Sample records for human stumble recovery

  1. Human Gait, Stumble and...fall? Mechanical limitations of the recovery from a stumble.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forner Cordero, A.


    The goal of this thesis was to find the limitations in the recovery reactions to avoid a fall. These limitations can be roughly classified as mechanical, neurological and psychological. This thesis has focused on the study of the mechanical limitations of the recovery reaction to a stumble during

  2. Energy analysis of human stumbling: the limitations of recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forner Cordero, A.; Koopman, Hubertus F.J.M.; van der Helm, F.C.T.


    This study has analyzed the segmental energy changes in the recovery from a stumble induced during walking on a treadmill. Three strategies emerged according to the behavior of the perturbed limb, elevating, lowering, and delayed lowering. These three strategies showed different changes in the

  3. A method to simulate motor control strategies to recover from perturbations: application to a stumble recovery during gait. (United States)

    Forner-Cordero, Arturo; Ackermann, Marko; de Lima Freitas, Mateus


    Perturbations during human gait such as a trip or a slip can result in a fall, especially among frail populations such as the elderly. In order to recover from a trip or a stumble during gait, humans perform different types of recovery strategies. It is very useful to uncover the mechanisms of the recovery to improve training methods for populations at risk of falling. Moreover, human recovery strategies could be applied to implement controllers for bipedal robot walker, as an application of biomimetic design. A biomechanical model of the response to a trip during gait might uncover the control mechanisms underlying the different recovery strategies and the adaptation of the responses found during the execution of successive perturbation trials. This paper introduces a model of stumble in the multibody system framework. This model is used to assess different feedforward strategies to recover from a trip. First of all, normal gait patterns for the musculoskeletal system model are obtained by solving an optimal control problem. Secondly, the reference gait is perturbed by the application of forces on the swinging foot in different ways: as an instantaneous inelastic collision of the foot with an obstacle, as an impulsive horizontal force or using a force curve measured experimentally during gait perturbation experiments. The influence of the type of perturbation, the timing of the collision with respect to the gait cycle, as well as of the coefficient of restitution was investigated previously. Finally, in order to test the effects of different muscle excitation levels on the initial phases of the recovery response, several muscle excitations were added to selected muscles of the legs, thus providing a simulation of the recovery reactions. These results pave the way for future analysis and modeling of the control mechanisms of gait.

  4. StumbleUpon for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Olenski, Steve


    Discover new and interesting online content based on your interests! StumbleUpon helps you discover new and interesting content on the Internet based on your specific interests. With this helpful For Dummies guide, you will learn to complete a profile that alerts StumbleUpon what topics interest you and assists in making your online perusing interesting and productive. Coverage explains how the Stumble button allows StumbleUpon to learn more about you and what type of content you like to view and it also helps that particular piece of content turn up higher in other users' searches.Gets you s

  5. Stumbling over obstacles in older adults compared to young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schillings, AM; Mulder, T; Duysens, J

    Falls are a major problem in older adults. Many falls occur because of stumbling. The aim of the present study is to investigate stumbling reactions of older adults and to compare them with young adults. While subjects walked on a treadmill, a rigid obstacle unexpectedly obstructed the forward sway

  6. Using Dynamic Software to Address Common College Calculus Stumbling Blocks (United States)

    Seneres, Alice W.; Kerrigan, John A.


    There are specific topics in college calculus that can be major stumbling blocks for students. Having taught college calculus for four years to over a thousand students, we observed that even the students who have already taken pre-calculus or calculus during their high school careers had common misunderstandings. Students may remember a technique…

  7. The concept of empire as a stumbling stone: Aspects of an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The discussion on empire can become a stumbling block if it is not approached with great compassion for the victims of globalisation, a careful sense of the vastly different situations in the South and the North, and an understanding of real-political structures. This article warns against the danger of polarisation and seeks to ...

  8. Are Preferential Trade Agreements with Non-trade Objectives a Stumbling Block for Multilateral Liberalization?


    Nuno Limão


    In many preferential trade agreements (PTAs), countries exchange not only reductions in trade barriers but also cooperation in non-trade issues such as labour and environmental standards, intellectual property, etc. We provide a model of PTAs motivated by cooperation in non-trade issues and analyse its implications for global free trade and welfare. We find that such PTAs increase the cost of multilateral tariff reductions and thus cause a stumbling block to global free trade. This occurs bec...

  9. Human error recovery failure probability when using soft controls in computerized control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Inseok; Kim, Ar Ryum; Seong, Poong Hyun; Jung, Wondea


    Many literatures categorized recovery process into three phases; detection of problem situation, explanation of problem causes or countermeasures against problem, and end of recovery. Although the focus of recovery promotion has been on categorizing recovery phases and modeling recovery process, research related to human recovery failure probabilities has not been perform actively. On the other hand, a few study regarding recovery failure probabilities were implemented empirically. Summarizing, researches that have performed so far have several problems in terms of use in human reliability analysis (HRA). By adopting new human-system interfaces that are based on computer-based technologies, the operation environment of MCRs in NPPs has changed from conventional MCRs to advanced MCRs. Because of the different interfaces between conventional and advanced MCRs, different recovery failure probabilities should be considered in the HRA for advanced MCRs. Therefore, this study carries out an empirical analysis of human error recovery probabilities under an advanced MCR mockup called compact nuclear simulator (CNS). The aim of this work is not only to compile a recovery failure probability database using the simulator for advanced MCRs but also to collect recovery failure probability according to defined human error modes to compare that which human error mode has highest recovery failure probability. The results show that recovery failure probability regarding wrong screen selection was lowest among human error modes, which means that most of human error related to wrong screen selection can be recovered. On the other hand, recovery failure probabilities of operation selection omission and delayed operation were 1.0. These results imply that once subject omitted one task in the procedure, they have difficulties finding and recovering their errors without supervisor's assistance. Also, wrong screen selection had an effect on delayed operation. That is, wrong screen

  10. The recovery factors analysis of the human errors for research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farcasiu, M.; Nitoi, M.; Apostol, M.; Turcu, I.; Florescu, Ghe.


    The results of many Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) studies show a very significant contribution of human errors to systems unavailability of the nuclear installations. The treatment of human interactions is considered one of the major limitations in the context of PSA. To identify those human actions that can have an effect on system reliability or availability applying the Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) is necessary. The recovery factors analysis of the human action is an important step in HRA. This paper presents how can be reduced the human errors probabilities (HEP) using those elements that have the capacity to recovery human error. The recovery factors modeling is marked to identify error likelihood situations or situations that conduct at development of the accident. This analysis is realized by THERP method. The necessary information was obtained from the operating experience of the research reactor TRIGA of the INR Pitesti. The required data were obtained from generic databases. (authors)

  11. Discriminative Vision-Based Recovery and Recognition of Human Motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppe, Ronald Walter


    The automatic analysis of human motion from images opens up the way for applications in the domains of security and surveillance, human-computer interaction, animation, retrieval and sports motion analysis. In this dissertation, the focus is on robust and fast human pose recovery and action

  12. Water Recovery from Brines to Further Close the Water Recovery Loop in Human Spaceflight (United States)

    Jackson, W. Andrew; Barta, Daniel J.; Anderson, Molly S.; Lange, Kevin E.; Hanford, Anthony J.; Shull, Sarah A.; Carter, D. Layne


    Further closure of water recovery systems will be necessary for future long duration human exploration missions. NASA's Space Technology Roadmap for Human Health, Life Support and Habitation Systems specified a milestone to advance water management technologies during the 2015 to 2019 timeframe to achieve 98% H2O recovery from a mixed wastewater stream containing condensate, urine, hygiene, laundry, and water derived from waste. This goal can only be achieved by either reducing the amount of brines produced by a water recovery system or by recovering water from wastewater brines. NASA convened a Technical Interchange Meeting (TIM) on the topic of Water Recovery from Brines (WRB) that was held on January14-15th, 2014 at Johnson Space Center. Objectives of the TIM were to review systems and architectures that are sources of brines and the composition of brines they produce, review the state of the art in NASA technology development and perspectives from other industries, capture the challenges and difficulties in developing brine processing hardware, identify key figures of merit and requirements to focus technology development and evaluate candidate technologies, and identify other critical issues including microgravity sensitivity, and concepts of operation, safety. This paper represents an initial summary of findings from the workshop.

  13. 'The stumbling disease': a case study of stigma among Azorean-Portuguese. (United States)

    Boutté, M I


    There exists among Azorean-Portuguese a biological malady that is inherited. First recognized by biomedicine in 1972 as a distinct disease entity, it has been in existence in the United States and the Azores Islands since at least the mid-1800s. The malady is generally known as the 'stumbling disease' among the Azorean-Portuguese; the current biomedical literature refer to it as Machado-Joseph disease. Historically an aura of stigma has surrounded affected individuals, their families, and primary ethnic group in which the malady is currently found. Drawing heavily on the work of Erving Goffman Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1963) and labelling theory, this paper explores the nature of this stigma. The cultural contexts of a small, face-to-face, homogeneous island setting is contrasted with that of the heterogeneous, anonymous setting of the United States to illuminate various aspects of the stigma configuration. The cultural context has important implications for stigma definitions, modes of social control, and management strategies of the stigmatized.

  14. An empirical study on the human error recovery failure probability when using soft controls in NPP advanced MCRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Inseok; Kim, Ar Ryum; Jung, Wondea; Seong, Poong Hyun


    Highlights: • Many researchers have tried to understand human recovery process or step. • Modeling human recovery process is not sufficient to be applied to HRA. • The operation environment of MCRs in NPPs has changed by adopting new HSIs. • Recovery failure probability in a soft control operation environment is investigated. • Recovery failure probability here would be important evidence for expert judgment. - Abstract: It is well known that probabilistic safety assessments (PSAs) today consider not just hardware failures and environmental events that can impact upon risk, but also human error contributions. Consequently, the focus on reliability and performance management has been on the prevention of human errors and failures rather than the recovery of human errors. However, the recovery of human errors is as important as the prevention of human errors and failures for the safe operation of nuclear power plants (NPPs). For this reason, many researchers have tried to find a human recovery process or step. However, modeling the human recovery process is not sufficient enough to be applied to human reliability analysis (HRA), which requires human error and recovery probabilities. In this study, therefore, human error recovery failure probabilities based on predefined human error modes were investigated by conducting experiments in the operation mockup of advanced/digital main control rooms (MCRs) in NPPs. To this end, 48 subjects majoring in nuclear engineering participated in the experiments. In the experiments, using the developed accident scenario based on tasks from the standard post trip action (SPTA), the steam generator tube rupture (SGTR), and predominant soft control tasks, which are derived from the loss of coolant accident (LOCA) and the excess steam demand event (ESDE), all error detection and recovery data based on human error modes were checked with the performance sheet and the statistical analysis of error recovery/detection was then

  15. Compound Stimulus Extinction Reduces Spontaneous Recovery in Humans (United States)

    Coelho, Cesar A. O.; Dunsmoor, Joseph E.; Phelps, Elizabeth A.


    Fear-related behaviors are prone to relapse following extinction. We tested in humans a compound extinction design ("deepened extinction") shown in animal studies to reduce post-extinction fear recovery. Adult subjects underwent fear conditioning to a visual and an auditory conditioned stimulus (CSA and CSB, respectively) separately…

  16. Disaster Preparation and Recovery: Lessons from Research on Resilience in Human Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann S. Masten


    Full Text Available Four decades of theory and research on resilience in human development have yielded informative lessons for planning disaster response and recovery. In developmental theory, resilience following disaster could take multiple forms, including stress resistance, recovery, and positive transformation. Empirical findings suggest that fundamental adaptive systems play a key role in the resilience of young people facing diverse threats, including attachment, agency, intelligence, behavior regulation systems, and social interactions with family, peers, school, and community systems. Although human resilience research emphasizes the adaptive well-being of particular individuals, there are striking parallels in resilience theory across the developmental and ecological sciences. Preparing societies for major disasters calls for the integration of human research on resilience with the theory and knowledge gained from other disciplines concerned with resilience in complex, dynamic systems, and particularly those systems that interact with human individuals as disaster unfolds.

  17. Multispectral embedding-based deep neural network for three-dimensional human pose recovery (United States)

    Yu, Jialin; Sun, Jifeng


    Monocular image-based three-dimensional (3-D) human pose recovery aims to retrieve 3-D poses using the corresponding two-dimensional image features. Therefore, the pose recovery performance highly depends on the image representations. We propose a multispectral embedding-based deep neural network (MSEDNN) to automatically obtain the most discriminative features from multiple deep convolutional neural networks and then embed their penultimate fully connected layers into a low-dimensional manifold. This compact manifold can explore not only the optimum output from multiple deep networks but also the complementary properties of them. Furthermore, the distribution of each hierarchy discriminative manifold is sufficiently smooth so that the training process of our MSEDNN can be effectively implemented only using few labeled data. Our proposed network contains a body joint detector and a human pose regressor that are jointly trained. Extensive experiments conducted on four databases show that our proposed MSEDNN can achieve the best recovery performance compared with the state-of-the-art methods.

  18. Compound stimulus extinction reduces spontaneous recovery in humans


    Coelho, Cesar A.O.; Dunsmoor, Joseph E.; Phelps, Elizabeth A.


    Fear-related behaviors are prone to relapse following extinction. We tested in humans a compound extinction design (“deepened extinction”) shown in animal studies to reduce post-extinction fear recovery. Adult subjects underwent fear conditioning to a visual and an auditory conditioned stimulus (CSA and CSB, respectively) separately paired with an electric shock. The target CS (CSA) was extinguished alone followed by compound presentations of the extinguished CSA and nonextinguished CSB. Reco...

  19. Single-frame 3D human pose recovery from multiple views

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmann, M.; Gavrila, D.M.


    We present a system for the estimation of unconstrained 3D human upper body pose from multi-camera single-frame views. Pose recovery starts with a shape detection stage where candidate poses are generated based on hierarchical exemplar matching in the individual camera views. The hierarchy used in

  20. Wavelet-based resolution recovery using an anatomical prior provides quantitative recovery for human population phantom PET [11C]raclopride data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shidahara, M; Tamura, H; Tsoumpas, C; McGinnity, C J; Hammers, A; Turkheimer, F E; Kato, T; Watabe, H


    The objective of this study was to evaluate a resolution recovery (RR) method using a variety of simulated human brain [ 11 C]raclopride positron emission tomography (PET) images. Simulated datasets of 15 numerical human phantoms were processed by a wavelet-based RR method using an anatomical prior. The anatomical prior was in the form of a hybrid segmented atlas, which combined an atlas for anatomical labelling and a PET image for functional labelling of each anatomical structure. We applied RR to both 60 min static and dynamic PET images. Recovery was quantified in 84 regions, comparing the typical ‘true’ value for the simulation, as obtained in normal subjects, simulated and RR PET images. The radioactivity concentration in the white matter, striatum and other cortical regions was successfully recovered for the 60 min static image of all 15 human phantoms; the dependence of the solution on accurate anatomical information was demonstrated by the difficulty of the technique to retrieve the subthalamic nuclei due to mismatch between the two atlases used for data simulation and recovery. Structural and functional synergy for resolution recovery (SFS-RR) improved quantification in the caudate and putamen, the main regions of interest, from −30.1% and −26.2% to −17.6% and −15.1%, respectively, for the 60 min static image and from −51.4% and −38.3% to −27.6% and −20.3% for the binding potential (BP ND ) image, respectively. The proposed methodology proved effective in the RR of small structures from brain [ 11 C]raclopride PET images. The improvement is consistent across the anatomical variability of a simulated population as long as accurate anatomical segmentations are provided. (paper)

  1. Extinction produces context inhibition and multiple-context extinction reduces response recovery in human predictive learning. (United States)

    Glautier, Steven; Elgueta, Tito; Nelson, James Byron


    Two experiments with human participants were used to investigate recovery of an extinguished learned response after a context change using ABC designs. In an ABC design, the context changes over the three successive stages of acquisition (context A), extinction (context B), and test (context C). In both experiments, we found reduced recovery in groups that had extinction in multiple contexts, and that the extinction contexts acquired inhibitory strength. These results confirm those of previous investigations, that multiple-context extinction can produce less response recovery than single-context extinction, and they also provide new evidence for the involvement of contextual inhibitory processes in extinction in humans. The foregoing results are broadly in line with a protection-from-extinction account of response recovery. Yet, despite the fact that we detected contextual inhibition, predictions based on protection-from-extinction were not fully reliable for the single- and multiple-context group differences that we observed in (1) rates of extinction and (2) the strength of context inhibition. Thus, although evidence was obtained for a protection-from-extinction account of response recovery, this account can not explain all of the data.

  2. Maximum recovery potential of human tumor cells may predict clinical outcome in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weichselbaum, R.R.; Beckett, M.


    We studied inherent radiosensitivity/resistance (D0), ability to accumulate sublethal damage (n) and repair of potentially lethal damage (PLDR) in established human tumor cell lines as well as early passage human tumor cell lines derived from patients with known outcome following radiotherapy. Survival 24 hrs after treatment of human tumor cells with X rays in plateau phase cultures is a function of initial damage (D0, n), as well as recovery over 24 hrs (PLDR). A surviving fraction greater than .1 24 hrs following treatment with 7 Gy in plateau phase cultures is associated with tumor cell types (melanoma, osteosarcoma) with a high probability of radiotherapy failure or tumor cells derived from patients who actually failed radiotherapy. Therefore, total cellular recovery following radiation may be an important determinant of radiocurability. Accurate assays of radiotherapy outcome may need to account for all these radiobiological parameters

  3. 3D recovery of human gaze in natural environments (United States)

    Paletta, Lucas; Santner, Katrin; Fritz, Gerald; Mayer, Heinz


    The estimation of human attention has recently been addressed in the context of human robot interaction. Today, joint work spaces already exist and challenge cooperating systems to jointly focus on common objects, scenes and work niches. With the advent of Google glasses and increasingly affordable wearable eye-tracking, monitoring of human attention will soon become ubiquitous. The presented work describes for the first time a method for the estimation of human fixations in 3D environments that does not require any artificial landmarks in the field of view and enables attention mapping in 3D models. It enables full 3D recovery of the human view frustum and the gaze pointer in a previously acquired 3D model of the environment in real time. The study on the precision of this method reports a mean projection error ≈1.1 cm and a mean angle error ≈0.6° within the chosen 3D model - the precision does not go below the one of the technical instrument (≈1°). This innovative methodology will open new opportunities for joint attention studies as well as for bringing new potential into automated processing for human factors technologies.

  4. Recovery from desensitization of IgE-dependent responses in human lung mast cells. (United States)

    Lewis, A; MacGlashan, D W; Suvarna, S K; Peachell, P T


    Clinical desensitization and oral food immunotherapy are therapeutic interventions that allow individuals who react adversely to an allergen (drug or food) to be made tolerant to the allergen. However, tolerance is brief, and allergen hypersensitivity can recur within days following allergen withdrawal. We hypothesize that the reason these treatments are temporary reflects rapid recovery of mast cells from a desensitized state. We sought to test this. Desensitization of IgE-mediated histamine release from human lung mast cells was explored by methods that partially replicate the pattern of treatment during clinical desensitization. Specific and non-specific desensitization and changes in surface IgE were examined following desensitization. Recovery from desensitization was also studied. Desensitization of mast cell responses was readily induced with concentrations of antigen or anti-IgE that were suboptimal for secretion. There was little or no non-specific desensitization when lung mast cells were exposed to antigens. There was no loss of cell surface IgE following desensitization. Removing the desensitizing stimulus from the media following desensitization allowed the cells to recover with half-point of recovery of ~1.5 days and complete recovery after 5 days. Both the functional response and histamine content recovered within this time frame. The recovery appeared possible because both antigens and anti-IgE dissociated rapidly from cells after washing to remove excess stimulus. Human lung mast cells readily recover from a desensitized state following removal of desensitizing antigen. This finding provides a potential explanation for the ephemeral nature of clinical desensitization. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Multi-view 3D human pose estimation combining single-frame recovery, temporal integration and model adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmann, K.M.; Gavrilla, D.M.


    We present a system for the estimation of unconstrained 3D human upper body movement from multiple cameras. Its main novelty lies in the integration of three components: single frame pose recovery, temporal integration and model adaptation. Single frame pose recovery consists of a hypothesis

  6. Quantitative Magnetization Transfer Imaging in Human Brain at 3 T via Selective Inversion Recovery


    Dortch, Richard D.; Li, Ke; Gochberg, Daniel F.; Welch, E. Brian; Dula, Adrienne N.; Tamhane, Ashish A.; Gore, John C.; Smith, Seth A.


    Quantitative magnetization transfer imaging yields indices describing the interactions between free water protons and immobile, macromolecular protons—including the macromolecular to free pool size ratio (PSR) and the rate of magnetization transfer between pools kmf. This study describes the first implementation of the selective inversion recovery quantitative magnetization transfer method on a clinical 3.0-T scanner in human brain in vivo. Selective inversion recovery data were acquired at 1...

  7. Spontaneous Recovery of Human Spatial Memory in a Virtual Water Maze (United States)

    Luna, David; Martínez, Héctor


    The occurrence of spontaneous recovery in human spatial memory was assessed using a virtual environment. In Experiment 1, spatial memory was established by training participants to locate a hidden platform in a virtual water maze using a set of four distal landmarks. In Experiment 2, after learning about the location of a hidden platform, the…

  8. Characterization of rapid recovery from γ-ray damage in plateau-phase human diploid fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malcolm, A.W.; Tomkinson, K.N.; Little, J.B.


    Rapid recovery was investigated in density-inhibited, stationary-phase human diploid cells subcultured to low density at various times after a single dose of radiation. The influence of total dose, postirradiation temperature, and cell-to-cell contact on recovery was examined. The cultures were exposed to 60 Co γ rays at a dose rate of 50 rad per second. When the irradiation and postirradiation temperatures were maintained at 25 or 37 0 C, recovery, as manifested by an enhancement in survival, was similar during the first 30 min, whereas it was reduced at later times in the 25 0 C compared with the 37 0 C cultures. This result suggests the existence of different rapidly and slowly acting components to recovery. No recovery was noted at any time with incubation at 4 0 C. The recovery observed in density-inhibited cultures was consistently greater than that in less dense cultures, suggesting an effect of cell-to-cell contact and cell cycle distribution. Following single doses of 200 to 900 rad, progressive enhancement in relative recovery occurred with increasing doses over a period of 2 to 90 min, illustrating the importance of the relationship of the dose to the rapid recovery process

  9. Human hepatocyte growth factor promotes functional recovery in primates after spinal cord injury. (United States)

    Kitamura, Kazuya; Fujiyoshi, Kanehiro; Yamane, Jun-Ichi; Toyota, Fumika; Hikishima, Keigo; Nomura, Tatsuji; Funakoshi, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Toshikazu; Aoki, Masashi; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Okano, Hideyuki; Nakamura, Masaya


    Many therapeutic interventions for spinal cord injury (SCI) using neurotrophic factors have focused on reducing the area damaged by secondary, post-injury degeneration, to promote functional recovery. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), which is a potent mitogen for mature hepatocytes and a mediator of the inflammatory responses to tissue injury, was recently highlighted as a potent neurotrophic factor in the central nervous system. We previously reported that introducing exogenous HGF into the injured rodent spinal cord using a herpes simplex virus-1 vector significantly reduces the area of damaged tissue and promotes functional recovery. However, that study did not examine the therapeutic effects of administering HGF after injury, which is the most critical issue for clinical application. To translate this strategy to human treatment, we induced a contusive cervical SCI in the common marmoset, a primate, and then administered recombinant human HGF (rhHGF) intrathecally. Motor function was assessed using an original open field scoring system focusing on manual function, including reach-and-grasp performance and hand placement in walking. The intrathecal rhHGF preserved the corticospinal fibers and myelinated areas, thereby promoting functional recovery. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging showed significant preservation of the intact spinal cord parenchyma. rhHGF-treatment did not give rise to an abnormal outgrowth of calcitonin gene related peptide positive fibers compared to the control group, indicating that this treatment did not induce or exacerbate allodynia. This is the first study to report the efficacy of rhHGF for treating SCI in non-human primates. In addition, this is the first presentation of a novel scale for assessing neurological motor performance in non-human primates after contusive cervical SCI.

  10. Human hepatocyte growth factor promotes functional recovery in primates after spinal cord injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuya Kitamura

    Full Text Available Many therapeutic interventions for spinal cord injury (SCI using neurotrophic factors have focused on reducing the area damaged by secondary, post-injury degeneration, to promote functional recovery. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF, which is a potent mitogen for mature hepatocytes and a mediator of the inflammatory responses to tissue injury, was recently highlighted as a potent neurotrophic factor in the central nervous system. We previously reported that introducing exogenous HGF into the injured rodent spinal cord using a herpes simplex virus-1 vector significantly reduces the area of damaged tissue and promotes functional recovery. However, that study did not examine the therapeutic effects of administering HGF after injury, which is the most critical issue for clinical application. To translate this strategy to human treatment, we induced a contusive cervical SCI in the common marmoset, a primate, and then administered recombinant human HGF (rhHGF intrathecally. Motor function was assessed using an original open field scoring system focusing on manual function, including reach-and-grasp performance and hand placement in walking. The intrathecal rhHGF preserved the corticospinal fibers and myelinated areas, thereby promoting functional recovery. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging showed significant preservation of the intact spinal cord parenchyma. rhHGF-treatment did not give rise to an abnormal outgrowth of calcitonin gene related peptide positive fibers compared to the control group, indicating that this treatment did not induce or exacerbate allodynia. This is the first study to report the efficacy of rhHGF for treating SCI in non-human primates. In addition, this is the first presentation of a novel scale for assessing neurological motor performance in non-human primates after contusive cervical SCI.

  11. Transplantation of specific human astrocytes promotes functional recovery after spinal cord injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J A Davies


    Full Text Available Repairing trauma to the central nervous system by replacement of glial support cells is an increasingly attractive therapeutic strategy. We have focused on the less-studied replacement of astrocytes, the major support cell in the central nervous system, by generating astrocytes from embryonic human glial precursor cells using two different astrocyte differentiation inducing factors. The resulting astrocytes differed in expression of multiple proteins thought to either promote or inhibit central nervous system homeostasis and regeneration. When transplanted into acute transection injuries of the adult rat spinal cord, astrocytes generated by exposing human glial precursor cells to bone morphogenetic protein promoted significant recovery of volitional foot placement, axonal growth and notably robust increases in neuronal survival in multiple spinal cord laminae. In marked contrast, human glial precursor cells and astrocytes generated from these cells by exposure to ciliary neurotrophic factor both failed to promote significant behavioral recovery or similarly robust neuronal survival and support of axon growth at sites of injury. Our studies thus demonstrate functional differences between human astrocyte populations and suggest that pre-differentiation of precursor cells into a specific astrocyte subtype is required to optimize astrocyte replacement therapies. To our knowledge, this study is the first to show functional differences in ability to promote repair of the injured adult central nervous system between two distinct subtypes of human astrocytes derived from a common fetal glial precursor population. These findings are consistent with our previous studies of transplanting specific subtypes of rodent glial precursor derived astrocytes into sites of spinal cord injury, and indicate a remarkable conservation from rat to human of functional differences between astrocyte subtypes. In addition, our studies provide a specific population of human

  12. Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas fluorescens Species Group Recovery from Human Homes Varies Seasonally and by Environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna K Remold

    Full Text Available By shedding light on variation in time as well as in space, long-term biogeographic studies can help us define organisms' distribution patterns and understand their underlying drivers. Here we examine distributions of Pseudomonas in and around 15 human homes, focusing on the P. putida and P. fluorescens species groups. We describe recovery from 10,941 samples collected during up to 8 visits per home, occurring on average 2.6 times per year. We collected a mean of 141 samples per visit, from sites in most rooms of the house, from the surrounding yards, and from human and pet occupants. We recovered Pseudomonas in 9.7% of samples, with the majority of isolates being from the P. putida and P. fluorescens species groups (approximately 62% and 23% of Pseudomonas samples recovered respectively. Although representatives of both groups were recovered from every season, every house, and every type of environment sampled, recovery was highly variable across houses and samplings. Whereas recovery of P. putida group was higher in summer and fall than in winter and spring, P. fluorescens group isolates were most often recovered in spring. P. putida group recovery from soils was substantially higher than its recovery from all other environment types, while higher P. fluorescens group recovery from soils than from other sites was much less pronounced. Both species groups were recovered from skin and upper respiratory tract samples from healthy humans and pets, although this occurred infrequently. This study indicates that even species that are able to survive under a broad range of conditions can be rare and variable in their distributions in space and in time. For such groups, determining patterns and causes of stochastic and seasonal variability may be more important for understanding the processes driving their biogeography than the identity of the types of environments in which they can be found.

  13. Water Recovery Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AES Water Recovery Project (WRP) is advancing environmental control and life support systems water recovery technologies to support human exploration beyond low...

  14. Human neural stem cells over-expressing VEGF provide neuroprotection, angiogenesis and functional recovery in mouse stroke model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong J Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH is a lethal stroke type. As mortality approaches 50%, and current medical therapy against ICH shows only limited effectiveness, an alternative approach is required, such as stem cell-based cell therapy. Previously we have shown that intravenously transplanted human neural stem cells (NSCs selectively migrate to the brain and induce behavioral recovery in rat ICH model, and that combined administration of NSCs and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF results in improved structural and functional outcome from cerebral ischemia. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We postulated that human NSCs overexpressing VEGF transplanted into cerebral cortex overlying ICH lesion could provide improved survival of grafted NSCs, increased angiogenesis and behavioral recovery in mouse ICH model. ICH was induced in adult mice by unilateral injection of bacterial collagenase into striatum. HB1.F3.VEGF human NSC line produced an amount of VEGF four times higher than parental F3 cell line in vitro, and induced behavioral improvement and 2-3 fold increase in cell survival at two weeks and eight weeks post-transplantation. CONCLUSIONS: Brain transplantation of F3 human NSCs over-expressing VEGF near ICH lesion sites provided differentiation and survival of grafted human NSCs and renewed angiogenesis of host brain and functional recovery of ICH animals. These results suggest a possible application of the human neural stem cell line, which is genetically modified to over-express VEGF, as a therapeutic agent for ICH-stroke.

  15. The role of sleep in recovery following ischemic stroke: A review of human and animal data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone B. Duss


    Full Text Available Despite advancements in understanding the pathophysiology of stroke and the state of the art in acute management of afflicted patients as well as in subsequent neurorehabilitation training, stroke remains the most common neurological cause of long-term disability in adulthood. To enhance stroke patients’ independence and well-being it is necessary, therefore, to consider and develop new therapeutic strategies and approaches. We postulate that sleep might play a pivotal role in neurorehabilitation following stroke. Over the last two decades compelling evidence for a major function of sleep in neuroplasticity and neural network reorganization underlying learning and memory has evolved. Training and learning of new motor skills and knowledge can modulate the characteristics of subsequent sleep, which additionally can improve memory performance. While healthy sleep appears to support neuroplasticity resulting in improved learning and memory, disturbed sleep following stroke in animals and humans can impair stroke outcome. In addition, sleep disorders such as sleep disordered breathing, insomnia, and restless legs syndrome are frequent in stroke patients and associated with worse recovery outcomes. Studies investigating the evolution of post-stroke sleep changes suggest that these changes might also reflect neural network reorganization underlying functional recovery. Experimental and clinical studies provide evidence that pharmacological sleep promotion in rodents and treatment of sleep disorders in humans improves functional outcome following stroke. Taken together, there is accumulating evidence that sleep represents a “plasticity state” in the process of recovery following ischemic stroke. However, to test the key role of sleep and sleep disorders for stroke recovery and to better understand the underlying molecular mechanisms, experimental research and large-scale prospective studies in humans are necessary. The effects of hospital

  16. Controller recovery from equipment failures in air traffic control: A framework for the quantitative assessment of the recovery context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subotic, Branka; Schuster, Wolfgang; Majumdar, Arnab; Ochieng, Washington


    Air Traffic Control (ATC) involves a complex interaction of human operators (primarily air traffic controllers), equipment and procedures. On the rare occasions when equipment malfunctions, controllers play a crucial role in the recovery process of the ATC system for continued safe operation. Research on human performance in other safety critical industries using human reliability assessment techniques has shown that the context in which recovery from failures takes place has a significant influence on the outcome of the process. This paper investigates the importance of context in which air traffic controller recovery from equipment failures takes place, defining it in terms of 20 Recovery Influencing Factors (RIFs). The RIFs are used to develop a novel approach for the quantitative assessment of the recovery context based on a metric referred to as the Recovery Context Indicator (RCI). The method is validated by a series of simulation exercises conducted at a specific ATC Centre. The proposed method is useful to assess recovery enhancement approaches within ATC centres

  17. Substrate availability and transcriptional regulation of metabolic genes in human skeletal muscle during recovery from exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Henriette; Osada, Takuya; Andersen, Lisbeth Tingsted


    before exercise and 2, 5, 8, and 24 hours after exercise. Muscle glycogen was restored to near resting levels within 5 hours in the HC trial, but remained depressed through 24 hours in the LC trial. During the 2- to 8-hour recovery period, leg glucose uptake was 5- to 15-fold higher with HC ingestion......In skeletal muscle of humans, transcription of several metabolic genes is transiently induced during recovery from exercise when no food is consumed. To determine the potential influence of substrate availability on the transcriptional regulation of metabolic genes during recovery from exercise, 9...... male subjects (aged 22-27) completed 75 minutes of cycling exercise at 75% V¿o2max on 2 occasions, consuming either a high-carbohydrate (HC) or low-carbohydrate (LC) diet during the subsequent 24 hours of recovery. Nuclei were isolated and tissue frozen from vastus lateralis muscle biopsies obtained...

  18. A manual physical therapy intervention for symptoms of knee osteoarthritis and associated fall risk: A case series of four patients. (United States)

    Allen, Chris; Sheehan, Riley; Deyle, Gail; Wilken, Jason; Gill, Norman


    Patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) are at an increased risk of falling. Further, the symptoms associated with knee OA are correlated with fall risk. A manual physical therapy (MPT) approach consisting of mobilizing techniques and reinforcing exercise improves the symptoms and functional limitations associated with knee OA. The purpose of this case series is to evaluate an MPT intervention of mobilization techniques and exercise for knee OA on improving symptoms and quantify the secondary benefit of improving stumble recovery. Four patients with symptomatic knee OA and four matched controls completed a fall risk assessment. Following 4 weeks of intervention, patients were reevaluated. Initial Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) scores indicated notable symptoms and functional limitations in all patients. In addition, all patients displayed elevated fall risk and/or impaired stumble responses. Following 4 weeks of intervention, all patients reported meaningful reductions in all three WOMAC subscales and demonstrated improvements in at least two of the three fall risk measures. We identified potential connections between symptom relief in patients with knee OA, stumble response, and ultimately fall risk. The results suggest that MPT intervention designed to improve the signs and symptoms of knee OA may lead to a secondary benefit of improved gait stability and stumble response.

  19. The Life Mission Theory VI. A Theory for the Human Character: Healing with Holistic Medicine Through Recovery of Character and Purpose of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt


    Full Text Available The human character can be understood as an extension of the life mission or purpose of life, and explained as the primary tool of a person to impact others and express the purpose of life. Repression of the human character makes it impossible for a person to realize his personal mission in life and, therefore, is one of the primary causes of self-repression resulting in poor quality of life, health, and ability. From Hippocrates to Hahnemann, repression of physical, mental, and spiritual character can be seen as the prime cause of disease, while recovery of character has been the primary intention of the treatment. In this paper, human character is explained as an intersubjective aspect of consciousness with the ability to influence the consciousness of another person directly. To understand consciousness, we reintroduce the seven-ray theory of consciousness explaining consciousness in accordance with a fractal ontology with a bifurcation number of seven (the numbers four to ten work almost as well. A case report on a female, aged 35 years, with severe hormonal disturbances, diagnosed with extremely early menopause, is presented and treated according to the theory of holistic existential healing (the holistic process theory of healing. After recovery of her character and purpose of life, her quality of life dramatically improved and hormonal status normalized. We believe that the recovery of human character and purpose of life was the central intention of Hippocrates and thus the original essence of western medicine. Interestingly, there are strong parallels to the peyote medicine of the Native Americans, the African Sangomas, the Australian Aboriginal healers, and the old Nordic medicine. The recovery of human character was also the intention of Hahnemann's homeopathy. We believe that we are at the core of consciousness-based medicine, as recovery of purpose of life and human character has been practiced as medicine in most human cultures

  20. Ups and downs of alcohol use among first-year college students: Number of drinks, heavy drinking, and stumble and pass out drinking days. (United States)

    Maggs, Jennifer L; Williams, Lela Rankin; Lee, Christine M


    Given the dynamic fluctuating nature of alcohol use among emerging adults (Del Boca, Darkes, Greenbaum, & Goldman, 2004), patterns of alcohol use were modeled across 70 days in an intensive repeated-measures diary design. Two hundred first-year college students provided 10 weekly reports of their daily alcohol consumption via computer-assisted telephone interviews. Multi-level models demonstrated large within-person variability across days in drinks consumed, binge drinking, and days exceeding self-reported limits for stumbling around and passing out; these outcome variables were predicted by weekdays vs. weekend days (within-person) and gender, age of drinking initiation, fraternity/sorority membership, and alcohol motivations (between-persons). Repeated measurement of alternate indicators of alcohol use permits the examination of novel and important questions about alcohol use and abuse particularly in young adult and other erratically drinking populations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Reduced malonyl-CoA content in recovery from exercise correlates with improved insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøsig, Christian; Roepstorff, Carsten; Brandt, Nina


    This study evaluated whether improved insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in recovery from acute exercise coincides with reduced malonyl-CoA (MCoA) content in human muscle. Furthermore, we investigated whether a high-fat diet [65 energy-% (Fat)] would alter the content of MCoA and insulin action...... to be compromised, although to a minor extent, by the Fat diet. Collectively, this study indicates that reduced muscle MCoA content in recovery from exercise may be part of the adaptive response leading to improved insulin action on glucose uptake after exercise in human muscle....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Gaalova


    Full Text Available We studied the influence of corrosion in acidic beverages (white wine, pH~3.5 on micromechanical properties of human teeth. Simultaneously, the effect of fluorine-containing mouthwash (pH~4.4 and of artificial saliva (pH~5.3 in terms of their protective action against corrosion, and the recovery of mechanical properties through fluoridation and re-calcification was studied. The influence of the solutions on Vickers hardness of dental enamel was monitored on the basis of results from the corrosion tests carried out under quasi-dynamic conditions. The tests were performed at the temperature corresponding to the temperature of human body (37°C. The measurements confirmed a significant deterioration of microhardness with prolonged exposure to white wine. The Vickers hardness decreased from 347 HV0.2 in un-corroded specimens to 186 HV0.2 in samples corroded for 60 minutes in white wine. A recovery of Vickers hardness was observed after 60 minutes exposition time in the fluoridation solution, with the increase from 186 to 372 HV0.2. Similar effect was observed in the artificial saliva solution, with observed hardness increase from 186 to 320 HV0.2. Healing of corrosion-induced defects by the action of both solutions was observed by SEM, and associated with observed increase of hardness

  3. Uses and abuses of recovery: implementing recovery-oriented practices in mental health systems (United States)

    Slade, Mike; Amering, Michaela; Farkas, Marianne; Hamilton, Bridget; O'Hagan, Mary; Panther, Graham; Perkins, Rachel; Shepherd, Geoff; Tse, Samson; Whitley, Rob


    An understanding of recovery as a personal and subjective experience has emerged within mental health systems. This meaning of recovery now underpins mental health policy in many countries. Developing a focus on this type of recovery will involve transformation within mental health systems. Human systems do not easily transform. In this paper, we identify seven mis-uses (“abuses”) of the concept of recovery: recovery is the latest model; recovery does not apply to “my” patients; services can make people recover through effective treatment; compulsory detention and treatment aid recovery; a recovery orientation means closing services; recovery is about making people independent and normal; and contributing to society happens only after the person is recovered. We then identify ten empirically-validated interventions which support recovery, by targeting key recovery processes of connectedness, hope, identity, meaning and empowerment (the CHIME framework). The ten interventions are peer support workers, advance directives, wellness recovery action planning, illness management and recovery, REFOCUS, strengths model, recovery colleges or recovery education programs, individual placement and support, supported housing, and mental health trialogues. Finally, three scientific challenges are identified: broadening cultural understandings of recovery, implementing organizational transformation, and promoting citizenship. PMID:24497237

  4. Recovery of Drug Delivery Nanoparticles from Human Plasma Using an Electrokinetic Platform Technology. (United States)

    Ibsen, Stuart; Sonnenberg, Avery; Schutt, Carolyn; Mukthavaram, Rajesh; Yeh, Yasan; Ortac, Inanc; Manouchehri, Sareh; Kesari, Santosh; Esener, Sadik; Heller, Michael J


    The effect of complex biological fluids on the surface and structure of nanoparticles is a rapidly expanding field of study. One of the challenges holding back this research is the difficulty of recovering therapeutic nanoparticles from biological samples due to their small size, low density, and stealth surface coatings. Here, the first demonstration of the recovery and analysis of drug delivery nanoparticles from undiluted human plasma samples through the use of a new electrokinetic platform technology is presented. The particles are recovered from plasma through a dielectrophoresis separation force that is created by innate differences in the dielectric properties between the unaltered nanoparticles and the surrounding plasma. It is shown that this can be applied to a wide range of drug delivery nanoparticles of different morphologies and materials, including low-density nanoliposomes. These recovered particles can then be analyzed using different methods including scanning electron microscopy to monitor surface and structural changes that result from plasma exposure. This new recovery technique can be broadly applied to the recovery of nanoparticles from high conductance fluids in a wide range of applications. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Recovery from inhibition by UV-irradiation of ornithine decarboxylase induction in human cells: implication of excision repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Hur, E.; Prager, A. (Nuclear Research Centre-Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel)); Buonaguro, F. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))


    Exposure of stationary-phase human breast carcinoma (T-47D) cells to far-UV light (254nm) inhibited the appearance of induced ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity. The fluence response curve had a shoulder (Dsub(q)=2Jm/sup -2/) followed by an exponential decline (D/sub 0/=4.2Jm/sup -2/). The cells could recover from this inhibition when the stimulus of induction of ODC was delayed for 20-24h after irradiation. Hydroxyurea (HU) when present at 3mM during the recovery period eliminated completely the ability of the cells to recover. This effect of HU on ODC induction was partially reversed by of the four deoxyribonucleosides required for DNA synthesis. Neither HU nor the deoxyribonucleosides by themselves affected ODC induction in unirradiated cells. Since HU inhibited the recovery from potentially lethal UV damage and is a known inhibitor of excision repair, it is suggested that recovery from UV-induced inhibition of ODC induction depends on excision-repair of DNA damage. This interpretation is strongly supported by the finding that specific photolysis of 5-bromodeoxyuridine, incorporated into DNA during the recovery period, inhibited recovery of ODC induction from inhibition by UV light.

  6. 'Becoming human again': Exploring connections between nature and recovery from stress and post-traumatic distress. (United States)

    Westlund, Stephanie


    Many military veterans are seeking ways beyond conventional treatments to manage their stress injuries. An increasing number is turning to nature, including hiking and fishing, farming and gardening, and building relationships with dogs or horses. Many continue to benefit from medication and therapy, but find that nature provides an additional measure of support, relief and healing in their lives. This paper examines reciprocal interactions between humans and nature during post-conflict recovery, with a focus on the experiences of four North American veterans who regard their personal recovery from stressful and traumatic military experiences as intimately tied to their nature experiences. Experience-centered narrative inquiry often sheds light on details and experiences concealed or overlooked by other research paradigms. In-depth interviews about post-military experiences with recovery were conducted with four veterans who suffer from stress and/or post-traumatic distress; these experiences are further illuminated by supporting interviews, and theories and praxis in ecopsychology, cognitive science, neuroscience, biophilia, and ecological intelligence. Through exploring themes of sensory experience, safety, sense of purpose, and renewed relationships, this research gives space to former soldiers' stories of experience and to their individual realizations that their embodied interconnections with nature provide alternative experiences to their military training and combat exposure. The veterans' experiences with nature and recovery are pointing towards an avenue of recovery that is little acknowledged in the mainstream literature and praxis, but deserving of attention.

  7. Simultaneous production of biocrude oil and recovery of nutrients and metals from human feces via hydrothermal liquefaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Jianwen; Zhang, Jiaren; Zhu, Zhangbing; Zhang, Yuanhui; Zhao, Yu; Li, Ruirui; Watson, Jamison; Li, Baoming; Liu, Zhidan


    Highlights: • Fast degradation of human waste and energy recovery via hydrothermal liquefaction. • Biocrude, nutrients and metals in human waste are physically separated via HTL. • Max. liquefied fraction was 87.89%, and highest biocrude yield was 34.44% • HTL is promising for treatment from human wastes, and other wet biowastes. - Abstract: Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is a thermochemical process specifically suitable for treating wet wastes. This study investigated its potential for the production of biocrude oil and the recovery of nutrients and metals from human feces via HTL. Specifically, the effects of temperature (260 °C, 300 °C, 340 °C), retention time (10 min, 30 min, 50 min) and total solid (TS) content (5%, 15%, 25%) were studied. The maximum liquefied fraction was 87.89% and the highest biocrude yield reached 34.44% with a higher heating value of 40.29 MJ/kg. Experimental results showed that 54% of carbon in the human feces was migrated to the biocrude oil while 72% of nitrogen was released to the aqueous phase. In addition, most of heavy and alkaline-earth metal elements in the human feces, including Ca (89%), Mg (81%), Al (88%), Fe (72%) and Zn (94%) were distributed in the solid residue, whereas K (89%) and Na (73%) were mainly dissolved into the aqueous phase. This study demonstrated that the efficient degradation of human waste via HTL without any pretreatment and its potential for the valorization in biocrude oil as well as separated nutrients and metals.

  8. Relationship between muscle water and glycogen recovery after prolonged exercise in the heat in humans. (United States)

    Fernández-Elías, Valentín E; Ortega, Juan F; Nelson, Rachael K; Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo


    It is usually stated that glycogen is stored in human muscle bound to water in a proportion of 1:3 g. We investigated this proportion in biopsy samples during recovery from prolonged exercise. On two occasions, nine aerobically trained subjects ([Formula: see text] = 54.4 ± 1.05 mL kg(-1) min(-1); mean ± SD) dehydrated 4.6 ± 0.2 % by cycling 150 min at 65 % [Formula: see text] in a hot-dry environment (33 ± 4 °C). One hour after exercise subjects ingested 250 g of carbohydrates in 400 mL of water (REHLOW) or the same syrup plus water to match fluid losses (i.e., 3170 ± 190 mL; REHFULL). Muscle biopsies were obtained before, 1 and 4 h after exercise. In both trials muscle water decreased from pre-exercise similarly by 13 ± 6 % and muscle glycogen by 44 ± 10 % (P recovery, glycogen levels were similar in both trials (79 ± 15 and 87 ± 18 g kg(-1) dry muscle; P = 0.20) while muscle water content was higher in REHFULL than in REHLOW (3814 ± 222 vs. 3459 ± 324 g kg(-1) dm, respectively; P recovery ratio 1:3) while during REHFULL this ratio was higher (1:17). Our findings agree with the long held notion that each gram of glycogen is stored in human muscle with at least 3 g of water. Higher ratios are possible (e.g., during REHFULL) likely due to water storage not bound to glycogen.

  9. Axial Creep Loading and Unloaded Recovery of the Human Intervertebral Disc and the Effect of Degeneration (United States)

    O'Connell, Grace D.; Jacobs, Nathan T.; Sen, Sounok; Vresilovic, Edward J.; Elliott, Dawn M.


    The intervertebral disc maintains a balance between externally applied loads and internal osmotic pressure. Fluid flow plays a key role in this process, causing fluctuations in disc hydration and height. The objectives of this study were to quantify and model the axial creep and recovery responses of nondegenerate and degenerate human lumbar discs. Two experiments were performed. First, a slow compressive ramp was applied to 2000 N, unloaded to allow recovery for up to 24 hours, and re-applied. The linear-region stiffness and disc height were within 5% of the initial condition for recovery times greater than 8 hours. In the second experiment, a 1000 N creep load was applied for four hours, unloaded recovery monitored for 24 hours, and the creep load repeated. A viscoelastic model comprised of a “fast” and “slow” exponential response was used to describe the creep and recovery, where the fast response is associated with flow in the nucleus pulposus (NP) and endplate, while the slow response is associated with the annulus fibrosus (AF). The study demonstrated that recovery is 3-4X slower than loading. The fast response was correlated with degeneration, suggesting larger changes in the NP with degeneration compared to the AF. However, the fast response comprised only 10-15% of the total equilibrium displacement, with the AF-dominated slow response comprising 40-70%. Finally, the physiological loads and deformations and their associated long equilibrium times confirm that diurnal loading does not represent “equilibrium” in the disc, but that over time the disc is in steady-state. PMID:21783103

  10. The independent action of radiation and cisplatin on the survival or recovery of human normal or tumour cells in vitro or in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basham, C.; Mills, J.; Roberts, J.J.


    Recovery from γ-radiation- or cisplatin-induced lethal damage was studied in euoxic normal human foetal lung fibroblasts (HFL cells). After 1 hour treatment with cisplatin the half-time of recovery was about 2 days. Recovery after radiation presented half-times of approximately 10 h, with further measurable recovery after 2 days. With either agent recovery ratios (RR) were dose-dependent but recovery (following treatment with equitoxic doses of both agents) was appreciably greater after cisplatin (RR ''approx.'' 123 after 40μm for 1 h) than after radiation (RR ''approx.'' 15 after 900 cGy). When radiation (900 cGy) was combined with cisplatin (40 μm for 1 h) the cell survival (measured at 5 days post-treatment or later) was not significantly less than that predicted by the additive, independent effects of both agents irrespective of whether cisplatin was given 1 h before, during or for 1 h after radiation. In euoxic, exponentially growing HFL or HeLa cells there was no evidence that combinations of cisplatin and radiation gave more than additive toxic effects. The combined effects of cisplatin or carboplatin and whole-body irradiation given 45 min later, on human melanoma cells were essentially the same as that predicted by the additive, independent effects of both agents. (author)

  11. Recovery Audit Program (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Recovery Audit Programs mission is to identify and correct Medicare improper payments through the efficient detection and collection of overpayments made on...

  12. Sampling methods for recovery of human enteric viruses from environmental surfaces. (United States)

    Turnage, Nicole L; Gibson, Kristen E


    Acute gastroenteritis causes the second highest infectious disease burden worldwide. Human enteric viruses have been identified as leading causative agents of acute gastroenteritis as well as foodborne illnesses in the U.S. and are generally transmitted by fecal-oral contamination. There is growing evidence of transmission occurring via contaminated fomite including food contact surfaces. Additionally, human enteric viruses have been shown to remain infectious on fomites over prolonged periods of time. To better understand viral persistence, there is a need for more studies to investigate this phenomenon. Therefore, optimization of surface sampling methods is essential to aid in understanding environmental contamination to ensure proper preventative measures are being applied. In general, surface sampling studies are limited and highly variable among recovery efficiencies and research parameters used (e.g., virus type/density, surface type, elution buffers, tools). This review aims to discuss the various factors impacting surface sampling of viruses from fomites and to explore how researchers could move towards a more sensitive and standard sampling method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Hyperthermia radiosensitization in human glioma cells comparison of recovery of polymerase activity, survival, and potentially lethal damage repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raaphorst, G.P.; Feeley, M.M.


    DNA polymerase inactivation is compared to thermal radiosensitization and inhibition of damage recovery in human glioma cells. Two human glioma cell lines (U87MG and U373MG) were exposed to hyperthermia and irradiation. Hyperthermia was given at 43 degrees C and 45 degrees C and DNA polymerase α + δ + ε and β activities were measured. Hyperthermia was given at various times before irradiation and the degree of radiosensitization and polymerase activity was assessed at various times after heating. In addition the ability of cells to undergo repair of potentially lethal radiation damage was assessed for cells irradiated at various times after heating. Polymerase α + δ + ε and polymerase β both recovered after heating but polymerase β was faster and was complete in U373MG but not in the U87MG cell lines after 48 h incubation after heating (45 degrees C, 60 min). Incubation, between hyperthermia and irradiation resulted in a loss of radiosensitization and a loss of inhibition of repair of potentially lethal damage. These changes correlated well with recovery of polymerase β but not with polymerase α + δ + ε. The correlation of polymerase β activity and thermoradiosensitization and its recovery indicate that polymerase β may be one of the mechanisms involved in thermoradiosensitization. 35 refs., 7 figs

  14. Human Neural Precursor Cells Promote Neurologic Recovery in a Viral Model of Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Chen


    Full Text Available Using a viral model of the demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis (MS, we show that intraspinal transplantation of human embryonic stem cell-derived neural precursor cells (hNPCs results in sustained clinical recovery, although hNPCs were not detectable beyond day 8 posttransplantation. Improved motor skills were associated with a reduction in neuroinflammation, decreased demyelination, and enhanced remyelination. Evidence indicates that the reduced neuroinflammation is correlated with an increased number of CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs within the spinal cords. Coculture of hNPCs with activated T cells resulted in reduced T cell proliferation and increased Treg numbers. The hNPCs acted, in part, through secretion of TGF-β1 and TGF-β2. These findings indicate that the transient presence of hNPCs transplanted in an animal model of MS has powerful immunomodulatory effects and mediates recovery. Further investigation of the restorative effects of hNPC transplantation may aid in the development of clinically relevant MS treatments.

  15. Transplantation of mononuclear cells from human umbilical cord blood promotes functional recovery after traumatic spinal cord injury in Wistar rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, L.P.; Iglesias, D.; Nicola, F.C.; Steffens, D.; Valentim, L.; Witczak, A.; Zanatta, G.; Achaval, M.; Pranke, P.; Netto, C.A.


    Cell transplantation is a promising experimental treatment for spinal cord injury. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of mononuclear cells from human umbilical cord blood in promoting functional recovery when transplanted after a contusion spinal cord injury. Female Wistar rats (12 weeks old) were submitted to spinal injury with a MASCIS impactor and divided into 4 groups: control, surgical control, spinal cord injury, and one cell-treated lesion group. Mononuclear cells from umbilical cord blood of human male neonates were transplanted in two experiments: a) 1 h after surgery, into the injury site at a concentration of 5 x 10 6 cells diluted in 10 µL 0.9% NaCl (N = 8-10 per group); b) into the cisterna magna, 9 days after lesion at a concentration of 5 x 10 6 cells diluted in 150 µL 0.9% NaCl (N = 12-14 per group). The transplanted animals were immunosuppressed with cyclosporin-A (10 mg/kg per day). The BBB scale was used to evaluate motor behavior and the injury site was analyzed with immunofluorescent markers to label human transplanted cells, oligodendrocytes, neurons, and astrocytes. Spinal cord injury rats had 25% loss of cord tissue and cell treatment did not affect lesion extension. Transplanted cells survived in the injured area for 6 weeks after the procedure and both transplanted groups showed better motor recovery than the untreated ones (P < 0.05). The transplantation of mononuclear cells from human umbilical cord blood promoted functional recovery with no evidence of cell differentiation

  16. Transplantation of mononuclear cells from human umbilical cord blood promotes functional recovery after traumatic spinal cord injury in Wistar rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, L.P. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Neurociências, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Iglesias, D. [Laboratório de Hematologia e Células-Tronco, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Nicola, F.C. [Departamento de Bioquímica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Steffens, D. [Laboratório de Hematologia e Células-Tronco, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Valentim, L.; Witczak, A.; Zanatta, G. [Departamento de Bioquímica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Achaval, M. [Departamento de Ciências Morfológicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Pranke, P. [Laboratório de Hematologia e Células-Tronco, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Netto, C.A. [Departamento de Bioquímica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)


    Cell transplantation is a promising experimental treatment for spinal cord injury. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of mononuclear cells from human umbilical cord blood in promoting functional recovery when transplanted after a contusion spinal cord injury. Female Wistar rats (12 weeks old) were submitted to spinal injury with a MASCIS impactor and divided into 4 groups: control, surgical control, spinal cord injury, and one cell-treated lesion group. Mononuclear cells from umbilical cord blood of human male neonates were transplanted in two experiments: a) 1 h after surgery, into the injury site at a concentration of 5 x 10{sup 6} cells diluted in 10 µL 0.9% NaCl (N = 8-10 per group); b) into the cisterna magna, 9 days after lesion at a concentration of 5 x 10{sup 6} cells diluted in 150 µL 0.9% NaCl (N = 12-14 per group). The transplanted animals were immunosuppressed with cyclosporin-A (10 mg/kg per day). The BBB scale was used to evaluate motor behavior and the injury site was analyzed with immunofluorescent markers to label human transplanted cells, oligodendrocytes, neurons, and astrocytes. Spinal cord injury rats had 25% loss of cord tissue and cell treatment did not affect lesion extension. Transplanted cells survived in the injured area for 6 weeks after the procedure and both transplanted groups showed better motor recovery than the untreated ones (P < 0.05). The transplantation of mononuclear cells from human umbilical cord blood promoted functional recovery with no evidence of cell differentiation.

  17. The recovery of the human organism after radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, G.B.


    The repair of radiation damage in the human organism is reviewed. A distinction is made between the single repair steps, first the molecular repair of sublethal damage during the periods of 30 min to 2 h and several days to months, second the substitution of the whole cells during a period of reproduction which is specific for the kind and persistence of the cells. One example is the radiosensitive stem cell with a reproduction rate of 40% and a redoublication time of 10 d at 100 rads and the very low reproduction rate of 1% with redoublication time of 7 d after a dose of 400 rads. 5 rads seems to be acceptable for systems with recovery and repeated exposure, single doses normally should not exceed 25 rads, not 100 rads/d for to save human life, and not a total dose of 500 rads. About 20% of irradiation damage is not repaired and leads to late effects, for example the induction of tumors, the shortening of life span and an increase in embryonic mortality. The author recommends the acceptance of a radiation dose leading to 20 additional cases of leucemia in the whole population of Germany and an increase of tumor frequency of 1%. The shortening of life span should not exceed 0,5%. The equivalent residual dose (ERD) can be calculated by the following equation: ERD = last effective dose minus 5 rads x number of days. (AJ) [de

  18. Interspecies hybridization on DNA resequencing microarrays: efficiency of sequence recovery and accuracy of SNP detection in human, ape, and codfish mitochondrial DNA genomes sequenced on a human-specific MitoChip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carr Steven M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iterative DNA "resequencing" on oligonucleotide microarrays offers a high-throughput method to measure intraspecific biodiversity, one that is especially suited to SNP-dense gene regions such as vertebrate mitochondrial (mtDNA genomes. However, costs of single-species design and microarray fabrication are prohibitive. A cost-effective, multi-species strategy is to hybridize experimental DNAs from diverse species to a common microarray that is tiled with oligonucleotide sets from multiple, homologous reference genomes. Such a strategy requires that cross-hybridization between the experimental DNAs and reference oligos from the different species not interfere with the accurate recovery of species-specific data. To determine the pattern and limits of such interspecific hybridization, we compared the efficiency of sequence recovery and accuracy of SNP identification by a 15,452-base human-specific microarray challenged with human, chimpanzee, gorilla, and codfish mtDNA genomes. Results In the human genome, 99.67% of the sequence was recovered with 100.0% accuracy. Accuracy of SNP identification declines log-linearly with sequence divergence from the reference, from 0.067 to 0.247 errors per SNP in the chimpanzee and gorilla genomes, respectively. Efficiency of sequence recovery declines with the increase of the number of interspecific SNPs in the 25b interval tiled by the reference oligonucleotides. In the gorilla genome, which differs from the human reference by 10%, and in which 46% of these 25b regions contain 3 or more SNP differences from the reference, only 88% of the sequence is recoverable. In the codfish genome, which differs from the reference by > 30%, less than 4% of the sequence is recoverable, in short islands ≥ 12b that are conserved between primates and fish. Conclusion Experimental DNAs bind inefficiently to homologous reference oligonucleotide sets on a re-sequencing microarray when their sequences differ by

  19. [Success Factors and Stumbling Blocks in the Cooperation with Child and Adolescent Psychiatry/Psychotherapy from the Perspective of Social Pedagogues]. (United States)

    Müller-Luzi, Seraina; Schmid, Marc


    Success Factors and Stumbling Blocks in the Cooperation with Child and Adolescent Psychiatry/Psychotherapy from the Perspective of Social Pedagogues In numerous current studies, experts describe a need for improved cooperation between employees of youth welfare and child and adolescent psychiatry/-psychotherapy. The present study investigates how social pedagogues working in youth welfare institutions perceive psychiatrists or psychologists working in child and adolescent psychiatry. Benefits and difficulties of the cooperation are described and potential areas of improvement as perceived by youth welfare employees are identified. The study presents quantitative and qualitative data and pursues a mixed-method approach. The qualitative evaluation is based on the content structuring qualitative content analysis according to Kuckartz (2012) and is complemented by descriptive data. The results are based on the responses of 221 social pedagogues in Switzerland. While 97.7 % of respondents perceive interdisciplinary collaborations for children with high psychological stress as ideal, they also mention various barriers that hinder effective and efficient cooperation. Many social pedagogues wish for the field of child and adolescent psychiatry to show a greater interest in their job profile, as well as more appreciation for the demanding work that they perform. Clarification of roles and responsibilities, a better flow of information and a direct person of contact are also deemed important aspects to improve upon. The study suggests practical approaches for a more effective cooperation.

  20. Delayed intramuscular human neurotrophin-3 improves recovery in adult and elderly rats after stroke. (United States)

    Duricki, Denise A; Hutson, Thomas H; Kathe, Claudia; Soleman, Sara; Gonzalez-Carter, Daniel; Petruska, Jeffrey C; Shine, H David; Chen, Qin; Wood, Tobias C; Bernanos, Michel; Cash, Diana; Williams, Steven C R; Gage, Fred H; Moon, Lawrence D F


    There is an urgent need for a therapy that reverses disability after stroke when initiated in a time frame suitable for the majority of new victims. We show here that intramuscular delivery of neurotrophin-3 (NT3, encoded by NTF3) can induce sensorimotor recovery when treatment is initiated 24 h after stroke. Specifically, in two randomized, blinded preclinical trials, we show improved sensory and locomotor function in adult (6 months) and elderly (18 months) rats treated 24 h following cortical ischaemic stroke with human NT3 delivered using a clinically approved serotype of adeno-associated viral vector (AAV1). Importantly, AAV1-hNT3 was given in a clinically-feasible timeframe using a straightforward, targeted route (injections into disabled forelimb muscles). Magnetic resonance imaging and histology showed that recovery was not due to neuroprotection, as expected given the delayed treatment. Rather, treatment caused corticospinal axons from the less affected hemisphere to sprout in the spinal cord. This treatment is the first gene therapy that reverses disability after stroke when administered intramuscularly in an elderly body. Importantly, phase I and II clinical trials by others show that repeated, peripherally administered high doses of recombinant NT3 are safe and well tolerated in humans with other conditions. This paves the way for NT3 as a therapy for stroke. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  1. Transplantation of Human Skin-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Improves Locomotor Recovery After Spinal Cord Injury in Rats. (United States)

    Melo, Fernanda Rosene; Bressan, Raul Bardini; Forner, Stefânia; Martini, Alessandra Cadete; Rode, Michele; Delben, Priscilla Barros; Rae, Giles Alexander; Figueiredo, Claudia Pinto; Trentin, Andrea Gonçalves


    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating neurologic disorder with significant impacts on quality of life, life expectancy, and economic burden. Although there are no fully restorative treatments yet available, several animal and small-scale clinical studies have highlighted the therapeutic potential of cellular interventions for SCI. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)-which are conventionally isolated from the bone marrow-recently emerged as promising candidates for treating SCI and have been shown to provide trophic support, ameliorate inflammatory responses, and reduce cell death following the mechanical trauma. Here we evaluated the human skin as an alternative source of adult MSCs suitable for autologous cell transplantation strategies for SCI. We showed that human skin-derived MSCs (hSD-MSCs) express a range of neural markers under standard culture conditions and are able to survive and respond to neurogenic stimulation in vitro. In addition, using histological analysis and behavioral assessment, we demonstrated as a proof-of-principle that hSD-MSC transplantation reduces the severity of tissue loss and facilitates locomotor recovery in a rat model of SCI. Altogether, the study provides further characterization of skin-derived MSC cultures and indicates that the human skin may represent an attractive source for cell-based therapies for SCI and other neurological disorders. Further investigation is needed to elucidate the mechanisms by which hSD-MSCs elicit tissue repair and/or locomotor recovery.

  2. Foundations for Reasoning in Cognition-Based Computational Representations of Human Decision Making; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    In exploring the question of how humans reason in ambiguous situations or in the absence of complete information, we stumbled onto a body of knowledge that addresses issues beyond the original scope of our effort. We have begun to understand the importance that philosophy, in particular the work of C. S. Peirce, plays in developing models of human cognition and of information theory in general. We have a foundation that can serve as a basis for further studies in cognition and decision making. Peircean philosophy provides a foundation for understanding human reasoning and capturing behavioral characteristics of decision makers due to cultural, physiological, and psychological effects. The present paper describes this philosophical approach to understanding the underpinnings of human reasoning. We present the work of C. S. Peirce, and define sets of fundamental reasoning behavior that would be captured in the mathematical constructs of these newer technologies and would be able to interact in an agent type framework. Further, we propose the adoption of a hybrid reasoning model based on his work for future computational representations or emulations of human cognition

  3. Forensic Archaeological Recovery of a Large-Scale Mass Disaster Scene: Lessons Learned from Two Complex Recovery Operations at the World Trade Center Site. (United States)

    Warnasch, Scott C


    In 2006, unexpected discoveries of buried World Trade Center (WTC) debris and human remains were made at the World Trade Center mass disaster site. New York City's Office of Chief Medical Examiner (OCME) was given the task of systematically searching the site for any remaining victims' remains. The subsequent OCME assessment and archaeological excavation conducted from 2006 until 2013, resulted in the recovery of over 1,900 victims' remains. In addition, this operation demonstrated the essential skills archaeologists can provide in a mass disaster recovery operation. The OCME excavation data illustrates some of the challenges encountered during the original recovery effort of 2001/2002. It suggests that when understood within the larger site recovery context, certain fundamental components of the original recovery effort, such as operational priorities and activities in effect during the original recovery, directly or indirectly resulted in unsearched deposits that contained human remains. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  4. Social sciences in Puget Sound recovery (United States)

    Katharine F. Wellman; Kelly Biedenweg; Kathleen Wolf


    Advancing the recovery of large-scale ecosystems, such as the Puget Sound inWashington State, requires improved knowledge of the interdependencies between nature and humans in that basin region. As Biedenweg et al. (this issue) illustrate, human wellbeing and human behavior do not occur independently of the biophysical environment. Natural environments contribute to...

  5. Ammonia metabolism during intense dynamic exercise and recovery in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graham, T; Bangsbo, Jens; Gollnick, PD


     declined immediately on cessation of exercise. Recovery was complete in approximately 20 min. Arterial [NH3] increased less rapidly and reached itsmaximum 2-3 min into recovery. These data demonstrate that NH3 clearance is more sensitive to the cessation of exercise than is NH3 release from skeletal muscle. Muscle [NH...

  6. Recovery of Epstein--Barr virus from nonproducer neonatal human lymphoid cell transformants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, G.; Miller, G.


    Lymphoid cell lines (LCL) were established by infection of two batches of human umbilical cord lymphocytes with low multiplicities of the B95-8 strain of Epstein--Barr virus. Three of the 17 lines released minute mounts of transforming virus. The rest did not, nor did they make capsid antigen. However virus could be regularly recovered by lethal x-irradiation of transformed cells followed by cocultivation with primary human umbilical cord leukocytes. By this technique transforming activity could be identified in 15 of the 17 lines. These data indicate that these nonproducer human neonatal cell transformants established by EBV infection in vitro possess sufficient genetic information to code for production of biologically active mature virions. X rays alone failed to cause a detectable increase in the number of cells with capsid antigen or to enhance extracellular virus production. EBV-positive human serum blocked rescue if it was added during the first 2 to 4 hr after cocultivation, but not thereafter. Transforming virus could be recovered from x-rayed cells which were immediately thereafter lysed by freezing and thawing. These results suggest that recovery of virus following x-ray and cocultivation is not due to activation of the intracellular virus genome. Rather, it is likely that the method detects small numbers of virions which are cell associated. While transforming virus could regularly be rescued from lymphoblastoid cell lines resulting from in vitro transformation, attempts to rescue virus from Raji or EBV-converted BJAB cells were unsuccessful. This discrepancy suggests differences in genome complexity or in genome-cell interactions in different types of EBV-transformed cells

  7. Human dental pulp-derived stem cells promote locomotor recovery after complete transection of the rat spinal cord by multiple neuro-regenerative mechanisms. (United States)

    Sakai, Kiyoshi; Yamamoto, Akihito; Matsubara, Kohki; Nakamura, Shoko; Naruse, Mami; Yamagata, Mari; Sakamoto, Kazuma; Tauchi, Ryoji; Wakao, Norimitsu; Imagama, Shiro; Hibi, Hideharu; Kadomatsu, Kenji; Ishiguro, Naoki; Ueda, Minoru


    Spinal cord injury (SCI) often leads to persistent functional deficits due to loss of neurons and glia and to limited axonal regeneration after injury. Here we report that transplantation of human dental pulp stem cells into the completely transected adult rat spinal cord resulted in marked recovery of hind limb locomotor functions. Transplantation of human bone marrow stromal cells or skin-derived fibroblasts led to substantially less recovery of locomotor function. The human dental pulp stem cells exhibited three major neuroregenerative activities. First, they inhibited the SCI-induced apoptosis of neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes, which improved the preservation of neuronal filaments and myelin sheaths. Second, they promoted the regeneration of transected axons by directly inhibiting multiple axon growth inhibitors, including chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan and myelin-associated glycoprotein, via paracrine mechanisms. Last, they replaced lost cells by differentiating into mature oligodendrocytes under the extreme conditions of SCI. Our data demonstrate that tooth-derived stem cells may provide therapeutic benefits for treating SCI through both cell-autonomous and paracrine neuroregenerative activities.

  8. Estimating Recovery Failure Probabilities in Off-normal Situations from Full-Scope Simulator Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yochan; Park, Jinkyun; Kim, Seunghwan; Choi, Sun Yeong; Jung, Wondea [Korea Atomic Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    As part of this effort, KAERI developed the Human Reliability data EXtraction (HuREX) framework and is collecting full-scope simulator-based human reliability data into the OPERA (Operator PErformance and Reliability Analysis) database. In this study, with the series of estimation research for HEPs or PSF effects, significant information for a quantitative HRA analysis, recovery failure probabilities (RFPs), were produced from the OPERA database. Unsafe acts can occur at any time in safety-critical systems and the operators often manage the systems by discovering their errors and eliminating or mitigating them. To model the recovery processes or recovery strategies, there were several researches that categorize the recovery behaviors. Because the recent human error trends are required to be considered during a human reliability analysis, Jang et al. can be seen as an essential effort of the data collection. However, since the empirical results regarding soft controls were produced from a controlled laboratory environment with student participants, it is necessary to analyze a wide range of operator behaviors using full-scope simulators. This paper presents the statistics related with human error recovery behaviors obtained from the full-scope simulations that in-site operators participated in. In this study, the recovery effects by shift changes or technical support centers were not considered owing to a lack of simulation data.

  9. Human neural stem cells differentiate and promote locomotor recovery in an early chronic spinal cord injury NOD-scid mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desirée L Salazar


    Full Text Available Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI results in partial or complete paralysis and is characterized by a loss of neurons and oligodendrocytes, axonal injury, and demyelination/dysmyelination of spared axons. Approximately 1,250,000 individuals have chronic SCI in the U.S.; therefore treatment in the chronic stages is highly clinically relevant. Human neural stem cells (hCNS-SCns were prospectively isolated based on fluorescence-activated cell sorting for a CD133(+ and CD24(-/lo population from fetal brain, grown as neurospheres, and lineage restricted to generate neurons, oligodendrocytes and astrocytes. hCNS-SCns have recently been transplanted sub-acutely following spinal cord injury and found to promote improved locomotor recovery. We tested the ability of hCNS-SCns transplanted 30 days post SCI to survive, differentiate, migrate, and promote improved locomotor recovery.hCNS-SCns were transplanted into immunodeficient NOD-scid mice 30 days post spinal cord contusion injury. hCNS-SCns transplanted mice demonstrated significantly improved locomotor recovery compared to vehicle controls using open field locomotor testing and CatWalk gait analysis. Transplanted hCNS-SCns exhibited long-term engraftment, migration, limited proliferation, and differentiation predominantly to oligodendrocytes and neurons. Astrocytic differentiation was rare and mice did not exhibit mechanical allodynia. Furthermore, differentiated hCNS-SCns integrated with the host as demonstrated by co-localization of human cytoplasm with discrete staining for the paranodal marker contactin-associated protein.The results suggest that hCNS-SCns are capable of surviving, differentiating, and promoting improved locomotor recovery when transplanted into an early chronic injury microenvironment. These data suggest that hCNS-SCns transplantation has efficacy in an early chronic SCI setting and thus expands the "window of opportunity" for intervention.

  10. The current biodiversity extinction event: scenarios for mitigation and recovery. (United States)

    Novacek, M J; Cleland, E E


    The current massive degradation of habitat and extinction of species is taking place on a catastrophically short timescale, and their effects will fundamentally reset the future evolution of the planet's biota. The fossil record suggests that recovery of global ecosystems has required millions or even tens of millions of years. Thus, intervention by humans, the very agents of the current environmental crisis, is required for any possibility of short-term recovery or maintenance of the biota. Many current recovery efforts have deficiencies, including insufficient information on the diversity and distribution of species, ecological processes, and magnitude and interaction of threats to biodiversity (pollution, overharvesting, climate change, disruption of biogeochemical cycles, introduced or invasive species, habitat loss and fragmentation through land use, disruption of community structure in habitats, and others). A much greater and more urgently applied investment to address these deficiencies is obviously warranted. Conservation and restoration in human-dominated ecosystems must strengthen connections between human activities, such as agricultural or harvesting practices, and relevant research generated in the biological, earth, and atmospheric sciences. Certain threats to biodiversity require intensive international cooperation and input from the scientific community to mitigate their harmful effects, including climate change and alteration of global biogeochemical cycles. In a world already transformed by human activity, the connection between humans and the ecosystems they depend on must frame any strategy for the recovery of the biota.

  11. Recovery of human remains after shark attack. (United States)

    Byard, Roger W; James, Ross A; Heath, Karen J


    Two cases of fatal shark attack are reported where the only tissues recovered were fragments of lung. Case 1: An 18-year-old male who was in the sea behind a boat was observed by friends to be taken by a great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias). The shark dragged him under the water and then, with a second shark, dismembered the body. Witnesses noted a large amount of blood and unrecognizable body parts coming to the surface. The only tissues recovered despite an intensive beach and sea search were 2 fragments of lung. Case 2: A 19-year-old male was attacked by a great white shark while diving. A witness saw the shark swim away with the victim's body in its mouth. Again, despite intensive beach and sea searches, the only tissue recovered was a single piece of lung, along with pieces of wetsuit and diving equipment. These cases indicate that the only tissue to escape being consumed or lost in fatal shark attacks, where there is a significant attack with dismemberment and disruption of the integrity of the body, may be lung. The buoyancy of aerated pulmonary tissue ensures that it rises quickly to the surface, where it may be recovered by searchers soon after the attack. Aeration of the lung would be in keeping with death from trauma rather than from drowning and may be a useful marker in unwitnessed deaths to separate ante- from postmortem injury, using only relatively small amounts of tissues. Early organ recovery enhances the identification of human tissues as the extent of morphologic alterations by putrefactive processes and sea scavengers will have been minimized. DNA testing is also possible on such recovered fragments, enabling confirmation of the identity of the victim.

  12. Recovery of the Decorin-Enriched Fraction, Extract (D, From Human Skin: An Accelerated Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denys N. Wheatley


    Full Text Available The original extraction procedure of Engel and Catchpole [1] has often been used to recover decorin-enriched material from the skin. This material has a strong inhibitory effect on fibroblast proliferation, and clearly suppresses it in skin except after the first 5–6 days of wounding when new scaffold material is required. The aim of our present study has been to find and evaluate the product of a faster recovery method, and to check its consistency as a more reliable means of regularly obtaining sufficient material for topical application in wounds that might become hypertrophic. Modifications of the original Toole and Lowther [2] extraction procedure have been carefully evaluated in an attempt to cut preparation time without compromising biological activity of the inhibitory extract. We have devised a faster recovery procedure without compromising biological activity, even if initial recovery has been somewhat reduced. The latter problem could be offset by repeated cycles of the final extraction step. The main inhibitory activity is shown to be within the decorin-enriched “extract D,” as the core protein and DSPG II. Adjustment of the extract towards neutrality after dialysis against water keeps most of the extracted protein in solution and yielded a decorin-enriched preparation that had a specific activity equivalent to that of the old method. It also yielded a fraction that was readily lyophilised to give a small amount of material that could be stored indefinitely without loss of activity and readily redissolved in aqueous solution. A reliable and relatively quick method is presented for the production, from human skin, of a decorin-enriched preparation that has strong fibroblast inhibitory action. The value of the procedure is that it is inexpensive and can produce the quantities that might be used topically in reducing hypertrophic scarring of wounds.

  13. Recovery after whole-body radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattler, E.L.

    A recovery formula recommended by commissions III and IV of the Federal Ministry of Internal Affairs was tested on goldhamsters. Two test schemes were studied: in the first one recovery took place after irradiating 5 times ''equivalent'' to 100 R at a distance of 20 d with a combined residual damage ''equivalent'' to 100 R, in the second one with ''equivalent'' doses of up to the residual damage of 100 R at a distance of 11 d, which corresponds to a particularly bad recovery phase of the hamster. In both events the residual damage proved to be below the anticipated values. It is being discussed whether these results can be transferred to humans. (MG) [de

  14. Global patterns of drought recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwalm, Christopher R.; Anderegg, William R. L.; Michalak, Anna M.; Fisher, Joshua B.; Biondi, Franco; Koch, George; Litvak, Marcy; Ogle, Kiona; Shaw, John D.; Wolf, Adam; Huntzinger, Deborah N.; Schaefer, Kevin; Cook, Robert; Wei, Yaxing; Fang, Yuanyuan; Hayes, Daniel; Huang, Maoyi; Jain, Atul; Tian, Hanqin


    Drought is a recurring multi-factor phenomenon with major impacts on natural and human systems1-3. Drought is especially important for land carbon sink variability, influencing climate regulation of the terrestrial biosphere4. While 20th Century trends in drought regime are ambiguous, “more extreme extremes” as well as more frequent and severe droughts3,7 are expected in the 21st Century. Recovery time, the length of time an ecosystem requires to revert to its pre-drought functional state, is a critical metric of drought impact. Yet the spatiotemporal patterning and controls of drought recovery are largely unknown. Here we use three distinct global datasets of gross primary productivity to show that across diverse terrestrial ecosystems drought recovery times are driven by biological productivity and biodiversity, with drought length and severity of secondary importance. Recovery time, especially for extreme droughts, and the areal extent of ecosystems in recovery from drought generally increase over the 20th Century, supporting an increase globally in drought impact8. Our results indicate that if future Anthropocene droughts become more widespread as expected, that droughts will become more frequent relative to recovery time. This increases the risk of entering a new regime where vegetation never recovers to its original state and widespread degradation of the land carbon sink ensues.

  15. The impact of cost recovery and sharing system on water policy implementation and human right to water: a case of Ileje, Tanzania. (United States)

    Kibassa, Deusdedit


    In Tanzania, the National Water Policy (NAWAPO) of 2002 clearly stipulates that access to water supply and sanitation is a right for every Tanzanian and that cost recovery is the foundation of sustainable service delivery. To meet these demands, water authorities have introduced cost recovery and a water sharing system. The overall objective of this study was to assess the impact of cost recovery and the sharing system on water policy implementation and human rights to water in four villages in the Ileje district. The specific objectives were: (1) to assess the impact of cost recovery and the sharing system on the availability of water to the poor, (2) to assess user willingness to pay for the services provided, (3) to assess community understanding on the issue of water as a human right, (4) to analyse the implications of the results in relation to policies on human rights to water and the effectiveness of the implementation of the national water policy at the grassroots, and (5) to establish the guidelines for water pricing in rural areas. Questionnaires at water demand, water supply, ability and willingness to pay and revenue collection were the basis for data collection. While 36.7% of the population in the district had water supply coverage, more than 73,077 people of the total population of 115,996 still lacked access to clean and safe water and sanitation services in the Ileje district. The country's rural water supply coverage is 49%. Seventy-nine percent of the interviewees in all four villages said that water availability in litres per household per day had decreased mainly due to high water pricing which did not consider the income of villagers. On the other hand, more than 85% of the villagers were not satisfied with the amount they were paying because the services were still poor. On the issue of human rights to water, more than 92% of the villagers know about their right to water and want it exercised by the government. In all four villages, more than

  16. Numerical study of entrainment of the human circadian system and recovery by light treatment. (United States)

    Kim, Soon Ho; Goh, Segun; Han, Kyungreem; Kim, Jong Won; Choi, MooYoung


    While the effects of light as a zeitgeber are well known, the way the effects are modulated by features of the sleep-wake system still remains to be studied in detail. A mathematical model for disturbance and recovery of the human circadian system is presented. The model combines a circadian oscillator and a sleep-wake switch that includes the effects of orexin. By means of simulations, we characterize the period-locking zone of the model, where a stable 24-hour circadian rhythm exists, and the occurrence of circadian disruption due to both insufficient light and imbalance in orexin. We also investigate how daily bright light treatments of short duration can recover the normal circadian rhythm. It is found that the system exhibits continuous phase advance/delay at lower/higher orexin levels. Bright light treatment simulations disclose two optimal time windows, corresponding to morning and evening light treatments. Among the two, the morning light treatment is found effective in a wider range of parameter values, with shorter recovery time. This approach offers a systematic way to determine the conditions under which circadian disruption occurs, and to evaluate the effects of light treatment. In particular, it could potentially offer a way to optimize light treatments for patients with circadian disruption, e.g., sleep and mood disorders, in clinical settings.

  17. Human error and the associated recovery probabilities for soft control being used in the advanced MCRs of NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Inseok; Jung, Wondea; Seong, Poong Hyun


    Highlights: • The operation environment of MCRs in NPPs has changed by adopting digital HSIs. • Most current HRA databases are not explicitly designed to deal with digital HSI. • Empirical analysis for new HRA DB under an advanced MCR mockup are carried. • It is expected that the results can be used for advanced MCR HRA. - Abstract: Since the Three Mile Island (TMI)-2 accident, human error has been recognized as one of the main causes of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accidents, and numerous studies related to Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) have been carried out. Most of these studies were focused on considering the conventional Main Control Room (MCR) environment. However, the operating environment of MCRs in NPPs has changed with the adoption of new human-system interfaces (HSI) largely based on up-to-date digital technologies. The MCRs that include these digital and computer technologies, such as large display panels, computerized procedures, and soft controls, are called advanced MCRs. Among the many features of advanced MCRs, soft controls are a particularly important because operating actions in advanced MCRs are performed by soft control. Due to the difference in interfaces between soft control and hardwired conventional controls, different HEP should be used in the HRA for advanced MCRs. Unfortunately, most current HRA databases deal with operations in conventional MCRs and are not explicitly designed to deal with digital Human System Interface (HSI). For this reason, empirical human error and the associated error recovery probabilities were collected from the mockup of an advanced MCR equipped with soft controls. To this end, small-scaled experiments are conducted with 48 graduated students in the department of nuclear engineering in Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) are participated, and accident scenarios are designed with respect to the typical Design Basis Accidents (DBAs) in NPPs, such as Steam Generator Tube Rupture

  18. A comparative study on adhesion and recovery of potential probiotic strains of Lactobacillus spp. by in vitro assay and analysis of human colon biopsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Nadejda Nikolajevna; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Pærregaard, Anders


    Adhesion of the new Lactobacillus isolates, L. casei D12, L. casei Q85, L. casei Z11 and L. plantarum Q47, to the porcine intestinal cell line IPEC-J2 was investigated and compared to the recovery of the same bacterial strains from colon biopsies and faeces obtained from human intervention studies....... Probiotic bacteria L. rhamnosus 19070, L. reuteri 12246 and L. casei F19 were used as reference strains. The new isolates exhibited low to moderate adhesion to IPEC-J2 cells in the range of 7-26%. A large variation in the recovery of strains was observed between the persons, suggesting host specificity...... of intestinal colonization. High correlation was shown between recovery from the different sections of the colon of the same subject, indicating consistency of bacterial colonization of the epithelium. The recovery of L. casei Z11 and L. casei Q85 was highest and comparable to the reference strains of L...

  19. Pre-evaluated safe human iPSC-derived neural stem cells promote functional recovery after spinal cord injury in common marmoset without tumorigenicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiomi Kobayashi

    Full Text Available Murine and human iPSC-NS/PCs (induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural stem/progenitor cells promote functional recovery following transplantation into the injured spinal cord in rodents. However, for clinical applicability, it is critical to obtain proof of the concept regarding the efficacy of grafted human iPSC-NS/PCs (hiPSC-NS/PCs for the repair of spinal cord injury (SCI in a non-human primate model. This study used a pre-evaluated "safe" hiPSC-NS/PC clone and an adult common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus model of contusive SCI. SCI was induced at the fifth cervical level (C5, followed by transplantation of hiPSC-NS/PCs at 9 days after injury. Behavioral analyses were performed from the time of the initial injury until 12 weeks after SCI. Grafted hiPSC-NS/PCs survived and differentiated into all three neural lineages. Furthermore, transplantation of hiPSC-NS/PCs enhanced axonal sparing/regrowth and angiogenesis, and prevented the demyelination after SCI compared with that in vehicle control animals. Notably, no tumor formation occurred for at least 12 weeks after transplantation. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that mRNA expression levels of human neurotrophic factors were significantly higher in cultured hiPSC-NS/PCs than in human dermal fibroblasts (hDFs. Finally, behavioral tests showed that hiPSC-NS/PCs promoted functional recovery after SCI in the common marmoset. Taken together, these results indicate that pre-evaluated safe hiPSC-NS/PCs are a potential source of cells for the treatment of SCI in the clinic.

  20. Improved recovery of post-thaw motility and vitality of human spermatozoa cryopreserved in the presence of dithiothreitol. (United States)

    Rao, B; David, G


    Semen was collected in the laboratory from nine healthy donors. The concentrations and the percentages of live and motile spermatozoa in all semen samples were within the normal range. Each sample was diluted with citrate-egg yolk-glycerol medium with and without 5 mM dithiothreitol (DTT). Samples were frozen in liquid nitrogen vapor (-70 degrees C) for 7 min and subsequently stored in liquid nitrogen. The effect of DTT in cryopreservation of sperm was determined by comparing percentage of motile and live spermatozoa between controls and DTT-treated post-thaw samples. Percentage of motile spermatozoa was determined by two techniques, laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) and light microscopy. The percentage of live spermatozoa was measured by microscopic evaluation after staining with eosin-nigrosin. It was shown that the addition of DTT to the freezing medium significantly improved the recovery of motile and live spermatozoa in the post-thaw samples. The mean motility recovery, as measured by LDV, was 44.9% in the controls as compared to 73.9% in the DTT-treated samples. Similarly the mean recovery of live spermatozoa in the controls and DTT-treated samples was 66.5 and 86.6%, respectively. Based on these results, a new hypothesis implicating lipid peroxidation in cryoinjury is proposed. It is also suggested that the use of DTT in the freezing medium may offer an advantage over the commonly used techniques of human sperm cryopreservation.

  1. Justice heals: the impact of impunity and the fight against it on the recovery of severe human rights violations' survivors. (United States)

    Rauchfuss, Knut; Schmolze, Bianca


    Case studies show that traumatized refugees, who are survivors of serious human rights violations, suffer from persisting impunity in their home countries. Ongoing impunity--the inability to overcome the legal protection of the perpetrators assured by impunity laws, incomplete truthfinding, missing integral reparation and a lack of the necessary acknowledgement by society--represents an important obstacle for the recovery of survivors of serious human rights violations. There are reports describing that a high percentage of survivors shows an elevated mental vulnerability caused by impunity. Mental health problems resulting from traumatic experiences can persist or be reactivated by certain events. In particular, family members of the forcibly disappeared suffer from an incomplete mourning due to the uncertain fate of their beloved ones. The ongoing search for the forcibly disappeared under an atmosphere of impunity puts family members under high risk of retraumatization. Studies from other continents also prove that impunity severely affects mental health. Due to the global character of impunity there can be only little evidence about a positive impact of justice on mental health. Nevertheless, a few examples, in particular from Latin America, show that the combined implementation of memory, truth and justice can have a healing impact on those who suffer from trauma. They demonstrate that the fight against impunity is not only a legitimate moral struggle for human rights, but also a basic need for the sustainable recovery of survivors.

  2. Adaptation to and Recovery from Global Catastrophe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth D. Baum


    Full Text Available Global catastrophes, such as nuclear war, pandemics and ecological collapse threaten the sustainability of human civilization. To date, most work on global catastrophes has focused on preventing the catastrophes, neglecting what happens to any catastrophe survivors. To address this gap in the literature, this paper discusses adaptation to and recovery from global catastrophe. The paper begins by discussing the importance of global catastrophe adaptation and recovery, noting that successful adaptation/recovery could have value on even astronomical scales. The paper then discusses how the adaptation/recovery could proceed and makes connections to several lines of research. Research on resilience theory is considered in detail and used to develop a new method for analyzing the environmental and social stressors that global catastrophe survivors would face. This method can help identify options for increasing survivor resilience and promoting successful adaptation and recovery. A key point is that survivors may exist in small isolated communities disconnected from global trade and, thus, must be able to survive and rebuild on their own. Understanding the conditions facing isolated survivors can help promote successful adaptation and recovery. That said, the processes of global catastrophe adaptation and recovery are highly complex and uncertain; further research would be of great value.

  3. A method for assessing the physical recovery of Antarctic desert pavements following human-induced disturbances: a case study in the Ross Sea region of Antarctica. (United States)

    O'Neill, Tanya A; Balks, Megan R; López-Martínez, Jerónimo; McWhirter, Judi L


    With increasing visitor numbers an understanding of the impacts of human activities in Antarctic terrestrial environments has become important. The objective of this study was to develop a means for assessing recovery of the ground surface desert pavement following physical disturbance. A set of 11 criteria were identified to assess desert pavement recovery. Assessed criteria were: embeddedness of surface clasts; impressions of removed clasts; degree of clast surface weathering; % overturned clasts; salt on underside of clasts; development of salt coatings; armouring per m(2); colour contrast; evidence of subsidence/melt out; accumulation of salt on cut surfaces; and evidence of patterned ground development. Recovery criteria were assigned a severity/extent rating on a scale from zero to four, zero being highly disturbed, and four being undisturbed. A relative % recovery for each criteria was calculated for each site by comparison with a nearby undisturbed control area, and an overall Mean Recovery Index (MRI) was assigned to each pavement surface. To test the method, 54 sites in the Ross Sea region of Antarctica were investigated including areas disturbed by: bulldozer scraping for road-fill, contouring for infrastructure, geotechnical investigations, and experimental treading trial sites. Disturbances had occurred at timescales ranging from one week to 50 years prior to assessment. The extent of desert pavement recovery at the sites investigated in this study was higher than anticipated. Fifty of the 54 sites investigated were in an intermediate, or higher, stage of desert pavement recovery, 30 sites were in an advanced stage of recovery, and four sites were indistinguishable from adjacent control sites (MRI = 100%). It was found that active surfaces, such as the gravel beach deposits at the Greenpeace World Park Base site at Cape Evans, the aeolian sand deposits at Bull Pass, and the alluvial fan deposits of the Loop Moraine field campsite, recovered relatively

  4. Functional assessment of gap junctions in monolayer and three-dimensional cultures of human tendon cells using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching


    Kuzma-Kuzniarska, Maria; Yapp, Clarence; Pearson-Jones, Thomas W.; Jones, Andrew K.; Hulley, Philippa A.


    Gap junction-mediated intercellular communication influences a variety of cellular activities. In tendons, gap junctions modulate collagen production, are involved in strain-induced cell death, and are involved in the response to mechanical stimulation. The aim of the present study was to investigate gap junction-mediated intercellular communication in healthy human tendon-derived cells using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP). The FRAP is a noninvasive technique that allows qu...

  5. Effect of exercise and recovery on muscle protein synthesis in human subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carraro, F.; Stuart, C.A.; Hartl, W.H.; Rosenblatt, J.; Wolfe, R.R.


    Previous studies using indirect means to assess the response of protein metabolism to exercise have led to conflicting conclusions. Therefore, in this study we have measured the rate of muscle protein synthesis in normal volunteers at rest, at the end of 4 h of aerobic exercise (40% maximal O2 consumption), and after 4 h of recovery by determining directly the rate of incorporation of 1,2-[13C]leucine into muscle. The rate of muscle protein breakdown was assessed by 3-methylhistidine (3-MH) excretion, and total urinary nitrogen excretion was also measured. There was an insignificant increase in 3-MH excretion in exercise of 37% and a significant increase (P less than 0.05) of 85% during 4 h of recovery from exercise (0.079 +/- 0.008 vs. 0.147 +/- 0.0338 for rest and recovery from exercise, respectively). Nonetheless, there was no effect of exercise on total nitrogen excretion. Muscle fractional synthetic rate was not different in the exercise vs. the control group at the end of exercise (0.0417 +/- 0.004 vs. 0.0477 +/- 0.010%/h for exercise vs. control), but there was a significant increase in fractional synthetic rate in the exercise group during the recovery period (0.0821 +/- 0.006 vs. 0.0654 +/- 0.012%/h for exercise vs. control, P less than 0.05). Thus we conclude that although aerobic exercise may stimulate muscle protein breakdown, this does not result in a significant depletion of muscle mass because muscle protein synthesis is stimulated in recovery

  6. Recovery of compacted soils in Mojave Desert ghost towns. (United States)

    Webb, R.H.; Steiger, J.W.; Wilshire, H.G.


    Residual compaction of soils was measured at seven sites in five Mojave Desert ghost towns. Soils in these Death Valley National Monument townsites were compacted by vehicles, animals, and human trampling, and the townsites had been completely abandoned and the buildings removed for 64 to 75 yr. Recovery times extrapolated using a linear recovery model ranged from 80 to 140 yr and averaged 100 yr. The recovery times were related to elevation, suggesting freeze-thaw loosening as an important factor in ameliorating soil compaction in the Mojave Desert. -from Authors

  7. Performance Efficient Launch Vehicle Recovery and Reuse (United States)

    Reed, John G.; Ragab, Mohamed M.; Cheatwood, F. McNeil; Hughes, Stephen J.; Dinonno, J.; Bodkin, R.; Lowry, Allen; Brierly, Gregory T.; Kelly, John W.


    For decades, economic reuse of launch vehicles has been an elusive goal. Recent attempts at demonstrating elements of launch vehicle recovery for reuse have invigorated a debate over the merits of different approaches. The parameter most often used to assess the cost of access to space is dollars-per-kilogram to orbit. When comparing reusable vs. expendable launch vehicles, that ratio has been shown to be most sensitive to the performance lost as a result of enabling the reusability. This paper will briefly review the historical background and results of recent attempts to recover launch vehicle assets for reuse. The business case for reuse will be reviewed, with emphasis on the performance expended to recover those assets, and the practicality of the most ambitious reuse concept, namely propulsive return to the launch site. In 2015, United Launch Alliance (ULA) announced its Sensible, Modular, Autonomous Return Technology (SMART) reuse plan for recovery of the booster module for its new Vulcan launch vehicle. That plan employs a non-propulsive approach where atmospheric entry, descent and landing (EDL) technologies are utilized. Elements of such a system have a wide variety of applications, from recovery of launch vehicle elements in suborbital trajectories all the way to human space exploration. This paper will include an update on ULA's booster module recovery approach, which relies on Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) and Mid-Air Retrieval (MAR) technologies, including its concept of operations (ConOps). The HIAD design, as well as parafoil staging and MAR concepts, will be discussed. Recent HIAD development activities and near term plans including scalability, next generation materials for the inflatable structure and heat shield, and gas generator inflation systems will be provided. MAR topics will include the ConOps for recovery, helicopter selection and staging, and the state of the art of parachute recovery systems using large parafoils

  8. Optimization of selective inversion recovery magnetization transfer imaging for macromolecular content mapping in the human brain. (United States)

    Dortch, Richard D; Bagnato, Francesca; Gochberg, Daniel F; Gore, John C; Smith, Seth A


    To optimize a selective inversion recovery (SIR) sequence for macromolecular content mapping in the human brain at 3.0T. SIR is a quantitative method for measuring magnetization transfer (qMT) that uses a low-power, on-resonance inversion pulse. This results in a biexponential recovery of free water signal that can be sampled at various inversion/predelay times (t I/ t D ) to estimate a subset of qMT parameters, including the macromolecular-to-free pool-size-ratio (PSR), the R 1 of free water (R 1f ), and the rate of MT exchange (k mf ). The adoption of SIR has been limited by long acquisition times (≈4 min/slice). Here, we use Cramér-Rao lower bound theory and data reduction strategies to select optimal t I /t D combinations to reduce imaging times. The schemes were experimentally validated in phantoms, and tested in healthy volunteers (N = 4) and a multiple sclerosis patient. Two optimal sampling schemes were determined: (i) a 5-point scheme (k mf estimated) and (ii) a 4-point scheme (k mf assumed). In phantoms, the 5/4-point schemes yielded parameter estimates with similar SNRs as our previous 16-point scheme, but with 4.1/6.1-fold shorter scan times. Pair-wise comparisons between schemes did not detect significant differences for any scheme/parameter. In humans, parameter values were consistent with published values, and similar levels of precision were obtained from all schemes. Furthermore, fixing k mf reduced the sensitivity of PSR to partial-volume averaging, yielding more consistent estimates throughout the brain. qMT parameters can be robustly estimated in ≤1 min/slice (without independent measures of ΔB 0 , B1+, and T 1 ) when optimized t I -t D combinations are selected. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  9. Recovery from equipment failures in ATC: Determination of contextual factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subotic, Branka; Ochieng, Washington Y.; Straeter, Oliver


    Human reliability assessment (HRA) currently uses various approaches to determine and quantify human error. These approaches are increasingly being employed in various safety-critical domains, such as air traffic management and its ground component air traffic control. HRA research over the years has shown the important role of the context in which human errors take place. Recent techniques now put more emphasis on the definition of key contextual factors and their impact on the reliability of human performance. This paper presents a review of the current understanding of contextual factors in various industries. It uses this together with results from controller interviews to identify the contextual factors relevant to controller recovery from equipment failures in air traffic control. These factors should be used in conjunction with an appropriate method to analyse the performance of a controller during the process of recovery from failures

  10. Atmosphere Resource Recovery and Environmental Monitoring (United States)

    Roman, Monsi; Howard, David


    Atmosphere Resource Recovery and Environmental Monitoring (ARREM) is a project focused on evolving existing and maturing emerging 'closed loop' atmosphere revitalization (AR) life support systems that produce clean, breathable air for crewmembers, and developing a suite of low mass, low power environmental monitors to detect and measure air- and waterborne constituents and contaminants. The objective is to improve reliability and efficiency, reduce mass and volume, and increase recovery of oxygen from carbon dioxide created by human metabolism from 43% to greater than 90%. The technology developments under ARREM are vital to extending human space missions from low-Earth orbit like the International Space Station to destinations deeper into space such as Mars where dependency on Earth for resupply of maintenance items and critical life support elements such as water and oxygen is not possible. The primary goal of the ARREM project is to demonstrate that systems meet the more stringent performance parameters for deep space exploration and are compatible with other systems within closed loop life support through a series of integrated tests performed in an environmental test chamber capable of simulating human metabolic activities and measuring systems outputs.

  11. Redox proteomic evaluation of oxidative modification and recovery in a 3D reconstituted human skin tissue model exposed to UVB. (United States)

    Dyer, J M; Haines, S R; Thomas, A; Wang, W; Walls, R J; Clerens, S; Harland, D P


    Exposure to UV in humans resulting in sunburn triggers a complex series of events that are a mix of immediate and delayed damage mediation and healing. While studies on the effects of UV exposure on DNA damage and repair have been reported, changes in the oxidative modification of skin proteins are poorly understood at the molecular level, despite the important role played by structural proteins in skin tissue, and the effect of the integrity of these proteins on skin appearance and health. Proteomic molecular mapping of oxidation was here applied to try to enhance understanding of skin damage and recovery from oxidative damage and UVB exposure. A redox proteomic-based approach was applied to evaluating skin protein modification when exposed to varying doses of UVB after initial oxidative stress, via tracking changes in protein oxidation during the healing process in vitro using a full-thickness reconstituted human skin tissue model. Bioassays and structural evaluation confirmed that our cultured skin tissues underwent a normal physiological response to UVB exposure. A set of potential skin marker peptides was generated, for use in tracking skin protein oxidative modification. Exposure to UVB after thermal oxidative stress was found to result in higher levels of skin protein oxidation than a non-irradiated control for up to seven days after exposure. Recovery of the skin proteins from oxidative stress, as assessed by the overall protein oxidation levels, was found to be impaired by UVB exposure. Oxidative modification was largely observed in skin structural proteins. Exposure of skin proteins to UVB exacerbates oxidative damage to structural skin proteins, with higher exposure levels leading to increasingly impaired recovery from this damage. This has potential implications for the functional performance of the proteins and inter-related skin health and cosmetic appearance. © 2016 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  12. Recovery and Disinfection of Two Human Norovirus Surrogates, Feline Calicivirus and Murine Norovirus, from Hard Nonporous and Soft Porous Surfaces. (United States)

    Yeargin, Thomas; Fraser, Angela; Huang, Guohui; Jiang, Xiuping


    Human norovirus is a leading cause of foodborne disease and can be transmitted through many routes, including environmental exposure to fomites. In this study, both the recovery and inactivation of two human norovirus surrogates, feline calicivirus (FCV) and murine norovirus (MNV), on hard nonporous surfaces (glass) and soft porous surfaces (polyester and cotton) were evaluated by both plaque assay and reverse transcription quantitative PCR method. Two disinfectants, sodium hypochlorite (8.25%) and accelerated hydrogen peroxide (AHP, at 4.25%) were evaluated for disinfection efficacy. Five coupons per surface type were used to evaluate the recovery of FCV and MNV by sonication and stomaching and the disinfection of each surface type by using 5 ml of disinfectant for a contact time of 5 min. FCV at an initial titer of ca. 7 log PFU/ml was recovered from glass, cotton, and polyester at 6.2, 5.4, and 3.8 log PFU/ml, respectively, compared with 5.5, 5.2, and 4.1 log PFU/ml, respectively, for MNV with an initial titer of ca. 6 log PFU/ml. The use of sodium hypochlorite (5,000 ppm) was able to inactivate both FCV and MNV (3.1 to 5.5 log PFU/ml) below the limit of detection on all three surface types. AHP (2,656 ppm) inactivated FCV (3.1 to 5.5 log PFU/ml) below the limit of detection for all three surface types but achieved minimal inactivation of MNV (0.17 to 1.37 log PFU/ml). Reduction of viral RNA by sodium hypochlorite corresponded to 2.72 to 4.06 log reduction for FCV and 2.07 to 3.04 log reduction for MNV on all three surface types. Reduction of viral RNA by AHP corresponded to 1.89 to 3.4 log reduction for FCV and 0.54 to 0.85 log reduction for MNV. Our results clearly indicate that both virus and surface types significantly influence recovery efficiency and disinfection efficacy. Based on the performance of our proposed testing method, an improvement in virus recovery will be needed to effectively validate virus disinfection of soft porous surfaces.

  13. Factors influencing recovery and restoration following a chemical incident. (United States)

    Peña-Fernández, A; Wyke, S; Brooke, N; Duarte-Davidson, R


    Chemicals are an important part of our society. A wide range of chemicals are discharged into the environment every day from residential, commercial and industrial sources. Many of these discharges do not pose a threat to public health or the environment. However, global events have shown that chemical incidents or accidents can have severe consequences on human health, the environment and society. It is important that appropriate tools and technical guidance are available to ensure that a robust and efficient approach to developing a remediation strategy is adopted. The purpose of remediation is to protect human health from future exposure and to return the affected area back to normal as soon as possible. There are a range of recovery options (techniques or methods for remediation) that are applicable to a broad range of chemicals and incidents. Recovery options should be evaluated according to their appropriateness and efficacy for removing contaminants from the environment; however economic drivers and social and political considerations often influence decision makers on which remedial actions are implemented during the recovery phase of a chemical incident. To date, there is limited information in the literature on remediation strategies and recovery options that have been implemented following a chemical incident, or how successful they have been. Additional factors that can affect the approach taken for recovery are not well assessed or understood by decision makers involved in the remediation and restoration of the environment following a chemical incident. The identification of this gap has led to the development of the UK Recovery Handbook for Chemical Incidents to provide a framework for choosing an effective recovery strategy. A compendium of practical evidence-based recovery options (techniques or methods for remediation) for inhabited areas, food production systems and water environments has also been developed and is included in the chemical

  14. Disaster Debris Recovery Database - Recovery (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The US EPA Disaster Debris Recovery Database (DDRD) promotes the proper recovery, recycling, and disposal of disaster debris for emergency responders at the federal,...

  15. Recovery in soccer : part ii-recovery strategies. (United States)

    Nédélec, Mathieu; McCall, Alan; Carling, Chris; Legall, Franck; Berthoin, Serge; Dupont, Gregory


    In the formerly published part I of this two-part review, we examined fatigue after soccer matchplay and recovery kinetics of physical performance, and cognitive, subjective and biological markers. To reduce the magnitude of fatigue and to accelerate the time to fully recover after completion, several recovery strategies are now used in professional soccer teams. During congested fixture schedules, recovery strategies are highly required to alleviate post-match fatigue, and then to regain performance faster and reduce the risk of injury. Fatigue following competition is multifactorial and mainly related to dehydration, glycogen depletion, muscle damage and mental fatigue. Recovery strategies should consequently be targeted against the major causes of fatigue. Strategies reviewed in part II of this article were nutritional intake, cold water immersion, sleeping, active recovery, stretching, compression garments, massage and electrical stimulation. Some strategies such as hydration, diet and sleep are effective in their ability to counteract the fatigue mechanisms. Providing milk drinks to players at the end of competition and a meal containing high-glycaemic index carbohydrate and protein within the hour following the match are effective in replenishing substrate stores and optimizing muscle-damage repair. Sleep is an essential part of recovery management. Sleep disturbance after a match is common and can negatively impact on the recovery process. Cold water immersion is effective during acute periods of match congestion in order to regain performance levels faster and repress the acute inflammatory process. Scientific evidence for other strategies reviewed in their ability to accelerate the return to the initial level of performance is still lacking. These include active recovery, stretching, compression garments, massage and electrical stimulation. While this does not mean that these strategies do not aid the recovery process, the protocols implemented up until

  16. Short-term immobilization and recovery affect skeletal muscle but not collagen tissue turnover in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Britt; Dyrberg, Eva; Aagaard, Per


    Not much is known about the effects of immobilization and subsequent recovery on tendon connective tissue. In the present study, healthy young men had their nondominant leg immobilized for a 2-wk period, followed by a recovery period of the same length. Immobilization resulted in a mean decrease...... of 6% (5,413 to 5,077 mm(2)) in cross-sectional area (CSA) of the triceps surae muscles and a mean decrease of 9% (261 to 238 N.m) in strength of the immobilized calf muscles. Two weeks of recovery resulted in a 6% increased in CSA (to 5,367 mm(2)), whereas strength remained suppressed (240 N...... muscle size and strength, while tendon size and collagen turnover were unchanged. While recovery resulted in an increase in muscle size, strength was unchanged. No significant difference in tendon size could be detected between the two legs after 2 wk of recovery, although collagen synthesis...

  17. Recovery post treatment: plans, barriers and motivators. (United States)

    Duffy, Paul; Baldwin, Helen


    The increasing focus on achieving a sustained recovery from substance use brings with it a need to better understand the factors (recovery capital) that contribute to recovery following treatment. This work examined the factors those in recovery perceive to be barriers to (lack of capital) or facilitators of (presence of capital) sustained recovery post treatment. A purposive sample of 45 participants was recruited from 11 drug treatment services in northern England. Semi-structured qualitative interviews lasting between 30 and 90 minutes were conducted one to three months after participants completed treatment. Interviews examined key themes identified through previous literature but focused on allowing participants to explore their unique recovery journey. Interviews were transcribed and analysed thematically using a combination of deductive and inductive approaches. Participants generally reported high levels of confidence in maintaining their recovery with most planning to remain abstinent. There were indications of high levels of recovery capital. Aftercare engagement was high, often through self referral, with non substance use related activity felt to be particularly positive. Supported housing was critical and concerns were raised about the ability to afford to live independently with financial stability and welfare availability a key concern in general. Employment, often in the substance use treatment field, was a desire. However, it was a long term goal, with substantial risks associated with pursuing this too early. Positive social support was almost exclusively from within the recovery community although the re-building of relationships with family (children in particular) was a key motivator post treatment. Addressing internal factors and underlying issues i.e. 'human capital', provided confidence for continued recovery whilst motivators focused on external factors such as family and maintaining aspects of a 'normal' life i.e. 'social and physical

  18. Recovery post treatment: plans, barriers and motivators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duffy Paul


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing focus on achieving a sustained recovery from substance use brings with it a need to better understand the factors (recovery capital that contribute to recovery following treatment. This work examined the factors those in recovery perceive to be barriers to (lack of capital or facilitators of (presence of capital sustained recovery post treatment. Methods A purposive sample of 45 participants was recruited from 11 drug treatment services in northern England. Semi-structured qualitative interviews lasting between 30 and 90 minutes were conducted one to three months after participants completed treatment. Interviews examined key themes identified through previous literature but focused on allowing participants to explore their unique recovery journey. Interviews were transcribed and analysed thematically using a combination of deductive and inductive approaches. Results Participants generally reported high levels of confidence in maintaining their recovery with most planning to remain abstinent. There were indications of high levels of recovery capital. Aftercare engagement was high, often through self referral, with non substance use related activity felt to be particularly positive. Supported housing was critical and concerns were raised about the ability to afford to live independently with financial stability and welfare availability a key concern in general. Employment, often in the substance use treatment field, was a desire. However, it was a long term goal, with substantial risks associated with pursuing this too early. Positive social support was almost exclusively from within the recovery community although the re-building of relationships with family (children in particular was a key motivator post treatment. Conclusions Addressing internal factors and underlying issues i.e. ‘human capital’, provided confidence for continued recovery whilst motivators focused on external factors such as family and

  19. Filter forensics: microbiota recovery from residential HVAC filters. (United States)

    Maestre, Juan P; Jennings, Wiley; Wylie, Dennis; Horner, Sharon D; Siegel, Jeffrey; Kinney, Kerry A


    Establishing reliable methods for assessing the microbiome within the built environment is critical for understanding the impact of biological exposures on human health. High-throughput DNA sequencing of dust samples provides valuable insights into the microbiome present in human-occupied spaces. However, the effect that different sampling methods have on the microbial community recovered from dust samples is not well understood across sample types. Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) filters hold promise as long-term, spatially integrated, high volume samplers to characterize the airborne microbiome in homes and other climate-controlled spaces. In this study, the effect that dust recovery method (i.e., cut and elution, swabbing, or vacuuming) has on the microbial community structure, membership, and repeatability inferred by Illumina sequencing was evaluated. The results indicate that vacuum samples captured higher quantities of total, bacterial, and fungal DNA than swab or cut samples. Repeated swab and vacuum samples collected from the same filter were less variable than cut samples with respect to both quantitative DNA recovery and bacterial community structure. Vacuum samples captured substantially greater bacterial diversity than the other methods, whereas fungal diversity was similar across all three methods. Vacuum and swab samples of HVAC filter dust were repeatable and generally superior to cut samples. Nevertheless, the contribution of environmental and human sources to the bacterial and fungal communities recovered via each sampling method was generally consistent across the methods investigated. Dust recovery methodologies have been shown to affect the recovery, repeatability, structure, and membership of microbial communities recovered from dust samples in the built environment. The results of this study are directly applicable to indoor microbiota studies utilizing the filter forensics approach. More broadly, this study provides a

  20. A systems perspective of managing error recovery and tactical re-planning of operating teams in safety critical domains. (United States)

    Kontogiannis, Tom


    Research in human error has provided useful tools for designing procedures, training, and intelligent interfaces that trap errors at an early stage. However, this "error prevention" policy may not be entirely successful because human errors will inevitably occur. This requires that the error management process (e.g., detection, diagnosis and correction) must also be supported. Research has focused almost exclusively on error detection; little is known about error recovery, especially in the context of safety critical systems. The aim of this paper is to develop a research framework that integrates error recovery strategies employed by experienced practitioners in handling their own errors. A control theoretic model of human performance was used to integrate error recovery strategies assembled from reviews of the literature, analyses of near misses from aviation and command & control domains, and observations of abnormal situations training at air traffic control facilities. The method of system dynamics has been used to analyze and compare error recovery strategies in terms of patterns of interaction, system affordances, and types of recovery plans. System dynamics offer a promising basis for studying the nature of error recovery management in the context of team interactions and system characteristics. The proposed taxonomy of error recovery strategies can help human factors and safety experts to develop resilient system designs and training solutions for managing human errors in unforeseen situations; it may also help incident investigators to explore why people's actions and assessments were not corrected at the time. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Optimizing recovery of frozen human peripheral blood mononuclear cells for flow cytometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Langhoff Hønge

    Full Text Available Live peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs can be frozen and thawed for later analyses by adding and removing a cryoprotectant, such as dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO. Laboratories across the world use various procedures, but published evidence of optimal thawing procedures is scarce.PBMCs were separated from blood collected from healthy Danish blood donors, and stored at -80°C after adding of DMSO. The essential steps in the thawing procedure were modified and performance was evaluated by flow cytometry with respect to the percentage and total yield of viable PMBCs.The best-performing washing medium was Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI 1640 at 37°C with 20% fetal bovine serum. When using 10 mL washing medium in a 15-mL Falcon tube, samples should be centrifuged for at least 10 minutes at 500 g. We failed to detect any differences between the tested methods of mixing PBMCs with washing medium. Likewise, neither the thawing duration nor centrifugation temperature (20°C and 37°C had any effect. PBMCs could be incubated (rested for up to eight hours in a 37°C 5% CO2 incubator without affecting cell counts, but incubating PBMCs for 16 hours significantly decreased viability and recovery. In general, high viability was not necessarily associated with high recovery.Changing the thawing procedure significantly impacted PBMC viability and live cell recovery. Evaluating both viability and live PBMC recovery are necessary to evaluate method performance. Investigation of differential loss of PBMC subtypes and phenotypic changes during thawing and incubation requires further evaluation.

  2. Walking but not barking improves verb recovery: implications for action observation treatment in aphasia rehabilitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Marangolo

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that action observation treatment without concomitant verbal cue has a positive impact on the recovery of verb retrieval deficits in aphasic patients. In agreement with an embodied cognition viewpoint, a hypothesis has been advanced that gestures and language form a single communication system and words whose retrieval is facilitated by gestures are semantically represented through sensory-motor features. However, it is still an open question as to what extent this treatment approach works. Results from the recovery of motor deficits have suggested that action observation promotes motor recovery only for actions that are part of the motor repertoire of the observer. The aim of the present experiment was to further investigate the role of action observation treatment in verb recovery. In particular, we contrasted the effects induced by observing human actions (e.g. dancing, kicking, pointing, eating versus non human actions (e.g. barking, printing. Seven chronic aphasic patients with a selective deficit in verb retrieval underwent an intensive rehabilitation training that included five daily sessions over two consecutive weeks. Each subject was asked to carefully observe 115 video-clips of actions, one at a time and, after observing them, they had to produce the corresponding verb. Two groups of actions were randomly presented: humans versus nonhuman actions. In all patients, significant improvement in verb retrieval was found only by observing video-clips of human actions. Moreover, follow-up testing revealed long-term verb recovery that was still present two months after the two treatments had ended. In support of the multimodal concept representation's proposal, we suggest that just the observation of actions pertaining to the human motor repertoire is an effective rehabilitation approach for verb recovery.

  3. Ear for recovery: protocol for a prospective study on parent-child communication and psychological recovery after paediatric injury. (United States)

    Alisic, Eva; Barrett, Anna; Bowles, Peter; Babl, Franz E; Conroy, Rowena; McClure, Roderick J; Anderson, Vicki; Mehl, Matthias R


    One in six children who have been admitted to hospital with an injury develop persistent stress symptoms that put their development at risk. Parents play a crucial role in children's psychological recovery, however, it is unknown how specific parenting behaviours can help or hinder. We aim to describe the nature and quantity of parent-child communication after a child has been injured, and to examine how these interactions are related to children's psychological recovery. We are conducting a prospective observational study among children aged 3-16 years, who have been admitted to a tertiary children's hospital with a serious injury. Data collection involves a naturalistic observation of spontaneous, everyday parent-child communication at home, shortly after discharge, and an assessment of children's psychological recovery at 6 weeks and 3 months post-injury. Main analyses comprise descriptive statistics, cluster analysis and analyses of variance. This study has been approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee of the Royal Children's Hospital Melbourne (33103) and Monash University Human Research Ethics Committee (CF13/2515-2013001322). We aim to disseminate the findings through international peer-reviewed journals, international conferences and social media. Participants will be sent a summary of the overall study findings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  4. Preserving the person: The ethical imperative of recovery-oriented practices. (United States)

    Atterbury, Kendall


    For more than a decade the principles of mental health recovery have been promoted as an alternative to traditional models of care. Recovery-oriented practices are those that recognize the strengths of service users and empower them within the mental health system. In contrast to a more hierarchical model of care in which service providers make decisions with a pronounced absence of input from service users, recovery-oriented practices emphasize shared decision-making, respect for service user goals, and the recognition of the full humanity of all persons in care relationships. Recovery-oriented care has yet to be embraced by the majority of service providers, however. There are several reasons for this failure but among them is the lack of attention given to the ethical ground of recovery. This article seeks to bring recovery into conversation with moral philosophy by arguing that recovery-oriented care is essentially linked to fundamental rights and values of personhood within a liberal democracy. By joining together a conception of personhood rooted in essential vulnerability and a Rawlsian perspective on justice, this article argues that recovery is not only a desirable approach to mental health practice but that it is ethically necessary. It argues that recovery practices are not exceptional interventions to be reserved for a few but that a recovery-orientation entails fundamental elements of justice and respect to which all persons are entitled.

  5. Difference in human cardiovascular response between upright and supine recovery from upright cycle exercise. (United States)

    Takahashi, T; Okada, A; Saitoh, T; Hayano, J; Miyamoto, Y


    Cardiovascular responses were examined in seven healthy male subjects during 10 min of recovery in the upright or supine position following 5 min of upright cycle exercise at 80% peak oxygen uptake. An initial rapid decrease in heart rate (fc) during the early phase of recovery followed by much slower decrease was observed for both the upright and supine positions. The average fc at the 10th min of recovery was significantly lower (P position than in the upright position, while they were both significantly greater than the corresponding pre-exercise levels (each P positions was reduced with a decrease in mean R-R interval, the relationship being expressed by a regression line--mean R-R interval = 0.006 x HF amplitude + 0.570 (r = 0.905, n = 28, P positions is partly attributable to a retardation in the restoration of the activity of the cardiac parasympathetic nervous system. Post-exercise upright stroke volume (SV, by impedance cardiography) decreased gradually to just below the pre-exercise level, whereas post-exercise supine SV increased markedly to a level similar to that at rest before exercise. The resultant cardiac output (Qc) and the total peripheral vascular resistance (TPR) in the upright and supine positions returned gradually to their respective pre-exercise levels in the corresponding positions. At the 10th min of recovery, both average SV and Qc were significantly greater (each P position, while average TPR was significantly lower (P position. In contrast, immediately after exercise, mean blood pressure dropped markedly in both the supine and upright positions, and their levels at the 10th min of recovery were similar. Therefore we concluded that arterial blood pressure is maintained relatively constant through various compensatory mechanisms associated with fc, SV, Qc, and TPR during rest and recovery in different body positions.

  6. Process Control for Precipitation Prevention in Space Water Recovery Systems (United States)

    Sargusingh, Miriam; Callahan, Michael R.; Muirhead, Dean


    The ability to recover and purify water through physiochemical processes is crucial for realizing long-term human space missions, including both planetary habitation and space travel. Because of their robust nature, rotary distillation systems have been actively pursued by NASA as one of the technologies for water recovery from wastewater primarily comprised of human urine. A specific area of interest is the prevention of the formation of solids that could clog fluid lines and damage rotating equipment. To mitigate the formation of solids, operational constraints are in place that limits such that the concentration of key precipitating ions in the wastewater brine are below the theoretical threshold. This control in effected by limiting the amount of water recovered such that the risk of reaching the precipitation threshold is within acceptable limits. The water recovery limit is based on an empirically derived worst case wastewater composition. During the batch process, water recovery is estimated by monitoring the throughput of the system. NASA Johnson Space Center is working on means of enhancing the process controls to increase water recovery. Options include more precise prediction of the precipitation threshold. To this end, JSC is developing a means of more accurately measuring the constituent of the brine and/or wastewater. Another means would be to more accurately monitor the throughput of the system. In spring of 2015, testing will be performed to test strategies for optimizing water recovery without increasing the risk of solids formation in the brine.

  7. Recovery from schizophrenia and the recovery model. (United States)

    Warner, Richard


    The recovery model refers to subjective experiences of optimism, empowerment and interpersonal support, and to a focus on collaborative treatment approaches, finding productive roles for user/consumers, peer support and reducing stigma. The model is influencing service development around the world. This review will assess whether optimism about outcome from serious mental illness and other tenets of the recovery model are borne out by recent research. Remission of symptoms has been precisely defined, but the definition of 'recovery' is a more diffuse concept that includes such factors as being productive and functioning independently. Recent research and a large, earlier body of data suggest that optimism about outcome from schizophrenia is justified. A substantial proportion of people with the illness will recover completely and many more will regain good social functioning. Outcome is better for people in the developing world. Mortality for people with schizophrenia is increasing but is lower in the developing world. Working appears to help people recover from schizophrenia, and recent advances in vocational rehabilitation have been shown to be effective in countries with differing economies and labor markets. A growing body of research supports the concept that empowerment is an important component of the recovery process. Key tenets of the recovery model - optimism about recovery from schizophrenia, the importance of access to employment and the value of empowerment of user/consumers in the recovery process - are supported by the scientific research. Attempts to reduce the internalized stigma of mental illness should enhance the recovery process.

  8. Research Progress in Carbon Dioxide Storage and Enhanced Oil Recovery (United States)

    Wang, Keliang; Wang, Gang; Lu, Chunjing


    With the rapid development of global economy, human beings have become highly dependent upon fossil fuel such as coal and petroleum. Much fossil fuel is consumed in industrial production and human life. As a result, carbon dioxide emissions have been increasing, and the greenhouse effects thereby generated are posing serious threats to environment of the earth. These years, increasing average global temperature, frequent extreme weather events and climatic changes cause material disasters to the world. After scientists’ long-term research, ample evidences have proven that emissions of greenhouse gas like carbon dioxide have brought about tremendous changes to global climate. To really reduce carbon dioxide emissions, governments of different countries and international organizations have invested much money and human resources in performing research related to carbon dioxide emissions. Manual underground carbon dioxide storage and carbon dioxide-enhanced oil recovery are schemes with great potential and prospect for reducing carbon dioxide emissions. Compared with other schemes for reducing carbon dioxide emissions, aforementioned two schemes exhibit high storage capacity and yield considerable economic benefits, so they have become research focuses for reducing carbon dioxide emissions. This paper introduces the research progress in underground carbon dioxide storage and enhanced oil recovery, pointing out the significance and necessity of carbon dioxide-driven enhanced oil recovery.

  9. For Valor or Value: An Examination of Personnel Recovery Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, Billy


    .... Next, he examines the commonly held beliefs for conducting personnel recovery operations to include sanctity of human life/casualty aversion, loss of a valuable resource, denial of intelligence...

  10. Vector-free and transgene-free human iPS cells differentiate into functional neurons and enhance functional recovery after ischemic stroke in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Mohamad

    Full Text Available Stroke is a leading cause of human death and disability in the adult population in the United States and around the world. While stroke treatment is limited, stem cell transplantation has emerged as a promising regenerative therapy to replace or repair damaged tissues and enhance functional recovery after stroke. Recently, the creation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells through reprogramming of somatic cells has revolutionized cell therapy by providing an unlimited source of autologous cells for transplantation. In addition, the creation of vector-free and transgene-free human iPS (hiPS cells provides a new generation of stem cells with a reduced risk of tumor formation that was associated with the random integration of viral vectors seen with previous techniques. However, the potential use of these cells in the treatment of ischemic stroke has not been explored. In the present investigation, we examined the neuronal differentiation of vector-free and transgene-free hiPS cells and the transplantation of hiPS cell-derived neural progenitor cells (hiPS-NPCs in an ischemic stroke model in mice. Vector-free hiPS cells were maintained in feeder-free and serum-free conditions and differentiated into functional neurons in vitro using a newly developed differentiation protocol. Twenty eight days after transplantation in stroke mice, hiPS-NPCs showed mature neuronal markers in vivo. No tumor formation was seen up to 12 months after transplantation. Transplantation of hiPS-NPCs restored neurovascular coupling, increased trophic support and promoted behavioral recovery after stroke. These data suggest that using vector-free and transgene-free hiPS cells in stem cell therapy are safe and efficacious in enhancing recovery after focal ischemic stroke in mice.

  11. Recovery of a US endangered fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark B Bain

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: More fish have been afforded US Endangered Species Act protection than any other vertebrate taxonomic group, and none has been designated as recovered. Shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum occupy large rivers and estuaries along the Atlantic coast of North America, and the species has been protected by the US Endangered Species Act since its enactment. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Data on the shortnose sturgeon in the Hudson River (New York to Albany, NY, USA were obtained from a 1970s population study, a population and fish distribution study we conducted in the late 1990s, and a fish monitoring program during the 1980s and 1990s. Population estimates indicate a late 1990s abundance of about 60,000 fish, dominated by adults. The Hudson River population has increased by more than 400% since the 1970s, appears healthy, and has attributes typical for a long-lived species. Our population estimates exceed the government and scientific population recovery criteria by more than 500%, we found a positive trend in population abundance, and key habitats have remained intact despite heavy human river use. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Scientists and legislators have called for changes in the US Endangered Species Act, the Act is being debated in the US Congress, and the Act has been characterized as failing to recover species. Recovery of the Hudson River population of shortnose sturgeon suggests the combination of species and habitat protection with patience can yield successful species recovery, even near one of the world's largest human population centers.

  12. Recovery in SoccerPart II—Recovery Strategies


    Nedelec, Mathieu; McCall, Alan; Carling, Chris; Legall, Franck; Berthoin, Serge; Dupont, Grégory


    International audience; In the formerly published part I of this two-part review, we examined fatigue after soccer matchplay and recovery kinetics of physical performance, and cognitive, subjective and biological markers. To reduce the magnitude of fatigue and to accelerate the time to fully recover after completion, several recovery strategies are now used in professional soccer teams. During congested fixture schedules, recovery strategies are highly required to alleviate post-match fatigue...

  13. Deprivation and Recovery of Sleep in Succession Enhances Reflexive Motor Behavior


    Sprenger, Andreas; Weber, Frederik D.; Machner, Bjoern; Talamo, Silke; Scheffelmeier, Sabine; Bethke, Judith; Helmchen, Christoph; Gais, Steffen; Kimmig, Hubert; Born, Jan


    Sleep deprivation impairs inhibitory control over reflexive behavior, and this impairment is commonly assumed to dissipate after recovery sleep. Contrary to this belief, here we show that fast reflexive behaviors, when practiced during sleep deprivation, is consolidated across recovery sleep and, thereby, becomes preserved. As a model for the study of sleep effects on prefrontal cortex-mediated inhibitory control in humans, we examined reflexive saccadic eye movements (express saccades), as w...

  14. Recovery from cannabis use disorders: Abstinence versus moderation and treatment-assisted recovery versus natural recovery. (United States)

    Stea, Jonathan N; Yakovenko, Igor; Hodgins, David C


    The present study of recovery from cannabis use disorders was undertaken with 2 primary objectives that address gaps in the literature. The first objective was to provide an exploratory portrait of the recovery process from cannabis use disorders, comparing individuals who recovered naturally with those who were involved in treatment. The second objective was to explore systematically the similarities and differences between abstinence and moderation recoveries. Adults who have recovered from a cannabis use disorder were recruited in the community (N = 119). The abstinence and treatment-assisted participants exhibited higher levels of lifetime cannabis problem severity than the moderation and natural recovery participants, respectively. As well, cognitive factors were identified as the most useful strategies for recovery (e.g., thinking about benefits and negative consequences of cannabis), followed by behavioral factors (e.g., avoidance of triggers for use and high-risk situations). Findings lend further support to the effectiveness of cognitive, motivational, and behavioral strategies as helpful actions and maintenance factors involved in the recovery process. The findings also generally support the idea that cannabis use disorders lie on a continuum of problem severity, with moderation and natural recoveries more likely to occur at the lower end of the continuum and abstinence and treatment-assisted recoveries more likely to occur at the upper end. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Critical factors for the recovery of marine mammals. (United States)

    Lotze, Heike K; Flemming, Joanna Mills; Magera, Anna M


    {en} Over the past decades, much research has focused on understanding the critical factors for marine extinctions with the aim of preventing further species losses in the oceans. Although conservation and management strategies are enabling several species and populations to recover, others remain at low abundance levels or continue to decline. To understand these discrepancies, we used a published database on abundance trends of 137 populations of marine mammals worldwide and compiled data on 28 potentially critical factors for recovery. We then applied random forests and additive mixed models to determine which intrinsic and extrinsic factors are critical for the recovery of marine mammals. A mix of life-history characteristics, ecological traits, phylogenetic relatedness, population size, geographic range, human impacts, and management efforts explained why populations recovered or not. Consistently, species with lower age at maturity and intermediate habitat area were more likely to recover, which is consistent with life-history and ecological theory. Body size, trophic level, social interactions, dominant habitat, ocean basin, and habitat disturbance also explained some differences in recovery patterns. Overall, a variety of intrinsic and extrinsic factors were important for species' recovery, pointing to cumulative effects. Our results provide insight for improving conservation and management strategies to enhance recoveries in the future. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  16. 75 FR 69037 - Medicaid Program; Recovery Audit Contractors (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services 42 CFR Part 455 [CMS-6034-P] RIN 0938-AQ19 Medicaid Program; Recovery Audit Contractors AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), HHS. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This proposed rule would provide guidance to...

  17. From recovery values to recovery-oriented practice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalum, Helle; Pedersen, Inge Kryger; Cunningham, Harry


    Introduction: The recovery model has influenced mental health services and fostered new standards for best practice. However, knowledge about how mental health care professionals (HCPs) experience recoveryoriented programs is sparse. Aim/Question: This paper explores HCPs' experiences when...... facilitating a recovery-oriented rehabilitation program. The research question is howdo HCPs experience a change in their attitude and practicewhen applying recovery-oriented programs? Methods: This paper draws on semi-structured in-depth qualitative interviews conducted with 16 HCPs experienced...... in facilitating a recovery-oriented rehabilitation program in either the USA or Denmark. Results: Three themes emerged from the HCPs' reflections on changes in attitudes and practices: “Hopeful Attitude” captures a change in the HCPs' attitude toward a more positive view on the future for clients' living...

  18. Optimizing the Prioritization of Natural Disaster Recovery Projects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aftanas, Jason M


    .... This work will focus on promoting objectivity in the project prioritizing process, improving the communication of the overall base recovery requirement, increasing efficiency in utilizing human and monetary resources, and the creation of a usable and repeatable decision-making tool based on Value-Focused Thinking and integer programming methods.

  19. A Long-Gap Peripheral Nerve Injury Therapy Using Human Skeletal Muscle-Derived Stem Cells (Sk-SCs: An Achievement of Significant Morphological, Numerical and Functional Recovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuro Tamaki

    Full Text Available Losses in vital functions of the somatic motor and sensory nervous system are induced by severe long-gap peripheral nerve transection injury. In such cases, autologous nerve grafts are the gold standard treatment, despite the unavoidable sacrifice of other healthy functions, whereas the prognosis is not always favorable. Here, we use human skeletal muscle-derived stem cells (Sk-SCs to reconstitute the function after long nerve-gap injury. Muscles samples were obtained from the amputated legs from 9 patients following unforeseen accidents. The Sk-SCs were isolated using conditioned collagenase solution, and sorted as CD34+/45- (Sk-34 and CD34-/45-/29+ (Sk-DN/29+ cells. Cells were separately cultured/expanded under optimal conditions for 2 weeks, then injected into the athymic nude mice sciatic nerve long-gap model (7-mm bridging an acellular conduit. After 8-12 weeks, active cell engraftment was observed only in the Sk-34 cell transplanted group, showing preferential differentiation into Schwann cells and perineurial/endoneurial cells, as well as formation of the myelin sheath and perineurium/endoneurium surrounding regenerated axons, resulted in 87% of numerical recovery. Differentiation into vascular cell lineage (pericyte and endothelial cells were also observed. A significant tetanic tension recovery (over 90% of downstream muscles following electrical stimulation of the sciatic nerve (at upper portion of the gap was also achieved. In contrast, Sk-DN/29+ cells were completely eliminated during the first 4 weeks, but relatively higher numerical (83% vs. 41% in axon and functional (80% vs. 60% in tetanus recovery than control were observed. Noteworthy, significant increase in the formation of vascular networks in the conduit during the early stage (first 2 weeks of recovery was observed in both groups with the expression of key factors (mRNA and protein levels, suggesting the paracrine effects to angiogenesis. These results suggested that the

  20. A Long-Gap Peripheral Nerve Injury Therapy Using Human Skeletal Muscle-Derived Stem Cells (Sk-SCs): An Achievement of Significant Morphological, Numerical and Functional Recovery. (United States)

    Tamaki, Tetsuro; Hirata, Maki; Nakajima, Nobuyuki; Saito, Kosuke; Hashimoto, Hiroyuki; Soeda, Shuichi; Uchiyama, Yoshiyasu; Watanabe, Masahiko


    Losses in vital functions of the somatic motor and sensory nervous system are induced by severe long-gap peripheral nerve transection injury. In such cases, autologous nerve grafts are the gold standard treatment, despite the unavoidable sacrifice of other healthy functions, whereas the prognosis is not always favorable. Here, we use human skeletal muscle-derived stem cells (Sk-SCs) to reconstitute the function after long nerve-gap injury. Muscles samples were obtained from the amputated legs from 9 patients following unforeseen accidents. The Sk-SCs were isolated using conditioned collagenase solution, and sorted as CD34+/45- (Sk-34) and CD34-/45-/29+ (Sk-DN/29+) cells. Cells were separately cultured/expanded under optimal conditions for 2 weeks, then injected into the athymic nude mice sciatic nerve long-gap model (7-mm) bridging an acellular conduit. After 8-12 weeks, active cell engraftment was observed only in the Sk-34 cell transplanted group, showing preferential differentiation into Schwann cells and perineurial/endoneurial cells, as well as formation of the myelin sheath and perineurium/endoneurium surrounding regenerated axons, resulted in 87% of numerical recovery. Differentiation into vascular cell lineage (pericyte and endothelial cells) were also observed. A significant tetanic tension recovery (over 90%) of downstream muscles following electrical stimulation of the sciatic nerve (at upper portion of the gap) was also achieved. In contrast, Sk-DN/29+ cells were completely eliminated during the first 4 weeks, but relatively higher numerical (83% vs. 41% in axon) and functional (80% vs. 60% in tetanus) recovery than control were observed. Noteworthy, significant increase in the formation of vascular networks in the conduit during the early stage (first 2 weeks) of recovery was observed in both groups with the expression of key factors (mRNA and protein levels), suggesting the paracrine effects to angiogenesis. These results suggested that the human Sk

  1. Human growth hormone may be detrimental when used to accelerate recovery from acute tendon-bone interface injuries. (United States)

    Baumgarten, Keith M; Oliver, Harvey A; Foley, Jack; Chen, Ding-Geng; Autenried, Peter; Duan, Shanzhong; Heiser, Patrick


    There have been few scientific studies that have examined usage of human growth hormone to accelerate recovery from injury. The hypothesis of this study was that human growth hormone would accelerate tendon-to-bone healing compared with control animals treated with placebo in a rat model of acute rotator cuff injury repair. Seventy-two rats underwent repair of acute rotator cuff injuries and were randomized into the following postoperative dosing regimens: placebo, and human growth hormone at 0.1, 1, 2, 5, and 10 mg/kg/day, administered subcutaneously once per day for fourteen days (Protocol 1). An additional twenty-four rats were randomized to receive either (1) placebo or (2) human growth hormone at 5 mg/kg, administered subcutaneously twice per day for seven days preoperatively and twenty-eight days postoperatively (Protocol 2). All rats were killed twenty-eight days postoperatively. Mechanical testing was performed. Ultimate stress, ultimate force, stiffness, energy to failure, and ultimate distension were determined. For Protocol 1, analysis of variance testing showed no significant difference between the groups with regard to ultimate stress, ultimate force, stiffness, energy to failure, or ultimate distension. In Protocol 2, ultimate force to failure was significantly worse in the human growth hormone group compared with the placebo group (21.1 ± 5.85 versus 26.3 ± 5.47 N; p = 0.035). Failure was more likely to occur through the bone than the tendon-bone interface in the human growth hormone group compared with the placebo group (p = 0.001). No significant difference was found for ultimate stress, ultimate force, stiffness, energy to failure, or ultimate distension between the groups in Protocol 2. In this rat model of acute tendon-bone injury repair, daily subcutaneous postoperative human growth hormone treatment for fourteen days failed to demonstrate a significant difference in any biomechanical parameter compared with placebo. Furthermore, subcutaneous

  2. Managing individual nests promotes population recovery of a top predator (United States)

    Cruz, Jennyffer; Windels, Steve K.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Crimmins, Shawn M.; Grim, Leland; Zuckerberg, Benjamin


    Threatened species are managed using diverse conservation tactics implemented at multiple scales ranging from protecting individuals, to populations, to entire species. Individual protection strives to promote recovery at the population‐ or species‐level, although this is seldom evaluated.After decades of widespread declines, bald eagles, Haliaeetus leucocephalus, are recovering throughout their range due to legal protection and pesticide bans. However, like other raptors, their recovery remains threatened by human activities. Bald eagle nests are commonly managed using buffer zones to minimize human disturbance, but the benefits of this practice remain unquantified.Within Voyageurs National Park (VNP), Minnesota, USA, managers have monitored bald eagle populations for over 40 years, and since 1991, have protected at‐risk nests from human disturbance using buffer zones (200 and 400 m radius). We aimed to (1) quantify the recovery of bald eagles in VNP (1973–2016), and (2) provide a first‐ever evaluation of the individual‐ and population‐level effects of managing individual nests. To do so, we developed Bayesian Integrated Population Models combining observations of nest occupancy and reproductive output (metrics commonly collected for raptors) to estimate nest‐level probabilities of occupancy, nest success, and high productivity (producing ≥2 nestlings), as well as population‐level estimates of abundance and growth.The breeding population of bald eagles at VNP increased steadily from management significantly improved occupancy and success. At the population‐level, management led to 8% and 13% increases in nest success and productivity rates, respectively, resulting in a 37% increase in breeding pair abundance.Synthesis and applications. There is a clear need to evaluate how management approaches at multiple scales assist in species recovery. Our study uses an Integrated Population Model to reveal the population‐level benefits of a widely

  3. Immune recovery among HIV-infected patients in northwestern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is associated with significant and sustained decrease in the viral RNA levels that allows the immune system to recover. The extent of this immune recovery depends on the baseline CD4 count. Evidence on the ...

  4. Impact of recovery actions on IPE back-end results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guey, Ching; Kabadi, Jay


    This paper presents a sensitivity study of the impact of various recovery/accident management actions on the IPE results. The human actions studied include: (1) RWST replenishment; (2) depressurization; (3) AC power recovery; (4) Component Cooling Water (CCW) cross-connection; and (5) manual actuation of containment spray (cavity flooding). The results indicate that the total frequency of severe accident sequences involving containment failure is lower than 1.0 x E-6/yr when all these recovery/accident management actions are taken credit. It is concluded that with appropriate considerations of operator actions in Emergency Operating Procedures (EOPs) and future accident management policy, the uncertain phenomenological issues may not play as important a role as they do now. Although the actual nonrecovery probability used in this study may be refined during future implementation of the accident management policy, the results of this study indicate that the frequency of severe accidents in which the reactor vessel fails is low when the recovery/accident management actions are taken credit. It is also clear from the study that with major recovery actions (such as RWST replenishment, AC power recovery and depressurization) being taken credit, additional accident management type of actions (e.g. manual actuation of containment spray and CCW cross-connection) may not be as effective in reducing the risk

  5. [The Global Model of Public Mental Health and Recovery Mentors]. (United States)

    Pelletier, Jean-François; Auclair, Émilie

    Objectives The aim of this paper is to revisit the Global Model of Public Mental Health (GMPMH) in light of the 4th Civic Forum. Recovery mentors of the University of Recovery chaired this public event, which was held in East-end Montreal, Canada, in 2016. The University of Recovery is a concept of co-learning among its members.Methods Being able to refer to international conventions and human rights standards is a key component of a genuine global approach that is supportive of individuals and communities in their quest for recovery and full citizenship. The GMPMH was inspired by the ecological approach in public health and health promotion programs, while adding to that approach the recovery mentors, as agents of mental health policies and legislation transformation. The GMPMH integrates recovery- and citizenship-oriented practices through the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion of the World Health Organization. Indeed, here the GMPMH is said to be global in that the supranational and individual levels reinforce each other, taking turns with a) a set of legal rules and international conventions on human rights, including those of disabled persons, and b) the active involvement and agency of recovery mentors who can evoke these rules and conventions as part of a plea for the recognition of their personal and collective capacity for change; they acted as tracers of recovery trajectories during the Civic Forum. The GMPMH was first published in 2009, and revisited in 2013. While this latter revision was based on the 3rd Civic Forum, in this paper we use the same approach to revisit the GMPMH as underpinned by the findings and recommendations of the 4th Civic Forum, which discussed questions related to work and employment.Results Updating the GMPMH in light of the Civic Forum underlines the need for a more inclusive type of governance regarding policy and systems transformation. Local communities and persons in recovery can reach each other to promote change and

  6. Effect of sampling and short isolation methodologies on the recovery of human pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica from pig tonsils. (United States)

    Van Damme, Inge; Berkvens, Dirk; De Zutter, Lieven


    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of sampling (swab samples compared to destructive samples) on isolation rates of human pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica from pig tonsils. Moreover, the relative efficiency of different rapid, routinely applicable isolation methods was evaluated. Therefore, swab and destructive samples from tonsils of 120 pigs at slaughter were analyzed in parallel using direct plating and different enrichment methods. Salmonella-Shigella-desoxycholate-calcium chloride (SSDC) agar, cefsulodin-irgasan-novobiocin (CIN) agar, and Yersinia enterocolitica chromogenic medium (YeCM) were used as selective agar media. For enrichment, irgasan-ticarcillin-potassium chlorate (ITC) broth and peptone-sorbitol-bile (PSB) broth were incubated at 25°C for 48 h. Overall, 55 tonsils (45.8%) were positive for Y. enterocolitica bioserotype 4/O:3. Recovery was significantly higher using the destructive method compared to the swabbing method. Direct plating resulted in 47 and 28 Y. enterocolitica-positive destructive and swab samples, respectively. Alkali treatment of PSB and ITC enrichment broths significantly increased recovery of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica from destructive tonsil samples. The performance of YeCM for qualitative and quantitative isolation of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica from pig tonsils was equal to SSDC and CIN. In conclusion, direct plating and ISO 10273: 2003 with minor modifications are suitable and rapid methods for isolation of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica from destructive tonsil samples.

  7. Modeling Reef Fish Biomass, Recovery Potential, and Management Priorities in the Western Indian Ocean. (United States)

    McClanahan, Timothy R; Maina, Joseph M; Graham, Nicholas A J; Jones, Kendall R


    Fish biomass is a primary driver of coral reef ecosystem services and has high sensitivity to human disturbances, particularly fishing. Estimates of fish biomass, their spatial distribution, and recovery potential are important for evaluating reef status and crucial for setting management targets. Here we modeled fish biomass estimates across all reefs of the western Indian Ocean using key variables that predicted the empirical data collected from 337 sites. These variables were used to create biomass and recovery time maps to prioritize spatially explicit conservation actions. The resultant fish biomass map showed high variability ranging from ~15 to 2900 kg/ha, primarily driven by human populations, distance to markets, and fisheries management restrictions. Lastly, we assembled data based on the age of fisheries closures and showed that biomass takes ~ 25 years to recover to typical equilibrium values of ~1200 kg/ha. The recovery times to biomass levels for sustainable fishing yields, maximum diversity, and ecosystem stability or conservation targets once fishing is suspended was modeled to estimate temporal costs of restrictions. The mean time to recovery for the whole region to the conservation target was 8.1(± 3SD) years, while recovery to sustainable fishing thresholds was between 0.5 and 4 years, but with high spatial variation. Recovery prioritization scenario models included one where local governance prioritized recovery of degraded reefs and two that prioritized minimizing recovery time, where countries either operated independently or collaborated. The regional collaboration scenario selected remote areas for conservation with uneven national responsibilities and spatial coverage, which could undermine collaboration. There is the potential to achieve sustainable fisheries within a decade by promoting these pathways according to their social-ecological suitability.

  8. Boosting recovery rather than buffering reactivity: Higher stress-induced oxytocin secretion is associated with increased cortisol reactivity and faster vagal recovery after acute psychosocial stress. (United States)

    Engert, Veronika; Koester, Anna M; Riepenhausen, Antje; Singer, Tania


    Animal models and human studies using paradigms designed to stimulate endogenous oxytocin release suggest a stress-buffering role of oxytocin. We here examined the involvement of stress-induced peripheral oxytocin secretion in reactivity and recovery phases of the human psychosocial stress response. Healthy male and female participants (N=114) were subjected to a standardized laboratory stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test. In addition to plasma oxytocin, cortisol was assessed as a marker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA-) axis activity, alpha-amylase and heart rate as markers of sympathetic activity, high frequency heart rate variability as a marker of vagal tone and self-rated anxiety as an indicator of subjective stress experience. On average, oxytocin levels increased by 51% following psychosocial stress. The stress-induced oxytocin secretion, however, did not reduce stress reactivity. To the contrary, higher oxytocin secretion was associated with greater cortisol reactivity and peak cortisol levels in both sexes. In the second phase of the stress response the opposite pattern was observed, with higher oxytocin secretion associated with faster vagal recovery. We suggest that after an early stage of oxytocin and HPA-axis co-activation, the stress-reducing action of oxytocin unfolds. Due to the time lag it manifests as a recovery-boosting rather than a reactivity-buffering effect. By reinforcing parasympathetic autonomic activity, specifically during stress recovery, oxytocin may provide an important protective function against the health-compromising effects of sustained stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Endurance exercise induces mRNA expression of oxidative enzymes in human skeletal muscle late in recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leick, Lotte; Plomgaard, Peter S.; Grønløkke, L.


    exercise. To test the hypothesis that mRNA expression of many oxidative enzymes is up-regulated late in recovery (10-24 h) after exercise, male subjects (n=8) performed a 90-min cycling exercise (70% VO(2-max)), with muscle biopsies obtained before exercise (pre), and after 10, 18 and 24 h of recovery....... The mRNA expression of carnitine-palmitoyltransferase (CPT)I, CD36, 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA-dehydrogenase (HAD), cytochrome (Cyt)c, aminolevulinate-delta-synthase (ALAS)1 and GLUT4 was 100-200% higher at 10-24 h of recovery from exercise than in a control trial. Exercise induced a 100-300% increase...... in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator (PGC)-1alpha, citrate synthase (CS), CPTI, CD36, HAD and ALAS1 mRNA contents at 10-24 h of recovery relative to before exercise. No protein changes were detected in Cytc, ALAS1 or GLUT4. This shows that mRNA expression of several training...

  10. Self-Cleaning Boudouard Reactor for Full Oxygen Recovery from CO2 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Oxygen recovery from respiratory CO2 is an important aspect of human spaceflight. Methods exist to sequester the CO2­, but production of oxygen needs further...

  11. VA/Q distribution during heavy exercise and recovery in humans: implications for pulmonary edema (United States)

    Schaffartzik, W.; Poole, D. C.; Derion, T.; Tsukimoto, K.; Hogan, M. C.; Arcos, J. P.; Bebout, D. E.; Wagner, P. D.


    Ventilation-perfusion (VA/Q) inequality has been shown to increase with exercise. Potential mechanisms for this increase include nonuniform pulmonary vasoconstriction, ventilatory time constant inequality, reduced large airway gas mixing, and development of interstitial pulmonary edema. We hypothesized that persistence of VA/Q mismatch after ventilation and cardiac output subside during recovery would be consistent with edema; however, rapid resolution would suggest mechanisms related to changes in ventilation and blood flow per se. Thirteen healthy males performed near-maximal cycle ergometry at an inspiratory PO2 of 91 Torr (because hypoxia accentuates VA/Q mismatch on exercise). Cardiorespiratory variables and inert gas elimination patterns were measured at rest, during exercise, and between 2 and 30 min of recovery. Two profiles of VA/Q distribution behavior emerged during heavy exercise: in group 1 an increase in VA/Q mismatch (log SDQ of 0.35 +/- 0.02 at rest and 0.44 +/- 0.02 at exercise; P less than 0.05, n = 7) and in group 2 no change in VA/Q mismatch (n = 6). There were no differences in anthropometric data, work rate, O2 uptake, or ventilation during heavy exercise between groups. Group 1 demonstrated significantly greater VA/Q inequality, lower vital capacity, and higher forced expiratory flow at 25-75% of forced vital capacity for the first 20 min during recovery than group 2. Cardiac index was higher in group 1 both during heavy exercise and 4 and 6 min postexercise. However, both ventilation and cardiac output returned toward baseline values more rapidly than did VA/Q relationships. Arterial pH was lower in group 1 during exercise and recovery. We conclude that greater VA/Q inequality in group 1 and its persistence during recovery are consistent with the hypothesis that edema occurs and contributes to the increase in VA/Q inequality during exercise. This is supported by observation of greater blood flows and acidosis and, presumably therefore

  12. Post-disaster recovery: a case study of human resource deployment in the health sector in post-conflict Kosovo. (United States)

    O'Hanlon, Katherine P; Budosan, Boris


    A professional understanding of disasters, paired with the need for health service development, can provide opportunities for the recovery and improvement of the health sector. Investment in training capacity ranks among the top priorities of a recovering health sector. The recovery and development of primary healthcare delivery systems has been implemented by various international and local health players in the aftermath of conflicts around the world. However, human resource development in the post-conflict environment has not been evaluated and/or published appropriately in the medical literature. In this retrospective, descriptive study, the authors describe the strategy and evaluate the effectiveness of a field-based training program for primary healthcare doctors implemented by the US-based international non-governmental organization, the International Medical Corps, after the conflict in Kosovo in 1999. A six-month, comprehensive education and training program on primary healthcare issues was delivered to 134 Kosovar primary healthcare physicians in 10 Kosovo municipalities in 1999 and 2000. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected. The qualitative methods included open-ended, semi-structured, key informant interviews, structured focus groups, and unstructured participant observations. The quantitative method was multiple-choice knowledge tests. The education and training program proved to be culturally appropriate and well-accepted by local communities. The program met its overall objective to refresh the knowledge of primary care doctors on various primary healthcare issues and set the stage for further strengthening and development of primary health services and their required human resources in Kosovo. The comprehensive education and training of primary healthcare doctors in Kosovo was a feasible, much appreciated, and effective intervention implemented in a difficult post-conflict environment. This training was one of the early steps in the

  13. Developing and Sustaining Recovery-Orientation in Mental Health Practice: Experiences of Occupational Therapists. (United States)

    Nugent, Alexandra; Hancock, Nicola; Honey, Anne


    Internationally, mental health policy requires clinicians to shift from a medical to a recovery-oriented approach. However, there is a significant lag in the translation of policy into practice. Occupational therapists have been identified as ideally situated to be recovery-oriented yet limited research exploring how they do this exists. This study aimed to explore Australian occupational therapists' experiences of developing and sustaining recovery-orientation in mental health practice. Semistructured, in-depth interviews were conducted with twelve occupational therapists working across different mental health service types. Participants identified themselves as being recovery-oriented. Data were analysed using constant comparative analysis. Occupational therapists described recovery-oriented practice as an active, ongoing, and intentional process of seeking out knowledge, finding fit between understandings of recovery-oriented practice and their professional identity, holding hope, and developing confidence through clinical reasoning. Human and systemic aspects of therapists' workplace environment influenced this process. Being a recovery-oriented occupational therapist requires more than merely accepting a specific framework. It requires commitment and ongoing work to develop and sustain recovery-orientation. Occupational therapists are called to extend current leadership activity beyond their workplace and to advocate for broader systemic change.

  14. Driving Sodium-Potassium Pumps With An Oscillating Electric Field: Effects On Muscle Recovery In The Human Biceps Brachii (United States)

    Bovyn, Matt; Chen, Wei; Lanes, Olivia; Mast, Jason


    Dr. Chen has developed a technique called synchronization modulation, which uses an oscillating electric field to increase the rate at which the sodium-potassium pumps in the cell membrane work. Because the sodium-potassium pump is integral in the recovery of skeletal muscle fibers after an action potential, we investigated the effects of applying synchronization modulation to muscles which had already undergone fatigue due to repeated action potentials during exercise. Fatigue was induced in human subjects' biceps brachii through isometric contraction. Surface electromyography measurements of fatigue index were used to quantify how the muscle recovered over the minutes following fatigue, both when synchronization modulation was applied and when it was absent. The preliminary results were inconclusive, but it is hoped that in later work it will be shown that applying synchronization modulation is effective in increasing the rate at which the muscle recovers to its initial state. This would demonstrate not only that synchronization modulation can be successfully applied to human muscle, but also that it has many potential applications in sports medicine and novel disease treatments. Work done as part of an REU program at the University of South Florida

  15. Uncovering Recovery: The Resistible Rise of Recovery and Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Harper


    Full Text Available Discourses of recovery and resilience have risen to positions of dominance in the mental health field. Models of recovery and resilience enjoy purchase, in both policy and practice, across a range of settings from self-described psychiatric survivors through to mental health charities through to statutory mental health service providers. Despite this ubiquity, there is confusion about what recovery means. In this article we problematize notions of recovery and resilience, and consider what, if anything, should be recovered from these concepts. We focus on three key issues, i individualization, ii the persistence of a deficit model, and iii collective approaches to recovery. Through documentary analysis we consider these issues across third sector organizations, and public and mental health policy. Firstly, definitional debates about recovery reflect wider ideological debates about the nature of mental health. The vagueness of these concepts and implicit assumptions inherent in dominant recovery and resilience discourses render them problematic because they individualize what are social problems. Secondly, these discourses, despite being seen as inherently liberatory are conceptually dependent on a notion of deficit in that talk of “positives” and “strengths” requires the existence of “negatives” and “weaknesses” for these concepts to make sense.  We argue that this does little to substantially transform dominant understandings of psychological distress. Thirdly, these issues combine to impact upon the progressive potential of recovery. It comes to be seen as an individualistic experiential narrative accompaniment to medical understandings where the structural causes of distress are obscured. This in turn impacts upon the potential for recovery to be used to explore more collective, political aspects of emotional distress. Drawing on the work of Fraser, we use this critique to characterize “recovery” as a “struggle for

  16. Building addiction recovery capital through online participation in a recovery community. (United States)

    Bliuc, Ana-Maria; Best, David; Iqbal, Muhammad; Upton, Katie


    This study examines how online participation in a community of recovery contributes to personal journeys of recovery. It investigates whether recovery capital building - as indicated by increased levels and quality of online social interactions - and markers of positive identity development predict retention in a recovery program designed around fostering community involvement for early stage recovery addicts. It was predicted that online participation on the group's Facebook page and positive identity development are associated to retention in the program. To map how participants interact online, social network analysis (SNA) based on naturally occurring online data (N = 609) on the Facebook page of a recovery community was conducted. Computerised linguistic analyses evaluated sentiment of the textual data (capturing social identity markers). Linear regression analyses evaluated whether indicators of recovery capital predict program retention. To illustrate the findings in the context of the specific recovery community, presented are two case studies of key participants who moved from the periphery to the centre of the social network. By conducting in-depth interviews with these participants, personal experiences of engagement in the online community of group members who have undergone the most significant changes since joining the community are explored. Retention in the program was determined by a) the number of comment 'likes' and all 'likes' received on the Facebook page; b) position in the social network (degree of centrality); and c) linguistic content around group identity and achievement. Positive online interactions between members of recovery communities support the recovery process through helping participants to develop recovery capital that binds them to groups supportive of positive change. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Socioeconomic Factors Affecting Local Support for Black Bear Recovery Strategies (United States)

    Morzillo, Anita T.; Mertig, Angela G.; Hollister, Jeffrey W.; Garner, Nathan; Liu, Jianguo


    There is global interest in recovering locally extirpated carnivore species. Successful efforts to recover Louisiana black bear in Louisiana have prompted interest in recovery throughout the species’ historical range. We evaluated support for three potential black bear recovery strategies prior to public release of a black bear conservation and management plan for eastern Texas, United States. Data were collected from 1,006 residents living in proximity to potential recovery locations, particularly Big Thicket National Preserve. In addition to traditional logistic regression analysis, we used conditional probability analysis to statistically and visually evaluate probabilities of public support for potential black bear recovery strategies based on socioeconomic characteristics. Allowing black bears to repopulate the region on their own (i.e., without active reintroduction) was the recovery strategy with the greatest probability of acceptance. Recovery strategy acceptance was influenced by many socioeconomic factors. Older and long-time local residents were most likely to want to exclude black bears from the area. Concern about the problems that black bears may cause was the only variable significantly related to support or non-support across all strategies. Lack of personal knowledge about black bears was the most frequent reason for uncertainty about preferred strategy. In order to reduce local uncertainty about possible recovery strategies, we suggest that wildlife managers focus outreach efforts on providing local residents with general information about black bears, as well as information pertinent to minimizing the potential for human-black bear conflict.

  18. Promotive effect of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) on recovery from neutropenia induced by fractionated irradiation in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabaya, Koji; Watanabe, Masahiko; Kusaka, Masaru; Seki, Masatoshi (Kirin Brewery Co., Ltd., Gunma (Japan). Pharmaceutical Research Laboratory); Fushiki, Masato


    The effect of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) on the recovery from neutropenia induced by fractionated whole-body irradiation was investigated in mice. Male 7-week old C3H/HeN mice received a total of ten exposures of 0.25 Gy/day from day 1 to 5 and from day 8 to 12. Peripheral neutropenia with a nadir on day 17 was caused by the fractionated irradiation. Daily subcutaneous injections of rhG-CSF at 0.25 and 2.5 [mu]g/body/day from day from day 1 to 21 promoted the recovery of neutrophils in a dose-dependent manner. The kinetics of morphologically identifiable bone marrow cells were studied to clarify the mechanism behind the promotive effect of this factor. A slight decrease in mitotic immature granulocytes, such as myeloblasts, promyelocytes and myelocytes on day 5, and a drastic decrease in metamyelocytes and marrow neutrophils on days 5, 9, and 17 were seen in the femur of irradiated mice. Treatment using rhG-CSF caused an increase in immature granulocytes of all differential stages in the femur. Microscopic findings of the femurs and spleens also reveals an increase in immature granulocytes in these organs in mice injected with rhG-CSF. These results indicate that rhG-CSF accelerates granulopoiesis in the femur and spleen, thereby promoting recovery from neutropenia induced by fractionated irradiation. (author).

  19. Promotive effect of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) on recovery from neutropenia induced by fractionated irradiation in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabaya, Koji; Watanabe, Masahiko; Kusaka, Masaru; Seki, Masatoshi; Fushiki, Masato.


    The effect of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) on the recovery from neutropenia induced by fractionated whole-body irradiation was investigated in mice. Male 7-week old C3H/HeN mice received a total of ten exposures of 0.25 Gy/day from day 1 to 5 and from day 8 to 12. Peripheral neutropenia with a nadir on day 17 was caused by the fractionated irradiation. Daily subcutaneous injections of rhG-CSF at 0.25 and 2.5 μg/body/day from day from day 1 to 21 promoted the recovery of neutrophils in a dose-dependent manner. The kinetics of morphologically identifiable bone marrow cells were studied to clarify the mechanism behind the promotive effect of this factor. A slight decrease in mitotic immature granulocytes, such as myeloblasts, promyelocytes and myelocytes on day 5, and a drastic decrease in metamyelocytes and marrow neutrophils on days 5, 9, and 17 were seen in the femur of irradiated mice. Treatment using rhG-CSF caused an increase in immature granulocytes of all differential stages in the femur. Microscopic findings of the femurs and spleens also reveals an increase in immature granulocytes in these organs in mice injected with rhG-CSF. These results indicate that rhG-CSF accelerates granulopoiesis in the femur and spleen, thereby promoting recovery from neutropenia induced by fractionated irradiation. (author)

  20. 75 FR 47538 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Recovery Plans (United States)


    ... survival and recovery; (6) identify causes and minimize human-caused injury and mortality; (7) determine... than a 1 percent chance of extinction in 100 years) and at least 500 mature, reproductive individuals... circumstances that are thought to substantially contribute to a real risk of extinction that cannot be...

  1. Natural Ventilation with Heat Recovery: A Biomimetic Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfikar A. Adamu


    Full Text Available In temperate countries, heat recovery is often desirable through mechanical ventilation with heat recovery (MVHR. Drawbacks of MVHR include use of electric power and complex ducting, while alternative passive heat recovery systems in the form of roof or chimney-based solutions are limited to low rise buildings. This paper describes a biomimetic concept for natural ventilation with heat recovery (NVHR. The NVHR system mimics the process of water/mineral extraction from urine in the Loop of Henle (part of human kidney. Simulations on a facade-integrated Chamber successfully imitated the geometry and behaviour of the Loop of Henle (LoH. Using a space measuring 12 m2 in area and assuming two heat densities of 18.75 W/m2 (single occupancy or 30 W/m2 (double occupancy, the maximum indoor temperatures achievable are up to 19.3 °C and 22.3 °C respectively. These come with mean relative ventilation rates of 0.92 air changes per hour (ACH or 10.7 L·s−1 and 0.92 ACH (11.55 L·s−1, respectively, for the month of January. With active heating and single occupant, the LoH Chamber consumes between 65.7% and 72.1% of the annual heating energy required by a similar naturally ventilated space without heat recovery. The LoH Chamber could operate as stand-alone indoor cabinet, benefitting refurbishment of buildings and evading constraints of complicated ducting, external aesthetic or building age.

  2. Recovery of severely compacted soils in the Mojave Desert, California, USA (United States)

    Webb, R.H.


    Often as a result of large-scale military maneuvers in the past, many soils in the Mojave Desert are highly vulnerable to soil compaction, particularly when wet. Previous studies indicate that natural recovery of severely compacted desert soils is extremely slow, and some researchers have suggested that subsurface compaction may not recover. Poorly sorted soils, particularly those with a loamy sand texture, are most vulnerable to soil compaction, and these soils are the most common in alluvial fans of the Mojave Desert. Recovery of compacted soil is expected to vary as a function of precipitation amounts, wetting-and-drying cycles, freeze-thaw cycles, and bioturbation, particularly root growth. Compaction recovery, as estimated using penetration depth and bulk density, was measured at 19 sites with 32 site-time combinations, including the former World War II Army sites of Camps Ibis, Granite, Iron Mountain, Clipper, and Essex. Although compaction at these sites was caused by a wide variety of forces, ranging from human trampling to tank traffic, the data do not allow segregation of differences in recovery rates for different compaction forces. The recovery rate appears to be logarithmic, with the highest rate of change occurring in the first few decades following abandonment. Some higher-elevation sites have completely recovered from soil compaction after 70 years. Using a linear model of recovery, the full recovery time ranges from 92 to 100 years; using a logarithmic model, which asymptotically approaches full recovery, the time required for 85% recovery ranges from 105-124 years.

  3. From recovery to regulation: an attempt to reconceptualize 'recovery from work'. (United States)

    Zijlstra, F R H; Cropley, M; Rydstedt, L W


    The concept of 'recovery' (from work) has quickly gained in importance in the occupational health literature. However, we think that the conceptualization of 'recovery' needs some more attention. Although many authors acknowledge that 'recovery' refers to a 'process', the concept is often treated as a static construct. In this paper, we argue that recovery should be conceptualized as a dynamic construct related to changes in psychophysiological state of the person. We refer to two main theories that have provided a theoretical framework for research in this area: Meijman & Mulder's Effort-Recovery (E-R) model and Hobfoll's Conservation of Resources theory. In particular, the E-R model has been seminal in this area and stresses the element of changing psychophysiological states that has been used for reconceptualising 'recovery'. Various biological rhythms influence these changing psychophysiological states, and thus the level of energy (or effort) a person can mobilize or wants to mobilize. A distinction is made between 'physical fatigue' and 'mental fatigue' and its consequences for recovery. The discrepancy between 'actual state' and 'required state' has been suggested as the basis for 'recovery'. This emphasises that recovery is a dynamic and ongoing process, which also included motivational aspects, in particular as far as mental work is concerned. The capacity to maintain self-regulation of one's psychophysiological state is important in this respect. Thus, we propose that 'recovery' is the continuous process of harmonizing the 'actual state' with the state that is 'required' at that moment. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Early humans' egalitarian politics: runaway synergistic competition under an adapted veil of ignorance. (United States)

    Harvey, Marc


    This paper proposes a model of human uniqueness based on an unusual distinction between two contrasted kinds of political competition and political status: (1) antagonistic competition, in quest of dominance (antagonistic status), a zero-sum, self-limiting game whose stake--who takes what, when, how--summarizes a classical definition of politics (Lasswell 1936), and (2) synergistic competition, in quest of merit (synergistic status), a positive-sum, self-reinforcing game whose stake becomes "who brings what to a team's common good." In this view, Rawls's (1971) famous virtual "veil of ignorance" mainly conceals politics' antagonistic stakes so as to devise the principles of a just, egalitarian society, yet without providing any means to enforce these ideals (Sen 2009). Instead, this paper proposes that human uniqueness flourished under a real "adapted veil of ignorance" concealing the steady inflation of synergistic politics which resulted from early humans' sturdy egalitarianism. This proposition divides into four parts: (1) early humans first stumbled on a purely cultural means to enforce a unique kind of within-team antagonistic equality--dyadic balanced deterrence thanks to handheld weapons (Chapais 2008); (2) this cultural innovation is thus closely tied to humans' darkest side, but it also launched the cumulative evolution of humans' brightest qualities--egalitarian team synergy and solidarity, together with the associated synergistic intelligence, culture, and communications; (3) runaway synergistic competition for differential merit among antagonistically equal obligate teammates is the single politically selective mechanism behind the cumulative evolution of all these brighter qualities, but numerous factors to be clarified here conceal this mighty evolutionary driver; (4) this veil of ignorance persists today, which explains why humans' unique prosocial capacities are still not clearly understood by science. The purpose of this paper is to start lifting

  5. Alcohol, Athletic Performance and Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cameron-Smith


    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption within elite sport has been continually reported both anecdotally within the media and quantitatively in the literature. The detrimental effects of alcohol on human physiology have been well documented, adversely influencing neural function, metabolism, cardiovascular physiology, thermoregulation and skeletal muscle myopathy. Remarkably, the downstream effects of alcohol consumption on exercise performance and recovery, has received less attention and as such is not well understood. The focus of this review is to identify the acute effects of alcohol on exercise performance and give a brief insight into explanatory factors.

  6. The ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 improves recovery of human embryonic stem cells after fluorescence-activated cell sorting with multiple cell surface markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nil Emre

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Due to the inherent sensitivity of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs to manipulations, the recovery and survival of hESCs after fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS can be low. Additionally, a well characterized and robust methodology for performing FACS on hESCs using multiple-cell surface markers has not been described. The p160-Rho-associated coiled kinase (ROCK inhibitor, Y-27632, previously has been identified as enhancing survival of hESCs upon single-cell dissociation, as well as enhancing recovery from cryopreservation. Here we examined the application of Y-27632 to hESCs after FACS to improve survival in both feeder-dependent and feeder-independent growth conditions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: HESCs were sorted using markers for SSEA-3, TRA-1-81, and SSEA-1. Cells were plated after sorting for 24 hours in either the presence or the absence of Y-27632. In both feeder-dependent and feeder-independent conditions, cell survival was greater when Y-27632 was applied to the hESCs after sort. Specifically, treatment of cells with Y-27632 improved post-sort recovery up to four fold. To determine the long-term effects of sorting with and without the application of Y-27632, hESCs were further analyzed. Specifically, hESCs sorted with and without the addition of Y-27632 retained normal morphology, expressed hESC-specific markers as measured by immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry, and maintained a stable karyotype. In addition, the hESCs could differentiate into three germ layers in vitro and in vivo in both feeder-dependent and feeder-independent growth conditions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The application of Y-27632 to hESCs after cell sorting improves cell recovery with no observed effect on pluripotency, and enables the consistent recovery of hESCs by FACS using multiple surface markers. This improved methodology for cell sorting of hESCs will aid many applications such as removal of hESCs from secondary cell types

  7. An integrated practical implementation of continuous aqueous two-phase systems for the recovery of human IgG: From the microdevice to a multistage bench-scale mixer-settler device. (United States)

    Espitia-Saloma, Edith; Vâzquez-Villegas, Patricia; Rito-Palomares, Marco; Aguilar, Oscar


    Aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) are a liquid-liquid extraction technology with clear process benefits; however, its lack of industrial embracement is still a challenge to overcome. Antibodies are a potential product to be recovered by ATPS in a commercial context. The objective of this work is to present a more integral approach of the different isolated strategies that have arisen in order to enable a practical, generic implementation of ATPS, using human immunoglobulin G (IgG) as experimental model. A microfluidic device is used for ATPS parameters preselection for product recovery. ATPS were continuously operated in a mixer-settler device in one stage, multistage and multistage with recirculation configuration. Single-stage pure IgG extraction with a polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350-phophates ATPS within continuous operation allowed a 65% recovery. Further implementation of a multistage platform promoted a higher particle partitioning reaching a 90% recovery. The processing of IgG from a cell supernatant culture harvest in a multistage system with top phase recirculation resulted in 78% IgG recovery in bottom phase. This work conjugates three not widely spread methodologies for ATPS: microfluidics, continuous and multistage operation. Copyright © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Music listening enhances cognitive recovery and mood after middle cerebral artery stroke. (United States)

    Särkämö, Teppo; Tervaniemi, Mari; Laitinen, Sari; Forsblom, Anita; Soinila, Seppo; Mikkonen, Mikko; Autti, Taina; Silvennoinen, Heli M; Erkkilä, Jaakko; Laine, Matti; Peretz, Isabelle; Hietanen, Marja


    We know from animal studies that a stimulating and enriched environment can enhance recovery after stroke, but little is known about the effects of an enriched sound environment on recovery from neural damage in humans. In humans, music listening activates a wide-spread bilateral network of brain regions related to attention, semantic processing, memory, motor functions, and emotional processing. Music exposure also enhances emotional and cognitive functioning in healthy subjects and in various clinical patient groups. The potential role of music in neurological rehabilitation, however, has not been systematically investigated. This single-blind, randomized, and controlled trial was designed to determine whether everyday music listening can facilitate the recovery of cognitive functions and mood after stroke. In the acute recovery phase, 60 patients with a left or right hemisphere middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke were randomly assigned to a music group, a language group, or a control group. During the following two months, the music and language groups listened daily to self-selected music or audio books, respectively, while the control group received no listening material. In addition, all patients received standard medical care and rehabilitation. All patients underwent an extensive neuropsychological assessment, which included a wide range of cognitive tests as well as mood and quality of life questionnaires, one week (baseline), 3 months, and 6 months after the stroke. Fifty-four patients completed the study. Results showed that recovery in the domains of verbal memory and focused attention improved significantly more in the music group than in the language and control groups. The music group also experienced less depressed and confused mood than the control group. These findings demonstrate for the first time that music listening during the early post-stroke stage can enhance cognitive recovery and prevent negative mood. The neural mechanisms potentially

  9. Deprivation and Recovery of Sleep in Succession Enhances Reflexive Motor Behavior. (United States)

    Sprenger, Andreas; Weber, Frederik D; Machner, Bjoern; Talamo, Silke; Scheffelmeier, Sabine; Bethke, Judith; Helmchen, Christoph; Gais, Steffen; Kimmig, Hubert; Born, Jan


    Sleep deprivation impairs inhibitory control over reflexive behavior, and this impairment is commonly assumed to dissipate after recovery sleep. Contrary to this belief, here we show that fast reflexive behaviors, when practiced during sleep deprivation, is consolidated across recovery sleep and, thereby, becomes preserved. As a model for the study of sleep effects on prefrontal cortex-mediated inhibitory control in humans, we examined reflexive saccadic eye movements (express saccades), as well as speeded 2-choice finger motor responses. Different groups of subjects were trained on a standard prosaccade gap paradigm before periods of nocturnal sleep and sleep deprivation. Saccade performance was retested in the next morning and again 24 h later. The rate of express saccades was not affected by sleep after training, but slightly increased after sleep deprivation. Surprisingly, this increase augmented even further after recovery sleep and was still present 4 weeks later. Additional experiments revealed that the short testing after sleep deprivation was sufficient to increase express saccades across recovery sleep. An increase in speeded responses across recovery sleep was likewise found for finger motor responses. Our findings indicate that recovery sleep can consolidate motor disinhibition for behaviors practiced during prior sleep deprivation, thereby persistently enhancing response automatization. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  10. To belong, contribute, and hope: first stage development of a measure of social recovery. (United States)

    Marino, Casadi Khaki


    Recovery from mental health challenges is beginning to be explored as an inherently social process. There is a need to measure social recovery. Targeted measures would be utilized in needs assessment, service delivery, and program evaluation. This paper reports on the first stage of development of a social recovery measure. Explore the social aspects of recovery as reported by individuals with lived experience. A qualitative study using thematic analysis of data from focus groups with 41 individuals in recovery. Three meta-themes of social recovery emerged: community, self-concept, and capacities. Each theme contained a number of sub-themes concerned with a sense of belonging, inherent acceptability of the self, and ability to cope with mental distress and engage socially. Study participants clearly spoke to common human needs to belong, contribute, and have hope for one's future. Findings converged with results of consumer-led research that emphasize the importance of overcoming the impact of illness on the self and social context.

  11. Developing and Sustaining Recovery-Orientation in Mental Health Practice: Experiences of Occupational Therapists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Nugent


    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Internationally, mental health policy requires clinicians to shift from a medical to a recovery-oriented approach. However, there is a significant lag in the translation of policy into practice. Occupational therapists have been identified as ideally situated to be recovery-oriented yet limited research exploring how they do this exists. This study aimed to explore Australian occupational therapists’ experiences of developing and sustaining recovery-orientation in mental health practice. Methods. Semistructured, in-depth interviews were conducted with twelve occupational therapists working across different mental health service types. Participants identified themselves as being recovery-oriented. Data were analysed using constant comparative analysis. Results. Occupational therapists described recovery-oriented practice as an active, ongoing, and intentional process of seeking out knowledge, finding fit between understandings of recovery-oriented practice and their professional identity, holding hope, and developing confidence through clinical reasoning. Human and systemic aspects of therapists’ workplace environment influenced this process. Conclusions. Being a recovery-oriented occupational therapist requires more than merely accepting a specific framework. It requires commitment and ongoing work to develop and sustain recovery-orientation. Occupational therapists are called to extend current leadership activity beyond their workplace and to advocate for broader systemic change.

  12. Use of Drying Technologies for Resource Recovery from Solid Wastes and Brines (United States)

    Wignarajah, Kanapathipillai; Alba, Ric; Fisher, John W.; Hogan, John A.; Polonsky, Alex


    Long term storage of unprocessed biological wastes and human wastes can present major health issues and a loss of potential resources. Space vehicles and planetary habitats are typically resource-scarce or resource-limited environments for long-term human habitation. To-date, most of the resources will need to be supplied from Earth, but this may not be possible for long duration human exploration. Based on present knowledge, there is only very limited in-situ resources on planetary habitats. Hence, the opportunity to "live off the land" in a planetary habitat is limited. However, if we assume that wastes generated by human explorers are viewed as resources, there is great potential to utilize and recycle them, thereby reducing the requirements for supply Earth and enabling the "live off the land" exploration scenario. Technologies used for the recovery of resources from wastes should be reliable, safe, easy to operate, fail-proof, modular, automated and preferably multifunctional in being capable of handling mixed solid and liquid wastes. For a lunar habitat, energy does not appear to be the major driving factor amongst the technologies studied. Instead, reliability appears to be more important[1] . This paper reports studies to date on drying technologies to remove water from solid wastes and brines. Experimental performance data obtained for recovery water from wastes and brine are presented. Simplicity of operation of hardware and energy efficiency are discussed. Some improvements and modifications to hardware were performed. Hopefully, this information will assist in future efforts in the "downselection" of technologies for recovery of water and resources from solid wastes and brines.

  13. Astaxanthin in Exercise Metabolism, Performance and Recovery: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R. Brown


    Full Text Available During periods of heavy exercise training and competition, lipid, protein, and nucleic molecules can become damaged due to an overproduction of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS within the exercising organism. As antioxidants can prevent and delay cellular oxidative damage through removing, deactivating, and preventing the formation of RONS, supplementation with exogenous antioxidant compounds has become a commercialized nutritional strategy commonly adopted by recreationally active individuals and athletes. The following review is written as a critical appraisal of the current literature surrounding astaxanthin and its potential application as a dietary supplement in exercising humans. Astaxanthin is a lipid-soluble antioxidant carotenoid available to supplement through the intake of Haematococcus pluvialis-derived antioxidant products. Based upon in vitro and in vivo research conducted in mice exercise models, evidence would suggest that astaxanthin supplementation could potentially improve indices of exercise metabolism, performance, and recovery because of its potent antioxidant capacity. In exercising humans, however, these observations have yet to be consistently realized, with equivocal data reported. Implicated, in part, by the scarcity of well-controlled, scientifically rigorous research, future investigation is necessary to enable a more robust conclusion in regard to the efficacy of astaxanthin supplementation and its potential role in substrate utilization, endurance performance, and acute recovery in exercising humans.

  14. Improving sample recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, R.J.


    This Engineering Task Plan (ETP) describes the tasks, i.e., tests, studies, external support and modifications planned to increase the recovery of the recovery of the waste tank contents using combinations of improved techniques, equipment, knowledge, experience and testing to better the recovery rates presently being experienced

  15. Inhibition and recovery of DNA synthesis in human cells after exposure to ultraviolet light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Painter, R.B.


    The inhibition of DNA synthesis in normal human cells by UV is a complex function of fluence because it has several causes. At low fluences, inhibition of replicon initiation is most important. This is made clear by the fact that it occurs to a lesser degree in cells from patients with ataxia telangiectasia (AT). Assuming that only leading strand synthesis is blocked by UV-induced lesions, single lesions between replicons in parental strands for leading strand synthesis inhibit DNA synthesis by acting as temporary blocks until they are replicated by extension of the lagging strand of the adjacent replicon. A more severe inhibition occurs when two lesions are induced between adjacent growing replicons, because one in four possible configurations may result in a long-lived unreplicated region (LLUR). In the absence of excision repair, these may eventually be replicated by activation of an otherwise unused origin within the LLUR. The frequency of LLURs increases steeply with fluence. Activation of normally unused origins to replicate LLURs may facilitate recovery from inhibition of DNA synthesis, but repair of lesions is probably more important. In excision-repair-defective cells, an LLUR without an origin to initiate its replication may be a lethal lesion. (orig.)

  16. Recovery of extracellular vesicles from human breast milk is influenced by sample collection and vesicle isolation procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijke I. Zonneveld


    Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles (EV in breast milk carry immune relevant proteins and could play an important role in the instruction of the neonatal immune system. To further analyze these EV and to elucidate their function it is important that native populations of EV can be recovered from (stored breast milk samples in a reproducible fashion. However, the impact of isolation and storage procedures on recovery of breast milk EV has remained underexposed. Here, we aimed to define parameters important for EV recovery from fresh and stored breast milk. To compare various protocols across different donors, breast milk was spiked with a well-defined murine EV population. We found that centrifugation of EV down into density gradients largely improved density-based separation and isolation of EV, compared to floatation up into gradients after high-force pelleting of EV. Using cryo-electron microscopy, we identified different subpopulations of human breast milk EV and a not previously described population of lipid tubules. Additionally, the impact of cold storage on breast milk EV was investigated. We determined that storing unprocessed breast milk at −80°C or 4°C caused death of cells present in breast milk, leading to contamination of the breast milk EV population with storage-induced EV. Here, an alternative method is proposed to store breast milk samples for EV analysis at later time points. The proposed adaptations to the breast milk storage and EV isolation procedures can be applied for EV-based biomarker profiling of breast milk and functional analysis of the role of breast milk EV in the development of the neonatal immune system.

  17. Rapid Recovery Gene Downregulation during Excess-Light Stress and Recovery in Arabidopsis. (United States)

    Crisp, Peter A; Ganguly, Diep R; Smith, Aaron B; Murray, Kevin D; Estavillo, Gonzalo M; Searle, Iain; Ford, Ethan; Bogdanović, Ozren; Lister, Ryan; Borevitz, Justin O; Eichten, Steven R; Pogson, Barry J


    Stress recovery may prove to be a promising approach to increase plant performance and, theoretically, mRNA instability may facilitate faster recovery. Transcriptome (RNA-seq, qPCR, sRNA-seq, and PARE) and methylome profiling during repeated excess-light stress and recovery was performed at intervals as short as 3 min. We demonstrate that 87% of the stress-upregulated mRNAs analyzed exhibit very rapid recovery. For instance, HSP101 abundance declined 2-fold every 5.1 min. We term this phenomenon rapid recovery gene downregulation (RRGD), whereby mRNA abundance rapidly decreases promoting transcriptome resetting. Decay constants ( k ) were modeled using two strategies, linear and nonlinear least squares regressions, with the latter accounting for both transcription and degradation. This revealed extremely short half-lives ranging from 2.7 to 60.0 min for 222 genes. Ribosome footprinting using degradome data demonstrated RRGD loci undergo cotranslational decay and identified changes in the ribosome stalling index during stress and recovery. However, small RNAs and 5'-3' RNA decay were not essential for recovery of the transcripts examined, nor were any of the six excess light-associated methylome changes. We observed recovery-specific gene expression networks upon return to favorable conditions and six transcriptional memory types. In summary, rapid transcriptome resetting is reported in the context of active recovery and cellular memory. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  18. Relationship Between Magnitude of Applied Spin Recovery Moment and Ensuing Number of Recovery Turns (United States)

    Anglin, Ernie L.


    An analytical study has been made to investigate the relationship between the magnitude of the applied spin recovery moment and the ensuing number of turns made during recovery from a developed spin with a view toward determining how to interpolate or extrapolate spin recovery results with regard to determining the amount of control required for a satisfactory recovery. Five configurations were used which are considered to be representative of modern airplanes: a delta-wing fighter, a stub-wing research vehicle, a boostglide configuration, a supersonic trainer, and a sweptback-wing fighter. The results obtained indicate that there is a direct relationship between the magnitude of the applied spin recovery moments and the ensuing number of recovery turns made and that this relationship can be expressed in either simple multiplicative or exponential form. Either type of relationship was adequate for interpolating or extrapolating to predict turns required for recovery with satisfactory accuracy for configurations having relatively steady recovery motions. Any two recoveries from the same developed spin condition can be used as a basis for the predicted results provided these recoveries are obtained with the same ratio of recovery control deflections. No such predictive method can be expected to give satisfactory results for oscillatory recoveries.

  19. Defective recovery of semi-conservative DNA synthesis in xeroderma pigmentosum cells following split-dose ultraviolet irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moustacchi, E.; Ehmann, U.K.; Friedberg, E.C.


    In normal human fibroblasts the authors observe an enhancement of the recovery of the rate of semi-conservative DNA synthesis after split-dose UV-irradation relative to a single total UV dose. The enhanced recovery is totally absent in both a xeroderma pigmentosum variant line and two xeroderma pigmentosum lines belonging to complementation groups A and C. (Auth.)

  20. System i Disaster Recovery Planning

    CERN Document Server

    Dolewski, Richard


    Mapping out all the preparations necessary for an effective disaster recovery plan and its safeguard-a continuous maintenance program-this guide is aimed at IT managers of small and medium businesses. The opening section covers the initial steps of auditing vulnerability, ranking essential IT functions, and reviewing the storage of tape backups, with the following discussion focused on the elements of the plan itself. The plan includes a mission statement, a definition of disaster, the assignment of staff to teams, methods of compensating for human error, and standards for documenting the step

  1. The effects of creep and recovery on the in vitro biomechanical characteristics of human multi-level thoracolumbar spinal segments. (United States)

    Busscher, Iris; van Dieën, Jaap H; van der Veen, Albert J; Kingma, Idsart; Meijer, Gerdine J M; Verkerke, Gijsbertus J; Veldhuizen, Albert G


    Several physiological and pathological conditions in daily life cause sustained static bending or torsion loads on the spine resulting in creep of spinal segments. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of creep and recovery on the range of motion, neutral zone, and neutral zone stiffness of thoracolumbar multi-level spinal segments in flexion, extension, lateral bending and axial rotation. Six human cadaveric spines (age at time of death 55-84 years) were sectioned in T1-T4, T5-T8, T9-T12, and L1-L4 segments and prepared for testing. Moments were applied of +4 to -4 N m in flexion-extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation. This was repeated after 30 min of creep loading at 2 N m in the tested direction and after 30 min of recovery. Displacement of individual motion segments was measured using a 3D optical movement registration system. The range of motion, neutral zone, and neutral zone stiffness of the middle motion segments were calculated from the moment-angular displacement data. The range of motion increased significantly after creep in extension, lateral bending and axial rotation (Pcreep showed an increasing trend as well, and the neutral zone after flexion creep increased by on average 36% (Pcreep in axial rotation (Pcreep loading. This higher flexibility of the spinal segments may be a risk factor for potential spinal instability or injury. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Spousal recovery support, recovery experiences, and life satisfaction crossover among dual-earner couples. (United States)

    Park, YoungAh; Fritz, Charlotte


    Research has indicated the importance of recovery from work stress for employee well-being and work engagement. However, very little is known about the specific factors that may support or hinder recovery in the context of dual-earner couples. This study proposes spousal recovery support as a potential resource that dual-earner couples can draw on to enhance their recovery experiences and well-being. It was hypothesized that spousal recovery support would be related to the recipient spouse's life satisfaction via his or her own recovery experiences (i.e., psychological detachment, relaxation, and mastery experiences). The study further investigated the crossover of life satisfaction between working spouses as a potential outcome of recovery processes. Data from 318 full-time employed married couples in South Korea were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results showed that spousal recovery support was positively related to all 3 recovery experiences of the recipient spouse. Moreover, this recovery support was related to the recipient spouse's life satisfaction via relaxation and mastery experiences. Unexpectedly, psychological detachment was negatively related to life satisfaction, possibly indicating a suppression effect. Life satisfaction crossed over between working spouses. No gender differences were found in the hypothesized paths. Based on these findings, theoretical and practical implications are discussed, and future research directions are presented. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. The influence of cold on the recovery of three neuromuscular blocking agents in man. (United States)

    England, A J; Wu, X; Richards, K M; Redai, I; Feldman, S A


    The Arrhenius hypothesis suggests that change in temperature has a less marked effect on the rate of physical processes than on biological reactions. We have investigated the process underlying recovery from neuromuscular block in man by studying the effect of cooling on the rate of recovery from depolarising and non-depolarising block. Vecuronium, rocuronium and decamethonium (C10) neuromuscular block were investigated using the isolated forearm technique on awake human volunteers. In these experiments, one arm was cooled whilst the other was used as control. Moderate hypothermia decreased the rate of recovery from all three agents, but this was significantly less marked with the depolarising drug. The mean Q10 (the anticipated change in rate of a reaction across of 10 degrees C temperature gradient) of the rate of recovery for vecuronium was 3.21, rocuronium 2.86 and decamethonium 1.29. This suggests a different process in the recovery of these two types of drug. According to the Arrhenius hypothesis this would suggest that the recovery from non-depolarising drugs is likely to involve a biochemical mechanism and that recovery from decamethonium is controlled by a physical process.

  4. Life cycle assessment as development and decision support tool for wastewater resource recovery technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Linda L.; Valverde Perez, Borja; Damgaard, Anders


    resource recovery. The freshwater and nutrient content of wastewater are recognized as potential valuable resources that can be recovered for beneficial reuse. Both recovery and reuse are intended to address existing environmental concerns, for example, water scarcity and use of non-renewable phosphorus...... and water recovery system in its potential operating environment, we assess the potential environmental impacts of such a system using the EASETECH model. In the simulation, recovered water and nutrients are used in scenarios of agricultural irrigation-fertilization and aquifer recharge. In these scenarios......, TRENS reduces global warming up to 15% and marine eutrophication impacts up to 9% compared to conventional treatment. This is due to the recovery and reuse of nutrient resources, primarily nitrogen. The key environmental concerns obtained through the LCA are linked to increased human toxicity impacts...

  5. Impact of Water Recovery from Wastes on the Lunar Surface Mission Water Balance (United States)

    Fisher, John W.; Hogan, John Andrew; Wignarajah, Kanapathipi; Pace, Gregory S.


    Future extended lunar surface missions will require extensive recovery of resources to reduce mission costs and enable self-sufficiency. Water is of particular importance due to its potential use for human consumption and hygiene, general cleaning, clothes washing, radiation shielding, cooling for extravehicular activity suits, and oxygen and hydrogen production. Various water sources are inherently present or are generated in lunar surface missions, and subject to recovery. They include: initial water stores, water contained in food, human and other solid wastes, wastewaters and associated brines, ISRU water, and scavenging from residual propellant in landers. This paper presents the results of an analysis of the contribution of water recovery from life support wastes on the overall water balance for lunar surface missions. Water in human wastes, metabolic activity and survival needs are well characterized and dependable figures are available. A detailed life support waste model was developed that summarizes the composition of life support wastes and their water content. Waste processing technologies were reviewed for their potential to recover that water. The recoverable water in waste is a significant contribution to the overall water balance. The value of this contribution is discussed in the context of the other major sources and loses of water. Combined with other analyses these results provide guidance for research and technology development and down-selection.

  6. The recovery imperative: a critical examination of mid-life women's recovery from depression. (United States)

    O'Brien, Wendy


    Australia, like other countries in neo-liberal democracies, is grappling with the gendered health 'problem' of depression. More concerning is the issue of recovery and relapse, with depression being the third largest cause of disability-adjusted life years (DALY). In addition, advanced liberal discourses of health position recovery as an exercise of individual responsibility to return to a functioning and productive norm and prevent recurrence. This moral enterprise of health articulates a 'recovery imperative' which overlooks the gendered context which may have created the conditions for women's depression and may in turn impede their recovery. Drawing on insights from governmentality and feminist post-structuralism, the article critically examines the effects of normalized recovery discourses on women's subjectivities. Data for the study were collected between 2005 and 2007 through in-depth interviews with 31 mid-life Australian women. Three key themes; 'in' recovery, 'eight out of ten' recovered, and recovering the authentic self, illustrate how the 'recovery imperative' may be implicated in perpetuating the cycle of recovery and relapse. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Battleground Energy Recovery Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bullock, Daniel [USDOE Gulf Coast Clean Energy Application Center, Woodlands, TX (United States)


    In October 2009, the project partners began a 36-month effort to develop an innovative, commercial-scale demonstration project incorporating state-of-the-art waste heat recovery technology at Clean Harbors, Inc., a large hazardous waste incinerator site located in Deer Park, Texas. With financial support provided by the U.S. Department of Energy, the Battleground Energy Recovery Project was launched to advance waste heat recovery solutions into the hazardous waste incineration market, an area that has seen little adoption of heat recovery in the United States. The goal of the project was to accelerate the use of energy-efficient, waste heat recovery technology as an alternative means to produce steam for industrial processes. The project had three main engineering and business objectives: Prove Feasibility of Waste Heat Recovery Technology at a Hazardous Waste Incinerator Complex; Provide Low-cost Steam to a Major Polypropylene Plant Using Waste Heat; and Create a Showcase Waste Heat Recovery Demonstration Project.

  8. Learning how to recover from job stress: effects of a recovery training program on recovery, recovery-related self-efficacy, and well-being. (United States)

    Hahn, Verena C; Binnewies, Carmen; Sonnentag, Sabine; Mojza, Eva J


    This quasi-experimental study evaluated the effects of a recovery training program on recovery experiences (psychological detachment from work, relaxation, mastery experiences, and control during off-job time), recovery-related self-efficacy, and well-being outcomes. The training comprised two sessions held one week apart. Recovery experiences, recovery-related self-efficacy, and well-being outcomes were measured before the training (T1) and one week (T2) and three weeks (T3) after the training. A training group consisting of 48 individuals and a waitlist control group of 47 individuals were compared (N = 95). Analyses of covariance revealed an increase in recovery experiences at T2 and T3 (for mastery only at T2). Recovery-related self-efficacy and sleep quality increased at T2 and T3, perceived stress and state negative affect decreased at T3. No training effects were found for emotional exhaustion.

  9. Catastrophic Incident Recovery: Long-Term Recovery from an Anthrax Event Symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesperance, Ann M.


    On March 19, 2008, policy makers, emergency managers, and medical and Public Health officials convened in Seattle, Washington, for a workshop on Catastrophic Incident Recovery: Long-Term Recovery from an Anthrax Event. The day-long symposium was aimed at generating a dialogue about restoration and recovery through a discussion of the associated challenges that impact entire communities, including people, infrastructure, and critical systems.

  10. Assessing non-metro recovery across two continents: issues and limitations. (United States)

    Blakely, Edward J; Fisher, Peter M J


    Rural and remote areas of countries such as Australia and the United States are less well-resourced and often poorer than their city counterparts. When a disaster strikes, therefore, their long-term recovery can be impeded by being situated 'over the horizon'. Nonetheless, they are likely to enjoy higher social capital, with 'locals' banding together to help restore economic and social life in the wake of a calamitous incident. At the same time, a repeat of extreme events, springing in part from alteration to the landscape through intense human occupation, threatens to derail sustainable recovery processes everywhere, suggesting that renewed emphasis needs to be placed on preparedness. Improved metrics are also required, spanning both pre- and post-disaster phases, to determine effectiveness. Moreover, a focus on the 'hardening' of towns offers a better return in limiting damage and potentially hastens the speed of recovery should these places later fall victim to extreme events. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.

  11. Locomotor recovery after spinal cord hemisection/contusion injures in bonnet monkeys: footprint testing--a minireview. (United States)

    Rangasamy, Suresh Babu


    Spinal cord injuries usually produce loss or impairment of sensory, motor and reflex function below the level of damage. In the absence of functional regeneration or manipulations that promote regeneration, spontaneous improvements in motor functions occur due to the activation of multiple compensatory mechanisms in animals and humans following the partial spinal cord injury. Many studies were performed on quantitative evaluation of locomotor recovery after induced spinal cord injury in animals using behavioral tests and scoring techniques. Although few studies on rodents have led to clinical trials, it would appear imperative to use nonhuman primates such as macaque monkeys in order to relate the research outcomes to recovery of functions in humans. In this review, we will discuss some of our research evidences concerning the degree of spontaneous recovery in bipedal locomotor functions of bonnet monkeys that underwent spinal cord hemisection/contusion lesions. To our knowledge, this is the first report to discuss on the extent of spontaneous recovery in bipedal locomotion of macaque monkeys through the application of footprint analyzing technique. In addition, the results obtained were compared with the published data on recovery of quadrupedal locomotion of spinally injured rodents. We propose that the mechanisms underlying spontaneous recovery of functions in spinal cord lesioned monkeys may be correlated to the mature function of spinal pattern generator for locomotion under the impact of residual descending and afferent connections. Moreover, based on analysis of motor functions observed in locomotion in these subjected monkeys, we understand that spinal automatism and development of responses by afferent stimuli from outside the cord could possibly contribute to recovery of paralyzed hindlimbs. This report also emphasizes the functional contribution of progressive strengthening of undamaged nerve fibers through a collateral sprouts/synaptic plasticity formed

  12. Picturing recovery: a photovoice exploration of recovery dimensions among people with serious mental illness. (United States)

    Cabassa, Leopoldo J; Nicasio, Andel; Whitley, Rob


    Recovery from mental disorders encompasses multiple interrelated dimensions. This study used photovoice to explore how individuals with serious mental illness and a history of substance abuse and homelessness envisioned their recovery. A dimensional recovery model was applied to examine how the interrelationships between recovery dimensions supported consumers' recovery journeys. Photovoice is a participatory research method that empowers people by giving them cameras to document their experiences and inform social action. Sixteen consumers recruited from two supported housing agencies participated in six weekly sessions to which they brought photographs that they took of persons and events in their lives that reflected recovery and wellness and discussed the meaning of the photographs in individual interviews and group sessions. The authors used pile-sorting, grounded theory, and a deductive template-analytic technique to analyze narrative and visual data. Spirituality, life achievements, and receiving and providing support were the most salient themes that emerged from the analysis and illustrate beneficial interrelationships between recovery dimensions. Participants discussed how they relied on their spirituality to support their sobriety and cope with addictions-aspects of clinical recovery. Educational and vocational achievements represented gains in functioning that contributed to increasing self-esteem and self-agency and reducing self-stigma. Social dimensions of recovery, such as receiving and giving support to loved ones, rippled through consumers' lives reducing isolation and enhancing their self-worth. The findings illustrate the value of participatory methods to understand what recovery signified to people with serious mental illness and how understanding the interrelationships between recovery dimensions can inform recovery-oriented services.

  13. Electrical stimulation and motor recovery. (United States)

    Young, Wise


    In recent years, several investigators have successfully regenerated axons in animal spinal cords without locomotor recovery. One explanation is that the animals were not trained to use the regenerated connections. Intensive locomotor training improves walking recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI) in people, and >90% of people with incomplete SCI recover walking with training. Although the optimal timing, duration, intensity, and type of locomotor training are still controversial, many investigators have reported beneficial effects of training on locomotor function. The mechanisms by which training improves recovery are not clear, but an attractive theory is available. In 1949, Donald Hebb proposed a famous rule that has been paraphrased as "neurons that fire together, wire together." This rule provided a theoretical basis for a widely accepted theory that homosynaptic and heterosynaptic activity facilitate synaptic formation and consolidation. In addition, the lumbar spinal cord has a locomotor center, called the central pattern generator (CPG), which can be activated nonspecifically with electrical stimulation or neurotransmitters to produce walking. The CPG is an obvious target to reconnect after SCI. Stimulating motor cortex, spinal cord, or peripheral nerves can modulate lumbar spinal cord excitability. Motor cortex stimulation causes long-term changes in spinal reflexes and synapses, increases sprouting of the corticospinal tract, and restores skilled forelimb function in rats. Long used to treat chronic pain, motor cortex stimuli modify lumbar spinal network excitability and improve lower extremity motor scores in humans. Similarly, epidural spinal cord stimulation has long been used to treat pain and spasticity. Subthreshold epidural stimulation reduces the threshold for locomotor activity. In 2011, Harkema et al. reported lumbosacral epidural stimulation restores motor control in chronic motor complete patients. Peripheral nerve or functional electrical

  14. Improved NGL recovery designs maximize operating flexibility and product recoveries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, J.D.; Hudson, H.M.


    This paper reports that the historically cyclical nature in the market for ethane and propane has demonstrated the need for flexible natural gas liquids (NGL) recovery plants. NEwly developed and patented processes are now available which can provide ultra-high recovery of ethane (95%+) when demand for ethane is high and provide essentially complete ethane rejection without the normally concomitant reduction in propane recovery. This provides plant operators the flexibility to respond more readily to NGL market conditions, thus maximizing plant operating profits. The new process designs provide this flexibility without increasing utility requirements. In fact, utility consumption is often lower when compared to conventional designs. This same process technology can also be easily retrofit into existing plants with relatively quick payout of the modifications from both recovery and efficiency improvements

  15. Respiratory acidosis prolongs, while alkalosis shortens, the duration and recovery time of vecuronium in humans. (United States)

    Yamauchi, Masanori; Takahashi, Hiromi; Iwasaki, Hiroshi; Namiki, Akiyoshi


    To determine the effects of respiratory acidosis and alkalosis by mechanical ventilation on the onset, duration, and recovery times of vecuronium. Randomized, prospective study. Operating rooms in the Sapporo Medical University Hospital and Kitami Red Cross Hospital. 90 ASA physical status I and II patients undergoing lower abdominal surgery. Patients were randomly allocated to one of three groups by arterial carbon dioxide tension level (PaCO2; mmHg) after induction: hyperventilation group (PaCO2 = 25-35), normoventilation group (PaCO2 = 35-45), and hypoventilation group (PaCO2 = 45-55). Anesthesia was maintained by spinal block with inhalation of 50% to 66% nitrous oxide in oxygen and intermittent intravenous administration of fentanyl and midazolam with tracheal intubation. After vecuronium 0.08 mg/kg was given, onset, duration, and recovery time were measured by mechanomyography (Biometer Myograph 2,000, Odense, Denmark). There were significant differences in the duration and recovery time of vecuronium among the normoventilation group (12.7 +/- 3.3 min and 11.8 +/- 2.8 min, respectively), the hyperventilation group (10.6 +/- 3.5 min and 9.2 +/- 2.7 min, respectively; p respiratory acidosis and shortened in respiratory alkalosis.

  16. The ring of gyges and cloaking technology in Star Trek


    Grech, Victor E.


    No human has ever been invisible, a power that in legend is only attributed to gods and spirits. However, the possibilities inherent to the potential human acquisition of invisibility have been explored in several narratives. Plato (427-347 BC) reviewed this in the story of the Ring of Gyges. The myth recounts that Gyges was a shepherd in the service of King Candaules of Lydia. An earthquake exposed a cave mouth which Gyges stumbled upon. He discovered a tomb which contained a giant who wore ...

  17. Business recovery: an assessment framework. (United States)

    Stevenson, Joanne R; Brown, Charlotte; Seville, Erica; Vargo, John


    This paper presents a Business Recovery Assessment Framework (BRAF) to help researchers and practitioners design robust, repeatable, and comparable studies of business recovery in various post-disruption contexts. Studies assessing business recovery without adequately considering the research aims, recovery definitions, and indicators can produce misleading findings. The BRAF is composed of a series of steps that guide the decisions that researchers need to make to ensure: (i) that recovery is indeed being measured; (ii) that the indicators of recovery that are selected align with the objectives of the study and the definition of recovery; and, where necessary, (iii) that appropriate comparative control variables are in place. The paper draws on a large dataset of business surveys collected following the earthquakes in Canterbury, New Zealand, on 4 September 2010 and 22 February 2011 to demonstrate the varied conclusions that different recovery indicators can produce and to justify the need for a systematic approach to business recovery assessments. © 2018 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2018.

  18. Aging is associated with diminished muscle re-growth and myogenic precursor cell expansion in the early recovery phase after immobility-induced atrophy in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suetta, Charlotte Arneboe; Frandsen, Ulrik; Mackey, Abigail L


    Recovery of skeletal muscle mass from immobilisation-induced atrophy is faster in young than older individuals, yet the cellular mechanisms remain unknown. We examined the cellular and molecular regulation of muscle recovery in young and old human subjects subsequent to 2 weeks of immobility...... expression analysis of key growth and transcription factors associated with local skeletal muscle milieu were performed after 2 weeks immobility (Imm) and following 3 days (+3d) and 4 weeks (+4wks) of re-training. OM demonstrated no detectable gains in MFA (VL muscle) and no increases in number of Pax7......-induced muscle atrophy. Re-training consisted of 4 weeks of supervised resistive exercise in 9 older (OM: 67.3yrs, range 61-74) and 11 young (YM: 24.4yrs, range 21-30) males. Measures of myofiber area (MFA), Pax7-positive satellite cells (SC) associated with type I and type II muscle fibres, as well as gene...

  19. The potential of electrical stimulation to promote functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury--comparisons between rats and humans. (United States)

    Gordon, T; Brushart, T M; Amirjani, N; Chan, K M


    The declining capacity for injured peripheral nerves to regenerate their axons with time and distance is accounted for, at least in part, by the chronic axotomy of the neurons and Schwann cell denervation prior to target reinnervation. A largely unrecognized site of delay is the surgical suture site where, in rats, 4 weeks is required for all neurons to regenerate their axons across the site. Low frequency stimulation for just 1 h after surgery accelerates this axon crossing in association with upregulation of neurotrophic factors in the neurons. We translated these findings to human patients by examining the number of reinnervated motor units in the median nerve-innervated thenar muscles before and after carpel tunnel release surgery in a randomized controlled trial. Motor unit number estimates (MUNE) in patients with moderate and severe carpal tunnel syndrome were significantly lower than normal. This number increased significantly by 6-8 months after surgery and reached normal values by 12 months in contrast to a non-significant increase in the control unstimulated group. Tests including the Purdue Pegboard Test verified the more rapid functional recovery after stimulation. The data indicate a feasible strategy to promote axonal regeneration in humans that has the potential to improve functional outcomes, especially in combination with strategies to sustain the regenerative capacity of neurons and the support of Schwann cells over distance and time.

  20. National recovery strategy for woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou, boreal population, in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave Hervieux


    Full Text Available Recovery planning for the boreal population of woodland caribou is a complex task, spanning eight Canadian provinces and territories. To accommodate unique situations across the country, recovery planning for this Species at Risk Act-listed threatened species is occurring at both provincial/ territorial and national levels. The national recovery strategy strives to identify nationally important issues and provide direction for provinces and territories as they plan and implement boreal caribou recovery within their jurisdictions. The national vision is to conserve and recover boreal caribou and their habitat across Canada. Specific goals are to: 1 Prevent extirpation of local boreal caribou populations from all existing caribou ranges; and 2 Maintain or enhance local boreal caribou populations at or to self-sustaining levels within all existing caribou ranges; and 3 Maintain or enhance boreal caribou habitat to support self-sustaining local populations. Nineteen broad national approaches are identified. These approaches include items relating to: habitat planning and management, caribou population monitoring and management, management of human-caused mortality, management of other wildlife species, consideration of government legislation and policy,promotion of stewardship and public outreach, and research. Specific outcomes are provided for each stated recovery approach. For more information on Canada's national recovery strategy for the boreal population of woodland caribou please see

  1. EPA Recovery Mapper (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EPA Recovery Mapper is an Internet interactive mapping application that allows users to discover information about every American Recovery and Reinvestment Act...

  2. Recovery from mental illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kirsten Schultz; Friis, Vivi Soegaard; Haxholm, Birthe Lodahl


    Mental health services strive to implement a recovery-oriented approach to rehabilitation. Little is known about service users' perception of the recovery approach. The aim is to explore the service user's perspectives on facilitators and barriers associated with recovery. Twelve residents living...

  3. Recovery and money management. (United States)

    Rowe, Michael; Serowik, Kristin L; Ablondi, Karen; Wilber, Charles; Rosen, Marc I


    Social recovery and external money management are important approaches in contemporary mental health care, but little research has been done on the relationship between the two or on application of recovery principles to money management for people at risk of being assigned a representative payee or conservator. Out of 49 total qualitative interviews, 25 transcripts with persons receiving Social Security insurance or Social Security disability insurance who were at risk of being assigned a money manager were analyzed to assess the presence of recognized recovery themes. The recovery principles of self-direction and responsibility were strong themes in participant comments related to money management. Money management interventions should incorporate peoples' recovery-related motivations to acquire financial management skills as a means to direct and assume responsibility for one's finances. Staff involved in money management should receive training to support client's recovery-related goals. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Molnar


    Full Text Available Training exercises of recovery of sportsmen include both exercises implying hig- her level of training and exercises of optimal recovery of sportsmen. In order to use training exercises of recovery best way it is necessary to know how they react to the body of a sportsman concerning their character and length. It is also necessary to take into consideration the fact that human body adapts equally both to burden and adequ- ate recovery exercises. To increase the efficiency of training exercises of recovery it is inevitable to use different exercises and methods changing their use, that is, they should be applied in a complex way considering their change depending on sport activities and structure of training process. The aim of the study is to check and analyse attitudes of fooyball players of different ranks towards training exercises of recovery. The sample of examinees consists of 120 footballers of different ranks (super league of Serbia = 43, the first league of Serbia = 40 and Serbian league = 37. The sample of variables consists of the system of 10 attitudes (claims, and each attitude (claim consists of 5 verbal ca- tegories (marked from -2 to +2. To determine multivariate and univariate significance of differences between footballers of different competition ranks multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA and univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA have been ap- plied. Concerning the attitudes of training exercises of recovery statistically significant differences were got between the groups where 7 out of 10 attitudes were different. Con- cerning the correlation two types of attitudes were noticed. Footballers of different competition ranks do not have the same attitudes towards training exercises of recovery.

  5. Enhanced Glycogen Storage of a Subcellular Hot Spot in Human Skeletal Muscle during Early Recovery from Eccentric Contractions (United States)

    Nielsen, Joachim; Farup, Jean; Rahbek, Stine Klejs; de Paoli, Frank Vincenzo; Vissing, Kristian


    Unaccustomed eccentric exercise is accompanied by muscle damage and impaired glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis during subsequent recovery. Recently, it was shown that the role and regulation of glycogen in skeletal muscle are dependent on its subcellular localization, and that glycogen synthesis, as described by the product of glycogen particle size and number, is dependent on the time course of recovery after exercise and carbohydrate availability. In the present study, we investigated the subcellular distribution of glycogen in fibers with high (type I) and low (type II) mitochondrial content during post-exercise recovery from eccentric contractions. Analysis was completed on five male subjects performing an exercise bout consisting of 15 x 10 maximal eccentric contractions. Carbohydrate-rich drinks were subsequently ingested throughout a 48 h recovery period and muscle biopsies for analysis included time points 3, 24 and 48 h post exercise from the exercising leg, whereas biopsies corresponding to prior to and at 48 h after the exercise bout were collected from the non-exercising, control leg. Quantitative imaging by transmission electron microscopy revealed an early (post 3 and 24 h) enhanced storage of intramyofibrillar glycogen (defined as glycogen particles located within the myofibrils) of type I fibers, which was associated with an increase in the number of particles. In contrast, late in recovery (post 48 h), intermyofibrillar, intramyofibrillar and subsarcolemmal glycogen in both type I and II fibers were lower in the exercise leg compared with the control leg, and this was associated with a smaller size of the glycogen particles. We conclude that in the carbohydrate-supplemented state, the effect of eccentric contractions on glycogen metabolism depends on the subcellular localization, muscle fiber’s oxidative capacity, and the time course of recovery. The early enhanced storage of intramyofibrillar glycogen after the eccentric contractions may

  6. Tenth oil recovery conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sleeper, R.


    The Tertiary Oil Recovery Project is sponsored by the State of Kansas to introduce Kansas producers to the economic potential of enhanced recovery methods for Kansas fields. Specific objectives include estimation of the state-wide tertiary oil resource, identification and evaluation of the most applicable processes, dissemination of technical information to producers, occasional collaboration on recovery projects, laboratory studies on Kansas applicable processes, and training of students and operators in tertiary oil recovery methods. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  7. Recovery from sublethal damage during fractionated irradiation of human FaDu SCC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, Cordula; Zips, Daniel; Krause, Mechthild; Voelkel, Wolfram; Thames, Howard D.; Baumann, Michael


    Background and purpose: The present study addresses whether recovery of sublethal damage in tumours may change during fractionated irradiation in FaDu human squamous cell carcinoma and whether such an effect might contribute to the pronounced time factor of fractionated irradiation previously found in this tumour. Patients and methods: FaDu tumours were transplanted s.c. into the right hind leg of NMRI nu/nu mice. Single doses or 2, 4, and 8 equal fractions in 3.5 days were applied in previously unirradiated tumours and after priming with 18 fractions of 3 Gy in 18 or 36 days. All irradiations were given under clamp hypoxic conditions. Experimental endpoints were tumour control dose 50% (TCD 50 ) and α/β values without and after priming. Results: Without priming TCD 50 increased with increasing number of fractions from 38.8 Gy (95% CI 35;45) after single dose irradiation to 54.0 Gy (42;57) after 8 fractions. No increase in TCD 50 when given in 1, 2, 4, or 8 fractions in 3.5 days was found after priming with 18 3-Gy fractions in 18 and 36 days. After priming with 18 fractions in 18 days TCD 50 remained constant at 25 Gy and after priming with 18 fractions in 36 days at 42 Gy. The α/β ratio without priming was 68 Gy (42;127). After fractionated irradiation with 18 3-Gy fractions in 18 and 36 days the α/β ratio increased to 317 Gy (38;∞) and to infinite, respectively. Conclusions: Our results indicate that clonogenic cells in FaDu tumours lose entirely their capacity to recover from sublethal radiation damage during fractionated irradiation. Therefore, an increased repair capacity as an explanation for the pronounced time factor of fractionated irradiation in this tumour can be ruled out

  8. Citizenship and recovery: two intertwined concepts for civic-recovery. (United States)

    Pelletier, Jean-François; Corbière, Marc; Lecomte, Tania; Briand, Catherine; Corrigan, Patrick; Davidson, Larry; Rowe, Michael


    Validation of the psychometric properties of a new measure of citizenship was required for a research project in the province of Quebec, Canada. This study was meant to study the interplay between recovery- and citizenship-oriented supportive employment. As recovery and citizenship were expected to be two related concepts, convergent validity between the Citizenship Measure (CM) and the Recovery Assessment Scale (RAS) was tested. Study objectives were to: 1) conduct exploratory factor analyses on the CM and confirmatory factor analysis on the RAS tools (construct validity), 2) calculate Cronbach's alphas for each dimension emerging from objective 1 (reliability), and 3) calculate correlations between all dimensions from both tools (convergent validity). Data were collected from 174 individuals with serious mental illness, working in social firms. Serious mental illnesses include major depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, panic disorder, post traumatic stress disorder and borderline personality disorder. Five factors emerged from the exploratory factor analysis of the CM, with good reliability. Confirmatory factor analyses showed that the short and the long versions of the RAS present satisfactory results. Finally, the correlation matrix indicated that all dimensions from both tools are significantly correlated, thus confirming their convergent validity. This study confirms the validity and reliability of two tools, CM and RAS. These tools can be used in combination to assess citizenship and recovery, both of which may be combined in the new concept of civic-recovery.

  9. Apolipoprotein E Mimetic Promotes Functional and Histological Recovery in Lysolecithin-Induced Spinal Cord Demyelination in Mice


    Gu, Zhen; Li, Fengqiao; Zhang, Yi Ping; Shields, Lisa B.E.; Hu, Xiaoling; Zheng, Yiyan; Yu, Panpan; Zhang, Yongjie; Cai, Jun; Vitek, Michael P.; Shields, Christopher B.


    Objective Considering demyelination is the pathological hallmark of multiple sclerosis (MS), reducing demyelination and/or promoting remyelination is a practical therapeutic strategy to improve functional recovery for MS. An apolipoprotein E (apoE)-mimetic peptide COG112 has previously demonstrated therapeutic efficacy on functional and histological recovery in a mouse experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of human MS. In the current study, we further investigated whether COG1...

  10. Resident and proprietor perspectives on a recovery orientation in community-based housing. (United States)

    Piat, Myra; Boyer, Richard; Fleury, Marie-Josée; Lesage, Alain; O'Connell, Maria; Sabetti, Judith


    Stable housing is a fundamental human right, and an important element for both mental health recovery and social inclusion among people with serious mental illness. This article reports findings from a study on the recovery orientation of structured congregate community housing services using the Recovery Self-Assessment Questionnaire (RSA) adapted for housing (O'Connell, Tondora, Croog, Evans, & Davidson, 2005). The RSA questionnaires were administered to 118 residents and housing providers from 112 congregate housing units located in Montreal, Canada. Residents rated their homes as significantly less recovery-oriented than did proprietors, which is contrary to previous studies of clinical services or Assertive Community Treatment where RSA scores for service users were significantly higher than service provider scores. Findings for both groups suggest the need for improvement on 5 of 6 RSA factors. While proprietors favored recovery training and education, and valued resident opinion and experience, vestiges of a traditional medical model governing this housing emerged in other findings, as in agreement between the 2 groups that residents have little choice in case management, or in the belief among proprietors that residents are unable to manage their symptoms. This study demonstrates that the RSA adapted for housing is a useful tool for creating recovery profiles of housing services. The findings provide practical guidance on how to promote a recovery orientation in structured community housing, as well as a novel approach for reaching a common understanding of what this entails among stakeholders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Resident and Proprietor Perspectives of a Recovery Orientation in Community-Based Housing (United States)

    Piat, Myra; Boyer, Richard; Fleury, Marie-Josée; Lesage, Alain; O’Connell, Maria; Sabetti, Judith


    Objective Stable housing is a fundamental human right, and an important element for both mental health recovery and social inclusion among people with serious mental illness. This article reports findings from a study on the recovery orientation of structured congregate community housing services using the Recovery Self-Assessment Questionnaire (RSA) adapted for housing (O’Connell, Tondora, Croog, Evans, & Davidson, 2005). Methods The RSA questionnaires were administered to 118 residents and housing providers from 112 congregate housing units located in Montreal, Canada. Results Residents rated their homes as significantly less recovery-oriented than did proprietors, which is contrary to previous studies of clinical services or Assertive Community Treatment where RSA scores for service users were significantly higher than service provider scores. Findings for both groups suggest the need for improvement on 5 of 6 RSA factors. While proprietors favored recovery training and education, and valued resident opinion and experience, vestiges of a traditional medical model governing this housing emerged in other findings, as in agreement between the 2 groups that residents have little choice in case management, or in the belief among proprietors that residents are unable to manage their symptoms. Conclusions and Implications for Practice This study demonstrates that the RSA adapted for housing is a useful tool for creating recovery profiles of housing services. The findings provide practical guidance on how to promote a recovery orientation in structured community housing, as well as a novel approach for reaching a common understanding of what this entails among stakeholders. PMID:25559078

  12. Umbilical Cable Recovery Load Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Shu-wang; JIA Zhao-lin; FENG Xiao-wei; LI Shi-tao


    Umbilical cable is a kind of integrated subsea cable widely used in the exploration and exploitation of oil and gas field.The severe ocean environment makes great challenges to umbilical maintenance and repair work.Damaged umbilical is usually recovered for the regular operation of the offshore production system.Analysis on cables in essence is a two-point boundary problem.The tension load at the mudline must be known first,and then the recovery load and recovery angle on the vessel can be solved by use of catenary equation.The recovery analysis also involves umbilicalsoil interaction and becomes more complicated.Calculation methods for recovery load of the exposed and buried umbilical are established and the relationship between the position of touch down point and the recovery load as well as the recovery angle and recovery load are analyzed.The analysis results provide a theoretical reference for offshore on-deck operation.

  13. Digital recovery management: Characterizing recovery-specific social network site participation and perceived benefit. (United States)

    Bergman, Brandon G; Kelly, Nathaniel W; Hoeppner, Bettina B; Vilsaint, Corrie L; Kelly, John F


    Research shows that digital social network sites (SNSs) may be valuable platforms to effect health behavior change. Little is known specifically about their ability to help address alcohol and other drug problems. This gap is noteworthy, given that individuals are already participating in existing, recovery-specific SNSs (hereafter referred to as recovery SNSs): online communities with the functionality of conventional SNSs (e.g., Facebook) that focus on substance use disorder (SUD) recovery. For example, (ITR) is a large, well-known recovery SNS that is available for free 24 hr/day via website and mobile smartphone applications. It offers recovery tools within a digital social milieu for over 430,000 registered users. To augment the knowledge base on recovery SNS platforms, we conducted an online survey of 123 ITR participants (M = 50.8 years old; 56.9% female; 93.5% White; M = 7.3 years of abstinence, range of 0-30 years; 65% cited alcohol as their primary substance). Respondents engaged with ITR, on average, for about 30 min/day several times each week. Daily meditation prompts and live online video meetings were the most commonly utilized resources. Participants generally endorsed ITR as a helpful platform, particularly with respect to increased abstinence/recovery motivation and self-efficacy. Compared to individuals abstinent for 1 or more years, those abstinent less than 1 year (including nonabstinent individuals) showed similar rates of engagement with ITR activities and similar levels of perceived benefit. Our findings suggest that longitudinal studies are warranted to examine the clinical utility of ITR and other recovery SNSs as SUD treatment adjuncts and/or recovery self-management tools. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. The effects of job satisfaction, employee commitment, workplace friendship and team culture on service recovery performance


    Abednego Feehi Okoe; Henry Boateng; Tiniwah Deborah Mensah


    The existing literature has called for more studies to be conducted on how human resource activities affect service recovery performance. This study therefore ascertains the effects of Job Satisfaction, employee Commitment, Workplace Friendship and Team Culture on Service Recovery Performance. The survey research design was used in this study. The participants were frontline employees from the various service sectors in Ghana. The convenience sampling was used as the sampling technique. A tot...

  15. Disaster recovery using VMware vSphere Replication and vCenter Site Recovery Manager

    CERN Document Server

    GB, Abhilash


    This is a step-by-step guide that will help you understand disaster recovery using VMware vSphere Replication 5.5 and VMware vCenter Site Recovery Manager (SRM) 5.5. The topics and configuration procedures are accompanied with relevant screenshots, flowcharts, and logical diagrams that makes grasping the concepts easier. This book is a guide for anyone who is keen on using vSphere Replication or vCenter Site Recovery Manager as a disaster recovery solution. This is an excellent handbook for solution architects, administrators, on-field engineers, and support professionals. Although the book as

  16. Characterizing and modeling the free recovery and constrained recovery behavior of a polyurethane shape memory polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volk, Brent L; Lagoudas, Dimitris C; Maitland, Duncan J


    In this work, tensile tests and one-dimensional constitutive modeling were performed on a high recovery force polyurethane shape memory polymer that is being considered for biomedical applications. The tensile tests investigated the free recovery (zero load) response as well as the constrained displacement recovery (stress recovery) response at extension values up to 25%, and two consecutive cycles were performed during each test. The material was observed to recover 100% of the applied deformation when heated at zero load in the second thermomechanical cycle, and a stress recovery of 1.5–4.2 MPa was observed for the constrained displacement recovery experiments. After the experiments were performed, the Chen and Lagoudas model was used to simulate and predict the experimental results. The material properties used in the constitutive model—namely the coefficients of thermal expansion, shear moduli, and frozen volume fraction—were calibrated from a single 10% extension free recovery experiment. The model was then used to predict the material response for the remaining free recovery and constrained displacement recovery experiments. The model predictions match well with the experimental data

  17. Assessing the additional impact of Process Recovery Communications on Customer Outcomes: A Comprehensive Service Recovery Approach




    Purpose – Services recoveries following service failures not only imply customer recovery opportunities in which customer-company relationships can be restored, they can also result in process improvements (i.e. process recoveries in literature). This paper seeks to identify the additional impact of process recoveries on four customer outcome variables (satisfaction with service recovery, overall satisfaction, repurchase intent and word-of-mouth) by communicating these improvements back to th...

  18. the dutch crisis and recovery act: economic recovery and legal crisis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    THE DUTCH CRISIS AND RECOVERY ACT: ECONOMIC RECOVERY AND. LEGAL CRISIS? J Verschuuren. 1 Introduction. Throughout the world, governments are responding to the financial and economic crisis. Such responses vary from supporting the banking system to adopting economic stimulus packages. The latter ...

  19. Recovery from DNA synthesis in V 79 chinese hamster cells irradiated with UV light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventura, A.M.


    Mammalian cells recover from DNA synthesis inhibition by UV light before most of the pyrimidine dimers have been removed from the genome. Most of the rodent cells show a deficient dimer excision repair compared with normal human fibroblasts. Despite this fact they recover efficiently from DNA synthesis inhibition after UV. In Chinese hamster V 79 cells was found that this recovery takes place in the absence of a significant excision repair, and it seems to be directly coupled to a recovery in the rate of movement of the replication fork. 120 refs, 31 figs. (author)

  20. Global analysis of depletion and recovery of seabed biota after bottom trawling disturbance. (United States)

    Hiddink, Jan Geert; Jennings, Simon; Sciberras, Marija; Szostek, Claire L; Hughes, Kathryn M; Ellis, Nick; Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D; McConnaughey, Robert A; Mazor, Tessa; Hilborn, Ray; Collie, Jeremy S; Pitcher, C Roland; Amoroso, Ricardo O; Parma, Ana M; Suuronen, Petri; Kaiser, Michel J


    Bottom trawling is the most widespread human activity affecting seabed habitats. Here, we collate all available data for experimental and comparative studies of trawling impacts on whole communities of seabed macroinvertebrates on sedimentary habitats and develop widely applicable methods to estimate depletion and recovery rates of biota after trawling. Depletion of biota and trawl penetration into the seabed are highly correlated. Otter trawls caused the least depletion, removing 6% of biota per pass and penetrating the seabed on average down to 2.4 cm, whereas hydraulic dredges caused the most depletion, removing 41% of biota and penetrating the seabed on average 16.1 cm. Median recovery times posttrawling (from 50 to 95% of unimpacted biomass) ranged between 1.9 and 6.4 y. By accounting for the effects of penetration depth, environmental variation, and uncertainty, the models explained much of the variability of depletion and recovery estimates from single studies. Coupled with large-scale, high-resolution maps of trawling frequency and habitat, our estimates of depletion and recovery rates enable the assessment of trawling impacts on unprecedented spatial scales.

  1. Blueberry effects on dark vision and recovery after photobleaching: placebo-controlled crossover studies. (United States)

    Kalt, Wilhelmina; McDonald, Jane E; Fillmore, Sherry A E; Tremblay, Francois


    Clinical evidence for anthocyanin benefits in night vision is controversial. This paper presents two human trials investigating blueberry anthocyanin effects on dark adaptation, functional night vision, and vision recovery after retinal photobleaching. One trial, S2 (n = 72), employed a 3 week intervention and a 3 week washout, two anthocyanin doses (271 and 7.11 mg cyanidin 3-glucoside equivalents (C3g eq)), and placebo. The other trial, L1 (n = 59), employed a 12 week intervention and an 8 week washout and tested one dose (346 mg C3g eq) and placebo. In both S2 and L1 neither dark adaptation nor night vision was improved by anthocyanin intake. However, in both trials anthocyanin consumption hastened the recovery of visual acuity after photobleaching. In S2 both anthocyanin doses were effective (P = 0.014), and in L1 recovery was improved at 8 weeks (P = 0.027) and 12 weeks (P = 0.030). Although photobleaching recovery was hastened by anthocyanins, it is not known whether this improvement would have an impact on everyday vision.

  2. Xeroderma pigmentosum variants have a slow recovery of DNA synthesis after irradiation with ultraviolet light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleaver, J.E.; Thomas, G.H.; Park, S.D.


    Human cells (normal and xeroderma pigmentosum variant) irradiated with ultraviolet light and pulse-labelled with [ 3 H]thymidine underwent transient decline and recovery of molecular weights of newly synthesized DNA and rates of [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation. The ability of synthesize normal-sized DNA recovered more rapidly in both cell types than thymidine incorporation. During recovery cells steadily increased in their ability to replicate normalsized DNA on damaged templates. The molecular weight versus time curves fitted exponential functions with similar rate constants in normal and heterozygous xeroderma pigmentosum cells, but with a slower rate in two xeroderma pigmentosum variant cell lines. Caffeine added during the post-irradiation period eliminated the recovery of molecular weights in xeroderma pigmentsoum variant but not in normal cells. The recovery of the ability to synthesize normal-sized DNA represents a combination of a number of cellular regulatory processes, some of which are constitutive, and one of which is altered in the xeroderma pigmentosum variant such that recovery becomes slow and caffeine sensitive. (Auth.)

  3. Is high recovery more effective than expected recovery in addressing service failure? - a moral judgment perspective


    Chen, Tong; Ma, Ke; Bian, Xuemei; Zheng, Chundong; Devlin, James


    In the context of two distinctive consumer categories and two different product settings, this research examines the effects of recovery on recovery performance as a function of consumer moral judgment of service failure. The findings of two studies reveal that consumers' response to recovery anchors on the magnitude of recovery but these responses are adjusted according to consumers' moral judgment of service failure. Specifically, consumers react more positively toward expected recovery tha...

  4. Does unconscious stress play a role in prolonged cardiovascular stress recovery? (United States)

    Brosschot, J F; Geurts, S A E; Kruizinga, I; Radstaak, M; Verkuil, B; Quirin, M; Kompier, M A J


    According to recent insights, humans might not be aware of a substantial part of their cognitive stress representations while these still have prolonged physiological effects. 'Unconscious stress' can be measured by implicit affect (IA) tests. It was shown that IA predicts physiological stress responses, in fact better than explicit ('conscious') affect. It is not known yet whether IA is associated with concurrent prolonged stress responses. In two studies (n = 62 and 123), anger harassment was used to induce stress. Blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were measured continuously. During BP and HR recovery, IA was measured by an 'anger' version of the implicit association test (IAT) or the implicit positive and negative affect test (IPANAT). Blood pressure and HR increased during anger harassment and recovery afterwards. When using the IPANAT BP recovery levels were lower when positive IA was high and higher when negative IA was high, independent of explicit affect and rumination. These results were not found using the IAT. These results provide preliminary evidence that physiological stress recovery is associated with IA. This is in line with the theory that unconscious stress is responsible for a-possibly considerable-part of unhealthy prolonged stress-related physiological activity. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Merging Cultural Heritage Assessments with Risk Reduction and Disaster Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen, Ann Kristina Mikkelsen

    heritage. These limitations serve as motivation for the introduction of the ACTOR framework (Assessing Cultural Threats, Obstacles and Resilience) ACTOR aims at merging cultural heritage assessments with risk reduction and disaster recovery, and provide disaster management students with a learning......Abstract There is a general professional consensus that vulnerability and risk assessments are crucial tasks in any serious attempt to substantially reduce disaster losses and enhance the reconciliation or recovery in the post event phase. However, cultural heritage is often considered...... as an overarching element that should be assessed, rather than a permanent key component of the assessments. Research in disaster management noticeably illustrates how cultural heritage is increasingly at risk from disasters caused by natural and human-made hazards, as well as the effects of climate change. Still...

  6. University of TX Bureau of Economic Geology's Core Research Centers: The Time is Right for Registering Physical Samples and Assigning IGSN's - Workflows, Stumbling Blocks, and Successes. (United States)

    Averett, A.; DeJarnett, B. B.


    The University Of Texas Bureau Of Economic Geology (BEG) serves as the geological survey for Texas and operates three geological sample repositories that house well over 2 million boxes of geological samples (cores and cuttings) and an abundant amount of geoscience data (geophysical logs, thin sections, geochemical analyses, etc.). Material is accessible and searchable online, and it is publically available to the geological community for research and education. Patrons access information about our collection by using our online core and log database (SQL format). BEG is currently undertaking a large project to: 1) improve the internal accuracy of metadata associated with the collection; 2) enhance the capabilities of the database for both BEG curators and researchers as well as our external patrons; and 3) ensure easy and efficient navigation for patrons through our online portal. As BEG undertakes this project, BEG is in the early stages of planning to export the metadata for its collection into SESAR (System for Earth Sample Registration) and have IGSN's (International GeoSample Numbers) assigned to its samples. Education regarding the value of IGSN's and an external registry (SESAR) has been crucial to receiving management support for the project because the concept and potential benefits of registering samples in a registry outside of the institution were not well-known prior to this project. Potential benefits such as increases in discoverability, repository recognition in publications, and interoperability were presented. The project was well-received by management, and BEG fully supports the effort to register our physical samples with SESAR. Since BEG is only in the initial phase of this project, any stumbling blocks, workflow issues, successes/failures, etc. can only be predicted at this point, but by mid-December, BEG expects to have several concrete issues to present in the session. Currently, our most pressing issue involves establishing the most

  7. Volume stumbles; prices hold steady

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    This article is the July 1994 uranium market summary. During this period, spot market volume slid to just under 370,000 lbs U3O8 equivalent. In total, six deals took place; four in the spot market, none in the medium and long-term market, one in the conversion market, and one in the enrichment market, The low end of the unrestricted price range strengthened a bit. All other prices were unchanged

  8. Fall Prevention Hits Stumbling Blocks. (United States)

    Huff, Charlotte


    Implementation of efforts to screen older people for fall risk-and to intervene before falls occur-have been scattershot at best. Ongoing studies of fall prevention called STRIDE (Strategies to Reduce Injuries and Develop Confidence in Elders) might change that. The studies look at whether clinicians can implement a fall-prevention program across rural, urban, and suburban treatment settings.

  9. Stumbling across the same phage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalatzis, Panagiotis; Rørbo, Nanna Iben; Castillo Bermúdez, Daniel Elías


    46,006 and 54,201 bp. All 19 phages showed high genetic similarity, and 13 phages were genetically identical. Apart from sporadically distributed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), genetic diversifications were located in three variable regions (VR1, VR2 and VR3) in six of the phage genomes...... was lysogenized by the temperate phages and a genomic analysis of a collection of 31 virulent V. anguillarum showed that the isolated phages were present as prophages in >50% of the strains covering large geographical distances. Further, phage sequences were widely distributed among CRISPR-Cas arrays of publicly...... available sequenced Vibrios. The observed distribution of these specific temperate Vibriophages across large geographical scales may be explained by efficient dispersal of phages and bacteria in the marine environment combined with a mutualistic interaction between temperate phages and their hosts which...

  10. Between History and Apocalypse: Stumbling (United States)

    Lalu, Premesh


    Apartheid rested on a division of the senses as much as it did on a reductive politics of racial subjection and its accompanying violence. As an instance of the division of the senses, it produced a condition of stasis in which history and a post-apartheid future were increasingly marked by a politico-religious discourse of apocalypse, and a moral…

  11. Recovery Spirituality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Kurtz


    Full Text Available There is growing interest in Alcoholics Anonymous (A.A. and other secular, spiritual, and religious frameworks of long-term addiction recovery. The present paper explores the varieties of spiritual experience within A.A., with particular reference to the growth of a wing of recovery spirituality promoted within A.A. It is suggested that the essence of secular spirituality is reflected in the experience of beyond (horizontal and vertical transcendence and between (connection and mutuality and in six facets of spirituality (Release, Gratitude, Humility, Tolerance, Forgiveness, and a Sense of Being-at-home shared across religious, spiritual, and secular pathways of addiction recovery. The growing varieties of A.A. spirituality (spanning the “Christianizers” and “Seculizers” reflect A.A.’s adaptation to the larger diversification of religious experience and the growing secularization of spirituality across the cultural contexts within which A.A. is nested.

  12. Vehicle recovery and towing guideline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This guideline was developed to provide light and medium duty vehicles operators in the oil and gas industry with a set of best practices for avoiding injury and damage during the recovery of stuck vehicles. The aim of the guideline was to increase awareness of safety issues and promote the safe usage of the vehicles by personnel throughout the petroleum industry and to establish minimum standards of practice for vehicle recovery. The guideline included a step-by-step guide for pulling out a vehicle with a recovery strap as well as vehicle-mounted winch procedures. Pre-job checklists for both procedures were provided. Issues related to the strength rating of vehicle tow hooks and hitch receivers were discussed, as well as some of the hazards associated with steep terrains and heavy mud. The guideline also included recommendations for a vehicle recovery kit with instructions on vehicle recovery, a recovery strap, a recovery hitch and shackle, a collapsible shovel, traffic cones and reflector flares, and a heavy blanket and gloves. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 13 figs.

  13. A Native Intelligence Metric for Artificial Systems (United States)


    an example to help clarify the GCEA. Say we are S and we stumble upon Stonehenge . We don’t wonder whether humans carried the stones (some...stones S encounters that may be exhibiting alignment with celestial bodies at certain seasonal times. S determines that the designer of Stonehenge had...matching of the stones with particular celestial events. The various celestial events and our prehistoric Stonehenge designer’s awareness of these events

  14. Recovery from a psychiatrist's viewpoint. (United States)

    Diamond, Ronald J


    Recovery is not the same as cure. Recovery from mental illness is the process of having more to life than just illness. It is an ongoing process rather than simply a goal that can be achieved. Recovery from the stigma of mental illness may be as difficult as recovery from the illness itself. Several common, but incorrect, beliefs can interfere with the recovery process. Myths include the belief that the illness has an inherently downhill course, that rehabilitation is useful only after stabilization, and that people with schizophrenia can only work at low-level jobs. People who have schizophrenia have reported that their own process of recovery was helped by their determination to get better, an understanding of the illness, taking personal responsibility, having friends who accept them, an optimistic attitude, and spiritual beliefs that help them find meaning in life.

  15. Houston Recovery Initiative: A Rich Case Study of Building Recovery Communities One Voice at a Time. (United States)

    Bitting, Sara; Nash, Angela; Ochoa, Ashley


    Recovery from alcohol and drug problems is a process of change through which an individual achieves control and improved quality of life. Recovery is a primary goal for individuals with substance use disorder as it provides hope that treatment and overall health are possible for every individual. More than 23 million Americans are in recovery from addiction to alcohol and other drugs.Recovery-oriented systems of care (ROSC) are networks of community services and peer support that help individuals and families achieve recovery from substances and improve overall health. ROSC is a strengths-based and person-centered model that leverages existing community resources to address the needs of individuals and families as they progress through the journey of recovery. The ROSC model serves as the foundation of the Houston Recovery Initiative (HRI).The purpose of this article is to describe the history, development, and infrastructure of the HRI, which is a volunteer collaboration whose main goal is to educate the community on recovery and broaden the recovery safety net for people with substance use disorder in Houston, Texas. Since 2010, the HRI has grown to include more than 200 agencies across the spectrum of treatment and recovery support services in Houston so as to provide a resource for the community. Herein, we detail efforts to grow the HRI, lessons learned, future plans, and resources needed to move the HRI forward.

  16. Literature as an exploration of the phenomenology of schizophrenia: disorder and recovery in Denis Johnson's Jesus' Son. (United States)

    Hamm, Jay A; Leonhardt, Bethany L; Fogley, Rebecca L; Lysaker, Paul H


    When read as a fictional psychosis narrative, Jesus' Son, a collection of short stories by Denis Johnson, reveals important elements of the phenomenology of schizophrenia and recovery. It is possible that Jesus' Son, as a work of fiction, may be able to uniquely add depth and nuance to an understanding of the phenomenology of schizophrenia involving a state of psychological fragmentation, an ever-changing interpersonal field and a loss of personal agency. In addition, by following the protagonist in Jesus' Son as he begins to resolve some of his difficulties, the book also offers an individualised account of recovery. The authors detail how the book reveals these insights about schizophrenia and recovery and suggest that these elements are intertwined in such a manner that leads to a profound disruption of self-experience, characterised by a collapse of metacognitive processes. Jesus' Son may add depth to our understanding of the subjective experience of schizophrenia and recovery, and also may serve as one example in which the study of humanities offers an opportunity to explore the human elements in the most profound forms of suffering. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  17. Workforce scheduling: A new model incorporating human factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Othman


    Full Text Available Purpose: The majority of a company’s improvement comes when the right workers with the right skills, behaviors and capacities are deployed appropriately throughout a company. This paper considers a workforce scheduling model including human aspects such as skills, training, workers’ personalities, workers’ breaks and workers’ fatigue and recovery levels. This model helps to minimize the hiring, firing, training and overtime costs, minimize the number of fired workers with high performance, minimize the break time and minimize the average worker’s fatigue level.Design/methodology/approach: To achieve this objective, a multi objective mixed integer programming model is developed to determine the amount of hiring, firing, training and overtime for each worker type.Findings: The results indicate that the worker differences should be considered in workforce scheduling to generate realistic plans with minimum costs. This paper also investigates the effects of human fatigue and recovery on the performance of the production systems.Research limitations/implications: In this research, there are some assumptions that might affect the accuracy of the model such as the assumption of certainty of the demand in each period, and the linearity function of Fatigue accumulation and recovery curves. These assumptions can be relaxed in future work.Originality/value: In this research, a new model for integrating workers’ differences with workforce scheduling is proposed. To the authors' knowledge, it is the first time to study the effects of different important human factors such as human personality, skills and fatigue and recovery in the workforce scheduling process. This research shows that considering both technical and human factors together can reduce the costs in manufacturing systems and ensure the safety of the workers.

  18. Another breed of "service" animals: STARS study findings about pet ownership and recovery from serious mental illness. (United States)

    Wisdom, Jennifer P; Saedi, Goal Auzeen; Green, Carla A


    This study elucidates the role of pets in recovery processes among adults with serious mental illness. Data derive from interviews with 177 HMO members with serious mental illness (52.2% women, average age 48.8 years) in the Study of Transitions and Recovery Strategies (STARS). Interviews and questionnaires addressed factors affecting recovery processes and included questions about pet ownership. Data were analyzed using a modified grounded theory method to identify the roles pets play in the recovery process. Primary themes indicate pets assist individuals in recovery from serious mental illness by (a) providing empathy and "therapy"; (b) providing connections that can assist in redeveloping social avenues; (c) serving as "family" in the absence of or in addition to human family members; and (d) supporting self-efficacy and strengthening a sense of empowerment. Pets appear to provide more benefits than merely companionship. Participants' reports of pet-related contributions to their well-being provide impetus to conduct more formal research on the mechanisms by which pets contribute to recovery and to develop pet-based interventions.

  19. Loop transfer recovery for general observer architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Søgaard-Andersen, Per; Stoustrup, Jakob


    A general and concise formulation is given of the loop transfer recovery (LTR) design problem based on recovery errors. Three types of recovery errors are treated: open loop recovery, sensitivity recovery and input-output recovery errors. The three corresponding versions of the asymptotic recovery...... recovery cases. This general recovery formulation covers all known observer based compensator types as special cases. The conditions given in this setting are effectively the aim of all known LTR design methods. The recovery formulation is interpreted in terms of a modelmatching problem as well, which...... is examined by means of the Q-parametrization. It is shown how the general controller obtained by the Q-parametrization can be written as a Luenberger observer based controller. In all cases, n controller states suffice to achieve recovery. The compensators are characterized for errors both on the input...

  20. Quality of Recovery after Anesthesia: Validation of the Portuguese Version of the 'Quality of Recovery 15' Questionnaire. (United States)

    Sá, Ana Carolina; Sousa, Gabriela; Santos, Alice; Santos, Cristina; Abelha, Fernando José


    The "Quality of Recovery 15" questionnaire is used for the study of quality recovery after anesthesia. The aim of this study was to validate the Portuguese version of "Quality of Recovery 15" questionnaire. After study approval by the institutional ethics committee, an observational and cohort prospective study was conducted on patients scheduled for elective surgery from June to August 2013. The "Quality of Recovery 15" questionnaire was translated in accordance with available guidelines. The "Quality of Recovery 15" Portuguese version was used before surgery (T0) and 24h postoperatively (T1) on 170 patients. Patients who were unable to give informed consent or had cognitive impairment were excluded. Poor quality of recovery was defined for "Quality of Recovery 15" score at T1 lower than the mean "Quality of Recovery 15" score minus 1 standard deviation. Reliability and observer disagreement was assessed using interclass correlation. Non-parametric tests were used for comparisons. There was a negative correlation between "Quality of Recovery 15" score and time spent in the postanesthesia care(p = -0.264, p = 0.004) and length of hospital stay (p = -0.274, p = 0.004). Thirty-two patients (19%) had poor quality of recovery. Patients with poor quality of recovery had more frequently diabetes mellitus and hypertension and they were taking antidepressants drugs more frequently. Patients with poor quality of recovery were more frequently submitted to combined anesthesia and less frequently to general anesthesia and locoregional anesthesia (p = 0.008). The questionnaire had a good internal consistency and test-retest reliability was good. The Portuguese version of the "Quality of Recovery 15" showed a good correlation with the original. This questionnaire appears to be an accurate and reliable assessment for quality of recovery.

  1. Magnetic blocking direct-recovery efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whealton, J.H.; Wooten, J.H.; McGaffey, R.W.


    The ion recovery efficiency of a transverse magnetic field monochromatic direct recovery device intended for intense neutral beams is examined theoretically by solving a Poisson-Vlasov equation. An optimum in recovery efficiency is obtained for finite ion current density and excess initial speed

  2. Human thermoregulatory function during exercise and immersion after 35 days of horizontal bed-rest and recovery. (United States)

    Mekjavic, Igor B; Golja, Petra; Tipton, Michael J; Eiken, Ola


    The present study evaluated the effect of 35 days of experimental horizontal bed-rest on exercise and immersion thermoregulatory function. Fifteen healthy male volunteers were assigned to either a Control (n = 5) or Bed-rest (n = 10) group. Thermoregulatory function was evaluated during a 30-min bout of submaximal exercise on a cycle ergometer, followed immediately by a 100-min immersion in 28 degrees C water. For the Bed-rest group, exercise and immersion thermoregulatory responses observed post-bed-rest were compared with those after a 5 week supervised active recovery period. In both trials, the absolute work load during the exercise portion of the test was identical. During the exercise and immersion, we recorded skin temperature, rectal temperature, the difference in temperature between the forearm and third digit of the right hand (DeltaT(forearm-fingertip))--an index of skin blood flow, sweating rate from the forehead, oxygen uptake and heart rate at minute intervals. Subjects provided ratings of temperature perception and thermal comfort at 5-min intervals. Exercise thermoregulatory responses after bed-rest and recovery were similar. Subjective ratings of temperature perception and thermal comfort during immersion indicated that subjects perceived similar combinations of Tsk and Tre to be warmer and thermally less uncomfortable after bed-rest. The average (SD) exercise-induced increase in Tre relative to resting values was not significantly different between the Post-bed-rest (0.4 (0.2) degrees C) and Recovery (0.5 (0.2) degrees C) trials. During the post-exercise immersion, the decrease in Tre, relative to resting values, was significantly (P forearm-fingertip) was 5.2 (0.9) degrees C and 5.8 (1.0) degrees C at the end of the post-bed-rest and recovery immersions, respectively. The gain of the shivering response (increase in VO(2) relative to the decrease in Tre; VO(2)/Tre) was 1.19 l min(-1) degrees C(-1) in the Recovery trial, and was significantly

  3. Course of Recovery from Alcoholism (United States)

    Venner, Kamilla L.; Matzger, Helen; Forcehimes, Alyssa A.; Moos, Rudolf H.; Feldstein, Sarah W.; Willenbring, Mark L.; Weisner, Constance


    This article represents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2005 Research Society on Alcoholism meeting in Santa Barbara, California, organized and chaired by Kamilla L. Venner. This symposium integrated current empirical research on the course of recovery from alcoholism from multiple perspectives, an aim that is consistent with NIAAA's new focus on the process of recovery. The presentations and presenters were as follows: (1) The Role of Community Services and Informal Support on 7-Year Drinking Outcomes in Treated and Untreated Drinkers, by Helen Matzger; (2) The Sequence of Recovery Events in a Native American Sample, by Kamilla L. Venner; (3) Transformational Change in Recovery, by Alyssa A. Forcehimes; (4) Social Settings and Substance Use: Contextual Factors in Recovery, by Rudolf H. Moos; and (5) A Broader View of Change in Drinking Behavior, by discussant Mark L. Willenbring. A theme connecting the presentations was that treatment is but one discrete aspect to recovery and that sustained recovery is often influenced by an individual interaction with others within a social context. Collectively, presentations underscored the need to think more broadly about factors contributing to the remission of alcohol dependence. PMID:16737468

  4. Recovery of mineral oil from waste emulsion using electrocoagulation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razali Mohd Najib


    Full Text Available This paper presents a research to recover mineral oil from industrial waste emulsion. This research also evaluates the standard of water produced after the oil recovery. The ecosystem could be polluted if this waste is not treated prior to discharge. The equipment needed for this experiment is power supply (generator, connecting wire and metal plate for providing the coagulant. The chosen plates were aluminium and iron plate. The power supply will be connected to the plate producing anode (positive terminal and cathode (negative terminal. Both plates are immersed into a beaker containing waste emulsion. The charge supplied by the current will cause the aluminium or ferum to dissisipate and became ions. These ions will attract the oil to flock together and float at the surface. The water will then filter by using filter paper. Electrocoagulation was done without addition of chemical thus can prevent the hazard from the chemicals. The samples was sent for oil and grease test. The optimum time needed for recovery of oil was 3 hours. The percentage recovery reach constant trend of 95% afterwards. When the power consumption increases, the percentage recovery also increases. However, the current should be lower than 0.5 ampere as it is the limit that human body can withstand. Thus, power consumption of 27.5 Watt was chosen as optimum value. The oil recovery of at power consumption at 27.5W is 96%. The best plate in the process was the aluminium pair which can recover more than ferum plate. The present work concludes the promising future for waste water treatment by usage of electrocoagulation technique.

  5. Recovery Migration After Hurricanes Katrina and Rita: Spatial Concentration and Intensification in the Migration System. (United States)

    Curtis, Katherine J; Fussell, Elizabeth; DeWaard, Jack


    Changes in the human migration systems of the Gulf of Mexico coastline counties affected by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita provide an example of how climate change may affect coastal populations. Crude climate change models predict a mass migration of "climate refugees," but an emerging literature on environmental migration suggests that most migration will be short-distance and short-duration within existing migration systems, with implications for the population recovery of disaster-stricken places. In this research, we derive a series of hypotheses on recovery migration predicting how the migration system of hurricane-affected coastline counties in the Gulf of Mexico was likely to have changed between the pre-disaster and the recovery periods. We test these hypotheses using data from the Internal Revenue Service on annual county-level migration flows, comparing the recovery period migration system (2007-2009) with the pre-disaster period (1999-2004). By observing county-to-county ties and flows, we find that recovery migration was strong: the migration system of the disaster-affected coastline counties became more spatially concentrated, while flows within it intensified and became more urbanized. Our analysis demonstrates how migration systems are likely to be affected by the more intense and frequent storms anticipated by climate change scenarios, with implications for the population recovery of disaster-affected places.

  6. 3D shape recovery from image focus using Gabor features (United States)

    Mahmood, Fahad; Mahmood, Jawad; Zeb, Ayesha; Iqbal, Javaid


    Recovering an accurate and precise depth map from a set of acquired 2-D image dataset of the target object each having different focus information is an ultimate goal of 3-D shape recovery. Focus measure algorithm plays an important role in this architecture as it converts the corresponding color value information into focus information which will be then utilized for recovering depth map. This article introduces Gabor features as focus measure approach for recovering depth map from a set of 2-D images. Frequency and orientation representation of Gabor filter features is similar to human visual system and normally applied for texture representation. Due to its little computational complexity, sharp focus measure curve, robust to random noise sources and accuracy, it is considered as superior alternative to most of recently proposed 3-D shape recovery approaches. This algorithm is deeply investigated on real image sequences and synthetic image dataset. The efficiency of the proposed scheme is also compared with the state of art 3-D shape recovery approaches. Finally, by means of two global statistical measures, root mean square error and correlation, we claim that this approach, in spite of simplicity, generates accurate results.

  7. Use of human GH in elderly patients with accidental hip fracture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A-J. van der Lely (Aart-Jan); S.W.J. Lamberts (Steven); K.W. Jauch; B.A. Swierstra (Bart); H. Hertlein; D. de Vries (Danielle); M.A. Birkett; P.C. Bates; W.F. Blum (Werner); A.F. Attanasio (Andrea)


    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To investigate whether early intervention with recombinant human growth hormone (hGH) after hip fracture improves functional recovery and long-term outcome. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Functional recovery after hip fracture is often incomplete. The catabolic

  8. Red Wolf (Canis rufus Recovery: A Review with Suggestions for Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Chamberlain


    Full Text Available By the 1970s, government-supported eradication campaigns reduced red wolves to a remnant population of less than 100 individuals on the southern border of Texas and Louisiana. Restoration efforts in the region were deemed unpromising because of predator-control programs and hybridization with coyotes. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS removed the last remaining red wolves from the wild and placed them in a captive-breeding program. In 1980, the USFWS declared red wolves extinct in the wild. During 1987, the USFWS, through the Red Wolf Recovery Program, reintroduced red wolves into northeastern North Carolina. Although restoration efforts have established a population of approximately 70–80 red wolves in the wild, issues of hybridization with coyotes, inbreeding, and human-caused mortality continue to hamper red wolf recovery. We explore these three challenges and, within each challenge, we illustrate how research can be used to resolve problems associated with red wolf-coyote interactions, effects of inbreeding, and demographic responses to human-caused mortality. We hope this illustrates the utility of research to advance restoration of red wolves.

  9. Defining recovery in adult bulimia nervosa. (United States)

    Yu, Jessica; Agras, W Stewart; Bryson, Susan


    To examine how different definitions of recovery lead to varying rates of recovery, maintenance of recovery, and relapse in bulimia nervosa (BN), end-of-treatment (EOT) and follow-up data were obtained from 96 adults with BN. Combining behavioral, physical, and psychological criteria led to recovery rates between 15.5% and 34.4% at EOT, though relapse was approximately 50%. Combining these criteria and requiring abstinence from binge eating and purging when defining recovery may lead to lower recovery rates than those found in previous studies; however, a strength of this definition is that individuals who meet this criteria have no remaining disordered behaviors or symptoms.

  10. Probabilistic accident sequence recovery analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stutzke, Martin A.; Cooper, Susan E.


    Recovery analysis is a method that considers alternative strategies for preventing accidents in nuclear power plants during probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). Consideration of possible recovery actions in PRAs has been controversial, and there seems to be a widely held belief among PRA practitioners, utility staff, plant operators, and regulators that the results of recovery analysis should be skeptically viewed. This paper provides a framework for discussing recovery strategies, thus lending credibility to the process and enhancing regulatory acceptance of PRA results and conclusions. (author)

  11. The effects of job satisfaction, employee commitment, workplace friendship and team culture on service recovery performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abednego Feehi Okoe


    Full Text Available The existing literature has called for more studies to be conducted on how human resource activities affect service recovery performance. This study therefore ascertains the effects of Job Satisfaction, employee Commitment, Workplace Friendship and Team Culture on Service Recovery Performance. The survey research design was used in this study. The participants were frontline employees from the various service sectors in Ghana. The convenience sampling was used as the sampling technique. A total of 372 responses were used in the final analysis. The scale items were adapted from the existing literature. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess the fit of the model. Multiple linear regression was used to test the hypotheses. The findings indicate that Job Satisfaction, Employee Commitment, Workplace Friendship and Team Culture significantly exerts positive influence on Service Recovery Performance of frontline employees. The findings from the study imply that there are several antecedents to Service Recovery Performance. Team Culture, Workplace Commitment, and Employee Commitment can influence Job Satisfaction which in turn will affect Service Recovery Performance resulting in customer satisfaction and retention.

  12. On modeling human reliability in space flights - Redundancy and recovery operations (United States)

    Aarset, M.; Wright, J. F.

    The reliability of humans is of paramount importance to the safety of space flight systems. This paper describes why 'back-up' operators might not be the best solution, and in some cases, might even degrade system reliability. The problem associated with human redundancy calls for special treatment in reliability analyses. The concept of Standby Redundancy is adopted, and psychological and mathematical models are introduced to improve the way such problems can be estimated and handled. In the past, human reliability has practically been neglected in most reliability analyses, and, when included, the humans have been modeled as a component and treated numerically the way technical components are. This approach is not wrong in itself, but it may lead to systematic errors if too simple analogies from the technical domain are used in the modeling of human behavior. In this paper redundancy in a man-machine system will be addressed. It will be shown how simplification from the technical domain, when applied to human components of a system, may give non-conservative estimates of system reliability.

  13. Heart Attack Recovery FAQs (United States)

    ... recommendations to make a full recovery. View an animation of a heart attack . Heart Attack Recovery Questions ... Support Network Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Sodium and Salt 3 Heart Attack Symptoms ...

  14. Multi-view 3D Human Pose Estimation in Complex Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmann, K.M.; Gavrila, D.M.


    We introduce a framework for unconstrained 3D human upper body pose estimation from multiple camera views in complex environment. Its main novelty lies in the integration of three components: single-frame pose recovery, temporal integration and model texture adaptation. Single-frame pose recovery

  15. Spatially Dispersed Employee Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvass, Kristian Anders; Torfadóttir, Embla


    Employee recovery addresses either employee well-being or management's practices in aiding employees in recovering themselves following a service failure. This paper surveys the cabin crew at a small, European, low-cost carrier and investigates employees' perceptions of management practices to aid...... personnel achieve service recovery. Employee recovery within service research often focuses on front-line employees that work in a fixed location, however a contribution to the field is made by investigating the recovery of spatially dispersed personnel, such as operational personnel in the transport sector......, who have a work place away from a fixed or central location and have minimal management contact. Results suggest that the support employees receive from management, such as recognition, information sharing, training, and strategic awareness are all important for spatially dispersed front...

  16. Structuring Disaster Recovery Infrastructure Decisions: Lessons from Boulder County's 2013 Flood Recovery (United States)

    Clavin, C.; Petropoulos, Z.


    Recovery phase decision making processes, as compared to mitigation and response phase decision making processes, require communities make significant financial and capital decisions in the months after a disaster. Collectively, these investments may significantly contribute to the resilience of a community to future hazards. Pre-disaster administrative decisions are well-established within existing planning processes. Post-event recovery requires community decision makers to quickly evaluate technical proposals and manage significant recovery financial resources to ensure their community rebuilds in a manner that will be more resilient to future events. These technical and administrative hurdles in the aftermath of a disaster create a challenging atmosphere to make sound, scientifically-informed decisions leading to resilient recovery. In September 2013, a 1,000-year rain event that resulted in flooding throughout the Front Range of Colorado, significantly impacting Boulder County. While the event is long past, disaster recovery efforts still continue in parts of Boulder County. Boulder County officials formed a county collaborative that adapted the NIST Community Resilience Planning Guide for Buildings and Infrastructure Systems to facilitate a goals-based multi-criteria decision making process. Rather than use hazard-based information to guide infrastructure design, the county's decision process established time-to-recovery goals for infrastructure systems that were used as criteria for project design. This presentation explores the decision-making process employed by Boulder County to specify design standards for resilient rebuilding of infrastructure systems and examine how this infrastructure planning model could be extrapolated to other situations where there is uncertainty regarding future infrastructure design standards.

  17. An ecologically-controlled exoskeleton can improve balance recovery after slippage (United States)

    Monaco, V.; Tropea, P.; Aprigliano, F.; Martelli, D.; Parri, A.; Cortese, M.; Molino-Lova, R.; Vitiello, N.; Micera, S.


    The evolution to bipedalism forced humans to develop suitable strategies for dynamically controlling their balance, ensuring stability, and preventing falling. The natural aging process and traumatic events such as lower-limb loss can alter the human ability to control stability significantly increasing the risk of fall and reducing the overall autonomy. Accordingly, there is an urgent need, from both end-users and society, for novel solutions that can counteract the lack of balance, thus preventing falls among older and fragile citizens. In this study, we show a novel ecological approach relying on a wearable robotic device (the Active Pelvis Orthosis, APO) aimed at facilitating balance recovery after unexpected slippages. Specifically, if the APO detects signs of balance loss, then it supplies counteracting torques at the hips to assist balance recovery. Experimental tests conducted on eight elderly persons and two transfemoral amputees revealed that stability against falls improved due to the “assisting when needed” behavior of the APO. Interestingly, our approach required a very limited personalization for each subject, and this makes it promising for real-life applications. Our findings demonstrate the potential of closed-loop controlled wearable robots to assist elderly and disabled subjects and to improve their quality of life.

  18. 77 FR 11127 - Medicaid Program; Announcement of Medicaid Recovery Audit Contractors (RACs) Contingency Fee Update (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services [CMS-6034-N] Medicaid Program; Announcement of Medicaid Recovery Audit Contractors (RACs) Contingency Fee Update AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces an...

  19. Effects of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Treatment on the Expression of Matrix Metalloproteinases and Angiogenesis during Ischemic Stroke Recovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo Suk Nam

    Full Text Available The efficacy of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC transplantation in ischemic stroke might depend on the timing of administration. We investigated the optimal time point of MSC transplantation. After MSC treatment, we also investigated the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs, which play a role in vascular and tissue remodeling.Human bone marrow-derived MSCs (2 × 10(6, passage 5 were administrated intravenously after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats. First, we determined the time point of MSC transplantation that led to maximal neurological recovery at 1 h, 1 day, and 3 days after MCAO. Next, we measured activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9, neurological recovery, infarction volume, and vascular density after transplanting MSCs at the time that led to maximal neurological recovery.Among the MSC-transplanted rats, those of the MSC 1-hour group showed maximal recovery in the rotarod test (P = 0.023 and the Longa score (P = 0.018. MMP-2 activity at 1 day after MCAO in the MSC 1-hour group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P = 0.002, but MMP-9 activity was not distinct. The MSC 1-hour group also showed smaller infarction volume and higher vascular density than did the control group.In a permanent model of rodent MCAO, very early transplantation of human MSCs (1 h after MCAO produced greater neurological recovery and decreased infraction volume. The elevation of MMP-2 activity and the increase in vascular density after MSC treatment suggest that MSCs might help promote angiogenesis and lead to neurological improvement during the recovery phase after ischemic stroke.

  20. Damage Recovery in Carrara Marble (United States)

    Meyer, G.; Brantut, N.; Mitchell, T. M.; Meredith, P. G.


    We investigate the effect of confining pressure on the recovery of elastic wave velocities following deformation episodes in Carrara Marble. Dry Carrara Marble cores were deformed in the ductile regime (Pc = 40 MPa) up to 3% axial strain. After deformation, samples were held at constant stress conditions for extended periods of time (5-8 days) whilst continuously recording volumetric strain and seismic wave velocities. The velocity data were used to invert for microcrack densities using an effective medium approach. Finally, thin sections were produced to characterise the microstructures after recovery. During deformation, elastic wave speeds decreased with increasing strain by more than 30% of the value for the intact rock due to the formation of distributed microcracks. Under constant hydrostatic pressure, wave speeds progressively recovered 12-90% of the initial drop, depending on the applied confining pressure. In contrast, the strain recovery (deformation towards the initial shape of the sample) during holding time is negligible (of the order of 10-4). Tests performed under nonhydrostatic (triaxial) stress conditions during recovery showed some time-dependent creep deformation together with very significant recovery of wave velocities. The recovery is interpreted as a progressive reduction in crack density within the sample. The process is highly dependent on confining pressure, which favours it. We propose that the driving process for wave speed recovery is the time-dependent increase of contact area between crack surfaces due to the formation and growth of asperity contacts. We develop a micromechanical model for crack closure driven by asperity creep, which shows a good fit to the experimental data. Most of the recovery is achieved in the initial few hours, implying it is the fastest recovery or healing process, and thus occurs prior to any chemical healing or mineral precipitation. Our data corroborate field observations of post-seismic fault behavior.

  1. Recovery rates, enhanced oil recovery and technological limits. (United States)

    Muggeridge, Ann; Cockin, Andrew; Webb, Kevin; Frampton, Harry; Collins, Ian; Moulds, Tim; Salino, Peter


    Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques can significantly extend global oil reserves once oil prices are high enough to make these techniques economic. Given a broad consensus that we have entered a period of supply constraints, operators can at last plan on the assumption that the oil price is likely to remain relatively high. This, coupled with the realization that new giant fields are becoming increasingly difficult to find, is creating the conditions for extensive deployment of EOR. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the nature, status and prospects for EOR technologies. It explains why the average oil recovery factor worldwide is only between 20% and 40%, describes the factors that contribute to these low recoveries and indicates which of those factors EOR techniques can affect. The paper then summarizes the breadth of EOR processes, the history of their application and their current status. It introduces two new EOR technologies that are beginning to be deployed and which look set to enter mainstream application. Examples of existing EOR projects in the mature oil province of the North Sea are discussed. It concludes by summarizing the future opportunities for the development and deployment of EOR.

  2. Does lying in the recovery position increase the likelihood of not delivering cardiopulmonary resuscitation? (United States)

    Freire-Tellado, Miguel; Navarro-Patón, Rubén; Pavón-Prieto, Maria Del Pilar; Fernández-López, Marta; Mateos-Lorenzo, Javier; López-Fórneas, Ivan


    Resuscitation guidelines endorse unconscious and normally breathing out-of-hospital victims to be placed in the recovery position to secure airway patency, but recently a debate has been opened as to whether the recovery position threatens the cardiac arrest victim's safety assessment and delays the start of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. To compare the assessment of the victim's breathing arrest while placed in the recovery position versus maintaining an open airway with the continuous head tilt and chin lift technique to know whether the recovery position delays the cardiac arrest victim's assessment and the start of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Basic life support-trained university students were randomly divided into two groups: one received a standardized cardiopulmonary resuscitation refresher course including the recovery position and the other received a modified cardiopulmonary resuscitation course using continuous head tilt and chin lift for unconscious and spontaneously breathing patients. A human simulation test to evaluate the victim's breathing assessment was performed a week later. In total, 59 participants with an average age of 21.9 years were included. Only 14 of 27 (51.85%) students in the recovery position group versus 23 of 28 (82.14%) in the head tilt and chin lift group p=0.006 (OR 6.571) detected breathing arrest within 2min. The recovery position hindered breathing assessment, delayed breathing arrest identification and the initiation of cardiac compressions, and significantly increased the likelihood of not starting cardiopulmonary resuscitation when compared to the results shown when the continuous head tilt and chin lift technique was used. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Techniques for the recovery and identification of Cryptosporidium oocysts from stool specimens. (United States)

    Garcia, L S; Bruckner, D A; Brewer, T C; Shimizu, R Y


    Due to increasing numbers of patients with documented infections with Cryptosporidium and other coccidia, it is important for the physician and clinical laboratory to be aware of the appropriate diagnostic techniques necessary for organism recovery and identification. Although Cryptosporidium is found in the gastrointestinal tract, tissue biopsies may be insufficient for organism recovery; the examination of stool specimens is a noninvasive procedure and will provide better overall opportunities for organism recovery. Human clinical specimens were examined from 45 patients with confirmed cryptosporidiosis or suspected of having the infection. Tissue biopsy sections, fecal wet preparations, and permanent stained smears were examined. Stool specimens were submitted in 10% Formalin, 2.5% potassium dichromate, and polyvinyl alcohol and were examined for oocysts by using 15 different methods: phase-contrast and light microscopy; Sheather's sugar flotation; Formalin concentration techniques; 10% potassium hydroxide; Giemsa; trichrome; periodic acid-Schiff; modified periodic acid-Schiff; silver methenamine; acridine orange; auramine-rhodamine; Kinyoun acid-fast; Ziehl-Neelsen carbolfuchsin; and a modified acid-fast procedure. Each technique or combination of techniques was assessed by organism quantitation, organism morphology, and ease of visual recognition. Based on these comparative studies, the modified Ziehl-Neelsen carbolfuchsin stain on 10% Formalin-preserved stool is recommended for the recovery and identification of Cryptosporidium.

  4. Effect of skilled and unskilled training on nerve regeneration and functional recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Pagnussat


    Full Text Available The most disabling aspect of human peripheral nerve injuries, the majority of which affect the upper limbs, is the loss of skilled hand movements. Activity-induced morphological and electrophysiological remodeling of the neuromuscular junction has been shown to influence nerve repair and functional recovery. In the current study, we determined the effects of two different treatments on the functional and morphological recovery after median and ulnar nerve injury. Adult Wistar male rats weighing 280 to 330 g at the time of surgery (N = 8-10 animals/group were submitted to nerve crush and 1 week later began a 3-week course of motor rehabilitation involving either "skilled" (reaching for small food pellets or "unskilled" (walking on a motorized treadmill training. During this period, functional recovery was monitored weekly using staircase and cylinder tests. Histological and morphometric nerve analyses were used to assess nerve regeneration at the end of treatment. The functional evaluation demonstrated benefits of both tasks, but found no difference between them (P > 0.05. The unskilled training, however, induced a greater degree of nerve regeneration as evidenced by histological measurement (P < 0.05. These data provide evidence that both of the forelimb training tasks used in this study can accelerate functional recovery following brachial plexus injury.

  5. Measuring the Recovery Orientation of ACT (United States)

    Salyers, Michelle P.; Stull, Laura G.; Rollins, Angela L.; McGrew, John H.; Hicks, Lia J.; Thomas, Dave; Strieter, Doug


    Background Approaches to measuring recovery orientation are needed, particularly for programs that may struggle with implementing recovery-oriented treatment. Objective A mixed methods comparative study was conducted to explore effective approaches to measuring recovery orientation of Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) teams. Design Two ACT teams exhibiting high and low recovery orientation were compared using surveys, treatment plan ratings, diaries of treatment visits, and team-leader-reported treatment control mechanisms. Results The recovery-oriented team differed on one survey measure (higher expectations for consumer recovery), treatment planning (greater consumer involvement and goal-directed content), and use of control mechanisms (less use of representative payee, agency-held lease, daily medication delivery, and family involvement). Staff and consumer diaries showed the most consistent differences (e.g., conveying hope and choice) and were the least susceptible to observer bias, but had the lowest response rates. Conclusions Several practices differentiate recovery orientation on ACT teams, and a mixed-methods assessment approach is feasible. PMID:23690285

  6. Indium recovery by solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortes, Marilia Camargos Botelho


    Indium has been recovered as a byproduct from residues generated from the sulfuric acid leaching circuits in mineral plants for zinc recovery. Once its recovery comes from the slags of other metals recovery, it is necessary to separate it from the other elements which usually are present in high concentrations. Many works have been approaching this separation and indicate the solvent extraction process as the main technique used. In Brazilian case, indium recovery depends on the knowledge of this technique and its development. This paper describes the solvent extraction knowledge for the indium recovery from aqueous solutions generated in mineral plants. The results for determination of the best experimental conditions to obtain a high indium concentration solution and minimum iron poisoning by solvent extraction with di (2-ethylhexyl)-phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) solubilized in isoparafin and exxsol has been presented. (author)

  7. Lymphatic recovery of exogenous oleic acid in rats on long chain or specific structured triacylglycerol diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Bodil; Mu, Huiling; Høy, Carl-Erik


    Specific structured triacylglycerols, MLM (M = medium-chain fatty acid, L = long-chain fatty acid), rapidly deliver energy and long-chain fatty acids to the body and are used for longer periods in human enteral feeding. In the present study rats were fed diets of 10 wt% MLM or LLL (L = oleic acid......% and 45%, respectively). However, the recovery of exogenous 18:1 n-9 was higher after a single bolus of MLM compared with a bolus of LLL in rats on the MLM diet (40% and 24%, respectively, P = 0.009). The recovery of lymphatic 18:1 n-9 of the LLL bolus tended to depend on the diet triacylglycerol...... structure and composition (P = 0.07). This study demonstrated that with a diet containing specific structured triacylglycerol, the lymphatic recovery of 18:1 n-9 after a single bolus of fat was dependent on the triacylglycerol structure of the bolus. This indicates that the lymphatic recovery of long...

  8. Personality and recovery: integrating personality assessment data to facilitate the recovery process. (United States)

    Donat, D C


    The relatively enduring and persistent nature of personality traits means that they will likely continue to impact the course of psychiatric recovery after Axis I symptoms are stabilized. These traits can significantly impact the choices that recovering persons make and the quality of interpersonal relationships with care providers who are trying to facilitate the recovery process. Despite this, they are often inadequately assessed and considered in providing psychiatric care. This manuscript reviews the common combinations of personality traits that have emerged across a variety of clinical samples. The implications of these personality features for the provision of care in an inpatient setting to facilitate recovery are discussed.

  9. Potential conflicts connected with the recovery of secondary materials from post mining waste dump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawor Łukasz


    Full Text Available Coal mine spoil dumping grounds are present in the landscape of every mining region. Although the composition of waste material is in general safe for the environment (sedimentary rocks – sandstones, mudstones and siltstones, there may be up to 10% of coal particles in disposed wastes. The presence of organic material causes self-ignition processes and fire hazards. There is a need and the possibility of the recovery of coal, and which should be conducted according to legal regulations and environmental protection rules. The recovery should also be preceded by a feasibility study, a drilling campaign, laboratory tests and requires different environmental permissions. Recovery processes are connected with the work of a preparation plant, which is usually linked with protests from the local community and potential conflicts. This article presents the most significant hazards to the environment, health and human life connected with the functions associated with the installation of the recovery processes of coal from waste material deposited on the dumps. The methods of reducing these threats are described with regards to legal regulations, particularly law deeds concerning the safe recovery processes and further reclamation and restoration of degraded post-mining dumping grounds. The role and participation of interested community members at the preparation for investment stage as well as the period of realization of the preparation processes is described. The question of re-using and managing the post-mining dumping grounds after completion of the recovery processes is discussed.

  10. Addiction recovery: its definition and conceptual boundaries. (United States)

    White, William L


    The addiction field's failure to achieve consensus on a definition of "recovery" from severe and persistent alcohol and other drug problems undermines clinical research, compromises clinical practice, and muddles the field's communications to service constituents, allied service professionals, the public, and policymakers. This essay discusses 10 questions critical to the achievement of such a definition and offers a working definition of recovery that attempts to meet the criteria of precision, inclusiveness, exclusiveness, measurability, acceptability, and simplicity. The key questions explore who has professional and cultural authority to define recovery, the defining ingredients of recovery, the boundaries (scope and depth) of recovery, and temporal benchmarks of recovery (when recovery begins and ends). The process of defining recovery touches on some of the most controversial issues within the addictions field.

  11. Recovery Migration after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita: Spatial Concentration and Intensification in the Migration System (United States)

    Fussell, Elizabeth; DeWaard, Jack


    Changes in the human migration systems of Hurricane Katrina- and Rita-affected Gulf of Mexico coastline counties provide an example of how climate change may affect coastal populations. Crude climate change models predict a mass migration of “climate refugees,” but an emerging literature on environmental migration suggests most migration will be short-distance and short-duration within existing migration systems, with implications for the population recovery of disaster-struck places. In this research, we derive a series of hypotheses on recovery migration predicting how the migration system of hurricane-affected coastline counties in the Gulf of Mexico was likely to have changed between the pre-disaster and the recovery periods. We test these hypotheses using data from the Internal Revenue Service on annual county-level migration flows, comparing the recovery period migration system (2007–2009) to the pre-disaster period (1999–2004). By observing county-to-county ties and flows we find that recovery migration was strong, as the migration system of the disaster-affected coastline counties became more spatially concentrated while flows within it intensified and became more urbanized. Our analysis demonstrates how migration systems are likely to be affected by the more intense and frequent storms anticipated by climate change scenarios with implications for the population recovery of disaster-affected places. PMID:26084982

  12. Human pose recovery using wireless inertial measurement units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Jonathan F S; Kulić, Dana


    Many applications in rehabilitation and sports training require the assessment of the patient’s status based on observation of their movement. Small wireless sensors, such as accelerometers and gyroscopes, can be utilized to provide a quantitative measure of the human movement for assessment. In this paper, a kinematics-based approach is developed to estimate human leg posture and velocity from wearable sensors during the performance of typical physiotherapy and training exercises. The proposed approach uses an extended Kalman filter to estimate joint angles from accelerometer and gyroscopic data and is capable of recovering joint angles from arbitrary 3D motion. Additional joint limit constraints are implemented to reduce drift, and an automated approach is developed for estimating and adapting the process noise during online estimation. The approach is validated through a user study consisting of 20 subjects performing knee and hip rehabilitation exercises. When compared to motion capture, the approach achieves an average root-mean-square error of 4.27 cm for unconstrained motion, with an average joint error of 6.5°. The average root-mean-square error is 3.31 cm for sagittal planar motion, with an average joint error of 4.3°. (paper)

  13. Cognitive performance and aphasia recovery. (United States)

    Fonseca, José; Raposo, Ana; Martins, Isabel Pavão


    Objectives This study assessed cognitive performance of subjects with aphasia during the acute stage of stroke and evaluated how such performance relates to recovery at 3 months. Materials & methods Patients with aphasia following a left hemisphere stroke were evaluated during the first (baseline) and the fourth-month post onset. Assessment comprised non-verbal tests of attention/processing speed (Symbol Search, Cancelation Task), executive functioning (Matrix Reasoning, Tower of Hanoi, Clock Drawing, Motor Initiative), semantic (Camel and Cactus Test), episodic and immediate memory (Memory for Faces Test, 5 Objects Memory Test, and Spatial Span. Recovery was measured by the Token Test score at 3 months. The impact of baseline performance on recovery was evaluated by logistic regression adjusting for age, education, severity of aphasia and the Alberta Stroke Program Early CT (ASPECT) score. Results Thirty-nine subjects (with a mean of 66.5 ± 10.6 years of age, 17 men) were included. Average baseline cognitive performance was within normal range in all tests except in memory tests (semantic, episodic and immediate memory) for which scores were ≤-1.5sd. Subjects with poor aphasia recovery (N = 27) were older and had fewer years of formal education but had identical ASPECT score compared to those with favorable recovery. Considering each test individually, the score obtained on the Matrix Reasoning test was the only one to predict aphasia recovery (Exp(B)=24.085 p = 0.038). Conclusions The Matrix Reasoning Test may contribute to predict aphasia recovery. Cognitive performance is a measure of network disruption but may also indicate the availability of recovery strategies.

  14. Recovery of the Education System in Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Hayden And Richard Martin


    Full Text Available Myanmar's education system is in a very weakened state. The physical condition and human resource capacity of the system is poor by any standard, and teachers, whether in schools, colleges or universities, have few opportunities and little incentive for professional development. A process of recovery is getting underway, but it will take years before significant improvements are evident. Major cultural change is required in the style of leadership and management at all levels of government, and there is also a desperate need for more financial resources. This paper documents the current state of the education system in Myanmar and advances three priority areas for immediate attention.

  15. Illness management and recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalum, Helle Stentoft; Waldemar, Anna Kristine; Korsbek, Lisa


    OBJECTIVE: Illness Management and Recovery (IMR) is a psychosocial intervention with a recovery-oriented approach. The program has been evaluated in different settings; however evidence for the effects of IMR is still deficient. The aim of this trial was to investigate the benefits and harms...

  16. Prayer: A Helpful Aid in Recovery from Depression. (United States)

    Johnson, Kirk A


    Depression is a growing issue within the field of medicine. It negatively impacts individuals' lives and the people they are most connected to. For decades, medical professionals have been searching for solutions to assist those who are suffering from this illness. The use of drugs has not been a sufficient means of treatment to alleviate depression and its symptoms. There is a dire need to expand therapeutic interventions that can attribute meaningful recovery for victims of depression. One means of positive treatment is the use of prayer. Prayer, one of the most ancient forms of meditation, aligns and relaxes the mental state of the mind. The uses of drugs are limited by physiological focus, but prayer is a mechanism that brings human beings into a unique state of oneness. Oneness comprises the holistic nature of a human being and asserts the triad of well-being: mind, body, and spirit. As the emergence of humanities and holism continues in medicine, centering/meditative prayer and similar practices like mindfulness-based cognitive therapy can be useful therapeutic interventions specifically for major depressed patients.

  17. Dual-earner couples' weekend recovery support, state of recovery, and work engagement: Work-linked relationship as a moderator. (United States)

    Park, YoungAh; Haun, Verena C


    Despite growing recovery research, little is known about couple-dyadic processes of recovery from work. Given that dual-earner couples experience most of their recovery opportunities during nonwork times when they are together, partners in a couple relationship may substantially affect recovery and work engagement. In this study, we propose a couple-dyadic model in which weekend partner recovery support (reported by the recipient partner) is positively related to the recipient partner's state of recovery after the weekend which, in turn, increases the recipient's work engagement the following week (actor-actor mediation effect). We also test the effect of one's state of recovery on the partner's subsequent work engagement (partner effect). Additionally, work-linked relationship status is tested as a moderator of the partner effect. Actor-partner interdependence mediation modeling is used to analyze the data from 167 dual-earner couples who answered surveys on 4 measurement occasions. The results support the indirect effect of partner recovery support on work engagement through the postweekend state of recovery. Multigroup analysis results reveal that the partner effect of state of recovery on work engagement is significant for work-linked couples only and is absent for non-work-linked couples. Theoretical and practical implications, limitations, and future research directions are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Measuring individual disaster recovery: a socioecological framework. (United States)

    Abramson, David M; Stehling-Ariza, Tasha; Park, Yoon Soo; Walsh, Lauren; Culp, Derrin


    Disaster recovery is a complex phenomenon. Too often, recovery is measured in singular fashion, such as quantifying rebuilt infrastructure or lifelines, without taking in to account the affected population's individual and community recovery. A comprehensive framework is needed that encompasses a much broader and far-reaching construct with multiple underlying dimensions and numerous causal pathways; without the consideration of a comprehensive framework that investigates relationships between these factors, an accurate measurement of recovery may not be valid. This study proposes a model that encapsulates these ideas into a single framework, the Socio-Ecological Model of Recovery. Using confirmatory factor analysis, an operational measure of recovery was developed and validated using the five measures of housing stability, economic stability, physical health, mental health, and social role adaptation. The data were drawn from a sample of displaced households following Hurricane Katrina. Measures of psychological strength, risk, disaster exposure, neighborhood contextual effects, and formal and informal help were modeled to examine their direct and indirect effects on recovery using a structural equation model. All five elements of the recovery measure were positively correlated with a latent measure of recovery, although mental health and social role adaptation displayed the strongest associations. An individual's psychological strength had the greatest association with positive recovery, followed by having a household income greater than $20,000 and having informal social support. Those factors most strongly associated with an absence of recovery included the time displaced since the hurricane, being disabled, and living in a community with substantial social disorder. The socio-ecological framework provides a robust means for measuring recovery, and for testing those factors associated with the presence or absence of recovery.

  19. An exploratory study on seawater-catalysed urine phosphorus recovery (SUPR). (United States)

    Dai, Ji; Tang, Wen-Tao; Zheng, Yi-Se; Mackey, Hamish R; Chui, Ho Kwong; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Chen, Guang-Hao


    Phosphorus (P) is a crucial and non-renewable resource, while it is excessively discharged via sewage, significant amounts originating from human urine. Recovery of P from source-separated urine presents an opportunity not only to recover this precious resource but also to improve downstream sewage treatment works. This paper proposes a simple and economic method to recover urine derived P by using seawater as a low-cost precipitant to form struvite, as Hong Kong has practised seawater toilet flushing as an alternative water resource since 1958. Chemical reactions, process conditions and precipitate composition for P precipitation in urine have been investigated to develop this new urine P recovery approach. This study concluded that ureolysis extent in a urine-seawater mixture determines the reaction pH that in turn influences the P recovery efficiency significantly; 98% of urine P can precipitate with seawater within 10 min when 40-75% of the urea in urine is ureolysed; the urine to seawater ratio alters the composition of the precipitates. The P content in the precipitates was found to be more than 9% when the urine fraction was 40% or higher. Magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP) was confirmed to be the predominant component of the precipitates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Monkeypox: second human case observed in Ivory Coast (rural health sector of Daloa]. (United States)

    Merouze, F; Lesoin, J J


    A second case of human monkeypox (world fifty-forth case) has been observed in Ivory Coast (rural health sector of Daloa). A three years old girl presented a major pox-like eruption which evolved to recovery. The authors describe the eruption, the evolution of the sickness, and the scars observed at the fourth month after recovery. It has not been possible to prove neither animal-human nor interhuman contagion.

  1. Neural basis of acquired amusia and its recovery after stroke


    Sihvonen, A.J.; Ripollés, P.; Leo, V.; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Soinila, S.; Särkämö, T.


    Although acquired amusia is a relatively common disorder after stroke, its precise neuroanatomical basis is still unknown. To evaluate which brain regions form the neural substrate for acquired amusia and its recovery, we performed a voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) and morphometry (VBM) study with 77 human stroke subjects. Structural MRIs were acquired at acute and 6 month poststroke stages. Amusia and aphasia were behaviorally assessed at acute and 3 month poststroke stages using t...

  2. Lags in hydrologic recovery following an extreme drought: Assessing the roles of climate and catchment characteristics (United States)

    Yang, Yuting; McVicar, Tim R.; Donohue, Randall J.; Zhang, Yongqiang; Roderick, Michael L.; Chiew, Francis H. S.; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Junlong


    Drought, generally characterized by below-average water supply, propagates through the hydrologic system with consequent ecological and societal impacts. Compared with other drought aspects, the recovery of drought especially in the hydrological components, which directly relates to the recovery of water resources for agricultural, ecological and human needs, is less-understood. Here, taking the Millennium drought in southeast Australia (˜1997-2009) as an illustrating case, we comprehensively examined multiple aspects of the meteorological (i.e., precipitation) and hydrological (i.e., streamflow and base flow) droughts across 130 unimpaired catchments using long-term hydro-meteorological observations. Results show that the duration and intensity of the meteorological drought are both lengthened and amplified in the hydrological drought, suggesting a nonstationarity in the rainfall-runoff relationship during a prolonged drought. Additionally, we find a time lag commonly exists between the end of the meteorological droughts and the end of the hydrological drought, with the recovery of base flow showing a longer lag than the recovery of streamflow. The recovery rate of precipitation after drought was found to be the dominant factor that controls the recovery of hydrological droughts while catchment landscape (i.e., valley bottom flatness) plays an important but secondary role in controlling the lags in the hydrological recovery. Other hydro-climatic factors and catchment properties appear to have only minor influences governing hydrological drought recovery. Our findings highlight a delayed response in the terrestrial components of the hydrological cycle to precipitation after prolonged drought, and provide valuable scientific guidance to water resources management and water security assessment in regions facing future droughts.

  3. Teaching recovery to medical students.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Feeney, Larkin


    Community mental health services are evolving toward more holistic, patient-centered, recovery-based practices. This change necessitates an attitudinal shift from mental health workers, and training in recovery principles is helpful in achieving this change. Medical students often have narrow, doctor-centered concepts of mental health care. Traditional clinical placements in psychiatry do little to address this. We evaluated a recovery-focused teaching program for medical students in psychiatry.

  4. Sodium bicarbonate ingestion augments the increase in PGC-1α mRNA expression during recovery from intense interval exercise in human skeletal muscle. (United States)

    Percival, Michael E; Martin, Brian J; Gillen, Jenna B; Skelly, Lauren E; MacInnis, Martin J; Green, Alex E; Tarnopolsky, Mark A; Gibala, Martin J


    We tested the hypothesis that ingestion of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) prior to an acute session of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) would augment signaling cascades and gene expression linked to mitochondrial biogenesis in human skeletal muscle. On two occasions separated by ∼1 wk, nine men (mean ± SD: age 22 ± 2 yr, weight 78 ± 13 kg, V̇O(2 peak) 48 ± 8 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) performed 10 × 60-s cycling efforts at an intensity eliciting ∼90% of maximal heart rate (263 ± 40 W), interspersed with 60 s of recovery. In a double-blind, crossover manner, subjects ingested a total of 0.4 g/kg body weight NaHCO3 before exercise (BICARB) or an equimolar amount of a placebo, sodium chloride (PLAC). Venous blood bicarbonate and pH were elevated at all time points after ingestion (P 0.05). However, the increase in PGC-1α mRNA expression after 3 h of recovery was higher in BICARB vs. PLAC (approximately sevenfold vs. fivefold compared with rest, P < 0.05). We conclude that NaHCO3 before HIIT alters the mRNA expression of this key regulatory protein associated with mitochondrial biogenesis. The elevated PGC-1α mRNA response provides a putative mechanism to explain the enhanced mitochondrial adaptation observed after chronic HIIT supplemented with NaHCO3 in rats. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Key Determinant Derivations for Information Technology Disaster Recovery Site Selection by the Multi-Criterion Decision Making Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Lee Yang


    Full Text Available Disaster recovery sites are an important mechanism in continuous IT system operations. Such mechanisms can sustain IT availability and reduce business losses during natural or human-made disasters. Concerning the cost and risk aspects, the IT disaster-recovery site selection problems are multi-criterion decision making (MCDM problems in nature. For such problems, the decision aspects include the availability of the service, recovery time requirements, service performance, and more. The importance and complexities of IT disaster recovery sites increases with advances in IT and the categories of possible disasters. The modern IT disaster recovery site selection process requires further investigation. However, very few researchers tried to study related issues during past years based on the authors’ extremely limited knowledge. Thus, this paper aims to derive the aspects and criteria for evaluating and selecting a modern IT disaster recovery site. A hybrid MCDM framework consisting of the Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL and the Analytic Network Process (ANP will be proposed to construct the complex influence relations between aspects as well as criteria and further, derive weight associated with each aspect and criteria. The criteria with higher weight can be used for evaluating and selecting the most suitable IT disaster recovery sites. In the future, the proposed analytic framework can be used for evaluating and selecting a disaster recovery site for data centers by public institutes or private firms.

  6. Perceptions about recovery needs and drug-avoidance recovery behaviors among youth in substance abuse treatment. (United States)

    Gonzales, Rachel; Anglin, M Douglas; Glik, Deborah C; Zavalza, Christina


    This study used mixed methods to explore youth attitudes about recovery-related needs and important drug-avoidance behaviors after treatment. Focus groups were conducted with 118 substance using youth in treatment (four residential and 10 outpatient settings) throughout Los Angeles County. The average age was 17.4 (SD = 2.9); 78.3% were male, 66.1% Latino; and most were in treatment for primary marijuana (40.9%) or methamphetamine (30.4%) abuse. Quantitatve results from the drug-avoidance activity survey identified the following factors youth rated as important to their recovery after treatment: lifestyle improvement activities (95.7%); changing personal drug behaviors (89.6%); drug environment/culture change activities (82.5%); with the least important being therapeutic activities (78.5%). Qualitative findings from focus groups that asked what youth think are important for recovery programs to address after treatment revealed the following four areas: (1) recovery promotion to developmentally appropriate activities (95%); (2) facilitating the use of coping skills to deal with stress (85%); (3) offering alternative recovery support options (not just abstinence only) (75%); and (4) continuing to provide substance use education (65%). Findings highlight essential aspects of recovery in terms of need and drug-avoidance behaviors considered important to youth in treatment. Such information will help to better address clinical and recovery support models aimed at relapse prevention to ensure that the perceived problems of substance-abusing youth are adequately met.

  7. Recovery of personal neglect. (United States)

    Iosa, Marco; Guariglia, Cecilia; Matano, Alessandro; Paolucci, Stefano; Pizzamiglio, Luigi


    Extrapersonal unilateral spatial neglect after stroke is associated to a poor rehabilitation outcome. Minor attention has been paid to the recovery of personal neglect, to its relationship with the recovery of extrapersonal neglect and of independency in activities of daily living. The present study aims at evaluating whether there is an association between recovery of extrapersonal and personal neglect. The secondary aim was to investigate if personal neglect may affect the effectiveness of neurorehabilitation in patients with subacute stroke. Observational study. Neurorehabilitation Hospital in Rome, Italy, inpatients. A sample of 49 patients with unilateral spatial neglect resulting from right ischemic cerebral infarction was enrolled in this study, divided into three subgroups according to the presence and the degree of personal neglect, and evaluated pre and postneurorehabilitation. Personal neglect was evaluated using Zoccolotti and Judica's Scale, extrapersonal neglect using Letter Cancellation Test, Barrage Test, Sentence Reading Test and Wundt-Jastrow Area Illusion Test. Barthel Index (BI), Rivermead Mobility Index, and Canadian Neurological Scale were also administered. Results showed the following: 1) recovery of personal neglect was not significantly correlated with that of extrapersonal neglect, despite both the disorders were ameliorated after a "non-specific" rehabilitation treatment; 2) personal neglect per se was not an additional negative prognostic factor in the rehabilitation findings. Our results suggested that the recoveries of the two types of neglect are independent from each other, and that the presence of personal neglect does not imply significant additional problems to the functional outcomes. Our study highlighted the need of novel tools to assess the presence and to improve the recovery of personal neglect.

  8. Dengue viral infection monitoring from diagnostic to recovery using Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firdous, Shamaraz; Anwar, Shahzad


    Raman spectroscopy has been found useful for monitoring the dengue patient diagnostic and recovery after infection. In the present work, spectral changes that occurred in the blood sera of a dengue infected patient and their possible utilization for monitoring of infection and recovery were investigated using 532 nm wavelength of light. Raman spectrum peaks for normal and after recovery of dengue infection are observed at 1527, 1170, 1021 cm −1 attributed to guanine, adenine, TRP (protein) carbohydrates peak for solids, and skeletal C–C stretch of lipids acyl chains. Where in the dengue infected patient Raman peaks are at 1467, 1316, 1083, and 860 attributed to CH2/CH3 deformation of lipids and collagen, guanine (B, Z-marker), lipids and protein bands. Due to antibodies and antigen reactions the portions and lipids concentration totally changes in dengue viral infection compared to normal blood. These chemical changes in blood sera of dengue viral infection in human blood may be used as possible markers to indicate successful remission and suggest that Raman spectroscopy may provide a rapid optical method for continuous monitoring or evaluation of a protein bands and an antibodies population. Accumulate acquisition mode was used to reduce noise and thermal fluctuation and improve signal to noise ratio. This in vitro dengue infection monitoring methodology will lead in vivo noninvasive on-line monitoring and screening of viral infected patients and their recovery. (letter)

  9. Substances stimulating recovery for radiation injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, A; Yonezawa, M; Katoh, N [Radiation Center of Osaka Prefecture, Sakai (Japan)


    A relationship between radiation injury and its recovery (intracellular recovery, intercellular recovery, or individual recovery) was discussed. In addition to histological researches in Japan, some substances (free radicals, endotoxin, vaccine, crude drugs, tissue extracts, blood platelet, etc.) stimulating recovery for radiation injury were introduced, and the progress of the study by the authors was summarized. Effects of a root of Panax ginseng (it is believed to accelerate segmentation of marrow cells, and synthesis of DNA and protein in rats and men), methods of its extracting and administration, its influences upon hemogram and organ weight in animal experiments, exclusion of side effects, period of administration, and purification of its effective components were reported.

  10. Recovery of oil from underground drill sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streeter, W.S.; Hutchinson, T.S.; Ameri, S.; Wasson, J.A.; Aminian, K.


    This paper reports that a significant quantity of oil is left in reservoirs after conventional oil recovery techniques have been applied. In West Virginia and Pennsylvania alone, this oil has been estimated at over 4.5 billion barrels (0.72 billion m 3 ). Conventional recovery methods are already being used when applicable. But a new recovery method is needed for use in reservoirs that have been abandoned. One alternative method for recovery of the residual oil is known as oil recovery from underground drill sites. This recovery technology is a combination of proven methods and equipment from the petroleum, mining, and civil construction industries. Underground oil recovery can be an economically viable method of producing oil. This has been shown in producing fields, field tests, and feasibility, studies. Faced with decreasing domestic oil production, the petroleum industry should give serious consideration to the use of oil recovery from underground drill sites as a safe, practical, and environmentally sensitive alternative method of producing oil from many reservoirs

  11. The Stigma of Mental Illness and Recovery. (United States)

    Avdibegović, Esmina; Hasanović, Mevludin


    Stigma and recovery "from" and "in" mental illness are associated in many various ways. While recovery gives opportunities, makes person stronger, gives purpose and meaning to their lives and leads to social inclusion, in the same time stigma reduces opportunities, reduces self-esteem and self-efficacy, reduces the belief in own abilities and contributes to social exclusion through discrimination. The recovery of a person with mental illness means to get and keep hope, to understand their own possibilities and impossibilities, active living, to be autonomous, to have a social identity and to give meaning and purpose of our own lives. The care system, recovery-oriented, provides help and support to people with mental disorders in his/her recovery, which contributes to reduction of self-stigma, to the elimination of stigmatizing attitudes and beliefs in mental health services which consequently may have a positive reflection in reducing the stigma of mental illness in the community. It is important to look at the stigma and recovery from the perspective of individual experience of each person with a mental illness in the process of recovery. A support to the recovery concept and the development of a recovery-oriented system of care should be one of the key segments of any strategy to combat the stigma of mental illness. Also, the cultural and the social stigma aspects of stigma would be taken into account in the developing of the recovery concept and on the recovery-oriented care system.

  12. Recovery and Performance in Sport: Consensus Statement. (United States)

    Kellmann, Michael; Bertollo, Maurizio; Bosquet, Laurent; Brink, Michel; Coutts, Aaron J; Duffield, Rob; Erlacher, Daniel; Halson, Shona L; Hecksteden, Anne; Heidari, Jahan; Kallus, K Wolfgang; Meeusen, Romain; Mujika, Iñigo; Robazza, Claudio; Skorski, Sabrina; Venter, Ranel; Beckmann, Jürgen


    The relationship between recovery and fatigue and its impact on performance has attracted the interest of sport science for many years. An adequate balance between stress (training and competition load, other life demands) and recovery is essential for athletes to achieve continuous high-level performance. Research has focused on the examination of physiological and psychological recovery strategies to compensate external and internal training and competition loads. A systematic monitoring of recovery and the subsequent implementation of recovery routines aims at maximizing performance and preventing negative developments such as underrecovery, nonfunctional overreaching, the overtraining syndrome, injuries, or illnesses. Due to the inter- and intraindividual variability of responses to training, competition, and recovery strategies, a diverse set of expertise is required to address the multifaceted phenomena of recovery, performance, and their interactions to transfer knowledge from sport science to sport practice. For this purpose, a symposium on Recovery and Performance was organized at the Technical University Munich Science and Study Center Raitenhaslach (Germany) in September 2016. Various international experts from many disciplines and research areas gathered to discuss and share their knowledge of recovery for performance enhancement in a variety of settings. The results of this meeting are outlined in this consensus statement that provides central definitions, theoretical frameworks, and practical implications as a synopsis of the current knowledge of recovery and performance. While our understanding of the complex relationship between recovery and performance has significantly increased through research, some important issues for future investigations are also elaborated.

  13. [Recovery: systematic review of a concept]. (United States)

    Baccari, Ivana Oliveira Preto; Campos, Rosana Teresa Onocko; Stefanello, Sabrina


    The concept of recovery has been described in papers as a state of psychic, physical and social recuperation of day-to-day functions. The scope of this article is to analyze the concepts of the term in different research methodologies and the paradigmatic evolution of the recovery concept. Systematic bibliographical research was conducted in the Pubmed database using the words "recovery + schizophrenia" limited to freely available full papers published in the previous two years. Nineteen papers were analyzed. The majority of the papers sought associations between characteristic data and recovery; few papers discussed the concept in a way to distinguish it from other words like cure or rehabilitation. Recovery as a state in which people with severe mental illness can feel like the creators of their own itinerary tend to be found in qualitative studies and in bibliographic reviews in which the meaning of recovery is not related to the lack of symptoms and tends to prioritize how participative the life of an individual can be despite the disease. Some quantitative studies detect this conceptual difference. In qualitative research there is an increase in the concept of recovery and in ways of promoting it.

  14. Relationship intention and satisfaction following service recovery: The mediating role of perceptions of service recovery in the cell phone industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Kruger


    Full Text Available In an industry characterised by fierce competition, cell phone network providers find it increasingly difficult to retain their customers after service failure. It is therefore essential for cell phone network providers to offer effective service recovery when they attempt to restore customer satisfaction following service failure. As it has been argued that relationships between customers and service providers should be considered a key determinant of the service recovery required to restore post-recovery attitudes and behavioural intentions, the purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between South African cell phone customers’ relationship intentions, their perceptions of service recovery and their satisfaction following service recovery. Personal in-home interviews were conducted to collect data from 605 cell phone customers residing in the Johannesburg metropolitan area. In addition to the significant positive relationships found between cell phone users’ relationship intentions, perceived service recovery and satisfaction after service recovery, this study found that perceived service recovery played a mediating role in the relationship between relationship intention and satisfaction following service recovery. The study concludes that, although a direct relationship exists between relationship intention and satisfaction following service recovery, perceived service recovery plays an additional indirect complementary role in this relationship. It is recommended that, in addition to focusing their relationship efforts on customers with relationship intentions, cell phone network providers also offer positively perceived service recovery to these customers, as this would lead to greater satisfaction following service recovery.

  15. 75 FR 25840 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Recovery Plans; Recovery Plan for the Kemp's Ridley Sea Turtle (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XS00 Endangered and Threatened Species; Recovery Plans; Recovery Plan for the Kemp's Ridley Sea Turtle AGENCIES...-National Recovery Plan (Plan) for the Kemp's Ridley Sea Turtle (Lepidochelys kempii). The Kemp's Ridley...

  16. 75 FR 12496 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Recovery Plans; Recovery Plan for the Kemp's Ridley Sea Turtle (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XS00 Endangered and Threatened Species; Recovery Plans; Recovery Plan for the Kemp's Ridley Sea Turtle AGENCIES... Plan (Plan) for the Kemp's Ridley Sea Turtle (Lepidochelys kempii). The Kemp's Ridley Recovery Plan is...

  17. Co-ordinate variations in methylmalonyl-CoA mutase and methionine synthase, and the cobalamin cofactors in human glioma cells during nitrous oxide exposure and the subsequent recovery phase. (United States)

    Riedel, B; Fiskerstrand, T; Refsum, H; Ueland, P M


    We investigated the co-ordinate variations of the two cobalamin (Cbl)-dependent enzymes, methionine synthase (MS) and methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MCM), and measured the levels of their respective cofactors, methylcobalamin (CH3Cbl) and adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl) in cultured human glioma cells during nitrous oxide exposure and during a subsequent recovery period of culture in a nitrous oxide-free atmosphere (air). In agreement with published data, MS as the primary target of nitrous oxide was inactivated rapidly (initial rate of 0.06 h(-1)), followed by reduction of CH3Cbl (to ordinate distribution of Cbl cofactors during depletion and repletion.

  18. The effect of follicular fluid hormones on oocyte recovery after ovarian stimulation: FSH level predicts oocyte recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinaudo Paolo F


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ovarian stimulation for assisted reproductive technology (ART overcomes the physiologic process to develop a single dominant follicle. However, following stimulation, egg recovery rates are not 100%. The objective of this study is to determine if the follicular fluid hormonal environment is associated with oocyte recovery. Methods This is a prospective study involving patients undergoing ART by standard ovarian stimulation protocols at an urban academic medical center. A total of 143 follicular fluid aspirates were collected from 80 patients. Concentrations of FSH, hCG, estradiol, progesterone, testosterone and prolactin were determined. A multivariable regression analysis was used to investigate the relationship between the follicular fluid hormones and oocyte recovery. Results Intrafollicular FSH was significantly associated with oocyte recovery after adjustment for hCG (Adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 1.21, 95%CI 1.03–1.42. The hCG concentration alone, in the range tested, did not impact the odds of oocyte recovery (AOR = 0.99, 95%CI 0.93–1.07. Estradiol was significantly associated with oocyte recovery (AOR = 0.98, 95% CI 0.96–0.99. After adjustment for progesterone, the strength of association between FSH and oocyte recovery increased (AOR = 1.84, 95%CI 1.45–2.34. Conclusion The relationship between FSH and oocyte recovery is significant and appears to work through mechanisms independent of the sex hormones. FSH may be important for the physiologic event of separation of the cumulus-oocyte complex from the follicle wall, thereby influencing oocyte recovery. Current methods for inducing the final stages of oocyte maturation, with hCG administration alone, may not be optimal. Modifications of treatment protocols utilizing additional FSH may enhance oocyte recovery.

  19. Disaster Debris Recovery Database - Landfills (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The US EPA Disaster Debris Recovery Database (DDRD) promotes the proper recovery, recycling, and disposal of disaster debris for emergency responders at the federal,...

  20. 76 FR 58781 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Recovery Plans; Recovery Plan for the Kemp's Ridley Sea Turtle (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XS00 Endangered and Threatened Species; Recovery Plans; Recovery Plan for the Kemp's Ridley Sea Turtle AGENCY... Sea Turtle (Lepidochelys kempii). The Recovery Plan is a bi-national plan developed by the NMFS and...

  1. Human reliability analysis in Loviisa probabilistic safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illman, L.; Isaksson, J.; Makkonen, L.; Vaurio, J.K.; Vuorio, U.


    The human reliability analysis in the Loviisa PSA project is carried out for three major groups of errors in human actions: (A) errors made before an initiating event, (B) errors that initiate a transient and (C) errors made during transients. Recovery possibilities are also included in each group. The methods used or planned for each group are described. A simplified THERP approach is used for group A, with emphasis on test and maintenance error recovery aspects and dependencies between redundancies. For group B, task analyses and human factors assessments are made for startup, shutdown and operational transients, with emphasis on potential common cause initiators. For group C, both misdiagnosis and slow decision making are analyzed, as well as errors made in carrying out necessary or backup actions. New or advanced features of the methodology are described

  2. Improved extraction procedure for carotenoids from human milk. (United States)

    Schweigert, F J; Hurtienne, A; Bathe, K


    An improved method for the extraction of the major carotenoids from human milk is described. Carotenoids were extracted from milk first with ethanol and n-hexane. Then, polar xanthophylls were extracted from n-hexane into ethanol/water. The remaining n-hexane was evaporated, the residue combined with the ethanolic milk fraction and the mixture briefly saponified. Carotenoids were extracted from the hydrolysate with n-hexane, combined with the polar xanthophylls from the non-saponified ethanol/water-extract and separated by HPLC. Using this method we were able to significantly improve the recovery of xanthophylls such as lutein and zeaxanthin from human milk. The recovery rate of all carotenoids was > 90%. This method might not only be of value for milk but should be especially useful in the extraction of carotenoids from human tissues such as the adipose tissue.

  3. The Recovery Knowledge Inventory for Measurement of Nursing Student Views on Recovery-oriented Mental Health Services. (United States)

    Happell, Brenda; Byrne, Louise; Platania-Phung, Chris


    Recovery-oriented services are a goal for policy and practice in the Australian mental health service system. Evidence-based reform requires an instrument to measure knowledge of recovery concepts. The Recovery Knowledge Inventory (RKI) was designed for this purpose, however, its suitability and validity for student health professionals has not been evaluated. The purpose of the current article is to report the psychometric features of the RKI for measuring nursing students' views on recovery. The RKI, a self-report measure, consists of four scales: (I) Roles and Responsibilities, (II) Non-Linearity of the Recovery Process, (III) Roles of Self-Definition and Peers, and (IV) Expectations Regarding Recovery. Confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses of the baseline data (n = 167) were applied to assess validity and reliability. Exploratory factor analyses generally replicated the item structure suggested by the three main scales, however more stringent analyses (confirmatory factor analysis) did not provide strong support for convergent validity. A refined RKI with 16 items had internal reliabilities of α = .75 for Roles and Responsibilities, α = .49 for Roles of Self-Definition and Peers, and α = .72, for Recovery as Non-Linear Process. If the RKI is to be applied to nursing student populations, the conceptual underpinning of the instrument needs to be reworked, and new items should be generated to evaluate and improve scale validity and reliability.

  4. Contested understandings of recovery in mental health. (United States)

    McCabe, Rhiannah; Whittington, Richard; Cramond, Laura; Perkins, Elizabeth


    The concept of recovery is contested throughout the existing literature and in mental health services. Little research exists that gives voice to service user perspectives of recovery. This paper explores how service users in two recovery oriented services run by the National Health Service in North West England talked about recovery and what it meant to them. 14 service users accessing these services took part in semi-structured qualitative interviews focusing on the concept of recovery. Data were analysed using an interpretive phenomenological analysis approach. Service users talked about recovery as a dynamic, day to day process as well as an outcome; specifically related to being discharged from inpatient settings. A number of factors including relationships and medication were cited to have the potential to make or break recovery. The study highlights the continued dominance of the biomedical model in mental health services. Service users appear to have internalised staff and services' understanding of recovery perhaps unsurprisingly given the power differential in these relationships. Implications for clinical practice are explored.

  5. Isothermal recovery rates in shape memory polyurethanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azra, Charly; Plummer, Christopher J G; Månson, Jan-Anders E


    This work compares the time dependence of isothermal shape recovery in thermoset and thermoplastic shape memory polyurethanes (SMPUs) with comparable glass transition temperatures. In each case, tensile tests have been used to quantify the influence of various thermo-mechanical programming parameters (deformation temperature, recovery temperature, and stress and storage times following the deformation step) on strain recovery under zero load (free recovery) and stress recovery under fixed strain (constrained recovery). It is shown that the duration of the recovery event may be tuned over several decades of time with an appropriate choice of programming parameters, but that there is a trade-off between the rate of shape recovery and the recoverable stress level. The results are discussed in terms of the thermal characteristics of the SMPUs in the corresponding temperature range as characterized by modulated differential scanning calorimetry and dynamic mechanical analysis, with the emphasis on the role of the effective width of the glass transition temperature and the stability of the network that gives rise to the shape memory effect. (fast track communication)

  6. Total Value of Phosphorus Recovery. (United States)

    Mayer, Brooke K; Baker, Lawrence A; Boyer, Treavor H; Drechsel, Pay; Gifford, Mac; Hanjra, Munir A; Parameswaran, Prathap; Stoltzfus, Jared; Westerhoff, Paul; Rittmann, Bruce E


    Phosphorus (P) is a critical, geographically concentrated, nonrenewable resource necessary to support global food production. In excess (e.g., due to runoff or wastewater discharges), P is also a primary cause of eutrophication. To reconcile the simultaneous shortage and overabundance of P, lost P flows must be recovered and reused, alongside improvements in P-use efficiency. While this motivation is increasingly being recognized, little P recovery is practiced today, as recovered P generally cannot compete with the relatively low cost of mined P. Therefore, P is often captured to prevent its release into the environment without beneficial recovery and reuse. However, additional incentives for P recovery emerge when accounting for the total value of P recovery. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the range of benefits of recovering P from waste streams, i.e., the total value of recovering P. This approach accounts for P products, as well as other assets that are associated with P and can be recovered in parallel, such as energy, nitrogen, metals and minerals, and water. Additionally, P recovery provides valuable services to society and the environment by protecting and improving environmental quality, enhancing efficiency of waste treatment facilities, and improving food security and social equity. The needs to make P recovery a reality are also discussed, including business models, bottlenecks, and policy and education strategies.

  7. Music and psychophysiological recovery from stress. (United States)

    Radstaak, Mirjam; Geurts, Sabine A E; Brosschot, Jos F; Kompier, Michiel A J


    This experimental study examined whether listening to self-chosen music after stress exposure improves mood, decreases subjective arousal and rumination, and facilitates cardiovascular recovery. Participants (N = 123) were exposed to a mental arithmetic task with harassment to induce stress. Afterward, participants were randomly assigned to one of four "recovery" conditions where they (1) listened to self-chosen relaxing music, (2) listened to self-chosen happy music, (3) listened to an audio book, or (4) sat in silence. After this 5-minute "recovery manipulation period," participants sat in silence for another 5 minutes. Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate were continuously measured. The recovery conditions caused differences in positive affect (F(3,119) = 13.13, p music or happy music. The conditions showed no differences in subjective arousal (F(3,117) = 2.03, p = .11) and rumination (F(3,119) = 1.10, p = .35). Systolic blood pressure recovery, however, differed between the conditions (linear time trend: F(3,116) = 4.50, p = .005; quadratic time trend: F(3,115) = 5.24, p = .002). Listening to both relaxing and happy music delayed systolic blood pressure recovery when compared with both control conditions. Listening to self-selected music is an effective mood enhancer, but it delays blood pressure recovery.

  8. Launch and Recovery System Literature Review (United States)


    water. Goldie [21] suggests a sled or cart recovery system for use with UAV’s on the Littoral Combatant Ship (LCS) and other small deck navy ships...21. Goldie , J., “A Recovery System for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) Aboard LCS and other Small-Deck Navy Ships,” ASNE Launch and Recovery of

  9. Coping and recovery in whiplash-associated disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carroll, Linda J; Ferrari, Robert; Cassidy, John David


    Management Inventory, and neck pain recovery was assessed at each subsequent follow-up, using a 100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS). Disability was assessed at each follow-up using the Pain Disability Index (PDI). Pain recovery was defined as a VAS score of 0 to 10; disability recovery was defined as a PDI...... recovery, reductions in neck pain, and in disability. METHODS: A population-based prospective cohort study design was used to study 2986 adults with traffic-related WAD. Participants were assessed at baseline, 6 weeks, and 4, 8, and 12 months postinjury. Coping was measured at 6 weeks using the Pain...... score of 0 to 4. Data analysis used multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: Those using high versus low levels of passive coping at 6 weeks postinjury experienced 28% slower pain recovery and 43% slower disability recovery. Adjusted hazard rate ratios for pain recovery and disability...

  10. Combined polymer-curcumin conjugate and ependymal progenitor/stem cell treatment enhances spinal cord injury functional recovery. (United States)

    Requejo-Aguilar, Raquel; Alastrue-Agudo, Ana; Cases-Villar, Marta; Lopez-Mocholi, Eric; England, Richard; Vicent, María J; Moreno-Manzano, Victoria


    Spinal cord injury (SCI) suffers from a lack of effective therapeutic strategies. Animal models of acute SCI have provided evidence that transplantation of ependymal stem/progenitor cells of the spinal cord (epSPCs) induces functional recovery, while systemic administration of the anti-inflammatory curcumin provides neuroprotection. However, functional recovery from chronic stage SCI requires additional enhancements in available therapeutic strategies. Herein, we report on a combination treatment for SCI using epSPCs and a pH-responsive polymer-curcumin conjugate. The incorporation of curcumin in a pH-responsive polymeric carrier mainchain, a polyacetal (PA), enhances blood bioavailability, stability, and provides a means for highly localized delivery. We find that PA-curcumin enhances neuroprotection, increases axonal growth, and can improve functional recovery in acute SCI. However, when combined with epSPCs, PA-curcumin also enhances functional recovery in a rodent model of chronic SCI. This suggests that combination therapy may be an exciting new therapeutic option for the treatment of chronic SCI in humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Recovery i fællesskaber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Diana Astrup


    in present day practice. The dissertation aims at examining the potentials and limitations of recovery-orientation in a context of practice, and is thus concerned with the question: Which limitations and potentials emerge for recovery-orientation, when the applications of the the-ory are investigated...... gathered consists of interviews with the residents and recordings from institutional staff meetings at the establishment. The analyses presented in the dissertation are from in-depth studies of two select cases with resi-dents of the establishment. Two theoretical approaches are applied to each case...... as for identifying suggestions for improving and developing such practice. 4 The analyses of the empirical data presented serve to identify limitations, as well as potentials for practice based upon recovery-orientation. The approach from critical psychology supports that the concepts of recovery-orientation lack...

  12. Changes in transcription during recovery from heat injury in Salmonella typhimurium and effects of BCAA on recovery. (United States)

    Hsu-Ming, Wen; Naito, Kimitaka; Kinoshita, Yoshimasa; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Honjoh, Ken-ichi; Tashiro, Kousuke; Miyamoto, Takahisa


    Mechanisms of recovery from heat injury in Salmonella typhimurium were elucidated. Recovery of the heat-injured S. typhimurium cells in TSB resulted in full recovery after 3 h of incubation at 37°C. The DNA microarray analysis of 30- and 60-min recovering cells resulted in an increase in transcription of 89 and 141 genes, respectively. Among them, 15 genes, with known function, seemed to be somewhat involved in recovery. They encoded proteins involved in branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) transport (livJ, livH), cell envelope integrity (ddg), heat-shock response (cpxP, rrmJ), phage shock protein (pspA), ribosome modulation factor (rmf), virulence (sseB) transcriptional regulation (rpoE, rpoH, rseA, rseB, rseC) and ArcB signal transduction (sixA) and cytoplasmic membrane protein (fxsA). Among them, the effects of BCAA supplementation on recovery from heat injury were studied to confirm the importance of the BCAA transport liv genes during recovery. It was found that supplementation of TSB with 0.1% BCAA resulted in an enhanced recovery of injured cells in comparison to those recovered in TSB without BCAA. Supplementation of BCAA at 0.1% resulted in a cell count increase 4.4-fold greater than that of the control after 1 h incubation. It seems that BCAA promoted the recovery by promoting protein synthesis either directly through their use in translation or indirectly through stimulation of protein synthesis by activation of the Lrp protein.

  13. Post-exercise recovery of contractile function and endurance in humans and mice is accelerated by heating and slowed by cooling skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Arthur J; Willis, Sarah J; Zinner, Christoph


    KEY POINTS: We investigated whether intramuscular temperature affects the acute recovery of exercise performance following fatigue-induced by endurance exercise. Mean power output was better preserved during an all-out arm-cycling exercise following a 2 h recovery period in which the upper arms w...

  14. Stress and Recovery during Simulated Microgravity (United States)

    Nicolas, Michel

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a 60-day head-down tilt long-term bed rest (HDT) on stress and recovery in sixteen healthy female volunteers during the WISE-2005 study (Women International Space Simulation for Exploration). Participants were randomly assigned to either an exercise group (Exe) that followed a training program combining resistive and aerobic exercises, or to a no-exercise control group (Ctl). Psychological states were assessed using the Rest-Q, a validated questionnaire based on stress-recovery responses. A longitudinal analysis revealed significant changes in the general and specific stress scales for all participants throughout the experiment with a critical stage from supine to standing posture leading to a significant decrease in physical recovery. During HDT, Exe reported higher scores in stress subscales, as well as lower recovery scores compared to the Ctl. During the post HDT ambulatory recovery period, the exercisers still reported higher scores than the non-exercisers on the Lack of energy stress related scale, along with lower scores in general well-being and personal accomplishment. The present findings show that simulated weightlessness such as HDT may induce psychological stress and lead to subsequent alterations in perceived recovery. Exercise did not reduce HDT impaired effects on stress and recovery states. In the perspective of spaceflights of long-duration such as the future missions to Mars, there is a need for additional experiments to further investigate spaceflight-induced changes of stress and recovery parameters and the effects of exercise on these parameters. Further studies might determine and analyze the psychological factors involved, but also how to intervene concerning these factors with efficient psychological preparation which, although not yet fully investigated, may reduce stress, promote recovery and support adaptive responses to such extreme environments.

  15. Thermal recovery gaining importance, says expert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    In a forecast presented to the Calgary section CIM- AIME at a recent monthly technical meeting, J.V. Howard, Core Labs. Inc., predicted that within the next 2 to 5 yr, California oil production will come from thermal recovery schemes to the extent of 200,000 bpd. One American major oil company is planning a fire flood in a heavy oil reservoir at 12,000 ft depth, where primary recovery is estimated as only 3% of original oil in place. It is estimated that the minimum oil saturation feasible for thermal recovery is 950 bbl per acre-ft. The larger number of variables that will determine the success or failure of thermal recovery makes it essential to have thorough and complete studies of all the thermal processes before one is selected for a given set of reservoir and economic conditions. The number of thermal recovery projects will increase rapidly and the success of any project will depend upon the proper application of experience and technology in thermal recovery.

  16. Conservation genetics in the recovery of endangered animal species: a review of US endangered species recovery plans (1977-1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moyle, L. C.


    Full Text Available The utility of genetic data in conservation efforts, particularly in comparison to demographic information, is the subject of ongoing debate. Using a database of information surveyed from 181 US endangered and threatened species recovery plans, we addressed the following questions concerning the use of genetic information in animal recovery plans: I. What is the relative prominence of genetic vs. demographic data in recovery plan development? and, II. When are genetic factors viewed as a threat, and how do plans respond to genetic threats? In general, genetics appear to play a minor and relatively ill-defined part in the recovery planning process; demographic data are both more abundant and more requested in recovery plans, and tasks are more frequently assigned to the collection / monitoring of demographic rather than genetic information. Nonetheless, genetic threats to species persistence and recovery are identified in a substantial minority (22% of recovery plans, although there is little uniform response to these perceived threats in the form of specific proposed recovery or management tasks. Results indicate that better guidelines are needed to identify how and when genetic information is most useful for species recovery; we highlight specific contexts in which genetics may provide unique management information, beyond that provided by other kinds of data.

  17. Long recovery VLF perturbations associated with lightning discharges (United States)

    Salut, M. M.; Abdullah, M.; Graf, K. L.; Cohen, M. B.; Cotts, B. R. T.; Kumar, Sushil


    Long D-region ionospheric recovery perturbations are a recently discovered and poorly understood subcategory of early VLF events, distinguished by exceptionally long ionospheric recovery times of up to 20 min (compared to more typical ˜1 min recovery times). Characteristics and occurrence rates of long ionospheric recovery events on the NWC transmitter signal recorded at Malaysia are presented. 48 long recovery events were observed. The location of the causative lightning discharge for each event is determined from GLD360 and WWLLN data, and each discharge is categorized as being over land or sea. Results provide strong evidence that long recovery events are attributed predominately to lightning discharges occurring over the sea, despite the fact that lightning activity in the region is more prevalent over land. Of the 48 long recovery events, 42 were attributed to lightning activity over water. Analysis of the causative lightning of long recovery events in comparison to all early VLF events reveals that these long recovery events are detectable for lighting discharges at larger distances from the signal path, indicating a different scattering pattern for long recovery events.

  18. Nutrition for recovery in aquatic sports. (United States)

    Burke, Louise M; Mujika, Iñigo


    Postexercise recovery is an important topic among aquatic athletes and involves interest in the quality, quantity, and timing of intake of food and fluids after workouts or competitive events to optimize processes such as refueling, rehydration, repair, and adaptation. Recovery processes that help to minimize the risk of illness and injury are also important but are less well documented. Recovery between workouts or competitive events may have two separate goals: (a) restoration of body losses and changes caused by the first session to restore performance for the next and (b) maximization of the adaptive responses to the stress provided by the session to gradually make the body become better at the features of exercise that are important for performance. In some cases, effective recovery occurs only when nutrients are supplied, and an early supply of nutrients may also be valuable in situations in which the period immediately after exercise provides an enhanced stimulus for recovery. This review summarizes contemporary knowledge of nutritional strategies to promote glycogen resynthesis, restoration of fluid balance, and protein synthesis after different types of exercise stimuli. It notes that some scenarios benefit from a proactive approach to recovery eating, whereas others may not need such attention. In fact, in some situations it may actually be beneficial to withhold nutritional support immediately after exercise. Each athlete should use a cost-benefit analysis of the approaches to recovery after different types of workouts or competitive events and then periodize different recovery strategies into their training or competition programs.

  19. Development and validation of attitudes towards Recovery Questionnaire across Chinese people in recovery, their family carers, and service providers in Hong Kong. (United States)

    Mak, Winnie W S; Chan, Randolph C H; Yau, Sania S W


    Considering the lack of existing measures on attitudes toward personal recovery and the need to acknowledge the cultural milieu in recovery attitude assessment, the present study developed and validated the Attitudes towards Recovery Questionnaire (ARQ) in a sample of people in recovery of mental illness, family carers, and mental health service providers in Hong Kong. The ARQ was developed based on existing literature and measures of recovery, and focus group discussions with various stakeholders. Findings of the multi-sample confirmatory factor analyses supported a five-factor structure: (1) resilience as a person in recovery, (2) self-appreciation and development, (3) self-direction, (4) family involvement, and (5) social ties and integration. The ARQ was positively correlated with recovery outcomes, empowerment, recovery knowledge, and recovery orientation of mental health services. As a tool for examining recovery attitudes, the ARQ informs us of the mindset across stakeholders and areas that need enhancement to facilitate the recovery process. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Leading a Recovery-oriented Social Enterprise. (United States)

    Raeburn, Toby; Hungerford, Catherine; Sayers, Jan; Escott, Phil; Lopez, Violeta; Cleary, Michelle


    Recovery-oriented mental health services promote the principles of recovery, such as hope and optimism, and are characterized by a personalized approach to developing consumer self-determination. Nurse leaders are increasingly developing such services as social enterprises, but there is limited research on the leadership of these programs. Leading a recovery-oriented mental health nurse social enterprise requires visionary leadership, collaboration with consumers and local health providers, financial viability, and commitment to recovery-focused practice. This article describes the framework of an Australian mental health nursing social enterprise, including the service attributes and leadership lessons that have been learned from developing program sustainability.

  1. Enhanced recovery from surgery in the UK: an audit of the enhanced recovery partnership programme 2009-2012. (United States)

    Simpson, J C; Moonesinghe, S R; Grocott, M P W; Kuper, M; McMeeking, A; Oliver, C M; Galsworthy, M J; Mythen, M G


    The UK Department of Health Enhanced Recovery Partnership Programme collected data on 24 513 surgical patients in the UK from 2009-2012. Enhanced Recovery is an approach to major elective surgery aimed at minimizing perioperative stress for the patient. Previous studies have shown Enhanced Recovery to be associated with reduced hospital length of stay and perioperative morbidity. In this national clinical audit, National Health Service hospitals in the UK were invited to submit patient-level data. The data regarding length of stay and compliance with each element of Enhanced Recovery protocols for colorectal, orthopaedic, urological and gynaecological surgery patients were analysed. The relationship between Enhanced Recovery protocol compliance and length of stay was measured. From 16 267 patients from 61 hospital trusts, three out of four surgical specialties showed Enhanced Recovery, compliance being weakly associated with shorter length of stay (correlation coefficients -0.18, -0.14, -0.25 in colorectal, orthopaedics and gynaecology respectively). At a cut-off of 80% compliance, good compliance was associated with two, one and three day reductions in median length of stay respectively in colorectal, orthopaedic and urological surgeries, with no saving in gynaecology. This study is the largest assessment of the relationship between Enhanced Recovery protocol compliance and outcome in four surgical specialties. The data suggest that higher compliance with an Enhanced Recovery protocol has a weak association with shorter length of stay. This suggests that changes in process, resulting from highly protocolised pathways, may be as important in reducing perioperative length of stay as any individual element of Enhanced Recovery protocols in isolation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  2. Energy-neutral sustainable nutrient recovery incorporated with the wastewater purification process in an enlarged microbial nutrient recovery cell (United States)

    Sun, Dongya; Gao, Yifan; Hou, Dianxun; Zuo, Kuichang; Chen, Xi; Liang, Peng; Zhang, Xiaoyuan; Ren, Zhiyong Jason; Huang, Xia


    Recovery of nutrient resources from the wastewater is now an inevitable strategy to maintain the supply of both nutrient and water for our huge population. While the intensive energy consumption in conventional nutrient recovery technologies still remained as the bottleneck towards the sustainable nutrient recycle. This study proposed an enlarged microbial nutrient recovery cell (EMNRC) which was powered by the energy contained in wastewater and achieved multi-cycle nutrient recovery incorporated with in situ wastewater treatment. With the optimal recovery solution of 3 g/L NaCl and the optimal volume ratio of wastewater to recovery solution of 10:1, >89% of phosphorus and >62% of ammonium nitrogen were recovered into struvite. An extremely low water input ratio of water. It was proved the EMNRC system was a promising technology which could utilize the chemical energy contained in wastewater itself and energy-neutrally recover nutrient during the continuous wastewater purification process.

  3. The Vessel Schedule Recovery Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Plum, Christian Edinger Munk; Vaaben, Bo

    Maritime transportation is the backbone of world trade and is accountable for around 3% of the worlds CO2 emissions. We present the Vessel Schedule Recovery Problem (VSRP) to evaluate a given disruption scenario and to select a recovery action balancing the trade off between increased bunker cons...... consumption and the impact on the remaining network and the customer service level. The model is applied to 4 real cases from Maersk Line. Solutions are comparable or superior to those chosen by operations managers. Cost savings of up to 58% may be achieved.......Maritime transportation is the backbone of world trade and is accountable for around 3% of the worlds CO2 emissions. We present the Vessel Schedule Recovery Problem (VSRP) to evaluate a given disruption scenario and to select a recovery action balancing the trade off between increased bunker...

  4. An Empirical Investigation into Causality of Unsafe Act and Recovery during EOP Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Sun Yeong; Jung, Won Dea [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    A data collection worksheet and guideline to collect HRA (Human Reliability Analysis) data with simulator data sources were developed for the HRA data handbook project by KAERI. Using the data worksheet, simulator data were collected and analyzed for an HRA qualitative database. The purpose of this paper is to define the causalities of operators' UAs (Unsafe Acts) ending in an inappropriate component manipulation and recovery during an EOP (Emergency Operating Procedure) operation, and to show some results for the causality from a case study. The reason we suggest the causality of an UA is because an inappropriate manipulation during an EOP operation can be resulted by the causality among operators in an MCR (Main Control Room). Therefore, a 'causality' data field was inserted into the data worksheet to identify the real initiator, and related operators for an inappropriate component manipulation. With this 'causality' data field, an HRA analyzer can establish who caused an UA (or a recovery) and who was involved in the process. They can also calculate the HEP (Human Error Probability) grouped by the initiator if they are interested in the HEP by the initiator.

  5. Brain Pathways to Recovery from Alcohol Dependence (United States)

    Cui, Changhai; Noronha, Antonio; Warren, Kenneth; Koob, George F.; Sinha, Rajita; Thakkar, Mahesh; Matochik, John; Crews, Fulton T.; Chandler, L. Judson; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Becker, Howard C.; Lovinger, David; Everitt, Barry; Egli, Mark; Mandyam, Chitra; Fein, George; Potenza, Marc N.; Harris, R. Adron; Grant, Kathleen A.; Roberto, Marisa; Meyerhoff, Dieter J.; Sullivan, Edith V.


    This article highlights the research presentations at the satellite symposium on “Brain Pathways to Recovery from Alcohol Dependence” held at the 2013 Society for Neuroscience Annual Meeting. The purpose of this symposium was to provide an up to date overview of research efforts focusing on understanding brain mechanisms that contribute to recovery from alcohol dependence. A panel of scientists from the alcohol and addiction research field presented their insights and perspectives on brain mechanisms that may underlie both recovery and lack of recovery from alcohol dependence. The four sessions of the symposium encompassed multilevel studies exploring mechanisms underlying relapse and craving associated with sustained alcohol abstinence, cognitive function deficit and recovery, and translational studies on preventing relapse and promoting recovery. Gaps in our knowledge and research opportunities were also discussed. PMID:26074423

  6. General introduction and recovery factors (United States)

    Verma, Mahendra K.


    IntroductionThe U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) compared methods for estimating an incremental recovery factor (RF) for the carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) process involving the injection of CO2 into oil reservoirs. This chapter first provides some basic information on the RF, including its dependence on various reservoir and operational parameters, and then discusses the three development phases of oil recovery—primary, second­ary, and tertiary (EOR). It ends with a brief discussion of the three approaches for estimating recovery factors, which are detailed in subsequent chapters.

  7. Persistence of aquatic insects across managed landscapes: effects of landscape permeability on re-colonization and population recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galic, N.; Hengeveld, G.M.; Van den Brink, P.J.; Schmolke, A.; Thorbek, P.; Bruns, E.; Baveco, J.M.


    Human practices in managed landscapes may often adversely affect aquatic biota, such as aquatic insects. Dispersal is often the limiting factor for successful re-colonization and recovery of stressed habitats. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the effects of landscape permeability, assuming a

  8. Increasing CNS norepinephrine levels by the precursor L-DOPS facilitates beam-walking recovery after sensorimotor cortex ablation in rats. (United States)

    Kikuchi, K; Nishino, K; Ohyu, H


    The present investigation was conducted to document a role of L-threo-3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine (L-DOPS), precursor of L-norepinephrine (NE), in the functional recovery from beam-walking performance deficits in rats after unilateral sensorimotor cortex ablation. L-DOPS was administered simultaneously with benserazide (BSZ; a peripheral aromatic amino acid decarboxylase inhibitor), and the regional contents of NE in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum were assayed. Behavioral recovery was demonstrated by the rats treated with L-DOPS and BSZ, and the rate of recovery was significantly different from that of either BSZ-treated or vehicle-treated control rats. The NE tissue levels in the three discrete regions of the rat brain were significantly elevated in the experimental rats receiving both L-DOPS and BSZ. The present studies indicate that increasing NE levels by the precursor L-DOPS may be responsible for facilitating behavioral recovery from beam-walking performance deficits in rats, and further suggest that L-DOPS may become one of the candidate compounds for further clinical human trials promoting functional recovery after injuries to the cerebral cortex.

  9. Biomarkers of stroke recovery: Consensus-based core recommendations from the Stroke Recovery and Rehabilitation Roundtable. (United States)

    Boyd, Lara A; Hayward, Kathryn S; Ward, Nick S; Stinear, Cathy M; Rosso, Charlotte; Fisher, Rebecca J; Carter, Alexandre R; Leff, Alex P; Copland, David A; Carey, Leeanne M; Cohen, Leonardo G; Basso, D Michele; Maguire, Jane M; Cramer, Steven C


    The most difficult clinical questions in stroke rehabilitation are "What is this patient's potential for recovery?" and "What is the best rehabilitation strategy for this person, given her/his clinical profile?" Without answers to these questions, clinicians struggle to make decisions regarding the content and focus of therapy, and researchers design studies that inadvertently mix participants who have a high likelihood of responding with those who do not. Developing and implementing biomarkers that distinguish patient subgroups will help address these issues and unravel the factors important to the recovery process. The goal of the present paper is to provide a consensus statement regarding the current state of the evidence for stroke recovery biomarkers. Biomarkers of motor, somatosensory, cognitive and language domains across the recovery timeline post-stroke are considered; with focus on brain structure and function, and exclusion of blood markers and genetics. We provide evidence for biomarkers that are considered ready to be included in clinical trials, as well as others that are promising but not ready and so represent a developmental priority. We conclude with an example that illustrates the utility of biomarkers in recovery and rehabilitation research, demonstrating how the inclusion of a biomarker may enhance future clinical trials. In this way, we propose a way forward for when and where we can include biomarkers to advance the efficacy of the practice of, and research into, rehabilitation and recovery after stroke.

  10. The enhancement of haemopoietic stem cell recovery in irradiated mice by prior treatment with cyclophosphamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackett, N.M.; Aguado, M.


    Studies are reported of the enhancement of stem cell recovery following whole body irradiation as a result of prior administration of cyclophosphamide. It is shown that the much larger enhancement of regeneration observed for the hosts own surviving stem cells, compared to the regeneration of injected bone marrow stem cells, is due to the different numbers of stem cells initiating the regeneration in conjunction with the time course of stem cell regeneration. The results show that the environmental changes produced by cyclophosphamide greatly enhance haemopoietic recovery even though at the dose used this agent is relatively toxic to stem cells. Furthermore it has been shown that the level of stem cell regeneration is nearly independent of the γ-ray dose in the range 3-8 gray (300-800 rad). If human bone marrow should respond similarly it follows that regeneration produced by cytotoxic drugs administered prior to radiation embodies a considerable safety factor as far as recovery of the haemopoietic system is concerned. (author)

  11. Refractoriness in human atria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skibsbye, Lasse; Jespersen, Thomas; Christ, Torsten


    BACKGROUND: Refractoriness of cardiac cells limits maximum frequency of electrical activity and protects the heart from tonic contractions. Short refractory periods support major arrhythmogenic substrates and augmentation of refractoriness is therefore seen as a main mechanism of antiarrhythmic...... drugs. Cardiomyocyte excitability depends on availability of sodium channels, which involves both time- and voltage-dependent recovery from inactivation. This study therefore aims to characterise how sodium channel inactivation affects refractoriness in human atria. METHODS AND RESULTS: Steady......-state activation and inactivation parameters of sodium channels measured in vitro in isolated human atrial cardiomyocytes were used to parameterise a mathematical human atrial cell model. Action potential data were acquired from human atrial trabeculae of patients in either sinus rhythm or chronic atrial...

  12. Ecological recovery in ERA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Scientific Committee (Scientific Committee); Topping, Christopher John


    knowledge and data retrieved from the literature. Finally, the information presented in this opinion was reviewed by experts from the relevant EFSA Panels, European risk assessment bodies and through an open consultation requesting input from stakeholders. A conceptual framework was developed to address...... recognises the importance of more integrated ERAs considering both the local and landscape scales, as well as the possible co-occurrence of multiple potential stressors that fall under the remit of EFSA, which are important when addressing ecological recovery. In this scientific opinion, the Scientific...... Committee gathered scientific knowledge on the potential for the recovery of non-target organisms for the further development of ERA. Current EFSA guidance documents and opinions were reviewed on how ecological recovery is addressed in ERA schemes. In addition, this scientific opinion is based on expert...

  13. A yeast glycolipid biosurfactant, mannosylerythritol lipid, shows potential moisturizing activity toward cultured human skin cells: the recovery effect of MEL-A on the SDS-damaged human skin cells. (United States)

    Morita, Tomotake; Kitagawa, Masaru; Suzuki, Michiko; Yamamoto, Shuhei; Sogabe, Atsushi; Yanagidani, Shusaku; Imura, Tomohiro; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Kitamoto, Dai


    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are produced in large amounts from renewable vegetable oils by Pseudozyma antarctica, and are the most promising biosurfactants known due to its versatile interfacial and biochemical actions. In order to broaden the application in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals, the skin care property of MEL-A, the major component of MELs, was investigated using a three-dimensional cultured human skin model. The skin cells were cultured and treated with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solution of 1 wt%, and the effects of different lipids on the SDS-damaged cells were then evaluated on the basis of the cell viability. The viability of the damaged cells was markedly recovered by the addition of MEL-A in a dose-dependent manner. Compared to the control, MEL-A solutions of 5 wt% and 10 wt% gave the recovery rate of 73% and 91%, respectively, while ceramide solution of 1 wt% gave the rate of over 100%. This revealed that MEL-A shows a ceramide-like moisturizing activity toward the skin cells. Considering the drawbacks of natural ceramides, namely limited amount and high production cost, the yeast biosurfactants should have a great potential as a novel moisturizer for treating the damaged skin.

  14. A recovery journey for people with personality disorder. (United States)

    Castillo, Heather; Ramon, Shulamit; Morant, Nicola


    The study investigates the process of recovery for people diagnosed with personality disorder, a client group that suffers significant social exclusion known to impact on demand for health and other public services. It aims to examine efforts that attempt to reverse this social exclusion as an aspect of the recovery process. and The following study aims to (1) explore what recovery means to people with personality disorder; (2) develop a conceptual model of recovery in personality disorder; and (3) evaluate the contribution of the setting (The Haven) to recovery practice. The study uses a Participatory Action Research (PAR) design. Data was collected from 66 participants by focus groups and individual interviews. A map based on thematic analysis of data collected during the study is proposed of the recovery journey for people with this diagnosis, shown as a pyramid that represents a hierarchy of progress, from building trust through stages of recovery to social inclusion. The findings offer contributions to knowledge in terms of the service design and propose a new model of recovery in personality disorder. This is defined as a journey of small steps highlighting recovery as a process rather than a goal, leading to the emergence of the new concept of transitional recovery.

  15. Meta-analysis of field-saturated hydraulic conductivity recovery following wildland fire: Applications for hydrologic model parameterization and resilience assessment (United States)

    Ebel, Brian A.; Martin, Deborah


    Hydrologic recovery after wildfire is critical for restoring the ecosystem services of protecting of human lives and infrastructure from hazards and delivering water supply of sufficient quality and quantity. Recovery of soil-hydraulic properties, such as field-saturated hydraulic conductivity (Kfs), is a key factor for assessing the duration of watershed-scale flash flood and debris flow risks after wildfire. Despite the crucial role of Kfs in parameterizing numerical hydrologic models to predict the magnitude of postwildfire run-off and erosion, existing quantitative relations to predict Kfsrecovery with time since wildfire are lacking. Here, we conduct meta-analyses of 5 datasets from the literature that measure or estimate Kfs with time since wildfire for longer than 3-year duration. The meta-analyses focus on fitting 2 quantitative relations (linear and non-linear logistic) to explain trends in Kfs temporal recovery. The 2 relations adequately described temporal recovery except for 1 site where macropore flow dominated infiltration and Kfs recovery. This work also suggests that Kfs can have low hydrologic resistance (large postfire changes), and moderate to high hydrologic stability (recovery time relative to disturbance recurrence interval) and resilience (recovery of hydrologic function and provision of ecosystem services). Future Kfs relations could more explicitly incorporate processes such as soil-water repellency, ground cover and soil structure regeneration, macropore recovery, and vegetation regrowth.

  16. SUPRA - Enhanced upset recovery simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, E.; Ledegang, W.; Field, J.; Smaili, H.; Roza, M.; Fucke, L.; Nooij, S.; Goman, M.; Mayrhofer, M.; Zaichik, L.E.; Grigoryev, M.; Biryukov, V.


    The SUPRA research project - Simulation of Upset Recovery in Aviation - has been funded by the European Union 7th Framework Program to enhance the flight simulation envelope for upset recovery simulation. Within the project an extended aerodynamic model, capturing the key aerodynamics during and

  17. Generalised tetanus in a 2-week-old foal: use of physiotherapy to aid recovery. (United States)

    Mykkänen, A K; Hyytiäinen, H K; McGowan, C M


    A 2-week-old Estonian Draft foal presented with signs of severe generalised tetanus, recumbency and inability to drink. The suspected source of infection was the umbilicus. Medical treatment was administered, including tetanus antitoxin, antimicrobial therapy and phenobarbital to control tetanic spasms. In addition, an intensive physiotherapy program was carried out during the recovery period. Techniques designed for syndromes involving upper motor neuron spasticity in humans were applied. Exercises aimed at weight-bearing and mobility were executed with the help of a walking-frame. The foal made a complete recovery. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the use of physiotherapy in the treatment of tetanus in horses. © 2011 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2011 Australian Veterinary Association.

  18. Opening Doors to Recovery: Recidivism and Recovery Among Persons With Serious Mental Illnesses and Repeated Hospitalizations. (United States)

    Compton, Michael T; Kelley, Mary E; Pope, Alicia; Smith, Kelly; Broussard, Beth; Reed, Thomas A; DiPolito, June A; Druss, Benjamin G; Li, Charles; Lott Haynes, Nora


    Repeated hospitalizations and arrests or incarcerations diminish the ability of individuals with serious mental illnesses to pursue recovery. Community mental health systems need new models to address recidivism as well as service fragmentation, lack of engagement by local stakeholders, and poor communication between mental health providers and the police. This study examined the initial effects on institutional recidivism and measures of recovery among persons enrolled in Opening Doors to Recovery, an intensive, team-based community support program for persons with mental illness and a history of inpatient psychiatric recidivism. A randomized controlled trial of the model is underway. The number of hospitalizations, days hospitalized, and arrests (all from state administrative sources) in the year before enrollment and during the first 12 months of enrollment in the program were compared. Longitudinal trajectories of recovery-using three self-report and five clinician-rated measures-were examined. Analyses accounted for baseline symptom severity and intensity of involvement in the program. One hundred participants were enrolled, and 72 were included in the analyses. Hospitalizations decreased, from 1.9±1.6 to .6±.9 (precovery measures, and trajectories of improvement were apparent across the entire follow-up period. Opening Doors to Recovery holds promise as a new service approach for reducing hospital recidivism and promoting recovery in community mental health systems and is deserving of further controlled testing.

  19. JLAB Hurricane recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A. Hutton; D. Arenius; J. Benesch; S. Chattopadhyay; E. F. Daly; O. Garza; R. Kazimi; R. Lauzi; L. Merminga; W. Merz; R. Nelson; W. Oren; M. Poelker; P. Powers; J. Preble; V. Ganni; C. R. Reece; R. Rimmer; M. Spata; S. Suhring


    Hurricane Isabel, originally a Category 5 storm, arrived at Jefferson Lab on September 18, 2003 with winds of only 75 mph, creating little direct damage to the infrastructure. However, electric power was lost for four days allowing the superconducting cryomodules to warm up and causing a total loss of the liquid helium. The subsequent recovery of the cryomodules and the impact of the considerable amount of opportunistic preventive maintenance provides important lessons for all accelerator complexes, not only those with superconducting elements. The details of how the recovery process was structured and the resulting improvement in accelerator availability will be discussed in detail

  20. Self-Cleaning Boudouard Reactor for Full Oxygen Recovery from Carbon Dioxide (United States)

    Coutts, Janelle; Hintze, Paul E.; Muscatello, Anthony C.; Gibson, Tracy L.; Captain, James G.; Lunn, Griffin M.; Devor, Robert W.; Bauer, Brint; Parks, Steve


    Oxygen recovery from respiratory carbon dioxide is an important aspect of human spaceflight. Methods exist to sequester the carbon dioxide, but production of oxygen needs further development. The current International Space Station Carbon Dioxide Reduction System (CRS) uses the Sabatier reaction to produce water (and ultimately breathing air). Oxygen recovery is limited to 50 because half of the hydrogen used in the Sabatier reactor is lost as methane, which is vented overboard. The Bosch reaction, which converts carbon dioxide to oxygen and solid carbon is capable of recovering all the oxygen from carbon dioxide, and is the only real alternative to the Sabatier reaction. However, the last reaction in the cycle, the Boudouard reaction, produces solid carbon and the resulting carbon buildup will eventually foul the nickel or iron catalyst, reducing reactor life and increasing consumables. To minimize this fouling and increase efficiency, a number of self-cleaning catalyst designs have been created. This paper will describe recent results evaluating one of the designs.

  1. Post-tsunami beach recovery in Thailand: A case for punctuated equilibrium in coastal dynamics (United States)

    Switzer, Adam D.; Gouramanis, Chris; Bristow, Charles; Yeo, Jeffrey; Kruawun, Jankaew; Rubin, Charles; Sin Lee, Ying; Tien Dat, Pham


    A morpho-geophysical investigation of two beaches in Thailand over the last decade shows that they have completely recovered from the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami (IOT) without any human intervention. Although the beach systems show contrasting styles of recovery in both cases natural processes have reconstructed the beaches to comparable pre-tsunami morphologies in under a decade, demonstrating the existence of punctuated equilibrium in coastal systems and the resilience of natural systems to catastrophic events. Through a combination of remote sensing, field surveys and shallow geophysics we reconstruct the post-event recovery of beaches at Phra Thong Island, a remote, near pristine site that was severely impacted by the IOT. We identify periods of aggradation, progradation and washover sedimentation that match with local events including a storm in November 2007. The rapid recovery of these systems implies that majority of sediment scoured by the tsunami was not transported far offshore but remained in the littoral zone within reach of fair-weather waves that returned it (the sediment) to the beach naturally.

  2. Enhanced Recovery in Thoracic Surgery: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna D. Dinic


    Full Text Available The main goal of enhanced recovery program after thoracic surgery is to minimize stress response, reduce postoperative pulmonary complications, and improve patient outcome, which will in addition decrease hospital stay and reduce hospital costs. As minimally invasive technique, video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery represents an important element of enhanced recovery program in thoracic surgery. Anesthetic management during preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative period is essential for the enhanced recovery. In the era of enhanced recovery protocols, non-intubated thoracoscopic procedures present a step forward. This article focuses on the key elements of the enhanced recovery program in thoracic surgery. Having reviewed recent literature, the authors highlight potential procedures and techniques that might be incorporated into the program.

  3. Efficient cryopreservation of human pluripotent stem cells by surface-based vitrification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neubauer, Julia C; Beier, Axel F; Geijsen, Niels; Zimmermann, Heiko


    Efficient cryopreservation of human stem cells is crucial for guaranteeing a permanent supply of high-quality cell material for drug discovery or regenerative medicine. Conventionally used protocols usually employing slow freezing rates, however, result in low recovery rates for human pluripotent

  4. Potential for uranium recovery at Nolans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soldenhoff, K.; Ho, E.


    The concentration of uranium in Nolans is higher than is typical of phosphate rock deposits worldwide. This requires appropriate management of the radioactivity during ore processing, but also provides an opportunity for recovery of uranium as a by-product. The recovery must be integrated into the rare earth process, which is the primary focus of the project. Furthermore, the separation of rare earths from the phosphate matrix and the recovery of phosphoric acid or other fertiliser products is also an important consideration. This paper discusses the various process options that are being considered for the development of a process for Nolans that integrates the recovery of phosphate values and uranium as by-products or rare earth processing

  5. Applied Nanotechnology for Human Space Exploration (United States)

    Yowell, Leonard L.


    A viewgraph presentation describing nanotechnology for human space exploration is shown. The topics include: 1) NASA's Strategic Vision; 2) Exploration Architecture; 3) Future Exploration Mission Requirements Cannot be met with Conventional Materials; 4) Nanomaterials: Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes; 5) Applied Nanotechnology at JSC: Fundamentals to Applications; 6) Technology Readiness Levels (TRL); 7) Growth, Modeling, Diagnostics and Production; 8) Characterization: Purity, Dispersion and Consistency; 9) Processing; 10) Nanoelectronics: Enabling Technologies; 11) Applications for Human Space Exploration; 12) Exploration Life Support: Atmosphere Revitalization System; 13) Advanced and Exploration Life Support: Regenerable CO2 Removal; 14) Exploration Life Support: Water Recovery; 15) Advanced Life Support: Water Disinfection/Recovery; 16) Power and Energy: Supercapacitors and Fuel Cells; 17) Nanomaterials for EMI Shielding; 18) Active Radiation Dosimeter; 19) Advanced Thermal Protection System (TPS) Repair; 20) Thermal Radiation and Impact Protection (TRIPS); 21) Nanotechnology: Astronaut Health Management; 22) JSC Nanomaterials Group Collaborations.

  6. Characterizing recovery of sleep after four successive night shifts. (United States)

    Kubo, Tomohide; Takahashi, Masaya; Tachi, Norihide; Takeyama, Hidemaro; Ebara, Takeshi; Inoue, Tatsuki; Takanishi, Toshimasa; Murasaki, Gen-i; Itani, Toru


    The purpose of this study was to characterize the recovery pattern of sleep following simulated, four successive night shifts in ten healthy men (22.9 + or - 3.2 yr). Poor sleep was defined as sleep efficiency of 80% or lower as determined actigraphically. The results showed that four (rapid, slow, pseudo, and incomplete) patterns of sleep recovery were observed over three recovery sleep periods. The rapid and slow recovery pattern represented immediate and slow return to baseline level prior to the nightshifts, respectively. The pseudo recovery pattern demonstrated poor sleep at the 3rd recovery sleep period, despite transient recovery at the 2nd sleep period. The incomplete recovery pattern was characterized by consistently poorer sleep during the entire recovery period. The correlation analysis indicated that sleep habits (bed time and variation of wake time) prior to the experiment were significantly related to the recovery patterns, rather than performance and alertness during the night shifts.

  7. 15 CFR 971.503 - Diligent commercial recovery. (United States)


    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL RECOVERY PERMITS Resource Development... expenditures for commercial recovery by the permittee, taking into account the size of the area of the deep... required to initiate commercial recovery of hard mineral resources within the time limit established by the...

  8. Three approaches for estimating recovery factors in carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery (United States)

    Verma, Mahendra K.


    PrefaceThe Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 authorized the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to conduct a national assessment of geologic storage resources for carbon dioxide (CO2) and requested the USGS to estimate the “potential volumes of oil and gas recoverable by injection and sequestration of industrial carbon dioxide in potential sequestration formations” (42 U.S.C. 17271(b)(4)). Geologic CO2 sequestration associated with enhanced oil recovery (EOR) using CO2 in existing hydrocarbon reservoirs has the potential to increase the U.S. hydrocarbon recoverable resource. The objective of this report is to provide detailed information on three approaches that can be used to calculate the incremental recovery factors for CO2-EOR. Therefore, the contents of this report could form an integral part of an assessment methodology that can be used to assess the sedimentary basins of the United States for the hydrocarbon recovery potential using CO2-EOR methods in conventional oil reservoirs.

  9. Heat recovery and seed recovery development project: preliminary design report (PDR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arkett, A. H.; Alexander, K. C.; Bolek, A. D.; Blackman, B. K.; Kurrle, P. E.; Tram, S. V.; Warren, A. M.; Ziobrowski, A. J.


    The preliminary design and performance characteristics are described of the 20 MWt heat recovery and seed recovery (HRSR) system to be fabricated, installed, and evaluated to provide a technological basis for the design of commercial size HRSR systems for coal-fired open-cycle MHD power plants. The system description and heat and material balances, equipment description and functional requirements, controls, interfacing systems, and operation and maintenance are detailed. Appendices include: (1) recommended environmental requirements for compliance with federal and state of Tennessee regulations, (2) channel and diffuser simulator, (3) equipment arrangement drawings, and (4) channel and diffuser simulator barrel drawings. (WHK)

  10. Functional Recovery After Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hart, Tessa; Kozlowski, Allan; Whyte, John


    recovery was best modeled with linear, cubic, and quadratic components: relatively steep recovery was followed by deceleration of improvement, which attenuated prior to discharge. Slower recovery was associated with older age, longer coma, and interruptions to rehabilitation. Patients admitted at lower...... multi-disciplinary teams were recorded daily in 15-minute units provided to patients and family members, separately. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Motor and Cognitive FIM measured on admission, discharge, and every 2 weeks in between, analyzed with Individual Growth Curve methodology. RESULTS: Inpatient...... functional levels received more treatment and more treatment was associated with slower recovery, presumably because treatment was allocated according to need. Thus, effects of treatment on outcome could not be disentangled from effects of case mix factors. CONCLUSIONS: FIM gain during inpatient recovery...

  11. Recovery from prolonged deep rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade: A randomized comparison of sugammadex reversal with spontaneous recovery. (United States)

    Rahe-Meyer, N; Berger, C; Wittmann, M; Solomon, C; Abels, E A M; Rietbergen, H; Reuter, D A


    Deep neuromuscular blockade (NMB) may not always be maintained to the end of surgery and the depth of block may be allowed to gradually diminish over time, particularly if reversal of NMB is not routinely performed. The current study aimed to assess recovery from deep rocuronium-induced NMB with sugammadex compared with placebo, provide data regarding the extent of residual blockade after deep rocuronium-induced NMB (placebo group), and to determine whether complete and reliable recovery could be provided by sugammadex (sugammadex group). This was a randomized, placebo-controlled, safety-assessor-blinded study in adult patients of American Society of Anesthesiologists Class I to III. Patients with clinically relevant kidney or liver insufficiency were excluded. Anesthesia was administered as routinely practiced at each study site. Rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg was administered for intubation, with maintenance doses of 0.1-0.2 mg/kg as needed. After the last rocuronium dose, at deep NMB (target depth 1-2 post-tetanic counts), patients received a single dose of sugammadex 4.0 mg/kg or placebo as randomized. The primary endpoint was time from sugammadex or placebo administration to recovery of the train-of-four (TOF) ratio to 0.9. Safety was assessed through monitoring of adverse events, vital signs and physical examination. Patients were also assessed for evidence of residual or recurrence of NMB. With this design, the study will provide data regarding the extent of residual blockade under these conditions (placebo group), and determine whether complete and reliable recovery could be provided by sugammadex (sugammadex group). Recovery to a TOF ratio of ≥ 0.9 with sugammadex was significantly faster (~ 40 times) than spontaneous recovery: geometric mean (95 % confidence interval) times were 2.2 (1.9-2.5) and 89.8 (80.1-100.7) min, respectively (p sugammadex, with median time to recovery > 1.5 h in the placebo group and one patient taking 4.8 h to achieve a

  12. Illness Insight and Recovery: How Important is Illness Insight in Peoples’ Recovery Process?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsbek, Lisa


    . Sources Used:The writing is based on research literature related to illness insight and on personal recovery experiences.Conclusions and Implications for Practice: It is helpful to consider the integration of the issue of illness insight when addressing the questions and consequences of diagnosis......Topic: This account reflects on the topic of illness insight and recovery. Purpose: The purpose of the account is to clarify our understanding about the importance of illness insight in peoples’ recovery process, especially when relating the question of illness insight to the question of identity......, and to assist individuals to work through the false analogy between illness and identity while supporting the transformation from patient to person. It is also necessary for clinicians to develop a clear understanding of peoples’ actual needs and gain more knowledge about peoples’ own views and experiences...

  13. Recovery methods for detection and quantification of Campylobacter depend on meat matrices and bacteriological or PCR tools. (United States)

    Fosse, J; Laroche, M; Rossero, A; Fédérighi, M; Seegers, H; Magras, C


    Campylobacter is one of the main causes of human foodborne bacterial disease associated with meat consumption in developed countries. Therefore, the most effective approach for recovery and detection of Campylobacter from meat should be determined. Two hundred ninety pork skin and chine samples were inoculated with Campylobacter jejuni NCTC 11168 and two strains of Campylobacter coli. Campylobacter cells were then recovered from suspensions and enumerated by direct plating. Campylobacter recovery was evaluated by comparing results for two methods of sample collection (swabbing and mechanical pummeling) and three recovery fluids (peptone water, 5% glucose serum, and demineralized water). End-point multiplex PCR was performed to evaluate the compatibility of the recovery fluids with direct PCR detection techniques. Mean recovery ratios differed significantly between pork skin and chine samples. Ratios were higher for mechanical pummeling (0.53 for pork skin and 0.49 for chine) than for swabbing (0.31 and 0.13, respectively). For pork skin, ratios obtained with peptone water (0.50) and with glucose serum (0.55) were higher than those obtained with demineralized water (0.16). Significant differences were not observed for chine samples. Direct multiplex PCR detection of Campylobacter was possible with pork skin samples. The tools for Campylobacter recovery must be appropriate for the meat matrix to be evaluated. In this study, less than 66% of inoculated Campylobacter was recovered from meat. This underestimation must be taken into account for quantitative risk analysis of Campylobacter infection.

  14. A theory for aftercare of human trafficking survivors for nursing practice in low resource settings. (United States)

    Curran, R L; Naidoo, J R; Mchunu, G


    Research on aftercare for human trafficking survivors highlights the limited knowledge of the needs of survivors; the evaluation of current aftercare; and the process of recovery navigated by the survivor in aftercare (Oram et al., 2012; Locke, 2010; Hacker & Cohen, 2012). Furthermore there has been a transition in aftercare where the victim or survivor, who before was seen as a passive victim of circumstance of their life and in need of therapeutic intervention, is now seen as having an active role in their recovery, thus facilitating recovery (Hacker & Cohen, 2012). The need for a theory grounded in survivor's voices therefore motivated this grounded theory study underpinned by Freire's (1970) Pedagogy of the oppressed. The aim of the theory is to inform nursing care of human trafficking survivors in low resource settings. The findings elicit a theoretical model of the renewed self, and the conditions that facilitate this process in care of human trafficking survivors. The recommendations of this paper may improve the nursing care provided to human trafficking survivors and equip nurses and other health professionals with the knowledge and skills to promote the renewing of human trafficking survivors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Automatic Camera Orientation and Structure Recovery with Samantha (United States)

    Gherardi, R.; Toldo, R.; Garro, V.; Fusiello, A.


    SAMANTHA is a software capable of computing camera orientation and structure recovery from a sparse block of casual images without human intervention. It can process both calibrated images or uncalibrated, in which case an autocalibration routine is run. Pictures are organized into a hierarchical tree which has single images as leaves and partial reconstructions as internal nodes. The method proceeds bottom up until it reaches the root node, corresponding to the final result. This framework is one order of magnitude faster than sequential approaches, inherently parallel, less sensitive to the error accumulation causing drift. We have verified the quality of our reconstructions both qualitatively producing compelling point clouds and quantitatively, comparing them with laser scans serving as ground truth.

  16. Study on tritium recovery from breeder materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriyama, H.; Moritani, K.


    For the development of fusion reactor blanket systems, some of the key issues on the tritium recovery performance of solid and liquid breeder materials were studied. In the case of solid breeder materials, a special attention was focussed on the effects of irradiation on the tritium recovery performance, and tritium release experiments, luminescence measurements of irradiation defects and modeling studies were systematically performed. For liquid breeder materials, tritium recovery experiments from molten salt and liquid lithium were performed, and the technical feasibility of tritium recovery methods was discussed. (author)

  17. Recovery in aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundlach, Carsten


    In the present thesis the development of a unique experimental method for volume characterisation of individual embedded crystallites down to a radius of 150 nm is presented. This method is applied to in-situ studies of recovery in aluminium. The method is an extension of 3DXRD microscopy, an X...... are represented as strings. To identify the strings a combination of a 5D connected component type algorithm and multi-peak fitting was found to be superior. The first use of the method was a study of recovery of a deformed aluminium alloy (AA1050). The aluminium alloy was deformed by cold rolling to a thickness...

  18. Towards understanding hydrophobic recovery of plasma treated polymers: Storing in high polarity liquids suppresses hydrophobic recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bormashenko, Edward; Chaniel, Gilad; Grynyov, Roman


    The phenomenon of hydrophobic recovery was studied for cold air plasma treated polyethylene films. Plasma-treated polymer films were immersed into liquids with very different polarities such as ethanol, acetone, carbon tetrachloride, benzene and carbon disulphide. Hydrophobic recovery was studied by measurement of contact angles. Immersion into high polarity liquids slows markedly the hydrophobic recovery. We relate this slowing to dipole–dipole interaction of polar groups of the polymer with those of the liquids. This kind of interaction becomes decisive when polar groups of polymer chains are at least partially spatially fixed.

  19. Predicting recovery from whiplash injury in the primary care setting. (United States)

    Ferrari, Robert


    The effect of expectation of recovery on the recovery rate of whiplash patients in the primary care setting is not known. Whiplash patients were assessed in a primary care setting within 1 week of their collision for their expectations of recovery and were re-examined 3 months later for recovery. Initial expectations of recovery predicted recovery. According to adjusted odds ratios, subjects who expected 'to get better slowly' had a recovery rate that was nearly 1.9 times that of subjects with poor recovery expectations. Subjects who expected 'to get better soon' had a recovery rate that was 2.6 times greater than either of those with poor recovery expectations. In the primary care setting, asking patients with whiplash about their expectations of recovery is a useful predictor of their outcome.

  20. 7 CFR 1493.130 - Recovery of losses. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recovery of losses. 1493.130 Section 1493.130...) Operations § 1493.130 Recovery of losses. (a) Notification. Upon payment of loss to the exporter or the... by CCC's Payment Guarantee: $4,668.55 Computation of Pro Rata Sharing in Recovery of Losses In...

  1. Transgenerational effects and recovery of microplastics exposure in model populations of the freshwater cladoceran Daphnia magna Straus. (United States)

    Martins, Alexandra; Guilhermino, Lúcia


    The environmental contamination by microplastics is a global challenge to ecosystem and human health, and the knowledge on the long-term effects of such particles is limited. Thus, the effects of microplastics and post-exposure recovery were investigated over 4 generations (F 0 , F 1 , F 2 , F 3 ) using Daphnia magna as model. Effect criteria were parental mortality, growth, several reproductive parameters, and population growth rate. Microplastics exposure (0.1mg/l of pristine polymer microspheres 1-5μm diameter) caused parental mortality (10-100%), and significantly (p≤0.05) decreased growth, reproduction, and population growth rate leading to the extinction of the microplastics-exposed model population in the F 1 generation. Females descending from those exposed to microplastics in F 0 and exposed to clean medium presented some recovery but up to the F 3 generation they still had significantly (p≤0.05) reduced growth, reproduction, and population growth rate. Overall, these results indicate that D. magna recovery from chronic exposure to microplastics may take several generations, and that the continuous exposure over generations to microplastics may cause population extinction. These findings have implications to aquatic ecosystem functioning and services, and raise concern on the long-term animal and human exposure to microplastics through diverse routes. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Recovery efter depression set fra et patientperspektiv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Stine Leegaard


    Abstract Background: It is argued that in the year 2020 depression will be one of the world's greatest health burdens. Object: The purpose of the study is to gain deeper knowledge of the depressive patient's experience of recovery from depression and to understand what effort this process require...... their integrity intact and the most important factor in the recovery process is the relationship to others. Keywords: major depressive disorder, patients’ perspective, qualitative research, recovery, social recovery......Abstract Background: It is argued that in the year 2020 depression will be one of the world's greatest health burdens. Object: The purpose of the study is to gain deeper knowledge of the depressive patient's experience of recovery from depression and to understand what effort this process requires...... phenomenological approach. Findings: Four main themes were identified: 1) Experience of change, 2) Loss of integrity, 3) Redefinition of identity and 4) Coping of the future. Conclusion: Depression changes the individual and no simple procedure can lead to recovery. The informants struggle with keeping...

  3. Fatigue and Recovery in Rugby: A Review. (United States)

    Tavares, Francisco; Smith, Tiaki Brett; Driller, Matthew


    The physical demands and combative nature of rugby lead to notable levels of muscle damage. In professional rugby, athletes only have a limited timeframe to recover following training sessions and competition. Through the implementation of recovery strategies, sport scientists, practitioners and coaches have sought to reduce the effect of fatigue and allow athletes to recover faster. Although some studies demonstrate that recovery strategies are extensively used by rugby athletes, the research remains equivocal concerning the efficacy of recovery strategies in rugby. Moreover, given the role of inflammation arising from muscle damage in the mediation of protein synthesis mechanisms, some considerations have been raised on the long-term effect of using certain recovery modalities that diminish inflammation. While some studies aimed to understand the effects of recovery modalities during the acute recovery phase (rugby training or competition. Given that cold modalities may potentially affect muscle size adaptations from training, their inclusion should be treated with caution and perhaps restricted to certain periods where athlete readiness is more important than increases in muscle size.

  4. Technology for recovery of byproducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tuyl, H.H.


    In this paper, a byproduct is considered to be any product from a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant other than the principal products of uranium and plutonium. Those which have been recovered on a large scale include: 237 Np, 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 85 Kr, 147 Pm, 241 Am, 244 Cm, and 144 Ce. Other byproducts which have been recovered in small amounts during development efforts are: Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, and Xe. This paper reviews the byproducts of interest, compares and contrasts byproduct recovery with waste management, describes current and past byproduct recovery operations, development status of alternative processes, and bases for selection among alternative processes in developing an integrated byproduct recovery plant

  5. The relation between work-induced neuroendocrine reactivity and recovery, subjective need for recovery, and health status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluiter, JK; Frings-Dresen, MHW; van der Beek, AJ; Meijman, TF

    Objectives: The purpose of this cross-sectional study with repeated measurements was to find out to what extent neuroendocrine reactivity during work and neuroendocrine recovery from work, and work characteristics, are related to subjective need for recovery and perceived health status. Methods:

  6. Recovery Following Bereavement: Metaphor, Phenomenology, and Culture (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Paul C.


    The concept of recovery following bereavement can be both useful and misleading. As a metaphor, the concept of recovery highlights some aspects of bereavement and obscures others. Bereaved people interviewed in 3 different studies typically did not bring up the term recovery so it did not seem to be a term that described their experience. Across…

  7. Incineration with energy recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, T.G.


    Motherwell Bridge Tacol Ltd. operate a 'Licence Agreement' with Deutsche Babcock Anlagen of Krefeld, West Germany, for the construction of Municipal Refuse Incineration plant and Industrial Waste plant with or without the incorporation of waste heat recovery equipment. The construction in the UK of a number of large incineration plants incorporating the roller grate incinerator unit is discussed. The historical background, combustion process, capacity, grate details, refuse analysis and use as fuel, heat recovery and costs are outlined.

  8. Recovery from Binge Eating Disorder (United States)

    Krentz, Adrienne; Chew, Judy; Arthur, Nancy


    The purpose of this study was to characterize the psychological processes of recovery from binge eating disorder (BED). A model was developed by asking the research question, "What is the experience of recovery for women with BED?" Unstructured interviews were conducted with six women who met the DSM-IV criteria for BED, and who were recovered…

  9. Toward Balance Recovery With Leg Prostheses Using Neuromuscular Model Control (United States)

    Geyer, Hartmut


    Objective Lower limb amputees are at high risk of falling as current prosthetic legs provide only limited functionality for recovering balance after unexpected disturbances. For instance, the most established control method used on powered leg prostheses tracks local joint impedance functions without taking the global function of the leg in balance recovery into account. Here we explore an alternative control policy for powered transfemoral prostheses that considers the global leg function and is based on a neuromuscular model of human locomotion. Methods We adapt this model to describe and simulate an amputee walking with a powered prosthesis using the proposed control, and evaluate the gait robustness when confronted with rough ground and swing leg disturbances. We then implement and partially evaluate the resulting controller on a leg prosthesis prototype worn by a non-amputee user. Results In simulation, the proposed prosthesis control leads to gaits that are more robust than those obtained by the impedance control method. The initial hardware experiments with the prosthesis prototype show that the proposed control reproduces normal walking patterns qualitatively and effectively responds to disturbances in early and late swing. However, the response to mid-swing disturbances neither replicates human responses nor averts falls. Conclusions The neuromuscular model control is a promising alternative to existing prosthesis controls, although further research will need to improve on the initial implementation and determine how well these results transfer to amputee gait. Significance This work provides a potential avenue for future development of control policies that help improve amputee balance recovery. PMID:26315935

  10. Recovery-Oriented Practice in Mental Health Inpatient Settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldemar, Anna Kristine; Arnfred, Sidse M; Petersen, Lone


    OBJECTIVE: Implementation of recovery-oriented practice has proven to be challenging, and little is known about the extent to which recovery-oriented principles are integrated into mental health inpatient settings. This review of the literature examined the extent to which a recovery......-oriented approach is an integrated part of mental health inpatient settings. METHODS: A systematic search (2000-2014) identified quantitative and qualitative studies that made explicit reference to the concept of recovery and that were conducted in adult mental health inpatient settings or that used informants from......, the United States, Australia, and Ireland were included. The results highlight the limited number of studies of recovery-oriented practice in mental health inpatient settings and the limited extent to which such an approach is integrated into these settings. Findings raise the question of whether recovery...

  11. Service Recovery Paradox In Indian Banking Industry: An Empirical Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunesh Garg


    Full Text Available The present study examines existence of service recovery paradox in Indian banking industry. The study is taken up in the tri-city of Chandigarh, Panchkula and Mohali. The respondents are catego- rized into failure and no-failure groups on the basis of their service experience. Failure group consti- tutes those respondents who have experienced service recovery, and has been further divided into five sub-groups ranging from service recovery++ (service recovery better than expected to service recovery- - (service recovery worse than expected. Service recovery paradox is examined by com- paring service recovery++ group with no-failure group. The study shows evidence for existence of service recovery paradox in relation to satisfaction. It has been concluded that for service recovery paradox to exist, recovery effort has to be exceptionally good and much better than expectation level of the customer. The study suggests that service managers should take service failure as an opportunity to appease customers by providing a much better than expected recovery experience. However, organizations should not plan to create service failure situations because if they falter on imparting the recovery, customer satisfaction may be influenced negatively.

  12. Age-Related Reduction of Recovery Sleep and Arousal Threshold in Drosophila (United States)

    Vienne, Julie; Spann, Ryanne; Guo, Fang; Rosbash, Michael


    Study Objectives: Physiological studies show that aging affects both sleep quality and quantity in humans, and sleep complaints increase with age. Along with knowledge about the negative effects of poor sleep on health, understanding the enigmatic relationship between sleep and aging is important. Because human sleep is similar to Drosophila (fruit fly) sleep in many ways, we addressed the effects of aging on sleep in this model organism. Methods: Baseline sleep was recorded in five different Drosophila genotypes raised at either 21°C or 25°C. The amount of sleep recovered was then investigated after a nighttime of sleep deprivation (12 h) and after chronic sleep deprivation (3 h every night for multiple nights). Finally, the effects of aging on arousal, namely, sensitivity to neuronal and mechanical stimuli, were studied. Results: We show that fly sleep is affected by age in a manner similar to that of humans and other mammals. Not only do older flies of several genotypes have more fragmented sleep and reduced total sleep time compared to young flies, but older flies also fail to recover as much sleep after sleep deprivation. This suggests either lower sleep homeostasis and/or a failure to properly recover sleep. Older flies also show a decreased arousal threshold, i.e., an increased response to neuronal and mechanical wake-promoting stimuli. The reduced threshold may either reflect or cause the reduced recovery sleep of older flies compared to young flies after sleep deprivation. Conclusions: Further studies are certainly needed, but we suggest that the lower homeostatic sleep drive of older flies causes their decreased arousal threshold. Citation: Vienne J, Spann R, Guo F, Rosbash M. Age-related reduction of recovery sleep and arousal threshold in Drosophila. SLEEP 2016;39(8):1613–1624. PMID:27306274

  13. Train-of-four ratio recovery often precedes twitch recovery when neuromuscular block is reversed by sugammadex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staals, L.M.; Driessen, J.J.; Egmond, J. van; Boer, H.D. de; Klimek, M.; Flockton, E.A.; Snoeck, M.M.J.


    BACKGROUND: Sugammadex reverses rocuronium-induced neuromuscular block (NMB). In all published studies investigating sugammadex, the primary outcome parameter was a train-of-four (TOF) ratio of 0.9. The recovery time of T1 was not described. This retrospective investigation describes the recovery of

  14. Ecosystem Considerations for Postdisaster Recovery: Lessons from China, Pakistan, and Elsewhere for Recovery Planning in Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan A. Mainka


    Full Text Available As the world joins forces to support the people of Haiti on their long road of recovery following the January 2010 earthquake, plans and strategies should take into consideration past experiences from other postdisaster recovery efforts with respect to integrating ecosystem considerations. Sound ecosystem management can both support the medium and long-term needs for recovery as well as help to buffer the impacts of future extreme natural events, which for Haiti are likely to include both hurricanes and earthquakes. An additional challenge will be to include the potential impacts of climate change into ecosystem management strategies.

  15. Prevalence and causes of abnormal PSA recovery. (United States)

    Lautenbach, Noémie; Müntener, Michael; Zanoni, Paolo; Saleh, Lanja; Saba, Karim; Umbehr, Martin; Velagapudi, Srividya; Hof, Danielle; Sulser, Tullio; Wild, Peter J; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Poyet, Cédric


    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test is of paramount importance as a diagnostic tool for the detection and monitoring of patients with prostate cancer. In the presence of interfering factors such as heterophilic antibodies or anti-PSA antibodies the PSA test can yield significantly falsified results. The prevalence of these factors is unknown. We determined the recovery of PSA concentrations diluting patient samples with a standard serum of known PSA concentration. Based on the frequency distribution of recoveries in a pre-study on 268 samples, samples with recoveries 120% were defined as suspect, re-tested and further characterized to identify the cause of interference. A total of 1158 consecutive serum samples were analyzed. Four samples (0.3%) showed reproducibly disturbed recoveries of 10%, 68%, 166% and 4441%. In three samples heterophilic antibodies were identified as the probable cause, in the fourth anti-PSA-autoantibodies. The very low recovery caused by the latter interference was confirmed in serum, as well as heparin- and EDTA plasma of blood samples obtained 6 months later. Analysis by eight different immunoassays showed recoveries ranging between PSA which however did not show any disturbed PSA recovery. About 0.3% of PSA determinations by the electrochemiluminescence assay (ECLIA) of Roche diagnostics are disturbed by heterophilic or anti-PSA autoantibodies. Although they are rare, these interferences can cause relevant misinterpretations of a PSA test result.

  16. Do psychological variables affect early surgical recovery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael N Mavros

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have examined the effect of psychological variables on surgical recovery, but no definite conclusion has been reached yet. We sought to examine whether psychological factors influence early surgical recovery. METHODS: We performed a systematic search in PubMed, Scopus and PsycINFO databases to identify studies examining the association of preoperative psychological variables or interventions with objectively measured, early surgical outcomes. RESULTS: We identified 16 eligible studies, 15 of which reported a significant association between at least one psychological variable or intervention and an early postoperative outcome. However, most studies also reported psychological factors not influencing surgical recovery and there was significant heterogeneity across the studies. Overall, trait and state anxiety, state anger, active coping, subclinical depression, and intramarital hostility appeared to complicate recovery, while dispositional optimism, religiousness, anger control, low pain expectations, and external locus of control seemed to promote healing. Psychological interventions (guided relaxation, couple support visit, and psychiatric interview also appeared to favor recovery. Psychological factors unrelated to surgical outcomes included loneliness, perceived social support, anger expression, and trait anger. CONCLUSION: Although the heterogeneity of the available evidence precludes any safe conclusions, psychological variables appear to be associated with early surgical recovery; this association could bear important implications for clinical practice. Large clinical trials and further analyses are needed to precisely evaluate the contribution of psychology in surgical recovery.

  17. Assessing the natural recovery of a lake contaminated with Hg using estimated recovery rates determined by sediment chronologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, Matthew J.; Long, David T.; Yohn, Sharon S.


    Research highlights: → Identifying the cause of Hg contamination via correlations to iron ore production. → Using Hg:Al ratio to show changes in pathway from a point to non-point source. → Overcoming challenges to age determination using event-based dating. → Using sediment cores to estimate recovery rates and identify arrested recovery. - Abstract: Deer Lake is an impoundment located near Ishpeming, Michigan, USA. Iron mining assay laboratories located in Ishpeming disposed of Hg salts to the city sewer whose outfall was located along an inlet to Deer Lake. An effort to remediate the system in the mid 1980s which consisted of drawing down water in the impoundment in order to volatize Hg from the sediments did not result in recovery of the system. Since the mid 1990s, the remediation strategy has been to allow the continual burial of the contaminated sediments, i.e., natural recovery. The goal of this study was to assess the effectiveness of this strategy. This was accomplished by investigating State of the system in terms of its recovery and estimating the time frame for recovery. Sediment cores were collected in 2000 to determine historical trends in accumulation rates and concentrations of Hg and other metals. Sedimentation rates and sediment ages were estimated using 210 Pb. Event-based dating (e.g., peak of 137 Cs in 1963) was used to supplement 210 Pb data due to non-monotonic features in the 210 Pb profile and activities that were not at supported levels at the base of the core. Selected results are that: (1) drawdown significantly influenced sedimentation patterns causing slopes for 210 Pb profiles that reflected the influx of older sediment, (2) periods of Fe production correlate to Hg loading indicating the point source for contamination, a relationship not previously identified, (3) Hg:Al ratios indicate a recent change to a watershed pathway for Hg loading and (4) Hg concentrations had decreased from their peak, remain elevated, and were

  18. Assessing the natural recovery of a lake contaminated with Hg using estimated recovery rates determined by sediment chronologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsons, Matthew J. [Michigan State University, Department of Geological Sciences, 206 Natural Science, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Long, David T., E-mail: [Michigan State University, Department of Geological Sciences, 206 Natural Science, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Yohn, Sharon S. [Juniata College, Raystown Field Station, Brumbaugh Academic Center, Huntingdon, PA 16652 (United States)


    Research highlights: {yields} Identifying the cause of Hg contamination via correlations to iron ore production. {yields} Using Hg:Al ratio to show changes in pathway from a point to non-point source. {yields} Overcoming challenges to age determination using event-based dating. {yields} Using sediment cores to estimate recovery rates and identify arrested recovery. - Abstract: Deer Lake is an impoundment located near Ishpeming, Michigan, USA. Iron mining assay laboratories located in Ishpeming disposed of Hg salts to the city sewer whose outfall was located along an inlet to Deer Lake. An effort to remediate the system in the mid 1980s which consisted of drawing down water in the impoundment in order to volatize Hg from the sediments did not result in recovery of the system. Since the mid 1990s, the remediation strategy has been to allow the continual burial of the contaminated sediments, i.e., natural recovery. The goal of this study was to assess the effectiveness of this strategy. This was accomplished by investigating State of the system in terms of its recovery and estimating the time frame for recovery. Sediment cores were collected in 2000 to determine historical trends in accumulation rates and concentrations of Hg and other metals. Sedimentation rates and sediment ages were estimated using {sup 210}Pb. Event-based dating (e.g., peak of {sup 137}Cs in 1963) was used to supplement {sup 210}Pb data due to non-monotonic features in the {sup 210}Pb profile and activities that were not at supported levels at the base of the core. Selected results are that: (1) drawdown significantly influenced sedimentation patterns causing slopes for {sup 210}Pb profiles that reflected the influx of older sediment, (2) periods of Fe production correlate to Hg loading indicating the point source for contamination, a relationship not previously identified, (3) Hg:Al ratios indicate a recent change to a watershed pathway for Hg loading and (4) Hg concentrations had decreased from

  19. Uranium accompanying recovery from copper ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golynko, Z.Sh.; Laskorin, B.N.


    In the search for new raw material sources for nuclear power engineering a review of the technique of uranium accompaning recovery from copper ores reprocessing products in some countries is presented. In the USA a sorption method of uranium extraction by means of strongly basic ion exchange resins from solutions upon copper case- hardening with subsequent extraction from eluates by solutions of tertiary amines is realized. Elution is realized with sulphuric acid. In South Africa an extraction reprocessing of gravitational concentrate extracted from copper sulphide flotation tailings is organized. In India the uranium extraction from copper ores flotation enrichment tailings is organized on a commerical scale. Presented are data on the scale of uranium recovery, various conditions of its recovery as well as block diagrams of the processes. It is shown that copper ores become an additional source of uranium recovery [ru

  20. Ionospheric behaviour during storm recovery phase (United States)

    Buresova, D.; Lastovicka, J.; Boska, J.; Sindelarova, T.; Chum, J.


    Intensive ionospheric research, numerous multi-instrumental observations and large-scale numerical simulations of ionospheric F region response to magnetic storm-induced disturbances during the last several decades were primarily focused on the storm main phase, in most cases covering only a few hours of the recovery phase following after storm culmination. Ionospheric behaviour during entire recovery phase still belongs to not sufficiently explored and hardly predictable features. In general, the recovery phase is characterized by an abatement of perturbations and a gradual return to the "ground state" of ionosphere. However, observations of stormy ionosphere show significant departures from the climatology also within this phase. This paper deals with the quantitative and qualitative analysis of the ionospheric behaviour during the entire recovery phase of strong-to-severe magnetic storms at middle latitudes for nowadays and future modelling and forecasting purposes.

  1. Strontium-90 and promethium-147 recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoisington, J.E.; McDonell, W.R.


    Strontium-90 and promethium-147 are fission product radionuclides with potential for use as heat source materials in high reliability, non-interruptible power supplies. Interest has recently been expressed in their utilization for Department of Defense (DOD) applications. This memorandum summarizes the current inventories, the annual production rates, and the possible recovery of Sr-90 and Pm-147 from nuclear materials production operations at Hanford and Savannah River. Recovery of these isotopes from LWR spend fuel utilizing the Barnwell Nuclear Fuels Plant (BNFP) is also considered. Unit recovery costs at each site are provided

  2. Compression and information recovery in ptychography (United States)

    Loetgering, L.; Treffer, D.; Wilhein, T.


    Ptychographic coherent diffraction imaging (PCDI) is a scanning microscopy modality that allows for simultaneous recovery of object and illumination information. This ability renders PCDI a suitable technique for x-ray lensless imaging and optics characterization. Its potential for information recovery typically relies on large amounts of data redundancy. However, the field of view in ptychography is practically limited by the memory and the computational facilities available. We describe techniques that achieve robust ptychographic information recovery at high compression rates. The techniques are compared and tested with experimental data.

  3. Functional neurologic recovery in two dogs diagnosed with severe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Vicky Bahr Arias


    Full Text Available Traumatic injuries to the vertebral column, spinal cord, and cauda equina nerve roots occur frequently in human and veterinary medicine and lead to devastating consequences. Complications include partial or complete loss of motor, sensory, and visceral functions, which are among the main causes of euthanasia in dogs. The present case report describes neurological functional recovery in two dogs that were treated surgically for severe spinal fracture and vertebral luxation. In the first case, a stray, mixed breed puppy was diagnosed with thoracolumbar syndrome and Schiff-Scherrington posture, as well as a T13 caudal epiphyseal fracture with 100% luxation between vertebrae T13 and L1; despite these injuries, the animal did show deep pain sensation in the pelvic limbs. Decompression through hemilaminectomy and spinal stabilization with vertebral body pins and bone cement were performed, and the treatment was supplemented with physiotherapy and acupuncture . In the second case, a mixed breed dog was diagnosed with a vertebral fracture and severe luxation between L6 and L7 after a vehicular trauma, but maintained nociception and perineal reflex. Surgical stabilization of the spine was performed using a modified dorsal segmental fixation technique Both patients showed significant recovery of neurological function. Complete luxation of the spinal canal observed radiographically does not mean a poor prognosis, and in some cases, motor, sensory, and visceral functions all have the potential for recovery. In the first case the determining factor for good prognosis was the presence of deep pain perception, and in the second case the prognosis was determined by the presence of sensitivity and anal sphincter tone during the initial neurological examination

  4. A recovery-based outreach program in rural Victoria. (United States)

    Prabhu, Radha; Browne, Mark Oakley


    A recovery-based outreach program for people with severe mental illness in regional Victoria is described. The paper covers a description of the program, the services provided and outcomes achieved. The program emphasized active collaboration between patients and clinicians as outlined in the collaborative recovery model and recognized that recovery from mental illness is an individual, personal process. The program provided service to 108 people over 3 years and had a positive impact on clinicians, patients and carers. The benefits of recovery orientation, multidisciplinary teams, collaborative relationships and carer involvement are discussed. The paper highlights the need for a focus on recovery and comprehensive care for people with severe mental illness.

  5. Recovery of neurofilament following early monocular deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy P O'Leary


    Full Text Available A brief period of monocular deprivation in early postnatal life can alter the structure of neurons within deprived-eye-receiving layers of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus. The modification of structure is accompanied by a marked reduction in labeling for neurofilament, a protein that composes the stable cytoskeleton and that supports neuron structure. This study examined the extent of neurofilament recovery in monocularly deprived cats that either had their deprived eye opened (binocular recovery, or had the deprivation reversed to the fellow eye (reverse occlusion. The degree to which recovery was dependent on visually-driven activity was examined by placing monocularly deprived animals in complete darkness (dark rearing. The loss of neurofilament and the reduction of soma size caused by monocular deprivation were both ameliorated equally following either binocular recovery or reverse occlusion for 8 days. Though monocularly deprived animals placed in complete darkness showed recovery of soma size, there was a generalized loss of neurofilament labeling that extended to originally non-deprived layers. Overall, these results indicate that recovery of soma size is achieved by removal of the competitive disadvantage of the deprived eye, and occurred even in the absence of visually-driven activity. Recovery of neurofilament occurred when the competitive disadvantage of the deprived eye was removed, but unlike the recovery of soma size, was dependent upon visually-driven activity. The role of neurofilament in providing stable neural structure raises the intriguing possibility that dark rearing, which reduced overall neurofilament levels, could be used to reset the deprived visual system so as to make it more ameliorable with treatment by experiential manipulations.

  6. Uranium recovery from AVLIS slag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Agostino, A.E.; Mycroft, J.R.; Oliver, A.J.; Schneider, P.G.; Richardson, K.L.


    Uranium metal for the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) project was to have been produced by the magnesiothermic reduction of uranium tetrafluoride. The other product from this reaction is a magnesium fluoride slag, which contains fine and entrained natural uranium as metal and oxide. Recovery of the uranium through conventional mill leaching would not give a magnesium residue free of uranium but to achieve more complete uranium recovery requires the destruction of the magnesium fluoride matrix and liberation of the entrapped uranium. Alternate methods of carrying out such treatments and the potential for recovery of other valuable byproducts were examined. Based on the process flowsheets, a number of economic assessments were performed, conclusions were drawn and the preferred processing alternatives were identified. (author)

  7. Instruments for measuring mental health recovery: a systematic review. (United States)

    Sklar, Marisa; Groessl, Erik J; O'Connell, Maria; Davidson, Larry; Aarons, Gregory A


    Persons in recovery, providers, and policymakers alike are advocating for recovery-oriented mental health care, with the promotion of recovery becoming a prominent feature of mental health policy in the United States and internationally. One step toward creating a recovery-oriented system of care is to use recovery-oriented outcome measures. Numerous instruments have been developed to assess progress towards mental health recovery. This review identifies instruments of mental health recovery and evaluates the appropriateness of their use including their psychometric properties, ease of administration, and service-user involvement in their development. A literature search using the Medline and Psych-INFO databases was conducted, identifying 21 instruments for potential inclusion in this review, of which thirteen met inclusion criteria. Results suggest only three instruments (25%) have had their psychometric properties assessed in three or more unique samples of participants. Ease of administration varied between instruments, and for the majority of instruments, development included service user involvement. This review updates and expands previous reviews of instruments to assess mental health recovery. As mental health care continues to transform to a recovery-oriented model of service delivery, this review may facilitate selection of appropriate assessments of mental health recovery for systems to use in evaluating and improving the care they provide. © 2013.

  8. The expression and proangiogenic effect of nucleolin during the recovery of heat-denatured HUVECs. (United States)

    Liang, Pengfei; Jiang, Bimei; Lv, Chunliu; Huang, Xu; Sun, Li; Zhang, Pihong; Huang, Xiaoyuan


    The present study aims to examine the expression patterns and roles of nucleolin during the recovery of heat-denatured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Deep partial thickness burn model in Sprague-Dawley rats and the heat denatured cell model (52°C, 35s) were used. The expression of nucleolin was measured using Western blot analysis and real-time PCR. Angiogenesis was assessed using in vitro parameters including endothelial cell proliferation, transwell migration assay, and scratched wound healing. Gene transfection and RNA interference approaches were employed to investigate the roles of nucleolin. Nucleolin mRNA and protein expression showed a time-dependent increase during the recovery of heat-denatured dermis and HUVECs. Heat-denaturation time-dependently promoted cell growth, adhesion, migration, scratched wound healing and formation of tube-like structures in HUVECs. These effects of heat denaturation on endothelial wound healing and formation of tube-like structures were prevented by knockdown of nucleolin, whereas over-expression of nucleolin increased cell growth, migration, and formation of tube-like structures in cultured HUVEC endothelial cells. In addition, we found that the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) increased during the recovery of heat-denatured dermis and HUVECs, and nucleolin up-regulated VEGF in HUVECs. The present study reveals that the expression of nucleolin is up-regulated, and plays a pro-angiogenic role during the recovery of heat-denatured dermis and its mechanism is probably dependent on production of VEGF. We find a novel and important pro-angiogenic role of nucleolin during the recovery of heat-denatured dermis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Coteaching Recovery to Mental Health Care Professionals. (United States)

    Larsen, Christine; Lange, Mads; Jørgensen, Kim; Kistrup, Kristen; Petersen, Lone


    In 2010, the Regional Council of the Capital Region of Denmark endorsed a vision of mental health services based on personal recovery, rehabilitation, and the involvement of caregivers. Programs to achieve this vision include hiring peer support workers, a Recovery College, and service user participation at the organizational level. This column describes a cornerstone of these initiatives-an education program in the recovery model for mental health professionals. In 2013-2014, the Capital Region implemented 148 workshops on recovery-oriented services for all practitioner staff in mental health services in the region. The workshops featured a coteaching model, with both a mental health professional and an individual with lived experience serving as trainers. This model showed promise and should be expanded, including more targeted training for specific services. Such an expansion could be included in a national strategy for user involvement and recovery-oriented practice set to launch in 2018.

  10. Nutrient and energy recovery from urine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuntke, P.


    Keywords: urine, urine treatment, nutrient recovery, microbial fuel cells, energy production from urine, membrane capacitive deionization.

    In conventional wastewater treatment plants large amounts of energy are required for the removal and recovery of nutrients (i.e. nitrogen and

  11. A qualitative approach to recovery after open tibial fracture: the road to a novel, patient-derived recovery scale. (United States)

    Trickett, R W; Mudge, Elizabeth; Price, Patricia; Pallister, Ian


    The aim of this study was to describe how patients perceive their recovery following open tibial fractures using a qualitative approach. Following the appropriate ethical approval, adult patients with a diagnosis of open tibial fracture were recruited after completion of their surgical treatment and discharge from Morriston Hospital, a centre with orthoplastic surgical care. A purposive sampling method was employed to ensure that a range of injuries as well as clinical outcomes were included. All patients took part in an in-depth semi-structured interview, exploring aspects of their injury, treatment, rehabilitation and psychosocial and financial situations. Interviews were completed with two interviewers present and were recorded for verbatim transcription. Interview transcripts were analysed to identify items important to patients during their recovery. Nine patients with a mean injury to interview interval of 2.3 years were interviewed. A total of 538 items were identified and subsequently mapped onto 18 categories: pain; mobility; flexibility; temperature (effects on symptoms); fear; appearance; sleep; diet/weight; employment; social; finance; impact on others; self-care; recovery (patient perceptions of recovery); frustration; goal setting (by patients and health-care providers); and adaptation (both physical and mental). There is a wide range of factors that our cohort found important during their recovery from open tibial fracture. Despite being considered as 'healed' by the medical staff, patients did not report a corresponding full recovery and return to pre-injury normality. The categories identified will enable the development of a patient-reported recovery scale to be used in lower-limb trauma. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Enhanced Glycogen Storage of a Subcellular Hot Spot in Human Skeletal Muscle during Early Recovery from Eccentric Contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Joachim; Farup, Jean; Rahbek, Stine Klejs


    Unaccustomed eccentric exercise is accompanied by muscle damage and impaired glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis during subsequent recovery. Recently, it was shown that the role and regulation of glycogen in skeletal muscle are dependent on its subcellular localization, and that glycogen synthe...

  13. What the Recovery Movement Tells Us About Prefigurative Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Beckwith


    Full Text Available The concept of prefigurative politics has re-emerged following recent worldwide uprisings, such as the Occupy movement, to which this concept has been applied. In applying a contemporary analysis to prefigurative politics, we explore the contribution of community-based recovery groups to the recovery movement, a socio-political movement in the fields of mental health and addiction treatment. We argue that collective action in recovery groups is derived from the formation of an opinion-based social identity and results in alternative approaches to unmet needs, creatively addressing these identified needs through the utilisation of personal, social and collective resources within an emerging recovery community. To illustrate our argument, we provide examples of community-based recovery groups and the approaches they use in addressing the identified needs of their recovery community. We conclude with an analysis of what community-based recovery groups and the wider recovery movement can contribute to a contemporary understanding of prefigurative politics.

  14. Recovery of PMOSFET NBTI under different conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Yan-Rong; Yang Yi; Cao Cheng; He Wen-Long; Zheng Xue-Feng; Hao Yue; Ma Xiao-Hua


    Negative bias temperature instability (NBTI) has become a serious reliability issue, and the interface traps and oxide charges play an important role in the degradation process. In this paper, we study the recovery of NBTI systemically under different conditions in the P-type metal–oxide–semiconductor field effect transistor (PMOSFET), explain the various recovery phenomena, and find the possible processes of the recovery. (paper)

  15. Recovery as a Lived Experience Discipline: A Grounded Theory Study. (United States)

    Byrne, Louise; Happell, Brenda; Reid-Searl, Kerry


    Recovery is government mandated and a core facet of mental health reform. However, Recovery implementation in this country (Australia) has been inhibited by a lack of education of, and understanding from, clinicians. A grounded theory study was undertaken to explore the potential and existing role of lived experience practitioners in assisting meaningful implementations of Recovery within the Australian mental health sector. In-depth interviews were conducted with 13 people employed to work from a lived experience perspective. The findings suggest participants have experienced and observed significant barriers to the implementation of Recovery-focused practice while operating in lived experience roles. Three main issues emerged: (1) Recovery co-opted, (2) Recovery uptake, and (3) Recovery denial. For a genuine Recovery-focused mental health system to be developed, lived experience practitioners must be enabled to take their role as Recovery experts and leaders. Lived experience practitioners are the logical leaders of Recovery implementation due to their own internal experience and understandings of Recovery and the wider lived experience movement's development and championing of the concepts.

  16. Mechanisms involved in the differential recovery of CD4 and CD8 T-lymphocytes after local irradiation in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Ruysscher, D; Waer, M.; Vandeputte, M.; Van der Schueren, E.


    The mechanisms involved in the differential recovery of CD4 (helper/inducer phenotype) and CD8 (Cytotoxic/suppressor phenotype) T-lymphocytes after fractionated local irradiation were investigated. In mice, a better recovery of CD4 cells than of CD8 cells was found, while the reverse has been described in humans. Differences in radiosensivitity between CD4 and CD8 mouse splenocytes could not be found. No sequestration of CD8 cells in irradiated tissues could be demonstrated. Irradiation of the thymus did not influence the observed immune changes. Altered thymic production of CD4 and CD8 cells could be excluded by intrathymic injection of FITC (fluorescein isothiocyanate). Hindlimb and tail irradiation did suggest that the differential recovery of CD4 and CD8 T-lymphocytes after local irradiation is determined by extrathymic factors in man and mice, and that the observed differences in immune recovery between man and mice are due to defective thymic function in the former and normal function in the latter. (author). 12 refs.; 5 figs.; 2 tabs

  17. Ventilation with heat recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend


    This paper presents the experiences from the use of ventilation with heat recovery in several experimental single-family houses developed and built within the last four years to meet the new Danish energy requirements of 2005. Included are descriptions of the ventilation system components...... and the main functional demands as well as measurements of the thermal efficiency, electricity consumptions and building air tightness. The paper addresses the aspects of minimizing the heat loss from the duct system and the heat recovery unit (when placed in an unheated attic space) in order to obtain...

  18. Hurricane Sandy, Disaster Preparedness, and the Recovery Model. (United States)

    Pizzi, Michael A


    Hurricane Sandy was the second largest and costliest hurricane in U.S. history to affect multiple states and communities. This article describes the lived experiences of 24 occupational therapy students who lived through Hurricane Sandy using the Recovery Model to frame the research. Occupational therapy student narratives were collected and analyzed using qualitative methods and framed by the Recovery Model. Directed content and thematic analysis was performed using the 10 components of the Recovery Model. The 10 components of the Recovery Model were experienced by or had an impact on the occupational therapy students as they coped and recovered in the aftermath of the natural disaster. This study provides insight into the lived experiences and recovery perspectives of occupational therapy students who experienced Hurricane Sandy. Further research is indicated in applying the Recovery Model to people who survive disasters. Copyright © 2015 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  19. Targeted Delivery of TrkB Receptor to Phrenic Motoneurons Enhances Functional Recovery of Rhythmic Phrenic Activity after Cervical Spinal Hemisection (United States)

    Gransee, Heather M.; Zhan, Wen-Zhi; Sieck, Gary C.; Mantilla, Carlos B.


    Progressive recovery of rhythmic phrenic activity occurs over time after a spinal cord hemisection involving unilateral transection of anterolateral funiculi at C2 (SH). Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) acting through its full-length tropomyosin related kinase receptor subtype B (TrkB.FL) contributes to neuroplasticity after spinal cord injury, but the specific cellular substrates remain unclear. We hypothesized that selectively targeting increased TrkB.FL expression to phrenic motoneurons would be sufficient to enhance recovery of rhythmic phrenic activity after SH. Several adeno-associated virus (AAV) serotypes expressing GFP were screened to determine specificity for phrenic motoneuron transduction via intrapleural injection in adult rats. GFP expression was present in the cervical spinal cord 3 weeks after treatment with AAV serotypes 7, 8, and 9, but not with AAV2, 6, or rhesus-10. Overall, AAV7 produced the most consistent GFP expression in phrenic motoneurons. SH was performed 3 weeks after intrapleural injection of AAV7 expressing human TrkB.FL-FLAG or saline. Delivery of TrkB.FL-FLAG to phrenic motoneurons was confirmed by FLAG protein expression in the phrenic motor nucleus and human TrkB.FL mRNA expression in microdissected phrenic motoneurons. In all SH rats, absence of ipsilateral diaphragm EMG activity was confirmed at 3 days post-SH, verifying complete interruption of ipsilateral descending drive to phrenic motoneurons. At 14 days post-SH, all AAV7-TrkB.FL treated rats (n = 11) displayed recovery of ipsilateral diaphragm EMG activity compared to 3 out of 8 untreated SH rats (pphrenic motoneurons is sufficient to enhance recovery of ipsilateral rhythmic phrenic activity after SH, indicating that selectively targeting gene expression in spared motoneurons below the level of spinal cord injury may promote functional recovery. PMID:23724091

  20. Surviving ICU: Stories of recovery. (United States)

    Ewens, Beverley A; Hendricks, Joyce M; Sundin, Deborah


    The aim of this study was to investigate stories of recovery through the lens of intensive care unit (ICU) survivors. Survival from ICUs is increasing, as are associated physical and psychological complications. Despite the significant impact on survivors, there is inadequate support provision in Australia and world-wide for this population. An interpretive biographical approach of intensive care survivors' experiences of recovery. Data were collected during 2014-2015 from diaries, face to face interviews, memos and field notes. Six participants diarized for 3 months commencing 2 months after hospital discharge. At 5 months, participants were interviewed about the content of their diaries and symbols and signifiers in them to create a shared meaning. Analysis of diaries and interviews were undertaken using two frameworks to identify themes throughout participants' stories and provides a unique portrait of recovery through their individual lens. Participants considered their lives had irreparably changed and yet felt unsupported by a healthcare system that had "saved" them. This view through their lens identified turmoil, which existed between their surface and inner worlds as they struggled to conform to what recovery "should be". The novel biographical methods provided a safe and creative way to reveal survivors' inner thoughts and feelings. Participants' considered creating their stories supported their recovery process and in particular enabled them to reflect on their progress. Findings from this study may lead to increased awareness among health care providers about problems survivors face and improved support services more broadly, based on frameworks appropriate for this population. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Thermal recovery characteristics of Kori-unit 1 linde 80 weld

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, S. H.; Hong, J. H.; Kuk, I. H.; Kim, I. S.


    The recovery activation energy, the order of reaction and the characteristic recovery rate constant were determined by isochronal (573K -823K) and isothermal (723K - 775K) annealing experiments on specimens made from a broken half of a Kori-Unit 1 surveillance weld specimen (fluence: 1.21 x 10 23 n/m 2 , E (1MeV, Cu: 0.29 wt%) to investigate the recovery characteristics of a high copper weld of neutron-irradiated reactor pressure vessel (RPV). Vickers microhardness tests were conducted to trace the recovery behavior after heat treatments. The results were analyzed in terms of recovery stages, behavior of responsible defects and recovery kinetics. It was shown that recovery occurred through two annealing stages (stage I: 673K - 753K, stage II: 753K - 823K) with recovery activation energies of 2.68 eV and 2.83 eV for stage I and II, respectively. The isothermal hardness recovery at 723 K and 775 K coincided with the ratio of the characteristic rate constant for each recovery stage. The order of reaction was 2 for both recovery stages. The recovery activation energies of present specimens are approximately equal to that of copper diffusion in α-iron in the presence of vacancies, suggesting that recovery may occur through the diffusion of copper atoms. The present results strongly support the copper precipitate coarsening model. (author)

  2. Therapeutic intraspinal stimulation to generate activity and promote long-term recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E. Mondello


    Full Text Available Neuroprosthetic approaches have tremendous potential for the treatment of injuries to the brain and spinal cord by inducing appropriate neural activity in otherwise disordered circuits. Substantial work has demonstrated that stimulation applied to both the central and peripheral nervous system leads to immediate and in some cases sustained benefits after injury. Here we focus on cervical intraspinal microstimulation (ISMS as a promising method of activating the spinal cord distal to an injury site, either to directly produce movements or more intriguingly to improve subsequent volitional control of the paretic extremities. Incomplete injuries to the spinal cord are the most commonly observed in human patients, and these injuries spare neural tissue bypassing the lesion that could be influenced by neural devices to promote recovery of function. In fact, recent results have demonstrated that therapeutic ISMS leads to modest but sustained improvements in forelimb function after an incomplete spinal cord injury. This therapeutic spinal stimulation may promote long-term recovery of function by providing the necessary electrical activity needed for neuron survival, axon growth, and synaptic stability.

  3. Lesion mapping in acute stroke aphasia and its implications for recovery. (United States)

    Forkel, Stephanie J; Catani, Marco


    Patients with stroke lesions offer a unique window into understanding human brain function. Studying stroke lesions poses several challenges due to the complexity of the lesion anatomy and the mechanisms causing local and remote disruptions on brain networks. In this prospective longitudinal study, we compare standard and advanced approaches to white matter lesion mapping applied to acute stroke patients with aphasia. Eighteen patients with acute left hemisphere stroke were recruited and scanned within two weeks from symptom onset. Aphasia assessment was performed at baseline and six-month follow-up. Structural and diffusion MRI contrasts indicated an area of maximum overlap in the anterior external/extreme capsule with diffusion images showing a larger overlap extending into posterior perisylvian regions. Predictors of recovery included damage to ipsilesional tracts (as shown by both structural and diffusion images) and contralesional tracts (as shown by diffusion images only). These findings indicate converging results from structural and diffusion lesions mapping analysis but clear differences between the two approaches in their ability to identify predictors of recovery. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Recovery of uranium mineral concentrate from copper tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakravarty, S.; Tewari, U.K.; Beri, K.K.


    Based on the studies conducted on the samples of copper tailings from Surda Copper Concentrator plant, wet concentrating table (Diaster Diagonal Deck) was found most suitable for recovering uranium mineral concentrate. Based on this technique, uranium recovery plants were set up at Surda, Rakha and Mosabani. The recoveries obtained from Surda Uranium Recovery Plant and Rakha Uranium Recovery Plant were in the range of 40-50%. But in Mosaboni Uranium Recovery Plant which is treating copper tailings from Mosaboni Copper Concentrator Plant, the biggest concentrator plant processing nearly 2,700 MT/day of copper ore, the recovery by wet concentrating tables was found to be around 22%. Low recovery was mainly due to low concentration of uranium in ore and as well as more percentage of uranium distribution in fines which tables were unable to recover. Studies were done to recover uranium mineral concentrate from the fines with new set of equipment viz. Curved Static Screen/Bartles Mozley Separator/Cross Belt Concentrator. This gave an improvement of 14-16% only. Studies by low acid leaching in chemical process side have shown that an overall recovery of 68% can be achieved. Though the chemical process is best as far as recovery is concerned but there are several constraints. The major constraint is pertaining to environmental and pollution control. Depending on the results of studies to overcome the constraints decision for the process to be adopted will be taken up and executed. The test results and plant performance data have also been included in the paper. (author). 8 figs., 11 tabs., 1 appendix


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gherardi


    Full Text Available SAMANTHA is a software capable of computing camera orientation and structure recovery from a sparse block of casual images without human intervention. It can process both calibrated images or uncalibrated, in which case an autocalibration routine is run. Pictures are organized into a hierarchical tree which has single images as leaves and partial reconstructions as internal nodes. The method proceeds bottom up until it reaches the root node, corresponding to the final result. This framework is one order of magnitude faster than sequential approaches, inherently parallel, less sensitive to the error accumulation causing drift. We have verified the quality of our reconstructions both qualitatively producing compelling point clouds and quantitatively, comparing them with laser scans serving as ground truth.

  6. Actinide recovery from waste and low-grade sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navratil, J.D.; Schulz, W.W.


    Actinide and nuclear fuel cycle operations generate a variety of process waste streams. New methods are needed to remove and recover actinides. More interest is also being expressed in recovering uranium from oceans, phosphoric acid, and other low grade sources. To meet the need for an up-to-date status report in the area of actinide recovery from waste and low grade sources, these papers were brought together. The papers provide an authoritative, in-depth coverage of an important area of nuclear and industrial and engineering chemistry which cover the following topics: uranium recovery from oceans and phosphoric acid; recovery of actinides from solids and liquid wastes; plutonium scrap recovery technology; and other new developments in actinide recovery processes

  7. A Factor Analytic Investigation of the Person-in-Recovery and Provider Versions of the Revised Recovery Self-Assessment (RSA-R). (United States)

    Konkolÿ Thege, Barna; Ham, Elke; Ball, Laura C


    Recovery is understood as living a life with hope, purpose, autonomy, productivity, and community engagement despite a mental illness. The aim of this study was to provide further information on the psychometric properties of the Person-in-Recovery and Provider versions of the Revised Recovery Self-Assessment (RSA-R), a widely used measure of recovery orientation. Data from 654 individuals were analyzed, 519 of whom were treatment providers (63.6% female), while 135 were inpatients (10.4% female) of a Canadian tertiary-level psychiatric hospital. Confirmatory and exploratory techniques were used to investigate the factor structure of both versions of the instrument. Results of the confirmatory factor analyses showed that none of the four theoretically plausible models fit the data well. Principal component analyses could not replicate the structure obtained by the scale developers either and instead resulted in a five-component solution for the Provider and a four-component solution for the Person-in-Recovery version. When considering the results of a parallel analysis, the number of components to retain dropped to two for the Provider version and one for the Person-in-Recovery version. We can conclude that the RSA-R requires further revision to become a psychometrically sound instrument for assessing recovery-oriented practices in an inpatient mental health-care setting.

  8. Recovery and recrystallization of U3Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caillibot, P.F.; Wyatt, B.S.


    The recovery and recrystallization temperatures of U 3 Si were determined for an alloy of uranium-3.98 wt% silicon containing 600 ppm carbon. Small specimens, deformed by compression, were isothermally and isochronally annealed at temperatures between 350 and 700 o C and their recovery and recrystallization temperatures determined using hardness, grain size and X-ray measurements. For small amounts of strain and an annealing time of 6 hours both recovery and recrystallization begin at 400-450 o C. Complete recrystallization is achieved at 650-700 o C. The effect of small changes in silicon and carbon concentration were determined by examining two further alloys containing 3.27 wt% silicon and 600 ppm carbon, and 4.02 wt% silicon and 140 ppm carbon respectively. A small change in silicon concentration does not affect recovery and recrystallization but decreasing the carbon concentration from 600 to 140 ppm decreases the recovery and recrystallization temperatures. (author)

  9. On the mechanism of rapid postirradiation recovery of yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glazunov, A.V.; Kapul'tsevich, Yu.G.


    Rapid postirradiation recovery of diploid yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is equally effective both in water and in a liquid nutrition medium. In the haploid strains, rapid recovery occurs more readily in the log phase than in the stationary phase of growth. In the diploid strains, rapid recovery is more effective in the log phase than in the stationary phase. Rapid recovery of yeast does not require an additional protein synthesis. Damages induced by UV-light are not sub ected to rapid recovery

  10. Tertiary recovery and tritide injection equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Lin


    The exploitation of an oil field is a continously developing process, undergoing seveal stages, such as the low production, the high production, the stable production and the decline. The tertiary recovery is an important means of the enhanced oil recovery. Since the object of the tertiary recovery is to treat the oil in micropores which is difficult to be produced, it is more necessary to know further the reservoir. Tritide can be used as a tracer and is an ideal marker of knowing the reservoir and the state of the fluid movement. The paper presents the tritide injection equipment

  11. Recovery of light nonaqueous-phase liquids without groundwater pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markley, D.E.; Prince-Larsen, N.


    This paper outlines recovery of light nonaqueous-phase liquids (LNAPL) encountered in the subsurface at a remote natural gas facility. Remediation of LNAPL in the subsurface usually begins with dual pumping of LNAPL and groundwater. However, regulations required that only LNAPL be recovered. Methods were sought for recovering LNAPL from groundwater without pumping groundwater to the surface. Alternative methods of LNAPL recovery, using a variety of skimming pumps, included: LNAPL recovery from large-diameter wells; LNAPL recovery from trenches; LNAPL recovery from small-diameter wells; and vacuum-enhanced recovery of LNAPL while skimming with a belt skimmer. Based on the goals of the site owner and the costs associated with each alternative examined, the recommended method for recovering LNAPL without groundwater pumping was recovery of LNAPL while skimming with a belt skimmer. This paper discusses both the advantages and limitations of this technique

  12. Recovery outcomes of schizophrenia patients treated with paliperidone palmitate in a community setting: patient and provider perspectives on recovery. (United States)

    Williams, Wesley; McKinney, Christopher; Martinez, Larry; Benson, Carmela


    This study evaluated the effect of paliperidone palmitate long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotic on recovery-oriented mental health outcomes from the perspective of healthcare providers and patients during the treatment of patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders. Archival data for patients with a primary diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder receiving ≥6 months of paliperidone palmitate LAI were retrieved from the electronic medical records system at the Mental Health Center of Denver. Mental health recovery was assessed from both a provider's (Recovery Markers Inventory [RMI]) and patient's (Consumer Recovery Measure [CRM]) perspective. A three-level hierarchical linear model (HLM) was utilized to determine changes in CRM and RMI scores by including independent variables in the models: intercept, months from treatment (slope), treatment time period (pretreatment and treatment), age, gender, primary diagnosis, substance abuse diagnosis, concurrent medications, and adherence to paliperidone palmitate LAI. A total of 219 patients were identified and included in the study. Results of the final three-level HLMs indicated an overall increase in CRM scores (p a retrospective, non-comparative design, and did not adjust for multiplicity Conclusions: The current study demonstrates that changes in recovery-oriented mental health outcomes can be detected following the administration of a specific antipsychotic treatment in persons with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders. Furthermore, patients receiving paliperidone palmitate LAI can effectively improve recovery-oriented outcomes, thereby supporting the drug's use as schizophrenia treatment from a recovery-oriented perspective.

  13. Defining recovery in chronic fatigue syndrome: a critical review. (United States)

    Adamowicz, Jenna L; Caikauskaite, Indre; Friedberg, Fred


    In chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), the lack of consensus on how recovery should be defined or interpreted has generated controversy and confusion. The purpose of this paper was to systematically review, compare, and evaluate the definitions of recovery reported in the CFS literature and to make recommendations about the scope of recovery assessments. A search was done using the MEDLINE, PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and Cochrane databases for peer review papers that contained the search terms "chronic fatigue syndrome" and "recovery," "reversal," "remission," and/or "treatment response." From the 22 extracted studies, recovery was operationally defined by reference with one or more of these domains: (1) pre-morbid functioning; (2) both fatigue and function; (3) fatigue (or related symptoms) alone; (4) function alone; and/or (5) brief global assessment. Almost all of the studies measuring recovery in CFS did so differently. The brief global assessment was the most common outcome measure used to define recovery. Estimates of recovery ranged from 0 to 66 % in intervention studies and 2.6 to 62 % in naturalistic studies. Given that the term "recovery" was often based on limited assessments and less than full restoration of health, other more precise and accurate labels (e.g., clinically significant improvement) may be more appropriate and informative. In keeping with common understandings of the term recovery, we recommend a consistent definition that captures a broad-based return to health with assessments of both fatigue and function as well as the patient's perceptions of his/her recovery status.

  14. Polar ecosystem dynamics: recovery of communities from organic enrichment in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. (United States)

    Kim, Stacy; Hammerstom, Kamille K; Conlan, Kathleen E; Thurber, Andrew R


    Community structure and diversity are influenced by patterns of disturbance and input of food. In Antarctica, the marine ecosystem undergoes highly seasonal changes in availability of light and in primary production. Near research stations, organic input from human activities can disturb the regular productivity regime with a consistent input of sewage. McMurdo Sound has both high-productivity and low-productivity habitats, thereby providing an ideal test bed for community recovery dynamics under polar conditions. We used experimental manipulations of the subtidal communities to test the hypotheses that (1) benthic communities respond differently to disturbance from organic enrichment versus burial and (2) community response also varies in areas with different natural patterns of food supply. Both in low- and high-food habitats, the strongest community response was to organic enrichment and resulted in dominance of typical organic-enrichment specialists. In habitats with highly seasonal productivity, community response was predictable and recovery was rapid. In habitats with low productivity, community variability was high and caging treatments suggested that inconsistencies were due to patchy impacts by scavengers. In areas normally subject to regular organic enrichment, either from primary production or from further up the food web (defecation by marine mammals), recovery of benthic communities takes only years even in a polar system. However, a low-productivity regime is as common in near shore habitats around the continent; under these conditions, recovery of benthic communities from disturbance is likely to be much slower and follow a variable ecological trajectory.

  15. Mobile vapor recovery and vapor scavenging unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokes, C.A.; Steppe, D.E.


    This patent describes a mobile anti- pollution apparatus, for the recovery of hydrocarbon emissions. It comprises a mobile platform upon which is mounted a vapor recovery unit for recovering vapors including light hydrocarbons, the vapor recovery unit having an inlet and an outlet end, the inlet end adapted for coupling to an external source of hydrocarbon vapor emissions to recover a portion of the vapors including light hydrocarbons emitted therefrom, and the outlet end adapted for connection to a means for conveying unrecovered vapors to a vapor scavenging unit, the vapor scavenging unit comprising an internal combustion engine adapted for utilizing light hydrocarbon in the unrecovered vapors exiting from the vapor recovery unit as supplemental fuel

  16. Theoretical modeling for optimizing horizontal production well placement in thermal recovery environments to maximize recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeois, D.J. [Schlumberger Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)


    Heavy oil has a high viscosity and a low API gravity rating. Since it is difficult to get a fluid of this nature to flow, enhanced oil recovery techniques are required to extract the oil from the reservoir. Thermal recovery strategies such as steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) and cyclic steam injection stimulation (CSS) can be used. These techniques involve injecting steam into a formation which heats up the fluid in place decreasing its viscosity and allowing it to flow into the producing well bore. In order to maximize hydrocarbon recovery from this type of geological environment, the placement of the horizontal production well bore relative to the base of the reservoir is important. In conventional oil and gas plays, well placement methods involving directional deep resistivity logging while drilling (DDR-LWD) measurements to map formation contacts while drilling have enabled wells to be placed relative to formation boundaries. This paper discussed a study that presented some theoretical resistivity inversion and forward modeling results generated from a three-dimensional geocellular model to confirm that this evolving DDR-LWD technology may be applicable to western Canada's Athabasca heavy oil drilling environments. The paper discussed the effect of well bore position, thermal recovery, and pro-active well placement. Resistivity modeling work flow was also presented. It was concluded that being able to drill a horizontal production well relative to the base of the formation could help minimize abandoned oil ultimately leading to better recovery. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  17. Interpellating recovery: The politics of 'identity' in recovery-focused treatment. (United States)

    Fomiatti, Renae; Moore, David; Fraser, Suzanne


    Much research tends to treat alcohol and other drug 'recovery' as a process of positive identity change and development. In this article, we depart from this dominant approach by examining how the social and material practices of alcohol and other drug treatment are themselves active in the constitution of 'recovery identity'. Using Judith Butler's theorisation of interpellation, we examine the accounts of treatment experiences and practices provided in interviews with people who inject drugs. In contrast to the existing literature, we argue that the 'recovering addict' is a socially produced category rather than a coherent psychological identity. We consider the production of this category in relation to three dynamics identified in the data: (1) the tendency to materialise treatment subjects as both disordered and as 'in control' of these disorders; (2) the production of treatment subjects as enmeshed in suspect social relationships and therefore requiring surveillance as well as social support; and (3) treatment's particular enactment of social context such that it erases stigmatisation and marginalisation and paradoxically performs subjects as entirely individually responsible for relinquishing drug use. These dynamics produce capacities and attributes often ascribed to identity but which are better understood as articulations of epistemological disorder in the state of knowledge about addiction, and its expression in treatment. By way of conclusion, we question the utility of 'recovery identity', conventionally defined, in providing a rationale for treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of hydrotherapy on recovery from fatigue. (United States)

    Vaile, J; Halson, S; Gill, N; Dawson, B


    The present study investigated the effects of three hydrotherapy interventions on next day performance recovery following strenuous training. Twelve cyclists completed four experimental trials differing only in 14-min recovery intervention: cold water immersion (CWI), hot water immersion (HWI), contrast water therapy (CWT), or passive recovery (PAS). Each trial comprised five consecutive exercise days of 105-min duration, including 66 maximal effort sprints. Additionally, subjects performed a total of 9-min sustained effort (time trial - TT). After completing each exercise session, athletes performed one of four recovery interventions (randomly assigned to each trial). Performance (average power), core temperature, heart rate (HR), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded throughout each session. Sprint (0.1 - 2.2 %) and TT (0.0 - 1.7 %) performance were enhanced across the five-day trial following CWI and CWT, when compared to HWI and PAS. Additionally, differences in rectal temperature were observed between interventions immediately and 15-min post-recovery; however, no significant differences were observed in HR or RPE regardless of day of trial/intervention. Overall, CWI and CWT appear to improve recovery from high-intensity cycling when compared to HWI and PAS, with athletes better able to maintain performance across a five-day period.

  19. Job demands-resources model in the context of recovery : Testing recovery experiences as mediators


    Kinnunen, Ulla; Feldt, Taru; Siltaloppi, Marjo; Sonnentag, Sabine


    The aim of the present study was to extend the original Job Demands– Resources (JD-R) model by taking into account recovery as an important mediation mechanism between work characteristics and well-being/ill-health. Specifically, we examined whether recovery experiences—strategies promoting recovery—might have a mediating role in the JD-R model among 527 employees from a variety of different jobs. The results showed that psychological detachment fully mediated the effects of job demands on fa...

  20. Multiple successional pathways in human-modified tropical landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Melo, Felipe P.L.; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Bongers, Frans; Chazdon, Robin L.; Meave, Jorge A.; Norden, Natalia; Santos, Bráulio A.; Leal, Inara R.; Tabarelli, Marcelo


    Old-growth tropical forests are being extensively deforested and fragmented worldwide. Yet forest recovery through succession has led to an expansion of secondary forests in human-modified tropical landscapes (HMTLs). Secondary forests thus emerge as a potential repository for tropical

  1. Biological opportunities for metal recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, D.S.; Debus, S.H.


    An overview is presented of existing biological technologies for the recovery of copper and uranium. Engineering and biological challenges and opportunities in these areas are discussed. New opportunities for the bio oxidation of refractory goal ore are described. Techniques for the development of new strains of microorganisms for commercial metal recovery applications are discussed with special reference to the use of genetic manipulation for bacterial strain improvement. (author)

  2. Recovery of silver from X-ray washings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begum, S.; Zeb, P.A.; Sharif, Q.


    This paper presents the enhanced recovery of silver from polymers and gelatin in X-ray washings by treating with activated carbon at different temperatures and optimizing the parameters as temperature, pH and acid base concentrations. It was found that at pilot scale silver recovery increased through treatment with activated carbon and in comparison to the temperature of 20 degree C, at 50 degree C, the recovery increased from 82.57% to 94.04%. (author)

  3. Economic/climate recovery scorecards. How climate friendly are the economic recovery packages?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoehne, N.; Eisbrenner, K.; Phylipsen, D.; Burck, J.; Van der Straeten, L.


    As global leaders head to the G20 summit to consider solutions to the current global economic crisis, a new report prepared by Ecofys and Germanwatch for WWF and E3G reveals that many of the economic recovery packages being discussed are a missed opportunity in terms of stimulating a green recovery, and actually run the risk of locking the world into a high-carbon future. The report provides the most detailed and comprehensive analysis to date of the proposed 'stimulus' packages of five key countries - France, Germany, Italy, the UK and the US - as well as the package agreed by the European Union as a whole.

  4. Sparse Vector Distributions and Recovery from Compressed Sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Bob L.

    It is well known that the performance of sparse vector recovery algorithms from compressive measurements can depend on the distribution underlying the non-zero elements of a sparse vector. However, the extent of these effects has yet to be explored, and formally presented. In this paper, I...... empirically investigate this dependence for seven distributions and fifteen recovery algorithms. The two morals of this work are: 1) any judgement of the recovery performance of one algorithm over that of another must be prefaced by the conditions for which this is observed to be true, including sparse vector...... distributions, and the criterion for exact recovery; and 2) a recovery algorithm must be selected carefully based on what distribution one expects to underlie the sensed sparse signal....

  5. The impact of acute stress on hormones and cytokines, and how their recovery is affected by music-evoked positive mood. (United States)

    Koelsch, Stefan; Boehlig, Albrecht; Hohenadel, Maximilian; Nitsche, Ines; Bauer, Katrin; Sack, Ulrich


    Stress and recovery from stress significantly affect interactions between the central nervous system, endocrine pathways, and the immune system. However, the influence of acute stress on circulating immune-endocrine mediators in humans is not well known. Using a double-blind, randomized study design, we administered a CO2 stress test to n = 143 participants to identify the effects of acute stress, and recovery from stress, on serum levels of several mediators with immune function (IL-6, TNF-α, leptin, and somatostatin), as well as on noradrenaline, and two hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hormones (ACTH and cortisol). Moreover, during a 1 h-recovery period, we repeatedly measured these serum parameters, and administered an auditory mood-induction protocol with positive music and a neutral control stimulus. The acute stress elicited increases in noradrenaline, ACTH, cortisol, IL-6, and leptin levels. Noradrenaline and ACTH exhibited the fastest and strongest stress responses, followed by cortisol, IL-6 and leptin. The music intervention was associated with more positive mood, and stronger cortisol responses to the acute stressor in the music group. Our data show that acute (CO2) stress affects endocrine, immune and metabolic functions in humans, and they show that mood plays a causal role in the modulation of responses to acute stress.

  6. Allogeneic transplantation of programmable cells of monocytic origin (PCMO) improves angiogenesis and tissue recovery in critical limb ischemia (CLI): a translational approach. (United States)

    Berndt, Rouven; Hummitzsch, Lars; Heß, Katharina; Albrecht, Martin; Zitta, Karina; Rusch, Rene; Sarras, Beke; Bayer, Andreas; Cremer, Jochen; Faendrich, Fred; Groß, Justus


    Employing growth factor-induced partial reprogramming in vitro, peripheral human blood monocytes can acquire a state of plasticity along with expression of various markers of pluripotency. These so-called programmable cells of monocytic origin (PCMO) hold great promise in regenerative therapies. The aim of this translational study was to explore and exploit the functional properties of PCMO for allogeneic cell transplantation therapy in critical limb ischemia (CLI). Using our previously described differentiation protocol, murine and human monocytes were differentiated into PCMO. We examined paracrine secretion of pro-angiogenic and tissue recovery-associated proteins under hypoxia and induction of angiogenesis by PCMO in vitro. Allogeneic cell transplantation of PCMO was performed in a hind limb ischemia mouse model in comparison to cell transplantation of native monocytes and a placebo group. Moreover, we analyzed retrospectively four healing attempts with PCMO in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD; Rutherford classification, stage 5 and 6). Statistical analysis was performed by using one-way ANOVA, Tukey's test or the Student's t test, p < 0.05. Cell culture experiments revealed good resilience of PCMO under hypoxia, enhanced paracrine release of pro-angiogenic and tissue recovery-associated proteins and induction of angiogenesis in vitro by PCMO. Animal experiments demonstrated significantly enhanced SO 2 saturation, blood flow, neoangiogenesis and tissue recovery after treatment with PCMO compared to treatment with native monocytes and placebo. Finally, first therapeutic application of PCMO in humans demonstrated increased vascular collaterals and improved wound healing in patients with chronic CLI without exaggerated immune response, malignant processes or extended infection after 12 months. In all patients minor and/or major amputations of the lower extremity could be avoided. In summary, PCMO improve angiogenesis and tissue recovery in chronic

  7. Lowering operation costs by energy recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegener, W; Hausmann, H; Hausmann, K H


    Heat recovery and the heat sources available as well as possible applications of the heat recovered are discussed. Groundwater, shower water and waste air are considered as energy sources. Energy recovery by means of finned-tube systems and the heat pump, and economic aspects of the techniques are described.

  8. 50 CFR 680.44 - Cost recovery. (United States)


    ...) Publication—(i) General. During the first quarter of each crab fishing year, NMFS shall calculate the crab fee... Management Measures § 680.44 Cost recovery. (a) Cost recovery fees—(1) Responsibility. The person documented... holder's liability for noncompliance with this section. (2) Fee liability determination. (i) All CR...

  9. Whole-body fluid distribution in humans during dehydration and recovery, before and after humid-heat acclimation induced using controlled hyperthermia. (United States)

    Patterson, M J; Stocks, J M; Taylor, N A S


    This experiment was designed to test the hypothesis that the plasma volume is not selectively defended during exercise- and heat-induced dehydration following humid-heat acclimation. Eight physically active males were heat acclimated (39.8 °C, relative humidity 59.2%) using 17 days of controlled hyperthermia (core temperature: 38.5 °C). Inter-compartmental fluid losses and movements were tracked (radioisotopes and Evans blue dye) during progressive dehydration (cycling) in these same conditions and also during a resting recovery without fluid replacement (28 °C), before (day 1), during (day 8) and after heat acclimation (day 22). On days 8 and 22, there were significant increases in total body water, interstitial fluid and plasma volume (P 0.05). The baseline plasma volume remained expanded throughout: 43.4 [±2.6 (day 1)], 49.1 [±2.4 (day 8); P recovery, plasma volume restoration commenced, with the intracellular fluid contribution becoming more pronounced as acclimation progressed. It is concluded that the plasma volume was not defended more vigorously following humid-heat acclimation. Indeed, a greater fluid loss may well underlie the mechanisms for enhancing plasma volume recovery when heat acclimation is induced using the controlled-hyperthermia technique. © 2013 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Co-production of the Service Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jannick Kirk


    In this paper we apply Dourish’ (2001) conceptual framework of embodied interaction on a ICT-centric service encounter, namely the use of the online self-service system for reporting of tax and tax reduction claims offered by the Danish tax authority. An expected short and straight-forward servic...... and the service recovery process, thereby informing the innovation and design of ICT-centric service encounters.......In this paper we apply Dourish’ (2001) conceptual framework of embodied interaction on a ICT-centric service encounter, namely the use of the online self-service system for reporting of tax and tax reduction claims offered by the Danish tax authority. An expected short and straight-forward service...... encounter developed in this case into to a two weeks long service journey involving several human and computer actors as the reason for the service failure (represented by a blank pop-up window instead of the expected online form) could not be found. The case, which is seen as paradigmatic is used to test...

  11. 'It’s Recovery United for Me': Promises and Pitfalls of Football as Part of Mental Health Recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magee, J.; Spaaij, R.; Jeanes, R.


    This paper builds on the concept of mental health recovery to critically examine three football projects in the United Kingdom and their effects on the recovery process. Drawing on qualitative research on the lived experiences of mental health clients and service providers across the three projects,

  12. NASA Medical Response to Human Spacecraft Accidents (United States)

    Patlach, Robert


    This slide presentation reviews NASA's role in the response to spacecraft accidents that involve human fatalities or injuries. Particular attention is given to the work of the Mishap Investigation Team (MIT), the first response to the accidents and the interface to the accident investigation board. The MIT does not investigate the accident, but the objective of the MIT is to gather, guard, preserve and document the evidence. The primary medical objectives of the MIT is to receive, analyze, identify, and transport human remains, provide assistance in the recovery effort, and to provide family Casualty Coordinators with latest recovery information. The MIT while it does not determine the cause of the accident, it acts as the fact gathering arm of the Mishap Investigation Board (MIB), which when it is activated may chose to continue to use the MIT as its field investigation resource. The MIT membership and the specific responsibilities and tasks of the flight surgeon is reviewed. The current law establishing the process is also reviewed.

  13. Molybdenite recovery by column flotation in the Byproduct Recovery Plant of UCIL, Jaduguda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, G.V.; Sastri, S.R.S.


    Molybdenite is recovered at Byproduct Recovery Plant (BRP) of Uranium Corporation of India Ltd., Jaduguda, from the bulk concentrate of copper, nickel and molybdenum by differential flotation using sodium sulphide as the depressant for copper, nickel and iron sulphide minerals in combination with sodium silicate, after five cleanings in mechanical cells. The eventual molybdenite concentrate assays between 35% Mo to 40% Mo. Column flotation studies on the same bulk concentrate at the plant site indicated that concentrate containing 44% Mo can be obtained in single stage with above 95% recoveries from a feed containing around 7% Mo, 16% Cu and 10% Ni. The column flotation studies with the sodium hydrogen sulphide in place of sodium sulphide also gave more or less the same results but the contamination of copper and nickel in the molybdenite concentrate is minimum in the product obtained with sodium sulphide. A single flotation column was found sufficient to replace five cleaning stages in mechanical cells in the lone commercial molybdenite recovery plant in the country. (author)

  14. Recovery of behavioral changes and compromised white matter in C57BL/6 mice exposed to cuprizone: Effects of antipsychotic drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyun eXu


    Full Text Available Recent animal and human studies have suggested that the cuprizone (CPZ, a copper chelator-feeding C57BL/6 mouse may be used as an animal model of schizophrenia. The goals of this study were to see the recovery processes of CPZ-induced behavioral changes and damaged white matter and to examine possible effects of antipsychotic drugs on the recovery processes. Mice were fed a CPZ-containing diet for five weeks then returned to normal food for three weeks, during which period mice were treated with different antipsychotic drugs. Various behaviors were measured at the end of CPZ-feeding phase as well as on the 14th and 21st days after CPZ-withdrawal. The damage to and recovery status of white matter in the brains of mice were examined. Dietary CPZ resulted in white matter damage and behavioral abnormalities in the elevated plus-maze, social interaction and Y-maze test. Elevated plus-maze performance recovered to normal range within two weeks after CPZ withdrawal. But, alterations in social interaction showed no recovery. Antipsychotics did not alter animals’ behavior in either of these tests during the recovery period. Altered performance in the Y-maze showed some recovery in the vehicle group; atypical antipsychotics, but not haloperidol, significantly promoted this recovery process. The recovery of damaged white matter was incomplete during the recovery period. None of the drugs significantly promoted the recovery of damaged white matter. These results suggest that CPZ-induced white matter damage and social interaction deficit may be resistant to the antipsychotic treatment employed in this study. They are in good accordance with the clinical observations that positive symptoms in schizophrenic patients respond well to antipsychotic drugs while social dysfunction is usually intractable.

  15. [Brain function recovery after prolonged posttraumatic coma]. (United States)

    Klimash, A V; Zhanaidarov, Z S


    To explore the characteristics of brain function recovery in patients after prolonged posttraumatic coma and with long-unconscious states. Eighty-seven patients after prolonged posttraumatic coma were followed-up for two years. An analysis of a clinical/neurological picture after a prolonged episode of coma was based on the dynamics of vital functions, neurological status and patient's reactions to external stimuli. Based on the dynamics of the clinical/neurological picture that shows the recovery of functions of the certain brain areas, three stages of brain function recovery after a prolonged episode of coma were singled out: brain stem areas, diencephalic areas and telencephalic areas. These functional/anatomic areas of brain function recovery after prolonged coma were compared to the present classifications.

  16. Further development of recovery boiler; Soodakattilan kehitystyoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janka, K.; Siiskonen, P.; Sundstroem, K. [Tampella Power Oy, Tampere (Finland)] [and others


    The global model of a recovery boiler was further developed. The aim is to be able to model the velocity, temperature and concentration fields in a boiler. At this moment the model includes submodels for: droplet drying, pyrolysis, char burning, gas burning and for droplet trajectory. The preliminary study of NO{sub x} and fly ash behaviour in a boiler was carried out. The study concerning flow field in the superheater area was carried out a 2-dimensional case in which the inflow parameters were taken from global model of a recovery boiler. Further the prediction methods of fouling in a recovery boiler were developed based on theoretical calculations of smelting behaviour of multicomponent mixtures and measurements at operating recovery boilers. (author)

  17. Recovery of the irradiated JFETs by thermal annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assaf, J.


    Study about the recovering of irradiated JFET transistors has been reported. The JFETs were damaged totally or partially by exposition to Gamma ray and neutrons. Electronics noise has used to evaluate the effect of radiation and the recovery. The study focused on the recovery by thermal annealing, where samples have been heated gradually until 140 centigrade degree (410 K). The recovery ratio given by this method was higher than that resulted from the relaxation method (time recovery) carried out in the room temperature (300 K), especially for Gamma irradiated samples.(author)

  18. Implementing recovery: an analysis of the key technologies in Scotland (United States)


    Background Over the past ten years the promotion of recovery has become a stated aim of mental health policies within a number of English speaking countries, including Scotland. Implementation of a recovery approach involves a significant reorientation of mental health services and practices, which often poses significant challenges for reformers. This article examines how four key technologies of recovery have assisted in the move towards the creation of a recovery-oriented mental health system in Scotland. Methods Drawing on documentary analysis and a series of interviews we examine the construction and implementation of four key recovery 'technologies' as they have been put to use in Scotland: recovery narratives, the Scottish Recovery Indicator (SRI), Wellness Recovery Action Planning (WRAP) and peer support. Results Our findings illuminate how each of these technologies works to instantiate, exemplify and disseminate a 'recovery orientation' at different sites within the mental health system in order to bring about a 'recovery oriented' mental health system. They also enable us to identify some of the factors that facilitate or hinder the effectiveness of those technologies in bringing about a change in how mental health services are delivered in Scotland. These finding provide a basis for some general reflections on the utility of 'recovery technologies' to implement a shift towards recovery in mental health services in Scotland and elsewhere. Conclusions Our analysis of this process within the Scottish context will be valuable for policy makers and service coordinators wishing to implement recovery values within their own national mental health systems. PMID:21569633

  19. Implementing recovery: an analysis of the key technologies in Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sturdy Steve


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past ten years the promotion of recovery has become a stated aim of mental health policies within a number of English speaking countries, including Scotland. Implementation of a recovery approach involves a significant reorientation of mental health services and practices, which often poses significant challenges for reformers. This article examines how four key technologies of recovery have assisted in the move towards the creation of a recovery-oriented mental health system in Scotland. Methods Drawing on documentary analysis and a series of interviews we examine the construction and implementation of four key recovery 'technologies' as they have been put to use in Scotland: recovery narratives, the Scottish Recovery Indicator (SRI, Wellness Recovery Action Planning (WRAP and peer support. Results Our findings illuminate how each of these technologies works to instantiate, exemplify and disseminate a 'recovery orientation' at different sites within the mental health system in order to bring about a 'recovery oriented' mental health system. They also enable us to identify some of the factors that facilitate or hinder the effectiveness of those technologies in bringing about a change in how mental health services are delivered in Scotland. These finding provide a basis for some general reflections on the utility of 'recovery technologies' to implement a shift towards recovery in mental health services in Scotland and elsewhere. Conclusions Our analysis of this process within the Scottish context will be valuable for policy makers and service coordinators wishing to implement recovery values within their own national mental health systems.

  20. Recovery in the 21st Century: From Shame to Strength. (United States)

    Gumbley, Stephen J


    Through the "war on drugs," the just-say-no campaign, and into the early years of this century, the overarching approach to substance use disorders (SUDs) called for a single outcome (abstinence) and a single methodology (spiritual connection with a higher power) as the remedy for SUDs. Those who did not become permanently abstinent or rejected the spiritual approach were seen as "not ready" or "in denial."A seismic shift in thinking about "addiction" and "recovery" began in earnest in the 1990s. In 2005, the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration brought together leaders of the treatment and recovery field for the historic National Summit on Recovery to develop broad-based consensus on guiding principles for recovery and elements of recovery-oriented systems of care.Major changes associated with the recovery-oriented approach include viewing SUDs as chronic, rather than acute, problems that require long-term support and focusing on recovery management rather than disease management. Complete abstinence is not an absolute requirement for wellness for all persons with SUDs. There are "many pathways to recovery," not only the 12-Step approach (White & Kurtz, 2006). Sustained recovery is self-directed and requires personal choices, the support of peers and allies, and community reinforcement as well as a strength-based approach and the use of research-based interventions. This Perspectives column addresses the historical context for the transformation toward a recovery-oriented system of care, highlights federal efforts to promote recovery-oriented approaches, and describes recovery-oriented terminology to reduce misconceptions, labeling, and stigmatization and promote recovery for individuals, families, and communities.

  1. Evaluation of human health risk from in situ recovery uranium mining, pre-and post-mining, and post-restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruedig, E.; Bhattacharyya, A.; Borch, T.; Johnson, T. [Colorado State University (United States); Till, J. [Risk Assessment Corporation (United States)


    In the United States, the restoration of in situ recovery (ISR) uranium mines is aimed at returning sites to pre-mining conditions. While this may seem an appropriate goal, little or no scientific information is available to justify utilizing baseline conditions for regulatory compliance. The chemical and radiological contaminants monitored for restoration compliance have not been evaluated to ensure they are proper indicators of the mitigation of risk. Pre-mining aquifers do not meet minimum United States drinking water standards, and must have an aquifer exemption in place prior to mining. Under these conditions, returning groundwater to near the original concentrations of contaminants may be unnecessary. Post-mining groundwater is also unlikely to meet standards for drinking water, but may be depleted in at least some toxic species as a result of the mining process. Here, we examine the risk to representative person from the personal use of groundwater sourced from an Uranium ISR mine. Water samples were collected from Cameco Resource's Smith Ranch-Highlands ISR Uranium mine near Casper, Wyoming, USA. Samples were acquired pre-mining, post-mining, and post-restoration. Concentrations of heavy metals and radionuclides were assessed by appropriate analytical techniques (e.g., mass spectroscopy or alpha spectroscopy) and these concentrations were used to estimate human health risk for three exposure scenarios: a scenario with high exposure, a scenario with medium exposure, and a scenario with low exposure. A simple biosphere transport model was constructed for each scenario to estimate the risk to humans from the use of contaminated waters for subsistence-related activities. Chemical and radiological risks were harmonized according to the United States Environmental Protection Agency's guidance for superfund sites. Each exposure scenario and its subsequent risk were evaluated individually for pre-mining, post-mining, and post-restoration aquifer waters

  2. Device for controlling gas recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichioka, Atsushi.


    Purpose: To provide a controlling device for UF 6 gas recovery device, which can increase working efficiency and to discriminate normality and abnormality of the recovery device. Constitution: The gas recovery device comprises a plurality of traps, which are connected in series. The UF 6 gas is introduced into the first trap where adsorbing work is taken place to accumulate UF 6 gases, and the UF 6 gases partly flow into the succeeding trap. Even in this trap, when the adsorbing work begins, the succeeding trap is operated in series fashion. In this manner, two traps are continuously operated to recover the gases while performing the steps of adsorbing, waiting and regenerating in that order. The switching operation of the aforesaid steps is accomplished on the basis of concentration of the UF 6 detected between two traps, which are continuously driven. (Kamimura, M.)

  3. Actinide recovery from pyrochemical residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avens, L.R.; Clifton, D.G.; Vigil, A.R.


    A new process for recovery of plutonium and americium from pyrochemical waste has been demonstrated. It is based on chloride solution anion exchange at low acidity, which eliminates corrosive HCl fumes. Developmental experiments of the process flowsheet concentrated on molten salt extraction (MSE) residues and gave >95% plutonium and >90% americium recovery. The recovered plutonium contained 6 = from high chloride-low acid solution. Americium and other metals are washed from the ion exchange column with 1N HNO 3 -4.8M NaCl. The plutonium is recovered, after elution, via hydroxide precipitation, while the americium is recovered via NaHCO 3 precipitation. All filtrates from the process are discardable as low-level contaminated waste. Production-scale experiments are now in progress for MSE residues. Flow sheets for actinide recovery from electrorefining and direct oxide reduction residues are presented and discussed

  4. Reconstructing Sikh Spirituality in Recovery from Alcohol Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asesha Morjaria-Keval


    Full Text Available This paper situates Sikh identity, spirituality, and recovery from alcohol addiction within a nexus of complex social, psychological, and cultural factors. The way in which affected people in Sikh communities in Britain are able to locate and utilize unofficial recovery trajectories, often successfully alleviating suffering, presents both academic research and service provision with potential puzzles. While Sikh communities have been long settled in the UK, there is still a dearth of extensive, multi-method, and analytically rich research investigating the role of spirituality and Sikh identity. We present existing models of recovery process and locate them against an individual psychological and sociological backdrop, so that through the use of spirituality, recovery along this route is interpreted as having both otherworldly as well as materially grounded formations. It is this duality, we argue, that is prominent socially, culturally, and psychologically as important in the recovery from addiction. The multi-factorial nature of this mechanism of change raises important questions for not only addiction recovery, but also notions of continuity and change in Sikh identity. We aim to contribute to this growing body of work in order to re-situate the role of spirituality and identity in alcohol addiction recovery.

  5. Methane productivity and nutrient recovery from manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, H.B.


    The efficient recovery of energy and improvements in the handling of nutrients from manure have attracted increased research focus during recent decades. Anaerobic digestion is a key process in any strategy for the recovery of energy, while slurry separation is an important component in an improved nutrient-handling strategy. This thesis is divided into two parts: the first deals mainly with nutrient recovery strategies and the second examines biological degradation processes, including controlled anaerobic digestion. (au)

  6. Extent and kinetics of recovery of occult spinal cord injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ang, K. Kian; Jiang, G.-L.; Feng Yan; Stephens, L. Clifton; Tucker, Susan L.; Price, Roger E.


    overall recovery equivalent to 26.8 Gy (61%). The spinal cords of symptomatic monkeys consistently revealed a mixture of white matter necrosis and vascular injury, but the majority of spinal cords of asymptomatic animals did not exhibit overt lesions detectable by light microscopy. Conclusion: Combined analysis with the data of the previous studies yielded firm evidence that the spinal cord has a large capacity to recover from occult radiation injury induced by a commonly prescribed elective dose. This finding strengthens the rationale for selective use of radiotherapy to treat second primary tumors arising in previously irradiated tissues or late recurrences. However, some caution should be exercised in applying quantitative experimental data, because the length of follow-up in these experiments was limited to 2-2.5 years after reirradiation, whereas human myelopathy cases occasionally occur after longer latency. Because there is a large variation in long-term recovery among tissues, the tolerance of other tissues at risk should also be taken into account in prescribing therapy

  7. Analysis of Water Recovery Rate from the Heat Melt Compactor (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, R.; Hegde, U.; Gokoglu, S.


    Human space missions generate trash with a substantial amount of plastic (20% or greater by mass). The trash also contains water trapped in food residue and paper products and other trash items. The Heat Melt Compactor (HMC) under development by NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) compresses the waste, dries it to recover water and melts the plastic to encapsulate the compressed trash. The resulting waste disk or puck represents an approximately ten-fold reduction in the volume of the initial trash loaded into the HMC. In the current design concept being pursued, the trash is compressed by a piston after it is loaded into the trash chamber. The piston face, the side walls of the waste processing chamber and the end surface in contact with the waste can be heated to evaporate the water and to melt the plastic. Water is recovered by the HMC in two phases. The first is a pre-process compaction without heat or with the heaters initially turned on but before the waste heats up. Tests have shown that during this step some liquid water may be expelled from the chamber. This water is believed to be free water (i.e., not bound with or absorbed in other waste constituents) that is present in the trash. This phase is herein termed Phase A of the water recovery process. During HMC operations, it is desired that liquid water recovery in Phase A be eliminated or minimized so that water-vapor processing equipment (e.g., condensers) downstream of the HMC are not fouled by liquid water and its constituents (i.e., suspended or dissolved matter) exiting the HMC. The primary water recovery process takes place next where the trash is further compacted while the heated surfaces reach their set temperatures for this step. This step will be referred to herein as Phase B of the water recovery process. During this step the waste chamber may be exposed to different selected pressures such as ambient, low pressure (e.g., 0.2 atm), or vacuum. The objective for this step is to remove both bound and

  8. Establishing a recovery orientation in mental health services: Evaluating the Recovery Self-Assessment (RSA) in a Swedish context. (United States)

    Rosenberg, David; Svedberg, Petra; Schön, Ulla-Karin


    Although there has been an emphasis on developing knowledge regarding recovery in Sweden, it is unclear to what extent this has been translated into a recovery orientation in the provision of mental health services. Instruments, which present the components of recovery as measurable dimensions of change, may provide a framework for program development. Involving users is an essential factor in the utilization of such tools. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Recovery Self-Assessment (RSA) measure and its potential for being utilized in a Swedish context. The sample consisted of 78 participants from 6 community mental health services targeting people with serious mental illnesses in a municipality in Sweden. They completed the RSA at the study baseline and two weeks later. User panels participated in the translation and administration of the RSA and the reporting of results. The Swedish version of the RSA had good face and content validity, satisfactory internal consistency, and a moderate to good level of stability in test-retest reliability. The user panels contributed to establishing validity and as collaborators in the study. Establishing the RSA as a valid and reliable instrument with which to focus on the recovery orientation of services is a first step in beginning to study the types of interventions that may effect and contribute to recovery oriented practice in Sweden. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Recovery of plutonium from solvent wash solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyser, E.A.


    A number of potential alternatives to the acid hydrolysis recovery of Pu were investigated. The most promising alternative for short-term use appears to be an anion exchange process that would eliminate the long boiling times and the multiple-pass concentration steps needed with the solvent extraction process because it separates the Pu from the dibutyl phosphate (DBP) while at the same time concentrating the Pu. However, restart of the Primary Recovery Column (PRC) to process this solution would require significant administrative effort. The original boiling recovery by acid hydrolysis followed by solvent extraction is probably the most expedient way to process the Pu-DBP-carbonate solution currently stored in tank 13.5 even with its long processing times and dilute product concentration. Anion exchange of a heat stabilized acidified solution is a more efficient process, but requires restart of the PRC. Extended-boiling acid hydrolysis or anion exchange of a heat stabilized acidified solution provide two well developed alternatives for recovery of the Pu from the tank 13.5 carbonate. Further work defining additional recovery processes is not planned at this time

  10. Mechanics of vacuum-enhanced recovery of hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, D.L.; McWhorter, D.B.


    A growing body of field data demonstrates the enhancement of product recovery that can be achieved by applying a partial vacuum to recovery wells. Typical explanations for the observed improvement in performance invoke an increased slope of the cone of depression created in the water-table surface. Explanations related to water-table slope do not consider the gradient induced in the hydrocarbon by virtue of the airflow. Also, the airflow may induce a gradient in the aqueous phase that is not reflected in a water-table drawdown. The equations for steady-state flow of three immiscible fluids elucidate the fundamental mechanics of vacuum-enhanced recovery or bioslurping. Airflow to the recovery well causes hydrocarbon to migrate toward the well, independent of any gravity effects that may be created. Also, the relative permeability to hydrocarbon is affected by both water and airflow in the vicinity of the recovery well. Two critical airflow rates delineate the conditions for which only air is recovered, air and hydrocarbon are recovered, and all three phases are recovered


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Liestyana


    Full Text Available This study focused on an empirical investigation of service failure and service recoveryin retail banking. Different types of failures and recovery strategies used by banks wereidentified by using critical incident interviews. A survey questionnaire was then developed tomeasure customers’ perceptions of the magnitude of service failure and the effectiveness ofservice recovery strategies. A number of research hypothesis were tested relating to thecustomers’ evaluations of particular banking failure and recovery strategies, their previousexperience of failure, demographic variables, and relationship. 400 questionnaires werecollected from customers of the banks in Yogyakarta. Service failure and service recovery foundthat importance and effectiveness, customers’ assessment were different between theexperienced and the non-experienced customers in several items, also among the customerswith different demographic variables. The different level of customer commitment causedsignificant difference of customers’ demand of service recovery.

  12. Instrumentation and control systems for monitoring and data acquisition for thermal recovery process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aparicio, J.; Hernandez, E.; Perozo, H. [PDVSA Intevep, S.A. (Venezuela)


    Thermal recovery methods are often applied to enhance oil recovery in heavy oil reservoirs, one of its challenges is to control the displacement of the thermal front. Methods are thus implemented to obtain data on the temperatures in the wells at any given time and to monitor other variables so that the behaviour of the thermal front can be predicted. The aim of this paper is to present a new control and instrumentation scheme to measure all of the variables. A software was created using Labview a graphs-based programming language software and PostgreSQL, a database management system. Using this software, sensors can be added or removed at any time; trends can be immediately visualized; and quality of the information is ensured since there is no human intervention in the data collection or processing. This paper presented a software which improves monitoring of all of the variables affecting the behaviour of the thermal front.

  13. Optimising methods of red cell sedimentation from cord blood to maximise nucleated cell recovery prior to cryopreservation. (United States)

    Madkaikar, M; Gupta, M; Ghosh, K; Swaminathan, S; Sonawane, L; Mohanty, D


    Human cord blood is now an established source of stem cells for haematopoietic reconstitution. Red blood cell (RBC) depletion is required to reduce the cord blood unit volume for commercial banking. Red cell sedimentation using hydroxy ethyl starch (HES) is a standard procedure in most cord blood banks. However, while standardising the procedure for cord blood banking, a significant loss of nucleated cells (NC) may be encountered during standard HES sedimentation protocols. This study compares four procedures for cord blood processing to obtain optimal yield of nucleated cells. Gelatin, dextran, 6% HES and 6% HES with an equal volume of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) were compared for RBC depletion and NC recovery. Dilution of the cord blood unit with an equal volume of PBS prior to sedimentation with HES resulted in maximum NC recovery (99% [99.5 +/- 1.3%]). Although standard procedures using 6% HES are well established in Western countries, they may not be applicable in India, as a variety of factors that can affect RBC sedimentation (e.g., iron deficiency, hypoalbuminaemia, thalassaemia trait, etc.) may reduce RBC sedimentation and thus reduce NC recovery. While diluting cord blood with an equal volume of PBS is a simple method to improve the NC recovery, it does involve an additional processing step.

  14. Towards a natural disaster intervention and recovery framework. (United States)

    Lawther, Peter M


    Contemporary responses to facilitate long-term recovery from large-scale natural disasters juxtapose between those of humanitarian agencies and governments and those of the affected community. The extent to which these mechanisms articulate is crucial to the recovery propensity of the affected communities. This research examines such action by exploring the relationship between the scale of post-disaster response interventions, the extent of community participation in them, and their impact on community recovery, using a community wealth capital framework. The investigation was applied to a study of the longer-term community recovery of the island of Vilufushi, Republic of Maldives, which was almost completely destroyed by the Indian Ocean tsunami of 26 December 2004. Data were analysed through the employment of a pattern match technique and a holistic recovery network analysis. The research framework, informed by the case-study results, other long-term recovery evaluations, and existing resilience theory, is reconfigured as a testable roadmap for future post-disaster interventions. © 2016 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2016.

  15. Paradigms in the Recovery of Estuarine and Coastal Ecosystems


    Duarte, Carlos M.; Borja, Ángel; Carstensen, Jacob; Elliott, Michael S.; Krause-Jensen, Dorte; Marbà, Núria


    © 2013, Coastal and Estuarine Research Federation. Following widespread deterioration of coastal ecosystems since the 1960s, current environmental policies demand ecosystem recovery and restoration. However, vague definitions of recovery and untested recovery paradigms complicate efficient stewardship of coastal ecosystems. We critically examine definitions of recovery and identify and test the implicit paradigms against well-documented cases studies based on a literature review. The study hi...

  16. Development of More Effective Biosurfactants for Enhanced Oil Recovery/Advanced Recovery Concepts Awards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McInerney, M.J.; Marsh, T.L.; Zhang, X.; Knapp, R.M.; Nagle, Jr., D.P.; Sharma, P.K.; Jackson, B.E.


    The objectives of this were two fold. First, core displacement studies were done to determine whether microbial processes could recover residual oil at elevated pressures. Second, the importance of biosurfactant production for the recovery of residual oil was studies. In these studies, a biosurfactant-producing, microorganisms called Bacillus licheniformis strain JF-2 was used. This bacterium produces a cyclic peptide biosurfactant that significantly reduces the interfacial tension between oil and brine (7). The use of a mutant deficient in surfactant production and a mathematical MEOR simulator were used to determine the major mechanisms of oil recovery by these two strains.

  17. Imaging resilience and recovery in alcohol dependence. (United States)

    Charlet, Katrin; Rosenthal, Annika; Lohoff, Falk W; Heinz, Andreas; Beck, Anne


    Resilience and recovery are of increasing importance in the field of alcohol dependence (AD). This paper describes how imaging studies in man can be used to assess the neurobiological correlates of resilience and, if longitudinal, of disease trajectories, progression rates and markers for recovery to inform treatment and prevention options. Original articles on recovery and resilience in alcohol addiction and its neurobiological correlates were identified from 'PubMed' and have been analyzed and condensed within a systematic literature review. Findings deriving from (f)MRI and PET studies have identified links between increased resilience and less task-elicited neural activation within the basal ganglia, and benefits of heightened neural prefrontal cortex (PFC) engagement regarding resilience in a broader sense, namely resilience against relapse in early abstinence of AD. Furthermore, findings consistently propose at least partial recovery of brain glucose metabolism and executive and general cognitive functioning, as well as structural plasticity effects throughout the brain of alcohol-dependent patients during the course of short, medium and long-term abstinence, even when patients only lowered their alcohol consumption to a moderate level. Additionally, specific factors were found that appear to influence these observed brain recovery processes in AD, e.g. genotype-dependent neuronal (re)growth, gender-specific neural recovery effects, critical interfering effects of psychiatric comorbidities, additional smoking or marijuana influences, or adolescent alcohol abuse. Neuroimaging research has uncovered neurobiological markers that appear to be linked to resilience and improved recovery capacities that are furthermore influenced by various factors such as gender or genetics. Consequently, future system-oriented approaches may help to establish a broad neuroscience-based research framework for alcohol dependence. This article is protected by copyright. All rights

  18. Service Recovery Paradox In Indian Banking Industry: An Empirical Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunesh Garg


    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The present study examines existence of service recovery paradox in Indian banking industry. The study is taken up in the tri-city of Chandigarh, Panchkula and Mohali. The respondents are categorized into failure and no-failure groups on the basis of their service experience. Failure group constitutes those respondents who have experienced service recovery, and has been further divided into five sub-groups ranging from service recovery++ (service recovery better than expected to service recovery- - (service recovery worse than expected. Service recovery paradox is examined by comparing service recovery++ group with no-failure group. The study shows evidence for existence of service recovery paradox in relation to satisfaction. It has been concluded that for service recovery paradox to exist, recovery effort has to be exceptionally good and much better than expectation level of the customer. The study suggests that service managers should take service failure as an opportunity to appease customers by providing a much better than expected recovery experience. However, organizations should not plan to create service failure situations because if they falter on imparting the recovery, customer satisfaction may be influenced negatively. Keywords: Banking, service failure, customer satisfaction, recommendation intention, service recovery, recovery paradox. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso

  19. Split heat pipe heat recovery system


    E. Azad


    This paper describes a theoretical analysis of a split heat pipe heat recovery system. The analysis is based on an Effectiveness-NTU approach to deduce its heat transfer characteristics. In this study the variation of overall effectiveness of heat recovery with the number of transfer units are presented. Copyright , Manchester University Press.

  20. Recovery from Psychosis: A Phenomenological Inquiry (United States)

    Nixon, Gary; Hagen, Brad; Peters, Tracey


    While mainstream psychiatry tends to view psychosis as an enduring and chronic condition, there is growing interest in the possibility of recovery from psychosis. A phenomenological research method was utilized in interviewing 17 individuals who all self-identified as being in recovery from psychosis. The research question was, "What was the lived…

  1. ACT and Recovery: What We Know About Their Compatibility. (United States)

    Morse, Gary; Glass, Ashley M H; Monroe-DeVita, Maria


    While assertive community treatment (ACT) is a widely implemented evidence-based practice, the extent of its recovery orientation has been debated. A literature search identified 16 empirical articles studying recovery and ACT. These 16 studies were classified as involving stakeholder perceptions, interventions, or fidelity measurement. Stakeholders generally viewed ACT as being recovery oriented; research on both interventions and fidelity measurement showed promising approaches. Overall the literature yielded encouraging findings regarding ACT and recovery, though there remains a dearth of research on the topic. We discuss future directions for research and practice to ensure that ACT programs skillfully support recovery.

  2. Factors influencing the life cycle burdens of the recovery of energy from residual municipal waste. (United States)

    Burnley, Stephen; Coleman, Terry; Peirce, Adam


    A life cycle assessment was carried out to assess a selection of the factors influencing the environmental impacts and benefits of incinerating the fraction of municipal waste remaining after source-separation for reuse, recycling, composting or anaerobic digestion. The factors investigated were the extent of any metal and aggregate recovery from the bottom ash, the thermal efficiency of the process, and the conventional fuel for electricity generation displaced by the power generated. The results demonstrate that incineration has significant advantages over landfill with lower impacts from climate change, resource depletion, acidification, eutrophication human toxicity and aquatic ecotoxicity. To maximise the benefits of energy recovery, metals, particularly aluminium, should be reclaimed from the residual bottom ash and the energy recovery stage of the process should be as efficient as possible. The overall environmental benefits/burdens of energy from waste also strongly depend on the source of the power displaced by the energy from waste, with coal giving the greatest benefits and combined cycle turbines fuelled by natural gas the lowest of those considered. Regardless of the conventional power displaced incineration presents a lower environmental burden than landfill. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. An effort to use human-based exome capture methods to analyze chimpanzee and macaque exomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Xin; He, Mingze; Ferguson, Betsy


    -human primate specific reagents that would expedite such research, such as exon-capture tools, are lacking. We evaluated the efficiency of using a human exome capture design for the selective enrichment of exonic regions of non-human primates. We compared the exon sequence recovery in nine chimpanzees, two crab...

  4. Biotechnology in petroleum recovery. The microbial EOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Ramkrishna [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India)


    Biotechnology has played a significant role in enhancing crude oil recovery from the depleted oil reservoirs to solve stagnant petroleum production, after a three-stage recovery process employing mechanical, physical and chemical methods. Biotechnologically enhanced oil recovery processes, known as microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR), involve stimulating indigenous reservoir microbes or injecting specially selected consortia of natural bacteria into the reservoir to produce specific metabolic events that lead to improved oil recovery. This also involves flooding with oil recovery agents produced ex situ by industrial or pilot scale fermentation. This paper essentially reviews the operating mechanisms and the progress made in enhanced oil recovery through the use of microbes and their metabolic products. Improvement in oil recovery by injecting solvents and gases or by energizing the reservoir microflora to produce them in situ for carbonate rock dissolution and reservoir re-pressurization has been enunciated. The role of biosurfactants in oil mobilization through emulsification and that of biopolymers for selective plugging of oil-depleted zones and for biofilm formation have been delineated. The spoil sport played by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in MEOR has also been briefly reviewed. The importance of mathematical models used in predicting the applicability of an MEOR strategy and the microbial growth and transport has been qualitatively discussed. The results of some laboratory studies and worldwide field trials applying ex situ and in situ MEOR technologies were compiled and interpreted. However, the potential of the MEOR technologies has not been fully realized due to poor yield of the useful microbial metabolic products, growth inhibition by accumulated toxic metabolites and longer time of incubation. A complete evaluation and assessment of MEOR from an engineering standpoint based on economics, applicability and performance is required to further

  5. VLF Observation of Long Ionospheric Recovery Events (United States)

    Cotts, B. R.; Inan, U. S.


    On the evening of 20 November 1992, three early/fast events were observed on the great circle path (GCP) from the NAU transmitter in Puerto Rico to Gander (GA), Newfoundland. These events were found to have significantly longer recovery times (up to 20 minutes) than any previously documented events. Typical early/fast events and Lightning-induced Electron Precipitation (LEP) events affect the D-region ionosphere near the night-time VLF-reflection height of ~85 km and exhibit recovery to pre-event levels of gigantic jets. In this context, preliminary results indicate that the lightning-associated VLF long recovery events appear to be more common in oceanic thunderstorms. In this paper, we present occurrence statistics and other measured properties of VLF long recovery events, observed on all-sea based and land based VLF great circle paths.

  6. Hydro models and salmon recovery in the northwest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragoon, K.


    Hydro regulation models provide extensive support for analyzing the efficacy of salmon recovery plans in the Northwest. Power planners developed these computer programs to help plan and efficiently operate a large multiple use river system. The models represent physical relationships and operational requirements on the system. They also simulate coordinated system operations for efficient power generation. These models are being pressed into service to provide data for fish recovery plans. They provide important information about hydro system capabilities and responses to recovery programs. However, the models cannot meet all of the analytical needs of fish biologists working toward salmon recovery

  7. Earthquake recovery of historic buildings: exploring cost and time needs. (United States)

    Al-Nammari, Fatima M; Lindell, Michael K


    Disaster recovery of historic buildings has rarely been investigated even though the available literature indicates that they face special challenges. This study examines buildings' recovery time and cost to determine whether their functions (that is, their use) and their status (historic or non-historic) affect these outcomes. The study uses data from the city of San Francisco after the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake to examine the recovery of historic buildings owned by public agencies and non-governmental organisations. The results show that recovery cost is affected by damage level, construction type and historic status, whereas recovery time is affected by the same variables and also by building function. The study points to the importance of pre-incident recovery planning, especially for building functions that have shown delayed recovery. Also, the study calls attention to the importance of further investigations into the challenges facing historic building recovery.

  8. Recovery trends in marine mammal populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M Magera

    Full Text Available Marine mammals have greatly benefitted from a shift from resource exploitation towards conservation. Often lauded as symbols of conservation success, some marine mammal populations have shown remarkable recoveries after severe depletions. Others have remained at low abundance levels, continued to decline, or become extinct or extirpated. Here we provide a quantitative assessment of (1 publicly available population-level abundance data for marine mammals worldwide, (2 abundance trends and recovery status, and (3 historic population decline and recent recovery. We compiled 182 population abundance time series for 47 species and identified major data gaps. In order to compare across the largest possible set of time series with varying data quality, quantity and frequency, we considered an increase in population abundance as evidence of recovery. Using robust log-linear regression over three generations, we were able to classify abundance trends for 92 spatially non-overlapping populations as Significantly Increasing (42%, Significantly Decreasing (10%, Non-Significant Change (28% and Unknown (20%. Our results were comparable to IUCN classifications for equivalent species. Among different groupings, pinnipeds and other marine mammals (sirenians, polar bears and otters showed the highest proportion of recovering populations, likely benefiting from relatively fast life histories and nearshore habitats that provided visibility and protective management measures. Recovery was less frequent among cetaceans, but more common in coastal than offshore populations. For marine mammals with available historical abundance estimates (n = 47, larger historical population declines were associated with low or variable recent recoveries so far. Overall, our results show that many formerly depleted marine mammal populations are recovering. However, data-deficient populations and those with decreasing and non-significant trends require attention. In particular

  9. Microbial Heat Recovery Cell (MHRC) System Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This factsheet describes a project that aimed to develop a microbial heat recovery cell (MHRC) system that combines a microbial reverse electrodialysis technology with waste heat recovery to convert industrial effluents into electricity and hydrogen.

  10. Disaster Recovery Planning as part of Business Continuity Management


    Pinta, Jan


    Nowadays, a well functioning ICT infrastructure belongs to the most critical factors of companies across all branches of business. An importance of ensuring the continued operation of information systems, or the rapid recovery of the systems in the case of emergency, has increased. These needs require creating business continuity management plan and disaster recovery planning. This paper describes the creation of emergency and recovery plans and setting recovery objectives significantly affec...

  11. 30 CFR 75.207 - Pillar recovery. (United States)


    ... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Roof Support § 75.207 Pillar recovery. Pillar recovery shall be... be left in place. (b) Before mining is started in a pillar split or lift— (1) At least two rows of breaker posts or equivalent support shall be installed— (i) As close to the initial intended breakline as...

  12. Mechanical ventilation with heat recovery in cold climates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Jesper; Rose, Jørgen; Svendsen, Svend


    Building ventilation is necessary to achieve a healthy and comfortable indoor environment, but as energy prices continue to rise it is necessary to reduce the energy consumption. Using mechanical ventilation with heat recovery reduces the ventilation heat loss significantly, but in cold climates...... freezes to ice. The analysis of measurements from existing ventilation systems with heat recovery used in single-family houses in Denmark and a test of a standard heat recovery unit in the laboratory have clearly shown that this problem occurs when the outdoor temperature gets below approximately –5º......C. Due to the ice problem mechanical ventilation systems with heat recovery are often installed with an extra preheating system reducing the energy saving potential significantly. New designs of high efficient heat recovery units capable of continuously defrosting the ice without using extra energy...

  13. Fluid diversion in oil recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nimir, Hassan B.


    In any oil recovery process, large scale heterogeneities, such as fractures, channels, or high-permeability streaks, can cause early break through of injected fluid which will reduce oil recovery efficiency. In waterflooding, enhanced oil recovery, and acidizing operations, this problem is particularly acute because of the cost of the injected fluid. On the other hand coping with excess water production is always a challenging task for field operators. The cost of handling and disposing produced water can significantly shorten the economic production life of an oil well. The hydrostatic pressure created by high fluid levels in a well (water coning) is also detrimental to oil production. In this paper, the concept of fluid diversion is explained. Different methods that are suggested to divert the fluid into the oil-bearing-zones are briefly discussed, to show their advantages and disadvantages. Methods of reducing water production in production well are also discussed. (Author)

  14. Measuring personal recovery - psychometric properties of the Swedish Questionnaire about the Process of Recovery (QPR-Swe). (United States)

    Argentzell, Elisabeth; Hultqvist, Jenny; Neil, Sandra; Eklund, Mona


    Personal recovery, defined as an individual process towards meaning, is an important target within mental health services. Measuring recovery hence requires reliable and valid measures. The Process of Recovery Questionnaire (QPR) was developed for that purpose. The aim was to develop a Swedish version of the QPR (QPR-Swe) and explore its psychometric properties in terms of factor structure, internal consistency, construct validity and sensitivity to change. A total of 226 participants entered the study. The factor structure was investigated by Principal Component Analysis and Scree plot. Construct validity was addressed in terms of convergent validity against indicators of self-mastery, self-esteem, quality of life and self-rated health. A one-factor solution of QPR-Swe received better support than a two-factor solution. Good internal consistency was indicated, α = 0.92, and construct validity was satisfactory. The QPR-Swe showed preliminary sensitivity to change. The QPR-Swe showed promising initial psychometric properties in terms of internal consistency, convergent validity and sensitivity to change. The QPR-Swe is recommended for use in research and clinical contexts to assess personal recovery among people with mental illness.

  15. Recovery From Comorbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Carter


    Full Text Available Comorbidity among mood, anxiety, and alcohol disorders is common and burdensome, affecting individuals, families, and public health. A systematic and integrative review of the literature across disciplines and research methodologies was performed. Supradisciplinary approaches were applied to the review and the ensuing critical appraisal. Definitions, measurement, and estimation are controversial and inconstant. Recovery from comorbidity cannot be easily extricated from a sociocultural milieu. Methodological challenges in quantitative and qualitative research and across disciplines are many and are discussed. The evidence supporting current treatments is sparse and short-term, and modalities operating in isolation typically fail. People easily fall into the cracks between mental health and addiction services. Clinicians feel untrained and consumers bear the brunt of this: Judgmental and moralistic interactions persist and comorbidity is unrecognized in high-risk populations. Competing historical paradigms of mental illness and addiction present a barrier to progress and reductionism is an impediment to care and an obstacle to the integration and interpretation of research. What matters to consumers is challenging to quantify but worth considering: Finding employment, safe housing, and meaning are crucial to recovery. Complex social networks and peer support in recovery are important but poorly understood. The focus on modalities of limited evidence or generalizability persists in literature and practice. We need to consider different combinations of comorbidity, transitions as opposed to dichotomies of use or illness, and explore the long-term view and emic perspectives.

  16. Plasma glucagon and glucose recovery after hypoglycemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Holst, Janett


    ) and of isolated alpha-adrenergic blockade on hormonal responses to hypoglycemia and on blood glucose recovery after hypoglycemia in healthy subjects. Neither of the pharmacological blockades had any significant effects on plasma glucagon responses to hypoglycemia nor had they any effect on the rate of blood...... glucose recovery after hypoglycemia. We conclude that the autonomic nervous system has no major influence on the glucagon response to hypoglycemia in healthy man. Changes in autonomic nervous activity are not essential for blood glucose recovery after hypoglycemia in healthy man....

  17. The effects of multiple anaesthetic episodes on equine recovery quality. (United States)

    Platt, J P; Simon, B T; Coleman, M; Martinez, E A; Lepiz, M A; Watts, A E


    Although rare, 70% of equine fatalities during recovery from general anaesthesia (GA) are due to catastrophic fractures from poor recovery quality. To determine the effect of repeated GA recovery on GA recovery quality. Experimental blinded trial. Eight adult horses underwent six GA events on sevoflurane for distal limb MRI examination over a 14-week period. Prior to GA recovery, xylazine was administered. Randomly ordered video-recorded GA recoveries were scored by three blinded board certified veterinary anaesthesiologists, unaware of patient identity or GA event number, for nine parameters using a 100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS) where 0 = worst and 100 = best. The number of attempts to stand, duration of lateral and sternal recumbency, total recovery duration and physiologic parameters during each GA event were recorded. Repeated measures ANOVA were used to detect differences. Agreement between observer VAS scores was determined via inter-rater reliability using an intraclass correlation. With GA recovery experience, VAS scores for balance and coordination, knuckling, and overall quality of recovery were improved and the duration of lateral recumbency was increased. There were no differences in total recovery duration, number of attempts to stand, physiologic parameters other than heart rate during GA, or VAS scores for activity in lateral recumbency, move to sternal, move to stand, or strength. Each GA event was relatively short and there was no surgical stimulation. The same results may not occur if there was surgical stimulation and pain during each GA event. Recovery from GA improves with multiple anaesthetic episodes in horses. Clinicians can advise clients that horses are likely to have better GA recovery on repeated GA recovery due to improved balance and coordination and reduced knuckling. Additionally, there is no change in anaesthetic morbidity with six repeated GA events over a 14-week period. © 2017 EVJ Ltd.

  18. Orimulsion containment and recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommerville, M.


    This paper focuses on the need for examination of Orimulsion fuel and its spill behaviour in the light of the anticipated increase in consumption of this fuel which comprises bitumen dispersed in water with addition of a small amount of surfactant. The behaviour and fate of Orimulsion at sea, and observations from experimental and sea trials are examined. The identification of spill control techniques, spill detection, the predictive modeling of the spill and response, sub-surface plume measurement, and containment and deflection are considered. Recovery of the bitumen produced from an Orimulsion spill, combined containment and recovery, dispersed Orimulsion, and beach cleaning are addressed. The properties of Orimulsion are tabulated. (UK)

  19. Recovery of vanadium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, C.P.; Clark, N.E.


    This invention relates to the recovery of vanadium oxide from molten metal. The invention provides a method for recovering vanadium oxide from molten metal, which includes passing oxygen and at least one coolant gas or shroud into the molten metal by way of at least one elongate lance. The invention also provides an arrangement for the recovery of vanadium oxide from molten metal, which includes at least one elongate lance extending into the molten metal. The lance is provided with at least one elongate bore extending therethrough. Means are provided to allow at least oxygen and at least one coolant gas to pass through the lance and into the molten metal

  20. Optimal waste heat recovery and reuse in industrial zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stijepovic, Mirko Z.; Linke, Patrick


    Significant energy efficiency gains in zones with concentrated activity from energy intensive industries can often be achieved by recovering and reusing waste heat between processing plants. We present a systematic approach to target waste heat recovery potentials and design optimal reuse options across plants in industrial zones. The approach first establishes available waste heat qualities and reuse feasibilities considering distances between individual plants. A targeting optimization problem is solved to establish the maximum possible waste heat recovery for the industrial zone. Then, a design optimization problem is solved to identify concrete waste heat recovery options considering economic objectives. The paper describes the approach and illustrates its application with a case study. -- Highlights: → Developed a systematic approach to target waste heat recovery potentials and to design optimal recovery and reuse options across plants in industrial zones. → Five stage approach involving data acquisition, analysis, assessment, targeting and design. → Targeting optimization problem establishes the maximum possible waste heat recovery and reuse limit for the industrial zone. → Design optimization problem provides concrete waste heat recovery and reuse network design options considering economic objectives.

  1. Medical Support for Aircraft Disaster Search and Recovery Operations at Sea: the RSN Experience. (United States)

    Teo, Kok Ann Colin; Chong, Tse Feng Gabriel; Liow, Min Han Lincoln; Tang, Kong Choong


    The maritime environment presents a unique set of challenges to search and recovery (SAR) operations. There is a paucity of information available to guide provision of medical support for SAR operations for aircraft disasters at sea. The Republic of Singapore Navy (RSN) took part in two such SAR operations in 2014 which showcased the value of a military organization in these operations. Key considerations in medical support for similar operations include the resultant casualty profile and challenges specific to the maritime environment, such as large distances of area of operations from land, variable sea states, and space limitations. Medical support planning can be approached using well-established disaster management life cycle phases of preparedness, mitigation, response, and recovery, which all are described in detail. This includes key areas of dedicated training and exercises, force protection, availability of air assets and chamber support, psychological care, and the forensic handling of human remains. Relevant lessons learned by RSN from the Air Asia QZ8501 search operation are also included in the description of these key areas. Teo KAC , Chong TFG , Liow MHL , Tang KC . Medical support for aircraft disaster search and recovery operations at sea: the RSN experience. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016; 31(3):294-299.

  2. Substance Abuse Counselors' Recovery Status and Self-Schemas: Preliminary Implications for Empirically Supported Treatment Implementation. (United States)

    Nielson, Elizabeth M


    The purpose of this paper is to better understand the relationship between substance abuse counselors' personal recovery status, self-schemas, and willingness to use empirically supported treatments for substance use disorders. A phenomenological qualitative study enrolled 12 practicing substance abuse counselors. Within this sample, recovering counselors tended to see those who suffer from addiction as qualitatively different from those who do not and hence themselves as similar to their patients, while nonrecovering counselors tended to see patients as experiencing a specific variety of the same basic human struggles everyone experiences, and hence also felt able to relate to their patients' struggles. Since empirically supported treatments may fit more or less neatly within one or the other of these viewpoints, this finding suggests that counselors' recovery status and corresponding self-schemas may be related to counselor willingness to learn and practice specific treatments.

  3. An integrated decision support system for wastewater nutrient recovery and recycling to agriculture (United States)

    Roy, E. D.; Bomeisl, L.; Cornbrooks, P.; Mo, W.


    Nutrient recovery and recycling has become a key research topic within the wastewater engineering and nutrient management communities. Several technologies now exist that can effectively capture nutrients from wastewater, and innovation in this area continues to be an important research pursuit. However, practical nutrient recycling solutions require more than capable nutrient capture technologies. We also need to understand the role that wastewater nutrient recovery and recycling can play within broader nutrient management schemes at the landscape level, including important interactions at the nexus of food, energy, and water. We are developing an integrated decision support system that combines wastewater treatment data, agricultural data, spatial nutrient balance modeling, life cycle assessment, stakeholder knowledge, and multi-criteria decision making. Our goals are to: (1) help guide design decisions related to the implementation of sustainable nutrient recovery technology, (2) support innovations in watershed nutrient management that operate at the interface of the built environment and agriculture, and (3) aid efforts to protect aquatic ecosystems while supporting human welfare in a circular nutrient economy. These goals will be realized partly through the assessment of plausible alternative scenarios for the future. In this presentation, we will describe the tool and focus on nutrient balance results for the New England region. These results illustrate that both centralized and decentralized wastewater nutrient recovery schemes have potential to transform nutrient flows in many New England watersheds, diverting wastewater N and P away from aquatic ecosystems and toward local or regional agricultural soils where they can offset a substantial percentage of imported fertilizer. We will also highlight feasibility criteria and next steps to integrate stakeholder knowledge, economics, and life cycle assessment into the tool.

  4. Human skeletal muscle fatty acid and glycerol metabolism during rest, exercise and recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hall, Gerrit; Sacchetti, M; Rådegran, G


    glycerol uptake was observed, which was substantially higher during exercise. Total body skeletal muscle FA and glycerol uptake/release was estimated to account for 18-25 % of whole body R(d) or R(a). In conclusion: (1) skeletal muscle FA and glycerol metabolism, using the leg arterial-venous difference......This study was conducted to investigate skeletal muscle fatty acid (FA) and glycerol kinetics and to determine the contribution of skeletal muscle to whole body FA and glycerol turnover during rest, 2 h of one-leg knee-extensor exercise at 65 % of maximal leg power output, and 3 h of recovery....... To this aim, the leg femoral arterial-venous difference technique was used in combination with a continuous infusion of [U-(13)C]palmitate and [(2)H(5)]glycerol in five post-absorptive healthy volunteers (22 +/- 3 years). The influence of contamination from non-skeletal muscle tissues, skin and subcutaneous...

  5. Factors determining lumber recovery in sawmilling (United States)

    Philip H. Steele


    Lumber volume recovery in sawmilling is determined by a confusing interaction of several factors. The more one knows about each individual factor, the more one can understand how the factors interact. The author identifies and discusses in detail seven factors influencing lumber recovery. Past and current research is cited, and examples are given to illustrate the...

  6. An outstanding guest

    CERN Multimedia


    The person celebrating CERN's 25th anniversary whose photograph we published last week was not just any guest. Readers have pointed out that it was Wim Klein, whose remarkable abilities are part of CERN's history. Well known as one of the best "human calculators", Wim was recruited by CERN in 1957 to verify computer programs, which at the time were still stumbling. Moreover, he regularly beat their speed in calculating and gave breath-taking demonstrations. During one such demonstration in September 1973, he calculated the 19th root of a 133-digit number in less than 2 minutes !

  7. Recovery of avian metapneumovirus subgroup C from cDNA: cross-recognition of avian and human metapneumovirus support proteins. (United States)

    Govindarajan, Dhanasekaran; Buchholz, Ursula J; Samal, Siba K


    Avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) causes an acute respiratory disease in turkeys and is associated with "swollen head syndrome" in chickens, contributing to significant economic losses for the U.S. poultry industry. With a long-term goal of developing a better vaccine for controlling AMPV in the United States, we established a reverse genetics system to produce infectious AMPV of subgroup C entirely from cDNA. A cDNA clone encoding the entire 14,150-nucleotide genome of AMPV subgroup C strain Colorado (AMPV/CO) was generated by assembling five cDNA fragments between the T7 RNA polymerase promoter and the autocatalytic hepatitis delta virus ribozyme of a transcription plasmid, pBR 322. Transfection of this plasmid, along with the expression plasmids encoding the N, P, M2-1, and L proteins of AMPV/CO, into cells stably expressing T7 RNA polymerase resulted in the recovery of infectious AMPV/CO. Characterization of the recombinant AMPV/CO showed that its growth properties in tissue culture were similar to those of the parental virus. The potential of AMPV/CO to serve as a viral vector was also assessed by generating another recombinant virus, rAMPV/CO-GFP, that expressed the enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a foreign protein. Interestingly, GFP-expressing AMPV and GFP-expressing human metapneumovirus (HMPV) could be recovered using the support plasmids of either virus, denoting that the genome promoters are conserved between the two metapneumoviruses and can be cross-recognized by the polymerase complex proteins of either virus. These results indicate a close functional relationship between AMPV/CO and HMPV.

  8. Characterizing storm response and recovery using the beach change envelope: Fire Island, New York (United States)

    Brenner, Owen T.; Lentz, Erika E.; Hapke, Cheryl J.; Henderson, Rachel E.; Wilson, Kat E.; Nelson, Timothy R.


    Hurricane Sandy at Fire Island, New York presented unique challenges in the quantification of storm impacts using traditional metrics of coastal change, wherein measured changes (shoreline, dune crest, and volume change) did not fully reflect the substantial changes in sediment redistribution following the storm. We used a time series of beach profile data at Fire Island, New York to define a new contour-based morphologic change metric, the Beach Change Envelope (BCE). The BCE quantifies changes to the upper portion of the beach likely to sustain measurable impacts from storm waves and capture a variety of storm and post-storm beach states. We evaluated the ability of the BCE to characterize cycles of beach change by relating it to a conceptual beach recovery regime, and demonstrated that BCE width and BCE height from the profile time series correlate well with established stages of recovery. We also investigated additional applications of this metric to capture impacts from storms and human modification by applying it to several post-storm historical datasets in which impacts varied considerably; Nor'Ida (2009), Hurricane Irene (2011), Hurricane Sandy (2012), and a 2009 community replenishment. In each case, the BCE captured distinctive upper beach morphologic change characteristic of these different beach building and erosional events. Analysis of the beach state at multiple profile locations showed spatial trends in recovery consistent with recent morphologic island evolution, which other studies have linked with sediment availability and the geologic framework. Ultimately we demonstrate a new way of more effectively characterizing beach response and recovery cycles to evaluate change along sandy coasts.

  9. Bosch Reactor Development for High Percentage Oxygen Recovery from Carbon Dioxide (United States)

    Howard, David; Abney, Morgan


    This next Generation Life Support Project entails the development and demonstration of Bosch reaction technologies to improve oxygen recovery from metabolically generated oxygen and/or space environments. A primary focus was placed on alternate carbon formation reactor concepts to improve useful catalyst life for space vehicle applications, and make use of in situ catalyst resources for non-terrestrial surface missions. Current state-of-the-art oxygen recovery systems onboard the International Space Station are able to effectively recover approximately 45 percent of the oxygen consumed by humans and exhausted in the form of carbon dioxide (CO2). Excess CO2 is vented overboard and the oxygen contained in the molecules is lost. For long-duration missions beyond the reaches of Earth for resupply, it will be necessary to recover greater amounts of constituents such as oxygen that are necessary for sustaining life. Bosch technologies theoretically recover 100 percent of the oxygen from CO2, producing pure carbon as the sole waste product. Challenges with this technology revolve around the carbon product fouling catalyst materials, drastically limiting catalyst life. This project successfully demonstrated techniques to extend catalyst surface area exposure times to improve catalyst life for vehicle applications, and demonstrated the use of Martian and lunar regolith as viable catalyst Bosch Reactor Development for High Percentage Oxygen Recovery From Carbon Dioxide materials for surface missions. The Bosch process generates carbon nanotube formation within the regolith, which has been shown to improve mechanical properties of building materials. Production of bricks from post reaction regolith for building and radiation shielding applications were also explored.

  10. Shoulder pain and jerk during recovery phase of manual wheelchair propulsion. (United States)

    Jayaraman, Chandrasekaran; Beck, Carolyn L; Sosnoff, Jacob J


    Repetitive loading of the upper limb due to wheelchair propulsion plays a leading role in the development of shoulder pain in manual wheelchair users (mWCUs). There has been minimal inquiry on understanding wheelchair propulsion kinematics from a human movement ergonomics perspective. This investigation employs an ergonomic metric, jerk, to characterize the recovery phase kinematics of two recommended manual wheelchair propulsion patterns: semi-circular and the double loop. Further it examines if jerk is related to shoulder pain in mWCUs. Data from 22 experienced adult mWCUs was analyzed for this study (semi-circular: n=12 (pain/without-pain:6/6); double-loop: n=10 (pain/without-pain:4/6)). Participants propelled their own wheelchair fitted with SMARTWheels on a roller dynamometer at 1.1 m/s for 3 min. Kinematic and kinetic data of the upper limbs were recorded. Three dimensional absolute jerk experienced at the shoulder, elbow and wrist joint during the recovery phase of wheelchair propulsion were computed. Two-way ANOVAs were conducted with the recovery pattern type and shoulder pain as between group factors. (1) Individuals using a semi-circular pattern experienced lower jerk at their arm joints than those using a double loop pattern (Ppropulsion was able to distinguish between pattern types (semi-circular and double loop) and the presence of shoulder pain. Jerk provides novel insights into wheelchair propulsion kinematics and in the future it may be beneficial to incorporate jerk based metric into rehabilitation practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Survival analysis, long-term outcomes, and percentage of recovery up to 8 years post-infection among the Houston West Nile virus cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristy O Murray

    Full Text Available In 2012, we witnessed a resurgence of West Nile virus (WNV in the United States, with the largest outbreak of human cases reported since 2003. WNV is now endemic and will continue to produce epidemics over time, therefore defining the long-term consequences of WNV infection is critical. Over a period of eight years, we prospectively followed a cohort of 157 WNV-infected subjects in the Houston metropolitan area to observe recovery over time and define the long-term clinical outcomes. We used survival analysis techniques to determine percentage of recovery over time and the effects of demographic and co-morbid conditions on recovery. We found that 40% of study participants continued to experience symptoms related to their WNV infection up to 8 years later. Having a clinical presentation of encephalitis and being over age 50 were significantly associated with prolonged or poor recovery over time. Since the health and economic impact as a result of prolonged recovery, continued morbidity, and related disability is likely substantial in those infected with WNV, future research should be aimed at developing effective vaccines to prevent illness and novel therapeutics to minimize morbidity, mortality, and long-term complications from infection.

  12. Digital Inequality and Second-Order Disasters: Social Media in the Typhoon Haiyan Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirca Madianou


    Full Text Available This article investigates the intersection of digital and social inequality in the context of disaster recovery. In doing so, the article responds to the optimism present in recent claims about “humanitarian technology” which refers to the empowering uses and applications of interactive technologies by disaster-affected people. Drawing on a long-term ethnography with affected communities recovering from Typhoon Haiyan that hit the Philippines in 2013 triggering a massive humanitarian response, the article offers a grounded assessment of the role of social media in disaster recovery. In particular, the article focuses on whether any positive consequences associated with digital media use are equally spread among better off and socially marginalized participants. The analysis reveals sharp digital inequalities which map onto existing social inequalities. While some of our already better-off participants have access to a rich media landscape which they are able to navigate often reaping significant benefits, low-income participants are trapped in a delayed recovery with diminished social media opportunities. The fact that some participants are using social media to recover at a rapid pace while others are languishing behind represents a deepening of social inequalities. In this sense, digital inequality can amplify social inequalities leading to a potential “second-order disaster.” This refers to humanly perpetuated disasters that can even surpass the effects of the natural disaster.

  13. Optimizing the recovery efficiency of Finnish oil combating vessels in the Gulf of Finland using Bayesian Networks. (United States)

    Lehikoinen, Annukka; Luoma, Emilia; Mäntyniemi, Samu; Kuikka, Sakari


    Oil transport has greatly increased in the Gulf of Finland over the years, and risks of an oil accident occurring have risen. Thus, an effective oil combating strategy is needed. We developed a Bayesian Network (BN) to examine the recovery efficiency and optimal disposition of the Finnish oil combating vessels in the Gulf of Finland (GoF), Eastern Baltic Sea. Four alternative home harbors, five accident points, and ten oil combating vessels were included in the model to find the optimal disposition policy that would maximize the recovery efficiency. With this composition, the placement of the oil combating vessels seems not to have a significant effect on the recovery efficiency. The process seems to be strongly controlled by certain random factors independent of human action, e.g. wave height and stranding time of the oil. Therefore, the success of oil combating is rather uncertain, so it is also important to develop activities that aim for preventing accidents. We found that the model developed is suitable for this type of multidecision optimization. The methodology, results, and practices are further discussed.

  14. Electrostatic precipitator performance and trace element emissions from two Kraft recovery boilers. (United States)

    Lind, Terttaliisa; Hokkinen, Jouni; Jokiniemi, Jorma K; Hillamo, Risto; Makkonen, Ulla; Raukola, Antti; Rintanen, Jaakko; Saviharju, Kari


    Fine particle emissions from combustion sources have gained attention recently due to their adverse effects on human health. The emission depends on the combustion process, fuel, and particulate removal technology. Particle concentrations at Kraft recovery boiler exits are very high, and the boilers are typically equipped with electrostatic precipitators (ESP). However, little data are available on the ESP performance in recovery boilers. Particle concentrations and size distributions were determined at two modern, operating recovery boilers. In addition, we determined the fractional collection efficiency of the ESPs by simultaneous measurements at the ESP inlet and outlet and the particulate emissions of trace metals. The particle mass concentration atthe ESP inlet was 11-24 g/Nm3 at the two boilers. Particle emissions were 30-40 mg/ Nm3 at boiler A and 12-15 mg/Nm3 at boiler B. The particle size distributions had a major particle mode at around 1 microm. These fume particles contained most of the particle mass. The main components in the particles were sodium and sulfate with minor amounts of chloride, potassium, and presumably some carbonate. The ESP collection efficiency was 99.6-99.8% at boiler A and 99.9% at boiler B. The particle penetration through the ESP was below 0.6% in the entire fume particle size range of 0.3-3 microm. Trace element emissions from both boilers were well below the limit values set by EU directive for waste incineration.

  15. ISS Ammonia Pump Failure, Recovery, and Lesson Learned A Hydrodynamic Bearing Perspective (United States)

    Bruckner, Robert J.; Manco, Richard A., II


    The design, development, and operation of long duration spaceflight hardware has become an evolutionary process in which meticulous attention to details and lessons learned from previous experiences play a critical role. Invaluable to this process is the ability to retrieve and examine spaceflight hardware that has experienced a premature failure. While these situations are rare and unfortunate, the failure investigation and recovery from the event serve a valuable purpose in advancing future space mechanism development. Such a scenario began on July 31, 2010 with the premature failure of an ammonia pump on the external active thermal control system of the International Space Station. The ground-based inspections of the returned pump and ensuing failure investigation revealed five potential bearing forces that were un-accounted for in the design phase and qualification testing of the pump. These forces could combine in a number of random orientations to overload the pump bearings leading to solid-surface contact, wear, and premature failure. The recovery plan identified one of these five forces as being related to the square of the operating speed of the pump and this fact was used to recover design life through a change in flight rules for the operation of the pump module. Through the course of the failure investigation, recovery, and follow-on assessment of pump wear life, design guidance has been developed to improve the life of future mechanically pumped thermal control systems for both human and robotic exploration missions.

  16. Rapid and spontaneous recovery in autistic disorder


    Sitholey, Prabhat; Agarwal, Vivek; Pargaonkar, Amol


    Recovery in autistic disorder is rare. There are few reports of recovery from autistic disorder after a few years of therapeutic intervention. We report here a case of autistic disorder who recovered spontaneously without any intervention in 13 days.

  17. The role of service recovery in HMO satisfaction. (United States)

    Sarel, D; Marmorstein, H


    Complaint handling and service recovery by HMOs may be more efficient to implement and more determinant of customer satisfaction and retention than other approaches such as improving access to care. The current findings are consistent with research on recovery efforts in other industries. Complaint handling systems must achieve rapid and comprehensive identification and resolution of HMO member problems. Both cultural change and appropriate incentives to re-educate employees within HMO organizations are additional requisites to effective service recovery. The benefits to the HMO of expenditures on service recovery should be more immediate and sustainable than the benefits derived from other methods of increasing member satisfaction.

  18. Human-Robot Interaction Literature Review (United States)


    electrical and electronics engineering, telecommunications and other technical fields. (IEEE, 2007) NTIS – National Technical Information Service NTIS...of a task is automated. However, performance recovery is much lower if automation fails and the human is excluded from the implementation of the task...Vincenzi, D.A. (2009). Effects of Systems Automation Management STartegies and Milti-mission Operator-to-vehicle Ratio on Operator Performance in

  19. Loss and recovery of radiation sources in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, U.C.; Pradhan, A.S.


    Loss of radioisotope sources occurs as a result of the violation of safe work practices and non-compliance with rules and guidelines. The main causes are human error, negligence in source handling and storage as well as mismanagement and lack of supervision. The failure to adequately supervise and manage leads to a breakdown in communication and differences among workers, supervisors and managers. Recovery of lost sources is generally a tedious task. In India, apart from the efforts of the user institution, a team of scientists from the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) undertakes searches and supervises recovery operations. Sources have been lost in brachytherapy and nuclear medicine departments of hospitals and in industrial institutions. For brachytherapy source losses, hospital garbage, dustbins, passages and lifts were the main targets for searches. While gamma ray and neutron sources could be traced for the most part, pure beta ray sources, such as Sr-90 used in ophthalmic applicators or as check sources, could not be recovered. In industrial radiography, the search for sources was more problematic, especially when the sources were stolen or lost in transport. Lost materials could not be traced in only two out of eleven instances of loss of Ir-192 sources since 1986. In a separate incident, sources which had been stolen were found in a deep river: this necessitated an elaborate fishing operation at a cost of some US$100,000. Each occurrence provided lessons calling for the introduction of new control measures. (author)

  20. Sorption of chromium with struvite during phosphorus recovery. (United States)

    Rouff, Ashaki A


    Struvite (MgNH(4)PO(4)·6H(2)O; MAP) precipitation is a viable means of phosphorus (P) recovery from animal and human wastes. The behavior of metal contaminants such as chromium (Cr) during struvite precipitation, however, requires consideration. Here the influence of both Cr concentration and oxidation state on sorption is assessed. The Cr content of struvite precipitated in the presence of 1-100 μM Cr as Cr(III) (22.3-3030.1 mg/kg) was higher than that of solids from Cr(VI) (4.5-5.1 mg/kg) solutions. For 1-20 μM Cr(III) solids, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed etch pit formation on struvite crystal surfaces, indicative of a surface interaction. The formation of an adsorbate was confirmed by X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (XAFS). At initial concentrations ≥20 μM Cr(III), XAFS confirmed the formation of a Cr(OH)(3)·nH(2)O(am) precipitate. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy revealed that both Cr(III) and Cr(VI) sorption resulted in distortion of the PO(4)(3-) tetrahedra in the mineral structure. This, combined with SEM results revealed that even at low sorbed concentrations, the Cr impurity can affect the mineral surface and structure. Thus, the initial Cr concentration and oxidation state in wastes targeted for P recovery will dictate the final Cr content, the mechanism of sorption, and impact on the struvite structure.

  1. Reducing Vulnerability and Building Resilience in the Post-Disaster Context: A Case Study of the 2006 Yogyakarta Earthquake Recovery Effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Joakim


    Full Text Available As the human and economic costs of natural disaster events have dramatically increased over the past three decades, governments, researchers and humanitarian agencies have increasingly focused on reducing disaster impacts and increasing the resilience of individuals, households and communities. Recent disaster recovery efforts have focused on implementing a holistic social-ecological disaster risk reduction approach popularized through post-2004 tsunami recovery programs under the mantra of ‘building back better’. Although this approach has been increasingly adopted by various government and humanitarian organizations to describe their recovery and reconstruction activities, defining what is meant by ‘better’ and measuring ‘better’ as an outcome has been difficult to conceptualize and operationalize. In order to rectify this gap in the literature, the Post-Disaster Sustainable Livelihoods, Resilience and Vulnerability framework (PD-SLRV was developed for the purposes of analyzing, evaluating and monitoring disaster recovery using the concepts of vulnerability, resilience and sustainable livelihoods.Using the 2006 Yogyakarta, Indonesia earthquake as a case study, this paper will explore how the concepts of vulnerability, resilience and sustainable livelihoods inform the disaster recovery process, the nature of the relationship between these concepts as well as their usefulness in evaluating disaster recovery efforts. Through a detailed analysis of the various vulnerabilities and resiliencies that exist within recovering communities, the complex and dynamic nature of resilience and vulnerability is revealed, indicating a multifaceted relationship dependent on scale, context and place.

  2. Adolescents with anxiety and depression: is social recovery relevant? (United States)

    Simonds, Laura M; Pons, Rebecca A; Stone, Nicola J; Warren, Fiona; John, Mary


    Social recovery has become a prominent aspect of mental health service design and delivery in the past decade. Much of the literature on social recovery is derived from first-person accounts or primary research with adult service users experiencing severe mental illness. There is a lack of both theoretical and empirical work that could inform consideration of how the concept of social recovery might apply to adolescents experiencing common (non-psychotic) mental health problems such as anxiety and depression. The current study was conducted to understand the process of experiencing anxiety and depression in young people. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine adolescents with anxiety and depression (seven girls and two boys aged 14-16 years) and 12 mothers who were recruited from a specialist Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service in the South of England. Thematic analysis indicated that young people do experience a process of 'recovery'; the processes participants described have some congruence with the earlier stages of adult recovery models involving biographical disruption and the development of new meanings, in this case of anxiety or depression, and changes in sense of identity. The accounts diverge with regard to later stages of adult models involving the development of hope and responsibility. The findings suggest that services should attend to social isolation and emphasise support for positive aspirations for future selves whilst also attending to young people's and parents' expectations about change. Methodological challenges face enquiry about 'recovery' given its connotations with cure in everyday language. Theoretical and empirical work on social recovery in young people and families is lacking. Using interviews, this study sought to understand the relevance of social recovery for adolescents with anxiety and depression and their mothers. Findings suggest some congruence with the earlier stages of adult recovery models involving

  3. Dutch analysis for P-recovery from municipal wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeleveld, Paul; Loeffen, Patricia; Temmink, Hardy; Klapwijk, Bram


    There is a considerable practical interest in phosphorus recovery from water authorities, elementary P-industry, fertilizer industry and regulators in a number of countries. Due to a handful of full-scale plants worldwide, P-recovery can be seen as technically feasible. However, the economic feasibility of P-recovery from sewage can still be judged as dubious. Most important reason for this is that the prices of the techniques (in Euro/tonne P) are much higher compared to the prices of phosphate rock. In this paper an analysis is given to recover phosphate from municipal wastewater for the elementary P-industry Thermphos International B.V. and the fertiliser industry Amsterdam Fertilizers B.V. in The Netherlands. Several scenarios are evaluated and the end products of these scenarios are compared to the quality required by both industries. From a Dutch study it became clear that all end products from the final sludge treatment do not provide a good source of secondary phosphate. As a consequence of this, the most preferred possibility for P-recovery is to extract phosphate before sludge goes to the final sludge treatment. Different scenario's can be selected based on the position of P-recovery in the WWTP configuration, the type of P-recovery product, and the precipitation technique. Local conditions will determine which scenario is the most expedient. Because it is more realistic to judge a practical situation instead of theoretical estimations based on literature, some local situations have to be assessed in sufficient detail to gain more feeling for the expenses and possible savings of P-recovery. One important actor that should be involved in the process management around P-recovery, is the national government. Especially they have the responsibility for a sustainable development and should have attention for some stimulation of P-recovery in The Netherlands. Water authorities and the P- and fertilizer industry made already some good steps. (author)

  4. Predictors of recovery in first episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, Stephen F; Mors, Ole; Secher, Rikke Gry


    Recovery, the optimal goal in treatment, is the attainment of both symptomatic and functional remission over a sustained period of time. Identification of factors that promote recovery can help develop interventions that facilitate good outcomes for people with first episode psychosis....

  5. Performance assessment techniques for groundwater recovery and treatment systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkpatrick, G.L. [Environmental Resources Management, Inc., Exton, PA (United States)


    Groundwater recovery and treatment (pump and treat systems) continue to be the most commonly selected remedial technology for groundwater restoration and protection programs at hazardous waste sites and RCRA facilities nationwide. Implementing a typical groundwater recovery and treatment system includes the initial assessment of groundwater quality, characterizing aquifer hydrodynamics, recovery system design, system installation, testing, permitting, and operation and maintenance. This paper focuses on methods used to assess the long-term efficiency of a pump and treat system. Regulatory agencies and industry alike are sensitive to the need for accurate assessment of the performance and success of groundwater recovery systems for contaminant plume abatement and aquifer restoration. Several assessment methods are available to measure the long-term performance of a groundwater recovery system. This paper presents six assessment techniques: degree of compliance with regulatory agency agreement (Consent Order of Record of Decision), hydraulic demonstration of system performance, contaminant mass recovery calculation, system design and performance comparison, statistical evaluation of groundwater quality and preferably, integration of the assessment methods. Applying specific recovery system assessment methods depends upon the type, amount, and quality of data available. Use of an integrated approach is encouraged to evaluate the success of a groundwater recovery and treatment system. The methods presented in this paper are for engineers and corporate management to use when discussing the effectiveness of groundwater remediation systems with their environmental consultant. In addition, an independent (third party) system evaluation is recommended to be sure that a recovery system operates efficiently and with minimum expense.

  6. Work stress, poor recovery and burnout in teachers. (United States)

    Gluschkoff, K; Elovainio, M; Kinnunen, U; Mullola, S; Hintsanen, M; Keltikangas-Järvinen, L; Hintsa, T


    Both work stress and poor recovery have been shown to contribute to the development of burnout. However, the role of recovery as a mediating mechanism that links work stress to burnout has not been sufficiently addressed in research. To examine recovery as a mediator in the relationship between work stress and burnout among teachers. A cross-sectional study of Finnish primary school teachers, in whom burnout was measured with the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey and work stress was conceptualized using the effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model. Recovery was measured with the Recovery Experience Questionnaire and the Jenkins Sleep Problems Scale. Multiple linear regression analyses and bootstrap mediation analyses adjusted for age, gender and total working hours were performed. Among the 76 study subjects, high ERI was associated with burnout and its dimensions of exhaustion, cynicism and reduced professional efficacy. Poor recovery experiences, in terms of low relaxation during leisure time, partially mediated the relationship between ERI and reduced professional efficacy. Sleep problems, in the form of non-restorative sleep, partially mediated the relationship between ERI and both burnout and exhaustion. Supporting a balance between effort and reward at work may enhance leisure time recovery and improve sleep quality, as well as help to reduce burnout rates. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  7. Speed of recovery after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. (United States)

    Kurowicki, Jennifer; Berglund, Derek D; Momoh, Enesi; Disla, Shanell; Horn, Brandon; Giveans, M Russell; Levy, Jonathan C


    The purpose of this study was to delineate the time taken to achieve maximum improvement (plateau of recovery) and the degree of recovery observed at various time points (speed of recovery) for pain and function after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. An institutional shoulder surgery registry query identified 627 patients who underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair between 2006 and 2015. Measured range of motion, patient satisfaction, and patient-reported outcome measures were analyzed for preoperative, 3-month, 6-month, 1-year, and 2-year intervals. Subgroup analysis was performed on the basis of tear size by retraction grade and number of anchors used. As an entire group, the plateau of maximum recovery for pain, function, and motion occurred at 1 year. Satisfaction with surgery was >96% at all time points. At 3 months, 74% of improvement in pain and 45% to 58% of functional improvement were realized. However, only 22% of elevation improvement was achieved (P rotation. Smaller tears had higher motion and functional scores across all time points. Tear size did not influence pain levels. The plateau of maximum recovery after rotator cuff repair occurred at 1 year with high satisfaction rates at all time points. At 3 months, approximately 75% of pain relief and 50% of functional recovery can be expected. Larger tears have a slower speed of recovery. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Sports massage with ozonised oil or non-ozonised oil: Comparative effects on recovery parameters after maximal effort in cyclists. (United States)

    Paoli, Antonio; Bianco, Antonino; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Bellafiore, Marianna; Grainer, Alessandro; Marcolin, Giuseppe; Cardoso, Claudia C; Dall'aglio, Roberto; Palma, Antonio


    To study the effects of passive rest (PR) and sports massage with (SMOZO) and without (SM) ozonised oil on sports performance psycho-physiological indices in competitive amateur cyclists after 3 pre-fatiguing Wingate cycle and post-recovery ramp tests. An intra-subjects experimental design with repeated measures. Department of Human Anatomy and Physiology, University of Padua. Fifteen male competitive cyclists (age: 27 ± 3.5 years, body weight: 77.6 ± 8.3 kg, height: 178 ± 7.7 cm) were studied. Subjects' power output (P), heart rate (HR), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score and blood lactate (BL) clearance in response to PR, SMOZO and SM recoveries were compared. There were no significant differences in cyclists' heart rate patterns in the three experimental conditions (p > 0.05). After SMOZO recovery, athletes showed a higher Pmax (p oil during sports massage increases blood lactate removal, improves performance and reduces the perception of fatigue in cyclists from 3 Wingate tests. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Oil companies push in-situ recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntyre, H.


    Possibly, a third Athabaska tar-sand plant using surface mining will be built in the 1980's, but future development beyond that point will probably depend on in-situ recovery. The discussion of in-situ recovery focusses on the effect it will have on the Canadian chemical industry, for example, the market for sodium hydroxide. To obtain the highest yields of oil from bitumen, an external source of hydrogen is necessary; for example Syncrude imports natural gas to make hydrogen for desulphurization. Gasification of coal is a possible source of hydrogen. Research on hydrocracking is progressing. Use of a prototype CANDU OCR reactor to raise the hot steam necessary for in-situ recovery has been suggested. Venezuela is interested in Canadian upgrading technology. (N.D.H.)

  10. Cost, energy, global warming, eutrophication and local human health impacts of community water and sanitation service options. (United States)

    Schoen, Mary E; Xue, Xiaobo; Wood, Alison; Hawkins, Troy R; Garland, Jay; Ashbolt, Nicholas J


    We compared water and sanitation system options for a coastal community across selected sustainability metrics, including environmental impact (i.e., life cycle eutrophication potential, energy consumption, and global warming potential), equivalent annual cost, and local human health impact. We computed normalized metric scores, which we used to discuss the options' strengths and weaknesses, and conducted sensitivity analysis of the scores to changes in variable and uncertain input parameters. The alternative systems, which combined centralized drinking water with sanitation services based on the concepts of energy and nutrient recovery as well as on-site water reuse, had reduced environmental and local human health impacts and costs than the conventional, centralized option. Of the selected sustainability metrics, the greatest advantages of the alternative community water systems (compared to the conventional system) were in terms of local human health impact and eutrophication potential, despite large, outstanding uncertainties. Of the alternative options, the systems with on-site water reuse and energy recovery technologies had the least local human health impact; however, the cost of these options was highly variable and the energy consumption was comparable to on-site alternatives without water reuse or energy recovery, due to on-site reuse treatment. Future work should aim to reduce the uncertainty in the energy recovery process and explore the health risks associated with less costly, on-site water treatment options. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Herpes virus production as a marker of repair in ultra-violet irradiated human skin cells of different origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coppey, J; Nocentini, S; Menezes, S [Institut du Radium, 75 - Paris (France). Lab. Curie; Moreno, G


    Human skin fibroblast cultures were irradiated with ultraviolet light 0 to 48 hours before infection with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV). Different viral yields were obtained according to the origin of the host cells. Cells from normal donors showed a dose-dependent recovery of HSV production during the 36-40 hours following U.V. exposure. The recovery was maximal for a dose at which a plateau level of unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) was reached (24Jm/sup -2/). In a xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) heterozygote line from a mother of XP children, the level of UDS after irradiation up to 48 Jm/sup -2/ was normal whereas the extent of recovery of HSV production capacity was lower than normal. In strains from XP children, with a normal UDS (XP variants), the recovery process was slower and its extent was lower than in normal or XP heterozygote cells. Excision-deficient XP strains from XP children presented little or no recovery, the extent of which was in good agreement with the corresponding level of UDS. Measurement of this recovery seems to be a very sensitive assay for detecting differences in the repair abilities of U.V.-irradiated human skin cells of various origins.

  12. Blocking type I interferon signaling enhances T cell recovery and reduces HIV-1 reservoirs. (United States)

    Cheng, Liang; Ma, Jianping; Li, Jingyun; Li, Dan; Li, Guangming; Li, Feng; Zhang, Qing; Yu, Haisheng; Yasui, Fumihiko; Ye, Chaobaihui; Tsao, Li-Chung; Hu, Zhiyuan; Su, Lishan; Zhang, Liguo


    Despite the efficient suppression of HIV-1 replication that can be achieved with combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), low levels of type I interferon (IFN-I) signaling persist in some individuals. This sustained signaling may impede immune recovery and foster viral persistence. Here we report studies using a monoclonal antibody to block IFN-α/β receptor (IFNAR) signaling in humanized mice (hu-mice) that were persistently infected with HIV-1. We discovered that effective cART restored the number of human immune cells in HIV-1-infected hu-mice but did not rescue their immune hyperactivation and dysfunction. IFNAR blockade fully reversed HIV-1-induced immune hyperactivation and rescued anti-HIV-1 immune responses in T cells from HIV-1-infected hu-mice. Finally, we found that IFNAR blockade in the presence of cART reduced the size of HIV-1 reservoirs in lymphoid tissues and delayed HIV-1 rebound after cART cessation in the HIV-1-infected hu-mice. We conclude that low levels of IFN-I signaling contribute to HIV-1-associated immune dysfunction and foster HIV-1 persistence in cART-treated hosts. Our results suggest that blocking IFNAR may provide a potential strategy to enhance immune recovery and reduce HIV-1 reservoirs in individuals with sustained elevations in IFN-I signaling during suppressive cART.

  13. [Stumbling-blocks: initiating a psychosomatic pain clinic]. (United States)

    Heger, S; Lieberz, K


    Despite psychosocial factors playing an important role in the course of chronic pain disorder, there is a noticeable imbalance between demand and availability of psychosomatic care for these patients. This led us to establish a psychosomatic pain clinic within the framework of our outpatient clinic at the Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy at the Central Institute of Mental Health, Mannheim, Germany. A recent study aimed at the evaluation of sociodemographic variables, state of chronification, symptom load and psychiatric comorbidity. Additionally we wanted to determine whether existing conditions at our hospital can be considered suitable for those patients. During the clinic's first year we assessed 40 consecutive patients based on a psychosomatic interview as well as a set of psychometric questionnaires (BDI, STAI, SCL-90-R). To detect differences between pain patients and psychotherapy inpatients, we compared the two groups in terms of sociodemographic variables and symptom load. Most pain patients were in advanced states of chronification, showing extensive psychiatric comorbidity, particularly anxiety and depressive syndromes. Drug addiction was found more infrequently. Use of the before mentioned questionnaires prevented us from underestimating existing anxiety syndromes. Pain patients differed substantially from psychotherapy inpatients in terms of age, education, family status and symptom load. Our examination routine effectively demonstrated the special needs of chronic pain patients. As there is significant demand for psychosomatic intervention in those patients, earlier referral appears highly desirable. As pain patients differ also greatly from the remaining hospital population, specialized therapeutic concepts must be developed.

  14. Feasibility of recovery boiler in paper and pulp industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, H.


    in this paper feasibility of recovery boiler in terms of economics and environmental impacts in studied. Recovery boilers are employed in the pulp and paper industry where the cooking agent is recovered by burning black liquor. Cooking agent is exhausted due to the absorption of lignin (a burnable component) in cooking agent in the process of straw cooking. The process of recovery boiler is to remove lignin by combustion from black liquor, and heat is produced during the combustion of lignin which is used to produce steam. Recovery boiler is economical as it is recovering valuable chemicals and steam is produced as a byproduct. Steam from recovery boiler is also used for concentrating weak black liquor to concentrated black liquor recovering 50% of the utility water being used at the plant. The regenerated water in the form of foul condensate is reused in the process. The recovery of hazardous chemicals also reduces load of environmental pollution. Which otherwise can pollute the water reservoirs, and regeneration of water makes it environmentally friendly plant. Construction and challenges in operation of recovery boiler such as smelt-water explosion are also discussed in this paper. (author)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Jemi Florinabel


    Full Text Available A speedy recovery of damaged digitized photographs based on orientation driven multi structure morphology is proposed. The recovery order plays an important factor for human visualization and hence it is guided by the orientation of edges at the surrounding known regions of the missing domain. The image is edge detected by thresholding the image gradient along the eight possible orientations. These eight edge images are represented as eight edge planes. The edge-plane-sliced information is used twice manifold for reconstructing the regions within the missing part, as well as for guiding the integration that follows. The damaged regions are morphologically eroded using the structuring elements of corresponding orientations dictated by the edge-planes. The resultant filled image is obtained using local isotopic driven integration. The novelty of our approach is to explicitly specify the direction of filling herby ensuring ease in convergence in different orientations and then streamlining the process to guarantee complete and natural look. By implementing region-filling through morphological erosion, several pixels instead of one can be restored at every inpainting step, making the method faster than many traditional texture synthesis inpainting algorithms and successfully recovers images with better Peak Signal to Noise ratios even for massive damages.

  16. Exploring vocal recovery after cranial nerve injury in Bengalese finches. (United States)

    Urbano, Catherine M; Peterson, Jennifer R; Cooper, Brenton G


    Songbirds and humans use auditory feedback to acquire and maintain their vocalizations. The Bengalese finch (Lonchura striata domestica) is a songbird species that rapidly modifies its vocal output to adhere to an internal song memory. In this species, the left side of the bipartite vocal organ is specialized for producing louder, higher frequencies (≥2.2kHz) and denervation of the left vocal muscles eliminates these notes. Thus, the return of higher frequency notes after cranial nerve injury can be used as a measure of vocal recovery. Either the left or right side of the syrinx was denervated by resection of the tracheosyringeal portion of the hypoglossal nerve. Histologic analyses of syringeal muscle tissue showed significant muscle atrophy in the denervated side. After left nerve resection, songs were mainly composed of lower frequency syllables, but three out of five birds recovered higher frequency syllables. Right nerve resection minimally affected phonology, but it did change song syntax; syllable sequence became abnormally stereotyped after right nerve resection. Therefore, damage to the neuromuscular control of sound production resulted in reduced motor variability, and Bengalese finches are a potential model for functional vocal recovery following cranial nerve injury. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Recovery and recrystallization of U{sub 3}Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caillibot, P F; Wyatt, B S


    The recovery and recrystallization temperatures of U{sub 3}Si were determined for an alloy of uranium-3.98 wt% silicon containing 600 ppm carbon. Small specimens, deformed by compression, were isothermally and isochronally annealed at temperatures between 350 and 700{sup o}C and their recovery and recrystallization temperatures determined using hardness, grain size and X-ray measurements. For small amounts of strain and an annealing time of 6 hours both recovery and recrystallization begin at 400-450{sup o}C. Complete recrystallization is achieved at 650-700{sup o}C. The effect of small changes in silicon and carbon concentration were determined by examining two further alloys containing 3.27 wt% silicon and 600 ppm carbon, and 4.02 wt% silicon and 140 ppm carbon respectively. A small change in silicon concentration does not affect recovery and recrystallization but decreasing the carbon concentration from 600 to 140 ppm decreases the recovery and recrystallization temperatures. (author)

  18. Genealogies of recovery: The framing of therapeutic ambitions. (United States)

    Brown, Brian; Manning, Nick


    The notion of recovery has become prominent in mental healthcare discourse in the UK, but it is often considered as if it were a relatively novel notion, and as if it represented an alternative to conventional treatment and intervention. In this paper, we explore some of the origins of the notion of recovery in the early 20th century in movements such as Alcoholics Anonymous and Recovery Inc. Whilst these phenomena are not entirely continuous with recovery in the present day, some important antecedents of the contemporary notion can be detected. These include the focus on the sufferers' interior space as a key theatre of operations and the reinforcement and consolidation of medical ways of seeing the condition without any immediate medical supervision of the actors being necessary. This has resonance with many contemporary examples of recovery in practice where the art of living with a mental health condition is emphasised without the nature of the psychopathological condition itself being challenged. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Self-cognitions in antisocial alcohol dependence and recovery. (United States)

    Corte, Colleen; Stein, Karen Farchaus


    Cross-sectional relationships between content and structural properties of the self-concept and alcohol use in young adults with antisocial alcohol dependence (AAD) (n = 24), those in recovery from AAD (n = 18), and controls (n = 23) were examined using the schema model of the self-concept. Persons with AAD had a trend toward fewer positive self-schemas than did controls, and had more negative self-schemas and a trend toward higher interrelatedness than did those in recovery and controls. They also showed evidence of a drinking-related self-schema, whereas those in recovery showed evidence of a recovery-related self-schema. Finally, evidence to support a model using properties of the self-concept to predict high levels of alcohol use was found. These findings provide a beginning empirical foundation for the development of nursing interventions aimed at altering self-structure to prevent the development of and promote recovery from antisocial alcohol dependence.

  20. Evidence-based post-exercise recovery strategies in basketball. (United States)

    Calleja-González, Julio; Terrados, Nicolás; Mielgo-Ayuso, Juan; Delextrat, Anne; Jukic, Igor; Vaquera, Alejandro; Torres, Lorena; Schelling, Xavier; Stojanovic, Marko; Ostojic, Sergej M


    Basketball can be described as a moderate-to-long duration exercise including repeated bouts of high-intensity activity interspersed with periods of low to moderate active