendon degeneration, was independently evaluated by two observers. Thickness of the supraspinatus tendon and narrowing of the subacromial space were measured. The clinical outcome was evaluated with the Constant score and compared with the MRI findings. Results: The RC tear was traumatic in 18 (64%) patients and degenerative in 10 (36%). At follow-up, 11 (39%) had normal RC tendons with good clinical outcome. Four (14%) patients had painful tendinosis without RC tear. A full-thickness RC tear was found in 7 (25%) patients and a partial tear in 6 (21%). In one patient with a full-thickness tear, and in two with partial tear, tendinosis was found in another of the RC tendons. The subacromial space was narrowed in 13 (46%) of the patients. A narrowing of the subacromial space correlated with re-tear (P<0.05). Conclusions: The RC may be evaluated with standard MRI sequences without fat saturation at long-term follow-up. A normal appearance of the RC is correlated with good clinical outcome, while re-tear and tendinosis are associated with pain

  12. SLAP tears of the glenoid labrum in contact athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Lennard; Snow, Martyn

    2007-01-01

    To describe the distribution and clinical presentation of labral injuries in rugby players and the time taken for them to return to sports. Retrospective cohort study. Busy shoulder practice in the North West of England, treating a large number of professional athletes. A review of 51 shoulder arthroscopies performed on professional rugby players over a 35 month period. All patients diagnosed with a SLAP lesion at arthroscopy were identified. Eighteen patients had a documented SLAP tear; this group represented our study population. Arthroscopic debridement and/or stabilization was carried out for all labral injuries using Panaloc anchors and No. 2 PDS via a 2 portal technique. Classification of injury, Satisfaction, Time to return to play. The incidence of SLAP tears in our study population was 35%. There were 11 isolated SLAP tears (61%), 3 SLAP tears associated with a Bankart lesion (17%), 2 SLAP tears associated with a posterior labral lesion (11%), and 2 SLAP tears associated with an anterior and posterior labral injuries (11%). Of the 18 SLAP tears, 14 (78%) were type 2, 3 (17%) were type 3, and 1 (5%) was type 4. None of the patients with a SLAP tear presented with symptoms of instability. MR Arthrogram had a 76% sensitivity for detecting SLAP tears. By 6 months postsurgery, 89% of patients were satisfied. Patients with isolated SLAP tears were the quickest to return to sports, at an average of 2.6 months postsurgery. SLAP tears are a common injury in rugby players. These can often be diagnosed with MR arthrography. Arthroscopic repair is associated with excellent results and early return to sports.

  13. Treatment for acute anterior cruciate ligament tear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frobell, Richard B; Roos, Harald P; Roos, Ewa M

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: In young active adults with an acute anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture, do patient reported or radiographic outcomes after five years differ between those treated with rehabilitation plus early ACL reconstruction and those treated with rehabilitation and optional delayed AC...... AND WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS: The relative efficacy of surgical reconstruction and rehabilitation for short and long term outcomes of ACL rupture is debated. Clinicians and young active adult patients should consider rehabilitation as a primary treatment option following an acute ACL tear....

  14. Tearing instability in cylindrical plasma configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelenyj, L.M.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of the neutral-layer cylindrical geometry on the development of the tearing instability has been investigated in detail. The increments of the instability for all the regimes have been found. The influence of cylindrical effects becomes manifesting itself at small, as compared to the layer characteristic thickness, distances from the axis, and, finally, the electron regime of the instability development transforms into an ion one. The results obtained are of interest for studying the plasma stability in the devices of the ''Astron'' type and in magnetospheres of cosmic objects

  15. Nanotexture Optimization by Oxygen Plasma of Mesoporous Silica Thin Film for Enrichment of Low Molecular Weight Peptides Captured from Human Serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ye; Peng, Yang; Brousseau, Louis; Bouamrani, Ali; Liu, Xuewu; Ferrari, Mauro

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the optimization of mesoporous silica thin films by nanotexturing using oxygen plasma versus thermal oxidation. Calcination in oxygen plasma provides superior control over pore formation with regard to the pore surface and higher fidelity to the structure of the polymer template. The resulting porous film offers an ideal substrate for the selective partitioning of peptides from complex mixtures. The improved chemico-physical characteristics of porous thin films (pore size distribution, nanostructure, surface properties and pore connectivity) were systematically characterized with XRD, Ellipsometry, FTIR, TEM and N2 adsorption/desorption. The enrichment of low molecular weight proteins captured from human serum on mesoporous silica thin films fabricated by both methodologies were investigated by comparison of their MALDI-TOF MS profiles. This novel on-chip fractionation technology offers advantages in recovering the low molecular weight peptides from human serum, which has been recognized as an informative resource for early diagnosis of cancer and other diseases. PMID:21179395

  16. Quantification of surfactant proteins in tears of patients suffering from dry eye disease compared to healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posa, Andreas; Paulsen, Friedrich; Dietz, Richard; Garreis, Fabian; Sander, Ralph; Schicht, Martin; Sel, Saadettin; Scholz, Michael; Hammer, Christian M; Bräuer, Lars

    2018-03-01

    To quantify and compare the amounts of surfactant proteins SP-A, SP-B, SP-C and SP-D in the tear fluid collected from patients with dry eye syndrome and from individuals with a healthy ocular surface. Schirmer strips were used to collect tear fluid from both eyes of 241 volunteers (99 men, 142 women; age range: 18-87 years). Dry eye syndrome was diagnosed by ophthalmologists in 125 patients, whereas the healthy control group comprised 116 individuals. The total protein concentration was determined via Bradford assay. The relative concentration of surfactant proteins SP-A through -D was measured by enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA). The mean relative concentrations of SP-A, SP-C and SP-D were significantly higher in the dry eye group as compared to the healthy controls (pdry eye group, but the difference to the control group was not statistically significant. The upregulation of SP-A and SP-D in the dry eye group is probably related to these proteins' known antimicrobial and immunomodulatory effects at the ocular surface. It may represent a pathophysiological response to the inflammatory condition of the ocular surface in dry eye. The upregulation of SP-B and SP-C may represent an effort of the lacrimal system to reduce surface tension and thus to counteract the increased tendency of the tear film to tear in dry eye. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Rotator cuff tears: correlation between geometric tear patterns on MRI and arthroscopy and pre- and postoperative clinical findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sela, Yaron; Eshed, Iris; Shapira, Shachar; Oran, Ariel; Vogel, Guy; Herman, Amir; Perry Pritsch, Moshe

    2015-02-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered to be the best non-invasive procedure for the evaluation of rotator cuff (RC) tendon tears. Burkhart's classification is a geometric classification of full-thickness RC tears on MRI. To correlate MRI and arthroscopic geometric full-thickness RC tears according to the Burkhart's classification with pre- and postoperative clinical findings. Patients who underwent arthroscopic RC repair between 2006 and 2010 were retrospectively evaluated. Preoperative MRI and arthroscopic surgical reports were reviewed for tear geometry (Burkhart's) by three (1 radiologist, 2 surgeons) and two (surgeons) readers. MRIs were also evaluated for tear size and change of tear size in successive sagittal sections and for muscle mass and fatty infiltration. Clinical examinations were performed preoperatively and at least 12 months afterwards. Postoperative function questionnaires were filled in by the patients. Forty-six patients (35 men, 11 women; mean age, 57 years; range, 41-72 years) were evaluated. Tears depicted on MRIs were classified as crescent in 11 patients (24%), longitudinal in three (6.5%), massive contracted in 29 (63%), and cuff arthropathy in three (6.5%). Muscle changes were noted almost exclusively in patients with massive tears and cuff arthropathy (16/32 patients, P = 0.013). MRIs and arthroscopic geometric classifications were in close agreement. Tear type did not correlate with pre- and postoperative physical examination or with postoperative clinical questionnaires scores. Geometric RC tear characterizations on preoperative MRIs were closely associated with arthroscopic findings. Postoperative results were not affected by the geometric pattern of the tears. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  18. 49 CFR 173.340 - Tear gas devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Gases; Preparation and Packaging § 173.340 Tear gas devices. (a) Packagings for...) Tear gas devices may not be assembled with, or packed in the same packaging with, mechanically- or manually-operated firing, igniting, bursting, or other functioning elements unless of a type and design...

  19. Tearing mode stability of tokamak plasmas with elliptical cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreras, B.A.; Holmes, J.A.; Hicks, H.R.; Lynch, V.E.

    1981-02-01

    The effect of the ellipticity of the plasma cross section on tearing mode stability is investigated. The induced coupling between modes is shown to be destabilizing; however, the modification of the equilibrium tends to stabilize the tearing modes. The net effect depends on the manner in which the equilibrium is modified as the plasma cross-section shape is changed

  20. A study of re-tear cases after ARCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Yasuyuki; Chosa, Etsuo; Yano, Hiroaki

    2011-01-01

    Recently, good clinical outcomes of arthroscopic rotator cuff repair (ARCR) are reported, but the re-tear rate of massive and large rotator cuff tears is still high. The purpose of this study is to review the clinical outcome and postoperative cuff integrity of ARCR in our hospital. We evaluated 80 shoulders (61 males, 19 females), whose age rauged from 30 to 78 (average: 61.8 years old). The size of tears were 8 small, 22 medium, 36 large, and 14 massive. We evaluated the pre-and postoperative Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) scored, and MRI findings 12 months postoperatively. We evaluated the cuff integrity and fatty degeneration of the ruptured cuff by Goutallier's classification. Postoperative MRI findings showed complete repair in 56 shoulders (70%) and re-tear in 24 shoulders (30%). Postoperative JOA score was poor in cases with large re-tears. Retear rates were high in large and massive tears, tears with advanced fatty degeneration, and subscapularis tears. As this operation is not a replacement procedure, the quality of the ruptured rotator cuff is important. Further discussion on the operative indication and method is necessary. (author)

  1. MRI evaluation of the posterior meniscus root tear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jianjun; Zheng Zhuozhao; Li Xuan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine the value of MRI for diagnosing the posterior meniscus root tear. Methods: MR examinations of 30 patients with tear of the posterior meniscus root confirmed by knee arthroscopies were retrospectively reviewed. Of the 30 patients, 17 with posterior medial meniscus root tear (MMRT) and 13 with posterior lateral meniscus root tear (LMRT). The diagnostic sensitivity of' MRI for the posterior meniscus root tear was analyzed. Fisher's exact test was used to compare the detection rate of MRI for MMRT with that for LMRT. Results: All 17 cases with MMRT and 9 cases out of 13 with LMRT were correctly diagnosed by MRI and the diagnostic sensitivity of MRI for the posterior meniscus root tear was 86.7% (26/30). The main MR appearance of the posterior meniscus root tear was distortion of the meniscal root, with its low signal replaced by abnormal high signal. The detection rate of MRI for MMRT (17/17) was significantly greater than that for LMRT (9/13) (P=0.026). The prevalence of MMRT associated with meniscus extrusion (15/17) was significantly greater than that of LMRT (6/13) (P=0.020), but the prevalence of MMRT associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury (5/17) was significantly lower than that of LMRT (11/13) (P=0.004). Conclusion: MRI is a relatively good method for detection of posterior meniscus root tears and associated injuries. (authors)

  2. Nonlinear tearing mode and vortex chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanovic, D.; Vranjes, J.

    1996-01-01

    We study the nonlinear stage of a tearing mode, whose island width exceeds the tearing layer thickness, and the wavelength is of the order of collisionless skin depth. A coherent solution is found in the form of a moving vortex chain. It is the result of a self-organization process, which adjusts the profile of the sheared poloidal magnetic field and excites a localized perpendicular sheared plasma flow, consisting of three counterstreaming jets. A numerical solution shows a twin chain of plasma vortices, coupled with a single chain of magnetic islands, whose width is of the order of collisionless skin depth. Adiabatic evolution of the vortex chain in the presence of small viscosity reveals its finite lifetime. The chain destruction may occur either directly, or through a sequence of bifurcations (corresponding to abrupt changes of the vortex chain parameters) to magnetic field stochastization within a layer of the collisionless skin depth scale, which occurs before the magnetic island overlapping takes place. This provides a new mechanism for the anomalous transport. (orig.)

  3. Forced tearing of ductile and brittle thin sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallinen, T; Mahadevan, L

    2011-12-09

    Tearing a thin sheet by forcing a rigid object through it leads to complex crack morphologies; a single oscillatory crack arises when a tool is driven laterally through a brittle sheet, while two diverging cracks and a series of concertinalike folds forms when a tool is forced laterally through a ductile sheet. On the other hand, forcing an object perpendicularly through the sheet leads to radial petallike tears in both ductile and brittle materials. To understand these different regimes we use a combination of experiments, simulations, and simple theories. In particular, we describe the transition from brittle oscillatory tearing via a single crack to ductile concertina tearing with two tears by deriving laws that describe the crack paths and wavelength of the concertina folds and provide a simple phase diagram for the morphologies in terms of the material properties of the sheet and the relative size of the tool.

  4. An optical spot test for the detection of dopamine in human urine using stabilized in air lipid films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolelis, Dimitrios P; Drivelos, Dimitrios A; Simantiraki, Maria G; Koinis, Spyros

    2004-04-15

    The present technique describes a simple, sensitive spot test for the rapid one-shot detection of dopamine in human urine using lipid films with incorporated resorcin[4]arene receptor that are synthesized by a chemical reaction with a methacrylate polymer on a glass fiber filter. The lipid films without the receptor provided fluorescence under a UV lamp. The use of the receptor in these films quenched this fluorescence, and the color became similar to that of the filters without the lipid films. A drop of dopamine or urine containing this stimulant provided a "switching on" of the fluorescence, which allows the rapid detection of this stimulant in human urine at 10(-8) M concentrations. The novelty of the present work is that it opens new routes in the field of biosensing, i.e., development of sensitive, rapid, and simple methods for detecting species based on the fluorescence of the lipid membranes on a polymer film, and provides a spot test technique for the rapid detection of dopamine. The effect of potent interferences including a wide range of compounds usually found in human urine (i.e., ascorbic aid, glucose, leucine, glycine, tartrate, citrate, bicarbonate, and caffeine) was examined using an aqueous buffered solution that contained the potent interference and dopamine at two lower concentration levels (i.e., 3 x 10(-8)-10(-8) M). The effect of proteins and lipids was also investigated at these two lower dopamine concentration levels in aqueous buffered solution. The results showed no interferences from all these constituents at concentrations usually found in human urine samples; for example, albumin up to 3.22 g/L concentration levels did not provide any interference (i.e., no fluorescence). A drop of urine containing this stimulant provided similar results, i.e., a "switching on" of the fluorescence that allows a technique for the rapid detection of this stimulant in human urine at 10(-8) M concentrations. The technique is not based on a calibration

  5. Warm and touching tears: tearful individuals are perceived as warmer because we assume they feel moved and touched.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zickfeld, Janis H; Schubert, Thomas W

    2018-01-31

    Recent work investigated the inter-individual functions of emotional tears in depth. In one study (Van de Ven, N., Meijs, M. H. J., & Vingerhoets, A. (2017). What emotional tears convey: Tearful individuals are seen as warmer, but also as less competent. British Journal of Social Psychology, 56(1), 146-160. Https://doi.org/10.1111/bjso.12162) tearful individuals were rated as warmer, and participants expressed more intentions to approach and help such individuals. Simultaneously, tearful individuals were rated as less competent, and participants expressed less intention to work with the depicted targets. While tearful individuals were perceived as sadder, perceived sadness mediated only the effect on competence, but not on warmth. We argue that tearful individuals might be perceived as warm because they are perceived as feeling moved and touched. We ran a pre-registered extended replication of Van de Ven et al. Results replicate the warmth and helping findings, but not the competence and work effects. The increase in warmth ratings was completely mediated by perceiving feeling moved and touched. Possible functions of feeling moved and touched with regard to emotional tears are discussed.

  6. Dietary Supplementation with a Combination of Lactoferrin, Fish Oil, and Enterococcus faecium WB2000 for Treating Dry Eye: A Rat Model and Human Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Motoko; Nakamura, Shigeru; Izuta, Yusuke; Inoue, Sachiko; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2016-04-01

    To examine the effect of a combined dietary supplement containing fish oil, lactoferrin, zinc, vitamin C, lutein, vitamin E, γ-aminobutanoic acid, and Enterococcus faecium WB2000 on dry eye. A preliminary study in a rat model and a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in humans were conducted. Forty Japanese volunteers aged 22 to 59 years were randomized into combined dietary supplement (2 capsules/day; 20 participants) and placebo (vehicle; 19 participants) groups and treated once daily for 8 weeks. Rats received the combined dietary supplement components (10 or 50 mg/kg orally) or vehicle (2% DMSO), and dry eye was mechanically induced for 2 days. Tear production was measured in rats after dry eye was induced. Humans were assessed at baseline and weeks 4 and 8 post-supplementation based on keratoconjunctival epithelial damage; fluorescein tear film breakup time; tear production; biochemical data; information regarding subjective dry eye symptoms by answering a questionnaire; and information regarding adverse events via medical interviews. Supplementation dose-dependently mitigated the decrease in tear production in rats. Among subjects with confirmed dry eye, clinical symptoms improved at weeks 4 and 8 more significantly in the supplementation group than in the placebo group (Peye symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Pilot Study on the Investigation of Tear Fluid Biomarkers as an Indicator of Ocular, Neurological, and Immunological Health in Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Stephen; Crucian, Brian; Hagan, Suzanne; Satyamitra, Merriline; Daily, Anna

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study is to investigate the collection, preparation, and analysis of tear biomarkers as a means of assessing ocular, neurological, and immunological health. At present, no published data exists on the cytokine profiles of tears from astronauts exposed to long periods of microgravity and space irradiations. In addition, no published data exist on cytokine (biomarker) profiles of tears that have been collected from irradiated non-human biological systems (primates and other animal models). A goal for the proposed pilot study is to discover novel tear biomarkers which can help inform researchers, clinicians, epidemiologist and healthcare providers about the health status of a living biological system, as well as informing them when a disease state is triggered. This would be done via analysis of the onset of expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, leading up to the full progression of a disease (i.e. cancer, loss of vision, radiation-induced oxidative stress, cardiovascular disorders, fibrosis in major organs, bone loss). Another goal of this pilot study is to investigate the state of disease against proposed medical countermeasures, in order to determine whether the countermeasures are efficacious in preventing or mitigating these injuries. An example of an up and coming tear biomarker technology, Ascendant Dx, a clinical stage diagnostic company, is developing a screening test to detect breast cancer using proteins from tears. The team utilized Liquid Chromatography -Mass Spectrometry with Mass analysis (LC MS/MS) as a discovery platform followed by validation with ELISA to come up with a panel of protein biomarkers that can differentiate breast cancer samples from control ("cancer free") samples with results far surpassing the results of imaging techniques in use today. Continued research into additional proteins is underway to increase the sensitivity and specificity of the test and development efforts are on the way to transfer the

  8. UTE-T2* mapping detects sub-clinical meniscus injury after anterior cruciate ligament tear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A.; Qian, Y.; Golla, S.; Chu, C.R.

    2018-01-01

    SUMMARY Objective Meniscus tear is a known risk factor for osteoarthritis (OA). Quantitative assessment of meniscus degeneration, prior to surface break-down, is important to identification of early disease potentially amenable to therapeutic interventions. This work examines the diagnostic potential of ultrashort echo time-enhanced T2* (UTE-T2*) mapping to detect human meniscus degeneration in vitro and in vivo in subjects at risk of developing OA. Design UTE-T2* maps of 16 human cadaver menisci were compared to histological evaluations of meniscal structural integrity and clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assessment by a musculoskeletal radiologist. In vivo UTE-T2* maps were compared in 10 asymptomatic subjects and 25 ACL-injured patients with and without concomitant meniscal tear. Results In vitro, UTE-T2* values tended to be lower in histologically and clinically normal meniscus tissue and higher in torn or degenerate tissue. UTE-T2* map heterogeneity reflected collagen disorganization. In vivo, asymptomatic meniscus UTE-T2* values were repeatable within 9% (root-mean-square average coefficient of variation). Posteromedial meniscus UTE-T2* values in ACL-injured subjects with clinically diagnosed medial meniscus tear (n = 10) were 87% higher than asymptomatics (n = 10, P meniscus degeneration. Further study is needed to determine whether elevated subsurface meniscus UTE-T2* values predict progression of meniscal degeneration and development of OA. PMID:22306000

  9. ‘How movies move us just the right way’ - Exploring the role of camera movement and montage in human film perception - First steps on a joint venture of 4EA approaches to cognition and empirical Neuroscience

    OpenAIRE

    Heimann, Katrin

    2015-01-01

    Film is an omnipresent medium in today’s world, playing a crucial role in a massive amusement industry, in advertisement as well as in information distribution, education, sciences and the arts. What and how we perceive the world when we perceive it via film thus seems an important question to answer. Still, the principles of film perception are barely understood. This thesis presents some of the newest steps in an interdisciplinary approach to exploring human creation and perception of film....

  10. Posterior horn medial meniscal root tear: the prequel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umans, H. [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Lenox Hill Radiology and Imaging Associates, New York, NY (United States); Morrison, W. [Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); DiFelice, G.S. [Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY (United States); Vaidya, N. [Crystal Run Healthcare, Middletown, NY (United States); Winalski, C.S. [Cleveland Clinic, Imaging Institute, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2014-06-15

    To determine whether subarticular marrow changes deep to the posterior horn medial meniscal root anchor might predict subsequent medial meniscal root tear. Fifteen patients with MR-diagnosed posterior horn medial meniscal root (PHMMR) tear and a knee MRI antecedent to the tear were identified at three imaging centers over a 7-year period. The pre- and post-tear MR images were evaluated for marrow signal changes deep to the root anchor, meniscal root signal intensity, medial compartment articular cartilage thinning, and meniscal body extrusion. Images of 29 age- and gender-matched individuals with two MRIs of the same knee were reviewed as a control group. MRI in 11 of 15 (73 %) cases with subsequent PHMMR tear demonstrated linear subcortical marrow edema deep to the meniscal root anchor on the antecedent MRI compared to only 1 of 29 (3 %) non-tear controls (p < 0.0001). The abnormal signal resolved on post-tear MRI in all but two patients. Cyst-like changes deep to the PHMMR were present on initial MRI in three of 15 (23 %) cases and three of 29 (10 %) controls, persisting in all but one case on follow-up imaging. The PHMMR was gray on the initial MRI in seven of 15 (47 %) of cases that developed tears compared to four of 29 (14 %) controls (p < 0.0001). There was medial meniscal extrusion (MME) prior to tear in two of 15 (13 %) patients and in ten of 15 (67 %) patients after PHMMR failure. In the control group, MME was present in one (3 %) and three (10 %) of 29 subjects on the initial and follow-up MRIs, respectively. Articular cartilage loss was noted in two of 15 (15 %) cases before tear and nine of 15 (69 %) on follow-up imaging, as compared to one (3 %) and four (14 %) of 29 subjects in the control group. Subcortical marrow edema deep to the PHMMR may result from abnormal stresses and thus be a harbinger of meniscal root failure. This hypothesis is supported by resolution of these marrow signal changes after root tear. Following tear, extrusion of the

  11. A Contact Pressure Analysis Comparing an All-Inside and Inside-Out Surgical Repair Technique for Bucket-Handle Medial Meniscus Tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, Daniel Cole; Phelps, Brian M; Dahl, Kimi D; Slette, Erik L; Mikula, Jacob D; Dornan, Grant J; Bucci, Gabriella; Turnbull, Travis Lee; Singleton, Steven B

    2017-10-01

    To directly compare effectiveness of the inside-out and all-inside medial meniscal repair techniques in restoring native contact area and contact pressure across the medial tibial plateau at multiple knee flexion angles. Twelve male, nonpaired (n = 12), fresh-frozen human cadaveric knees underwent a series of 5 consecutive states: (1) intact medial meniscus, (2) MCL tear and repair, (3) simulated bucket-handle longitudinal tear of the medial meniscus, (4) inside-out meniscal repair, and (5) all-inside meniscal repair. Knees were loaded with a 1,000-N axial compressive force at 5 knee flexion angles (0°, 30°, 45°, 60°, 90°), and contact area, mean contact pressure, and peak contact pressure were calculated using thin film pressure sensors. No significant differences were observed between the inside-out and all-inside repair techniques at any flexion angle for contact area, mean contact pressure, and peak contact pressure (all P > .791). Compared with the torn meniscus state, inside-out and all-inside repair techniques resulted in increased contact area at all flexion angles (all P contact pressure at all flexion angles (all P contact pressure at all flexion angles (all P contact area and peak contact pressure between the intact state and inside-out technique at angles ≥45° (all P contact area at 60° and 90° and peak contact pressure at 90° (both P contact area, mean contact pressure, and peak contact pressure over the tested flexion angles ranged from 498 to 561 mm 2 , 786 to 997 N/mm 2 , and 1,990 to 2,215 N/mm 2 , respectively. Contact area, mean contact pressure, and peak contact pressure were not significantly different between the all-inside and inside-out repair techniques at any tested flexion angle. Both techniques adequately restored native meniscus biomechanics near an intact level. An all-inside repair technique provided similar, native-state-restoring contact mechanics compared with an inside-out repair technique for the treatment of

  12. Evaluation of point-of-care test for elevated tear matrix metalloproteinase 9 in post-LASIK dry eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Tommy C Y; Ye, Cong; Chan, Kwok Ping; Chu, Kai On; Jhanji, Vishal

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the performance of a point-of-care test for detection of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) levels in post-laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) dry eyes. A comparative study between patients with mild to moderate post-LASIK dry eyes and age-matched normal subjects was conducted. Ocular surface disease index (OSDI), tear break-up time (TBUT), and tear film MMP-9 and total protein levels were compared between the two groups. A point-of-care test device (RPS InflammaDry, Sarasota, Florida, USA) was utilised to confirm elevated MMP-9 levels in tear film. Fourteen post-LASIK dry eyes and 34 normal eyes were included. There was no significant difference in age and gender between both groups (p>0.175). The OSDI was significantly higher (25.5±7.7 vs 7.4±2.5; pdry eye compared with normal subjects. The tear film MMP-9 levels were 52.7±32.5 ng/mL in dry eyes and 4.1±2.1 ng/mL in normal eyes (p40 ng/mL in 7/14 (50.0%) post-LASIK dry eyes. The InflammaDry was positive in 8/14 (57.1%) post-LASIK eyes. All positive cases had tear film MMP-9 levels ≥38.03 ng/mL. Agreement between InflammaDry and MMP-9 was excellent with Cohen κ value of 0.857 in post-LASIK dry eyes. Only half of post-LASIK dry eyes were found to have significant inflammation associated with elevated MMP-9. The OSDI is useful to non-specifically identify patients with symptomatic dry eye while the InflammaDry determined which patients with dry eye were associated with significant inflammation that may guide therapeutic management decisions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  13. Antioxidant and inflammatory cytokine in tears of patients with dry eye syndrome treated with preservative-free versus preserved eye drops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, Donghyun; Park, Sang Hee; Kim, Man Soo; Kim, Eun Chul

    2014-07-03

    To compare the antioxidant and inflammatory cytokine activities in tears of patients with dry eye syndrome treated with preservative-free versus preserved eye drops. A total of 100 patients with moderate to severe dry eye syndrome were randomly divided into two groups. Fifty patients (group 1) were treated four times with preservative-free 0.1% sodium hyaluronate and 0.1% fluorometholone eye drops in the first month and with preservative-free 0.1% sodium hyaluronate and 0.05% cyclosporine eye drops in the second and third months. Another 50 patients (group 2) were treated with preserved eye drops on the same schedule. Ocular Surface Disease Index, corneal fluorescein staining, Schirmer I test, tear film breakup time, impression cytology, and antioxidant and inflammatory cytokine activities in tears were evaluated. Treatment with preservative-free eye drops led to significant improvements in symptoms, tear film breakup time, Schirmer I score, and impression cytologic findings compared to treatment with preserved eye drops (P dry eye syndrome. There was a statistically significant decrease in the IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12, and TNF-α concentrations and a statistically significant increase in the catalase, peroxiredoxin 2, superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD 2), and thioredoxin mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of tears in the preservative-free group at 1, 2, and 3 months compared to initial values, respectively (P eye drops is effective against the dry eye syndrome. Preservative-free eye drops seem to be more effective than preserved eye drops in decreasing ocular inflammation and in increasing antioxidant contents in tears of patients with dry eye syndrome. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  14. Relationships between rotator cuff tear types and radiographic abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Soo Hyun; Chun, Kyung Ah; Lee Soo Jung; Kang, Min Ho; Yi, Kyung Sik; Zhang, Ying [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, College of Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    To determine relationships between different types of rotator cuff tears and radiographic abnormalities. The shoulder radiographs of 104 patients with an arthroscopically proven rotator cuff tear were compared with similar radiographs of 54 age-matched controls with intact cuffs. Two radiologists independently interpreted all radiographs for; cortical thickening with subcortical sclerosis, subcortical cysts, osteophytes in the humeral greater tuberosity, humeral migration, degenerations of the acromioclavicular and glenohumeral joints, and subacromial spurs. Statistical analysis was performed to determine relationships between each type of rotator cuff tears and radiographic abnormalities. Inter-observer agreements with respect to radiographic findings were analyzed. Humeral migration and degenerative change of the greater tuberosity, including sclerosis, subcortical cysts, and osteophytes, were more associated with full-thickness tears (p < 0.01). Subacromial spurs were more common for full-thickness and bursal-sided tears (p < 0.01). No association was found between degeneration of the acromioclavicular or glenohumeral joint and the presence of a cuff tear. Different types of rotator cuff tears are associated with different radiographic abnormalities.

  15. Relationships between rotator cuff tear types and radiographic abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Soo Hyun; Chun, Kyung Ah; Lee Soo Jung; Kang, Min Ho; Yi, Kyung Sik; Zhang, Ying

    2014-01-01

    To determine relationships between different types of rotator cuff tears and radiographic abnormalities. The shoulder radiographs of 104 patients with an arthroscopically proven rotator cuff tear were compared with similar radiographs of 54 age-matched controls with intact cuffs. Two radiologists independently interpreted all radiographs for; cortical thickening with subcortical sclerosis, subcortical cysts, osteophytes in the humeral greater tuberosity, humeral migration, degenerations of the acromioclavicular and glenohumeral joints, and subacromial spurs. Statistical analysis was performed to determine relationships between each type of rotator cuff tears and radiographic abnormalities. Inter-observer agreements with respect to radiographic findings were analyzed. Humeral migration and degenerative change of the greater tuberosity, including sclerosis, subcortical cysts, and osteophytes, were more associated with full-thickness tears (p < 0.01). Subacromial spurs were more common for full-thickness and bursal-sided tears (p < 0.01). No association was found between degeneration of the acromioclavicular or glenohumeral joint and the presence of a cuff tear. Different types of rotator cuff tears are associated with different radiographic abnormalities.

  16. Coupling of tearing modes in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finn, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    The simultaneous presence of tearing modes of different helical pitches leads to the destruction of magnetic surfaces, which has been suggested as the mechanism leading to the onset of the disruptive instability in tokamaks. For current profiles in which the m = 2 mode is unstable, but the m = 3 is stable, the coupling of the m = 3 to the m = 2 through the poloidal variation of the toroidal field can drive the m = 3 amplitude psi 3 to order psi 2 times the inverse aspect ratio. Detailed calculations, both analytical and numerical, have been performed for two models for the equilibrium and m = 2 mode structure. A slab model and incompressible m = 3 perturbations are assumed. The m = 3 amplitude increases with shear, up to a point, showing that as the current channel shrinks, overlap of resonances becomes more likely. The results also apply qualitatively to other m, m +- 1 interactions

  17. Anterior cruciate ligament tears: MRI versus arthroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosch, U.; Felix, R.; Schauwecker, W.; Dreithaler, B.

    1992-01-01

    Because of suspected rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament sixteen acute traumatised patients were investigated by MR and arthroscopy. The MR diagnosis of a lesion of the anterior cruciate ligament proved to be correct by arthroscopy in fifteen of sixteen cases. Diagnostic criteria for lesions of the anterior cruciate ligament were: increased signal intensity in T 1 - and T 2 weighted images, increased volume and discontinuity of ligamentous structures. Additional MR findings of meniscal tears were correct in three of four cases laterally and in four of four cases medially. Femoral cartilage lesions were correctly identified by MR in three cases. MR normal findings proved to be correct by arthroscopy in another five cases. (orig.) [de

  18. Tear Mediators in Corneal Ectatic Disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorottya Pásztor

    Full Text Available To compare the concentrations of 11 tear mediators in order to reveal the biochemical difference between pellucid marginal degeneration (PMD and keratoconus (KC.We have designed a cross-sectional study in which patients with corneal ectasia based on slit-lamp biomicroscopy and Pentacam HR (keratometry values (K1, K2, Kmax, astigmatism, minimal radius of curvature (Rmin, corneal thickness (Apex and Min, indices (surface variation, vertical asymmetry, keratoconus, central keratoconus, height asymmetry and decentration were enrolled. Eyes of keratoconic patients were similar to the PMD patients in age and severity (K2, Kmax and Rmin. Non-stimulated tear samples were collected from nine eyes of seven PMD patients, 55 eyes of 55 KC patients and 24 eyes of 24 healthy controls. The mediators' (interleukin -6, -10, chemokine ligand 5, -8, -10, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP -9, -13, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP-1, tissue plasminogen activator, plasminogen activator inhibitor, nerve growth factor concentrations were measured using Cytometric Bead Array.MMP-9 was the only mediator which presented relevant variances between the two patient groups (p = 0.005. The ratios of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 were 2.45, 0.40 and 0.23 in PMD, KC and the controls, respectively.As far as we are aware, this is the first study that aims to reveal the biochemical differences between PMD and KC. Further studies of biomarkers to investigate the precise role of these mediators need to be defined, and it is important to confirm the observed changes in a larger study to gain further insights into the molecular alterations in PMD.

  19. Growth and Potential Damage of Human Bone-Derived Cells Cultured on Fresh and Aged C60/Ti Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopova, Ivana; Lavrentiev, Vasily; Vacik, Jiri; Bacakova, Lucie

    2015-01-01

    Thin films of binary C60/Ti composites, with various concentrations of Ti ranging from ~ 25% to ~ 70%, were deposited on microscopic glass coverslips and were tested for their potential use in bone tissue engineering as substrates for the adhesion and growth of bone cells. The novelty of this approach lies in the combination of Ti atoms (i.e., widely used biocompatible material for the construction of stomatological and orthopedic implants) with atoms of fullerene C60, which can act as very efficient radical scavengers. However, fullerenes and their derivatives are able to generate harmful reactive oxygen species and to have cytotoxic effects. In order to stabilize C60 molecules and to prevent their possible cytotoxic effects, deposition in the compact form of Ti/C60 composites (with various Ti concentrations) was chosen. The reactivity of C60/Ti composites may change in time due to the physicochemical changes of molecules in an air atmosphere. In this study, we therefore tested the dependence between the age of C60/Ti films (from one week to one year) and the adhesion, morphology, proliferation, viability, metabolic activity and potential DNA damage to human osteosarcoma cells (lines MG-63 and U-2 OS). After 7 days of cultivation, we did not observe any negative influence of fresh or aged C60/Ti layers on cell behavior, including the DNA damage response. The presence of Ti atoms resulted in improved properties of the C60 layers, which became more suitable for cell cultivation. PMID:25875338

  20. The relationship between tear severity, fatty infiltration, and muscle atrophy in the supraspinatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Jeffrey J; Lansdown, Drew A; Cheung, Sunny; Feeley, Brian T; Ma, C Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Fatty infiltration and muscle atrophy have been described as interrelated characteristic changes that occur within the muscles of the rotator cuff after cuff tears, and both are independently associated with poor outcomes after surgical repair. We hypothesize that fatty infiltration and muscle atrophy are two distinct processes independently associated with supraspinatus tears. A retrospective review of 377 patients who underwent shoulder magnetic resonance imaging at one institution was performed. Multivariate analysis was performed based on parameters including age, sex, rotator cuff tear severity, fatty infiltration grade, and muscle atrophy. A total of 116 patients (30.8%) had full-thickness tears of the supraspinatus, 153 (40.6%) had partial thickness tears, and 108 (28.7%) had no evidence of tear. With increasing tear severity, the prevalence of substantial fatty infiltration (grade ≥2) increased: 6.5% of patients with no tears vs 41.4% for complete tears (P tear severity: 36.1% of no tears vs 77.6% of complete tears (P muscle atrophy when taking into account sex, age, and tear severity. Fatty infiltration and muscle atrophy are independently associated processes. Fatty infiltration is also related to increasing age, muscle tear severity, and sex, whereas muscle atrophy is related to increasing age but not tear severity. In patients without rotator cuff tears, fatty infiltration and atrophy prevalence increased independently with increasing age. Copyright © 2013 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. From current-driven to neoclassically driven tearing modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimerdes, H; Sauter, O; Goodman, T; Pochelon, A

    2002-03-11

    In the TCV tokamak, the m/n = 2/1 island is observed in low-density discharges with central electron-cyclotron current drive. The evolution of its width has two distinct growth phases, one of which can be linked to a "conventional" tearing mode driven unstable by the current profile and the other to a neoclassical tearing mode driven by a perturbation of the bootstrap current. The TCV results provide the first clear observation of such a destabilization mechanism and reconcile the theory of conventional and neoclassical tearing modes, which differ only in the dominant driving term.

  2. Experimental observations of the tearing of an electron current sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gekelman, W.; Pfister, H.

    1988-01-01

    A neutral magnetic sheet, in which the current is carried mainly by the electrons, is set up in a laboratory plasma. By forcing the current through a thin slot, the ratio of the length to height t of the sheet may be varied; the current is observed to tear when tapprox. >30. The structure of the magnetic islands and their associated currents is fully three dimensional, although a linear two-dimensional theory gives a very good estimate of the tearing mode growth time. Tearing is accompanied by the generation of significant Hall currents, and magnetic disturbances are observed to propagate at the whistler wave speed

  3. Non-linear evolution of double tearing modes in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredrickson, E.; Bell, M.; Budny, R.V.; Synakowski, E.

    1999-01-01

    The delta prime formalism with neoclassical modifications has proven to be a useful tool in the study of tearing modes in high beta, collisionless plasmas. In this paper the formalism developed for the inclusion of neoclassical effects on tearing modes in monotonic q-profile plasmas is extended to plasmas with hollow current profiles and double rational surfaces. First, the classical formalism of tearing modes in the Rutherford regime in low beta plasmas is extended to q profiles with two rational surfaces. Then it is shown that this formalism is readily extended to include neoclassical effects

  4. Tearing modes in tokamaks with lower hybrid current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, X.Q.

    1990-08-01

    In this paper, the effect of current drive on the tearing modes in the semi-collisional regime is analyzed using the drift-kinetic equation. A collisional operator is developed to model electron parallel conductivity. For the pure tearing modes the linear and quasilinear growth rates in the Rutherford regimes have been found to have roughly the same forms with a modified resistivity as without current drive. One interesting result is the prediction of a new instability. This instability, driven by the current gradient inside the tearing mode layer, is possibly related to MHD behavior observed in these experiments. 9 refs

  5. Threshold condition for nonlinear tearing modes in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zabiego, M.F.; Callen, J.D.

    1996-03-01

    Low-mode-number tearing, mode nonlinear evolution is analyzed emphasizing the need for a threshold condition, to account for observations in tokamaks. The discussion is illustrated by two models recently introduced in the literature. The models can be compared with the available data and/or serve as a basis for planning some experiments in order to either test theory (by means of beta-limit scaling laws, as proposed in this paper) or attempt to control undesirable tearing modes. Introducing a threshold condition in the tearing mode stability analysis is found to reveal some bifurcation points and thus domains of intrinsic stability in the island dynamics operational space

  6. Diagnosis of subscapularis lesion in rotator cuff tears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrier, F.; Wegmueller, H.; Vock, P.; Gerber, C.

    1989-01-01

    In rotator cuff tears, the subscapularis tendon is more often involved than previously suspected, and this lesion is often missed at arthrography. Because preoperative diagnosis is important for planning surgical repair, the authors have evaluated MR imaging and US in the detection of subscapularis tears. Fifteen patients with clinically suspected rotator cuff tears underwent MR imaging and US. Ten of 15 patients were treated surgically, and the other five were treated conservatively. MR imaging was performed with a 1.5-T Signa MR system. T1-weighted spin-echo (SE) and T2-weighted gradient-echo (GE) images were obtained

  7. Multilayered Films Produced by Layer-by-Layer Assembly of Chitosan and Alginate as a Potential Platform for the Formation of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cell aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Hatami

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The construction of multilayered films with tunable properties could offer new routes to produce biomaterials as a platform for 3D cell cultivation. In this study, multilayered films produced with five bilayers of chitosan and alginate (CHT/ALG were built using water-soluble modified mesyl and tosyl–CHT via layer-by-layer (LbL self-assembly. NMR results demonstrated the presences of mesyl (2.83 ppm and tosyl groups (2.39, 7.37 and 7.70 ppm in the chemical structure of modified chitosans. The buildup of multilayered films was monitored by quartz-crystal-microbalance (QCM-D and film thickness was estimated using the Voigt-based viscoelastic model. QCM-D results demonstrated that CHT/ALG films constructed using mesyl or tosyl modifications (mCHT/ALG were significantly thinner in comparison to the CHT/ALG films constructed with unmodified chitosan (p < 0.05. Adhesion analysis demonstrated that human adipose stem cells (hASCs did not adhere to the mCHT/ALG multilayered films and formed aggregates with sizes between ca. 100–200 µm. In vitro studies on cell metabolic activity and live/dead staining suggested that mCHT/ALG multilayered films are nontoxic toward hACSs. Multilayered films produced via LbL assembly of ALG and off-the-shelf, water-soluble modified chitosans could be used as a scaffold for the 3D aggregates formation of hASCs in vitro.

  8. Effects of awakening and the use of topical dexamethasone and levofloxacin on the cytokine levels in tears following corneal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodor, Mariann; Petrovski, Goran; Pásztor, Dorottya; Gogolák, Péter; Rajnavölgyi, Éva; Berta, András

    2014-01-01

    To study the short-term effect of eye opening and use of topical dexamethasone phosphate 0.1% and levofloxacin 0.5% on the cytokine levels in human tears. Prospective experimental design was used for tear collection from eyes of 10 healthy controls and 20 patients four days after penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) at awakening and after instilling dexamethasone or levofloxacin. The concentrations of different cytokines were measured by cytometric bead array. At eye opening, IL-6 levels were higher in the PKP group as compared to the controls. Thirty minutes later, the released levels of IL-10, IL-13, IL-17, IFNγ, and CCL5 increased in controls, while CXCL8 decreased in both control and PKP groups. The release of the cytokines remained stable after 30 mins except for IFNγ, which showed a decrease in the controls following levofloxacin instillation. No short-term effects of the topically used dexamethasone and levofloxacin could be detected on the cytokine levels in controls and after PKP. Evidence of changes in the levels and time course of tear cytokines after awakening or eye opening could be established and the short-term confounding effects of dexamethasone and levofloxacin on the levels of released cytokines in human tears could be excluded.

  9. Quadriceps Strength and Endurance After Posterior Cruciate Ligament Tears Versus Matched Group With Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dae-Hee; Han, Seung-Beom; Lee, Jin-Hyuck; Lee, Seok-Joo; Suh, Dong-Won; Jeong, Hye-Jin

    2015-06-01

    This study was designed to compare the preoperative strengths and endurances of the quadriceps and hamstring muscles in patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) versus posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) tears. Quadriceps and hamstring muscle strength and endurance were compared between 20 prospectively enrolled patients with isolated PCL tears and a retrospective, matched control group of 20 patients with isolated ACL tears. The maximal torque (60°/s) and total work (180°/s) of the quadriceps and hamstring were evaluated with an isokinetic testing device. Total work (1,094.4 ± 505.8 J v 797.5 ± 332.7 J, P = .035) and peak torque (129.9 ± 56.2 N ∙ m v 98.2 ± 37.4 N ∙ m, P = .046) of the quadriceps muscle on the involved side were higher in the PCL tear group than in the ACL tear group. However, there were no significant differences between the PCL tear group and ACL tear group in hamstring muscle strength (45.8 ± 42.3 N ∙ m and 46.0 ± 24.4 N ∙ m, respectively; P = .940) and endurance (429.3 ± 238.9 J and 382.4 ± 256.1 J, respectively; P = .574) on the involved side. The strength and endurance of the quadriceps muscle of the injured limb were greater after PCL tears than after ACL tears. However, there were no significant between-group differences in hamstring muscle strength and endurance on the involved side. Level III, retrospective comparative study. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. MR Imaging of a Posterior Root Tear of the Medial Meniscus: Diagnostic Accuracy of Various Tear Configurations and Associated Knee Abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyang Mi; Shim, Jae Chan; Kim, Jin Goo; Lee, Jae Myeong; Nam, Mee Young; Lee, Ghi Jai; Kim, Ho Kyun; Suh, Jung Ho

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the various tear configurations in a medial meniscal posterior horn root tear and assess whether any correlation exists with other associated knee abnormalities in MR imaging. A retrospective review of 146 preoperative knee MR images were performed by one experienced musculoskeletal radiologist. The tear configuration and other abnormalities were evaluated. Sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy of each configuration in the medial meniscal posterior horn root tear were calculated. A total of 48 medial meniscal posterior horn root tears including 38 full-thickness radial, 7 partial-thickness radial, and 3 complex tears were confirmed during arthroscopy. Overall, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for the detection of medial meniscal posterior horn root tear were 92% (44/48), 99% (97/98), and 97% (141/146), respectively. For each tear configuration, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 82% (31/38), 97% (105/108), and 93% (136/146) for full-thickness radial tears, respectively, and 43% (3/7), 94% (131/139), and 91% (134/146) for partial-thickness radial tears, respectively. The incidence of degenerative joint disease was 85% (41/48) for the tear group, revealing a strong association. In patients with a root tear and with degenerative joint disease, the incidence of high grade cartilage defects involving the medial femoral condyle was at 80% (33/41), compared to 56% (23/41) for the presence of medial meniscal extrusion. In contrast, a similar comparison of incidence for patients with no root tears but with degenerative joint disease was at 68% (17/25) and 26% (8/31), respectively. MR imaging is very sensitive for the detection of medial meniscal root tears, but has reduced the accuracy with regard to each tear configuration. Medial meniscal root tears showed a strong association with degenerative joint disease. High grade cartilage defects of the medial femoral condyle and medial meniscal extrusions also

  11. MR Imaging of a Posterior Root Tear of the Medial Meniscus: Diagnostic Accuracy of Various Tear Configurations and Associated Knee Abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyang Mi; Shim, Jae Chan; Kim, Jin Goo; Lee, Jae Myeong; Nam, Mee Young; Lee, Ghi Jai; Kim, Ho Kyun; Suh, Jung Ho [Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul Paik Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-15

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the various tear configurations in a medial meniscal posterior horn root tear and assess whether any correlation exists with other associated knee abnormalities in MR imaging. A retrospective review of 146 preoperative knee MR images were performed by one experienced musculoskeletal radiologist. The tear configuration and other abnormalities were evaluated. Sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy of each configuration in the medial meniscal posterior horn root tear were calculated. A total of 48 medial meniscal posterior horn root tears including 38 full-thickness radial, 7 partial-thickness radial, and 3 complex tears were confirmed during arthroscopy. Overall, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for the detection of medial meniscal posterior horn root tear were 92% (44/48), 99% (97/98), and 97% (141/146), respectively. For each tear configuration, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 82% (31/38), 97% (105/108), and 93% (136/146) for full-thickness radial tears, respectively, and 43% (3/7), 94% (131/139), and 91% (134/146) for partial-thickness radial tears, respectively. The incidence of degenerative joint disease was 85% (41/48) for the tear group, revealing a strong association. In patients with a root tear and with degenerative joint disease, the incidence of high grade cartilage defects involving the medial femoral condyle was at 80% (33/41), compared to 56% (23/41) for the presence of medial meniscal extrusion. In contrast, a similar comparison of incidence for patients with no root tears but with degenerative joint disease was at 68% (17/25) and 26% (8/31), respectively. MR imaging is very sensitive for the detection of medial meniscal root tears, but has reduced the accuracy with regard to each tear configuration. Medial meniscal root tears showed a strong association with degenerative joint disease. High grade cartilage defects of the medial femoral condyle and medial meniscal extrusions also

  12. Sonographic Visualization of the Rotator Cable in Patients With Symptomatic Full-Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears: Correlation With Tear Size, Muscular Fatty Infiltration and Atrophy, and Functional Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau, Nathalie J; Blain-Paré, Etienne; Tétreault, Patrice; Rouleau, Dominique M; Hagemeister, Nicola

    2016-09-01

    To assess the prevalence of sonographic visualization of the rotator cable in patients with symptomatic full-thickness rotator cuff tears and asymptomatic controls and to correlate rotator cable visualization with tear size, muscular fatty infiltration and atrophy, and the functional outcome in the patients with rotator cuff tears. Fifty-seven patients with rotator cuff tears and 30 asymptomatic volunteers underwent shoulder sonography for prospective assessment of the rotator cable and rotator cuff tear and responded to 2 functional outcome questionnaires (shortened Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand [QuickDASH] and Constant). In the patients with rotator cuff tears, appropriate tests were used to correlate rotator cable visualization with the tear size, functional outcome, muscular fatty infiltration, and atrophy. The patients with rotator cuff tears included 25 women and 32 men (mean age,57 years; range, 39-67 years), and the volunteers included 13 women and 17 men (mean age, 56 years; range, 35-64 years). The rotator cable was identified in 77% (23 of 30) of controls and 23% (13 of 57) of patients with rotator cuff tears. In the patients, nonvisualization of the rotator cable correlated with larger tears (P tears than asymptomatic controls and was associated with a larger tear size and greater supraspinatus fatty infiltration and atrophy. Diligent assessment of the supraspinatus muscle should be done in patients with rotator cuff tears without a visible rotator cable, as the integrity of these anatomic structures may be interdependent.

  13. Levels of lipocalin-2 in crevicular fluid and tear fluid in chronic periodontitis and obesity subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeep, Avani Raju; Nagpal, Kanika; Karvekar, Shruti; Patnaik, Kaushik

    2016-11-01

    Lipocalin-2, a 25 kDa secretory glycoprotein, was first found in the neutrophilic granules of humans and in mouse kidney cells. It has been shown to have an important role in inflammation. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of lipocalin-2 in gingival crevicular fluid and tear fluid in patients with obesity and chronic periodontitis. A total of 40 subjects in the age group 25-40 years were divided into four groups based on probing depth, gingival index, clinical attachment level, body mass index, and radiographic evidence of bone loss. The groups were: nonobese healthy group; obese healthy group; nonobese chronic periodontitis group; obese chronic periodontitis group Gingival crevicular fluid and tear fluid samples were collected on the subsequent day. There was an increase in lipocalin-2 levels from group 1 to group 4 (with the nonobese healthy group showing the least levels and obese chronic periodontitis group showing the highest levels) in both gingival crevicular fluid and tear fluid. Lipocalin-2 may be an important inflammatory marker that may help link obesity and chronic periodontitis. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. Comparative diagnostic imaging of a partial patellar ligament tear in a dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Ricciardi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic lesions of the patellar ligament (PL are rare in dogs. The resulting injury can be a complete or partial laceration, depending on the quantity of torn collagen fibres. Information obtained from imaging evaluation is of great value to the clinical approach towards PL injuries, because subsequent treatment options are affected by the distinction between complete or partial tears. Imaging diagnosis of PL damage in veterinary practice commonly relies on radiographic examination through the recognition of indirect signs, such as “patella alta”, bone fragments at the level of the patellar or tibial insertion, and soft tissue opacity at the cranial aspect of the joint. Although ultrasound (US and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI have been described as useful diagnostic tools for the assessment of PL tears in human patients, specific comparative data regarding the evaluation of PL rupture in dogs using different imaging modalities is lacking in the veterinary literature. This paper describes the radiographic, ultrasonographic, CT and MRI imaging findings of a partial PL tear in a dog and discusses the utility of these techniques in diagnosing this condition. CT provided more detailed information than X-ray examination in the assessment of the osteoligamentous junction, the exclusion of microfracture and distal PL avulsion, but did not add information regarding PL integrity. MRI and US provided the most useful information regarding intra-ligamentous damage and as such their combined use may be considered for the assessment of PL injuries after clinical examination and survey radiographs.

  15. Anterior versus posterior, and rim-rent rotator cuff tears: prevalence and MR sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuite, M.J.; Turnbull, J.R.; Orwin, J.F.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the relative distribution of the locations of rotator cuff tears, and the sensitivity of anterior versus posterior tears on MR images. Patients and methods. We identified 110 consecutive patients who had a shoulder MR and either a partial-thickness or a small full-thickness rotator cuff tear diagnosed at arthroscopy. MR sensitivity and patient age were compared between patients with tears in the anterior and posterior halves of the cuff. In addition, in patients with partial tears less than 2 cm in diameter, an age comparison between those with tears in the critical zone and those with articular surface tears adjacent to the bony insertion (rim-rent tear) was performed. Results. The tear was centered in the anterior half of the rotator cuff in 79% of the patients younger than 36 years old, and in 89% of the patients 36 years old and over. The average age of the patients with tears in the anterior half (44 years) was not significantly different from the average age of those with posterior tears (40 years). The sensitivity of MR for anterior tears was 0.69, and for posterior tears it was 0.56. Five of the nine rim-rent tears (0.56) were interpreted correctly on the original MR report; two of the other tears were misinterpreted as intratendinous fluid but were diagnosable in retrospect. Conclusion. Even in patients less than 36 years old, most partial and small full-thickness rotator cuff tears are centered in the anterior half of the supraspinatus. Although our figure for MR sensitivity for these tears is lower than in recent articles, we found no significant difference between the sensitivity of MR for diagnosing posterior tears versus tears in the anterior half of the supraspinatus tendon. Rim-rent tears can be mistaken for intratendinous signal, and should be carefully looked for in younger patients with shoulder pain. (orig.)

  16. Elevated IGFBP3 levels in diabetic tears: a negative regulator of IGF-1 signaling in the corneal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Chieh; Buckner, Benjamin R; Zhu, Meifang; Cavanagh, H Dwight; Robertson, Danielle M

    2012-04-01

    To determine the ratio of IGFBP3:IGF-1 in normal and diabetic human tears, and in telomerase-immortalized human corneal epithelial cells (hTCEpi) cultured under elevated glucose conditions and to correlate these changes with total and phosphorylated levels of IGF-1R. Tear samples were collected noninvasively from diabetic subjects and non-diabetic controls; corneal sensitivity was assessed using a Cochet-Bonnet Aesthesiometer. Conditioned media were collected following culture of hTCEpi cells in normal (5 mM) and elevated (25 mM) glucose conditions; mannitol was used as an osmotic control. IGFBP3, IGF-1, and phosphorylated IGF-1R levels were assessed by ELISA. IGFBP3 and IGF-1R mRNA were assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Total and phosphorylated IGF-1R expression in whole cell lysates was assessed by western blot. There was a 2.8-fold increase in IGFBP3 in diabetic tears compared to non-diabetic controls (P=0.006); IGF-1 levels were not significantly altered. No difference in corneal sensitivity was detected between groups. The concentration of IGFBP3 in tears was independent of IGF-1. Consistent with human tear measurements in vivo, IGFBP3 secretion was increased 2.2 fold (Ptears compared to normal controls blocked phosphorylation of the IGF-1R by IGF-1 (Ptears may attenuate IGF-1R signaling in the diabetic cornea. A long-term increase in IGFBP3 may contribute to epithelial compromise and the pathogenesis of ocular surface complications reported in diabetes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Squeeze-film Lubrication of the Human Ankle Joint with Synovial Fluid Filtrated by Articular Cartilage with the Superficial Zone Worn out

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlaváček, Miroslav

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 11 (2000), s. 1415-1422 ISSN 0021-9290 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/00/0008 Keywords : human ankle joint * squeeze-film lubrication * synovial fluid filtration * worn-out cartilage superficial zone Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.474, year: 2000

  18. Photorefractive keratectomy: measuring the matrix metalloproteinase activity and chondroitin sulfate concentration in tear fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Mutoh

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Tetsuya Mutoh, Masaya Nishio, Yukihiro Matsumoto, Kiyomi Arai, Makoto ChikudaDepartment of Ophthalmology, Dokkyo Medical University Koshigaya Hospital, Saitama, JapanAbstract: We herein report the case of a 20-year-old man who underwent a photorefractive keratectomy (PRK. We measured matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 activity and chondroitin 4 sulfate and chondroitin 6 sulfate concentrations in tear fluid. Tear fluid was collected preoperatively via microcapillary tube, and was collected postoperatively on the first and fourth days, and after one week, one month, three months, and six months. Samples were formulated by dilution with 200 µL of saline. MMP-9 activity was analyzed by an enzyme immunocapture activity assay, and the concentrations of chondroitin sulfate were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. No complications were observed after surgery, except for a minimal subepithelial haze. Although MMP-9 activity changed on the fourth postoperative day, the activity changed only minimally at this time. Chondroitin 4 sulfate concentrations in tear fluid increased dramatically from one week to one month, decreased transiently at three months, and increased by six months. The chondroitin 6 sulfate concentration did not normalize within one week, and decreased from one week to three months compared with the preoperative score, and was close to the preoperative score at six months. We conclude that corneal wound healing was still incomplete six months after PRK, and chondroitin 4 sulfate appears to be critical in this process.Keywords: matrix metalloproteinase, chondroitin sulfate, human tear fluid, photorefractive keratectomy, corneal wound healing

  19. Effects of androgen replacement therapy on cornea and tear function in men with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokce, Gokcen; Hurmeric, Volkan; Mumcuoglu, Tarkan; Ozge, Gokhan; Basaran, Yalcin; Unal, Hilmi Umut; Bolu, Erol; Mutlu, Fatih Mehmet

    2015-05-01

    Idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) is an endocrine disorder defined with the presence of typical clinical signs and symptoms plus laboratory confirmation of serum testosterone (T) levels lower than 300 ng/dl. Androgen replacement therapy (ART) is the first-step treatment of male IHH. To date, no clinical trial, which investigates the changes on corneal structure and tear function, of systemic ART in men have been published. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of ART on cornea and tear function in patients with IHH. This prospective, interventional study was conducted at the Gulhane Military Medical Academy, Ankara, Turkey, a tertiary referral military hospital. Thirty-four eyes of 17 men with IHH patients were evaluated with Schirmer I test, ultrasound pachymeter, applanation tonometer and confocal microscopy. A Testosterone compound (Sustanon® 250 mg) was administered by intramuscular injection in the course of a 3-week period to induce puberty, and human chorionic gonadotropin (Pregnyl® 5000 IU) was administered twice weekly for 3 months to induce fertility. The patients were re-evaluated at the third month of the treatment. Main Outcome Measures were Schirmer score, central corneal thickness (CCT), intraocular pressure (IOP), endothelial cell density, coefficient of variation and cell shape. Schirmer scores showed similar results after the treatment compared to pre-treatment levels (p = 0.14). There was no statistically significant difference in CCT and IOP compared to baseline data (p = 0.96, p = 0.73, respectively), and no significant differences were found in corneal endothelial cell density, percentage of cell size variability or hexagonality (p = 0.83, p = 0.58, p = 0.64, respectively). This is the first study that investigates the effects of ART on corneal structure and tear function in men. ART seems to have no short-term effects on corneal structure and tear function. Further publications of larger, long-term and

  20. the effect of acetaminophen (paracetamol ) on tear production abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LIVINGSTON

    cox-1 and cox-2 has long been known to be the mechanism of action ... effects typical of NSAIDS . Chronic excessive alcohol consumption can ... The effect of acetaminophen (paracetamol ) on the tear production of 100 young healthy subjects ...

  1. Early Vitrectomy for Vitreous Hemorrhage Associated With Retinal Tears

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, H. Stevie; Mura, Marco; Bijl, Heico M.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate outcome of early surgery in vitreous hemorrhage, presumably associated with retinal tears. DESIGN: Retrospective, noncomparative interventional case series. METHODS: We included 40 consecutive cases in 39 patients treated with early vitrectomy for vitreous hemorrhage. Main

  2. Tearing mode dynamics and sawtooth oscillation in Hall-MHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhiwei; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Sheng

    2017-10-01

    Tearing mode instability is one of the most important dynamic processes in space and laboratory plasmas. Hall effects, resulted from the decoupling of electron and ion motions, could cause the fast development and perturbation structure rotation of the tearing mode and become non-negligible. We independently developed high accuracy nonlinear MHD code (CLT) to study Hall effects on the dynamic evolution of tearing modes with Tokamak geometries. It is found that the rotation frequency of the mode in the electron diamagnetic direction is in a good agreement with analytical prediction. The linear growth rate increases with increase of the ion inertial length, which is contradictory to analytical solution in the slab geometry. We further find that the self-consistently generated rotation largely alters the dynamic behavior of the double tearing mode and the sawtooth oscillation. National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China under Grant No. 2013GB104004 and 2013GB111004.

  3. Progression from calcifying tendinitis to rotator cuff tear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gotoh, Masafumi; Higuchi, Fujio; Suzuki, Ritsu; Yamanaka, Kensuke [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Medical Center of Kurume University, 155-1 Kokubu-machi, Kurume City, Fukuoka 839-0862 (Japan)

    2003-02-01

    This report documents the clinical, radiographic and histologic findings in a 46-year-old man with calcifying tendinitis in his left shoulder which progressed to rotator cuff tear. The patient had a 1-year history of repeated calcifying tendinitis before being referred to our hospital. On the initial visit, radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed calcium deposition localized in the supraspinatus tendon without apparent tear. Three months after the first visit, MRI revealed a partial-thickness rotator cuff tear at the site of calcium deposition. Surgical and histologic findings demonstrated that calcium deposition was the cause of cuff rupture. To our knowledge, based on a review of the English literature, this is the first case report in which the progression from calcifying tendinitis to rotator cuff tear has been serially observed. (orig.)

  4. Progression from calcifying tendinitis to rotator cuff tear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotoh, Masafumi; Higuchi, Fujio; Suzuki, Ritsu; Yamanaka, Kensuke

    2003-01-01

    This report documents the clinical, radiographic and histologic findings in a 46-year-old man with calcifying tendinitis in his left shoulder which progressed to rotator cuff tear. The patient had a 1-year history of repeated calcifying tendinitis before being referred to our hospital. On the initial visit, radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed calcium deposition localized in the supraspinatus tendon without apparent tear. Three months after the first visit, MRI revealed a partial-thickness rotator cuff tear at the site of calcium deposition. Surgical and histologic findings demonstrated that calcium deposition was the cause of cuff rupture. To our knowledge, based on a review of the English literature, this is the first case report in which the progression from calcifying tendinitis to rotator cuff tear has been serially observed. (orig.)

  5. Isolated medial meniscal tear in a Border Collie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridge, P A

    2006-01-01

    A three-year-old, female Border Collie was successfully treated for an isolated, torn, medial meniscus by arthroscopic meniscal tear resection. The dog returned to agility competition without recurrence of lameness.

  6. Peroneus longus tears associated with pathology of the os peroneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockton, Kristopher G; Brodsky, James W

    2014-04-01

    There is a range of different types of tears and pathology of the peroneal tendons. One of the least common types is the tear of the peroneus longus associated with fracture, enlargement, or entrapment at the cuboid tunnel of the os peroneum. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pathologic patterns of these uncommon peroneal tendon tears, to review the treatment, and to report the patient outcomes following treatment with excision of the os peroneum, debridement, and tenodesis of the peroneus longus to the peroneus brevis. A 5-year retrospective review of all patients with peroneal tendon tears identified 12 patients operatively treated for peroneus longus tendon tears with associated pathology of the os peroneum, and in whom there was a viable peroneus brevis. All patients were treated with an operative procedure consisting of excision of the os peroneum, debridement, and tenodesis of the peroneus longus to the peroneus brevis. Mean age was 51.5 (range, 33 to 73) years, including 7 males and 5 females. Operative and radiographic records were reviewed to characterize the nature of the peroneus longus tears and associated pathology. Preoperative and postoperative AOFAS hindfoot, SF-36 questionnaires, and Visual Analog Scale (VAS) pain scores were compiled and patient records were reviewed for complications. Mean follow-up after surgery was 63.3 (range, 12 to 114) months. All of the patients had an os peroneum associated with a complex, irreparable tear of the peroneus longus tendon. The peroneus longus was typically enlarged, fibrotic, and adhered to the surrounding tissues. In 8 patients, the peroneus longus tendon tear was associated with a fracture of the os peroneum, and in 4 patients with an enlarged and entrapped os peroneum which prevented movement at the cuboid tunnel. Of the 12 patients, 9 had partial tears of the peroneus brevis, which were treated with debridement and suture repair. AOFAS hindfoot scores increased from a preoperative mean of 61

  7. Comparison of Medial and Lateral Meniscus Root Tears.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hyun Koo

    Full Text Available The meniscus root plays an essential role in maintaining the circumferential hoop tension and preventing meniscal displacement. Studies on meniscus root tears have investigated the relationship of osteoarthritis and an anterior cruciate ligament tear. However, few studies have directly compared the medial and lateral root tears. To assess the prevalence of meniscal extrusion and its relationship with clinical features in medial and lateral meniscus root tears, we performed a retrospective review of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI results of 42 knee patients who had meniscus posterior horn root tears and who had undergone arthroscopic operations. The presence of meniscal extrusion was evaluated and the exact extent was measured from the tibial margin. The results were correlated with arthroscopic findings. Clinical features including patients' ages, joint abnormalities, and previous trauma histories were evaluated. Twenty-two patients had medial meniscus root tears (MMRTs and twenty patients had lateral meniscus root tears (LMRTs. Meniscal extrusion was present in 18 MMRT patients and one LMRT patient. The mean extent of extrusion was 4.2mm (range, 0.6 to 7.8 in the MMRT group and 0.9mm (range, -1.9 to 3.4 in the LMRT group. Five patients with MMRT had a history of trauma, while 19 patients with LMRT had a history of trauma. Three patients with MMRT had anterior cruciate ligament (ACL tears, while 19 patients with LMRT had ACL tears. The mean age of the patients was 52 years (range: 29-71 years and 30 years (range: 14-62 years in the MMRT and LMRT group, respectively. There was a significant correlation between a MMRT and meniscal extrusion (p<0.0001, and between an ACL tear and LMRT (p<0.0001. A history of trauma was significantly common in LMRT (p<0.0001. LMRT patients were significantly younger than MMRT patients (p<0.0001. Kellgren-Lawrence (K-L grade differed significantly between MMRT and LMRT group (p<0.0001. Meniscal extrusion is

  8. MR imaging of delamination tears of the rotator cuff tendons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walz, Daniel M.; Chen, Steven; Miller, Theodore T.; Hofman, Josh

    2007-01-01

    The objective was to describe the imaging appearances and location of delamination tears of the rotator cuff tendons on non-contrast conventional MR imaging. This study was reviewed and approved by our Institutional Review Board. The reports of 548 consecutive MR examinations of the shoulder were reviewed, looking for mention or description of delamination tears of the rotator cuff. The images of the identified cases were then reviewed by two radiologists to confirm the findings. Correlation with surgical and arthroscopic information was then performed. Delamination tears were defined as horizontal retraction of either the bursal or articular surface of the tendon, manifest as thickening of the torn retracted edge, and/or interstitial splitting of the tendon, manifest as fluid-like high signal intensity on fat-suppressed T2-weighted oblique coronal images. Fourteen cases of delamination tears were identified in 13 patients. Ten of the cases involved the supraspinatus tendon, all with articular surface involvement. Nine of these supraspinatus cases were isolated tears and one occurred as part of a full thickness tear. All 10 of these supraspinatus cases showed medial retraction of the articular surface of the tendon, with thickening of the retracted edge, and 5 of the 10 had a demonstrable horizontal cleft in the interstitium. Four cases involved the subscapularis tendon, with articular surface disruption in three and pure interstitial delamination in one. Medial subluxation of the tendon of the long head of the biceps was present in all four cases. No delamination tears occurred on the bursal surface. Only three of the 14 shoulders underwent surgical repair with one confirmation of supraspinatus delamination, one confirmation of a subscapularis tear that had become a full thickness tear 10 months after initial imaging and another interstitial subscapularis delamination that was not identified arthroscopically. Delamination tears occur most often in the

  9. MR imaging of delamination tears of the rotator cuff tendons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walz, Daniel M.; Chen, Steven [North Shore University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Manhasset, NY (United States); Miller, Theodore T. [Hospital for Special Surgery, Department of Radiology and Imaging, New York, NY (United States); Hofman, Josh [Long Island Jewish Medical Center, New Hyde Park, NY (United States)

    2007-05-15

    The objective was to describe the imaging appearances and location of delamination tears of the rotator cuff tendons on non-contrast conventional MR imaging. This study was reviewed and approved by our Institutional Review Board. The reports of 548 consecutive MR examinations of the shoulder were reviewed, looking for mention or description of delamination tears of the rotator cuff. The images of the identified cases were then reviewed by two radiologists to confirm the findings. Correlation with surgical and arthroscopic information was then performed. Delamination tears were defined as horizontal retraction of either the bursal or articular surface of the tendon, manifest as thickening of the torn retracted edge, and/or interstitial splitting of the tendon, manifest as fluid-like high signal intensity on fat-suppressed T2-weighted oblique coronal images. Fourteen cases of delamination tears were identified in 13 patients. Ten of the cases involved the supraspinatus tendon, all with articular surface involvement. Nine of these supraspinatus cases were isolated tears and one occurred as part of a full thickness tear. All 10 of these supraspinatus cases showed medial retraction of the articular surface of the tendon, with thickening of the retracted edge, and 5 of the 10 had a demonstrable horizontal cleft in the interstitium. Four cases involved the subscapularis tendon, with articular surface disruption in three and pure interstitial delamination in one. Medial subluxation of the tendon of the long head of the biceps was present in all four cases. No delamination tears occurred on the bursal surface. Only three of the 14 shoulders underwent surgical repair with one confirmation of supraspinatus delamination, one confirmation of a subscapularis tear that had become a full thickness tear 10 months after initial imaging and another interstitial subscapularis delamination that was not identified arthroscopically. Delamination tears occur most often in the

  10. Effect of various concentrations of Ti in hydrocarbon plasma polymer films on the adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandrovcova, Marta; Grinevich, Andrey; Drabik, Martin; Kylian, Ondrej; Hanus, Jan; Stankova, Lubica; Lisa, Vera; Choukourov, Andrei; Slavinska, Danka; Biederman, Hynek; Bacakova, Lucie

    2015-12-01

    Hydrocarbon polymer films (ppCH) enriched with various concentrations of titanium were deposited on microscopic glass slides by magnetron sputtering from a Ti target. The maximum concentration of Ti (about 20 at.%) was achieved in a pure argon atmosphere. The concentration of Ti decreased rapidly after n-hexane vapors were introduced into the plasma discharge, and reached zero values at n-hexane flow of 0.66 sccm. The decrease in Ti concentration was associated with decreasing oxygen and titanium carbide concentration in the films, decreasing wettability (the water drop contact angle increased from 20° to 91°) and decreasing root-mean-square roughness (from 3.3 nm to 1.0 nm). The human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells cultured on pure ppCH films and on films with 20 at.% of Ti showed relatively high concentrations of ICAM-1, a marker of cell immune activation. Lower concentrations of Ti (mainly 5 at.%) improved cell adhesion and osteogenic differentiation, as revealed by higher concentrations of talin, vinculin and osteocalcin. Higher Ti concentrations (15 at.%) supported cell growth, as indicated by the highest final cell population densities on day 7 after seeding. Thus, enrichment of ppCH films with appropriate concentrations of Ti makes these films more suitable for potential coatings of bone implants.

  11. Threshold condition for nonlinear tearing modes in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabiego, M.F. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Callen, J.D. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics

    1996-04-01

    Low-mode-number tearing mode nonlinear evolution is analyzed emphasizing the need for a threshold condition, to account for observations in tokamaks. The discussion is illustrated by two models recently introduced in the literature. Introducing a threshold condition in the tearing mode stability analysis is found to reveal some bifurcation points and thus domains of intrinsic stability in the island dynamics operational space. (author). 19 refs.

  12. Predictive MRI correlates of lesser metatarsophalangeal joint plantar plate tear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umans, Rachel L. [Cornell University Medical College, New York, NY (United States); Umans, Benjamin D. [Harvard University, Cambridge, MA (United States); Umans, Hilary [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Lenox Hill Radiology and Imaging Associates, New York, NY (United States); Elsinger, Elisabeth [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States)

    2016-07-15

    To identify correlated signs on non-enhanced MRI that might improve diagnostic detection of plantar plate (PP) tear. We performed an IRB-approved, HIPAA-compliant retrospective analysis of 100 non-contrast MRI (50 PP tear, 50 controls). All were anonymized, randomized, and reviewed; 20 were duplicated to assess consistency. One musculoskeletal radiologist evaluated qualitative variables. A trained non-physician performed measurements. Consistency and concordance were assessed. Pearson's Chi-square test was used to test the correlation between qualitative findings and PP tear status. Correlation between measurements and PP status was assessed using t tests and Wilcoxon's rank-sum test (p values < 0.05 considered significant). Classification and regression trees were utilized to identify attributes that, taken together, would consistently distinguish PP tear from controls. Quantitative measurements were highly reproducible (concordance 0.88-0.99). Elevated 2nd MT protrusion, lesser MT supination and rotational divergence of >45 between the 1st-2nd MT axis correlated with PP tear. Pericapsular soft tissue thickening correlated most strongly with PP tear, correctly classifying 95 % of cases and controls. Excluding pericapsular soft tissue thickening, sequential assessment of 2nd toe enthesitis, 2nd flexor tendon subluxation, and splaying of the second and third toes accurately classified PP status in 92 %. Pericapsular soft tissue thickening most strongly correlated with PP tear. For cases in which it might be difficult to distinguish pericapsular fibrosis from neuroma, sequential assessment of 2nd toe enthesitis, flexor tendon subluxation and splaying of the 2nd and 3rd toe is most helpful for optimizing accurate diagnosis of PP tear. (orig.)

  13. Review of tearing mode stabilization by RF power in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giruzzi, G.; Zabiego, M.; Zohm, H.

    1999-01-01

    Control of tearing modes by means of heating and current drive inside the magnetic islands is one of the most important applications of RF power in tokamak reactors. The theoretical basis of this concept is reviewed, focusing on aspects related to RF-plasma interaction. Applications to the stabilization of neoclassical tearing modes in ITER by Electron Cyclotron Current Drive are presented to illustrate the basic physical dependences. The most significant experimental results and prospects for future applications are also discussed

  14. Saturated tearing modes in tokamaks. Renewal proposal, progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, G.

    1984-01-01

    We have completed a computer code (GTOR) implementing our quasilinear method for determining saturated tearing mode magnetic island widths in axisymmetric toroidal plasmas. With this code we have surveyed the effect of current profile, aspect ratio and plasma elongation on saturated tearing modes. Current peaking within the islands is found to have a particularly large effect. In support of this research, we have developed a direct method for computing Hamada coordinates from harmonics of the inverse Grad-Shafranov equation