Ping, Zepeng; Jiang, Tingting; Wang, Chong; Chen, Zhongyi; Chen, Zhongliang; Wang, Jiaxiong; Wang, Li; Wang, Beibei; Xu, Dandan; Liu, Changming; Li, Zhongjie; Li, Ji-Cheng
To illustrate the mechanism of lymphatic reabsorption in knee joint effusion. The current investigation employed transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques to reveal the ultrastructure of the knee synovial membrane in New Zealand rabbits and human. Ultrastructural changes of the synovial lymphatic stomata were observed by using trypan blue absorption and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) digestion methods, and the animal models of synovitis. New Zealand rabbits and human synovial membranes were composed of two types of synovial cells: type A and type B. No lymphatic stomata were found among type A synovial cells, whereas lymphatic stomata with the diameters ranging 0.74-3.26 µm were found in type B synovial cells, and some stomata were closed. After the NaOH digestion, a number of sieve pores, similar to lymphatic stomata in size and shape, were observed in the dense fibrous connective tissue underneath the type B synovial cells. After injecting trypan blue into the rabbit knee joint cavity, absorption of trypan blue through the lymphatic stomata was observed, suggesting the absorption function of the synovial lymphatic stomata. In the rabbit knee joint synovitis models, the synovial lymphatic stomata diameter enlarged. Some macrophages migrated from the lymphatic stomata, indicating that the synovial lymphatic stomata were involved in the joint effusion absorption and inflammatory response. Our study is the first to report the existence of synovial lymphatic stomata in the New Zealand rabbits and human knee joints. Lymphatic stomata may have an important role in the reabsorption of joint effusion. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Østergaard, Mikkel; Stoltenberg, M; Gideon, P
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate synovial membrane volumes, effusion volumes, and cartilage and bone erosion scores determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as markers of disease activity and severity in arthritis. METHODS: Gadolinium-DTPA enhanced MRI of 18 arthritic knees was performed before and 1...
Østergaard, Mikkel; Stoltenberg, M; Henriksen, O
, median 3 ml (0-17%, median 7%). No significant systematic misinterpretation of the borderline between joint fluid and synovium was found. We conclude that effusion volumes and in all probability also synovial membrane volumes, can be determined by MRI with a maximal analytical error of approximately 20...
Bruijn, de D.R.H.; Nap, J.P.H.; Kessel, A.G.
Human synovial sarcomas are aggressive soft tissue tumors with relatively high rates of recurrences and metastases. They display a variable response to common treatment protocols such as radiation and chemotherapy. For the development of novel diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic approaches,
Yaron, M.; Yaron, I.; Levita, M.; Herzberg, M.
Radioactive particles as well as x irradiation from an external source has been used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis. In order to clarify effects of ionizing irradiation on synovial cells, radioactive gold (/sup 198/Au) and yttrium (/sup 90/Y) were added to fibroblast cultures derived from human synovial membranes. Other cultures were irradiated by a Picker x-ray machine. Fibroblast growth and hyaluronic acid production were measured. Radioactive gold and yttrium particles induced a significant increase of hyaluronic acid synthesis rate (pg/cell/day) and inhibited fibroblast growth. Fibroblasts continued to overproduce hyaluronic acid and to show growth inhibition 3 weeks after irradiation with radioactive gold. Hydrocortisone inhibited hyaluronic acid overproduction induced by radioactive gold. Overproduction of hyaluronic acid induced by the x-ray machine was inhibited by hydrocortisone, actinomycin-D, and cycloheximide. Fibroblasts derived from normal and rheumatoid patients responded similarly to ionizing irradiation.
Kingston, Amy-Rose; Toms, Andoni P.; Ghosh-Ray, Subhadip; Johnston-Downing, Shelley [Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital Trust, Department of Radiology, Norwich, Norfolk (United Kingdom)
The metatarsophalangeal joints (MTPJ) are the only joints that bear weight directly through synovium. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is an association between synovial stresses during running and increases in volume of joint fluid. This was a prospective case controlled study (nine healthy athlete volunteers acting as own controls). High-resolution coronal 3D T2W magnetic resonance imaging of the MTPJs were obtained following 24 h rest and after a 30-min run. The volume of joint fluid in each MTPJ (n=90) was measured by two independent observers using an automated propagating segmentation tool. The median volume of synovial fluid in the MTPJs at rest was 0.018 ml (inter-quartile range (IQ) range 0.005-0.04) and after running 0.019 ml (IQ range 0.005-0.04, p=0.34, 99% confidence interval (CI), 0.330.35). The volume of fluid in the MTPJs of the great toes was substantially larger than other toes (0.152 ml at rest, 0.154 ml after exercise, p=0.903). Median volumes decrease from second to fifth MTPJs (0.032-0.007 ml at rest and 0.035-0.004 ml after exercise). Subset analysis for each toe revealed no significant difference in volumes before and after running (p=0.39 to p=0.9). The inter-rater reliability for observer measurements was good with an intra-class correlation of 0.70 (95% CI, 0.60 to 0.78). It appears to be normal to find synovial fluid, particularly in the MTPJs of the great toes, of athletes at rest and after running. There does not appear to be an association between moderate distance running and an increase in the volume of synovial fluid. (orig.)
Marta Krystyna Kosinska
Full Text Available Articular synovial fluid (SF is a complex mixture of components that regulate nutrition, communication, shock absorption, and lubrication. Alterations in its composition can be pathogenic. This lipidomic investigation aims to quantify the composition of sphingolipids (sphingomyelins, ceramides, and hexosyl- and dihexosylceramides and minor glycerophospholipid species, including (lysophosphatidic acid, (lysophosphatidylglycerol, and bis(monoacylglycerophosphate species, in the SF of knee joints from unaffected controls and from patients with early (eOA and late (lOA stages of osteoarthritis (OA, and rheumatoid arthritis (RA. SF without cells and cellular debris from 9 postmortem donors (control, 18 RA, 17 eOA, and 13 lOA patients were extracted to measure lipid species using electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry--directly or coupled with hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography. We provide a novel, detailed overview of sphingolipid and minor glycerophospholipid species in human SF. A total of 41, 48, and 50 lipid species were significantly increased in eOA, lOA, and RA SF, respectively when compared with normal SF. The level of 21 lipid species differed in eOA SF versus SF from lOA, an observation that can be used to develop biomarkers. Sphingolipids can alter synovial inflammation and the repair responses of damaged joints. Thus, our lipidomic study provides the foundation for studying the biosynthesis and function of lipid species in health and most prevalent joint diseases.
Magnetic resonance imaging-determined synovial membrane and joint effusion volumes in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis: comparison with the macroscopic and microscopic appearance of the synovium
Østergaard, Mikkel; Stoltenberg, M; Løvgreen-Nielsen, P
determined by preoperative MRI, enhanced with intravenous gadopentetate dimeglumine. RESULTS: MRI-determined synovial membrane volumes were correlated with the overall histologic assessment of synovial inflammation (Spearman's sigma = 0.55, P
Kan, Jun-Ichiro; Mishima, Shintaro; Kashiwakura, Jun-Ichi; Sasaki-Sakamoto, Tomomi; Seki, Masayuki; Saito, Shu; Ra, Chisei; Tokuhashi, Yasuaki; Okayama, Yoshimichi
Interleukin (IL)-17A plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The expression of IL-17A in synovial mast cells (MCs) in RA and osteoarthritis (OA) has been reported, but the frequencies of IL-17A expression in synovial MCs have varied. The aim of this study was to investigate whether IL-17A expression is upregulated in human synovial MCs in RA and to elucidate the mechanism of IL-17A expression in synovial MCs. Synovial tissues were obtained from patients with RA or OA undergoing joint replacement surgery, and synovial MCs were enzymatically dispersed. Synovium-derived cultured MCs were generated by culturing synovial cells with stem cell factor. IL-17A expression was investigated using immunofluorescence in synovial tissues. IL-17A mRNA expression and its production from MCs were examined using RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. The number of IL-17A-positive ((+)) synovial MCs and the percentage of IL-17A(+) MCs among all the IL-17A(+) cells from RA patients were not significantly increased compared with those from OA subjects. The synovium-derived cultured MCs spontaneously released small amounts of IL-17A. Neither IgE- nor IgG-dependent stimulation increased IL-17A production from the MCs. IL-33, tumor necrosis factor-α, C5a, lipopolysaccharide or IL-23 plus IL-1β did not affect IL-17A production in MCs. The synovial MCs are not a main source of IL-17A in RA. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wang, Shaowei; Zhou, Jingming; Wei, Xiaochun; Li, Pengcui; Li, Kai; Wang, Dongming; Wei, Fangyuan; Zhang, Jianzhong; Wei, Lei
Western blot of synovial fluid has been widely used for osteoarthritis (OA) research and diagnosis, but there is no ideal loading control for this purpose. Although β-actin is extensively used as loading control in western blot, it is not suitable for synovial fluid because it is not required in synovial fluid as a cytoskeletal protein. A good loading control for synovial fluid in OA studies should have unchanged content in synovial fluids from normal and OA groups, because synovial fluid protein content can vary with changes in synovial vascular permeability with OA onset. In this study, we explore the potential of using α1-antitripsin (A1AT) as loading control for OA synovial fluid in western blot. A1AT level is elevated in inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Unlike RA, OA is a non-inflammation disease, which does not induce A1AT. In this study, we identified A1AT as an abundant component of synovial fluid by Mass Spectrometry and confirmed that the level of A1AT is relative constant between human OA and normal synovial fluid by western blot and ELISA. Hence, we proposed that A1AT may be a good loading control for western blot in human OA synovial fluid studies provided that pathological conditions such as RA or A1AT deficiency associated liver or lung diseases are excluded.
Kosinska, M. K.; Mastbergen, S. C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/290932599; Liebisch, G.; Wilhelm, J.; Dettmeyer, R. B.; Ishaque, B.; Rickert, M.; Schmitz, G.; Lafeber, F. P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073410071; Steinmeyer, J.
Objective: The lipid profile of synovial fluid (SF) is related to the health status of joints. The early stages of human osteoarthritis (OA) are poorly understood, which larger animals are expected to be able to model closely. This study examined whether the canine groove model of OA represents
Telfer, Joan F; Brock, Jeremy H
It has been hypothesized that iron is stored in the synovium of patients with rheumatoid arthritis which perpetuates inflamation by aiding the production of oxygen free radicals. Proinflammatory cytokines are produced by macrophages and lymphocytes present within synovium and by mononuclear cells of in synovial fluid from patients with rheumatoid arthritis. There are two known systems for iron uptake. The first involves binding of iron to transferrin and uptake via transferrin receptors. The second involves uptake by low molecular weight organic anions such as ascorbate and citrate (non-transferrin bound uptake). Proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1, IL-6, TNFalpha and interferon gamma) were added to fibroblasts isolated from patients with rheumatoid arthritis and human monocytes in culture and their effect on 59Fe-transferrin and citrate uptake was determined. Proinflammatory cytokines increase transferrin and non-transferrin bound iron uptake into human monocytes and increase transferrin-bound iron uptake by synovial fibroblasts, but have no effect on non-transferrin bound uptake into fibroblasts. Proinflammatory cytokines produced in human rheumatoid arthritis synovium and synovial fluid may contribute to the accumulation of iron that occurs in rheumatoid arthritis synovium which may lead to damage to synovial fibroblasts, macrophages and lymphocytes.
Mizuno, Mitsuru; Katano, Hisako; Otabe, Koji; Komori, Keiichiro; Kohno, Yuji; Fujii, Shizuka; Ozeki, Nobutake; Horie, Masafumi; Tsuji, Kunikazu; Koga, Hideyuki; Muneta, Takeshi; Sekiya, Ichiro
In our clinical practice, we perform transplantations of autologous synovial mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for cartilage and meniscus regenerative medicine. One of the most important issues to ensuring clinical efficacy involves the transport of synovial MSCs from the processing facility to the clinic. Complete human serum (100% human serum) is an attractive candidate material in which to suspend synovial MSCs for their preservation during transport. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether complete human serum maintained MSC viability and chondrogenic potential and to examine the optimal temperature conditions for the preservation of human synovial MSCs. Human synovium was harvested from the knees of 14 donors with osteoarthritis during total knee arthroplasty. Passage 2 synovial MSCs were suspended at 2 million cells/100 μL in Ringer's solution or complete human serum at 4, 13, and 37 °C for 48 h. These cells were analyzed for live cell rates, cell surface marker expression, metabolic activity, proliferation, and adipogenic, calcification, and chondrogenic differentiation potentials before and after preservation. After preservation, synovial MSCs maintained higher live cell rates in human serum than in Ringer's solution at 4 and 13 °C. Synovial MSCs preserved in human serum at 4 and 13 °C also maintained high ratios of propidium iodide(-) and annexin V(-) cells. MSC surface marker expression was not altered in cells preserved at 4 and 13 °C. The metabolic activities of cells preserved in human serum at 4 and 13 °C was maintained, while significantly reduced in other conditions. Replated MSCs retained their proliferation ability when preserved in human serum at 4 and 13 °C. Adipogenesis and calcification potential could be observed in cells preserved in each condition, whereas chondrogenic potential was retained only in cells preserved in human serum at 4 and 13 °C. The viability and chondrogenic potential of synovial MSCs were
Kim, Min-Jeong; Son, Myung Jin; Son, Mi-Young; Seol, Binna; Kim, Janghwan; Park, Jongjin; Kim, Jung Hwa; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Park, Su A; Lee, Chul-Ho; Lee, Kang-Sik; Han, Yong-Mahn; Chang, Jae-Suk; Cho, Yee Sook
This study was undertaken to generate and characterize human induced pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) from patients with osteoarthritis (OA) and to examine whether these cells can be developed into disease-relevant cell types for use in disease modeling and drug discovery. Human synovial cells isolated from two 71-year-old women with advanced OA were characterized and reprogrammed into induced PSCs by ectopic expression of 4 transcription factors (Oct-4, SOX2, Klf4, and c-Myc). The pluripotency status of each induced PSC line was validated by comparison with human embryonic stem cells (ESCs). We found that OA patient-derived human synovial cells had human mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-like characteristics, as indicated by the expression of specific markers, including CD14-, CD19-, CD34-, CD45-, CD44+, CD51+, CD90+, CD105+, and CD147+. Microarray analysis of human MSCs and human synovial cells further determined their unique and overlapping gene expression patterns. The pluripotency of established human induced PSCs was confirmed by their human ESC-like morphology, expression of pluripotency markers, gene expression profiles, epigenetic status, normal karyotype, and in vitro and in vivo differentiation potential. The potential of human induced PSCs to differentiate into distinct mesenchymal cell lineages, such as osteoblasts, adipocytes, and chondrocytes, was further confirmed by positive expression of markers for respective cell types and positive staining with alizarin red S (osteoblasts), oil red O (adipocytes), or Alcian blue (chondrocytes). Functional chondrocyte differentiation of induced PSCs in pellet culture and 3-dimensional polycaprolactone scaffold culture was assessed by chondrocyte self-assembly and histology. Our findings indicate that patient-derived synovial cells are an attractive source of MSCs as well as induced PSCs and have the potential to advance cartilage tissue engineering and cell-based models of cartilage defects. Copyright © 2011 by the
Munichor, Mariana; Cohen, Hector; Sarid, Ronit; Manov, Irena; Iancu, Theodore C
AIDS-related body cavity-based lymphoma, or primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), is a distinct clinicopathologic entity that occurs predominantly in immunosuppressed patients infected with human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), also known as Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. Although it rarely occurs in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative patients, we report such a case here. A 74-year-old male, who was HIV and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) negative, was admitted to the hospital with dyspnea and chest pain. Chest radiography and computed tomography showed right pleural effusion. Cytologic analysis of the pleural effusion revealed a high grade lymphoma with round nuclei, prominent nucleoli and abundant cytoplasm. Polymerase chain reaction performed on the pleural effusion was positive for HHV-8 and negative for EBV. On molecular studies, the immunoglobulin heavy and kappa light chains were rearranged. Flow cytometry revealed a hyperploid fraction with DNA index of 1.29 expressing CD30. Immunostaining for HHV-8 from a cell block was positive. Electron microscopy revealed lymphomalike cells, many in various stages of apoptosis, with large nucleoli and clusters of viruslike particles in the nucleoplasm. A firm diagnosis of PEL can be established by the examination of cells from the lymphomatous effusion by a combination of cytology, molecular genetics, phenotypic features, immunostaining and electron microscopy. To our knowledge, this is the first case in which immunostaining for anti-HHV-8 monoclonal antibodies was used to support the diagnosis.
Krakauer, K A; Zurier, R B
Human synovial tissue cells in monolayer can be shown to take up and digest a soluble protein, horseradish peroxidase (HRP). Uptake of HRP was linear with increasing concentrations of substrate and cell protein and with time for up to 4 h. Low temperature (4 degrees C), and sodium fluoride, an inhibitor of glycolysis were the most effective metabolic inhibitors of endocytosis. In addition, colchicine, an inhibitor of microtubule assembly, and yeast mannan, an inhibitor of mannose-specific rec...
Full Text Available The lipoxygenase isoform of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX is reported to be overexpressed in human rheumatoid arthritis synovial tissue and involved in the progress of inflammatory arthritis. However, the detailed mechanism of how 5-lipoxygenase regulates the inflammatory response in arthritis synovial tissue is still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of lipoxygenase pathways in TNF-α-induced production of cytokines and chemokines. Human synovial fibroblasts from rheumatoid patients were used in this study. 5-LOX inhibitors and shRNA were used to examine the involvement of 5-LOX in TNF-α-induced cytokines and chemokines expression. The signaling pathways were examined by Western Blotting or immunofluorescence staining. The effect of 5-LOX inhibitor on TNF-α-induced chemokine expression and paw edema was also explored in vivo in C57BL/6 mice. Treatment with 5-LOX inhibitors significantly decreased TNF-α-induced pro-inflammatory mediators including interleukin-6 (IL-6 and monocyte chemo-attractant protein-1 (MCP-1 in human synovial fibroblasts. Knockdown of 5-LOX using shRNA exerted similar inhibitory effects. The abrogation of NF-κB activation was involved in the antagonizing effects of these inhibitors. Furthermore, 5-LOX inhibitor decreased TNF-α-induced up-regulation of serum MCP-1 level and paw edema in mouse model. Our results provide the evidence that the administration of 5-LOX inhibitors is able to ameliorate TNF-α-induced cytokine/chemokine release and paw edema, indicating that 5-LOX inhibitors may be developed for therapeutic treatment of inflammatory arthritis.
Lin, Han-Ching; Lin, Tzu-Hung; Wu, Ming-Yueh; Chiu, Yung-Cheng; Tang, Chih-Hsin; Hour, Mann-Jen; Liou, Houng-Chi; Tu, Huang-Ju; Yang, Rong-Sen; Fu, Wen-Mei
The lipoxygenase isoform of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) is reported to be overexpressed in human rheumatoid arthritis synovial tissue and involved in the progress of inflammatory arthritis. However, the detailed mechanism of how 5-lipoxygenase regulates the inflammatory response in arthritis synovial tissue is still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of lipoxygenase pathways in TNF-α-induced production of cytokines and chemokines. Human synovial fibroblasts from rheumatoid patients were used in this study. 5-LOX inhibitors and shRNA were used to examine the involvement of 5-LOX in TNF-α-induced cytokines and chemokines expression. The signaling pathways were examined by Western Blotting or immunofluorescence staining. The effect of 5-LOX inhibitor on TNF-α-induced chemokine expression and paw edema was also explored in vivo in C57BL/6 mice. Treatment with 5-LOX inhibitors significantly decreased TNF-α-induced pro-inflammatory mediators including interleukin-6 (IL-6) and monocyte chemo-attractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in human synovial fibroblasts. Knockdown of 5-LOX using shRNA exerted similar inhibitory effects. The abrogation of NF-κB activation was involved in the antagonizing effects of these inhibitors. Furthermore, 5-LOX inhibitor decreased TNF-α-induced up-regulation of serum MCP-1 level and paw edema in mouse model. Our results provide the evidence that the administration of 5-LOX inhibitors is able to ameliorate TNF-α-induced cytokine/chemokine release and paw edema, indicating that 5-LOX inhibitors may be developed for therapeutic treatment of inflammatory arthritis. PMID:25229347
Thomsen, Line Nymann; Berg, Lise Charlotte; Markussen, Bo
Cervical synovial folds have been suggested as a potential cause of neck pain in humans. Little is known about the extent and characteristics of cervical synovial folds in horses.......Cervical synovial folds have been suggested as a potential cause of neck pain in humans. Little is known about the extent and characteristics of cervical synovial folds in horses....
Esmonde-White, Karen A.; Mandair, Gurjit S.; Esmonde-White, Francis W. L.; Raaii, Farhang; Roessler, Blake J.; Morris, Michael D.
We describe the use of Raman spectroscopy to investigate synovial fluid drops deposited onto fused silica microscope slides. This spectral information can be used to identify chemical changes in synovial fluid associated with osteoarthritis (OA) damage to knee joints. The chemical composition of synovial fluid is predominately proteins (enzymes, cytokines, or collagen fragments), glycosaminoglycans, and a mixture of minor components such as inorganic phosphate crystals. During osteoarthritis, the chemical, viscoelastic and biological properties of synovial fluid are altered. A pilot study was conducted to determine if Raman spectra of synovial fluid correlated with radiological scoring of knee joint damage. After informed consent, synovial fluid was drawn and x-rays were collected from the knee joints of 40 patients. Raman spectra and microscope images were obtained from the dried synovial fluid drops using a Raman microprobe and indicate a coarse separation of synovial fluid components. Individual protein signatures could not be identified; Raman spectra were useful as a general marker of overall protein content and secondary structure. Band intensity ratios used to describe protein and glycosaminoglycan structure were used in synovial fluid spectra. Band intensity ratios of Raman spectra indicate that there is less ordered protein secondary structure in synovial fluid from the damage group. Combination of drop deposition with Raman spectroscopy is a powerful approach to examining synovial fluid for the purposes of assessing osteoarthritis damage.
Full Text Available A series of experiments have been carried out to investigate the effects of different concentrations of thapsigargin (0, 0.001, 0.1, and 1 μM on the proliferation and survival of human rheumatoid arthritis synovial cells (MH7A. The results showed that thapsigargin can block the cell proliferation in human rheumatoid arthritis synovial cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Results of Hoechst staining suggested that thapsigargin may induce cell apoptosis in MH7A cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner, and the percentages of cell death reached 44.6% at thapsigargin concentration of 1 μM treated for 4 days compared to the control. The protein and mRNA levels of cyclin D1 decreased gradually with the increasing of thapsigargin concentration and treatment times. Moreover, the protein levels of mTORC1 downstream indicators pS6K and p4EBP-1 were reduced by thapsigargin treatment at different concentrations and times, which should be responsible for the reduced cyclin D1 expressions. Our results revealed that thapsigargin may effectively impair the cell proliferation and survival of MH7A cells. The present findings will help to understand the molecular mechanism of fibroblast-like synoviocytes proliferations and suggest that thapsigargin is of potential for the clinical treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
Helms, Gabriele; Rittmann, Pia; Wefstaedt, Patrick; Windhagen, Henning; Pressel, Thomas; Behrens, Bernd-Arno; Nolte, Ingo
The development of pathological changes in both human and canine hip joints is mainly caused by a lack of synovial fluid lubrication. This results in an increased joint abrasion. Even after implantation of joint prosthesis, inadequate lubrication can lead to abrasion in the tribological pair. This can finally result in aseptic loosening of the prosthesis. In spite of the enormous number of studies that have been performed on human, only little knowledge about the tribological properties of the joints in dogs is available in the literature. For this reason the viscosities of synovial fluid, derived from physiological and pathologically changed canine elbow joints were measured. The viscosities were determined by the use of a cone-plate viscometer at different temperatures and shear rates. The obtained values were compared with the viscosity values of pathologically changed synovial fluids from human knee joints as well as with pathological samples from the canine hip joint. The results show that the viscosity values vary within a series of measurements and are inversely proportional to the temperature of the sample and the shear rate. The differences between the average viscosities of canine and human synovial fluids taken from pathologically changed joints are below 4% (22.5 s(-1) at theta1 = 25 degrees C). The findings of this study are being implemented in a FE-Model for the computation of actual forces in the hip joint during different movements. This would represent a contribution to an improved prosthetic treatment of canine and human hips.
Christensen, I T; Jørgensen, Flemming Steen; Svensson, L A
on the X-ray structure of the highly homologous bovine pancreatic PLA2 (Type I) by amino acid substitution and modification of the C-terminal part followed by geometry relaxation. The structure of the PLA2 from human synovial fluid was constructed from the X-ray structure of PLA2 from Crotalus atrox (Type...
Kumahashi, N; Swärd, P; Larsson, S
). Serum was collected from 71 of the knee injured patients. Synovial fluid from 8 knee-healthy subjects was used as reference. C2C was quantified by immunoassay and structural injury was determined from magnetic resonance images (MRI) of the injured knee acquired 1-38 days after injury (n = 98......). Additional joint injury biomarker results were from earlier investigations of the same samples. RESULTS: Synovial fluid C2C concentrations were higher in injured knees than in knees of reference subjects from 1 day up to 7 years after injury. C2C concentrations in synovial fluid and serum were correlated (r......PURPOSE: Investigate in a cross-sectional study time-dependent changes of synovial fluid type II collagen epitope C2C concentrations after knee injury and correlate to other joint injury biomarkers. METHODS: Synovial fluid samples were aspirated between 0 days and 7 years after injury (n = 235...
Kobayashi, Kazuhiko; Jokaji, Rei; Miyazawa-Hira, Mayuko; Takatsuka, Shigeyuki; Tanaka, Akira; Ooi, Kazuhiro; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Kawashiri, Shuichi
Temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMD) is a collection of clinical symptoms that involve masticatory muscles and the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Common symptoms include limited jaw motion and joint sound/pain, along with TMJ disc displacement. TMD is frequently associated with synovitis, a chronic inflammation of the synovium. Fibroblast-like synovial cells have been identified to produce several inflammatory mediators and may have an important role in the progression of TMJ inflammation. Degradation of the extracellular matrix molecule elastin may lead to the release of bioactive peptides. The present study aimed to explore the role of elastin-derived peptides (EDPs) in human temporomandibular disorders. Therefore, interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression in the synovial fluid obtained from patients with TMD correlated significantly with two clinical parameters, specifically TMJ locking and pain/jaw function on a visual analog scale (VAS). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to determine that the concentration of EDPs in synovial fluid from patients with TMD may also be significantly correlated with the duration of TMJ locking, the VAS score and IL-6 expression. In vitro, EDPs act on human TMJ synovial cells to promote upregulation of IL-6 and the elastin-degrading enzyme matrix metalloproteinase-12 (MMP-12). The upregulation of IL-6 and MMP-12 expression by EDPs may be mediated through elastin-binding proteins (EBP) and a protein kinase A signalling cascade. These findings suggest a model for inflammation in the TMJ where EDPs are generated by harmful mechanical stimuli, induce both a pro-inflammatory cascade and increase expression of MMP-12 through activation of the EBP signalling cascade. This may lead to further increases in EDP levels, establishing a positive feedback loop leading to chronic inflammation in the TMJ. Therefore, significantly elevated levels of EDPs and IL-6 in the synovial fluid of the TMJ may be indicators of the pathological
Hayakawa, Kazuo [Department of Tissue Regeneration, Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Department of Cell Growth and Differentiation, Center for iPS Cell Research and Application, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Ikeya, Makoto [Department of Cell Growth and Differentiation, Center for iPS Cell Research and Application, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Fukuta, Makoto [Department of Tissue Regeneration, Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Department of Cell Growth and Differentiation, Center for iPS Cell Research and Application, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Woltjen, Knut [Department of Reprogramming Sciences, Center for iPS Cell Research and Application, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Tamaki, Sakura; Takahara, Naoko; Kato, Tomohisa; Sato, Shingo [Department of Tissue Regeneration, Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Otsuka, Takanobu [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Toguchida, Junya, E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Tissue Regeneration, Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Department of Cell Growth and Differentiation, Center for iPS Cell Research and Application, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)
Highlights: ► We tried to identify targets of synovial sarcoma (SS)-associated SYT–SSX fusion gene. ► We established pluripotent stem cell (PSC) lines with inducible SYT–SSX gene. ► SYT–SSX responsive genes were identified by the induction of SYT–SSX in PSC. ► SS-related genes were selected from database by in silico analyses. ► 51 genes were finally identified among SS-related genes as targets of SYT–SSX in PSC. -- Abstract: Synovial sarcoma (SS) is a malignant soft tissue tumor harboring chromosomal translocation t(X; 18)(p11.2; q11.2), which produces SS-specific fusion gene, SYT–SSX. Although precise function of SYT–SSX remains to be investigated, accumulating evidences suggest its role in gene regulation via epigenetic mechanisms, and the product of SYT–SSX target genes may serve as biomarkers of SS. Lack of knowledge about the cell-of-origin of SS, however, has placed obstacle in the way of target identification. Here we report a novel approach to identify SYT–SSX2 target genes using human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) containing a doxycycline-inducible SYT–SSX2 gene. SYT–SSX2 was efficiently induced both at mRNA and protein levels within three hours after doxycycline administration, while no morphological change of hPSCs was observed until 24 h. Serial microarray analyses identified genes of which the expression level changed more than twofold within 24 h. Surprisingly, the majority (297/312, 95.2%) were up-regulated genes and a result inconsistent with the current concept of SYT–SSX as a transcriptional repressor. Comparing these genes with SS-related genes which were selected by a series of in silico analyses, 49 and 2 genes were finally identified as candidates of up- and down-regulated target of SYT–SSX, respectively. Association of these genes with SYT–SSX in SS cells was confirmed by knockdown experiments. Expression profiles of SS-related genes in hPSCs and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were strikingly
Mizuno, Mitsuru; Katano, Hisako; Otabe, Koji; Komori, Keiichiro; Matsumoto, Yukie; Fujii, Shizuka; Ozeki, Nobutake; Tsuji, Kunikazu; Koga, Hideyuki; Muneta, Takeshi; Matsuyama, Akifumi; Sekiya, Ichiro
For expansion of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), autologous human serum is safer than fetal bovine serum in clinical situations. One of the problems with the use of autologous human serum is that its proliferative effect on MSCs varies widely between donors. The threefold goals of this study were: (1) to demonstrate an improved method for preparing human serum; (2) to identify growth factors predictive of proliferative potential; and (3) to identify a cytokine to promote MSC proliferation in human serum. Fresh blood was collected using a closed bag system containing glass beads. The bag was shaken at 20 °C for 30 minutes for rapid preparation, or kept stationary at 4 °C for 24 hours for slow preparation. Passage 0 synovial MSCs derived from four donors were cultured with 10 % conventional rapid preparation serum or modified slow preparation serum from four different donors. To perform the colony-forming unit assay, synovial MSCs were cultured in these serums. The protein expression profile in serum was analyzed using cytokine array. The candidate proteins were speculated from the correlation between the colony-forming ability and protein expression. As an evaluation of the candidate proteins, proliferation ability, surface marker phenotype and differentiation capability of synovial MSCs were examined. Compared with rapid preparation serum, slow preparation serum resulted in a significantly higher total colony number and twofold higher expression levels of nine proteins (angiopoietin-1, BDNF, EGF, ENA-78, IGFBP-2, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-AA, PDGF-AB/BB, RANTES and TfR). Colony number was positively correlated with PDGF-AA/AB concentrations. Exogenous PDGF-AA significantly promoted proliferation of synovial MSCs, whereas PDGF receptor (PDGFR) inhibitor decreased it. Addition of PDGFs or PDGFR inhibitor did not affect surface epitopes of synovial MSCs. Pretreatment with PDGFs or PDGFR inhibitor did not affect chondrogenic, adipogenic, or
Lundborg, G; Myrhage, R; Rydevik, B
The intrinsic vascularization of human flexor tendons within the digital sheath region was studied on fresh amputation specimens with the aid of angiographic and histochemical techniques. In the flexor digitorum profundus tendon, three separate vascular systems of various origin and with no or very little communication could be verified. In the flexor digitorum superficialis tendon, two such systems were observed. The volar surface of both tendons is more or less devoid of vessels. Moreover, at the proximal interphalangeal joint level, the flexor digitorum profundus tendon has a volar avascular zone, constituting about 1 mm, i.e., about one-third to one-fourth of the thickness of the tendon. It is assumed that the synovial fluid is of importance for the nutrition of the tendons and that therefore the synovial sheath should be preserved as much as possible.
Full Text Available The catalytic activities of covalent and ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling are central to regulating the conformational state of chromatin and the resultant transcriptional output. The enzymes that catalyze these activities are often contained within multiprotein complexes in nature. Two such multiprotein complexes, the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2 methyltransferase and the SWItch/Sucrose Non-Fermentable (SWI/SNF chromatin remodeler have been reported to act in opposition to each other during development and homeostasis. An imbalance in their activities induced by mutations/deletions in complex members (e.g. SMARCB1 has been suggested to be a pathogenic mechanism in certain human cancers. Here we show that preclinical models of synovial sarcoma-a cancer characterized by functional SMARCB1 loss via its displacement from the SWI/SNF complex through the pathognomonic SS18-SSX fusion protein-display sensitivity to pharmacologic inhibition of EZH2, the catalytic subunit of PRC2. Treatment with tazemetostat, a clinical-stage, selective and orally bioavailable small-molecule inhibitor of EZH2 enzymatic activity reverses a subset of synovial sarcoma gene expression and results in concentration-dependent cell growth inhibition and cell death specifically in SS18-SSX fusion-positive cells in vitro. Treatment of mice bearing either a cell line or two patient-derived xenograft models of synovial sarcoma leads to dose-dependent tumor growth inhibition with correlative inhibition of trimethylation levels of the EZH2-specific substrate, lysine 27 on histone H3. These data demonstrate a dependency of SS18-SSX-positive, SMARCB1-deficient synovial sarcomas on EZH2 enzymatic activity and suggests the potential utility of EZH2-targeted drugs in these genetically defined cancers.
Sucari S.C. Vlok
Full Text Available Synovial sarcoma is a malignant, predominantly juxta-articular, soft-tissue tumour representing approximately 10% of all soft-tissue sarcomas. Frequently initially incorrectly diagnosed as a benign lesion, it should be considered as a diagnosis when a young adult patient presents with a calcified juxta-articular soft-tissue mass of insidious onset.
Gerlag, Danielle; Tak, Paul P.
In patients with arthritis, synovial tissue is easily accessible for analysis. Blind needle biopsy is a simple and safe procedure. Arthroscopic biopsy is also safe, it allows access to most sites in the joint and it can provide adequate tissue for extensive laboratory investigations, both before and
Full Text Available Two cases of synovial ehondromatosis are presented of which one falls in a rare group o f extra-articular ehondromatosis develop-ing in a bursa. Awareness of this rare lesion is important to prevent radical treatment owing to overdiagnosis. The histologic changes may mimic chondrosarcoma causing diagnostic problem.
Hayakawa, Kazuo; Ikeya, Makoto; Fukuta, Makoto; Woltjen, Knut; Tamaki, Sakura; Takahara, Naoko; Kato, Tomohisa; Sato, Shingo; Otsuka, Takanobu; Toguchida, Junya
Synovial sarcoma (SS) is a malignant soft tissue tumor harboring chromosomal translocation t(X; 18)(p11.2; q11.2), which produces SS-specific fusion gene, SYT-SSX. Although precise function of SYT-SSX remains to be investigated, accumulating evidences suggest its role in gene regulation via epigenetic mechanisms, and the product of SYT-SSX target genes may serve as biomarkers of SS. Lack of knowledge about the cell-of-origin of SS, however, has placed obstacle in the way of target identification. Here we report a novel approach to identify SYT-SSX2 target genes using human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) containing a doxycycline-inducible SYT-SSX2 gene. SYT-SSX2 was efficiently induced both at mRNA and protein levels within three hours after doxycycline administration, while no morphological change of hPSCs was observed until 24h. Serial microarray analyses identified genes of which the expression level changed more than twofold within 24h. Surprisingly, the majority (297/312, 95.2%) were up-regulated genes and a result inconsistent with the current concept of SYT-SSX as a transcriptional repressor. Comparing these genes with SS-related genes which were selected by a series of in silico analyses, 49 and 2 genes were finally identified as candidates of up- and down-regulated target of SYT-SSX, respectively. Association of these genes with SYT-SSX in SS cells was confirmed by knockdown experiments. Expression profiles of SS-related genes in hPSCs and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were strikingly different in response to the induction of SYT-SSX, and more than half of SYT-SSX target genes in hPSCs were not induced in hMSCs. These results suggest the importance of cellular context for correct understanding of SYT-SSX function, and demonstrated how our new system will help to overcome this issue. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... without inflammation, such as from bleeding after a chest trauma. Pericardial effusion puts pressure on the heart, affecting ... accumulates within the pericardium, such as from a chest trauma. Sometimes the cause can't be determined (idiopathic ...
Introduction Thrombin is a key factor in the stimulation of fibrin deposition, angiogenesis, and proinflammatory processes. Abnormalities in these processes are primary features of osteoarthritis (OA). Heme oxygenase (HO)-1 is a stress-inducible rate-limiting enzyme in heme degradation that confers cytoprotection against oxidative injury. Here, we investigated the intracellular signaling pathways involved in thrombin-induced HO-1 expression in human synovial fibroblasts (SFs). Methods Thrombin-mediated HO-1 expression was assessed with quantitative real-time (q)PCR. The mechanisms of action of thrombin in different signaling pathways were studied by using Western blotting. Knockdown of protease-activated receptor (PAR) proteins was achieved by transfection with siRNA. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays were used to study in vivo binding of Nrf2 to the HO-1 promoter. Transient transfection was used to examine HO-1 activity. Results Osteoarthritis synovial fibroblasts (OASFs) showed significant expression of thrombin, and expression was higher than in normal SFs. OASFs stimulation with thrombin induced concentration- and time-dependent increases in HO-1 expression. Pharmacologic inhibitors or activators and genetic inhibition by siRNA of protease-activated receptors (PARs) revealed that the PAR1 and PAR3 receptors, but not the PAR4 receptor, are involved in thrombin-mediated upregulation of HO-1. Thrombin-mediated HO-1 expression was attenuated by thrombin inhibitor (PPACK), PKCδ inhibitor (rottlerin), or c-Src inhibitor (PP2). Stimulation of cells with thrombin increased PKCδ, c-Src, and Nrf2 activation. Conclusion Our results suggest that the interaction between thrombin and PAR1/PAR3 increases HO-1 expression in human synovial fibroblasts through the PKCδ, c-Src, and Nrf2 signaling pathways. PMID:22541814
Koskinen, Anna; Vuolteenaho, Katriina; Nieminen, Riina; Moilanen, Teemu; Moilanen, Eeva
In the present study, we investigated the role of adipocytokine leptin in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA) by measuring its effects on matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) production in human OA cartilage. In addition, the correlations between leptin and MMP concentrations in synovial fluid from OA patients were studied. Cartilage tissue obtained from leftover pieces of total knee replacement surgery from patients with OA was used in the experiments. Production of collagenases MMP-1, MMP-8 and MMP-13, and stromelysin-1 (MMP-3) in the cartilage was measured by immunoassay and the signalling pathways were explored by pharmacological means. In addition, synovial fluid samples were collected from 84 OA patients undergoing knee replacement surgery. The concentrations of leptin and MMPs in synovial fluid were measured by immunoassay. Leptin alone and in combination with IL-1β enhanced production of MMP-1, MMP-3, and MMP-13 in human OA cartilage, while MMP-8 concentrations remained undetectable. The effects of leptin on MMP-1, MMP-3 and MMP-13 production were mediated through transcription factor NF-κβ, and through protein kinase C and MAP kinase pathways. Interestingly, leptin concentrations in synovial fluid from OA patients correlated positively with MMP-3 (r=0.51, pleptin up-regulates MMP-1 and MMP-3 production in human OA cartilage and correlates positively to MMP-1 and MMP-3 in synovial fluid from OA patients. The findings suggest that leptin has catabolic effects in OA joints by increasing MMP production in cartilage.
Joint fluid analysis; Joint fluid aspiration ... El-Gabalawy HS. Synovial fluid analysis, synovial biopsy, and synovial pathology. In: Firestein GS, Budd RC, Gabriel SE, McInnes IB, O'Dell JR, eds. Kelly's Textbook of ...
Brimo, Fadi; Popradi, Gizelle; Michel, René P; Auger, Manon
Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a human herpes virus-8 (HHV8)-associated large-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma localized in body cavities and presenting as pleural, peritoneal, or pericardial lymphomatous effusions...
Full Text Available To determine whether there is a correlation between the concentration of Indian hedgehog (Ihh in synovial fluid (SF and the severity of cartilage damage in the human knee joints, the knee cartilages from patients were classified using the Outer-bridge scoring system and graded using the Modified Mankin score. Expression of Ihh in cartilage and SF samples were analyzed with immunohistochemistry (IHC, western blot, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Furthermore, we detected and compared Ihh protein levels in rat and mice cartilages between normal control and surgery-induced osteoarthritis (OA group by IHC and fluorescence molecular tomography in vivo respectively. Ihh expression was increased 5.2-fold in OA cartilage, 3.1-fold in relative normal OA cartilage, and 1.71-fold in OA SF compared to normal control samples. The concentrations of Ihh in cartilage and SF samples was significantly increased in early-stage OA samples when compared to normal samples (r = 0.556; p < 0.001; however, there were no significant differences between normal samples and late-stage OA samples. Up-regulation of Ihh protein was also an early event in the surgery-induced OA models. Increased Ihh is associated with the severity of OA cartilage damage. Elevated Ihh content in human knee joint synovial fluid correlates with early cartilage lesions.
Chockalingam, P S; Glasson, S S; Lohmander, Stefan
OBJECTIVE: We have previously shown the capacity of tenascin-C (TN-C) to induce inflammatory mediators and matrix degradation in vitro in human articular cartilage. The objective of the present study was to follow TN-C release into knee synovial fluid after acute joint injury or in joint disease......, and to correlate TN-C levels with markers of cartilage matrix degradation and inflammation. METHOD: Human knee synovial fluid samples (n = 164) were from a cross-sectional convenience cohort. Diagnostic groups were knee healthy reference, knee anterior cruciate ligament rupture, with or without concomitant...... meniscus lesions, isolated knee meniscus injury, acute inflammatory arthritis (AIA) and knee osteoarthritis (OA). TN-C was measured in synovial fluid samples using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and results correlated to other cartilage markers. TN-C release was also monitored in joints...
Isobe, Y; Koyama, N; Nakao, K; Osawa, K; Ikeno, M; Yamanaka, S; Okubo, Y; Fujimura, K; Bessho, K
Populations of pluripotent stem cells were isolated from bone marrow, synovial fluid, adult dental pulp, and exfoliated deciduous teeth and their multipotentiality properties compared. Osteogenic, chondrogenic, adipogenic, and neurogenic differentiation potentials were examined. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) and synovial fluid-derived cells (SFCs) showed the highest levels of osteogenesis as expressed by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity (0.54±0.094 U/mg protein and 0.57±0.039 U/mg protein, respectively; P=0.60) and by osteocalcin (BGLAP; determined by real-time RT-PCR). SFCs showed the highest levels of chondrogenesis as expressed by ALP activity (1.75±0.097 U/mg protein) and of COL2A1 and COL10A1 by real-time PCR. In terms of adipogenesis, lipid vesicles were observed in the BMMSCs and SFCs. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) and stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) exhibited neurogenesis potential, as shown by increases in expression of class III β-tubulin (TUBB3) and microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) on RT-PCR. Variability was found in the differentiation potential corresponding to the tendency of the original tissue to differentiate. It is suggested that the cell type should be selected depending on the regenerative treatment regimen. Copyright © 2015 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wilbrink, B.; Holewijn, M.; Bijlsma, J. W.; van Roy, J. L.; den Otter, W.; van Eden, W.
To examine whether T cell reactivity toward heat-shock proteins (HSP) contributes to cartilage destruction in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). An in vitro system was used, in which human cartilage explants were cocultured with hsp60-activated synovial fluid mononuclear cells (SFMC) from patients with RA,
Jensen, H S; Jensen, L T; Saxne, T
Elastolytic activity by live human monocytes (M phi) is mainly caused by cell surface related leucocyte elastase, capable of degrading matrix components. In order to examine the possible correlation between enzyme activity and tissue turnover in the joint, we examined 24 synovial fluids for M phi...
Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA belongs to a group of degenerative diseases. Synovial inflammation, cartilage abrasion, and subchondral sclerosis are characteristics of OA. Researchers do not fully understand the exact etiology of OA. However, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs, which are responsible for cartilage matrix degradation, play a pivotal role in the progression of OA. Amphiregulin (AREG binds to the EGF receptor (EGFR and activates downstream proteins. AREG is involved in a variety of pathological processes, such as the development of tumors, inflammatory diseases, and rheumatoid arthritis. However, the relationship between AREG and MMP-13 in OA synovial fibroblasts (SFs remains unclear. We investigated the signaling pathway involved in AREG-induced MMP-13 production in SFs. AREG caused MMP-13 production in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The results of using pharmacological inhibitors and EGFR siRNA to block EGFR revealed that the EGFR receptor was involved in the AREG-mediated upregulation of MMP-13. AREG-mediated MMP-13 production was attenuated by PI3K and Akt inhibitors. The stimulation of cells by using AREG activated p65 phosphorylation and p65 translocation from the cytosol to the nucleus. Our results provide evidence that AREG acts through the EGFR and activates PI3K, Akt, and finally NF-kappaB on the MMP-13 promoter, thus contributing to cartilage destruction during osteoarthritis.
Chockalingam, P S; Glasson, S S; Lohmander, L S
We have previously shown the capacity of tenascin-C (TN-C) to induce inflammatory mediators and matrix degradation in vitro in human articular cartilage. The objective of the present study was to follow TN-C release into knee synovial fluid after acute joint injury or in joint disease, and to correlate TN-C levels with markers of cartilage matrix degradation and inflammation. Human knee synovial fluid samples (n = 164) were from a cross-sectional convenience cohort. Diagnostic groups were knee healthy reference, knee anterior cruciate ligament rupture, with or without concomitant meniscus lesions, isolated knee meniscus injury, acute inflammatory arthritis (AIA) and knee osteoarthritis (OA). TN-C was measured in synovial fluid samples using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and results correlated to other cartilage markers. TN-C release was also monitored in joints of dogs that underwent knee instability surgery. Statistically significantly higher levels of TN-C compared to reference subjects were observed in the joint fluid of all human disease groups and in the dogs that underwent knee instability surgery. Statistically significant correlations were observed between the TN-C levels in the synovial fluid of the human patients and the levels of aggrecanase-dependent Ala-Arg-Gly-aggrecan (ARG-aggrecan) fragments and matrix metalloproteinases 1 and 3. We find highly elevated levels of TN-C in human knee joints after injury, AIA or OA that correlated with markers of cartilage degradation and inflammation. TN-C in synovial fluid may serve dual roles as a marker of joint damage and a stimulant of further joint degradation. Copyright © 2012 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yorifuji, Makiko; Sawaji, Yasunobu; Endo, Kenji; Kosaka, Taiichi; Yamamoto, Kengo
Nerve growth factor (NGF) is associated with arthritic pain and metalloproteinases are implicated in collagen and aggrecan degradation. Although selective COX-2 inhibitors are recommended for the treatment of arthritic diseases, their effects on NGF and metalloproteinases remain unclear. This study investigated the regulations of NGF and metalloproteinases by selective COX-2 inhibitors in isolated human synovial cells. The isolated human synovial cells were stimulated with IL-1β in the presence of selective COX-2 inhibitors (NS-398 or celecoxib) with or without exogenous PGE2 or its receptor (EP1-4) agonists. The expressions of NGF, MMP-1, -3, -13, ADAMTS-4, and -5 were quantified by real-time PCR and their proteins were determined by Western blotting. The amount of PGE2 released was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The IL-1β inductions of NGF and MMP-1 and MMP-13 were augmented by the COX-2 inhibitors, whereas the inductions of ADAMTS-4 and ADAMTS-5 were inhibited. These actions were reversed by supplementing PGE2 or the EP4 agonist exogenously. Our comprehensive analysis revealed that COX-2 inhibitors may be beneficial for suppressing aggrecan degradation and for reducing inflammatory pain by inhibiting PGE2 release, although they may have limited efficacy in suppressing collagen degradation and nerve growth. This study suggests the feedback roles of PGE2 in the negative regulation of NGF and MMP-1 and MMP-13 and the positive regulation of ADAMTS-4 and ADAMTS-5. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Orthopaedic Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Chen Max JL
Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteome analysis is frequently applied in identifying the proteins or biomarkers in knee synovial fluids (SF that are associated with osteoarthritis and other arthritic disorders. The 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE is the technique of choice in these studies. Disease biomarkers usually appear in low concentrations and may be masked by high abundant proteins. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to find the most suitable sample preparation method that can optimize the expression of proteins on 2-DE gels that can be used to develop a reference proteome picture for non-osteoarthritic knee synovial fluid samples. Proteome pictures obtained from osteoarthritic knee synovial fluids can then be compared with the reference proteome pictures obtained in this study to assist us in identifying the disease biomarkers more correctly. Results The proteomic tool of 2-DE with immobilized pH gradients was applied in this study. A total of 12 2-DE gel images were constructed from SF samples that were free of osteoarthritis. In these samples, 3 were not treated with any sample preparation methods, 3 were treated with acetone, 3 were treated with 2-DE Clean-Up Kit, and 3 were treated with the combination of acetone and 2-D Clean-Up Kit prior to 2-DE analysis. Gel images were analyzed using the PDQuest Basic 8.0.1 Analytical software. Protein spots that were of interest were excised from the gels and sent for identification by mass spectrometry. Total SF total protein concentration was calculated to be 21.98 ± 0.86 mg/mL. The untreated SF samples were detected to have 456 ± 33 protein spots on 2-DE gel images. Acetone treated SF samples were detected to have 320 ± 28 protein spots, 2-D Clean-Up Kit treated SF samples were detected to have 413 ± 31 protein spots, and the combined treatment method of acetone and 2-D Clean-Up Kit was detected to have 278 ± 26 protein spots 2-DE gel images. SF samples treated with 2-D Clean-Up Kit
Yang, Wei-Hung; Liu, Shan-Chi; Tsai, Chun-Hao; Fong, Yi-Chin; Wang, Shoou-Jyi; Chang, Yung-Sen; Tang, Chih-Hsin
Leptin, an adipocyte-secreted hormone that centrally regulates weight control, may exert proinflammatory effects in the joint, depending on the immune response. Leptin is abundantly expressed in osteoarthritis (OA) cartilage and synovium. However, the relationship between leptin and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in OA synovial fibroblasts (OASFs) remains obscure. Stimulation of OASFs with leptin induced IL-6 expression in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. OASFs expressed the long (OBRl) and short (OBRs) isoforms of the leptin receptor. However, OBRl, but not OBRs, antisense oligonucleotide (AS-ODN) abolished the leptin-mediated increase of IL-6 expression. Transfection with insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 siRNA decreased leptin-induced IL-6 production. In addition, pretreatment of cells with PI3K, Akt, or AP-1 inhibitor also inhibited the potentiating action of leptin. Leptin-induced AP-1 activation was inhibited by OBRl, IRS-1, PI3K, or Akt inhibitors and siRNAs. Our results showed that leptin activates the OBRl receptor, which in turn activates IRS-1, PI3K, Akt, and AP-1 pathway, leading to up-regulation of IL-6 expression.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leptin, an adipocyte-secreted hormone that centrally regulates weight control, may exert proinflammatory effects in the joint, depending on the immune response. Leptin is abundantly expressed in osteoarthritis (OA cartilage and synovium. However, the relationship between leptin and interleukin-6 (IL-6 in OA synovial fibroblasts (OASFs remains obscure. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Stimulation of OASFs with leptin induced IL-6 expression in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. OASFs expressed the long (OBRl and short (OBRs isoforms of the leptin receptor. However, OBRl, but not OBRs, antisense oligonucleotide (AS-ODN abolished the leptin-mediated increase of IL-6 expression. Transfection with insulin receptor substrate (IRS-1 siRNA decreased leptin-induced IL-6 production. In addition, pretreatment of cells with PI3K, Akt, or AP-1 inhibitor also inhibited the potentiating action of leptin. Leptin-induced AP-1 activation was inhibited by OBRl, IRS-1, PI3K, or Akt inhibitors and siRNAs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results showed that leptin activates the OBRl receptor, which in turn activates IRS-1, PI3K, Akt, and AP-1 pathway, leading to up-regulation of IL-6 expression.
Ferreiro, Lucía; San José, Esther; Valdés, Luis
Tuberculous pleural effusion (TBPE) is the most common form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in Spain, and is one of the most frequent causes of pleural effusion. Although the incidence has steadily declined (4.8 cases/100,000population in 2009), the percentage of TBPE remains steady with respect to the total number of TB cases (14.3%-19.3%). Almost two thirds are men, more than 60% are aged between 15-44years, and it is more common in patients with human immunodeficiency virus. The pathogenesis is usually a delayed hypersensitivity reaction. Symptoms vary depending on the population (more acute in young people and more prolonged in the elderly). The effusion is almost invariably a unilateral exudate (according to Light's criteria), more often on the right side, and the tuberculin test is negative in one third of cases. There are limitations in making a definitive diagnosis, so various pleural fluid biomarkers have been used for this. The combination of adenosine deaminase and lymphocyte percentage may be useful in this respect. Treatment is the same as for any TB. The addition of corticosteroids is not advisable, and chest drainage could help to improve symptoms more rapidly in large effusions. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Serum amyloid A (A-SAA), an acute-phase protein with cytokine-like properties, is expressed at sites of inflammation. This study investigated the effects of A-SAA on chemokine-regulated migration and angiogenesis using rheumatoid arthritis (RA) cells and whole-tissue explants in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo. A-SAA levels were measured by real-time PCR and ELISA. IL-8 and MCP-1 expression was examined in RA synovial fibroblasts, human microvascular endothelial cells, and RA synovial explants by ELISA. Neutrophil transendothelial cell migration, cell adhesion, invasion, and migration were examined using transwell leukocyte\\/monocyte migration assays, invasion assays, and adhesion assays with or without anti-MCP-1\\/anti-IL-8. NF-kappaB was examined using a specific inhibitor and Western blotting. An RA synovial\\/SCID mouse chimera model was used to examine the effects of A-SAA on cell migration, proliferation, and angiogenesis in vivo. High expression of A-SAA was demonstrated in RA patients (p < 0.05). A-SAA induced chemokine expression in a time- and dose-dependent manner (p < 0.05). Blockade with anti-scavenger receptor class B member 1 and lipoxin A4 (A-SAA receptors) significantly reduced chemokine expression in RA synovial tissue explants (p < 0.05). A-SAA induced cell invasion, neutrophil-transendothelial cell migration, monocyte migration, and adhesion (all p < 0.05), effects that were blocked by anti-IL-8 or anti-MCP-1. A-SAA-induced chemokine expression was mediated through NF-kappaB in RA explants (p < 0.05). Finally, in the RA synovial\\/SCID mouse chimera model, we demonstrated for the first time in vivo that A-SAA directly induces monocyte migration from the murine circulation into RA synovial grafts, synovial cell proliferation, and angiogenesis (p < 0.05). A-SAA promotes cell migrational mechanisms and angiogenesis critical to RA pathogenesis.
Ou, Farong; Su, Kai; Sun, Jiadong; Liao, Wenting; Yao, Yu; Zheng, Youhua; Zhang, Zhiguang
Human synovial fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells (SFMSCs) have great potential for cartilage induction and are promising for cell-based strategies for articular cartilage repair. Many long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) regulate chondrogenesis of MSCs. We hypothesized that the divergent lncRNA ZBED3-AS1, which binds locally to chromatin, could promote the expression of zbed3, a novel Axin-interacting protein that activates Wnt/β-catenin signaling, involved in chondrogenesis. However, the function of ZBED3-AS1 in SFMSCs is unclear. In this study, the expression, biological function, and roles of ZBED3-AS1 in SFMSC chondrogenesis were examined by multilineage differentiation, flow cytometry, and gain-of-function studies. We found that ZBED3-AS1 promotes chondrogenesis. Furthermore, ZBED3-AS1 could directly increase zbed3 expression. Finally, the wnt-inhibitor DKK1 could reverse the stimulatory effect of ZBED3-AS1 on chondrogenesis. These findings demonstrate the role of a new lncRNA, ZBED3-AS1, in SFMSC chondrogenesis and may improve osteoarthritis treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Areias, B; Parente, M P L; Santos, C; Gentil, F; Natal Jorge, R M
Otitis media is a group of inflammatory diseases of the middle ear. Acute otitis media and otitis media with effusion (OME) are its two main types of manifestation. Otitis media is common in children and can result in structural alterations in the middle ear which will lead to hearing losses. This work studies the effects of an OME on the sound transmission from the external auditory meatus to the inner ear. The finite element method was applied on the present biomechanical study. The numerical model used in this work was built based on the geometrical information obtained from The visible ear project. The present work explains the mechanisms by which the presence of fluid in the middle ear affects hearing by calculating the magnitude, phase and reduction of the normalized umbo velocity and also the magnitude and phase of the normalized stapes velocity. A sound pressure level of 90 dB SPL was applied at the tympanic membrane. The harmonic analysis was performed with the auditory frequency varying from 100 Hz to 10 kHz. A decrease in the response of the normalized umbo and stapes velocity as the tympanic cavity was filled with fluid was obtained. The decrease was more accentuated at the umbo.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Microfracture is a first-line treatment option for cartilage repair. In microfracture, subchondral mesenchymal cortico-spongious progenitor cells (CSP enter the defect and form cartilage repair tissue. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of joint disease conditions on the in vitro chondrogenesis of human CSP. Methods CSP were harvested from the subchondral bone marrow. CSP characterization was performed by analysis of cell surface antigen pattern and by assessing the chondrogenic, osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation potential, histologically. To assess the effect of synovial fluid (SF on chondrogenesis of CSP, micro-masses were stimulated with SF from healthy (ND, osteoarthritis (OA and rheumatoid arthritis donors (RA without transforming growth factor beta 3. Results CSP showed the typical cell surface antigen pattern known from mesenchymal stem cells and were capable of osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation. In micro-masses stimulated with SF, histological staining as well as gene expression analysis of typical chondrogenic marker genes showed that SF from ND and OA induced the chondrogenic marker genes aggrecan, types II and IX collagen, cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP and link protein, compared to controls not treated with SF. In contrast, the supplementation with SF from RA donors decreased the expression of aggrecan, type II collagen, COMP and link protein, compared to CSP treated with SF from ND or OA. Conclusion These results suggest that in RA, SF may impair cartilage repair by subchondral mesenchymal progenitor cells in microfracture, while in OA, SF may has no negative, but a delaying effect on the cartilage matrix formation.
Full Text Available Background: Bone hardness and strength depends on mineralization, which involves a complex process in which calcium phosphate, produced by bone-forming cells, was shed around the fibrous matrix. This process is strictly regulated, and a number of signal transduction systems were interested in calcium metabolism, such as the phosphoinositide (PI pathway and related phospholipase C (PLC enzymes. Objectives: Our aim was to search for common patterns of expression in osteoblasts, as well as in ES and SS. Methods: We analysed the PLC enzymes in human osteoblasts and osteosarcoma cell lines MG-63 and SaOS-2. We compared the obtained results to the expression of PLCs in samples of patients affected with Ewing sarcoma (ES and synovial sarcoma (SS. Results: In osteoblasts, MG-63 cells and SaOS-2 significant differences were identified in the expression of PLC δ4 and PLC η subfamily isoforms. Differences were also identified regarding the expression of PLCs in ES and SS. Most ES and SS did not express PLCB1, which was expressed in most osteoblasts, MG-63 and SaOS-2 cells. Conversely, PLCB2, unexpressed in the cell lines, was expressed in some ES and SS. However, PLCH1 was expressed in SaOS-2 and inconstantly expressed in osteoblasts, while it was expressed in ES and unexpressed in SS. The most relevant difference observed in ES compared to SS regarded PLC ε and PLC η isoforms. Conclusion: MG-63 and SaOS-2 osteosarcoma cell lines might represent an inappropriate experimental model for studies about the analysis of signal transduction in osteoblasts
Conclusions: Activated synovial MCs may rapidly degrade SP, which may downregulate the SP-mediated activation of synoviocytes in RA. On the other hand, SP activates MCs to induce inflammatory mediators, suggesting the dual regulation of SP-mediated inflammation by MCs in RA.
Porcel, J M
In this narrative review we describe the main aetiologies, clinical characteristics and treatment for patients with benign pleural effusion that characteristically persists over time: chylothorax and cholesterol effusions, nonexpansible lung, rheumatoid pleural effusion, tuberculous empyema, benign asbestos pleural effusion and yellow nail syndrome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In artificial joints, the bone part is usually substituted by a metallic component with high corrosion and strength resistance while the articular cartilage is replaced by a polymer. Use of thin layer of a compliant material acting as a bearing surface in human replacement joints has recently generated considerable interest. This work analyses the coating of a solid porous substrate of Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE with a poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (pHEMA and two sIPN-type blends: pHEMA-cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB and pHEMA-poly (ethyl methacrylate (PEM using 5.0% (w/w of the crosslinking agent and 11.0% (w/w of the linear reinforcing polymer. The wear resistance of the coating materials was evaluated in a TRI PIN ON DISK type equipment and the damage extension was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. Preliminary qualitative tests were performed with the goal to identifying the hydrogels show the minimal required properties concerning wear strength. The pHEMA coating was completely destroyed during the first wear cycles, characterizing its low shear strength. By the other hand, after the complete experiment, both pHEMA-CAB and pHEMA-PEM blends showed a slightly improvement of abrasive and adhesive wear. This result indicates that the studied blends are promising materials to be used as compliant surfaces in joint prosthesis.
Schmal, Hagen; Mehlhorn, Alexander T; Dovi-Akue, David; Pestka, Jan M; Südkamp, Norbert P; Niemeyer, Philipp
The cell quality plays a decisive role in autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI). Aim of the study was the analysis of in vivo interactions between synovial concentrations of cytokines and cell quality used for ACI. Knee lavage fluids of patients undergoing an ACI were examined for total protein content (TPC) and by ELISA for levels of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), insulin-like growth factor 1, bone morphogenetic proteins 2 and 7 (BMP-2 and BMP-7). Cell quality following amplification for ACI was determined by surface expression of CD44, aggrecan, collagen type II and evaluation of cell characteristics. Data of 17 patients were supplemented by epidemiological parameters and clinical scores (IKDC, Lysholm, pain strength, subjective knee function). CD44 expression was positively associated with TPC and bFGF, and negatively linked to BMP-2 levels (p < 0.01). In contrast, expression of collagen type II did not show any statistically significant correlations with synovial protein concentrations. TPC was positively associated with intraarticular bFGF levels and pain strength (p < 0.01), both indicators for osteoarthritis (OA). Correlating with the negative relation of TPC and BMP-2, subjective knee function after 1 year was positively linked to intraarticular BMP-2 concentrations (p < 0.001). Similarly, expression of collagen type II indicated a favorable clinical result reaching statistical significance in case of pain strength (p < 0.01). Initially increased bFGF levels and CD44 expression indicated a worse clinical outcome after 1 year (IKDC, Lysholm Scores, pain strength). Surface expression of CD44 on chondrocytes used for ACI was negatively associated with synovial BMP-2 and positively to TPC and bFGF indicating catabolic synovial conditions. These correlations were also reflected by clinical outcome parameters.
Full Text Available Pleural effusions associated with pneumonia (parapneumonic effusions are one of the most common causes of exudative pleural effusions in the world . Approximately 20 to 40% of patients hospitalized with pneumonia will have an accompanying pleural effusion . The presence of a pleural effusion is associated with worse outcomes in patients with pneumonia. In one study of patients hospitalized with pneumonia the mortality risk was 6.5 times higher if the patient had bilateral pleural effusion and 3.7 times higher if the effusion was unilateral than if the patient had no pleural effusion . At least part of the increased mortality with parapneumonic effusions is due to mismanagement of the pleural effusion. The likelihood of developing a pleural effusion with a bacterial pneumonia is dependent upon the organism responsible for the pneumonia. The distribution of organisms responsible for parapneumonic effusions is quite different from the distribution of organisms responsible for pneumonia in general. Organisms responsible for community and hospital acquired pneumonia with complicated parapneumonic effusions also differed considerably in a recent multicenter study from the United Kingdom . For the 336 patients with community acquired pneumonias with parapneumonic effusions in whom the responsible bacteria were identified, the most common organisms were Strept. Milleri group 32%, anaerobes 16%, Strep. pneumoniae 13% and Staph. aueus 11%. For the 60 patients with hospital-acquired pneumonia, the most common organisms were multiple resistant Staph. aureus 28%, other Staph. 18%, Enterobacteriacea 15% and Enterococci 13% . These numbers should be kept in mind when selecting antibiotics for patients with parapneumonic effusions.
Malaise, Olivier; Relic, Biserka; Quesada-Calvo, Florence; Charlier, Edith; Zeddou, Mustapha; Neuville, Sophie; Gillet, Philippe; Louis, Edouard; de Seny, Dominique; Malaise, Michel G
Glucocorticoids are powerful anti-inflammatory compounds that also induce the expression of leptin and leptin receptor (Ob-R) in synovial fibroblasts through TGF-βsignalling and Smad1/5 phosphorylation. Compound A (CpdA), a selective glucocorticoid receptor agonist, reduces inflammation in murine arthritis models and does not induce diabetes or osteoporosis, thus offering an improved risk:benefit ratio in comparison with glucocorticoids. Due to the detrimental role of leptin in OA pathogenesis, we sought to determine whether CpdA also induced leptin and Ob-R protein expression as observed with prednisolone. Human synovial fibroblasts and chondrocytes were isolated from the synovium and cartilage of OA patients after joint surgery. The cells were treated with prednisolone, TGF-β1, TNF-α and/or CpdA. Levels of leptin, IL-6, IL-8, MMP-1 and MMP-3 were measured by ELISA and expression levels of Ob-R phospho-Smad1/5, phospho-Smad2, α-tubulin and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase were analysed by western blotting. CpdA, unlike prednisolone, did not induce leptin secretion or Ob-R protein expression in OA synovial fibroblasts. Moreover, CpdA decreased endogenous Ob-R expression and down-regulated prednisolone-induced leptin secretion and Ob-R expression. Mechanistically, CpdA, unlike prednisolone, did not induce Smad1/5 phosphorylation. CpdA, similarly to prednisolone, down-regulated endogenous and TNF-α-induced IL-6, IL-8, MMP-1 and MMP-3 protein secretion. The dissociative effect of CpdA was confirmed using chondrocytes with no induction of leptin secretion, but with a significant decrease in IL-6, IL-8, MMP-1 and MMP-3 protein secretion. CpdA, unlike prednisolone, did not induce leptin or Ob-R in human OA synovial fibroblasts, thereby demonstrating an improved risk:benefit ratio. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Chong, S G
Pseudochylothorax is a very rare form of pleural effusion. It is also called chyliform or cholesterol pleural effusion. It is usually a unilateral process and approximately one-third of patients are asymptomatic at presentation. We report a case of a 60 year old man with a background of rheumatoid arthritis who presented with progressive dyspnea. Chest X-ray revealed a new left pleural effusion and a small persistent right pleural effusion. He presented 5 years prior due to recurrent pleural effusion and no diagnosis was made. Repeat thoracentesis yielded 350 milliliters of thick, milky, tan-colored fluid.
Rossetti, Maura; Spreafico, Roberto; Consolaro, Alessandro; Leong, Jing Yao; Chua, Camillus; Massa, Margherita; Saidin, Suzan; Magni-Manzoni, Silvia; Arkachaisri, Thaschawee; Wallace, Carol A; Gattorno, Marco; Martini, Alberto; Lovell, Daniel J; Albani, Salvatore
The imbalance between effector and regulatory T (Treg) cells is crucial in the pathogenesis of autoimmune arthritis. Immune responses are often investigated in the blood because of its accessibility, but circulating lymphocytes are not representative of those found in inflamed tissues. This disconnect hinders our understanding of the mechanisms underlying disease. Our goal was to identify Treg cells implicated in autoimmunity at the inflamed joints, and also readily detectable in the blood upon recirculation. We compared Treg cells of patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis responding or not to therapy by using: (i) T cell receptor (TCR) sequencing, to identify clonotypes shared between blood and synovial fluid; (ii) FOXP3 Treg cell-specific demethylated region DNA methylation assays, to investigate their stability and (iii) flow cytometry and suppression assays to probe their tolerogenic functions. We found a subset of synovial Treg cells that recirculated into the bloodstream of patients with juvenile idiopathic and adult rheumatoid arthritis. These inflammation-associated (ia)Treg cells, but not other blood Treg cells, expanded during active disease and proliferated in response to their cognate antigens. Despite the typical inflammatory-skewed balance of immune mechanisms in arthritis, iaTreg cells were stably committed to the regulatory lineage and fully suppressive. A fraction of iaTreg clonotypes were in common with pathogenic effector T cells. Using an innovative antigen-agnostic approach, we uncovered a population of bona fide synovial Treg cells readily accessible from the blood and selectively expanding during active disease, paving the way to non-invasive diagnostics and better understanding of the pathogenesis of autoimmunity. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Orr, Carl; Sousa, Elsa; Boyle, David L
The synovium is the major target tissue of inflammatory arthritides such as rheumatoid arthritis. The study of synovial tissue has advanced considerably throughout the past few decades from arthroplasty and blind needle biopsy to the use of arthroscopic and ultrasonographic technologies that enable...... easier visualization and improve the reliability of synovial biopsies. Rapid progress has been made in using synovial tissue to study disease pathogenesis, to stratify patients, to discover biomarkers and novel targets, and to validate therapies, and this progress has been facilitated by increasingly...... diverse and sophisticated analytical and technological approaches. In this Review, we describe these approaches, and summarize how their use in synovial tissue research has improved our understanding of rheumatoid arthritis and identified candidate biomarkers that could be used in disease diagnosis...
Demian, Soheir R; Abo-Shousha, Seham A; Sultan, Hussein E; Zarka, Wael El
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory destructive disease involving the joint and characterized by T-lymphocyte accumulation within the synovial compartment. It is dominated by the presence of macrophages, plasma cells and synovial fibroblasts which are the main pathogenic factors leading to the destruction of bone and cartilage. The survival of these cells may be promoted by inadequate apoptosis leading to synovial hyperplasia. So, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the apoptosis levels before and after induction of apoptosis using anti-Fas mAb, both in peripheral blood (PB) and synovial fluid (SF) infiltrating mononuclear cells (MCs) of patients with RA. CD4+ T cell subsets and cell survival assays were also done to investigate correlations between these parameters. The study was conducted on 15 patients with RA, 10 individual volunteers as a control group and 10 patients with osteoarthritis (OA) as a control group for SF evaluations (have defective Fas expression on their cells). Results of this work revealed that in vitro induction of apoptosis by anti-Fas mAb resulted in increase of: percent (%) reduction of cell viability in PBMCs and SFMCs, % reduction of CD4+ T cell subsets and apoptotic cell % in all studied groups than before induction. The increase in the three parameters is only significant in SF of RA group compared to PB while it is non significant in OA group due to the defective Fas expression on OA cells. Our results also showed a significant positive correlation between CD4+ T cell and viability percentages before induction of apoptosis in SF of RA and between apoptosis levels and CD4+ T cell percentage after induction of apoptosis in the SF of RA group. In conclusion, activated T cells infiltrating SF of RA patients have functional Fas antigen which enable them to undergo in vitro apoptosis using anti-Fas mAb. The cytotoxicity of which is more specific to local lesion such as SF of RA patients suggesting that local
Full Text Available The study of the pathogenetic mechanisms of rheumatic diseases is in general carried out through “in vitro” systems based on cellular cultures models. The difficulties to achieve fresh human tissue prompted us to develop a simpler method to obtain fibroblast-like synovial cells from synovial fluid (SF. Methods: SF was collected from the knees of 5 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA, 4 with osteoarthritis (OA and 5 with psoriatic arthritis (PsA. The pellet obtained after centrifugation was resuspended in DMEM/HamF12 containing 10% fetal calf serum, 1% peni-streptomicin, 4ng/ml of fibroblast grow factor and incubated at 37°C in T25 culture flasks. Synoviocytes were also obtained from fresh synovial membranes (SM by explants technique. Both types of cells were characterized by immunocytochemistry and their inflammatory response to synthetic monosodium urate crystals was studied through the measurement of nitric oxide (NO. Results: Adherent synoviocytes were obtained from the culture of 2/5 SF from RA, 4/4 SF from OA and 5/5 SF from PsA. Synoviocytes isolated from both SF and SM expressed surface antigens CD90, CD55, and the intracellular prolyl- 4-hydroxylase. Morphologically, the cells showed the typical spindle-shape fibroblast-like appearance. NO levels induced by UMS crystals in SF synoviocytes were similar to those obtained in SM synoviocytes. Conclusion: Adherent cells obtained from SF showed the phenotype and the reactivity of tissue synoviocytes. Due to the easy accessibility of SF, this method may represents an useful alternative when synovial tissues is not promptly available.
Scanu, A; Oliviero, F; Braghetto, L; Ramonda, R; Luisetto, R; Calabrese, F; Pozzuoli, A; Punzi, L
The study of the pathogenetic mechanisms of rheumatic diseases is in general carried out through "in vitro" systems based on cellular cultures models. The difficulties to achieve fresh human tissue prompted us to develop a simpler method to obtain fibroblast-like synovial cells from synovial fluid (SF). SF was collected from the knees of 5 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 4 with osteoarthritis (OA) and 5 with psoriatic arthritis (PsA). The pellet obtained after centrifugation was resuspended in DMEM/HamF12 containing 10% foetal calf serum, 1% peni-streptomycin, 4 ng/ml of fibroblast grow factor and incubated at 37 degrees C in T25 culture flasks. Synoviocytes were also obtained from fresh synovial membranes (SM) by explants technique. Both types of cells were characterized by immunocytochemistry and their inflammatory response to synthetic monosodium urate crystals was studied through the measurement of nitric oxide (NO). Adherent synoviocytes were obtained from the culture of 2/5 SF from RA, 4/4 SF from OA and 5/5 SF from PsA. Synoviocytes isolated from both SF and SM expressed surface antigens CD90, CD55, and the intracellular prolyl-4-hydroxylase. Morphologically, the cells showed the typical spindle-shape fibroblast-like appearance. NO levels induced by UMS crystals in SF synoviocytes were similar to those obtained in SM synoviocytes. Adherent cells obtained from SF showed the phenotype and the reactivity of tissue synoviocytes. Due to the easy accessibility of SF, this method may represents an useful alternative when synovial tissues is not promptly available.
Gallo Vallejo, Francisco Javier; Giner Ruiz, Vicente
Synovial fluid analysis in rheumatological diseases allows a more accurate diagnosis in some entities, mainly infectious and microcrystalline arthritis. Examination of synovial fluid in patients with osteoarthritis is useful if a differential diagnosis will be performed with other processes and to distinguish between inflammatory and non-inflammatory forms. Joint aspiration is a diagnostic and sometimes therapeutic procedure that is available to primary care physicians. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J; Sapkas, George S; Korres, Demetrios S; Pneumaticos, Spyridon G
Synovial spinal cysts are typically found in the lumbar spine, most often at the L4-L5 level. Magnetic resonance imaging is the diagnostic imaging of choice in the workup of suspected synovial cysts. This study consisted of 24 patients with lumbar synovial cysts treated by cyst excision and nerve root decompression through partial or complete facetectomy and primary posterolateral fusion. The most common location of the cysts was the L4-L5 segment. Synovial tissue was found in histological sections of 18 cysts. At a mean follow-up of 12 (range, 8 to 24) months, 20 patients (83%) had excellent or good results; two patients (8.3%) had fair and two patients (8.3%) had poor improvement. Operative complications included dural tear in two patients and postoperative wound dehiscence in one patient, which were treated accordingly. To eliminate the risk of recurrence synovial cyst excision through partial or complete facetectomy is required. In addition, since synovial cysts reflect disruption of the facet joint and some degree of instability, primary spinal fusion is recommended.
Chang, Johnson D S; Lu, Hou-Shan; Chang, Ye-Fun; Wang, David
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by invasion of hyperplastic synovial cells and progressive joint destruction. Ozone therapy has been proposed as an immunomodulator and cellular metabolic activator which shows long-term anti-inflammatory effects and serves to reduce further the proinflammatory factors. We purified RA synovial fibroblast cells (RA-SFc) from patients and avoided contaminating macrophages by flow cytometry, then treated them with ozone. Following the observable decreased production of proinflammatory factors TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-6 from RA-SFc, we infused the cultured RA-SFc into joints of severe combined immunodeficiency mice. The mRNA and protein levels of the RA-SFc exposed to 3% and 5% ozone were the same. As a result, 3% and 5% ozone applied externally ameliorated the inflammatory reaction of RA without toxicity or serious side effects. Therefore, ozone injected into the knees of RA patients could become a valuable treatment, and we confirm the interactive mechanism between ozone and RA-SFc.
Choi, Jin Kyeong; Oh, Hyun-Mee; Park, Jee Hun; Choi, Jung Ho; Sa, Keum Hee; Kang, Young Mo; Park, Pil-Hoon; Shin, Tae-Yong; Rho, Mun-Chual; Kim, Sang-Hyun
Salvia plebeia R. Br. has been used to treat a variety of inflammatory diseases and as an antioxidant in many countries, including Korea and China. In this study, we investigated the effects of S. plebeia extract (SPE) on inflammatory arthritis and the underlying mechanisms of action. We used a collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mouse model. TNF-α-stimulated rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovial fibroblasts were used to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of action. Oral administration of SPE improved the clinical arthritis score, footpad thickness, and histologic changes, as well as serum IgG1 and IgG2a levels. SPE administration inhibited Th1/Th2/Th17 phenotype CD4(+) T lymphocyte expansion in inguinal lymph node and expression of inflammatory mediators such as cytokines, MMP-1, and MMP-3 in the ankle joint tissue. SPE significantly suppressed the expression of cytokines and MMP-1 by down-regulating NF-κB, Akt, and mitogen-activated protein kinases in RA synovial fibroblasts. Taken together, these results indicate that SPE is therapeutically efficacious against chronic inflammatory arthritis, suggesting that SPE is a candidate for treating RA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Coates, C L; Burwell, R G; Lloyd-Jones, K; Swannell, A J; Walker, G; Selby, C
The somatomedin activity in synovial fluids from 50 patients with a variety of joint diseases has been studied and compared with the activity in each of the patient's own serum and a standard reference serum (SRS). The porcine costal cartilage bioassay of Van den Brande and Du Caju (1974a) has been used with the isotopes 3H-thymidine and 35S-sulphate. Synovial fluids from most patients with post-traumatic and post-operative effusions, osteoarthritis and arthritis associated with psoriasis, Reiter's disease, and ankylosing spondylitis stimulated the synthesis of DNA and proteoglycans in cartilage. Synovial fluids from patients with rheumatoid arthritis either had impaired capacity to stimulate DNA synthesis, or they inhibited it; a similar, but less evident pattern was observed for proteoglycan synthesis. Some synovial fluids from patients with miscellaneous synovitides stimulated, while others inhibited cartilage metabolism. It is concluded that the synovial fluid from patients with rheumatoid arthritis and from some patients with miscellaneous synovitides contained an inhibitor(s) to DNA and possibly proteoglycan synthesis. The sera from nearly all the patients stimulated both DNA and proteoglycan synthesis, but the somatomedin potency ratios for serum in terms of SRS were generally less than 1.0. There was a significant inverse correlation between the serum somatomedin potency ratio and the age of the patient. PMID:686863
Full Text Available Objectives: Leptin is a hormone responsible for nutritional status and immune competence coordination. In rheumatoid arthritis (RA increased leptin levels were observed in both serum and synovial fluid. Its influence on development of the disease still remains unclear. So far, research on leptin’s influence on the emission of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI measured with chemiluminescence (CL has provided unclear and contradictory results. In this study, we evaluated the influence of leptin on oxidative activity of neutrophils isolated from blood of healthy volunteers and cultured in different amounts of synovial fluid (SF from patients with RA. Material and methods: Neutrophils’ oxidative metabolism was measured by two types of CL. The first one, luminol-dependent CL (CL-lum, allows one to determine phagocytic activity and the level of ROI generated in a myeloperoxidase-dependent manner. The second method used was lucigenin-dependent CL (CL-luc, which monitors ROI production dependent on the NADPH oxidase enzyme complex located in the cell membranes of neutrophils and enables one to determine the scope of extracellular ROI emission. Results: Neutrophils stimulated by opsonized zymosan show a decrease in the level of CL-lum, proportional to the increasing concentration of both SF and serum collected from healthy donors. The observed effect of decreased CL-lum may, therefore, be dependent on the physical conditions (viscosity of fluids used. None of these experiments showed any effect of leptin on the level of CL-lum. Conclusions : The present study showed that leptin does not affect the level of any of the CL types in inactive neutrophils incubated in normal serum, and it does not affect the level of oxidative activity in resting neutrophils incubated with SF. However, leptin influences extracellular ROI emission (measured by CL-luc. Leptin reduces extracellular emission of ROI, and this effect is dependent on concentration and duration
Brimo Fadi; Popradi Gizelle; Michel Rene; Auger Manon
Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a human herpes virus-8 (HHV8)-associated large-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma localized in body cavities and presenting as pleural, peritoneal, or pericardial lymphomatous effusions. It typically affects immunocompromised patients and usually involves only one body site. We describe herein a case of PEL affecting three body cavity sites in an immunocompetent patient. A 69-year-old HIV-negative man presented with upper gastrointestinal bleeding and ascites. An exa...
Girish D. Bakhshi
Full Text Available Primary Renal Sarcoma is rare tumor comprising only 1% of all renal tumours. Synovial sarcomas are generally deep-seated tumors arising in the proximity of large joints of adolescents and young adults and account for 5-10% of all soft tissue tumours. Primary synovial sarcoma of kidney is rare and has poor prognosis. It can only be diagnosed by immunohistochemistry. It should be considered as a differential in sarcomatoid and spindle cell tumours. We present a case of 33-year-old female, who underwent left sided radical nephrectomy for renal tumour. Histopathology and genetic analysis diagnosed it to be primary renal synovial sarcoma. Patient underwent radiation therapy and 2 years follow up is uneventful. A brief case report with review of literature is presented.
Guijarro-Martínez, Raquel; Puche Torres, Miguel; Marqués Mateo, Mariano; Solís García, Ignacio; Miragall Alba, Luis; Iglesias Gimilio, María Eugenia; Pérez-Herrezuelo Hermosa, Gonzalo; Pascual Gil, José Vicente
To report an exceptional case of bilateral synovial chondromatosis (SC) of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and discuss diagnostic approaches, treatment options and follow-up data. A 38-year-old woman presented with left preauricular swelling. Initial imaging studies revealed TMJ effusion only. Six years later, synovial calcifications were detected in the left TMJ; the right TMJ space was widened and presented incipient calcium deposits. Open arthrotomy of the left TMJ was performed, with removal of multiple cartilaginous loose bodies and complete synovectomy. Periodic controls proved the asynchronic development of intra-articular bodies in the right TMJ. SC is a metaplastic arthropathy that is uncommon in the TMJ. Bilaterality is exceptional. Diagnosis is often delayed due to the non-specific symptoms, progressive developmental stages and clinicians' lack of awareness of the condition. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is particularly helpful in defining disease extension, excluding a possible tumour and detecting internal derangement. Definitive diagnosis requires arthroscopic or open examination and histopathological analysis. Recurrences are infrequent after arthrotomy, removal of loose bodies and complete synovectomy. SC is an uncommon condition in the TMJ. Bilateral involvement is extremely rare. MRI is effective for diagnosis and postoperative follow-up. Complete synovectomy usually yields an excellent prognosis. Copyright © 2010 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Metabonomics by proton nuclear magnetic resonance in human pleural effusions: A route to discriminate between benign and malignant pleural effusions and to target small molecules as potential cancer biomarkers.
Zennaro, Lucio; Vanzani, Paola; Nicolè, Lorenzo; Cappellesso, Rocco; Fassina, Ambrogio
Cytopathology is a noninvasive and cost-effective method for detecting cancer cells in pleural effusions (PEs), although in many cases, the diagnostic performance is hindered by the paucity of significant cells or the lack of clear morphological criteria. This study presents the results of an omics approach to improving the diagnostic performance of PE cytology. Metabolic profiling with proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1 H-NMR) was performed for 92 PEs (44 malignant cases of 8 different cancers and 48 benign cases of 7 nonneoplastic conditions). Light's criteria were used to further classify PEs as transudates or exudates, and 1 H-NMR spectroscopy was used to differentiate malignant pleural effusions (mPEs) from benign pleural effusions (bPEs). 1 H-NMR metabolic analysis showed clearly different spectra for mPEs and bPEs in the regions of the signals due to lipids, branched amino acids, and lactate, which were increased in mPEs. Transudates and exudates in bPEs were differentiated as well on the basis of the 1 H-NMR signals from lipids and lipoproteins, which were increased in exudates. Subject to validation in further larger studies, 1 H-NMR metabonomics could be an effective and reliable ancillary tool for PE investigations and diagnoses. Cancer Cytopathol 2017;125:341-348. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.
Yang, Chuen-Mao; Chen, Yu-Wen; Chi, Pei-Ling; Lin, Chih-Chung; Hsiao, Li-Der
Bradykinin (BK) induces inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Resveratrol is a potent activator of Sirt1 which could modulate inflammation through deacetylating histones of transcription factors. Here, we investigated the mechanisms underlying BK-induced COX-2 expression which is modulated by resveratrol/Sirt1 in human rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts (RASFs). We found that BK-induced COX-2 protein and mRNA expression associated with PGE2 synthesis, and promoter activity was mediated through B2R receptors, which were attenuated by selective B2R antagonist Hoe140 or transfection with B2R siRNA. BK-induced responses were mediated through PKCμ, MAPKs, AP-1 and NF-κB which were inhibited by their respective inhibitors or siRNAs. Up-regulation of Sirt1 by resveratrol suppressed the BK-induced COX-2/PGE2 production through inhibiting the interaction of AP-1 and NF-κB with COX-2 promoter in RASFs. BK-induced COX-2/PGE2 expression is mediated through a B2R-PKCμ-dependent MAPKs, AP-1, and NF-κB cascade. Resveratrol inhibited the phosphorylation and acetylation of p65, c-Jun, and Fos and reduced the binding to the COX-2 promoter, thereby attenuated the COX-2 expression. Therefore, resveratrol may be a promising therapeutic intervention for treatment of inflammatory arthritis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Michos, Athanasios; Palili, Alexandra; Koutouzis, Emmanouil I.; Sandu, Adina; Lykopoulou, Lilia; Syriopoulou, Vassiliki P.
We report the use of FilmArray Blood Culture Identification (BCID) multiplex PCR system for pathogen detection from a child with septic arthritis that Streptococcus pyogenes was identified directly from synovial fluid and a child with complicated pneumonia with pleural effusion that Streptococcus pneumoniae was identified from pleural fluid.
Full Text Available We report the use of FilmArray Blood Culture Identification (BCID multiplex PCR system for pathogen detection from a child with septic arthritis that Streptococcus pyogenes was identified directly from synovial fluid and a child with complicated pneumonia with pleural effusion that Streptococcus pneumoniae was identified from pleural fluid.
Michos, Athanasios; Palili, Alexandra; Koutouzis, Emmanouil I; Sandu, Adina; Lykopoulou, Lilia; Syriopoulou, Vassiliki P
We report the use of FilmArray Blood Culture Identification (BCID) multiplex PCR system for pathogen detection from a child with septic arthritis that Streptococcus pyogenes was identified directly from synovial fluid and a child with complicated pneumonia with pleural effusion that Streptococcus pneumoniae was identified from pleural fluid.
Tue Bjerg Bennike
In addition, we analyzed the proteome of human plasma, and compared the proteomes to the obtained porcine synovial fluid proteome. The proteome of the two body fluids were found highly similar, underlining the detected plasma derived nature of many synovial fluid components. The healthy porcine synovial fluid proteomics data, human rheumatoid arthritis synovial fluid proteomics data used in the method optimization, human plasma proteomics data, and search results, have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium via the PRIDE partner repository with the dataset identifier PXD000935.
Matzkin, Elizabeth; Suslavich, Kaytelin; Curry, Emily J
Musculoskeletal complaints, which are frequently associated with Lyme disease, often prompt patients to see a physician. In particular, transient episodes of spontaneous knee effusion are common early in the progression of Lyme disease, and, if left untreated, 60% of patients diagnosed with the disease develop Lyme arthritis. This disease is easily treated with antibiotics; therefore, inclusion of Lyme disease in the differential diagnosis as a potential cause of a spontaneous knee effusion can prevent the development of more severe symptoms associated with the disease. However, the time required to receive test results and the inconsistencies between serum and synovial tests can complicate diagnosis of the disease. Copyright 2015 by the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.
Boissier, M-C; Lemeiter, D; Clavel, C; Valvason, C; Laroche, L; Begue, T; Bessis, N
Intraarticular gene transfer with adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors may allow efficient therapeutic transgene expression within the joint in diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), allowing high expression of the protein within the joint, preventing both systemic diffusion and side effects. However, humans demonstrate antibodies against AAV, which can influence gene transfer. To better understand critical obstacles to intraarticular gene therapy with AAV, we have previously shown that synovial fluid (SF) contains IgG to AAV that neutralizes chondrocyte infection in vitro. Our objective was therefore to compare neutralization exerted by SF from RA patients for four different AAV serotypes (AAV serotypes 1, 2, 5, and 8) on human primary synoviocytes. Serotype 2 infected synoviocytes most efficiently followed, in decreasing order, by serotypes 1, 5, and 8. SF from all patients partially inhibited infection of synoviocytes by at least one of the four serotypes. Infection with serotypes 1 and 2 was the most inhibited by SF, whereas inhibition was weak for serotypes 5 and 8. Last, we have shown that inhibition of AAV1/interleukin (IL)-4 infection of synoviocytes by SF could be reversed by increasing the number of AAV1/IL-4 particles, with a dose-dependent effect. We conclude that the most infectious AAV serotypes (1 and 2) in synoviocytes are also the serotypes most neutralized by SF. Thus, serotype 5 seems to demonstrate the best infection efficiency:immunogenicity ratio for local use in articular diseases. These data may be useful for tailoring intraarticular AAV-mediated gene therapy to individual patients.
Abstract. Carcinoma of the breast can metastasise to many organs. Metastasis to the temporal bone is rare and even when it does, it would usually spread to other parts of the body. This is a report of isolated metastasis to the temporal bone with middle ear effusion. Key words: Carcinoma, breast, metastasis, temporal bone, ...
organs including the skull and brain. Metastasis to the temporal bone is extremely rare. 1. An unusual presentation of isolated metastasis with middle ear effusion is reported. Case report. A 45 year old woman presented with a short history of blockage and pain in the right ear. She also complained of a feeling of pulsation in ...
Chen, Y., Brennessel, D., Walters, J., Johnson, M., Rosner, F., & Raza, M. (1999) Human immunodeficiency virus-associated pericardial effusion: report of 40 cases and review of the literature. American Heart Journal 137, 516-521. Chyu, K.Y., Birnbaum, Y., Naqvi, T., Fishbein, M.C. & Siegel, R.J. (1998) Echocardiographic.
Lopa, S; Leijs, M J C; Moretti, M; Lubberts, E; van Osch, G J V M; Bastiaansen-Jenniskens, Y M
Synovitis with an increased presence of macrophages is observed in osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Given the important role of macrophages in arthritis, we investigated the influence of OA and RA synovial fluid (SF) on primary human monocytes (Mo), their lineage precursors. Adherent monocytes without any stimulation (Mo(-)) or stimulated with IFN-γ and TNF-α (Mo(IFN-γ/TNF-α)) or IL-4 (Mo(IL-4)) were exposed to SF from 6 donors without any known joint disease (SF-Ctrl), 10 OA donors (SF-OA), and 10 RA donors (SF-RA). The transcriptional expression of IL6, IL1B, TNFA, IL10, CCL18, CD206, and IL1RA was analyzed. Mo(-) exposed to SF-RA had a lower expression of IL10 and a higher expression of IL1RA than when exposed to SF-Ctrl. Mo(IL-4) exposed to SF-RA had a lower expression of IL10 and CCL18 than when exposed to SF-Ctrl and Mo(IFN-γ/TNF-α) were not affected by SF-RA. Mo exposed to SF-OA also expressed less IL10, but only upon stimulation with IL-4, and expressed more IL1RA than when exposed to SF-Ctrl in any condition. A lower expression of IL10 may be regarded as a response to less inflammatory conditions since IL10 expression is higher in response to IFN-γ/TNF-α stimulation, probably as a feedback mechanism. Therefore, the lower expression of IL10 and the higher expression of IL1RA in Mo exposed to arthritic than to non-arthritic SF suggest that arthritic SF is mainly reducing the inflammatory responses in Mo. This may mimic the response of monocytes/macrophages recruited to the joint, where feedback mechanisms counteract pro-inflammatory processes. Copyright © 2015 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Boddul, Sanjay V; Meng, Jianghui; Dolly, James Oliver; Wang, Jiafu
Fibroblast-like synoviocytes are important mediators of inflammatory joint damage in arthritis through the release of cytokines, but it is unknown whether their exocytosis from these particular cells is SNARE-dependent. Here, the complement of soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) in human synovial sarcoma cells (SW982) was examined with respect to the secretion of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα), before and after knockdown of a synaptosome-associated protein of molecular mass 23 kDa (SNAP-23) or the vesicle-associated membrane protein 3 (VAMP-3). Wild-type SW982 cells expressed SNAP-23, VAMP-3, syntaxin isoforms 2-4 and synaptic vesicle protein 2C (SV2C). These cells showed Ca²⁺-dependent secretion of IL-6 and TNFα when stimulated by interleukin-1β (IL-1β) or in combination with K⁺ depolarization. Specific knockdown of SNAP-23 or VAMP-3 decreased the exocytosis of IL-6 and TNFα; the reduced expression of SNAP-23 caused accumulation of SV2 in the peri-nuclear area. A monoclonal antibody specific for VAMP-3 precipitated SNAP-23 and syntaxin-2 (and syntaxin-3 to a lesser extent). The formation of SDS-resistant complexes by SNAP-23 and VAMP-3 was reduced upon knockdown of SNAP-23. Although the syntaxin isoforms 2, 3 and 4 are expressed in SW982 cells, knockdown of each did not affect the release of cytokines. Collectively, these results show that SNAP-23 and VAMP-3 participate in IL-1β-induced Ca²⁺-dependent release of IL-6 and TNFα from SW982 cells. © 2013 FEBS.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of human synovial membrane-derived MSCs (SM-MSCs in murine collagen-induced arthritis (CIA. Male mice (age 7–9 weeks were injected intra-articularly with SM-MSCs obtained from patients with osteoarthritis, on days 28, 32, and 38 after bovine type II collagen immunization. The efficacy of SM-MSCs in CIA was evaluated clinically and histologically. Cytokine profile analyses were performed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and multiplex analyses. Splenic helper T (Th cell and regulatory B cell subsets were analyzed by flow cytometry. Intra-articular SM-MSC injection ameliorated the clinical and histological severity of arthritis. Decrease in tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ, and interleukin- (IL- 17A and increase in IL-10 production were observed after SM-MSC treatment. Flow cytometry showed that Th1 and Th17 cells decreased, whereas Th2, regulatory T (Treg, and PD-1+CXCR5+FoxP3+ follicular Treg cells increased in the spleens of SM-MSC-treated mice. Regulatory B cell analysis showed that CD21hiCD23hi transitional 2 cells, CD23lowCD21hi marginal zone cells, and CD19+CD5+CD1d+IL-10+ regulatory B cells increased following SM-MSC treatment. Our results demonstrated that SM-MSCs injected in inflamed joints in CIA had a therapeutic effect and could prevent arthritis development and suppress immune responses via immunoregulatory cell expansion.
Jeong, Mini; Cho, Jaewook; Shin, Jong-Il; Jeon, Yong-Joon; Kim, Jin-Hyun; Lee, Sung-Joon; Kim, Eun-Soo; Lee, Kyungho
The medicinal efficacy of hempseed (Cannabis sativa L.), which is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, in atopic dermatitis, inflammation, and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been suggested for centuries. Hempseed has been used as a treatment for these diseases in Korean and Chinese folk medicine. The aim of the study is to investigate the effects of hempseed oil (HO) on MH7A human RA fibroblast-like synovial cells. MH7A cells were used to study the anti-rheumatoid effects of hempseed (Cannabis sativa L., cv. Cheungsam/Cannabaceae) oil by investigating cell viability, apoptosis, lipid accumulation, oxidative stress, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced apoptosis. HO treatment reduced the survival rate of MH7A cells and promoted apoptotic cell death in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Both lipid accumulation and the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) increased in HO-treated MH7A cells. Co-treatment with the antioxidant Tiron effectively abrogated the cytotoxic effects of HO; the ROS level was reduced, cell viability was recovered, and apoptotic cell death was significantly diminished. Moreover, HO-treated cells exhibited increased expression of the major ER stress markers, glucose-regulated protein 78 and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP). The siRNA-mediated knockdown of CHOP prevented HO-induced apoptosis. Our results suggest that HO treatment induced lipid accumulation, ROS production, CHOP expression, and apoptosis in MH7A cells, and that CHOP functions as an anti-rheumatoid factor downstream of HO in MH7A cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kubosch, Eva Johanna; Heidt, Emanuel; Bernstein, Anke; Böttiger, Katharina; Schmal, Hagen
Synovial mesenchymal stem cells (SMSC) possess a high chondrogenic differentiation potential, which possibly supports natural and surgically induced healing of cartilage lesions. We hypothesized enhanced chondrogenesis of SMSC caused by the vicinity of chondrocytes (CHDR). Human SMSC and CHDR interactions were investigated in an in-vitro trans-well monolayer coculture over a time period of up to 21 days. Protein expression was analyzed using histology, immunostaining, or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Additionally, mRNA expression was assessed by quantitative PCR. After 7 days, phase-contrast microscopy revealed cell aggregation of SMSC in coculture with CHDR. Afterwards, cells formed spheres and lost adherence. However, this phenomenon was not observed when culturing SMSC alone. Fluorescence labeling showed concurrent collagen type II expression. Addition of transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) to the cocultures induced SMSC aggregation in less time and with higher intensity. Additionally, alcian blue staining demonstrated enhanced glycosaminoglycan expression around SMSC aggregates after 1 and 2 weeks. Although TGFβ mRNA was expressed in all SMSC, the protein was measured with constantly increasing levels over 21 days only in supernatants of the cocultures. Considering the enhanced mRNA levels following supplementation with TGFβ, a positive feedback mechanism can be supposed. In line with the development of a chondrogenic phenotype, aggrecan mRNA expression increased after 7 and 14 days in the cocultures with and without TGFβ. Coculture conditions also amplified collagen type II mRNA expression after 2 weeks without and already after 1 week with TGFβ. There was no difference in collagen type I and type X expression between SMSC alone and the coculture with CHDR. Expression of both collagens increased following addition of TGFβ. mRNA data correlated with the intensity of immunofluorescence staining. Paracrine effects of CHDR induce a chondrogenic
Neylor Pace Lasmar
the site. He was referred to a knee specialist with a suspected meniscal injury. Upon examination, we detected severe swelling of the joint with limitation of motion, pain exacerbated, and negative joint aspiration. Since simple radiographic results were normal, an MRI of the knee was requested. The MRI revealed massive accumulation of synovial fluid, together with marked synovial proliferation, especially focal thickening clumps with intermediate signal on T1 and T2, a hypointense signal on T2, and discreet suggestive of pigmented villonodular synovitis with intact meniscus and ligaments. The patient underwent arthroscopy of the left knee, which revealed whitish irregular fragments, and underwent arthrotomy with removal of the lesion and extensive synovectomy. The material was submitted to pathological examination, which showed the presence of synovial chondromatosis. Eight months after surgery, the patient presents with no complaints, with a 130° range in the left knee without joint bleeding or signs of inflammation. Synovial chondromatosis is a rare benign metaplasia of the synovial membrane, leading to the formation of cartilaginous loose bodies in the joint space. It is difficult to diagnose because 95% of the nodules, when not calcified, can be overlooked radiologically.
Kim, Hae-Rim; Lee, Jung-Hwa; Kim, Kyoung-Woon; Kim, Bo-Mi; Lee, Sang-Heon
This study aimed to determine synovial fluid and serum biomarkers which could accord with radiological and ultrasonographic findings in knee osteoarthritis. Thirty-four patients with knee osteoarthritis were detected with joint effusion by clinical examination. Both knee joints were examined using plain radiographs and ultrasonography. Questions were obtained for visual analog scale (VAS), Western Ontario McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index and Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ). Synovial fluid (SF) and serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13, leptin, resistin and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Synovial fluid VEGF level was positively correlated with Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grades and it was higher in patients with KL grade 4 than those with KL grade 2. SF VEGF correlated with ultrasonographic findings, such as the length of medial osteophytes. The amount of effusion was positively correlated with SF resistin. Serum leptin level had positive correlation with HAQ and the length of medial osteophytes. MMP-13 or COMP levels were not correlated with radiographic or ultrasonographic findings. Synovial fluid VEGF level was correlated with radiographic grading, ultrasonographic findings and functional statues in knee osteoarthritis, and serum leptin level also correlated with the ultrasonographic findings and functional status of knee osteoarthritis. © 2014 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Full Text Available Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, the major constituent of green tea, has been shown to induce cell death in cancer cells. Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL is an aggressive neoplasm caused by human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8. In this study, we examined the role of EGCG on PEL cells in cell death and HHV8 replication. We performed trypan blue exclusion assay to assess the cell viability of PEL cells, flow cytometry analysis to examine the cell cycle distribution and reactive oxygen species (ROS generation, caspase-3 activity to assay apoptosis, acridine orange staining to determine autophagy, and immunoblotting to detect the protein levels involved in apoptosis and autophagy as well as mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs activation upon EGCG treatment. The expression of the HHV8 lytic gene was determined by luciferase reporter assay and reverse transcription-PCR, and viral progeny production was determined by PCR. Results revealed that EGCG induced cell death and ROS generation in PEL cells in a dose-dependent manner. N-acetylcysteine (NAC inhibited the EGCG-induced ROS and rescued the cell from EGCG-induced cell death. Even though EGCG induced ROS generation in PEL cells, it reduced the production of progeny virus from PEL cells without causing HHV8 reactivation. These results suggest that EGCG may represent a novel strategy for the treatment of HHV8 infection and HHV8-associated lymphomas.
Dávila F., Roberto; Clínica de Animales Menores, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Begazo C., Christian; Clínica de Animales Menores, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Marroquín A., Miguel; Clínica de Animales Menores, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima.
Pericardial effusion is described as an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pericardial cavity, which can lead to a cardiac tamponade associated with neoplasms. It is described the clinical case of a Golden Retriever dog, 10 years old, taken to consultation due to anorexia, abdominal distension and depression. At clinical examination, faintly audible heart sounds, weak femoral pulse and tachypnea were detected. Laboratory tests showed anemia and kidney failure. The ultrasound determined hyd...
Thornhill, T S; Ozuna, R M; Shortkroff, S; Keller, K; Sledge, C B; Spector, M
The tissue around loose total joint replacement prostheses displays a synovial-like lining comprised of cells that produce IL-1 and PGE2, mediators of inflammation that stimulate bone resorption. Particles of titanium alloy, as well as cobalt-chromium alloy and polyethylene, were found to aggravate the histiocytic response and production of IL-1 and PGE2. Tissue with similar histological and biochemical features was produced in a canine model of the aseptic loose cemented femoral stem.
Kubosch, Eva Johanna; Heidt, Emanuel; Bernstein, Anke
BACKGROUND: Synovial mesenchymal stem cells (SMSC) possess a high chondrogenic differentiation potential, which possibly supports natural and surgically induced healing of cartilage lesions. We hypothesized enhanced chondrogenesis of SMSC caused by the vicinity of chondrocytes (CHDR). METHODS....... RESULTS: After 7 days, phase-contrast microscopy revealed cell aggregation of SMSC in coculture with CHDR. Afterwards, cells formed spheres and lost adherence. However, this phenomenon was not observed when culturing SMSC alone. Fluorescence labeling showed concurrent collagen type II expression. Addition...
Osuwat Lawrence O
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Primary effusion lymphoma is a recently recognized entity of AIDS related non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Despite Africa being greatly affected by the HIV/AIDS pandemic, an extensive MEDLINE/PubMed search failed to find any report of primary effusion lymphoma in sub-Saharan Africa. To our knowledge this is the first report of primary effusion lymphoma in sub-Saharan Africa. We report the clinical, cytomorphologic and immunohistochemical findings of a patient with primary effusion lymphoma. Case presentation A 70-year-old newly diagnosed HIV-positive Ugandan African woman presented with a three-month history of cough, fever, weight loss and drenching night sweats. Three weeks prior to admission she developed right sided chest pain and difficulty in breathing. On examination she had bilateral pleural effusions. Haematoxylin and eosin stained cytologic sections of the formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded cell block made from the pleural fluid were processed in the Department of Pathology, Makerere University, College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda. Immunohistochemistry was done at the Institute of Haematology and Oncology "L and A Seragnoli", Bologna University School of Medicine, Bologna, Italy, using alkaline phosphatase anti-alkaline phosphatase method. In situ hybridization was used for detection of Epstein-Barr virus. The tumor cells were CD45+, CD30+, CD38+, HHV-8 LANA-1+; but were negative for CD3-, CD20-, CD19-, and CD79a- and EBV RNA+ on in situ hybridization. CD138 and Ki-67 were not evaluable. Our patient tested HIV positive and her CD4 cell count was 127/μL. Conclusions A definitive diagnosis of primary effusion lymphoma rests on finding a proliferation of large immunoblastic, plasmacytoid and anaplastic cells; HHV-8 in the tumor cells, an immunophenotype that is CD45+, pan B-cell marker negative and lymphocyte activated marker positive. It is essential for clinicians and pathologists to have a high index of suspicion of
Pascual, Eliseo; Jovaní, Vega
Synovial fluid (SF) accumulates in the joint cavity in different conditions; this review outlines the data from those analyses that help in their differential and definitive diagnosis. The gross appearance of the fluid can provide a quick bedside orientation with regard to the amount of inflammation present in the joint: totally transparent SF originates in non-inflammatory conditions--of which osteoarthritis is the most common--and the amount of turbidity grossly relates to the amount of inflammation. Most turbid to purulent fluids usually come from infected joints, but exceptions are not uncommon. The white cell count offers quantitative information, but the boundaries between non-inflammatory and inflammatory SF and between this and septic fluid are very hazy and figures have to be interpreted in the clinical setting. Detection and identification of monosodium urate (MSU) and calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystals allow a precise diagnosis of gout and CPPD crystal-related arthropathy. Only one in five CPPD crystals have sufficient birefringence for easy detection and they are easily missed if searched for only using a polarised microscope. Instructions for beginners are given. Proper microbiological studies of the SF is the key to the diagnosis of infectious conditions.
Uzbeck, Mateen H
Malignant pleural effusions are a common clinical problem in patients with primary thoracic malignancy and metastatic malignancy to the thorax. Symptoms can be debilitating and can impair tolerance of anticancer therapy. This article presents a comprehensive review of pharmaceutical and nonpharmaceutical approaches to the management of malignant pleural effusion, and a novel algorithm for management based on patients\\' performance status.
Coates, C L; Burwell, R G; Buttery, P J; Walker, G; Woodward, P M
Abnormalities of synovial fluid, as a lubricant and nutrient, may have relevance to the causation of certain articular diseases. The somatomedin activity in normal synovial fluid obtained from the knee joint of the ox has been studied and compared with the activity in serum from the same animal. The porcine costal cartilage bioassay of Van den Brande and Du Caju (1974) has been used with the isotopes 35S-sulphate and 3H-thymidine. The mean potency ratio of ox synovial fluid in terms of ox serum for 35S-sulphate incorporation was 0-28 (range 0-19-0-47) and for 3H-thymidine incorporation 0-35 (range 0-21-0-63). A significant correlation was found between the somatomedin activity (as measured by 35S-sulphate incorporation) and the total protein and albumin concentrations in the ox synovial fluids and the ox sera, but there was no significant relationship between the somatomedin potency ratios and the globulin concentrations. The possible relevance of these findings to injury and disease in synovial joint is discussed. PMID:843111
Full Text Available This review deals with the most meaningful historical topics on the study of synovial fluid, by starting from the Greco- Roman Medicine, up to Paracelsus (1493-1541, who introduced the term “synovia” to name the intra-articular humour. Afterwards, some till now unreported historical sources are recorded, e.g., a short text by the Italian XVIII century physician Giambattista Contoli (“Breve Instruzione sopre il Glutine, ò Colla…, 1699”. Then, in keeping with some recent researches, a brief history of arthrocentesis is outlined, by considering the first procedures, which should have been performed in Mexico, during the precolonial period. Moreover, the first chemical analysis of synovial fluid, as carried out by the French chemist Jean-Louis Margueron (1792, and the first modern study on the synovial membrane by Marie-François-Xavier Bichat (1800 are explained. Finally, some XIX century investigations concerning the synovial pharmacodynamics, in particular an Italian one based on the elimination of certain chemical substances through the synovial membrane, are discussed.
Walsh, D A; Verghese, P; Cook, G J; McWilliams, D F; Mapp, P I; Ashraf, S; Wilson, D
The distribution and function of lymphatic vessels in normal and diseased human knees are understood incompletely. This study aimed to investigate whether lymphatic density is associated with clinical, histological or radiographic parameters in osteoarthritis (OA). Sections of synovium from 60 knees from patients with OA were compared with 60 post mortem control knees (from 37 individuals). Lymphatic vessels were identified using immunohistochemistry for podoplanin, and quantified as lymphatic vessel density (LVD) and lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) fractional area. Effusion status was determined by clinical examination, radiographs were scored for OA changes, and inflammation grading used haematoxylin and eosin stained sections of synovium. Lymphatic vessels were present in synovia from both disease groups, but were not identified in subchondral bone. Synovial lymphatic densities were independent of radiological severity and age. Synovia from patients with OA displayed lower LVD (z=-3.4, P=0.001) and lower LEC fractional areas (z=-4.5, Plymphatics and OA/effusion appeared to be independent of other measured confounders. Lymphatic vessels are present in lower densities in OA synovia. Abnormalities of synovial fluid drainage may confound the value of effusion as a clinical sign of synovitis in OA. Copyright © 2012 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shimaya, M; Muneta, T; Ichinose, S; Tsuji, K; Sekiya, I
We previously reported that more than 60% of synovial mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) placed on osteochondral defects adhered to the defect within 10 min and promoted cartilage regeneration. The efficiency of adherence is considered to depend on the interaction between cells and extracellular matrix (ECM), in which integrins may play some important roles. Divalent cations such as calcium, magnesium, and manganese may affect functions of integrins, and the integrins may be involved in differentiation of MSCs. Among divalent cations, magnesium is used in clinical practice as a therapeutic agent and increases the affinity of integrin to ECM. In this study, we investigated whether magnesium enhanced adherence and chondrogenesis of synovial MSC through integrins. We performed assays for adherence of human synovial MSCs to collagen-coated slides, in vitro chondrogenesis, ex vivo assays for adherence of human synovial MSCs to osteochondral defect, and in vivo assays for adherence and cartilage formation of synovial MSCs in a rabbit osteochondral defect model. Magnesium increased adhesion of human synovial MSCs to collagen, and this effect was inhibited by neutralizing antibodies for integrin α3 and β1. Magnesium also promoted synthesis of cartilage matrix during in vitro chondrogenesis of synovial MSCs, which was diminished by neutralizing antibodies for integrin β1 but not for integrin α3. Ex vivo analyses demonstrated that magnesium enhanced adherence of human synovial MSCs to osteochondral defects. In vivo studies in rabbits showed that magnesium promoted adherence at 1 day and cartilage formation of synovial MSCs at 2 weeks. Magnesium enhanced adherence of synovial MSCs through integrins, which promoted synthesis of cartilage matrix at an early phase. Copyright © 2010 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wu, Yu; Zhang, Guojian; Wang, Xiangcheng; Zhao, Zhenfang; Wang, Tao; Wang, Xuemei; Li, Xiao-Feng
To validate 99mTc-labeled arginylglycylaspartic acid (99mTc-3PRGD2) scintigraphy as a means to image synovial neoangiogenesis in joints afflicted by rheumatoid arthritis and to investigate its potential in the early detection and management of rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis were generated in Sprague Dawley rats by type II collagen immunization and papain injection, respectively. Rats were imaged with 99mTc-3PRGD2 and 99mTc- methyl diphosphonate (99mTc MDP). X-ray images were also obtained and assessed by a radiologist. Immunohistochemistry of αvβ3 and CD31confirmed the onset of synovial neoangiogenesis. The effect of bevacizumab on rheumatoid arthritis was followed with 99mTc-3PRGD2 scintigraphy. A patient with rheumatoid arthritis and a healthy volunteer were scanned with 99mTc-3PRGD2. Two weeks after immunization, a significant increase in 99mTc-3PRGD2 was observed in the joints of the rheumatoid arthritis model though uptake in osteoarthritis model and untreated controls was low. 99mTc-MDP whole body scans failed to distinguish early rheumatoid arthritis joints from healthy controls. The expression of αvβ3 and CD31was significantly higher in the joints of rheumatoid arthritis rats compared to normal controls. In serial 99mTc-3PRGD2 scintigraphy studies, 99mTc-3PRGD2 uptake increased in parallel with disease progression. Bevacizumab anti-angiogenetic therapy both improved the symptoms of the rheumatoid arthritis rats and significantly decreased 99mTc-3PRGD2 uptake. Significantly higher 99mTc-3PRGD2 accumulation was also observed in rheumatoid arthritis joints in the patient. Our findings indicate that 99mTc-3PRGD2 scintigraphy could detect early rheumatoid arthritis by imaging the associated synovial neoangiogenesis, and may be useful in disease management.
Bennike, Tue Bjerg; Barnaby, Omar; Steen, Hanno
pig (Sus Scrofa) as a model organism, as the porcine immune system is highly similar to human and the pig genome is sequenced. Furthermore, porcine model systems are commonly used large animal models to study several human diseases. Additionally, we analyzed the proteome of human plasma, and compared...... concentration, content, and synovial fluid volume change dramatically during active joint diseases and inflammation, and the proteome composition of healthy synovial fluid is incompletely characterized. We performed a normative proteomics analysis of porcine synovial fluid, and report data from optimizing...
The purpose of this paper is to test previously developed regression formulae for estimating death interval based on synovial fluid potassium and to assess its reliability in estimating death interval. Synovial fluid potassium was measured on a sample of 308 individuals. Death interval was regressed on synovial fluid ...
Teixeira, Lisete Ribeiro; Pinto, José Antonio de Figueiredo; Marchi, Evaldo
O derrame pleural neoplásico é uma complicação freqüente nos pacientes portadores de tumores avançados. A presença de células malignas no líquido pleural ou na biópsia da pleura é indicativa de disseminação da doença primária, com conseqüente redução da expectativa de vida. O diagnóstico e tratamento precoce do derrame pleural maligno são fundamentais para promover uma melhor qualidade de vida aos pacientes portadores de câncer avançado.The malignant pleural effusion is a frequent complicatio...
Rodríguez-Núñez, Nuria; Rábade, Carlos; Valdés, Luis
Pleural effusion (PE) is a very uncommon manifestation of sarcoidosis. It is equally observed in men and women, can appear at any age and in all radiologic stages, though it is more common in stages i and ii. Effusions have usually a mild or medium size and mainly involve the right side. Various mechanisms can be implicated. PE will be a serous exudate if there is an increase in the capillary permeability due to direct involvement of the pleural membrane, a chylothorax if mediastinum lymph nodes compress the thoracic duct and/or the lymphatic drainage from the pleural cavity, an hemothorax if granuloma compress or invade pleural small vessels or capillaries, and even a transudate if there is compression of the inferior vena cava, atelectasis due to complete bronchial obstruction or when the resolution of the PE is incomplete with chronic thickening of visceral pleura (trapped lung). It manifests biochemically as a pauci-cellular exudate with a predominance of lymphocytes, though there can be a preponderance of eosinophils or neutrophils. Protein concentrations are usually proportionately higher than lactate dehidrogenase, adenosine deaminase is normally low and it is possible to find increased levels of CA-125 in women. The tuberculin test is negative and pleural or lung biopsies yield the diagnosis by confirming the presence of non-caseating granulomata. These PE can have a favorable self-limited outcome, even though in most cases treatment with corticosteroids is needed, while surgery is required in a few cases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Nakamura, Tomomasa; Sekiya, Ichiro; Muneta, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Eiji
Current therapies for cartilage injury remain some issues such as the quality of regenerated cartilage and its invasiveness. We have been trying to develop a low invasive treatment for cartilage regeneration with synovial mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) . Here we introduce our preclinical study with miniature pigs whose knee joints are similar to those of humans in terms of size and cartilage metabolism. Cartilage defect was created at the weight bearing area of both porcine knee joints. Synovial MSCs were transplanted by delivering a synovial MSC suspension onto the cartilage defect of the one side and the knee was kept immobilized for 10 minutes. Sequential arthroscopic and histological observations showed the contribution of synovial MSCs after transplantation, and a better hyaline cartilaginous-tissue regeneration in the MSC-treated knees than in the non-treated control knees at 12 weeks. Based on this and other preclinical studies, we have started a clinical study for cartilage regeneration with autologous synovial MSCs.
Saguil, Aaron; Wyrick, Kristen; Hallgren, John
Pleural effusion affects more than 1.5 million people in the United States each year and often complicates the management of heart failure, pneumonia, and malignancy. Pleural effusion occurs when fluid collects between the parietal and visceral pleura. Processes causing a distortion in body fluid mechanics, such as in heart failure or nephrotic syndrome, tend to cause transudative effusions, whereas localized inflammatory or malignant processes are often associated with exudative effusions. Patients can be asymptomatic or can present with cough, dyspnea, and pleuritic chest pain. Dullness to percussion on physical examination suggests an effusion; chest radiography can confirm the diagnosis. Thoracentesis may be indicated to diagnose effusion and relieve symptoms. Ultrasound guidance is preferred when aspirating fluid. Routine assays for aspirated fluid include protein and lactate dehydrogenase levels, Gram staining, cytology, and pH measurement. Light's criteria should be used to differentiate exudative from transudative effusions. Additional laboratory assays, bronchoscopy, percutaneous pleural biopsy, or thoracoscopy may be required for diagnosis if the initial test results are inconclusive.
Schwarz, M I; Marmorstein, B L
A new radiologic sign of subpulmonic effusion is described. That is obliteration of the intrapulmonary blood vessels which are seen below the level of the diaphragmatic dome. One hundred normal chest films are reviewed as well as nine patients with subpulmonic effusions. In three of the patients with subpulmonic effusions, this sign was the first evidence of pleural effusion.
Wen, D.W.; Rasheed, S. [KK Women' s and Children' s Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging, Singapore (Singapore); Tan, T.J. [Changi General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Singapore (Singapore)
We report a histologically proven case of synovial haemangioma of the knee in a 14-month old girl who presented to the emergency department with an acute 1-day history of refusing to weight-bear on the right leg and a preceding 3-week history of a right knee lump. Physical examination revealed a non-tender, soft lump over the lateral infrapatellar region. Radiographs revealed a poorly defined soft tissue density over the infrapatellar fat pad and a suprapatellar joint effusion. Ultrasound was used to confirm the presence of a vascular soft tissue mass compatible with a synovial haemangioma within the infrapatellar fat pad which showed both intra-articular and extra-articular extension. There was good correlation of the ultrasound findings with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), highlighting the potential clinical utility of ultrasound as an alternative imaging modality in establishing the pre-operative diagnosis and extent of a synovial haemangioma about the knee joint. (orig.)
Clark, R B; Schmidt, T A; Sachse, F B; Boyle, D; Firestein, G S; Giles, W R
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a progressive disease that affects both pediatric and adult populations. The cellular basis for RA has been investigated extensively using animal models, human tissues and isolated cells in culture. However, many aspects of its aetiology and molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Some of the electrophysiological principles that regulate secretion of essential lubricants (hyaluronan and lubricin) and cytokines from synovial fibroblasts have been identified. Data sets describing the main types of ion channels that are expressed in human synovial fibroblast preparations have begun to provide important new insights into the interplay among: (i) ion fluxes, (ii) Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum, (iii) intercellular coupling, and (iv) both transient and longer duration changes in synovial fibroblast membrane potential. A combination of this information, knowledge of similar patterns of responses in cells that regulate the immune system, and the availability of adult human synovial fibroblasts are likely to provide new pathophysiological insights. © 2016 University of Calgary. The Journal of Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.
Balieiro, Marcos Alexandre; Lopes, Agnaldo José; Costa, Bruno Pinheiro; Veras, Gustavo Perissé Moreira; Perelson, Paulo Sergio; Acatauassú Nunes, Rodolfo; Saito, Eduardo Haruo
There are only a few cases of primary mediastinal synovial sarcoma in the literature. Normally, they do not respond well to chemotherapy. In our case, a 30-year-old patient was admitted due to thoracic pain, dyspnea, orthopnea, cough, hoarseness and weight loss over a 3-month period as well as a dramatic worsening a week before the admission. A chest radiography showed a completely white left hemithorax and contralateral mediastinal shift; in addition, a chest tomography revealed a giant heterogeneous mediastinal mass, lung atelectasia and a small pleural effusion. The patient was submitted to Chamberlain procedure (biopsy) under local anesthesia and the diagnosis of a synovial sarcoma was obtained after immunohistochemical analysis. Due to his poor general condition, he received chemotherapy first, with a dramatic response, after what, the mass that had been reduced was removed surgically. After a 5-year- follow-up period there are no signs of disease recurrence.
Borrero, Camilo G.; Maxwell, Norman; Kavanagh, Eoin [University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)
To describe MR imaging characteristics and treatment options for prepatellar closed degloving injuries or Morel-Lavallee effusions. Imaging features are discussed that may aid in the distinguishing of this entity from 'housemaid's knee' or prepatellar bursitis. MR images of four young wrestlers were reviewed by two attending radiologists and one fellow, and correlative clinical data were collected using the electronic medical database. MR images in all cases showed a unilocular, T2 hyperintense prepatellar collection extending beyond the normal boundaries of the prepatellar bursa. No necrotic fat or blood products were identified in the collections. Surgical pathology proving the absence of synovial tissue was available for one case, and differentiation of the collection from the adjacent bursa was confirmed visually by the surgeon in a second case. Although prepatellar hemorrhagic bursitis and Morel-Lavallee effusions share many imaging features, making a specific diagnosis in most cases is not necessary, as treatment is often similar for both entities. (orig.)
Full Text Available Synovial hemangiomas are rare benign tumors of vascular origin. A 23-year-old boy presented with knee pain and swelling. The boy had developed symptoms 18-months earlier. He was diagnosed with synovial hemangioma based on magnetic resonnance imaging examination and histopathologic findings of the arthroscopic biopsy tissue. We present the magnetic resonance imaging and histopathologic findings of synovial hemangioma of the knee.
Ermakov, Sergey; Eismont, Oleg; Nikolaev, Vladimir
This book summarizes the theoretical and experimental studies confirming the concept of the liquid-crystalline nature of boundary lubrication in synovial joints. It is shown that cholesteric liquid crystals in the synovial liquid play a significant role in the mechanism of intra-articular friction reduction. The results of structural, rheological and tribological research of the creation of artificial synovial liquids - containing cholesteric liquid crystals in natural synovial liquids - are described. These liquid crystals reproduce the lubrication properties of natural synovia and provide a high chondroprotective efficiency. They were tested in osteoarthritis models and in clinical practice.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Angiogenesis is essential for the progression of osteoarthritis (OA. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF is an angiogenic mediator, and it shows elevated levels in regions of OA. However, the relationship between HGF and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A in OA synovial fibroblasts (OASFs is mostly unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we found that stimulation of OASFs with HGF induced concentration- and time-dependent increases in VEGF-A expression. Pretreatment with PI3K inhibitor (Ly294002, Akt inhibitor, or mTORC1 inhibitor (rapamycin blocked the HGF-induced VEGF-A production. Treatment of cells with HGF also increased PI3K, Akt, and mTORC1 phosphorylation. Furthermore, HGF increased the stability and activity of HIF-1 protein. Moreover, the use of pharmacological inhibitors or genetic inhibition revealed that c-Met, PI3K, Akt, and mTORC1 signaling pathways were potentially required for HGF-induced HIF-1α activation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, our results provide evidence that HGF enhances VEGF-A expression in OASFs by an HIF-1α-dependent mechanism involving the activation of c-Met/PI3K/Akt and mTORC1 pathways.
Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA is manifested by synovial inflammation and cartilage destruction that is directly linked to synovitis, joint swelling and pain. In the light of the role of synovium in the pathogenesis and the symptoms of OA, synovium-targeted therapy is a promising strategy to mitigate the symptoms and progression of OA. Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1, a secreted homodimeric protein, possesses unique and potent anti-inflammatory and immune-regulatory properties in many cell types. Heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1 is an inducible anti-inflammatory and stress responsive enzyme that has been proven to prevent injuries caused by many diseases. Despite the similar anti-inflammatory profile and their involvement in the pathogenesis of arthritic diseases, no studies have as yet explored the possibility of any association between the expression of TGF-β1 and HO-1.TGF-β1-induced HO-1 expression was examined by HO-1 promoter assay, qPCR, and Western blotting. The siRNAs and enzyme inhibitors were utilized to determine the intermediate involved in the signal transduction pathway. We showed that TGF-β1 stimulated the synthesis of HO-1 in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, which can be mitigated by blockade of the phospholipase (PLCγ/protein kinase C alpha (PKCα pathway. We also showed that the expression of miRNA-519b, which blocks HO-1 transcription, is inhibited by TGF-β1, and the suppression of miRNA 519b could be reversed via blockade of the PLCγ/PKCα pathway.TGF-β1 stimulated the expression of HO-1 via activating the PLCγ/PKCα pathway and suppressing the downstream expression of miRNA-519b. These results may shed light on the pathogenesis and treatment of OA.
The first part of this thesis focuses on IPCs (indwelling pleural catheters) in malignant pleural effusion (MPE) management. In an invited review, the (dis)advantages and prejudices of IPCs are described (Chapter1.1). Since costs and reimbursement issues are the main reasons in the Netherlands to
Junqueira, Jader Joel Machado; Bammann, Ricardo Helbert; Terra, Ricardo Mingarini; Castro, Ana Cristina P; Ishy, Augusto; Fernandez, Angelo
Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is an iatrogenic complication that occurs in the luteal phase of an induced hormonal cycle. In most cases, the symptoms are self-limited and spontaneous regression occurs. However, severe cases are typically accompanied by acute respiratory distress. The objective of the present study was to describe the clinical presentation, treatment, and outcome of pleural effusion associated with OHSS in three patients undergoing in vitro fertilization. The patients ranged in age from 27 to 33 years. The onset of symptomatic pleural effusion (bilateral in all cases) occurred, on average, 43 days (range, 27-60 days) after initiation of hormone therapy for ovulation induction. All three patients required hospitalization for massive fluid resuscitation, and two required noninvasive mechanical ventilation. Although all three patients initially underwent thoracentesis, early recurrence of symptoms and pleural effusion prompted the use of drainage with a pigtail catheter. Despite the high output from the pleural drain (mean, 1,000 mL/day in the first week) and prolonged drainage (for 9-22 days), the outcomes were excellent: all three patients were discharged from hospital. Although pleural effusion secondary to OHSS is probably underdiagnosed, the associated morbidity should not be underestimated, especially because it affects potentially pregnant patients. In this study, early diagnosis and appropriate supportive measures yielded favorable results, limiting the surgical approach to adequate pleural drainage.
Chebib, Ivan; Chang, Connie Y; Schwab, Joseph H; Kerr, Darcy A; Deshpande, Vikram; Nielsen, G Petur
Cystic lesions derived from the synovial and ligamentous structures of the spine have varied histologic appearances. Not uncommonly, there is discrepancy between the clinico-radiologic diagnosis and histology. Therefore, we sought to characterize the histologic features of tissue submitted as "synovial cysts" of the spine. Resected specimens of the spine labeled "synovial cysts" and "lumbar cysts" were histologically evaluated and classified based on histopathologic features. 75 histologic samples of spinal cysts were identified. 31 were classified as synovial cysts (definite synovial lining), 28 showed pseudocystic degeneration of the ligamentum flavum, 7 showed pseudocyst formation without evidence of synovial lining or degeneration of the ligamentum flavum, 8 showed cyst contents only or no histologic evidence of cyst wall for evaluation. Twenty-five cases (33%), especially those showing pseudocystic degeneration of the ligamentum flavum were associated with very characteristic tumor calcinosis-like calcium deposition with surrounding foreign-body giant cell reaction. Histology of "synovial cysts" of the spine shows varied types of cysts; a large proportion are not synovial lined cysts but rather show pseudocystic degenerative changes of the ligamentum flavum often associated with very characteristic finely granular calcifications and foreign body giant cell reaction. This may have implications, not only in understanding the pathogenesis of these lesions, but also in their varied response to non-surgical interventions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Although many different diseases may cause a pleural effusion the most common causes are congestive heart failure, pneumonie, and cancer. The first step in the diagnosis of pleural effusion is the distinction between exudates and transudates. Because of their high sensitivity Light's criteria, which differentiate transudative effusions from exudative effusions by measuring the levels of total protein and lactate dehydrogenase in the pleural fluid and serum, have become the standard method for making this distinction. Aim of this article was to mention the various parameters and their usefulness in closer characterication of pleural effusion.
Cutolo, M; Villaggio, B; Candido, F; Valenti, S; Giusti, M; Felli, L; Sulli, A; Accardo, S
Because some of the clinical symptoms related to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovitis, such as joint morning stiffness and gelling, might be related to the effects exerted by the diurnal rhythmicity of the neurohormone melatonin (MLT) on synovial immune cell activation, we decided to evaluate the influence of MLT on the production of IL-12 and nitric oxide (NO) on primary cultures of RA synovial macrophages. Synovial macrophages were also prestimulated with lipopolysaccaride (LPS). Results were compared with those obtained on cultured human myeloid monocytic cells (THP-1). A significant increase in IL-12 (p = 0.01) was found in media of MLT-stimulated synovial macrophages versus RMPI-treated synovial macrophage controls. Interestingly, a significant decrease of IL-12 (p arthritis symptomatology, at least in RA.
An, Yeong Yi; Kim, Jee Young; Kang, Seok Jin; Kang, Yong Koo; Baik, Jun Hyun [Catholic University St. Vincent' s Hospital, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)
Synovial chondrosarcoma is extremely rare and arises de novo or from malignant transformation of synovial chondromatosis. It commonly involves large joints, such as the knee or hip. Here, we present an unusual case of synovial chondrosarcoma from synovial chondromatosis in the hand and wrist, clearly demonstrating the characteristic findings on plain radiograph and MR imaging.
Østergaard, Mikkel; Ejbjerg, B; Stoltenberg, M
OBJECTIVES: By repeated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to study synovial membrane regeneration and recurrence of synovitis after arthroscopic knee joint synovectomy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other (non-RA) causes of persistent knee joint synovitis. METHODS: Contrast enhanced...... MRI was performed in 15 knees (nine RA, six non-RA) before and one day, seven days, two months, and 12 months after arthroscopic synovectomy. Synovial membrane volumes, joint effusion volumes, and cartilage and bone destruction were assessed on each MRI set. Baseline microscopic and macroscopic...... parameters. CONCLUSION: The synovial membrane had regenerated two months after arthroscopic knee joint synovectomy and despite significant volume reductions compared with baseline it often showed signs of recurrent synovitis. MRI seems to be valuable as a marker of inflammation, destruction and, perhaps...
Seifer, Daniel R; Furman, Bridgette D; Guilak, Farshid; Olson, Steve A; Brooks, S. Carroll; Kraus, Virginia Byers
Objective We evaluated three methodologies - a calcium sodium alginate compound (CSAC), polyacrylate beads (PAB), and Whatman paper (WPR) - for the ability to recover synovial fluid from mouse knees in a manner that facilitated biochemical marker analysis. Methods Pilot testing of each of these recovery vehicles was conducted using small volumes of waste human synovial fluid. CSAC emerged as the method of choice, and was used to recover and quantify SF from the knees of C57BL/6 mice (n=12), six of which were given left-knee articular fractures. Synovial fluid concentrations of Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein (COMP) were measured by ELISA. Results The mean concentration ratio ([COMP left knee] / [COMP right knee]) was higher in the mice subjected to articular fracture when compared to the non-fracture mice (p=0.026). The mean total COMP ratio (taking into account the quantitative recovery of synovial fluid) best discriminated between fracture and non-fracture knees (p=0.004). Conclusions Our results provide the first direct evidence of accelerated joint tissue turnover in a mouse model responding to acute joint injury. These data strongly suggest that mouse synovial fluid recovery is feasible and that biomarker analysis of collected synovial fluid samples can augment traditional histological analyses in mouse models of arthritis. PMID:18538588
Arias Palomero, A; Infantes Molina, E J; López Arroquia, E; Riveira Villalobos, L; López Mondéjar, E; González del Valle, F
A 73 year-old woman with depression treated with escitalopram developed acute secondary angle closure glaucoma related to uveal effusion after duplicating the drug dose 3 days before. She evolved favorably once the antidepressant treatment was suspended and a new treatment with topical hypotensive therapy and oral prednisone was used. The uveal effusion syndrome associated to medicines is rare; it may be associated with acute myopic shift and acute angle closure glaucoma. The correct diagnosis and discontinuation of the drug lead to the resolution of this nosology. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Abdalla, Rene Jorge; Cohen, Moisés; Nóbrega, Jezimar; Forgas, Andrea
Synovial giant cell tumor is a benign neoplasm, rarely reported in the form of malignant metastasis. Synovial giant cell tumor most frequently occurs on the hand, and, most uncommon, on the ankle and knee. In the present study, the authors describe a rare case of synovial giant cell tumor on the knee as well as the treatment approach. Arthroscopy has been shown, in this case, to be the optimal method for treating this kind of lesion, once it allowed a less aggressive approach, while providing good visualization of all compartments of knee joint and full tumor resection.
Full Text Available Synovial sarcoma (SS is a relatively common soft tissue tumor but only 6%-7% of cases are diagnosed in the head and neck region. It typically occurs in young adults and is slightly more common in males. The most common sites in the head and neck region are hypopharynx and parapharyngeal spaces. However, SS can also occur in tonsils, tongue, and orofacial soft tissues. It is not difficult to diagnose SS microscopically with its classic biphasic appearance, but the diagnosis of monophasic forms is more challenging especially in unusual locations. In this article, we report a rare case of monophasic SS of the mandible. The clinical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical features are discussed and compared with previously reported cases in the literature. To our knowledge, only six primary involvements have been reported in the jaws. Therefore, our case represents the seventh reported case of SS in the area.
Khalili, Maryam; Eshghyar, Nosratollah; Ensani, Fereshteh; Shakib, Pouyan Amini
Synovial sarcoma (SS) is a relatively common soft tissue tumor but only 6%-7% of cases are diagnosed in the head and neck region. It typically occurs in young adults and is slightly more common in males. The most common sites in the head and neck region are hypopharynx and parapharyngeal spaces. However, SS can also occur in tonsils, tongue, and orofacial soft tissues. It is not difficult to diagnose SS microscopically with its classic biphasic appearance, but the diagnosis of monophasic forms is more challenging especially in unusual locations. In this article, we report a rare case of monophasic SS of the mandible. The clinical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical features are discussed and compared with previously reported cases in the literature. To our knowledge, only six primary involvements have been reported in the jaws. Therefore, our case represents the seventh reported case of SS in the area. PMID:23833586
Full Text Available Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS with pleural effusion is extremely rare. A 75-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for spreading erythema on his trunk and extremities, as well as dyspnea. One year before admission, he had visited us with a 1-year history of erythema and purpura on his legs and occasional fever. Given the diagnosis of APS, we initiated a combination therapy of aspirin and warfarin, but the skin lesions had gradually worsened. A biopsy specimen revealed marked thrombosis in the dermal and subcutaneous small vessels. In addition, chest X-ray and computed tomography demonstrated a large pleural effusion in the left lung. He underwent repeated drainage of the pleural effusion but the effusion recurred. We added oral prednisolone 30 mg daily to his prior anticoagulant therapy. The skin lesions and pleural effusion rapidly improved and disappeared without any complication. Corticosteroids might be a choice of treatment for intractable pleural effusion in APS patients.
Kumar, Anil; Aggarwal, Arvind; Sahni, Virender K
Primary synovial osteochondromatosis (SOC) is known to be intra-articular and wherever it is observed outside a synovial joint, it is associated with the involvement of the nearby joint. Primary SOC has not been reported to involve a subdeltoid bursa. We present a case of a 52-year-old woman having a large number of loose bodies in a large tumor in the subdeltoid bursa. The swelling was first noticed by the patient 2 years back. Plain roentgenogram revealed soft tissue swelling only with no areas of calcification. On MRI, multiple nonosseous loose bodies were visualized in the bursa deep to the deltoid muscle. A surgical excision of subdeltoid bursa was done. A biopsy confirmed it to be cartilaginous loose bodies in synovial lining sugestive of metaplastic transformation of the synovial tissue.
Ayberk, Giyas; Ozveren, Faik; Gök, Beril; Yazgan, Aylin; Tosun, Hakan; Seçkin, Zekai; Altundal, Naci
Nine patients treated surgically for lumbar spinal synovial cyst were reviewed. Four patients had synovial, two had ganglion, one had posterior longitudinal ligament, and two had ligamentum flavum cyst. Synovial cysts had a single layer of epithelial cells in the inner layer of the cyst with continuity with the facet joint. Ganglion cyst had no continuity with the facet joint and epithelial lining was present in one and absent in one case. Posterior longitudinal ligament and ligamentum flavum cysts had no continuity with the facet joint and no epithelial lining. Magnetic resonance imaging showed the cysts better than computed tomography. All patients treated for nerve root compression or lumbar spinal canal narrowing. One patient suffered recurrence 1 year later and was reoperated. Operative results were excellent in six and good in three patients. Lumbar spinal synovial cysts should be considered in differential diagnosis of lumbar radiculopathy/neurogenic claudication and is surgically treatable.
Nielsen, P H; Jepsen, S B; Olsen, A D
Of 128 patients who underwent upper abdominal surgery, examined by standard preoperative and postoperative chest roentgenograms for the formation of postoperative pleural effusions, 89 had postoperative pleural effusions. Their presence was not related to the type of operation, infection, serum...... to postoperative sodium and water retention, and aggravated by an age-related relative cardiac decompensation. Early postoperative pleural effusions are common and do not require specific treatment....
Michail, P; Filis, C; Pikoulis, E; Varelas, P; Kyrochristos, D; Mihail, S; Bastounis, E
We report an unusual case of chest wall tumor in a 27-year-old patient. A complete resection was accomplished, and the patient had an excellent postoperative course. Histologically, the mass was confirmed to be an ectopic synovial bursa cyst. Although rare, synovial cysts should be considered in any case of a fluctuating chest wall mass. We also discuss the etiology and diagnostic approach of cystic masses of the chest wall.
Kim, Chang-Hwan; Kim, Min-Soo; Chang, Chul-Hoon
A 62-year-old female patient suffered from numbness and resting pain in the right ring and little fingers for 3 years. We confirmed cubital tunnel syndrome with electrodiagnostic study and performed the operation. We found seven firm consistent nodules, compressing the overlying the ulnar nerve, proximal to the medial epicondyle in the operation field. Histological finding showed synovial chondromatosis. We report a rare case of a patient with cubital tunnel syndrome caused by synovial chondromatosis. PMID:19096614
Parra, J.A. [Servicio Radiodiagnostico, Hospital Sierrallana, Torrelavega, Cantabria (Spain); Fernandez, M.A. [Servicio Radiodiagnostico, Hospital Universitario Marques de Valdecilla, Santander (Spain); Encinas, B. [Servicio Radiodiagnostico, Hospital Santos Reyes, Aranda de Duero, Burgos (Spain); Rico, M. [Servicio Radiodiagnostico, Hospital Universitario Marques de Valdecilla, Santander (Spain)
Objective. To assess the radiological features of Morel-Lavallee effusion in the thigh. Design and patients. A restrospective study of clinical records and radiological studies was carried out on three patients with Morel-Lavallee effusion. Results and conclusions. Ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) were able to locate the effusion in the three patients. CT demonstrated a capsule around the lesion. A fluid-fluid level was visible with both techniques. Ultrasound and CT are good methods for assessing patients with Morel-Lavallee effusion of the thigh. CT can be used to distinguish patients requiring surgical treatment from those who could be treated by conservative measures. (orig.). With 4 figs.
Full Text Available Lymphatic filariasis is a major public health problem in tropical countries and India is endemic for it. However, lymphatic filariasis presenting as pleural effusion is an unusual manifestation and finding microfilaria in pleural effusion without any lung pathology is rare. We report a case of pleural effusion without any underlying lung pathology and normal blood picture. Clinical cure occurred after treatment with diethyl-carbamazepine. Filariasis should be kept in view while considering the differential diagnosis of idiopathic pleural effusion, especially in endemic countries.
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this pictorial essay was to evaluate the sonographic features of synovial fluid in patients with arthritis. Methods: Sixty-nine patients with active synovitis (rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, osteoarthritis, septic arthritis, crystal arthropathies, post-traumatic arthritis were studied. Sonographic evaluation was performed with a AU-5 Harmonic, Esaote Biomedica (Genoa, Italy equipped with a 10-14 MHz broadband linear transducer and a Diasus Dynamic Imaging Ltd.(Livingston, Scotland UK equipped with a 8-16 MHz broadband linear transducer. Results: Six main different sonographic patterns were detected: 1 Anechoic: increased amount of homogeneous anechoic synovial fluid (exudative synovitis. 2 Cloudy: ecogenic structures (proteinaceous material. 3 Mixed: anechoic synovial fluid and proteinaceus material. 4 “Snow-storm” aspect: multiple mildly and heterogeneous echoic spots (9 out of 10 patients with acute gouty synovitis. 5 Dotted: multiple sparkling hyperechoic dots without posterior acoustic shadow (10 out of 12 patient with chondrocalcinosis. 6 Granular: irregular turbid aspect of the synovial fluid. It was present in 3 patient with septic arthritis. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that high resolution ultrasonography is able to detect different features of synovial fluid. Further studies are needed to assess both sensitivity and specificity of ultrasonography in “in vivo” synovial fluid examination.
John, E O; Russell, P T; Nam, B H; Jinn, T H; Jung, T T
Free radicals such as nitric oxide (NO) seem to be important in the pathogenesis of otitis media with effusion (OME). NO can be quantitated by measuring its metabolites, nitrate (NO(3)(-)) and nitrite (NO(2)(-)). The purpose of this study is to determine the concentrations of NO in human middle ear effusion (MEE). Samples of human MEE were collected at the time of myringotomy and tympanostomy tube insertions. The type of MEE was classified as serous (SOM), mucoid (MOM) or purulent (POM) at the time of surgery. Samples of MEE were assayed for NO metabolites (nitrate and nitrite) with colorimetric assay (Griess method). Concentrations of NO metabolites were highest in MOM followed by SOM and POM. This study suggests that NO is present in human MEE and may play an important role in the pathogenesis of OME.
Zamora, E.E. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hospital Dr. R.A Calderon Guardia, Universidad De Costa Rica, P.O. Box 628-3000, Heredia (Costa Rica); Musculoskeletal Oncology Department, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Via Pupilli 1, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Mansor, A. [Musculoskeletal Oncology Department, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Via Pupilli 1, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 59100 (Malaysia); Vanel, D. [Musculoskeletal Oncology Research Center, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Via di Barbiano 1/10, 40136 Bologna (Italy)], E-mail: email@example.com; Errani, C.; Mercuri, M. [Musculoskeletal Oncology Department, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Via Pupilli 1, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Picci, P. [Musculoskeletal Oncology Research Center, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Via di Barbiano 1/10, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Alberghini, M. [Musculoskeletal Anatomical Pathology Department, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Via di Barbiano 1/10, 40136 Bologna (Italy)
Synovial chondrosarcoma is a rare soft tissue tumor that can arise from a previous synovial chondromatosis or as de novo tumor. The clinical and radiological findings of this malignancy are very similar to those of aggressive synovial chondromatosis. Confusion with other joint pathologies makes the diagnosis of synovial chondrosarcoma difficult in most of the cases. We present one recently diagnosed and treated case of synovial chondrosarcoma. The review of our hospital database revealed one more similar case. In both cases the malignancy arose from a pre-existing synovial chondromatosis. We also present a literature review emphasizing the clinical and histological findings of this rare entity.
Conclusions: Pleural effusions in the neonatal stage may result from chylothorax, hydrops fetalis, extravasation of percutaneously inserted central venous catheter, parapneumonic effusion, congestive heart failure, or other less frequently occurring conditions. Diagnostic chest tap is required for subsequent management. Good outcome is the rule except in hydrops fetalis, which carries high mortality rate.
Nasr H. Khalil
Conclusion: VEGF pleural fluid level could differentiate between malignant and non malignant effusion, while could not differentiate between tuberculous and nontuberculous, or between parapneumonic and nonparapneumonic exudative effusions.
Gomathi. R. G.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the role of Bronchoscopy in plural effusion in cancer condition. Pleural effusion is one of the commonest problems with which patients present to the hospital. Around a million patients worldwide develop pleural effusion each year. This is a Prospective and Observational Study. All patients diagnosed to have pleural effusion by xray, clinical examination and ultrasound examination of pleura if needed will undergo informed. All 32 patients underwent bronchoscopy procedure, 30 patients had endobronchial mass and biopsy was done which was positive for malignancy and 2 patients had bronchial wash cytology positive for malignancy We conclude that bronchoscopy has a definite role in the etiological diagnosis of pleural effusion.
Jacoby, R K
Adult human articular cartilage has been maintained in organ culture for 8 days, and the culture medium, which was changed on alternate days, was pooled. Normal and rheumatoid cartilage was obtained from patients and 4 types of culture were prepared: (1) cartilage alone; (2) cartilage + D-penicillamine; (3) cartilage + homologous synovium; (4) cartilage, synovium, and D-penicillamine. The hexosamines and hexuronic acid were measured in the cartilage explants and in the medium. The quantity re...
Nero, Patrícia; Nogueira, Isabel; Vilar, Rui; Pimentão, J Bravo; Branco, Jaime C
In clinical practice crystal identification in synovial fluid is made by polarized light microscopy and with some specific stainings. Nevertheless, sometimes we are unable to identify crystals by these means, either because they are too small or because they are widespread on the fluid. To compare the identification of crystals in synovial fluid from patients with non-infectious monoarthritis but no history of local trauma or articular disease, using polarized light and electronic microscopy. We analized synovial fluid samples from patients with non-infectious monoarthritis and no history of local trauma or articular disease. First we used a polarized light microscope and alizarin red staining. Later we used conventional transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy, in order to identify and characterize crystals. Fourty-five samples from 23 synovial fluids were analyzed. Under polarized light microscopy we identified crystals on 11 samples: 3 with calcium pyrophosphate crystals, 6 with calcium basic phosphate crystals and 2 with sodium monourate crystals. On the remaining 12 samples we were unable to identify crystals. Samples were then analyzed by conventional transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy confirming the presence of the previously identified crystals. On the remainig 12 samples we were able to identify calcium basic phosphate crystals. Microcrystals seem to be an universal finding in synovial fluid of patients with osteoarthritis. The prevention of their deposition in joints might contribute to stop joint damage in this disease.
Dijkgraaf, LC; Liem, RSB; deBont, LGM
Purpose: This study analyzed the ultrastructural characteristics of the synovial membrane in various stages of osteoarthritis (OA) of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), and developed a classification of this involvement based on these morphologic characteristics. Patients and Methods: Synovial
Full Text Available Effusive constrictive pericarditis (ECP is visceral constriction in conjunction with compressive pericardial effusion. The prevalence of proven tuberculous ECP is unknown. Whilst ECP is distinguished from effusive disease on hemodynamic grounds, it is unknown whether effusive-constrictive physiology has a distinct cytokine profile. We conducted a prospective study of prevalence and cytokine profile of effusive-constrictive disease in patients with tuberculous pericardial effusion.From July 2006 through July 2009, the prevalence of ECP and serum and pericardial levels of inflammatory cytokines were determined in adults with tuberculous pericardial effusion. The diagnosis of ECP was made by combined pericardiocentesis and cardiac catheterization.Of 91 patients evaluated, 68 had tuberculous pericarditis. The 36/68 patients (52.9%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 41.2-65.4 with ECP were younger (29 versus 37 years, P=0.02, had a higher pre-pericardiocentesis right atrial pressure (17.0 versus 10.0 mmHg, P 15 mmHg (odds ratio [OR] = 48, 95%CI: 8.7-265; P 200 pg/ml (OR=10, 95%CI: 1.1, 93; P=0.04 were independently associated with ECP.Effusive-constrictive disease occurs in half of cases of tuberculous pericardial effusion, and is characterized by greater elevation in the pre-pericardiocentesis right atrial pressure and pericardial and serum IL-10 levels compared to patients with effusive non-constrictive tuberculous pericarditis.
Ntsekhe, Mpiko; Matthews, Kerryn; Syed, Faisal F.; Deffur, Armin; Badri, Motasim; Commerford, Patrick J.; Gersh, Bernard J.; Wilkinson, Katalin A.; Wilkinson, Robert J.; Mayosi, Bongani M.
Background Effusive constrictive pericarditis (ECP) is visceral constriction in conjunction with compressive pericardial effusion. The prevalence of proven tuberculous ECP is unknown. Whilst ECP is distinguished from effusive disease on hemodynamic grounds, it is unknown whether effusive-constrictive physiology has a distinct cytokine profile. We conducted a prospective study of prevalence and cytokine profile of effusive-constrictive disease in patients with tuberculous pericardial effusion. Methods From July 2006 through July 2009, the prevalence of ECP and serum and pericardial levels of inflammatory cytokines were determined in adults with tuberculous pericardial effusion. The diagnosis of ECP was made by combined pericardiocentesis and cardiac catheterization. Results Of 91 patients evaluated, 68 had tuberculous pericarditis. The 36/68 patients (52.9%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 41.2-65.4) with ECP were younger (29 versus 37 years, P=0.02), had a higher pre-pericardiocentesis right atrial pressure (17.0 versus 10.0 mmHg, P 15 mmHg (odds ratio [OR] = 48, 95%CI: 8.7-265; P 200 pg/ml (OR=10, 95%CI: 1.1, 93; P=0.04) were independently associated with ECP. Conclusion Effusive-constrictive disease occurs in half of cases of tuberculous pericardial effusion, and is characterized by greater elevation in the pre-pericardiocentesis right atrial pressure and pericardial and serum IL-10 levels compared to patients with effusive non-constrictive tuberculous pericarditis. PMID:24155965
Full Text Available Background. Primary pulmonary synovial sarcoma is a rare malignancy with a poor prognosis. Surgical resection and postoperative management of these tumors has not been previously described in pregnancy. Case. A 38-year-old pregnant woman was admitted for evaluation of a right thoracic mass found on chest radiography at 26 weeks of gestation. A computed tomography-guided biopsy was subsequently completed and demonstrated a high-grade neoplasm. A right pneumonectomy was performed at 28 weeks of gestation due to pulmonary decompensation, and pathological examination revealed a pulmonary synovial sarcoma. The patient developed a postpartum pulmonary embolism and expired 6 weeks after delivery. Conclusion. Aggressive intervention for pulmonary malignancies during pregnancy may be necessary. Complete tumor resection is the most important prognostic factor in primary pulmonary synovial sarcoma.
Chan, Chun Ling; Wabnitz, David; Bardy, Jake Jervis; Bassiouni, Ahmed; Wormald, Peter-John; Vreugde, Sarah; Psaltis, Alkis James
The adenoid pad has been considered a reservoir for bacteria in the pathogenesis of otitis media with effusion. This study aimed to characterize the middle ear microbiota in children with otitis media with effusion and establish whether a correlation exists between the middle ear and adenoid microbiota. Prospective, controlled study. Middle ear aspirates adenoid pad swabs were collected from 23 children undergoing ventilation tube insertion. Adenoid swabs from patients without ear disease were controls. Samples were analyzed using 16S rRNA sequencing on the Illumina MiSeq platform. Thirty-five middle ear samples were collected. The middle ear effusion microbiota was dominated by Alloiococcus otitidis (23% mean relative abundance), Haemophilus (22%), Moraxella (5%), and Streptococcus (5%). Alloiococcus shared an inverse correlation with Haemophilus (P = .049) and was found in greater relative abundance in unilateral effusion (P = .004). The microbiota of bilateral effusions from the same patient were similar (P otitis media with effusion microbiota were found to be dissimilar to that of the adenoid (P = .01), whereas the adenoid microbiota of otitis media with effusion and control patients were similar (P > .05) (permutational multivariate analysis of the variance). Dissimilarities between the local microbiota of the adenoid and the middle ear question the theory that the adenoid pad is a significant reservoir to the middle ear in children with otitis media with effusion. A otitidis had the greatest cumulative relative abundance, particularly in unilateral effusions, and shares an inverse correlation with the relative abundance of Haemophilus. NA Laryngoscope, 126:2844-2851, 2016. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
Full Text Available Synovial lipomatosis (also known as lipoma arborescens is a rare and benign lesion affecting synovium-lined cavities. It is characterized by hyperplasia of mature fat tissue in the subsynovial layer. Although the most commonly affected site is the knee joint, rarely additional locations such as tendon sheath and other joints are involved. We present a case of synovial lipomatosis of the glenohumeral joint in a 44-year-old man. The clinical data radiological studies and histopathologic results are described, as well as a review of the current literature.
Mattie, H; De Marie, S; Slaghuis, G; Rozing, P M; Van Strijen, E
After a 30 min i.v. infusion of 1 g cloxacillin, the concentrations of this antibiotic were measured in plasma and synovial tissue samples from 11 patients undergoing total hip replacement. Assuming passive distribution between plasma and tissue the rate constants of distribution were estimated. The mean half-life of distribution was 22 min. The concentration of free drug in synovial tissue was estimated to be 77% of the total tissue concentration. The maximum tissue drug concentration after an i.v. bolus dose is predicted to occur at about 37 min. PMID:1389954
Kamiya, Nobuhiro; Yamaguchi, Ryosuke; Adapala, Naga Suresh; Chen, Elena; Neal, David; Jack, Obrien; Thoveson, Alec; Gudmundsson, Paul; Brabham, Case; Aruwajoye, Olumide; Drissi, Hicham; Kim, Harry K W
Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease (LCPD) is a childhood hip disorder of ischemic osteonecrosis of the femoral head. Hip joint synovitis is a common feature of LCPD, but the nature and pathophysiology of the synovitis remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the chronicity of the synovitis and the inflammatory cytokines present in the synovial fluid at an active stage of LCPD. Serial MRI was performed on 28 patients. T2-weighted and gadolinium-enhanced MR images were used to assess synovial effusion and synovial enhancement (hyperemia) over time. A multiple-cytokine assay was used to determine the levels of 27 inflammatory cytokines and related factors present in the synovial fluid from 13 patients. MRI analysis showed fold increases of 5.0 ± 3.3 and 3.1 ± 2.1 in the synovial fluid volume in the affected hip compared to the unaffected hip at the initial and the last follow-up MRI, respectively. The mean duration between the initial and the last MRI was 17.7 ± 8.3 months. The volume of enhanced synovium on the contrast MRI was increased 16.5 ± 8.5 fold and 6.3 ± 5.6 fold in the affected hip compared to the unaffected hip at the initial MRI and the last follow-up MRI, respectively. In the synovial fluid of the affected hips, IL-6 protein levels were significantly increased (LCPD: 509 ± 519 pg/mL, non-LCPD: 19 ± 22 pg/mL; p = 0.0005) on the multi-cytokine assay. Interestingly, IL-1β and TNF-α levels were not elevated. In the active stage of LCPD, chronic hip synovitis and significant elevation of IL-6 are produced in the synovial fluid. Further studies are warranted to investigate the role of IL-6 on the pathophysiology of synovitis in LCPD and how it affects bone healing. © 2015 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
Full Text Available Mulla Sadra Mulla Sadra's philosophical system is built upon the belief in unique origin of world to which all diversities can be reduced. Then First Effusion debate can be taken on in this system. According to the principle which reads "from the One nothing is effused but One", contingent beings could not have been emanated from the Necessary Being in a horizontal fashion due to their diversity. Rather they have been effused from the Necessary in a vertical fashion and through a hierarchy of causes and effects. The first stage of the hierarchy is being represented by the First Effusion. Pre-Sadraeian theosophers regarded the First Effusion the first intellect in vertical chain of intellects. Mulla Sadra have two theories of the First Effusion. In some of his books he introduces the first intellect as the first entity effused from the Necessary keeping his pace with his own predecessors. But in some other works like Asfar he describes the Ever-unfolding existence as the First Effusion and takes it to be his final position. Having replaced existential gradation with causation and also individual unity of existence with existential gradation, Mulla Sadra asserts that the First Effusion could only be the Ever-unfolding Existence which is a manifestation of Divine Essence not an independent existence. It is indeed nothing but the Divine Essence although in the form of its first manifestation. Thus the Ever-unfolding Existence has three distinguished attributes which make it qualified to stand in direct relationship with Divine Essence, Existential (and not conceptual universality and comprehensiveness which enables this existence to include the other manifestions. Lack of particular limitation and determination; this is why it can reveal itself to every being in its own peculiar existential terms. Having unity while being imbued in diversity and being diversed while having unity (due to its true but shadowy unity (Rahimian, 1383: 187. First
Full Text Available Mulla Sadra Mulla Sadra's philosophical system is built upon the belief in unique origin of world to which all diversities can be reduced. Then First Effusion debate can be taken on in this system. According to the principle which reads "from the One nothing is effused but One", contingent beings could not have been emanated from the Necessary Being in a horizontal fashion due to their diversity. Rather they have been effused from the Necessary in a vertical fashion and through a hierarchy of causes and effects. The first stage of the hierarchy is being represented by the First Effusion. Pre-Sadraeian theosophers regarded the First Effusion the first intellect in vertical chain of intellects. Mulla Sadra have two theories of the First Effusion. In some of his books he introduces the first intellect as the first entity effused from the Necessary keeping his pace with his own predecessors. But in some other works like Asfar he describes the Ever-unfolding existence as the First Effusion and takes it to be his final position. Having replaced existential gradation with causation and also individual unity of existence with existential gradation, Mulla Sadra asserts that the First Effusion could only be the Ever-unfolding Existence which is a manifestation of Divine Essence not an independent existence. It is indeed nothing but the Divine Essence although in the form of its first manifestation. Thus the Ever-unfolding Existence has three distinguished attributes which make it qualified to stand in direct relationship with Divine Essence, Existential (and not conceptual universality and comprehensiveness which enables this existence to include the other manifestions. Lack of particular limitation and determination; this is why it can reveal itself to every being in its own peculiar existential terms. Having unity while being imbued in diversity and being diversed while having unity (due to its true but shadowy unity (Rahimian, 1383: 187. First
Toffart, Anne-Claire; Arbib, François; Lantuejoul, Sylvie; Roux, Jean-François; Bland, Vincent; Ferretti, Gilbert; Diab, Samia
Pulmonary signs are common in Wegener's granulomatosis (WG). However, an initial presentation including pleural effusion has not been described. We describe a case of WG in which pleural effusion was the first clinical manifestation. A 45-year-old man with dorsal pain presented with pleural thickening and effusion, and a visible nodule on a thoracic scan. A dense chronic inflammatory infiltrate was obtained by pleural biopsy and an open lung biopsy revealed necrotizing granulomatous vasculitis. Serologies were positive for antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies and antiproteinase 3 antibodies. A diagnosis of WG was conducted and the patient was started on cyclophosphamide and methylprednisolone as an initial treatment, with a favorable evolution. Although pleural effusion is rarely described in WG, this pathology must be considered in the presence of this clinical manifestation. PMID:20168982
Full Text Available Pulmonary signs are common in Wegener's granulomatosis (WG. However, an initial presentation including pleural effusion has not been described. We describe a case of WG in which pleural effusion was the first clinical manifestation. A 45-year-old man with dorsal pain presented with pleural thickening and effusion, and a visible nodule on a thoracic scan. A dense chronic inflammatory infiltrate was obtained by pleural biopsy and an open lung biopsy revealed necrotizing granulomatous vasculitis. Serologies were positive for antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies and antiproteinase 3 antibodies. A diagnosis of WG was conducted and the patient was started on cyclophosphamide and methylprednisolone as an initial treatment, with a favorable evolution. Although pleural effusion is rarely described in WG, this pathology must be considered in the presence of this clinical manifestation.
Full Text Available Silica and silicate mineral dust inhalation can cause a variety of histopathological changes in the lungs and pleura. These include pulmonary silicotic nodules, interstitial infiltrate, fibrosis, and pleural thickening. Pleural effusion is an extremely rare presentation of silicosis. To our best knowledge, there have been only 2 cases of silicosis with pleural effusion reported in medical literature. Herein, we describe a case of a 77-year-old male with almost 50 years’ history of occupational silica exposure. He presented with a 4-week history of exertional shortness of breath. He is a lifetime nonsmoker, with no known other significant pulmonary disease. He had chest X-ray which showed a right lung infiltrate and bilateral pleural thickening and effusion. Chest CT showed moderate-sized bilateral pleural effusion and thickening with multiple bilateral intrapulmonary nodules seen. He had undergone extensive workup and was diagnosed with silicosis.
Bresnihan, B.; Tak, P. P.
In rheumatoid arthritis, synovial tissue is easily accessible for systematic analysis. Blind needle biopsy is a simple and safe procedure, but is restricted to smaller tissue samples. Arthroscopic biopsy is also safe but is more complicated as it allows access to most sites in the joint and provides
Gupta, Himesh; Conrad, John; Khoury, Joseph D; McGregor, Lisa M; Krasin, Matthew J; Dome, Jeffrey S; Santana, Victor M; Davidoff, Andrew M
Pleural effusion is uncommon at diagnosis of neuroblastoma in children. Because the presence of malignant cells in pleural fluid may significantly change the management and outcome of patients with neuroblastoma, we retrospectively analyzed a cohort of neuroblastoma patients who presented with pleural effusion at the time of diagnosis to determine the incidence, presentation, stage, treatment, and outcome of these patients. We reviewed the presenting features of 295 patients with the diagnosis of neuroblastoma who received treatment at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital between 1991 and 2005. Patients were chosen for further analysis if pleural effusion had been identified on chest radiographs or computed tomography (CT) scans at diagnosis Thirty-one out of 295(10.5%) patients with neuroblastoma had pleural effusion identified at time of presentation. International neuroblastoma staging system (INSS) risk stratification was high risk in 29 cases and intermediate risk and low risk in 1 case each. The primary site of disease was abdomen in 26 patients; mediastinum in 5. We conducted cytologic analysis of pleural fluid of nine patients; the specimen of seven contained malignant cells. Eighteen of 31 patients died of progressive or recurrent disease. In patients with neuroblastoma, pleural effusion is usually associated with unfavorable biologic features and high-risk disease. Pleural fluid should be examined cytologically and at a time when the results would change the risk stratification. There was no statistically significant difference in the survival rate of the patients with high-risk neuroblastoma with or without malignant pleural effusion. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc
Murthy, Sudish C; Okereke, Ikenna; Mason, David P; Rice, Thomas W
Complicated pleural effusions are difficult to manage with conventional strategies. In this study, we review the safety, efficacy, and durability of PleurX catheters (Denver Biomedical, Golden, CO) for managing complicated pleural effusions and describe a patient population who might benefit. From July 1999 to February 2003, 63 PleurX catheters were placed in 58 symptomatic patients (an additional five had bilateral catheters) to manage complicated pleural effusions. Patients selected for catheter placement tended to have poor performance status (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group < or =2) or had failed standard therapies. Of the 63 catheters, 52 (83%) were placed because of malignant complicated pleural effusions. A registry of patients was constructed, and data were obtained from review of medical records. Nonparametric estimates of freedom from reintervention and overall survival were obtained by the Kaplan-Meier method. Catheter-related complications were noted in four of 58 patients (7%) and included one each of pneumothorax, seroma, empyema, and pain syndrome. Freedom from reintervention for effusion management was 95%. Of the patients, 86% (50 of 58) experienced dyspnea relief. There were no procedure-related mortalities. Catheters remained functional up to 330 days, and four of 63 (6%) required one-time thrombolysis with tissue plasminogen activator. PleurX catheters are safe, effective, and durable solutions for complicated pleural effusions and seem to provide an attractive alternative for patients who have few other palliative options. We consider the catheters as first-line therapy for these patients.
Torres Berdeguez, Mirta Bárbara; Thomas, Sylvia; Rafful, Patricia; Arruda Sanchez, Tiago; Medeiros Oliveira Ramos, Susie; Souza Albernaz, Marta; Vasconcellos de Sá, Lidia; Lopes de Souza, Sergio Augusto; Mas Milian, Felix; Silva, Ademir Xavier da
Recently, there has been a growing interest in a methodology for dose planning in radiosynoviorthesis to substitute fixed activity. Clinical practice based on fixed activity frequently does not embrace radiopharmaceutical dose optimization in patients. The aim of this paper is to propose and discuss a dose planning methodology considering the radiological findings of interest obtained by three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging combined with Monte Carlo simulation in radiosynoviorthesis treatment applied to hemophilic arthropathy. The parameters analyzed were: surface area of the synovial membrane (synovial size), synovial thickness and joint effusion obtained by 3D MRI of nine knees from nine patients on a SIEMENS AVANTO 1.5 T scanner using a knee coil. The 3D Slicer software performed both the semiautomatic segmentation and quantitation of these radiological findings. A Lucite phantom 3D MRI validated the quantitation methodology. The study used Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended code version 2.6 for calculating the S-values required to set up the injected activity to deliver a 100 Gy absorbed dose at a determined synovial thickness. The radionuclides assessed were: 90Y, 32P, 188Re, 186Re, 153Sm, and 177Lu, and the present study shows their effective treatment ranges. The quantitation methodology was successfully tested, with an error below 5% for different materials. S-values calculated could provide data on the activity to be injected into the joint, considering no extra-articular leakage from joint cavity. Calculation of effective treatment range could assist with the therapeutic decision, with an optimized protocol for dose prescription in RSO. Using 3D Slicer software, this study focused on segmentation and quantitation of radiological features such as joint effusion, synovial size, and thickness, all obtained by 3D MRI in patients' knees with hemophilic arthropathy. The combination of synovial size and thickness with the parameters obtained by Monte Carlo
Human Herpesvirus Type-8-associated Large B Cell Lymphoma (HHV-8-LBL). A Non- Serous Extra-Cavitary Variant of Primary Effusion Lymphoma in an HIV-Infected Man: A Case Report and Review of the Literature
Foster, William R.; Bischin, Alina; Dorer, Russell; Aboulafia, David M.
BACKGROUND Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a rare non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtype primarily seen in human immunodeficiency virus (HlV)-infected individuals with low CD4+ cell counts and elevated HIV viral loads. It is always associated with human herpesvirus type-8 (HHV-8) and in 80% of cases is also associated with Epstein Barr Virus (EBV). Less commonly, PEL presents in patients with advanced age and other conditions associated with altered immunity, including malignancy, liver cirrhosis, and immunosuppressive medications. It is a tumor of B-cell lineage; however, it shows a “null” phenotype, rarely expressing pan-B cell surface antigens. It does usually express CD45, CD30, CD38, CD138 and MUM1 and is characterized by lymphomatous effusions in body cavities but not lymphadenopathy. It is an aggressive lymphoma; average median survival time is less than a year. HHV-8-associated large B-cell Lymphoma (HHV-8-LBL) is a second variant of PEL that is both solid and extra-cavitary. It has immunoblastic and/or anaplastic morphological features, a distinct immuno-histochemical staining pattern, and may have a different clinical presentation than classic PEL. METHODS We describe the case of a 57-year-old HIV-infected man who presented with a slow growing and asymptomatic abdominal mass. An excisional biopsy showed malignant large cells with prominent cytoplasm that were positive for pan-B cell antigen CD20, HHV-8 and EBV, and negative for CD138, CD10, BCL-6, CD3 and CD30. Ki-67 labeling index was 90%. He was diagnosed with stage IIIA HHV-8-LBL, and he was treated with six cycles of R-EPOCH (rituximab, etoposide, vincristine, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, and prednisone) infusion chemotherapy. He remains in complete remission (CR) 12 months post-treatment. We also performed a Medline and Embase search to better understand the clinical findings of this patient and the unique attributes of HHV-8-LBL. Focusing our search on English language articles, we identified 83
Full Text Available The detection of breast carcinoma cells in effusions is associated with rapidly fatal outcome, but these cells are poorly characterized at the molecular level. This study compared the gene array signatures of breast carcinoma cells in primary carcinomas and effusions. The genetic signature of 10 primary tumors and 10 effusions was analyzed using the Array-Ready Oligo set for the Human Genome platform. Results for selected genes were validated using PCR, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. Array analysis identified 255 significantly downregulated and 96 upregulated genes in the effusion samples. The majority of differentially expressed genes were part of pathways involved in focal adhesion, extracellular matrix-cell interaction, and the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. Genes that were upregulated in effusions included KRT8, BCAR1, CLDN4, VIL2, while DCN, CLDN19, ITGA7, and ITGA5 were downregulated at this anatomic site. PCR, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry confirmed the array findings for BCAR1, CLDN4, VIL2, and DCN. Our data show that breast carcinoma cells in primary carcinomas and effusions have different gene expression signatures, and differentially express a large number of molecules related to adhesion, motility, and metastasis. These differences may have a critical role in designing therapy and in prognostication for patients with metastatic disease localized to the serosal cavities.
Parra, B Andrea; Valencia, Z Natalia Andrea; Espinal, B David Andrés; Maya, A Isabel Cristina
Low-flow vascular malformation, which usually develops during the first stage of infancy, is a rare cause of recurrent effusion of the knee. History, laboratory and X-rays are usually non-specific. To describe a rare disease in pediatrics, emphasizing the correct classification and suspicion. A case is presented of a two-year-old patient with a history of effusion of the right knee who required multiple hospitalizations and antibiotic treatments. Laboratory work-up was normal. Plain X-rays of the knee revealed no bone changes. MR imaging reported low-flow vascular malformation. Surgical resection was performed, evidencing vascular lesion among the muscle fibers of the vastus lateralis of quadriceps until the capsule of the knee, as well as dissection of the fibers until the vastus lateralis of the right leg. Histology was consistent with low-flow vascular malformation. Due to the benign outcome and favorable evolution, an outpatient management was possible. Although low-flow synovial vascular malformation is a rare disease among the pediatric population, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with repeated hemarthrosis and no history of either coagulopathy or hemophilia. Copyright © 2015. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.
Agarwal, Ruchi; Salimath, C. S.; Alam, Khursheed
Main aim of this article is to provide a comprehensive overview of biomechanical aspects of synovial joints of human body. This can be considered as a part of continued research work carried out by various authors over a period of time. Almost every person once in life time has suffered from joint disease; this has triggered intensive investigation into various biomechanical aspects of synovial joints. This has also resulted into an increase of arthroplasty with introduction to various clinical trials. From last few decades new improvements and ideas for new technologies have been introduced to decrease the incidence of joint problem. In this paper a literature survey of recent advances, developments and recognition of wear and tear of human joint is presented. Wavelet method in Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is relatively a new research field. This review aims to provide a glimpse of wavelet methodology in CFD. Wavelets methodology has played a vital role in the solution of governing equation of synovial fluid flow in the synovial joints represented by Reynolds equation and its modified version.
Tong, Kwok-Man; Shieh, Dong-Chen; Chen, Chao-Ping; Tzeng, Chung-Yuh; Wang, Shun-Ping; Huang, Kui-Chou; Chiu, Yung-Cheng; Fong, Yi-Chin; Tang, Chih-Hsin
Leptin, the adipocyte-secreted hormone that centrally regulates weight control, is known to function as an immunomodulatory regulator. We investigated the signaling pathway involved in IL-8 production caused by leptin in both rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts (RASF) and osteoarthritis synovial fibroblasts (OASF). RASF and OASF expressed the long (OBRl) and short (OBRs) isoforms of the leptin receptor. Leptin caused concentration- and time-dependent increases in IL-8 production. Leptin-mediated IL-8 production was attenuated by OBRl receptor antisense oligonucleotide, JAK2 inhibitor or STAT3 small interference RNA (siRNA). Transfection with insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 siRNA or dominant-negative mutant of p85 and Akt or pretreatment with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor (Ly294002 and wortmannin), Akt inhibitor, NF-kappaB inhibitor (PDTC) and NF-kappaB inhibitor peptide also inhibited the potentiating action of leptin. Stimulation of RASF with leptin activated IkappaB kinase alpha/beta (IKK alpha/beta), p65 phosphorylation at Ser(276), p65 translocation from the cytosol to the nucleus, and kappaB-luciferase activity. Moreover, pretreatment with p300 inhibitor (curcumin) also blocked IL-8 expression. The binding of p65 to the NF-kappaB elements, as well as the recruitment of p300 and the enhancement of histone H3 acetylation on the IL-8 promoter was enhanced by leptin, which was inhibited by wortmannin, Akt inhibitor or IRS-1 siRNA. These results suggest that leptin increased IL-8 production in synovial fibroblast via the OBRl/JAK2/STAT3 pathway, as well as the activation of IRS1/PI3K/Akt/NF-kappaB-dependent pathway and the subsequent recruitment of p300.
Ng, C T
INTRODUCTION: Hypoxia is a microenvironmental feature in the inflamed joint, which promotes survival advantage for cells. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship of partial oxygen pressure in the synovial tissue (tPO(2)) in patients with inflammatory arthritis with macroscopic\\/microscopic inflammation and local levels of proinflammatory mediators. METHODS: Patients with inflammatory arthritis underwent full clinical assessment and video arthroscopy to quantify macroscopic synovitis and measure synovial tPO(2) under direct visualisation. Cell specific markers (CD3 (T cells), CD68 (macrophages), Ki67 (cell proliferation) and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labelling (cell apoptosis)) were quantified by immunohistology. In vitro migration was assessed in primary and normal synoviocytes (synovial fibroblast cells (SFCs)) using a wound repair scratch assay. Levels of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), interleukin 1beta (IL1beta), interferon gamma (IFNgamma), IL6, macrophage inflammatory protein 3alpha (MIP3alpha) and IL8 were quantified, in matched serum and synovial fluid, by multiplex cytokine assay and ELISA. RESULTS: The tPO(2) was 22.5 (range 3.2-54.1) mm Hg and correlated inversely with macroscopic synovitis (r=-0.421, p=0.02), sublining CD3 cells (-0.611, p<0.01) and sublining CD68 cells (r=-0.615, p<0.001). No relationship with cell proliferation or apoptosis was found. Primary and normal SFCs exposed to 1% and 3% oxygen (reflecting the median tPO(2) in vivo) induced cell migration. This was coupled with significantly higher levels of synovial fluid tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), IL1beta, IFNgamma and MIP3alpha in patients with tPO(2) <20 mm Hg (all p values <0.05). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to show a direct in vivo correlation between synovial tPO(2), inflammation and cell migration, thus it is proposed that hypoxia is a possible primary driver of inflammatory processes in the arthritic joint.
Alqalyoobi, Shehabaldin; Vaidya, Omkar; Abu Ghanimah, Al-Ma'Mon; Elkhanany, Ahmed; Gohar, Ashraf
A 42-year-old African American female with chronic cocaine use for 20 years, presented with two-day history of exertional shortness of breath and pleuritic chest pain. She was admitted three years back with acute kidney injury and skin rashes. At that time, skin biopsy was consistent with leukocytoclastic vasculitis and renal biopsy revealed proliferative glomerulonephritis. She responded to oral prednisone and mycophenolate with complete recovery of her kidney functions. Skin rash was waxing and waning over the last two years. On the second admission, patient was found to have large pleural effusion on computerized tomography scan and pericardial effusion on echocardiogram as shown in the figures. Pleural fluid analysis was exudative. Her serology was negative for ANA (antineutrophilic antibody) and anti-dsDNA (double stranded DNA). Complements levels were normal. She had positive low titers of ANCA levels. The patient was started on a course of prednisone for 6 months. Her pleural and pericardial effusion resolved completely on follow-up imaging with computerized tomography scan and echocardiogram. This case is unique since the pericardial and pleural effusions developed without any other etiology in the setting of cocaine; hence, we describe this clinical syndrome as cocaine induced pleural and pericardial effusions syndrome (CIPP).
Full Text Available A 42-year-old African American female with chronic cocaine use for 20 years, presented with two-day history of exertional shortness of breath and pleuritic chest pain. She was admitted three years back with acute kidney injury and skin rashes. At that time, skin biopsy was consistent with leukocytoclastic vasculitis and renal biopsy revealed proliferative glomerulonephritis. She responded to oral prednisone and mycophenolate with complete recovery of her kidney functions. Skin rash was waxing and waning over the last two years. On the second admission, patient was found to have large pleural effusion on computerized tomography scan and pericardial effusion on echocardiogram as shown in the figures. Pleural fluid analysis was exudative. Her serology was negative for ANA (antineutrophilic antibody and anti-dsDNA (double stranded DNA. Complements levels were normal. She had positive low titers of ANCA levels. The patient was started on a course of prednisone for 6 months. Her pleural and pericardial effusion resolved completely on follow-up imaging with computerized tomography scan and echocardiogram. This case is unique since the pericardial and pleural effusions developed without any other etiology in the setting of cocaine; hence, we describe this clinical syndrome as cocaine induced pleural and pericardial effusions syndrome (CIPP.
Burrafato, V.; Campanacci, D.A.; Capanna, R. [Department of Orthopedic Oncology, Centro Traumatologico Ortopedico, Florence (Italy); Franchi, A. [Institute of Pathology, University of Florence, Florence (Italy)
A 31-year-old woman presented with painful swelling in the right paravertebral region that had been present for 2 years. Radiography and CT revealed an area of increased density due to multiple calcifications localized at the fourth lumbar vertebra. Histological examination revealed that the lesion consisted of nodules of hyaline cartilage, with focal areas of calcification, growing within synovial tissue. (orig.) With 5 figs., 11 refs.
Kohno, Yuji; Mizuno, Mitsuru; Ozeki, Nobutake; Katano, Hisako; Komori, Keiichiro; Fujii, Shizuka; Otabe, Koji; Horie, Masafumi; Koga, Hideyuki; Tsuji, Kunikazu; Matsumoto, Mikio; Kaneko, Haruka; Takazawa, Yuji; Muneta, Takeshi; Sekiya, Ichiro
Mesenchymal stem cells derived from the synovial membrane (synovial MSCs) are a candidate cell source for regenerative medicine of cartilage and menisci due to their high chondrogenic ability. Regenerative medicine can be expected for RA patients with the inflammation well-controlled as well as OA patients and transplantation of synovial MSCs would also be a possible therapeutic treatment. Some properties of synovial MSCs vary dependent on the diseases patients have, and whether or not the pathological condition of RA affects the chondrogenesis of synovial MSCs remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to compare the properties of primary synovial MSCs between RA and OA patients. Human synovial tissue was harvested during total knee arthroplasty from the knee joints of eight patients with RA and OA respectively. Synovial nucleated cells were cultured for 14 days. Total cell yields, surface markers, and differentiation potentials were analyzed for primary synovial MSCs. Nucleated cell number per 1 mg synovium was 8.4 ± 3.9 thousand in RA and 8.0 ± 0.9 thousand in OA. Total cell number after 14-day culture/1 mg synovium was 0.7 ± 0.4 million in RA and 0.5 ± 0.3 million in OA, showing no significant difference between in RA and OA. Cells after 14-day culture were mostly positive for CD44, CD73, CD90, CD105, negative for CD45 both in RA and OA. There was no significant difference for the cartilage pellet weight and sGAG content per pellet between in RA and OA. Both oil red O-positive colony rate and alizarin red-positive colony rate were similar in RA and OA. Yields, surface markers and chondrogenic potential of primary synovial MSCs in RA were comparable to those in OA. Synovium derived from RA patients can be the cell source of MSCs for cartilage and meniscus regeneration.
Eiken, O; Rank, F
The digital synovial sheath constitutes an important component of the delicate mechanism of flexor tendon nutrition and gliding function, In the present study the true nature of the inner cell layers of secondary healed defects in the tendon sheath as well as of free tendon sheath autografts were studied. Leghorn chickens were used as experimental animals and the gradual development of the pseudosheath as well as the healing of sheath autografts were studied both macroscopically and histologically including transmission electron miscroscopy. Synovial regeneration by extension from intact parts of the sheath was never observed and the pseudosheath formed around silastic rods consisted of granulation tissue with fibroblasts and macrophages. The free tendon sheath autografts demonstrated a normal process of healing at the edges of the defect. Synovial regeneration appeared to be that of metaplasia and proliferation of fibroblasts and macrophages. This phenomenon was demonstrable both in the secondary healed defects and more convincingly in the sheath autografts. Further, the silastic rod was found to induce foreign body reaction in the healing synovium. It is concluded that grafting of autologous tendon sheath tissue seems to be a promising method for restoration of defects in the digital tendon sheath.
Full Text Available Abstract To our knowledge, this is the first case of synovial osteochondromatosis in a patient presenting with a double patella-like condition. The true duplication of the patella, which is called double patella, is extremely rare. In our case, the operative and histopathological findings showed that the double patella-like condition was secondarily induced by synovial osteochondromatosis. Synovial osteochondromatosis should be considered as a differential diagnosis for congenital double patella.
Yun, Gabin; Kang, Yusuhn; Ahn, Joong Mo; Lee, Eugene; Lee, Joon Woo; Oh, Joo Han; Kang, Heung Sik
The purpose of this study is to analyze MRI findings associated with posterior decentering of the humeral head on shoulder MR arthrogram. A total of 255 MR arthrograms were obtained during a 10-month period. MR arthrograms in patients with posterior decentering of the humeral head (n = 33) were reviewed and compared with those of randomly selected control group without posterior decentering (n = 66). MR arthrograms were retrospectively evaluated by two observers for posterior factors (posterior synovial proliferation, posterior capsular thickening, and posterior labral abnormality), rotator cuff factors related to fatty degeneration, glenoid version, and anterior factors (subcoracoid bursa effusion and rotator interval tear). The chi-square test, Fisher exact test, and linear-by-linear association were used for comparison of categoric data; the t test was used for comparison of the glenoid version; and multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis was performed. At univariate analysis, posterior synovial proliferation (27.3% [9/33] in the posterior decentering group vs 6.1% [4/66] in the control group; p = 0.003); posterior capsule thickening (21.2% [7/33] vs 0.0% [0/66]; p < 0.001); fatty infiltration of the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and teres minor (linear-by-linear association values, 7.944, 10.496, and 5.985, respectively; p = 0.005, 0.001, and 0.014, respectively); and rotator interval tear (51.5% [17/33] vs 30.3% [20/66]; p < 0.04) were more frequently found in the posterior decentering group, with a statistically significant difference. At multivariate analysis, only the posterior synovial proliferation was significantly associated with posterior decentering of the humeral head (odds ratio, 7.675; 95% CI, 2.159-27.288). Posterior decentering of the humeral head is most significantly associated with posterior synovial proliferation. In addition, rotator cuff interval abnormalities and rotator cuff atrophy are associated with posterior decentering of
Berckmans, René J.; Nieuwland, Rienk; Kraan, Maarten C.; Schaap, Marianne C. L.; Pots, Desirée; Smeets, Tom J. M.; Sturk, Augueste; Tak, Paul P.
Synovial fluid from patients with various arthritides contains procoagulant, cell-derived microparticles. Here we studied whether synovial microparticles modulate the release of chemokines and cytokines by fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS). Microparticles, isolated from the synovial fluid of
Ferreiro, Lucía; San José, Esther; González-Barcala, Francisco Javier; Suárez-Antelo, Juan; Toubes, M Elena; Valdés, Luis
Pleural involvement in sarcoidosis is uncommon and appears in several forms. To document the incidence and characteristics of pleural effusion in sarcoidosis patients, a review of the cases diagnosed in our centre between January 2001 and December 2012 was carried out. One hundred and ninety-five patients with sarcoidosis were identified; three (two men and one woman) presented with unilateral pleural effusion (1.5%): one in the right side and two in the left. Two were in stageii and one was in stageiv. The pleural fluid of the two patients who underwent thoracocentesis was predominantly lymphocytic. One of these patients presented chylothorax and the other had high CA-125levels. In general, these effusions are lymphocyte-rich, paucicellular, serous exudates (sometimes chylothorax) and contain proportionally higher levels of protein than LDH. Most cases are treated with corticosteroids, although it may resolve spontaneously. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Porcel, J M; Valencia, H; Bielsa, S
The identification of parapneumonic effusions (PPE) requiring pleural drainage is challenging. We aimed to determine the diagnostic accuracy of radiological and pleural fluid findings in discriminating between PPE that need drainage (complicated PPE (CPPE)) and those that could be resolved with antibiotics only (uncomplicated PPE (UPPE)). A retrospective review of 641 consecutive PPE, of which 393 were categorized as CPPE and 248 as UPPE. Demographics, radiological (size and laterality on a chest radiograph) and pleural fluid parameters (pus, bacterial cultures, biochemistries) were compared among groups. Logistic regression was performed to determine variables useful for predicting chest drainage, and receiver-operating characteristic curves assisted in the selection of the best cutoff values. According to the likelihood ratios (LR), findings increasing the probability of chest tube usage the most were: effusions occupying ≥1/2 of the hemithorax (LR 13.5), pleural fluid pH ≤7.15 (LR 6.2), pleural fluid glucose ≤40mg/dL (LR 5.6), pus (LR 4.8), positive pleural fluid cultures (LR 3.6), and pleural fluid lactate dehydrogenase >2000U/L (LR 3.4). In the logistic regression analysis only the first two were selected as significant predictors of CPPE. In non-purulent effusions, the effusion's size and pleural fluid pH retained their discriminatory properties, in addition to a pleural fluid C-reactive protein (CRP) level >100mg/L. Large radiological effusions and a pleural fluid pH ≤7.15 were the best predictors for chest drainage in patients with PPE. In the subgroup of patients with non-purulent effusions, pleural fluid CRP also contributed to CPPE identification. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.
Newman, B.; Oh, K.S.; Park, S.C.
Eight (23%) of 35 children with acute pericardial effusions due to infection or juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) had associated transient pulmonary edema demonstrated on plain chest radiographs. The presence or absence of radiographic pulmonary edema correlated well with clinical and hemodynamic parameters in patients with JRA but not in those with infectious pericarditis. There was no definite relationship between radiographic edema and amount of pericardial fluid as estimated echocardiographically or removed at pericardiocentesis. Rapidity of pericardial fluid accumulation could not be assessed in this study. Children of young age with underlying JRA were the most likely subjects to have radiographic pulmonary edema in conjunction with an acute pericardial effusion.
Macedo, F. [Dept. of Radiology, Hospital Geral de Santo Antonio, Porto (Portugal); Dept. of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom); McHugh, K. [Dept. of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom); Goldblatt, D. [Dept. of Immunology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom)
Pericardial involvement in chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is very rare. We present two children with known CGD and pericardial effusions in whom no microbial cause for the effusions was found. (orig.)
Kreiner-Møller, E; Chawes, B L K; Thomasen, Per Caye
Childhood otitis media with effusion is a common disease and a link to allergic diseases has been suggested.......Childhood otitis media with effusion is a common disease and a link to allergic diseases has been suggested....
Full Text Available Scott E Pautler,1 David J Browning2 1Department of Ophthalmology, University of South Florida, Morsani College of Medicine, Tampa, FL, USA; 2Charlotte Ear Eye Nose and Throat Associates, Charlotte, NC, USA Abstract: Uveal effusion syndrome usually causes peripheral chorioretinal detachment, but posterior effusion may present as isolated macular edema with serous macular detachment in the setting of hyperopia and a thickened posterior choroid. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors may be effective to treat this condition. Keywords: uveal effusion, serous, macular detachment, macular edema
Full Text Available A 9-year-old male cat was presented for evaluation of chronic weight loss and was subsequently diagnosed with pericardial effusion. The effusion was quantified as a septic exudate caused by the anaerobic bacterium Peptostreptococcus. Antibiotic therapy resulted in complete resolution of the pericardial effusion. As Peptostreptococcus is a common oral bacterium and the cat had a previous dental procedure, it is speculated that the pericardial effusion was secondary to bacteraemia from the dental procedure.
Natiella, Joseph R; Burch, Lindsay; Fries, Kristin M; Upton, L George; Edsberg, Laura E
The objective of this study was to investigate the content of synovial fluid aspirates and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc tissue for collagen I and total fibronectin in patients with closed lock. Fibronectin contains dual properties of assisting with wound healing and inducing cartilage degradation. Native fibronectin has been shown to assist with wound repair, whereas particular fibronectin fragments may degrade cartilage. In addition, collagen I is the major supporting protein of the TMJ disc and will degrade as osteoarthritis progresses. Fibronectin or collagen I expression in human TMJ synovial aspirates and disc tissue may indicate the proteins' involvement in closed lock. The hypothesis of this study is that TMJ discs and serum of patients with closed lock will contain an increased amount of fibronectin and decreased amount of collagen I. We analyzed a total of 8 diseased TMJ discs and 4 diseased synovial fluid aspirates. For our control samples, we assessed 5 synovial samples from healthy patients and control skin samples. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay allowed us to measure the total amount of fibronectin and collagen I in synovial aspirates. Furthermore, we used light microscopy to assess TMJ disc histology and collagen architecture in control skin samples. Lastly, using fluorescent staining, we examined fibronectin and collagen I expression in TMJ discs. We compared the fluorescent staining and light microscopy results of both proteins within each disc to confirm fibronectin and collagen I expression. Disc specimens with advanced morphologic pathology showed significant labeling for fibronectin in 3 of 3 cases and for collagen I in 4 of 4 cases. There was no considerable difference in detection of either fibronectin or collagen I in TMJ synovial aspirates from patients with advanced disc pathology compared with controls. The levels of fibronectin and collagen I in the TMJ disc and synovial fluid may be influenced by the stage of disease
Full Text Available Introduction. The purpose of this study is to describe the inner synovial membrane (SM of the anterior elbow capsule, both qualitatively and quantitatively. Materials and Methods. Twenty-two cadaveric human elbows were dissected and the distal humerus and SM attachments were digitized using a digitizer. The transepicondylar line (TEL was used as the primary descriptor of various landmarks. The distance between the medial epicondyle and medial SM edge, SM apex overlying the coronoid fossa, the central SM nadir, and the apex of the SM insertion overlying the radial fossa and distance from the lateral epicondyle to lateral SM edge along the TEL were measured and further analyzed. Gender and side-to-side statistical comparisons were calculated. Results. The mean age of the subjects was 80.4 years, with six male and five female cadavers. The SM had a distinctive double arched attachment overlying the radial and coronoid fossae. No gender-based or side-to-side quantitative differences were noted. In 18 out of 22 specimens (81.8%, an infolding extension of the SM was observed overlying the medial aspect of the trochlea. The SM did not coincide with the outer fibrous attachment in any specimen. Conclusion. The humeral footprint of the synovial membrane of the anterior elbow capsule is more complex and not as capacious as commonly understood from the current literature. The synovial membrane nadir between the two anterior fossae may help to explain and hence preempt technical difficulties, a reduction in working arthroscopic volume in inflammatory and posttraumatic pathologies. This knowledge should allow the surgeon to approach this aspect of the anterior elbow compartment space with the confidence that detachment of this synovial attachment, to create working space, does not equate to breaching the capsule. Alternatively, stripping the synovial attachment from the anterior humerus does not constitute an anterior capsular release.
Marcelo Torquato Toneline
Multiple myeloma is a hematologic malignant tumor of plasma cells, sometimes associated with pleural effusion. This, in most cases, is associated to infectious complications. Pleural effusion as the onset or progression of the disease itself is rare. This case reports a young male, who presented recurrent pleural effusions, diagnosed with multiple myeloma at diagnosis.
Ohashi, Y.; Nakai, Y.; Ikeoka, H.; Esaki, Y.; Koshimo, H.; Onoyama, Y.
Ten guinea pigs were irradiated with 30 Gy of x-radiation. Five were killed on the eighth day after irradiation, and the remainder were killed at the sixteenth day after irradiation. At the time of death, examination was made of the ciliary activity and the fine structure of the middle ear mucosa. Serous effusion was found in each tympanic cavity of all animals. It was shown also that the guinea pig, when irradiated with 30 Gy of x-radiation, exhibits pathologic abnormalities similar to those in humans with otitis media with effusion: degeneration of cilia or ciliated cells and changes in the vascular system (capillary injury and increased capillary permeability). Functional examinations showed that x-ray irradiation has delayed effects on ciliary activity, and the effects are much greater at the sixteenth day than at the eighth day. We speculate that the accumulation of effusion can be, at least partially, a consequence of ciliary dysfunction. The induction of sterile effusion by the use of x-ray irradiation provides a unique animal model for chronic otitis media with effusion of the serous type.
Full Text Available Background. Malignant pericardial effusion occurs in one tenth of all cancers. It is a very serious disorder that is mainly a secondary process due to metastasis because primary neoplasms of the pericardium such as mesotheliomas, sarcomas being exceedingly rare.
Full Text Available Rupture of the diaphragm is almost always due to major trauma. We present here an unusual and rare case of late presentation of diaphragmatic hernia after an innocuous injury. The patient was initially misdiagnosed as a left pleural effusion on the basis of chest X-ray and ultrasound findings. Finally, the diagnosis was confirmed on computerized scanning.
Yu, Yuan-quan; Lou, Bing-hong; Yan, Hai-chao; Ma, Rui; Xu, Yuan-liang; Xu, Jing-hong; Bhugowar, Naamrata; Jin, Yun; Peng, Shu-you; Li, Jiang-tao
Hepatobiliary cystadenomas are rare cystic neoplasms that often occur in middle aged women. The exact etiology of these tumors is unknown. Diagnosis is often delayed in these cases. However, misdiagnosis and inappropriate treatment may result in unfavorable outcome. We report a case of hepatobiliary cystadenoma with pleural effusion. We also review the literature and discuss the current diagnostic and treatment modalities.
Background: The complex of Down Syndromehypothyroidism-pericardial effusion is largely unreported in sub-Sahara. Objective: To present and highlight an unusual manifestation of hypothyroidism. Methods: A 16-year-old girl with confirmed Down Syndrome presented with complaints of generalised body swelling of eight ...
Full Text Available Malignant pleural effusion (MPE is a common clinical problem caused by cancers. Pleural effusion can be the first sign of cancer in more than 25% of patients. Lung cancer and breast cancer are the most common cancers that metastasize to the pleura in men and women, respectively. Other cancers, including, but not limited to, lymphomas, ovarian cancer, stomach cancer, and several unknown primary cancers can also lead to MPE. Dyspnea and chest pain are the most common symptoms of MPE along with other symptoms such as a cough, weight loss, anorexia, fatigue, and weakness. Aggravation of these symptoms is closely related to the rate of accumulation of pleural effusion. Treatment options to MPE are determined by the type and extent of the underlying malignancy. The major goals of the treatment are to relieve symptoms, restore functions, improve the quality of life, and minimize the duration of hospital stay and costs. Although some patients can be treated with systemic therapies, most of these treatments are temporary, and MPE would recur soon. Hence, further palliative treatments to effectively control pleural effusions and relieve symptoms are necessary. This review addresses the pathophysiology of MPE and the treatment options for patients with MPE.
Roman J Krawetz
Full Text Available Mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs can differentiate into osteoblasts, adipocytes, and chondrocytes, and are in part responsible for maintaining tissue integrity. Recently, a progenitor cell population has been found within the synovial fluid that shares many similarities with bone marrow MPCs. These synovial fluid MPCs (sfMPCs share the ability to differentiate into bone and fat, with a bias for cartilage differentiation. In this study, sfMPCs were isolated from human and canine synovial fluid collected from normal individuals and those with osteoarthritis (human: clinician-diagnosed, canine: experimental to compare the differentiation potential of CD90+ vs. CD90- sfMPCs, and to determine if CD90 (Thy-1 is a predictive marker of synovial fluid progenitors with chondrogenic capacity in vitro.sfMPCs were derived from synovial fluid from normal and OA knee joints. These cells were induced to differentiate into chondrocytes and analyzed using quantitative PCR, immunofluorescence, and electron microscopy.The CD90+ subpopulation of sfMPCs had increased chondrogenic potential compared to the CD90- population. Furthermore, sfMPCs derived from healthy joints did not require a micro-mass step for efficient chondrogenesis. Whereas sfMPCs from OA synovial fluid retain the ability to undergo chondrogenic differentiation, they require micro-mass culture conditions.Overall, this study has demonstrated an increased chondrogenic potential within the CD90+ fraction of human and canine sfMPCs and that this population of cells derived from healthy normal joints do not require a micro-mass step for efficient chondrogenesis, while sfMPCs obtained from OA knee joints do not differentiate efficiently into chondrocytes without the micro-mass procedure. These results reveal a fundamental shift in the chondrogenic ability of cells isolated from arthritic joint fluids, and we speculate that the mechanism behind this change of cell behavior is exposure to the altered
AbStRACt. Prostatic synovial sarcomas are exceedingly rare. To our knowledge, only six primary cases have been reported so far. We herein describe a primary synovial sarcoma of the prostate seen in a 25- year-old male patient, the youngest patient seen with this disease to date. He was referred to our department with ...
Sundaram, M.; Wolverson, M.K.; Heiberg, E.; Shields, J.B.; McGuire, M.H.; Fletcher, J.
Three patients with histologically differing lesions of synovial origin and two with synovial cysts, one of which was a dissecting popliteal cyst, were examined by magnetic resonance imaging (MR) and computerized tomography (CT). The three histologically proven synovial lesions were synovial sarcoma, diffuse giant cell tumor of tendon sheath, and synovial chondromatosis. In two of the five patients MR provided better anatomic and morphologic appreciation than CT, while in the others they were of equal value. CT demonstrated calcification in two of the lesions while on MR calcification could be identified in only one patient where it outlined the mass. MR did not demonstrate calcification in the substance of the diffuse giant cell tumor of tendon sheath. Coronal, transverse, and sagittal images of magnetic resonance graphically demonstrated the extent of the soft tissue masses and their relationship to bone, vessels, and soft tissue structures. Synovial sarcoma had a shorter T/sub 1/ than diffuse giant cell tumor of tendon sheath (these two lesions being of comparable size) and also had a uniformly longer T/sub 2/. The dissecting popliteal cyst showed the most intense signals on the T/sub 1/ weighted images, while the uncomplicated synovial cyst showed a long T/sub 1/. On the T/sub 2/ weighted images, each type of cyst showed a long T/sub 2/. The variance and overlap of intensity of MR signals suggest limited specificity in predicting the histologic nature of the synovial lesion.
Bruijn, D.R.H. de; Allander, S.V.; Dijk, A.H.A.; Willemse, M.P.; Thijssen, J.; Groningen, J.J.M. van; Meltzer, P.S.; Geurts van Kessel, A.H.M.
Fusion of the SS18 and either one of the SSX genes is a hallmark of human synovial sarcoma. The SS18 and SSX genes encode nuclear proteins that exhibit opposite transcriptional activities. The SS18 protein functions as a transcriptional coactivator and is associated with the SWI/SNF complex, whereas
Tosun, N; Akpinar, F; Dogan, A
This study investigated the effect of glutaraldehyde on the synovial tissue of rabbits. Four different concentrations of glutaraldehyde solution were injected into one knee and the contralateral glenohumeral joint of rabbits in group A to group D. The concentration levels used in group A and group B were 1000 ppm and 100 ppm, respectively. For group C and group D, samples of rinsing solutions obtained by rinsing arthroscopic equipment with 1 l or 2 l of isotonic saline, respectively, after immersion in 2% glutaraldehyde were used. The contralateral knee and ipsilateral glenohumeral joint of the same rabbits were injected with saline and used as control sites. Rabbits were sacrificed after 1 day, 7 days or 15 days and the histopathological changes in the synovial tissues were compared. The most dramatic inflammatory changes were observed in group A and group B. The histopathological changes were greater after 7 days than after 1 day or 15 days. Group C and group D showed no significant differences when compared with normal synovium. A correlation between the concentration of the glutaraldehyde solution and the number of inflamed joints was observed. Very few or no inflamed joints were seen when samples from rinsing solutions of 1 l or 2 l of saline, respectively, were used.
Reyes Macías, Juan Francisco; Sánchez Prieto, Martín
Synovial Chondromatosis (SC) is a disease whose etiology is unknown, can be defined as a benign synovial process characterized by the formation of metaplastic cartilaginous nodes inside connective tissue of articular surfaces, is considered an active metaplastic phenomenon better than a neoplastic process; it presents a greater preference to affect women who constitute almost 70% of reported cases, the age range is wide and oscillates between 18-75 years (average 44.6 years). Between the main clinical findings are: pain, crackle, volume augmentation and a limited buccal opening. SC is an unusual state and the reports in the English literature are no more than 75 cases, only 66 of those where histologically verified, most of those were affecting great joints like hip, knee and shoulder, but if SC is not frequent in this sites, is even more infrequent on temporomandibular joint. The aim of this paper is to report a clinical case and at the same time to realize a brief review of the literature.
Saha, Manish K; Hamieh, Tarek
A 32-year-old man was admitted with cerebrospinal fluid leakage from a right scalp surgical wound after a resection of recurrent meningioma and reconstruction of skull with muscle flap 3 weeks earlier. On day 4 of admission, he was found to be tachycardic and decreased breath sounds on the right side. Chest x-ray revealed a large right pleural effusion which was found to be exudative after thoracocentesis. Infectious work-up and cytology was negative. CT showed both parietal and visceral pleural masses, which was consistent with meningioma on ultrasound-guided biopsy. He underwent right-side decortication and pleurodesis for recurrent pleural effusion. He declined further treatment and opted for hospice care and expired a month later. PMID:22907848
Stenfors, L E; Albiin, N; Bloom, G D; Hellström, S; Widemar, L
The mast cell--an important component of connective tissue--carries in its cytoplasmic granules various biologically active substances, such as heparin, histamine, and a broad spectrum of enzymes. This cell type plays a prominent role in inflammatory and allergic conditions. In the middle ear, the mast cells are mainly localized in the pars flaccida of the tympanic membrane and beneath the tracts of secretory and ciliated cells in the middle ear mucosa. Degranulation of the mast cells by the histamine liberator compound 48/80 causes histamine-rich effusion material to accumulate in the middle ear. Plugging of the eustachian tube and/or tympanic isthmus will bring about a similar accumulation. It would thus seem that mast cells in some way participate in the production of middle ear effusion, probably via their potent mediators.
Nikitopoulou, Ioanna; Oikonomou, Nikos; Karouzakis, Emmanuel; Sevastou, Ioanna; Nikolaidou-Katsaridou, Nefeli; Zhao, Zhenwen; Mersinias, Vassilis; Armaka, Maria; Xu, Yan; Masu, Masayuki; Mills, Gordon B.; Gay, Steffen; Kollias, George
Rheumatoid arthritis is a destructive arthropathy characterized by chronic synovial inflammation that imposes a substantial socioeconomic burden. Under the influence of the proinflammatory milieu, synovial fibroblasts (SFs), the main effector cells in disease pathogenesis, become activated and hyperplastic, releasing proinflammatory factors and tissue-remodeling enzymes. This study shows that activated arthritic SFs from human patients and animal models express significant quantities of autotaxin (ATX; ENPP2), a lysophospholipase D that catalyzes the conversion of lysophosphatidylcholine to lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). ATX expression from SFs was induced by TNF, and LPA induced SF activation and effector functions in synergy with TNF. Conditional genetic ablation of ATX in mesenchymal cells, including SFs, resulted in disease attenuation in animal models of arthritis, establishing the ATX/LPA axis as a novel player in chronic inflammation and the pathogenesis of arthritis and a promising therapeutic target. PMID:22493518
Arad, Uri; Madar-Balakirski, Noa; Angel-Korman, Avital; Amir, Sharon; Tzadok, Sharon; Segal, Ortal; Menachem, Aharon; Gold, Aviram; Elkayam, Ori; Caspi, Dan
Galectin-3 is a β-galactoside-binding lectin that plays an important role in the modulation of immune responses. It has been shown to aggravate joint inflammation and destruction in experimental arthritis. We investigated the role of galectin-3 in TLR-induced cell activation in human synovial fibroblasts (SF) in order to better understand the mechanism(s) of the proinflammatory function of galectin-3 in arthritis. Galectin-3 expression in SF obtained from rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis patients was inhibited by siRNA mediated gene-knockdown. Galectin-3 was also inhibited with modified citrus pectin (MCP), a polysaccharide galectin-3 ligand. Galectin-3 knockdown inhibited TLR-2, -3 and -4-induced IL-6 secretion, but not TLR-2, -3 and -4-mediated matrix metalloproteinase-3 or CC chemokine ligand-5 secretion. When the SF were stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, a protein kinase C activator that bypasses the membranal receptors, galectin-3 knockdown no longer influenced IL-6 secretion. MCP reduced IL-6 levels in a dose-dependent manner. Our results indicate that galectin-3 is a positive sensor-regulator of TLR-induced IL-6 secretion in human synovial fibroblasts, thus adding new insights into the mechanisms by which galectin-3 augments synovial inflammation. These findings corroborate the potential role of glycan inhibitors of galectin-3 as a therapeutic approach for the treatment of inflammatory arthritis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pollack, Seth M; Lu, Hailing; Gnjatic, Sacha; Somaiah, Neeta; O'Malley, Ryan B; Jones, Robin L; Hsu, Frank J; Ter Meulen, Jan
Effective induction of antitumor T cells is a pivotal goal of cancer immunotherapy. To this end, lentiviral vectors (LV) are uniquely poised to directly prime CD8 T-cell responses via transduction of dendritic cells in vivo and have shown promise as active cancer therapeutics in preclinical tumor models. However, until now, significant barriers related to production and regulation have prevented their widespread use in the clinic. We developed LV305, a dendritic cell-targeting, integration-deficient, replication incompetent LV from the ZVex platform, encoding the full-length cancer-testis antigen NY-ESO-1. LV305 is currently being evaluated in phase 1 and 2 trials in metastatic recurrent cancer patients with NY-ESO-1 positive solid tumors as a single agent and in combination with anti-PD-L1. Here we report on the first patient treated with LV305, a young woman with metastatic, recurrent, therapy-refractive NY-ESO-1 synovial sarcoma. The patient developed a robust NY-ESO-1-specific CD4 and CD8 T-cell response after 3 intradermal injections with LV305, and subsequently over 85% disease regression that is continuing for >2.5 years posttherapy. No adverse events >grade 2 occurred. This case demonstrates that LV305 can be safely administered and has the potential to induce a significant clinical benefit and immunologic response in a patient with advanced stage cancer.
Kaneda, Takashi; Yamashiro, Mitsuaki; Ozawa, Kaoru; Suzuki, Hiromi; Okada, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Hirotsugu [Nihon Univ., Matsudo, Chiba (Japan). School of Dentistry
The purposes of this study were to evaluate the relationship between correlation of MR joint effusion of the temporomandibular joint and disk position, to evaluate the relationship between joint effusion and aging, and to assess the frequency of MR joint effusion of bilateral temporomandibular joints. The temporomandibular joints of 192 patients with clinical symptoms of temporomandibular joint disorders were imaged bilaterally using high field, surface-coil MR imaging. Oblique sagittal and coronal proton density-weighted and T2-weighted images were obtained. Imaging findings of joint effusion were correlated with disk position, aging, and bilateral temporomandibular joints. MR showed effusion in 4% of the joints with normal superior disk position, 36% of the joints with disk displacement with reduction, and 45% of the joints with disk displacement without reduction. There were significant differences in the incidence of joint effusion between normal disk position and anterior disk displacement with or without reduction. Younger patients less than 40 years were significant higher the incidence of joint effusion than those of older patients. A significant association was seen between joint effusion and aging. MR showed effusion in 17% of the unilateral temporomandibular joint, 24% of the bilateral temporomandibular joints. There was no significant difference between unilateral and bilateral case. These results indicated that joint effusion using MR imaging was associated with varied temporomandibular joint pathologic states. (author)
Full Text Available Zaheda Khan,1 Kathryn Gates,2 Stephen A Simpson,31Emergency and Critical Care, Animal Specialty and Emergency Center, Los Angeles, CA, 2Emergency and Critical Care, Advanced Critical Care, Emergency and Specialty Services, Culver City, CA 3Emergency and Critical Care, Southern California Veterinary Specialty Hospital, Irvine, CA, USA Abstract: We described the diagnosis and successful treatment of pleural and peritoneal effusion secondary to liver lobe torsion in a dog. A 12-year-old female spayed Borzoi dog was referred for heart failure. Emergency room thoracic and abdominal ultrasound showed a large volume of pleural effusion with mild peritoneal effusion and an abdominal mass. Pleural fluid analysis classified the effusion as exudative. A complete ultrasound revealed mild peritoneal effusion and decreased blood flow to the right liver lobe. Other causes of bicavitary effusion were ruled out based on blood work, ultrasound, echocardiogram, and computed tomography. The patient was taken to surgery and diagnosed with caudate liver lobe torsion and had a liver lobectomy. At the 2-week postoperative recheck, the patient was doing well and there was complete resolution of the pleural effusion. Liver lobe torsion is a rare occurrence in dogs and can be difficult to diagnose. Clinical signs are nonspecific for liver lobe torsion and patients may present in respiratory distress with significant pleural fluid accumulation. When assessing patients with pleural and peritoneal effusion, liver lobe torsion should be considered as a differential diagnosis.Keywords: pleural effusion, peritoneal effusion, hepatic torsion
Nah, Kyung Soo [Pusan National University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)
The purpose of this study was to investigate the distribution and frequency of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) effusion in magnetic resonance (MR) images of patients with disc displacements. On T2 weighted MR images of 148 TMJs taken from 74 patients presenting with TMJ pain and dysfunction, we assessed the cases showing TMJ effusion, defined as an amount of fluid that exceeded the maximum amount seen in a control group of asymptomatic volunteers. The amount of TMJ fluid was graded as: I (none or minimal), II (moderate), III (marked), and IV (extensive), according to a standard set by a reference. Disc displacement categories were also recorded. Of the 148 TMJs examined in this study, 52 joints (35.1%) presented with joint effusion, 24 (16.2%) showing bilateral joint effusion. 38 joints showed upper joint space effusion, and 3 showed lower joint space effusion, and 11 showed both upper and lower joint space effusion. 96 joints (64.9%) had grade I joint fluid, 27 (18.2%) grade II, 15 (10.1%) grade III, and 10 (6.8%) grade IV. 80.0% of the joints presenting with grade IV effusion showed disc displacement without reduction. Joint effusion was found not only in upper, but also in lower joint spaces. The higher the effusion grade, the greater the frequency of disc displacement without reduction.
Ferreiro, Lucía; San José, María Esther; Valdés, Luis
Pleural infections have high morbidity and mortality, and their incidence in all age groups is growing worldwide. Not all infectious effusions are parapneumonic and, in such cases, the organisms found in the pleural space are not the same as those observed in lung parenchyma infections. The diagnostic difficulty lies in knowing whether an infectious effusion will evolve into a complicated effusion/empyema, as the diagnostic methods used for this purpose provide poor results. The mainstays of treatment are to establish an early diagnosis and to commence an antibiotic regimen and chest drain as soon as possible. This should preferably be carried out with fine tubes, due to certain morphological, bacteriological and biochemical characteristics of the pleural fluid. Fluid analysis, particularly pH, is the most reliable method for assessing evolution. In a subgroup of patients, fibrinolytics may help to improve recovery, and their combination with DNase has been found to obtain better results. If medical treatment fails and surgery is required, video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) is, at least, comparable to decortication by thoracotomy, so should only undertaken if previous techniques have failed. Further clinical trials are needed to analyze factors that could affect the results obtained, in order to define new evidence-based diagnostic and therapeutic strategies that provide more effective, standardized management of this disease. Copyright © 2014 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Putu Bayu Dian Tresna Dewi
Full Text Available Pleural effusion is abnormal fluid accumulation within pleural cavity between the parietal pleura and visceralis pleura, either transudation or exudates. A 47 year-old female presented with dyspneu, cough, and decreased of appetite. She had history of right lung tumor. Physical examination revealed asymmetric chest movement where right part of lung was lagged during breathing, vocal fremitus on the right chest was decreased, dullness at the right chest, decreased vesicular sound in the right chest, enlargement of supraclavicular and colli dextra lymph nodes, and hepatomegali. Complete blood count showed leukocytosis. Clinical chemistry analysis showed hipoalbumin and decreased liver function. Blood gas analysis showed hypoxemia. Pleural fluid analysis showed an exudates, murky red liquid color filled with erythrocytes, number of cells. Cytological examination showed existence of a non-small cell carcinoma tends adeno type. From chest X-ray showed massive right pleural effusion. Based on history, physical examination and investigations, she was diagnosed with massive pleural effusion et causa suspected malignancy. She had underwent pleural fluid evacuation and treated with analgesics and antibiotics.
Krasnokutsky, Svetlana; Belitskaya-Lévy, Ilana; Bencardino, Jenny; Samuels, Jonathan; Attur, Mukundan; Regatte, Ravinder; Rosenthal, Pamela; Greenberg, Jeffrey; Schweitzer, Mark; Abramson, Steven B.; Rybak, Leon
Objective To evaluate the relationships of quantitative and semi-quantitative (SQ) assessments of synovium with knee OA severity by radiographic and 3T MRI findings. Methods 58 knee OA patients underwent non-fluoroscopic fixed-flexion knee radiographs. Dynamic contrast-enhanced (CE) 3T MRI was performed pre-/post-gadolinium administration to quantify synovial volume (qSV). SQ synovial outcomes were assessed on CE and unenhanced images. Two radiologists scored X-rays using the OARSI atlas; inter-reader agreement was assessed using Kappas and concordance correlation coefficients. Multiple linear and logistic regression analysis was used to assess associations among variables while controlling the effects of age, BMI, gender and meniscal extrusion. Results KL grade, diseased compartment joint space width (dcJSW) and diseased compartment joint space narrowing (dcJSN) were significantly associated with synovial proliferation, measured as CE qSV (β = 0.78, p = 0.0001; β = -0.22, p = 0.0003; β = 0.53, p = 0.0001, respectively). Furthermore, qSV strongly correlated with total subchondral BML volume (β = 0.22, p = 0.0003). KL grade, dcJSW, and dcJSN were significantly associated with BLOKS SQ infrapatellar synovitis (OR [95%CI]: 9.05, [1.94,42.3]; 0.75 [0.54,1.03]; 2.22 [1.15,4.31], respectively) and effusion (OR [95%CI]: 5.75, [1.23,26.8]; 0.70, [0.50,0.98]; 1.96, [1.02,3.74], respectively). CE SQ synovitis also significantly associated with KL and dcJSN (β = 0.036, p = 0.0040; β = 0.015, p=0.0266, respectively), and BLOKS synovitis. Conclusion Synovitis is a characteristic feature of advancing knee OA stages, and is significantly associated with KL, JSW, JSN, and BMLs. BLOKS synovitis scoring on unenhanced MRI is associated with CE synovitis measures. PMID:21647860
Zulian, M A; Mosby, E L; Chisum, J W
Two cases of synovial chondromatosis of the temporomandibular joint are reported. This condition is rare but benign, with only 36 cases reported in the literature to date. Symptoms include tenderness, swelling, and limited range of motion, with deviation to the affected side. Diagnosis is made both from the clinical presentation and histologic examination. The etiology is thought to be cartilaginous foci within the synovial membrane that become detached and proliferate in the synovium as chondrocytes. Treatment includes removal of the "loose bodies" and possible resection of the synovial membrane, condyle, and disk.
Tao, Shi-Cong; Yuan, Ting; Zhang, Yue-Lei; Yin, Wen-Jing; Guo, Shang-Chun; Zhang, Chang-Qing
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disease throughout the world. Exosomes derived from miR-140-5p-overexpressing synovial mesenchymal stem cells (SMSC-140s) may be effective in treating OA. We hypothesized that exosomes derived from SMSC-140 (SMSC-140-Exos) would enhance the proliferation and migration abilities of articular chondrocytes (ACs) without harming extracellular matrix (ECM) secretion. SMSCs were transfected with or without miR-140-5p. Exosomes derived from SMSCs or SMSC-140s (SMSC-Exos or SMSC-140-Exos) were isolated and identified. Proliferation, migration and ECM secretion were measured in vitro and compared between groups. The mechanism involving alternative Wnt signalling and activation of Yes-associated protein (YAP) was investigated using lentivirus, oligonucleotides or chemical drugs. The preventative effect of exosomes in vivo was measured using Safranin-O and Fast green staining and immunohistochemical staining. Wnt5a and Wnt5b carried by exosomes activated YAP via the alternative Wnt signalling pathway and enhanced proliferation and migration of chondrocytes with the side-effect of significantly decreasing ECM secretion. Highly-expressed miR-140-5p blocked this side-effect via RalA. SMSC-140-Exos enhanced the proliferation and migration of ACs without damaging ECM secretion in vitro, while in vivo, SMSC-140-Exos successfully prevented OA in a rat model. These findings highlight the promising potential of SMSC-140-Exos in preventing OA. We first found a potential source of exosomes and studied their merits and shortcomings. Based on our understanding of the molecular mechanism, we overcame the shortcomings by modifying the exosomes. Such exosomes derived from modified cells hold potential as future therapeutic strategies.
Robinson, P. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Central Manchester Healthcare Trust, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester (United Kingdom); Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, St. James' s University Hospital, Leeds (United Kingdom); Whitehouse, R.W. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Central Manchester Healthcare Trust, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester (United Kingdom); Freemont, A.J. [Dept. of Osteoarticular Pathology, Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Ellis, D. [Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery, Central Manchester Healthcare Trust, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester (United Kingdom)
A case of previously undiagnosed synovial osteochondromatosis complicating a tibial pilon fracture is presented. The entrapment of osteochondral bodies within the fracture margin prevented complete reduction of the fracture and necessitated surgical intervention. (orig.)
Myers, S.L.; Christine, T.A.
Individual canine synovial villi were used to establish short-term synovial organ cultures. These villi incorporated /sup 3/H-glucosamine into highly-polymerized /sup 3/H-hyaluronic acid (/sup 3/H-HA), which was the only /sup 3/H-glycosaminoglycan identified in the culture medium. Some /sup 3/H-HA, and larger amounts of other /sup 3/H-glycosaminoglycans, were recovered from cultured tissues. Culture medium /sup 3/H-HA content was proportional to the surface area of cultured villi. Organ cultures of nonvillous synovium were compared with villi; nonvillous cultures synthesized less /sup 3/H-HA per mm2 of their synovial intimal surface than villi. These cultures complement cell culture techniques for in vitro studies of synovial lining cell function.
Kondo, Shimpei; Muneta, Takeshi; Nakagawa, Yusuke; Koga, Hideyuki; Watanabe, Toshifumi; Tsuji, Kunikazu; Sotome, Shinichi; Okawa, Atsushi; Kiuchi, Shinji; Ono, Hideo; Mizuno, Mitsuru; Sekiya, Ichiro
Transplantation of aggregates of synovial mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) enhanced meniscus regeneration in rats. Anatomy and biological properties of the meniscus depend on animal species. To apply this technique clinically, it is valuable to investigate the use of animals genetically close to humans. We investigated whether transplantation of aggregates of autologous synovial MSCs promoted meniscal regeneration in aged primates. Chynomolgus primates between 12 and 13 years old were used. After the anterior halves of the medial menisci in both knees were removed, an average of 14 aggregates consisting of 250,000 synovial MSCs were transplanted onto the meniscus defect. No aggregates were transplanted to the opposite knee for the control. Meniscus and articular cartilage were analyzed macroscopically, histologically, and by MRI T1rho mapping at 8 (n = 3) and 16 weeks (n = 4). The medial meniscus was larger and the modified Pauli's histological score for the regenerated meniscus was better in the MSC group than in the control group in each primate at 8 and 16 weeks. Mankin's score for the medial femoral condyle cartilage was better in the MSC group than in the control group in all primates at 16 weeks. T1rho value for both the regenerated meniscus and adjacent articular cartilage in the MSC group was closer to the normal meniscus than in the control group in all primates at 16 weeks. Transplantation of aggregates of autologous synovial MSCs promoted meniscus regeneration and delayed progression of degeneration of articular cartilage in aged primates. This is the first report dealing with meniscus regeneration in primates. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:1274-1282, 2017. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
M S Paudel
admitted with pleural effusion were included in the study. Hundred cases diagnosed with pleural effusion by clinical Examination or chest X-ray or ultrasonography’s (USG of the chest were included in the studied. The following parameters patients demographic profile, causes of pleural effusion, location (unilateral/bilateral, hemoglobin and complete blood count, sputum stain and culture sensitivity, Monteux test, chest X-ray and USG findings and Pleural fluid analysis (biochemical, hematological, microbiological and cytological were analyzed by using SPSS 21. Results: Out of 100 cases, the cause of pleural effusion in 59 patients was tuberculosis, 14 by malignancy, next 14 by Para pneumonic Effusion, 12 by congestive cardiac failure and three cases by alcoholic liver disease. Patients with tuberculous pleural effusion were younger, predominantly males, had unilateral effusion, lower blood hemoglobin, lower Pleural fluid neutrophils, higher pleural fluid Adenosine Deaminase (ADA levels and higher level of pleural fluid to serum protein ratio as compared to the patients with non-tuberculous effusion. Conclusion: Tuberculosis is the most common cause of pleural effusion in patients of rural Nepal.
Michael J Chaskes
Full Text Available A 50-year-old Caucasian female presented for a second opinion regarding a newly diagnosed pericardial effusion. Seven months previously, hydrochlorothiazide was introduced into her pharmacologic regimen to aid in the management of her hypertension. A routine echocardiogram indicated a large pericardial effusion with signs of early cardiac tamponade. The patient subsequently underwent successful pericardiocentesis with complete drainage of the pericardial effusion. The effusion was empirically attributed to a viral etiology. Repeat echocardiograms showed recurrence of the pericardial effusion. Prior to undergoing a second pericardiocentesis with pericardial biopsy, as her physicians recommended, the patient sought a second opinion. While obtaining the patient’s history, an allergy to sulfa was elicited. The possibility that the pericardial effusion may be secondary to an immunologic-hypersensitivity reaction was considered. It was recommended the patient discontinue the use of hydrochlorothiazide. Nine days following discontinuation of hydrochlorothiazide and without any other intervention, an echocardiogram was reported to show the size of the pericardial effusion had subsided substantially. Nine weeks following discontinuation, almost complete resolution of the pericardial effusion was reported. It is hypothesized that when treated with hydrochlorothiazide, the patient had an immune response leading to the pericardial effusion.
Jun 11, 2015 ... Posterior mediastinal biphasic synovial sarcoma in a 12 year‑old boy: A case report and review of literature. J Cancer. Res Ther 2010;6:564‑6. 4. Kwon OY, Lee SK, Cho MK, Kim YJ. A case of biphasic synovial sarcoma of frontal bone in an elderly patient. J Korean Neurosurg Soc 2007;42:67‑70. 5. Korula ...
Vinson, Emily N.; Martinez, Salutario [Duke University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Durham, NC (United States); Dodd, Leslie G. [Duke University Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Durham, NC (United States); Merian, Marc [Duke University Medical Center, Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Durham, NC (United States)
The term ''lipoma arborescens'' has been used to describe the diffuse infiltration of fat within hypertrophic synovial villi, a condition which has been most frequently described in the knee. We advocate the term ''synovial lipomatosis arborescens'' for this process and present what is, to our knowledge, the first reported case of this disorder isolated to the peroneal tendon sheath, with imaging, intraoperative, and histological correlation. (orig.)
Hügle, Thomas; Gashi, Gani; Wiewiorski, Martin; Müller-Gerbl, Magdalena; Valderrabano, Victor; Nowakowski, Andrej M
Synovial biopsy is a reliable procedure that permits the identification of specific pathologies. Currently available needles for blind synovial biopsy usually consist of 2 components. We designed a novel 1-piece device for blind and minimal invasive synovial biopsy of the knee joint. A convex-shaped trocar with internal sharp plunger at the distal end and a fluid channel was engineered. Synovial biopsy of the suprapatellar recessus of the knee was performed in 8 different cadavers. The intra-articular position of the tip was confirmed by aspiration of prior injected saline fluid. The trocar was levered upward with the open notch of the device facing the anterior wall of the recessus. Then, the punch mechanism was closed and the device removed. Routine histology of the obtained tissue was performed. After the intervention, the joints were prepared for macroscopic inspection of the synovial tissue, including penetration and biopsy sites. Fifteen interventions were performed. In all cases, sufficient synovial tissue was obtained. Mean length of the biopsies was 2.4 mm (range 2.0-4.3 mm) and width was 2.0 mm (range 1.4-2.6 mm). Inside the suprapatellar recessus, the mean distance from the entry site of the device to the biopsy site was 3.8 cm (range 1.1-3.4 cm). Histological analysis confirmed synovial and capsule tissue in all cases. This new device is a potentially useful tool for quick synovial biopsy of the knee in the clinical setting. © The Author(s) 2014.
Grisan, E.; Raffeiner, B.; Coran, A.; Rizzo, G.; Ciprian, L.; Stramare, R.
Inflammatory rheumatic diseases are leading causes of disability and constitute a frequent medical disorder, leading to inability to work, high comorbidity and increased mortality. The gold-standard for diagnosing and differentiating arthritis is based on patient conditions and radiographic findings, as joint erosions or decalcification. However, early signs of arthritis are joint effusion, hypervascularization and synovial hypertrophy. In particular, vascularization has been shown to correlate with arthritis' destructive behavior, more than clinical assessment. Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound (CEUS) examination of the small joints is emerging as a sensitive tool for assessing vascularization and disease activity. The evaluation of perfusion pattern rely on subjective semiquantitative scales, that are able to capture the macroscopic degree of vascularization, but are unable to detect the subtler differences in kinetics perfusion parameters that might lead to a deeper understanding of disease progression and a better management of patients. We show that after a kinetic analysis of contrast agent appearance, providing the quantitative features characterizing the perfusion pattern of the joint, it is possible to accurately discriminate RA from PSA by building a random forest classifier on the computed features. We compare its accuracy with the assessment performed by expert radiologist blinded of the diagnosis.
Garvican, Elaine R; Salavati, Mazdak; Smith, Roger K W; Dudhia, Jayesh
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of normal synovial fluid (SF) on exposed endogenous tendon-derived cells (TDCs) and engrafted mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) within the tendon extracellular matrix. Explants from equine superficial digital flexor (extra-synovial) and deep digital flexor tendons (DDFTs) from the compressed, intra-synovial and the tensile, extra-synovial regions were cultured in allogeneic or autologous SF-media. Human hamstring explants were cultured in allogeneic SF. Explant viability was assessed by staining. Proliferation of equine monolayer MSCs and TDCs in SF-media and co-culture with DDFT explants was determined by alamarblue®. Non-viable Native Tendon matrices (NNTs) were re-populated with MSCs or TDCs and cultured in SF-media. Immunohistochemical staining of tendon sections for the apoptotic proteins caspase-3, -8, and -9 was performed. Contact with autologous or allogeneic SF resulted in rapid death of resident tenocytes in equine and human tendon. SF did not affect the viability of equine epitenon cells, or of MSCs and TDCs in the monolayer or indirect explant co-culture. MSCs and TDCs, engrafted into NNTs, died when cultured in SF. Caspase-3, -8, and -9 expression was the greatest in SDFT explants exposed to allogeneic SF. The efficacy of cells administered intra-synovially for tendon lesion repair is likely to be limited, since once incorporated into the matrix, cells become vlnerable to the adverse effects of SF. These observations could account for the poor success rate of intra-synovial tendon healing following damage to the epitenon and contact with SF, common with most soft tissue intra-synovial pathologies.
Full Text Available Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus is the causative agent of primary effusion lymphoma (PEL, which arises preferentially in the setting of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Even with standard cytotoxic chemotherapy, PEL continues to cause high mortality rates, requiring the development of novel therapeutic strategies. PEL xenograft models employing immunodeficient mice have been used to study the in vivo effects of a variety of therapeutic approaches. However, it remains unclear whether these xenograft models entirely reflect clinical presentations of KSHV(+ PEL, especially given the recent description of extracavitary solid tumor variants arising in patients. In addition, effusion and solid tumor cells propagated in vivo exhibit unique biology, differing from one another or from their parental cell lines propagated through in vitro culture. Therefore, we used a KSHV(+ PEL/BCBL-1 xenograft model involving non-obese diabetic/severe-combined immunodeficient (NOD/SCID mice, and compared characteristics of effusion and solid tumors with their parent cell culture-derived counterparts. Our results indicate that although this xenograft model can be used for study of effusion and solid lymphoma observed in patients, tumor cells in vivo display unique features to those passed in vitro, including viral lytic gene expression profile, rate of solid tumor development, the host proteins and the complex of tumor microenvironment. These items should be carefully considered when the xenograft model is used for testing novel therapeutic strategies against KSHV-related lymphoma.
Shallop, Brandon; Abraham, John A
Osteochondromas are common benign bone tumors. Synovial chondromatosis is a benign cartilaginous metaplasia that occurs in the synovium. The authors describe a unique case of synovial chondromatosis developing in the pes anserine bursa secondary to an underlying osteochondroma of the proximal medial tibia. It is unusual to see both of these processes occurring simultaneously in 1 location. After appropriate consent was obtained, the patient's case was reviewed. A 17-year-old boy presented with a painless mass in the medial aspect of the right leg. Initial imaging of the right leg showed a cartilaginous-appearing lesion arising from the tibia and several distinct additional cartilaginous masses in the adjacent soft tissue. After 16 months of observation, the patient began to have increasing pain in the region of the lesion. The patient underwent surgery for excision of suspected synovial chondromatosis of the right pes anserine bursa and osteochondroma of the proximal right tibia. Postoperatively, the patient had complete resolution of symptoms and regained full range of motion of the knee. He returned to full activities, including walking and running. Osteochondromas are common benign bone tumors. Synovial chondromatosis is a benign synovial metaplastic cartilaginous proliferation that occurs primarily in joints, but can occur in any synovial-lined space. In this case report, the authors describe a unique occurrence of both of these lesions simultaneously. The treatment was excision of the osteochondroma and resection of the chondromatosis lesions, which resulted in an excellent outcome. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.
Yew, W.W.; Lee, J; C.Y. Chan; Cheung, S. W.; Wong, P.C; Kwan, S Y
After 3 days of treatment with ofloxacin (300 mg given orally once daily), the drug levels in serum and pleural fluid 2 and 4 h after drug administration in patients with tuberculous pleural effusion were assessed by a rapid high-performance liquid chromatography assay. The levels in serum (mean +/- standard error of the mean [SEM]) were 4.70 +/- 0.14 and 4.63 +/- 0.09 mg/liter 2 and 4 h after administration, respectively, and the levels in pleural fluid (mean +/- SEM) were 3.82 +/- 0.09 and ...
Corey, Bethany; Yang, Chen-Ho; Wilimas, Judith A; Davidoff, Andrew; Dome, Jeffrey S
Pleural effusion is uncommon at diagnosis of Wilms tumor. Because the clinical significance of this finding has not been reported, a retrospective review of this entity was conducted. The radiology reports and medical records of 233 patients with Wilms tumor who were treated at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital between 1985 and 2001 were reviewed. Ten of the 233 patients (4.3%) had pleural effusions detected on pre-nephrectomy imaging studies. Computed tomography (CT) scans were more sensitive than chest X-rays in identifying pleural effusions. All of the patients with pleural effusions had tumors of favorable histology. Two patients had stage II disease, five had stage III disease, two had stage IV disease, and one had stage V (bilateral) disease. All of the effusions occurred on the same side as the primary kidney tumors and six effusions were associated with ascites. The two effusions that were tapped were negative for tumor cells. All 10 patients in our series were alive without recurrence with a median follow-up duration of 68 months, yet only two patients were treated with lung irradiation. Pleural effusion at presentation of Wilms tumor is uncommon and not associated with adverse prognosis. We recommend that pleural effusions be tapped whenever feasible if the results will change therapy. Patients with pleural effusions that are small and difficult to tap may be treated according to their local stage without pulmonary irradiation. Further analysis of pleural effusions in a larger group of patients is necessary to confirm our preliminary observations. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Kolhe, Ravindra; Hunter, Monte; Liu, Siyang; Jadeja, Ravirajsinh N; Pundkar, Chetan; Mondal, Ashis K; Mendhe, Bharati; Drewry, Michelle; Rojiani, Mumtaz V; Liu, Yutao; Isales, Carlos M; Guldberg, Robert E; Hamrick, Mark W; Fulzele, Sadanand
The pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA) is poorly understood, and therapeutic approaches are limited to preventing progression of the disease. Recent studies have shown that exosomes play a vital role in cell-to-cell communication, and pathogenesis of many age-related diseases. Molecular profiling of synovial fluid derived exosomal miRNAs may increase our understanding of OA progression and may lead to the discovery of novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets. In this article we report the first characterization of exosomes miRNAs from human synovial fluid. The synovial fluid exosomes share similar characteristics (size, surface marker, miRNA content) with previously described exosomes in other body fluids. MiRNA microarray analysis showed OA specific exosomal miRNA of male and female OA. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis identified gender-specific target genes/signaling pathways. These pathway analyses showed that female OA specific miRNAs are estrogen responsive and target TLR (toll-like receptor) signaling pathways. Furthermore, articular chondrocytes treated with OA derived extracellular vesicles had decreased expression of anabolic genes and elevated expression of catabolic and inflammatory genes. In conclusion, synovial fluid exosomal miRNA content is altered in patients with OA and these changes are gender specific.
Full Text Available To explore the molecular function of Osteopontin (OPN in the pathogenesis of human OA, we compared the expression levels of OPN in synovial fluid with clinical parameters such as arthroscopic observation of cartilage damage and joint pain after joint injury.Synovial fluid was obtained from patients who underwent anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction surgery from 2009 through 2011 in our university hospital. The amounts of intact OPN (OPN Full and it's N-terminal fragment (OPN N-half in synovial fluid from each patient were quantified by ELISA and compared with clinical parameters such as severity of articular cartilage damage (TMDU cartilage score and severity of joint pain (Visual Analogue Scale and Lysholm score.Within a month after ACL rupture, both OPN Full and N-half levels in patient synovial fluid were positively correlated with the severity of joint pain. In contrast, patients with ACL injuries greater than one month ago felt less pain if they had higher amounts of OPN N-half in synovial fluid. OPN Full levels were positively correlated with articular cartilage damage in lateral tibial plateau.Our data suggest that OPN Full and N-half have distinct functions in articular cartilage homeostasis and in human joint pain.
Full Text Available Study objectives. To assess serum amyloid alpha (SAA pleural fluid levels in parapneumonic effusion (PPE and to investigate SAA diagnostic performance in PPE diagnosis and outcome. Methods. We studied prospectively 57 consecutive patients with PPE (empyema (EMP, complicated (CPE, and uncomplicated parapneumonic effusion (UPE. SAA, CRP, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 levels were evaluated in serum and pleural fluid at baseline. Patients were followed for 6-months to detect pleural thickening/loculations. Results. Pleural SAA levels (mg/dL median(IQR were significantly higher in CPE compared to UPE (P<0.04; CRP levels were higher in EMP and CPE compared to UPE (P<0.01. There was no significant difference between IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α level in different PPE forms. No significant association between SAA levels and 6-month outcome was found. At 6-months, patients with no evidence of loculations/thickening had significantly higher pleural fluid pH, glucose levels (P=0.03, lower LDH (P=0.005, IL-1β levels (P=0.001 compared to patients who presented pleural loculations/thickening. Conclusions. SAA is increased in complicated PPE, and it might be useful as a biomarker for UPE and CPE diagnosis. SAA levels did not demonstrate considerable diagnostic performance in identifying patients who develop pleural thickening/loculations after a PPE.
Vieira, J R; Alfarroba, E; Viegas, J; Freitas e Costa, M
The Authors present the first case described among us of benign pleural effusion of an asbestotic origin. They stress the importance of thoracoscopy (pleuroscopy) in the diagnosis of this situation. Attention is drawn to the fact that asbestotic lesions and asbestotic bodies have been found in the lung and, in particular, in the parietal pleura as well. They emphasize the fact that exposure to asbestos was not realized by the patient, which made the clarification of the situation more difficult. It was a CT scan that showed the signs suggestive of exposure to asbestos which raised the diagnostic suspicion. They conclude that every patient with a pleural effusion must be thoroughly questioned about exposure to asbestos. Even if the exposure is accepted, they consider that one should proceed to a pleuro-pulmonar biopsy by thoracoscopy. This biopsy allows demonstration of the characteristic histopathological lesions and rule out other etiologies, namely malignancy and tuberculosis. They suggest that these patients must be highly motivated to stop any smoking and kept under periodic surveillance.
The effects of water and sawdust additives on the thermal effusivity (e), thermal conductivity (λ), and durability of cement-stabilized laterites were investigated. The thermal effusivity (e) and conductivity(λ) have direct influ-ence on heat transfer and thermal insulation in buildings, and the parameters were determined by hot ...
Materials and Methods: The study included patients with pleural effusion. VEGF levels in the pleural fluid were measured by enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assay. Results: A total of 97 patients who had exudative pleural effusion related to lung cancer (n = 17), nonpulmonary malignancies (n = 25), mesothelioma (n = 9), ...
Imam H. Shaik
Full Text Available Pleural effusions are one of the rarest complications reported in patients with silicone gel filled breast implants. The silicone implants have potential to provoke chronic inflammation of pleura and subsequent pulmonary complications such as pleural effusion. Herein, we report a 44-year-old female who presented with left sided pleural effusion, six weeks after a silicone breast implantation surgery. The most common infectious, inflammatory, and malignant causes of pleural effusion were excluded with pleural fluid cytology and cultures. With recurrent effusion in the setting of recent surgery, the chemical reaction to silicone breast implants was sought and exploration was performed which revealed foreign body reaction (FBR to silicone material. The symptoms dramatically improved after the explantation.
Ku, Dominic; Cassey, John G; Mejia, Rosauro
Whilst pericardial effusion is a known complication of abdominal pathology, it is rarely reported following ruptured appendicitis and even more rarely requires drainage in that situation. This work has been reported in line with the SCARE criteria (Agha et al., 2016). We report a 14-year-old male who developed extensive right hepatorenal and right paracolic abscesses, bilateral pleural effusions and a large pericardial effusion following laparoscopic appendicectomy. Due to the size of the effusion, thoracoscopic pericardotomy was required. Pericardial effusion is a very rare complication of advanced appendicitis despite a demonstrable connection between the retroperitoneum and the mediastinum. Only two cases were reported in our literature search. There is no consensus as to whether percutaneous drainage or pericardiotomy is the treatment of choice. The report is presented as a reminder of a rare complication of a common general surgical condition. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Maisch, B; Ristić, A D
This article describes the diagnostics, differential diagnostics, multimodal imaging, medicinal and invasive diagnostic therapy of acute and chronic pericarditis, constrictive pericarditis, pericardial effusion and cardiac tamponade under etiological aspects and on the basis of the guidelines of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). The starting point of the decision tree is the symptomatic patient with echocardiographic evidence of pericardial effusion. The principle feature of the diagnostics is the etiopathogenetic allocation of the pericardial disease which influences the clinical picture, course therapy and prognosis. Infectious pericarditis (e.g. viral, bacterial and tuberculous) is differentiated from sterile autoreactive pericarditis and from neoplastic pericardial effusion by the cytology of the effusion and immunohistological and molecular investigations of the pericardial and epicardial biopsies. Pericardioscopy plays an important role in the recognition of suspicious areas. In many cases intrapericardial administration of cisplatin for neoplastic pericardial effusion and instillation of triamcinolone for autoreactive pericarditis prevent recurrence just as a treatment of several months with colchicine.
Sitt, Jacqueline C M; Griffith, James F; Lai, Fernand M; Hui, Mamie; Chiu, K H; Lee, Ryan K L; Ng, Alex W H; Leung, Jason
To investigate the diagnostic performance of ultrasound-guided synovial biopsy. Clinical notes, pathology and microbiology reports, ultrasound and other imaging studies of 100 patients who underwent 111 ultrasound-guided synovial biopsies were reviewed. Biopsies were compared with the final clinical diagnosis established after synovectomy (n = 43) or clinical/imaging follow-up (n = 57) (mean 30 months). Other than a single vasovagal episode, no complication of synovial biopsy was encountered. One hundred and seven (96 %) of the 111 biopsies yielded synovium histologically. Pathology ± microbiology findings for these 107 conclusive biopsies comprised synovial tumour (n = 30, 28 %), synovial infection (n = 18, 17 %), synovial inflammation (n = 45, 42 %), including gouty arthritis (n = 3), and no abnormality (n = 14, 13 %). The accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of synovial biopsy was 99 %, 97 %, and 100 % for synovial tumour; 100 %, 100 %, and 100 % for native joint infection; and 78 %, 45 %, and 100 % for prosthetic joint infection. False-negative synovial biopsy did not seem to be related to antibiotic therapy. Ultrasound-guided Tru-cut synovial biopsy is a safe and reliable technique with a high diagnostic yield for diagnosing synovial tumour and also, most likely, for joint infection. Regarding joint infection, synovial biopsy of native joints seems to have a higher diagnostic yield than that for infected prosthetic joints. • Ultrasound-guided Tru-cut synovial biopsy has high accuracy (99 %) for diagnosing synovial tumour. • It has good accuracy, sensitivity, and high specificity for diagnosis of joint infection. • Synovial biopsy of native joints works better than biopsy of prosthetic joints. • A negative synovial biopsy culture from a native joint largely excludes septic arthritis. • Ultrasound-guided Tru-cut synovial biopsy is a safe and well-tolerated procedure.
Nakanishi, Hirofumi; Araki, Nobuhito [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, 1-3-3, Nakamichi, Higashinari-Ku, 537-8511, Osaka (Japan); Sawai, Yuka [Department of Radiology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, Osaka (Japan); Kudawara, Ikuo [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Osaka National Hospital, Osaka (Japan); Mano, Masayuki; Ishiguro, Shingo [Department of Pathology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, Osaka (Japan); Ueda, Takafumi; Yoshikawa, Hideki [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka (Japan)
To characterize the radiological and clinicopathologic features of cystic synovial sarcoma. Seven patients with primary cystic synovial sarcoma were evaluated. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging were undertaken at the first presentation. The diagnosis of synovial sarcoma was made on the basis of histological examinations followed by molecular analysis. Radiological and clinicopathologic findings were reviewed. CT showed well-defined soft tissue mass without cortical bone erosion and invasion. Calcification was seen at the periphery of the mass in three cases. T2-weighted MR images showed multilocular inhomogeneous intensity mass in all cases, five of which showed fluid-fluid levels. On gross appearance, old and/or fresh hematomas were detected in six cases. In the one remaining case, microscopic hemorrhage in the cystic lumen was proven. Four cases had poorly differentiated areas. In five cases prominent hemangiopericytomatous vasculature was observed. Histologic grade was intermediate in one tumor and high in six. One case had a history of misdiagnosis for tarsal tunnel syndrome, one for lymphadenopathy, two for sciatica and two for hematoma. All cystic synovial sarcomas demonstrated multilocularity with well-circumscribed walls and internal septae. Synovial sarcoma should be taken into consideration in patients with deeply situated multicystic mass with triple signal intensity on T2-weighted MR imaging. (orig.)
Brombini, Giovanna C; Rahal, Sheila C; Bergamini, Bruno C S; Lopes, Raimundo S; Santos, Ivan F C; Schimming, Bruno C
Although normal synovial fluid has been well characterized in domestic animals such as dogs, cats, horses, and cows, the available information on larger rodents is scarce. The purpose of the study was to analyze the physical, chemical, and cytologic characteristics of the synovial fluid in stifle joints of Capybaras. Five free-ranging adult female Capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), weighing from 37 to 56 kg were used. Synovial fluid was obtained by aspiration of 10 stifle joints. Samples were analyzed for physical, chemical, and cytologic properties. Spontaneous clotting was negative in 9 samples. Most synovial fluids had pH 8, and protein concentrations ranged from 1.6 to 3.6 g/dL. The mucin clot test was good in all 6 samples that were tested. Nucleated cell counts ranged from 140 to 508 cells/μL. Relative differential leukocyte counts demonstrated a predominance of mononuclear cells (97.6%), including 76.2% undifferentiated mononuclear cells, 18.1% macrophages, and 3.66% lymphocytes. Polymorphonuclear cells included 1.83% neutrophils and 0.2% eosinophils. The synovial stifle joint fluid of healthy free-ranging adult Capybaras is clear, colorless, viscous, and with chemical features and cytologic findings similar to those seen in domestic animals. © 2017 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.
Yew, W W; Lee, J; Chan, C Y; Cheung, S W; Wong, P C; Kwan, S Y
After 3 days of treatment with ofloxacin (300 mg given orally once daily), the drug levels in serum and pleural fluid 2 and 4 h after drug administration in patients with tuberculous pleural effusion were assessed by a rapid high-performance liquid chromatography assay. The levels in serum (mean +/- standard error of the mean [SEM]) were 4.70 +/- 0.14 and 4.63 +/- 0.09 mg/liter 2 and 4 h after administration, respectively, and the levels in pleural fluid (mean +/- SEM) were 3.82 +/- 0.09 and 4.21 +/- 0.08 mg/liter, respectively. The pleural fluid-to-serum ofloxacin ratio at 2 h was 0.82 +/- 0.02 (mean +/- SEM), and the ratio at 4 h was 0.92 +/- 0.02 (mean +/- SEM). This study demonstrated very good penetration of ofloxacin into pleural fluid in tuberculous pleuritis.
Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. An 83 year old man with a history of metastatic malignant melanoma and atrial fibrillation on warfarin was admitted for shortness of breath. He underwent a diagnostic and therapeutic thoracentesis for a large right sided pleural effusion, suspected to be malignancy related. Three days later, he had transferred to the ICU for respiratory distress. An ultrasound of the thorax revealed a large loculated effusion with multiple septations (Figure 1. A large bore chest tube was placed and revealed a hemothorax, which may have been related to the previous thoracentesis. In an observational study of ultrasound characteristics of pleural effusions, complex septations were more commonly seen in non-malignant effusions than malignant effusions (25.4% vs. 7.5%. In non-malignant effusions, the septated pattern was associated with infections, specifically tuberculosis and pneumonia (1. While metastases in melanoma commonly involve the thoracic cavity, malignant pleural effusions are rare and are seen in about 2% of ...
Full Text Available Objectives. Chronic pericardial effusion may be challenging in terms of diagnosis and treatment. Specific laboratory parameters predicting the frequency and severity of recurrences after initial drainage of pericardial effusion are lacking. Materials and Methods. Pericardial fluid (PF and serum (SE samples from 30 patients with chronic pericardial effusion (PE who underwent pericardiocentesis and pericardioscopically guided pericardial biopsy were compared with SE and PF samples from 26 control patients. The levels of antimyolemmal (AMLA and antifibrillary antibodies (AFA in PE and SE from patients with pericardial effusion as well as PF and SE from controls were determined and compared. Results. AMLAs and AFAs in PF and SE were significantly higher in patients with chronic pericardial effusion than in the control group (AMLAs: p = 0,01 for PF and p = 0,004 for serum; AFAs: p < 0,001 for PF and p = 0,003 for serum. Patients with recurrence of PE within 3 months after pericardiocentesis had significantly higher levels of AMLAs in SE (p = 0,029 than patients without recurrence of PE. Conclusions. The identification of elevated anticardiac antibodies in PE and SE indicates increased immunological reactivity in chronic pericardial effusion. High titer serum levels of AMLAs also correlate with recurrence of pericardial effusion.
Gunluoglu, Gulsah; Olcmen, Aysun; Gunluoglu, Mehmet Zeki; Dincer, Ibrahim; Sayar, Adnan; Camsari, Gungor; Yilmaz, Veysel; Altin, Sedat
The cause of exudative pleural effusion cannot be determined in some patients. The longterm outcomes of patients with undiagnosed pleural effusion were analyzed. Patients with exudative pleural effusion whose diagnostic procedures included pleural biopsy using video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery carried out between 2008 and 2012 were evaluated retrospectively. Patients diagnosed with non-specific pleuritis were included. Fifty-three patients with available follow-up data were included in the study. Forty men and 13 women (mean age 53.9±13.9 years) were included. Median follow-up time was 24 months. No diagnosis was given in 27 patients (51%), and a clinical diagnosis was given in 26 patients (49%) during the follow-up period. Malignant disease (malignant mesothelioma) was diagnosed in 2 (3.7%) patients. Other diseases were parapneumonic effusion in 12, congestive heart failure in 8, and miscellaneous in 4 patients. Volume of effusion at the time of initial examination and re-accumulation of fluid after video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery were associated with malignant disease (P=.004 and .0001, respectively). Although the probability is low, some patients with exudative pleural effusion undiagnosed after pleural biopsy via video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery may have malignant disease. Patients with an initially large volume of effusion that re-accumulates after examination should be closely monitored. Copyright © 2014 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Faiz, Saadia A; Sahay, Sandeep; Jimenez, Carlos A
Pulmonary manifestations have been well described in leukemia, but pleural disease is less common. This review highlights pleural effusions in acute and chronic leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) based on the evidence to date. Diagnostic workup and recommendations for the management of these effusions are also outlined. Pleural effusions in patients with leukemia are most often due to infection and to a lesser extent leukemic infiltration of the pleura. The prognostic implications of these effusions are unclear, but survival is most likely determined by the underlying malignancy and its response to treatment. New therapies have changed survival in these patients, and some of these treatments, such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors, have emerged as important causes for these effusions. Pleural interventions may be accomplished with few complications. Pleural effusions may occur with acute and chronic leukemia and MDS. Infection remains the most common cause. Malignant pleural effusions tend to occur in advanced disease in chronic leukemia, but they can be seen at any time with acute leukemia and MDS. With standard precautions, pleural procedures may be performed safely in this population. In cases of unclear cause, pleural and bone marrow biopsy should be considered.
O'Connor, T M
Aspergillus fumigatus is one of the most ubiquitous of the airborne saprophytic fungi. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a syndrome seen in patients with asthma and cystic fibrosis, and is characterized by hypersensitivity to chronic colonization of the airways with A. fumigatus. We report the case of a patient with ABPA presenting with pleural effusion. A 27-year-old male was referred with recurrent right pleural effusion. Past medical history was remarkable for asthma, allergic sinusitis, and recurrent pleurisy. Investigations revealed peripheral eosinophilia with elevated serum immunoglobulin E and bilateral pleural effusions with bilateral upper lobe proximal bronchiectasis. Precipitating serum antibodies to A. fumigatus were positive and the A. fumigatus immediate skin test yielded a positive reaction. A diagnosis of ABPA associated with bilateral pleural effusions was made and the patient was commenced on prednisolone. At review, the patient\\'s symptoms had considerably improved and his pleural effusions had resolved. ABPA may present with diverse atypical syndromes, including paratracheal and hilar adenopathy, obstructive lung collapse, pneumothorax and bronchopleural fistula, and allergic sinusitis. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is a rare cause of pleural effusion and must be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with a pleural effusion, in particular those with a history of asthma.
Nomura, Fuminori; Kishimoto, Seiji
Synovial sarcoma in the head and neck region is rare, and is difficult to resect with adequate safety margins because of its anatomical complexity. We herein report our experiences with synovial sarcoma in this region, and review the literature regarding the management of such cases. We retrospectively examined four cases of synovial sarcoma arising from the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) area and infratemporal fossa. Only one patient remains alive without disease, while the other three patients have died. The local control of these tumors has improved because of the progress in the surgical operation methods, while it is expected that there is still a high rate of deaths due to distant metastasis increase. The development of strong chemotherapy is needed for the use after the initial treatment and surgery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kim, Sung Eun; Kim, Jae Duk [College of Dentistry, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)
Osteochondroma is a benign lesion of osseous and cartilagenous origin. It is a relatively common benign tumor of the skeleton, occurring most often in the metaphyseal region of long bone. However, it is rare in the facial bones. Reported foci in the mandible were the condyle, coronoid process, and symphysis region. Synovial chondromatosis is an uncommon benign condition of unknown etiology which affects the articular joints. Foci of cartilage develop through metaplasia in the underlying connective tissue of the synovial membrane. These cartilagenous foci and fragments may undergo calcification and ossification. We experienced 4 patients with abnormal appearance of mandibular condyle. This report describes 3 cases of osteocondroma and 1 case of synovial chondromatosis of the mandibular condyle with review of the literature
Full Text Available Synovial chondromatosis is cartilaginous metaplasia of mesenchymal remnants of synovial tissue of the joints. Its main characteristic is the formation of cartilaginous nodules in the synovium and inside the articular space (loose bodies. It usually presents between the third and fifth decades and is rare in children. It presents as a mono-articular pathology affecting large joints such as the knee, hip, and elbow. The main symptoms are pain, swelling, and limitation of movements in the affected joint. Diagnosis is made by panoramic radiographs, computed tomography scan, and mainly magnetic resonance imaging and on surgery. The authors describe of synovial chondromatosis presenting in the elbow of an 11 year-old girl which is unreported to the best of our knowledge.
Martinez-Gutierrez, Nancy; Ibarra-Bracamontes, Laura A.
The main components of a synovial joint are a cartilage and a biofluid known as the synovial fluid. The results were obtained using the FLUENT software to simulate the behavior of the synovial fluid within a deformable cavity with a simple geometry. The cartilage is represented as a porous region. By reducing the available region for the fluid, a fluid displacement into the cartilage is induced. The total pressure reached in the interface of the deformable cavity and the porous region is presented. The geometry and properties of the system are scaled to values found in a knee joint. The effect of deformation rate, fluid viscosity and properties of the porous medium on the total pressure reached are analyzed. The higher pressures are reached either for high deformation rate or when the fluid viscosity increases. This study was supported by the Mexican Council of Science and Technology (CONACyT) and by the Scientific Research Coordination of the University of Michoacan in Mexico.
Beekhuizen, M.; Gierman, L.M.; van Spil, W.E.; van Osch, G.J.V.M.; Huizinga, T.W.; Saris, Daniël B.F.; Creemers, L.B.; Zuurmond, A.
Objective Soluble mediators in synovial fluid are acknowledged as key players in the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis (OA). However, a wide-spectrum screening of such mediators in synovial fluid is currently lacking. In this study, the levels of 47 mediators in the synovial fluid of control donors
Alsaif H Saif
Full Text Available Synovial sarcoma is a malignant mesenchymal neoplasm which commonly occurs in the extremities of adults, in close association with joint capsules, tendon sheaths, bursae and fascial structures. Only a few cases of synovial sarcoma occurring in the abdominal wall have been reported. A case of a primary synovial sarcoma arising from the anterior abdominal wall fascial aponeurosis is presented.
Full Text Available Otitis media with effusion (serous otitis media is characterised by an accumulation of fluid in the middle ear behind an intact tympanic membrane, without the symptoms or signs of acute infection. Serous otitis media is the most common cause of hearing loss in children in the developed world. Hearing loss may be affected speech, cognitive, and psychological development of the childeren. In addition, otitis media with effusion is not only seen in children, this sign may present with signs of nasopharyngeal diseases. For this reason, especially in childhood otitis media with effusion should be treated by early diagnosis. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(2.000: 194-208
Hans A. Reyes
Full Text Available Presentation of pericardial disease is diverse, with the viral aetiology being the most common cause; however, when haemorrhagic pericardial effusion is present, these causes are narrowed to few aetiologies. We present a case of a young female of African descent who presented with diffuse abdominal pain and vomiting. Initial work-up showed pericardial effusion with impending echocardiographic findings of cardiac tamponade and bilateral pleural effusions. Procedures included a left video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS with pericardial window. We consider that it is important for all physicians to be aware of not only typical presentation but also atypical and unusual clinical picture of pericardial disease.
Malek, N P; Ocran, K; Tietge, U J; Maschek, H; Gratz, K F; Trautwein, C; Wagner, S; Manns, M P
A 26-year-old male patient with a history of chronic peripheral lymphedema, yellowish coloured slow growing nails and pleural effusions since early childhood is described. After 23 years he developed a chylous ascites and scintigraphy with technetium-99m labeled albumin clearly demonstrated a diffuse protein loss involving the whole jejunum and ileum. Subsequent jejunal and duodenal biopsies showed the typical histological findings of intestinal lymphangiectasia thereby confirming a diffuse intestinal lymphatic damage. In addition to the gastrointestional symptoms the patient developed a pericardial effusion diagnosed by echocardiographic imaging. Dietary treatment with middle chained triglycerides and intravenous human albumin supplementation was followed by the reduction of the ascites and improvement of the peripheral lymphedema. To our knowledge this is the first description of the yellow nail syndrome associated with a diffuse lymphangiectasia involving the whole small bowel.
Seo, Yo Seob; Lee, Gun Sun; Kim, Jin Soo; Kim, Jae Duk [Department of Oral and Maxilloficial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Oral Biology Research Institute, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)
Synovial chondromatosis is an uncommon disorder characterized by metaplastic formation of multiple cartilaginous and osteocartilaginous nodules within connective tissue of the synovial membrane of joints. Osteochondroma is a benign lesion of osseous and cartilagenous origin. It is frequently found in the general skeleton, but is rare in the mandibular condyle. We experienced 2 patients with abnormal appearance of temporomandibular joint. Histologic diagnoses were not obtained, because surgery was unwarranted in view of the lack of symptoms and the benign differential diagnosis. We describes 2 cases that show the characteristics of both disease simultaneously.
Svala, E; Jin, C; Rüetschi, U; Ekman, S; Lindahl, A; Karlsson, N G; Skiöldebrand, E
The glycoprotein lubricin contributes to the boundary lubrication of the articular cartilage surface. The early events of osteoarthritis involve the superficial layer where lubricin is synthesised. To characterise the glycosylation profile of lubricin in synovial fluid from horses with osteoarthritis and study secretion and degradation of lubricin in an in vitro inflammation cartilage model. In vitro study. Synovial fluid samples collected from horses with joints with normal articular cartilage and structural osteoarthritic lesions; with and without osteochondral fragments, were analysed for the lubricin glycosylation profiles. Articular cartilage explants were stimulated with or without interleukin-1β for 25 days. Media samples collected at 3-day intervals were analysed by quantitative proteomics, western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. O-glycosylation profiles in synovial fluid revealed both Core 1 and 2 O-glycans, with Core 1 O-glycans predominating. Synovial fluid from normal joints (49.5 ± 1.9%) contained significantly lower amounts of monosialylated Core 1 O-glycans compared with joints with osteoarthritis (53.8 ± 7.8%, P = 0.03) or joints with osteochondral fragments (57.3 ± 8.8%, P = 0.001). Additionally, synovial fluid from normal joints (26.7 ± 6.7%) showed higher amounts of disialylated Core 1 O-glycan than from joints with osteochondral fragments (21.2 ± 4.9%, P = 0.03). A C-terminal proteolytic cleavage site in lubricin was found in synovial fluid from normal and osteochondral fragment joints and in media from interleukin-1β stimulated and unstimulated articular cartilage explants. This is the first demonstration of a change in the glycosylation profile of lubricin in synovial fluid from diseased equine joints compared with that from normal joints. We demonstrate an identical proteolytic cleavage site of lubricin both in vitro and in vivo. The reduced sialation of lubricin in synovial fluid from diseased joints may affect the
A. C. Paulus
Full Text Available Introduction. Increasing interest developed in the use of carbon-fiber-reinforced-poly-ether-ether-ketones (CFR-PEEK as an alternative bearing material in knee arthroplasty. The effects of CFR-PEEK wear in in vitro and animal studies are controversially discussed, as there are no data available concerning human tissue. The aim of this study was to analyze human tissue containing CFR-PEEK as well as UHMWPE wear debris. The authors hypothesized no difference between the used biomaterials. Methods and Materials. In 10 patients during knee revision surgery of a rotating-hinge-knee-implant-design, synovial tissue samples were achieved (tibial inserts: UHMWPE; bushings and flanges: CFR-PEEK. One additional patient received revision surgery without any PEEK components as a control. The tissue was paraffin-embedded, sliced into 2 μm thick sections, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin in a standard process. A modified panoptical staining was also done. Results. A “wear-type” reaction was seen in the testing and the control group. In all samples, the UHMWPE particles were scattered in the tissue or incorporated in giant cells. CFR-PEEK particles were seen as conglomerates and only could be found next to vessels. CFR-PEEK particles showed no giant-cell reactions. In conclusion, the hypothesis has to be rejected. UHMWPE and PEEK showed a different scatter-behavior in human synovial tissue.
Ozeki, N; Muneta, T; Koga, H; Nakagawa, Y; Mizuno, M; Tsuji, K; Mabuchi, Y; Akazawa, C; Kobayashi, E; Matsumoto, K; Futamura, K; Saito, T; Sekiya, I
We investigated the effects of single or repetitive intra-articular injections of synovial mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on a rat osteoarthritis (OA) model, and elucidated the behaviors and underlying mechanisms of the stem cells after the injection. One week after the transection of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) of wild type Lewis rats, one million synovial MSCs were injected into the knee joint every week. Cartilage degeneration was evaluated with safranin-o staining after the first injection. To analyze cell kinetics or MSC properties, luciferase, LacZ, and GFP expressing synovial MSCs were used. To confirm the role of MSCs, species-specific microarray and PCR analyses were performed using human synovial MSCs. Histological analysis for femoral and tibial cartilage showed that a single injection was ineffective but weekly injections had significant chondroprotective effects for 12 weeks. Histological and flow-cytometric analyses of LacZ and GFP expressing synovial MSCs revealed that injected MSCs migrated mainly into the synovium and most of them retained their undifferentiated MSC properties though the migrated cells rapidly decreased. In vivo imaging analysis revealed that MSCs maintained in knees while weekly injection. Species-specific microarray and PCR analyses showed that the human mRNAs on day 1 for 21 genes increased over 50-fold, and increased the expressions of PRG-4, BMP-2, and BMP-6 genes encoding chondroprotective proteins, and TSG-6 encoding an anti-inflammatory one. Not single but periodic injections of synovial MSCs maintained viable cells without losing their MSC properties in knees and inhibited osteoarthritis (OA) progression by secretion of trophic factors. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Ko, Young Sun; Yoo, Ki Deok; Hyun, Yil Sik; Chung, Hae Ryoung; Park, Soo Yuk; Kim, Sun Min; Jeon, Yong Cheol
Hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection is common in developing countries, including Korea. It can be accompanied by extrahepatic complications such as renal failure, arthritis, and vasculitis. Pleural effusion is a very rare complication of HAV infection, which has been reported usually in children, and has benign clinical courses. Here we report a case of pleural effusion with ascites which occurred in an adult hepatitis A patient. A 26-year-old-woman presented generalized myalgia and fever and was diagnosed as acute hepatitis A. Despite of the improvement of laboratory findings, fever and cough persisted. Pleural effusion newly appeared on the serial chest radiologic images. After the fever settled down, the pleural effusion resolved spontaneously at 13th day of admission.
Janowitz, P; Meier, F; Reisig, J
We report a case of solitary gastric schwannoma that initially manifested with recurrent left pleural effusion caused by an inflammatory reaction. A 75-year-old female was primarily admitted with progressive dyspnoea and left sided effusion. History as well as clinical examination, gastroscopy, computed tomography (CT) and transabdominal ultrasound of the abdomen suggested the diagnosis of a benign tumour of the stomach. The tumour was resected and a fundectomy with a security distance of 3-5 cm performed. Histological assessment revealed a large intramural schwannoma of the gastric wall, arising from the submucosal layer. There was no evidence of malignancy. During a three year follow-up the patient has not shown any evidence of relapse or pleural effusion. This is a very rare manifestation of this benign tumour, representing a rare differential diagnosis in a case of left sided pleural effusion.
Duzer, Sertac; Sakallioglu, Oner; Akyigit, Abdulvahap; Polat, Cahit; Cetiner, Hasan; Susaman, Nihat
The aim of this study was to establish how reliable a given tympanogram is in predicting the presence or absence of a middle ear effusion, and to provide new views for the diagnostic information of tympanometry. The use of tympanometric gradient in addition to static admittance is the focus of this study. The authors enrolled 146 female and 129 male patients. The participants were allocated into groups as follow: Group A1 consisted of 50 healthy children. Group A2 consisted of 86 children with otitis media with effusion. Group B1 consisted of 85 healthy adults. Group B2 consisted of 54 adults with otitis media with effusion. All diagnostic otoscopic examination and tympanometry were performed in both ears. The authors analyzed the distribution of tympanograms in patients with otitis media with effusion and healthy controls. When the right and left ear canal volume of either children or adults with otitis media with effusion compared with healthy controls, no statistically significant different was observed (P > 0.05). On the other hand, the statistically significant difference was detected for the values of compliance, pressure and gradient of either children or adults with otitis media with effusion compared with healthy controls (P < 0.05). The authors found the values range from 0.01 to 1.52 mL gradients (mean least value 0.15 mL) in adults and the values range from 0.01 to 0.93 mL gradients (mean least value 0.10 mL) in children in the presence of otitis media with effusion. The authors think that tympanometric gradient may be useful to detect the otitis media with effusion.
Pulsus paradoxus is the finding of a fall in the systolic blood pressure of more than 10mmHg when the patient inspires . The chest Xray of a patient with large pericardial effusion shows a large “boot-shaped” cardiac silhouette but it can be difficult to tell if a large heart is due to dilated cardiomyopathy or pericardial effusion ...
Ashwini Kumar Mishra
Full Text Available Leukemias rarely present as pleural effusion as the first manifestation of the disease process. Most commonly this complication is seen in solid tumors such as the lung, lymphomas, carcinomas of the breast and gastrointestinal tract. A case of 40 year old male is hereby highlighted who presented with a massive pleural effusion as the initial presentation of his disease process (ALL which is a rare phenomenon to be seen.
Craig, L E; Julian, M E; Ferracone, J D
Although synovial cell sarcoma is reported to be the most common neoplasm of the canine synovium, this retrospective study of 35 canine synovial tumors found that the majority were of histiocytic origin. Five (14.3%) synovial cell sarcomas were identified by positive immunohistochemical staining with antibodies to cytokeratin. Eighteen (51.4%) histiocytic sarcomas were identified by cell morphology and immunohistochemical staining with antibodies to CD18. Six (17.1%) synovial myxomas were identified by histologic pattern. The remaining six (17.1%) synovial tumors represented a variety of sarcomas, including two malignant fibrous histiocytomas (actin positive), one fibrosarcoma, one chondrosarcoma, and two undifferentiated sarcomas. Rottweilers were overrepresented in the histiocytic sarcoma category and Doberman Pinschers were overrepresented in the synovial myxoma category. The average survival time was 31.8 months for dogs with synovial cell sarcoma, 5.3 months for dogs with histiocytic sarcoma, 30.7 months for dogs with synovial myxoma, and 3.5 months for dogs with other sarcomas. Among the dogs with follow-up information available, metastatic disease was detected in 25% of dogs with synovial cell sarcoma, in 91% of dogs with histiocytic sarcoma, in none of the dogs with synovial myxoma, and in 100% of dogs with other sarcomas. Immunohistochemical staining for cytokeratin, CD18, and smooth muscle actin is recommended to make the diagnosis and thereby predict the behavior of synovial tumors in dogs.
Shah, Daivesh P; Diwakar, Manish; Dargar, Nitin
Synovial chondromatosis is a rare intraarticular benign condition arising from the synovial membrane of the joints, synovial sheaths or bursae around the joints. Primary synovial chondromatosis typically affects the large joints in the third to fifth decade of life, although involvement of smaller joints and presentation in younger age group is also documented. The purpose of this case report is to document this rare extra articular synovial pathology present inside the baker's cyst which required open synovectomy and debridement to eradicate it. A 43 yearold male presented with a two year history of pain, swelling and restriction of right knee joint. After the clinical and radiological assessment, open synovectomy, removal of cyst and thorough joint debridement procedure was performed. Histopathological study confirmed the findings of synovial chondromatosis. Synovial chondromatosis is a rare benign condition. Complete synovectomy offers reliable cure rate.
Full Text Available Metastatic melanoma is a rare form of skin cancer, but one that comes with a high mortality rate. Pulmonary involvement is frequently seen in metastatic melanoma with only 2% of malignant melanoma patients with thorax metastasis presenting with pleural effusions. Herein, we report an extremely rare case of black pleural effusion from thoracic metastasis of cutaneous malignant melanoma. A 74-year-old man with known metastatic melanoma presented with a 1-month history of worsening lower back and hip pain and was found to have extensive osseous metastatic disease and multiple compression fractures. The patient underwent an uneventful kyphoplasty; however, the following day, he became acutely hypoxic and tachypneic with increased oxygen requirements. Radiographic evaluation revealed new bilateral pleural effusions. Bedside thoracentesis revealed a densely exudative, lymphocyte-predominant black effusion. Cytological examination showed numerous neoplastic cells with melanin deposition. A diagnosis of thoracic metastasis of malignant melanoma was established based on the gross and microscopic appearance of the pleural fluid. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of black pleural effusions secondary to metastatic melanoma in the United States. Despite the rarity of this presentation, it is important to determine the etiology of the black pleural effusion and to keep metastatic melanoma as a differential diagnosis.
Full Text Available Introduction: Malignant mesenchymal tumors of the larynx are rare. One type of malignant mesenchymal tumor is synovial sarcoma with unknown histogenesis, which occurs predominantly in the lower extremities of young adults. The head and neck region is a relatively rare location. There are few cases of malignant mesenchymal tumors with laryngeal localization in literature. Case Report: In this report, a new case in a 23-year-old man, which was referred with increasing hoarseness for eight months, and dysphagia, odynophagia, and dyspnea since nearly one year ago, is reported. Indirect laryngoscopy revealed a laryngeal submucosal mass. The patient was operated and the histopathological diagnosis of synovial sarcoma was confirmed by IHC (Immunohistochemisry. Conclusion: Synovial sarcoma occurs predominantly in the lower extremities of young adults. Because very few cases of laryngeal synovial sarcoma are reported, every new case will bring some new information about diagnosis and therapy. It is of utmost importance to get to know new aspects and therapeutical modalities of this rare tumor.
... histologic and immunohistochemical analyses confirmed a diagnosis of monophasic synovial sarcoma. However, 10 months postoperation she represented with chest pain, productive cough and a repeat CXR showed multiple left pulmonary nodules. She received two cycles of docetaxel and gemcitabine chemotherapy, ...
Larque, Ana B.; Nielsen, G.P.; Chebib, Ivan [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Pathology, Boston, MA (United States); Bredella, Miriam A. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)
To assess the radiographic and clinicopathologic features of synovial sarcoma of the nerve that were clinically or radiologically interpreted as benign peripheral nerve sheath tumor. Five patients with synovial sarcoma arising from the peripheral nerve and interpreted clinically and radiologically as peripheral nerve sheath tumors were identified. Clinicopathologic and imaging features were evaluated. There were three females and two males, ranging in age from 28 to 50 (mean 35.8) years. Most patients (4/5) complained of a mass, discomfort or pain. MR images demonstrated a heterogeneous, enhancing, soft tissue mass contiguous with the neurovascular bundle. On histologic examination, most tumors were monophasic synovial sarcoma (4/5). At the time of surgery, all tumors were noted to arise along or within a peripheral nerve. All patients were alive with no evidence of disease with median follow-up of 44 (range 32-237) months. For comparison, approximately 775 benign peripheral nerve sheath tumors of the extremities were identified during the same time period. Primary synovial sarcoma of the nerve can mimic peripheral nerve sheath tumors clinically and on imaging and should be included in the differential diagnosis for tumors arising from peripheral nerves. (orig.)
Gilberto Luís Camanho
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the incidence, clinical significance, and clinical manifestations of pathological synovial plicae of the knee. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between 2002 and 2006, 63 patients with pathological synovial plicae of the knee were studied. Of those 63 patients, 21 had the diagnosis confirmed by previously performed magnetic resonance imaging. All of the patients initially underwent conservative treatment for 90 days that involved strengthening and improving the flexibility of the muscles surrounding the knee as well as modification of their sports activities. RESULTS: A total of 55 patients improved after conservative treatment. Six of these patients eventually experienced a recurrence of symptoms, but the symptoms were not incapacitating in any of these patients. The other eight patients underwent arthroscopic removal of the synovial plica. Of these eight patients, six returned to their pretreatment physical activities, and two had persistent symptoms during physical activity. CONCLUSION: The presence of a synovial plica of the knee should be considered as a potential diagnosis in patients with knee pain, especially those who practice sports inappropriately. Conservative treatment is effective in most cases, and surgical treatment should be reserved for exceptional cases that do not improve with conservative treatment.
A 77 year old female patient was admitted to our clinic with a history of swelling in the right knee. After surgical excision of the mass, the pathological examination was found to be consistent with the synovial hemangioma of the knee which has been rarely reported up till now. Pathologists and clinicians dealing with the ...
Emely Lea Bortel
Full Text Available Wear tests of joint prostheses are usually performed using bovine calf serum. The results from different laboratories are hardly ever comparable as, for example, the protein concentration and the protein composition of the serum-based test liquids vary. In addition, the viscosity of these test liquids is similar to that of water and does not match the more viscous synovial fluid. The present work was aimed at developing a synthetic synovial fluid as an alternative to the existing test liquids. Improved consistency and reproducibility of results at a similar price were required. Hyaluronic acid (HA, the lyophilized proteins bovine serum albumin (BSA and immunoglobulin G (IgG, the phospholipid lecithin (PL and salts were applied in a stepwise approach to replace the actually used test liquid based on newborn calf serum. The in vitro results obtained with ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE pins sliding against CoCrMo discs revealed that the developed synthetic synovial fluid fulfils the set requirements: increase of viscosity, reasonable cost, improved consistency and wear particles which resemble the ones found in vivo. The developed synthetic synovial fluid with 3 g/L HA, 19 g/L BSA, 11 g/L IgG, 0.1 g/L PL and Ringer solution is a more realistic alternative to the used serum-based test liquid.
Vergara, Pierluigi; Akhunbay-Fudge, Christopher Yusuf; Kotter, Mark Robert; Charles Laing, Rodney John
Lumbar synovial cysts are relatively infrequent. Historically, these benign lesions have been treated with open excision, sometimes associated with fusion. The aim of this study is to compare minimally invasive surgery (MIS) with open surgery (OS) for the treatment of lumbar synovial cysts. This was a retrospective review of patients who underwent minimally invasive or open excision of lumbar synovial cysts. Clinical outcomes, recurrence rate, and surgical complications were compared in the 2 groups. A total of 37 cases were identified, of which 24 were MIS and 13 were OS. MIS was significantly more effective in improving leg pain and radicular symptoms. There was no statistical difference between the 2 groups with regard to improvements of back pain and neurogenic claudication. Postoperative length of hospital stay and postoperative pain were significantly reduced in the MIS group (15 hours vs. 24 hours and 0.9/10 vs. 4.7/10 respectively, P < 0.5). There were no statistical differences in duration of surgery, intra- or postoperative complications, no recurrence of cyst in either of the 2 groups, and no patients required fusion at a later stage. In this study, MIS for the treatment of lumbar synovial cysts appears to be more effective than OS in relieving radicular symptoms. Furthermore, MIS is better tolerated by patients and is potentially cost saving for the Health Service, due to the reduction in hospital stay and the reduced requirement for painkillers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
R. de Jonge (Robert); R.W. Brouwer (Reinoud); M. Smit (Marij); M. de Frankrijker-Merkestijn; R.J. Dolhain; J.M.W. Hazes (Mieke); A.W. van Toorenenbergen (Albert); J. Lindemans (Jan)
textabstractOBJECTIVES: To evaluate the performance of automated leucocyte (white blood cell; WBC) counting by comparison with manual counting. METHODS: The number of WBC was determined in heparinized synovial fluid samples by the use of (i) a standard urine cytometer (Kova) and a
Uryasev, Oleg; Joseph, Oliver C; McNamara, John P; Dallas, Apostolos P
Knee effusions occur due to traumatic and atraumatic causes. Clinical diagnosis currently relies on several provocative techniques to demonstrate knee joint effusions. Portable bedside ultrasonography (US) is becoming an adjunct to diagnosis of effusions. We hypothesized that a US approach with a clinical joint cupping maneuver increases sensitivity in identifying effusions as compared to US alone. Using unembalmed cadaver knees, we injected fluid to create effusions up to 10 mL. Each effusion volume was measured in a lateral transverse location with respect to the patella. For each effusion we applied a joint cupping maneuver from an inferior approach, and re-measured the effusion. With increased volume of saline infusion, the mean depth of effusion on ultrasound imaging increased as well. Using a 2-mm cutoff, we visualized an effusion without the joint cupping maneuver at 2.5 mL and with the joint cupping technique at 1 mL. Mean effusion diameter increased on average 0.26 cm for the joint cupping maneuver as compared to without the maneuver. The effusion depth was statistically different at 2.5 and 7.5 mL (P cupping technique in combination with US is a valuable tool in assessing knee effusions, especially those of subclinical levels. Effusion measurements are complicated by uneven distribution of effusion fluid. A clinical joint cupping maneuver concentrates the fluid in one recess of the joint, increasing the likelihood of fluid detection using US. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Uchimizu, Hirotaka; Matsuwaki, Yoshinori; Kato, Masahiko; Otori, Nobuyosi; Kojima, Hiromi
Eosinophilic otitis media (EOM) is an intractable disease characterized by a remarkably viscous effusion and accumulation of numerous eosinophils in both the middle ear effusion and the mucosa. The key factors in EOM pathogenesis remain unclear. The purpose of this study is to identify the important factors involved in EOM pathogenesis. Middle ear effusion samples were collected from 12 patients with EOM and 9 patients with secretory otitis media (SOM), as controls. Multiple cytokines in the effusion were measured using a Bio-Plex™ Human Cytokine 27-Plex panel. Eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN) and elastase were measured by ELISA. The concentrations of EDN, elastase, and each cytokine were compared between the EOM and SOM groups. Furthermore, in the EOM group, each cytokine was examined for correlation with EDN and elastase. EDN and elastase concentrations were significantly higher in the EOM group than in the SOM group (p < 0.05). IL-5, IL-1β, MIP-1α, G-CSF, IL-1ra, IL-4, IFN-γ, MIP-1β, IL-10, TNF-α, VEGF, and IL-2 concentration was significantly higher in the EOM group than in the SOM group (p < 0.05). Significant positive correlations were found between EDN and IL-1ra, IL-2, IL-5, IL-9, IL-13, eotaxin, MIP-1α, PDGF-BB, and RANTES in the EOM group (p < 0.05). Our study showed that IL-5, IL-2, MIP-1α, and IL-1ra are the important factors involved in EOM pathogenesis. Furthermore, not only eosinophil, but also neutrophil are involved in middle ear inflammation of EOM. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Vlenterie, Myrella; Hillebrandt-Roeffen, Melissa H S; Schaars, Esther W M; Flucke, Uta E.; Fleuren, Emmy D G; Navis, Anna C.; Leenders, William P J; Versleijen-Jonkers, Yvonne M H; van der Graaf, Winette T A
Background: In synovial sarcomas alterations in the cyclin D1-CDK4/6-Rb axis have been described. Also, β-catenin, a cyclin D1 regulator, is often overexpressed. Additionally, studies have shown that the t(X;18) translocation influences tumor behavior partly through cyclin D1 activation. We
Vlenterie, M.; Hillebrandt-Roeffen, M.H.; Schaars, E.W.; Flucke, U.E.; Fleuren, E.D.G.; Navis, A.C.; Leenders, W.P.J.; Versleijen-Jonkers, Y.M.H.; Graaf, W.T.A. van der
BACKGROUND: In synovial sarcomas alterations in the cyclin D1-CDK4/6-Rb axis have been described. Also, beta-catenin, a cyclin D1 regulator, is often overexpressed. Additionally, studies have shown that the t(X;18) translocation influences tumor behavior partly through cyclin D1 activation. We
Delle Donne, D.; Tamburello, G.; Aiuppa, A.; Bitetto, M.; Lacanna, G.; D'Aleo, R.; Ripepe, M.
Understanding the mechanisms that cause effusive eruptions is the key to mitigating their associated hazard. Here we combine results from permanent ultraviolet (UV) cameras, and from other geophysical observations (seismic very long period, thermal, and infrasonic activity), to characterize volcanic SO2 flux regime in the period prior, during, and after Stromboli's August-November 2014 effusive eruption. We show that, in the 2 months prior to effusion onset, the SO2 flux levels are 2 times average level. We explain this anomalously high SO2 regime as primarily determined by venting of rapidly rising, pressurized SO2-rich gas pockets produced by strombolian explosions being more frequent and intense than usual. We develop a procedure to track (and count), in the UV camera record, the SO2 flux pulses produced by individual explosions and puffing activity (active degassing). We find that these SO2 pulses are far more numerous (67 ± 47 events per hour) before the effusion onset than during normal activity (20 ± 15 events per hour). This observation, combined with geophysical evidence, demonstrates an elevated gas bubble supply to the shallow conduits, causing elevated explosive and puffing activity. This increase (≥0.1 m3 s-1) in magma transport rate in the north-east feeding conduits finally triggers effusion onset. Active degassing remains elevated also during the effusive phase, supporting the persistence of explosive and puffing activity during the effusive eruption, deep in the volcanic conduit. Our results demonstrate that permanent UV cameras can valuably contribute to monitoring at high-sampling frequency gas dynamics and fluxes, thus opening the way to direct comparison with more established geophysical observations.
Di Francesco, Renata Cantisani; Barros, Vivian Boschesi; Ramos, Rafael
To determine the prevalence of otitis media with effusion in children younger than 1 year and its association with the season of the year, artificial feeding, environmental and perinatal factors. Retrospective study of 184 randomly included medical records from a total of 982 healthy infants evaluated for hearing screening tests. Diagnosis of otitis media with effusion was based on otoscopy (amber-gold color, fluid level, handle of malleus position), type B tympanometric curves and absence of otoacoustic emissions. Incomplete medical records or those describing acute otitis media, upper respiratory tract infections on the assessment day or in the last 3 months, neuropathies and craniofacial anomalies were excluded. Data such as gestational age, birth weight, Apgar score, type of feeding and day care attendance were compared between children with and without otitis media with effusion through likelihood tests and multivariate analysis. 25.3% of 184 infants had otitis media with bilateral effusion; 9.2% had unilateral. In infants with otitis media, the following were observed: chronological age of 9.6±1.7 months; gestational age >38 weeks in 43.4% and birth weight >2,500g in 48.4%. Otitis media with effusion was associated with winter/fall, artificial feeding, Apgar score otitis media with effusion. Otitis media with effusion was found in about one third of children younger than 1 year and was mainly associated with artificial feeding. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Renata Cantisani Di Francesco
Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To determine the prevalence of otitis media with effusion in children younger than 1 year and its association with the season of the year, artificial feeding, environmental and perinatal factors. Methods: Retrospective study of 184 randomly included medical records from a total of 982 healthy infants evaluated for hearing screening tests. Diagnosis of otitis media with effusion was based on otoscopy (amber-gold color, fluid level, handle of malleus position, type B tympanometric curves and absence of otoacoustic emissions. Incomplete medical records or those describing acute otitis media, upper respiratory tract infections on the assessment day or in the last 3 months, neuropathies and craniofacial anomalies were excluded. Data such as gestational age, birth weight, Apgar score, type of feeding and day care attendance were compared between children with and without otitis media with effusion through likelihood tests and multivariate analysis. Results: 25.3% of 184 infants had otitis media with bilateral effusion; 9.2% had unilateral. In infants with otitis media, the following were observed: chronological age of 9.6±1.7 months; gestational age >38 weeks in 43.4% and birth weight >2500g in 48.4%. Otitis media with effusion was associated with winter/fall, artificial feeding, Apgar score <7 and day care attendance. The multivariate analysis showed that artificial feeding is the factor most often associated to otitis media with effusion. Conclusions: Otitis media with effusion was found in about one third of children younger than 1 year and was mainly associated with artificial feeding.
Pereira, Rodrigo Romualdo; Alvim, Cristina Gonçalves; Andrade, Cláudia Ribeiro de; Ibiapina, Cássio da Cunha
To evaluate the best time to perform thoracoscopy for the treatment of complicated parapneumonic pleural effusion in the fibrinopurulent phase in patients ≤ 14 years of age, regarding the postoperative evolution and occurrence of complications. This was a retrospective comparative study involving patients with parapneumonic pleural effusion presenting with septations or loculations on chest ultrasound who underwent thoracoscopy between January of 2000 and January of 2013. The patients were divided into two groups: early thoracoscopy (ET), performed by day 5 of hospitalization; and late thoracoscopy (LT), performed after day 5 of hospitalization. We included 60 patients, 30 in each group. The mean age was 3.4 years; 28 patients (46.7%) were male; and 47 (78.3%) underwent primary thoracoscopy (no previous simple drainage). The two groups were similar regarding gender, age, weight, and type of thoracoscopy (p > 0.05 for all). There was a significant difference between the ET and the LT groups regarding the length of the hospital stay (14.5 days vs. 21.7 days; p derrame pleural parapneumônico complicado na fase fibrinopurulenta em pacientes ≤ 14 anos de idade quanto a evolução e ocorrência de complicações pós-operatórias. Estudo retrospectivo e comparativo com pacientes com derrame pleural parapneumônico que apresentavam septações ou loculações à ultrassonografia de tórax e que foram submetidos a toracoscopia no período entre janeiro de 2000 e janeiro de 2013. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos: toracoscopia precoce (TP), realizada até o 5º dia da hospitalização; e toracoscopia tardia (TT), realizada após o 5º dia de internação. Foram incluídas 60 pacientes, 30 em cada grupo. A média de idade foi de 3,4 anos, 28 pacientes (46,7%) eram do sexo masculino, e 47 (78,3%) foram submetidos à toracoscopia primária, sem realização de drenagem simples prévia. Os grupos TP e TT foram semelhantes quanto ao sexo, idade, peso e tipo de
Shah, Yash Y; Maldonado-Camargo, Lorena; Patel, Neal S; Biedrzycki, Adam H; Yarmola, Elena G; Dobson, Jon; Rinaldi, Carlos; Allen, Kyle D
The mechanics of synovial fluid vary with disease progression, but are difficult to quantify quickly in a clinical setting due to small sample volumes. In this study, a novel technique to measure synovial fluid mechanics using magnetic nanoparticles is introduced. Briefly, microspheres embedded with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, termed magnetic particles, are distributed through a 100μL synovial fluid sample. Then, a permanent magnet inside a protective sheath is inserted into the synovial fluid sample. Magnetic particles translate toward the permanent magnet and the percentage of magnetic particles collected by the magnet in a given time can be related to synovial fluid viscosity. To validate this relationship, magnetic particle translation was demonstrated in three phases. First, magnetic particle translation was assessed in glycerol solutions with known viscosities, demonstrating that as fluid viscosity increased, magnetic particle translation decreased. Next, the relationship between magnetic particle translation and synovial fluid viscosity was assessed using bovine synovial fluid that was progressively degenerated via ultrasonication. Here, particle collection in a given amount of time increased as fluid degenerated, demonstrating that the relationship between particle collection and fluid mechanics holds in non-Newtonian synovial fluid. Finally, magnetic particle translation was used to assess differences between healthy and OA affected joints in equine synovial fluid. Here, particle collection in a given time was higher in OA joints relative to healthy horses (pfluid mechanics in limited volumes of synovial fluid sample. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jansen, N W D; Roosendaal, G; Wenting, M J G; Bijlsma, J W J; Theobald, M; Hazewinkel, H A W; Lafeber, F P J G
Joint bleeding leads to joint destruction. In vitro exposure of human and canine cartilage to blood results in long-lasting severe adverse changes in cartilage. An in vivo joint haemorrhage in the canine knee joint demonstrates similar adverse effects although significantly less outspoken. As a possible explanation for this discrepancy, we studied the clearance rate of blood from the canine knee joints. Blood was injected into the knee joint of Beagle dogs either 48 h, 24h or 15 min before termination. The amount of red blood cells (RBC) and white blood cells (WBCs) present in the joint cavity was determined. Chondrocyte activity and cartilage matrix integrity as well as cartilage destructive activity of synovial tissue were determined biochemically. Additionally, synovial tissue was analyzed by use of histochemistry. The amount of blood was decreased to canine knee joint, but already has adverse effects on both cartilage and synovial tissue within that short time span. This rapid clearance can play a role in the discrepancy between long-term in vitro and in vivo effects of blood-induced joint damage since more than 10% v/v blood present for at least 48 h is needed to induce long-term adverse effects in vitro.
Lev-Ari, S; Strier, L; Kazanov, D; Elkayam, O; Lichtenberg, D; Caspi, D; Arber, N
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the Western world's leading cause of disability. Cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors are efficient anti-inflammatory agents commonly used in the treatment of osteoarthritis. However, recent studies have shown that their long-term use may be limited due to cardiovascular toxicity. The anti-inflammatory efficacy of the phytochemical curcumin has been demonstrated in several in vitro and animal models. This study was undertaken to investigate whether curcumin augments the growth-inhibitory and pro-apoptotic effects of celecoxib in OA synovial adherent cells. OA synovial adherent cells were prepared from human synovial tissue collected during total knee replacement surgery. The cells were exposed to different concentrations of celecoxib (0-40 mum), curcumin (0-20 mum) and their combination. Flow cytometric analysis was used to measure the percentage of cells with a subdiploid DNA content, the hallmark of apoptosis. COX-2 activity was assessed by measuring production of prostaglandin E(2) by enzyme-linked immunoassay. A synergistic effect was observed in inhibition of cell growth when the cells were exposed to various concentrations of celecoxib combined with curcumin. The inhibitory effect of the combination on cell growth was associated with an increased induction of apoptosis. The synergistic effect was mediated through a mechanism that involves inhibition of COX-2 activity. This effect may enable the use of celecoxib at lower and safer concentrations, and may pave the way for a novel combination treatment in osteoarthritis and other rheumatological disorders.
Full Text Available Sixty one samples of the distal parts of limbs were obtained from different ages of buffalo and camels of both sex to study the synovial structures to determine the suitable sites for injection of surgical interference. The result showed that extensor digit synovial sheath was extend between middle or distal part of metacarpal (metatarsal to the extensor processes and this formed with synovial capsule dorsal pouches which serve in surgical interference. The flexor digit synovial sheath extended to palmar (planter between distal extremity of metacarpal (metatarsal to the middle of second phalanx in buffalo while in camel it extended to the proximal extremity of second phalanx, that sheath was formed with suspensory ligament and sessamoid bone palmar or planter pouches which were serve the surgical interference. Fourth synovial bursa observed situated dorsally between the extensor digit laterals tendon and capsule of fetlock joint, forms site of injection during surgical interference, while the other two synovial bursa were located to palmer (planter between deep flexor tendon and distal sessamoid bone in buffalo while in camel these bursa were located between deep flexor tendon and cartilage of the second phalanx, these bursa were served for surgical interference. The synovial capsule which serve the surgical interference through digit cushion these were shown extended from the claw capsule. The result show that surgical interference was form six pouches in buffalo and eight pouches in camel, which formed by synovial structures and the tissue associated with them.
Full Text Available This review article discusses two clinical cases of patients presenting to the emergency department with pericardial effusions. The role of bedside ultrasound in the detection of pericardial effusions is investigated, with special attention to the specific ultrasound features of cardiac tamponade. Through this review, clinicians caring for patients with pericardial effusions will learn to rapidly diagnose this condition directly at the bedside. Clinicians will also learn to differentiate between simple pericardial effusions in contrast to more complicated effusions causing cardiac tamponade. Indications for emergency pericardiocentesis are covered, so that clinicians can rapidly determine which group of patients will benefit from an emergency procedure to drain the effusion.
Yasemin Bilgin Büyükkarabacak
Full Text Available Objective: Currently, thoracoscopic procedures have been used frequently in diagnosis and treatment of pleural effusions. It was reported, high diagnosis and treatment success with thoracoscopy in pleural effusion, which was not, diagnosed using cytology and blinding pleural biopsy procedures. In this study, it was aimed to evaluate of the patient was performed video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS due to pleural effusion. Methods: Between 2011 and 2014 years, it was evaluated 52 patients was performed VATS because of pleural effusion. The procedure was performed under general anesthesia and single lung ventilation in 50 patients, and local anesthesia in 2 patients. Results: Histopathological results were reported as carcinoma infiltration in 29 patients, benign disease in 23 patients. Cytological examination of liquid was executed before thoracoscopy in all of the patients with malignity positive. In addition, in eight patients pleura biopsy, on which blinding was executed, evaluated as malignity negative. The diagnostic value of our procedure has 100% in malign group and 98% in benign group. In patients with malignant disease, pleurodesis was performed peroperatively. Mean hospital stay was 5 days (3-15. Mean duration of terminating chest tube was 3 days (3-15. There were no morbidity and mortality due to procedure. Conclusion: Single port VATS is an effective and safe procedure in diagnosis and palliative treatment of patient with pleural effusion, and it has high success rate and reduces hospital stay.
Kolkaila, E A; Emara, A A; Gabr, T A
Fifty per cent of children with serous otitis media may have some balance disturbances. To evaluate vestibular function in children with otitis media with effusion. The control group comprised 25 children with bilateral normal hearing and middle-ear function. The study group consisted of 30 children with bilateral otitis media with effusion; these were divided into 2 subgroups according to air-bone gap size. Measures included the Arabic Dizziness Handicap Inventory, an imbalance evaluation sheet for children, vestibular bedside tests for children, and air- and bone-conducted vestibular-evoked myogenic potential testing. Arabic Dizziness Handicap Inventory scores and some vestibular bedside test results were significantly abnormal, with normal video-nystagmography results, in children with otitis media with effusion. Air-conducted vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials were recorded in 73 per cent of children with otitis media with effusion, with significantly delayed latencies. Bone-conducted vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials were successfully detected in 100 per cent of children with otitis media with effusion with similar results to the control group. The Arabic Dizziness Handicap Inventory and vestibular bedside tests are valuable tools for detecting vestibular impairment in children. Bone-conducted vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials are useful for vestibular system evaluation.
Facchetti, Fabio; Lonardi, Silvia; Gentili, Francesca; Bercich, Luisa; Falchetti, Marcella; Tardanico, Regina; Baronchelli, Carla; Lucini, Laura; Santin, Alessandro; Murer, Bruno
We evaluated the usefulness of the tight-junction associated protein Claudin 4 (CL-4) in the diagnosis of mesothelioma and mimickers, analyzing biopsies from 454 tumors, including 82 mesotheliomas, 336 carcinomas of different origin (278 primary, 58 metastatic to serosae), 36 nonepithelial spindle cell neoplasms, as well as 97 cytological samples from reactive effusions (12), mesothelioma (23) and metastatic carcinomas (62). CL-4 was consistently negative in normal and reactive mesothelium, as well as in all 82 mesotheliomas. In contrast, strong reactivity was found in 57/58 serosal metastasis, and in 245/278 primary carcinomas, with uppermost expression (150/153) in those most frequently involved in the differential with mesothelioma (lung, breast, gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, ovary, primary serous papillary carcinoma of peritoneum). On effusions, reactive and neoplastic mesothelial cells were regularly negative, while metastatic tumor cells stained positively in 60/62 (96.8%) cases. Among spindle cell neoplasms, only 2/9 biphasic synovial sarcomas and 4/4 follicular dendritic cell sarcomas stained positively. Results indicate that CL-4 reacts with the majority of epithelial neoplasms that often metastasize to serous membranes, representing a pancarcinoma marker with extremely high sensitivity and specificity. CL-4 may be considered a primary immunohistochemical reagent to rule out the diagnosis of mesothelioma.
Hornum, Lars; Hansen, Anker Jon; Tornehave, Ditte; Fjording, Marianne Scheel; Colmenero, Paula; Wätjen, Inger Falbe; Søe Nielsen, Niels Henrik; Bliddal, Henning; Bartels, Else Marie
Complement activation correlates to rheumatoid arthritis disease activity, and increased amounts of the complement split product C5a is observed in synovial fluids from rheumatoid arthritis patients. Blockade of C5a or its receptor (C5aR) is efficacious in several arthritis models. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of C5a and C5aR in human rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis-both with respect to expression and function. Synovial fluid, blood and synovial samples were obtained from rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis and osteoarthritis patients as a less inflammatory arthritis type, and blood from healthy subjects. Cells infiltrating synovial tissue were analysed by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. SF and blood were analysed for biomarkers by flow cytometry or ELISA. The effect of a blocking anti-human C5aR mAb on leukocyte migration was determined using a Boyden chamber. Appropriate statistical tests were applied for comparisons. C5aR+ cells were detected in most rheumatoid arthritis, in all psoriatic arthritis, but not in non-inflammatory control synovia. C5aR+ cells were primarily neutrophils and macrophages. C5aR+ macrophages were mainly found in lymphoid aggregates in close contact with T cells. C5a levels were increased in both rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis synovial fluid compared to osteoarthritis, and in blood from rheumatoid arthritis compared to healthy subjects. Neutrophil and monocyte migration to rheumatoid arthritis synovial fluid was significantly inhibited by anti-C5aR. The data support that the C5a-C5aR axis may be driving the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the synovial fluid and synovium in both rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis, and suggest that C5a or C5aR may be a promising treatment target in both diseases.
Jun 11, 2015 ... who presented with cough, chest pain, and pleural effusion. Chest X-ray (CXR) and computed tomography on admission showed a left-sided huge mass in the left anterior mediastinum with no metastasis to the contralateral pleural cavity. Complete resection of the mediastinal tumor was done and histologic ...
Dai, Xin; Feng, Yuan-Yong; Bu, Ling-Xue; Song, Kai; Gao, Qian-Qian; Shang, Wei
The clinical manifestations, radiographic findings, intraoperative view, histopathologic features of synovial chondromatosis（SC） in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) were summarized in 2 cases. Preoperative symptoms included preauricular pain（2/2）, swelling（2/2） and limitation of mouth opening (0/2). X-ray findings showed widened joint space. The articular surface destructed and irregular stippled calcifications were seen in the infratemporal fossa by CT scan in one case. MRI showed multiple small nodular formations in the articular cavity. There was no malocclusion and limitation of mouth opening after surgery. As a rare disease of the temporomandibular joint， SC often exists in superior spaces. The clinical manifestations lack specificity. Detection of calcified loose bodies on radiography was helpful to diagnosis, while final diagnosis was dependent on histopathologic examination with characteristic cartilaginous nodules in the synovial membrane.
Lui, Tun Hing
Bursal chondromatosis is synovial chondromatosis of the bursae. It is a rare disease entity that can involve the adventitial bursa of the lateral ankle. Complete synovectomy, removal of loose bodies, and bursectomy comprise the treatment of choice. Detailed preoperative radiologic assessment and surgical planning are the keys to success. Any accompanying synovial chondromatosis of the ankle or subtalar joint or tenosynovial chondromatosis of the peroneal tendon sheath should be treated together with the bursectomy. Endoscopic bursectomy can be performed through the bursal portal. The proximal and distal peroneal tendoscopy portals serve as viewing portals. The resection of the diseased tissues should be performed in a step-by-step zonal manner. Complete synovectomy and removal of loose bodies should be performed before bursectomy. Internal drainage of the bursal sac into the peroneal tendon sheath may be indicated if the sac is adherent to the skin. It should only be performed after complete synovectomy and removal of loose bodies.
Li, YongPing; Lao, Jie
The cubital tunnel syndrome caused by several synovial cysts has been rarely reported. In our case, a 63-year-old man had sensorial and motor complaints at the ring and little fingers of the right hand. The claw deformity and the atrophy of the hypothenar and interosseous muscles in the right hand were discovered on physical examination. Froment's sign was positive. Electromyography showed prolonged distal latencies and slowed conduction for ulnar nerve. A small spherical cyst within the cubital tunnel and another spindle-shaped cyst at the distal to the cubital tunnel were found to compress and wrap the ulnar and its branches intra-operatively. Finally, the cysts were removed and the ulnar nerve was decompressed and performed its anterior transposition. Synovial cysts were confirmed by histopathological examination. Copyright © 2011 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available We report a case of 29-year-old female who presented with right heel pain that worsened over a period of two years. The onset of pain was followed by swelling at the medial aspect of right ankle. She was initially treated for plantar fasciitis with multiple steroid injections over the heel. Subsequent MRI revealed a well-defined heterogeneous lesion in continuity with the medial plantar nerve. Excision biopsy was performed and histopathological evaluation revealed monophasic synovial sarcoma. The patient subsequently underwent wide resection and free tissue transfer followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy. This case highlights an unusual site and presentation of synovial sarcoma which led to delayed diagnosis and treatment.
Seror, Jasmine; Zhu, Linyi; Goldberg, Ronit; Day, Anthony J; Klein, Jacob
Hyaluronan, lubricin and phospholipids, molecules ubiquitous in synovial joints, such as hips and knees, have separately been invoked as the lubricants responsible for the remarkable lubrication of articular cartilage; but alone, these molecules cannot explain the extremely low friction at the high pressures of such joints. We find that surface-anchored hyaluronan molecules complex synergistically with phosphatidylcholine lipids present in joints to form a boundary lubricating layer, which, with coefficient of friction μ≈0.001 at pressures to over 100 atm, has a frictional behaviour resembling that of articular cartilage in the major joints. Our findings point to a scenario where each of the molecules has a different role but must act together with the others: hyaluronan, anchored at the outer surface of articular cartilage by lubricin molecules, complexes with joint phosphatidylcholines to provide the extreme lubrication of synovial joints via the hydration-lubrication mechanism.
Full Text Available Background: Determining the etiologic causes of septic arthritis is of the most importance. Goal of this study was to investigate presence of staphylococcal enterotoxins A, B, C and Toxic Shock Staphylococcal toxin-1 in the synovial fluid of patients with arthritis. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in the Pediatric and Orthopedic Wards of Hazrat Rasoul Hospital in Tehran, Iran during 2008- 2010. Gram stains, conventional cultures, direct detection of soluble bacterial antigens were used to detect H. influenza, S. pneumonia, group B streptococci, and N. meningitidis while Latex particle agglutination test was used for staphylococcal supper antigens (by enzyme immunoassays upon synovial fluid tapping of 62 individuals (5 mo to 16 yrs, mean=113.8 yrs. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Positive SF cultures (n=11: 5 positive cases of S. aureus; 5 S. pneumonia; 1 H. influenza, and 1 Klebsiella. Positive gram stains: 10%; and positive LPA: 4%. Staphylococcal arthritis was diagnosed in 7 (39% cases upon positive culture or positive gram stain. The most common type was TSST-1 (47% and the least common was enterotoxin B (18%. Isolation of S. aureus (positive culture was correlated to presence of enterotoxin A in synovial fluid but not to enterotoxins B, C or TSST-1. Conclusion: Staph. aureus had a prominent role in arthritis. 47% of cases with negative culture for S. aureus had at least one type of staphylococcal super antigens in the synovial fluid. Searching for antigens of usual organisms or staphylococcal supper antigens could be helpful for diagnosis and subsequent treatment.
Agrawal, Karan; Ebel, Joseph G; Bischoff, Karyn
Most antidoping method development in the equine industry has been for plasma and urine, though there has been recent interest in the analysis of synovial fluid for evidence of doping by intra-articular corticosteroid injection. Published methods for corticosteroid analysis in synovial fluid are primarily singleplex methods, do not screen for all corticosteroids of interest and are not adequately sensitive. The purpose of this study is to develop a rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) screening method for the detection of four of the most common intra-articularly administered corticosteroids--betamethasone, methylprednisolone, methylprednisolone acetate and triamcinolone acetonide. Sample preparation consisted of protein precipitation followed by a basified liquid-liquid extraction. LC-MS-MS experiments consisted of a six-min isocratic separation using a Phenomenex Polar-RP stationary phase and a mobile phase consisting of 35% acetonitrile, 5 mM ammonium acetate and 0.1% formic acid in nanopure water. The detection system used was a triple quadrupole mass analyzer with thermospray ionization, and compounds were identified using selective reaction monitoring. The method was validated to the ISO/IEC 17025 standard, and real synovial fluid samples were analyzed to demonstrate the application of the method in an antidoping context. The method was highly selective for the four corticosteroids with limits of detection of 1-3 ng/mL. The extraction efficiency was 50-101%, and the matrix effects were 14-31%. These results indicate that the method is a rapid and sensitive screen for the four corticosteroids in equine synovial fluid, fit for purpose for equine antidoping assays.
Essam A Osman
Full Text Available The trabectome is a novel form of ab interno trabeculectomy that ablates and remove the trabecular meshwork and the inner wall of Schlemm′s canal and subsequently expose the natural drainage pathway (the collector channels to aqueous humor. Complications associated with the trabectome are few and among them is transient hypotony. We report a case of a prolonged ciliochoroidal effusion with hypotony after ab interno trabeculectomy using the trabectome with cyclodialysis cleft detected by 80 MHz ultrasound biomicroscopy in a previously neither nonoperated nor traumatized eye. Transient hypotony has been reported after the trabectome surgery. Very few cases were associated with inadvertent intraoperative cyclodialysis, but there are no cases of prolonged hypotony with ciliochoroidal effusion with cyclodialysis. In our case, associated transient intraoperative and postoperative hypotony with a history of chronically high pressure along with the possible contribution of low-grade postoperative inflammation may have precipitated the ciliochoroidal effusion with prolonged hypotony associated with cyclodialysis.
Osman, Essam A; AlMobarak, Faisal
The trabectome is a novel form of ab interno trabeculectomy that ablates and remove the trabecular meshwork and the inner wall of Schlemm's canal and subsequently expose the natural drainage pathway (the collector channels) to aqueous humor. Complications associated with the trabectome are few and among them is transient hypotony. We report a case of a prolonged ciliochoroidal effusion with hypotony after ab interno trabeculectomy using the trabectome with cyclodialysis cleft detected by 80 MHz ultrasound biomicroscopy in a previously neither nonoperated nor traumatized eye. Transient hypotony has been reported after the trabectome surgery. Very few cases were associated with inadvertent intraoperative cyclodialysis, but there are no cases of prolonged hypotony with ciliochoroidal effusion with cyclodialysis. In our case, associated transient intraoperative and postoperative hypotony with a history of chronically high pressure along with the possible contribution of low-grade postoperative inflammation may have precipitated the ciliochoroidal effusion with prolonged hypotony associated with cyclodialysis. PMID:25971178
Full Text Available Apesar do progresso nos métodos diagnósticos, cerca de 20% dos derrames pleurais podem permanecer sem diagnóstico etiológico definido após os exames convencionais. Para tentar determinar a origem destes derrames, métodos não convencionais e procedimentos mais invasivos devem ser utilizados com o objetivo de tentar esclarecer a etiologia do derrame pleural e instituir a terapêutica mais adequada.In spite of the progress in the diagnostic methods, about 20% of the pleural effusions may remain without a proper diagnosis after the use of conventional exams. In order to determine the origin of these effusions, alternative methods and invasive procedures shall be used aiming to determine the etiology of the undiagnosed pleural effusions and institute the most appropriate therapeutics.
Full Text Available We report a rare case of ulnar nerve entrapment caused by a synovial cyst derived from the left elbow joint. A 57-year-old male patient with a seven-month history of pain in his left elbow and a progressive and increasing numbness and weakness complaints in his left hand came to our clinic. Weakness and sensory loss of the 4th and 5th fingers were determined in neurological examination. The results of Tinel’s sign and Phalen’s Test were positive, especially when his left elbow was flexed. In electromyelography, axonal damage and entrapment neuropathy were determined in the left cubital tunnel area. Total excision of the synovial cyst and ulnar nerve anterior subcutaneous transposition were performed in surgical treatment. The patient’s pain decreased immediately after the surgery. In this report, we have discussed the pathopysiology of cubital tunnel syndrome due to synovial cyst and which surgical technique may be suitable as our case report.
Papacharalampous, Xenophon [Department of Radiology, University of Athens, Vasilissis Sofias 76 Ave., GR-115 28 Athens (Greece)]. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Patsouris, Efstratios [Department of Pathology, University of Athens, Mikras Asias 75 str., GR-115 27 Athens (Greece); Mundinger, Alexander [Clinic of Radiology, Marienhospital Osnabrueck, Johannisfreiheit 2-4, D-49074 Osnabruek (Germany); Beck, Andreas [Clinic of Radiology, Konstanz, Luisenstrasse 7, D-78461 Konstanz (Germany); Kouloulias, Vasilios [Department of Radiotherapy, University of Athens, Vasilissis Sofias 76 Ave., GR-115 28 Athens (Greece); Primetis, Elias [Department of Radiology, University of Athens, Vasilissis Sofias 76 Ave., GR-115 28 Athens (Greece); Koureas, Andreas [Department of Radiology, University of Athens, Vasilissis Sofias 76 Ave., GR-115 28 Athens (Greece); Vlahos, Lambros [Department of Radiology, University of Athens, Vasilissis Sofias 76 Ave., GR-115 28 Athens (Greece)
Objective: To examine the effect of intra-articular injection of contrast media, sorbitol and normal saline on the synovial membrane. Materials and methods: Sixty three rabbits (126 knees) were used in this study. We injected the knees with amidotrizoate, ioxaglate, iopamidol, iotrol and diluted gadolinium-DTPA (2 mmol/l). Normal saline and sorbitol 27.25% were used for comparison. A histological and histochemical examination of the knees was carried out 1, 2, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 60 days after the injection. Results: On histological examination, the knees injected with normal saline, ioxaglate and gadolinium-DTPA had a normal appearance. Intra-articular injection of amidotrizoate, iopamidol, iotrol and sorbitol caused early, mild and transient histological changes of the synovium (synovial hyperplasia, infiltration by leucocytes). Furthermore, the knees injected with amidotrizoate presented with late, extensive histological changes (severe synovial hyperplasia, moderate vascular dilatation, severe infiltration by leukocytes). Conclusion: The results suggest that the chemical structure and not the osmolality of the contrast media is the main cause for the histological changes of the synovium.
Kim, Tae-Kwon; Lee, Dae-Hee; Park, Jong-Hoon; Kim, Chul-Hwan; Jeong, Woong-Kyo
Synovial osteochondromatosis is an idiopathic benign metaplasia of the synovial membrane rarely found in an extra-articular bursa. We describe the case of a 55-year-old woman with synovial osteochondromatosis in the subacromial bursa mimicking calcific tendinitis. Plain radiographs showed a radiopaque mass over the middle facet of the greater tuberosity, suggesting calcific tendinitis. Sonography, however, showed a loose body in the subacromial bursa, and no evidence of calcification inside the rotator cuff. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Trevino, Manuel; Laks, Shaked; Kafchinski, Lisa; Sundarakumar, Dinesh K; Smith, Crysela M
Primary synovial chondromatosis is a benign neoplastic process, occurring mostly in large joints, more rarely in tendon sheaths, and extremely uncommonly in bursae. We describe a patient with primary synovial chondromatosis arising in the fourth intermetatarsal bursa. Knowledge of the bursal anatomy of the forefoot, and of characteristic imaging findings and the pathogenesis of synovial chondromatosis, is essential in including this uncommon entity in the differential when occurring in unusual locations.
Park, Jung Ho; Noh, Haeng Kee; Bada, Leela P; Wang, Joon Ho; Park, Jong Woong
Synovial chondromatosis of the subacromial bursa has been reported rarely. To the best of our knowledge, there was no case report of arthroscopic treatment for synovial chondromatosis of the subacromial bursa in English literature. The authors present a case of synovial chondromatosis of the subacromial space in a 45-year-old male, which was managed by arthroscopy. This rare condition can be well managed on similar lines as the other joints through arthroscopic surgery.
Yousaf, Mohammad; Malik, Suhail Ahmad; Haroon, Tahir
Otitis media with effusion (OME) is a leading cause of difficulty in hearing in paediatric population. Otitis media with effusion must be detected and managed early to prevent conductive hearing loss in children. It was aimed to compare results of laser myringotomy and ventilation tube insertion, in terms of hearing improvement and recurrence of Middle ear effusion (MEE). This randomized controlled trial was conducted from February 2012 to January 2015. Children of 4- 12 years of age with decreased hearing due to OME were included in the study. These children were investigated with pure tone audiometry (PTA) and tympanometry to confirm conductive hearing loss. Patients were put in 2 groups, group one comprised of patients treated with laser myringotomy and group 2, treated with ventilation tube insertion. The objective was to evaluate and compare results of the two procedures in terms of resolution of middle ear effusion (MEE) and improvement of hearing. The two procedures were also compared in terms of complications like otorrhea, persistence of perforation, hypertrophic scar and thinning of tympanic membrane (TM). Middle ear effusion cleared in 35 out of 68 ears with laser myringotomy (LM) as compared to 52 out of 62 ears with ventilation tubes (VT). The myringotomy was still patent in 21 ears treated with LM while tube was in site in 50 years with VT after 3 months. The hearing level improved with LM by 10-15 dB after first 3 months. The aim in Otitis media with effusion is ventilation of tympanic cavity. Laser myringotomy can be substitute to ventilation tube insertion (VT). But it remains patent for shorter time and less effective than VT. The ears with refractory or recurrent MEE should have VT insertion.
Ferreiro, L; Pereiro, T; San José, E; Toubes, M E; Suárez-Antelo, J; Álvarez Dobaño, J M; González Barcala, F J; Rodríguez Núñez, N; Lama, A; Valdés, L
To know the behavior of cellular components of pleural fluid can help focus the differential diagnosis of a pleural effusion. Our objective was to assess their composition in different types of pleural effusions and assess whether it provides relevant clinical information. Observational, cross-sectional and retrospective study in which the cellular components of pleural effusions of different etiology were analyzed. Pleural effusions were classified as neutrophilic, lymphocytic (≥50% of each one of them), eosinophilic (≥10%) or mesothelial (>5%) and were grouped into six diagnostic categories RESULTS: 1.467 patients were studied (354 heart failure; 59 other transudates; 349 paraneumonic; 133 tuberculous; 397 malignant and 175 other exudates). The predominance cell was lymphocytic in heart failure (44,4%), uncomplicated parapneumonic (29,2%), tuberculosis (88%) and malignant (49,6%); neutrophilic in parapneumonic (57%) and malignant (9,6%); eosinophilic in malignant (6,3%) and mesotelial in tuberculosis (12%). The most frequent etiologies with lymphocyte count ≥80% were tuberculosis (35,1%) and malignant (23,3%). Parameters with higher discriminating accuracy were: leukocytes (transudates: AUC 0,835) and percentage of neutrophils (empyemas: AUC 0,906 and complicated parapneumonic+empyemas: AUC 0,907). Nucleated cell counts will help focus the etiology of pleural effusions, since each etiology often have a characteristic cell predominance. The percentage of nucleated cells in pleural fluid not ruled out tuberculosis if there is a high count of mesothelial cells, nor a parapneumonic effusion with lymphocytic predominance, or malignancy with ≥80% lymphocytes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.
Telvi, L; Jaubert, F; Eyquem, A; Andreux, J P; Labrousse, F; Chrétien, J
The protein concentration of 35 pleural effusions was compared with that in the serum. The ratio of the pleural and serum concentration of albumin, IgG, IgA, and IgM is always below unity and appears to have no diagnostic value. However, the ratio of the concentration of these proteins was inversely related to their molecular weight. The underlying mechanism in malignant and inflammatory effusions appear similar and is in keeping with a diffusion process. Immunofluorescent staining of the pleura suggests the intercellular passage of the proteins through the mesothelial barrier. Images PMID:384578
Zhu, Xiaoli; Cao, Wen; Chang, Bing; Zhang, Linyuan; Qiao, Peihuan; Li, Xue; Si, Lifang; Niu, Yingmei; Song, Yuguo
Nanomaterials offer great benefit as well as potential damage to humans. Workers exposed to polyacrylate coatings have pleural effusion, pericardial effusion, and pulmonary fibrosis and granuloma, which are thought to be related to the high exposure to nanomaterials in the coatings. The study aimed to determine whether polyacrylate/silica nanoparticles cause similar toxicity in rats, as observed in exposed workers. Ninety male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups with 18 rats in each group. The groups included the saline control group, another control group of polyacrylate only, and low-, intermediate-, and high-dose groups of polyacrylate/nanosilica with concentrations of 3.125, 6.25, and 12.5 mg/kg. Seventy-five rats for the 1-week study were terminated for scheduled necropsy at 24 hours, 3 days, and 7 days postintratracheal instillation. The remaining 15 rats (three males/group) had repeated ultrasound and chest computed tomography examinations in a 2-week study to observe the pleural and pericardial effusion and pulmonary toxicity. We found that polyacrylate/nanosilica resulted in pleural and pericardial effusions, where nanosilica was isolated and detected. Effusion occurred on day 3 and day 5 post-administration of nanocomposites in the 6.25 and 12.5 mg/kg groups, it gradually rose to a maximum on days 7-10 and then slowly decreased and disappeared on day 14. With an increase in polyacrylate/nanosilica concentrations, pleural effusion increased, as shown by ultrasonographic qualitative observations. Pulmonary fibrosis and granuloma were also observed in the high-dose polyacrylate/nanosilica group. Our study shows that polyacrylate/nanosilica results in specific toxicity presenting as pleural and pericardial effusion, as well as pulmonary fibrosis and granuloma, which are almost identical to results in reported patients. These results indicate the urgent need and importance of nanosafety and awareness of toxicity of polyacrylate/nanosilica.
Kyvsgaard, Nini; Herlin, Troels
of episodes with bicipital synovial cysts and the disease duration prior to the first episode, active joint count, extra-articular manifestations, history of medical treatment and if there had been any episodes of other unusual synovial cysts. RESULTS: The first patient to present with bicipital synovial...... at the diagnosis of sJIA and thus had received no prior treatment. CONCLUSION: Bicipital synovial cysts should always be considered if a child presents with relevant symptoms and they are easily detected by ultrasonography. However, they no longer seem a significant clinical challenge in our clinic. This is based...
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Osteopoikilosis presents as round or ovoid sclerotic lesions with an appearance like enostosis on pathology. Synovial osteochondromatosis occurs due to cartilaginous metaplasia with synovial villous proliferation with calcified nodules in proximity to joints. A case of osteopoikilosis associated with synovial osteochondromatosis is described. Intraosseus and juxta osseus sclerotic bone lesions were identified on radiographs and computed tomography in a patient with knee pain. The association of osteopoikilosis with synovial osteochondromatosis is rare and to our knowledge has received little attention in the literature.
Tahir Mutlu Duymus
Conclusion: Arthroscopic surgery can be successfully applied in the treatment of synovial chondromatosis. The advantages of the method include good visualisation during surgery, low morbidity and early healing.
Toorians, A. W.; Pneumatikos, J. A.; Zaaijer, H. L.; Strack van Schijndel, R. J.
A case of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection with bilateral pleural effusion and a subsegmental pulmonary infiltrate in an intubated and mechanically ventilated critically ill patient is described. Diagnosis was made by polymerase chain reaction on both pleural effusions
Conclusion: Fetuses with Down syndrome may present late-onset bilateral pleural effusions. Prenatal diagnosis of late-onset bilateral pleural effusions should raise the possibility of fetal Down syndrome and cytogenetic investigation is warranted.
Pedersen, Jens Olaf Pepke
Formulas are presented for calculating the relative velocity distributions in effusive, orthogonal crossed beams and in effusive, counterpropagating beams experiments, which are two important geometries for the study of collision processes between atoms. In addition formulas for the distributions...
Conclusions: Cytology is a useful tool to detect malignant effusions. However, in uncommon malignancies presenting as effusions, a detailed clinical history and ancillary investigations are often required to make a correct diagnosis.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection have an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Previous publications described pericardial effusion as one of the most common HlV-associated cardiac affiliations. The aim of the current study was to investigate if pericardial effusion still has a relevant meaning of HIV-infected patients in the era of antiretroviral therapy. Methods The HIV-HEART (HIV-infection and HEART disease study is a cardiology driven, prospective and multicenter cohort study. Outpatients with a known HIV-infection were recruited during a 20 month period in a consecutive manner from September 2004 to May 2006. The study comprehends classic parameters of HIV-infection, comprising CD4-cell count (cluster of differentiation and virus load, as well as non-invasive tests of cardiac diseases, including a thorough transthoracic echocardiography. Results 802 HIV-infected patients (female: 16.6% with a mean age of 44.2 ± 10.3 years, were included. Duration of HIV-infection since initial diagnosis was 7.6 ± 5.8 years. Of all participants, 85.2% received antiretroviral therapy. Virus load was detectable in 34.4% and CD4 - cell count was in 12.4% less than 200 cells/μL. Pericardial effusions were present in only two patients of the analysed population. None of the participants had signs of a relevant cardiovascular impairment by pericardial effusion. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that the era of antiretroviral therapy goes along with low rates of pericardial effusions in HIV-infected outpatients. Our findings are in contrast to the results of publications, performed before the common use of antiretroviral therapy.
Vlenterie, Myrella; Hillebrandt-Roeffen, Melissa H S; Schaars, Esther W M; Flucke, Uta E; Fleuren, Emmy D G; Navis, Anna C; Leenders, William P J; Versleijen-Jonkers, Yvonne M H; van der Graaf, Winette T A
In synovial sarcomas alterations in the cyclin D1-CDK4/6-Rb axis have been described. Also, β-catenin, a cyclin D1 regulator, is often overexpressed. Additionally, studies have shown that the t(X;18) translocation influences tumor behavior partly through cyclin D1 activation. We investigated how alterations in the cyclin D1-CDK4/6-Rb axis impact prognosis and studied effects of targeting this axis with the CDK4/6 inhibitor palbociclib. Synovial sarcoma samples (n = 43) were immunohistochemically stained for β-catenin, cyclin D1, p16, p21, p27, Rb, and phospho-Rb. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed to detect CCND1 amplification or translocation. In 4 synovial sarcoma cell lines sensitivity to palbociclib was investigated using cell viability assays, and effects on the sensitive cell lines were evaluated on protein level and by cell cycle arrest. Expression of nuclear phospho-Rb and nuclear β-catenin in the patient samples was associated with poor survival. FISH showed a sporadic translocation of CCND1 in a subset of tumors. An 8-fold CCND1 amplification was found in 1 cell line, but not in the patient samples investigated. Palbociclib effectively inhibited Rb-phosphorylation in 3 cell lines, resulting in an induction of a G1 arrest and proliferation block. In this series nuclear phospho-Rb and nuclear β-catenin expression were negative prognostic factors. In vitro data suggest that palbociclib may be a potential treatment for a subset of synovial sarcoma patients. Whether this effect can be enhanced by combination treatment deserves further preclinical investigations.
McGraw, Matthew D; Galambos, Csaba; Stillwell, Paul C
Despite similar mechanisms driving pleural fluid accumulation, the causes of pleural effusions in children differ significantly from that of adults. When a pleural effusion re-occurs in an adult, literature recommends early thoracentesis, and consideration for pleuroscopy with biopsy to guide the diagnostic evaluation. In children, there is a paucity of literature for guiding management of recurrent exudative pleural effusion. We present an unusual pediatric case of uremic pleuritis with recurrent pericardial and exudative pleural effusions. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Tsujimoto, Naoki; Saraya, Takeshi; Light, Richard W; Tsukahara, Yayoi; Koide, Takashi; Kurai, Daisuke; Ishii, Haruyuki; Kimura, Hirokazu; Goto, Hajime; Takizawa, Hajime
Pleural separation, the "split pleura" sign, has been reported in patients with empyema. However, the diagnostic yield of the split pleura sign for complicated parapneumonic effusion (CPPE)/empyema and its utility for differentiating CPPE/empyema from parapneumonic effusion (PPE) remains unclear. This differentiation is important because CPPE/empyema patients need thoracic drainage. In this regard, the aim of this study was to develop a simple method to distinguish CPPE/empyema from PPE using computed tomography (CT) focusing on the split pleura sign, fluid attenuation values (HU: Hounsfield units), and amount of fluid collection measured on thoracic CT prior to diagnostic thoracentesis. A total of 83 consecutive patients who underwent chest CT and were diagnosed with CPPE (n=18)/empyema (n=18) or PPE (n=47) based on the diagnostic thoracentesis were retrospectively analyzed. On univariate analysis, the split pleura sign (odds ratio (OR), 12.1; ppleura sign (hazard ratio (HR), 6.70; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.91-23.5; p=0.003) and total amount of pleural effusion (≥30 mm) on thoracic CT (HR, 7.48; 95%CI, 1.76-31.8; p=0.006) were risk factors for empyema. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the presence of both split pleura sign and total amount of pleural effusion (≥30 mm) on thoracic CT for CPPE/empyema were 79.4%, 80.9%, 75%, and 84.4%, respectively, with an area under the curve of 0.801 on receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. This study showed a high diagnostic yield of the split pleura sign and total amount of pleural fluid (≥30 mm) on thoracic CT that is useful and simple for discriminating between CPPE/empyema and PPE prior to diagnostic thoracentesis.
Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study of all consecutive cases of pleural biopsies done for indeterminate cause of pleural effusion in the University of Benin Teaching Hospital from December 2008 to May 2010, a total of 18months. Blind pleural biopsy was carried out using the Abram's Pleural Biopsy Needle.
Jiménez Castro, D; Díaz, G; Pérez-Rodríguez, E; Light, R W
The objective of the study was the identification of predictive factors for the development of residual pleural thickening (RPT) in patients with parapneumonic effusion. The design of the prospective study involved investigating patients with parapneumonic pleural effusions diagnosed between March 1991 and December 2000 in the respiratory department of Hospital Ramón y Cajal (Madrid, Spain) which is a 1,500 tertiary-care hospital. The clinical and radiological characteristics and measurements of microbiological and biochemical variables in the pleural fluid taken from the patients were studied. RPT was defined in a posteroanterior chest radiograph as pleural thickening of > or = 10 mm measured at the lateral chest wall at the level of an imaginary line, tangent to the diaphragmatic dome. A total of 48 of the 348 patients studied (13.79%) were found to have RPT. Among the factors studied, only presence of pus in the pleural space, Fine classes IV and V, temperature > or = 38 degrees C and delayed resolution of pleural effusions after diagnosis (> 15 days) were independently associated with the risk of RPT. This study showed that significant residual pleural thickening was not a common complication of parapneumonic pleural effusions. There are certain risk factors for the development of residual pleural thickening. However, this complication was not associated with long-term functional repercussions in the series of patients involved in this study.
Demiraran, Y; Yucel, I; Erdogmus, B
The breakage of an epidural catheter within a patient is uncommon, but troublesome, complication of epidural block, and its cause is rarely discovered. In this case report, our aim was to present an effusion between s.c. tissue and fascia in the lumbar region because of a broken fragment of epidural catheter which was unnoticed during its removal.
Feb 7, 2018 ... Pleural VEGF levels and demographic characteristics of the patients according to the etiology are presented in Table 1. Pleural VEGF levels were not correlated with age, gender, or associated with smoking and asbestos exposure. Pleural VEGF levels in transudative effusions were statistically significant (P ...
Moradi Mohammad Ali
Full Text Available Hepatitis A is the most common form of hepatitis infection in children that it is considered to be one of endemic diseases in our country. Hepatitis A virus leads to acute hepatitis and manifests with symptoms such as anorexia, vomiting, fever, abdominal discomfort and dark urine. Pleural effusion and ascites are rare and benign complications following hepatitis A, especially in children; in this article, a rare case of pleural effusion in Hepatitis A was introduced.A 28 month child was admitted to Ali ebn-e Abitaleb (a.s hospital of Zahedan with symptoms of anorexia, vomiting, fever, abdominal pain, jaundice and dark urine from four days before admission. During hospital admission hepatitis A was diagnosed and chest radiograph showed bilateral fluid accumulation in pleural space. Ascites was also determined. The disease resolved after one week of supportive care without any medical treatment and there was no evidence of pleural effusion and ascites in follow-up visits. The possibility of pleural effusion should be kept in mind in patients with hepatitis A.
Oliver J. Bintcliffe
Full Text Available The evidence base concerning the management of benign pleural effusions has lagged behind that of malignant pleural effusions in which recent randomised trials are now informing current clinical practice and international guidelines. The causes of benign pleural effusions are broad, heterogenous and patients may benefit from individualised management targeted at both treating the underlying disease process and direct management of the fluid. Pleural effusions are very common in a number of non-malignant pathologies, such as decompensated heart failure, and following coronary artery bypass grafting. Pleural fluid analysis forms an important basis of the diagnostic evaluation, and more specific assays and imaging modalities are helpful in specific subpopulations. Options for management beyond treatment of the underlying disorder, whenever possible, include therapeutically aspirating the fluid, talc pleurodesis and insertion of an indwelling pleural catheter. Randomised trials will inform clinicians in the future as to the risks and benefits of these options providing a guide as to how best to manage patient symptoms in this challenging clinical setting.
Feb 7, 2018 ... and eosinophil values in the pleura (P < 0.05). Pleural VEGF levels were also higher in patients with massive effusions and pleural thickening (both P < 0.001). Conclusions: The overlap of pleural VEGF levels between the groups may limit the value of VEGF in discriminating between malignant versus ...
Full Text Available "nParapneunomonic effusion is a common accompaniment of bacterial pneumonia and mostly is resolved with medical management. We studied the etiology and possible underlying causes of complicated parapneumonic effusion and timing of pulmonary decortication. A descriptive study on 34 patients with postpneumonic empyema which required decortication carried out. Post surgical and post traumatic empyema were excluded. Patients' age ranged from 20 to 75 with a mean of 46 years. The most common clinical findings were fever (90%, pleural dull pain (80%, productive cough (73% and dyspnea (70%. PPD test was negative in all patients. In 78%, white cell count was normal; in remainder it was more than 10.000. Bacteriological findings were negative and acid fast basili were not detected. All patients underwent posterolateral thoracotomy and decortication and completely expansible lung was achieved. Tissue diagnosis after decorticating showed tuberculosis in 8(24% patients and necrotic tissue in remainder. Average medical management time and postoperative hospital stay were 38 ± 2 and 6.7 ± 2 days, respectively. Morbidity rates were acceptable and there was one late ortality. No recurrent was happened. In parapneumonic effusions not responding to standard treatment, tuberculosis must be considered, especially in addicted persons, positive family history and ESR >100. In complicated parapneumonic effusion, early thoracotomy and full decortication is recommend because it is diagnostic, allows control of infection, releases the pulmonary entrapment, early discharge from hospital, need not further antibiotic administration and is cost benefit.
Grimberg, Alexandre; Shigueoka, David Carlos; Atallah, Alvaro Nagib; Ajzen, Sergio; Iared, Wagner
The initial method for evaluating the presence of pleural effusion was chest radiography. Isolated studies have shown that sonography has greater accuracy than radiography for this diagnosis; however, no systematic reviews on this matter are available in the literature. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of sonography in detecting pleural effusion, by means of a systematic review of the literature. This was a systematic review with meta-analysis on accuracy studies. This study was conducted in the Department of Diagnostic Imaging and in the Brazilian Cochrane Center, Discipline of Emergency Medicine and Evidence-Based Medicine, Department of Medicine, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp), São Paulo, Brazil. The following databases were searched: Cochrane Library, Medline, Web of Science, Embase and Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (Lilacs). The references of relevant studies were also screened for additional citations of interest. Studies in which the accuracy of sonography for detecting pleural effusion was tested, with an acceptable reference standard (computed tomography or thoracic drainage), were included. Four studies were included. All of them showed that sonography had high sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for detecting pleural effusions. The mean sensitivity was 93% (95% confidence interval, CI: 89% to 96%), and specificity was 96% (95% CI: 95% to 98%). In different populations and clinical settings, sonography showed consistently high sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for detecting fluid in the pleural space.
S.M. Bierma-Zeinstra (Sita); A.M. Bohnen (Arthur); J.A.N. Verhaar (Jan); A. Prins (Ad); J.S. Lameris; A.Z. Ginai (Abida)
textabstractOBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence of ultrasonic hip joint effusion and its relation with clinical, radiological and laboratory (ESR) findings in adults with hip pain. METHODS: Patients (n = 224) aged 50 years or older with hip pain, referred by the general
Coelho, Ana; Coelho, Margarida; Pereira, Joana; Lavrador, Vasco; Morais, Lurdes; Carvalho, Fátima
The treatment of complicated pleural parapneumonic effusions with intrapleural instillation of fibrinolytics, has shown similar results as surgical treatment. The present study aimed to evaluate the results of the use of intrapleural instillation of fibrinolytics in the treatment of complicated pleural parapneumonic effusions, in patients followed in our hospital. A retrospective review of all the patients (aged between one month and 18 years) diagnosed with complicated parapneumonic effusions, which had chest drain insertion with intrapleural instillation of fibrinolytic, between January 2005 and December 2013, was undertaken. A total of 37 patients were identified. Mean duration of hospital stay was 17 ± 7.60 days. Chest drain was placed in the first 48 h of hospital admission in most of the patients (89.2%), with a mean of six days of drainage. Treatment failure was reported in 2.7% of cases and was related with effusion recurrence. This patient underwent video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery with the need to convert to open thoracotomy. A favorable outcome was achieved in 96.9 % of cases. In our review, therapeutic success rate was as expected, with a failure rate below those reported in literature. We present intrapleural instillation of fibrinolytics and video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery as part of the same protocol, in which fibrinolytic therapy is the first-line treatment. The therapeutic option presented shows a low failure rate and avoids a more aggressive surgical procedure. We consider this an effective treatment option, with low sequelae rate.
Objective. To review the indications and accuracy of diagnostic thoracoscopy for pleural effusions of unknown origin. Design. Retrospective review of consecutive patients referred for diagnostic thoracoscopy over a 5-year period from 1 January 1989 to 31 December 1993. Setting. Tertiary referral cardiothoracic unit.
Carcinoma of the breast can metastasise to many organs. Metastasis to the temporal bone is rare and even when it does, it would usually spread to other parts of the body. This is a report of isolated metastasis to the temporal bone with middle ear effusion.
10.4314/sokjvs.v10i1.8. Idiopathic pericardial effusion in 2 year old labrador managed with ultrasound-guided pericardiocentesis: Case report. JB Adeyanju1* R Perry2, AS Yakubu1, A Jibril1 & AZ Hassan3. 1Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Usman ...
Baeten, D.; Demetter, P.; Cuvelier, C.; van den Bosch, F.; Kruithof, E.; van Damme, N.; Verbruggen, G.; Mielants, H.; Veys, E. M.; de Keyser, F.
OBJECTIVES: To compare the macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of synovial tissue in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), spondyloarthropathy (SpA), and osteoarthritis (OA) after exclusion of possible biases induced by disease duration or activity, or both. METHODS: Synovial biopsy specimens were
Marjani, Majid; Yousefzadeh, Amir; Baghaei, Parvaneh; Tabarsi, Payam; Moniri, Afshin; Masjedi, Mohammad Reza; Velayati, Ali Akbar
The nature of tuberculosis (TB), being one of the most common opportunistic infections, is different among HIV-infected patients than HIV-negative patients. A retrospective study was conducted on HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients with new TB pleural effusion who were admitted to the National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases in Tehran, Iran from 2005 to 2012. The two groups were compared with respect to clinical, imaging, mycobacteriologic and histopathologic characteristics of TB pleural effusion. In all, 42 HIV-positive and 132 HIV-negative cases of TB pleural effusion were included. Bilateral pleural effusion was statistically more common in the HIV-positive group (p = 0.004, OR = 3.81, 95% CI: 1.46-9.94) without any correlation with CD4 cell count. Pulmonary infiltration was found in 81% of HIV-positive and 49.2% of HIV-negative patients (p = 0.001, OR = 4.38, 95% CI: 1.88-10.1). Mycobacteriologic studies led to the diagnosis of TB in 66.6% of HIV-infected and 49.2% of HIV-negative patients. In 23.8% of HIV-positive and 50.7% of HIV-negative patients TB was ultimately diagnosed by pleural biopsy. HIV remained significantly associated with positive culture of pleural fluid in multivariate analysis. The diagnostic approach to TB pleural effusion in HIV-infected patients may be different. The diagnostic yield of mycobacteriologic studies was higher among HIV-positive patients, which may help in reducing the need for invasive procedures like pleural biopsy. © The Author(s) 2015.
Hornum, Lars; Hansen, Anker Jon; Tornehave, Ditte
synovial fluid was significantly inhibited by anti-C5aR. The data support that the C5a-C5aR axis may be driving the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the synovial fluid and synovium in both rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis, and suggest that C5a or C5aR may be a promising treatment target in both......Complement activation correlates to rheumatoid arthritis disease activity, and increased amounts of the complement split product C5a is observed in synovial fluids from rheumatoid arthritis patients. Blockade of C5a or its receptor (C5aR) is efficacious in several arthritis models. The aim...... of this study was to investigate the role of C5a and C5aR in human rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis-both with respect to expression and function. Synovial fluid, blood and synovial samples were obtained from rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis and osteoarthritis patients as a less inflammatory...
Breckwoldt, Tabea; Oktenoglu, Tunc; Sasani, Mehdi; Suzer, Tuncer; Ozer, Ali Fahir
Synovial cyst in the cervical spine is a very rare pathology that develops from the facet joint. When a synovial cyst emerges into the surrounding space, it can compress the nervous tissue and cause neurological symptoms. In the cervical area there is additionally the risk of spinal cord compression comparing to the more common presentation of synovial cysts in the lumbar spine. Here, a cervical synovial cysts from the left facet joint grew into the spinal canal and compressed the C8 nerve root which led to root compressing symptoms. Interestingly we found this synovial cyst with congenital fusion. We identified only nine similar cases in the literature. The cyst was removed surgically and the patient discharged without complications. Numerous theories have been established to explain the pathogenesis of synovial cyst. Biomechanical alterations of the spine play a significant role in the development of synovial cyst. However, the etiology is still unclear. Surgical treatment should be considered in cervical synovial cysts with neurologic deficit or with cord compression or when the conservative treatment is ineffective. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Watanabe, T.; Saito, N.; Takahashi, A.; Fujimaki, H.; Tosaka, M.; Sasaki, T. [Department of Neurosurgery, Gunma University School of Medicine, 3-39-22 Showa-machi, 371-8511, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Sato, N. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Gunma University School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan)
Mastoid effusion is a poorly understood complication after craniotomy. The incidence and severity of postoperative mastoid effusion were retrospectively examined on postoperative magnetic resonance (MR) images to assess any association with craniotomy procedures, time course, and neuro-otological complications. We evaluated the early postoperative MR images (within 4 days of craniotomy) and medical records of 74 patients who underwent 77 operations for the treatment of various intracranial diseases from January 2000 to December 2001. Mastoid effusion was classified into four grades: none, partial, moderate, and severe diffuse effusion in the mastoid air cells. Thirty-three follow-up MR images from 26 patients were also reviewed. Postoperative mastoid effusion occurred ipsilateral to the craniotomy site in 62 cases and contralateral in 56 cases. Mastoid effusion was significantly more severe ipsilateral than contralateral to craniotomy with exposure of the mastoid air cells (P<0.0001). There was no significant difference in severity between the contralateral and ipsilateral sides after craniotomy without mastoid air cell opening (P=0.437). Mastoid effusion following craniotomy without exposure of mastoid air cells resolved within 3 months. However, otitis media with effusion developed in six patients with severe mastoid effusion ipsilateral to craniotomy with exposure of the mastoid air cells. Mastoid effusion frequently developed on both sides. Any grade of mastoid effusion on the ipsilateral side to craniotomy without exposure of mastoid air cells, or on the contralateral side, was asymptomatic or had a benign course, and disappeared within 3 months. (orig.)
Tang, Ke-Jing; Robbins, Ivan M; Light, Richard W
Pleural effusion occurs often in patients with left heart failure. There are no large-scale clinical studies investigating the incidence of pleural effusion in patients with right heart failure (RHF) alone. To determine the incidence of pleural effusions in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) and familial pulmonary arterial hypertension (FPAH). Consecutive IPAH and FPAH patients who were treated at Vanderbilt University Medical Center were retrospectively studied. Pleural effusions were detected by chest radiograph, chest CT scan, ultrasound, or autopsy. Thirty-one of 147 patients (21.1%) with IPAH (128 patients) or FPAH (19 patients) had pleural effusions. Ten patients had explanations for the pleural effusions other than RHF. Two patients had no obvious explanations. The remaining 19 patients had RHF. When compared with the patients without pleural effusions, the patients with pleural effusions due to RHF had significantly higher mean right atrial pressure (16.0 +/- 6.8 vs 8.8 +/- 5.5 mm Hg, respectively; p RHF are trace to small (63.2%) and right sided (57.9%) or bilateral (26.3%). Of the 19 patients with pleural effusions due to RHF, 8 patients had ascites, and 1 patient had moderate pericardial effusion. Four of the five patients who underwent thoracentesis had transudates. Our study in IPAH and FPAH patients demonstrates that pleural effusions frequently occur in patients with isolated RHF.
Rosa, Ana Claudia Ferreira; Machado, Marcio Martins [Goias Univ., Goiania, GO (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Hospital das Clinicas]. E-mail: email@example.com; Figueiredo, Marco Antonio Junqueira [Hospital Sirio-Libanes, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Servico de Tomografia Computadorizada; Cerri, Giovanni Guido [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia
Intraspinal synovial cysts of the lumbar spine are rare and commonly associated with osteoarthritis of the facet joints, particularly at level L4-L5. Symptoms are uncommon and may include low-back pain or sciatica. These cysts are accurately diagnosed by using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Diagnosis is essential for the correct management of the cysts. Several treatment options are available including rest and immobilization, computed tomography guided corticosteroid injection, and surgery in patients that are nonresponsive to other treatment methods. (author)
Full Text Available We present a female patient without any underlying disease. Progressive pain, and locking sensation of the right hip with limited range of motion were told and synovial chondromatosis (SC of right hip was diagnosed. Radiographies revealed characteristic finding of SC including multiple calcified loose bodies within the right hip joint. Removal of cartilaginous fragments as well as nearly total synovectomy was performed arthroscopically on the right hip. Short-term postoperative follow-up of our patient revealed improved hip function and resolution of all symptoms.
Dogan, Ali; Harman, Mustafa; Uslu, Mustafa; Bayram, Irfan; Akpinar, Fuat
We report a case of painless synovial chondromatosis with an extremely large mass at the popliteal area related to the right knee joint. A hard mass at the posterior aspect of the knee was the only complaint reported by the patient. Plain X-ray studies revealed punctuated calcifications both intra-articularly and around the knee joint. With the surgical procedure performed subsequently, multiple rocky-hard giant chondroid nodules were excised from the posterior aspect of the knee. After 9 months following the surgery, the patient had full range of motion, and no complaints. We emphasize on the importance this case because these lesions may simulate tumors, and lead to misdiagnosis.
Valentini, Valentino; Arangio, Paolo; Egidi, Sara; Capriotti, Marco; Vellone, Valentino; Costrechini, Marco; Boschi, Giulio; Cascone, Piero; Calafati, Vincenzo; Torre, Umberto; Ricciardi, Irma
Summary Synovial chondromatosis is a rare, benign, chronic, progressive and proliferative lesion that usually affects large joints. This disease is characterized by the development of cartilaginous nodules within the space of synovial joints, tendon sheaths or cases; the nodules subsequently degrade, detach and form free-floating, calcified bodies within the joint space. In 1933, Axhausen described the first case of synovial chondromatosis affecting the temporomandibular joint. The aetiology still remains unknown, but a history of trauma and inflammation is often found. Clinical symptoms of chondromatosis affecting the TMJ are often characterized by swelling, pain, headache, crepitation, malocclusion and joint dysfunction. The big challenge concerning synovial chondromatosis is to suspect and establish a correct diagnosis. These nonspecific initial signs and symptoms may mimic other nonspecific TMJ’s diseases and can easily lead to a delay in diagnosis or a misdiagnosis. Here we present a case of synovial chondromatosis of the TMJ and the appropriate diagnostic and treatment performed. PMID:24611093
Sumida, Kaoru; Kobayashi, Noriko; Nambu, Atsushi; Tago, Masao; Shibuya, Isao; Kawamoto, Masashi
Chondral tumors in soft tissue are referred to as soft-tissue chondromas or extraskeletal chondromas, or as synovial chondromatosis if they arise in synovial tissue. We report the case of a 29-year-old man with synovial chondromatosis, also called synovial osteochondromatosis, which appeared in a solitary and extra-articular form. On magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography, the central portion of the tumor showed similar characteristics to bone marrow, despite the absence of any connection to adjacent bone. T2-weighted imaging displayed marked peripheral hyperintensity consistent with a cartilaginous area. These findings suggested the presence of enchondral ossification and were similar to those of skeletal osteochondroma, with the exception of the absence of attachment to bone. MRI is useful for distinguishing solitary synovial chondromatosis from other lesions, such as myositis ossificans, extraskeletal chondrosarcoma, and parosteal osteosarcoma.
Full Text Available Synovial sarcoma (SS is a soft tissue, generally deep seated neoplasms that occurs generally in the proximity of large joints. We report of a case of a 33-year-old man who was diagnosed with primary SS of the kidney which is an extremely rare tumor that accounts for less than 2% of malignant renal tumors. Contemporary management of renal synovial sarcoma includes surgical resection and ifosfamide-based chemotherapy and they remain the mainstay of therapy of synovial sarcoma, which is often applied, combined as part of an aggressive treatment approach. Fewer than 50 patients have been described in the English literature. Physicians should be aware of the possibility of malignancy in cystic renal masses and raise the suspicion of synovial sarcoma, especially when patients with renal masses are young adults. Along with the case report a literature review on primary synovial sarcomas of the kidney is provided with focus on the renal tumors’ differential diagnosis.
Kuipers, J.; Nietfeld, L.; Dreses-Werringloe..., U.; Koehler, L.; Wollenhaupt, J.; Zeidler, H.; Hammer, M.
OBJECTIVE—To optimise sample preparation of synovial fluid for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). METHODS—Serial dilutions of purified CT elementary bodies in synovial fluid were prepared. The synovial fluid pellet was processed by eight different methods of sample preparation. Then samples were analysed by CT specific PCR. The sensitivity of PCR was the basis of ranking of the eight different methods. RESULTS—Highest sensitivity was achieved by methods including an additional step of DNA isolation. Additional extraction of protein and polysaccharides by cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) increased sensitivity. Addition of hyaluronidase did not increase sensitivity of QIAEX-DNA extraction but was necessary, however, before phenol-chloroform-DNA extraction. CONCLUSIONS—The method of synovial fluid sample preparation significantly influences the sensitivity of subsequent PCR. Additional DNA isolation and extraction of PCR inhibitors by CTAB led to higher sensitivity. Keywords: Chlamydia trachomatis; polymerase chain reaction; synovial fluid PMID:10343525
Robinson, J J; Watson, F.; Bucknall, R. C.; Edwards, S W
OBJECTIVES--Synovial fluid from patients with rheumatoid arthritis contains both soluble and insoluble immunoglobulin aggregates which activate reactive oxidant production in human neutrophils. The objectives were to determine the roles played by Fc gamma receptors in activation of neutrophils by these complexes. METHODS--Pronase treatment was used to remove Fc gamma RIII from the neutrophil surface and blocking monoclonal antibodies were used to prevent the binding of complexes to Fc gamma R...
Full Text Available Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL is an unusual form of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, which is characterized by lymphomatous effusion in body cavities, but no associated mass lesions. It is usually associated with an immunodeficient state most often with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. We describe a 54-year-old man with HIV-negative PEL, with a history of hepatitis B virus-related liver cirrhosis. Both abdominal and pleural cavities were involved; no solid tumor masses were found and bone marrow investigations were normal. The ascites and pleural effusion contained numerous pleomorphic lymphoid cells. Immunophenotyping was positive for CD138. Chromosome study showed complex cytogenetics. The genomic human herpesvirus-8 was detected in the lymphoma cells. It is postulated that the immuno-suppressed state in this patient may have been caused by cirrhosis. The patient received four cycles of chemotherapy of CHOP and Picibanil (OK-432 intraperitoneal administration. However, no durable remission was achieved. Adefovir failed to halt the progressive liver failure after the development of YMDD mutant related to lamivudine. He died of sepsis and hepatic failure.
Kotake, Shigeru; Udagawa, Nobuyuki; Takahashi, Naoyuki; Matsuzaki, Kenichiro; Itoh, Kanami; Ishiyama, Shigeru; Saito, Seiji; Inoue, Kazuhiko; Kamatani, Naoyuki; Gillespie, Matthew T.; Martin, T. John; Suda, Tatsuo
IL-17 is a newly discovered T cell–derived cytokine whose role in osteoclast development has not been fully elucidated. Treatment of cocultures of mouse hemopoietic cells and primary osteoblasts with recombinant human IL-17 induced the formation of multinucleated cells, which satisfied major criteria of osteoclasts, including tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity, calcitonin receptors, and pit formation on dentine slices. Direct interaction between osteoclast progenitors and osteoblasts was required for IL-17–induced osteoclastogenesis, which was completely inhibited by adding indomethacin or NS398, a selective inhibitor of cyclooxgenase-2 (COX-2). Adding IL-17 increased prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis in cocultures of bone marrow cells and osteoblasts and in single cultures of osteoblasts, but not in single cultures of bone marrow cells. In addition, IL-17 dose-dependently induced expression of osteoclast differentiation factor (ODF) mRNA in osteoblasts. ODF is a membrane-associated protein that transduces an essential signal(s) to osteoclast progenitors for differentiation into osteoclasts. Osteoclastogenesis inhibitory factor (OCIF), a decoy receptor of ODF, completely inhibited IL-17–induced osteoclast differentiation in the cocultures. Levels of IL-17 in synovial fluids were significantly higher in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients than osteoarthritis (OA) patients. Anti–IL-17 antibody significantly inhibited osteoclast formation induced by culture media of RA synovial tissues. These findings suggest that IL-17 first acts on osteoblasts, which stimulates both COX-2–dependent PGE2 synthesis and ODF gene expression, which in turn induce differentiation of osteoclast progenitors into mature osteoclasts, and that IL-17 is a crucial cytokine for osteoclastic bone resorption in RA patients. PMID:10225978
McGillicuddy, Daniel C; Shah, Kaushal H; Friedberg, Ryan P; Nathanson, Larry A; Edlow, Jonathan A
This study was conducted to determine the sensitivity of the current standard for synovial fluid leukocytosis analysis in diagnosing infectious arthritis or a septic joint. How accurate is the standard synovial fluid white blood cell (WBC) cutoff of 50,000 WBC/mm3 to rule out septic arthritis? We conducted a retrospective study at an urban tertiary care medical center with 50,000 adult emergency department visits per year. The study population consisted of patients with infectious arthritis confirmed by synovial fluid culture growth of a pathogenic organism. The study period lasted from January 1996 to December 2002. Extracted data included synovial fluid leukocyte count, Gram's stain, culture, past medical history, and discharge diagnosis. Fisher exact test was used to compare proportions. Sensitivity and means were calculated with 95% confidence intervals (CI). There were 49 culture-positive synovial fluid aspirates in the 6-year study period. Nineteen (39%) of 49 patients (95% CI, 25%-52%) had a synovial WBC of less than 50,000/mm3 and 30 (61%) of 49 patients (95% CI, 48%-75%) had a synovial WBC of more than 50,000/mm3. The sensitivity of the 50,000 synovial WBC/mm3 cutoff was 61% (95% CI, 48%-75%). Twenty-seven (55%) of 49 patients had a negative Gram's stain (95% CI, 41%-69%) and 15 (56%) of 27 patients (95% CI, 37%-74%) with negative Gram's stain had a synovial WBC of less than 50,000/mm3. A synovial fluid WBC cutoff of 50,000/mm3 lacks the sensitivity required to be clinically useful in ruling out infectious arthritis.
F. De Biasi
Full Text Available Avaliaram-se as alterações do líquido sinovial do joelho de 19 cães submetidos à desmotomia unilateral do cruzado cranial, baseado no modelo experimental de Pond & Nuki, colhido e analisado aos 30 dias de pós-operatório. Cinco animais foram analisados novamente aos 90 dias de pós-operatório. As características analisadas foram volume, cor, aspecto, densidade, pH, proteínas, fibrinogênio, coágulo de mucina, contagem de hemácias e contagem total e diferencial de células nucleadas. O líquido sinovial apresentou padrão inflamatório que persistiu durante todo o período de observação, com efusão articular. Houve aumento na contagem de células nucleadas e na concentração de fibrinogênio aos 90 dias. A qualidade da precipitação da mucina apresentou melhora aos 90 dias quando comparada à de 30 dias, porém ainda marcadamente anormal. Foi possível concluir que até 90 dias de pós-operatório no modelo utilizado o fluído sinovial apresenta características inflamatórias e não degenerativas.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the changes in knee synovial fluid of 19 dogs with experimentally-induced cranial cruciate ligament rupture, based on Pond & Nuki model. Synovial fluid was achieved and analyzed at 30 days postoperative time. Five animals had further synovial fluid evaluation at 90 days postoperatively. The characteristics observed were color, turbidity, density, pH, protein, fibrinogen, mucin clot, cell count and citology. The synovial fluid exhibited an inflammatory pattern during the postoperative observation time and joint effusion was observed. An increased number of nucleated cells and increased fibrinogen concentration were observed at 90 days when compared to 30 days after desmotomy. Although severely abnormal, an improvement of the mucin clot was observed at 90 days. It can be concluded that synovial fluid in this experimental model, showed inflammatory and no degenerative changes until 90 days
Goto, Hiroki; Kojima, Yuki; Matsuda, Kouki; Kariya, Ryusho; Taura, Manabu; Kuwahara, Kazuhiko; Nagai, Hirokazu; Katano, Harutaka; Okada, Seiji
Recently, the critical role of CD47 on the surface of resistant cancer cells has been proposed in their evasion of immunosurveillance. Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a subtype of aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma that shows serous lymphomatous effusion in body cavities, especially in advanced acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). PEL is resistant to conventional chemotherapy and has a poor prognosis. In this study, we evaluated the effect of anti-CD47 antibody (Ab) on PEL in vitro and in vivo. Surface CD47 of PEL cell lines was examined by flow cytometry. Efficacy of knocking down CD47 or anti-CD47 Ab-mediated phagocytosis against PEL was evaluated using mouse peritoneal macrophages and human macrophages in vitro. Primary PEL cells were injected intraperitoneally into NOD/Rag-2/Jak3 double-deficient (NRJ) mice to establish a direct xenograft mouse model. Surface CD47 of PEL cell lines was highly expressed. Knocking down CD47 and anti-CD47 Ab promoted phagocytic activities of macrophages in a CD47 expression-dependent manner in vitro. Treatment with anti-CD47 Ab inhibited ascite formation and organ invasion completely in vivo compared with control IgG-treated mice. CD47 plays the pivotal role in the immune evasion of PEL cells in body cavities. Therapeutic antibody targeting of CD47 could be an effective therapy for PEL. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Malignant pleural effusion (MPE is a condition caused by primary malignant tumors in the pleura or other malignant tumors metastasis to the pleura. It is also one of common serious complications of middle-late malignant tumor, which has severe impact on the quality of life, even threatening the life of the patients. The selection of treatments for MPE depends on many factors, including the symptoms, performance status, primary tumor types, response to systemic therapy, and degree of lung recruitment maneuvers (LRM after drainage of pleural effusion. Generally, the treatment methods include thoracentesis, indwelling pleural catheter, pleurodesis, intrapleural injection of drugs, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, anti-angiogenesis therapy, surgery, and thermotherapy. With the in-depth study on pathogenesis of MPE, the treatments of MPE have continuous improvements. This study mainly reviewed the treatment methods for MPE so as to provide the basis for clinical practice in the future.
Villena Garrido, Victoria; Cases Viedma, Enrique; Fernández Villar, Alberto; de Pablo Gafas, Alicia; Pérez Rodríguez, Esteban; Porcel Pérez, José Manuel; Rodríguez Panadero, Francisco; Ruiz Martínez, Carlos; Salvatierra Velázquez, Angel; Valdés Cuadrado, Luis
Although during the last few years there have been several important changes in the diagnostic or therapeutic methods, pleural effusion is still one of the diseases that the respiratory specialist have to evaluate frequently. The aim of this paper is to update the knowledge about pleural effusions, rather than to review the causes of pleural diseases exhaustively. These recommendations have a longer extension for the subjects with a direct clinical usefulness, but a slight update of other pleural diseases has been also included. Among the main scientific advantages are included the thoracic ultrasonography, the intrapleural fibrinolytics, the pleurodesis agents, or the new pleural drainages techniques. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Armstrong, S K; Raidal, S L; Hughes, K J
Three foals, aged between 5 and 10 days, were presented for assessment of lethargy, abdominal pain and joint effusion. Fibrinous pericarditis and pericardial effusion (PE) were recognised in each foal and considered as sequelae to systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and suspected or confirmed septicaemia. Diagnosis of pericarditis was made in two foals by echocardiographic examination and analysis of pericardial fluid, and during postmortem examination of the third foal. In both of the foals that underwent pericardiocentesis, PE was an exudate, no bacteria were identified on cytological analysis and bacterial culture was negative. Despite apparent response to treatment, two foals died 2 and 3 weeks, respectively, after discharge from hospital. One foal was euthanased during hospitalisation. This report highlights the need to consider the development of pericarditis and PE in foals with SIRS and signs of cardiorespiratory dysfunction, and the requirement for protracted follow-up to monitor for clinical resolution. © 2014 Australian Veterinary Association.
Pleuropulmonary blastoma (PPB) is a rare tumour of mesenchymal cells. We present a case of PPB in a child, which presented to the emergency department with an extensive pleural effusion. We discuss the radiological features, pathology, classification and treatment of this condition. This case reiterates the importance of considering this diagnosis prior to surgical intervention, to improve the long term prognosis of this aggressive disease.
Faiz, Saadia A; Bashoura, Lara; Lei, Xiudong; Sampat, Keeran R; Brown, Tiffany C; Eapen, George A; Morice, Rodolfo C; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Jimenez, Carlos A
Pleural effusions are rarely observed in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)/myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN). Therefore the underlying etiology of pleural effusions and the efficacy and safety of pleural procedures in this population has not been well studied. In a retrospective review of cases from 1997 to 2007, we identified 111 patients with acute leukemia or MDS/MPN who underwent pleural procedures. Clinical characteristics were reviewed, and survival outcomes were estimated by Kaplan-Meier methods. A total of 270 pleural procedures were performed in 111 patients (69 AML, 27 ALL, 15 MDS/MPN). The main indications for pleural procedures were possible infection (49%) and respiratory symptoms (48%), and concomitant clinical symptoms included fever (34%), dyspnea (74%), chest pain (24%) and cough (37%). Most patients had active disease (61%). The most frequent etiology of pleural effusions was infection (47%), followed by malignancy (36%). Severe thrombocytopenia (platelet count < 20 × 10(3)/µL) was present in 43% of the procedures, yet the procedural complication rate was only 1.9%. Multivariate analysis revealed that older age, AML, MDS/MPN and active disease status were associated with a shorter median overall survival. Infection and malignant involvement are the most common causes of pleural effusion in patients with acute leukemia or MDS. After optimizing platelet count and coagulopathy, thoracentesis may be performed safely and with high diagnostic yield in this population. Survival in these patients is determined by the response to treatment of the hematologic malignancy.
Starobin, Daniel; Guller, Vladimir; Gurevich, Alexander; Tal, Sari
Ninety years old male was admitted to hospital due to breathlessness. The prominent findings were extensive blue-grey skin pigmentation and large left chylothorax. Drug induced lupus was diagnosed due to either minocycline chronic treatment or no alternative illness to explain his sub-acute disease. Minocycline therapy was stopped with gradual improvement of pleural effusion and skin discoloration. This case is the first presentation of minocycline induced lupus with chylothorax.
Full Text Available Ninety years old male was admitted to hospital due to breathlessness. The prominent findings were extensive blue-grey skin pigmentation and large left chylothorax. Drug induced lupus was diagnosed due to either minocycline chronic treatment or no alternative illness to explain his sub-acute disease. Minocycline therapy was stopped with gradual improvement of pleural effusion and skin discoloration. This case is the first presentation of minocycline induced lupus with chylothorax.
Bois, John P.; Ponnada, Vara Venkata; O'Cochlain, D. Fearghas; Brady, Peter A.; Edwards, William D.; Klarich, Kyle W.
We report a rare case of ergotamine-associated mitral stenosis in a 55-year-old woman who presented with recurrent chylous pleural effusion. Echocardiographic, gross, and microscopic features of the mitral valve were consistent with chronic ergotamine-induced valvulopathy. We conclude that medication-induced valvulopathy should be included in the differential diagnosis of valvular heart disease. In addition, cardiac function should be monitored before and during long-term therapy with ergotam...
Bois, John P; Ponnada, Vara Venkata; O'Cochlain, D Fearghas; Brady, Peter A; Edwards, William D; Klarich, Kyle W
We report a rare case of ergotamine-associated mitral stenosis in a 55-year-old woman who presented with recurrent chylous pleural effusion. Echocardiographic, gross, and microscopic features of the mitral valve were consistent with chronic ergotamine-induced valvulopathy. We conclude that medication-induced valvulopathy should be included in the differential diagnosis of valvular heart disease. In addition, cardiac function should be monitored before and during long-term therapy with ergotamine or ergotamine-derived dopamine agonists.
Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The initial method for evaluating the presence of pleural effusion was chest radiography. Isolated studies have shown that sonography has greater accuracy than radiography for this diagnosis; however, no systematic reviews on this matter are available in the literature. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of sonography in detecting pleural effusion, by means of a systematic review of the literature. DESIGN AND SETTING: This was a systematic review with meta-analysis on accuracy studies. This study was conducted in the Department of Diagnostic Imaging and in the Brazilian Cochrane Center, Discipline of Emergency Medicine and Evidence-Based Medicine, Department of Medicine, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp, São Paulo, Brazil. METHOD: The following databases were searched: Cochrane Library, Medline, Web of Science, Embase and Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (Lilacs. The references of relevant studies were also screened for additional citations of interest. Studies in which the accuracy of sonography for detecting pleural effusion was tested, with an acceptable reference standard (computed tomography or thoracic drainage, were included. RESULTS: Four studies were included. All of them showed that sonography had high sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for detecting pleural effusions. The mean sensitivity was 93% (95% confidence interval, CI: 89% to 96%, and specificity was 96% (95% CI: 95% to 98%. CONCLUSIONS: In different populations and clinical settings, sonography showed consistently high sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for detecting fluid in the pleural space.
Full Text Available Chronic inflammation of articular joints causing bone and cartilage destruction consequently leads to functional impairment or loss of mobility in affected joints from individuals affected by rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Even successful treatment with complete resolution of synovial inflammatory processes does not lead to full reversal of joint functionality, pointing to the crucial contribution of irreversibly damaged structural components, such as bone and cartilage, to restricted joint mobility. In this context, we investigated the impact of the distinct components, including synovial inflammation, bone erosion or cartilage damage, as well as the effect of blocking tumor necrosis factor (TNF on functional impairment in human-TNF transgenic (hTNFtg mice, a chronic inflammatory erosive animal model of RA. We determined CatWalk-assisted gait profiles as objective quantitative measurements of functional impairment. We first determined body-weight-independent gait parameters, including maximum intensity, print length, print width and print area in wild-type mice. We observed early changes in those gait parameters in hTNFtg mice at week 5 – the first clinical signs of arthritis. Moreover, we found further gait changes during chronic disease development, indicating progressive functional impairment in hTNFtg mice. By investigating the association of gait parameters with inflammation-mediated joint pathologies at different time points of the disease course, we found a relationship between gait parameters and the extent of cartilage damage and bone erosions, but not with the extent of synovitis in this chronic model. Next, we observed a significant improvement of functional impairment upon blocking TNF, even at progressed stages of disease. However, blocking TNF did not restore full functionality owing to remaining subclinical inflammation and structural microdamage. In conclusion, CatWalk gait analysis provides a useful tool for quantitative
Birn, Jeff; Pruente, Ryan; Avram, Raluca; Eyler, William; Mahan, Meredith; van Holsbeeck, Marnix
Hip joint effusion is expected in rapidly destructive osteoarthritis, a diagnosis often only made retrospectively at the end stage of the disease. This study assesses whether the presence of an effusion identified during routine ultrasound-guided hip injection may suggest a more aggressive process such as rapidly destructive osteoarthritis. After the observation of 10 index cases of rapidly destructive osteoarthritis in patients who presented with a joint effusion on ultrasound, we retrospectively reviewed 94 hips from 89 patients who underwent ultrasound-guided hip injection for pain. Preinjection longitudinal ultrasound images of the anterior capsule adjacent to the femoral neck and inferior to the femoral head were reviewed to determine if a joint effusion was present and the size of the effusion if one was there. Comparison of effusion size was then made between those hips that had a clinical and radiographic diagnosis of osteoarthritis and those who had rapidly destructive osteoarthritis by comparing the severity of joint effusion, if one was present. Patients with rapidly destructive osteoarthritis were more likely to have a large joint effusion 60% (3/5) than were those with osteoarthritis 6.7% (6/89) (p = 0.013). Large joint effusions identified sonographically correlate well with radiographic findings of rapidly destructive osteoarthritis. Given rapid onset and severity of the disease, when a large joint effusion is identified on routine hip intervention, patients should be forewarned of the potential for this disease process. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Objective and Importance: Malignant pleural effusions occur in the setting of both solid and hematologic malignancies. Pleural effusion caused by leukemic infiltration is an unusual extramedullary manifestation of acute myeloid leukemia (AML with fewer than 20 cases reported.1-11 We report a case of pericardial and pleural effusions in a patient with AML and review the literature. Clinical presentation: In this case, a 55 year old man with previous history of myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN experienced transformation AML, heralded by appearance of leukemic pleural effusions. The patient was identified to have leukemic pleural effusion based upon extended cytogenetic analysis of the pleural fluid, as morphologic analysis alone was insufficient. Intervention: The patient was treated with hypomethylator-based and intensive chemotherapy strategies, both of which maintained resolution of the effusions in the remission setting. Conclusion: Due to the rarity of diagnosis of leukemic pleural effusions, both cytogenetic and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH testing are recommended. Futhermore, systemic chemotherapy directed at the AML can lead to complete resolution of leukemic pleural effusions. Objective and ImportancePleural effusion caused by leukemic infiltration is an unusual extramedullary manifestation of acute myeloid leukemia (AML, but may be more common than previously thought. Fewer than 20 cases have been reported.1-11 We report a case of pericardial and pleural effusions in a patient with AML and review the literature.
Ko, Mi Gyoung; Yang, Ik; Lee, Kyung Won; Lee, Yul; Chung, Soo Young; Lee, Kwan Seop; Yoo, Jung Han [Hallym Univ. College of Medicine, Chunchon (Korea, Republic of)
To clarify the distribution of joint effusion, and the relationship between type of injury and amount of joint effusion seen in traumatic knee joint magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We retrospectively reviewed the MR images of 400 patients with traumatic knee joint effusion. The knee joint space was divided into four compartments : central portion (para-ACL, para-PCL), suprapatellar pouch, posterior femoral recess, and subpopliteal recess, and we then compared the amount and distribution of effusion. For statistical analysis, the chi-square test was used. Among 400 MRI examinations of joint effusion, 383 knees (96%) showed homogeneous low intensity on T1-weighted images, and - except for ten cases of fluid-fluid levels- homogeneous high intensity on T2-weighted images. Knee joint effusion was clearly shown to be distributed mainly in the suprapatellar pouch (345, 86%), followed by the central posterior femoral recess, and the subpopliteal recess (P<0.001). Extensive joint effusion was less frequently found in the normal group, but was occasionally found in the combined injury group (P<0.001). The relationship between amount of joint effusion and type of injury was statistically significant (P<0.001), except in the case of medial and lateral collateral ligament injury. The distribution of joint effusion in patients with traumatic knee disorders is a reflection of anatomic communication, and whether the amount of joint effusion was small or large depended on the anatomical location and type of injury.
Hamal, A B; Yogi, K N; Bam, N; Das, S K; Karn, R
Objectives. To study the diagnostic value of pleural fluid cholesterol in differentiating transudative and exudative pleural effusion. To compare pleural fluid cholesterol level for exudates with Light's criteria. Design. Cross sectional descriptive study. Settings. Medical wards of Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital. Methods. Sixty two cases of pleural effusion with definite clinical diagnosis admitted in TUTH were taken and classified as transudates (19) and exudates (43). The parameters pleural fluid protein/serum protein ratio (pfP/sP), pleural fluid LDH/ serum LDH ratio, pleural fluid LDH (pfLDH) and pleural fluid cholesterol (pCHOL) were compared with clinical diagnosis with regard to their usefulness for distinguishing between pleural exudates and transudates. Results. The pCHOL values determined were 1.92 ± 0.75 for exudates, 0.53 ± 0.28 for transudates, the differences between the transudates and others are statistically significant (P pfLDH/sLDH ratio has a sensitivity of 86% and specificity of 94.7% and pCHOL with sensitivity of 97.7% and specificity of 100% for differentiating exudative and transudative PE. Conclusion. The determination of pCHOL is of great value for distinguishing between pleural exudates and transudates and should be included in routine laboratory analysis of pleural effusion.
A. B. Hamal
Full Text Available Objectives. To study the diagnostic value of pleural fluid cholesterol in differentiating transudative and exudative pleural effusion. To compare pleural fluid cholesterol level for exudates with Light’s criteria. Design. Cross sectional descriptive study. Settings. Medical wards of Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital. Methods. Sixty two cases of pleural effusion with definite clinical diagnosis admitted in TUTH were taken and classified as transudates (19 and exudates (43. The parameters pleural fluid protein/serum protein ratio (pfP/sP, pleural fluid LDH/ serum LDH ratio, pleural fluid LDH (pfLDH and pleural fluid cholesterol (pCHOL were compared with clinical diagnosis with regard to their usefulness for distinguishing between pleural exudates and transudates. Results. The pCHOL values determined were for exudates, for transudates, the differences between the transudates and others are statistically significant (. It is seen that pfP/sP ratio has a sensitivity of 81.4% and specificity of 82.6%; pfLDH/sLDH ratio has a sensitivity of 86% and specificity of 94.7% and pCHOL with sensitivity of 97.7% and specificity of 100% for differentiating exudative and transudative PE. Conclusion. The determination of pCHOL is of great value for distinguishing between pleural exudates and transudates and should be included in routine laboratory analysis of pleural effusion.
Stewart, Jennifer; Holloway, Andrew; Rasotto, Roberta; Bowlt, Kelly
A 10-year-old, female spayed Shih Tzu was presented due to weight loss, increased respiratory effort and lethargy, determined to be secondary to a congenital para-esophageal diaphragmatic defect with partial herniation of the stomach and spleen. Four days following reduction surgery of the displaced abdominal organs thoracic effusion developed. Thoracic fluid evaluation revealed a cell-rich, protein-poor modified transudate with neutrophils, reactive mesothelial cells, and atypical epitheloid cells which occasionally appeared to be keratinizing, consistent with neoplastic exfoliation. Thoracic effusion recurred 2 days later, with similar characteristics as the initial sample. Computed tomography (CT) indicated consolidation and displacement of the right middle and accessory lung lobes. Exploratory thoracic surgery demonstrated a thickened, hyperemic right middle lung lobe, and thickened pericardial diaphragmatic ligament. Histologic evaluation of these tissues identified a primary pulmonary adenosquamous carcinoma with intravascular and pleural invasion. Based on these cytologic, histologic, and clinical findings, we conclude that primary pulmonary carcinomas may involve superficial thoracic structures and exfoliate into a thoracic effusion. © 2016 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.
Remérand, Francis; Dellamonica, Jean; Mao, Zhang; Ferrari, Fabio; Bouhemad, Belaïd; Jianxin, Yang; Arbelot, Charlotte; Lu, Qin; Ichaï, Carole; Rouby, Jean-Jacques
To assess the accuracy of a multiplane ultrasound approach to measure pleural effusion volume (PEV), considering pleural effusion (PE) extension along the cephalocaudal axis and PE area. Prospective study performed on 58 critically ill patients with 102 PEs. Thoracic drainage was performed in 46 patients (59 PEs) and lung computed tomography (CT) in 24 patients (43 PEs). PE was assessed using bedside lung ultrasound. Adjacent paravertebral intercostal spaces were examined, and ultrasound PEV was calculated by multiplying the paravertebral PE length by its area, measured at half the distance between the apical and caudal limits of the PE. Ultrasound PEV was compared to either the volume of the drained PE (59 PE) or PEV assessed on lung CT (43 PE). In patients with lung CT, the accuracy of this new method was compared to the accuracy of previous methods proposed for PEV measurement. Ultrasound PEV was tightly correlated with drained PEV (r = 0.84, p < 0.001) and with CT PEV (r = 0.90, p < 0.001). The mean biases between ultrasound and actual volumes of PE were -33 ml when compared to drainage (limits of agreement -292 to +227 ml) and -53 ml when compared to CT (limits of agreement -303 to +198 ml). This new method was more accurate than previous methods to measure PEV. Using a multiplane approach increases the accuracy of lung ultrasound to measure the volume of large to small pleural effusions in critically ill patients.
Watanabe, M; Watanabe, A; Noguchi, M; Nishiwaki, K
A 69-year-old woman was admitted to the hospital because of coughing, dyspnea, generalized fatigue, and pretibial edema. A chest X-ray film revealed cardiac enlargement, a left hilar mass, and a small nodule in the right middle lung field. Echocardiography showed a massive pericardial effusion. A chest CT scan showed pericardial effusion, an anterior mediastinal mass, and a small nodule in the right upper lobe. Examination of a percutaneous biopsy specimen showed round and spindle-shaped tumor cells and lymphocyte infiltration, which was consistent with mixed-cell-type thymoma. Hematological examination showed macrocytic anemia, and the concentration of vitamin B12 was 65 pg/ml (249-938 pg/ml). A test for anti-parietal cell antibodies was positive. Our diagnosis was pernicious anemia and stage IVb invasive thymoma (by Masaoka's classification). Because of the intrapulmonary metastasis and pericardial effusion, the patient underwent chemotherapy. The tumor shrank, so a thoracotomy was done. However, the tumor was found to have invaded the heart and large vessels, and it could not be removed. After surgery the thorax was irradiated. Invasive thymoma complicated by pernicious anemia is rare.
Nagaoka, D; Tsukise, A
The accurate localization and nature of glycosaminoglycans in the synovial membrane of the canine knee joint were examined histochemically by means of the selective sensitized diamine procedures based upon high and low iron diamine stainings in combination with enzyme digestions. Using these methods, it was possible to clearly and easily detect exceedingly small amounts of glycosaminoglycans in synovial tissues, which cannot be visualized by methods employed to date. The sensitized high iron diamine (S-HID) procedure resulted in positive reactions of varying intensities in the intercellular matrix of synovial intima, and in the extracellular matrix and small capillary walls of the superficial layer in the synovial subintima, and also reacted vividly in the extracellular matrix and blood vessel walls of the deeper layer in the synovial subintima. In particular, the sensitized low iron diamine (S-LID) procedure resulted in positive reactions of the extracellular matrix in the synovial subintimal layers. The S-HID and S-LID procedures combined with the enzyme digestions proved that glycosaminoglycan molecular species such as chondroitin sulfate A/C, dermatan sulfate, heparan sulfate and hyaluronic acid are present in various concentrations in the synovial membrane of the canine knee joint. The present results were discussed with reference to the histophysiological and pathophysiological functions of glycosaminoglycans in the synovium of domestic mammals.
Declercq, Jeroen; Martens, Ann; Bogaert, Lies; Boussauw, Bernard; Forsyth, Ramses; Boening, Karl Josef
To determine clinical and arthroscopic characteristics associated with fragments in the synovial pad of the fetlock and to characterize their morphology. Retrospective study. Warmblood horses (n=104) with fragment(s) in the synovial pad. Signalment and results of radiographic and clinical examination were collected before surgery. After arthroscopic fragment removal and joint evaluation for synovial and/or cartilage abnormalities, fragments were measured, and evaluated by histopathology. Synovial pad fragments (n=142) were removed from 127 fetlocks. Two older horses had lameness. During arthroscopy, abnormalities were observed in 40 joints (31.5%) and multivariate logistic regression analysis showed a significant correlation between the observed arthroscopic abnormalities and the presence of large fragments (P=.016). Fragments were osteochondral bodies completely surrounded by fibrous tissue. At the edges of the hyaline cartilage cap an underlying fibrous structure was obvious in the extracellular matrix giving it a reactive pattern. Although the impact on lameness was minimal, there was a significant correlation between arthroscopic abnormalities and presence of large synovial pad fragments. On histopathology, these osteochondral fragments are embedded in fibrous tissue and show a reactive pattern. They are not a manifestation of any well-described joint pathology. Large synovial pad fragments in Warmblood horses can be associated with synovial and cartilage abnormalities, but further studies are warranted to determine their origin and clinical importance.
Tillich, M.; Lindbichler, F. [Graz Univ. (Austria). Dept. of Radiology; Trummer, M.; Flaschka, G. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Karl-Franzens Medical School and University Hospital (Austria)
The purpose of the study was to determine the frequency of associated MR imaging findings in patients with symptomatic lumbar intraspinal synovial cysts, and to correlate MR with surgical findings. MR imaging studies of 18 patients with surgically and histopathologically proven lumbar intraspinal synovial cysts were retrospectively analyzed and correlated with surgical findings. The diameters of the synovial cysts ranged from 10 mm to 28 mm, with a mean of 16 mm. A nonhemorrhagic cyst was found in 15 patients (83%), and a hemorrhagic cyst in three patients (17%). Degenerative spondylolisthesis was found in six patients (33%) at the level of the synovial cyst, with displacement ranging from 3 to 5 mm, mean 4 mm. Surgery revealed instability and hypermobility of the facet joint at the level of the synovial cyst in all patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis, and in five additional patients. Symptomatic synovial cysts of the lumbar spine were associated with degenerative spondylolisthesis in six of 18 patients (33%) and with instability of the facet joint in 11 (61%). These findings may support the theory that increased segmental motion plays a role in the pathogenesis of synovial cysts. (orig.)
Tosun, Akif Burak; Yergiyev, Oleksandr; Kolouri, Soheil; Silverman, Jan F.; Rohde, Gustavo K.
diagnostic standard is a pleural biopsy with subsequent histologic examination of the tissue demonstrating invasion by the tumor. The diagnostic tissue is obtained through thoracoscopy or open thoracotomy, both being highly invasive procedures. Thoracocenthesis, or removal of effusion fluid from the pleural space, is a far less invasive procedure that can provide material for cytological examination. However, it is insufficient to definitively confirm or exclude the diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma, since tissue invasion cannot be determined. In this study, we present a computerized method to detect and classify malignant mesothelioma based on the nuclear chromatin distribution from digital images of mesothelial cells in effusion cytology specimens. Our method aims at determining whether a set of nuclei belonging to a patient, obtained from effusion fluid images using image segmentation, is benign or malignant, and has a potential to eliminate the need for tissue biopsy. This method is performed by quantifying chromatin morphology of cells using the optimal transportation (Kantorovich-Wasserstein) metric in combination with the modified Fisher discriminant analysis, a k-nearest neighborhood classification, and a simple voting strategy. Our results show that we can classify the data of 10 different human cases with 100% accuracy after blind cross validation. We conclude that nuclear structure alone contains enough information to classify the malignant mesothelioma. We also conclude that the distribution of chromatin seems to be a discriminating feature between nuclei of benign and malignant mesothelioma cells.
Malaise, Olivier; Relic, Biserka; Charlier, Edith; Zeddou, Mustapha; Neuville, Sophie; Deroyer, Céline; Gillet, Philippe; Louis, Edouard; Malaise, Michel G; de Seny, Dominique
Glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ) is a mediator of the anti-inflammatory activities of glucocorticoids. However, GILZ deletion does not impair the anti-inflammatory activities of exogenous glucocorticoids in mice arthritis models and GILZ could also mediate some glucocorticoid-related adverse events. Osteoarthritis (OA) is a metabolic disorder that is partly attributed to adipokines such as leptin, and we previously observed that glucocorticoids induced leptin secretion in OA synovial fibroblasts. The purpose of this study was to position GILZ in OA through its involvement in the anti-inflammatory activities of glucocorticoids and/or in the metabolic pathway of leptin induction. The influences of mineralocorticoids on GILZ and leptin expression were also investigated. Human synovial fibroblasts were isolated from OA patients during knee replacement surgery. Then, the cells were treated with a glucocorticoid (prednisolone), a mineralocorticoid (aldosterone), a glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist (mifepristone), a selective glucocorticoid receptor agonist (Compound A), mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonists (eplerenone and spironolactone), TNF-α or transforming growth factor (TGF)-β. Cells were transfected with shRNA lentiviruses for the silencing of GILZ and GR. The leptin, IL-6, IL-8 and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 levels were measured by ELISA. Leptin, the leptin receptor (Ob-R), GR and GILZ expression levels were analyzed by western blotting and/or RT-qPCR. (1) The glucocorticoid prednisolone and the mineralocorticoid aldosterone induced GILZ expression dose-dependently in OA synovial fibroblasts, through GR but not MR. Similar effects on leptin and Ob-R were observed: leptin secretion and Ob-R expression were also induced by prednisolone and aldosterone through GR; (2) GILZ silencing experiments demonstrated that GILZ was involved in the glucocorticoid-induced and mineralocorticoid-induced leptin secretion and Ob-R expression in OA
Sedeek Mohamed Sedeek
Full Text Available Synovial chondromatosis, also termed synovial osteochondromatosis, is a rare benign disorder characterized by the presence of cartilaginous nodules in the synovium of the joints, tendon sheaths, and bursae. It most commonly involves large joints, such as the knee, hip, and shoulder, but its presence in smaller joints has also been reported. Nevertheless, ankle involvement is unusual. The diagnosis is commonly made following a thorough history, clinical, physical, and radiographic examination. We report a case of a young patient with primary synovial chondromatosis of the ankle joint and present the clinical, radiographic, and intraoperative findings.
Full Text Available Synovial sarcoma comprises approximately 10% of all soft tissue sarcoma diagnoses; a primary synovial sarcoma of the myocardium is exceedingly rare. There have been very few cases reported in the literature thus far. With the identification of the characteristic and diagnostic chromosomal abnormality t(X;18, this may become an increasingly recognized entity. Our report adds to the limited published cases of primary cardiac synovial sarcoma with the characteristic t(X;18. Further elucidation of the effects of this translocation on the cell cycle may lead to directed therapies in the future.
Xu, Caiqi; Yang, Xingguang; Zhao, Jinzhong
Synovial chondromatosis is characterized by benign synovial proliferation that leads to chondral or osteochondral foci formation. In this case report, a right-handed female suffered from progressively worsening pain and limited mobility of forward elevation, abduction and external rotation in her right shoulder. A shoulder arthroscopy was conducted, during which, thickened bursal synovium and several loose bodies were observed, associated with bursal side tear of rotator cuff. A thorough synovectomy, subacromial debridement and acromioplasty were conducted. The pathological findings were consistent with synovial chondromatosis. After systematic rehabilitation, the patient had relief of shoulder pain and full range of motions in 14-months follow-up. Case report, Level IV.
Boya, Hakan; Pinar, Halit; Ozcan, Ozal
Synovial osteochondromatosis is a rare disease characterized by cartilaginous and osseous metaplasia of the joint synovium. While it may affect practically any synovial joint, the knee is most often affected. An imperforate suprapatellar plica is also a rare finding in the knee. We report an exceptionally rare case of synovial osteochondromatosis of the knee characterized by isolated multiple loose bodies in the suprapatellar bursa caused by imperforate suprapatellar plica in a 52-year-old woman. The case was successfully treated by arthroscopic surgery. A worse-case scenario and possible diagnostic and therapeutic challenges are discussed.
Timbó, Luciana Sátiro; Rosemberg, Laercio Alberto; Brandt, Reynaldo André; Peres, Ricardo Botticini; Nakamura, Olavo Kyosen; Guimarães, Juliana Frota
Lumbar synovial cysts are an uncommon cause of back pain and radiculopathy, usually manifesting with gradual onset of symptoms, secondary to involvement of the spinal canal. Rarely, intracyst hemorrhage occurs, and may acutely present as radicular - or even spinal cord - compression syndrome. Synovial cysts are generally associated with degenerative facets, although the pathogenesis has not been entirely established. We report a case of bleeding complication in a synovial cyst at L2-L3, adjacent to the right interfacet joint, causing acute pain and radiculopathy in a patient on anticoagulation therapy who required surgical resection.
Martín-Granizo, Rafael; Sánchez, Juan Jesús; Jorquera, Manuela; Ortega, Luis
Synovial chondromatosis (SC) is a cartilaginous metaplasy of the mesenchymal remnants of the synovial tissue of the joints. It is characterized by the formation of cartilaginous nodules in the synovium and inside the articular space (loose bodies). SC mainly affects to big synovial joints such as the knee and the elbow, being uncommon the onset within the TMJ, where 75 cases have been published. The main symptoms are pain, inflammation, limitation of the movements of the jaw and crepitation. Different methods of diagnosis include panoramic radiograph, CT, MR and arthroscopy of the TMJ. We report a new case of unilateral SC of the TMJ, including diagnostic images, treatment performed and histological analysis.
Sun, Shu; Bay-Jensen, Anne-Christine; Karsdal, Morten A
BACKGROUND: Matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) plays an important role in the pathology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Measurement of active MMP-3 in clinical samples could provide information about progression of rheumatoid diseases, and potentially response...... were 3.1% and 13.5% respectively.High levels of act-MMP-3 expression were observed in human synovial membrane culture and oncostatin M and TNF-α stimulated human cartilage. In a cross-sectional study of both AS and RA patients, serum act-MMP-3 level was correlated with C-reactive protein (CRP...... in human serum showing correlation to inflammatory markers. Further studies are required to clarify, whether act-MMP-3 can serve as a predictive marker for outcome in chronic rheumatoid disorders....
Chen, Hung-Jen; Tu, Chih-Yen; Ling, Shinn-Jye; Chen, Wei; Chiu, Kuo-Liang; Hsia, Te-Chun; Shih, Chuen-Ming; Hsu, Wu-Huei
Pleural effusion patterns in sonographic appearances can be subclassified as anechoic, complex nonseptated, complex septated and homogeneously echogenic. Previous studies have suggested that transudates are usually anechoic; however, in daily practice we find frequently that heterogeneous echogenic material is present in transudative pleural effusions. This clinical study was to re-evaluate the sonographic appearances of transudative pleural effusions. A total of 127 patients with transudative pleural effusion that met Light's criteria ( a pleural fluid-serum protein ratio of anechoic pattern in 45% (57/127) and a complex nonseptated pattern in 55% (70/127). There was no complex septated or homogenously echogenic pattern. In conclusion, sonographic presentations in transudative pleural effusions are not always in an anechoic pattern. If an afebrile patient without infectious symptoms/signs has bilateral pleural effusion compatible with transudate of Light's criteria, treat the underlying problems and ignore the complex nonseptated sonographic appearance. (E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org).
Wang, Qi; Drouin, Elise E; Yao, Chunxiang; Zhang, Jiyang; Huang, Yu; Leon, Deborah R; Steere, Allen C; Costello, Catherine E
Human leukocyte antigen-antigen D related (HLA-DR) molecules are highly expressed in synovial tissue (ST), the target of the immune response in chronic inflammatory forms of arthritis. Here, we used LC-MS/MS to identify HLA-DR-presented self-peptides in cells taken directly from clinical samples: ST, synovial fluid mononuclear cells (SFMC), or peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from five patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and eight with Lyme arthritis (LA). We identified 1593 non-redundant HLA-DR-presented peptides, derived from 870 source proteins. A total of 67% of the peptides identified in SFMC and 55% of those found in PBMC were found in ST, but analysis of SFMC/PBMC also revealed new antigen-presented peptides. Peptides were synthesized and examined for reactivity with the patients' PBMC. To date, three autoantigens in RA and four novel autoantigens in LA, presented in ST and/or PBMC, were shown to be targets of T- and B-cell responses in these diseases; ongoing analyses may add to this list. Thus, immunoprecipitation and LC-MS/MS can now identify hundreds of HLA-DR-presented self-peptides from individual patients' tissues or fluids with mixed cell populations. Importantly, identification of HLA-DR-presented peptides from SFMC or PBMC allows testing of more patients, including those early in the disease. Direct analysis of clinical samples facilitates identification of novel immunogenic T-cell epitopes.
Unal, Sezin; Arifoglu, Ilter; Celik, Istemi Han; Yilmaz, Osman; Bas, Ahmet Yagmur; Demirel, Nihal
Pleural and pericardial effusions are extremely rare complications of umbilical venous catheterization in newborns. A preterm male infant weighing 850g, with insertion of an umbilical venous catheter (UVC) developed massive right pleural and pericardial effusions. The position of catheter tip was verified by chest radiography and echocardiography. The effusions were drained by thoracentesis and pericardiocentesis without complication, and were biochemically similar as total parenteral infusion which infused through catheter.
Demertzis, Jennifer L.; Loomans, Rachel; Wessell, Daniel E. [Washington University School of Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis, MO (United States); Kyriakos, Michael [Washington University School of Medicine, Division of Surgical Pathology, St. Louis, MO (United States); McDonald, Douglas J. [Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, St. Louis, MO (United States)
Hemangiomas of the articular synovium are rare and commonly associated with recurrent joint swelling and painful limitation of motion. The knee joint is the most commonly involved site, with most patients diagnosed in the second to third decade of life . Although over 200 cases have been reported in the English-language medical literature, only three have originated within the hip joint, all of which were in adult patients reported in the surgical literature [2-4]. We describe a histologically proven synovial hemangioma of the hip joint in a pediatric patient that invaded the femur, acetabulum, and adjacent soft tissues, with a detailed discussion of the differential diagnosis based on the radiographic and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. (orig.)
Beus, J. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Radiologie; Kreitner, K.F. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Radiologie; Rompe, J.D. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Orthopaedie; Riehle, H.M. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Pathologie
The case of a 29 year-old female patient who had experienced pain in the right midfoot for 5 years which was diagnosed as a degenerative or rheumatic change and treated by physiotherapy and medication. By means of magnetic resonance imaging we identified a soft-tissue tumor of the midfoot. Histology provided the findings of a monophasic fibrous synovial sarcoma. The case history is reported together with a presentation of the disease and its radiological diagnosis. (orig.) [Deutsch] Es wird ueber den Fall einer 29jaehrigen Patientin berichtet, die 5 Jahre lang wegen Schmerzen im rechten Mittelfuss unter der Diagnose degenerativer oder rheumatischer Veraenderungen physikalisch und medikamentoes behandelt wurde. Magnetresonanztomographisch wurde ein Weichteiltumor des Mittelfusses diagnostiziert. Die histologische Untersuchung erbrachte den Befund eines monophasisch-fibroesen Synovialsarkoms. Mit der Kasuistik verbunden ist eine Darstellung des Krankheitsbildes und dessen radiologischer Diagnostik. (orig.)
Decker, Rebekah S; Koyama, Eiki; Pacifici, Maurizio
Limb synovial joints are intricate structures composed of articular cartilage, synovial membranes, ligaments and an articular capsule. Together, these tissues give each joint its unique shape, organization and biomechanical function. Articular cartilage itself is rather complex and organized in distinct zones, including the superficial zone that produces lubricants and contains stem/progenitor cells. For many years there has been great interest in deciphering the mechanisms by which the joints form and come to acquire such unique structural features and diversity. Decades ago, classic embryologists discovered that the first overt sign of joint formation at each prescribed limb site was the appearance of a dense and compact population of mesenchymal cells collectively called the interzone. Work carried out since then by several groups has provided evidence that the interzone cells actively participate in joint tissue formation over developmental time. This minireview provides a succinct but comprehensive description of the many important recent advances in this field of research. These include studies using various conditional reporter mice to genetically trace and track the origin, fate and possible function of joint progenitor cells; studies on the involvement and roles in signaling pathways and transcription factors in joint cell determination and functioning; and studies using advanced methods of gene expression analyses to uncover novel genetic determinants of joint formation and diversity. The overall advances are impressive, and the findings are not only of obvious interest and importance but also have major implications in the conception of future translational medicine tools to repair and regenerate defective, overused or aging joints. Copyright © 2014 International Society of Matrix Biology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Singh, Takhellambam Shantikumar; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Lepcha, Chultin; Khanna, Satish Kumar
Paragonimiasis is an important food-borne parasitic zoonosis caused by trematode species of the genus, Paragonimus occurring in many parts of the world except in Australia and Antarctica. In India, it is an emerging parasitic disease, which is endemic in the northeast states where people have a common practice of eating raw or inadequately cooked freshwater crabs. In these states, Paragonimus heterotremus has been identified as the major causative agent of the human paragonimiasis. The most common clinical form of the disease is pulmonary paragonimiasis; however, extra-pulmonary manifestations are not uncommon. Here, we report a case of primary massive unilateral pleural effusion due to paragonimiasis. The diagnosis was confirmed by finding Paragonimus ova in the pleural fluid. The patient was successfully treated with repeated thoracocentesis and a course of praziquantel.
Terazaki, Carlos Renato Ticianelli; Trippia, Carlos Henrique; Caboclo, Maria Fernanda Sales Ferreira; Medaglia, Carla Regina Miranda, E-mail: email@example.com [Hospital Sao Vicente (FUNEF), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Servico de Radiologia e Diagnostico por Imagem; Trippia, Cesar Rodrigo [Hospital Sao Vicente (FUNEF), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)
Synovial chondromatosis is a benign condition characterized by synovial proliferation and metaplasia, with development of cartilaginous or osteocartilaginous nodules within a joint, bursa or tendon sheath. In the shoulder, synovial osteochondromatosis may occur within the glenohumeral joint and its recesses (including the tendon sheath of the biceps long head), and in the subacromial-deltoid bursa. Such condition can be identified either by radiography, ultrasonography or magnetic resonance imaging, showing typical features according to each method. Radiography commonly shows ring-shaped calcified cartilages and periarticular soft tissues swelling with erosion of joint margins. Ultrasonography demonstrates hypoechogenic cartilaginous nodules with progressive increase in echogenicity as they become calcified, with development of posterior acoustic shadow in case of ossification. Besides identifying cartilaginous nodules, magnetic resonance imaging can also demonstrate the degree of synovial proliferation. The present study is aimed at describing the imaging findings of this entity in the shoulder. (author)
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction A synovial chondromatosis is a rare benign neoplasm on the synovium. Although described as a benign disease, it can be very destructive and can cause severe osteoarthritis and pain. To the best of our knowledge, we report the first known case of an extensive presentation of this intra-articular and extra-articular disease of the knee joint. Case presentation A 49-year-old Caucasian man presented with right knee pain and stiffness caused by diffuse intra-articular and extra-articular synovial chondromatosis. He underwent careful preoperative imaging and planning followed by a two-stage arthroscopic and open procedure in order to completely eradicate the disease. He has regained full range of movement, but continues to experience residual pain due to severe osteoarthritis. Conclusions Although synovial chondromatosis is described as a benign disease, it can be very destructive and debilitating. A challenging management dilemma arises when confronted with both synovial chondromatosis and osteoarthritis.
Sushma HM, Anoosha K, Vijay Shankar S, Amita K
Full Text Available Background: Synovial lipomatosis is a rare, benign, intra-articular lipoma-like lesion characterized by villous proliferation of the synovium, most commonly affecting the knee joint. The usual presentation is long standing progressive swelling of the affected joint, with or without pain and restriction of movements. Histopathology is confirmatory. Case Report: We present the case of a 35- year old male patient with long standing history of swelling, short history of pain in the left knee joint. X-Ray and magnetic resonance imaging scans of the left knee showed the characteristic features of synovial lipomatosis with chronic synovitis. The patient underwent diagnostic arthroscopy with lavage of left knee joint. Histopathological study confirmed synovial lipomatosis with chronic synovitis. Conclusion: Synovial lipomatosis is a rare, benign, intra-articular lipoma-like lesion. Although rare, clinically it should be considered as an important differential in evaluating neoplastic and non- neoplastic conditions of the knee joint.
Steen, M Willemijn; Hofstede, Diederik J
Ganglion and synovial cysts of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) are rare. Although histopathological findings differ, clinical presentation is comparable. This study adds a case report of a ganglion of the TMJ to existing literature and a review of all available case reports on ganglion and synovial cysts of the TMJ. Including our own case report, we reviewed 49 cases of ganglion and synovial cysts of the TMJ. They occurred in a female:male ratio of 3:1, at an median age of 46 years (range, 11-64 years). Patients mainly presented with preauricular swelling and pain. After imaging, the ganglion or synovial cyst was most commonly excised under general anesthesia. No recurrences were described.
Abou-Shousha, Seham A; Salah, Eman; Wagdy, Eman
Over expression of P53 has been described in many inflammatory conditions including rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA) as a protective mechanism to induce apoptosis of synovial cells. Lack of P53 function through mutation in human synoviocytes increases the development of normal synovial fibroblasts into transformed aggressive synovial fibroblasts. P53 levels were determined in supernatant of cultured mononuclear cells (MCs) isolated from peripheral blood (PBMCs) of patients with RA (n = 10) and OA (n = 10) as well as 10 normal healthy controls (C). P53 levels were also determined in supernatants of MCs isolated from synovial fluid (SFMCs) of RA and OA patients. Results of this work revealed that P53 level was significantly higher in PBMCs supernatant of RA group than those of both (C) and (OA) groups (P = 0.022). P53 level was non-significantly higher in SFMCs supernatant of RA than OA group. Significantly higher levels of P53 was detected in SFMCs culture supernatant than that of PBMCs within each RA (P = 0.003) and OA (P = 0.001) group. Results also showed a significantly positive correlation between P53 levels (in both PBMCs and SFMCs) and the disease activity score (DAS) in RA group (P = 0.01, P = 0.02 respectively) while insignificantly positive correlations between P53 level (in both PBMCs and SFMCs) and radiological grading of OA group were obtained. These results indicate that mutations and consequent dysfunction of P53 gene may result in chronic inflammation and hyperplasia in RA patients. In conclusion, gene therapy targeting P53-dependent pathway could be a promising therapy for RA and OA diseases.
Nevres Hurriyet Aydogan; Onur Kocadal; Ahmet Ozmeric; Cem Nuri Aktekin
Synovial chondromatosis is a disease that seldomly seen in shoulder joint and is related to benign synovial proliferation and synchronous chondral tissue formation within the joint cavity. Patients suffer from progressive restriction of range of motion and shoulder pain. Extra-articular involvement is an extremely rare condition. Degenerative osteoarthritis, joint subluxation, and bursitis are common complications in untreated patients. Open or arthroscopic surgery is suitable while there is ...
Jung, Seung Chai [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Choi, Jung-Ah; Lee, Joon Woo; Kang, Heung Sik [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Radiology, Gyeongi-Do (Korea); Chung, Jin-Haeng [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Pathology, Gyeongi-Do (Korea); Oh, Joo Han [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Gyeongi-Do (Korea)
Synovial sarcoma of bone origin is extremely rare and difficult to diagnose. We present a case in which the lesion arose in the cortex of the distal tibia. It showed heterogeneous intermediate signal intensity on T1-weighted images and heterogeneous intermediate to low signal intensity on T2-weighted images with heterogeneous contrast enhancement on MRI. The lesion was confirmed as synovial sarcoma using a combination of histological and molecular genetic studies. (orig.)
Multicenter study of radiosynoviorthesis. Clinical outcome in osteoarthritis and other disorders with concomitant synovitis in comparison with rheumatoid arthritis; Multizenterstudie zur Radiosynoviorthese: Klinische Ergebnisse bei aktivierten Arthrosen und anderen Gelenkerkrankungen mit chronischer Synovialitis im Vergleich zur rheumatoiden Arthritis
Rau, H.; Lohmann, K.; Spitz, J. [Praxis fuer Nuklearmedizin, am Staedtischen Klinikum Wiesbaden (Germany); Franke, C. [Praxis fuer Nuklearmedizin, Hamburg (Germany); Goretzki, G. [Praxis fuer Nuklearmedizin, Bielefeld (Germany); Lemb, M.A. [Praxis fuer Nuklearmedizin, Bremen (Germany); Mueller, J. [Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Kantonspital St. Gallen (Switzerland); Panholzer, P.J. [Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin und Endokrinologie, PET-Zentrum, Krankenhaus der Barmherzigen Schwestern, Linz (Austria); Stelling, E. [Praxis fuer diagnostische und therapeutische Nuklearmedizin, Berlin (Germany)
Aim: evaluation of the effectiveness of radiosynoviorthesis (RSO) in osteoarthritis and other disorders with concomitant synovitis versus rheumatoid arthritis by means of a standardized questionnaire. Patients, methods: 803 RSO treatments were monitored in 691 patients by standardized questionnaires of 7 centers in 3 countries. Patients were assigned to 3 groups according to their age (20-40, 41-60, 61-80 years). Additionally, the data were analyzed separately for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (group A) and those with osteoarthritis, psoriasis arthritis, pigmental villonodular synovitis or persistent effusions after joint replacement (group B). Results: ameliorations of joint pain, swelling/effusion or flexibility were found in 80% of group A and 56% of group B (p <0.01). Quality of life improved in 78% of group A and 59% of group B (p <0.01). The response rate was similar for small- and large-sized joints in group A, but significantly higher for large-sized joints in group B (p <0.01). The positive effects on joint pain, swelling/effusion or flexibility lasted longer in group A (p <0.01). Repeated RSOs were as effective as initial ones. The clinical outcome was neither influenced by age, nor gender, nor transient immobilisation for 48 hours after RSO. Conclusion: although slightly more efficient in rheumatoid arthritis, RSO represents an effective treatment option also in osteoarthritis and other disorders with concomitant synovitis. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Effektivitaetsvergleich der Radiosynoviorthese (RSO) bei aktivierter Arthrose und anderen Gelenkerkrankungen mit chronischer Synovialitis versus rheumatoider Arthritis. Ueberpruefung der Eignung eines standardisierten Fragebogens fuer Multizenterstudien. Patienten, Methoden: Bei 691 Patienten wurden 803 RSO-Behandlungsverlaeufe von 7 Zentren in 3 Laendern mit Hilfe eines standardisierten Fragebogens erfasst. Die Patienten wurden 3 Alterskategorien (20-40, 41-60 und 61-80 Jahre) zugeordnet. Ausserdem wurden
Costa, G. C. C.; Jacobson, N. S.
Olivine is the major mineral in the Earth's upper mantle occurring predominantly in igneous rocks and has been identified in meteorites, asteroids, the Moon and Mars. Among many other important applications in planetary and materials sciences, the thermodynamic properties of vapor species from olivine are crucial as input parameters in computational modelling of the atmospheres of hot, rocky exoplanets (lava planets). There are several weight loss studies of olivine vaporization in the literature and one Knudsen Effusion Mass Spectrometry (KEMS) study. In this study, we examine a forsterite-rich olivine (93% forsterite and 7% fayalite, Fo93Fa7) with KEMS to further understand its vaporization and thermodynamic properties.
Full Text Available A 28-year-old male presented with fever with right-sided chest pain for 2 weeks. Clinicoradiological picture was suggestive of right-sided pleural effusion. He had history of polytrauma following a road traffic accident and had to undergo emergency laparotomy a month ago. Microscopic and culture examination of the pleural fluid showed neutrophilia, high bilirubin content and presence of gram-negative bacilli. Ultrasound of the abdomen showed the presence of biloma in the liver and right subdiaphragmatic space with fistulous communication into the right thoracic cavity. The patient was managed successfully with complete recovery.
Eduardo Genofre; Antonio Monteiro da Silva Chibante; Alex Gonçalves Macedo
Apesar do progresso nos métodos diagnósticos, cerca de 20% dos derrames pleurais podem permanecer sem diagnóstico etiológico definido após os exames convencionais. Para tentar determinar a origem destes derrames, métodos não convencionais e procedimentos mais invasivos devem ser utilizados com o objetivo de tentar esclarecer a etiologia do derrame pleural e instituir a terapêutica mais adequada.In spite of the progress in the diagnostic methods, about 20% of the pleural effusions may remain w...
Vieira, Rebecca L; Levy, Jason A
We determine whether pediatric emergency physicians can use bedside ultrasonography to accurately identify hip effusions in pediatric patients. This was a prospective study conducted in the emergency department (ED) of an urban tertiary care freestanding pediatric hospital. A convenience sample of children younger than 18 years and who required hip ultrasonography as part of their ED evaluation was enrolled. Pediatric emergency physicians with focused ultrasonographic training performed bedside ultrasonography on patients' symptomatic and contralateral hips and categorized the findings as "effusion" or "no effusion," according to a priori definitions. Physicians rated their confidence for each bedside ultrasonographic result on a scale of 1 (not confident) to 5 (very confident). Bedside ultrasonographic results were compared with the radiology department's ultrasonographic results, which were considered the criterion standard. Standard performance metrics (sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values) were calculated. Three physicians enrolled patients. Twenty-eight patients were enrolled, and 55 hips were studied. In all hips (both symptomatic and contralateral), bedside ultrasonography had a sensitivity of 80% (95% confidence interval [CI] 51% to 95%), a specificity of 98% (95% CI 85% to 99%), a positive predictive value of 92% (95% CI 62% to 99%), and a negative predictive value of 93% (95% CI 79% to 98%). In the 28 symptomatic hips, bedside ultrasonography had a sensitivity of 85% (95% CI 54% to 97%), a specificity of 93% (95% CI 66% to 99%), a positive predictive value of 92% (95% CI 60% to 99%), and negative predictive value of 88% (95% CI 60% to 98%). When physician self-rated confidence was high, the sensitivity of bedside ultrasonography in symptomatic hips was 90% (95% CI 54% to 99%), the specificity was 100% (95% CI 70% to 100%), the positive predictive value was 100% (95% CI 63% to 100%), and the negative predictive value was 92
Epstein, Nancy E.; Baisden, Jamie
Background: The surgical management of lumbar synovial cysts that have extruded into the spinal canal remains controversial (e.g. decompression with/without fusion). Methods: The neurological presentation, anatomy, pathophysiology, and surgical challenges posed by synovial cysts in the lumbar spine are well known. Neurological complaints typically include unilateral or, more rarely, bilateral radicular complaints, and/or cauda equina syndromes. Anatomically, synovial cysts constitute cystic dilatations of synovial sheaths that directly extrude from facet joints into the spinal canal. Pathophysiologically, these cysts reflect disruption of the facet joints often with accompanying instability, and potentially compromise both the cephalad and caudad nerve roots. Results: Aspiration of lumbar synovial cysts, which are typically gelatinous and non-aspirable, and typically performed by “pain specialists” (e.g. pain management, rehabilitation, radiologists, others) utilizing fluoroscopy or CT-guided aspiration, is associated with 50–100% failure rates. Surgical decompression with/without fusion (as the issue regarding fusion remains unsettled) results in the resolution of back and radicular pain in 91.6–92.5% and 91.1–91.9% of cases, respectively. Conclusions: After a thorough review of the literature, it appears that the treatment with the best outcome for patients with synovial cysts is cyst removal utilizing surgical decompression; the need for attendant fusion remains unsettled. The use of an alternative treatment, percutaneous aspiration of cysts, appears to have a much higher recurrence and failure rate, but may be followed by surgery if warranted. PMID:22905322
Rosenthal, Ann K; Fahey, Mark; Gohr, Claudia; Burner, Todd; Konon, Irina; Daft, Laureen; Mattson, Eric; Hirschmugl, Carol; Ryan, Lawrence M; Simkin, Peter
Basic calcium phosphate (BCP) crystals are common components of osteoarthritis (OA) synovial fluid. Progress in understanding the role of these bioactive particles in clinical OA has been hampered by difficulties in their identification. Tetracyclines stain calcium phosphate mineral in bone. The aim of this study was to investigate whether tetracycline staining might be an additional or alternative method for identifying BCP crystals in synovial fluid. A drop of oxytetracycline was mixed with a drop of fluid containing synthetic or native BCP, calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD), or monosodium urate (MSU) crystals and placed on a microscope slide. Stained and unstained crystals were examined by light microscopy, with and without a portable broad-spectrum ultraviolet (UV) pen light. A small set of characterized synovial fluid samples were compared by staining with alizarin red S and oxytetracycline. Synthetic BCP crystals in synovial fluid were quantified fluorimetrically using oxytetracycline. After oxytetracycline staining, synthetic and native BCP crystals appeared as fluorescent amorphous aggregates under UV light. Oxytetracycline did not stain CPPD or MSU crystals or other particulates. Oxytetracycline staining had fewer false-positive test results than did alizarin red S staining and could provide estimates of the quantities of synthetic BCP crystals in synovial fluid. With further validation, oxytetracycline staining may prove to be a useful adjunct or alternative to currently available methods for identifying BCP crystals in synovial fluid.
Akcan, Fatih Alper; Dündar, Yusuf; Akcan, Hümeyra Bayram; Uluat, Ahmet; Cebeci, Derya; Sungur, Mehmet Ali; Ünlü, İlhan
To investigate the clinical role of Vitamin D in prognosis of Otitis media with effusion. This prospective-controlled study was conducted at otolaryngology department in Duzce University, Turkey. The study group comprised children who were diagnosed with Otitis media with effusion between September 2016 and February 2017. Control group was conducted with children underwent circumcision or inguinal hernia repair operations that confirmed with ENT examination they do not have any sign of otitis media. After 3 months of follow-up without any treatment, unresolved cases who were accepted as chronic otitis media with effusion were operated under general anesthesia for ventilation tube application. Study and control groups were assessed depending on the serum 25(OH)Vitamin D levels at the end of 3 months; media with effusion and chronic otitis media with effusion. One-hundred-seventy-four children with otitis media with effusion and 80 control patients were included to the study. One-hundred-eight (62%) out of 174 patients with otitis media with effusion was completely recovered after a 3-months follow up. Of those 66 out of 174 children, they had persistent diseases, underwent ventilation tube insertion after a 3-months follow-up. The mean 25(OH)Vitamin D level was 18.98 ± 10.60 in otitis media with effusion group and 28.07 ± 14.10 in control group and the difference was statistically significant between the study and control group (p media with effusion group whilst 35 out of 108 patients (32.4%) in complete recovery otitis media with effusion group (p = 0.021). The rate of 25(OH)Vitamin D deficiency was 25% in control group which was statistically different from chronic otitis media with effusion and recovery chronic otitis media with effusion groups (p = 0.006). This study not only shows the relationship between Vitamin D and otitis media with effusion development, but also demonstrates the effects of Vitamin D on otitis media with effusion prognosis
Cevizci, Rasit; Dilci, Alper; Celenk, Fatih; Karamert, Recep; Bayazit, Yildirim
To evaluate the effects of otitis media with effusion on surgical parameters, patient safety, perioperative and postoperative complications. Total 890 children who underwent cochlear implantation between 2006 and 2015 were included. The ages ranged from 12 months to 63 months (mean: 32 months). The patients were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of otitis media with effusion; otitis media with effusion group and non-otitis media group. Of 890 children, 105 had otitis media with effusion prior to surgery. In non-otitis media with group, there were 785 children. The average duration of surgery was 60min (ranged from 28 to 75min) in non-otitis media group, and 90min (ranged from 50 to 135min) in otitis media with effusion group (pmedia with effusion during the surgery. There was no significant difference between the complications of groups with or without otitis media with effusion (p>0.05). In 5 of 105 patients, there was a ventilation tube inserted before cochlear implantation, which did not change the outcome of implantation. There is no need for surgical treatment for otitis media with effusion before implantation since otitis media with effusion does not increase the risks associated with cochlear implantation. Operation duration is longer in the presence of otitis media with effusion. However, otitis media with effusion leads to intraoperative difficulties like longer operation duration, bleeding, visualization of the round window membrane, cleansing the middle ear granulations as well as mastoid and petrous air cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Positive synovial vascularity in patients with low disease activity indicates smouldering inflammation leading to joint damage in rheumatoid arthritis: time-integrated joint inflammation estimated by synovial vascularity in each finger joint.
Fukae, Jun; Isobe, Masato; Kitano, Akemi; Henmi, Mihoko; Sakamoto, Fumihiko; Narita, Akihiro; Ito, Takeya; Mitsuzaki, Akio; Shimizu, Masato; Tanimura, Kazuhide; Matsuhashi, Megumi; Kamishima, Tamotsu; Atsumi, Tatsuya; Koike, Takao
To investigate the relationship between synovial vascularity and joint damage progression in each finger joint of patients with RA under low disease activity during treatment with biologic agents. We studied 310 MCP and 310 PIP joints of 31 patients with active RA who were administered adalimumab (ADA) or tocilizumab (TCZ). Patients were examined with clinical and laboratory assessments. Power Doppler sonography was performed at baseline and at weeks 8, 20 and 40. Synovial vascularity was evaluated according to quantitative measurement. Hand and foot radiography was performed at baseline and at week 50. Composite scores of the DAS with 28 joints and the Simplified Disease Activity Index (SDAI) were significantly decreased from baseline to week 8, being sustained at a low level by biologic agents during the observational period. MCP and PIP joints with positive synovial vascularity after week 8 showed more subsequent joint damage progression than joints without synovial vascularity throughout the follow-up. The changes in radiographic progression in these joints were independent of the sum of synovial vascularity from baseline to week 40 or the occasional occurrence of positive synovial vascularity. Smouldering inflammation reflected by positive synovial vascularity under low disease activity was linked to joint damage. The damage progressed irrespective of the severity of positive synovial vascularity. Even with a favourable overall therapeutic response, monitoring of synovial vascularity has the potential to provide useful joint information to tailor treatment strategies. Trial registration. University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry; http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/; UMIN000004476.
Full Text Available Erika Penz,1 Kristina N Watt,1 Christopher A Hergott,2 Najib M Rahman,3 Ioannis Psallidas3 1Division of Respirology, Department of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, 2Division of Respirology, Department of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada; 3Oxford Centre for Respiratory Medicine, Respiratory Trials Unit, Oxford University, Oxford, UK Abstract: Malignant pleural effusion (MPE is a sign of advanced cancer and is associated with significant symptom burden and mortality. To date, management has been palliative in nature with a focus on draining the pleural space, with therapies aimed at preventing recurrence or providing intermittent drainage through indwelling catheters. Given that patients with MPEs are heterogeneous with respect to their cancer type and response to systemic therapy, functional status, and pleural milieu, response to MPE therapy is also heterogeneous and difficult to predict. Furthermore, the impact of therapies on important patient outcomes has only recently been evaluated consistently in clinical trials and cohort studies. In this review, we examine patient outcomes that have been studied to date, address the question of which are most important for managing patients, and review the literature related to the expected value for money (cost-effectiveness of indwelling pleural catheters relative to traditionally recommended approaches. Keywords: malignant pleural effusion, therapeutics, cost-effectiveness, quality of life
Lisete Ribeiro Teixeira
Full Text Available O derrame pleural neoplásico é uma complicação freqüente nos pacientes portadores de tumores avançados. A presença de células malignas no líquido pleural ou na biópsia da pleura é indicativa de disseminação da doença primária, com conseqüente redução da expectativa de vida. O diagnóstico e tratamento precoce do derrame pleural maligno são fundamentais para promover uma melhor qualidade de vida aos pacientes portadores de câncer avançado.The malignant pleural effusion is a frequent complication in patients with of advanced tumors. The presence of malignant cells in the pleural fluid or in the pleural biopsy is indicative of dissemination of the primary disease, with consequent reduction of life expectancy. The early diagnosis and treatment of the malignant effusion is pivotal in promoting a better quality of life to patients with advanced cancer.
Full Text Available Injury to the diaphragm following blunt or penetrating thoraco-abdominal trauma is not uncommon. Recognition of this important complication of trauma continues to be a challenge because of the lack of specific clinical and plain radiographic features, the frequent presence of other serious injuries and the potential for delayed presentation. Delayed diaphragmatic herniation often presents with catastrophic bowel obstruction or strangulation. Early recognition of diaphragmatic injury is required to avoid this potentially lethal complication. The case of a 35-year-old man with a history of a knife wound to the left flank 15 years previously, who presented with unexplained acute hypoxemic respiratory failure and a unilateral exudative pleural effusion that was refractory to tube thoracostomy drainage, is reported. After admission to hospital, he developed gross dilation of his colon; emergency laparotomy revealed an incarcerated colonic herniation into the left hemithorax. Interesting clinical features of this patient's case included the patient's hobby of weightlifting, a persistently deviated mediastinum despite drainage of the pleural effusion and deceptive pleural fluid biochemical indices.
Pio, M; Afassinou, Y M; Pessinaba, S; Mossi, K E; Kotosso, A; Baragou, S; Akue, E G; Ephoevi-Ga, A M; Atta, B; Ehlan, K E; Damorou, F
to describe the course and the etiologic, prognostic, and therapeutic aspects of effusive pericarditis (EP) in Togo. MATERIAL ANDMETHODS: Prospective and longitudinal study conducted at the cardiology department of Sylvanus Olympio Teaching Hospital of Lome from February 1, 2011, to January 31, 2014, of patients hospitalized for EP, confirmed by Doppler echocardiography. The study included 38 patients. The hospital incidence rate of EP was 2.0%. The mean age was 42.5 ± 14.9 years (range: 16 to 73 years) with a sex ratio of 0.7. Exertional dyspnea, poor general condition, chest pain, and fever were the main symptoms. Pericardial effusion was abundant in 24 patients (63%). The Koch bacillus was identified on direct examination in five patients (13%) and only from sputum. HIV serology was positive in 18 patients (47%). Pericardial fluid was collected from 24 patients (63%). Pathology examinations of pericardial tissue found nonspecific inflammation in 5 patients and pericardial tuberculosis in 7. The causes of EP were: tuberculous (55%), idiopathic (16%), bacterial (8%), HIV-related (5%), uremic (5%), neoplastic (5%), lupus (3%), and rheumatic (3%). EFP is a frequent, serious, even deadly disease in Africa because of the HIV-AIDS pandemic. Treatment depends on the cause, most often tuberculosis.
Kang, Ji Hun; Chang, Il Soo; Park, Sang Woo; Yun, Ik Jin; Park, Hyung Kyu; Kim, Wan Seop; Lee, Hui Jin; Kim, Na Ra; Moon, Sung Gyu [Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
A synovial cyst of the hip joint is a rare cause of unilateral leg edema, and it is usually associated with arthropathies such as rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. An asymptomatic synovial cyst of the hip joint that is not associated with an arthritic condition occurs infrequently. In this paper, we described the case of a 52-year-old woman who presented with unilateral right leg edema caused by a synovial cyst of the hip joint.
Szafner, G.; Bicanic, D.D.; Kulcsár, R.; Doka, O.
Thermophysical properties of foods are of considerable relevance to food industry. The One among less explored thermophysical quantities is the thermal effusivity. In this paper the front variant of the photopyroelectric method was applied to determine thermal effusivity of both, fresh hen egg¿s
Straetemans, M.; Heerbeek, N. van; Tonnaer, E.L.G.M.; Ingels, K.J.A.O.; Rijkers, G.T.; Zielhuis, G.A.
Otitis media with effusion is highly prevalent among young children. Adverse effects of this disorder are mainly restricted to the group of children with a history of recurrent or persistent otitis media with effusion. Early identification, assessment and intervention might prevent these adverse
An Unusual Case of Recurrent Pleural Effusion in a Child. M M Harjai, R Kale, P Kumar, R G Holla. Abstract. Traumatic pancreatitis in children rarely results in the development of a recalcitrant pleural effusion, secondary to a connection between the pleural cavity and the pancreas. This child presented with predominantly ...
Park, Ha-Na; Kim, Kyoung-A; Koh, Kwang-Joon
This study was performed to find the relationship between pain and joint effusion using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in temporomandibular disorder (TMD) patients. The study subjects included 232 TMD patients. The inclusion criteria in this study were the presence of spontaneous pain or provoked pain on one or both temporomandibular joints (TMJs). The provoked pain was divided into three groups: pain on palpation (G1), pain on mouth opening (G2), and pain on mastication (G3). MRI examinations were performed using a 1.5-T MRI scanner. T1- and T2-weighted images with para-sagittal and para-coronal images were obtained. According to the T2-weighted image findings, the cases of effusions were divided into four groups: normal, mild (E1), moderate (E2), and marked effusion (E3). A statistical analysis was carried out using the χ(2) test with SPSS (version 12.0, SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Spontaneous pain, provoked pain, and both spontaneous and provoked pain were significantly related to joint effusion in TMD patients (ppalpation of the masticatory muscles and TMJ (G1) was not related to joint effusion in TMD patients (p>0.05). Spontaneous pain was related to the MRI findings of joint effusion; however, among the various types of provoked pain, pain on palpation of the masticatory muscles and TMJ was not related to the MRI findings of joint effusion. These results suggest that joint effusion has a significant influence on the prediction of TMJ pain.
Usually identification of the causative bacteria for an episode of sepsis is achieved using microbiological culture of blood or body fluid. In the case of pleural effusion and fever, a microscopic examination of the pleural effusion smear to identify the bacteria responsible should be performed immediately to optimize the selection of antibiotic therapy regimen.
Engel, J.A.M.; Straetemans, M.; Zielhuis, G.A.
OBJECTIVE: To study the association between birth characteristics and the recurrence of otitis media with effusion (OME). METHODS: Prospective cohort study on 136 children aged 2-7 years, who received tympanostomy tubes for bilateral otitis media with effusion. Checkups were planned 1 week after
Christensen, Tage; Olsen, Niels Boye; Dyre, Jeppe C.
It has recently been shown that plane-plate heat effusion methods devised for wide-frequency specific-heat spectroscopy do not give the isobaric specific heat, but rather the so-called longitudinal specific heat. Here it is shown that heat effusion in a spherical symmetric geometry also involves the longitudinal specific heat.
Traumatic pancreatitis in children rarely results in the development of a recalcitrant pleural effusion, secondary to a connection between the pleural cavity and the pancreas. This child presented with predominantly respiratory symptoms of an underlying abdominal condition. Patients with large, recurring pleural effusions ...
Pemmaraju, Naveen; Chang, Elaine; Daver, Naval; Patel, Keyur; Jorgensen, Jeffrey; Sabloff, Bradley; Verstovsek, Srdan; Borthakur, Gautam
Objective and Importance: Malignant pleural effusions occur in the setting of both solid and hematologic malignancies. Pleural effusion caused by leukemic infiltration is an unusual extramedullary manifestation of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with fewer than 20 cases reported (1–11). We report a case of pericardial and pleural effusions in a patient with AML and review the literature. Clinical Presentation: In this case, a 55-year-old man with previous history of myeloproliferative neoplasm experienced transformation AML, heralded by appearance of leukemic pleural effusions. The patient was identified to have leukemic pleural effusion based on the extended cytogenetic analysis of the pleural fluid, as morphologic analysis alone was insufficient. Intervention: The patient was treated with hypomethylator-based and intensive chemotherapy strategies, both of which maintained resolution of the effusions in the remission setting. Conclusion: Due to the rarity of diagnosis of leukemic pleural effusions, both cytogenetic and fluorescence in situ hybridization testing are recommended. Furthermore, systemic chemotherapy directed at the AML can lead to complete resolution of leukemic pleural effusions. PMID:24918086
Ali A. Hasan
Conclusions: Application of color Doppler examination increases the accuracy of real time chest ultrasound to discriminate pleural thickening from minimal pleural effusion and hence color Doppler examination proved to be a useful diagnostic tool to real-time gray-scale ultrasound for diagnosis of minimal pleural effusion.
Adel H.A. Ghoneim
In conclusion: Combination of classical criteria with pleural fluid sTREM-1 could be useful in discrimination between nonpurulent complicated and non complicated parapneumonic pleural effusions and hence early pleural drainage in patients with complicated parapneumonic effusions which may affect disease outcome.
Shapira-Zaltsberg, Gali; Highmore, Kerri
We describe a case of a 14-year-old boy with a history of Legg-Calve-Perthes disease diagnosed at the age of 6 years and development of synovial osteochondromatosis of the same hip joint 7 years later. Synovial osteochondromatosis is very rare in children, and to the best of our knowledge, only a single case of Legg-Calve-Perthes disease and secondary synovial osteochondromatosis was described in the literature in a 35-year-old male, making this the first reported case of Legg-Calve-Perthes disease with development of synovial osteochondromatosis in a pediatric patient.
Gali Shapira-Zaltsberg, MD
Full Text Available We describe a case of a 14-year-old boy with a history of Legg–Calve–Perthes disease diagnosed at the age of 6 years and development of synovial osteochondromatosis of the same hip joint 7 years later. Synovial osteochondromatosis is very rare in children, and to the best of our knowledge, only a single case of Legg–Calve–Perthes disease and secondary synovial osteochondromatosis was described in the literature in a 35-year-old male, making this the first reported case of Legg–Calve–Perthes disease with development of synovial osteochondromatosis in a pediatric patient.
Full Text Available Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL is a subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma that presents as serous effusions without detectable masses or organomegaly. Here we report a case of PEL-like lymphoma in a patient with past asbestos exposure. A 65-year-old man was referred to our hospital due to dyspnea upon exertion. He had been exposed to asbestos for three years in the construction industry. Chest X-ray and CT images demonstrated left pleural effusion. Cytological analysis of the pleural effusion revealed large atypical lymphocytes with distinct nuclear bodies and high nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratio. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that the cells were CD20+, CD3−, CD5−, and CD10−. These findings led to a diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. PEL or PEL-like lymphoma should be considered a potential cause of pleural effusion in subjects with past asbestos exposure.
Ozlem Demirpence Demirpence
Full Text Available Aim: It has been speculated that trace elements may play a role in some type of cancers. The aim of the present study was to examine the diagnostic utility of trace elements in pleural fluid with pleural effusions. Material and Method: This study consisted of 38 patients diagnosed with malignant and benign pleural effusions. Chrome, nickel, selenium, copper, lead and zinc concentrations in samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Results: No significant difference was found between malignant and benign effusions with respect to Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn concentrations in samples. Discussion: Trace elements have function as the component of many enzymes and the catalyst of some chemical reactions. There have been studies demonstrating the association of the deficiency or surplus of trace elements (TEs with various type of cancers. In our study, the role of TEs measured in the pleural effusions in the differential diagnosis in the effusion etiology could not be demonstrated.
Daniel P. Croft
Full Text Available Lemierre's syndrome is a septic thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein, which can lead to severe systemic illness. We report a case of an otherwise healthy 26-year-old man who suffered from pharyngitis followed by septic shock requiring intubation and vasopressor support from Fusobacterium necrophorum bacteremia. The septic emboli to his lungs caused complicated bilateral parapneumonic effusions, which recurred after initial drainage. He required bilateral chest tubes and intrapleural tPA to successfully drain his effusions. His fever curve and overall condition improved with the resolution of his effusions and after a 33-day hospitalization, he recovered without significant disability. The severity of his illness and difficult to manage complicated parapneumonic effusions were the unique facets of this case. Using an evidence-based approach of tPA and DNase for complicated parapneumonic effusions in Lemierre's syndrome can be safe and effective.
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the utility of adenosine deaminase activity in the pleural fluid for the diagnosis of tuberculous pleural effusion from empyema of non-tubercular origin. Method: A retrospective analysis of data was performed on patients who were diagnosed to have tuberculous pleural effusion and empyema of non tubercular origin. Among 46 patients at Kasturba Hospital, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka, India, from November 201 2 to February 2013 who underwent pleural fluid adenosine deaminase estimation, 25 patients with tuberculous pleural effusion and 21 patients with empyema were diagnosed respectively. Adenosine deaminase in pleural fluid is estimated using colorimetric, Galanti and Guisti method. Results: Pleural fluid Adenosine Deaminase levels among tuberculous pleural effusion(109.38依 53.83 , empyema (141.20依71.69 with P=0.27. Conclusion: Pleural fluid adenosine deaminase alone cannot be used as a marker for the diagnosis of tuberculous pleural effusion.
Kaya, S; Selimoğlu, E; Cureoğlu, S; Selimoğlu, M A
Otitis media with effusion and obesity are both common in childhood and might share some immunological alterations. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between chronic otitis media with effusion and childhood overweight or obesity, including the potential effects of adenoid or tonsillar hypertrophy on that relationship. This study included 60 children with chronic otitis media with effusion and 86 healthy children aged from 2 to 10 years. Measures of height and weight were used to calculate the body mass index, weight for height and weight z score. The prevalence of overweight or obesity was higher in children with chronic otitis media with effusion, according to the weight for height percentiles (p = 0.012). However, neither the presence of adenoid or tonsillar hypertrophy nor the degree of adenoid hypertrophy was associated with overweight or obesity. Overweight and obesity might be risk factors for developing chronic otitis media with effusion, or vice versa.
Fisher, M.; Nahir, A. M.; Kimel, Sol
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the synovial joints causing pain deformities and disability. The highly vascular inflamed synovium has aggressive and destructive characteristics, it invades, erodes and gradually destroys cartilage and underlying bone. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) was performed using the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model to investigate the vitality of synovium and cartilage implanted on the CAM. Synovium, obtained from human patients, was grafted onto the CAM; gross microscopy and histology proved its vitality 7 days post grafting. Cartilage obtained from rabbit knee joint was also maintained on the CAM for 7 days. Its vitality was demonstrated by histology and by measuring metabolic and enzymatic activity of cartilage cells (chondrocytes) as well as the collagen and proteoglycans content. Selective PDT was performed using aluminum phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate (AlPcS4), a hydrophilic compound, soluble in biological solutions, as a photosensitizer. After irradiation with a diode laser (lambda equals 670 nm, 10 mW) damage was observed in vascularized synovium grafts, whereas avascular cartilage remained intact.
Calvari, S.; Lodato, L.; Steffke, A.; Cristaldi, A.; Harris, A. J. L.; Spampinato, L.; Boschi, E.
Using thermal infrared images recorded by a permanent thermal camera network maintained on Stromboli volcano (Italy), together with satellite and helicopter-based thermal image surveys, we have compiled a chronology of the events and processes occurring before and during Stromboli's 2007 effusive eruption. These digital data also allow us to calculate the effusion rates and lava volumes erupted during the effusive episode. At the onset of the 2007 eruption, two parallel eruptive fissures developed within the northeast crater, eventually breaching the NE flank of the summit cone and extending along the eastern margin of the Sciara del Fuoco. These fed a main effusive vent at 400 m above sea level to feed lava flows that extended to the sea. The effusive eruption was punctuated, on 15 March, by a paroxysm with features similar to those of the 5 April paroxysm that occurred during the 2002-2003 effusive eruption. A total of between 3.2 × 106 and 11 × 106 m3 of lava was erupted during the 2007 eruption, over 34 days of effusive activity. More than half of this volume was emplaced during the first 5.5 days of the eruption. Although the 2007 effusive eruption had an erupted volume comparable to that of the previous (2002-2003) effusive eruption, it had a shorter duration and thus a mean output rate (=total volume divided by eruption duration) that was 1 order of magnitude higher than that of the 2002-2003 event (˜2.4 versus 0.32 ± 0.28 m3 s-1). In this paper, we discuss similarities and differences between these two effusive events and interpret the processes occurring in 2007 in terms of the recent dynamics witnessed at Stromboli.
Guo, Huilin; Fang, Wei; Li, Yingjie; Ke, Jin; Deng, Mohong; Meng, Qinggong; Li, Jian; Long, Xing
Hyaluronic acid (HA) injection is widely used in the treatment of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) osteoarthritis (OA). Proteoglycan 4 (PRG4) is another joint lubricant that protects surface of articular cartilage. But few studies had explored the role of HA in regulation of PRG4 expression in TMJ OA. In this study, the effects of HA on the expression of PRG4 in osteoarthritic TMJ synovial cells were investigated in hypoxia, which was similar to the TMJ physiologically. Synovial cells were isolated from the TMJ OA patients and were treated with or without HA under normoxia or hypoxia for indicated time periods. The proliferation of synovial cells was measured using Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8). The gene expression of HAS2, VEGF, and PRG4 was detected by quantitative real-time PCR, and the secretion of PRG4 and VEGF was assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Immunofluorescence was used to examine the protein expression of hypoxia-induced factor-1α (HIF-1α). Hyaluronic acid markedly increased the proliferation of osteoarthritic synovial cells in hypoxia. The expression of HAS2 and PRG4 mRNA of osteoarthritic synovial cells under hypoxia was enhanced by HA treatment. However, HA had no effect on reducing the VEGF and HIF-1α expression in synovial cells in hypoxia. Hyaluronic acid could promote the expression of HAS2 and PRG4, but could not modulate HIF-1α and VEGF expression of TMJ osteoarthritic synovial cells in hypoxia. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Snelling, Sarah J B; Bas, Sylvette; Puskas, Gabor J; Dakin, Stephanie G; Suva, Domizio; Finckh, Axel; Gabay, Cem; Hoffmeyer, Pierre; Carr, Andrew J; Lübbeke, Anne
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common and heterogeneous arthritic disorder. Patients suffer pain and their joints are characterized by articular cartilage loss and osteophyte formation. Risk factors for OA include age and obesity with inflammation identified as a key mediator of disease pathogenesis. Interleukin-17A (IL-17) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that has been implicated in inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. IL-17 can upregulate expression of inflammatory cytokines and adipocytokines. The aim of this study was to evaluate IL-17 levels in the synovial fluid of patients with end-stage knee and hip OA in relation to inflammation- and pain-related cytokines and adipocytokines in synovial fluid and serum, and clinical and radiographic disease parameters. This is a cross-sectional study of 152 patients undergoing total hip and knee arthroplasty for OA. IL-17, IL-6, leptin, adiponectin, visfatin, resistin, C-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 2 (CCL2), C-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 7 (CCL7) and nerve growth factor (NGF) protein levels were measured in synovial fluid and serum using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Baseline characteristics included age, sex, body mass index, co-morbidities, pain and function, and radiographic analyses (OA features, K&L grade, minimal joint space width). 14 patients (9.2%) had detectable IL-17 in synovial fluid. These patients had significantly higher median concentrations of IL-6, leptin, resistin, CCL7 and NGF. Osteophytes, sclerosis and minimum joint space width were significantly reduced in patients with detectable IL-17 in synovial fluid. No differences were found in pain, function and comorbidities. IL-17 concentrations in synovial fluid and serum were moderately correlated (r = 0.482). The presence of IL-17 in the synovial fluid therefore identifies a substantial subset of primary end-stage OA patients with distinct biological and clinical features. Stratification of patients on the basis of IL-17 may identify those
Birch, Barry D; Aoun, Rami James N; Elbert, Gregg A; Patel, Naresh P; Krishna, Chandan; Lyons, Mark K
Lumbar synovial cysts are a relatively common clinical finding. Surgical treatment of symptomatic synovial cysts includes computed tomography-guided aspiration, open resection and minimally invasive tubular resection. We report our series of 40 consecutive minimally invasive microscopic tubular lumbar synovial cyst resections. Following Institutional Review Board approval, a retrospective analysis of 40 cases of minimally invasive microscopic tubular retractor synovial cyst resections at a single institution by a single surgeon (B.D.B.) was conducted. Gross total resection was performed in all cases. Patient characteristics, surgical operating time, complications, and outcomes were analyzed. Lumbar radiculopathy was the presenting symptoms in all but 1 patient, who presented with neurogenic claudication. The mean duration of symptoms was 6.5 months (range, 1-25 months), mean operating time was 58 minutes (range, 25-110 minutes), and mean blood loss was 20 mL (range, 5-50 mL). Seven patients required overnight observation. The median length of stay in the remaining 33 patients was 4 hours. There were 2 cerebrospinal fluid leaks repaired directly without sequelae. The mean follow-up duration was 80.7 months. Outcomes were good or excellent in 37 of the 40 patients, fair in 1 patient, and poor in 2 patients. Minimally invasive microscopic tubular retractor resection of lumbar synovial cysts can be done safely and with comparable outcomes and complication rates as open procedures with potentially reduced operative time, length of stay, and healthcare costs. Patient selection for microscopic tubular synovial cyst resection is based in part on the anatomy of the spine and synovial cyst and is critical when recommending minimally invasive vs. open resection to patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hirt, Daniel; Shah, Saumya; Lu, Daniel C.; Holly, Langston T.
Background About one third of lumbar synovial cysts are associated with degenerative spondylolisthesis. Segmental instability is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis and recurrence of synovial cysts and lumbar fusion has been advocated as a treatment of choice in the presence of spondylolisthesis. In patients with spondylolisthesis, minimally invasive resection of lumbar synovial cysts, without fusion, could minimize surgically induced segmental instability while providing good pain relief. Methods Clinical and radiological outcomes of lumbar synovial cyst patients with and without spondylolisthesis were retrospectively compared. Pain outcomes were assessed with modified Macnab criteria. Results Fifty-three patients (18 with grade 1 spondylolisthesis) underwent minimally invasive synovial cyst resection and all had either excellent or good pain outcome at ≤ 8 post- operative weeks (P = 1.000, n = 53). At > 8 post-operative weeks (mean (SD) follow-up of 200 (175) weeks), excellent or good outcomes were noted in 89% of patients without spondylolisthesis and in 75% of patients with spondylolisthesis (P = 0.425, n = 40). Four patients developed a new grade 1 spondylolisthesis at a mean follow-up of 2.6 ± 2.1 years. Nine patients were assessed for spondylolisthesis measurements at 1.2 ± 1.3 years of follow up and no significant difference was observed (5 ± 0 vs 5 ± 1 mm; P = 0.791). Two patients without spondylolisthesis and none of the patients with spondylolisthesis had a synovial cyst recurrence. Conclusion Patients with concomitant lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis and synovial cyst can have good short- and long-term clinical outcomes with minimally invasive surgery without fusion. Post-operative segmental instability does not appear to be significant in patients with spondylolisthesis. All patients included in this article signed an informed consent for the use of their medical information for research. PMID:27909658
Ana Cláudia Ferreira Rosa
Full Text Available Os cistos sinoviais localizados na coluna lombar são raros, em geral associados a alterações degenerativas das articulações facetárias, mais freqüentemente vistos na transição L4-L5. Raramente causam sintomas, que, quando ocorrem, são sobretudo lombociatalgia. O diagnóstico é feito de maneira satisfatória pela tomografia computadorizada e pela ressonância magnética e é importante para que se institua o correto tratamento dos cistos. Existem diversas formas de tratamento, desde repouso e imobilização até a injeção de corticóide no cisto sinovial guiada por tomografia computadorizada, e mesmo cirurgia nos casos refratários aos outros tipos de tratamento.Intraspinal synovial cysts of the lumbar spine are rare and commonly associated with osteoarthritis of the facet joints, particularly at level L4-L5. Symptoms are uncommon and may include low-back pain or sciatica. These cysts are accurately diagnosed by using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Diagnosis is essential for the correct management of the cysts. Several treatment options are available including rest and immobilization, computed tomography guided corticosteroids injection, and surgery in patients that are nonresponsive to other treatment methods.
Nakano, Jun; Yokomise, Hiroyasu; Huang, Cheng-Long; Misaki, Noriyuki; Chang, Sung-Soo; Okuda, Masaya; Kushida, Yoshio; Haba, Reiji
An 80-year-old male was admitted because of a giant mass in the left lower lobe of the lung on a routine chest X-ray. Chest computed tomography verified this to be a well-defined heterogeneous mass as described with no associated lymphadenopathy. FDG-PET depicted moderately marginal FDG uptake. The patient underwent a left lower lobectomy and lymphadenectomy. Grossly, the tumor measured 60 × 50 mm and was uniformly filled with a pure white, pudding-like friable substance. No lymph node metastasis was observed microscopically. Histologically, the tumor showed a dense proliferation of rounded or spindled malignant cells with a frequent mitotic activity and an increased nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio. The immunohistochemical staining was positive for vimentin, negative for cytokeratin, keratin-wide, EMA, CD34. A SYT-SSX2 fusion gene transcript was detected as a result of RT-PCR analysis. Because of these results, the tumor was diagnosed as a monophasic synovial sarcoma.
Full Text Available This study was aimed to standardize the technique for counting monosodium urate (MSU crystals in the synovial fluid (SF of patients with gout. A total of 52 SF specimens were examined under a polarized light microscope. The amount of SF ranged between 0.1 and 45 mL (median 3 mL. MSU crystals were counted in four areas with the same size at 400x magnification. Cytological examination of the same specimens was also performed. Median leukocyte count was 400 cells/mm3 (range 50-14,000 cells/mm3, with a median percentage of polymorphonuclear leukocytes of 9% (range 0%-98%. Median crystal count was 179.5 (range 3-1600. Inter- reader and intra-reader agreement in crystal counting were good with a weighed k of 0.89 [95% confidence interval (CI 0.85-0.94] and 0.89 (95% CI 0.84-0.93, respectively. Our data indicate that the SF MSU crystal count is a feasible and highly reliable technique.
Apostolaki, E.; Davies, A.M.; Evans, N. [Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Birmingham (United Kingdom). Dept. of Radiology; Cassar-Pullicino, V.N. [Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry (United Kingdom)
The increasing application of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the spine has raised the awareness of lumbar facet synovial cysts (LFSC). This well recognised, yet uncommon condition, presents with low back pain and radiculopathy due to the presence of an extradural mass. The commonest affected level is L4/5 with a mild degenerative spondylolisthesis a frequent associated finding. MR imaging is the technique of choice to detect and diagnose a LFSC. This pictorial essay, drawing on experience of 43 cases seen in 40 patients, illustrates the spectrum of appearances that can be encountered and suggest differing causes for the variable signal characteristics exhibited. Computed tomography (CT) can be of value in some cases to aid interpretation of the MR images. In addition, CT facet arthrography by injection of air or iodinated non-ionic contrast medium may be used to confirm the diagnosis in doubtful cases as well as noting whether the patients presenting symptoms can be provoked. A comprehensive review of the existing literature is presented. (orig.)
Full Text Available We have recently shown that IL-29 was an important proinflammatory cytokine in pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Inflammation also contributes to the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect and mechanism of IL-29 on cytokine production and cartilage degradation in OA. The mRNA levels of IL-29 and its specific receptor IL-28Ra in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were significantly increased in OA patients when compared to healthy controls (HC. In the serum, IL-29 protein levels were higher in OA patients than those in HC. Immunohistochemistry revealed that both IL-29 and IL-28Ra were dramatically elevated in OA synovium compared to HC; synovial fibroblasts (FLS and macrophages were the main IL-29-producing cells in OA synovium. Furthermore, recombinant IL-29 augmented the mRNA expression of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and matrix-metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3 in OA FLS and increased cartilage degradation when ex vivo OA cartilage explant was coincubated with OA FLS. Finally, in OA FLS, IL-29 dominantly activated MAPK and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB, but not Jak-STAT and AKT signaling pathway as examined by western blot. In conclusion, IL-29 stimulates inflammation and cartilage degradation by OA FLS, indicating that this cytokine is likely involved in the pathogenesis of OA.
Guo, Zhi-Jun [Dept. of Radiology, North China Petroleum Bureau General Hospital, Renqiu, Hebei (China)], e-mail: Gzj3@163.com; Lin, Qiang [Dept. of Oncology, North China Petroleum Bureau General Hospital, Renqiu, Hebei (China); Liu, Hai-Tao [Dept. of General Surgery, North China Petroleum Bureau General Hospital, Renqiu, Hebei (China)] [and others])
Background: Using computed tomography (CT) to rapidly and accurately quantify pleural effusion volume benefits medical and scientific research. However, the precise volume of pleural effusions still involves many challenges and currently does not have a recognized accurate measuring. Purpose: To explore the feasibility of using 64-slice CT volume-rendering technology to accurately measure pleural fluid volume and to then analyze the correlation between the volume of the free pleural effusion and the different diameters of the pleural effusion. Material and Methods: The 64-slice CT volume-rendering technique was used to measure and analyze three parts. First, the fluid volume of a self-made thoracic model was measured and compared with the actual injected volume. Second, the pleural effusion volume was measured before and after pleural fluid drainage in 25 patients, and the volume reduction was compared with the actual volume of the liquid extract. Finally, the free pleural effusion volume was measured in 26 patients to analyze the correlation between it and the diameter of the effusion, which was then used to calculate the regression equation. Results: After using the 64-slice CT volume-rendering technique to measure the fluid volume of the self-made thoracic model, the results were compared with the actual injection volume. No significant differences were found, P = 0.836. For the 25 patients with drained pleural effusions, the comparison of the reduction volume with the actual volume of the liquid extract revealed no significant differences, P = 0.989. The following linear regression equation was used to compare the pleural effusion volume (V) (measured by the CT volume-rendering technique) with the pleural effusion greatest depth (d): V = 158.16 X d - 116.01 (r = 0.91, P = 0.000). The following linear regression was used to compare the volume with the product of the pleural effusion diameters (l X h X d): V = 0.56 X (l X h X d) + 39.44 (r = 0.92, P = 0
Ikeda, Kei; Kambe, Naotomo; Takei, Syuji; Nakano, Taiji; Inoue, Yuzaburo; Tomiita, Minako; Oyake, Natsuko; Satoh, Takashi; Yamatou, Tsuyoshi; Kubota, Tomohiro; Okafuji, Ikuo; Kanazawa, Nobuo; Nishikomori, Ryuta; Shimojo, Naoki; Matsue, Hiroyuki; Nakajima, Hiroshi
Arthritis is the most frequent manifestation of Blau syndrome, an autoinflammatory disorder caused by the genetic mutation of NOD2. However, detailed information on arthritis in Blau syndrome on which the therapeutic strategy should be based on is lacking. This multi-center study aimed to accurately characterize the articular manifestation of Blau syndrome and also to demonstrate the utility of musculoskeletal ultrasound in Blau syndrome. Patients who had been diagnosed with Blau syndrome by genetic analysis of NOD2 were recruited. A total of 102 synovial sites in 40 joints were assessed semiquantitatively by ultrasound for gray-scale synovitis and synovial power Doppler (PD) signal. In total, 10 patients whose age ranged from 10 months to 37 years enrolled in this study. Although only 4 joints (0.8%) were tender on physical examination, 81 joints (16.9%) were clinically swollen. Moreover, 240 (50.0%), and 124 (25.8%) joints showed gray-scale (GS) synovitis and synovial PD signal on ultrasound, respectively. Importantly, GS synovitis was present in 168 out of 399 non-swollen joints, in which 61 also exhibited synovial PD signal. Among 40 joint regions, the ankle, the wrist, and the proximal interphalangeal joints were the most frequently and severely affected joints. Comparisons between different synovial tissues demonstrated a significantly higher proportion of the joints with tenosynovitis as compared with that with intra-articular synovitis (41.5% versus 27.9%, P < 0.0001). In respect of age and treatment, synovial PD signals were minimal in the youngest patient and in the oldest two patients, and were relatively mild in patients receiving treatment with methotrexate plus TNF antagonists. In two patients who underwent the second ultrasound examination, total PD scores markedly decreased after initiating the treatment with a tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antagonist. The detailed information on synovial inflammation obtained by ultrasound confirms the
Ivanov, R; Moreno, I; Araujo, C [Facultad de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Calz. Solidaridad Esquina Paseo de la Bufa s/n, C. P. 98060, Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Marin, E, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, E-mail: email@example.com [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y TecnologIa Avanzada, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, LegarIa 694, Colonia Irrigacion, C. P. 11500, Mexico D. F. (Mexico)
The photopyroelectric method has been recognized as a reliable and useful tool for the measurement of the thermal properties of condensed matter samples. Usually the photothermal signal is generated using intensity modulated light beams, whose amplitudes are difficult to maintain stable. In this paper we describe a variant of this technique that uses amplitude modulated electrical current as excitation source, via Joule heating of the metal contact on one side of the pyroelectric sensor. The possibilities of this method, called by us the electropyroelectric technique, for thermal effusivity measurements of liquid samples are shown using test samples of distilled water, ethanol and glycerine. The results obtained for this parameter agree well with the values reported in the literature. Our measurement uncertainties are about 3%, a fact that opens several possible applications.
Full Text Available Otitis media with effusion (OME is a condition characterised by a collection of fluid within the middle ear without signs of acute inflammation. It is common in young children, with a bimodal peak at two and five years of age. Eighty percent of children have at least one episode of OME by the age of 10 years. This disease is a common ear problem among children with craniofacial anomalies including cleft palate and Down syndrome (DS.While most cases of OME will resolve spontaneously, it may persist in some children. The main symptom of OME is hearing impairment. This condition is often underdiagnosed, leading to untreated hearing problem, which can cause speech and language developmental delay and poor school performance.
Madrid-Carbajal, Claudia Janeth; Molinos, Luis; García-Clemente, Marta; Pando-Sandoval, Ana; Fleites, Ana; Casan-Clarà, Pere
In this study we analyzed the characteristics of patients with pleural effusion secondary to Streptococcus milleri studied retrospectively between January and March 2013 and found seven patients with a mean age of 60 years, 43% of which were smokers and 57% with a drinking habit. The most common associated factors were alcoholism, previous pneumonia and diabetes. Other bacteria were identified as Enterobacter aerogenes, Bacteroides and Prevotella intermedia capillosus in two patients. The mean duration of antibiotic therapy was 28 days; six patients underwent pleural drainage by chest tube and one patient needed surgery due to poor clinical progress. The mean duration of hospitalization was 30 days with satisfactory outcome in all cases, despite some changes in residual function. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Synovial chondromatosis is a rare pathology of unknown aetiology. It originates from the chondroid metaplasia of the connective tissue of the synovial membrane. Consequently, cartilaginous nodules develop in the affected joints, first calcifying and then ossifying. The bursae mucosae, the vaginae tendinis and the para-articular connective tissue are less frequently affected. The most common locations of this pathology are the knee, the hip, the shoulder, the elbow and the ankle. The small articulations are rarely affected, even less the bilateral involving of joints, above all of hand or foot, is exceptional. In a clinical and radiological valuation, it is difficult to distinguish synovial chondromatosis from arthrosis and from degenerative arthopathies in general. A sure diagnosis can be obtained only by means of a histological examination. We here report a case of synovial chondromatosis bilaterally located on the first metatarsophalangeal joint. Clinical and radiological features were analogous to those of hallux rigidus, a typical and peculiar metatarsophalangeal joint pathology. The diagnostic suspicion that it was a synovial chondromatosis arose during surgical surgery, and was subsequently confirmed by histological examination. During the following visits, the patient did not present any painful symptomatology.
Al-Rukibat, R K; Bani Ismail, Z A; Al-Zghoul, M B
Camels are important in the racing industry and for milk, meat, and hair production in the Middle East. Evaluation of synovial fluid is an important part of the assessment of musculoskeletal injuries in this species. Information in the literature regarding synovial fluid in camels is limited. The objective of this study was to determine the protein and cellular composition of synovial fluid from the tarsal joints of clinically normal, young camels (Camelus dromedarius). Thirty clinically healthy, male camels, aged 9 to 12 months, were used in the study. Synovial fluid samples were collected from the right and left tarsal joints. Samples were processed within 60 minutes after collection. Total nucleated cell counts (TNCC) were assessed using a hemacytometer. Total protein concentration was determined using a refractometer. Forty-six samples were analyzed. The TNCC (mean +/- SD) was 175.8 +/- 136.7 cells/microL (range 50-678 cells/microL). Differential cell percentages were obtained for lymphocytes (58.2 +/- 21.55%, range 15-90%), monocyte/macrophages (38.3 +/- 20.8%, range 10-85%), and neutrophils (3.5 +/- 5.1%, range 0-15%). Protein concentration was 2.1 +/- 0.6 g/dL (range 1-3 g/dL). Significant differences were not observed in any parameters between right and left tarsal joints. Synovial fluid reference values were established and may be useful in the clinical investigation of joint disease in young camels.
Olive, Julien; Videau, Marine
Macroscopic studies have suggested a link between distal border synovial invaginations of the navicular bone and the distal interphalangeal joint. However, many practitioners consider that these invaginations are directly and solely related to navicular disease. The objective was to investigate the communication pattern of these synovial invaginations with the synovial compartments of the distal interphalangeal joint and the navicular bursa, using minimally invasive imaging techniques. In a prospective observational study, 10 cadaveric limbs with radiographically evident distal border synovial invaginations were randomly assigned to computed tomography arthrography or bursography groups, using iopamidol. In 5/5 limbs, contrast medium filled the invaginations following distal interphalangeal arthrography. In the other five limbs, no contrast medium filled the invaginations following bursography. Contrary to existing beliefs, these invaginations are more likely associated with distal interphalangeal joint synovitis and may not be directly linked to primary navicular bone pathology, but might reflect distal interphalangeal arthropathy. Therefore, the rationale for assessment of these invaginations in stallion selection or pre-purchase examinations as a predictive sign for navicular disease is questionable. Nonetheless, comorbidities are frequent in the equine distal limb. Enlarged synovial invaginations may also be seen in limbs with concomitant primary navicular disease. Further studies are needed to elucidate possible inter-related pathological processes.
Friebe, Maren; Schumacher, Stephan; Stahl, Jessica; Kietzmann, Manfred
This study investigated synovial concentrations of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and its metabolite salicylic acid (SA) in the equine fetlock joint following systemic administration of ASA. Salicylates were chosen because SA is the only nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug for which threshold levels exist for plasma and urine in equine sports. To avoid animal experiments, the study was conducted using an ex vivo model of the isolated perfused equine distal limb in combination with plasma concentrations obtained from literature.Salicylate concentrations in the joint were determined using microdialysis and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Any anti-inflammatory effect of synovial ASA concentrations was assessed using an ASA EC50 (half maximal effective concentration) determined in equine whole blood. The ASA concentration in the synovial fluid (n=6) reached a maximum of 4 μg/mL, the mean concentration over the entire perfusion period was 2 μg/mL. Maximum SA concentration was 17 μg/mL, the average was 14 μg/mL. ASA and SA concentration in the synovial fluid exceeded systemic concentrations 2 h and 3.5 h after "systemic" administration, respectively. ASA and SA accumulated in the in the synovial fluid of the ex vivo model despite decreasing systemic concentrations. This suggests a prolonged anti-inflammatory effect within the joint that remains to be further elucidated.
Background This study investigated synovial concentrations of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and its metabolite salicylic acid (SA) in the equine fetlock joint following systemic administration of ASA. Salicylates were chosen because SA is the only nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug for which threshold levels exist for plasma and urine in equine sports. To avoid animal experiments, the study was conducted using an ex vivo model of the isolated perfused equine distal limb in combination with plasma concentrations obtained from literature. Salicylate concentrations in the joint were determined using microdialysis and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Any anti-inflammatory effect of synovial ASA concentrations was assessed using an ASA EC50 (half maximal effective concentration) determined in equine whole blood. Results The ASA concentration in the synovial fluid (n = 6) reached a maximum of 4 μg/mL, the mean concentration over the entire perfusion period was 2 μg/mL. Maximum SA concentration was 17 μg/mL, the average was 14 μg/mL. ASA and SA concentration in the synovial fluid exceeded systemic concentrations 2 h and 3.5 h after “systemic” administration, respectively. Conclusions ASA and SA accumulated in the in the synovial fluid of the ex vivo model despite decreasing systemic concentrations. This suggests a prolonged anti-inflammatory effect within the joint that remains to be further elucidated. PMID:23531229
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the reference range values of various biochemical components in serum and synovial fluid in clinically normal young camels (Camelus dromedarius. One-hundred serum samples and 100 synovial fluid samples were collected from clinically, radiographically and cytologically normal carpal, tarsal and fetlock joints. The concentration of blood urea nitrogen (BUN, creatinine, glucose, sodium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, phosphorus, albumin and the activities of creatine kinase, alanine aminotransfearse, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase (ALP were determined using commercially available kits. The concentration and activities of all measured parameters were significantly lower in the synovial fluid than in the serum except for the ALP and phosphorus, which were similar in both serum and synovial fluids. No significant difference was found in any of the measured biochemical parameters in different joints except in ALP activity, which was higher in the tarsal joint in comparison with the carpal and fetlock joint and the BUN concentration, which was higher in the tarsal joint in comparison with the carpal joint. Baseline values for biochemical components of normal camel synovial fluid and their serum counterparts have been generated. Such data can be used in the clinical investigation of camel’s joint diseases.
Ganau, Mario; Ennas, Franco; Bellisano, Giulia; Ganau, Laura; Ambu, Rossano; Faa, Gavino; Maleci, Alberto
Symptomatic lumbar synovial cysts (LSCs) are a rare cause of degenerative narrowing of the spinal canal, with thecal sac or nerve root compression. True synovial cysts have a thick wall lined by synovial cells, containing granulation tissue, numerous histiocytes, and giant cells. In contrast, pseudo-cysts lack specialized epithelium, have a collagenous capsule filled with myxoid material, and may be classified into ganglion cysts, originating from periarticular fibrous tissues, and ligamentous cysts, arising from the ligamentum flavum or even from the posterior longitudinal ligament. Here we present the surgical series of the Chair of Neurosurgery at the University of Cagliari (Italy) including a total of 17 LSCs. Surgical technique consisted of facet sparing excision of LSC, achieved by simple hemilaminectomy/laminectomy, and diagnosis was always confirmed by histological specimen examination, which detected the typical synovial epithelium, the intracystic presence of hemosiderin, histiocytes, and calcifications. Further immunohistochemical investigation revealed positive staining for cytokeratin: CK5, CK6, and AE1/AE3. Clinically, our cohort experienced rapid and complete resolution of symptoms, without perioperative complications, or recurrence of cysts or vertebral instability at a median follow up of 28 months, when the MacNab score was generally excellent. A review of the literature, retrieving articles published from 1973, collected a total of 101 articles concerning all the cases of LSC scientifically described to date. Both clinical and histological findings described in our study support the theory of degenerative microtraumatic pathogenesis of synovial cysts.
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Synovial metaplasia around a prosthesis and in particular around silicone breast implants has been noted by various investigators, but has unknown clinical significance. We report on a patient where a large amount of synovial fluid mimicked rupture of an implant. We believe this to be an unusual clinical presentation of this phenomenon. Review of the English language literature failed to identify a comparable case. Case presentation A 25-year-old woman had undergone bilateral breast augmentation for cosmetic reasons. One implant was subsequently subjected to two attempts at expansion to correct asymmetry. The patient was later found to have a large quantity of viscous fluid around the port of that same prosthesis. Histological assessment of the implant had consequently confirmed capsular synovial metaplasia. This had initially caused the suspicion of a silicone 'bleed' from the implant and had resulted in an unnecessary explantation. Conclusion Capsular synovial metaplasia should be ruled out before the removal of breast implants where a leak is suspected. Manipulation and expansion of an implant may be risk factors for the development of synovial metaplasia.
Esmonde-White, Karen A.; Mandair, Gurjit S.; Raaii, Farhang; Jacobson, Jon A.; Miller, Bruce S.; Urquhart, Andrew G.; Roessler, Blake J.; Morris, Michael D.
For many years, viscosity has been the primary method used by researchers in rheumatology to assess the physiochemical properties of synovial fluid in both normal and osteoarthritic patients. However, progress has been limited by the lack of methods that provide multiple layers of information, use small sample volumes, and are rapid. Raman spectroscopy was used to assess the biochemical composition of synovial fluid collected from 40 patients with clinical evidence of knee osteoarthritis (OA) at the time of elective surgical treatment. Severity of knee osteoarthritis was assessed by a radiologist using Kellgren/Lawrence (K/L) scores from knee joint x rays, while light microscopy and Raman spectroscopy were used to examine synovial fluid (SF) aspirates (2 to 10 μL), deposited on fused silica slides. We show that Raman bands used to describe protein secondary structure and content can be used to detect changes in synovial fluid from osteoarthritic patients. Several Raman band intensity ratios increased significantly in spectra collected from synovial fluid in patients with radiological evidence of moderate-to-severe osteoarthritis damage. These ratios can be used to provide a ``yes/no'' damage assessment. These studies provide evidence that Raman spectroscopy would be a suitable candidate in the evaluation of joint damage in knee osteoarthritis patients.
Takanashi, Tetsuo; Matsuda, Masayuki; Yazaki, Masahide; Yamazaki, Hideshi; Nawata, Masashi; Katagiri, Yoshiki; Ikeda, Shu-Ichi
To investigate histological features of deposited amyloid in the synovial tissue and its clinical significance in knee joint osteoarthritis (OA) patients. We prospectively enrolled 232 consecutive patients who underwent arthroplasty or total replacement of the knee joint for treatment of OA. Congo red staining and immunohistochemistry were performed in the synovial tissue obtained at surgery. When transthyretin (TTR)-derived amyloid was positive, we analyzed all 4 exons of the TTR gene using the direct DNA sequencing method in order to detect mutations. We analyzed 322 specimens in this study. Twenty-six specimens (8.1%) obtained from 21 patients (5 men and 16 women; mean, 79.0 ± 4.6 years) showed deposition of amyloid, which was positively stained with the anti-TTR antibody. Eighteen patients showed inhomogeneous accumulations of amyloid in the loose connective tissue under the synovial epithelia sometimes with nodule formation, while in the remaining three, small vessels in the adipose tissue were involved. Medical records of these patients revealed nothing remarkable in the clinical course, laboratory data or macroscopic intraarticular findings at surgery. No mutations were detectable in the TTR gene analysis. Wild-type TTR-derived amyloid may affect the synovial tissue as a result of long-term mechanical stress or as a part of senile systemic amyloidosis in approximately 8% of knee joint OA patients. No obvious clinical significance was found in synovial deposition of amyloid.
Lista-Martínez, O; Moreno-Barrueco, V M; Castro-Castro, J; Varela-Rois, P; Pastor-Zapata, A
Although they are freqqently described in the literature, lumbar synovial cysts are a relative uncommon cause of low back and radicular leg pain. To evaluate the treatment and surgical outcomes of the lumbar synovial cysts operated on in our hospital during a 5 year period. A retrospective study was conducted on patients surgically treated in our department from August 2009 to September 2014, using a visual analogue scale for the clinical follow-up in the first year after surgery. After the surgical treatment (surgical removal of the synovial cyst with or without instrumented arthrodesis with transpedicular screws) of 10 patients (5 female and 5 male) with a mean age of 70.2 years (range 50-80), the clinical outcome was satisfactory in 80% of the patients, with the resolving of their symptoms. Lumbar synovial cysts have to be considered in the differential diagnosis in patients with low back and radicular leg pain. The majority of the patients are in their sixties and have lumbar degenerative spondylopathy. Nowadays, surgical resection of the lumbar synovial cysts and spinal fusion are the recommended treatment, because it is thought that the increased movement of the spine is one to the causes of the cyst formation. More studies are still needed, hence the relevance of this article. Copyright © 2016 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Riveiro, V; Ferreiro, L; Toubes, M E; Lama, A; Álvarez-Dobaño, J M; Valdés, L
Myelomatous pleural effusion (MPE) is rare in multiple myeloma, and therefore its characteristics are not well defined. A systematic review (4 online databases) was conducted of articles describing the clinical characteristics of patients with MPE, pleural effusion's biochemical characteristics and treatment efficacy. We analysed isolated cases and small retrospective series. We included 98 articles with a total of 153 patients with MPE. The median age was 62years, and the ratio of males to females was 1.7:1. The most common symptoms were dyspnoea (98.8%), bone pain (100%) and chest pain (95.3%), and the most relevant abnormal laboratory test results were anaemia (90.1%) and renal failure (53.8%). MPE was predominantly unilateral (63.9%) and covered more than two-thirds of the hemithorax (54.5%). The pleural fluid (PF) had a haematologic/serohaematologic appearance (87%) and met the criteria for lymphocytic (78.6%) exudate (94.7%). The most cost-effective diagnostic procedures were pleural cytology (95.9%) and the observation of a monoclonal peak in the PF (94.7%). In a significant proportion of patients (54.7%), the MPE did not respond to treatment, and the best response was achieved when chemotherapy (with/without corticosteroids) was combined with therapeutic thoracentesis, chest drainage or pleurodesis. MPE predominates in middle to older age men, is symptomatic and is usually unilateral. PF is an exudate with a haemorrhagic appearance, and the most cost-effective diagnostic procedure is pleural cytology. Treatment response is unfavourable in more than half of patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.
Zheng, Yu-Liang; Sun, Yang-Peng; Zhang, Hong; Liu, Wen-Jing; Jiang, Rui; Li, Wen-Yu; Zheng, You-Hua; Zhang, Zhi-Guang
Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells (iPSC-MSCs) serve as a promising source for cell-based therapies in regenerative medicine. However, optimal methods for transforming iPSCs into MSCs and the characteristics of iPSC-MSCs obtained from different methods remain poorly understood. In this study, we developed a one-step method for obtaining iPSC-MSCs (CD146+STRO-1+ MSCs) from human synovial fluid MSC-derived induced iPSCs (SFMSC-iPSCs). CD146-STRO-1-SFMSCs were reprogram...
Han, Ping; Yao, Ruipin; Zhai, Dongxia; Cheng, Chao; Yang, Fangyong; Sun, Shuai; Zhang, Danying; Yu, Chaoqin
Coexistence of lung adenocarcinoma and polyserous effusions is quite rare. This complexity of etiology adds difficulty to the diagnosis and is likely to cause misdiagnosis and maldiagnosis. A 43-year-old woman was admitted with symptoms of dry cough, chest suffocation, polyserous effusions, and generalized edema. Only a small number of heterocysts were detected in the ascites, and malignant cells were detected in the pleural and pericardial effusions. After cytology tests of pericardial, pleural effusions, and ascites, puncture biopsy of the left lung lesion was performed with CT guidance, and immunohistochemical tests were performed. The diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma was histopathologically confirmed by puncture biopsy with CT guidance of the left lower lung lesion. Combined treatments(pemetrexed/cisplatin) was administered after the left lung lesion immunohistochemistry. The patient has survived more than 1 year after pemetrexed/cisplatin combination chemotherapy. Coexistence of lung adenocarcinoma and polyserous effusions is quite rare. Close attention should be paid whenever a patient with coexistence of ascites, pleural effusion, and pericardial effusion. More diverse methods could be helpful to identify the diagnosis and avoid misdiagnosis. Patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma need individualized therapy, including pemetrexed/cisplatin combination chemotherapy.
Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is an autoimmune inflammatory disease affecting joints. Elevated plasma levels of microRNA-223-3p (miR-223-3p in patients with RA are implicated in the pathogenesis of the disease. This study aimed to analyze the functional role of miR-223-3p in the pathogenesis of RA by overexpressing miR-223-3p in synovial cell lines.Arthritis was induced in the RA model of SKG mice by injection of ß-glucan. The histopathologic features of joints were examined using hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemical staining. Plasma levels of miRNA were determined by panel real-time PCR analysis. Target genes of the differentially expressed miRNAs in SKG mice were analyzed using miRNA target prediction algorithms. The dual-luciferase reporter system was used to evaluate the relationship between miR-223-3p and IL-17 receptor D (IL-17RD. The activity of miR-223-3p was analyzed by transfection of plasmid vectors overexpressing miR-223-3p into IL-17RD-expressing NIH3T3 and MH7A cell lines. Il6 and Il17rd mRNA expression was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. IL-17RD protein expression was analyzed by western blot analysis.We identified 17 upregulated miRNAs (fold change > 2.0 in plasma of SKG mice injected with ß-glucan relative to untreated SKG mice. Il17rd was identified as the candidate target gene of miR-223-3p using five miRNA target prediction algorithms. The transfection of plasmid vectors overexpressing miR-223-3p into NIH3T3 and MH7A cells resulted in the downregulation of Il17rd expression and upregulation of Il6 expression. Expression of miR-223-3p and Il6 mRNA in MH7A cells was upregulated; however, that of Il17rd mRNA was downregulated following TNF-α stimulation. IL-17RD expression in synovial tissues from SKG mice and RA patients was inversely correlated with the severity of arthritis.This study is the first to demonstrate that miR-223-3p downregulates IL-17RD in both mouse and human cells; miR-223-3p may contribute to
Ko, Jee Young; Kim, Kee Deog; Park, Chang Seo [Yonsei Univ. College of Dentistry, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
The purpose of this study was to find the relationship among the joint status, pain and effusion in patients with temporomandibular joint disorders. Materials included 406 patients (812 joints) with clinical records and bilateral TMJ MRIs in TMJ clinic, Yongdong Severance Hospital. All joints were classified in 4 groups in MR images according to the disc status of joint; normal disc position, disc displacement with reduction (DDsR), and also 2 groups according to the bony status of joint; normal bony structure and osteoarthrosis. MR evidence of joint effusion was categorized in 4 groups according to its amount. To determine the relationship between joint pain and joint effusion, 289 patients with unilateral TMJ symptoms were selected from total materials. Joint effusion was found 8.0% in normal disc position, 32.6% in DDcR, and 59.2% in DDsR (83.1% in early state and 23.1% in late stage). Joint effusion was found 39.7% in osteoarthrosis and 35.0% in normal bony structure. Joint effusion was more found in the painful joints (49.8%) than in the painless joints (22.4%) (p<0.001). Joint effusion in the early stage of DDsR only was more found significantly in painful joints (91.9%) than in painless joints (62.1%) (p<0.001). MR evidence of joint effusion might be related to disc displacement regardless of the presence of osteoarthrosis, and the early stage of DDsR was found more frequently combined with joint effusion and joint pain.
Richardot, P; Charni-Ben Tabassi, N; Toh, L
OBJECTIVES: Nitric oxide (NO) is a major mediator of joint tissue inflammation and damage in osteoarthritis (OA) and mediates the nitration of tyrosine (Y*) residues in proteins. We investigated the nitration of type III collagen, a major constituent of synovial membrane, in knee OA. METHODS: A p...... investigation of oxidative-related alterations of synovial tissue metabolism in OA....
Haringman, J.J.; Vinkenoog, M.; Gerlag, D.M.; Smeets, T.J.M.; Zwinderman, A.H.; Tak, P.P.
Analysis of biomarkers in synovial tissue is increasingly used in the evaluation of new targeted therapies for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study determined the intrarater and inter-rater reliability of digital image analysis (DIA) of synovial biopsies from RA patients participating
Haringman, Jasper J.; Vinkenoog, Marjolein; Gerlag, Danielle M.; Smeets, Tom J. M.; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Tak, Paul P.
Analysis of biomarkers in synovial tissue is increasingly used in the evaluation of new targeted therapies for patients with rheumatoid arthritis ( RA). This study determined the intrarater and inter-rater reliability of digital image analysis (DIA) of synovial biopsies from RA patients
Full Text Available Introduction. Primary kidney sarcoma, especially synovial sarcoma (SS, is a very rare neoplasm. Pre-operative signs and symptoms are very similar to renal cell carcinoma, therefore, the proper diagnosis is very difficult and usually made after nephrectomy. This is a case report of primary renal SS. Case Outline. A 38-year-old man presented with a history of fever and hematuria, and right flank pain 3 weeks ago. Abdominal computerized tomography revealed a heterogeneous well-marginated soft tissue mass arising in the lower part of the right kidney. Right nephrectomy was performed. A cystic tumor of 120x85 mm in size with soft solid growth, and with the extensive areas of hemorrhage and necrosis was seen on gross examination. Histopathology revealed a neoplasm composed of solid monomorphic sheets of spindle cells. Immunohistochemistry showed tumor cells strongly positive for BCL2, CD99, CD56 and vimentin, and focally positive for epithelial membrane antigen (EMA. The histological diagnosis of primary renal SS was based on morphology and immunohistochemistry. FISH analysis and RT-PCR was carried out on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections. The molecular analysis demonstrated translocation of SYT gene on chromosome 18 and SSX2 gene on chromosome X. The findings were consistent with diagnosis of SS. Conclusion. Our case shows that histopathological diagnosis of primary kidney SS, although difficult, is possible to be made on the basis of morphological and immunohistochemical analysis. However, this diagnosis should be corroborated by molecular techniques confirming SYT-SSX translocation on chromosome 18 and chromosome X. Here we present visceral monophasic SS with aggressive clinical course and poor outcome. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI 175047
Courtney, Philip; Doherty, Michael
Joint aspiration/injection and synovial fluid (SF) analysis are both invaluable procedures for the diagnosis and treatment of joint disease. This chapter addresses (1) the indications, technical principles, expected benefits and risks of aspiration and injection of intra-articular corticosteroid and (2) practical aspects relating to SF analysis, especially in relation to crystal identification. Intra-articular injection of long-acting insoluble corticosteroids is a well-established procedure that produces rapid pain relief and resolution of inflammation in most injected joints. The knee is the most common site to require aspiration although any non-axial joint is accessible for obtaining SF. The technique involves only knowledge of basic anatomy and should not be unduly painful for the patient. Provided sterile equipment and a sensible, aseptic approach are used, it is very safe. Analysis of aspirated SF is helpful in the differential diagnosis of arthritis and is the definitive method for diagnosis of septic arthritis and crystal arthritis. The gross appearance of SF can provide useful diagnostic information in terms of the degree of joint inflammation and presence of haemarthrosis. Microbiological studies of SF are the key to the confirmation of infectious conditions. Increasing joint inflammation associates with increased SF volume, reduced viscosity, increasing turbidity and cell count and increasing ratio of polymorphonuclear:mononuclear cells, but such changes are non-specific and must be interpreted in the clinical setting. However, detection of SF monosodium urate and calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals, even from un-inflamed joints during intercritical periods, allows a precise diagnosis of gout and calcium pyrophosphate crystal-related arthritis. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Recurrent hemorrhagic pericardial effusion in children with no identifiable cause is a rare presentation. Case presentation We report the case of a 4-year-old Indian girl who presented with recurrent hemorrhagic pericardial effusion. Diffuse lymphangiomatosis was suspected when associated pulmonary involvement, soft tissue mediastinal mass, and lytic bone lesions were found. Pericardiectomy and lung biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of diffuse lymphangiohemangiomatosis. Partial clinical improvement occurred with thalidomide and low-dose radiotherapy, but our patient died from progressive respiratory failure. Conclusion Diffuse lymphangiohemangiomatosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of hemorrhagic pericardial effusion of unclear cause.
Tropf, Melissa; Sellon, Rance; Paulson, Kathleen; Nelson, Danielle
An 11 yr old castrated male greyhound presented to the Washington State University's Veterinary Teaching Hospital (WSU VTH) for evaluation of a 4 day history of pleural effusion. The pleural effusion had a gelatinous appearance, suggestive of mucus, and was characterized cytologically as a pyogranulomatous exudate with some features suggestive of a carcinoma. Postmortem examination identified a pulmonary mass with evidence of carcinomatosis. Pulmonary papillary adenocarcinoma with carcinomatosis was the histologic diagnosis. Abundant mucin production was present, consistent with a mucinous pulmonary adenocarcinoma. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of a mucinous pulmonary adenocarcinoma with mucus pleural effusion in a dog.
Aslan, M; Bicak, U; Dogan, D G; Dogan, M; Yakinci, C
A rare case of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), with massive bilateral pleural effusions and generalized edema as the first manifestations, is reported. The patient was a previously healthy 13-year-old boy. He presented with a history of fever, lack of appetite, gradually increasing fatigue, cough, diffuse edema, and moderate dyspnea. He responded well to corticosteroids with resolution of the pleural effusions, and edema. SLE should always be kept in mind in cases of massive pleural effusions and/or diffuse edema, even in the absence of other clinical manifestations of the disease.
Ball, J.; Chapman, J. A.; Muirden, K. D.
Iron dextran (molecular weight 7,000) diffuses rapidly from the joint cavity through the synovium, along lymphatics and extracellular tissue spaces; articular cartilage is impermeable to iron dextran. There is also rapid cellular uptake by synovial lining cells, particularly of the vacuolar type; endoplasmic reticulum-containing lining cells rarely take up iron dextran. Cellular uptake is probably effected by pseudopodial folds projecting from the cell surface and enclosing extracellular material. Cells containing iron may degenerate and be ingested by phagocytes, and this may account for the concentration of iron in a smaller proportion of cells on or below the synovial surface in the later stages. At 6 to 18 hours after injection there is a mild inflammatory reaction and some synovial proliferation; from this stage onwards intracellular iron occurs in the form of haemosiderin. Granules of haemosiderin are present in the synovium 3 months after injection and possibly longer. PMID:14203385
Lundborg, G; Rank, F
The healing process of totally cut and subsequently resutured rabbit flexor tendons kept isolated in the knee joint cavity and free in the synovial fluid was studied by histological and ultrastructural techniques. This experimental model represents a "tissue culture in situ," where the tendon is nourished by diffusion from the synovial fluid only and where no adhesions are formed. Under these conditions there is a proliferation of tendon cells and deposition of collagen resulting in bridging of the suture line. On the basis of these findings, it is assumed that the tendon cells possess an intrinsic potential of repair, provided they obtain a sufficient nutritional supply. In the present experimental model, this nutrition was provided by way of diffusional pathways from the synovial fluid.
Aydogan, Nevres Hurriyet; Kocadal, Onur; Ozmeric, Ahmet; Aktekin, Cem Nuri
Synovial chondromatosis is a disease that seldomly seen in shoulder joint and is related to benign synovial proliferation and synchronous chondral tissue formation within the joint cavity. Patients suffer from progressive restriction of range of motion and shoulder pain. Extra-articular involvement is an extremely rare condition. Degenerative osteoarthritis, joint subluxation, and bursitis are common complications in untreated patients. Open or arthroscopic surgery is suitable while there is no consensus related to superiority of different approaches. We presented an arthroscopic treatment of a male patient, 48 years old with labrum tear and synovial chondromatosis localized in subacromial and subdeltoid region. Advantages of arthroscopic surgery in the presence of intra- and extra-articular combined pathologies are also discussed.
Nevres Hurriyet Aydogan
Full Text Available Synovial chondromatosis is a disease that seldomly seen in shoulder joint and is related to benign synovial proliferation and synchronous chondral tissue formation within the joint cavity. Patients suffer from progressive restriction of range of motion and shoulder pain. Extra-articular involvement is an extremely rare condition. Degenerative osteoarthritis, joint subluxation, and bursitis are common complications in untreated patients. Open or arthroscopic surgery is suitable while there is no consensus related to superiority of different approaches. We presented an arthroscopic treatment of a male patient, 48 years old with labrum tear and synovial chondromatosis localized in subacromial and subdeltoid region. Advantages of arthroscopic surgery in the presence of intra- and extra-articular combined pathologies are also discussed.
Myant, Connor; Cann, Philippa
Artificial articular joints present an interesting, and difficult, tribological problem. These bearing contacts undergo complex transient loading and multi axes kinematic cycles, over extremely long periods of time (>10 years). Despite extensive research, wear of the bearing surfaces, particularly metal-metal hips, remains a major problem. Comparatively little is known about the prevailing lubrication mechanism in artificial joints which is a serious gap in our knowledge as this determines film formation and hence wear. In this paper we review the accepted lubrication models for artificial hips and present a new concept to explain film formation with synovial fluid. This model, recently proposed by the authors, suggests that interfacial film formation is determined by rheological changes local to the contact and is driven by aggregation of synovial fluid proteins. The implications of this new mechanism for the tribological performance of new implant designs and the effect of patient synovial fluid properties are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Thomsen, Line Nymann; Thomsen, Preben Dybdahl; Downing, Alison
Background The synovial membrane lines the luminal side of the joint capsule in synovial joints. It maintains joint homeostasis and plays a crucial role in equine joint pathology. When trauma or inflammation is induced in a joint, the synovial membrane influences progression of joint damage. Equine...
Lee, Keun-Woo; Lee, Nam Kyung; Ham, Seokjin; Roh, Tae-Young; Kim, Seok-Hyung
Synovial sarcoma is an aggressive mesenchymal tumor with dual differentiation; epithelial and mesenchymal differentiation. However, the molecular mechanisms behind tumorigenesis and dual differentiation have remained elusive. In this study, we investigated whether Twist1 is an essential transcription factor for maintaining tumor-initiating cell properties in synovial sarcoma. First, we identified that Twist1 is overexpressed in most cases of synovial sarcoma (SS) samples as well as in two synovial sarcoma cell lines (HSSYII, SW982). Additionally, Twist1 depletion led to down-regulation of mesenchymal markers and up-regulation of epithelial markers in SS cell lines. The migratory and invasive abilities of SS cell lines were also significantly reduced following the loss of Twist1. These results indicate that Twist1 plays an essential role in the maintenance of mesenchymal character in SS. Furthermore, knock-down of Twist1 induced G1 cycle arrest and apoptosis as well as remarkable reduction in the sphere-forming cell subpopulation and side population cells. Moreover, Twist1 knock-down profoundly inhibited the growth of synovial sarcoma xenograft in nude mice compared to controls indicating that Twist1 is essential for tumor initiating cell properties. To explore transcriptional regulation by Twist1 at the genomic level, Chromatin immunoprecipiation-solexa whole genome sequencing (ChIP-SEQ) and cDNA microarray analysis were performed. Mesenchymal differentiation/proliferation and PDGF related genes were found to be affected by Twist1. Finally, depletion of SS18-SSX fusion oncoprotein by RNA inference induced down-regulation of Twist1, implying that Twist1 is regulated by SS18-SSX. Hence, our results suggest that Twist1 is an essential transcription factor for the maintenance of mesenchymal characters and tumor initiating properties of synovial sarcoma. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kim, Kyung Ho; Suh, Kyung Jin; Kim, Keon Woo and others [Kyungpook National Univ. College of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)
To correlate MR findings of amount of temporomandibular joint effusion with joint pain and disk displacement. In 57 patients, 114 temporomandibular joints with symptoms of disorder (presence of clinical pain) were imaged. Closed and open mouth sagittal spin echo (SE) T1-weighted images (WI) and fast spin echo (FSE) T2-WI were obtained. We classified the amount of joint effusion into grades. Joint effusion was classified as either Grade 1, 2 or 3, as follours : in sagittal FSE T2-WI, a long diameter of joint effusion shorter than 1/3 of the diameter of the convex margin of temporal eminence was grade 1 ; longer than 2/3 was grade 3 ; between grade 1 and 3 was grade 2. Disk displacement was classified as either with or without reduction in the open mouth position. These findings were correlated with one another and statistically analyzed. In 29 cases with joint pain (37%) and in 34 cases without pain (63%) there was no evidence of joint effusion ; there were, however, more grade 1 joint effusion cases with pain (14; 60.9%) than without pain (9; 39.1%). Cases of joint pain increased in proportion to grade of joint effusion, which was statistically significant (p < 0.05). In joints without disk displacement, the largest grouping was that which showed no effusion (39; 72.2%) ; no joints showed grade 3 effusion. Cases of joint effusion decreased in proportion to grade of effusion. In joints with disk displacement, cases of joint effusion tended to increase in proportion to the grade of effusion. MR findings of amount of temporomandibular joint effusion correlate with joint pain and anterior disk displacement.
Rossi, Esther Diana; Bizzarro, Tommaso; Schmitt, Fernando; Longatto-Filho, Adhemar
Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of serous membrane effusions may fulfil a challenging role in the diagnostic analysis of both primary and metastatic disease. From this perspective, liquid-based cytology (LBC) represents a feasible and reliable method for empowering the performance of ancillary techniques (ie, immunocytochemistry and molecular testing) with high diagnostic accuracy. In total, 3171 LBC pleural and pericardic effusions were appraised between January 2000 and December 2013. They were classified as negative for malignancy (NM), suspicious for malignancy (SM), or positive for malignancy (PM). The cytologic diagnoses included 2721 NM effusions (2505 pleural and 216 pericardic), 104 SM effusions (93 pleural and 11 pericardic), and 346 PM effusions (321 pleural and 25 pericardic). The malignant pleural series included 76 unknown malignancies (36 SM and 40 PM effusions), 174 metastatic lesions (85 SM and 89 PM effusions), 14 lymphomas (3 SM and 11 PM effusions), 16 mesotheliomas (5 SM and 11 SM effusions), and 3 myelomas (all SM effusions). The malignant pericardic category included 20 unknown malignancies (5 SM and 15 PM effusions), 15 metastatic lesions (1 SM and 14 PM effusions), and 1 lymphoma (1 PM effusion). There were 411 conclusive immunocytochemical analyses and 47 molecular analyses, and the authors documented 88% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 98% diagnostic accuracy, 98% negative predictive value, and 100% positive predictive value for FNAC. FNAC represents a primary diagnostic tool for effusions and a reliable approach with which to determine the correct follow-up. Furthermore, LBC is useful for ancillary techniques, such as immunocytochemistry and molecular analysis, with feasible diagnostic and predictive utility. © 2015 American Cancer Society.
Ingo H. Pilz
Full Text Available Bacterial infections can destroy cartilage integrity, resulting in osteoarthritis. Goal was to develop an in vitro model with in vivo validation of acute joint inflammation. Inflammation in cocultivated human synovial fibroblasts (SFB, chondrocytes (CHDR, and mononuclear cells (MNC was successively relieved for 10 days. Articular effusions from patients with (n=7 and without (n=5 postoperative joint infection in healthy patients (ASA 1-2 were used as model validation. Inflammation in vitro resulted in an enormous increase in IL-1 and a successive reduction in SFB numbers. CHDR however, maintained metabolic activity and proteoglycan synthesis. While concentrations of bFGF in vivo and in vitro rose consistently, the mRNA increase was only moderate. Concurring with our in vivo data, cartilage-specific IGF-1 steadily increased, while IGF-1 mRNA in the CHDR and SFB did not correlate with protein levels. Similarly, aggrecan (ACAN protein concentrations increased in vivo and failed to correlate in vitro with gene expression in either the CHDR or the SFB, indicating extracellular matrix breakdown. Anabolic cartilage-specific BMP-7 with highly significant intra-articular levels was significantly elevated in vitro on day 10 following maximum inflammation. Our in vitro model enables us to validate early inflammation of in vivo cell- and cytokine-specific regulatory patterns. This trial is registered with MISSinG, DRKS 00003536.
Pilz, Ingo H; Mehlhorn, Alexander; Dovi-Akue, David; Langenmair, Elia Raoul; Südkamp, Norbert P; Schmal, Hagen
Bacterial infections can destroy cartilage integrity, resulting in osteoarthritis. Goal was to develop an in vitro model with in vivo validation of acute joint inflammation. Inflammation in cocultivated human synovial fibroblasts (SFB), chondrocytes (CHDR), and mononuclear cells (MNC) was successively relieved for 10 days. Articular effusions from patients with (n = 7) and without (n = 5) postoperative joint infection in healthy patients (ASA 1-2) were used as model validation. Inflammation in vitro resulted in an enormous increase in IL-1 and a successive reduction in SFB numbers. CHDR however, maintained metabolic activity and proteoglycan synthesis. While concentrations of bFGF in vivo and in vitro rose consistently, the mRNA increase was only moderate. Concurring with our in vivo data, cartilage-specific IGF-1 steadily increased, while IGF-1 mRNA in the CHDR and SFB did not correlate with protein levels. Similarly, aggrecan (ACAN) protein concentrations increased in vivo and failed to correlate in vitro with gene expression in either the CHDR or the SFB, indicating extracellular matrix breakdown. Anabolic cartilage-specific BMP-7 with highly significant intra-articular levels was significantly elevated in vitro on day 10 following maximum inflammation. Our in vitro model enables us to validate early inflammation of in vivo cell- and cytokine-specific regulatory patterns. This trial is registered with MISSinG, DRKS 00003536.
or synovial membrane volume, e.g. no systematic errors were found. The inter-MRI variation, evaluated in three knees and three wrists, was higher than by manual segmentation, particularly due to sensitivity to malalignment artefacts. Examination of test objects proved the high accuracy of the general...... methodology for volume determinations (maximal error 6.3%). Preceded by the determination of reproducibility and the optimal threshold at the available MR unit, automated 'threshold' segmentation appears to be acceptable when changes rather than absolute values of synovial membrane volumes are most important...
Paracelsus is considered to have been the first to record the viscid quality of the synovial fluid. However, his contemporary Bernardino de Sahagún, a Franciscan friar who came to Mexico shortly after the Spanish conquest, obtained from elderly Aztec Indians who spoke only Nahuatl the descriptions of therapeutic arthrocentesis and of the viscid nature of the synovial fluid. They compared the fluid from the knee joint to the viscid fluid from the leaves of the nopal cactus (Opuntia sp.). We here record their description and confirm the accuracy of their comparison.
Guo, Ailing; Guo, Fuyou
Spinal synovial sarcoma (SS) is an extremely rare malignant tumor in children. We report an unusual pediatric synovial sarcoma located in the thoracic spine at T9-T10 levels. A 10-year-old boy was admitted with a 1-month history of progressive back pain and low fever for 7 days as well as sudden onset of paraplegia for 1 day. The primary diagnosis was considered for spinal inflammatory abscess; subsequently, the patient underwent total resection with a good recovery and confirmed SS by SYT-SSX gene translocation. The possibility of sudden paraplegia caused by unusual SS involved in the spine should be highlighted.
Nic An Ultaigh, Sinead
Abstract Introduction The aim of this study was to examine the effect of blocking Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovial cells. Methods RA synovial tissue biopsies, obtained under direct visualization at arthroscopy, were established as synovial explant cultures ex vivo or snap frozen for immunohistology. Mononuclear cell cultures were isolated from peripheral blood and synovial fluid of RA patients. Cultures were incubated with the TLR1\\/2 ligand, Pam3CSK4 (200 ng, 1 and 10 μg\\/ml), an anti-TLR2 antibody (OPN301, 1 μg\\/ml) or an immunoglobulin G (IgG) (1 μg\\/ml) matched control. The comparative effect of OPN301 and adalimumab (anti-tumour necrosis factor alpha) on spontaneous release of proinflammatory cytokines from RA synovial explants was determined using quantitative cytokine MSD multiplex assays or ELISA. OPN301 penetration into RA synovial tissue explants cultures was assessed by immunohistology. Results Pam3CSK4 significantly upregulated interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 in RA peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), RA synovial fluid mononuclear cells (SFMCs) and RA synovial explant cultures (P < 0.05). OPN301 significantly decreased Pam3CSK4-induced cytokine production of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), IL-1β, IL-6, interferon (IFN)-γ and IL-8 compared to IgG control in RA PBMCs and SFMCs cultures (all P < 0.05). OPN301 penetration of RA synovial tissue cultures was detected in the lining layer and perivascular regions. OPN301 significantly decreased spontaneous cytokine production of TNF-α, IL-1β, IFN-γ and IL-8 from RA synovial tissue explant cultures (all P < 0.05). Importantly, the inhibitory effect of OPN on spontaneous cytokine secretion was comparable to inhibition by anti-TNFα monoclonal antibody adalimumab. Conclusions These findings further support targeting TLR2 as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of RA.
Axelsen, Mette Bjørndal; Stoltenberg, M.; Poggenborg, R.
, the average grade of histological synovial inflammation was determined from four biopsies obtained during surgery. A preoperative series of T(1)-weighted dynamic fast low-angle shot (FLASH) MR images was obtained. Parameters characterizing contrast uptake dynamics, including the initial rate of enhancement...... capsule of the knee joint (Precise ROI). Intra- and interreader agreement was assessed using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Results: The IRE from the Quick ROI and the Precise ROI revealed high correlations to the grade of histological inflammation (Spearman's correlation coefficient (rho......) = 0.70, p = 0.001 and rho = 0.74, p = 0.001, respectively). Intraand inter-reader ICCs were very high (0.93-1.00). No Whole slice parameters were correlated to histology. Conclusion: DCE-MRI provides fast and accurate assessment of synovial inflammation in RA patients. Manual outlining of the joint...
Vitorino Modesto dos Santos
Full Text Available Yellow nail syndrome (YNS is an uncommon condition characterized by nail changes, lymphedema, in addition to pulmonary disorders and pleural effusion. Pericarditis and non-cardiac disorders can evolve with pericardial effusions including autoimmune conditions, hypothyroidism, malignancies, tuberculosis, and uremia. A 72-year-old Brazilian woman under treatment for arterial hypertension and hypothyroidism was admitted with pericarditis and pericardial effusion concomitant with yellow nail syndrome. She denied tobacco smoking, alcohol abuse, and similar disorders in her family. Clinical and complementary evaluation ruled out infectious diseases, malignancies, and autoimmune disorders as etiologic factors in this case. Hypothyroidism is a well-known cause of pericardial effusion, the vast majority in the absence of pericarditis, and has been described as an associated condition in some individuals with YNS. Case studies might contribute to better understanding of these causal or casual relationships.