WorldWideScience

Sample records for human spine imaging

  1. Imaging of spine injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomoschitz, F. . e-mai: friedrich.lomoschitz@univie.ac.at

    2001-01-01

    Spinal trauma requires a prompt and detailed diagnosis for estimating the prognosis and installing proper therapy. Conventional radiograms are the first imaging modality in most cases. In the cervical and the lumbar spine, a CT has to be performed in patients with polytrauma and a higher risk of complications or with signs of instability. Especially for imaging the cervicocranium, multiplanar reformations in sagittal and coronal planes are necessary. For fractures of the thoracic spine, MR imaging is superior to CT because of the better detection of associated neurologic complications. (author)

  2. A framework for human spine imaging using a freehand 3D ultrasound system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purnama, Ketut E.; Wilkinson, Michael H.F.; Veldhuizen, Albert G.; van Ooijen, Peter M.A.; Lubbers, Jaap; Burgerhof, Johannes G.M.; Sardjono, Tri A.; Verkerke, Gijsbertus Jacob

    2010-01-01

    The use of 3D ultrasound imaging to follow the progression of scoliosis, i.e., a 3D deformation of the spine, is described. Unlike other current examination modalities, in particular based on X-ray, its non-detrimental effect enables it to be used frequently to follow the progression of scoliosis

  3. Imaging the human spine using ultrasound : a preliminary study to follow scoliosis progression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purnama, I Ketut Eddy

    2007-01-01

    Scoliosis is a three-dimensional deformation of the spine which is recognized in the frontal view by the presence of a lateral curvature. This curvature is characterized by an axial rotation of the vertebrae. The axial rotation in the thoracic region will move and deform the attached ribs resulting

  4. Imaging of cervical spine injuries of childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanna, Geetika; El-Khoury, Georges Y. [University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Department of Radiology, 3951 JPP, Iowa, IA (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Cervical spine injuries of children, though rare, have a high morbidity and mortality. The pediatric cervical spine is anatomically and biomechanically different from that of adults. Hence, the type, level and outcome of cervical spine injuries in children are different from those seen in adults. Normal developmental variants seen in children can make evaluation of the pediatric cervical spine challenging. This article reviews the epidemiology of pediatric cervical spine trauma, normal variants seen in children and specific injuries that are more common in the pediatric population. We also propose an evidence-based imaging protocol to avoid unnecessary imaging studies and minimize radiation exposure in children. (orig.)

  5. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Lumbar Spine (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Lumbar Spine KidsHealth / For Parents / Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Lumbar Spine What's in this article? ...

  6. Pediatric spine imaging post scoliosis surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsharief, Alaa N. [IWK Children' s Health Center, Dalhousie University, Diagnostic Imaging Department, Halifax, NS (Canada); The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto (Canada); King Saud University, Department of Medical Imaging, King Abdul-Aziz Medical City, King Khaled National Guard Hospital-Western Region, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); El-Hawary, Ron [Dalhousie University, Orthopedic Surgery Department, IWK Children' s Health Center, Halifax, NS (Canada); Schmit, Pierre [IWK Children' s Health Center, Dalhousie University, Diagnostic Imaging Department, Halifax, NS (Canada)

    2018-01-15

    Many orthopedic articles describe advances in surgical techniques and implants used in pediatric scoliosis surgery. However, even though postoperative spine imaging constitutes a large portion of outpatient musculoskeletal pediatric radiology, few, if any, radiology articles discuss this topic. There has been interval advancement over the last decades of the orthopedic procedures used in the treatment of spinal scoliosis in adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis. The goal of treatment in these patients is to stop the progression of the curve by blocking the spinal growth and correcting the deformity as much as possible. To that end, the authors in this paper discuss postoperative imaging findings of Harrington rods, Luque rods, Luque-Galveston implants and segmental spinal fusion systems. Regarding early onset scoliosis, the guiding principles used for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis do not apply to a growing spine because they would impede lung development. As a result, other devices have been developed to correct the curve and to allow spinal growth. These include spine-based growing rods, vertically expandable prosthetic titanium rods (requiring repetitive surgeries) and magnetically controlled growing rods (with a magnetic locking/unlocking system). Other more recent systems are Shilla and thoracoscopic anterior vertebral body tethering, which allow guided growth of the spine without repetitive interventions. In this paper, we review the radiologic appearances of different orthopedic implants and techniques used to treat adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and early onset scoliosis. Moreover, we present the imaging findings of the most frequent postoperative complications. (orig.)

  7. Pediatric spine imaging post scoliosis surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsharief, Alaa N.; El-Hawary, Ron; Schmit, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    Many orthopedic articles describe advances in surgical techniques and implants used in pediatric scoliosis surgery. However, even though postoperative spine imaging constitutes a large portion of outpatient musculoskeletal pediatric radiology, few, if any, radiology articles discuss this topic. There has been interval advancement over the last decades of the orthopedic procedures used in the treatment of spinal scoliosis in adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis. The goal of treatment in these patients is to stop the progression of the curve by blocking the spinal growth and correcting the deformity as much as possible. To that end, the authors in this paper discuss postoperative imaging findings of Harrington rods, Luque rods, Luque-Galveston implants and segmental spinal fusion systems. Regarding early onset scoliosis, the guiding principles used for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis do not apply to a growing spine because they would impede lung development. As a result, other devices have been developed to correct the curve and to allow spinal growth. These include spine-based growing rods, vertically expandable prosthetic titanium rods (requiring repetitive surgeries) and magnetically controlled growing rods (with a magnetic locking/unlocking system). Other more recent systems are Shilla and thoracoscopic anterior vertebral body tethering, which allow guided growth of the spine without repetitive interventions. In this paper, we review the radiologic appearances of different orthopedic implants and techniques used to treat adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and early onset scoliosis. Moreover, we present the imaging findings of the most frequent postoperative complications. (orig.)

  8. MR imaging of acute cervical spine injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyu Hwa; Lee, Jung Hyung; Joo, Yang Goo [School of Medicine, Keimyung University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-01-15

    To describe magnetic resonance (MR) findings of the patients with acute cervical spinal injury and to assess the usefulness of the MR imagings. We retrospectively reviewed the MR images of 32 patients with acute cervical spinal injury. MR images were obtained with a 2.0 T superconductive MR imaging units (Spectro-20000, Gold-Star, Seoul), using spin-echo and gradient-echo technique. Most of patients were in their 3rd-4th decades and motor vehicle accident was the most frequent cause of acute cervical trauma. We assessed the MR findings with respect to the spinal cord, ligaments, paravertebral soft tissues, intervertebral disk, and bony spine. Spinal cord injury was the most common (65%), where cord swelling, edema, and/or hematoma were demonstrated most frequently at C5-6 level. Traumatic intervertebral disk herniations were the second most common (62.5%) and frequently occurred at the lower cervical levels, mostly at C5-6. Paravertebral soft tissue injury, vertebral body fracture, bone marrow edema and displacement were also well shown on MR images. MR imaging appears to be essential for the evaluation of traumatic disk herniations, spinal cord abnormalities, and injury of paravertebral soft tissue in the acute injury of the cervical spine.

  9. MR imaging of acute cervical spine injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyu Hwa; Lee, Jung Hyung; Joo, Yang Goo

    1995-01-01

    To describe magnetic resonance (MR) findings of the patients with acute cervical spinal injury and to assess the usefulness of the MR imagings. We retrospectively reviewed the MR images of 32 patients with acute cervical spinal injury. MR images were obtained with a 2.0 T superconductive MR imaging units (Spectro-20000, Gold-Star, Seoul), using spin-echo and gradient-echo technique. Most of patients were in their 3rd-4th decades and motor vehicle accident was the most frequent cause of acute cervical trauma. We assessed the MR findings with respect to the spinal cord, ligaments, paravertebral soft tissues, intervertebral disk, and bony spine. Spinal cord injury was the most common (65%), where cord swelling, edema, and/or hematoma were demonstrated most frequently at C5-6 level. Traumatic intervertebral disk herniations were the second most common (62.5%) and frequently occurred at the lower cervical levels, mostly at C5-6. Paravertebral soft tissue injury, vertebral body fracture, bone marrow edema and displacement were also well shown on MR images. MR imaging appears to be essential for the evaluation of traumatic disk herniations, spinal cord abnormalities, and injury of paravertebral soft tissue in the acute injury of the cervical spine

  10. Selectable six-element multicoil array for entire spine imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, J.W.; Bluma-Walter, J.; Prorok, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    This article introduces a new multicoil array that can provide entire spine imaging in two acquisitions with no need to manually reposition either the coil or the patient. A selectable contoured multicoil array with six elements was used to obtain coverage of the entire spine. The first four elements were used for imaging the upper spine region (cervical/thoracic) during the first acquisition, and the last four elements were used for imaging the lower spine region (thoracic/lumbar) during the second acquisition. The overall coil length was approximately 75 cm

  11. MR imaging evaluation of congenital spine anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bury, E.A.; Zimmerman, R.A.; Grossman, R.I.; Goldberg, H.I.; Bilaniuk, L.T.; Hackney, D.B.

    1987-01-01

    Over a 2-year period, 135 patients between the ages of 1 week and 18 years were examined with MR imaging for possible congenital anomalies of the spine and spinal cord. Tethered cords with various other associated pathologies such as lipomas and myelomeningoceles were found in 36 patients. The remaining abnormal examinations consisted of syrinxes, Chiari malformations, diastematomyelia, and conus masses. In 55 patients the studies were interpreted as normal. Of these, three were subsequently shown by surgery of myelography to be abnormal. The first had a thickened filum with a small epidermoid, the second a thickened filum, and the third, with only sagittal images, a diastematomyelia. Children presenting with symptoms highly suspicious for congenital abnormalities but with a normal MR study in multiple planes may still require further evaluation with myelography. Multiplanar MR examination in most instances will be a sufficient evaluation for congenital anomalies

  12. Imaging the Traumatized Spine'Clearing The Cervical Spine'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monu, U.V.J.

    2015-01-01

    Failure to recognize and diagnose injury to the cervical spine on plain radiographs can lead to severe and devastating consequences to the patient in particular and to the radiologist financially and otherwise. CT examination of the cervical spine aids and significantly improves diagnoses in many instances. it is neither economically feasible nor desirable to obtain CT on all patients. Meticulous attention to detail and zero tolerance for deviations from the usual radiographic landmarks will help select cases that should obtain additional imaging in form of CT or MRI scans. Faced with a task of clearing a cervical spine, a number of options are available. The first discriminator is whether or not the patient can be cleared clinically. If that is not possible, radiographic evaluation is needed. Strict adherence to a minimum three view plain radiograph for C-spine series must be maintained. Deviation from established norms for cervical spine radiographs should trigger a CT for additional evaluation

  13. Automated curved planar reformation of 3D spine images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrtovec, Tomaz; Likar, Bostjan; Pernus, Franjo

    2005-01-01

    Traditional techniques for visualizing anatomical structures are based on planar cross-sections from volume images, such as images obtained by computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, planar cross-sections taken in the coordinate system of the 3D image often do not provide sufficient or qualitative enough diagnostic information, because planar cross-sections cannot follow curved anatomical structures (e.g. arteries, colon, spine, etc). Therefore, not all of the important details can be shown simultaneously in any planar cross-section. To overcome this problem, reformatted images in the coordinate system of the inspected structure must be created. This operation is usually referred to as curved planar reformation (CPR). In this paper we propose an automated method for CPR of 3D spine images, which is based on the image transformation from the standard image-based to a novel spine-based coordinate system. The axes of the proposed spine-based coordinate system are determined on the curve that represents the vertebral column, and the rotation of the vertebrae around the spine curve, both of which are described by polynomial models. The optimal polynomial parameters are obtained in an image analysis based optimization framework. The proposed method was qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated on five CT spine images. The method performed well on both normal and pathological cases and was consistent with manually obtained ground truth data. The proposed spine-based CPR benefits from reduced structural complexity in favour of improved feature perception of the spine. The reformatted images are diagnostically valuable and enable easier navigation, manipulation and orientation in 3D space. Moreover, reformatted images may prove useful for segmentation and other image analysis tasks

  14. Oriented Markov random field based dendritic spine segmentation for fluorescence microscopy images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jie; Zhou, Xiaobo; Miller, Eric L; Alvarez, Veronica A; Sabatini, Bernardo L; Wong, Stephen T C

    2010-10-01

    Dendritic spines have been shown to be closely related to various functional properties of the neuron. Usually dendritic spines are manually labeled to analyze their morphological changes, which is very time-consuming and susceptible to operator bias, even with the assistance of computers. To deal with these issues, several methods have been recently proposed to automatically detect and measure the dendritic spines with little human interaction. However, problems such as degraded detection performance for images with larger pixel size (e.g. 0.125 μm/pixel instead of 0.08 μm/pixel) still exist in these methods. Moreover, the shapes of detected spines are also distorted. For example, the "necks" of some spines are missed. Here we present an oriented Markov random field (OMRF) based algorithm which improves spine detection as well as their geometric characterization. We begin with the identification of a region of interest (ROI) containing all the dendrites and spines to be analyzed. For this purpose, we introduce an adaptive procedure for identifying the image background. Next, the OMRF model is discussed within a statistical framework and the segmentation is solved as a maximum a posteriori estimation (MAP) problem, whose optimal solution is found by a knowledge-guided iterative conditional mode (KICM) algorithm. Compared with the existing algorithms, the proposed algorithm not only provides a more accurate representation of the spine shape, but also improves the detection performance by more than 50% with regard to reducing both the misses and false detection.

  15. Rheumatic diseases of the spine: imaging diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narváez, J A; Hernández-Gañán, J; Isern, J; Sánchez-Fernández, J J

    2016-04-01

    Spinal involvement is common both in the spondyloarthritides and in rheumatoid arthritis, in which the cervical segment is selectively affected. Rheumatoid involvement of the cervical spine has characteristic radiologic manifestations, fundamentally different patterns of atlantoaxial instability. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the technique of choice for evaluating the possible repercussions of atlantoaxial instability on the spinal cord and/or nerve roots in patients with rheumatoid arthritis as well as for evaluating parameters indicative of active inflammation, such as bone edema and synovitis. Axial involvement is characteristic in the spondyloarthritides and has distinctive manifestations on plain-film X-rays, which reflect destructive and reparative phenomena. The use of MRI has changed the conception of spondyloarthritis because it is able to directly detect the inflammatory changes that form part of the disease, making it possible to establish the diagnosis early in the disease process, when plain-film X-ray findings are normal (non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis), to assess the prognosis of the disease, and to contribute to treatment planning. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Cervical spine injury in the elderly: imaging features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehara, S. [Dept. of Radiology, Iwate Medical University School of Medicine, Morioka (Japan); Shimamura, Tadashi [Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery, Iwate Medical University School of Medicine, Morioka (Japan)

    2001-01-01

    An increase in the elderly population has resulted in an increased incidence of cervical spine injury in this group. No specific type of cervical spine trauma is seen in the elderly, although dens fractures are reported to be common. Hyperextension injuries due to falling and the resultant central cord syndrome in the mid and lower cervical segments due to decreased elasticity as a result of spondylosis may be also characteristic. The imaging features of cervical spine injury are often modified by associated spondylosis deformans, DISH and other systemic disorders. The value of MR imaging in such cases is emphasized. (orig.)

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging of lumbar spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Takamichi; Fujita, Norihiko; Harada, Koushi; Kozuka, Takahiro

    1989-01-01

    Sixteen patients including 13 cases with disk herniation and 3 cases with spondylosis of lumbar spine were examined on a resistive MRI system operating at 0.1 T. All lesions were studied with both multiple spin echo (MSE) and low flip angle gradient echo (LF) techniques to evaluate which technique is more effective in detecting the disk degeneration and the indentation on subarachnoid space. MSE images were obtained with repetition time (TR) of 1100-1500 ms or cardiac gating, an echo time (TE) of 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 ms symmetrical 6 echoes, and total acquisition time of more than 281 sec. LF images were obtained with TR of 500, 250, and 100 ms, TE of 18 ms, a flip angle of 30 degree, and total acquisition time of 128 sec. Eleven lesions of spinal disk degeneration and 12 of indentation on subarachnoid space were detected with LF. On the other hand, 26 lesions of spinal disk degeneration and 38 of indentation on subarachnoid space were detected with MSE. Although the parameters of LF employed in this study were relatively effective to emphasize T2 * -based contrast, the ability of LF in detection of spinal disk degeneration and indentation on subarachnoid space is less than that of MSE. Signal contrast to noise ratios for normal disk and degenerative disk, epidural-fat and disk herniated material, CSF and disk herniated material, and epidural-fat and CSF were less than 4 with LF, but more than 4 with MSE. This difference of contrast to noise ratio between MSE and LF was one of the main causes of the difference of the detection rate of spinal disk degeneration and indentation on subarachnoid space. (author)

  18. Multimodal advanced imaging of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanenbaum, L.

    2015-01-01

    Full text: DWI is a powerful addition to the arsenal of MR imaging techniques for the detection of bone marrow tumor dissemination, improving sensitivity to involvement in a variety of tumor types. DWI increases confidence in monitoring treatment response and assisting in the differentiation of treatment related changes from tumor. DWI has also become an important component of whole-body MR oncology protocols. Distinguishing between benign and malignant etiologies of vertebral fracture with MRI is problematic, particularly if only one vertebra is affected. the value of DWI in discriminating between osteoporotic and metastatic vertebral fractures is controversial and by consensus insufficiently reliable. DWI is useful for differentiation of degenerative and infectious endplate abnormalities. Symptomatic degenerative vertebral endplate signal changes (Modic type 1) can be difficult to differentiate from acute spondylodiscitis using conventional MRI techniques. Several studies have shown that DWI adds value in differentiating degenerative and infectious endplate abnormalities. Recently a characteristic DWI finding of well-marginated, linear, typically paired regions of high signal at the interface of normal with abnormal marrow, referred to as a ‘claw’ sign, is been shown to be highly suggestive of degeneration and its absence in cases with Modic type I changes suggestive of diskitis/osteomyelitis. the value of excluding the possibility of infection can be seen in reduction in unnecessary, often invasive ancillary testing and reduced levels of patient concern. DWI may also yield insight into intervertebral disc degeneration. It has recently been shown in the lumbar spine that disc degeneration can influence ADC values with negative correlation between ADC and the degree of disc degeneration

  19. Imaging the cervical spine following rugby related injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, J.J.W.

    2016-01-01

    Rugby Union and Rugby League are popular sports with high participation across the world. The high impact nature of the sport results in a high proportion of injuries. Rugby has an association with cervical spine injury which has potentially catastrophic consequences for the patient. Anecdotal evidence suggests that radiographers find it challenging to visualise the cervicothoracic junction on the lateral supine cervical spine projection in broad shouldered athletes. This paper intends to analyse the risk factors for cervical spine injuries in rugby and discuss the imaging strategy in respect to radiography and CT scanning in high risk patient groups such as rugby players who are suspected of suffering a cervical spine injury. - Highlights: • Rugby as a participation sport represents a risk of cervical spine injury. • Conventional radiography lacks sensitivity in identifying cervical spine injury. • The body habitus of rugby players makes the imaging of the cervicothoracic junction challenging. • CT scanning should replace radiography in the event of serious suspicion of cervical spine injury. • The notion of CT being a high dose modality should be questioned.

  20. Coupled motions in human and porcine thoracic and lumbar spines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kingma, Idsart; Busscher, Iris; van der Veen, Albert J.; Verkerke, Gijsbertus J.; Veldhuizen, Albert G.; Homminga, Jasper; van Dieën, Jaap H.

    2018-01-01

    Coupled motions, i.e., motions along axes other than the loaded axis, have been reported to occur in the human spine, and are likely to be influenced by inclined local axes due to the sagittal plane spine curvature. Furthermore, the role of facet joints in such motions is as yet unclear. Therefore,

  1. Coupled motions in human and porcine thoracic and lumbar spines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kingma, Idsart; Busscher, Iris; van der Veen, Albert J.; Verkerke, Gijsbertus J.; Veldhuizen, Albert G.; Homminga, Jasper; van Dieën, Jaap H.

    2017-01-01

    Coupled motions, i.e., motions along axes other than the loaded axis, have been reported to occur in the human spine, and are likely to be influenced by inclined local axes due to the sagittal plane spine curvature. Furthermore, the role of facet joints in such motions is as yet unclear. Therefore,

  2. Concomitant lower thoracic spine disc disease in lumbar spine MR imaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arana, Estanislao; Martí-Bonmatí, Luis; Dosdá, Rosa; Mollá, Enrique

    2002-11-01

    Our objective was to study the coexistence of lower thoracic-spine disc changes in patients with low back pain using a large field of view (FOV) in lumbar spine MR imaging. One hundred fifty patients with low back pain were referred to an MR examination. All patients were studied with a large FOV (27 cm), covering from the coccyx to at least the body of T11. Discs were coded as normal, protrusion, and extrusion (either epiphyseal or intervertebral). The relationship between disc disease and level was established with the Pearson chi(2) test. The T11-12 was the most commonly affected level of the lower thoracic spine with 58 disc cases rated as abnormal. Abnormalities of T11-12 and T12-L1 discs were significantly related only to L1-L2 disease ( p=0.001 and p=0.004, respectively) but unrelated to other disc disease, patient's gender, and age. No correlation was found between other discs. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine can detect a great amount of lower thoracic disease, although its clinical significance remains unknown. A statistically significant relation was found within the thoracolumbar junctional region (T11-L2), reflecting common pathoanatomical changes. The absence of relation with lower lumbar spine discs is probably due to differences in their pathomechanisms.

  3. Concomitant lower thoracic spine disc disease in lumbar spine MR imaging studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arana, Estanislao; Marti-Bonmati, Luis; Dosda, Rosa; Molla, Enrique

    2002-01-01

    Our objective was to study the coexistence of lower thoracic-spine disc changes in patients with low back pain using a large field of view (FOV) in lumbar spine MR imaging. One hundred fifty patients with low back pain were referred to an MR examination. All patients were studied with a large FOV (27 cm), covering from the coccyx to at least the body of T11. Discs were coded as normal, protrusion, and extrusion (either epiphyseal or intervertebral). The relationship between disc disease and level was established with the Pearson χ 2 test. The T11-12 was the most commonly affected level of the lower thoracic spine with 58 disc cases rated as abnormal. Abnormalities of T11-12 and T12-L1 discs were significantly related only to L1-L2 disease (p=0.001 and p=0.004, respectively) but unrelated to other disc disease, patient's gender, and age. No correlation was found between other discs. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine can detect a great amount of lower thoracic disease, although its clinical significance remains unknown. A statistically significant relation was found within the thoracolumbar junctional region (T11-L2), reflecting common pathoanatomical changes. The absence of relation with lower lumbar spine discs is probably due to differences in their pathomechanisms. (orig.)

  4. Imaging of benign tumors of the osseous spine

    OpenAIRE

    Riahi, Hend; Mechri, Meriem; Barsaoui, Maher; Bouaziz, Mouna; Vanhoenacker, Filip; Ladeb, Mohamed

    2018-01-01

    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the imaging features of the most prevalent benign bone tumors involving the spine. Benign tumors of the osseous spine account approximately for 1% of all primary skeletal tumors. Many lesions exhibit characteristic radiologic features. In addition to age and location of the lesion, radiographs are an essential step in the initial detection and characterization but are limited to complex anatomy and superposition. CT and MR imagi...

  5. Pediatric cervical spine trauma imaging: a practical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egloff, Alexia M.; Kadom, Nadja; Vezina, Gilbert; Bulas, Dorothy [Children' s National Medical Center, Department of Imaging and Radiology, Washington, DC (United States)

    2009-05-15

    Cervical spine trauma in children is rare and the diagnosis can be challenging due to anatomical and biomechanical differences as compared to adults. A variety of algorithms have been used in adults to accurately diagnose injuries, but have not been fully studied in pediatric patients. In this article we review suggested imaging protocols and the general characteristics, types of injuries, and measurements used to diagnose cervical spine injuries in children. (orig.)

  6. Anatomy of large animal spines and its comparison to the human spine: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Sun-Ren; Wang, Xiang-Yang; Xu, Hua-Zi; Zhu, Guo-Qing; Zhou, Yi-Fei

    2010-01-01

    Animal models have been commonly used for in vivo and in vitro spinal research. However, the extent to which animal models resemble the human spine has not been well known. We conducted a systematic review to compare the morphometric features of vertebrae between human and animal species, so as to give some suggestions on how to choose an appropriate animal model in spine research. A literature search of all English language peer-reviewed publications was conducted using PubMed, OVID, Springer and Elsevier (Science Direct) for the years 1980-2008. Two reviewers extracted data on the anatomy of large animal spines from the identified articles. Each anatomical study of animals had to include at least three vertebral levels. The anatomical data from all animal studies were compared with the existing data of the human spine in the literature. Of the papers retrieved, seven were included in the review. The animals in the studies involved baboon, sheep, porcine, calf and deer. Distinct anatomical differences of vertebrae were found between the human and each large animal spine. In cervical region, spines of the baboon and human are more similar as compared to other animals. In thoracic and lumbar regions, the mean pedicle height of all animals was greater than the human pedicles. There was similar mean pedicle width between animal and the human specimens, except in thoracic segments of sheep. The human spinal canal was wider and deeper in the anteroposterior plane than any of the animals. The mean human vertebral body width and depth were greater than that of the animals except in upper thoracic segments of the deer. However, the mean vertebral body height was lower than that of all animals. This paper provides a comprehensive review to compare vertebrae geometries of experimental animal models to the human vertebrae, and will help for choosing animal model in vivo and in vitro spine research. When the animal selected for spine research, the structural similarities and

  7. Cervical human spine loads during traumatomechanical investigations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kallieris, D.; Rizzetti, A.; Mattern. R.; Thunnissen, J.G.M.; Philippens, M.M.G.M.

    1996-01-01

    The last decade's improvements in automotive safety resulted into a significant decrease of fatal injuries. However, due to the use of belts and airbags it can be observed that cervical spine injuries, non-severe and severe, have become more important. It seems that inertial loading of the neck by

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine in multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Masato; Nakahara, Shinnosuke; Koura, Hiroshi; Kai, Nobuo; Asaumi, Koji; Tanaka, Shunsuke; Sezaki, Tatsuo; Fukuda, Shunichi; Sunami, Kazutaka

    2000-01-01

    The characteristics of diagnostic imaging of the spine in multiple myeloma were examined. Twenty-one patients with stage II-III multiple myeloma (male=12, female=9, mean age=64) underwent MRI of the spine. Other diagnostic imaging modalities used in these patients included, CT bone scintigraphy, and radiography. All images of the spine were assessed and compared with the MRI images. The type of progression was evaluated based on the tumor distribution classification established by Sezaki. T1-weighted images of all 21 patients showed low signals in vertebral bodies, including 14 cases with a focal low signal intensity and 7 cases with diffuse low signal intensity. On the T2-weighted images, 15 of the 21 cases (71%) showed equivalent signals, while T2*-weighted images obtained by the field-echo method yielded high signals in 10 out of 11 cases. It was difficult to differentiate between senile osteoporosis and multiple myeloma by MRI, but CT images clearly distinguished between them. The results suggested that fat-suppressive T1-contrast images and T2*-weighted images are useful in detecting lesions, especially focal low signal intensity lesions. Patients with the multiple-lesion-tumor type of disease were more likely to develop paralysis more than those with the diffuse myeloproliferative type. Thus, the tumor distribution classification established by Sezaki was useful in considering radiotherapy for the treatment of patients at risk of paralysis. Bone scintigraphy revealed accumulation only in spinal lesions caused by compression fractures, while CT appeared to be useful in localizing the diffuse myeloproliferative type of lesions. The problems associated with diagnosis by MRI are differentiation of multiple myeloma from senile osteoporosis and metastatic bone tumors of the spine. There are few specific findings in multiple myeloma. (K.H.)

  9. Imaging fusion (SPECT/CT) in degenerative disease of spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernal, P.; Ucros, G.; Bermudez, S.; Ocampo, M.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Objective: To determine the utility of Fusion Imaging SPECT/CT in degenerative pathology of the spine and to establish the impact of the use of fusion imaging in spinal pain due to degenerative changes of the spine. Materials and methods: 44 Patients (M=21, F=23) average age of 63 years and with degenerative pathology of spine were sent to Diagnosis Imaging department in FSFB. Bone scintigraphy (SPECT), CT of spine (cervical: 30%, Lumbar 70%) and fusion imaging were performed in all of them. Bone scintigraphy was carried out in a gamma camera Siemens Diacam double head attached to ESOFT computer. The images were acquired in matrix 128 x 128, 20 seg/imag, 64 images. CT of spine was performed same day or two days after in Helycoidal Siemens somatom emotion CT. The fusion was done in a Dicom workstation in sagital, axial and coronal reconstruction. The findings were evaluated by 2 Nuclear Medicine physicians and 2 radiologists of the staff of FSFB in an independent way. Results: Bone scan (SPECT) and CT of 44 patients were evaluated. CT showed facet joint osteoarthrities in 27 (61.3%) patients, uncovertebral joint arthrosis in 7 (15.9%), bulging disc in 9(20.4%), spinal nucleus lesion in 7(15.9%), osteophytes in 9 (20.4%), spinal foraminal stenosis in 7 (15.9%), spondylolysis/spondylolisthesis in 4 (9%). Bone scan showed facet joint osteoarthrities in 29 (65.9%), uncovertebral joint arthrosis in 4 (9%), osteophytes in 9 (20.4%) and normal 3 (6.8%). The imaging fusion showed coincidence findings (main lesion in CT with high uptake in scintigraphy) in 34 patients (77.2%) and no coincidence in 10 (22.8%). In 15 (34.09%) patients the fusion provided additional information. The analysis of the findings of CT and SPECT showed similar results in most of the cases and the fusion didn't provide additional information but it allowed to confirm the findings but when the findings didn't match where the CT showed several findings and SPECT only one area with high uptake

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging of canine degenerative lumbar spine diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karkkainen, M.; Punto, L.U.; Tulamo, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    Degenerative lumbar spine diseases, i.e., sacrolumbar stenosis, intervertebral disk degeneration and protrusion and spondylosis deformans of the canine lumbar spine were studied in eleven canine patients and three healthy controls using radiography and 0.02 T and 0.04 T low field magnetic resonance imaging. The T1 and T2 weighted images were obtained in sagittal and transverse planes. The loss of hydration of nucleus pulposus, taken as a sign of degeneration in the intervertebral disks, could be evaluated in both T1 and T2 weighted images. As a noninvasive method magnetic resonance imaging gave more exact information about the condition of intervertebral disks than did radiography. Sacrolumbar stenosis and compression of the spinal cord or cauda equina and surrounding tissue could be evaluated without contrast medium

  11. NMR imaging of degenerative changes of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, H.K.

    1991-01-01

    Computerized tomography and nuclear spin resonance tomography, are today considered excellent ways of demonstrating herniae of intervertebral disks, especially in the lumbal region, at high sensitivity and accuracy. The facility of multiplanar imaging without reconstruction, the clearly greater amount of information by using different pulse sequences, better contrast resolution, and lacking ionizing radiation speak in favour of nuclear spin resonance tomography. Using nulcear spin resonance tomography, in all parts of the spine the excellent demonstration of the epidural space, of the myeloma, of the nerve roots as well as of the surrounding osseous and ligamentous structure is achieved. So, for the diagnosis of discopathies in the region of the cervical spine nuclear spin resonance tomography should be preferred to computerized tomography. In the region of the lumbar spine, however, CT will be of importance in the diagnosis of discopathies for some time. (orig./MG) [de

  12. Diffraction-enhanced imaging of the rat spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, M.E. [Cleveland Clinic, Dept. of Neurosurgery, Cleveland, Ohio (United States)]. E-mail: mebkelly@gmail.com; Beavis, R.C. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Royal Univ. Hospital, Div. of Orthopaedic Surgery, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Fourney, D.R. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Royal Univ. Hospital, Div. of Neurosurgery, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Schultke, E. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Dept. of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Parham, C. [Univ. of North Carolina, Dept. of Biomedical Engineering, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Juurlink, B.H. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Dept. of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Zhong, Z. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, National Synchrotron Light Source, Upton, New York (United States); Chapman, L.D. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Dept. of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2006-10-15

    Diffraction-enhanced imaging (DEI) uses monochromatic synchrotron X-rays to image tissue. This technique has been shown to produce superior bony and soft tissue characterization when compared with conventional absorption radiography. Application of this imaging modality is under investigation, and this study represents the first DEI analysis of the vertebral column. Four male Wistar rats were studied. Spine muscle blocks were imaged in 3 of the rats after thoracic laminectomy (n = 1), after lumbar laminectomy (n = 1), and in a control condition (n = 1). The fourth rat was imaged as a whole animal control. Conventional radiography and synchrotron-supported DEI at 40 keV were performed on all specimens. We compared images side by side, using a nonvalidated subjective assessment technique. DEI produced superior visualization of the vertebral anatomy, compared with conventional absorption radiography for all specimens. Greater bony and soft tissue detail was noted, with improved image contrast. In addition to imaging the anatomical structures, DEI showed the polyglactin suture material used for fascial closure in the 2 animals that underwent surgery. Artifact from air bubbles was present on DEI images but not on plain radiographs. This represents the first use of DEI, a novel imaging modality, to image the vertebral column. It provides excellent anatomic detail with superior contrast and visualization of both bone and soft tissue when compared with conventional radiography. Future applications of this investigational technique may include analysis of spinal fusion as well as degenerative and neoplastic conditions of the spine. (author)

  13. Diffraction-enhanced imaging of the rat spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, M.E.; Beavis, R.C.; Fourney, D.R.; Schultke, E.; Parham, C.; Juurlink, B.H.; Zhong, Z.; Chapman, L.D.

    2006-01-01

    Diffraction-enhanced imaging (DEI) uses monochromatic synchrotron X-rays to image tissue. This technique has been shown to produce superior bony and soft tissue characterization when compared with conventional absorption radiography. Application of this imaging modality is under investigation, and this study represents the first DEI analysis of the vertebral column. Four male Wistar rats were studied. Spine muscle blocks were imaged in 3 of the rats after thoracic laminectomy (n = 1), after lumbar laminectomy (n = 1), and in a control condition (n = 1). The fourth rat was imaged as a whole animal control. Conventional radiography and synchrotron-supported DEI at 40 keV were performed on all specimens. We compared images side by side, using a nonvalidated subjective assessment technique. DEI produced superior visualization of the vertebral anatomy, compared with conventional absorption radiography for all specimens. Greater bony and soft tissue detail was noted, with improved image contrast. In addition to imaging the anatomical structures, DEI showed the polyglactin suture material used for fascial closure in the 2 animals that underwent surgery. Artifact from air bubbles was present on DEI images but not on plain radiographs. This represents the first use of DEI, a novel imaging modality, to image the vertebral column. It provides excellent anatomic detail with superior contrast and visualization of both bone and soft tissue when compared with conventional radiography. Future applications of this investigational technique may include analysis of spinal fusion as well as degenerative and neoplastic conditions of the spine. (author)

  14. Tomographic imaging of the cervical spine of horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, L.P.; Machado, V.M.V.; Santos, R.V.; Evangelista, F.C.; Vulcano, L.C.

    2012-01-01

    The anatomy of the cervical spine of mature horses based on images obtained with a helical computed tomography examination performed on anatomic specimens was studied. Computed tomography was the diagnostic imaging method of choice and allowed three-dimensional reconstructions of images and other anatomical planes, such as coronal and sagittal. All images were acquired and evaluated in the filter and window to bone tissue. It was possible to demonstrate the anatomical differences and peculiarities of the normal vertebrae, particularly the occipito-atlantoaxial region, which has a higher incidence of changes to assist in the visualization of any change of the bone pattern on CT studies. (author)

  15. Sports injury of the spine: imaging diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kainberger, F.; Weidekamm, C.; Matzner, M.; Trieb, K.

    2006-01-01

    Sports injuries, especially those due to trend sports, and overuse resulting from monotonous repetitive movement patterns may cause various spinal abnormalities. Indications for diagnostic imaging should be established more readily in this group of young patients than in adults, as there is a higher probability to find morphologic abnormalities. This diagnostic strategy should also be applied for MRI and CT investigations. Image findings should be interpreted with view on kinetic chains related to distinct sporting activities. (orig.)

  16. MR imaging evaluation of congenital malformation of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrd, S.E.; Radkowski, M.A.; McLone, D.G.; Storrs, B.B.

    1988-01-01

    One hundred fifty children with congenital malformations of the spine were studied with MR imaging, US, and water-soluble myelography with CT. The malformations encountered included myelomeningoceles and Chiari II malformations, diastematomyelia, hydromyelia, arachnoid cyst, dermal sinus and dermoid, spinal lipomas and teratomas, tight filum terminale, anterior sacral meningoceles, lipomyelomeningoceles, myelocystocele, and severe scoliosis. MR imaging was the most effective modality in delineating these abnormalities. At times, real-time US and water-soluble CT myelography were required as adjuncts to MR imaging in delineating subtle spinal cord tethering, arachnoid cyst, diastematomyelia, and severe scoliosis

  17. Ultrasound Imaging of Spine: State of the Art and Utility for Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Bouffard, Antonio J.; Garcia, Kathleen; Hamilton, Douglas R.; Van Holsbeeck, Marnix; Ebert, Douglas J. W.; Dulchavsky, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Ultrasound imaging (sonography) has been increasingly used for both primary diagnosis and monitoring of musculoskeletal injury, including fractures. In certain injuries, sonography has been shown to equal or surpass Magnetic Resonance Imaging in accuracy. Long-term exposure to reduced gravity may be expected to cause physiological and anatomical changes of the musculoskeletal system, which are not fully described or understood. In a limited-resource environment like space flight, sonography will likely remain the only imaging modality; therefore, further attention to its potential is warranted, including its ability to image anatomical deviations as well as irregularities of vertebrae and the spinal column. Methods: A thorough review of literature was conducted on the subject. A multipurpose ultrasound system was used to identify specific vertebrae, intervertebral disks, and other structures of the cervical spine in healthy volunteers, selected to represent various age, gender, and Body Mass Index (BMI) groups. Sonographic views were sought that would parallel radiographic views and signs used in the diagnosis of cervical spine injuries. Results: While using widely accepted radiographic signs of cervical spine injury, this sonographic protocol development effort resulted in successful identification of scanning planes and imaging protocols that could serve as alternatives for radiography. Some of these views are also applicable to diagnosing degenerative disk and bone disease, and other non-traumatic spine pathology. Strong, preliminary correlation has been demonstrated in a number of clinical cases between sonography and other imaging modalities. Conclusion: In the absence of radiography, sonography can be used to diagnose or rule out certain common types of cervical spine conditions including injury. Clinical validation of the findings appears to be realistic and would facilitate establishment of new sonographic protocols for special environments

  18. MR imaging of the postoperative spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, J.S.; Modic, M.T.; Masaryk, T.T.; Bohlman, H.

    1986-01-01

    Preoperative, immediate postoperative, and delayed (2-6 months) postoperative MR studies were obtained in 20 patients who had undergone a variety of spinal surgical procedures. In addition, 50 postoperative patients without preoperative studies were also reviewed. MR studies included sagittal T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and axial T1-weighted and multiecho T2-weighted images. The evolution of signal intensity changes with time is demonstrated. Diskectomy produced no significant vertebral body changes and reduced but did not completely remove the extradural mass of herniation. Anterior fusion resulted in decreased signal on T1-weighted and increased signal on T2-weighted images in adjacent vertebral bodies, which were changes that were similar to those seen around bone grafts but distinct from the graft itself. Scar formation was better defined 2-3 months postoperatively

  19. MR imaging of the spine in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duthoy, M.J.; Lund, G.

    1988-08-01

    MR imaging was reviewed in 66 pediatric spinal cord patients with diagnoses of posterior fossa tumor, primary spinal cord tumor, metastatic disease, neuroectodermal disorder, congenital malformation, trauma, and demyelinating, neurodegenerative, or metabolic disorders. MR proved to be useful in delineating the extent of posterior fossa and cord tumor including metastasis to the cord. MR was of limited value in demyelinating and metabolic disorders. Arnold Chiari malformations, syringomyelia, tethered cord and meningoceles were all easily evaluated using MR.

  20. Imaging in spine and spinal cord malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, Andrea; Biancheri, Roberta; Cama, Armando; Piatelli, Gianluca; Ravegnani, Marcello; Tortori-Donati, Paolo

    2004-01-01

    Spinal and spinal cord malformations are collectively named spinal dysraphisms. They arise from defects occurring in the early embryological stages of gastrulation (weeks 2-3), primary neurulation (weeks 3-4), and secondary neurulation (weeks 5-6). Spinal dysraphisms are categorized into open spinal dysraphisms (OSDs), in which there is exposure of abnormal nervous tissues through a skin defect, and closed spinal dysraphisms (CSD), in which there is a continuous skin coverage to the underlying malformation. Open spinal dysraphisms basically include myelomeningocele and other rare abnormalities such as myelocele and hemimyelo(meningo)cele. Closed spinal dysraphisms are further categorized based on the association with low-back subcutaneous masses. Closed spinal dysraphisms with mass are represented by lipomyelocele, lipomyelomeningocele, meningocele, and myelocystocele. Closed spinal dysraphisms without mass comprise simple dysraphic states (tight filum terminale, filar and intradural lipomas, persistent terminal ventricle, and dermal sinuses) and complex dysraphic states. The latter category further comprises defects of midline notochordal integration (basically represented by diastematomyelia) and defects of segmental notochordal formation (represented by caudal agenesis and spinal segmental dysgenesis). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the preferred modality for imaging these complex abnormalities. The use of the aforementioned classification scheme is greatly helpful to make the diagnosis

  1. MR imaging of the lumber spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, Kazumasa; Hieda, Hiroshi; Goto, Takeshi; Goto, Hiroshi; Koga, Hiromichi; Hiraoka, Kouji

    1991-01-01

    We studied visualization capability of the nerve root in mainly coronary section pattern using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI was carried out in 91 patients with lumbago and sciatica. Coronary section was additionally photographed in 58 cases of these patients (32 with intervertebral hernia, 20 with spinal canal stenosis, 2 with spondylolytic spondylolisthesis, 2 with compression fracture and the other 2 patients). The visualization capability of the nerve root was studied with photographing 2 pulse systems of the coronary section by using spin echo and field echo methods. The high signal area of the cerebrospinal fluid and nerve root in the normal lumbar vertebra was noted by field echo method, and pattern that is visualized by myelogram was obtained. The coincidence of the main foci (disturbed lesions of the nerve root) in the intervertebral hernia and coronary section pattern was noted in 21 of 32 cases (64.5%) with considerably high ratio. The condition of the nerve root in the blocked lesion was visualized in the spinal canal stenosis. (author)

  2. [Research on the range of motion measurement system for spine based on LabVIEW image processing technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaofang; Deng, Linhong; Lu, Hu; He, Bin

    2014-08-01

    A measurement system based on the image processing technology and developed by LabVIEW was designed to quickly obtain the range of motion (ROM) of spine. NI-Vision module was used to pre-process the original images and calculate the angles of marked needles in order to get ROM data. Six human cadaveric thoracic spine segments T7-T10 were selected to carry out 6 kinds of loads, including left/right lateral bending, flexion, extension, cis/counterclockwise torsion. The system was used to measure the ROM of segment T8-T9 under the loads from 1 Nm to 5 Nm. The experimental results showed that the system is able to measure the ROM of the spine accurately and quickly, which provides a simple and reliable tool for spine biomechanics investigators.

  3. Thoracic spine disc-related abnormalities: longitudinal MR imaging assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girard, Charles J.; Schweitzer, Mark E.; Morrison, William B.; Parellada, Joan A. [TJUH Radiology, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Carrino, J.A. [Department of Radiology ASB-1, Harvard Medical School, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, L1, Room 002B, 75 Francis Street, MA 02115, Boston (United States)

    2004-04-01

    To describe and characterize the temporal changes in disc-related disorders of the thoracic spine using MR imaging. A retrospective longitudinal cohort study was carried out of 40 patients with two sequential thoracic spine MR images at variable intervals. The images were assessed for baseline presence of, new incidence of and changes in disc herniation, degenerative disc disease, endplate marrow signal alteration and Schmorl nodes. The range of follow-up was 4-149 weeks. Baseline presence was: disc herniation, 10% (49/480); degenerative disc disease, 14% (66/480); endplate marrow signal alteration, 2.3% (11/480); Schmorl nodes 9.6% (46/480). Most pre-existing lesions tended to remain unchanged. Herniations showed the most change, tending to improve in 27%. New incidence was: disc herniation, 1.5% (7/480), degenerative disc disease, 2% (10/480); endplate marrow signal alteration, 1.6% (8/480); Schmorl nodes, 2.1% (10/480). Disc degeneration was first visible at an 11-week interval and once established almost never changed over many weeks to months. Endplate signal alterations (Modic changes) were uncommon. Schmorl nodes show no change from baseline for up to 2 1/2 years. All findings predominated in the lower intervertebral levels from T6 to T10. The most prevalent thoracic spine disc-related findings are degeneration and herniation. Disc herniations predominate in the lower segments and are a dynamic phenomenon. Disc degeneration can be rapidly evolving but tends to remain unchanged after occurrence. Endplate marrow signal changes were an uncommon manifestation of thoracic disc disease. Schmorl nodes showed the least change over time. (orig.)

  4. Cervical spine and crystal-associated diseases: imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feydy, Antoine; Chevrot, Alain; Drape, Jean-Luc [Hopital Cochin, Service de Radiologie B, Paris Cedex 14 (France); Liote, Frederic [Hopital Lariboisiere, Federation de Rhumatologie, Paris (France); Carlier, Robert [Hopital Raymond Poincare, Radiologie, Garches (France)

    2006-02-01

    The cervical spine may be specifically involved in crystal-associated arthropathies. In this article, we focus on the three common crystals and diseases: hydroxyapatite crystal deposition disease, calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) deposition disease, and monosodium urate crystals (gout). The cervical involvement in crystal-associated diseases may provoke a misleading clinical presentation with acute neck pain, fever, or neurological symptoms. Imaging allows an accurate diagnosis in typical cases with calcific deposits and destructive lesions of the discs and joints. Most of the cases are related to CPPD or hydroxyapatite crystal deposition; gout is much less common. (orig.)

  5. Cervical spine and crystal-associated diseases: imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feydy, Antoine; Chevrot, Alain; Drape, Jean-Luc; Liote, Frederic; Carlier, Robert

    2006-01-01

    The cervical spine may be specifically involved in crystal-associated arthropathies. In this article, we focus on the three common crystals and diseases: hydroxyapatite crystal deposition disease, calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) deposition disease, and monosodium urate crystals (gout). The cervical involvement in crystal-associated diseases may provoke a misleading clinical presentation with acute neck pain, fever, or neurological symptoms. Imaging allows an accurate diagnosis in typical cases with calcific deposits and destructive lesions of the discs and joints. Most of the cases are related to CPPD or hydroxyapatite crystal deposition; gout is much less common. (orig.)

  6. Imaging of acute cervical spine injuries: review and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tins, B.J.; Cassar-Pullicino, V.N.

    2004-01-01

    Advances in imaging technology have been successfully applied in the emergency trauma setting with great benefit providing early, accurate and efficient diagnoses. Gaps in the knowledge of imaging acute spinal injury remain, despite a vast wealth of useful research and publications on the role of CT and MRI. This article reviews in a balanced manner the main questions that still face the attending radiologist by embracing the current and evolving concepts to help define and provide answers to the following; Imaging techniques - strengths and weaknesses; what are the implications of a missed cervical spine injury?; who should be imaged?; how should they be imaged?; spinal immobilisation - help or hazard?; residual open questions; what does all this mean?; and what are the implications for the radiologist? Although there are many helpful guidelines, the residual gaps in the knowledge base result in incomplete answers to the questions posed. The identification of these gaps in knowledge however should act as the initiating stimulus for further research. All too often there is a danger that the performance and productivity of the imaging modalities is the main research focus and not enough attention is given to the two fundamental prerequisites to the assessment of any imaging technology - the clinical selection criteria for imaging and the level of expertise of the appropriate clinician interpreting the images

  7. Imaging of acute cervical spine injuries: review and outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tins, B.J. [Department of Radiology, Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry (United Kingdom); Cassar-Pullicino, V.N. [Department of Radiology, Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: Victor.Pullicino@rjah.nhs.uk

    2004-10-01

    Advances in imaging technology have been successfully applied in the emergency trauma setting with great benefit providing early, accurate and efficient diagnoses. Gaps in the knowledge of imaging acute spinal injury remain, despite a vast wealth of useful research and publications on the role of CT and MRI. This article reviews in a balanced manner the main questions that still face the attending radiologist by embracing the current and evolving concepts to help define and provide answers to the following; Imaging techniques - strengths and weaknesses; what are the implications of a missed cervical spine injury?; who should be imaged?; how should they be imaged?; spinal immobilisation - help or hazard?; residual open questions; what does all this mean?; and what are the implications for the radiologist? Although there are many helpful guidelines, the residual gaps in the knowledge base result in incomplete answers to the questions posed. The identification of these gaps in knowledge however should act as the initiating stimulus for further research. All too often there is a danger that the performance and productivity of the imaging modalities is the main research focus and not enough attention is given to the two fundamental prerequisites to the assessment of any imaging technology - the clinical selection criteria for imaging and the level of expertise of the appropriate clinician interpreting the images.

  8. MR imaging of the spine: trauma and degenerative disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmink, J.T.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the capabilities and drawbacks of MR imaging in patients with trauma to the spine and degenerative spinal conditions. In spinal trauma MR imaging is secondary to plain X-ray films and CT because of the greater availability and ease of performance of these techniques and their superior capability for detecting vertebral fractures. Magnetic resonance imaging is useful for detecting ligamentous ruptures and intraspinal mass lesions such as hematoma, and for assessing the state of the spinal cord and prognosis of a cord injury. In degenerative spinal disease the necessity is emphasized of critically evaluating the clinical relevance of any abnormal feature detected, as findings of degenerative pathology are common in individuals without symptoms. Magnetic resonance myelography permits rapid and accurate assessment of the state of the lumbar nerve roots (compressed or not). In the cervical region the quality of the myelographic picture is often degraded in patients with a narrow spinal canal. (orig.)

  9. Clinical evaluation of phased array multicoil for spine MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.M.; Forbes, G.S.; Onofrio, B.M.; Rasmusson, J.J.

    1990-01-01

    Often, it is necessary to image the entire spinal canal or cord. Current surface coil technology necessitates a small field of view (FOV) and multiple coil placements, prolonging the examination. The Phased Array Multicoil (General Electric, Milwaukee, Wis) allows for high-resolution imaging of a larger segment of the spinal axis (48 cm), negating the need for multiple coil placements. The purpose of this paper is to determine whether, this technology can produce higher-quality images with equal or better expediency in a high-volume clinical practice. The studies were performed with a modified 1.5-T system (General Electric, Milwaukee, Wis). Multiple small surface coils are electronically linked so that each coil images only a small segment of the spinal column. The individual images are then fused to display one high-resolution 512-matrix image with up to a 48-cm FOV. A variety of four coil arrays were tested, including a 24-cm FOV dedicated cervical coil, 48-cm FOV shaped cervical/thoracic and straight thoracic/lumbar coils, and a six-coil array 75-cm entire spine coil. The images were then evaluated for overall quality, resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, and area of coverage

  10. CT imaging techniques for describing motions of the cervicothoracic junction and cervical spine during flexion, extension, and cervical traction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Scott; Davis, Martin; Odhner, Dewey; Udupa, Jayaram; Winkelstein, Beth

    2006-01-01

    Computerized tomographic study of human cadavers undergoing traction and flexion-extension bending. To investigate the feasibility of using computerized tomography techniques to quantify relative vertebral motions of the cervical spine and cervicothoracic junction (CTJ), and to define normative CTJ kinematics. Despite developing an understanding of the mechanical behavior of the cervical spine, little remains known about the cervicothoracic junction. The CTJ is more difficult to image than other cervical regions given the anatomic features of the surrounding bones obstructing CTJ visualization. As such, limited data have been reported describing the responses of the CTJ for motions and loading in the sagittal plane, confounding the clinical assessment of its injuries and surgical treatments used at this region. Helical CT images of the cervical spine and CTJ were acquired incrementally during each of flexion, extension, and cervical traction. Vertebral surfaces were reconstructed using the specialized image analysis software, 3DVIEWNIX. A mathematical description of relative vertebral motions was derived by computing rigid transformations. Euler angles and translations were calculated. Regional spine stiffness was defined for traction. The CTJ was found to be much stiffer (779 N/mm) than the cervical spine (317 N/mm) in tension. In flexion-extension bending, the CTJ was similar to the lower cervical spine. The CTJ demonstrated significantly less coupled motion than the cervical spine. The CTJ, as a transition region between the cervical and thoracic spines, has unique kinematic characteristics. This application of kinematic CT methods is useful for quantifying unreported normative ranges of motion for the CTJ, difficult by other conventional radiologic means.

  11. Evaluation of image quality of lumbar spine images: A comparison between FFE and VGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tingberg, A.; Baath, M.; Haakansson, M.; Medin, J.; Besjakov, J.; Sandborg, M.; Alm-Carlsson, G.; Mattsson, S.; Maansson, L. G.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study is to compare two different methods for evaluation of the quality of clinical X-ray images. Methods: Based on fifteen lumbar spine radiographs, two new sets of images were created. A hybrid image set was created by adding two distributions of artificial lesions to each original image. The image quality parameters spatial resolution and noise were manipulated and a total of 210 hybrid images were created. A set of 105 disease-free images was created by applying the same combinations of spatial resolution and noise to the original images. The hybrid images were evaluated with the free-response forced error experiment (FFE) and the normal images with visual grading analysis (VGA) by nine experienced radiologists. Results: In the VGA study, images with low noise were preferred over images with higher noise levels. The alteration of the MTF had a limited influence on the VGA score. For the FFE study, the visibility of the lesions was independent of the sharpness and the noise level. No correlation was found between the two image quality measures. Conclusions: FFE is a precise method for evaluation of image quality, but the results are only valid for the type of lesion used in the study, whereas VGA is a more general method for clinical image quality assessment. The results of the FFE study indicate that there might be a potential to lower the dose levels in lumbar spine radiography without losing important diagnostic information. (authors)

  12. MR imaging of the spine: trauma and degenerative disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilmink, J.T. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital Maastricht (Netherlands)

    1999-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the capabilities and drawbacks of MR imaging in patients with trauma to the spine and degenerative spinal conditions. In spinal trauma MR imaging is secondary to plain X-ray films and CT because of the greater availability and ease of performance of these techniques and their superior capability for detecting vertebral fractures. Magnetic resonance imaging is useful for detecting ligamentous ruptures and intraspinal mass lesions such as hematoma, and for assessing the state of the spinal cord and prognosis of a cord injury. In degenerative spinal disease the necessity is emphasized of critically evaluating the clinical relevance of any abnormal feature detected, as findings of degenerative pathology are common in individuals without symptoms. Magnetic resonance myelography permits rapid and accurate assessment of the state of the lumbar nerve roots (compressed or not). In the cervical region the quality of the myelographic picture is often degraded in patients with a narrow spinal canal. (orig.) With 10 figs., 14 refs.

  13. Additional merit of coronal STIR imaging for MR imaging of lumbar spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjana Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Back pain is a common clinical problem and is the frequent complaint for referral of lumbar spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Coronal short tau inversion recovery sequence (STIR can provide diagnostically significant information in small percentage of patients. Materials and Methods: MRI examinations of a total of 350 patients were retrospectively included in the study. MR sequences were evaluated in two settings. One radiologist evaluated sagittal and axial images only, while another radiologist evaluated all sequences, including coronal STIR sequence. After recording the diagnoses, we compared the MRI findings in two subsets of patients to evaluate additional merit of coronal STIR imaging. Results: With addition of coronal STIR imaging, significant findings were observed in 24 subjects (6.8%. Twenty-one of these subjects were considered to be normal on other sequences and in three subjects diagnosis was changed with the addition of coronal STIR. Additional diagnoses on STIR included sacroiliitis, sacroiliac joint degenerative disease, sacral stress/insufficiency fracture/Looser′s zones, muscular sprain and atypical appendicitis. Conclusion: Coronal STIR imaging can provide additional diagnoses in a small percentage of patients presenting for lumbar spine MRI for back pain. Therefore, it should be included in the routine protocol for MR imaging of lumbar spine.

  14. Clinical practice of image-guided spine radiosurgery - results from an international research consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guckenberger Matthias

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spinal radiosurgery is a quickly evolving technique in the radiotherapy and neurosurgical communities. However, the methods of spine radiosurgery have not been standardized. This article describes the results of a survey about the methods of spine radiosurgery at five international institutions. Methods All institutions are members of the Elekta Spine Radiosurgery Research Consortium and have a dedicated research and clinical focus on image-guided radiosurgery. The questionnaire consisted of 75 items covering all major steps of spine radiosurgery. Results Strong agreement in the methods of spine radiosurgery was observed. In particular, similarities were observed with safety and quality assurance playing an important role in the methods of all institutions, cooperation between neurosurgeons and radiation oncologists in case selection, dedicated imaging for target- and organ-at-risk delineation, application of proper safety margins for the target volume and organs-at-risk, conformal planning and precise image-guided treatment delivery, and close clinical and radiological follow-up. In contrast, three major areas of uncertainty and disagreement were identified: 1 Indications and contra-indications for spine radiosurgery; 2 treatment dose and fractionation and 3 tolerance dose of the spinal cord. Conclusions Results of this study reflect the current practice of spine radiosurgery in large academic centers. Despite close agreement was observed in many steps of spine radiosurgery, further research in form of retrospective and especially prospective studies is required to refine the details of spinal radiosurgery in terms of safety and efficacy.

  15. Cervical spine instability in the course of rheumatoid arthritis – imaging methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Mańczak

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cervical spine is affected in more than a half of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Depending on the degree of damage to the individual joints and ligaments RA-related cervical spine instability takes the form of atlanto-axial subluxation, subaxial subluxation or cranial settling. In the advanced cases spinal stenosis can occur as well as spinal cord injuries with typical neurological symptoms. The identification of patients with cervical spine instability before the occurrence of neurological complications still constitutes a diagnostic challenge. The article presents the methods of cervical spine imaging with the use of plain radiographs, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and computed tomography (CT. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages associated with each method and the possibility of its application in the diagnosis of cervical spine instability in RA. The knowledge of the above mentioned issues is indispensable to select an appropriate time for surgical intervention.

  16. Appropriateness of lumbar spine magnetic resonance imaging in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacs, Francisco M. [Spanish Back Pain Research Network (REIDE), Fundación Kovacs, Paseo de Mallorca 36, 07012 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Research Department, Fundación Kovacs, Paseo de Mallorca 36, 07012 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Arana, Estanislao, E-mail: aranae@uv.es [Spanish Back Pain Research Network (REIDE), Fundación Kovacs, Paseo de Mallorca 36, 07012 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Servicio de Radiología, Fundación Instituto Valenciano de Oncología, Valencia (Spain); Fundación Instituto de Investigación en Servicios de Salud, Valencia (Spain); Royuela, Ana [Spanish Back Pain Research Network (REIDE), Fundación Kovacs, Paseo de Mallorca 36, 07012 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP) (Spain); Unidad de Bioestadística Clínica, Hospital Ramón y Cajal, IRYCIS, Ctra. Colmenar Km. 9.1, 28034 Madrid (Spain); Cabrera, Alberto [Spanish Back Pain Research Network (REIDE), Fundación Kovacs, Paseo de Mallorca 36, 07012 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Hospital de Galdakao, Barrio Labeaga, 48960 Galdakao, Vizcaya (Spain); Casillas, Carlos [Spanish Back Pain Research Network (REIDE), Fundación Kovacs, Paseo de Mallorca 36, 07012 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Instituto de Traumatología Unión de Mutuas, Av. del Lledó, C/Juan de Herrera, 27 12004 Castellón (Spain); and others

    2013-06-15

    Objectives: To determine the minimum percentage of lumbar spine magnetic resonance imaging (LSMRI) which are inappropriately prescribed in routine practice. Methods: LSMRI performed prospectively on 602 patients in 12 Radiology Services across 6 regions in Spain, were classified as “appropriate”, “uncertain” or “inappropriate” based on the indication criteria established by the National Institute for Clinical Excellence, the American College of Physicians and Radiology, and current evidence-based clinical guidelines. Studies on patients reporting at least one “red flag” were classified as “appropriate”. A logistic regression model was developed to identify factors associated with a higher likelihood of inappropriate LSMRI, including gender, reporting of referred pain, health care setting (private/public), and specialty of prescribing physician. Before performing the LSMRI, the radiologists also assessed the appropriateness of the prescription. Results: Eighty-eight percent of LSMRI were appropriate, 1.3% uncertain and 10.6% inappropriate. The agreement of radiologists’ assessment with this classification was substantial (k = 0.62). The odds that LSMRI prescriptions were inappropriate were higher for patients without referred pain [OR (CI 95%): 13.75 (6.72; 28.16)], seen in private practice [2.25 (1.20; 4.22)], by orthopedic surgeons, neurosurgeons or primary care physicians [2.50 (1.15; 5.56)]. Conclusion: Efficiency of LSMRI could be improved in routine practice, without worsening clinical outcomes.

  17. MR Imaging of Supraspinous Ligament Injury in the Thoracolumbar Spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ju Hee; Hwang, Ji Young; Lee, Sun Wha; Koh, Young Do [Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    We wanted to evaluate the MRI features and their diagnostic accuracy for SSL injury in the thoracolumbar spine. From December 2003 to June 2006, among 42 surgically treated patients with spinal fracture, the 35 patients who underwent MRI and who were surgically evaluated for SSL injury were included in this study. The sagittal MR images were evaluated for the presence of SSL injury and its level, location and distraction gap, the level and compression ratio of the fractured body, and the presence of ISL or yellow ligament injury and posterior osseous fracture. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of MRI were calculated. The distraction gap of the SSL and the compression ratio of the fractured body or posterior osseous fracture were statistically analyzed. Thirty-one among the 33 patients with surgically confirmed SSL injury were diagnosed on MRI. SSL injury was mostly seen at the thoracolumbar junction and near the upper spinous process. The mean distraction gap was 4.3 mm. The level of the fractured body was most commonly in the lower vertebra of the injured SSL level and the mean compression ratio was 21.8%. Combined SSL, ISL and yellow ligament injury were mostly seen. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 93.9%, 50% and 91.4%, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference of the distraction gap of the injured SSL depending on the presence of posterior osseous fracture. MRI is an accurate modality for evaluating SSL injury and the associated findings.

  18. Appropriateness of lumbar spine magnetic resonance imaging in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, Francisco M.; Arana, Estanislao; Royuela, Ana; Cabrera, Alberto; Casillas, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the minimum percentage of lumbar spine magnetic resonance imaging (LSMRI) which are inappropriately prescribed in routine practice. Methods: LSMRI performed prospectively on 602 patients in 12 Radiology Services across 6 regions in Spain, were classified as “appropriate”, “uncertain” or “inappropriate” based on the indication criteria established by the National Institute for Clinical Excellence, the American College of Physicians and Radiology, and current evidence-based clinical guidelines. Studies on patients reporting at least one “red flag” were classified as “appropriate”. A logistic regression model was developed to identify factors associated with a higher likelihood of inappropriate LSMRI, including gender, reporting of referred pain, health care setting (private/public), and specialty of prescribing physician. Before performing the LSMRI, the radiologists also assessed the appropriateness of the prescription. Results: Eighty-eight percent of LSMRI were appropriate, 1.3% uncertain and 10.6% inappropriate. The agreement of radiologists’ assessment with this classification was substantial (k = 0.62). The odds that LSMRI prescriptions were inappropriate were higher for patients without referred pain [OR (CI 95%): 13.75 (6.72; 28.16)], seen in private practice [2.25 (1.20; 4.22)], by orthopedic surgeons, neurosurgeons or primary care physicians [2.50 (1.15; 5.56)]. Conclusion: Efficiency of LSMRI could be improved in routine practice, without worsening clinical outcomes

  19. Volumetric Image Guidance Using Carina vs Spine as Registration Landmarks for Conventionally Fractionated Lung Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavoie, Caroline; Higgins, Jane; Bissonnette, Jean-Pierre [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 2M9 (Canada); Le, Lisa W. [Department of Biostatistics, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 2M9 (Canada); Sun, Alexander; Brade, Anthony; Hope, Andrew; Cho, John [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 2M9 (Canada); Bezjak, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.bezjak@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 2M9 (Canada)

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: To compare the relative accuracy of 2 image guided radiation therapy methods using carina vs spine as landmarks and then to identify which landmark is superior relative to tumor coverage. Methods and Materials: For 98 lung patients, 2596 daily image-guidance cone-beam computed tomography scans were analyzed. Tattoos were used for initial patient alignment; then, spine and carina registrations were performed independently. A separate analysis assessed the adequacy of gross tumor volume, internal target volume, and planning target volume coverage on cone-beam computed tomography using the initial, middle, and final fractions of radiation therapy. Coverage was recorded for primary tumor (T), nodes (N), and combined target (T+N). Three scenarios were compared: tattoos alignment, spine registration, and carina registration. Results: Spine and carina registrations identified setup errors {>=}5 mm in 35% and 46% of fractions, respectively. The mean vector difference between spine and carina matching had a magnitude of 3.3 mm. Spine and carina improved combined target coverage, compared with tattoos, in 50% and 34% (spine) to 54% and 46% (carina) of the first and final fractions, respectively. Carina matching showed greater combined target coverage in 17% and 23% of fractions for the first and final fractions, respectively; with spine matching, this was only observed in 4% (first) and 6% (final) of fractions. Carina matching provided superior nodes coverage at the end of radiation compared with spine matching (P=.0006), without compromising primary tumor coverage. Conclusion: Frequent patient setup errors occur in locally advanced lung cancer patients. Spine and carina registrations improved combined target coverage throughout the treatment course, but carina matching provided superior combined target coverage.

  20. Volumetric Image Guidance Using Carina vs Spine as Registration Landmarks for Conventionally Fractionated Lung Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavoie, Caroline; Higgins, Jane; Bissonnette, Jean-Pierre; Le, Lisa W.; Sun, Alexander; Brade, Anthony; Hope, Andrew; Cho, John; Bezjak, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the relative accuracy of 2 image guided radiation therapy methods using carina vs spine as landmarks and then to identify which landmark is superior relative to tumor coverage. Methods and Materials: For 98 lung patients, 2596 daily image-guidance cone-beam computed tomography scans were analyzed. Tattoos were used for initial patient alignment; then, spine and carina registrations were performed independently. A separate analysis assessed the adequacy of gross tumor volume, internal target volume, and planning target volume coverage on cone-beam computed tomography using the initial, middle, and final fractions of radiation therapy. Coverage was recorded for primary tumor (T), nodes (N), and combined target (T+N). Three scenarios were compared: tattoos alignment, spine registration, and carina registration. Results: Spine and carina registrations identified setup errors ≥5 mm in 35% and 46% of fractions, respectively. The mean vector difference between spine and carina matching had a magnitude of 3.3 mm. Spine and carina improved combined target coverage, compared with tattoos, in 50% and 34% (spine) to 54% and 46% (carina) of the first and final fractions, respectively. Carina matching showed greater combined target coverage in 17% and 23% of fractions for the first and final fractions, respectively; with spine matching, this was only observed in 4% (first) and 6% (final) of fractions. Carina matching provided superior nodes coverage at the end of radiation compared with spine matching (P=.0006), without compromising primary tumor coverage. Conclusion: Frequent patient setup errors occur in locally advanced lung cancer patients. Spine and carina registrations improved combined target coverage throughout the treatment course, but carina matching provided superior combined target coverage.

  1. Sonography of the neonatal spine: part 1, Normal anatomy, imaging pitfalls, and variations that may simulate disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Lisa H; Johanek, Andrew J; Moore, Charlotte W

    2007-03-01

    Our objective is to discuss neonatal spine sonography with emphasis on imaging pitfalls and normal variants that may simulate disease and to distinguish them from true spinal disorders. Sonography of the neonatal spine is now accepted as a highly sensitive, readily available screening study that can be used to evaluate various anomalies of the lumbar spine in most infants younger than 4 months.

  2. Age-Based Comparison of Human Dendritic Spine Structure Using Complete Three-Dimensional Reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides-Piccione, Ruth; Fernaud-Espinosa, Isabel; Robles, Victor; Yuste, Rafael; DeFelipe, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Dendritic spines of pyramidal neurons are targets of most excitatory synapses in the cerebral cortex. Recent evidence suggests that the morphology of the dendritic spine could determine its synaptic strength and learning rules. However, unfortunately, there are scant data available regarding the detailed morphology of these structures for the human cerebral cortex. In the present study, we analyzed over 8900 individual dendritic spines that were completely 3D reconstructed along the length of apical and basal dendrites of layer III pyramidal neurons in the cingulate cortex of 2 male humans (aged 40 and 85 years old), using intracellular injections of Lucifer Yellow in fixed tissue. We assembled a large, quantitative database, which revealed a major reduction in spine densities in the aged case. Specifically, small and short spines of basal dendrites and long spines of apical dendrites were lost, regardless of the distance from the soma. Given the age difference between the cases, our results suggest selective alterations in spines with aging in humans and indicate that the spine volume and length are regulated by different biological mechanisms. PMID:22710613

  3. Geometrical properties of the human child cervical spine with a focus on the C1 vertebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A; Lew, Sean M; Rao, Raj D

    2014-01-01

    Child dummies and injury criteria used in automotive crashworthiness environments are based on scaling from the adult and/or between children of different ages. Cartilage-to-bone ossification, spinal canal and joint developments of the spine, and strength attainments do not grow linearly from birth to maturity. Though this is known to medical professionals, age-based quantitative analyses are needed to accurately model the pediatric spine. The objective of this study was to quantify longitudinal growths of various regions of the first cervical vertebrae, responsible for transmitting the axial load from the base of the skull through the condyles to the neck/torso. Computed tomography (CT) images of 54 children from one day to 18 years of age were retrospectively used to determine the following geometrical properties: bilateral neurocentral synchondroses widths, the width of posterior synchondrosis, outer and inner anteroposterior and transverse diameters, spinal canal area, and depths of the anterior and posterior arches of the C1 vertebra. Both axial and sagittal CT images were used in the analysis. Sagittal images were used to quantify data for the anterior and posterior arches and axial images were used for all described cross-sectional parameters. Geometrical properties were extracted and reported for the various parameters at 6 months; one year; 18 months; and 3, 6, and 10 years of age corresponding to the dummy family ages routinely used in motor vehicle crashworthiness research and other applications. The outer transverse diameter ranged from 4.97 to 7.08 cm; outer and inner antero-posterior diameters ranged from 2.99 to 4.18 and 2.19 to 3.03 mm; and spinal canal area ranged from 4.34 to 6.68 mm(2). Other data are given in the body of the article. The growths of the first cervical vertebra quantified in terms of the above variables occurred nonlinearly with age and the degree of nonlinearity depended on the type of the geometrical parameter. Growths did not

  4. MR imaging of the spine and vertebral canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhlenbrock, D.; Brechtelsbauer, D.; Debatin, J.F.; Felber, A.J.

    2001-01-01

    Chapters of the book are nmr physics and application, nmr in spinal diagnosis and therapy, malformations of the spinal cord, degeneration of the vertebrae, neoplasms, inflammation acute trauma and vascular diseases of the spine. Last chapter contains description of function studies of the vertebrae in the open nmr system

  5. Recent advances in computational methods and clinical applications for spine imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Glocker, Ben; Klinder, Tobias; Li, Shuo

    2015-01-01

    This book contains the full papers presented at the MICCAI 2014 workshop on Computational Methods and Clinical Applications for Spine Imaging. The workshop brought together scientists and clinicians in the field of computational spine imaging. The chapters included in this book present and discuss the new advances and challenges in these fields, using several methods and techniques in order to address more efficiently different and timely applications involving signal and image acquisition, image processing and analysis, image segmentation, image registration and fusion, computer simulation, image based modeling, simulation and surgical planning, image guided robot assisted surgical and image based diagnosis. The book also includes papers and reports from the first challenge on vertebra segmentation held at the workshop.

  6. Human spaceflight and space adaptations: Computational simulation of gravitational unloading on the spine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Molly T.; Sarigul-Klijn, Nesrin

    2018-04-01

    Living in reduced gravitational environments for a prolonged duration such, as a fly by mission to Mars or an extended stay at the international space station, affects the human body - in particular, the spine. As the spine adapts to spaceflight, morphological and physiological changes cause the mechanical integrity of the spinal column to be compromised, potentially endangering internal organs, nervous health, and human body mechanical function. Therefore, a high fidelity computational model and simulation of the whole human spine was created and validated for the purpose of investigating the mechanical integrity of the spine in crew members during exploratory space missions. A spaceflight exposed spine has been developed through the adaptation of a three-dimensional nonlinear finite element model with the updated Lagrangian formulation of a healthy ground-based human spine in vivo. Simulation of the porohyperelastic response of the intervertebral disc to mechanical unloading resulted in a model capable of accurately predicting spinal swelling/lengthening, spinal motion, and internal stress distribution. The curvature of this space adaptation exposed spine model was compared to a control terrestrial-based finite element model, indicating how the shape changed. Finally, the potential of injury sites to crew members are predicted for a typical 9 day mission.

  7. Poster - 48: Clinical assessment of ExacTrac stereoscopic imaging of spine alignment for lung SBRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattarivand, Mike; Summers, Clare; Robar, James

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the validity of using spine as a surrogate for tumor positioning with ExacTrac stereoscopic imaging in lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods: Using the Novalis ExacTrac x-ray system, 39 lung SBRT patients (182 treatments) were aligned before treatment with 6 degrees (6D) of freedom couch (3 translations, 3 rotations) based on spine matching on stereoscopic images. The couch was shifted to treatment isocenter and pre-treatment CBCT was performed based on a soft tissue match around tumor volume. The CBCT data were used to measure residual errors following ExacTrac alignment. The thresholds for re-aligning the patients based on CBCT were 3mm shift or 3° rotation (in any 6D). In order to evaluate the effect of tumor location on residual errors, correlations between tumor distance from spine and individual residual errors were calculated. Results: Residual errors were up to 0.5±2.4mm. Using 3mm/3° thresholds, 80/182 (44%) of the treatments required re-alignment based on CBCT soft tissue matching following ExacTrac spine alignment. Most mismatches were in sup-inf, ant-post, and roll directions which had larger standard deviations. No correlation was found between tumor distance from spine and individual residual errors. Conclusion: ExacTrac stereoscopic imaging offers a quick pre-treatment patient alignment. However, bone matching based on spine is not reliable for aligning lung SBRT patients who require soft tissue image registration from CBCT. Spine can be a poor surrogate for lung SBRT patient alignment even for proximal tumor volumes.

  8. Poster - 48: Clinical assessment of ExacTrac stereoscopic imaging of spine alignment for lung SBRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sattarivand, Mike; Summers, Clare; Robar, James [Nova Scotia Cancer Centre, Nova Scotia Cancer Centre, Nova Scotia Cancer Centre (Canada)

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the validity of using spine as a surrogate for tumor positioning with ExacTrac stereoscopic imaging in lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods: Using the Novalis ExacTrac x-ray system, 39 lung SBRT patients (182 treatments) were aligned before treatment with 6 degrees (6D) of freedom couch (3 translations, 3 rotations) based on spine matching on stereoscopic images. The couch was shifted to treatment isocenter and pre-treatment CBCT was performed based on a soft tissue match around tumor volume. The CBCT data were used to measure residual errors following ExacTrac alignment. The thresholds for re-aligning the patients based on CBCT were 3mm shift or 3° rotation (in any 6D). In order to evaluate the effect of tumor location on residual errors, correlations between tumor distance from spine and individual residual errors were calculated. Results: Residual errors were up to 0.5±2.4mm. Using 3mm/3° thresholds, 80/182 (44%) of the treatments required re-alignment based on CBCT soft tissue matching following ExacTrac spine alignment. Most mismatches were in sup-inf, ant-post, and roll directions which had larger standard deviations. No correlation was found between tumor distance from spine and individual residual errors. Conclusion: ExacTrac stereoscopic imaging offers a quick pre-treatment patient alignment. However, bone matching based on spine is not reliable for aligning lung SBRT patients who require soft tissue image registration from CBCT. Spine can be a poor surrogate for lung SBRT patient alignment even for proximal tumor volumes.

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine: determining clinical impact and potential harm from overuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wnuk, Nathan M; Alkasab, Tarik K; Rosenthal, Daniel I

    2018-04-18

    Lumbar spine MRI is frequently said to be "overused" in the evaluation of low-back pain, yet data concerning the extent of overuse and on potential harmful effects are lacking. To determine the proportion of examinations with a detectable impact on patient care (actionable outcomes). Retrospective cohort study PATIENT SAMPLE: 5,365 outpatient lumbar spine MR examinations OUTCOME MEASURES: Actionable outcomes included: 1) findings leading to an intervention making use of anatomical information such as surgery; 2) new diagnoses of cancer, infection, or fracture; or 3) following known lumbar spine pathology. Potential harm was assessed by identifying examinations where suspicion of cancer or infection was raised but no positive diagnosis made. A medical record aggregation/search system was used to identify lumbar spine MR examinations with positive outcome measures. Patient notes were examined to verify outcomes. A random sample was manually inspected to identify missed positive outcomes. The proportion of actionable lumbar spine MRIs was 13%, although 93% were appropriate according to American College of Radiology guidelines. Of 36 suspected cases of cancer/infection 81% were false positives. Further investigations were ordered on 59% of suspicious exams, 86% of which were false positives. The proportion of lumbar spine MR examinations that inform management is small. The false positive rate and proportion of false positives involving further investigation is high. Further study to improve the efficiency of imaging is warranted. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Scoring inflammatory activity of the spine by magnetic resonance imaging in ankylosing spondylitis: a multireader experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukas, C; Braun, J; van der Heijde, D

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spine is increasingly important in the assessment of inflammatory activity in clinical trials with patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). We investigated feasibility, inter-reader reliability, sensitivity to change, and discriminatory ability...... of 3 different scoring methods for MRI activity and change in activity of the spine in patients with AS. METHODS: Thirty sets of spinal MRI at baseline and after 24 weeks of followup, derived from a randomized clinical trial comparing a tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-blocking drug (n = 20) with placebo (n...... the Ankylosing Spondylitis spine Magnetic Resonance Imaging-activity [ASspiMRI-a, grading activity (0-6) per vertebral unit in 23 units]; the Berlin modification of the ASspiMRI-a; and the Spondyloarthritis Research Consortium of Canada (SPARCC) scoring system, which scores the 6 vertebral units considered...

  11. Biomechanical properties of human thoracic spine disc segments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B D Stemper

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The objective was to determine the age-dependent compressive and tensile properties of female and male thoracic spine segments using postmortem human subjects (PMHS. Materials and Methods : Forty-eight thoracic disc segments at T4-5, T6-7, T8-9, and T10-11 levels from 12 PMHS T3-T11 spinal columns were divided into groups A and B based on specimen age and loaded in compression and tension. Stiffness and elastic modulus were computed. Stiffness was defined as the slope in the linear region of the force-displacement response. Elastic modulus was defined as the slope of the stress strain curve. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA was used to determine significant differences (P< 0.05 in the disc cross-sectional area, stiffness, and elastic modulus based on gender, spinal level, and group. Results : Specimen ages in group A (28 ± 8 years were significantly lower than in group B (70 ± 7 years. Male discs had significantly greater area (7.2 ± 2.0 sq cm than female discs (5.9 ± 1.8 sq cm. Tensile and compressive stiffness values were significantly different between the two age groups, but not between gender and level. Specimens in group A had greater tensile (486 ± 108 N/mm and compressive (3300 ± 642 N/mm stiffness values compared to group B specimens (tension: 397 ± 124 N/mm, compression: 2527 ± 734 N/mm. Tensile and compressive elastic modulus values depended upon age group and gender, but not on level. Group A specimens had significantly greater tensile and compressive moduli (2.9 ± 0.8 MPa, 19.5 ± 4.1 MPa than group B specimens (1.7 ± 0.6 MPa, 10.6 ± 3.4 MPa. Female specimens showed significantly greater tensile and compressive moduli (2.6 ± 1.0 MPa, 16.6 ± 6.4 MPa than male specimens (2.0 ± 0.7 MPa, 13.7 ± 5.0 MPa. Discussion: Using the two groups to represent "young" and "old" specimens, this study showed that the mechanical response decreases in older specimens, and the decrease is greater in compressive than distractive

  12. Investigation of the Entrance Surface Dose and Dose to Different Organs in Lumbar Spine Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina S

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dose assessment using proper dosimeters is especially important in radiation protection optimization and imaging justification in diagnostic radiology. Objective: The aim of this study is to obtain the Entrance Skin Dose (ESD of patients undergoing lumbar spine imaging using two thermoluminescence dosimeters TLD-100 (LiF: Mg, Ti and GR-200 (LiF: Mg, Cu, P and also to obtain the absorbed dose to different organs in lumbar spine imaging with several views. Methods: To measure the ESD values of the patients undergoing lumbar spine imaging, the two TLD types were put on their skin surface. The ESD values for different views of lumbar spine imaging were also measured by putting the TLDs at the surface of the Rando phantom. Several TLD chips were inserted inside different organs of Rando phantom to measure the absorbed dose to different organs in lumbar spine imaging. Results: The results indicate that there is a close agreement between the results of the two dosimeters. Based on the results of this experiment, the ESD dose of the 16 patients included in this study varied between 2.71 mGy and 26.29 mGy with the average of 11.89 mGy for TLD-100, and between 2.55 mGy and 27.41 mGy with the average of 12.32 mGy for GR-200 measurements. The ESDs obtained by putting the two types of TLDs at the surface of Rando phantom are in close agreement. Conclusion: According to the results, the GR200 has greater sensitivity than the TLD-100.

  13. Investigation of the Entrance Surface Dose and Dose to Different Organs in Lumbar Spine Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sina, S; Zeinali, B; Karimipoorfard, M; Lotfalizadeh, F; Sadeghi, M; Zamani, E; Faghihi, R

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dose assessment using proper dosimeters is especially important in radiation protection optimization and imaging justification in diagnostic radiology. Objective: The aim of this study is to obtain the Entrance Skin Dose (ESD) of patients undergoing lumbar spine imaging using two thermoluminescence dosimeters TLD-100 (LiF: Mg, Ti) and GR-200 (LiF: Mg, Cu, P) and also to obtain the absorbed dose to different organs in lumbar spine imaging with several views. Methods: To measure the ESD values of the patients undergoing lumbar spine imaging, the two TLD types were put on their skin surface. The ESD values for different views of lumbar spine imaging were also measured by putting the TLDs at the surface of the Rando phantom. Several TLD chips were inserted inside different organs of Rando phantom to measure the absorbed dose to different organs in lumbar spine imaging. Results: The results indicate that there is a close agreement between the results of the two dosimeters. Based on the results of this experiment, the ESD dose of the 16 patients included in this study varied between 2.71 mGy and 26.29 mGy with the average of 11.89 mGy for TLD-100, and between 2.55 mGy and 27.41 mGy with the average of 12.32 mGy for GR-200 measurements. The ESDs obtained by putting the two types of TLDs at the surface of Rando phantom are in close agreement. Conclusion: According to the results, the GR200 has greater sensitivity than the TLD-100. PMID:25599058

  14. Image quality in the anteroposterior cervical spine radiograph: Comparison between moving, stationary and non-grid techniques in a lamb neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keating, Michelle; Grange, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    Background: Cervical spine radiography is a commonly employed examination for degenerative disease and trauma in the cervical spine. Traditionally, the anteroposterior projection is undertaken with the use of an anti-scatter grid. Some practitioners appear to have rejected this practice in favour of a non-grid technique, possibly because of the dose saving it affords. It is necessary to determine if image quality in the cervical spine is significantly degraded and whether the omission of the grid is justified. Method: Using a slaughtered lamb neck as a model of the human neck triplicate radiographs were obtained using a non-grid, a stationary grid and a moving grid technique. Entrance surface dose and dose area product was measured for these techniques. Image quality in terms of contrast, sharpness and overall acceptability was evaluated by 9 independent and blinded observers. Results: A significant reduction in measured dose was observed when the non-grid technique was compared to stationary or moving grid techniques. A statistically significant reduction in image contrast, sharpness and acceptability was also seen in the non-grid compared to grid techniques. Conclusion: These results show evidence of significantly greater image quality in the presence of either a moving or stationary grid in the lamb model. As such they support the continued use of scatter rejection methods such as the anti-scatter grid in AP radiography of the human cervical spine, to optimise radiographic image quality in this critical structure.

  15. Image quality in the anteroposterior cervical spine radiograph: Comparison between moving, stationary and non-grid techniques in a lamb neck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keating, Michelle [School of Health and Social Care, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, University of the West of England, Stapleton, Bristol BS16 1DD (United Kingdom); Grange, Stuart, E-mail: Stuart2.Grange@uwe.ac.u [School of Health and Social Care, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, University of the West of England, Stapleton, Bristol BS16 1DD (United Kingdom)

    2011-05-15

    Background: Cervical spine radiography is a commonly employed examination for degenerative disease and trauma in the cervical spine. Traditionally, the anteroposterior projection is undertaken with the use of an anti-scatter grid. Some practitioners appear to have rejected this practice in favour of a non-grid technique, possibly because of the dose saving it affords. It is necessary to determine if image quality in the cervical spine is significantly degraded and whether the omission of the grid is justified. Method: Using a slaughtered lamb neck as a model of the human neck triplicate radiographs were obtained using a non-grid, a stationary grid and a moving grid technique. Entrance surface dose and dose area product was measured for these techniques. Image quality in terms of contrast, sharpness and overall acceptability was evaluated by 9 independent and blinded observers. Results: A significant reduction in measured dose was observed when the non-grid technique was compared to stationary or moving grid techniques. A statistically significant reduction in image contrast, sharpness and acceptability was also seen in the non-grid compared to grid techniques. Conclusion: These results show evidence of significantly greater image quality in the presence of either a moving or stationary grid in the lamb model. As such they support the continued use of scatter rejection methods such as the anti-scatter grid in AP radiography of the human cervical spine, to optimise radiographic image quality in this critical structure.

  16. A new method of MR total spine imaging for showing the brace effect in scoliosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, A.; Kandyba, J.; Koenig, R.; Jaeger, U.E.; Gieseke, J.; Schmitt, O. [Univ. of Bonn (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Bracing is a method of early, nonsurgical treatment for scoliosis, but a hypokyphotic effect on the thoracic spine is reported. We developed a magnetic resonance tomography (MR) procedure presenting an image of the whole spine in the coronal and sagittal planes (MR total spine imaging), and studied the brace effect, using this technique. We examined 26 female patients with idiopathic scoliosis treated with a Cheneau brace (mean age, 13.2 years; mean duration of brace treatment at the time of investigation, 1.5 years). The MR examinations were performed with the patient in the supine position with and without the brace in direct sequence. As measured on the coronal MR images, the thoracic curve was corrected, on average, from 29 deg to 22 deg (mean correction, 24%). There was a slight reduction in the sagittal Cobb angle measured between T4 and T12 (mean sagittal Cobb angle without brace, 14 deg ; with brace, 12 deg), which was still a significant change. MR total spine imaging could be a useful tool for studying the brace effect in scoliosis in two planes. Using this technique, we found reduced sagittal Cobb angles for the thoracic kyphosis with brace. Because there is no radiation exposure, the MR procedure has a potential use in the monitoring of brace treatment. (author)

  17. Diagnostic utility of candidate definitions for demonstrating axial spondyloarthritis on magnetic resonance imaging of the spine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Ulrich; Zhao, Zheng; Rufibach, Kaspar

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A recent consensus statement has suggested ≥3 corner inflammatory lesions (CILs) or several corner fatty lesions (CFLs) as candidate criteria indicative of axial spondyloarthritis (SpA) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic...

  18. Relationship between Northwick Park neck pain questionnaire and cervical spine MR imaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arana, Estanislao; Martí-Bonmatí, Luis; Montijano, Ruben; Bautista, Daniel; Molla, Enrique; Costa, Salvador

    2006-08-01

    The study was aimed at determining the association between the self-report of pain and disability by means of Northwick neck pain questionnaire (NPQ) and cervical spine MR imaging findings. A random sample of 251 patients, 132 men and 119 women aged 43+/-13 years, submitted with neck pain were investigated. Patients with previous discitis, surgery, neoplasm or hospitalized for cervical spine trauma were excluded. All patients completed the NPQ and were studied with sagittal gradient-echo T1 and turbo spin-echo T2, axial gradient-echo T2* and heavily T2 weighted MR myelographic weighted images. MR images of the two most affected disc levels were read, offering an MR imaging score from 0 to 30. There was no statistically significant correlation between NPQ and MR imaging scores. From the NPQ items, only difficulty in sleeping and numbness were related to the MR imaging score. Disc extrusion was the only MR finding almost significantly associated with NPQ (P=0.054). Neck injury did not increase NPQ scores. In patients with neck pain, NPQ scores do not correlate with MR imaging findings. NPQ and cervical spine MR imaging show different facets of the multidimensional complex of neck pain.

  19. MRI of degenerative lumbar spine disease: comparison of non-accelerated and parallel imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noelte, Ingo; Gerigk, Lars; Brockmann, Marc A.; Kemmling, Andre; Groden, Christoph

    2008-01-01

    Parallel imaging techniques such as GRAPPA have been introduced to optimize image quality and acquisition time. For spinal imaging in a clinical setting no data exist on the equivalency of conventional and parallel imaging techniques. The purpose of this study was to determine whether T1- and T2-weighted GRAPPA sequences are equivalent to conventional sequences for the evaluation of degenerative lumbar spine disease in terms of image quality and artefacts. In patients with clinically suspected degenerative lumbar spine disease two neuroradiologists independently compared sagittal GRAPPA (acceleration factor 2, time reduction approximately 50%) and non-GRAPPA images (25 patients) and transverse GRAPPA (acceleration factor 2, time reduction approximately 50%) and non-GRAPPA images (23 lumbar segments in six patients). Comparative analyses included the minimal diameter of the spinal canal, disc abnormalities, foraminal stenosis, facet joint degeneration, lateral recess, nerve root compression and osteochondrotic vertebral and endplate changes. Image inhomogeneity was evaluated by comparing the nonuniformity in the two techniques. Image quality was assessed by grading the delineation of pathoanatomical structures. Motion and aliasing artefacts were classified from grade 1 (severe) to grade 5 (absent). There was no significant difference between GRAPPA and non-accelerated MRI in the evaluation of degenerative lumbar spine disease (P > 0.05), and there was no difference in the delineation of pathoanatomical structures. For inhomogeneity there was a trend in favour of the conventional sequences. No significant artefacts were observed with either technique. The GRAPPA technique can be used effectively to reduce scanning time in patients with degenerative lumbar spine disease while preserving image quality. (orig.)

  20. Functional MR imaging of the cervical spine in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allmann, K.H.; Uhl, M.; Uhrmeister, P.; Neumann, K.; Langer, M.; Kempis, J. von

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate functional MR imaging in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) involving the cervical spine. Material and Methods: We used a device that allows MR examination to be made of the cervical spine in infinitely variable degrees of flexion and extension. Dynamic functional MR imaging was performed on 25 patients with RA. Results: Functional MR imaging was able to show the degree of vertebral instability of the occipito-atlantal or atlanto-axial level as well as the subaxial level. By performing functional MR imaging, we were able to demonstrate the extent of synovial tissue around the dens, and the impingement and displacement of the spinal cord during flexion and extension. The basilar impression, the cord impingement into the foramen magnum, the cord compression, the slipping of vertebrae, and the angulation of the cord were all much more evident in functional than in static MR imaging. Conclusion: Functional MR imaging provided additional information in patients with RA, and is valuable in patients who have a normal MR study in the neutral position and yet have signs of a neurological deficit. Functional MR imaging is important in the planning of stabilizing operations of the cervical spine. (orig.)

  1. Spine imaging after lumbar disc replacement: pitfalls and current recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Yohan; Sand?n, Bengt

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Most lumbar artificial discs are still composed of stainless steel alloys, which prevents adequate postoperative diagnostic imaging of the operated region when using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Thus patients with postoperative radicular symptoms or claudication after stainless steel implants often require alternative diagnostic procedures. Methods Possible complications of lumbar total disc replacement (TDR) are reviewed from the available literature and imaging reco...

  2. Lumbar spine joint synovial cysts of intraspinal development. CT scan imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallee, C.; Chevrot, A.; Benhamouda, M. and others

    CT scan imaging findings are described in 22 patients with lumbar spine joint synovial cysts, of intraspinal development, provoking sciatica or lumbosciatica from nerve compression in spinal canal. Diagnosis was suggested by a mass at the posterior joint level, of variable density, sometimes with peripheral calcification, presenting a vacuum appearance on occasions, and with enhanced image with contrast. Differential diagnosis is from excluded hernia and postoperative fibrosis. Posterior intra-articular arthrography can confirm diagnosis and allow treatment with prolonged action corticoid infiltrations.

  3. Quantitative analysis of spinal curvature in 3D: application to CT images of normal spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrtovec, Tomaz; Likar, Bostjan; Pernus, Franjo [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Trzaska 25, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2008-04-07

    The purpose of this study is to present a framework for quantitative analysis of spinal curvature in 3D. In order to study the properties of such complex 3D structures, we propose two descriptors that capture the characteristics of spinal curvature in 3D. The descriptors are the geometric curvature (GC) and curvature angle (CA), which are independent of the orientation and size of spine anatomy. We demonstrate the two descriptors that characterize the spinal curvature in 3D on 30 computed tomography (CT) images of normal spine and on a scoliotic spine. The descriptors are determined from 3D vertebral body lines, which are obtained by two different methods. The first method is based on the least-squares technique that approximates the manually identified vertebra centroids, while the second method searches for vertebra centroids in an automated optimization scheme, based on computer-assisted image analysis. Polynomial functions of the fourth and fifth degree were used for the description of normal and scoliotic spinal curvature in 3D, respectively. The mean distance to vertebra centroids was 1.1 mm ({+-}0.6 mm) for the first and 2.1 mm ({+-}1.4 mm) for the second method. The distributions of GC and CA values were obtained along the 30 images of normal spine at each vertebral level and show that maximal thoracic kyphosis (TK), thoracolumbar junction (TJ) and maximal lumbar lordosis (LL) on average occur at T3/T4, T12/L1 and L4/L5, respectively. The main advantage of GC and CA is that the measurements are independent of the orientation and size of the spine, thus allowing objective intra- and inter-subject comparisons. The positions of maximal TK, TJ and maximal LL can be easily identified by observing the GC and CA distributions at different vertebral levels. The obtained courses of the GC and CA for the scoliotic spine were compared to the distributions of GC and CA for the normal spines. The significant difference in values indicates that the descriptors of GC and

  4. Quantitative analysis of spinal curvature in 3D: application to CT images of normal spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrtovec, Tomaz; Likar, Bostjan; Pernus, Franjo

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to present a framework for quantitative analysis of spinal curvature in 3D. In order to study the properties of such complex 3D structures, we propose two descriptors that capture the characteristics of spinal curvature in 3D. The descriptors are the geometric curvature (GC) and curvature angle (CA), which are independent of the orientation and size of spine anatomy. We demonstrate the two descriptors that characterize the spinal curvature in 3D on 30 computed tomography (CT) images of normal spine and on a scoliotic spine. The descriptors are determined from 3D vertebral body lines, which are obtained by two different methods. The first method is based on the least-squares technique that approximates the manually identified vertebra centroids, while the second method searches for vertebra centroids in an automated optimization scheme, based on computer-assisted image analysis. Polynomial functions of the fourth and fifth degree were used for the description of normal and scoliotic spinal curvature in 3D, respectively. The mean distance to vertebra centroids was 1.1 mm (±0.6 mm) for the first and 2.1 mm (±1.4 mm) for the second method. The distributions of GC and CA values were obtained along the 30 images of normal spine at each vertebral level and show that maximal thoracic kyphosis (TK), thoracolumbar junction (TJ) and maximal lumbar lordosis (LL) on average occur at T3/T4, T12/L1 and L4/L5, respectively. The main advantage of GC and CA is that the measurements are independent of the orientation and size of the spine, thus allowing objective intra- and inter-subject comparisons. The positions of maximal TK, TJ and maximal LL can be easily identified by observing the GC and CA distributions at different vertebral levels. The obtained courses of the GC and CA for the scoliotic spine were compared to the distributions of GC and CA for the normal spines. The significant difference in values indicates that the descriptors of GC and CA

  5. MR imaging of nerve root impingement in the lumbar spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teresi, L.M.; Bradley, W.G. Jr.; Bloze, A.E.; Davis, S.J.; Amster, J.; Berger, P.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper determines the relationship between MR imaging findings of nerve root impingement, presenting symptoms, and physical examination findings, and physiologic data (DSEP and EMG) in a population of patients presented with classic radicular symptoms. Fifty-eight patients presenting with classic radicular pain were studied with MR imaging, DSER, and EMG, MR imaging was performed with a GE Signa imaging system with use of T1- and T2-weighted sequences and 5-mm-thick sections. Nerve root impingement in the subarticular recess (the root exiting the next lowest level) was distinguished from nerve root impingement in the superior intervertebral foramen (the root exiting the same level)

  6. Diagnostic imaging of cervical spine injuries following blunt trauma: A review of the literature and practical guideline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saltzherr, T. P.; Fung Kon Jin, P. H. P.; Beenen, L. F. M.; Vandertop, W. P.; Goslings, J. C.

    2009-01-01

    - Patients with a (potential) cervical spine injury can be subdivided into low-risk and high-risk patients. - With a detailed history and physical examination the cervical spine of patients in the 'low-risk' group can be 'cleared' without further radiographic examinations. - X-ray imaging (3-view

  7. Avulsion fractures of the anterior inferior iliac spine: spectrum of imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Joao Luiz; Viana, Sergio Lopes; Mendonca, Jose Luiz Furtado de; Freitas, Flavia Mendes Oliveira; Lima, Gylse-Anne de Souza; Vila, Ana Fabiola da; Ribeiro, Nelmar

    2005-01-01

    Avulsive injuries of the pelvic aphophyses are relatively common among 13-18 year old athletes, particularly among soccer players in Brazil. Diagnosis is made upon clinical and imaging findings. These lesions show three distinct phases: acute, repair and consolidation phases. Although acute and consolidation phases usually represent no diagnostic challenge, the repair phase may appear as an aggressive process on diagnostic images simulating neoplasic lesions. In this paper, the authors present the imaging findings of patients with avulsion of the anterior inferior iliac spine on plain radiographs, computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, emphasizing the typical features of the three evolutive phases of these lesions. (author)

  8. Tomographic imaging of the cervical spine of horses; Aspectos tomograficos da coluna cervical de equinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, L.P.; Machado, V.M.V.; Santos, R.V.; Evangelista, F.C.; Vulcano, L.C. [Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia

    2012-09-15

    The anatomy of the cervical spine of mature horses based on images obtained with a helical computed tomography examination performed on anatomic specimens was studied. Computed tomography was the diagnostic imaging method of choice and allowed three-dimensional reconstructions of images and other anatomical planes, such as coronal and sagittal. All images were acquired and evaluated in the filter and window to bone tissue. It was possible to demonstrate the anatomical differences and peculiarities of the normal vertebrae, particularly the occipito-atlantoaxial region, which has a higher incidence of changes to assist in the visualization of any change of the bone pattern on CT studies. (author)

  9. Screening cervical spine CT in the emergency department, phase 3: increasing effectiveness of imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Brent; Vallee, Phyllis; Krupp, Seth; Jung, Melissa; Slezak, Michelle; Nagarwala, Jumana; Loeckner, C Patrick; Schultz, Lonni R; Jain, Rajan

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a clinical education initiative on the appropriate utilization of screening cervical spine CT in the emergency department. The purpose was to assess if clinical education can produce stricter adherence to the ACR Appropriateness Criteria and improve the utilization of screening CT examinations in the emergency department. Institutional review board approval was obtained for this HIPAA-compliant study. All adult patients presenting to a level 1 trauma center with blunt trauma prompting screening cervical spine CT were eligible. For each study, the requesting clinician completed a survey selecting all clinical indications. CT examinations were evaluated by a board-certified radiologist blinded to survey data. Results were compared with retrospective and prospective studies performed before the institution of the education initiative. Of the 388 cervical spine CT examinations performed, 12 (3.1%) were positive for acute cervical spine injury, compared to only 1.0% before the clinical education program (phase 2). Of the 376 examinations without injury, 13% met all 5 National Emergency X-Radiography Utilization Study criteria for nonimaging (down from 16.1% in phase 2), and 15 (4%) required no imaging when both National Emergency X-Radiography Utilization Study and abbreviated Canadian cervical spine rule criteria were applied. Implementation of a clinical education initiative resulted in improved adherence to ACR Appropriateness Criteria and improved clinical effectiveness of the studies by increasing fracture detection rate. Initiatives such as these could potentially influence imaging overutilization without burdening emergency department clinicians with excessive roadblocks to image ordering. Copyright © 2014 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of Model Predictions of Image Quality with Results of Clinical Trials in Chest and Lumbar Spine Screen-film Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandborg, M.; McVey, G.; Dance, D.R.; Carlsson, G.A.

    2000-01-01

    The ability to predict image quality from known physical and technical parameters is a prerequisite for making successful dose optimisation. In this study, imaging systems have been simulated using a Monte Carlo model of the imaging systems. The model includes a voxelised human anatomy and quantifies image quality in terms of contrast and signal-to-noise ratio for 5-6 anatomical details included in the anatomy. The imaging systems used in clinical trials were simulated and the ranking of the systems by the model and radiologists compared. The model and the results of the trial for chest PA both show that using a high maximum optical density was significantly better than using a low one. The model predicts that a good system is characterised by a large dynamic range and a high contrast of the blood vessels in the retrocardiac area. The ranking by the radiologists and the model agreed for the lumbar spine AP. (author)

  11. MR imaging of the spine in children with spina bifida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, M.R.; Glasier, C.M.; Angtuaco, E.J.C.; McConnell, J.R.; Chadduck, W.M.; Binet, E.F.

    1986-01-01

    Twenty infants and children with spina bifida were examined as outpatients with spinal MR imaging. Studies were performed using a 0.6-T imager and a surface coil. These examinations were performed in patients previously operated on who had progressive neurologic symptoms and in newly diagnosed patients to exclude lipomyeloschisis, low-lying cord, diastematomyelia, or syringomyelia. Predominantly T1-weighted sequences were obtained in at least two orthogonal planes with a 5-mm section thickness. Eighteen patients had a low-lying spinal cord. Six patients had syringomyelia, usually lumbar. Five patients had intraspinal lipomas, and three had diastematomyelia. MR imaging was diagnostic in 17 instances. Patient motion or severe kyphoscoliosis comprised three examinations. MR imaging is the screening examination of choice in children with spina bifida

  12. Spine radiosurgery for the local treatment of spine metastases: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy, image guidance, clinical aspects and future directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, Fabio Ynoe de; Neves-Junior, Wellington Furtado Pimenta; Hanna, Samir Abdallah; Carvalho, Heloisa de Andrade; Laufer, Ilya

    2016-01-01

    Many cancer patients will develop spinal metastases. Local control is important for preventing neurologic compromise and to relieve pain. Stereotactic body radiotherapy or spinal radiosurgery is a new radiation therapy technique for spinal metastasis that can deliver a high dose of radiation to a tumor while minimizing the radiation delivered to healthy, neighboring tissues. This treatment is based on intensity-modulated radiotherapy, image guidance and rigid immobilization. Spinal radiosurgery is an increasingly utilized treatment method that improves local control and pain relief after delivering ablative doses of radiation. Here, we present a review highlighting the use of spinal radiosurgery for the treatment of metastatic tumors of the spine. The data used in the review were collected from both published studies and ongoing trials. We found that spinal radiosurgery is safe and provides excellent tumor control (up to 94% local control) and pain relief (up to 96%), independent of histology. Extensive data regarding clinical outcomes are available; however, this information has primarily been generated from retrospective and non randomized prospective series. Currently, two randomized trials are enrolling patients to study clinical applications of fractionation schedules spinal Radiosurgery. Additionally, a phase I clinical trial is being conducted to assess the safety of concurrent stereotactic body radiotherapy and ipilimumab for spinal metastases. Clinical trials to refine clinical indications and dose fractionation are ongoing. The concomitant use of targeted agents may produce better outcomes in the future. (author)

  13. Spine radiosurgery for the local treatment of spine metastases: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy, image guidance, clinical aspects and future directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, Fabio Ynoe de; Neves-Junior, Wellington Furtado Pimenta; Hanna, Samir Abdallah; Carvalho, Heloisa de Andrade [Hospital Sirio-Libanes, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Radioterapia; Taunk, Neil Kanth; Yamada, Yoshiya [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, New York, NY (United States); Laufer, Ilya, E-mail: fymoraes@gmail.com [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Neurosurgery, New York, NY (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Many cancer patients will develop spinal metastases. Local control is important for preventing neurologic compromise and to relieve pain. Stereotactic body radiotherapy or spinal radiosurgery is a new radiation therapy technique for spinal metastasis that can deliver a high dose of radiation to a tumor while minimizing the radiation delivered to healthy, neighboring tissues. This treatment is based on intensity-modulated radiotherapy, image guidance and rigid immobilization. Spinal radiosurgery is an increasingly utilized treatment method that improves local control and pain relief after delivering ablative doses of radiation. Here, we present a review highlighting the use of spinal radiosurgery for the treatment of metastatic tumors of the spine. The data used in the review were collected from both published studies and ongoing trials. We found that spinal radiosurgery is safe and provides excellent tumor control (up to 94% local control) and pain relief (up to 96%), independent of histology. Extensive data regarding clinical outcomes are available; however, this information has primarily been generated from retrospective and non randomized prospective series. Currently, two randomized trials are enrolling patients to study clinical applications of fractionation schedules spinal Radiosurgery. Additionally, a phase I clinical trial is being conducted to assess the safety of concurrent stereotactic body radiotherapy and ipilimumab for spinal metastases. Clinical trials to refine clinical indications and dose fractionation are ongoing. The concomitant use of targeted agents may produce better outcomes in the future. (author)

  14. Evaluation on organ dose and image quality of lumber spine radiography using glass dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Kyeom; Kim, Jeong Koo

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide resources for medical exposure reduction through evaluation of organ dose and image resolution for lumbar spine around according to the size of the collimator in DR system. The size of the collimator were varied from 8″×17″ to 14″×17″ by 1″ in AP and lateral projection for the lumbar spine radiography with RANDO phantom. The organ dose measured for liver, stomach, pancreas, kidney and gonad by the glass dosimeter. The image resolution was analyzed using the Image J program. The organ dose of around lumbar spine were reduced as the size of the collimator is decreased in AP projection. There were no significant changes decreasing rate whenever the size of the collimator were reduced 1″ in the gonad. The organ dose showed higher on liver and kidney near the surface in lateral projection. There were decreasing rate of less than 5% in liver and kidney, but decreasing rate was 24.34% in the gonad whenever the size of the collimator were reduced 1″. Organ dose difference for internal and external of collimator measured 549.8 μGy in the liver and 264.6 μGy in the stomach. There were no significant changes organ dose difference that measured 1,135.1 μG in the gonad. Image Quality made no difference because SNR and PSNR were over than 30 dB when the collimator size is less than 9″×17″ on AP projection and 10″×17″ on lateral projection. Therefore, we are considered that the recommendations criterion for control of collimator were suggested in order to reduce unnecessary X-ray exposure and to obtain good image quality because lumbar spine radiography contains a lot of peripheral organs rather than other area radiography

  15. Atlas of postsurgical neuroradiology. Imaging of the brain, spine, and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginat, Daniel Thomas; Westesson, Per-Lennart A.

    2012-01-01

    Covers the normal appearances and complications that may be encountered on neuroradiological examinations following surgery to the head, neck, and spine. Contains numerous images and to-the-point case descriptions. Serves as an invaluable and convenient resource for both neuroradiologists and neurosurgeons. The number of surgical procedures performed on the brain, head, neck, and spine has increased markedly in recent decades. As a result, postoperative changes are being encountered more frequently on neuroradiological examinations and constitute an important part of the workflow. However, the imaging correlates of postsurgical changes can be unfamiliar to neuroradiologists and neurosurgeons and are sometimes difficult to interpret. This book is written by experts in the field and contains an abundance of high-quality images and concise descriptions, which should serve as a useful guide to postsurgical neuroradiology. It will familiarize the reader with the various types of surgical procedure, implanted hardware, and complications. Indeed, this work represents the first text dedicated to the realm of postoperative neuroimaging. Topics reviewed include imaging after facial cosmetic surgery; orbital and oculoplastic surgery; sinus surgery; scalp and cranial surgery; brain tumor treatment; psychosurgery, neurodegenerative surgery, and epilepsy surgery; skull base surgery including transsphenoidal pituitary resection; temporal bone surgery including various ossicular prostheses; orthognathic surgery; surgery of the neck including the types of dissection and flap reconstruction; CSF diversion procedures and devices; spine surgery; and vascular and endovascular neurosurgery.

  16. Atlas of postsurgical neuroradiology. Imaging of the brain, spine, and neck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginat, Daniel Thomas [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States). Harvard Medical School; Westesson, Per-Lennart A. [Univ. of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States). Div. of Neuroradiology

    2012-11-01

    Covers the normal appearances and complications that may be encountered on neuroradiological examinations following surgery to the head, neck, and spine. Contains numerous images and to-the-point case descriptions. Serves as an invaluable and convenient resource for both neuroradiologists and neurosurgeons. The number of surgical procedures performed on the brain, head, neck, and spine has increased markedly in recent decades. As a result, postoperative changes are being encountered more frequently on neuroradiological examinations and constitute an important part of the workflow. However, the imaging correlates of postsurgical changes can be unfamiliar to neuroradiologists and neurosurgeons and are sometimes difficult to interpret. This book is written by experts in the field and contains an abundance of high-quality images and concise descriptions, which should serve as a useful guide to postsurgical neuroradiology. It will familiarize the reader with the various types of surgical procedure, implanted hardware, and complications. Indeed, this work represents the first text dedicated to the realm of postoperative neuroimaging. Topics reviewed include imaging after facial cosmetic surgery; orbital and oculoplastic surgery; sinus surgery; scalp and cranial surgery; brain tumor treatment; psychosurgery, neurodegenerative surgery, and epilepsy surgery; skull base surgery including transsphenoidal pituitary resection; temporal bone surgery including various ossicular prostheses; orthognathic surgery; surgery of the neck including the types of dissection and flap reconstruction; CSF diversion procedures and devices; spine surgery; and vascular and endovascular neurosurgery.

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging: Atlas of the head, neck and spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, C.M.; De Groot, J.; Posin, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this atlas is to provide the reader with a means to complement existing sources of information and to correlate the superb soft tissue contrast realized in magnetic resonance images with the appropriate anatomic and functional structures. Where appropriate, pathologic examples have been included to complement normal images. In addition, since MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) clearly separates gray from white matter, and thus accurately visualizes the position of functional tracts as they extend from cortex to spinal cord, a separate section on functional neuroanatomy has been provided. Likewise, the improved visualization of vascular structures and associated pathologic processes has led to the inclusion of vascular anatomy and associated perfusion territories. These additions will be of particular use in clinical practice, as precise lesion identification and localization can now be correlated to specific clinical symptomatology

  18. MR imaging of the lumbosacral spine in asymptomatic pregnant and nonpregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinreb, J.C.; Wolbarsht, L.B.; Brown, C.; Cohen, J.M.; Erdman, W.A.; Maravilla, K.R.

    1986-01-01

    Back discomfort is a common complaint during pregnancy. In the past, back discomfort was commonly attributed to exaggeration of the normal lumbar lordosis. Recently, however, claims have been made that there is an increased incidence of lumbar disk disease during pregnancy. To evaluate this claim and determine its significance, we compared MR images of the spines of pregnant and asymptomatic nonpregnant women. Sagittal MR images (0.35 T, spin-echo technique) of the lumbosacral spines of 50 pregnant and 50 nonpregnant women were evaluated for intervertebral disk desiccation, bulge, and herniation. The nonpregnant subjects were divided into two groups: nulliparous and parous. The authors found no statistically significant difference among the three groups. Thus, there is no evidence for an increased prevalence of disk disease in pregnant women

  19. Radiography, myelography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sande, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    Various methods of documenting pathologic change in the spine and spinal cord are available to the veterinary practitioner. Intimidation caused by the imaging modality and the fear that one will not be able to recognize or diagnose a lesion are the factors that limit the use of diagnostic imaging. One needs only to be able to recognize the variations of normal anatomy to be successful. Once an abnormal area has been identified, the diagnosis is soon to follow. Therefore one should concentrate on improving the simple skills associated with image interpretation and normal anatomy. Lesion identification and definitive diagnoses will follow by natural progression

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine in rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Susumu; Igarashi, Yoshiaki; Kato, Tomizo; Kawamura, Haruya; Yoshino, Shinichi

    1985-01-01

    11 patients of rheumatoid arthritis with radiological changes of the cervical vertebrae were studied by 0.5 tesla super conducting MRI unit. Clear images were obtained in all patients. The degree of upper cervical cord compression is appreciated easily. MRI is thought to be the most usefull technique in the diagnosis of this disease. (author)

  1. Spine imaging after lumbar disc replacement: pitfalls and current recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandén Bengt

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most lumbar artificial discs are still composed of stainless steel alloys, which prevents adequate postoperative diagnostic imaging of the operated region when using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Thus patients with postoperative radicular symptoms or claudication after stainless steel implants often require alternative diagnostic procedures. Methods Possible complications of lumbar total disc replacement (TDR are reviewed from the available literature and imaging recommendations given with regard to implant type. Two illustrative cases are presented in figures. Results Access-related complications, infections, implant wear, loosening or fracture, polyethylene inlay dislodgement, facet joint hypertrophy, central stenosis, and ankylosis of the operated segment can be visualised both in titanium and stainless steel implants, but require different imaging modalities due to magnetic artifacts in MRI. Conclusion Alternative radiographic procedures should be considered when evaluating patients following TDR. Postoperative complications following lumbar TDR including spinal stenosis causing radiculopathy and implant loosening can be visualised by myelography and radionucleotide techniques as an adjunct to plain film radiographs. Even in the presence of massive stainless steel TDR implants lumbar radicular stenosis and implant loosening can be visualised if myelography and radionuclide techniques are applied.

  2. MR imaging of the pediatric spine: Comparison of myelography, MCT, and surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, P.C.; Hoffman, J.C.; Ball, T.I.; Wyly, J.B.; Braun, I.F.; Fry, S.M.

    1986-01-01

    Results of MR imaging of 53 pediatric patients with suspected spinal abnormalities were compared findings on metrizamide myelography, MCT, and surgery. Prototype surface coil studies with multisection multiplanar imaging (0.5 and 1.5 T) using T1-weighted sequences were optimum for anatomic definition, while T2-weighted sequences were utilized for intramedullary pathology. Diseases studied included neoplasia, infection, trauma, scoliosis, and dysrhaphsium. Surface coils were essential for imaging the thoracic and lumbar spine. MR imaging yielded approximately equivalent information to that obtained on myelography or MCT in 25 of 31 patients. Limitations to MR imaging included bony spurs, small eccentric lesions, tumor seeding, metal artifacts, postoperative scarring, and motion. With further refinements, MR imaging may replace more invasive techniques for pediatric spinal imaging

  3. Comparison of Two Methods for Evaluation of the Image Quality of Lumbar Spine Radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tingberg, A.; Herrmann, C.; Lanhede, B.; Almn, A.; Besjakov, J.; Mattsson, S.; Sund, P.; Kheddache, S.; Maasson, L.G.

    2000-01-01

    Two methods for visual evaluation of image quality of clinical radiographs have been compared. In visual grading analysis (VGA) specified anatomical structures in an image are visually compared with the same structures in a reference image, and in a free-response forced error (FFE) experiment - an extension of conventional ROC (receiver operating characteristics) analysis - the objective is to localise known lesions correctly. The spatial resolution and noise of digitised clinical radiographs of the lumbar spine were altered by image processing, and pathological structures were added to the images for the FFE experiment. The images were printed to film and evaluated by seven European expert radiologists using VGA and FFE. The results of these two different methods showed a very good agreement. VGA methodology can be made as solid as the FFE experiment for evaluating image quality. The simplicity of VGA makes it very suitable for implementation in clinical practice. (author)

  4. Imaging the spine in arthritis-a pictorial review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurik, Anne Grethe

    2011-01-01

    Spinal involvement is frequent in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and seronegative spondyloarthritides (SpA), and its diagnosis is important. Thus, MRI and CT are increasingly used, although radiography is the recommended initial examination. The purpose of this review is to present the typical...... by vertebral squaring and condensation of vertebral corners, in later stages by slim ossifications between vertebral bodies, vertebral fusion, arthritis/ankylosis of apophyseal joints and ligamentous ossification causing spinal stiffness. The imaging features of the other forms of SpA can vary, but voluminous...

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging of lumbar spine disc diseases. Frequency of false negatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthelot, J.M.; Maugars, Y.; Delecrin, Y.; Caillon, F.; Prost, A.

    1995-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has had an impressive impact on evaluation of degenerative diseases of the spine. Nevertheless, false negatives can occur on images involving lumbar discs. Degenerative disc diseases documented on discography and/or pathology examination of the discs can go unrecognized. Likewise sensitivity for the detection of protruding disc hernias is not totally satisfactory (20% false negatives). Finally, a magnetic resonance image visualizing displacement of the disc is not specific (10 to 15% false positives); images showing protrusion or hernia can be seen in 30% of asymptomatic patients. Although MRI gives slightly more information than other imaging techniques, false images do exist. Moreover, the usefulness of MRI to demonstrate disc disease in case of a negative CT-scan remains to be demonstrated. (authors). 26 refs

  6. Acute cervical spine injuries: prospective MR imaging assessment at a level 1 trauma center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzberg, R W; Benedetti, P F; Drake, C M; Ivanovic, M; Levine, R A; Beatty, C S; Nemzek, W R; McFall, R A; Ontell, F K; Bishop, D M; Poirier, V C; Chong, B W

    1999-10-01

    To determine the weighted average sensitivity of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the prospective detection of acute neck injury and to compare these findings with those of a comprehensive conventional radiographic assessment. Conventional radiography and MR imaging were performed in 199 patients presenting to a level 1 trauma center with suspected cervical spine injury. Weighted sensitivities and specificities were calculated, and a weighted average across eight vertebral levels from C1 to T1 was formed. Fourteen parameters indicative of acute injury were tabulated. Fifty-eight patients had 172 acute cervical injuries. MR imaging depicted 136 (79%) acute abnormalities and conventional radiography depicted 39 (23%). For assessment of acute fractures, MR images (weighted average sensitivity, 43%; CI: 21%, 66%) were comparable to conventional radiographs (weighted average sensitivity, 48%; CI: 30%, 65%). MR imaging was superior to conventional radiography in the evaluation of pre- or paravertebral hemorrhage or edema, anterior or posterior longitudinal ligament injury, traumatic disk herniation, cord edema, and cord compression. Cord injuries were associated with cervical spine spondylosis (P < .05), acute fracture (P < .001), and canal stenosis (P < .001). MR imaging is more accurate than radiography in the detection of a wide spectrum of neck injuries, and further study is warranted of its potential effect on medical decision making, clinical outcome, and cost-effectiveness.

  7. MR imaging in the assessment of the thoracolumbar spine in elite male gymnasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyman, R.; Svard, L.; Hellstrom, M.; Jakobsson, B.; Peterson, L.

    1989-01-01

    Gymnasts training on elite level from childhood to adulthood might do serious damage to the motion segments in the thoracolumbar spine. This paper reports on twenty-five elite gymnasts (age range, 18-29 years) investigated with 0.5-T MR imaging and compared with 17 aged-matched normal males. A significantly higher number of changes in configuration of the vertebrae, apophyseal changes, end plate nodes, degenerated disks, and disk bulging in the thoracolumbar spine were found among the gymnasts. The number of degenerated disks among the gymnasts were comparable to that found at the age group of 65. Disk degeneration and change of configuration of the vertebrae were also found to correlate significantly with symptoms of back pain

  8. Scoring inflammatory activity of the spine by magnetic resonance imaging in ankylosing spondylitis: a multireader experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukas, Cédric; Braun, Jürgen; van der Heijde, Désirée

    2007-01-01

    ability was assessed using Z-scores (Mann-Whitney test) comparing change in score between patients treated with TNF-blocking drug and placebo. RESULTS: The mean time to score one set of MRI was shortest for the Berlin method. SDC was lowest for the Berlin method and highest for SPARCC. Overall inter...... of 3 different scoring methods for MRI activity and change in activity of the spine in patients with AS. METHODS: Thirty sets of spinal MRI at baseline and after 24 weeks of followup, derived from a randomized clinical trial comparing a tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-blocking drug (n = 20) with placebo (n...... the Ankylosing Spondylitis spine Magnetic Resonance Imaging-activity [ASspiMRI-a, grading activity (0-6) per vertebral unit in 23 units]; the Berlin modification of the ASspiMRI-a; and the Spondyloarthritis Research Consortium of Canada (SPARCC) scoring system, which scores the 6 vertebral units considered...

  9. Parametric modelling and segmentation of vertebral bodies in 3D CT and MR spine images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Štern, Darko; Likar, Boštjan; Pernuš, Franjo; Vrtovec, Tomaž

    2011-01-01

    Accurate and objective evaluation of vertebral deformations is of significant importance in clinical diagnostics and therapy of pathological conditions affecting the spine. Although modern clinical practice is focused on three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques, the established methods for evaluation of vertebral deformations are limited to measuring deformations in two-dimensional (2D) x-ray images. In this paper, we propose a method for quantitative description of vertebral body deformations by efficient modelling and segmentation of vertebral bodies in 3D. The deformations are evaluated from the parameters of a 3D superquadric model, which is initialized as an elliptical cylinder and then gradually deformed by introducing transformations that yield a more detailed representation of the vertebral body shape. After modelling the vertebral body shape with 25 clinically meaningful parameters and the vertebral body pose with six rigid body parameters, the 3D model is aligned to the observed vertebral body in the 3D image. The performance of the method was evaluated on 75 vertebrae from CT and 75 vertebrae from T 2 -weighted MR spine images, extracted from the thoracolumbar part of normal and pathological spines. The results show that the proposed method can be used for 3D segmentation of vertebral bodies in CT and MR images, as the proposed 3D model is able to describe both normal and pathological vertebral body deformations. The method may therefore be used for initialization of whole vertebra segmentation or for quantitative measurement of vertebral body deformations.

  10. Developmental steps of the human cervical spine: parameters for evaluation of skeletal maturation stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Marcos Fabio Henriques; de Lima, Rodrigo Lopes; De-Ary-Pires, Bernardo; Pires-Neto, Mário Ary; de Ary-Pires, Ricardo

    2010-06-01

    The central objective of this investigation was to focus on the development of the cervical spine observed by lateral cephalometric radiological images of children and adolescents (6-16 years old). A sample of 26 individuals (12 girls and 14 boys) was classified according to stages of cervical spine maturation in two subcategories: group I (initiation phase) and group II (acceleration phase). The morphology of the cervical spine was assessed by lateral cephalometric radiographs obtained in accordance with an innovative method for establishing a standardized head posture. A total of 29 linear variables and 5 angular variables were used to clarify the dimensions of the cervical vertebrae. The results suggest that a few measurements can be used as parameters of vertebral maturation both for males and females. The aforementioned measurements include the inferior depth of C2-C4, the inferior depth of C5, the anterior height of C4-C5, and the posterior height of C5. We propose original morphological parameters that may prove remarkably useful in the determination of bone maturational stages of the cervical spine in children and adolescents.

  11. Occupational and patient exposure as well as image quality for full spine examinations with the EOS imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damet, J.; Fournier, P.; Monnin, P.; Sans-Merce, M.; Verdun, F. R.; Baechler, S.; Ceroni, D.; Zand, T.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: EOS (EOS imaging S.A, Paris, France) is an x-ray imaging system that uses slot-scanning technology in order to optimize the trade-off between image quality and dose. The goal of this study was to characterize the EOS system in terms of occupational exposure, organ doses to patients as well as image quality for full spine examinations. Methods: Occupational exposure was determined by measuring the ambient dose equivalents in the radiological room during a standard full spine examination. The patient dosimetry was performed using anthropomorphic phantoms representing an adolescent and a five-year-old child. The organ doses were measured with thermoluminescent detectors and then used to calculate effective doses. Patient exposure with EOS was then compared to dose levels reported for conventional radiological systems. Image quality was assessed in terms of spatial resolution and different noise contributions to evaluate the detector's performances of the system. The spatial-frequency signal transfer efficiency of the imaging system was quantified by the detective quantum efficiency (DQE). Results: The use of a protective apron when the medical staff or parents have to stand near to the cubicle in the radiological room is recommended. The estimated effective dose to patients undergoing a full spine examination with the EOS system was 290μSv for an adult and 200 μSv for a child. MTF and NPS are nonisotropic, with higher values in the scanning direction; they are in addition energy-dependent, but scanning speed independent. The system was shown to be quantum-limited, with a maximum DQE of 13%. The relevance of the DQE for slot-scanning system has been addressed. Conclusions: As a summary, the estimated effective dose was 290μSv for an adult; the image quality remains comparable to conventional systems

  12. Occupational and patient exposure as well as image quality for full spine examinations with the EOS imaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damet, J., E-mail: jerome.damet@chuv.ch; Fournier, P.; Monnin, P.; Sans-Merce, M.; Verdun, F. R.; Baechler, S. [Institute of Radiation Physics, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne 1007 (Switzerland); Ceroni, D. [Department of Paediatrics, Division of paediatric orthopaedic, University Hospitals of Geneva, Geneva 1205 (Switzerland); Zand, T. [Department of Radiology, Division of paediatric radiology, University Hospitals of Geneva, Geneva 1205 (Switzerland)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: EOS (EOS imaging S.A, Paris, France) is an x-ray imaging system that uses slot-scanning technology in order to optimize the trade-off between image quality and dose. The goal of this study was to characterize the EOS system in terms of occupational exposure, organ doses to patients as well as image quality for full spine examinations. Methods: Occupational exposure was determined by measuring the ambient dose equivalents in the radiological room during a standard full spine examination. The patient dosimetry was performed using anthropomorphic phantoms representing an adolescent and a five-year-old child. The organ doses were measured with thermoluminescent detectors and then used to calculate effective doses. Patient exposure with EOS was then compared to dose levels reported for conventional radiological systems. Image quality was assessed in terms of spatial resolution and different noise contributions to evaluate the detector's performances of the system. The spatial-frequency signal transfer efficiency of the imaging system was quantified by the detective quantum efficiency (DQE). Results: The use of a protective apron when the medical staff or parents have to stand near to the cubicle in the radiological room is recommended. The estimated effective dose to patients undergoing a full spine examination with the EOS system was 290μSv for an adult and 200 μSv for a child. MTF and NPS are nonisotropic, with higher values in the scanning direction; they are in addition energy-dependent, but scanning speed independent. The system was shown to be quantum-limited, with a maximum DQE of 13%. The relevance of the DQE for slot-scanning system has been addressed. Conclusions: As a summary, the estimated effective dose was 290μSv for an adult; the image quality remains comparable to conventional systems.

  13. Navigation and Image Injection for Control of Bone Removal and Osteotomy Planes in Spine Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosterhon, Michael; Gutenberg, Angelika; Kantelhardt, Sven Rainer; Archavlis, Elefterios; Giese, Alf

    2017-04-01

    In contrast to cranial interventions, neuronavigation in spinal surgery is used in few applications, not tapping into its full technological potential. We have developed a method to preoperatively create virtual resection planes and volumes for spinal osteotomies and export 3-D operation plans to a navigation system controlling intraoperative visualization using a surgical microscope's head-up display. The method was developed using a Sawbone ® model of the lumbar spine, demonstrating feasibility with high precision. Computer tomographic and magnetic resonance image data were imported into Amira ® , a 3-D visualization software. Resection planes were positioned, and resection volumes representing intraoperative bone removal were defined. Fused to the original Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine data, the osteotomy planes were exported to the cranial version of a Brainlab ® navigation system. A navigated surgical microscope with video connection to the navigation system allowed intraoperative image injection to visualize the preplanned resection planes. The workflow was applied to a patient presenting with a congenital hemivertebra of the thoracolumbar spine. Dorsal instrumentation with pedicle screws and rods was followed by resection of the deformed vertebra guided by the in-view image injection of the preplanned resection planes into the optical path of a surgical microscope. Postoperatively, the patient showed no neurological deficits, and the spine was found to be restored in near physiological posture. The intraoperative visualization of resection planes in a microscope's head-up display was found to assist the surgeon during the resection of a complex-shaped bone wedge and may help to further increase accuracy and patient safety. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons

  14. Metal Artifacts Reduction of Pedicle Screws on Spine Computed Tomography Images Using Variable Thresholding Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaewlek, T.; Koolpiruck, D.; Thongvigitmanee, S.; Mongkolsuk, M.; Chiewvit, P.; Thammakittiphan, S.

    2012-01-01

    Metal artifacts are one of significant problems in computed tomography (CT). The streak lines and air gaps arise from metal implants of orthopedic patients, such as prosthesis, dental bucket, and pedicle screws that cause incorrect diagnosis and local treatment planning. A common technique to suppressed artifacts is by adjusting windows, but those artifacts still remain on the images. To improve the detail of spine CT images, the variable thresholding technique is proposed in this paper. Three medical cases of spine CT images categorized by the severity of artifacts (screws head, one full screw, and two full screws) were investigated. Metal regions were segmented by k-mean clustering, then transformed into a sinogram domain. The metal sinogram was identified by the variable thresholding method, and then replaced the new estimated values by linear interpolation. The modified sinogram was reconstructed by the filtered back- projection algorithm, and added the metal region back to the modified reconstructed image in order to reproduce the final image. The image quality of the proposed technique, the automatic thresholding (Kalender) technique, and window adjustment technique was compared in term of noise and signal to noise ratio (SNR). The propose method can reduce metal artifacts between pedicle screws. After processing by our proposed technique, noise in the modified images is reduced (screws head 121.15 to73.83, one full screw 160.88 to 94.04, and two full screws 199.73 to 110.05 from the initial image) and SNR is increased (screws head 0.87 to 1.88, one full screw 1.54 to 2.82, and two full screws 0.32 to 0.41 from the initial image). The variable thresholding technique can identify the suitable boundary for restoring the missing data. The efficiency of the metal artifacts reduction is indicated on the case of partial and full pedicle screws. Our technique can improve the detail of spine CT images better than automatic thresholding (Kalender) technique, and

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical and thoracic spine and the spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, E.M.

    1989-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MR), using a 0.3 T resistive scanner with an iron core and a vertical magnetic field, was evaluated in patients with different diseases affecting the cervical and thoracic spine and the spinal cord. The results indicate that MR is well suited as the procedure of choice for emergency examination of patients with spinal cord symptoms, for examination of patients with suspected spinal multiple sclerosis and for pre-operative evaluation of patients with rheumatoid arthritis with neurological symptoms emanating from the cranio-cervical junction. In patients with cervical radiculapathy and/or myelopathy, caused by spondylosis or disk herniation, MR was found to be equivalent with myelography and CT myelography but MR has several practical advantages. MR at 0.3 T using a vertical magnetic field provided information comparable to that reported from examinations performed with superconducting MR scanners. In order to optimize the MR examinations of the spine, the signal characteristics of different coils available when using a vertical magnetic field were determined by phantom studies. Recommendations for optimal coil selection for different levels of the cervical and thoracic spine are given. In addition, the paramagnetic contrast medium gadolinium-DTPA was administered intravenously to patients with suspected spinal multiple sclerosis. Enhancement of clinically active lesions in the cervical spinal cord was observed. Serial MR examinations with gadolinium-DTPA showed that a decrease in enhancement could be correlated with decrease in clinical symptoms and signs. (author)

  16. Developing Criteria for Lumbar Spine Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Using RAND Appropriateness Method (RAM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keshtkaran, Ali; Bagheri, Mohammad Hadi; Ostovar, Rahim; Salari, Hedayat; Farokhi, Majid Reza; Esfandiari, Atefeh; Yousefimanesh, Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Studies show that a large proportion of healthcare offered may be inappropriate or unnecessary. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a new and expensive diagnostic technology which has been increasingly used all over the world. Moreover, this trend has been more rapidly increasing in Iran. Low back pain is a common disorder all over the world and MRI technique is one of the several ways to assess its cause. The present study aims to develop scenarios for lumbar spine MRI. In the present study, the RAND Appropriateness Method (RAM) was used in order to reach consensus regarding developing scenarios for lumbar spine MRI. We generated scenarios from valid clinical guidelines as well as the experts’ opinion. The panel members included nine specialists from various medical specialties that had scored scenarios in two rounds, the first of which was without interaction, while the second one was with interaction. We extracted 97 scenarios for the lumbar spine MRI in the scenario extracting phase of the study and the panel members added 18 scenarios. After implementation of two rounds, the scenarios were categorized into three ranges. Sixty seven (58%) of the scenarios were considered as appropriate, 45 (39%) as uncertain, and three (2.6%) as inappropriate. RAM is useful for identifying stakeholder views in settings with limited resources. Since RAM has precise instructions for consensus developing, a large number of scenarios were considered as uncertain. Therefore, more research has to be conducted on the issue

  17. Cervical spine imaging in trauma: Does the use of grid and filter combination improve visualisation of the cervicothoracic junction?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, Nimit; Rachapalli, Vamsidhar; Burns, Helen; Lloyd, David C.F.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the usefulness of filter and anti-scatter grid combination in demonstrating the cervicothoracic junction in lateral cervical spine radiographs performed for trauma patients. Methods: Following a change in departmental protocol in our hospital, anti-scatter grid and filter are routinely used for lateral cervical spine radiograph in all trauma patients with immobilised cervical spine. A retrospective study was done to compare the efficacy of lateral cervical spine radiographs in demonstrating the cervicothoracic junction for a period of three months before and after the implementation of the change. All images were independently evaluated by two observers. Results: 253 trauma patients had a lateral cervical spine radiograph done in January to March 2003 without using the anti-scatter grid and filter while 309 patients in January to March 2007, using filter and grid. Inter-observer variability between the two observers was calculated using Cohen's Kappa which showed good and very good agreement for 2003 and 2007 respectively. 126 (49.8%) images adequately demonstrated the cervicothoracic junction without using filter and grid while 189 (61.1%) were adequate following their use. This was statistically significant (Fischer exact test, p value = 0.0081). Conclusion: The use of filter and anti-scatter grids improves the visualisation of cervicothoracic junction in lateral cervical spine imaging and reduces the need to repeat exposure.

  18. Cervical spine imaging in trauma: Does the use of grid and filter combination improve visualisation of the cervicothoracic junction?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyal, Nimit, E-mail: nimitgoyal@doctors.org.u [University Hospital of Wales, Heath Park, Cardiff, CF14 4XW (United Kingdom); Rachapalli, Vamsidhar; Burns, Helen; Lloyd, David C.F. [University Hospital of Wales, Heath Park, Cardiff, CF14 4XW (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the usefulness of filter and anti-scatter grid combination in demonstrating the cervicothoracic junction in lateral cervical spine radiographs performed for trauma patients. Methods: Following a change in departmental protocol in our hospital, anti-scatter grid and filter are routinely used for lateral cervical spine radiograph in all trauma patients with immobilised cervical spine. A retrospective study was done to compare the efficacy of lateral cervical spine radiographs in demonstrating the cervicothoracic junction for a period of three months before and after the implementation of the change. All images were independently evaluated by two observers. Results: 253 trauma patients had a lateral cervical spine radiograph done in January to March 2003 without using the anti-scatter grid and filter while 309 patients in January to March 2007, using filter and grid. Inter-observer variability between the two observers was calculated using Cohen's Kappa which showed good and very good agreement for 2003 and 2007 respectively. 126 (49.8%) images adequately demonstrated the cervicothoracic junction without using filter and grid while 189 (61.1%) were adequate following their use. This was statistically significant (Fischer exact test, p value = 0.0081). Conclusion: The use of filter and anti-scatter grids improves the visualisation of cervicothoracic junction in lateral cervical spine imaging and reduces the need to repeat exposure.

  19. Evaluation of a dedicated MDCT protocol using iterative image reconstruction after cervical spine trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, L L; Körner, M; Hempel, R; Deak, Z; Mueck, F G; Linsenmaier, U; Reiser, M F; Wirth, S

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate radiation exposure for 64-row computed tomography (CT) of the cervical spine comparing two optimized protocols using filtered back projection (FBP) and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR), respectively. Sixty-seven studies using FBP (scanner 1) were retrospectively compared with 80 studies using ASIR (scanner 2). The key scanning parameters were identical (120 kV dose modulation, 64 × 0.625 mm collimation, pitch 0.531:1). In protocol 2, the noise index (NI) was increased from 5 to 25, and ASIR and the high-definition (HD) mode were used. The scan length, CT dose index (CTDI), and dose-length product (DLP) were recorded. The image quality was analysed subjectively by using a three-point scale (0; 1; 2), and objectively by using a region of interest (ROI) analysis. Mann-Whitney U and Wilcoxon's test were used. In the FBP group, the mean CTDI was 21.43 mGy, mean scan length 186.3 mm, and mean DLP 441.15 mGy cm. In the ASIR group, the mean CTDI was 9.57 mGy, mean scan length 195.21 mm, and mean DLP 204.23 mGy cm. The differences were significant for CTDI and DLP (p 0.05). The estimated mean effective dose decreased from 2.38 mSv (FBP) to 1.10 mSv (ASIR). The radiation dose of 64-row MDCT can be reduced to a level comparable to plain radiography without loss of subjective image quality by implementation of ASIR in a dedicated cervical spine trauma protocol. These results might contribute to an improved relative risk-to-benefit ratio and support the justification of CT as a first-line imaging tool to evaluate cervical spine trauma. Copyright © 2013 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of a dedicated MDCT protocol using iterative image reconstruction after cervical spine trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geyer, L.L.; Körner, M.; Hempel, R.; Deak, Z.; Mueck, F.G.; Linsenmaier, U.; Reiser, M.F.; Wirth, S.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate radiation exposure for 64-row computed tomography (CT) of the cervical spine comparing two optimized protocols using filtered back projection (FBP) and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR), respectively. Materials and methods: Sixty-seven studies using FBP (scanner 1) were retrospectively compared with 80 studies using ASIR (scanner 2). The key scanning parameters were identical (120 kV dose modulation, 64 × 0.625 mm collimation, pitch 0.531:1). In protocol 2, the noise index (NI) was increased from 5 to 25, and ASIR and the high-definition (HD) mode were used. The scan length, CT dose index (CTDI), and dose–length product (DLP) were recorded. The image quality was analysed subjectively by using a three-point scale (0; 1; 2), and objectively by using a region of interest (ROI) analysis. Mann–Whitney U and Wilcoxon's test were used. Results: In the FBP group, the mean CTDI was 21.43 mGy, mean scan length 186.3 mm, and mean DLP 441.15 mGy cm. In the ASIR group, the mean CTDI was 9.57 mGy, mean scan length 195.21 mm, and mean DLP 204.23 mGy cm. The differences were significant for CTDI and DLP (p 0.05). The estimated mean effective dose decreased from 2.38 mSv (FBP) to 1.10 mSv (ASIR). Conclusion: The radiation dose of 64-row MDCT can be reduced to a level comparable to plain radiography without loss of subjective image quality by implementation of ASIR in a dedicated cervical spine trauma protocol. These results might contribute to an improved relative risk-to-benefit ratio and support the justification of CT as a first-line imaging tool to evaluate cervical spine trauma

  1. Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) and his depictions of the human spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Garvin; Gonzales, Jocelyn; Iwanaga, Joe; Fisahn, Christian; Loukas, Marios; Oskouian, Rod J; Tubbs, R Shane

    2017-12-01

    Few individuals in history have exerted so great an influence and made such extensive contributions to so many disciplines as Leonardo da Vinci. Da Vinci's inquisitive, experimental mentality led him to many discoveries, such as spinal cord function and the proper anatomy of several organ systems. Respected not only as an artist but also as an anatomist, he made many significant contributions to the field. This article explores da Vinci's drawings, in relation to the anatomy of the human spine.

  2. A biomechanical evaluation of magnetic resonance imaging-compatible wire in cervical spine fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scuderi, G J; Greenberg, S S; Cohen, D S; Latta, L L; Eismont, F J

    1993-10-15

    In a bovine cervical spine model, the ultimate and fatigue strengths as well as relative magnetic resonance imaging artifact produced by titanium, cobalt chrome, and stainless-steel wires in various gauges were assessed. Single-cycle and fatigue strength of wire constructs were measured. Although larger wires generally had greater static strength, fatigue strength was mixed. Sixteen-gauge titanium, and all stainless-steel models (22-gauge braided, 18-gauge, and Songer cable) withstood 10,000 cycles without failure, whereas all other constructs rarely could withstand a similar 10,000 cycles. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed on calf cervical spines instrumented with the various materials. Titanium exhibited the least artifact, stainless-steel showed the greatest artifact, and cobalt chrome an intermediate amount. Although titanium wire produces the least amount of magnetic resonance imaging artifact, it remains a poor choice for implant fixation because its notch sensitivity reduces its fatigue resistance compared with stainless steel, which remains the more dependable choice.

  3. Human mesenchymal stem cells and biomaterials interaction: a promising synergy to improve spine fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbanti Brodano, G; Mazzoni, E; Tognon, M; Griffoni, C; Manfrini, M

    2012-05-01

    Spine fusion is the gold standard treatment in degenerative and traumatic spine diseases. The bone regenerative medicine needs (i) in vitro functionally active osteoblasts, and/or (ii) the in vivo induction of the tissue. The bone tissue engineering seems to be a very promising approach for the effectiveness of orthopedic surgical procedures, clinical applications are often hampered by the limited availability of bone allograft or substitutes. New biomaterials have been recently developed for the orthopedic applications. The main characteristics of these scaffolds are the ability to induce the bone tissue formation by generating an appropriate environment for (i) the cell growth and (ii) recruiting precursor bone cells for the proliferation and differentiation. A new prototype of biomaterials known as "bioceramics" may own these features. Bioceramics are bone substitutes mainly composed of calcium and phosphate complex salt derivatives. In this study, the characteristics bioceramics bone substitutes have been tested with human mesenchymal stem cells obtained from the bone marrow of adult orthopedic patients. These cellular models can be employed to characterize in vitro the behavior of different biomaterials, which are used as bone void fillers or three-dimensional scaffolds. Human mesenchymal stem cells in combination with biomaterials seem to be good alternative to the autologous or allogenic bone fusion in spine surgery. The cellular model used in our study is a useful tool for investigating cytocompatibility and biological features of HA-derived scaffolds.

  4. A radiographic study of the human fetal spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagnall, K.M.; Harris, P.F.; Jones, P.R.M.

    1979-01-01

    Regression equations are presented which describe the growth in length of the various regions of the vertebral column in the human fetus. From 8 weeks on the thoracic is always the longest region and the sacral the shortest, while the lumbar region is longer than the cervical. From the regression equations predictions of fetal vertebral length can be made from fetal age: this should be useful in obstetric practice when diagnostic ultrasound techniques are being employed for the diagnosis of growth disorders and skeletal abnormalities. A different development pattern emerges when average 'vertebral units' for each region are compared. The lumbar vertebrae are always the largest with the thoracic, cervical and sacral vertebrae being progressively smaller. (author)

  5. Optimized image processing with modified preprocessing of image data sets of a transparent imaging plate by way of the lateral view of the cervical spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reissberg, S.; Hoeschen, C.; Redlich, U.; Scherlach, C.; Preuss, H.; Kaestner, A.; Doehring, W.; Woischneck, D.; Schuetze, M.; Reichardt, K.; Firsching, R.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the diagnostic quality of lateral radiographs of the cervical spine by pre-processing the image data sets produced by a transparent imaging plate with both-side reading and to evaluate any possible impact on minimizing the number of additional radiographs and supplementary investigations. Material and Methods: One hundred lateral digital radiographs of the cervical spine were processed with two different methods: processing of each data set using the system-imminent parameters and using the manual model. The difference between the two types of processing is the level of the latitude value. Hard copies of the processed images were judged by five radiologists and three neurosurgeons. The evaluation applied the image criteria score (ICS) without conventional reference images. Results: In 99% of the lateral radiographs of the cervical spine, all vertebral bodies could be completed delineated using the manual mode, but only 76% of the images processed by the system-imminent parameters showed all vertebral bodies. Thus, the manual mode enabled the evaluation of up to two additional more caudal vertebral bodies. The manual mode processing was significantly better concerning object size and processing artifacts. This optimized image processing and the resultant minimization of supplementary investigations was calculated to correspond to a theoretical dose reduction of about 50%. (orig.) [de

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging of acute trauma of the cervical spine: spectrum of findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forster, B.B.; Koopmans, R.A. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Faculty of Medicine

    1995-06-01

    The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) spectrum of acute injury to the cervical spine was illustrated in this pictorial essay. The appearance of the traumatized cord was discussed, including intramedullary hemorrhage, and the causes of spinal cord compression, such as disk herniation, epidural hematoma, fracture, dislocation and underlying spinal stenosis. The ability of MRI to directly reveal the severity of cord injury and simultaneously indicate the cause of cord compression proved particularly useful in the management of incomplete injury, for which surgical intervention may prevent further deterioration. The protocol for MRI of cervical spinal trauma included sagittal T1-weighted and T2-weighted conventional spin-echo sequences. In addition, transverse T2-weighted gradient-echo images were obtained. MRI`s ability to directly reveal the extent of cord injury was said to be a powerful tool in the management of incomplete injuries where further deterioration could be prevented by timely surgical intervention. 7 refs., 12 figs.

  7. Myositis Ossificans of the Psoas Muscle After Compression Fracture of Lumbar Spine: CT and MR Imaging Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Mi Nyong; Lee, Gyung Kyu; Suh, Kyung Jin

    2010-01-01

    Myositis ossificans is a benign, self-limiting and non-neoplastic development of heterotopic bone in skeletal muscle following trauma. Although myositis ossificans can occur anywhere in the body, psoas muscle involvement is very rare. To the best of our knowledge, CT and MR imaging findings of myositis ossificans in the psoas muscle secondary to lumbar spine fracture have not been reported in the radiological literature. In this article, we describe the CT and MR imaging findings of myositis ossificans of the psoas muscle after lumbar spine fracture in a 64-year-old man, and conduct a review of the relevant literature

  8. Myositis Ossificans of the Psoas Muscle After Compression Fracture of Lumbar Spine: CT and MR Imaging Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Mi Nyong; Lee, Gyung Kyu [Hallym University College of Medicine, Hangang Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Kyung Jin [Dongguk University College of Medicine, Gyungju Hospital, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    Myositis ossificans is a benign, self-limiting and non-neoplastic development of heterotopic bone in skeletal muscle following trauma. Although myositis ossificans can occur anywhere in the body, psoas muscle involvement is very rare. To the best of our knowledge, CT and MR imaging findings of myositis ossificans in the psoas muscle secondary to lumbar spine fracture have not been reported in the radiological literature. In this article, we describe the CT and MR imaging findings of myositis ossificans of the psoas muscle after lumbar spine fracture in a 64-year-old man, and conduct a review of the relevant literature

  9. Evaluation of sclerosis in Modic changes of the spine using susceptibility-weighted magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Böker, Sarah M., E-mail: Sarah-maria.boeker@charite.de [Department of Radiology, Charité, Charitéplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Bender, Yvonne Y., E-mail: Yi-na.bender@charite.de [Department of Radiology, Charité, Charitéplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Adams, Lisa C., E-mail: Lisa.adams@charite.de [Department of Radiology, Charité, Charitéplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Fallenberg, Eva M., E-mail: Eva.fallenberg@charite.de [Department of Radiology, Charité, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Wagner, Moritz, E-mail: Moritz.wagner@charite.de [Department of Radiology, Charité, Charitéplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Hamm, Bernd, E-mail: Bernd.hamm@charite.de [Department of Radiology, Charité, Charitéplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Makowski, Marcus R., E-mail: Marcus.makowski@charite.de [Department of Radiology, Charité, Charitéplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • SWMR allows a reliable detection of sclerosis in Modic changes. • SWI has a better accuracy for detection of sclerosis in Modic changes than T1/T2w MR. • By applying SWMR the use of additional CT/radiography can be minimized. - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of susceptibility-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (SWMR) for the differentiation of sclerotic and non-sclerotic Modic changes (MC) of the spine compared to computed tomography (CT) and radiographs. Materials and methods: The Institutional Ethics-Review-Board approved this prospective study in advance. Written consent was obtained from all subjects. SWMR and standard T1/T2 MR of the cervical (n = 21) and/or lumbar spine (n = 34) were performed in 54 patients. 21 patients served as control. 18 patients were evaluated with CT; in all other patients radiographs were available. 67 Modic changes were identified on T1/T2 MR. On SWMR changes were classified as sclerotic and non-sclerotic based on signal intensity measurements. The sensitivity and specificity of SWMR and T1/T2 MR for differentiating between sclerotic and non-sclerotic Modic changes were determined with CT and radiographs as reference standard. Results: On SWMR, signal measurements between sclerotic and non-sclerotic Modic changes differed significantly (p < 0.01). On T1- and T2-weighted MR no significant difference (p > 0.05) was measured. On SWMR, a reliable differentiation between sclerotic and non-sclerotic Modic changes could be achieved, with a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 95%. In contrast, the combination of T1-/T2-weighted MR yielded a significantly lower sensitivity to detect sclerosis (20%). Conclusion: SWMR allows a reliable detection of sclerosis in Modic changes with a higher accuracy compared to standard spine MR sequences, using radiographs and CT as reference standard.

  10. Diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging versus computed tomography in stress fractures of the lumbar spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganiyusufoglu, A.K.; Onat, L.; Karatoprak, O.; Enercan, M.; Hamzaoglu, A.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To compare the diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with computed tomography (CT) in stress fractures of the lumbar spine. Materials and methods: Radiological and clinical data from 57 adolescents and young adults with a diagnosis of stress injury of the lumbar spine were retrospectively reviewed. All cases had undergone both 1.5 T MRI and 16-section CT examinations. All MRI and CT images were retrospectively reviewed and evaluated in separate sessions. The fracture morphology (complete/incomplete, localization) and vertebral levels were noted at both the CT and MRI examinations. Bone marrow/peri-osseous soft-tissue oedema was also determined at MRI. Results: In total, 73 complete and 32 incomplete stress fractures were detected with CT. Sixty-seven complete, 24 incomplete fractures and eight stress reactions were detected using MRI in the same study group. Marrow oedema was also seen in eight of the complete and 20 of the incomplete fractures. The specificity, sensitivity, and accuracy of MRI in detecting fracture lines were 99.6, 86.7, and 97.2%, respectively. MRI was more accurate at the lower lumbar levels in comparison to upper lumbar levels. Conclusion: MRI has a similar diagnostic accuracy to CT in determining complete fractures with or without accompanying marrow oedema and incomplete fractures with accompanying marrow oedema, especially at the lower lumbar levels, which constitutes 94% of all fractures. At upper lumbar levels and in the incomplete fractures of the pars interarticularis with marked surrounding sclerosis, MRI has apparent limitations compared to CT imaging.

  11. Diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging versus computed tomography in stress fractures of the lumbar spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganiyusufoglu, A.K., E-mail: kursady33@yahoo.co [Department of Radiology, Florence Nightingale Hospital, Istanbul (Turkey); Onat, L. [Department of Radiology, Florence Nightingale Hospital, Istanbul (Turkey); Karatoprak, O.; Enercan, M.; Hamzaoglu, A. [Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Florence Nightingale Hospital, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2010-11-15

    Aim: To compare the diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with computed tomography (CT) in stress fractures of the lumbar spine. Materials and methods: Radiological and clinical data from 57 adolescents and young adults with a diagnosis of stress injury of the lumbar spine were retrospectively reviewed. All cases had undergone both 1.5 T MRI and 16-section CT examinations. All MRI and CT images were retrospectively reviewed and evaluated in separate sessions. The fracture morphology (complete/incomplete, localization) and vertebral levels were noted at both the CT and MRI examinations. Bone marrow/peri-osseous soft-tissue oedema was also determined at MRI. Results: In total, 73 complete and 32 incomplete stress fractures were detected with CT. Sixty-seven complete, 24 incomplete fractures and eight stress reactions were detected using MRI in the same study group. Marrow oedema was also seen in eight of the complete and 20 of the incomplete fractures. The specificity, sensitivity, and accuracy of MRI in detecting fracture lines were 99.6, 86.7, and 97.2%, respectively. MRI was more accurate at the lower lumbar levels in comparison to upper lumbar levels. Conclusion: MRI has a similar diagnostic accuracy to CT in determining complete fractures with or without accompanying marrow oedema and incomplete fractures with accompanying marrow oedema, especially at the lower lumbar levels, which constitutes 94% of all fractures. At upper lumbar levels and in the incomplete fractures of the pars interarticularis with marked surrounding sclerosis, MRI has apparent limitations compared to CT imaging.

  12. Human brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhar, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    Just as there have been dramatic advances in the molecular biology of the human brain in recent years, there also have been remarkable advances in brain imaging. This paper reports on the development and broad application of microscopic imaging techniques which include the autoradiographic localization of receptors and the measurement of glucose utilization by autoradiography. These approaches provide great sensitivity and excellent anatomical resolution in exploring brain organization and function. The first noninvasive external imaging of receptor distributions in the living human brain was achieved by positron emission tomography (PET) scanning. Developments, techniques and applications continue to progress. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is also becoming important. Its initial clinical applications were in examining the structure and anatomy of the brain. However, more recent uses, such as MRI spectroscopy, indicate the feasibility of exploring biochemical pathways in the brain, the metabolism of drugs in the brain, and also of examining some of these procedures at an anatomical resolution which is substantially greater than that obtainable by PET scanning. The issues will be discussed in greater detail

  13. High-resolution imaging of the spine in young infants with a loop-gap resonator remote current return coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, W.S.; Prenger, E.C.; Auringer, S.T.

    1989-01-01

    MR imaging of the young child's spin requires proper selection of surface coils and pulse sequences that optimize resolution. The authors report the use in the infant spine of a new coil design in combination with specialized pulse sequences, such as fat suppression. Thirty children underwent spine MR imaging with a loop-gap resonator remote current return (RCR) coil. Spin-echo T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and T1-weighted fat-suppression pulse sequences were performed on a 1.5-T imager. Twelve patients had normal studies, 14 had spinal dysraphism, two had drop metastases, and two had paravertebral masses. Twelve initial patients had comparison images obtained with a 5-inch general-purpose surface coil. Similar pulse sequences were used for each coil. Image were compared diagnostically and for resolution based on the ability to discriminate small intrathecal structures

  14. Scoring inflammatory activity of the spine by magnetic resonance imaging in ankylosing spondylitis: a multireader experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukas, Cédric; Braun, Jürgen; van der Heijde, Désirée

    2007-01-01

    = 10) and selected to cover a wide range of activity at baseline and change in activity, were presented electronically in a partial latin-square design to 9 experienced readers from different countries (Europe, Canada). Readers scored each set of MRI 3 times, using 3 different methods including...... the Ankylosing Spondylitis spine Magnetic Resonance Imaging-activity [ASspiMRI-a, grading activity (0-6) per vertebral unit in 23 units]; the Berlin modification of the ASspiMRI-a; and the Spondyloarthritis Research Consortium of Canada (SPARCC) scoring system, which scores the 6 vertebral units considered......) assessed by Z-scores was good and comparable among methods. CONCLUSION: This experiment demonstrates the feasibility of multiple-reader MRI scoring exercises for method comparison, provides evidence for the feasibility, reliability, sensitivity to change, and discriminatory capacity of all 3 tested scoring...

  15. Prevalence of annular tears and disc herniations on MR images of the cervical spine in symptom free volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernst, C.W.; Stadnik, T.W.; Peeters, E.; Breucq, C.; Osteaux, M.J.C.

    2005-01-01

    Study design: Prospective MR analysis of the cervical spine of 30 asymptomatic volunteers. Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence of annular tears, bulging discs, disc herniations and medullary compression on T2-weighted and gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images of the cervical spine in symptom free volunteers. Summary of background data: Few studies have reported the prevalence of cervical disc herniations in asymptomatic people, none have reported the prevalence of cervical annular tears on MR images of symptom free volunteers. Materials and methods: Thirty symptom-free volunteers (no history or symptoms related to the cervical spine) were examined using sagittal T2-weighted fast spin-echo (SE), sagittal gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted SE imaging and axial T2 * -weighted gradient echo (GRE). The prevalence of bulging discs, focal protrusions, extrusions, nonenhancing or enhancing annular tears and medullary compression were assessed. Results: The prevalence of bulging disk and focal disk protrusions was 73% (22 volunteers) and 50% (15 volunteers), respectively. There was one extrusion (3%). Eleven volunteers had annular tears at one or more levels (37%) and 94% of the annular tears enhanced after contrast injection. Asymptomatic medullary compression was found in four patients (13%). Conclusion: Annular tears and focal disk protrusions are frequently found on MR imaging of the cervical spine, with or without contrast enhancement, in asymptomatic population. The extruded disk herniation and medullary compression are unusual findings in a symptom-free population

  16. Frequent Computed Tomography Scanning Due to Incomplete Three-View X-Ray Imaging of the Cervical Spine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saltzherr, Teun Peter; Beenen, Ludo F. M.; Reitsma, Johannes B.; Luitse, Jan S. K.; Vandertop, W. Peter; Goslings, J. Carel

    2010-01-01

    Background: Conventional C-spine imaging (3-view series) is still widely used in trauma patients, although the utilization of computed tomography (CT) scanning is increasing. The aim of this study was to analyze the value of conventional radiography and the frequency of subsequent CT scanning due to

  17. Is there a preferred method for scoring activity of the spine by magnetic resonance imaging in ankylosing spondylitis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijde, Désirée; Landewé, Robert; Hermann, Kay-Geert; Rudwaleit, Martin; Østergaard, Mikkel; Oostveen, Ans; O'Connor, Phil; Maksymowych, Walter P.; Lambert, Robert G.; Lukas, Cédric; Jurik, Anne Grethe; Boers, Maarten; Baraliakos, Xenofon; Braun, Jürgen

    2007-01-01

    This report summarizes the discussion during a module update at OMERACT 8 on scoring methods for activity in the spine on magnetic resonance imaging. The conclusion was that the 3 available scoring methods are all very good with respect to discrimination and feasibility: the Ankylosing Spondylitis

  18. Static and dynamic CT imaging of the cervical spine in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederman, Tomas; Shalabi, Adel; Sundin, Anders [Uppsala University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Uppsala (Sweden); Olerud, Claes; Alavi, Kamran [Uppsala University Hospital, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2014-09-18

    To compare CR with CT (static and dynamic) to evaluate upper spine instability and to determine if CT in flexion adds value compared to MR imaging in neutral position to assess compression of the subarachnoid space and of the spinal cord. Twenty-one consecutive patients with atlantoaxial subluxation due to rheumatoid arthritis planned for atlantoaxial fusion were included. CT and MRI were performed with the neck in the neutral position and CT also in flexion. CR in neutral position and flexion were obtained in all patients except for one subject who underwent examination in flexion and extension. CR and CT measurements of atlantoaxial subluxation correlated but were larger by CR than CT in flexion, however, the degree of vertical dislocation was similar with both techniques irrespective of the position of the neck. Cervical motion was larger at CR than at CT. The spinal cord compression was significantly worse at CT obtained in the flexed position as compared to MR imaging in the neutral position. Functional CR remains the primary imaging method but CT in the flexed position might be useful in the preoperative imaging work-up, as subarachnoid space involvement may be an indicator for the development of neurologic dysfunction. (orig.)

  19. Posterior Lumbar Subcutaneous Edema on Spine Magnetic Resonance Images: What Is the Cause?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Ga Jin; Lee, In Sook; Han, In Ho; Lee, Jung Sub [Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Tae Yong [Dept. of Radiology, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of); Song, Jong Woon [Dept. of Radiology, Inje University Haeundae Paik Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    Posterior lumbar subcutaneous (PLS) edema on spine magnetic resonance (MR) images is a common incidental, though neglected finding. This study was undertaken to investigate the relations between PLS edema and pathologic conditions. Between January and December 2009, 138 patients with PLS edema, but without a spinal tumor or a history of recent surgery or trauma, and 80 infectious spondylitis patients without PLS edema were enrolled in this retrospective study. Available medical records and lumbar spine MR images were evaluated. The degree of edema was quantified using an arbitrary scoring system. Further, the correlations between the degree of edema and age, sex, body mass index (BMI), degeneration of posterior spinal structures (PSS) and infectious spondylitis were analyzed. Of the 93 cases with a calculable BMI, 61 (66%) had a BMI of > 23 kg/m2. Correlations between the degree of edema and sex, age and BMI grade were all statistically non-significant. Thirty-three cases (24%) had an underlying disease, such as heart problem, diabetes mellitus, liver cirrhosis, chronic renal failure, extra-spinal tumor or connective tissue disorder. The numbers of cases with infectious spondylitis and an idiopathic condition was 61 (44%) and 44 (32%), respectively. The grade of infectious spondylitis was not found to be significantly associated with the degree of edema (p = 0.084). In cases with an idiopathic condition, the correlation between the degree of edema and PSS degeneration was statistically significant (p = 0.042). Radiologists should not disregard PLS edema, because it is related to an underlying disease and thus may be of clinical significance.

  20. Posterior Lumbar Subcutaneous Edema on Spine Magnetic Resonance Images: What Is the Cause?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Ga Jin; Lee, In Sook; Han, In Ho; Lee, Jung Sub; Moon, Tae Yong; Song, Jong Woon

    2013-01-01

    Posterior lumbar subcutaneous (PLS) edema on spine magnetic resonance (MR) images is a common incidental, though neglected finding. This study was undertaken to investigate the relations between PLS edema and pathologic conditions. Between January and December 2009, 138 patients with PLS edema, but without a spinal tumor or a history of recent surgery or trauma, and 80 infectious spondylitis patients without PLS edema were enrolled in this retrospective study. Available medical records and lumbar spine MR images were evaluated. The degree of edema was quantified using an arbitrary scoring system. Further, the correlations between the degree of edema and age, sex, body mass index (BMI), degeneration of posterior spinal structures (PSS) and infectious spondylitis were analyzed. Of the 93 cases with a calculable BMI, 61 (66%) had a BMI of > 23 kg/m2. Correlations between the degree of edema and sex, age and BMI grade were all statistically non-significant. Thirty-three cases (24%) had an underlying disease, such as heart problem, diabetes mellitus, liver cirrhosis, chronic renal failure, extra-spinal tumor or connective tissue disorder. The numbers of cases with infectious spondylitis and an idiopathic condition was 61 (44%) and 44 (32%), respectively. The grade of infectious spondylitis was not found to be significantly associated with the degree of edema (p = 0.084). In cases with an idiopathic condition, the correlation between the degree of edema and PSS degeneration was statistically significant (p = 0.042). Radiologists should not disregard PLS edema, because it is related to an underlying disease and thus may be of clinical significance.

  1. Radiographic and MR Imaging Findings of the Spine after Bisphosphonate Treatment, in a Child with Idiopathic Juvenile Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olympia Papakonstantinou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bisphosphonates are employed with increasing frequency in various pediatric disorders, mainly associated with osteoporosis. After cessation of bisphosphonate treatment in children, skeletal radiologic changes have been documented including dense metaphyseal lines of the long bones and “bone in bone” appearance of the vertebrae. However, the evolution of these radiographic changes has not been fully explored. We describe the MR imaging appearance of the spine that, to our knowledge, has not been previously addressed in a child with idiopathic juvenile osteoporosis who had received bisphosphonates and emphasize the evolution of the radiographic findings of the spine and pelvis over a four-year period.

  2. Utility of 18F sodium fluoride PET/CT imaging in the evaluation of postoperative pain following surgical spine fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouldar, D; Bakshian, S; Matthews, R; Rao, V; Manzano, M; Dardashti, S

    2017-08-01

    A retrospective case review of patients who underwent 18F sodium fluoride PET/CT imaging of the spine with postoperative pain following vertebral fusion. To determine the benefit of 18F sodium fluoride PET/CT imaging in the diagnosis of persistent pain in the postoperative spine. The diagnosis of pain generators in the postoperative spine has proven to be a diagnostic challenge. The conventional radiologic evaluation of persistent pain after spine surgery with the use of plain radiographs, MRI, and CT can often fall short of diagnosis in the complex patient. 18F sodium fluoride PET/CT imaging is an alternative tool to accurately identify a patient's source of pain in the difficult patient. This retrospective study looked at 25 adult patients who had undergone 18F sodium fluoride PET/CT imaging. All patients had persistent or recurrent back pain over the course of a 15-month period after having undergone spinal fusion surgery. All patients had inconclusive dedicated MRI. The clinical accuracy of PET/CT in identifying the pain generator and contribution to altering the decision making process was compared to the use of CT scan alone. Of the 25 patients studied, 17 patients had increased uptake on the 18F sodium fluoride PET/CT fusion images. There was a high-level correlation of radiotracer uptake to the patients' pain generator. Overall 88% of the studies were considered beneficial with either PET/CT altering the clinical diagnosis and treatment plan of the patient or confirming unnecessary surgery. 18F sodium fluoride PET/CT proves to be a useful tool in the diagnosis of complex spine pathology of the postoperative patients. In varied cases, a high correlation of metabolic activity to the source of the patient's pain was observed.

  3. Age-dependent changes of the normal human spine during adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühli, F J; Müntener, M; Henneberg, M

    2005-01-01

    The impact of aging on the morphology of the osseous spine is still debated. Clinical studies usually record combined aging effects, as well as age-related degenerative changes. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of (degeneration-independent) aging on the morphology of the osseous human spine during adulthood. Various osseous dimensions of human spinal landmarks at all major vertebral levels have been assessed in macroscopically normal Swiss skeletons (N = 71), with historically known sex and age at death, as well as in larger Central European skeletal samples (N = 277) with anthropologically determined individual age and sex. All measurements were correlated with individual age (or age group) by linear regression and analyzed separately for each sex. Only few osseous spinal dimensions, and only in men, correlate significantly with individual age. Generally, the significant dimensions show an increase in size during adulthood. Similar tendencies, but with significant alterations of spinal measurements in women as well, can be found in the larger samples with anthropologically determined sex and age group. Increase of certain spinal dimensions found in this study may be a reflection of an increase in the robustness of individuals with age. Because of the absence of a significant secular alteration of stature within the well-recorded sample, we exclude secular change in body dimensions as a major bias. Copyright 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  4. Biomechanical characteristics of different regions of the human spine: an in vitro study on multilevel spinal segments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busscher, I.; van Dieen, J.H.; Kingma, I.; van der Veen, A.J.; Verkerke, G.J.; Veldhuizen, A.G.

    2009-01-01

    Study Design: An in vitro study on human multilevel spinal segments. Objective: To determine the differences in biomechanical characteristics between 4 separate regions of the human spine and to provide quantitative information is derived on the range of motion (ROM), neutral zone (NZ), neutral zone

  5. Biomechanical Characteristics of Different Regions of the Human Spine An In Vitro Study on Multilevel Spinal Segments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busscher, Iris; van Dieen, Jaap H.; Kingma, Idsart; van der Veen, Albert J.; Verkerke, Gijsbertus J.; Veldhuizen, Albert G.

    2009-01-01

    Study Design. An in vitro study on human multilevel spinal segments. Objective. To determine the differences in biomechanical characteristics between 4 separate regions of the human spine and to provide quantitative information is derived on the range of motion (ROM), neutral zone (NZ), neutral zone

  6. Imaging suspected cervical spine injury: Plain radiography or computed tomography? Systematic review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cain, Gavin [Diagnostic Radiographer, Colchester Hospital University NHS Foundation Trust, Colchester General Hospital, Turner Road, Colchester, CO4 5JL Essex (United Kingdom)], E-mail: gavincain8@hotmail.com; Shepherdson, Jane; Elliott, Vicki; Svensson, Jon [Faculty of Health and Social Care, Anglia Ruskin University, East Road, Cambridge, CB1 9PT Cambridgeshire (United Kingdom); Brennan, Patrick [UCD School of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Health Science Building, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland)

    2010-02-15

    Aim: (1) to establish which modality offers the greatest accuracy in the detection of cervical spine injury (CSI) Following trauma: plain radiography or computed tomography (CT), and (2) make an evidence-based recommendation for the initial imaging modality of choice. Method: A systematic literature review was performed to identify primary research studies which compare the diagnostic accuracy of plain radiography and CT with the results of a reference standard in the detection of CSI. A search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Science Direct and Pubmed Central databases was conducted. Results: Ten studies were identified. Critical appraisal identified limitations among all studies. There was heterogeneity in the sensitivity estimates for plain radiography, whereas estimates for CT were consistently high. Examination of the reported sensitivities shows that CT outperforms plain radiography in the detection of CSI. Conclusion: CT is superior to plain radiography in the detection of CSI. However, the optimal imaging strategy depends on the patients' relative risk of injury. If at high-risk cervical CT is indicated. If at low-risk the increased cost and radiation exposure mean that screening CT may not be warranted, good-quality plain radiographs are sufficient.

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine with axial loading: A review of 120 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinder, Andre; Palma Filho, Fernando; Ribeiro, Elisio; Domingues, Romeu C.; Domingues, Roberto C.; Marchiori, Edson; Gasparetto, Emerson

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the imaging findings of patients with clinical symptoms of lower back pain who underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the lumbar spine with axial loading. Materials and methods: We examined 120 patients by MRI, before and after axial loading, using a compression device that applied 50% of their body weight for a load time of 5 min. The dural sac cross area (DSCA) was examined by two experienced radiologists before and after axial load, and their findings were compared. Degenerative abnormalities within and adjacent to the spinal canal were also analyzed. Results: A reduction in DSCA greater than 15 mm 2 after axial load was defined as significant, and was found in 81 patients (67.5%) and 138 disc spaces (38.3%). Reduction was most frequent at L4-L5 (n = 55). For other disorders, a 9% increase in cases of bulging disc was seen during axial loading, and seven disc spaces showed protrusion/extrusion only after load. Facet joint synovial cysts, foraminal stenosis, and hypertrophy of the flavum ligaments showed almost no differences, pre- and post-load. Conclusion: For adequate evaluation of lumbar symptoms, examination should be performed with axial loading, especially in cases of suspected spinal stenosis.

  8. Structural lesions detected by magnetic resonance imaging in the spine of patients with spondyloarthritis - definitions, assessment system, and reference image set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Mikkel; Maksymowych, Walter P; Pedersen, Susanne J

    2009-01-01

    are assessed at each vertebral endplate at all 23 spinal levels from C2/3 to L5/S1, whereas facet joint lesions are to be assessed by segmental level (cervical, thoracic, and lumbar). CONCLUSION: An anatomy-based set of definitions and an assessment system for structural lesions in the spine of patients......OBJECTIVE: There is no reliable and sensitive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assessment system for structural lesions in patients with spondyloarthritis (SpA). We sought to develop and illustrate a detailed anatomy-based set of MRI definitions and an assessment system for structural lesions...... in the spine of patients with SpA. METHODS: MRI definitions of different structural ("chronic") lesions at various anatomical locations in the spine, and an accompanying assessment system, were agreed by consensus within the Canada-Denmark MRI working group. Subsequently, a reference image set...

  9. [Research of joint-robotics-based design of biomechanics testing device on human spine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Guoyong; Tian, Lianfang; Mao, Zongyuan

    2009-12-01

    This paper introduces the hardware and software of a biomechanical robot-based testing device. The bottom control orders, posture and torque data transmission, and the control algorithms are integrated in a unified visual control platform by Visual C+ +, with easy control and management. By using hybrid force-displacement control method to load the human spine, we can test the organizational structure and the force state of the FSU (Functional spinal unit) well, which overcomes the shortcomings due to the separation of the force and displacement measurement, thus greatly improves the measurement accuracy. Also it is esay to identify the spinal degeneration and the load-bearing impact on the organizational structure of the FSU after various types of surgery.

  10. Gorham's disease of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livesley, P.J.; Saifuddin, A.; Webb, P.J.; Mitchell, N.; Ramani, P.

    1996-01-01

    Massive osteolysis is a rare condition and is very uncommon in the spine. The MRI appearance of Gorham's disease of the spine has not previously been reported. We present here a case of this condition with imaging details. (orig.)

  11. Is there a preferred method for scoring activity of the spine by magnetic resonance imaging in ankylosing spondylitis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Heijde, Désirée; Landewé, Robert; Hermann, Kay-Geert

    2007-01-01

    This report summarizes the discussion during a module update at OMERACT 8 on scoring methods for activity in the spine on magnetic resonance imaging. The conclusion was that the 3 available scoring methods are all very good with respect to discrimination and feasibility: the Ankylosing Spondylitis...... spine MRI score for activity (ASspiMRI-a), the Berlin method (a modification of the ASspiMRI-a), and the Spondyloarthritis Research Consortium of Canada Magnetic Resonance Imaging Index for Assessment of Spinal Inflammation in AS (SPARCC). All 3 methods were judged to be similar with respect...... to responsiveness and discrimination, although the differences in between-reader intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were judged to be relevant (the SPARCC method provided consistently higher ICC). The Berlin and SPARCC methods were preferred most frequently. The development of a new method combining the best...

  12. Investigating sub-spine actin dynamics in rat hippocampal neurons with super-resolution optical imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedakumar Tatavarty

    Full Text Available Morphological changes in dendritic spines represent an important mechanism for synaptic plasticity which is postulated to underlie the vital cognitive phenomena of learning and memory. These morphological changes are driven by the dynamic actin cytoskeleton that is present in dendritic spines. The study of actin dynamics in these spines traditionally has been hindered by the small size of the spine. In this study, we utilize a photo-activation localization microscopy (PALM-based single-molecule tracking technique to analyze F-actin movements with approximately 30-nm resolution in cultured hippocampal neurons. We were able to observe the kinematic (physical motion of actin filaments, i.e., retrograde flow and kinetic (F-actin turn-over dynamics of F-actin at the single-filament level in dendritic spines. We found that F-actin in dendritic spines exhibits highly heterogeneous kinematic dynamics at the individual filament level, with simultaneous actin flows in both retrograde and anterograde directions. At the ensemble level, movements of filaments integrate into a net retrograde flow of approximately 138 nm/min. These results suggest a weakly polarized F-actin network that consists of mostly short filaments in dendritic spines.

  13. Investigating sub-spine actin dynamics in rat hippocampal neurons with super-resolution optical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatavarty, Vedakumar; Kim, Eun-Ji; Rodionov, Vladimir; Yu, Ji

    2009-11-09

    Morphological changes in dendritic spines represent an important mechanism for synaptic plasticity which is postulated to underlie the vital cognitive phenomena of learning and memory. These morphological changes are driven by the dynamic actin cytoskeleton that is present in dendritic spines. The study of actin dynamics in these spines traditionally has been hindered by the small size of the spine. In this study, we utilize a photo-activation localization microscopy (PALM)-based single-molecule tracking technique to analyze F-actin movements with approximately 30-nm resolution in cultured hippocampal neurons. We were able to observe the kinematic (physical motion of actin filaments, i.e., retrograde flow) and kinetic (F-actin turn-over) dynamics of F-actin at the single-filament level in dendritic spines. We found that F-actin in dendritic spines exhibits highly heterogeneous kinematic dynamics at the individual filament level, with simultaneous actin flows in both retrograde and anterograde directions. At the ensemble level, movements of filaments integrate into a net retrograde flow of approximately 138 nm/min. These results suggest a weakly polarized F-actin network that consists of mostly short filaments in dendritic spines.

  14. Human body modeling method to simulate the biodynamic characteristics of spine in vivo with different sitting postures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Rui-Chun; Guo, Li-Xin

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study is to model the computational model of seated whole human body including skeleton, muscle, viscera, ligament, intervertebral disc, and skin to predict effect of the factors (sitting postures, muscle and skin, buttocks, viscera, arms, gravity, and boundary conditions) on the biodynamic characteristics of spine. Two finite element models of seated whole body and a large number of finite element models of different ligamentous motion segments were developed and validated. Static, modal, and transient dynamic analyses were performed. The predicted vertical resonant frequency of seated body model was in the range of vertical natural frequency of 4 to 7 Hz. Muscle, buttocks, viscera, and the boundary conditions of buttocks have influence on the vertical resonant frequency of spine. Muscle played a very important role in biodynamic response of spine. Compared with the vertical posture, the posture of lean forward or backward led to an increase in stress on anterior or lateral posterior of lumbar intervertebral discs. This indicated that keeping correct posture could reduce the injury of vibration on lumbar intervertebral disc under whole-body vibration. The driving posture not only reduced the load of spine but also increased the resonant frequency of spine. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbosacral spine in children with chronic constipation or non-retentive fecal incontinence: A prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkali, N.; Hagebreuk, E. E. O.; Bongers, E. M.; van Rijn, R. R.; van Wijk, M. P.; Benninga, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of lumbosacral spine (LSS) abnormalities in children with defecation disorders, intractable constipation, or non-retentive fecal incontinence (NRFI) and evaluate whether LSS abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are clinically detected by neurologic

  16. Achieving a neutral cervical spine position in suspected spinal cord injury in children: analysing the use of a thoracic elevation device for imaging the cervical spine in paediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandie, Zaahid; Shepherd, Mike; Lamont, Tony; Walsh, Mark; Phillips, Mark; Page, Colin

    2010-08-01

    Paediatric patients with suspected cervical spine injury (CSI) are routinely immobilised on a firm surface using a hard collar, which results in excessive flexion of the cervical spine due to the relatively large size of the occiput. The objective of this study was to determine whether the use of a thoracic elevation device (TED) results in a more neutral cervical spine position and reduces the occurrence of cervical spine hyperflexion. A prospective cohort study was conducted at two Emergency Departments (sites A and B) from January 2006 to May 2007. Children TED and those at site B did not. x-Rays from both sites were analysed for flexion, extension or neutrality of the cervical spine as defined by the Cobb angle. A total of 76 patients were identified at site A and site B. There were four exclusions at each site for poor quality images. 51 patients in the site A group were found to be in neutral position (71%), compared to 29 patients in the site B group (43%) (p=0.001). One patient (1%) who had a TED was found to be hyperflexed (>10 degrees), whereas 12 (18%) patients at site B were hyperflexed (p=0.001). The use of a TED appears to produce a greater proportion of neutral cervical spine films in children < or =10 years of age presenting for suspected CSI.

  17. Human diversity in images

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    A photo contest is being jointly organized by the CERN Equal Opportunities team and the CERN Photo Club. All you need to do is submit a photo or quotation. The contest is open to everyone.   Diversity at CERN You don’t need to be a photographer or to have sophisticated photographic equipment to capture CERN’s diversity of working styles, gender, age, ethnic, origin and physical ability. Its many facets are all around you! The emphasis of the initiative is on capturing this diversity in an image using creativity, intuition and cultural empathy. You can also contribute with a quotation (whether or not you specify who said it is optional) telling the organizers what strikes you about diversity at CERN. The photo entries and a collection of the quotations will be displayed in an exhibition to be held in May in the Main Building, as well as on the CERN Photo Club website. The best photos will be awarded prizes. So over to you: dig deep inside human nature, explore individual tal...

  18. Histological, magnetic resonance imaging, and discographic findings on cervical disc degeneration in cadaver spines. A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, Yuichiro [Juntendo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1995-11-01

    A total of 210 cervical intervertebral discs were taken at autopsy from 36 cadavers, and underwent both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and discography to compare their diagnostic efficacies for investigating degenerative changes in the cervical spine. The age of the subjects had ranged from 43 to 92 years with an average of 68.1 years. Following the autopsy, MRI and discography were performed on the excised cervical spinal column, and the specimen was then prepared for histological examination. The findings were compared with those of the lumbar spine that had previously been reported by Yasuma et al. on 1238 lumbar discs from 197 cadavers ranging in age from 11 to 92 years. The results were as follows: Low intensity in the T2-weighted MRI was well correlated with histological degeneration in the cervical disc. The rate of appearance of the posterior protrusion of the cervical disc on the MRI was in accordance with the degree of histological disc degeneration, but it did not always correspond with histological posterior protrusion. There was a remarkably high incidence for false-positive posterior protrusion on the MRI, which should be kept in mind on reading the MRI. In the comparison of the MRI with the discography, a certain positive correlation was found as for disc degeneration, but not in complete accordance. There was a considerable difference in the patterns of degeneration and in posterior protrusion of the discs between the cervical spine and the lumbar spine. The posterior protrusion in the cervical disc was more likely related to horizontal fissure and hyalinization of the posterior annulus, while posterior protrusion in the lumbar disc was often related to reversed orientation of the bundles and myxomatous degeneration of the posterior annulus. This difference was attributed to the difference in the mechanical properties of the cervical and lumbar spines. (author).

  19. Histological, magnetic resonance imaging, and discographic findings on cervical disc degeneration in cadaver spines. A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Yuichiro

    1995-01-01

    A total of 210 cervical intervertebral discs were taken at autopsy from 36 cadavers, and underwent both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and discography to compare their diagnostic efficacies for investigating degenerative changes in the cervical spine. The age of the subjects had ranged from 43 to 92 years with an average of 68.1 years. Following the autopsy, MRI and discography were performed on the excised cervical spinal column, and the specimen was then prepared for histological examination. The findings were compared with those of the lumbar spine that had previously been reported by Yasuma et al. on 1238 lumbar discs from 197 cadavers ranging in age from 11 to 92 years. The results were as follows: Low intensity in the T2-weighted MRI was well correlated with histological degeneration in the cervical disc. The rate of appearance of the posterior protrusion of the cervical disc on the MRI was in accordance with the degree of histological disc degeneration, but it did not always correspond with histological posterior protrusion. There was a remarkably high incidence for false-positive posterior protrusion on the MRI, which should be kept in mind on reading the MRI. In the comparison of the MRI with the discography, a certain positive correlation was found as for disc degeneration, but not in complete accordance. There was a considerable difference in the patterns of degeneration and in posterior protrusion of the discs between the cervical spine and the lumbar spine. The posterior protrusion in the cervical disc was more likely related to horizontal fissure and hyalinization of the posterior annulus, while posterior protrusion in the lumbar disc was often related to reversed orientation of the bundles and myxomatous degeneration of the posterior annulus. This difference was attributed to the difference in the mechanical properties of the cervical and lumbar spines. (author)

  20. Impact of immersion oils and mounting media on the confocal imaging of dendritic spines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Brittni M; Mermelstein, Paul G; Meisel, Robert L

    2015-03-15

    Structural plasticity, such as changes in dendritic spine morphology and density, reflect changes in synaptic connectivity and circuitry. Procedural variables used in different methods for labeling dendritic spines have been quantitatively evaluated for their impact on the ability to resolve individual spines in confocal microscopic analyses. In contrast, there have been discussions, though no quantitative analyses, of the potential effects of choosing specific mounting media and immersion oils on dendritic spine resolution. Here we provide quantitative data measuring the impact of these variables on resolving dendritic spines in 3D confocal analyses. Medium spiny neurons from the rat striatum and nucleus accumbens are used as examples. Both choice of mounting media and immersion oil affected the visualization of dendritic spines, with choosing the appropriate immersion oil as being more imperative. These biologic data are supported by quantitative measures of the 3D diffraction pattern (i.e. point spread function) of a point source of light under the same mounting medium and immersion oil combinations. Although not a new method, this manuscript provides quantitative data demonstrating that different mounting media and immersion oils can impact the ability to resolve dendritic spines. These findings highlight the importance of reporting which mounting medium and immersion oil are used in preparations for confocal analyses, especially when comparing published results from different laboratories. Collectively, these data suggest that choosing the appropriate immersion oil and mounting media is critical for obtaining the best resolution, and consequently more accurate measures of dendritic spine densities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Changes in use of cervical spine magnetic resonance imaging for pediatric patients with nonaccidental trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Ahyuda; Sawvel, Michael; Heaner, David; Bhatia, Amina; Reisner, Andrew; Tubbs, R Shane; Chern, Joshua J

    2017-09-01

    OBJECTIVE Past studies have suggested correlations between abusive head trauma and concurrent cervical spine (c-spine) injury. Accordingly, c-spine MRI (cMRI) has been increasingly used in radiographic assessments. This study aimed to determine trends in cMRI use and treatment, and outcomes related to c-spine injury in children with nonaccidental trauma (NAT). METHODS A total of 503 patients with NAT who were treated between 2009 and 2014 at a single pediatric health care system were identified from a prospectively maintained database. Additional data on selected clinical events were retrospectively collected from electronic medical records. In 2012, a clinical pathway on cMRI usage for patients with NAT was implemented. The present study compared cMRI use and clinical outcomes between the prepathway (2009-2011) and postpathway (2012-2014) periods. RESULTS There were 249 patients in the prepathway and 254 in the postpathway groups. Incidences of cranial injury and Injury Severity Scores were not significantly different between the 2 groups. More patients underwent cMRI in the years after clinical pathway implementation than before (2.8% vs 33.1%, p spine injury in this population increased the use of cMRI and cervical collar immobilization over a 6-year period. However, severe c-spine injury remains rare, and increased use of cMRI might not affect outcomes markedly.

  2. The use of reference image criteria in X-ray diagnostics: an application for the optimisation of lumbar spine radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almen, A.; Tingberg, A.; Mattsson, S.; Besjakov, J.

    2004-01-01

    To ensure that sufficient image quality is obtained in diagnostic radiology, the image quality of clinical radiographs has to be evaluated. We present two methods herein for evaluating antero-posterior (AP) radiographs of the lumbar spine. One was using image criteria, including six anatomical details (absolute method). In the other, the visibility of anatomical details relative to a reference radiograph was evaluated (visual grading analysis). In total, 14 technique groups were evaluated. The technique groups differed in tube voltage and detector system characteristics. Six different gradients of the H and D curves were simulated. The visual grading analysis showed larger differences in image quality compared with the absolute method. The influence on the image quality due to a variation in tube voltage was easier to detect than the influence on the image quality from the detector characteristics. The visibility of the anatomical details was significantly dependent on the location in the spine. The visual grading analysis was found to be the preferable evaluation method in studies such as the present; however, it is necessary to guide and train the observer before the evaluation is performed. (orig.)

  3. Neurologic dysfunction in patients with rheumatoid arthritis of the cervical spine. Predictive value of clinical, radiographic and MR imaging parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reijnierse, M.; Kroon, H.M.; Holscher, H.C.; Bloem, J.L.; Dijkmans, B.A.C.; Breedveld, F.C.; Hansen, B.; Pope, T.L.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate if subjective symptoms, radiographic and especially MR parameters of cervical spine involvement, can predict neurologic dysfunction in patients with severe rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Sequential radiographs, MR imaging, and neurologic examination were performed yearly in 46 consecutive RA patients with symptoms indicative of cervical spine involvement. Radiographic parameters were erosions of the dens or intervertebral joints, disc-space narrowing, horizontal and vertical atlantoaxial subluxation, subluxations below C2, and the diameter of the spinal canal. The MR features evaluated were presence of dens and atlas erosion, brainstem compression, subarachnoid space encroachment, pannus around the dens, abnormal fat body caudal to the clivus, cervicomedullary angle, and distance of the dens to the line of McRae. Muscle weakness was associated with a tenfold increased risk of neurologic dysfunction. Radiographic parameters were not associated. On MR images atlas erosion and a decreased distance of the dens to the line of McRae showed a fivefold increased risk of neurologic dysfunction. Subarachnoid space encroachment was associated with a 12-fold increased risk. Rheumatoid arthritis patients with muscle weakness and subarachnoid space encroachment of the entire cervical spine have a highly increased risk of developing neurologic dysfunction. (orig.)

  4. Neurologic dysfunction in patients with rheumatoid arthritis of the cervical spine. Predictive value of clinical, radiographic and MR imaging parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reijnierse, M.; Kroon, H.M.; Holscher, H.C.; Bloem, J.L. [Dept. of Radiology, University Hospital Leiden (Netherlands); Dijkmans, B.A.C.; Breedveld, F.C. [Dept. of Rheumatology, University Hospital Leiden (Netherlands); Hansen, B. [Dept. of Medical Statistics, University Hospital Leiden (Netherlands); Pope, T.L. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Univ. of South Carolina (United States)

    2001-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate if subjective symptoms, radiographic and especially MR parameters of cervical spine involvement, can predict neurologic dysfunction in patients with severe rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Sequential radiographs, MR imaging, and neurologic examination were performed yearly in 46 consecutive RA patients with symptoms indicative of cervical spine involvement. Radiographic parameters were erosions of the dens or intervertebral joints, disc-space narrowing, horizontal and vertical atlantoaxial subluxation, subluxations below C2, and the diameter of the spinal canal. The MR features evaluated were presence of dens and atlas erosion, brainstem compression, subarachnoid space encroachment, pannus around the dens, abnormal fat body caudal to the clivus, cervicomedullary angle, and distance of the dens to the line of McRae. Muscle weakness was associated with a tenfold increased risk of neurologic dysfunction. Radiographic parameters were not associated. On MR images atlas erosion and a decreased distance of the dens to the line of McRae showed a fivefold increased risk of neurologic dysfunction. Subarachnoid space encroachment was associated with a 12-fold increased risk. Rheumatoid arthritis patients with muscle weakness and subarachnoid space encroachment of the entire cervical spine have a highly increased risk of developing neurologic dysfunction. (orig.)

  5. Surgical Navigation Technology Based on Augmented Reality and Integrated 3D Intraoperative Imaging: A Spine Cadaveric Feasibility and Accuracy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmi-Terander, Adrian; Skulason, Halldor; Söderman, Michael; Racadio, John; Homan, Robert; Babic, Drazenko; van der Vaart, Nijs; Nachabe, Rami

    2016-11-01

    A cadaveric laboratory study. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and accuracy of thoracic pedicle screw placement using augmented reality surgical navigation (ARSN). Recent advances in spinal navigation have shown improved accuracy in lumbosacral pedicle screw placement but limited benefits in the thoracic spine. 3D intraoperative imaging and instrument navigation may allow improved accuracy in pedicle screw placement, without the use of x-ray fluoroscopy, and thus opens the route to image-guided minimally invasive therapy in the thoracic spine. ARSN encompasses a surgical table, a motorized flat detector C-arm with intraoperative 2D/3D capabilities, integrated optical cameras for augmented reality navigation, and noninvasive patient motion tracking. Two neurosurgeons placed 94 pedicle screws in the thoracic spine of four cadavers using ARSN on one side of the spine (47 screws) and free-hand technique on the contralateral side. X-ray fluoroscopy was not used for either technique. Four independent reviewers assessed the postoperative scans, using the Gertzbein grading. Morphometric measurements of the pedicles axial and sagittal widths and angles, as well as the vertebrae axial and sagittal rotations were performed to identify risk factors for breaches. ARSN was feasible and superior to free-hand technique with respect to overall accuracy (85% vs. 64%, P dimensions, except for vertebral body axial rotation, were risk factors for larger breaches when performed with the free-hand method. ARSN without fluoroscopy was feasible and demonstrated higher accuracy than free-hand technique for thoracic pedicle screw placement. N/A.

  6. Thoracic spine x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertebral radiography; X-ray - spine; Thoracic x-ray; Spine x-ray; Thoracic spine films; Back films ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the minimum amount of radiation exposure needed to produce the image. Most ...

  7. Human bites (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human bites present a high risk of infection. Besides the bacteria which can cause infection, there is ... the wound extends below the skin. Anytime a human bite has broken the skin, seek medical attention.

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging of lumbar spine. Comparison of multiple spin echo and low flip angle gradient echo imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, Takamichi; Fujita, Norihiko; Harada, Koushi; Kozuka, Takahiro (Osaka Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1989-07-01

    Sixteen patients including 13 cases with disk herniation and 3 cases with spondylosis of lumbar spine were examined on a resistive MRI system operating at 0.1 T. All lesions were studied with both multiple spin echo (MSE) and low flip angle gradient echo (LF) techniques to evaluate which technique is more effective in detecting the disk degeneration and the indentation on subarachnoid space. MSE images were obtained with repetition time (TR) of 1100-1500 ms or cardiac gating, an echo time (TE) of 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 ms symmetrical 6 echoes, and total acquisition time of more than 281 sec. LF images were obtained with TR of 500, 250, and 100 ms, TE of 18 ms, a flip angle of 30 degree, and total acquisition time of 128 sec. Eleven lesions of spinal disk degeneration and 12 of indentation on subarachnoid space were detected with LF. On the other hand, 26 lesions of spinal disk degeneration and 38 of indentation on subarachnoid space were detected with MSE. Although the parameters of LF employed in this study were relatively effective to emphasize T2{sup *}-based contrast, the ability of LF in detection of spinal disk degeneration and indentation on subarachnoid space is less than that of MSE. Signal contrast to noise ratios for normal disk and degenerative disk, epidural-fat and disk herniated material, CSF and disk herniated material, and epidural-fat and CSF were less than 4 with LF, but more than 4 with MSE. This difference of contrast to noise ratio between MSE and LF was one of the main causes of the difference of the detection rate of spinal disk degeneration and indentation on subarachnoid space. (author).

  9. Calcification of the alar ligament of the cervical spine: imaging findings and clinical course

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Yuka; Mochida, J.; Toh, E. [Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery, Tokai Univ., Isehara, Kanagawa (Japan); Saito, Ikuo; Matui, Sizuka [Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery, Odawara Hospital, Printing Bureau, Ministry of Finance, Sakawa, Odawara, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2001-05-01

    Ligamentous calcification of the cervical spine has been reported in the yellow ligament, anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments and interspinous ligament. Calcification in the upper cervical spine is rare, although some cases with calcification of the transverse ligament of the atlas have been reported. Two patients with calcification of the alar ligament with an unusual clinical presentation and course are described. Examination by tomography and computed tomography (CT) showed calcification of the alar ligament and the transverse ligament of the atlas. CT documented decreased calcification as symptoms resolved. There may be a role for CT in the search for calcifications in the upper cervical spine in patients presenting with neck pain and pharyngodynia if radiographs are normal. (orig.)

  10. Calcification of the alar ligament of the cervical spine: imaging findings and clinical course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Yuka; Mochida, J.; Toh, E.; Saito, Ikuo; Matui, Sizuka

    2001-01-01

    Ligamentous calcification of the cervical spine has been reported in the yellow ligament, anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments and interspinous ligament. Calcification in the upper cervical spine is rare, although some cases with calcification of the transverse ligament of the atlas have been reported. Two patients with calcification of the alar ligament with an unusual clinical presentation and course are described. Examination by tomography and computed tomography (CT) showed calcification of the alar ligament and the transverse ligament of the atlas. CT documented decreased calcification as symptoms resolved. There may be a role for CT in the search for calcifications in the upper cervical spine in patients presenting with neck pain and pharyngodynia if radiographs are normal. (orig.)

  11. Navigation of Pedicle Screws in the Thoracic Spine with a New Electromagnetic Navigation System: A Human Cadaver Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Hahn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Posterior stabilization of the spine is a standard procedure in spinal surgery. In addition to the standard techniques, several new techniques have been developed. The objective of this cadaveric study was to examine the accuracy of a new electromagnetic navigation system for instrumentation of pedicle screws in the spine. Material and Method. Forty-eight pedicle screws were inserted in the thoracic spine of human cadavers using EMF navigation and instruments developed especially for electromagnetic navigation. The screw position was assessed postoperatively by a CT scan. Results. The screws were classified into 3 groups: grade 1 = ideal position; grade 2 = cortical penetration <2 mm; grade 3 = cortical penetration ≥2 mm. The initial evaluation of the system showed satisfied positioning for the thoracic spine; 37 of 48 screws (77.1%, 95% confidence interval [62.7%, 88%] were classified as group 1 or 2. Discussion. The screw placement was satisfactory. The initial results show that there is room for improvement with some changes needed. The ease of use and short setup times should be pointed out. Instrumentation is achieved without restricting the operator’s mobility during navigation. Conclusion. The results indicate a good placement technique for pedicle screws. Big advantages are the easy handling of the system.

  12. Protracted dendritic growth in the typically developing human amygdala and increased spine density in young ASD brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, R K; Bauman, M D; Jacobs, B; Schumann, C M

    2018-02-01

    The amygdala is a medial temporal lobe structure implicated in social and emotional regulation. In typical development (TD), the amygdala continues to increase volumetrically throughout childhood and into adulthood, while other brain structures are stable or decreasing in volume. In autism spectrum disorder (ASD), the amygdala undergoes rapid early growth, making it volumetrically larger in children with ASD compared to TD children. Here we explore: (a) if dendritic arborization in the amygdala follows the pattern of protracted growth in TD and early overgrowth in ASD and (b), if spine density in the amygdala in ASD cases differs from TD from youth to adulthood. The amygdala from 32 postmortem human brains (7-46 years of age) were stained using a Golgi-Kopsch impregnation. Ten principal neurons per case were selected in the lateral nucleus and traced using Neurolucida software in their entirety. We found that both ASD and TD individuals show a similar pattern of increasing dendritic length with age well into adulthood. However, spine density is (a) greater in young ASD cases compared to age-matched TD controls (ASD age into adulthood, a phenomenon not found in TD. Therefore, by adulthood, there is no observable difference in spine density in the amygdala between ASD and TD age-matched adults (≥18 years old). Our findings highlight the unique growth trajectory of the amygdala and suggest that spine density may contribute to aberrant development and function of the amygdala in children with ASD. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Significance of magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of vertebral artery injury associated with blunt cervical spine trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokota, Hiroyuki; Atsumi, Takahiro; Araki, Takashi; Fuse, Akira; Sato, Hidetaka; Kawai, Makoto; Yamamoto, Yasuhiro

    2007-01-01

    Vertebral artery injury associated with non-penetrating cervical trauma is rare. We report 11 cases of vertebral artery injury diagnosed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after blunt trauma to the cervical spine and discuss about the importance of MRI in the diagnosis of this injury. Seven cases were caused by motor vehicle accidents, three by diving accidents, and one by static compression of the neck. All of the patients had documented cervical spine fractures and dislocations. In three patients, the diagnosis of complete occlusion of the vertebral artery was made on the basis of MRI and digital subtraction angiography (DSA). In the other patients, mural injuries of the vertebral artery were demonstrated with DSA. These 11 patients presented with acute, nonspecific changes in neurological status. Two had infarctions of the cerebellum and brainstem. None were treated with anticoagulants. All of them survived and were discharged to other hospitals for physical and occupational therapy. Although DSA remains the gold standard for diagnosing vertebral artery injuries, MRI is a newer modality for assessing cervical cord injury, and it may be useful for evaluating the presence of vertebral injury after blunt cervical spine trauma. (author)

  14. Quantitative comparison of ligament formulation and pre-strain in finite element analysis of the human lumbar spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortin, Mitchell S; Bowden, Anton E

    2016-11-01

    Data has been published that quantifies the nonlinear, anisotropic material behaviour and pre-strain behaviour of the anterior longitudinal, supraspinous (SSL), and interspinous ligaments of the human lumbar spine. Additionally, data has been published on localized material properties of the SSL. These results have been incrementally incorporated into a previously validated finite element model of the human lumbar spine. Results suggest that the effects of increased ligament model fidelity on bone strain energy were moderate and the effects on disc pressure were slight, and do not justify a change in modelling strategy for most clinical applications. There were significant effects on the ligament stresses of the ligaments that were directly modified, suggesting that these phenomena should be included in FE models where ligament stresses are the desired metric.

  15. Linear time delay methods and stability analyses of the human spine. Effects of neuromuscular reflex response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Timothy C; Granata, Kevin P; Madigan, Michael L; Hendricks, Scott L

    2008-08-01

    Linear stability methods were applied to a biomechanical model of the human musculoskeletal spine to investigate effects of reflex gain and reflex delay on stability. Equations of motion represented a dynamic 18 degrees-of-freedom rigid-body model with time-delayed reflexes. Optimal muscle activation levels were identified by minimizing metabolic power with the constraints of equilibrium and stability with zero reflex time delay. Muscle activation levels and associated muscle forces were used to find the delay margin, i.e., the maximum reflex delay for which the system was stable. Results demonstrated that stiffness due to antagonistic co-contraction necessary for stability declined with increased proportional reflex gain. Reflex delay limited the maximum acceptable proportional reflex gain, i.e., long reflex delay required smaller maximum reflex gain to avoid instability. As differential reflex gain increased, there was a small increase in acceptable reflex delay. However, differential reflex gain with values near intrinsic damping caused the delay margin to approach zero. Forward-dynamic simulations of the fully nonlinear time-delayed system verified the linear results. The linear methods accurately found the delay margin below which the nonlinear system was asymptotically stable. These methods may aid future investigations in the role of reflexes in musculoskeletal stability.

  16. CDK10 Mutations in Humans and Mice Cause Severe Growth Retardation, Spine Malformations, and Developmental Delays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windpassinger, Christian; Piard, Juliette; Bonnard, Carine; Alfadhel, Majid; Lim, Shuhui; Bisteau, Xavier; Blouin, Stéphane; Ali, Nur'Ain B; Ng, Alvin Yu Jin; Lu, Hao; Tohari, Sumanty; Talib, S Zakiah A; van Hul, Noémi; Caldez, Matias J; Van Maldergem, Lionel; Yigit, Gökhan; Kayserili, Hülya; Youssef, Sameh A; Coppola, Vincenzo; de Bruin, Alain; Tessarollo, Lino; Choi, Hyungwon; Rupp, Verena; Roetzer, Katharina; Roschger, Paul; Klaushofer, Klaus; Altmüller, Janine; Roy, Sudipto; Venkatesh, Byrappa; Ganger, Rudolf; Grill, Franz; Ben Chehida, Farid; Wollnik, Bernd; Altunoglu, Umut; Al Kaissi, Ali; Reversade, Bruno; Kaldis, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    In five separate families, we identified nine individuals affected by a previously unidentified syndrome characterized by growth retardation, spine malformation, facial dysmorphisms, and developmental delays. Using homozygosity mapping, array CGH, and exome sequencing, we uncovered bi-allelic

  17. Interrater and intrarater agreements of magnetic resonance imaging findings in the lumbar spine: significant variability across degenerative conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Michael C; Buerba, Rafael A; Long, William D; Blizzard, Daniel J; Lischuk, Andrew W; Haims, Andrew H; Grauer, Jonathan N

    2014-10-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is frequently used in the evaluation of degenerative conditions in the lumbar spine. The relative interrater and intrarater agreements of MRI findings across different pathologic conditions are underexplored, as most studies are focused on specific findings. The purpose of this study was to characterize the interrater and intrarater agreements of MRI findings used to assess the degenerative lumbar spine. A retrospective diagnostic study at a large academic medical center was undertaken with a panel of orthopedic surgeons and musculoskeletal radiologists to assess lumbar MRIs using standardized criteria. Seventy-five subjects who underwent routine lumbar spine MRI at our institution were included. Each MRI study was assessed for 10 lumbar degenerative findings using standardized criteria. Lumbar vertebral levels were assessed independently, where applicable, for a total of 52 data points collected per study. T2-weighted axial and sagittal MRI sequences were presented in random order to the four reviewers (two orthopedic spine surgeons and two musculoskeletal radiologists) independently to determine interrater agreement. The first 10 studies were reevaluated at the end to determine intrarater agreement. Images were assessed using standardized and pilot-tested criteria to assess disc degeneration, stenosis, and other degenerative changes. Interrater and intrarater absolute percent agreements were calculated. To highlight the most clinically important MRI disagreements, a modified agreement analysis was also performed (in which disagreements between the lowest two severity grades for applicable conditions were ignored). Fleiss kappa coefficients for interrater agreement were determined. The overall absolute and modified interrater agreements were 76.9% and 93.5%, respectively. The absolute and modified intrarater agreements were 81.3% and 92.7%, respectively. Average Fleiss kappa coefficient was 0.431, suggesting moderate overall

  18. The diagnostic value of axially loaded magnetic resonance imaging in patients with degenerative disorders of lumbar spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Qingyu; Chen Jianyu; Shen Jun; Zhang Xiaoya; Liang Biling

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic value of axially loaded MR imaging with supine position in patients with degenerative disorders of lumbar spine. Methods Thirty asymptomatic volunteers and 89 patients were examined in psoas-relaxed position (PRP) and axially compressed supine position (ACE) of the lumbar spine. Sixty-one patients with low back pain, 19 with sciatica and 9 with neurogenic claudication were included in the symptomatic study group. The disc levels from L3 to S1 were examined. Results: In 30 asymptomatic volunteers, a significant decrease in dural sac cross-sectional area (DSCA) was found at 14 disc levels (15.6%)in 10 individuals(33.3% ) during ACE ( >15 mm 2 ). In 89 patients, a significant decrease in DSCA was found at 55 disc levels (20.6%) in 38 patients (42.7%) during ACE ( >15 mm 2 ), and the mean decrease was 28 mm 2 . During ACE, 32 disc levels with an increasing severity of disc herniation were noted in 26 patients, 16 disc levels with neural foramen stenosis were found in 12 patients, 11 disc levels with ligamentum flavum thickening were observed in 10 patients, 3 cases facet dislocation and 3 cases lumbar spondylolisthesis were also seen. In 22 of the 89 patients (24.7%), additional valuable information (AVI) was found during ACE, including 7 patients (7/9) with neurogenic claudication, 8 patients (8/19)with sciatica, and 11.5% (7/61) of the patients with low back pain. Conclusion: As compared with conventional imaging methods, axially loaded imaging provides AVI, and more occult lesions can be found during ACE. ACE MRI is a valuable tool in diagnosing degenerative disorders of lumbar spine. (authors)

  19. Overexpression of human GATA-1 and GATA-2 interferes with spine formation and produces depressive behavior in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyeon Choi

    Full Text Available Functional consequences to which vertebrate GATA transcription factors contribute in the adult brain remain largely an open question. The present study examines how human GATA-1 and GATA-2 (hGATA-1 and hGATA-2 are linked to neuronal differentiation and depressive behaviors in rats. We investigated the effects of adeno-associated viral expression of hGATA-1 and hGATA-2 (AAV-hGATA1 and AAV-hGATA2 in the dentate gyrus (DG of the dorsal hippocampus on dendrite branching and spine number. We also examined the influence of AAV-hGATA1 and AAV-hGATA2 infusions into the dorsal hippocampus on rodent behavior in models of depression. Viral expression of hGATA-1 and hGATA-2 cDNA in rat hippocampal neurons impaired dendritic outgrowth and spine formation. Moreover, viral-mediated expression of hGATA-1 and hGATA-2 in the dorsal hippocampus caused depressive-like deficits in the forced swim test and learned helplessness models of depression, and decreased the expression of several synapse-related genes as well as spine number in hippocampal neurons. Conversely, shRNA knockdown of GATA-2 increased synapse-related gene expression, spine number, and dendrite branching. The results demonstrate that hGATA-1 and hGATA-2 expression in hippocampus is sufficient to cause depressive like behaviors that are associated with reduction in spine synapse density and expression of synapse-related genes.

  20. The cervical spine in rheumatoid arthritis: relationship between neurologic signs and morphology on MR imaging and radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reijnierse, M.; Bloem, J.L.; Kroon, H.M.; Holscher, H.C.; Dijkmans, B.A.C.; Breedveld, F.C.; Hansen, B.

    1996-01-01

    Sixty-three consecutive patients with RA and subjective symptoms, especially neck or occipital pain, and/or clinical objective signs consistent with a compromised cervical cord were included in this study. The patients were prospectively assigned to one of three classes on the basis of their neurologic status. Lateral cervical spine radiographs and sagittal Tl-weighted and gradient echo images were performed. The qualitative MR features evaluated were erosion of the dens and atlas, brain stem compression, subarachnoid space encroachment, pannus around the dens, appearance of the fat body caudal to the clivus, and the signal intensity of the pannus. The quantitative imaging parameters were the cervicomedullary angle and the distance of the dens to the line of McRae. Damage documented with radiographs and MR imaging in patients with RA is often severe, even in those without neurologic signs (class 1). None of the abnormalities confined to the atlantoaxial level correlated significantly with neurologic classification. Subarachnoid space encroachment anywhere in the entire cervical spine did correlate significantly with neurologic classification. (orig./MG)

  1. The cervical spine in rheumatoid arthritis: relationship between neurologic signs and morphology on MR imaging and radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reijnierse, M. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Leiden (Netherlands); Bloem, J.L. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Leiden (Netherlands); Kroon, H.M. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Leiden (Netherlands); Holscher, H.C. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Leiden (Netherlands); Dijkmans, B.A.C. [Dept. of Rheumatology, Univ. Hospital Leiden (Netherlands); Breedveld, F.C. [Dept. of Rheumatology, Univ. Hospital Leiden (Netherlands); Hansen, B. [Dept. of Medical Statistics, Univ. Hospital Leiden (Netherlands)

    1996-02-01

    Sixty-three consecutive patients with RA and subjective symptoms, especially neck or occipital pain, and/or clinical objective signs consistent with a compromised cervical cord were included in this study. The patients were prospectively assigned to one of three classes on the basis of their neurologic status. Lateral cervical spine radiographs and sagittal Tl-weighted and gradient echo images were performed. The qualitative MR features evaluated were erosion of the dens and atlas, brain stem compression, subarachnoid space encroachment, pannus around the dens, appearance of the fat body caudal to the clivus, and the signal intensity of the pannus. The quantitative imaging parameters were the cervicomedullary angle and the distance of the dens to the line of McRae. Damage documented with radiographs and MR imaging in patients with RA is often severe, even in those without neurologic signs (class 1). None of the abnormalities confined to the atlantoaxial level correlated significantly with neurologic classification. Subarachnoid space encroachment anywhere in the entire cervical spine did correlate significantly with neurologic classification. (orig./MG)

  2. A DXA Whole Body Composition Cross-Calibration Experience: Evaluation With Humans, Spine, and Whole Body Phantoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Diane; Libber, Jessie; Sanfilippo, Jennifer; Yu, Hui Jing; Horvath, Blaine; Miller, Colin G; Binkley, Neil

    2016-01-01

    New densitometer installation requires cross-calibration for accurate longitudinal assessment. When replacing a unit with the same model, the International Society for Clinical Densitometry recommends cross-calibrating by scanning phantoms 10 times on each instrument and states that spine bone mineral density (BMD) should be within 1%, whereas total body lean, fat, and %fat mass should be within 2% of the prior instrument. However, there is limited validation that these recommendations provide adequate total body cross-calibration. Here, we report a total body cross-calibration experience with phantoms and humans. Cross-calibration between an existing and new Lunar iDXA was performed using 3 encapsulated spine phantoms (GE [GE Lunar, Madison, WI], BioClinica [BioClinica Inc, Princeton, NJ], and Hologic [Hologic Inc, Bedford, MA]), 1 total body composition phantom (BioClinica), and 30 human volunteers. Thirty scans of each phantom and a total body scan of human volunteers were obtained on each instrument. All spine phantom BMD means were similar (within 1%; g/cm2 bias) between the existing and new dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry unit. The BioClinica body composition phantom (BBCP) BMD and bone mineral content (BMC) values were within 2% with biases of 0.005 g/cm2 and -3.4 g. However, lean and fat mass and %fat differed by 4.6%-7.7% with biases of +463 g, -496 g, and -2.8%, respectively. In vivo comparison supported BBCP data; BMD and BMC were within ∼2%, but lean and fat mass and %fat differed from 1.6% to 4.9% with biases of +833 g, -860 g, and -1.1%. As all body composition comparisons exceeded the recommended 2%, the new densitometer was recalibrated. After recalibration, in vivo bias was lower (g, respectively. Similarly, BBCP lean and fat agreement improved. In conclusion, the BBCP behaves similarly, but not identical, to human in vivo measurements for densitometer cross-calibration. Spine phantoms, despite good BMD and BMC agreement, did not detect

  3. Understanding how axial loads on the spine influence segmental biomechanics for idiopathic scoliosis patients: A magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, J P; Pearcy, M J; Izatt, M T; Boom, K; Labrom, R D; Askin, G N; Adam, C J

    2016-02-01

    Segmental biomechanics of the scoliotic spine are important since the overall spinal deformity is comprised of the cumulative coronal and axial rotations of individual joints. This study investigates the coronal plane segmental biomechanics for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients in response to physiologically relevant axial compression. Individual spinal joint compliance in the coronal plane was measured for a series of 15 idiopathic scoliosis patients using axially loaded magnetic resonance imaging. Each patient was first imaged in the supine position with no axial load, and then again following application of an axial compressive load. Coronal plane disc wedge angles in the unloaded and loaded configurations were measured. Joint moments exerted by the axial compressive load were used to derive estimates of individual joint compliance. The mean standing major Cobb angle for this patient series was 46°. Mean intra-observer measurement error for endplate inclination was 1.6°. Following loading, initially highly wedged discs demonstrated a smaller change in wedge angle, than less wedged discs for certain spinal levels (+2,+1,-2 relative to the apex, (pbiomechanical data on in vivo spinal biomechanics of the scoliotic spine, for analysis of deformity progression and surgical planning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. MR imaging of the bone marrow in myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome. Comparison of the lumbar spine and femur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Osamu; Kobayashi, Yasuyuki; Ichikawa, Tamaki; Matsuura, Katsuhiko; Nagai, Jun; Takagi, Shojiro

    1995-01-01

    MR imaging of the lumber spine and the femur was performed with T1-weighted SE sequence and comparison of the MRI findings of the lumber vertebral body and the femoral marrow was made in 15 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), 5 chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), and 9 myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). The MRI appearance of the bone marrow was classified into four patterns: 1) fatty marrow; 2) faint signal; 3) heterogeneous infiltration; and 4) diffuse infiltration. The MRI of the lumber vertebral body showed a diffuse marrow infiltration pattern in over the half of the cases of AML and MDS. On the MRI of the femoral marrow, the signal intensity alteration, a low signal on T1-weighted SE image, began in the proximal femurs almost symmetrically. The abnormal low signal intensity area tended to gradually extend towards the distal portion of the femoral marrow with progression of the disease in the patients with AML and MDS. M2 type of AML tended to be demonstrated as a faint signal pattern, which was significantly different from the other types of AML. In all the cases of CML, a diffuse cellular infiltration pattern was noted with total replacement of the fatty marrow on both lumbar spinal and femoral MRI, and the femoral marrow involvement was more downwardly extended than AML. We concluded that MRI of the femoral marrow was more efficient than that of the lumbar spine in the assessment of myeloid leukemia and MDS. (author)

  5. Imaging skeletal anatomy of injured cervical spine specimens: comparison of single-slice vs multi-slice helical CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obenauer, S.; Alamo, L.; Herold, T.; Funke, M.; Kopka, L.; Grabbe, E. [Department of Radiology, Georg August-University Goettingen, Robert-Koch-Strasse 40, 37075 Goettingen (Germany)

    2002-08-01

    Our objective was to compare a single-slice CT (SS-CT) scanner with a multi-slice CT (MS-CT) scanner in the depiction of osseous anatomic structures and fractures of the upper cervical spine. Two cervical spine specimens with artificial trauma were scanned with a SS-CT scanner (HighSpeed, CT/i, GE, Milwaukee, Wis.) by using various collimations (1, 3, 5 mm) and pitch factors (1, 1.5, 2, 3) and a four-slice helical CT scanner (LightSpeed, QX/i, GE, Milwaukee, Wis.) by using various table speeds ranging from 3.75 to 15 mm/rotation for a pitch of 0.75 and from 7.5 to 30 mm/rotation for a pitch of 1.5. Images were reconstructed with an interval of 1 mm. Sagittal and coronal multiplanar reconstructions of the primary and reconstructed data set were performed. For MS-CT a tube current resulting in equivalent image noise as with SS-CT was used. All images were judged by two observers using a 4-point scale. The best image quality for SS-CT was achieved with the smallest slice thickness (1 mm) and a pitch smaller than 2 resulting in a table speed of up to 2 mm per gantry rotation (4 points). A reduction of the slice thickness rather than of the table speed proved to be beneficial at MS-CT. Therefore, the optimal scan protocol in MS-CT included a slice thickness of 1.25 mm with a table speed of 7.5 mm/360 using a pitch of 1.5 (4 points), resulting in a faster scan time than when a pitch of 0.75 (4 points) was used. This study indicates that MS-CT could provide equivalent image quality at approximately four times the volume coverage speed of SS-CT. (orig.)

  6. Histological Osteoarthritic Changes in the Human Cervical Spine Facet Joints Related to Age and Gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhrenholt, Lars; Charles, Annie Vesterby; Gregersen, Markil

    2018-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional autopsy study. OBJECTIVE: Quantify histological changes in the lower cervical spine facet joints with regard to age and gender using systematic random sampling of entire joints. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Neck pain is a common debilitating musculoskeletal condition...... and one of the highest ranked causes of years lived with disability. The cause of neck pain is multifactorial and osteoarthritis is one potential cause. The cervical spine facet joints have been implicated in the aetiology of chronic neck pain. Hence, a detailed description of their anatomy and age......- and gender related changes is needed. METHODS: The lower four cervical spine segments (C4-C7 included) were obtained from 72 subjects during autopsy; 29 females (median age 53 years [22-77]) and 43 males (median age 38 years [20-78]). A total of 1132 articular facets were embedded in toto in hard plastic...

  7. An imaging atlas of human anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weir, J.; Abrahams, P.H.

    1993-01-01

    The atlas presents pictures obtained by the various imaging techniques, showing the normal anatomy of the various body regions in healthy adults. The pictures are the major information given, accompanying texts are reduced to captions giving the Latin names of important anatomic details or a brief introduction each to the fundamental characteristics of the imaging methods used, as e.g. angiography, computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasonography. The atlas is a key source of reference and a guide in interpreting radiographs. The material is arranged in chapters according to the body regions of interest: Head, neck, brain; spine and spinal cord; upper extremities; thorax; abdomen; pelvis; lower extremities. (UWA) [de

  8. Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery in Small Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettlich, Bianca F

    2018-01-01

    Minimally invasive spine surgery (MISS) seems to have many benefits for human patients and is currently used for various minor and major spine procedures. For MISS, a change in access strategy to the target location is necessary and it requires intraoperative imaging, special instrumentation, and magnification. Few veterinary studies have evaluated MISS for canine patients for spinal decompression procedures. This article discusses the general requirements for MISS and how these can be applied to veterinary spinal surgery. The current veterinary MISS literature is reviewed and suggestions are made on how to apply MISS to different spinal locations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Fully automatic and reference-marker-free image stitching method for full-spine and full-leg imaging with computed radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohui; Foos, David H.; Doran, James; Rogers, Michael K.

    2004-05-01

    Full-leg and full-spine imaging with standard computed radiography (CR) systems requires several cassettes/storage phosphor screens to be placed in a staggered arrangement and exposed simultaneously to achieve an increased imaging area. A method has been developed that can automatically and accurately stitch the acquired sub-images without relying on any external reference markers. It can detect and correct the order, orientation, and overlap arrangement of the subimages for stitching. The automatic determination of the order, orientation, and overlap arrangement of the sub-images consists of (1) constructing a hypothesis list that includes all cassette/screen arrangements, (2) refining hypotheses based on a set of rules derived from imaging physics, (3) correlating each consecutive sub-image pair in each hypothesis and establishing an overall figure-of-merit, (4) selecting the hypothesis of maximum figure-of-merit. The stitching process requires the CR reader to over scan each CR screen so that the screen edges are completely visible in the acquired sub-images. The rotational displacement and vertical displacement between two consecutive sub-images are calculated by matching the orientation and location of the screen edge in the front image and its corresponding shadow in the back image. The horizontal displacement is estimated by maximizing the correlation function between the two image sections in the overlap region. Accordingly, the two images are stitched together. This process is repeated for the newly stitched composite image and the next consecutive sub-image until a full-image composite is created. The method has been evaluated in both phantom experiments and clinical studies. The standard deviation of image misregistration is below one image pixel.

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry of the lumbar spine in professional wrestlers and untrained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, M; Sheng, J; Kang, Z; Zou, L; Guo, J; Sun, P

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relation between bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) and bone mineral density (BMD) of lumbar spine in male professional wrestlers and healthy untrained men. A total of 14 wrestlers (22.9±3.4 years) and 11 controls (24.4±1.6 years) were studied cross-sectionally. Body composition and BMD were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine was examined in a sagittal T1-weighted (T1-w) spin-echo (SE) sequence. The averaged bone marrow signal intensity (SI) of L2-L4 was related to the signal of an adjacent nondegenerative disk. Mean SI of T1-w SE in wrestlers was lower than controls (P=0.001), indicating L2-L4 BMAT in wrestlers was lower compared to controls. L2-L4 BMD in wrestlers was higher than controls (PBMAT and BMD was confirmed in this relatively small subject sample with narrow age range, which implies that exercise training is an important determinant of this association.

  11. Two-Photon Functional Imaging of the Auditory Cortex in Behaving Mice: From Neural Networks to Single Spines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruijie Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In vivo two-photon Ca2+ imaging is a powerful tool for recording neuronal activities during perceptual tasks and has been increasingly applied to behaving animals for acute or chronic experiments. However, the auditory cortex is not easily accessible to imaging because of the abundant temporal muscles, arteries around the ears and their lateral locations. Here, we report a protocol for two-photon Ca2+ imaging in the auditory cortex of head-fixed behaving mice. By using a custom-made head fixation apparatus and a head-rotated fixation procedure, we achieved two-photon imaging and in combination with targeted cell-attached recordings of auditory cortical neurons in behaving mice. Using synthetic Ca2+ indicators, we recorded the Ca2+ transients at multiple scales, including neuronal populations, single neurons, dendrites and single spines, in auditory cortex during behavior. Furthermore, using genetically encoded Ca2+ indicators (GECIs, we monitored the neuronal dynamics over days throughout the process of associative learning. Therefore, we achieved two-photon functional imaging at multiple scales in auditory cortex of behaving mice, which extends the tool box for investigating the neural basis of audition-related behaviors.

  12. Parametric modeling of the intervertebral disc space in 3D: application to CT images of the lumbar spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korez, Robert; Likar, Boštjan; Pernuš, Franjo; Vrtovec, Tomaž

    2014-10-01

    Gradual degeneration of intervertebral discs of the lumbar spine is one of the most common causes of low back pain. Although conservative treatment for low back pain may provide relief to most individuals, surgical intervention may be required for individuals with significant continuing symptoms, which is usually performed by replacing the degenerated intervertebral disc with an artificial implant. For designing implants with good bone contact and continuous force distribution, the morphology of the intervertebral disc space and vertebral body endplates is of considerable importance. In this study, we propose a method for parametric modeling of the intervertebral disc space in three dimensions (3D) and show its application to computed tomography (CT) images of the lumbar spine. The initial 3D model of the intervertebral disc space is generated according to the superquadric approach and therefore represented by a truncated elliptical cone, which is initialized by parameters obtained from 3D models of adjacent vertebral bodies. In an optimization procedure, the 3D model of the intervertebral disc space is incrementally deformed by adding parameters that provide a more detailed morphometric description of the observed shape, and aligned to the observed intervertebral disc space in the 3D image. By applying the proposed method to CT images of 20 lumbar spines, the shape and pose of each of the 100 intervertebral disc spaces were represented by a 3D parametric model. The resulting mean (±standard deviation) accuracy of modeling was 1.06±0.98mm in terms of radial Euclidean distance against manually defined ground truth points, with the corresponding success rate of 93% (i.e. 93 out of 100 intervertebral disc spaces were modeled successfully). As the resulting 3D models provide a description of the shape of intervertebral disc spaces in a complete parametric form, morphometric analysis was straightforwardly enabled and allowed the computation of the corresponding

  13. A New Electromagnetic Navigation System for Pedicle Screws Placement: A Human Cadaver Study at the Lumbar Spine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Hahn

    Full Text Available Technical developments for improving the safety and accuracy of pedicle screw placement play an increasingly important role in spine surgery. In addition to the standard techniques of free-hand placement and fluoroscopic navigation, the rate of complications is reduced by 3D fluoroscopy, cone-beam CT, intraoperative CT/MRI, and various other navigation techniques. Another important aspect that should be emphasized is the reduction of intraoperative radiation exposure for personnel and patient. The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of a new navigation system for the spine based on an electromagnetic field.Twenty pedicle screws were placed in the lumbar spine of human cadavers using EMF navigation. Navigation was based on data from a preoperative thin-slice CT scan. The cadavers were positioned on a special field generator and the system was matched using a patient tracker on the spinous process. Navigation was conducted using especially developed instruments that can be tracked in the electromagnetic field. Another thin-slice CT scan was made postoperatively to assess the result. The evaluation included the position of the screws in the direction of trajectory and any injury to the surrounding cortical bone. The results were classified in 5 groups: grade 1: ideal screw position in the center of the pedicle with no cortical bone injury; grade 2: acceptable screw position, cortical bone injury with cortical penetration ≤ 2 mm; grade 3: cortical bone injury with cortical penetration 2,1-4 mm, grad 4: cortical bone injury with cortical penetration 4,1-6 mm, grade 5: cortical bone injury with cortical penetration >6 mm.The initial evaluation of the system showed good accuracy for the lumbar spine (65% grade 1, 20% grade 2, 15% grade 3, 0% grade 4, 0% grade 5. A comparison of the initial results with other navigation techniques in literature (CT navigation, 2D fluoroscopic navigation shows that the accuracy of this system is

  14. Detailed sectional anatomy of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauschning, W.

    1985-01-01

    Morphologic studies on the human spine constitute a special challenge because of the spine's complex topographic anatomy and the intimate relationship between the supporting skeleton and the contiguous soft tissues (muscles, discs, joint capsules) as well as the neurovascular contents of the spinal canal and intervertebral foramina. The improving resolution and multiplanar image reformatting capabilities of modern CT scanners call for accurate anatomic reference material. Such anatomic images should be available without distortion, in natural colors, and in considerable detail. The images should present the anatomy in the correct axial, sagittal, and coronal planes and should also be sufficiently closely spaced so as to follow the thin cuts of modern CT scanners. This chapter details one of several recent attempts to correlate gross anatomy with the images depicted by high-resolution CT. The methods of specimen preparation, sectioning, and photographing have been documented elsewhere

  15. Robust 3D–2D image registration: application to spine interventions and vertebral labeling in the presence of anatomical deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otake, Yoshito; Wang, Adam S; Webster Stayman, J; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H; Uneri, Ali; Kleinszig, Gerhard; Vogt, Sebastian; Khanna, A Jay; Gokaslan, Ziya L

    2013-01-01

    We present a framework for robustly estimating registration between a 3D volume image and a 2D projection image and evaluate its precision and robustness in spine interventions for vertebral localization in the presence of anatomical deformation. The framework employs a normalized gradient information similarity metric and multi-start covariance matrix adaptation evolution strategy optimization with local-restarts, which provided improved robustness against deformation and content mismatch. The parallelized implementation allowed orders-of-magnitude acceleration in computation time and improved the robustness of registration via multi-start global optimization. Experiments involved a cadaver specimen and two CT datasets (supine and prone) and 36 C-arm fluoroscopy images acquired with the specimen in four positions (supine, prone, supine with lordosis, prone with kyphosis), three regions (thoracic, abdominal, and lumbar), and three levels of geometric magnification (1.7, 2.0, 2.4). Registration accuracy was evaluated in terms of projection distance error (PDE) between the estimated and true target points in the projection image, including 14 400 random trials (200 trials on the 72 registration scenarios) with initialization error up to ±200 mm and ±10°. The resulting median PDE was better than 0.1 mm in all cases, depending somewhat on the resolution of input CT and fluoroscopy images. The cadaver experiments illustrated the tradeoff between robustness and computation time, yielding a success rate of 99.993% in vertebral labeling (with ‘success’ defined as PDE <5 mm) using 1,718 664 ± 96 582 function evaluations computed in 54.0 ± 3.5 s on a mid-range GPU (nVidia, GeForce GTX690). Parameters yielding a faster search (e.g., fewer multi-starts) reduced robustness under conditions of large deformation and poor initialization (99.535% success for the same data registered in 13.1 s), but given good initialization (e.g., ±5 mm, assuming a robust

  16. Robust 3D–2D image registration: application to spine interventions and vertebral labeling in the presence of anatomical deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otake, Yoshito; Wang, Adam S; Webster Stayman, J; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore MD (United States); Uneri, Ali [Department of Computer Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore MD (United States); Kleinszig, Gerhard; Vogt, Sebastian [Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen (Germany); Khanna, A Jay [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore MD (United States); Gokaslan, Ziya L, E-mail: jeff.siewerdsen@jhu.edu [Department of Neurosurgery, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore MD (United States)

    2013-12-07

    We present a framework for robustly estimating registration between a 3D volume image and a 2D projection image and evaluate its precision and robustness in spine interventions for vertebral localization in the presence of anatomical deformation. The framework employs a normalized gradient information similarity metric and multi-start covariance matrix adaptation evolution strategy optimization with local-restarts, which provided improved robustness against deformation and content mismatch. The parallelized implementation allowed orders-of-magnitude acceleration in computation time and improved the robustness of registration via multi-start global optimization. Experiments involved a cadaver specimen and two CT datasets (supine and prone) and 36 C-arm fluoroscopy images acquired with the specimen in four positions (supine, prone, supine with lordosis, prone with kyphosis), three regions (thoracic, abdominal, and lumbar), and three levels of geometric magnification (1.7, 2.0, 2.4). Registration accuracy was evaluated in terms of projection distance error (PDE) between the estimated and true target points in the projection image, including 14 400 random trials (200 trials on the 72 registration scenarios) with initialization error up to ±200 mm and ±10°. The resulting median PDE was better than 0.1 mm in all cases, depending somewhat on the resolution of input CT and fluoroscopy images. The cadaver experiments illustrated the tradeoff between robustness and computation time, yielding a success rate of 99.993% in vertebral labeling (with ‘success’ defined as PDE <5 mm) using 1,718 664 ± 96 582 function evaluations computed in 54.0 ± 3.5 s on a mid-range GPU (nVidia, GeForce GTX690). Parameters yielding a faster search (e.g., fewer multi-starts) reduced robustness under conditions of large deformation and poor initialization (99.535% success for the same data registered in 13.1 s), but given good initialization (e.g., ±5 mm, assuming a robust

  17. Image analysis of open-door laminoplasty for cervical spondylotic myelopathy: comparing the influence of cord morphology and spine alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bon-Jour; Lin, Meng-Chi; Lin, Chin; Lee, Meei-Shyuan; Feng, Shao-Wei; Ju, Da-Tong; Ma, Hsin-I; Liu, Ming-Ying; Hueng, Dueng-Yuan

    2015-10-01

    Previous studies have identified the factors affecting the surgical outcome of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) following laminoplasty. Nonetheless, the effect of these factors remains controversial. It is unknown about the association between pre-operative cervical spinal cord morphology and post-operative imaging result following laminoplasty. The goal of this study is to analyze the impact of pre-operative cervical spinal cord morphology on post-operative imaging in patients with CSM. Twenty-six patients with CSM undergoing open-door laminoplasty were classified according to pre-operative cervical spine bony alignment and cervical spinal cord morphology, and the results were evaluated in terms of post-operative spinal cord posterior drift, and post-operative expansion of the antero-posterior dura diameter. By the result of study, pre-operative spinal cord morphology was an effective classification in predicting surgical outcome - patients with anterior convexity type, description of cervical spinal cord morphology, had more spinal cord posterior migration than those with neutral or posterior convexity type after open-door laminoplasty. Otherwise, the interesting finding was that cervical spine Cobb's angle had an impact on post-operative spinal cord posterior drift in patients with neutral or posterior convexity type spinal cord morphology - the degree of kyphosis was inversely proportional to the distance of post-operative spinal cord posterior drift, but not in the anterior convexity type. These findings supported that pre-operative cervical spinal cord morphology may be used as screening for patients undergoing laminoplasty. Patients having neutral or posterior convexity type spinal cord morphology accompanied with kyphotic deformity were not suitable candidates for laminoplasty. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of T1-weighted fast spin-echo and T1-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images of the lumbar spine at 3.0 Tesla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavdas, Eleftherios; Vlychou, Marianna; Arikidis, Nikos; Kapsalaki, Eftychia; Roka, Violetta; Fezoulidis, Ioannis V.

    2010-01-01

    Background: T1-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequence has been reported to provide improved contrast between lesions and normal anatomical structures compared to T1-weighted fast spin-echo (FSE) imaging at 1.5T regarding imaging of the lumbar spine. Purpose: To compare T1-weighted FSE and fast T1-weighted FLAIR imaging in normal anatomic structures and degenerative and metastatic lesions of the lumbar spine at 3.0T. Material and Methods: Thirty-two consecutive patients (19 females, 13 males; mean age 44 years, range 30-67 years) with lesions of the lumbar spine were prospectively evaluated. Sagittal images of the lumbar spine were obtained using T1-weighted FSE and fast T1-weighted FLAIR sequences. Both qualitative and quantitative analyses measuring the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and relative contrast (ReCon) between degenerative and metastatic lesions and normal anatomic structures were conducted, comparing these sequences. Results: On quantitative evaluation, SNRs of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), nerve root, and fat around the root of fast T1-weighted FLAIR imaging were significantly lower than those of T1-weighted FSE images (P<0.001). CNRs of normal spinal cord/CSF and disc herniation/ CSF for fast T1-weighted FLAIR images were significantly higher than those for T1-weighted FSE images (P<0.001). ReCon of normal spinal cord/CSF, disc herniation/CSF, and vertebral lesions/CSF for fast T1-weighted FLAIR images were significantly higher than those for T1-weighted FSE images (P<0.001). On qualitative evaluation, it was found that CSF nulling and contrast at the spinal cord (cauda equina)/CSF interface for T1-weighted FLAIR images were significantly superior compared to those for T1-weighted FSE images (P<0.001), and the disc/spinal cord (cauda equina) interface was better for T1-weighted FLAIR images (P<0.05). Conclusion: The T1-weighted FLAIR sequence may be considered as the preferred lumbar spine imaging

  19. Twente spine model : A complete and coherent dataset for musculo-skeletal modeling of the thoracic and cervical regions of the human spine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bayoglu, Riza; Geeraedts, Leo; Groenen, Karlijn H.J.; Verdonschot, Nico; Koopman, Bart; Homminga, Jasper

    2017-01-01

    Musculo-skeletal modeling could play a key role in advancing our understanding of the healthy and pathological spine, but the credibility of such models are strictly dependent on the accuracy of the anatomical data incorporated. In this study, we present a complete and coherent musculo-skeletal

  20. Imaging oxygenation of human tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padhani, Anwar R.; Krohn, Kenneth A.; Lewis, Jason S.; Alber, Markus

    2007-01-01

    Tumour hypoxia represents a significant challenge to the curability of human tumours leading to treatment resistance and enhanced tumour progression. Tumour hypoxia can be detected by non-invasive and invasive techniques but the inter-relationships between these remains largely undefined. 18 F-MISO and Cu-ATSM-PET, and BOLD-MRI are the lead contenders for human application based on their non-invasive nature, ease of use and robustness, measurement of hypoxia status, validity, ability to demonstrate heterogeneity and general availability, these techniques are the primary focus of this review. We discuss where developments are required for hypoxia imaging to become clinically useful and explore potential new uses for hypoxia imaging techniques including biological conformal radiotherapy. (orig.)

  1. Multi-stage 3D-2D registration for correction of anatomical deformation in image-guided spine surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketcha, M. D.; De Silva, T.; Uneri, A.; Jacobson, M. W.; Goerres, J.; Kleinszig, G.; Vogt, S.; Wolinsky, J.-P.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2017-06-01

    A multi-stage image-based 3D-2D registration method is presented that maps annotations in a 3D image (e.g. point labels annotating individual vertebrae in preoperative CT) to an intraoperative radiograph in which the patient has undergone non-rigid anatomical deformation due to changes in patient positioning or due to the intervention itself. The proposed method (termed msLevelCheck) extends a previous rigid registration solution (LevelCheck) to provide an accurate mapping of vertebral labels in the presence of spinal deformation. The method employs a multi-stage series of rigid 3D-2D registrations performed on sets of automatically determined and increasingly localized sub-images, with the final stage achieving a rigid mapping for each label to yield a locally rigid yet globally deformable solution. The method was evaluated first in a phantom study in which a CT image of the spine was acquired followed by a series of 7 mobile radiographs with increasing degree of deformation applied. Second, the method was validated using a clinical data set of patients exhibiting strong spinal deformation during thoracolumbar spine surgery. Registration accuracy was assessed using projection distance error (PDE) and failure rate (PDE  >  20 mm—i.e. label registered outside vertebra). The msLevelCheck method was able to register all vertebrae accurately for all cases of deformation in the phantom study, improving the maximum PDE of the rigid method from 22.4 mm to 3.9 mm. The clinical study demonstrated the feasibility of the approach in real patient data by accurately registering all vertebral labels in each case, eliminating all instances of failure encountered in the conventional rigid method. The multi-stage approach demonstrated accurate mapping of vertebral labels in the presence of strong spinal deformation. The msLevelCheck method maintains other advantageous aspects of the original LevelCheck method (e.g. compatibility with standard clinical workflow, large

  2. Applications and limitations of micro-XCT imaging in the studies of Permian radiolarians: A new genus with bi-polar main spines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifan Xiao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Microfocus X-ray Computed Tomography (micro-XCT has been employed recently in radiolarian studies, though so far primarily to generate high quality tomographic images. Although micro-XCT technique cannot always produce high-quality tomographic images, it frequently can provide valuable information on the internal structure of spongy polycystines. Here we employ micro-XCT to understand internal skeletal structures of several Permian specimens of polycystine radiolarians. Structural inferences from micro-XCT images are compared to images of the same specimens made with SEM and transmitted light microscopy (TLM. The utility of micro-XCT for imaging internal structures is first confirmed by examining the spongy, flat, four-spined species Tetraspongodiscus stauracanthus. Micro-XCT method is then used to examine the internal structures of a spherical to elliptical polycystine with two bi-polar main spines, Dalongicaepa bipolaris Xiao and Suzuki gen. et sp. nov., from the Dalong Formation (Changhsingian of South China. The new genus is characterized by four to seven densely concentric shells with a large spherical hollow in the center and two cylindrical spines at both poles of the cortical shell, and belongs to the family Spongotortilispinidae. Spherical to elliptical polycystines with bi-polar main spines are similar in external appearance, and their phylogenetic relationships are only determinable by examination of the internal structures. We therefore analyzed all Permian and Mesozoic spherical to elliptical polycystines with bi-polar main spines showing internal structures, using cluster analysis to measure similarity. The results show distinctive differences in internal structures and suggest that family level relationships should be revised in the future.

  3. Effects of dorsal versus ventral shear loads on the rotational stability of the thoracic spine: a biomechanical porcine and human cadaveric study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kouwenhoven, J.W.M.; Smit, T.H.; van der Veen, A.J.; Kingma, I.; van Dieen, J.H.; Castelein, R.M.

    2007-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN. A biomechanical in vitro study on porcine and human spinal segments. OBJECTIVE. To investigate axial rotational stability of the thoracic spine under dorsal and ventral shear loads. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA. Idiopathic scoliosis is a condition restricted exclusively to humans. An

  4. Low-field MR imaging of the spine. A comparative study of a traditional and a new, completely balanced gradient-echo sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drejer, J.; Thomsen, H.S.; Tanttu, J.

    1995-01-01

    49 patients underwent 53 examinations with both a traditional T1-weighted gradient-echo (PS) sequence and a new completely balanced steady-state 3-D (CBASS3D) sequence; 20 examinations included the cervical spine, 8 the thoracic spine and 25 the lumbar spine. All 106 examinations were reviewed twice regarding visibility of selected structures in the spinal region and diagnostic usefulness. The CBASS3D sequence delineated the medulla, nerve roots, CSF, the intervertebral discs and the posterior longitudinal ligament significantly better than the PS sequence. Disc hernia was also better visualised (p<0.01). There were significantly more artefacts on images obtained with the CBASS3D sequence, but they were usually outside the region of interest and occurred less frequently over time due to increased experience of the staff. Both reviewers found the diagnostic usefulness of CBASS3D to be superior compared to that of PS and excellent for diagnostic purposes. (orig./MG)

  5. Low-field MR imaging of the spine. A comparative study of a traditional and a new, completely balanced gradient-echo sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drejer, J. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Herlev Hospital, Univ. Copenhagen (Denmark); Thomsen, H.S. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Herlev Hospital, Univ. Copenhagen (Denmark); Tanttu, J. [Picker Nordstar, Helsinki (Finland)

    1995-09-01

    49 patients underwent 53 examinations with both a traditional T1-weighted gradient-echo (PS) sequence and a new completely balanced steady-state 3-D (CBASS3D) sequence; 20 examinations included the cervical spine, 8 the thoracic spine and 25 the lumbar spine. All 106 examinations were reviewed twice regarding visibility of selected structures in the spinal region and diagnostic usefulness. The CBASS3D sequence delineated the medulla, nerve roots, CSF, the intervertebral discs and the posterior longitudinal ligament significantly better than the PS sequence. Disc hernia was also better visualised (p<0.01). There were significantly more artefacts on images obtained with the CBASS3D sequence, but they were usually outside the region of interest and occurred less frequently over time due to increased experience of the staff. Both reviewers found the diagnostic usefulness of CBASS3D to be superior compared to that of PS and excellent for diagnostic purposes. (orig./MG).

  6. First performance evaluation of software for automatic segmentation, labeling and reformation of anatomical aligned axial images of the thoracolumbar spine at CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholtz, Jan-Erik, E-mail: janerikscholtz@gmail.com; Wichmann, Julian L.; Kaup, Moritz; Fischer, Sebastian; Kerl, J. Matthias; Lehnert, Thomas; Vogl, Thomas J.; Bauer, Ralf W.

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: •Automatic segmentation and labeling of the thoracolumbar spine. •Automatically generated double-angulated and aligned axial images of spine segments. •High grade of accurateness for the symmetric depiction of anatomical structures. •Time-saving and may improve workflow in daily practice. -- Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate software for automatic segmentation, labeling and reformation of anatomical aligned axial images of the thoracolumbar spine on CT in terms of accuracy, potential for time savings and workflow improvement. Material and methods: 77 patients (28 women, 49 men, mean age 65.3 ± 14.4 years) with known or suspected spinal disorders (degenerative spine disease n = 32; disc herniation n = 36; traumatic vertebral fractures n = 9) underwent 64-slice MDCT with thin-slab reconstruction. Time for automatic labeling of the thoracolumbar spine and reconstruction of double-angulated axial images of the pathological vertebrae was compared with manually performed reconstruction of anatomical aligned axial images. Reformatted images of both reconstruction methods were assessed by two observers regarding accuracy of symmetric depiction of anatomical structures. Results: In 33 cases double-angulated axial images were created in 1 vertebra, in 28 cases in 2 vertebrae and in 16 cases in 3 vertebrae. Correct automatic labeling was achieved in 72 of 77 patients (93.5%). Errors could be manually corrected in 4 cases. Automatic labeling required 1 min in average. In cases where anatomical aligned axial images of 1 vertebra were created, reconstructions made by hand were significantly faster (p < 0.05). Automatic reconstruction was time-saving in cases of 2 and more vertebrae (p < 0.05). Both reconstruction methods revealed good image quality with excellent inter-observer agreement. Conclusion: The evaluated software for automatic labeling and anatomically aligned, double-angulated axial image reconstruction of the thoracolumbar spine on CT is time

  7. Outcomes and Toxicity for Hypofractionated and Single-Fraction Image-Guided Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Sarcomas Metastasizing to the Spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folkert, Michael R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Bilsky, Mark H. [Department of Neurosurgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Tom, Ashlyn K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Oh, Jung Hun [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Alektiar, Kaled M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Laufer, Ilya [Department of Neurosurgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Tap, William D. [Department of Medical Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Yamada, Yoshiya, E-mail: yamadaj@mskcc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: Conventional radiation treatment (20-40 Gy in 5-20 fractions, 2-5 Gy per fraction) for sarcoma metastatic to the spine provides subtherapeutic doses, resulting in poor durable local control (LC) (50%-77% at 1 year). Hypofractionated (HF) and/or single-fraction (SF) image-guided stereotactic radiosurgery (IG-SRS) may provide a more effective means of managing these lesions. Methods and Materials: Patients with pathologically proven high-grade sarcoma metastatic to the spine treated with HF and SF IG-SRS were included. LC and overall survival (OS) were analyzed by the use of Kaplan-Meier statistics. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed by the use of Cox regression with competing-risks analysis; all confidence intervals are 95%. Toxicities were assessed according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0. Results: From May 2005 to November 11, 2012, 88 patients with 120 discrete metastases received HF (3-6 fractions; median dose, 28.5 Gy; n=52, 43.3%) or SF IG-SRS (median dose, 24 Gy; n=68, 56.7%). The median follow-up time was 12.3 months. At 12 months, LC was 87.9% (confidence interval [CI], 81.3%-94.5%), OS was 60.6% (CI, 49.6%-71.6%), and median survival was 16.9 months. SF IG-SRS demonstrated superior LC to HF IG-SRS (12-month LC of 90.8% [CI, 83%-98.6%] vs 84.1% [CI, 72.9%-95.3%] P=.007) and retained significance on multivariate analysis (P=.030, hazard ratio 0.345; CI, 0.132-0.901]. Treatment was well tolerated, with 1% acute grade 3 toxicity, 4.5% chronic grade 3 toxicity, and no grade >3 toxicities. Conclusions: In the largest series of metastatic sarcoma to the spine to date, IG-SRS provides excellent LC in the setting of an aggressive disease with low radiation sensitivity and poor prognosis. Single-fraction IG-SRS is associated with the highest rates of LC with minimal toxicity.

  8. Highly sensitive and quantitative FRET-FLIM imaging in single dendritic spines using improved non-radiative YFP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakoshi, Hideji; Lee, Seok-Jin; Yasuda, Ryohei

    2008-08-01

    Two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (TPFLIM) enables the quantitative measurements of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) in small subcellular compartments in light scattering tissue. We evaluated and optimized the FRET pair of mEGFP (monomeric EGFP with the A206K mutation) and REACh (non-radiative YFP variants) for TPFLIM. We characterized several mutants of REACh in terms of their "darkness," and their ability to act as a FRET acceptor for mEGFP in HeLa cells and hippocampal neurons. Since the commonly used monomeric mutation A206K increases the brightness of REACh, we introduced a different monomeric mutation (F223R) which does not affect the brightness. Also, we found that the folding efficiency of original REACh, as measured by the fluorescence lifetime of a mEGFP-REACh tandem dimer, was low and variable from cell to cell. Introducing two folding mutations (F46L, Q69M) into REACh increased the folding efficiency by approximately 50%, and reduced the variability of FRET signal. Pairing mEGFP with the new REACh (super-REACh, or sREACh) improved the signal-to-noise ratio compared to the mEGFP-mRFP or mEGFP-original REACh pair by approximately 50%. Using this new pair, we demonstrated that the fraction of actin monomers in filamentous and globular forms in single dendritic spines can be quantitatively measured with high sensitivity. Thus, the mEGFP-sREACh pair is suited for quantitative FRET measurement by TPFLIM, and enables us to measure protein-protein interactions in individual dendritic spines in brain slices with high sensitivity.

  9. Clinical significance of nerve root enhancement in contrast-enhanced MR imaging of the postoperative lumbar spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yeon Soo; Lee, Eun Ja; Kang, Si Won; Choi, Eun Seok; Song, Chang June; Kim, Jong Chul

    2001-01-01

    To determine the significance of nerve root contrast enhancement in patients with residual or recurrent symptomatic postoperative lumbar spine. Eighty-eight patients with 116 postoperative lumbar disc lesions causing radiating back pain underwent enhanced MR imaging. Intradural nerve root enhancement was quantified by pixel measurement, and affected nerve roots were compared before and after contrast administration. Extradural nerve root enhancement was assessed visually, and nerve root enhancement and clinical symptoms were correlated. Associated lesions such as recurrent disc herniation, scar tissue, nerve root thickening and nerve root displacement were also evaluated. Of 26 cases (22.4%) involving intradural nerve root enhancement, 22 (84.6%) showed significant clinical symptoms (p=0.002). and of 59 (50.9%) demonstrating extradural enhancement, clinical symptoms showed significant correlation in 47 (79.7%) (p=0.001). Nerve root enhancement, including eleven cases where this was both intra-and extradural, showed highly significant association with clinical symptoms in 74 of the 116 cases (63.8%) (p=0.000). Among 33 cases (28.4%) of recurrent disc herniation, nerve root enhancement was observed in 28 (84.8%) and in 24 of these 28 (85.7%), significant correlation with clinical symptoms was observed (p=0.000). Where epidural fibrosis was present, correlation between nerve root enhancement and clinical symptoms was not significant (p>0.05). Nerve root thickening and displaced nerve root were, however, significantly associated with symptoms (87.2% and 88.6%, respectively). In patients with postoperative lumbar spine, the association between nerve root enhancement revealed by MRI and clinical symptoms was highly significant

  10. First performance evaluation of software for automatic segmentation, labeling and reformation of anatomical aligned axial images of the thoracolumbar spine at CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholtz, Jan-Erik; Wichmann, Julian L; Kaup, Moritz; Fischer, Sebastian; Kerl, J Matthias; Lehnert, Thomas; Vogl, Thomas J; Bauer, Ralf W

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate software for automatic segmentation, labeling and reformation of anatomical aligned axial images of the thoracolumbar spine on CT in terms of accuracy, potential for time savings and workflow improvement. 77 patients (28 women, 49 men, mean age 65.3±14.4 years) with known or suspected spinal disorders (degenerative spine disease n=32; disc herniation n=36; traumatic vertebral fractures n=9) underwent 64-slice MDCT with thin-slab reconstruction. Time for automatic labeling of the thoracolumbar spine and reconstruction of double-angulated axial images of the pathological vertebrae was compared with manually performed reconstruction of anatomical aligned axial images. Reformatted images of both reconstruction methods were assessed by two observers regarding accuracy of symmetric depiction of anatomical structures. In 33 cases double-angulated axial images were created in 1 vertebra, in 28 cases in 2 vertebrae and in 16 cases in 3 vertebrae. Correct automatic labeling was achieved in 72 of 77 patients (93.5%). Errors could be manually corrected in 4 cases. Automatic labeling required 1min in average. In cases where anatomical aligned axial images of 1 vertebra were created, reconstructions made by hand were significantly faster (pquality with excellent inter-observer agreement. The evaluated software for automatic labeling and anatomically aligned, double-angulated axial image reconstruction of the thoracolumbar spine on CT is time-saving when reconstructions of 2 and more vertebrae are performed. Checking results of automatic labeling is necessary to prevent errors in labeling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Diagnostic imaging of sacroiliac joints and the spine in the course of spondyloarthropathies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudoł-Szopinska, Iwona; Urbanik, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    Summary Spondyloarthropathies belong to a group of rheumatic diseases, in which inflammatory changes affect mainly the sacroiliac joints, spine, peripheral joints, tendon, ligaments and capsule attachments (entheses). This group includes 6 entities: ankylosing spondylitis, arthritis associated with inflammatory bowel disease, reactive arthritis, undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy, psoriatic arthritis and juvenile spondyloarthropathy. In 2009, ASAS (Assessment in SpondyloArthritis international Society) association, published classification criteria for spondyloarthropathies, which propose standardization of clinical-diagnostic approach in the case of sacroiliitis, spondylitis and arthritis. Radiological diagnosis of inflammatory changes of sacroiliac joints is based on a 4 step radiographic grading method from 1966. According to modified New York criteria, the diagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis is made based on the presence of advanced lesions, sacroiliitis of at least 2 grade bilaterally or 3–4 unilaterally. In case of other types of spondyloarthropathies diagnosis is made based on presence of at least grade 1 changes. In MRI, active inflammation of sacroiliac joints is indicated by the presence of subchondral bone marrow edema, synovitis, bursitis, or enthesitis. ASAS discusses only the classic form of axial spondyloarthropathies, which is ankylosing spondylitis. To quantify radiological inflammatory changes in the course of the disease, Stoke Ankylosing spondylitis classification Spinal Score (SASSS) is recommended. The signs of inflammation and scarrying of the spinal cord in the course of ankylosing spondylitis, present in MRI include: bone marrow edema, sclerosis, fat metaplasia, formation of syndesmophytes, and ankylosis. PMID:23807884

  12. Diagnostic imaging of sacroiliac joints and the spine in the course of spondyloarthropathies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudoł-Szopinska, Iwona; Urbanik, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    Spondyloarthropathies belong to a group of rheumatic diseases, in which inflammatory changes affect mainly the sacroiliac joints, spine, peripheral joints, tendon, ligaments and capsule attachments (entheses). This group includes 6 entities: ankylosing spondylitis, arthritis associated with inflammatory bowel disease, reactive arthritis, undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy, psoriatic arthritis and juvenile spondyloarthropathy. In 2009, ASAS (Assessment in SpondyloArthritis international Society) association, published classification criteria for spondyloarthropathies, which propose standardization of clinical-diagnostic approach in the case of sacroiliitis, spondylitis and arthritis. Radiological diagnosis of inflammatory changes of sacroiliac joints is based on a 4 step radiographic grading method from 1966. According to modified New York criteria, the diagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis is made based on the presence of advanced lesions, sacroiliitis of at least 2 grade bilaterally or 3–4 unilaterally. In case of other types of spondyloarthropathies diagnosis is made based on presence of at least grade 1 changes. In MRI, active inflammation of sacroiliac joints is indicated by the presence of subchondral bone marrow edema, synovitis, bursitis, or enthesitis. ASAS discusses only the classic form of axial spondyloarthropathies, which is ankylosing spondylitis. To quantify radiological inflammatory changes in the course of the disease, Stoke Ankylosing spondylitis classification Spinal Score (SASSS) is recommended. The signs of inflammation and scarrying of the spinal cord in the course of ankylosing spondylitis, present in MRI include: bone marrow edema, sclerosis, fat metaplasia, formation of syndesmophytes, and ankylosis

  13. Magnetic Resonance Imaging in degenerative disease of the lumbar spine: Fat Saturation technique and contrast medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aprile, Paola; Nasuto, Michelangelo; Tarantino, Alfredo; Cornacchia, Samantha; Guglielmi, Giuseppe; Jinkins, J Randy

    2018-01-19

    To examine both anterior and posterior elements of the lumbar spine in patients with low back pain using MRI T2-weighted sequences with Fat Saturation (FS) and contrast enhanced T1-weighted sequences with FS. Two thousand eight hundred and twenty (2820) patients (1628 male, 1192 female, mean age 54) presenting low back pain underwent MRI standard examination (Sagittal T1w TSE and T2w TSE, axial T1 SE) with the addition of sagittal and axial T2w Fat Sat (FS) sequences. Among all the patients, 987 (35%) have been studied adding Contrast Enhanced (CE) T1w FS sequences after administration of contrast medium. Among 987 patients studied with contrast medium, we found: active-inflammatory intervertebral osteochondrosis in 646 (65%) patients; degenerative-inflammatory changes in facet joints (facet joint effusion, synovitis, synovial cysts) in 462 (47%); spondylolysis in 69 (7%); degenerative-inflammatory changes of the flava, interspinous and supraspinous ligaments in 245 (25%); inflammatory changes of posterior perispinal muscles in 84 (8%) patients. In patients with suspected no-disc-related low back pain, the implementation of T2w FS and CE T1w FS sequences to the standard MR protocol could allow a better identification of degenerative-inflammatory changes more likely associated to the pain.

  14. MR Imaging of the Spine at 3.0T with T2-Weighted IDEAL Fast Recovery Fast Spin-Echo Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Ai Jun; Guo, Yong; Tian, Shu Ping; Shi, Li Jing; Huang, Min Hua

    2012-01-01

    To compare the iterative decomposition of water and fat with echo asymmetry and the least-squares estimation (IDEAL) method with a fat-saturated T2-weighted (T2W) fast recovery fast spin-echo (FRFSE) imaging of the spine. Images acquired at 3.0 Tesla (T) in 35 patients with different spine lesions using fat-saturated T2W FRFSE imaging were compared with T2W IDEAL FRFSE images. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)-efficiencies measurements were made in the vertebral bodies and spinal cord in the mid-sagittal plane or nearest to the mid-sagittal plane. Images were scored with the consensus of two experienced radiologists on a four-point grading scale for fat suppression and overall image quality. Statistical analysis of SNR-efficiency, fat suppression and image quality scores was performed with a paired Student's t test and Wilcoxon's signed rank test. Signal-to-noise ratio-efficiency for both vertebral body and spinal cord was higher with T2W IDEAL FRFSE imaging (p < 0.05) than with T2W FRFSE imaging. T2W IDEAL FRFSE demonstrated superior fat suppression (p < 0.01) and image quality (p < 0.01) compared to fat-saturated T2W FRFSE. As compared with fat-saturated T2W FRFSE, IDEAL can provide a higher image quality, higher SNR-efficiency, and consistent, robust and uniform fat suppression. T2W IDEAL FRFSE is a promising technique for MR imaging of the spine at 3.0T.

  15. MR imaging of ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament in the cervical spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanase, Mitsuhiro; Yone, Kazunori; Taketomi, Eiji; Kawaida, Hidefumi; Sakou, Takashi (Kagoshima Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1992-09-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) images from consecutive 100 patients with ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) were retrospectively reviewed to determine MR manifestations of OPLL foci (ossificated foci) and the surrounding tissue. MR images from 50 patients with cervical spondylosis served as controls for comparison. Inside ossificated foci were isointense or hyperintense on T1-weighted images in 43% of the OPLL cases and on T2-weighted images in 38%. According to X-ray proven ossification form, both T1- and T2-weighted images showed isointensity or hyperintensity in approximately half of the cases of continuous and mixed types of ossificated foci. Two characteristic morphologies of cervical disc were seen more frequently in OPLL than cervical spondylosis, which has clinical implication for continuously proliferated fibrocartilage in the cervical disc. Hypertrophy of the posterior longitudinal ligament was seen in 7% of OPLL cases on MR images, reflecting the likelihood of precursor condition of ossification. (N.K.).

  16. Benign versus malignant osseous lesions in spine: differentiation by means of bone SPECT/CT fused image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Zhiming; Qu Wanying

    2004-01-01

    This study compared the efficiency of SPECT-CT fused image with planar bone scan, bone SPECT and CT in differentiating malignant from benign lesions and detecting metastases to the spine. Methods. Total 144 patients with spinal lesions underwent planar bone scan (WB), single photon tomography (SPECT), CT and SPECT-CT fused image by a SPECT/CT system. The malignant or benign nature of lesions was proved by radiological Methods, histological findings, 6-24 month follow-up, or all of these. The diagnostic results was divided into 4 types, i.e., normal, benign, doubtful malignant and malignant. Results. There were 137 malignant and 252 benign lesions in 144 patients, respectively. The percentages of doubtful malignant diagnosed by WB, SPECT, CT and fused image are 22.6%, 5.1%, 9.5% and 0%, respectively, p < 0.01-0.001, except for the comparison between the percentages of SPECT and CT. Sensitivities in detection of malignant lesions by WB, SPECT, CT and fused image are 75.2%, 94.2%, 96.6% and 99.3%, respectively, P < 0.001, excepting for the comparisons between those of SPECT and CT, and between those of CT and fused image. The sensitivities m detection of benign lesions by WB, SPECT, CT and fused image are, 56.7%, 86.5%, 90.1% and 96.8%, respectively, P < 0.005 - 0.001, excepting for the comparison between those of SPECT and CT. The specificities in detection of maliganant lesions by WB, SPECT, CT and fused image are 70.6%, 88.9%, 97.2% and 97.6%, respectively, P < 0.001, excepting for the comparison between those of CT and fused image. Conclusion. Bone SPECT-CT fused image has highest diagnostic and differentiating diagnostic values in detection of spinal abnormalities over the planar bone scanning and SPECT. The CT by present SPECT/CT system can complement planar bone scanning and SPECT and is clinically valuable in detection of spinal abnormalities. (authors)

  17. Avulsion fractures of the anterior inferior iliac spine: spectrum of imaging findings; Avulsao da espinha iliaca antero-inferior: espectro dos achados de imagem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Joao Luiz [Hospital Santa Lucia, Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Dept. de Ressonancia Magnetica; Viana, Sergio Lopes; Mendonca, Jose Luiz Furtado de; Freitas, Flavia Mendes Oliveira; Lima, Gylse-Anne de Souza; Vila, Ana Fabiola da; Ribeiro, Nelmar [Clinica Radiologica Vila Rica, Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Dept. de Ressonancia Magnetica]. E-mail: radiolog@uol.com.br

    2005-07-15

    Avulsive injuries of the pelvic aphophyses are relatively common among 13-18 year old athletes, particularly among soccer players in Brazil. Diagnosis is made upon clinical and imaging findings. These lesions show three distinct phases: acute, repair and consolidation phases. Although acute and consolidation phases usually represent no diagnostic challenge, the repair phase may appear as an aggressive process on diagnostic images simulating neoplasic lesions. In this paper, the authors present the imaging findings of patients with avulsion of the anterior inferior iliac spine on plain radiographs, computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, emphasizing the typical features of the three evolutive phases of these lesions. (author)

  18. Increased detection rate of syringomyelia by whole spine sagittal magnetic resonance images: Based on the data from military conscription of Korean young males

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myoung Seok; Oh, Chang Hyun [Seoul Regional Military Manpower Administration, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Seung Hwan; Park, Hyeong Chun; Park, Chong Oon; Kim, Yeo Ju [Inha Univ. Hospital/College of Medicine/Inha Univ., Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    We compared the detection rate of syringomyelia according to the type of magnetic resonance (MR) images among the Korean military conscription. Among the total of 238910 examinees (males aged 18 to 32 years old) from January 2008 to December 2011, the examinees with conventional single lesion MR images (cervical, thoracic, and lumbar) with and without whole spine sagittal T2 weighted MR images (WSST2I) totaled 1206 cases, and syringomyelia was observed in 24 cases. The detection rate of syringomyelia according to the MR protocol (the presence of WSST2I or not) was done through analysis by annually and the clinical characters of syringomyelia was reviewed. The estimated prevalence of syringomyelia was approximately 10.0 cases per 100000 people. The detection rate was increased annually when the WSST2I proportion was increased (from 3.4 to 14.9 cases per 100000 persons, r = 0.939, p = 0.018). Clinical character of syringomyelia was ambiguous with other spinal diseases. The most affected spinal level was C5 to C7 (83%), and most cases were non communicating syringomyelia with benign central canal widening (79%). Whole spine sagittal MR image is useful to detect coexisting spinal diseases such as syringomyelia, and most syringomyelia in young males was benign hydromyelia. A whole spine sagittal MR image is recommended to increase the detection of syringomyelia.

  19. Three-dimensional geometric model of the middle segment of the thoracic spine based on graphical images for finite element analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozilene Maria Cota Aroeira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Biomedical studies involve complex anatomical structures, which require specific methodology to generate their geometric models. The middle segment of the thoracic spine (T5-T10 is the site of the highest incidence of vertebral deformity in adolescents. Traditionally, its geometries are derived from computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging data. However, this approach may restrict certain studies. The study aimed to generate two 3D geometric model of the T5-T10 thoracic spine segment, obtained from graphical images, and to create mesh for finite element studies. Methods A 3D geometric model of T5-T10 was generated using two anatomical images of T6 vertebra (side and top. The geometric model was created in Autodesk® Maya® 3D 2013, and the mesh process in HiperMesh and MeshMixer (v11.0.544 Autodesk. Results The T5-T10 thoracic segment model is presented with its passive components, bones, intervertebral discs and flavum, intertransverse and supraspinous ligaments, in different views, as well as the volumetric mesh. Conclusion The 3D geometric model generated from graphical images is suitable for application in non-patient-specific finite element model studies or, with restrictions, in the use of computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. This model may be useful for biomechanical studies related to the middle thoracic spine, the most vulnerable site for vertebral deformations.

  20. [Biomechanicsl evaluation of a stand-alone interbody fusion cage based on porous TiO2/glass-ceramic on the human cervical spine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korinth, M C; Moersch, S; Ragoss, C; Schopphoff, E

    2003-12-01

    Recently, there has been a rapid increase in the use of cervical spine interbody fusion cages, differing in design and biomaterial used, in competition to autologous iliac bone graft and bone cement (PMMA). Limited biomechanical differences in primary stability, as well as advantages and disadvantages of each cage or material have been investigated in studies, using an in vitro human cervical spine model. 20 human cervical spine specimens were tested after fusion with either a cubical stand-alone interbody fusion cage manufactured from a new porous TiO2/glass composite (Ecopore) or PMMA after discectomy. Non-destructive biomechanical testing was performed, including flexion/extension and lateral bending using a spine testing apparatus. Three-dimensional segmental range of motion (ROM) was evaluated using an ultrasound measurement system. ROM increased more in flexion/extension and lateral bending after PMMA fusion (26.5%/36.1%), then after implantation of the Ecopore-cage (8.1%/7.8%). In this first biomechanical in vitro examination of a new porous ceramic bone replacement material a) the feasibility and reproducibility of biomechanical cadaveric cervical examination and its applicability was demonstrated, b) the stability of the ceramic cage as a stand alone interbody cage was confirmed in vitro, and c) basic information and knowledge for our intended biomechanical and histological in vivo testing, after implantation of Ecopore in cervical sheep spines, were obtained.

  1. Pocket atlas of sectional anatomy: computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Vol. 3. Spine, extremities, joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, T.B.; Reif, E. [Caritas Hospital, Dillingen (Germany). Dept. of Radiology

    2007-07-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the musculoskeletal system is an established and important component in the diagnosis of diseases of the joints, soft tissues, bones, and bone marrow. We are therefore pleased to collect together images of the joints and the spinal column in a separate volume on the musculoskeletal system. Demonstrating the growing importance of new developments in MRI in recent years, with ever-increasing resolution, many images were acquired with 3-tesla units. We are deeply grateful to the manufacturers, Siemens and Philips, for making this possible. We believe that colored atlases are the ideal medium to represent the highly detailed images achieved nowadays with improved resolution techniques. Volume 3 of the Pocket Atlas of Sectional Anatomay provides a color illustration facing each magnetic resonance image, as in the preceding volumes on the skull, thorax, and abdomen. To ensure the greatest possible precision in details, we still produce these illustrations ourselves. Each is accompanied by a sectional image and an orientation aid. Uniform color schemes ensure optimal clarity, as similar structures, such as arteries, veins, nerves, tendons, etc., are consistently represented in the same color. Individual muscle groups are represented uniformly, but differentiated from other muscle groups, so that classification is possible even when numerous groups of muscles are shown in the same image. Maximal lucidity prevails even in highly detailed representations. This is made possible by the high quality of the production and printing process that are characteristic of Thieme International. (orig.)

  2. How to increase the scientific quality of brain and spine clinical MR imaging research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornbury, J.R.; Kido, D.K.; Mushlin, AE.; Phelps, C.E.; Mooney, C.; Fryback, D.G.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have developed an experimental design for research comparing MR imaging with other methods, a design that reduces referral, workup, diagnosis review, and test review biases. This approach features MR imaging and competing examination done in all patients, patient groups defined by disease probability, blinded image interpretation, determination of true diagnosis by expert panel, determination of impact on treatment and patient outcomes, and formal cost-effectiveness and cost- benefit analysis. Two protocols we are carrying out illustrate this approach: MR versus CT or CR myelography in low back pain and MR vs CT in multiple sclerosis

  3. Surface coil imaging of the spine using fast sequences: Improvement of intensity profile and contrast behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Requardt, H.; Deimling, M.; Weber, H.

    1986-01-01

    Sagittal and axial images obtained using a surface coil suffer from the extreme intensity profile caused by physical properties of the coil and the anatomic entity of subcutaneous fat. The authors present a measuring device that reduces these disadvantages by means of Helmholtz-type coils, and sequences that reduce the fat signal by dephasing its signal part. The extremely short repetition time (<30 msec) allows acquisition times shorter than 10 sec. Breath-holding for this short period to avoid movement artifacts is possible. Images are presented that illustrate the enhanced contrast of spinal tissue and surrounding structures. Comparisons are made with spin-echo and CHESS images

  4. Fast-gradient-echo variable-flip-angle imaging of the cervical spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dyke, C.W.; Ross, J.S.; Masaryk, T.J.; Tkach, J.; Beale, S.; Hueftle, M.G.; Kaufman, B.; Modic, M.T.

    1987-01-01

    Two hundred consecutive patients were studied with 4-mm sagittal and axial T1-weighted images and gradient echo sequences with 6-msec or 13-msec echo time (TE) and 10 0 or 60 0 flip angles to evaluate cervical extradural disease. Images were independently evaluated for contrast behavior and anatomy, then directly compared for conspicuity of lesions. FLASH sequences produced better conspicuity of disease in half the imaging time. T1-weighted spin-echo (SE) sequences were more sensitive to marrow changes and intradural disease. Shorter TEs produced overall image improvement and reduced susceptibility effects. A fast and sensitive cervical examination combines sagittal T1-weighted SE with sagittal and axial FLASH 10 0 sequences with 6-msec TE

  5. Epidural fat interposition between dura mater and spinous process: a new sign for the diagnosis of spondylolysis on MR imaging of the lumbar spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherif, Hanan; Mahfouz, Ahmed-Emad [Department of Radiology, Hamad Medical Corporation, P.O. Box 3050, Doha (Qatar)

    2004-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of epidural fat interposition between the dura mater and spinous process of L5 as an indirect sign of spondylolysis on mid-sagittal MR imaging of the lumbar spine. Mid-sagittal T1-weighted MR images of the lumbar spine of 85 patients with spondylolysis and 93 patients without pars interarticularis fractures were randomized and evaluated by a masked reader. After a training sample of five cases, the reader was asked to note the presence or absence of epidural fat interposition between the dura mater and spinous process of L5 on the randomized images. The epidural fat interposition between the dura mater and spinous process of L5 was noted in 67 out of the 85 patients with spondylolysis (78.8%) and three of the patients without pars interarticularis fracture (3.2%). The difference was statistically significant (P<0.01). This sign has a specificity of 96.7%, sensitivity of 78.8%, positive predictive value of 95.7%, negative predictive value of 83.3% and accuracy of 88.2% for diagnosis of spondylolysis. Epidural fat interposition between the dura mater and spinous process may be a helpful sign for the diagnosis of spondylolysis on mid-sagittal MR imaging of the lumbar spine. (orig.)

  6. Epidural fat interposition between dura mater and spinous process: a new sign for the diagnosis of spondylolysis on MR imaging of the lumbar spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherif, Hanan; Mahfouz, Ahmed-Emad

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of epidural fat interposition between the dura mater and spinous process of L5 as an indirect sign of spondylolysis on mid-sagittal MR imaging of the lumbar spine. Mid-sagittal T1-weighted MR images of the lumbar spine of 85 patients with spondylolysis and 93 patients without pars interarticularis fractures were randomized and evaluated by a masked reader. After a training sample of five cases, the reader was asked to note the presence or absence of epidural fat interposition between the dura mater and spinous process of L5 on the randomized images. The epidural fat interposition between the dura mater and spinous process of L5 was noted in 67 out of the 85 patients with spondylolysis (78.8%) and three of the patients without pars interarticularis fracture (3.2%). The difference was statistically significant (P<0.01). This sign has a specificity of 96.7%, sensitivity of 78.8%, positive predictive value of 95.7%, negative predictive value of 83.3% and accuracy of 88.2% for diagnosis of spondylolysis. Epidural fat interposition between the dura mater and spinous process may be a helpful sign for the diagnosis of spondylolysis on mid-sagittal MR imaging of the lumbar spine. (orig.)

  7. Reliability of standing weight-bearing (0.25T) MR imaging findings and positional changes in the lumbar spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Bjarke B.; Bliddal, Henning; Hansen, Philip; Christensen, Anders F.; Trampedach, Charlotte; Rasti, Zoreh; Boesen, Mikael

    2018-01-01

    To test the reliability and absolute agreement of common degenerative findings in standing positional magnetic resonance imaging (pMRI). Low back pain patients with and without sciatica were consecutively enrolled to undergo a supine and standing pMRI. Three readers independently evaluated the standing pMRI for herniation, spinal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, HIZ lesions and facet joint effusion. The evaluation included a semi-quantitative grading of spinal stenosis, foraminal stenosis and spinal nerve root compression. The standing pMRI images were evaluated with full access to supine MRI. In case lower grades or the degenerative findings were not present in the supine images, this was reported separately as position-dependent changes. A subsample of 20 pMRI examinations was reevaluated after two months. The reproducibility was assessed by inter- and intra-reader reliability (kappa statistic) and absolute agreement between readers. Fifty-six patients were included in this study. There was fair-to-substantial inter-reader reliability (κ 0.47 to 0.82) and high absolute agreement (72.3% to 99.1%) for the pMRI findings. The intra-reader assessment showed similar reliability and agreement (κ 0.36 to 0.85; absolute agreement: 62.5% to 98.8%). Positional changes between the supine and standing position showed a fair-to-moderate inter- and intra-reader reliability (κ 0.25 to 0.52; absolute agreement: 97.0% to 99.1). Evaluation of the lumbar spine for degenerative findings by standing pMRI has acceptable reproducibility; however, positional changes from the supine to the standing position as an independent outcome should be interpreted with caution because of lower reliability, which calls for further standardisation. (orig.)

  8. Reliability of standing weight-bearing (0.25T) MR imaging findings and positional changes in the lumbar spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Bjarke B.; Bliddal, Henning [Department of Reumatology, Copenhagen University Hospital, The Parker Institute, Koebenhavn Oe (Denmark); Hansen, Philip; Christensen, Anders F.; Trampedach, Charlotte; Rasti, Zoreh; Boesen, Mikael [Copenhagen University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Koebenhavn Oe (Denmark)

    2018-01-15

    To test the reliability and absolute agreement of common degenerative findings in standing positional magnetic resonance imaging (pMRI). Low back pain patients with and without sciatica were consecutively enrolled to undergo a supine and standing pMRI. Three readers independently evaluated the standing pMRI for herniation, spinal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, HIZ lesions and facet joint effusion. The evaluation included a semi-quantitative grading of spinal stenosis, foraminal stenosis and spinal nerve root compression. The standing pMRI images were evaluated with full access to supine MRI. In case lower grades or the degenerative findings were not present in the supine images, this was reported separately as position-dependent changes. A subsample of 20 pMRI examinations was reevaluated after two months. The reproducibility was assessed by inter- and intra-reader reliability (kappa statistic) and absolute agreement between readers. Fifty-six patients were included in this study. There was fair-to-substantial inter-reader reliability (κ 0.47 to 0.82) and high absolute agreement (72.3% to 99.1%) for the pMRI findings. The intra-reader assessment showed similar reliability and agreement (κ 0.36 to 0.85; absolute agreement: 62.5% to 98.8%). Positional changes between the supine and standing position showed a fair-to-moderate inter- and intra-reader reliability (κ 0.25 to 0.52; absolute agreement: 97.0% to 99.1). Evaluation of the lumbar spine for degenerative findings by standing pMRI has acceptable reproducibility; however, positional changes from the supine to the standing position as an independent outcome should be interpreted with caution because of lower reliability, which calls for further standardisation. (orig.)

  9. Reliability of standing weight-bearing (0.25T) MR imaging findings and positional changes in the lumbar spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Bjarke B; Hansen, Philip; Christensen, Anders F; Trampedach, Charlotte; Rasti, Zoreh; Bliddal, Henning; Boesen, Mikael

    2018-01-01

    To test the reliability and absolute agreement of common degenerative findings in standing positional magnetic resonance imaging (pMRI). Low back pain patients with and without sciatica were consecutively enrolled to undergo a supine and standing pMRI. Three readers independently evaluated the standing pMRI for herniation, spinal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, HIZ lesions and facet joint effusion. The evaluation included a semi-quantitative grading of spinal stenosis, foraminal stenosis and spinal nerve root compression. The standing pMRI images were evaluated with full access to supine MRI. In case lower grades or the degenerative findings were not present in the supine images, this was reported separately as position-dependent changes. A subsample of 20 pMRI examinations was reevaluated after two months. The reproducibility was assessed by inter- and intra-reader reliability (kappa statistic) and absolute agreement between readers. Fifty-six patients were included in this study. There was fair-to-substantial inter-reader reliability (κ 0.47 to 0.82) and high absolute agreement (72.3% to 99.1%) for the pMRI findings. The intra-reader assessment showed similar reliability and agreement (κ 0.36 to 0.85; absolute agreement: 62.5% to 98.8%). Positional changes between the supine and standing position showed a fair-to-moderate inter- and intra-reader reliability (κ 0.25 to 0.52; absolute agreement: 97.0% to 99.1). Evaluation of the lumbar spine for degenerative findings by standing pMRI has acceptable reproducibility; however, positional changes from the supine to the standing position as an independent outcome should be interpreted with caution because of lower reliability, which calls for further standardisation.

  10. Health technology assessment of magnetic resonance imaging of the spine and bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verstraete, K.L.; Huysse, W.C.J.

    2008-01-01

    The high spatial resolution and the lack of ionizing radiation, makes magnetic resonance imaging the method of choice for imaging most spinal pathology, especially if associated with neurological symptoms. However, due to the high sensitivity of MR imaging, careful correlation between imaging findings and clinical findings is important to ensure appropriate treatment. Substituting radiographic evaluations for rapid MRI in the primary care setting may offer little additional benefit to patients. It may even increase the costs of care but the decisions about the use of imaging depend on judgments concerning whether the small observed improvement in outcome justifies additional cost. Because the presence of an abscess is a major factor in deciding between conservative and surgical treatment, MRI plays an essential role in the decision-making process concerning the treatment of spondylodiscitis. MR is also the method of choice for quantitative evaluation of bone marrow in lymphoma patients when a crucial therapeutic decision has to be made or for the qualitative evaluation of the spinal cord if compression is suspected in primary spinal malignancy or metastatic disease

  11. Health technology assessment of magnetic resonance imaging of the spine and bone marrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verstraete, K.L. [Department of Radiology, Ghent University, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Gent (Belgium)], E-mail: Koenraad.verstraete@ugent.be; Huysse, W.C.J. [Department of Radiology, Ghent University, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Gent (Belgium)], E-mail: Wouter.huysse@ugent.be

    2008-02-15

    The high spatial resolution and the lack of ionizing radiation, makes magnetic resonance imaging the method of choice for imaging most spinal pathology, especially if associated with neurological symptoms. However, due to the high sensitivity of MR imaging, careful correlation between imaging findings and clinical findings is important to ensure appropriate treatment. Substituting radiographic evaluations for rapid MRI in the primary care setting may offer little additional benefit to patients. It may even increase the costs of care but the decisions about the use of imaging depend on judgments concerning whether the small observed improvement in outcome justifies additional cost. Because the presence of an abscess is a major factor in deciding between conservative and surgical treatment, MRI plays an essential role in the decision-making process concerning the treatment of spondylodiscitis. MR is also the method of choice for quantitative evaluation of bone marrow in lymphoma patients when a crucial therapeutic decision has to be made or for the qualitative evaluation of the spinal cord if compression is suspected in primary spinal malignancy or metastatic disease.

  12. Agreement in the Interpretation of Magnetic Resonance Images of the Lumbar Spine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovacs, F M; Royuela, A; Jensen, Tue Secher

    2009-01-01

    Background: Correlation between clinical features and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings is essential in low-back-pain patients. Most previous studies have analyzed concordance in the interpretation of lumbar MRI among a few radiologists who worked together. This may have overestimated...

  13. A rare cause of spinal cord compression: imaging appearances of gout of the cervical spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dharmadhikari, R.; Hide, I.G.; Dildey, P.

    2006-01-01

    Gout is a metabolic disorder typically affecting the peripheral joints, more commonly in males. Spinal involvement is uncommon and is usually associated with hyperuricemia. We present the imaging findings of a case of spinal gout in a female patient with no previous history of hyperuricaemia, involving multiple spinal segments. (orig.)

  14. A rare cause of spinal cord compression: imaging appearances of gout of the cervical spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dharmadhikari, R.; Hide, I.G. [Freeman Hospital, Department of Radiology, High Heaton, Newcastle-upon-Tyne (United Kingdom); Dildey, P. [Freeman Hospital, Department of Pathology, High Heaton, Newcastle-upon-Tyne (United Kingdom)

    2006-12-15

    Gout is a metabolic disorder typically affecting the peripheral joints, more commonly in males. Spinal involvement is uncommon and is usually associated with hyperuricemia. We present the imaging findings of a case of spinal gout in a female patient with no previous history of hyperuricaemia, involving multiple spinal segments. (orig.)

  15. Real-time ultrasound image classification for spine anesthesia using local directional Hadamard features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesteie, Mehran; Abolmaesumi, Purang; Ashab, Hussam Al-Deen; Lessoway, Victoria A; Massey, Simon; Gunka, Vit; Rohling, Robert N

    2015-06-01

    Injection therapy is a commonly used solution for back pain management. This procedure typically involves percutaneous insertion of a needle between or around the vertebrae, to deliver anesthetics near nerve bundles. Most frequently, spinal injections are performed either blindly using palpation or under the guidance of fluoroscopy or computed tomography. Recently, due to the drawbacks of the ionizing radiation of such imaging modalities, there has been a growing interest in using ultrasound imaging as an alternative. However, the complex spinal anatomy with different wave-like structures, affected by speckle noise, makes the accurate identification of the appropriate injection plane difficult. The aim of this study was to propose an automated system that can identify the optimal plane for epidural steroid injections and facet joint injections. A multi-scale and multi-directional feature extraction system to provide automated identification of the appropriate plane is proposed. Local Hadamard coefficients are obtained using the sequency-ordered Hadamard transform at multiple scales. Directional features are extracted from local coefficients which correspond to different regions in the ultrasound images. An artificial neural network is trained based on the local directional Hadamard features for classification. The proposed method yields distinctive features for classification which successfully classified 1032 images out of 1090 for epidural steroid injection and 990 images out of 1052 for facet joint injection. In order to validate the proposed method, a leave-one-out cross-validation was performed. The average classification accuracy for leave-one-out validation was 94 % for epidural and 90 % for facet joint targets. Also, the feature extraction time for the proposed method was 20 ms for a native 2D ultrasound image. A real-time machine learning system based on the local directional Hadamard features extracted by the sequency-ordered Hadamard transform for

  16. Design and development of a content-based medical image retrieval system for spine vertebrae irregularity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Aouache; Hussain, Aini; Samad, Salina Abdul; Zulkifley, Mohd Asyraf; Diyana Wan Zaki, Wan Mimi; Hamid, Hamzaini Abdul

    2015-01-16

    Content-based medical image retrieval (CBMIR) system enables medical practitioners to perform fast diagnosis through quantitative assessment of the visual information of various modalities. In this paper, a more robust CBMIR system that deals with both cervical and lumbar vertebrae irregularity is afforded. It comprises three main phases, namely modelling, indexing and retrieval of the vertebrae image. The main tasks in the modelling phase are to improve and enhance the visibility of the x-ray image for better segmentation results using active shape model (ASM). The segmented vertebral fractures are then characterized in the indexing phase using region-based fracture characterization (RB-FC) and contour-based fracture characterization (CB-FC). Upon a query, the characterized features are compared to the query image. Effectiveness of the retrieval phase is determined by its retrieval, thus, we propose an integration of the predictor model based cross validation neural network (PMCVNN) and similarity matching (SM) in this stage. The PMCVNN task is to identify the correct vertebral irregularity class through classification allowing the SM process to be more efficient. Retrieval performance between the proposed and the standard retrieval architectures are then compared using retrieval precision (Pr@M) and average group score (AGS) measures. Experimental results show that the new integrated retrieval architecture performs better than those of the standard CBMIR architecture with retrieval results of cervical (AGS > 87%) and lumbar (AGS > 82%) datasets. The proposed CBMIR architecture shows encouraging results with high Pr@M accuracy. As a result, images from the same visualization class are returned for further used by the medical personnel.

  17. [Cervical spine trauma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, U; Hellen, P

    2016-08-01

    In the emergency department 65 % of spinal injuries and 2-5 % of blunt force injuries involve the cervical spine. Of these injuries approximately 50 % involve C5 and/or C6 and 30 % involve C2. Older patients tend to have higher spinal injuries and younger patients tend to have lower injuries. The anatomical and development-related characteristics of the pediatric spine as well as degenerative and comorbid pathological changes of the spine in the elderly can make the radiological evaluation of spinal injuries difficult with respect to possible trauma sequelae in young and old patients. Two different North American studies have investigated clinical criteria to rule out cervical spine injuries with sufficient certainty and without using imaging. Imaging of cervical trauma should be performed when injuries cannot be clinically excluded according to evidence-based criteria. Degenerative changes and anatomical differences have to be taken into account in the evaluation of imaging of elderly and pediatric patients.

  18. MR phase imaging and cerebrospinal fluid flow in the head and spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, L.M.; Di Chiro, G.

    1990-01-01

    Motion of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in and around the brain spinal cord was examined in healthy subjects and in a number of patients with abnormalities of the CSF circulation. The pulsatile motion of the CSF was determined by spin echo phase (velocity) imaging, sometimes in combination with gradient echo phase contrast cine. Differences in flow patterns across CSF spaces were observed: Flow reversal in the cerebellomedullary cistern and lumbar area relative to cervical CSF, and in the posterior versus the anterior subarachnoid space in the spinal canal. Flow communication was demonstrated in known communicating cysts or cavities. Differences in flow were also noted across spinal narrowing or block, and across the walls of a variety of cystic lesions in the brain and spinal cord. MR phase imaging of CSF flow provides pathophysiological information of potential clinical importance for the assessment of diseases affecting the CSF circulation. (orig.)

  19. Vertical field MR imaging of upper thorax and spine in small children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brockstedt, S.; Malmgren, N.; Malmgren, L.; Ivarsson, M.L.; Larsson, E.M.; Holtaas, S.; Staahlberg, F.

    1993-01-01

    To improve image quality in a vertical field MR imaging unit, operating at low field strength (0.3 T), we have designed a half-elliptical coil for use in the upper thoracic region of small children. Our intention was also to shorten the examination time, which until now has been long, because several scans with different coils have been necessary to cover the thoracic region. The experimental coil is designed so that a child's shoulders fit into the central region. The coil consists of 2 serially connected cable-loops, mounted on a foam rubber vest. The coil performance was tested in a phantom and improvements relative to standard coils were demonstrated in in vivo studies. The results indicate that by using the half-elliptical coil, the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio can be improved by a factor of 2 to 3 in the thoracic region of a child. (orig.)

  20. Agreement in the Interpretation of Magnetic Resonance Images of the Lumbar Spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacs, F.M. (Dept. Cientfico, Fundacin Kovacs, Palma de Majorca (Spain)); Royuela, A. (Spanish Back Pain Research Network, Fundacin Kovacs, Palma de Majorca (Spain)); Jensen, T.S. (Back Research Center, Backcenter Funen, Ringe (Denmark)) (and others)

    2009-06-15

    Background: Correlation between clinical features and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings is essential in low-back-pain patients. Most previous studies have analyzed concordance in the interpretation of lumbar MRI among a few radiologists who worked together. This may have overestimated concordance. Purpose: To evaluate intra- and interobserver agreement in the interpretation of lumbar MRI performed in an open 0.2T system. Material and Methods: Seven radiologists from two different geographic settings in Spain interpreted the lumbar MRIs of 50 subjects representative of the general Danish population aged 40 years. The radiologists interpreted the images in routine clinical practice, having no knowledge of the clinical and demographic characteristics of the subjects and blinded to their colleagues' assessments. Six of the radiologists evaluated the same MRIs 14 days later, having no knowledge of the previous results. Data on the existence of disc degeneration, high-intensity zones, disc contour, Schmorl nodes, Modic changes, osteophytes, spondylolisthesis, and spinal stenosis were collected in the Nordic Modic Consensus Group Classification form. Intra- and interobserver agreement was analyzed for variables with a prevalence =10% and =90% by means of the kappa statistic. Results: Intra- and interobserver agreement was excellent for variables related to Modic changes, and fair to good for disc contour, high-intensity zones, and Schmorl nodes. The evaluations for disc degeneration and osteophytes were found to have fair to good intraobserver agreement and poor interobserver agreement. The agreement for the evaluations of spondylolisthesis and spinal stenosis was not analyzed because they were observed in <10% of reports. Conclusion: Images from 0.2T MRIs appear to lead to good agreement in the reporting of disc contour, high-intensity zones, Schmorl nodes, and, in particular, Modic changes, suggesting that they can possibly be reliably used for clinical

  1. Agreement in the Interpretation of Magnetic Resonance Images of the Lumbar Spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, F.M.; Royuela, A.; Jensen, T.S.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Correlation between clinical features and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings is essential in low-back-pain patients. Most previous studies have analyzed concordance in the interpretation of lumbar MRI among a few radiologists who worked together. This may have overestimated concordance. Purpose: To evaluate intra- and interobserver agreement in the interpretation of lumbar MRI performed in an open 0.2T system. Material and Methods: Seven radiologists from two different geographic settings in Spain interpreted the lumbar MRIs of 50 subjects representative of the general Danish population aged 40 years. The radiologists interpreted the images in routine clinical practice, having no knowledge of the clinical and demographic characteristics of the subjects and blinded to their colleagues' assessments. Six of the radiologists evaluated the same MRIs 14 days later, having no knowledge of the previous results. Data on the existence of disc degeneration, high-intensity zones, disc contour, Schmorl nodes, Modic changes, osteophytes, spondylolisthesis, and spinal stenosis were collected in the Nordic Modic Consensus Group Classification form. Intra- and interobserver agreement was analyzed for variables with a prevalence =10% and =90% by means of the kappa statistic. Results: Intra- and interobserver agreement was excellent for variables related to Modic changes, and fair to good for disc contour, high-intensity zones, and Schmorl nodes. The evaluations for disc degeneration and osteophytes were found to have fair to good intraobserver agreement and poor interobserver agreement. The agreement for the evaluations of spondylolisthesis and spinal stenosis was not analyzed because they were observed in <10% of reports. Conclusion: Images from 0.2T MRIs appear to lead to good agreement in the reporting of disc contour, high-intensity zones, Schmorl nodes, and, in particular, Modic changes, suggesting that they can possibly be reliably used for clinical research

  2. Radionuclide bone imaging in spondylolysis of the lumbar spine in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelfand, M.J.; Strife, J.L.; Kereiakes, J.G.

    1981-01-01

    Bone scintigraphy and radiography were performed in seven children with back pain. Six of the children with radiographic evidence of a pars interarticularis defect also had abnormal scintigrams. Increased uptake of the bone imaging agent occurred at six of the ten sites of radiographic pars interarticularis defects, implying increased bone metabolic activity. However, the location of scintigraphic abnormalities did not correspond to the location of radiographic abnormalities in several cases. Measurements of absorbed radiation dose indicate that plain radiography, including oblique views where appropriate, has a lower absorbed radiation dose than scintigraphy or tomography and should be performed prior to these studies

  3. Radionuclide bone imaging in spondylolysis of the lumbar spine in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelfand, M.J.; Strife, J.L.; Kereiakes, J.G.

    1981-07-01

    Bone scintigraphy and radiography were performed in seven children with back pain. Six of the children with radiographic evidence of a pars interarticularis defect also had abnormal scintigrams. Increased uptake of the bone imaging agent occurred at six of the ten sites of radiographic pars interarticularis defects, implying increased bone metabolic activity. However, the location of scintigraphic abnormalities did not correspond to the location of radiographic abnormalities in several cases. Measurements of absorbed radiation dose indicate that plain radiography, including oblique views where appropriate, has a lower absorbed radiation dose than scintigraphy or tomography and should be performed prior to these studies.

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging of lumbar spine disc diseases. Frequency of false negatives; Imagerie par resonance magnetique pour pathologie discale lombaire. Frequence des faux-negatifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthelot, J.M.; Maugars, Y.; Delecrin, Y.; Caillon, F.; Prost, A. [Hopital Hotel-Dieu de Nantes, 44 (France)

    1995-10-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has had an impressive impact on evaluation of degenerative diseases of the spine. Nevertheless, false negatives can occur on images involving lumbar discs. Degenerative disc diseases documented on discography and/or pathology examination of the discs can go unrecognized. Likewise sensitivity for the detection of protruding disc hernias is not totally satisfactory (20% false negatives). Finally, a magnetic resonance image visualizing displacement of the disc is not specific (10 to 15% false positives); images showing protrusion or hernia can be seen in 30% of asymptomatic patients. Although MRI gives slightly more information than other imaging techniques, false images do exist. Moreover, the usefulness of MRI to demonstrate disc disease in case of a negative CT-scan remains to be demonstrated. (authors). 26 refs.

  5. Fat-Suppressed T2 Sequences for Routine 3.0-Tesla Lumbar Spine Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Preliminary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKinney, A. M.; Gadani, S.; Palmer, C. S.; Vidarsson, L. (Dept. of Radiology, Hennepin County and Univ. of Minnesota Medical Centers, Minneapolis, MN (United States))

    2008-09-15

    Background: Clear depiction of the ligamentum flavum on routine lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is essential in accurately describing the extent of degenerative disease. In routine, noncontrast evaluations, focal fatty deposition or hemangiomas can be difficult to distinguish from malignant foci on fast spin-echo (FSE) T2-weighted images. Purpose: To describe the use of T2 fast field echo (T2FFE) in combination with spectral presaturation inversion recovery (SPIR) fat suppression for noncontrast, routine lumbar spine outpatient MR imaging at 3.0 Tesla (3T). Material and Methods: An axial gradient echo (GE) T2FFE sequence was combined with SPIR fat suppression (T2FFE-SPIR), via a 3T Philips Intera (Philips Medical Systems, Best, The Netherlands) scanner, and added to the routine, noncontrast lumbar MRI examinations, which included sagittal FSE T1-weighted (T1WI), T2-weighted (T2WI), short-tau inversion recovery (STIR), and axial FSE T2WI. The sequence was performed in over 500 patients over a 1-year period, without intravenous contrast, and with slice thickness and planes of section identical to the axial FSE T1WI and T2WI images. The sequence typically lasted about 4.5-6 min. Results: The use of T2FFE-SPIR enabled visualization of the ligamentum flavum in degenerative disease, and the exclusion of focal fatty lesions on FSE T2WI. Other benefits included: the identification of malignant foci, the uncommon detection of hemorrhage, and the elimination of spurious flow voids. Several brief examples are provided to demonstrate the utility of this technique. Conclusion: The addition of T2FFE-SPIR to routine, noncontrast protocols in outpatients could provide further confidence in the visualization of the ligamentum flavum in degenerative disease, and can exclude malignancy in T2-bright areas of focal fatty marrow. Larger studies would be helpful to evaluate the accuracy of this technique versus FSE techniques in depicting degenerative, malignant, or inflammatory

  6. Fat-Suppressed T2* Sequences for Routine 3.0-Tesla Lumbar Spine Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Preliminary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, A. M.; Gadani, S.; Palmer, C. S.; Vidarsson, L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Clear depiction of the ligamentum flavum on routine lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is essential in accurately describing the extent of degenerative disease. In routine, noncontrast evaluations, focal fatty deposition or hemangiomas can be difficult to distinguish from malignant foci on fast spin-echo (FSE) T2-weighted images. Purpose: To describe the use of T2* fast field echo (T2FFE) in combination with spectral presaturation inversion recovery (SPIR) fat suppression for noncontrast, routine lumbar spine outpatient MR imaging at 3.0 Tesla (3T). Material and Methods: An axial gradient echo (GE) T2FFE sequence was combined with SPIR fat suppression (T2FFE-SPIR), via a 3T Philips Intera (Philips Medical Systems, Best, The Netherlands) scanner, and added to the routine, noncontrast lumbar MRI examinations, which included sagittal FSE T1-weighted (T1WI), T2-weighted (T2WI), short-tau inversion recovery (STIR), and axial FSE T2WI. The sequence was performed in over 500 patients over a 1-year period, without intravenous contrast, and with slice thickness and planes of section identical to the axial FSE T1WI and T2WI images. The sequence typically lasted about 4.5-6 min. Results: The use of T2FFE-SPIR enabled visualization of the ligamentum flavum in degenerative disease, and the exclusion of focal fatty lesions on FSE T2WI. Other benefits included: the identification of malignant foci, the uncommon detection of hemorrhage, and the elimination of spurious flow voids. Several brief examples are provided to demonstrate the utility of this technique. Conclusion: The addition of T2FFE-SPIR to routine, noncontrast protocols in outpatients could provide further confidence in the visualization of the ligamentum flavum in degenerative disease, and can exclude malignancy in T2-bright areas of focal fatty marrow. Larger studies would be helpful to evaluate the accuracy of this technique versus FSE techniques in depicting degenerative, malignant, or inflammatory

  7. Cumulative effective dose and cancer risk for pediatric population in repetitive full spine follow-up imaging: How micro dose is the EOS microdose protocol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Martin; Ma, Wang-Kei; Lau, Damian; Cheung, Kenneth; Ip, Janice; Yip, Lawrance; Lam, Wendy

    2018-04-01

    To evaluate and to obtain analytic formulation for the calculation of the effective dose and associated cancer risk using the EOS microdose protocol for scoliotic pediatric patients undergoing full spine imaging at different age of exposure; to demonstrate the microdose protocol capable of delivering lesser radiation dose and hence of further reducing cancer risk induction when compared with the EOS low dose protocol; to obtain cumulative effective dose and cancer risk for both genders scoliotic pediatrics of US and Hong Kong population using the microdose protocol. Organ absorbed doses of full spine exposed scoliotic pediatric patients have been simulated with the use of EOS microdose protocol imaging parameters input to the Monte Carlo software PCXMC. Gender and age specific effective dose has been calculated with the simulated organ absorbed dose using the ICRP-103 approach. The associated radiation induced cancer risk, expressed as lifetime attributable risk (LAR), has been estimated according to the method introduced in the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation VII report. Values of LAR have been estimated for scoliotic patients exposed repetitively during their follow up period at different age for US and Hong Kong population. The effective doses of full spine imaging with simultaneous posteroanterior and lateral projection for patients exposed at the age between 5 and 18 years using the EOS microdose protocol have been calculated within the range of 2.54-14.75 μSv. The corresponding LAR for US and Hong Kong population was ranged between 0.04 × 10 -6 and 0.84 × 10 -6 . Cumulative effective dose and cancer risk during follow-up period can be estimated using the results and are of information to patients and their parents. With the use of computer simulation and analytic formulation, we obtained the cumulative effective dose and cancer risk at any age of exposure for pediatric patients of US and Hong Kong population undergoing repetitive

  8. Ultra low field MR imaging of cervical spine involvement in rheumatoid arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagerlund, M.; Bjoernebrink, J.; Ekelund, L.; Toolanen, G. (Umeaa Univ. Hospital (Sweden). Depts. of Diagnostic Radiology and Orthopedic Surgery)

    1992-03-01

    In a study of 30 patients with longstanding rheumatoid arthritis the diagnostic usefulness of ultra low field MR equipment was analyzed in assessing lesions of the craniocervical junction. It was found that at 0.04 T all the examinations were diagnostic and that in combination with plain radiography the diagnostic information obtained was valuable in further planning of the treatment strategies. The neurologic findings were related to the degree and severity of atlantoaxial luxation, either horizontal or vertical, and to the periodontoid pannus formation. The correlation between the degree of cord compression shown with MR imaging and the clinical symptoms, especially long tract symptoms, was poor. The only correlating factor was the duration of the disease. (orig.).

  9. Radionuclide bone imaging in spondylolysis of the lumbar spine in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelfand, M.J.; Strife, J.L.; Kereiakes, J.G.

    1981-07-01

    Bone scintigraphy and radiography were performed in seven children with back pain. Six of the children with radiographic evidence of a pars interarticularis defect also had abnormal scintigrams. Increased uptake of the bone imaging agent occurred at six of the ten sites of radiographic pars interarticularis defects, implying increased bone metabolic activity. However, the location of scintigraphic abnormalities did not correspond to the location of radiographic abnormalities in several cases. Possible explanations for the discordant findings are: (a) normal bone metabolism at the site of an old spondylolysis and (b) radiographically inapparent stress fractures. Measurements of absorbed radiation dose indicate that plain radiography, including oblique views where appropriate, has a lower absorbed radiation dose than scintigraphy or tomography and should be performed prior to these studies.

  10. Clinical and imaging characteristics of foraminal nerve root disorders of the lumbar spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishi, Tomio; Tani, Takayuki; Suzuki, Norio; Aonuma, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    We analyzed cases of lumbar nerve root compression at intervertebral foramina, by comparing 19 cases of foraminal stenosis (FS), and 38 cases of foraminal hernia (FH) with 21 cases of lumbar canal stenosis (LCS). Japan Orthopedic Association (JOA) scores, intervertebral disc degeneration, anatomical measurements of the nerve root foramina and the MRI findings were reviewed. The scores for pain in the lower extremities, and walking ability were both lowest in the FS group. The scores for low back pain, lower extremities, and sensory disturbances were lowest in the FH group. Anterior-posterior diameters of the nerve root foramina were smaller in the FS group and FH group than in the LCS group. More degenerated discs and short length of upper part of the nerve root foramina were seen in FS group than in the other groups. The MRI images of so-called black out nerve root foramina were positive in 63.6% of FS cases, 75% of FH cases. (author)

  11. MR imaging of the lumber spine; Visualization capability of the nerve root

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishibashi, Kazumasa; Hieda, Hiroshi; Goto, Takeshi; Goto, Hiroshi; Koga, Hiromichi; Hiraoka, Kouji (Moji Rousai Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan))

    1991-01-01

    We studied visualization capability of the nerve root in mainly coronary section pattern using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI was carried out in 91 patients with lumbago and sciatica. Coronary section was additionally photographed in 58 cases of these patients (32 with intervertebral hernia, 20 with spinal canal stenosis, 2 with spondylolytic spondylolisthesis, 2 with compression fracture and the other 2 patients). The visualization capability of the nerve root was studied with photographing 2 pulse systems of the coronary section by using spin echo and field echo methods. The high signal area of the cerebrospinal fluid and nerve root in the normal lumbar vertebra was noted by field echo method, and pattern that is visualized by myelogram was obtained. The coincidence of the main foci (disturbed lesions of the nerve root) in the intervertebral hernia and coronary section pattern was noted in 21 of 32 cases (64.5%) with considerably high ratio. The condition of the nerve root in the blocked lesion was visualized in the spinal canal stenosis. (author).

  12. Limited magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine has high sensitivity for detection of acute fractures, infection, and malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Benjamin; Fintelmann, Florian J.; Kamath, Ravi S.; Kattapuram, Susan V.; Rosenthal, Daniel I.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine how a limited protocol MR examination compares to a full conventional MR examination for the detection of non-degenerative pathology such as acute fracture, infection, and malignancy. A sample of 349 non-contrast MR exams was selected retrospectively containing a 3:1:1:1 distribution of negative/degenerative change only, acute fracture, infection, and malignancy. This resulted in an even distribution of pathology and non-pathology. A limited protocol MR exam was simulated by extracting T1-weighted sagittal and T2-weighted fat-saturated (or STIR) sagittal sequences from each exam and submitting them for blinded review by two experienced musculoskeletal radiologists. The exams were evaluated for the presence or absence of non-degenerative pathology. Interpretation of the limited exam was compared to the original report of the full examination. If either reader disagreed with the original report, the case was submitted for an unblinded adjudication process with the participation of a third musculoskeletal radiologist to establish a consensus diagnosis. There were five false negatives for a sensitivity of 96.9 % for the limited protocol MR exam. Infection in the psoas, paraspinal muscles, and sacroiliac joint, as well as acute fractures in transverse processes and sacrum were missed by one or more readers. No cases of malignancy were missed. Overall diagnostic accuracy was 96.0 % (335/349). MR imaging of the lumbar spine limited to sagittal T1-weighted and sagittal T2 fat-saturated (or STIR) sequences has high sensitivity for the detection of acute fracture, infection, or malignancy compared to a conventional MR examination. (orig.)

  13. Limited magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine has high sensitivity for detection of acute fractures, infection, and malignancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Benjamin; Fintelmann, Florian J.; Kamath, Ravi S.; Kattapuram, Susan V.; Rosenthal, Daniel I. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-12-15

    The objective of this study is to determine how a limited protocol MR examination compares to a full conventional MR examination for the detection of non-degenerative pathology such as acute fracture, infection, and malignancy. A sample of 349 non-contrast MR exams was selected retrospectively containing a 3:1:1:1 distribution of negative/degenerative change only, acute fracture, infection, and malignancy. This resulted in an even distribution of pathology and non-pathology. A limited protocol MR exam was simulated by extracting T1-weighted sagittal and T2-weighted fat-saturated (or STIR) sagittal sequences from each exam and submitting them for blinded review by two experienced musculoskeletal radiologists. The exams were evaluated for the presence or absence of non-degenerative pathology. Interpretation of the limited exam was compared to the original report of the full examination. If either reader disagreed with the original report, the case was submitted for an unblinded adjudication process with the participation of a third musculoskeletal radiologist to establish a consensus diagnosis. There were five false negatives for a sensitivity of 96.9 % for the limited protocol MR exam. Infection in the psoas, paraspinal muscles, and sacroiliac joint, as well as acute fractures in transverse processes and sacrum were missed by one or more readers. No cases of malignancy were missed. Overall diagnostic accuracy was 96.0 % (335/349). MR imaging of the lumbar spine limited to sagittal T1-weighted and sagittal T2 fat-saturated (or STIR) sequences has high sensitivity for the detection of acute fracture, infection, or malignancy compared to a conventional MR examination. (orig.)

  14. Evaluation of the Patient Effective Dose in Whole Spine Scanography Based on the Automatic Image Pasting Method for Digital Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung-Su; Yoon, Sang-Wook; Seo, Deok-Nam; Nam, So-Ra; Kim, Jung-Min

    2016-01-01

    Whole spine scanography (WSS) is a radiologic examination that requires whole body X-ray exposure. Consequently, the amount of patient radiation exposure is higher than the radiation dose following routine X-ray examination. Several studies have evaluated the patient effective dose (ED) following single exposure film-screen WSS. The objective of this study was to evaluate patient ED during WSS, based on the automatic image pasting method for multiple exposure digital radiography (APMDR). Further, the calculated EDs were compared with the results of previous studies involving single exposure film-screen WSS. We evaluated the ED of 50 consecutive patients (M:F = 28:22) who underwent WSS using APMDR. The anterior-posterior (AP) and lateral (LAT) projection EDs were evaluated based on the Monte Carlo simulation. Using APMDR, the mean number of exposures was 6.1 for AP and 6.5 for LAT projections. LAT projections required more exposures (6.55%) than AP projections. The mean ED was 0.6276 mSv (AP) and 0.6716 mSv (LAT). The mean ED for LAT projections was 0.6061 mSv in automatic exposure control (AEC) and 0.7694 mSv in manual mode. The relationship between dose-area-product (DAP) and ED revealed a proportional correlation (AP, R 2 = 0.943; LAT, R 2 = 0.773). Compared to prior research involving single exposure screen-film WSS, the patient ED following WSS using APMDR was lower on AP than on LAT projections. Despite multiple exposures, ED control is more effective if WSS is performed using APMDR in the AEC mode

  15. The use of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR) technique in evaluation of patients with cervical spine trauma: impact on radiation dose reduction and image quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patro, Satya N; Chakraborty, Santanu; Sheikh, Adnan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR) technique on the image quality and radiation dose reduction. The comparison was made with the traditional filtered back projection (FBP) technique. We retrospectively reviewed 78 patients, who underwent cervical spine CT for blunt cervical trauma between 1 June 2010 and 30 November 2010. 48 patients were imaged using traditional FBP technique and the remaining 30 patients were imaged using the ASiR technique. The patient demographics, radiation dose, objective image signal and noise were recorded; while subjective noise, sharpness, diagnostic acceptability and artefacts were graded by two radiologists blinded to the techniques. We found that the ASiR technique was able to reduce the volume CT dose index, dose-length product and effective dose by 36%, 36.5% and 36.5%, respectively, compared with the FBP technique. There was no significant difference in the image noise (p = 0.39), signal (p = 0.82) and signal-to-noise ratio (p = 0.56) between the groups. The subjective image quality was minimally better in the ASiR group but not statistically significant. There was excellent interobserver agreement on the subjective image quality and diagnostic acceptability for both groups. The use of ASiR technique allowed approximately 36% radiation dose reduction in the evaluation of cervical spine without degrading the image quality. The present study highlights that the ASiR technique is extremely helpful in reducing the patient radiation exposure while maintaining the image quality. It is highly recommended to utilize this novel technique in CT imaging of different body regions.

  16. Paediatric cervical spine injury but NEXUS negative

    OpenAIRE

    Maxwell, Melanie J; Jardine, Andrew D

    2007-01-01

    Cervical spine injuries in paediatric patients following trauma are extremely rare. The National Emergency X‐Radiography Utilization Study (NEXUS) guidelines are a set of clinical criteria used to guide physicians in identifying trauma patients requiring cervical spine imaging. It is validated for use in children. A case of a child who did not fulfil the NEXUS criteria for imaging but was found to have a cervical spine fracture is reported.

  17. Shift in imaging modalities of the spine through 25 years and its impact on patient ionizing radiation doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borgen, Lars [Department of Radiology, Hospital of Buskerud, Dronning gaten 28, 3004 Drammen (Norway)]. E-mail: lars.borgen@sb-hf.no; Ostensen, Harald [Diagnostic Imaging and Laboratory Technology, World Health Organization, 20 Avenue Appia, CH-1211 Geneva 27 (Switzerland); Stranden, Erling [Buskerud University College, Konggate 51, 3019 Drammen (Norway); Olerud, Hilde Marie [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, PO Box 55, 1332 Osteras (Norway); Gudmundsen, Tor Erik [Department of Radiology, Hospital of Buskerud, Dronning gaten 28, 3004 Drammen (Norway); Buskerud University College, Konggate 51, 3019 Drammen (Norway)

    2006-10-15

    Study design: Retrospective. Objective: To explore the shift in modalities when diagnosing the spine in the years 1979-2003. To see how this shift, together with a radiation protective policy, have influenced on the ionizing radiation doses. Summary of background data: The shift from CT/myelography to MR when diagnosing the spine is well known. To what extent this has changed the radiation doses has to our knowledge not yet been published. Methods: Activity reports from a department of radiology have been reviewed. Relevant radiation doses estimates have been obtained from the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority. Results: MRI was introduced in 1992 and has been used increasingly since then. Conventional X-ray to the spine has been practically unchanged. Myelography and CT decreased markedly after the introduction of MRI. The total number of examinations of the spine has increased, but the radiation doses given have decreased since 1993. Conclusions: The introduction of MRI together with a radiation protective policy have reduced the ionizing radiation doses given to this population, in spite of an increase in the total number of examinations of the spine.

  18. Human and behavioral factors contributing to spine-based neurological cockpit injuries in pilots of high-performance aircraft: recommendations for management and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J. A.; Hart, S. F.; Baskin, D. S.; Effenhauser, R.; Johnson, S. L.; Novas, M. A.; Jennings, R.; Davis, J.

    2000-01-01

    In high-performance aircraft, the need for total environmental awareness coupled with high-g loading (often with abrupt onset) creates a predilection for cervical spine injury while the pilot is performing routine movements within the cockpit. In this study, the prevalence and severity of cervical spine injury are assessed via a modified cross-sectional survey of pilots of multiple aircraft types (T-38 and F-14, F-16, and F/A-18 fighters). Ninety-five surveys were administered, with 58 full responses. Fifty percent of all pilots reported in-flight or immediate post-flight spine-based pain, and 90% of fighter pilots reported at least one event, most commonly (> 90%) occurring during high-g (> 5 g) turns of the aircraft with the head deviated from the anatomical neutral position. Pre-flight stretching was not associated with a statistically significant reduction in neck pain episodes in this evaluation, whereas a regular weight training program in the F/A-18 group approached a significant reduction (mean = 2.492; p < 0.064). Different cockpit ergonomics may vary the predisposition to cervical injury from airframe to airframe. Several strategies for prevention are possible from both an aircraft design and a preventive medicine standpoint. Countermeasure strategies against spine injury in pilots of high-performance aircraft require additional research, so that future aircraft will not be limited by the human in control.

  19. SU-E-J-34: Setup Accuracy in Spine SBRT Using CBCT 6D Image Guidance in Comparison with 6D ExacTrac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Z; Yip, S; Lewis, J; Mannarino, E; Friesen, S; Wagar, M; Hacker, F [Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose Volumetric information of the spine captured on CBCT can potentially improve the accuracy in spine SBRT setup that has been commonly performed through 2D radiographs. This work evaluates the setup accuracy in spine SBRT using 6D CBCT image guidance that recently became available on Varian systems. Methods ExacTrac radiographs have been commonly used for Spine SBRT setup. The setup process involves first positioning patients with lasers followed by localization imaging, registration, and repositioning. Verification images are then taken providing the residual errors (ExacTracRE) before beam on. CBCT verification is also acquired in our institute. The availability of both ExacTrac and CBCT verifications allows a comparison study. 41 verification CBCT of 16 patients were retrospectively registered with the planning CT enabling 6D corrections, giving CBCT residual errors (CBCTRE) which were compared with ExacTracRE. Results The RMS discrepancies between CBCTRE and ExacTracRE are 1.70mm, 1.66mm, 1.56mm in vertical, longitudinal and lateral directions and 0.27°, 0.49°, 0.35° in yaw, roll and pitch respectively. The corresponding mean discrepancies (and standard deviation) are 0.62mm (1.60mm), 0.00mm (1.68mm), −0.80mm (1.36mm) and 0.05° (0.58°), 0.11° (0.48°), −0.16° (0.32°). Of the 41 CBCT, 17 had high-Z surgical implants. No significant difference in ExacTrac-to-CBCT discrepancy was observed between patients with and without the implants. Conclusion Multiple factors can contribute to the discrepancies between CBCT and ExacTrac: 1) the imaging iso-centers of the two systems, while calibrated to coincide, can be different; 2) the ROI used for registration can be different especially if ribs were included in ExacTrac images; 3) small patient motion can occur between the two verification image acquisitions; 4) the algorithms can be different between CBCT (volumetric) and ExacTrac (radiographic) registrations.

  20. SU-E-I-51: Use of Blade Sequences in Cervical Spine MR Imaging for Eliminating Motion, Truncation and Flow Artifacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavroidis, P [University of Texas Health Science Center, UTHSCSA, San Antonio, TX (United States); Lavdas, E; Kostopoulos, S; Ninos, C; Strikou, A; Glotsos, D; Vlachopoulou, A; Oikonomou, G [Technological Education Institute of Athens, Athens, Athens (Greece); Economopoulos, N [General University Hospital ATTIKON, Athens, Athens (Greece); Roka, V [Health Center of Farkadona, Trikala (Greece); Sakkas, G [Center for Research and Technology of Thessaly, Trikala (Greece); Tsagkalis, A; Batsikas, G [IASO Thessalias Hospital, Larissa (Greece); Statkahis, S [Cancer Therapy and Research Center, San Antonio, TX (United States); Papanikolaou, N [University of Texas HSC SA, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To assess the efficacy of the BLADE technique to eliminate motion, truncation, flow and other artifacts in Cervical Spine MRI compared to the conventional technique. To study the ability of the examined sequences to reduce the indetention and wrap artifacts, which have been reported in BLADE sagittal sequences. Methods: Forty consecutive subjects, who had been routinely scanned for cervical spine examination using four different image acquisition techniques, were analyzed. More specifically, the following pairs of sequences were compared: a) T2 TSE SAG vs. T2 TSE SAG BLADE and b) T2 TIRM SAG vs. T2 TIRM SAG BLADE. A quantitative analysis was performed using the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and relative contrast (ReCon) measures. A qualitative analysis was also performed by two radiologists, who graded seven image characteristics on a 5-point scale (0:non-visualization; 1:poor; 2:average; 3:good; 4:excellent). The observers also evaluated the presence of image artifacts (motion, truncation, flow, indentation). Results: Based on the findings of the quantitative analysis, the ReCON values of the CSF (cerebrospinal fluid)/SC (spinal cord) between TIRM SAG and TIRM SAG BLADE were found to present statistical significant differences (p<0.001). Regarding motion and truncation artifacts, the T2 TSE SAG BLADE was superior compared to the T2 TSE SAG and the T2 TIRM SAG BLADE was superior compared to the T2 TIRM SAG. Regarding flow artifacts, T2 TIRM SAG BLADE eliminated more artifacts compared to the T2 TIRM SAG. Conclusion: The use of BLADE sequences in cervical spine MR examinations appears to be capable of potentially eliminating motion, pulsatile flow and trancation artifacts. Furthermore, BLADE sequences are proposed to be used in the standard examination protocols based on the fact that a significantly improved image quality could be achieved.

  1. SU-E-I-51: Use of Blade Sequences in Cervical Spine MR Imaging for Eliminating Motion, Truncation and Flow Artifacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mavroidis, P; Lavdas, E; Kostopoulos, S; Ninos, C; Strikou, A; Glotsos, D; Vlachopoulou, A; Oikonomou, G; Economopoulos, N; Roka, V; Sakkas, G; Tsagkalis, A; Batsikas, G; Statkahis, S; Papanikolaou, N

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the efficacy of the BLADE technique to eliminate motion, truncation, flow and other artifacts in Cervical Spine MRI compared to the conventional technique. To study the ability of the examined sequences to reduce the indetention and wrap artifacts, which have been reported in BLADE sagittal sequences. Methods: Forty consecutive subjects, who had been routinely scanned for cervical spine examination using four different image acquisition techniques, were analyzed. More specifically, the following pairs of sequences were compared: a) T2 TSE SAG vs. T2 TSE SAG BLADE and b) T2 TIRM SAG vs. T2 TIRM SAG BLADE. A quantitative analysis was performed using the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and relative contrast (ReCon) measures. A qualitative analysis was also performed by two radiologists, who graded seven image characteristics on a 5-point scale (0:non-visualization; 1:poor; 2:average; 3:good; 4:excellent). The observers also evaluated the presence of image artifacts (motion, truncation, flow, indentation). Results: Based on the findings of the quantitative analysis, the ReCON values of the CSF (cerebrospinal fluid)/SC (spinal cord) between TIRM SAG and TIRM SAG BLADE were found to present statistical significant differences (p<0.001). Regarding motion and truncation artifacts, the T2 TSE SAG BLADE was superior compared to the T2 TSE SAG and the T2 TIRM SAG BLADE was superior compared to the T2 TIRM SAG. Regarding flow artifacts, T2 TIRM SAG BLADE eliminated more artifacts compared to the T2 TIRM SAG. Conclusion: The use of BLADE sequences in cervical spine MR examinations appears to be capable of potentially eliminating motion, pulsatile flow and trancation artifacts. Furthermore, BLADE sequences are proposed to be used in the standard examination protocols based on the fact that a significantly improved image quality could be achieved

  2. Population explosion in the yellow-spined bamboo locust Ceracris kiangsu and inferences for the impact of human activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Fan

    Full Text Available Geographic distance and geographical barriers likely play a considerable role in structuring genetic variation in species, although some migratory species may have less phylogeographic structure on a smaller spatial scale. Here, genetic diversity and the phylogenetic structure among geographical populations of the yellow-spined bamboo locust, Ceracris kiangsu, were examined with 16S rDNA and amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs. In this study, no conspicuous phylogeographical structure was discovered from either Maximum parsimony (MP and Neighbor-joining (NJ phylogenetic analyses. The effect of geographical isolation was not conspicuous on a large spatial scale.At smaller spatial scales local diversity of some populations within mountainous areas were detected using Nei's genetic distance and AMOVA. There is a high level of genetic diversity and a low genetic differentiation among populations in the C. kiangsu of South and Southeast China. Our analyses indicate that C. kiangsu is a monophyletic group. Our results also support the hypothesis that the C. kiangsu population is in a primary differentiation stage. Given the mismatch distribution, it is likely that a population expansion in C. kiangsu occurred about 0.242 Ma during the Quaternary interglaciation. Based on historical reports, we conjecture that human activities had significant impacts on the C. kiangsu gene flow.

  3. The substantiation of the elastic–viscoplastic model of the human spine for modeling the correction process of kyphoscoliotic deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin S Sergeev

    2018-01-01

    Value: The materials of the article can be useful for scientists, doctors and specialists in conducting scientific research on the problem of spine deformation correction and the development of appropriate technical means.

  4. Prevalence of degenerative and spondyloarthritis-related magnetic resonance imaging findings in the spine and sacroiliac joints in patients with persistent low back pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnbak, Bodil; Jensen, Tue S.; Manniche, Claus [Hospital Lillebaelt, Research Department, Spine Centre of Southern Denmark, Middelfart (Denmark); University of Southern Denmark, Institute of Regional Health Research, Odense C (Denmark); Egund, Niels; Zejden, Anna [Aarhus University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Aarhus C (Denmark); Hoerslev-Petersen, Kim [University of Southern Denmark, Institute of Regional Health Research, Odense C (Denmark); King Christian 10th Hospital for Rheumatic Diseases, Graasten, Graasten (Denmark); Jurik, Anne G. [Hospital Lillebaelt, Research Department, Spine Centre of Southern Denmark, Middelfart (Denmark); University of Southern Denmark, Institute of Regional Health Research, Odense C (Denmark); Aarhus University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Aarhus C (Denmark)

    2016-04-15

    To estimate the prevalence of degenerative and spondyloarthritis (SpA)-related magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in the spine and sacroiliac joints (SIJs) and analyse their association with gender and age in persistent low back pain (LBP) patients. Degenerative and SpA-related MRI findings in the whole spine and SIJs were evaluated in Spine Centre patients aged 18-40 years with LBP. Among the 1,037 patients, the prevalence of disc degeneration, disc contour changes and vertebral endplate signal (Modic) changes were 87 % (±SEM 1.1), 82 % (±1.2) and 48 % (±1.6). All degenerative spinal findings were most frequent in men and patients aged 30-40 years. Spinal SpA-related MRI findings were rare. In the SIJs, 28 % (±1.4) had at least one MRI finding, with bone marrow oedema being the most common (21 % (±1.3)). SIJ erosions were most prevalent in patients aged 18-29 years and bone marrow oedema in patients aged 30-40 years. SIJ sclerosis and fatty marrow deposition were most common in women. SIJ bone marrow oedema, sclerosis and erosions were most frequent in women indicating pregnancy-related LBP. The high prevalence of SIJ MRI findings associated with age, gender, and pregnancy-related LBP need further investigation of their clinical importance in LBP patients. (orig.)

  5. Prevalence of degenerative and spondyloarthritis-related magnetic resonance imaging findings in the spine and sacroiliac joints in patients with persistent low back pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnbak, Bodil; Jensen, Tue S.; Manniche, Claus; Egund, Niels; Zejden, Anna; Hoerslev-Petersen, Kim; Jurik, Anne G.

    2016-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of degenerative and spondyloarthritis (SpA)-related magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in the spine and sacroiliac joints (SIJs) and analyse their association with gender and age in persistent low back pain (LBP) patients. Degenerative and SpA-related MRI findings in the whole spine and SIJs were evaluated in Spine Centre patients aged 18-40 years with LBP. Among the 1,037 patients, the prevalence of disc degeneration, disc contour changes and vertebral endplate signal (Modic) changes were 87 % (±SEM 1.1), 82 % (±1.2) and 48 % (±1.6). All degenerative spinal findings were most frequent in men and patients aged 30-40 years. Spinal SpA-related MRI findings were rare. In the SIJs, 28 % (±1.4) had at least one MRI finding, with bone marrow oedema being the most common (21 % (±1.3)). SIJ erosions were most prevalent in patients aged 18-29 years and bone marrow oedema in patients aged 30-40 years. SIJ sclerosis and fatty marrow deposition were most common in women. SIJ bone marrow oedema, sclerosis and erosions were most frequent in women indicating pregnancy-related LBP. The high prevalence of SIJ MRI findings associated with age, gender, and pregnancy-related LBP need further investigation of their clinical importance in LBP patients. (orig.)

  6. Human fetal anatomy: MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinreb, J C; Lowe, T; Cohen, J M; Kutler, M

    1985-12-01

    Twenty-four pregnant women carrying 26 fetuses (two sets of twins) were imaged with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging at 0.35 T following sonographic evaluation. Each study was retrospectively evaluated to determine which of 33 normal fetal structures were visible on the images and which imaging parameters were most useful for depicting fetal anatomy. Fetal motion degraded fetal images in all but two cases, both with oligohydramnios and in the third trimester of gestation. Nevertheless, many fetal structures were identifiable, particularly in the third trimester. Visualization of fetal anatomy improved with intravenous maternal sedation in five cases. Relatively T1-weighted images occasionally offered the advantage of less image degradation owing to fetal motion and improved contrast between different fetal structures. More T2 weighting was believed to be advantageous in one case for outlining the fetal head and in one case for delineation of the brain. In many cases, structures were similarly identifiable (though with different signal intensities) regardless of the parameters selected. The authors conclude that MR imaging of many fetal structures is currently unsatisfactory and is probably of limited value, particularly in the first and second trimesters. However, the relative frequency and detail with which the fetal head and liver can be depicted indicate that these may be areas for further investigation, and the potential utility of imaging fetal fat warrants further investigation.

  7. Application of computer-assisted imaging technology in human musculoskeletal joint research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xudong Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer-assisted imaging analysis technology has been widely used in the musculoskeletal joint biomechanics research in recent years. Imaging techniques can accurately reconstruct the anatomic features of the target joint and reproduce its in vivo motion characters. The data has greatly improved our understanding of normal joint function, joint injury mechanism, and surgical treatment, and can provide foundations for using reverse-engineering methods to develop biomimetic artificial joints. In this paper, we systematically reviewed the investigation of in vivo kinematics of the human knee, shoulder, lumber spine, and ankle using advanced imaging technologies, especially those using a dual fluoroscopic imaging system (DFIS. We also briefly discuss future development of imaging analysis technology in musculoskeletal joint research.

  8. Interventional spine procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelekis, A.D. [Attikon University Hospital, 2nd Radiology Department, University of Athens, Rimini 1, 124 61 Athens (Greece)]. E-mail: akelekis@cc.uoa.gr; Somon, T. [Geneva University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology, 24, Rue Micheli-du-Crest, 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Yilmaz, H. [Geneva University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology, 24, Rue Micheli-du-Crest, 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Bize, P. [Geneva University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology, 24, Rue Micheli-du-Crest, 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Brountzos, E.N. [Attikon University Hospital, 2nd Radiology Department, University of Athens, Rimini 1, 124 61 Athens (Greece); Lovblad, K. [Geneva University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology, 24, Rue Micheli-du-Crest, 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Ruefenacht, D. [Geneva University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology, 24, Rue Micheli-du-Crest, 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Martin, J.B. [Clinique Generale Beaulieu 12 chemin Beau Soleil 1206 Geneva (Switzerland)]. E-mail: jbmartin@beaulieu.ch

    2005-09-01

    Minimally invasive techniques for the treatment of some spinal diseases are percutaneous treatments, proposed before classic surgery. By using imaging guidance, one can significantly increase accuracy and decrease complication rates. This review report physiopathology and discusses indications, methods, complications and results of performing these techniques on the spine, including different level (cervical, thoracic, lumbar and sacroiliac) and different kind of treatments (nerve block, disc treatment and bone treatment). Finally the present article also reviews current literature on the controversial issues involved.

  9. Deficiency of the vestibular spine in atrioventricular septal defects in human fetuses with down syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, Nico A.; Ottenkamp, Jaap; Wenink, Arnold G. C.; Gittenberger-de Groot, Adriana C.

    2003-01-01

    Data on the morphogenesis of atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD) in Down syndrome are lacking to support molecular studies on Down syndrome heart critical region. Therefore, we studied the development of complete AVSD in human embryos and fetuses with trisomy 21 using 3-dimensional graphic

  10. Observer agreement in the reporting of knee and lumbar spine magnetic resonance (MR) imaging examinations: Selectively trained MR radiographers and consultant radiologists compared with an index radiologist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brealey, S., E-mail: stephen.brealey@york.ac.uk [Department of Health Sciences, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Piper, K., E-mail: keith.piper@canterbury.ac.uk [Department of Allied Health Professions, Canterbury Christ Church University, Canterbury, Kent CT1 1QU (United Kingdom); King, D., E-mail: david.g.king@york.nhs.uk [York Hospital, Wigginton Road, York YO31 8HE (United Kingdom); Bland, M., E-mail: martin.bland@york.ac.uk [Department of Health Sciences, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Caddick, J., E-mail: Julie.Caddick@york.nhs.uk [York Hospital, Wigginton Road, York YO31 8HE (United Kingdom); Campbell, P., E-mail: peter.campbell@york.nhs.uk [York Hospital, Wigginton Road, York YO31 8HE (United Kingdom); Gibbon, A., E-mail: anthony.j.gibbon@york.nhs.uk [York Hospital, Wigginton Road, York YO31 8HE (United Kingdom); Highland, A., E-mail: Adrian.Highland@sth.nhs.uk [Sheffield Teaching Hospitals, Herries Road, Sheffield S5 7AU (United Kingdom); Jenkins, N., E-mail: neil.jenkins@york.nhs.uk [York Hospital, Wigginton Road, York YO31 8HE (United Kingdom); Petty, D., E-mail: daniel.petty@york.nhs.uk [York Hospital, Wigginton Road, York YO31 8HE (United Kingdom); Warren, D., E-mail: david.warren@york.nhs.uk [York Hospital, Wigginton Road, York YO31 8HE (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-01

    Purpose: To assess agreement between trained radiographers and consultant radiologists compared with an index radiologist when reporting on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations of the knee and lumbar spine and to examine the subsequent effect of discordant reports on patient management and outcome. Methods: At York Hospital two MR radiographers, two consultant radiologists and an index radiologist reported on a prospective, random sample of 326 MRI examinations. The radiographers reported in clinical practice conditions and the radiologists during clinical practice. An independent consultant radiologist compared these reports with the index radiologist report for agreement. Orthopaedic surgeons then assessed whether the discordance between reports was clinically important. Results: Overall observer agreement with the index radiologist was comparable between observers and ranged from 54% to 58%; for the knee it was 46–57% and for the lumbar spine was 56–66%. There was a very small observed difference of 0.6% (95% CI −11.9 to 13.0) in mean agreement between the radiographers and radiologists (P = 0.860). For the knee, lumbar spine and overall, radiographers’ discordant reports, when compared with the index radiologist, were less likely to have a clinically important effect on patient outcome than the radiologists’ discordant reports. Less than 10% of observer's reports were sufficiently discordant with the index radiologist's reports to be clinically important. Conclusion: Carefully selected MR radiographers with postgraduate education and training reported in clinical practice conditions on specific MRI examinations of the knee and lumbar spine to a level of agreement comparable with non-musculoskeletal consultant radiologists.

  11. Observer agreement in the reporting of knee and lumbar spine magnetic resonance (MR) imaging examinations: Selectively trained MR radiographers and consultant radiologists compared with an index radiologist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brealey, S.; Piper, K.; King, D.; Bland, M.; Caddick, J.; Campbell, P.; Gibbon, A.; Highland, A.; Jenkins, N.; Petty, D.; Warren, D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To assess agreement between trained radiographers and consultant radiologists compared with an index radiologist when reporting on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations of the knee and lumbar spine and to examine the subsequent effect of discordant reports on patient management and outcome. Methods: At York Hospital two MR radiographers, two consultant radiologists and an index radiologist reported on a prospective, random sample of 326 MRI examinations. The radiographers reported in clinical practice conditions and the radiologists during clinical practice. An independent consultant radiologist compared these reports with the index radiologist report for agreement. Orthopaedic surgeons then assessed whether the discordance between reports was clinically important. Results: Overall observer agreement with the index radiologist was comparable between observers and ranged from 54% to 58%; for the knee it was 46–57% and for the lumbar spine was 56–66%. There was a very small observed difference of 0.6% (95% CI −11.9 to 13.0) in mean agreement between the radiographers and radiologists (P = 0.860). For the knee, lumbar spine and overall, radiographers’ discordant reports, when compared with the index radiologist, were less likely to have a clinically important effect on patient outcome than the radiologists’ discordant reports. Less than 10% of observer's reports were sufficiently discordant with the index radiologist's reports to be clinically important. Conclusion: Carefully selected MR radiographers with postgraduate education and training reported in clinical practice conditions on specific MRI examinations of the knee and lumbar spine to a level of agreement comparable with non-musculoskeletal consultant radiologists

  12. Intravascular photoacoustic imaging of human coronary atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Krista; van der Steen, Antonius F. W.; Springeling, Geert; van Beusekom, Heleen M. M.; Oosterhuis, J. Wolter; van Soest, Gijs

    2011-03-01

    We demonstrate intravascular photoacoustic imaging of human coronary atherosclerotic plaque. We specifically imaged lipid content, a key factor in vulnerable plaques that may lead to myocardial infarction. An integrated intravascular photoacoustics (IVPA) and ultrasound (IVUS) catheter with an outer diameter of 1.25 mm was developed. The catheter comprises an angle-polished optical fiber adjacent to a 30 MHz single-element transducer. The ultrasonic transducer was optically isolated to eliminate artifacts in the PA image. We performed measurements on a cylindrical vessel phantom and isolated point targets to demonstrate its imaging performance. Axial and lateral point spread function widths were 110 μm and 550 μm, respectively, for PA and 89 μm and 420 μm for US. We imaged two fresh human coronary arteries, showing different stages of disease, ex vivo. Specific photoacoustic imaging of lipid content, is achieved by spectroscopic imaging at different wavelengths between 1180 and 1230 nm.

  13. Humanity in God's Image: An Interdisciplinary Exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welz, Claudia

    . Claudia Welz offers an interdisciplinary exploration of theological and ethical 'visions' of the invisible. By analysing poetry and art, Welz exemplifies human self-understanding in the interface between the visual and the linguistic. The content of the imago Dei cannot be defined apart from the image......How can we, in our times, understand the biblical concept that human beings have been created in the image of an invisible God? This is a perennial but increasingly pressing question that lies at the heart of theological anthropology. Humanity in God's Image: An Interdisciplinary Exploration...

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging - first human images in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baddeley, H.; Doddrell, D.M.; Brooks, W.M.; Field, J.; Irving, M.; Williams, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    The use of magnetic resonance imaging, in the demonstration of internal human anatomy and in the diagnosis of disease, has the major advantages that the technique is non-invasive, does not require the use of ionizing radiation and that it can demonstrate neurological and cardiovascular lesions that cannot be diagnosed easily by other imaging methods. The first magnetic resonance images of humans were obtained in Australia in October 1985 on the research instrument of the Queensland Medical Magnetic Resonance Research Centre, which is based at the Mater Hospital in Brisbane

  15. Changes in Primary Care Health Care Utilization after Inclusion of Epidemiologic Data in Lumbar Spine MR Imaging Reports for Uncomplicated Low Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Jessica G; Andrew, Angeline S; Ring, Natalie Y; Pastel, David A

    2018-05-01

    Purpose To determine whether inclusion of an epidemiologic statement in radiology reports of lumbar magnetic resonance (MR) imaging influences downstream health care utilization in the primary care population. Materials and Methods Beginning July 1, 2013, a validated epidemiologic statement regarding prevalence of common findings in asymptomatic patients was included in all lumbar MR imaging reports at a tertiary academic medical center. Data were collected from July 1, 2012, through June 30, 2014, and retrospective analysis was completed in September 2016. The electronic medical record was reviewed to capture health care utilization rates in patients for 1 year after index MR imaging. Of 4527 eligible adult patients with low back pain referred for lumbar spine MR imaging during the study period, 375 patients had their studies ordered by in-network primary care providers, did not have findings other than degenerative disease, and had at least one follow-up encounter within the system within 1 year of index MR imaging. In the before-and-after study design, a pre-statement-implementation cohort was compared with a post-statement-implementation cohort by using univariate and multivariate statistical models to evaluate treatment utilization rates in these groups. Results Patients in the statement group were 12% less likely to be referred to a spine specialist (137 of 187 [73%] vs 159 of 188 [85%]; P = .007) and were 7% less likely to undergo repeat imaging (seven of 187 [4%] vs 20 of 188 [11%]; P = .01) compared with patients in the nonstatement group. The intervention was not associated with any change in narcotic prescription (53 of 188 [28%] vs 54 of 187 [29%]; P = .88) or with the rate of low back surgery (24 of 188 [13%] vs 16 of 187 [9%]; P = .19). Conclusion In this study, inclusion of a simple epidemiologic statement in lumbar MR imaging reports was associated with decreased utilization in high-cost domains of low back pain management. © RSNA, 2018.

  16. WE-AB-BRA-01: 3D-2D Image Registration for Target Localization in Spine Surgery: Comparison of Similarity Metrics Against Robustness to Content Mismatch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Silva, T; Ketcha, M; Siewerdsen, J H; Uneri, A; Reaungamornrat, S; Vogt, S; Kleinszig, G; Lo, S F; Wolinsky, J P; Gokaslan, Z L; Aygun, N

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In image-guided spine surgery, mapping 3D preoperative images to 2D intraoperative images via 3D-2D registration can provide valuable assistance in target localization. However, the presence of surgical instrumentation, hardware implants, and soft-tissue resection/displacement causes mismatches in image content, confounding existing registration methods. Manual/semi-automatic methods to mask such extraneous content is time consuming, user-dependent, error prone, and disruptive to clinical workflow. We developed and evaluated 2 novel similarity metrics within a robust registration framework to overcome such challenges in target localization. Methods: An IRB-approved retrospective study in 19 spine surgery patients included 19 preoperative 3D CT images and 50 intraoperative mobile radiographs in cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine regions. A neuroradiologist provided truth definition of vertebral positions in CT and radiography. 3D-2D registration was performed using the CMA-ES optimizer with 4 gradient-based image similarity metrics: (1) gradient information (GI); (2) gradient correlation (GC); (3) a novel variant referred to as gradient orientation (GO); and (4) a second variant referred to as truncated gradient correlation (TGC). Registration accuracy was evaluated in terms of the projection distance error (PDE) of the vertebral levels. Results: Conventional similarity metrics were susceptible to gross registration error and failure modes associated with the presence of surgical instrumentation: for GI, the median PDE and interquartile range was 33.0±43.6 mm; similarly for GC, PDE = 23.0±92.6 mm respectively. The robust metrics GO and TGC, on the other hand, demonstrated major improvement in PDE (7.6 ±9.4 mm and 8.1± 18.1 mm, respectively) and elimination of gross failure modes. Conclusion: The proposed GO and TGC similarity measures improve registration accuracy and robustness to gross failure in the presence of strong image content mismatch. Such

  17. WE-AB-BRA-01: 3D-2D Image Registration for Target Localization in Spine Surgery: Comparison of Similarity Metrics Against Robustness to Content Mismatch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Silva, T; Ketcha, M; Siewerdsen, J H [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Uneri, A; Reaungamornrat, S [Department of Computer Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Vogt, S; Kleinszig, G [Siemens Healthcare XP Division, Erlangen, DE (Germany); Lo, S F; Wolinsky, J P; Gokaslan, Z L [Department of Neurosurgery, The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD (United States); Aygun, N [Department of Raiology and Radiological Sciences, The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: In image-guided spine surgery, mapping 3D preoperative images to 2D intraoperative images via 3D-2D registration can provide valuable assistance in target localization. However, the presence of surgical instrumentation, hardware implants, and soft-tissue resection/displacement causes mismatches in image content, confounding existing registration methods. Manual/semi-automatic methods to mask such extraneous content is time consuming, user-dependent, error prone, and disruptive to clinical workflow. We developed and evaluated 2 novel similarity metrics within a robust registration framework to overcome such challenges in target localization. Methods: An IRB-approved retrospective study in 19 spine surgery patients included 19 preoperative 3D CT images and 50 intraoperative mobile radiographs in cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine regions. A neuroradiologist provided truth definition of vertebral positions in CT and radiography. 3D-2D registration was performed using the CMA-ES optimizer with 4 gradient-based image similarity metrics: (1) gradient information (GI); (2) gradient correlation (GC); (3) a novel variant referred to as gradient orientation (GO); and (4) a second variant referred to as truncated gradient correlation (TGC). Registration accuracy was evaluated in terms of the projection distance error (PDE) of the vertebral levels. Results: Conventional similarity metrics were susceptible to gross registration error and failure modes associated with the presence of surgical instrumentation: for GI, the median PDE and interquartile range was 33.0±43.6 mm; similarly for GC, PDE = 23.0±92.6 mm respectively. The robust metrics GO and TGC, on the other hand, demonstrated major improvement in PDE (7.6 ±9.4 mm and 8.1± 18.1 mm, respectively) and elimination of gross failure modes. Conclusion: The proposed GO and TGC similarity measures improve registration accuracy and robustness to gross failure in the presence of strong image content mismatch. Such

  18. NMR imaging of human atherosclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toussaint, J.F.

    1995-01-01

    Diagnosis and prognosis of atherosclerosis can no longer be evaluated with morphological parameters only. A description of atherosclerotic plaque composition is necessary to study the mechanisms of plaque rupture, which depends on collagenous cap and lipid core thicknesses. NMR, as a biochemical imaging technique, allows visualization of these components using T1 contrast (mobile lipids), T2 contrast (cap vs. core), spin density (calcifications), diffusion imaging, 1H and 13C spectroscopy. Today, these imaging sequences allow to study in vitro the effects of interventional techniques such as angioplasty or atherectomy. Clinical investigations begin, which will attempt to develop in vivo microscopy and test the ability of NMR to predict plaque rupture. (author). 13 refs., 7 figs

  19. 3D-modeling of the spine using EOS imaging system: Inter-reader reproducibility and reliability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Rehm

    Full Text Available To retrospectively assess the interreader reproducibility and reliability of EOS 3D full spine reconstructions in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS.73 patients with mean age of 17 years and a moderate AIS (median Cobb Angle 18.2° obtained low-dose standing biplanar radiographs with EOS. Two independent readers performed "full spine" 3D reconstructions of the spine with the "full-spine" method adjusting the bone contour of every thoracic and lumbar vertebra (Th1-L5. Interreader reproducibility was assessed regarding rotation of every single vertebra in the coronal (i.e. frontal, sagittal (i.e. lateral, and axial plane, T1/T12 kyphosis, T4/T12 kyphosis, L1/L5 lordosis, L1/S1 lordosis and pelvic parameters. Radiation exposure, scan-time and 3D reconstruction time were recorded.Interclass correlation (ICC ranged between 0.83 and 0.98 for frontal vertebral rotation, between 0.94 and 0.99 for lateral vertebral rotation and between 0.51 and 0.88 for axial vertebral rotation. ICC was 0.92 for T1/T12 kyphosis, 0.95 for T4/T12 kyphosis, 0.90 for L1/L5 lordosis, 0.85 for L1/S1 lordosis, 0.97 for pelvic incidence, 0.96 for sacral slope, 0.98 for sagittal pelvic tilt and 0.94 for lateral pelvic tilt. The mean time for reconstruction was 14.9 minutes (reader 1: 14.6 minutes, reader 2: 15.2 minutes, p<0.0001. The mean total absorbed dose was 593.4μGy ±212.3 per patient.EOS "full spine" 3D angle measurement of vertebral rotation proved to be reliable and was performed in an acceptable reconstruction time. Interreader reproducibility of axial rotation was limited to some degree in the upper and middle thoracic spine due the obtuse angulation of the pedicles and the processi spinosi in the frontal view somewhat complicating their delineation.

  20. Fast STIR (Short TI Inversion Recovery) imaging of the spine. The assessment of the role for the depiction of intramedullary spinal cord lesions and the usefulness of the additional transverse images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumura, Ryosuke; Kan, Tomoko; Hirose, Tomohiro; Hara, Tadashi; Shibata, Toyomichi; Ueno, Makoto; Takagi, Takehisa; Kohno, Shigene

    2002-01-01

    It is known that the fast STIR images of the spine achieve more excellent lesion contrast than the usual fast spin echo (FSE) T2-weighted images, because the elongation of T1 and T2 relaxation time of the lesion additively contribute to the contrast. The fast STIR images showed advantages in the depiction of acute and chronic lesion of multiple sclerosis and tolerable disadvantages in the depiction of other lesions, such as spondylotic myelopathy or syringomyelia. Transverse images showed less usefulness than sagittal images except for their superior gray-to-white matter contrast. Fast STIR imaging can replace FSE T2-weighted imaging in the study of restricted patients' population. (author)

  1. Investigation of suspected Guillain-Barre syndrome in childhood: what is the role for gadolinium enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the spine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nicholas; Pereira, John; Grattan-Smith, Padraic

    2014-10-01

    To review the role of gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the spine in the diagnosis of paediatric Guillain-Barre syndrome and compare it with nerve conduction studies and cerebrospinal fluid analysis. A retrospective review of investigations undertaken in children admitted to our institution with acute Guillain-Barre syndrome over a 10-year period was performed. Seven of eight children (88%) displayed post-gadolinium nerve root enhancement consistent with Guillain-Barre syndrome. This compared with supportive nerve conduction studies in 21/24 children (88%) and cerebrospinal fluid protein analysis consistent with the diagnosis in 16/20 children (80%). Nerve conduction studies are the recognised 'gold standard' technique for confirming a clinical diagnosis of Guillain-Barre syndrome. In this study, a high positive rate was demonstrated. While more experience is necessary, this study and the literature support gadolinium enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the spine as a valuable, although not necessarily superior, investigation in the diagnosis of Guillain-Barre syndrome. It may be of particular benefit when specialist neurophysiology expertise is unavailable. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  2. Dose, image quality and spine modeling assessment of biplanar EOS micro-dose radiographs for the follow-up of in-brace adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Baptiste; Moueddeb, Sonia; Blondiaux, Eleonore; Richard, Stephen; Bachy, Manon; Vialle, Raphael; Ducou Le Pointe, Hubert

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the radiation dose, image quality and 3D spine parameter measurements of EOS low-dose and micro-dose protocols for in-brace adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients. We prospectively included 25 consecutive patients (20 females, 5 males) followed for AIS and undergoing brace treatment. The mean age was 12 years (SD 2 years, range 8-15 years). For each patient, in-brace biplanar EOS radiographs were acquired in a standing position using both the conventional low-dose and micro-dose protocols. Dose area product (DAP) was systematically recorded. Diagnostic image quality was qualitatively assessed by two radiologists for visibility of anatomical structures. The reliability of 3D spine modeling between two operators was quantitatively evaluated for the most clinically relevant 3D radiological parameters using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The mean DAP for the posteroanterior and lateral acquisitions was 300 ± 134 and 433 ± 181 mGy cm 2 for the low-dose radiographs, and 41 ± 19 and 81 ± 39 mGy cm 2 for micro-dose radiographs. Image quality was lower with the micro-dose protocol. The agreement was "good" to "very good" for all measured clinical parameters when comparing the low-dose and micro-dose protocols (ICC > 0.73). The micro-dose protocol substantially reduced the delivered dose (by a factor of 5-7 compared to the low-dose protocol) in braced children with AIS. Although image quality was reduced, the micro-dose protocol proved to be adapted to radiological follow-up, with adequate image quality and reliable clinical measurements. These slides can be retrieved under Electronic Supplementary Material.

  3. Comparison of Natural Language Processing Rules-based and Machine-learning Systems to Identify Lumbar Spine Imaging Findings Related to Low Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, W Katherine; Hassanpour, Saeed; Heagerty, Patrick J; Rundell, Sean D; Suri, Pradeep; Huhdanpaa, Hannu T; James, Kathryn; Carrell, David S; Langlotz, Curtis P; Organ, Nancy L; Meier, Eric N; Sherman, Karen J; Kallmes, David F; Luetmer, Patrick H; Griffith, Brent; Nerenz, David R; Jarvik, Jeffrey G

    2018-03-28

    To evaluate a natural language processing (NLP) system built with open-source tools for identification of lumbar spine imaging findings related to low back pain on magnetic resonance and x-ray radiology reports from four health systems. We used a limited data set (de-identified except for dates) sampled from lumbar spine imaging reports of a prospectively assembled cohort of adults. From N = 178,333 reports, we randomly selected N = 871 to form a reference-standard dataset, consisting of N = 413 x-ray reports and N = 458 MR reports. Using standardized criteria, four spine experts annotated the presence of 26 findings, where 71 reports were annotated by all four experts and 800 were each annotated by two experts. We calculated inter-rater agreement and finding prevalence from annotated data. We randomly split the annotated data into development (80%) and testing (20%) sets. We developed an NLP system from both rule-based and machine-learned models. We validated the system using accuracy metrics such as sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). The multirater annotated dataset achieved inter-rater agreement of Cohen's kappa > 0.60 (substantial agreement) for 25 of 26 findings, with finding prevalence ranging from 3% to 89%. In the testing sample, rule-based and machine-learned predictions both had comparable average specificity (0.97 and 0.95, respectively). The machine-learned approach had a higher average sensitivity (0.94, compared to 0.83 for rules-based), and a higher overall AUC (0.98, compared to 0.90 for rules-based). Our NLP system performed well in identifying the 26 lumbar spine findings, as benchmarked by reference-standard annotation by medical experts. Machine-learned models provided substantial gains in model sensitivity with slight loss of specificity, and overall higher AUC. Copyright © 2018 The Association of University Radiologists. All rights reserved.

  4. Integrating Patient-Reported Outcomes into Spine Surgical Care through Visual Dashboards: Lessons Learned from Human-Centered Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartzler, Andrea L; Chaudhuri, Shomir; Fey, Brett C; Flum, David R; Lavallee, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    The collection of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) draws attention to issues of importance to patients-physical function and quality of life. The integration of PRO data into clinical decisions and discussions with patients requires thoughtful design of user-friendly interfaces that consider user experience and present data in personalized ways to enhance patient care. Whereas most prior work on PROs focuses on capturing data from patients, little research details how to design effective user interfaces that facilitate use of this data in clinical practice. We share lessons learned from engaging health care professionals to inform design of visual dashboards, an emerging type of health information technology (HIT). We employed human-centered design (HCD) methods to create visual displays of PROs to support patient care and quality improvement. HCD aims to optimize the design of interactive systems through iterative input from representative users who are likely to use the system in the future. Through three major steps, we engaged health care professionals in targeted, iterative design activities to inform the development of a PRO Dashboard that visually displays patient-reported pain and disability outcomes following spine surgery. Design activities to engage health care administrators, providers, and staff guided our work from design concept to specifications for dashboard implementation. Stakeholder feedback from these health care professionals shaped user interface design features, including predefined overviews that illustrate at-a-glance trends and quarterly snapshots, granular data filters that enable users to dive into detailed PRO analytics, and user-defined views to share and reuse. Feedback also revealed important considerations for quality indicators and privacy-preserving sharing and use of PROs. Our work illustrates a range of engagement methods guided by human-centered principles and design recommendations for optimizing PRO Dashboards for patient

  5. Integrating Patient-Reported Outcomes into Spine Surgical Care through Visual Dashboards: Lessons Learned from Human-Centered Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartzler, Andrea L.; Chaudhuri, Shomir; Fey, Brett C.; Flum, David R.; Lavallee, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The collection of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) draws attention to issues of importance to patients—physical function and quality of life. The integration of PRO data into clinical decisions and discussions with patients requires thoughtful design of user-friendly interfaces that consider user experience and present data in personalized ways to enhance patient care. Whereas most prior work on PROs focuses on capturing data from patients, little research details how to design effective user interfaces that facilitate use of this data in clinical practice. We share lessons learned from engaging health care professionals to inform design of visual dashboards, an emerging type of health information technology (HIT). Methods: We employed human-centered design (HCD) methods to create visual displays of PROs to support patient care and quality improvement. HCD aims to optimize the design of interactive systems through iterative input from representative users who are likely to use the system in the future. Through three major steps, we engaged health care professionals in targeted, iterative design activities to inform the development of a PRO Dashboard that visually displays patient-reported pain and disability outcomes following spine surgery. Findings: Design activities to engage health care administrators, providers, and staff guided our work from design concept to specifications for dashboard implementation. Stakeholder feedback from these health care professionals shaped user interface design features, including predefined overviews that illustrate at-a-glance trends and quarterly snapshots, granular data filters that enable users to dive into detailed PRO analytics, and user-defined views to share and reuse. Feedback also revealed important considerations for quality indicators and privacy-preserving sharing and use of PROs. Conclusion: Our work illustrates a range of engagement methods guided by human-centered principles and design

  6. Prevalence of degenerative and spondyloarthritis-related magnetic resonance imaging findings in the spine and sacroiliac joints in patients with persistent low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnbak, Bodil; Jensen, Tue S; Egund, Niels; Zejden, Anna; Hørslev-Petersen, Kim; Manniche, Claus; Jurik, Anne G

    2016-04-01

    To estimate the prevalence of degenerative and spondyloarthritis (SpA)-related magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in the spine and sacroiliac joints (SIJs) and analyse their association with gender and age in persistent low back pain (LBP) patients. Degenerative and SpA-related MRI findings in the whole spine and SIJs were evaluated in Spine Centre patients aged 18-40 years with LBP. Among the 1,037 patients, the prevalence of disc degeneration, disc contour changes and vertebral endplate signal (Modic) changes were 87 % (±SEM 1.1), 82 % (±1.2) and 48 % (±1.6). All degenerative spinal findings were most frequent in men and patients aged 30-40 years. Spinal SpA-related MRI findings were rare. In the SIJs, 28 % (±1.4) had at least one MRI finding, with bone marrow oedema being the most common (21 % (±1.3)). SIJ erosions were most prevalent in patients aged 18-29 years and bone marrow oedema in patients aged 30-40 years. SIJ sclerosis and fatty marrow deposition were most common in women. SIJ bone marrow oedema, sclerosis and erosions were most frequent in women indicating pregnancy-related LBP. The high prevalence of SIJ MRI findings associated with age, gender, and pregnancy-related LBP need further investigation of their clinical importance in LBP patients. • The location of vertebral endplate signal changes supports a mechanical aetiology. • Several sacroiliac joint findings were associated with female gender and pregnancy-related back pain. • Sacroiliac joint bone marrow oedema was frequent and age-associated, indicating a possible degenerative aetiology. • More knowledge of the clinical importance of sacroiliac joint MRI findings is needed.

  7. Improved fat-suppression homogeneity with mDIXON turbo spin echo (TSE) in pediatric spine imaging at 3.0 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorney, Amber L; Chia, Jonathan M; Pfeifer, Cory M; Miller, Jeffrey H; Hu, Houchun H

    2017-11-01

    Background Robust fat suppression remains essential in clinical MRI to improve tissue signal contrast, minimize fat-related artifacts, and enhance image quality. Purpose To compare fat suppression between mDIXON turbo spin echo (TSE) and conventional frequency-selective and inversion-recovery methods in pediatric spine MRI. Material and Methods Images from T1-weighted (T1W) and T2-weighted (T2W) TSE sequences coupled with conventional methods and the mDIXON technique were compared in 36 patients (5.8 ± 5.4 years) at 3.0 T. Images from 42 pairs of T1W (n = 16) and T2W (n = 26) scans were acquired. Two radiologists reviewed the data and rated images using a three-point scale in two categories, including the uniformity of fat suppression and overall diagnostic image quality. The Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to compare the scores. Results The Cohen's kappa coefficient for inter-rater agreement was 0.69 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.56-0.83). Images from mDIXON TSE were considered superior in fat suppression ( P 3.0 T and should be considered as a permanent replacement of traditional methods, in particular frequency-selective techniques.

  8. Pott's Spine with Bilateral Psoas Abscesses

    OpenAIRE

    Masavkar, Sanjeevani; Shanbag, Preeti; Inamdar, Prithi

    2012-01-01

    A high degree of suspicion and appropriate imaging studies are required for the early diagnosis of Pott's spine. We describe a 4-year-old boy with Pott's disease of the lumbar spine with bilateral psoas abscesses. The child responded to conservative treatment with antituberculous treatment and ultrasonographically guided percutaneous drainage of the abscesses.

  9. Average Gait Differential Image Based Human Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyan Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The difference between adjacent frames of human walking contains useful information for human gait identification. Based on the previous idea a silhouettes difference based human gait recognition method named as average gait differential image (AGDI is proposed in this paper. The AGDI is generated by the accumulation of the silhouettes difference between adjacent frames. The advantage of this method lies in that as a feature image it can preserve both the kinetic and static information of walking. Comparing to gait energy image (GEI, AGDI is more fit to representation the variation of silhouettes during walking. Two-dimensional principal component analysis (2DPCA is used to extract features from the AGDI. Experiments on CASIA dataset show that AGDI has better identification and verification performance than GEI. Comparing to PCA, 2DPCA is a more efficient and less memory storage consumption feature extraction method in gait based recognition.

  10. Effectiveness of a Rapid Lumbar Spine MRI Protocol Using 3D T2-Weighted SPACE Imaging Versus a Standard Protocol for Evaluation of Degenerative Changes of the Lumbar Spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayah, Anousheh; Jay, Ann K; Toaff, Jacob S; Makariou, Erini V; Berkowitz, Frank

    2016-09-01

    Reducing lumbar spine MRI scanning time while retaining diagnostic accuracy can benefit patients and reduce health care costs. This study compares the effectiveness of a rapid lumbar MRI protocol using 3D T2-weighted sampling perfection with application-optimized contrast with different flip-angle evolutions (SPACE) sequences with a standard MRI protocol for evaluation of lumbar spondylosis. Two hundred fifty consecutive unenhanced lumbar MRI examinations performed at 1.5 T were retrospectively reviewed. Full, rapid, and complete versions of each examination were interpreted for spondylotic changes at each lumbar level, including herniations and neural compromise. The full examination consisted of sagittal T1-weighted, T2-weighted turbo spin-echo (TSE), and STIR sequences; and axial T1- and T2-weighted TSE sequences (time, 18 minutes 40 seconds). The rapid examination consisted of sagittal T1- and T2-weighted SPACE sequences, with axial SPACE reformations (time, 8 minutes 46 seconds). The complete examination consisted of the full examination plus the T2-weighted SPACE sequence. Sensitivities and specificities of the full and rapid examinations were calculated using the complete study as the reference standard. The rapid and full studies had sensitivities of 76.0% and 69.3%, with specificities of 97.2% and 97.9%, respectively, for all degenerative processes. Rapid and full sensitivities were 68.7% and 66.3% for disk herniation, 85.2% and 81.5% for canal compromise, 82.9% and 69.1% for lateral recess compromise, and 76.9% and 69.7% for foraminal compromise, respectively. Isotropic SPACE T2-weighted imaging provides high-quality imaging of lumbar spondylosis, with multiplanar reformatting capability. Our SPACE-based rapid protocol had sensitivities and specificities for herniations and neural compromise comparable to those of the protocol without SPACE. This protocol fits within a 15-minute slot, potentially reducing costs and discomfort for a large subgroup of

  11. In vivo imaging of human biochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, L.D.

    1983-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is an extremely powerful method for studying aspects of the biochemistry of defined regions of the human body, literally 'in-vivo' biochemistry. To place this technique in the broader perspective of medical diagnostic methods an introduction is given to some of the more important imaging methods which are already widely used clinically. A brief summary of the most recently developed imaging method, which is based on Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy, is also included

  12. Multiplanar CT of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothman, S.L.G.; Glenn, W.V. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    This is an illustrated text on computed tomography (CT) of the lumbar spine with an emphasis on the role and value of multiplanar imaging for helping determine diagnoses. The book has adequate discussion of scanning techniques for the different regions, interpretations of various abnormalities, degenerative disk disease, and different diagnoses. There is a 50-page chapter on detailed sectional anatomy of the spine and useful chapters on the postoperative spine and the planning and performing of spinal surgery with CT multiplanar reconstruction. There are comprehensive chapters on spinal tumors and trauma. The final two chapters of the book are devoted to CT image processing using digital networks and CT applications of medical computer graphics

  13. Connectome imaging for mapping human brain pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Y; Toga, A W

    2017-09-01

    With the fast advance of connectome imaging techniques, we have the opportunity of mapping the human brain pathways in vivo at unprecedented resolution. In this article we review the current developments of diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the reconstruction of anatomical pathways in connectome studies. We first introduce the background of diffusion MRI with an emphasis on the technical advances and challenges in state-of-the-art multi-shell acquisition schemes used in the Human Connectome Project. Characterization of the microstructural environment in the human brain is discussed from the tensor model to the general fiber orientation distribution (FOD) models that can resolve crossing fibers in each voxel of the image. Using FOD-based tractography, we describe novel methods for fiber bundle reconstruction and graph-based connectivity analysis. Building upon these novel developments, there have already been successful applications of connectome imaging techniques in reconstructing challenging brain pathways. Examples including retinofugal and brainstem pathways will be reviewed. Finally, we discuss future directions in connectome imaging and its interaction with other aspects of brain imaging research.

  14. Ultrasonic imaging of lumbar discs combined with vibration pain provocation compared with discography in the diagnosis of internal anular fissures of the lumbar spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yrjämä, M; Tervonen, O; Vanharanta, H

    1996-03-01

    The diagnostic information achieved by a combination of ultrasonographic imaging of discs and local bony vibration of lumbar vertebrae was compared to that obtained by discographic imaging and pain provocation. The purpose of this study was to find a noninvasive method for spine diagnostics to replace expensive and invasive methods such as discography. Internal anular fissures of the lumbar discs have been shown to be a source of back pain. Intradiscal changes associated with disc degeneration can be imaged by ultrasonography. The bony vibration test of spinal processes has shown to correlate well with discographic pain provocation tests in cases of internal anular ruptures. Discographic examination of the spine is the only widely accepted diagnostic method that combines pathoanatomic changes and patients' pain. Patients with back pain in this study were examined by means of ultrasonography, bony vibration stimulation, and discography. The three lowest lumbar discs were examined. In the cases of intradiscal ultrasound findings, the vibration provocation test showed a sensitivity of 0.90 and a specificity of 0.75 compared to the discographic pain provocation test. In cases of total anular ruptures seen in ultrasound examination, the sensitivity and the specificity of the vibration pain provocation test were much lower, being 0.50 and 0.50, respectively. The combination of the two noninvasive methods provides a useful screening test for the evaluation of low back pain. The combination test can accurately depict painful disc degeneration with internal disc rupture and the use of discography can be limited to the cases suggesting total anular rupture in ultrasound examination.

  15. MR chemical shift imaging of human atheroma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohiaddin, R.H.; Underwood, R.; Firmin, D.; Abdulla, A.K.; Rees, S.; Longmore, D.

    1988-01-01

    The lipid content of atheromatous plaques has been measured with chemical shift MR imaging by taking advantage of the different resonance frequencies of protons in lipid and water. Fifteen postmortem aortic specimens of the human descending aorta and the aortae of seven patients with documented peripheral vascular disease were studied at 0.5 T. Spin-echo images were used to localize the lesions before acquisition of the chemical shift images. The specimens were examined histologically, and the lipid distribution in the plaque showed good correlation with the chemical shift data. Validation in vivo and clinical applications remain to be established

  16. Biologics in spine arthrodesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Abhishek; Dodwad, Shah-Nawaz M; Hsu, Wellington K

    2015-06-01

    Spine fusion is a tool used in the treatment of spine trauma, tumors, and degenerative disorders. Poor outcomes related to failure of fusion, however, have directed the interests of practitioners and scientists to spinal biologics that may impact fusion at the cellular level. These biologics are used to achieve successful arthrodesis in the treatment of symptomatic deformity or instability. Historically, autologous bone grafting, including iliac crest bong graft harvesting, had represented the gold standard in spinal arthrodesis. However, due to concerns over potential harvest site complications, supply limitations, and associated morbidity, surgeons have turned to other bone graft options known for their osteogenic, osteoinductive, and/or osteoconductive properties. Current bone graft selection includes autograft, allograft, demineralized bone matrix, ceramics, mesenchymal stem cells, and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein. Each pose their respective advantages and disadvantages and are the focus of ongoing research investigating the safety and efficacy of their use in the setting of spinal fusion. Rh-BMP2 has been plagued by issues of widespread off-label use, controversial indications, and a wide range of adverse effects. The risks associated with high concentrations of exogenous growth factors have led to investigational efforts into nanotechnology and its application in spinal arthrodesis through the binding of endogenous growth factors. Bone graft selection remains critical to successful fusion and favorable patient outcomes, and orthopaedic surgeons must be educated on the utility and limitations of various biologics in the setting of spine arthrodesis.

  17. Experimental evaluation of the stability of goat's cervical spine after percutaneous cervical diskectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Zhongli; Zhou Yicheng; Wang Chengyuan; Hong Cheng; Liu Hanqiao; Zhang Jiangfan; Ding Hui; Feng Dingyi

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the stability of the goat's cervical spine after PCD (percutaneous cervical diskectomy). Methods: Ten adult goats were studied. Seven had PCD at C 3-4 , and three at C 4-5 . The cervical spine of the goat was studied with MR using axial, corona land sagittal images and with anteroposterior and lateral radiographs before and after PCD. The height of the disk, the disk space angle and dislocation were measured respectively before and after PCD. The data were examined by t-test. Results: The disk space (7 cases, 70%) became narrow obviously, and hyperostosis (5 cases, 50%) disk bulging (4 cases, 40%) appeared after PCD, but there was no obvious dislocation or angulation between the adjacent vertebral bodies. Conclusions: The stability of the goat's cervical spine is not affected after PCD. Indicating that this might also hold true for human cervical spine

  18. Spine Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy Utilizing Cone-Beam CT Image-Guidance With a Robotic Couch: Intrafraction Motion Analysis Accounting for all Six Degrees of Freedom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyde, Derek [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Ontario (Canada); British Columbia Cancer Agency, The Sindi Hawkins Cancer Centre for the Southern Interior, Kelowna (Canada); Lochray, Fiona; Korol, Renee; Davidson, Melanie; Wong, C. Shun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Ma, Lijun [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Sahgal, Arjun, E-mail: Arjun.sahgal@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the residual setup error and intrafraction motion following kilovoltage cone-beam CT (CBCT) image guidance, for immobilized spine stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) patients, with positioning corrected for in all six degrees of freedom. Methods and Materials: Analysis is based on 42 consecutive patients (48 thoracic and/or lumbar metastases) treated with a total of 106 fractions and 307 image registrations. Following initial setup, a CBCT was acquired for patient alignment and a pretreatment CBCT taken to verify shifts and determine the residual setup error, followed by a midtreatment and posttreatment CBCT image. For 13 single-fraction SBRT patients, two midtreatment CBCT images were obtained. Initially, a 1.5-mm and 1 Degree-Sign tolerance was used to reposition the patient following couch shifts which was subsequently reduced to 1 mm and 1 Degree-Sign degree after the first 10 patients. Results: Small positioning errors after the initial CBCT setup were observed, with 90% occurring within 1 mm and 97% within 1 Degree-Sign . In analyzing the impact of the time interval for verification imaging (10 {+-} 3 min) and subsequent image acquisitions (17 {+-} 4 min), the residual setup error was not significantly different (p > 0.05). A significant difference (p = 0.04) in the average three-dimensional intrafraction positional deviations favoring a more strict tolerance in translation (1 mm vs. 1.5 mm) was observed. The absolute intrafraction motion averaged over all patients and all directions along x, y, and z axis ({+-} SD) were 0.7 {+-} 0.5 mm and 0.5 {+-} 0.4 mm for the 1.5 mm and 1 mm tolerance, respectively. Based on a 1-mm and 1 Degree-Sign correction threshold, the target was localized to within 1.2 mm and 0.9 Degree-Sign with 95% confidence. Conclusion: Near-rigid body immobilization, intrafraction CBCT imaging approximately every 15-20 min, and strict repositioning thresholds in six degrees of freedom yields minimal intrafraction motion

  19. Radiology of the cervical spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wackenheim, A.

    1989-01-01

    The author describes some particularities seen in the abnormal or pathological image of the cervical spine: The osteolysis of the cortical bone in the spinous processes, the 'Y' shaped course of the corporeal veins, the notch in interspinous bursitis, and the main forms of constitutional stenosis of the cervical canal. (orig.) [de

  20. Human gene therapy and imaging: cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Joseph C.; Yla-Herttuala, Seppo

    2005-01-01

    This review discusses the basics of cardiovascular gene therapy, the results of recent human clinical trials, and the rapid progress in imaging techniques in cardiology. Improved understanding of the molecular and genetic basis of coronary heart disease has made gene therapy a potential new alternative for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Experimental studies have established the proof-of-principle that gene transfer to the cardiovascular system can achieve therapeutic effects. First human clinical trials provided initial evidence of feasibility and safety of cardiovascular gene therapy. However, phase II/III clinical trials have so far been rather disappointing and one of the major problems in cardiovascular gene therapy has been the inability to verify gene expression in the target tissue. New imaging techniques could significantly contribute to the development of better gene therapeutic approaches. Although the exact choice of imaging modality will depend on the biological question asked, further improvement in image resolution and detection sensitivity will be needed for all modalities as we move from imaging of organs and tissues to imaging of cells and genes. (orig.)

  1. 3D–2D image registration for target localization in spine surgery: investigation of similarity metrics providing robustness to content mismatch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Silva, T; Ketcha, M D; Siewerdsen, J H; Uneri, A; Reaungamornrat, S; Kleinszig, G; Vogt, S; Aygun, N; Lo, S-F; Wolinsky, J-P

    2016-01-01

    In image-guided spine surgery, robust three-dimensional to two-dimensional (3D–2D) registration of preoperative computed tomography (CT) and intraoperative radiographs can be challenged by the image content mismatch associated with the presence of surgical instrumentation and implants as well as soft-tissue resection or deformation. This work investigates image similarity metrics in 3D–2D registration offering improved robustness against mismatch, thereby improving performance and reducing or eliminating the need for manual masking. The performance of four gradient-based image similarity metrics (gradient information (GI), gradient correlation (GC), gradient information with linear scaling (GS), and gradient orientation (GO)) with a multi-start optimization strategy was evaluated in an institutional review board-approved retrospective clinical study using 51 preoperative CT images and 115 intraoperative mobile radiographs. Registrations were tested with and without polygonal masks as a function of the number of multistarts employed during optimization. Registration accuracy was evaluated in terms of the projection distance error (PDE) and assessment of failure modes (PDE  >  30 mm) that could impede reliable vertebral level localization. With manual polygonal masking and 200 multistarts, the GC and GO metrics exhibited robust performance with 0% gross failures and median PDE  <  6.4 mm (±4.4 mm interquartile range (IQR)) and a median runtime of 84 s (plus upwards of 1–2 min for manual masking). Excluding manual polygonal masks and decreasing the number of multistarts to 50 caused the GC-based registration to fail at a rate of  >14%; however, GO maintained robustness with a 0% gross failure rate. Overall, the GI, GC, and GS metrics were susceptible to registration errors associated with content mismatch, but GO provided robust registration (median PDE  =  5.5 mm, 2.6 mm IQR) without manual masking and with an improved

  2. 3D-2D image registration for target localization in spine surgery: investigation of similarity metrics providing robustness to content mismatch

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Silva, T.; Uneri, A.; Ketcha, M. D.; Reaungamornrat, S.; Kleinszig, G.; Vogt, S.; Aygun, N.; Lo, S.-F.; Wolinsky, J.-P.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2016-04-01

    In image-guided spine surgery, robust three-dimensional to two-dimensional (3D-2D) registration of preoperative computed tomography (CT) and intraoperative radiographs can be challenged by the image content mismatch associated with the presence of surgical instrumentation and implants as well as soft-tissue resection or deformation. This work investigates image similarity metrics in 3D-2D registration offering improved robustness against mismatch, thereby improving performance and reducing or eliminating the need for manual masking. The performance of four gradient-based image similarity metrics (gradient information (GI), gradient correlation (GC), gradient information with linear scaling (GS), and gradient orientation (GO)) with a multi-start optimization strategy was evaluated in an institutional review board-approved retrospective clinical study using 51 preoperative CT images and 115 intraoperative mobile radiographs. Registrations were tested with and without polygonal masks as a function of the number of multistarts employed during optimization. Registration accuracy was evaluated in terms of the projection distance error (PDE) and assessment of failure modes (PDE  >  30 mm) that could impede reliable vertebral level localization. With manual polygonal masking and 200 multistarts, the GC and GO metrics exhibited robust performance with 0% gross failures and median PDE  interquartile range (IQR)) and a median runtime of 84 s (plus upwards of 1-2 min for manual masking). Excluding manual polygonal masks and decreasing the number of multistarts to 50 caused the GC-based registration to fail at a rate of  >14% however, GO maintained robustness with a 0% gross failure rate. Overall, the GI, GC, and GS metrics were susceptible to registration errors associated with content mismatch, but GO provided robust registration (median PDE  =  5.5 mm, 2.6 mm IQR) without manual masking and with an improved runtime (29.3 s). The GO metric

  3. Exploring the Potential of Generative Adversarial Networks for Synthesizing Radiological Images of the Spine to be Used in In Silico Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Galbusera

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In silico trials recently emerged as a disruptive technology, which may reduce the costs related to the development and marketing approval of novel medical technologies, as well as shortening their time-to-market. In these trials, virtual patients are recruited from a large database and their response to the therapy, such as the implantation of a medical device, is simulated by means of numerical models. In this work, we propose the use of generative adversarial networks to produce synthetic radiological images to be used in in silico trials. The generative models produced credible synthetic sagittal X-rays of the lumbar spine based on a simple sketch, and were able to generate sagittal radiological images of the trunk using coronal projections as inputs, and vice versa. Although numerous inaccuracies in the anatomical details may still allow distinguishing synthetic and real images in the majority of cases, the present work showed that generative models are a feasible solution for creating synthetic imaging data to be used in in silico trials of novel medical devices.

  4. Degenerative disorders of the spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallucci, Massimo; Puglielli, Edoardo; Splendiani, Alessandra [University of L' Aquila, Department of Radiology, L' Aquila (Italy); Pistoia, Francesca; Spacca, Giorgio [S. Salvatore Hospital, Department of Neuroscience, L' Aquila (Italy)

    2005-03-01

    Patients with back pain and degenerative disorders of the spine have a significant impact on health care costs. Some authors estimate that up to 80% of all adults experience back pain at some point in their lives. Disk herniation represents one of the most frequent causes. Nevertheless, other degenerative diseases have to be considered. In this paper, pathology and imaging of degenerative spine diseases will be discussed, starting from pathophysiology of normal age-related changes of the intervertebral disk and vertebral body. (orig.)

  5. Degenerative disorders of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallucci, Massimo; Puglielli, Edoardo; Splendiani, Alessandra; Pistoia, Francesca; Spacca, Giorgio

    2005-01-01

    Patients with back pain and degenerative disorders of the spine have a significant impact on health care costs. Some authors estimate that up to 80% of all adults experience back pain at some point in their lives. Disk herniation represents one of the most frequent causes. Nevertheless, other degenerative diseases have to be considered. In this paper, pathology and imaging of degenerative spine diseases will be discussed, starting from pathophysiology of normal age-related changes of the intervertebral disk and vertebral body. (orig.)

  6. Thresholding magnetic resonance images of human brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-mao HU; Wieslaw L NOWINSKI

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, methods are proposed and validated to determine low and high thresholds to segment out gray matter and white matter for MR images of different pulse sequences of human brain. First, a two-dimensional reference image is determined to represent the intensity characteristics of the original three-dimensional data. Then a region of interest of the reference image is determined where brain tissues are present. The non-supervised fuzzy c-means clustering is employed to determine: the threshold for obtaining head mask, the low threshold for T2-weighted and PD-weighted images, and the high threshold for T1-weighted, SPGR and FLAIR images. Supervised range-constrained thresholding is employed to determine the low threshold for T1-weighted, SPGR and FLAIR images. Thresholding based on pairs of boundary pixels is proposed to determine the high threshold for T2- and PD-weighted images. Quantification against public data sets with various noise and inhomogeneity levels shows that the proposed methods can yield segmentation robust to noise and intensity inhomogeneity. Qualitatively the proposed methods work well with real clinical data.

  7. Reduction of artifacts caused by orthopedic hardware in the spine in spectral detector CT examinations using virtual monoenergetic image reconstructions and metal-artifact-reduction algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosse Hokamp, Nils; Neuhaus, V.; Abdullayev, N.; Laukamp, K.; Lennartz, S.; Mpotsaris, A.; Borggrefe, J. [University Hospital Cologne, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Cologne (Germany)

    2018-02-15

    Aim of this study was to assess the artifact reduction in patients with orthopedic hardware in the spine as provided by (1) metal-artifact-reduction algorithms (O-MAR) and (2) virtual monoenergetic images (MonoE) as provided by spectral detector CT (SDCT) compared to conventional iterative reconstruction (CI). In all, 28 consecutive patients with orthopedic hardware in the spine who underwent SDCT-examinations were included. CI, O-MAR and MonoE (40-200 keV) images were reconstructed. Attenuation (HU) and noise (SD) were measured in order to calculate signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of paravertebral muscle and spinal canal. Subjective image quality was assessed by two radiologists in terms of image quality and extent of artifact reduction. O-MAR and high-keV MonoE showed significant decrease of hypodense artifacts in terms of higher attenuation as compared to CI (CI vs O-MAR, 200 keV MonoE: -396.5HU vs. -115.2HU, -48.1HU; both p ≤ 0.001). Further, artifacts as depicted by noise were reduced in O-MAR and high-keV MonoE as compared to CI in (1) paravertebral muscle and (2) spinal canal - CI vs. O-MAR/200 keV: (1) 34.7 ± 19.0 HU vs. 26.4 ± 14.4 HU, p ≤ 0.05/27.4 ± 16.1, n.s.; (2) 103.4 ± 61.3 HU vs. 72.6 ± 62.6 HU/60.9 ± 40.1 HU, both p ≤ 0.001. Subjectively both O-MAR and high-keV images yielded an artifact reduction in up to 24/28 patients. Both, O-MAR and high-keV MonoE reconstructions as provided by SDCT lead to objective and subjective artifact reduction, thus the combination of O-MAR and MonoE seems promising for further reduction. (orig.)

  8. Decreased CSF-flow artefacts in T2 imaging of the cervical spine with periodically rotated overlapping parallel lines with enhanced reconstruction (PROPELLER/BLADE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragoschke-Schumm, Andreas; Schmidt, Peter; Mayer, Thomas E.; Schumm, Julia; Reimann, Georg; Mentzel, Hans-Joachim; Kaiser, Werner A.

    2011-01-01

    The cervical spine is prone to artefacts in T2 MR-imaging due to patient movements and cerebrospinal fluid flow. The periodically rotated overlapping parallel lines with enhanced reconstruction (PROPELLER/BLADE) acquisition method was developed to reduce motion artefacts. We sought to determine if T2-BLADE is superior to T2-TSE with conventional k-space reading. Twenty-five patients were examined using a 1.5 T MR-scanner. T2-weighted imaging of the cervical spine in sagittal and axial orientation using conventional or BLADE k-space reading was performed. Spinal cord, subarachnoid space, vertebrae and discs were evaluated by two independent observers using a scale from 0 (non-diagnostic) to 3 (excellent). Interobserver correlation was assessed as Cohen's kappa. Results of Mann-Whitney U test with p < 0.05 were regarded as significant. Furthermore, the investigators were asked for subjective evaluation in consensus. Overall interobserver accuracy of κ = 0.91 was obtained. Comparison of sagittal images showed better values for all investigated structures in T2-BLADE: spinal cord (TSE/BLADE: 1.52/2.04; p < 0.001), subarachnoid space (1.36/2.06; p < 0.001) and vertebrae/discs (1.66/2.86; p < 0.001). Comparison of axial images showed better values in T2-BLADE for spinal cord (1.68/1.86; p = 0.149) and vertebrae/discs (1.0/1.96: p < 0.001) while subarachnoid space was better to be evaluated in conventional T2-TSE (1.94/1.12; p < 0.001). In sagittal orientation, motion- and CSF-flow artefacts were reduced in T2-BLADE. In axial orientation, however, CSF-flow artefacts were pronounced in T2-BLADE. The image quality of the sagittal T2-BLADE sequences was significantly better than the T2-TSE and acquired in less time. In axial orientation, increased CSF-flow artefacts may reduce accuracy of structures in the subarachnoid space. (orig.)

  9. Degenerative disease of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czervionke, L.F.; Daniels, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    With few exceptions, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is becoming the modality of choice for the evaluation of degenerative disorders of the entire spine. With the implementation of surface coils and continued refinement and development of new pulse sequences, osseous and soft tissue structures of the spine can now be studied in great detail. The introduction of paramagnetic contrast agents has made it possible to differentiate epidural scar from recurrent disc herniation in the postoperative setting and to discern previously undetected degenerative changes within the intervertebral disc itself. This paper discusses the spectrum of degenerative diseases of the spine, including disc degeneration (intervertebral osteochondrosis), disc herniation, spinal stenosis, spondylosis deformans, and osteoarthritis. A brief description of the MR techniques and strategies used to evaluate these disorders is also

  10. The accuracy of the lateral vertebral notch-referred pedicle screw insertion technique in subaxial cervical spine: a human cadaver study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jiaquan; Wu, Chunyang; Huang, Zhongren; Pan, Zhimin; Li, Zhiyun; Zhong, Junlong; Chen, Yiwei; Han, Zhimin; Cao, Kai

    2017-04-01

    This is a cadaver specimen study to confirm new pedicle screw (PS) entry point and trajectory for subaxial cervical PS insertion. To assess the accuracy of the lateral vertebral notch-referred PS insertion technique in subaxial cervical spine in cadaver cervical spine. Reported morphometric landmarks used to guide the surgeon in PS insertion show significant variability. In the previous study, we proposed a new technique (as called "notch-referred" technique) primarily based on coronal multiplane reconstruction images (CMRI) and cortical integrity after PS insertion in cadavers. However, the PS position in cadaveric cervical segment was not confirmed radiologically. Therefore, the difference between the pedicle trajectory and the PS trajectory using the notch-referred technique needs to be illuminated. Twelve cadaveric cervical spines were conducted with PS insertion using the lateral vertebral notch-referred technique. The guideline for entry point and trajectory for each vertebra was established based on the morphometric data from our previous study. After 3.5-mm diameter screw insertion, each vertebra was dissected and inspected for pedicle trajectory by CT scan. The pedicle trajectory and PS trajectory were measured and compared in axial plane. The perforation rate was assessed radiologically and was graded from ideal to unacceptable: Grade 0 = screw in pedicle; Grade I = perforation of pedicle wall less than one-fourth of the screw diameter; Grade II = perforation more than one-fourth of the screw diameter but less than one-second; Grade III = perforation more than one-second outside of the screw diameter. In addition, pedicle width between the acceptable and unacceptable screws was compared. A total of 120 pedicle screws were inserted. The perforation rate of pedicle screws was 78.3% in grade 0 (excellent PS position), 10.0% in grade I (good PS position), 8.3% in grade II (fair PS position), and 3.3% in grade III (poor PS position). The

  11. Trauma of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wimmer, B.; Hofmann, E.; Jacob, A.L.H.

    1990-01-01

    Primary reconstructive surgery is assuming increasing importance in the management of fractures of the spine. Analysis of the injury and thus surgical decision-making are greatly facilitated by the diagnostic power of CT and MRI. This volume provides a systemic introduction to the interpretation of CT and MRI images of injuries to the spinal column and the spinal cord, with special emphasis on the assessment or residual stability. Since survey X-rays remain the indispensable first step in radiodiagnosis, the typical appearances of spinal injuries on conventional films are also shown. This will help the reader interpret the CT and MRI images and also reflects the procedure in radiologic practice. The book's classification of spinal fractures, together with the attempt to conclude how the injury happened by analyzing the damage caused, paves the way for individually oriented therapy. (orig.) With 72 figs. in 132 separate illustrations

  12. Identifying factors likely to influence compliance with diagnostic imaging guideline recommendations for spine disorders among chiropractors in North America: a focus group study using the Theoretical Domains Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bussières André E

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF was developed to investigate determinants of specific clinical behaviors and inform the design of interventions to change professional behavior. This framework was used to explore the beliefs of chiropractors in an American Provider Network and two Canadian provinces about their adherence to evidence-based recommendations for spine radiography for uncomplicated back pain. The primary objective of the study was to identify chiropractors’ beliefs about managing uncomplicated back pain without x-rays and to explore barriers and facilitators to implementing evidence-based recommendations on lumbar spine x-rays. A secondary objective was to compare chiropractors in the United States and Canada on their beliefs regarding the use of spine x-rays. Methods Six focus groups exploring beliefs about managing back pain without x-rays were conducted with a purposive sample. The interview guide was based upon the TDF. Focus groups were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed by two independent assessors using thematic content analysis based on the TDF. Results Five domains were identified as likely relevant. Key beliefs within these domains included the following: conflicting comments about the potential consequences of not ordering x-rays (risk of missing a pathology, avoiding adverse treatment effects, risks of litigation, determining the treatment plan, and using x-ray-driven techniques contrasted with perceived benefits of minimizing patient radiation exposure and reducing costs; beliefs about consequences; beliefs regarding professional autonomy, professional credibility, lack of standardization, and agreement with guidelines widely varied ( social/professional role & identity; the influence of formal training, colleagues, and patients also appeared to be important factors ( social influences; conflicting comments regarding levels of confidence and comfort in managing patients

  13. Multilevel magnetic resonance imaging analysis of multifidus-longissimus cleavage planes in the lumbar spine and potential clinical applications to Wiltse's paraspinal approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Daniel Kyle; Allen, Jonathan L; Williams, Paul A; Voss, Ashley Elizabeth; Jadhav, Vikram; Wu, David S; Cheng, Wayne K

    2011-07-15

    Retrospective magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based study. Our goal was to develop Wiltse's paraspinal surgical approach by determining the precise anatomic locations of the intermuscular cleavage planes formed by the multifidus and longissimus muscles. The primary objective was to measure the distances between the midline and the intermuscular planes, bilaterally, on MRI scans at each of the five disc levels between L1 and S1. Secondary objectives included identifying the existence of any correlations between patient demographics and the measured outcomes. In 1968, Wiltse described an approach to the spine using the natural cleavage plane of the multifidus and longissimus muscles as an entry to the posterior spinal elements. The small direct incisions lessened bleeding, tissue violation, and muscle retraction, which popularized Wiltse's approach among surgeons. A detailed description of the locations of the intermuscular cleavage planes at each lumbar disc level, however, is not available. MRI scans of 200 patients taken during routine care (2007-2009) were retrospectively reviewed to gather measurements of the distances from the intermuscular cleavage planes to the midline, bilaterally, at each disc level from L1 to S1. Age, sex, and BMI (body mass index) were obtained to determine correlations. Mean measurements significantly differed between all disc levels. At L5-S1, the mean distance was 37.8 mm; at L4-L5, 28.4 mm; at L3-L4, 16.2 mm; at L2-L3, 10.4 mm; and at L1-L2, 7.9 mm. The mean female distances were significantly greater than males (2 mm) on both sides of L5-S1 only. No correlation was discovered between BMI, age, height (N = 50), or weight (N = 50) with respect to measured distances. In the absence of any significant clinical correlation between patient demographics and the entry site in Wiltse's approach, the spine surgeon may use distances described in this paper to apply to a broad base of spine patients regardless of BMI, sex, or age.

  14. Imaging of human T-lymphotropic virus type I-associated chronic progressive myeloneuropathies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcindor, F.; Valderrama, R.; Canavaggio, M.; Lee, H.; Katz, A.; Montesinos, C.; Madrid, R.E.; Merino, R.R.; Pipia, P.A.

    1992-01-01

    We studied magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head and cervical spine and CT of the head in 46 patients (14 men, 32 women) with chronic progressive myeloneuropathy. The findings were correlated with human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) serology, race, country of origin, and age. We found a female predominance of 2:1. Most patients were aged between 30 and 50 years, and most were Caribbean immigrants and black. There were 9 men and 17 women with blood antibody titers to HTLV-I and 7 mem and 15 women with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) titers. All patients with virus or antibodies in blood or CSF were Caribbean immigrants or black. T2-weighted cranial MRI showed scattered areas of high signal intensity in the cerebral white matter, usually in the periventricular and subcortical areas, but not in the posterior cranial fossa. Cranial CT revealed periventricular low density areas, ventricular enlargement, and atrophy MRI of the cervical spine showed atrophy of the cord. Myelography was normal in all 15 patients examined. No imaging differences were observed between the HTLV-I-positive and -negative patients. These findings, although consistent with demyelination, are not specific. (orig.)

  15. Imaging of human T-lymphotropic virus type I-associated chronic progressive myeloneuropathies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcindor, F. (Dept. of Neurology, State Univ. of New York, Health Science Center, Brooklyn, NY (United States)); Valderrama, R. (Dept. of Neurology, State Univ. of New York, Health Science Center, Brooklyn, NY (United States)); Canavaggio, M. (Abbott Labs., North Chicago, IL (United States)); Lee, H. (Abbott Labs., North Chicago, IL (United States)); Katz, A. (Dept. of Neurology, State Univ. of New York, Health Science Center, Brooklyn, NY (United States)); Montesinos, C. (Beth Israel Medical Center, Dept. of Neurology and Clinical Electrophysiology, New York, NY (United States)); Madrid, R.E. (New York State Office of Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities, Inst. for Basic Research in Developmental Disabilities, NY (United States)); Merino, R.R. (Beth Israel Medical Center, Dept. of Neurology and Clinical Electrophysiology, New York, NY (United States)); Pipia, P.A. (Dept. of Neurology, State Univ. of New York, Health Science Center, Brooklyn, NY (United States))

    1992-12-01

    We studied magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head and cervical spine and CT of the head in 46 patients (14 men, 32 women) with chronic progressive myeloneuropathy. The findings were correlated with human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) serology, race, country of origin, and age. We found a female predominance of 2:1. Most patients were aged between 30 and 50 years, and most were Caribbean immigrants and black. There were 9 men and 17 women with blood antibody titers to HTLV-I and 7 mem and 15 women with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) titers. All patients with virus or antibodies in blood or CSF were Caribbean immigrants or black. T2-weighted cranial MRI showed scattered areas of high signal intensity in the cerebral white matter, usually in the periventricular and subcortical areas, but not in the posterior cranial fossa. Cranial CT revealed periventricular low density areas, ventricular enlargement, and atrophy MRI of the cervical spine showed atrophy of the cord. Myelography was normal in all 15 patients examined. No imaging differences were observed between the HTLV-I-positive and -negative patients. These findings, although consistent with demyelination, are not specific. (orig.)

  16. Mobile C-arm cone-beam CT for guidance of spine surgery: Image quality, radiation dose, and integration with interventional guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schafer, S.; Nithiananthan, S.; Mirota, D. J.; Uneri, A.; Stayman, J. W.; Zbijewski, W.; Schmidgunst, C.; Kleinszig, G.; Khanna, A. J.; Siewerdsen, J. H. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21202 (United States); Department of Computer Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21202 (United States); Siemens Healthcare XP Division, Erlangen (Germany); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21239 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21202 and Department of Computer Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: A flat-panel detector based mobile isocentric C-arm for cone-beam CT (CBCT) has been developed to allow intraoperative 3D imaging with sub-millimeter spatial resolution and soft-tissue visibility. Image quality and radiation dose were evaluated in spinal surgery, commonly relying on lower-performance image intensifier based mobile C-arms. Scan protocols were developed for task-specific imaging at minimum dose, in-room exposure was evaluated, and integration of the imaging system with a surgical guidance system was demonstrated in preclinical studies of minimally invasive spine surgery. Methods: Radiation dose was assessed as a function of kilovolt (peak) (80-120 kVp) and milliampere second using thoracic and lumbar spine dosimetry phantoms. In-room radiation exposure was measured throughout the operating room for various CBCT scan protocols. Image quality was assessed using tissue-equivalent inserts in chest and abdomen phantoms to evaluate bone and soft-tissue contrast-to-noise ratio as a function of dose, and task-specific protocols (i.e., visualization of bone or soft-tissues) were defined. Results were applied in preclinical studies using a cadaveric torso simulating minimally invasive, transpedicular surgery. Results: Task-specific CBCT protocols identified include: thoracic bone visualization (100 kVp; 60 mAs; 1.8 mGy); lumbar bone visualization (100 kVp; 130 mAs; 3.2 mGy); thoracic soft-tissue visualization (100 kVp; 230 mAs; 4.3 mGy); and lumbar soft-tissue visualization (120 kVp; 460 mAs; 10.6 mGy) - each at (0.3 x 0.3 x 0.9 mm{sup 3}) voxel size. Alternative lower-dose, lower-resolution soft-tissue visualization protocols were identified (100 kVp; 230 mAs; 5.1 mGy) for the lumbar region at (0.3 x 0.3 x 1.5 mm{sup 3}) voxel size. Half-scan orbit of the C-arm (x-ray tube traversing under the table) was dosimetrically advantageous (prepatient attenuation) with a nonuniform dose distribution ({approx}2 x higher at the entrance side than at isocenter

  17. Subjective and objective image qualities: a comparison of sagittal T2 weighted spin-echo and turbo-spin-eco sequences in magnetic resonance imaging of the spine by use of a subjective ranking system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goerres, G. [Institut fuer diagnostische Radiologie, Departement Radiologie, Universitaetskliniken, Kantonsspital Basel (Switzerland); Mader, I. [Radiologische Gemeinschaftspraxis Dres. Siems, Grossmann, Bayreuth (Germany); Proske, M. [Klinikum Rosenheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische Radiologie

    1998-12-31

    We evaluated the subjective image impression of two different magnetic resonance (MR) sequences by using a subjective ranking system. This ranking system was based on 20 criteria describing several tissue characteristics such as the signal intensity of normal anatomical structures and the changes of signal intensities and shape of lesions as well as artefacts. MR of the vertebral spine was performed in 48 female and 52 male patients (mean age 44.8 years) referred consecutively for investigation of a back problem. Ninety-six pathologies were found in 82 patients. Sagittal and axial T1 weighted spin-echo before and after administration of Gadolinium (Gd-DOTA), and sagittal T2 weighted spin-echo (T2wSE) and Turbo-spin-echo (TSE) sequences were performed by means of surface coils. Using the subjective ranking system the sagittal T2wSE and sagittal TSE were compared. Both sequences were suitable for identification of normal anatomy and pathologic changes and there was no trend for increased detection of disease by one imaging sequence over the other. We found that sagittal TSE sequences can replace sagittal T2wSE sequences in spinal MR and that artefacts at the cervical and lumbar spine are less frequent using TSE, thus confirming previous studies. In this study, our ranking system reveiled, that there are differences between the subjective judgement of image qualities and objective measurement of SNR. However, this approach may not be helpful to compare two different MR sequences as it is limited to the anatomical area investigated and is time consuming. The subjective image impression, i.e. the quality of images, may not always be represented by physical parameters such as a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), radiologists should try to define influences of image quality also by subjective parameters. (orig.)

  18. Exploring Human Cognition Using Large Image Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Thomas L; Abbott, Joshua T; Hsu, Anne S

    2016-07-01

    Most cognitive psychology experiments evaluate models of human cognition using a relatively small, well-controlled set of stimuli. This approach stands in contrast to current work in neuroscience, perception, and computer vision, which have begun to focus on using large databases of natural images. We argue that natural images provide a powerful tool for characterizing the statistical environment in which people operate, for better evaluating psychological theories, and for bringing the insights of cognitive science closer to real applications. We discuss how some of the challenges of using natural images as stimuli in experiments can be addressed through increased sample sizes, using representations from computer vision, and developing new experimental methods. Finally, we illustrate these points by summarizing recent work using large image databases to explore questions about human cognition in four different domains: modeling subjective randomness, defining a quantitative measure of representativeness, identifying prior knowledge used in word learning, and determining the structure of natural categories. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  19. Microstructural imaging of human neocortex in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Luke J; Kirilina, Evgeniya; Mohammadi, Siawoosh; Weiskopf, Nikolaus

    2018-03-24

    The neocortex of the human brain is the seat of higher brain function. Modern imaging techniques, chief among them magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), allow non-invasive imaging of this important structure. Knowledge of the microstructure of the neocortex has classically come from post-mortem histological studies of human tissue, and extrapolations from invasive animal studies. From these studies, we know that the scale of important neocortical structure spans six orders of magnitude, ranging from the size of axonal diameters (microns), to the size of cortical areas responsible for integrating sensory information (centimetres). MRI presents an opportunity to move beyond classical methods, because MRI is non-invasive and MRI contrast is sensitive to neocortical microstructure over all these length scales. MRI thus allows inferences to be made about neocortical microstructure in vivo, i.e. MRI-based in vivo histology. We review recent literature that has applied and developed MRI-based in vivo histology to probe the microstructure of the human neocortex, focusing specifically on myelin, iron, and neuronal fibre mapping. We find that applications such as cortical parcellation (using R 1 maps as proxies for myelin content) and investigation of cortical iron deposition with age (using R 2 * maps) are already contributing to the frontiers of knowledge in neuroscience. Neuronal fibre mapping in the cortex remains challenging in vivo, but recent improvements in diffusion MRI hold promise for exciting applications in the near future. The literature also suggests that utilising multiple complementary quantitative MRI maps could increase the specificity of inferences about neocortical microstructure relative to contemporary techniques, but that further investment in modelling is required to appropriately combine the maps. In vivo histology of human neocortical microstructure is undergoing rapid development. Future developments will improve its specificity, sensitivity, and

  20. Degenerative disc disease of the lumbar spine: a prospective comparison of fast T1-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and T1-weighted turbo spin echo MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdem, L. Oktay; Erdem, C. Zuhal; Acikgoz, Bektas; Gundogdu, Sadi

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To compare fast T1-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and T1-weighted turbo spin-echo (TSE) imaging of the degenerative disc disease of the lumbar spine. Materials and methods: Thirty-five consecutive patients (19 females, 16 males; mean age 41 years, range 31-67 years) with suspected degenerative disc disease of the lumbar spine were prospectively evaluated. Sagittal images of the lumbar spine were obtained using T1-weighted TSE and fast T1-weighted FLAIR sequences. Two radiologists compared these sequences both qualitatively and quantitatively. Results: On qualitative evaluation, CSF nulling, contrast at the disc-CSF interface, the disc-spinal cord (cauda equina) interface, and the spinal cord (cauda equina)-CSF interface of fast T1-weighted FLAIR images were significantly higher than those for T1-weighted TSE images (P < 0.001). On quantitative evaluation of the first 15 patients, signal-to-noise ratios of cerebrospinal fluid of fast T1-weighted FLAIR imaging were significantly lower than those for T1-weighted TSE images (P < 0.05). Contrast-to-noise ratios of spinal cord/CSF and normal bone marrow/disc for fast T1-weighted FLAIR images were significantly higher than those for T1-weighted TSE images (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Results in our study have shown that fast T1-weighted FLAIR imaging may be a valuable imaging modality in the armamentarium of lumbar spinal T1-weighted MR imaging, because the former technique has definite superior advantages such as CSF nulling, conspicuousness of the normal anatomic structures and changes in the lumbar spinal discogenic disease and image contrast and also almost equally acquisition times

  1. Degenerative disc disease of the lumbar spine: a prospective comparison of fast T1-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and T1-weighted turbo spin echo MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdem, L. Oktay [Department of Radiology, Zonguldak Karaelmas University, School of Medicine, 6700 Kozlu, Zonguldak (Turkey)]. E-mail: sunarerdem@yahoo.com; Erdem, C. Zuhal [Department of Radiology, Zonguldak Karaelmas University, School of Medicine, 6700 Kozlu, Zonguldak (Turkey); Acikgoz, Bektas [Department of Neurosurgery, Zonguldak Karaelmas University, School of Medicine, Zonguldak (Turkey); Gundogdu, Sadi [Department of Radiology, Zonguldak Karaelmas University, School of Medicine, 6700 Kozlu, Zonguldak (Turkey)

    2005-08-01

    Objective: To compare fast T1-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and T1-weighted turbo spin-echo (TSE) imaging of the degenerative disc disease of the lumbar spine. Materials and methods: Thirty-five consecutive patients (19 females, 16 males; mean age 41 years, range 31-67 years) with suspected degenerative disc disease of the lumbar spine were prospectively evaluated. Sagittal images of the lumbar spine were obtained using T1-weighted TSE and fast T1-weighted FLAIR sequences. Two radiologists compared these sequences both qualitatively and quantitatively. Results: On qualitative evaluation, CSF nulling, contrast at the disc-CSF interface, the disc-spinal cord (cauda equina) interface, and the spinal cord (cauda equina)-CSF interface of fast T1-weighted FLAIR images were significantly higher than those for T1-weighted TSE images (P < 0.001). On quantitative evaluation of the first 15 patients, signal-to-noise ratios of cerebrospinal fluid of fast T1-weighted FLAIR imaging were significantly lower than those for T1-weighted TSE images (P < 0.05). Contrast-to-noise ratios of spinal cord/CSF and normal bone marrow/disc for fast T1-weighted FLAIR images were significantly higher than those for T1-weighted TSE images (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Results in our study have shown that fast T1-weighted FLAIR imaging may be a valuable imaging modality in the armamentarium of lumbar spinal T1-weighted MR imaging, because the former technique has definite superior advantages such as CSF nulling, conspicuousness of the normal anatomic structures and changes in the lumbar spinal discogenic disease and image contrast and also almost equally acquisition times.

  2. Spatial and Working Memory Is Linked to Spine Density and Mushroom Spines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasha Refaat Mahmmoud

    Full Text Available Changes in synaptic structure and efficacy including dendritic spine number and morphology have been shown to underlie neuronal activity and size. Moreover, the shapes of individual dendritic spines were proposed to correlate with their capacity for structural change. Spine numbers and morphology were reported to parallel memory formation in the rat using a water maze but, so far, there is no information on spine counts or shape in the radial arm maze (RAM, a frequently used paradigm for the evaluation of complex memory formation in the rodent.24 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups, 8 were trained, 8 remained untrained in the RAM and 8 rats served as cage controls. Dendritic spine numbers and individual spine forms were counted in CA1, CA3 areas and dentate gyrus of hippocampus using a DIL dye method with subsequent quantification by the Neuronstudio software and the image J program.Working memory errors (WME and latency in the RAM were decreased along the training period indicating that animals performed the task. Total spine density was significantly increased following training in the RAM as compared to untrained rats and cage controls. The number of mushroom spines was significantly increased in the trained as compared to untrained and cage controls. Negative significant correlations between spine density and WME were observed in CA1 basal dendrites and in CA3 apical and basal dendrites. In addition, there was a significant negative correlation between spine density and latency in CA3 basal dendrites.The study shows that spine numbers are significantly increased in the trained group, an observation that may suggest the use of this method representing a morphological parameter for memory formation studies in the RAM. Herein, correlations between WME and latency in the RAM and spine density revealed a link between spine numbers and performance in the RAM.

  3. Spatial and Working Memory Is Linked to Spine Density and Mushroom Spines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmmoud, Rasha Refaat; Sase, Sunetra; Aher, Yogesh D; Sase, Ajinkya; Gröger, Marion; Mokhtar, Maher; Höger, Harald; Lubec, Gert

    2015-01-01

    Changes in synaptic structure and efficacy including dendritic spine number and morphology have been shown to underlie neuronal activity and size. Moreover, the shapes of individual dendritic spines were proposed to correlate with their capacity for structural change. Spine numbers and morphology were reported to parallel memory formation in the rat using a water maze but, so far, there is no information on spine counts or shape in the radial arm maze (RAM), a frequently used paradigm for the evaluation of complex memory formation in the rodent. 24 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups, 8 were trained, 8 remained untrained in the RAM and 8 rats served as cage controls. Dendritic spine numbers and individual spine forms were counted in CA1, CA3 areas and dentate gyrus of hippocampus using a DIL dye method with subsequent quantification by the Neuronstudio software and the image J program. Working memory errors (WME) and latency in the RAM were decreased along the training period indicating that animals performed the task. Total spine density was significantly increased following training in the RAM as compared to untrained rats and cage controls. The number of mushroom spines was significantly increased in the trained as compared to untrained and cage controls. Negative significant correlations between spine density and WME were observed in CA1 basal dendrites and in CA3 apical and basal dendrites. In addition, there was a significant negative correlation between spine density and latency in CA3 basal dendrites. The study shows that spine numbers are significantly increased in the trained group, an observation that may suggest the use of this method representing a morphological parameter for memory formation studies in the RAM. Herein, correlations between WME and latency in the RAM and spine density revealed a link between spine numbers and performance in the RAM.

  4. Lumbar spine chordoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Hatem, M.B.Ch.B, MRes, LMCC

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chordoma is a rare tumor arising from notochord remnants in the spine. It is slow-growing, which makes it difficult to diagnose and difficult to follow up after treatment. Typically, it occurs in the base of the skull and sacrococcygeal spine; it rarely occurs in other parts of the spine. CT-guided biopsy of a suspicious mass enabled diagnosis of lumbar spine chordoma.

  5. Bone dosimetry using synthetic images to represent trabecular bones of five regions of the human body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima Filho, Jose de M. [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Pernambuco (IFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Vieira, Jose W. [Escola Politecnica de Pernambuco (POLI). Universidade de Pernambuco (UPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Lima, Vanildo J. de M., E-mail: vjr@ufpe.br [Departamento de Anatomia. Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Lima, Lindeval F., E-mail: lindeval@dmat.ufrr.br [Departamento de Matematica (DMAT). Universidade Federal de Roraima (UFRR), Boa Vista, RR (Brazil); Lima, Fernando R.A., E-mail: falima@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN/NE-CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Vasconcelos, Wagner E. de [Departamento de Energia Nuclear (DEN). Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    One of the greatest challenges in numerical dosimetry of ionizing radiation is to estimate the absorbed dose by bone tissue in the human body. The bone tissues of greater radiosensitivity are the red bone marrow (RBM), that consist of the hematopoietic cells, located within the trabecular bones, and the bone surface cells (BSC), called osteogenic cells. The report 70 of the ICRP lists five spongiosa regions with their respective volume percent of trabecular bone: ribs (also contemplating the clavicles and sternum), spine, long bones, pelvis and skull (also contemplating mandible). The Grupo de Pesquisa em Dosimetria Numerica (GDN/CNPq) has been built exposure computational models (ECMs) based on voxel phantoms and EGSnrc Monte Carlo code. To estimate the energy deposited in the RBM and in the BSC of a phantom, the GDN/CNPq has used a method based on micro-CT images of the five trabecular regions mentioned above. These images were provided by other research institutes and were obtained from scan of bone samples of adult. Here is the greatest difficulty in reproducing this method: besides the need for bone images of real people with micrometer resolution, the distribution of bone marrow in the human body, according to ICRP 70, varies with age. This article presents some proposals of the GDN/CNPQ for replacing in the ECMs the micro-CT images by images synthesized by the computer, based on Monte Carlo sampling. (author)

  6. Bone dosimetry using synthetic images to represent trabecular bones of five regions of the human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima Filho, Jose de M.; Vieira, Jose W.; Lima, Vanildo J. de M.; Lima, Lindeval F.; Lima, Fernando R.A.; Vasconcelos, Wagner E. de

    2011-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges in numerical dosimetry of ionizing radiation is to estimate the absorbed dose by bone tissue in the human body. The bone tissues of greater radiosensitivity are the red bone marrow (RBM), that consist of the hematopoietic cells, located within the trabecular bones, and the bone surface cells (BSC), called osteogenic cells. The report 70 of the ICRP lists five spongiosa regions with their respective volume percent of trabecular bone: ribs (also contemplating the clavicles and sternum), spine, long bones, pelvis and skull (also contemplating mandible). The Grupo de Pesquisa em Dosimetria Numerica (GDN/CNPq) has been built exposure computational models (ECMs) based on voxel phantoms and EGSnrc Monte Carlo code. To estimate the energy deposited in the RBM and in the BSC of a phantom, the GDN/CNPq has used a method based on micro-CT images of the five trabecular regions mentioned above. These images were provided by other research institutes and were obtained from scan of bone samples of adult. Here is the greatest difficulty in reproducing this method: besides the need for bone images of real people with micrometer resolution, the distribution of bone marrow in the human body, according to ICRP 70, varies with age. This article presents some proposals of the GDN/CNPQ for replacing in the ECMs the micro-CT images by images synthesized by the computer, based on Monte Carlo sampling. (author)

  7. Development of Ontology and 3D Software for the Diseases of Spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungbock Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available KISTI is carrying out an e-Spine project for spinal diseases to prepare for the aged society, so-called NAP. The purpose of the study is to build a spine ontology that represents the anatomical structure and disease information which is compatible with simulation model of KISTI. The final use of the ontology includes diagnosis of diseases and setting treatment directions by the clinicians. The ontology was represented using 3D software. Twenty diseases were selected to be represented after discussions with a spine specialist. Several ontology studies were reviewed, reference books were selected for each disease and were organized in MS Excel. All the contents were then reviewed by the specialists. Altova SemanticWorks and Protégé were used to code spine ontology with OWL Full model. Links to the images from KISTI and sample images of diseases were included in the ontology. The OWL ontology was also reviewed by the specialists again with Protégé. We represented unidirectional ontology from anatomical structure to disease, images, and treatment. The ontology was human understandable. It would be useful for the education of medical students or residents studying diseases of spine. But in order for the computer to understand the ontology, a new model with OWL DL or Lite is needed.

  8. Radiology illustrated. Spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Heung Sik; Lee, Joon Woo [Seoul National Univ. Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Kyonggi-do (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiology; Kwon, Jong Won [Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiology

    2014-04-01

    Offers a practical approach to image interpretation for spinal disorders. Includes numerous high-quality radiographic images and schematic illustrations. Will serve as a self-learning book covering daily routine cases from the basic to the advanced. Radiology Illustrated: Spine is an up-to-date, superbly illustrated reference in the style of a teaching file that has been designed specifically to be of value in clinical practice. Common, critical, and rare but distinctive spinal disorders are described succinctly with the aid of images highlighting important features and informative schematic illustrations. The first part of the book, on common spinal disorders, is for radiology residents and other clinicians who are embarking on the interpretation of spinal images. A range of key disorders are then presented, including infectious spondylitis, cervical trauma, spinal cord disorders, spinal tumors, congenital disorders, uncommon degenerative disorders, inflammatory arthritides, and vascular malformations. The third part is devoted to rare but clinically significant spinal disorders with characteristic imaging features, and the book closes by presenting practical tips that will assist in the interpretation of confusing cases.

  9. Cervical spine injury in child abuse: report of two cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rooks, V.J.; Sisler, C.; Burton, B. [Tripler Army Medical Center, Honolulu, HI (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    1998-03-01

    Pediatric cervical spine injuries have rarely been reported in the setting of child abuse. We report two cases of unsuspected lower cervical spine fracture-dislocation in twin infant girls who had no physical examination findings to suggest cervical spine injury. Classic radio-graphic findings of child abuse were noted at multiple other sites in the axial and appendicular skeleton. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging proved to be valuable in both the initial evaluation of the extent of cervical spine injury and in following postoperative changes. The unexpected yet devastating findings in these two cases further substantiate the importance of routine evaluation of the cervical spine in cases of suspected child abuse. (orig.)

  10. Cervical spine injury in child abuse: report of two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rooks, V.J.; Sisler, C.; Burton, B.

    1998-01-01

    Pediatric cervical spine injuries have rarely been reported in the setting of child abuse. We report two cases of unsuspected lower cervical spine fracture-dislocation in twin infant girls who had no physical examination findings to suggest cervical spine injury. Classic radio-graphic findings of child abuse were noted at multiple other sites in the axial and appendicular skeleton. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging proved to be valuable in both the initial evaluation of the extent of cervical spine injury and in following postoperative changes. The unexpected yet devastating findings in these two cases further substantiate the importance of routine evaluation of the cervical spine in cases of suspected child abuse. (orig.)

  11. Neuroimaging for spine and spinal cord surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyanagi, Izumi [Hokkaido Neurosurgical Memorial Hospital (Japan); Iwasaki, Yoshinobu; Hida, Kazutoshi

    2001-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroimaging of the spine and spinal cord are described based upon our clinical experiences with spinal disorders. Preoperative neuroradiological examinations, including magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and computerized tomography (CT) with three-dimensional reconstruction (3D-CT), were retrospectively analyzed in patients with cervical spondylosis or ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (130 cases), spinal trauma (43 cases) and intramedullary spinal cord tumors (92 cases). CT scan and 3D-CT were useful in elucidating the spine pathology associated with degenerative and traumatic spine diseases. Visualization of the deformity of the spine or fracture-dislocation of the spinal column with 3D-CT helped to determine the correct surgical treatment. MR imaging was most important in the diagnosis of both spine and spinal cord abnormalities. The axial MR images of the spinal cord were essential in understanding the laterality of the spinal cord compression in spinal column disorders and in determining surgical approaches to the intramedullary lesions. Although non-invasive diagnostic modalities such as MR imaging and CT scans are adequate for deciding which surgical treatment to use in the majority of spine and spinal cord disorders, conventional myelography is still needed in the diagnosis of nerve root compression in some cases of cervical spondylosis. (author)

  12. Imaging of Herniated Discs of the Cervical Spine: Inter-Modality Differences between 64-Slice Multidetector CT and 1.5-T MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Ji Sook; Cha, Jang Gyu [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Han, Jong Kyu [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyun Joo [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Seoul Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    To assess inter-modality variability when evaluating cervical intervertebral disc herniation using 64-slice multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Three musculoskeletal radiologists independently reviewed cervical spine 1.5-T MRI and 64-slice MDCT data on C2-3 though C6-7 of 51 patients in the context of intervertebral disc herniation. Interobserver and inter-modality agreements were expressed as unweighted kappa values. Weighted kappa statistics were used to assess the extents of agreement in terms of the number of involved segments (NIS) in disc herniation and epicenter measurements collected using MDCT and MRI. The interobserver agreement rates upon evaluation of disc morphology by the three radiologists were in fair to moderate agreement (k = 0.39-0.53 for MDCT images; k = 0.45-0.56 for MRIs). When the disc morphology was categorized into two and four grades, the inter-modality agreement rates were moderate (k-value, 0.59) and substantial (k-value, 0.66), respectively. The inter-modality agreements for evaluations of the NIS (k-value, 0.78) and the epicenter (k-value, 0.79) were substantial. Also, the interobserver agreements for the NIS (CT; k-value, 0.85 and MRI; k-value, 0.88) and epicenter (CT; k-value, 0.74 and MRI; k-value, 0.70) evaluations by two readers were substantial. MDCT tended to underestimate the extent of herniated disc lesions compared with MRI. Multidetector-row computed tomography and MRI showed a moderate-to-substantial degree of inter-modality agreement for the assessment of herniated cervical discs. MDCT images have a tendency to underestimate the anterior/posterior extent of the herniated disc compared with MRI.

  13. MR Imaging findings of avulsion fracture of the tibial spine of the knee, focusing of cruciate ligament tear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Won; Hong, Hoon Pyo; Ryu, Kyung Nam; Jin, Wook

    2003-01-01

    To determine the presence of cruciate ligament tears following avulsion injuries involving the ACL and PCL, and to correlate the findings with those of surgery. Between March 1997 and May 2002, avulsion injury involving the ACL and PCL was diagnosed in 19 patients. Ten of these [8 males and 2 females aged 10-51 (avergae, 27.7) years] were included in this study. We assessed the presence of cruciate ligament tears at MR imaging, correlating the findings with those of surgery. Associated intra-articular injuries, treatment methods and follow-up results were also evaluated. Among seven patients with ACL avulsion injury, this was assessed at MR imaging as complete tear (n=1), partial tear (n=5), or intact (n=1), while all MR images of PCL avulsion injury (n=3) showed that this was partial teat. All imaging findings corresponded with the surgical findings. In four patients there was associated knee injury involving, respectively, teats of the medial meniscus, lateral meniscus, PCL and MCL, and popliteal ligament. Our findings showed that with one exception, patients with avulsion injury of the ACL or PCL had suffered either a partial or complete tear. MR imaging may be useful in the diagnosis of tears of the cruciate ligament which have not been noticed at surgery or arthroscopy in avulsion injuries involving the ACL and PCL

  14. Imaging of congenital anomalies and variations of the caudal spine and back in neonates and small infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenk, Jens-Peter [Department of Pediatric Radiology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 153, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)]. E-mail: Jens-Peter_Schenk@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Herweh, Christian [Department of Pediatric Radiology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 153, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Neuroradiology, University of Heidelberg (Germany); Guenther, Patrick [Department of Pediatric Surgery, University of Heidelberg (Germany); Rohrschneider, Wiltrud [Department of Pediatric Radiology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 153, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Zieger, Birgit [Department of Pediatric Radiology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 153, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Troeger, Jochen [Department of Pediatric Radiology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 153, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2006-04-15

    Spinal dysraphisms are categorized in open dysraphisms with prominent abnormal nervous tissue above the skinlevel and closed dysraphisms with a skin covered malformation. Especially the occult dysraphisms are marked by suspect skin masses and other dermal anomalies. The purpose of this review is to demonstrate the indications and spectrum of spinal sonography in neonates and infants. In comparison typical dysraphisms are demonstrated in sonography and MR Imaging. We demonstrate the value of ultrasound in comparison to MRI and describe a useful handling of the methods in neonates and infants. The differentiation between the potentially dangerous dimples associated with dermal sinus, which can lead to meningitis and the harmless coccygeal dimple in the cranial gluteal cleft is presented. An inconspicious examination does not need a further imaging, but suspicious results of sonography need an MR imaging dependent of clinical conditions. Neurologically conspicious infants need MR imaging completed by sonography. Great advantages of sonography are the real time examination and the potential to show oscillations of the conus, filum and cauda equina in M-mode-imaging.

  15. Fetal evaluation of spine dysraphism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulas, Dorothy

    2010-01-01

    Spinal dysraphism or neural tube defects (NTD) encompass a heterogeneous group of congenital spinal anomalies that result from the defective closure of the neural tube early in gestation with anomalous development of the caudal cell mass. Advances in ultrasound and MRI have dramatically improved the diagnosis and therapy of spinal dysraphism and caudal spinal anomalies both prenatally and postnatally. Advances in prenatal US including high frequency linear transducers and three dimensional imaging can provide detailed information concerning spinal anomalies. MR imaging is a complementary tool that can further elucidate spine abnormalities as well as associated central nervous system and non-CNS anomalies. Recent studies have suggested that 3-D CT can help further assess fetal spine anomalies in the third trimester. With the advent of fetal therapy including surgery, accurate prenatal diagnosis of open and closed spinal dysraphism becomes critical in appropriate counselling and perinatal management. (orig.)

  16. Fetal evaluation of spine dysraphism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulas, Dorothy [George Washington University Medical Center, Division of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiology, Children' s National Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States)

    2010-06-15

    Spinal dysraphism or neural tube defects (NTD) encompass a heterogeneous group of congenital spinal anomalies that result from the defective closure of the neural tube early in gestation with anomalous development of the caudal cell mass. Advances in ultrasound and MRI have dramatically improved the diagnosis and therapy of spinal dysraphism and caudal spinal anomalies both prenatally and postnatally. Advances in prenatal US including high frequency linear transducers and three dimensional imaging can provide detailed information concerning spinal anomalies. MR imaging is a complementary tool that can further elucidate spine abnormalities as well as associated central nervous system and non-CNS anomalies. Recent studies have suggested that 3-D CT can help further assess fetal spine anomalies in the third trimester. With the advent of fetal therapy including surgery, accurate prenatal diagnosis of open and closed spinal dysraphism becomes critical in appropriate counselling and perinatal management. (orig.)

  17. Incidental findings on MRI of the spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamath, S.; Jain, N.; Goyal, N.; Mansour, R. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Mukherjee, K. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff (United Kingdom)], E-mail: kausikmukherjee@doctors.org.uk

    2009-04-15

    MRI is widely used as the imaging of choice for spinal disorders and may reveal either a clinically insignificant incidental abnormality or a significant lesion, unrelated to the spine, which may explain the patient's symptoms. This article attempts to establish the importance of such findings and describes a sensible approach to the reporting of MRI examinations of the spine with special attention to the incidental findings commonly encountered. The MRI characteristics of such findings are briefly described.

  18. Degenerative spine disorders in the context of clinical findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freund, Michael [Institut fuer Radiologie und Neuroradiologie, Klinikum Aschaffenburg, Am Hasenkopf 1, 63739 Aschaffenburg (Germany) and Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 400, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)]. E-mail: michael.freund@klinikum-aschaffenburg.de; Sartor, Klaus [Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 400, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2006-04-15

    Hardly any other structure in the human body is held responsible for so many complaints, pain, and costs as the spine and its degenerative disorders. In the following article, the role of imaging procedures in diagnosing disorders of the spine is presented. Due to the fact that disk herniation represents the most frequent cause for degenerative disorders the anatomy of the intervertebral disk and the pathology of the entities that can cause diseases of the disks are described. In particular, the authors focus on the significance of radiological findings with respect to patient history, subjective symptoms, and objective clinical findings. In addition to presenting the technical procedures and their indications and contraindications also practical tips and tricks in conducting these examinations are presented in this paper.

  19. Degenerative spine disorders in the context of clinical findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freund, Michael; Sartor, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    Hardly any other structure in the human body is held responsible for so many complaints, pain, and costs as the spine and its degenerative disorders. In the following article, the role of imaging procedures in diagnosing disorders of the spine is presented. Due to the fact that disk herniation represents the most frequent cause for degenerative disorders the anatomy of the intervertebral disk and the pathology of the entities that can cause diseases of the disks are described. In particular, the authors focus on the significance of radiological findings with respect to patient history, subjective symptoms, and objective clinical findings. In addition to presenting the technical procedures and their indications and contraindications also practical tips and tricks in conducting these examinations are presented in this paper

  20. Human body region enhancement method based on Kinect infrared imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Fan, Yubo; Song, Xiaowei; Cai, Wenjing

    2016-10-01

    To effectively improve the low contrast of human body region in the infrared images, a combing method of several enhancement methods is utilized to enhance the human body region. Firstly, for the infrared images acquired by Kinect, in order to improve the overall contrast of the infrared images, an Optimal Contrast-Tone Mapping (OCTM) method with multi-iterations is applied to balance the contrast of low-luminosity infrared images. Secondly, to enhance the human body region better, a Level Set algorithm is employed to improve the contour edges of human body region. Finally, to further improve the human body region in infrared images, Laplacian Pyramid decomposition is adopted to enhance the contour-improved human body region. Meanwhile, the background area without human body region is processed by bilateral filtering to improve the overall effect. With theoretical analysis and experimental verification, the results show that the proposed method could effectively enhance the human body region of such infrared images.

  1. CT anatomy of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haughton, V.M.; Williams, A.L.

    1980-01-01

    Effective CT scanning of the spine requires gantry opening greater than 50 cm, spatial resolution of less than 1 mm, contrast resolution of better than 0.5%, and a method for exact localization and selection of cut levels. With a suitable scanner, excellent images of the intervertebral disc, dural sac, spinal cord, facet joints, ligamentum flavum, and epidural veins can be obtained. The purpose of this report is to describe the normal CT appearance of the spinal soft tissues. (orig.) [de

  2. MRI of the fetal spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, Erin M.

    2004-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging of the fetal spine is a vital complement to fetal sonographic examination. Assessing the wide spectrum of spinal dysraphism, as well as spinal neoplasia, allows for more correct prenatal diagnoses, patient care planning, and patient counselling. Proper appraisal of the value of experimental procedures, such as fetal myelomeningocoele repair, requires a high level of diagnostic accuracy for the selection and follow-up of appropriate candidates. (orig.)

  3. MRI of the fetal spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Erin M. [Departement of Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2004-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging of the fetal spine is a vital complement to fetal sonographic examination. Assessing the wide spectrum of spinal dysraphism, as well as spinal neoplasia, allows for more correct prenatal diagnoses, patient care planning, and patient counselling. Proper appraisal of the value of experimental procedures, such as fetal myelomeningocoele repair, requires a high level of diagnostic accuracy for the selection and follow-up of appropriate candidates. (orig.)

  4. Diagnostic accuracy of 3-T magnetic resonance imaging with 3D T1 VIBE versus computer tomography in pars stress fracture of the lumbar spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ang, E.C.; Robertson, A.F.; Malara, F.A.; O' Shea, T.; Roebert, J.K.; Rotstein, A.H. [Victoria House Medical Imaging, Prahran, Victoria (Australia); Schneider, M.E. [Monash University, Monash Biomedicine Discovery Institute, Department of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, Clayton, Victoria (Australia)

    2016-11-15

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of 3-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with thin-slice 3D T1 VIBE sequence to 128-slice computer tomography (CT) in pars stress fractures of the lumbar spine. 3-T MRI and CT of 24 patients involving 70 pars interarticularis were retrospectively reviewed by four blinded radiologists. The fracture morphology (complete, incomplete, or normal) was assessed on MRI and CT at different time points. Pars interarticularis bone marrow edema (present or absent) was also evaluated on MRI. In total, 14 complete fractures, 31 incomplete fractures and 25 normal pars were detected by CT. Bone marrow edema was seen in seven of the complete and 25 of the incomplete fractures. The overall sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of MRI in detecting fractures (complete and incomplete) were 97.7, 92.3, and 95.7 %, respectively. MRI was 100 % accurate in detecting complete fractures. For incomplete fractures, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of MRI were 96.7, 92.0, and 94.6 %, respectively. 3-T MRI with thin-slice 3D T1 VIBE is 100 % accurate in diagnosing complete pars fractures and has excellent diagnostic ability in the detection and characterization of incomplete pars stress fractures compared to CT. MRI has the added advantages of detecting bone marrow edema and does not employ ionizing radiation. (orig.)

  5. Diagnostic accuracy of 3-T magnetic resonance imaging with 3D T1 VIBE versus computer tomography in pars stress fracture of the lumbar spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ang, E.C.; Robertson, A.F.; Malara, F.A.; O'Shea, T.; Roebert, J.K.; Rotstein, A.H.; Schneider, M.E.

    2016-01-01

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of 3-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with thin-slice 3D T1 VIBE sequence to 128-slice computer tomography (CT) in pars stress fractures of the lumbar spine. 3-T MRI and CT of 24 patients involving 70 pars interarticularis were retrospectively reviewed by four blinded radiologists. The fracture morphology (complete, incomplete, or normal) was assessed on MRI and CT at different time points. Pars interarticularis bone marrow edema (present or absent) was also evaluated on MRI. In total, 14 complete fractures, 31 incomplete fractures and 25 normal pars were detected by CT. Bone marrow edema was seen in seven of the complete and 25 of the incomplete fractures. The overall sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of MRI in detecting fractures (complete and incomplete) were 97.7, 92.3, and 95.7 %, respectively. MRI was 100 % accurate in detecting complete fractures. For incomplete fractures, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of MRI were 96.7, 92.0, and 94.6 %, respectively. 3-T MRI with thin-slice 3D T1 VIBE is 100 % accurate in diagnosing complete pars fractures and has excellent diagnostic ability in the detection and characterization of incomplete pars stress fractures compared to CT. MRI has the added advantages of detecting bone marrow edema and does not employ ionizing radiation. (orig.)

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging findings of the lumbar spine in elite horseback riders: correlations with back pain, body mass index, trunk/leg-length coefficient, and riding discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Clayton N; Pennekamp, Peter H; Becker, Ute; Young, Mei; Diedrich, Oliver; Lüring, Christian; von Falkenhausen, Makus

    2009-11-01

    Most orthopaedic problems experienced by competitive horseback riders are related to pain in the lower back, hip joint, and hamstring muscles. Riders-especially, show jumpers-are frequently hampered in their performance because of lumbar pain. To date, there has been no research into lumbar disk degeneration in elite competitive riders. Competitive horseback riding accelerates lumbar disk degeneration. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Fifty-eight elite riders (18 men, 40 women; mean age, 32.4 years) and a control group of 30 nonriding volunteers (17 men, 13 women; mean age, 28.7 years) were evaluated for lumbar disk degeneration, cross-sectional area of paraspinal muscles, spondylolysis, and spondylolisthesis, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The prevalence of disk degeneration between the 2 groups was compared, and the relationship was investigated between low back pain (LBP), riding discipline, body mass index (BMI), trunk/leg-length coefficient, and MRI results. Eighty-eight percent of elite riders (n = 51) had a history of LBP, versus 33% of the controls (P back pain. Although riders have a high prevalence of LBP, there is no conclusive MRI evidence to suggest that the cause lies in undue disk degeneration, spondylolysis, spondylolisthesis, or pathologic changes of the paraspinal muscles of the lumbar spine.

  7. Imaging visual function of the human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marg, E.

    1988-01-01

    Imaging of human brain structure and activity with particular reference to visual function is reviewed along with methods of obtaining the data including computed tomographic (CT) scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), and positron emission tomography (PET). The literature is reviewed and the potential for a new understanding of brain visual function is discussed. PET is reviewed from basic physical principles to the most recent visual brain findings with oxygen-15. It is shown that there is a potential for submillimeter localization of visual functions with sequentially different visual stimuli designed for the temporal separation of the responses. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), a less expensive substitute for PET, is also discussed. MRS is covered from basic physical principles to the current state of the art of in vivo biochemical analysis. Future possible clinical applications are discussed. Improved understanding of the functional neural organization of vision and brain will open a window to maps and circuits of human brain function.119 references

  8. Reliability of standing weight-bearing (0.25T) MR imaging findings and positional changes in the lumbar spine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bjarke B; Hansen, Philip; Christensen, Anders F

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the reliability and absolute agreement of common degenerative findings in standing positional magnetic resonance imaging (pMRI). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Low back pain patients with and without sciatica were consecutively enrolled to undergo a supine and standing pMRI. Three...

  9. MR imaging findings of a sequestered disc in the lumbar spine: a comparison with an extruded disc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, Su Youn; Park, Ji Seon; Ryu, Kyung Nam; Jin, Wook

    2007-01-01

    To compare the MR findings of a sequestered disc with an extruded disc. MR images of 28 patients with a sequestered disc and 18 patients with an extruded disc were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with sequestered discs were divided into two groups whether definite separation from the parent disc was or was not seen. In the latter group (definite separation not seen) and the extruded disc group of patients, the signal intensities of the herniated discs were compared with the signal intensities of the parent discs and were evaluated on T1-and T2-weighted images. We also assessed the presence of a notch within the herniated disc. In the sequestered disc group of patients (28 discs), only 5 discs (18%) showed obvious separation from the parent disc. Among the remaining 23 discs with indefinite separation, the notch was visible in 14 discs (61%) and 9 discs (39%) had no notch. In the extruded disc group (18 discs), the notch was visible in 2 (11%) discs and the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (ρ 0.0002). The signal intensities of the herniated discs on T1-weighted images were isointense in both the sequestered and extruded discs. The difference of incidence of high signal intensities on T2-weighted images was not statistically significant (ρ = 0.125). It is necessary to consider the possibility of the presence of a sequestered disc when a herniated disc material shows a notch

  10. Low field magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine: Reliability of qualitative evaluation of disc and muscle parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Joan Solgaard; Kjaer, Per; Jensen, Tue Secher

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine the intra- and interobserver reliability in grading disc and muscle parameters using low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MATERIAL AND METHODS: MRI scans of 100 subjects representative of the general population were evaluated blindly by two radiologists. Criteria......: Convincing reliability was found in the evaluation of disc- and muscle-related MRI variables....

  11. Evaluation and management of 2 ferocactus spines in the orbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, David J; Kim, Tim I; Kubis, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    A 49-year-old woman, who had fallen face first in a cactus 1 week earlier, presented with a small, mobile, noninflamed subcutaneous nodule at the rim of her right lateral orbit with no other functional deficits. A CT scan was obtained, which revealed a 4-cm intraorbital tubular-shaped foreign body resembling a large cactus spine. A second preoperative CT scan, obtained for an intraoperative guidance system, demonstrated a second cactus spine, which was initially not seen on the first CT scan. Both spines were removed surgically without complication. The authors discuss factors that can cause diagnosis delay, review the radiographic features of cactus spines, and discuss the often times benign clinical course of retained cactus spine foreign bodies. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case report of cactus spines in the orbit. Health-care professionals should have a low threshold for imaging in cases of traumatic injuries involving cactus spines.

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging analysis of the upper cervical spine extensor musculature in an asymptomatic cohort: an index of fat within muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, J.M.; Galloway, G.J.; Jull, G.A.; Noteboom, J.T.; Centeno, C.J.; Gibbon, W.W.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To establish a simple method to quantify muscle/fat constituents in cervical muscles of asymptomatic women using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and to determine whether there is an age effect within a defined age range. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MRI of the upper cervical spine was performed for 42 asymptomatic women aged 18-45 years. The muscle and fat signal intensities on axial spin echo T1-weighted images were quantitatively classified by taking a ratio of the pixel intensity profiles of muscle against those of intermuscular fat for the rectus capitis posterior major and minor and inferior obliquus capitis muscles bilaterally. Inter- and intra-examiner agreement was scrutinized. RESULTS: The average relative values of fat within the upper cervical musculature compared with intermuscular fat indicated that there were only slight variations in indices between the three sets of muscles. There was no significant correlation between age and fat indices. There were significant differences for the relative fat within the muscle compared with intermuscular fat and body mass index for the right rectus capitis posterior major and right and left inferior obliquus capitis muscles (p=0.032). Intraclass correlation coefficients for intraobserver agreement ranged from 0.94 to 0.98. Inter-rater agreement of the measurements ranged from 0.75 to 0.97. CONCLUSION: A quantitative measure of muscle/fat constituents has been developed, and results of this study indicate that relative fatty infiltration is not a feature of age in the upper cervical extensor muscles of women aged 18-45 years

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging analysis of the upper cervical spine extensor musculature in an asymptomatic cohort: an index of fat within muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, J.M. [Division of Physiotherapy, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD (Australia)]. E-mail: jimelliott@plbb.net; Galloway, G.J. [Center for Magnetic Resonance, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD (Australia); Jull, G.A. [Division of Physiotherapy, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD (Australia); Noteboom, J.T. [Department of Physical Therapy, Regis University, Denver, CO, USA (United States); Centeno, C.J. [Centeno Clinic, Westminster, CO, USA (United States); Gibbon, W.W. [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD (Australia)

    2005-03-01

    AIM: To establish a simple method to quantify muscle/fat constituents in cervical muscles of asymptomatic women using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and to determine whether there is an age effect within a defined age range. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MRI of the upper cervical spine was performed for 42 asymptomatic women aged 18-45 years. The muscle and fat signal intensities on axial spin echo T1-weighted images were quantitatively classified by taking a ratio of the pixel intensity profiles of muscle against those of intermuscular fat for the rectus capitis posterior major and minor and inferior obliquus capitis muscles bilaterally. Inter- and intra-examiner agreement was scrutinized. RESULTS: The average relative values of fat within the upper cervical musculature compared with intermuscular fat indicated that there were only slight variations in indices between the three sets of muscles. There was no significant correlation between age and fat indices. There were significant differences for the relative fat within the muscle compared with intermuscular fat and body mass index for the right rectus capitis posterior major and right and left inferior obliquus capitis muscles (p=0.032). Intraclass correlation coefficients for intraobserver agreement ranged from 0.94 to 0.98. Inter-rater agreement of the measurements ranged from 0.75 to 0.97. CONCLUSION: A quantitative measure of muscle/fat constituents has been developed, and results of this study indicate that relative fatty infiltration is not a feature of age in the upper cervical extensor muscles of women aged 18-45 years.

  14. Fully automatic algorithm for segmenting full human diaphragm in non-contrast CT Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Elham; Gaede, Stewart; Lee, Ting-Yim; Samani, Abbas

    2015-03-01

    The diaphragm is a sheet of muscle which separates the thorax from the abdomen and it acts as the most important muscle of the respiratory system. As such, an accurate segmentation of the diaphragm, not only provides key information for functional analysis of the respiratory system, but also can be used for locating other abdominal organs such as the liver. However, diaphragm segmentation is extremely challenging in non-contrast CT images due to the diaphragm's similar appearance to other abdominal organs. In this paper, we present a fully automatic algorithm for diaphragm segmentation in non-contrast CT images. The method is mainly based on a priori knowledge about the human diaphragm anatomy. The diaphragm domes are in contact with the lungs and the heart while its circumference runs along the lumbar vertebrae of the spine as well as the inferior border of the ribs and sternum. As such, the diaphragm can be delineated by segmentation of these organs followed by connecting relevant parts of their outline properly. More specifically, the bottom surface of the lungs and heart, the spine borders and the ribs are delineated, leading to a set of scattered points which represent the diaphragm's geometry. Next, a B-spline filter is used to find the smoothest surface which pass through these points. This algorithm was tested on a noncontrast CT image of a lung cancer patient. The results indicate that there is an average Hausdorff distance of 2.96 mm between the automatic and manually segmented diaphragms which implies a favourable accuracy.

  15. Human Body Image Edge Detection Based on Wavelet Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勇; 付小莉

    2003-01-01

    Human dresses are different in thousands way.Human body image signals have big noise, a poor light and shade contrast and a narrow range of gray gradation distribution. The application of a traditional grads method or gray method to detect human body image edges can't obtain satisfactory results because of false detections and missed detections. According to tte peculiarity of human body image, dyadic wavelet transform of cubic spline is successfully applied to detect the face and profile edges of human body image and Mallat algorithm is used in the wavelet decomposition in this paper.

  16. Computed tomography of the cervical spine: comparison of image quality between a standard-dose and a low-dose protocol using filtered back-projection and iterative reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becce, Fabio [University of Lausanne, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne (Switzerland); Universite Catholique Louvain, Department of Radiology, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Brussels (Belgium); Ben Salah, Yosr; Berg, Bruno C. vande; Lecouvet, Frederic E.; Omoumi, Patrick [Universite Catholique Louvain, Department of Radiology, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Brussels (Belgium); Verdun, Francis R. [University of Lausanne, Institute of Radiation Physics, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne (Switzerland); Meuli, Reto [University of Lausanne, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2013-07-15

    To compare image quality of a standard-dose (SD) and a low-dose (LD) cervical spine CT protocol using filtered back-projection (FBP) and iterative reconstruction (IR). Forty patients investigated by cervical spine CT were prospectively randomised into two groups: SD (120 kVp, 275 mAs) and LD (120 kVp, 150 mAs), both applying automatic tube current modulation. Data were reconstructed using both FBP and sinogram-affirmed IR. Image noise, signal-to-noise (SNR) and contrast-to-noise (CNR) ratios were measured. Two radiologists independently and blindly assessed the following anatomical structures at C3-C4 and C6-C7 levels, using a four-point scale: intervertebral disc, content of neural foramina and dural sac, ligaments, soft tissues and vertebrae. They subsequently rated overall image quality using a ten-point scale. For both protocols and at each disc level, IR significantly decreased image noise and increased SNR and CNR, compared with FBP. SNR and CNR were statistically equivalent in LD-IR and SD-FBP protocols. Regardless of the dose and disc level, the qualitative scores with IR compared with FBP, and with LD-IR compared with SD-FBP, were significantly higher or not statistically different for intervertebral discs, neural foramina and ligaments, while significantly lower or not statistically different for soft tissues and vertebrae. The overall image quality scores were significantly higher with IR compared with FBP, and with LD-IR compared with SD-FBP. LD-IR cervical spine CT provides better image quality for intervertebral discs, neural foramina and ligaments, and worse image quality for soft tissues and vertebrae, compared with SD-FBP, while reducing radiation dose by approximately 40 %. (orig.)

  17. Computed tomography of the cervical spine: comparison of image quality between a standard-dose and a low-dose protocol using filtered back-projection and iterative reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becce, Fabio; Ben Salah, Yosr; Berg, Bruno C. vande; Lecouvet, Frederic E.; Omoumi, Patrick; Verdun, Francis R.; Meuli, Reto

    2013-01-01

    To compare image quality of a standard-dose (SD) and a low-dose (LD) cervical spine CT protocol using filtered back-projection (FBP) and iterative reconstruction (IR). Forty patients investigated by cervical spine CT were prospectively randomised into two groups: SD (120 kVp, 275 mAs) and LD (120 kVp, 150 mAs), both applying automatic tube current modulation. Data were reconstructed using both FBP and sinogram-affirmed IR. Image noise, signal-to-noise (SNR) and contrast-to-noise (CNR) ratios were measured. Two radiologists independently and blindly assessed the following anatomical structures at C3-C4 and C6-C7 levels, using a four-point scale: intervertebral disc, content of neural foramina and dural sac, ligaments, soft tissues and vertebrae. They subsequently rated overall image quality using a ten-point scale. For both protocols and at each disc level, IR significantly decreased image noise and increased SNR and CNR, compared with FBP. SNR and CNR were statistically equivalent in LD-IR and SD-FBP protocols. Regardless of the dose and disc level, the qualitative scores with IR compared with FBP, and with LD-IR compared with SD-FBP, were significantly higher or not statistically different for intervertebral discs, neural foramina and ligaments, while significantly lower or not statistically different for soft tissues and vertebrae. The overall image quality scores were significantly higher with IR compared with FBP, and with LD-IR compared with SD-FBP. LD-IR cervical spine CT provides better image quality for intervertebral discs, neural foramina and ligaments, and worse image quality for soft tissues and vertebrae, compared with SD-FBP, while reducing radiation dose by approximately 40 %. (orig.)

  18. A 7T spine array based on electric dipole transmitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Qi; Nair, Govind; Gudino, Natalia; de Zwart, Jacco A; van Gelderen, Peter; Murphy-Boesch, Joe; Reich, Daniel S; Duyn, Jeff H; Merkle, Hellmut

    2015-10-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the feasibility of using an array of electric dipole antennas for RF transmission in spine MRI at high fields. A two-channel transmit array based on an electric dipole design was quantitatively optimized for 7T spine imaging and integrated with a receive array combining eight loop coils. Using B1+ mapping, the transmit efficiency of the dipole array was compared with a design using quadrature loop pairs. The radiofrequency energy deposition for each array was measured using a home-built dielectric phantom and MR thermometry. The performance of the proposed array was qualitatively demonstrated in human studies. The results indicate dramatically improved transmit efficiency for the dipole design compared with the loop excitation. A gain of up to 76% was achieved within the spinal region. For imaging of the spine, electric dipole-based transmitters provide an attractive alternative to the traditional loop-based design. Easy integration with existing receive array technology facilitates practical use at high fields. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  19. Axial loaded MRI of the lumbar spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saifuddin, A. E-mail: asaifuddin@aol.com; Blease, S.; MacSweeney, E

    2003-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging is established as the technique of choice for assessment of degenerative disorders of the lumbar spine. However, it is routinely performed with the patient supine and the hips and knees flexed. The absence of axial loading and lumbar extension results in a maximization of spinal canal dimensions, which may in some cases, result in failure to demonstrate nerve root compression. Attempts have been made to image the lumbar spine in a more physiological state, either by imaging with flexion-extension, in the erect position or by using axial loading. This article reviews the literature relating to the above techniques.

  20. Transfer vibration through spine

    OpenAIRE

    Benyovszky, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Transfer Vibration through Spine Abstract In the bachelor project we deal with the topic of Transfer Vibration through Spine. The problem of TVS is trying to be solved by the critical review method. We analyse some diagnostic methods and methods of treatment based on this principle. Close attention is paid to the method of Transfer Vibration through Spine that is being currently solved by The Research Institute of Thermomechanics in The Czech Academy of Sciences in cooperation with Faculty of...

  1. Correlation of Computed Tomography Imaging Features With Pain Response in Patients With Spine Metastases After Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitera, Gunita; Probyn, Linda; Ford, Michael; Donovan, Andrea; Rubenstein, Joel; Finkelstein, Joel; Christakis, Monique; Zhang, Liying; Campos, Sarah; Culleton, Shaelyn; Nguyen, Janet; Sahgal, Arjun; Barnes, Elizabeth; Tsao, May; Danjoux, Cyril; Holden, Lori; Yee, Albert; Khan, Luluel; Chow, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To correlate computed tomography (CT) imaging features of spinal metastases with pain relief after radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Thirty-three patients receiving computed tomography (CT)-simulated RT for spinal metastases in an outpatient palliative RT clinic from January 2007 to October 2008 were retrospectively reviewed. Forty spinal metastases were evaluated. Pain response was rated using the International Bone Metastases Consensus Working Party endpoints. Three musculoskeletal radiologists and two orthopaedic surgeons evaluated CT features, including osseous and soft tissue tumor extent, presence of a pathologic fracture, severity of vertebral height loss, and presence of kyphosis. Results: The mean patient age was 69 years; 24 were men and 9 were women. The mean worst pain score was 7/10, and the mean total daily oral morphine equivalent was 77.3 mg. Treatment doses included 8 Gy in one fraction (22/33), 20 Gy in five fractions (10/33), and 20 Gy in eight fractions (1/33). The CT imaging appearance of spinal metastases included vertebral body involvement (40/40), pedicle involvement (23/40), and lamina involvement (18/40). Soft tissue component (10/40) and nerve root compression (9/40) were less common. Pathologic fractures existed in 11/40 lesions, with resultant vertebral body height loss in 10/40 and kyphosis in 2/40 lesions. At months 1, 2, and 3 after RT, 18%, 69%, and 70% of patients experienced pain relief. Pain response was observed with various CT imaging features. Conclusions: Pain response after RT did not differ in patients with and without pathologic fracture, kyphosis, or any other CT features related to extent of tumor involvement. All patients with painful spinal metastases may benefit from palliative RT.

  2. Routine magnetic resonance imaging of the spine in children with Gaucher disease: does it help therapeutic management?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Oeystein E.; McHugh, Kieran [Radiology Department, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, Great Ormond Street, WC1N 3JH, London (United Kingdom); Vellodi, Ashok [Haematology and Oncology Department, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom)

    2003-11-01

    Routine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) surveillance of bone marrow change in patients with Gaucher disease (GD) is recommended, but interpretation of imaging findings in the developing skeleton may be difficult. To assess the agreement between routine spinal MRI findings and clinical course in paediatric GD patients receiving enzyme replacement therapy (ERT). A retrospective institutional review of all GD patients on ERT who had had repeated routine spinal MRI in accordance with national recommendations (n=14) was carried out. Vertebral body bone marrow MRI T1 signal was assessed relative to intervertebral discs. MRI findings were then compared with recorded date(s) of ERT initiation and possible therapy changes. Nine patients had spinal MRI both before and after the start of ERT. MRI T1 marrow signal was normal in two and abnormal in three of the nine patients both before and after the start of ERT. Two of the nine patients had normalization and one had conversion from normal to abnormal T1 signal. Interpretation was uncertain in one. Seven episodes of treatment intensification occurred. MRI T1 marrow signal was normal before five and uncertain before two of the seven episodes. Routine spinal MRI had low accuracy for predicting clinically indicated therapy intensification. (orig.)

  3. Routine magnetic resonance imaging of the spine in children with Gaucher disease: does it help therapeutic management?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, Oeystein E.; McHugh, Kieran; Vellodi, Ashok

    2003-01-01

    Routine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) surveillance of bone marrow change in patients with Gaucher disease (GD) is recommended, but interpretation of imaging findings in the developing skeleton may be difficult. To assess the agreement between routine spinal MRI findings and clinical course in paediatric GD patients receiving enzyme replacement therapy (ERT). A retrospective institutional review of all GD patients on ERT who had had repeated routine spinal MRI in accordance with national recommendations (n=14) was carried out. Vertebral body bone marrow MRI T1 signal was assessed relative to intervertebral discs. MRI findings were then compared with recorded date(s) of ERT initiation and possible therapy changes. Nine patients had spinal MRI both before and after the start of ERT. MRI T1 marrow signal was normal in two and abnormal in three of the nine patients both before and after the start of ERT. Two of the nine patients had normalization and one had conversion from normal to abnormal T1 signal. Interpretation was uncertain in one. Seven episodes of treatment intensification occurred. MRI T1 marrow signal was normal before five and uncertain before two of the seven episodes. Routine spinal MRI had low accuracy for predicting clinically indicated therapy intensification. (orig.)

  4. PET imaging of human cardiac opioid receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villemagne, Patricia S.R.; Dannals, Robert F. [Department of Radiology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 605 N Caroline St., Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Ravert, Hayden T. [Department of Radiology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 605 N Caroline St., Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Frost, James J. [Department of Radiology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 605 N Caroline St., Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Department of Neuroscience, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)

    2002-10-01

    The presence of opioid peptides and receptors and their role in the regulation of cardiovascular function has been previously demonstrated in the mammalian heart. The aim of this study was to image {mu} and {delta} opioid receptors in the human heart using positron emission tomography (PET). Five subjects (three females, two males, 65{+-}8 years old) underwent PET scanning of the chest with [{sup 11}C]carfentanil ([{sup 11}C]CFN) and [{sup 11}C]-N-methyl-naltrindole ([{sup 11}C]MeNTI) and the images were analyzed for evidence of opioid receptor binding in the heart. Either [{sup 11}C]CFN or [{sup 11}C]MeNTI (20 mCi) was injected i.v. with subsequent dynamic acquisitions over 90 min. For the blocking studies, either 0.2 mg/kg or 1 mg/kg of naloxone was injected i.v. 5 min prior to the injection of [{sup 11}C]CFN and [{sup 11}C]MeNTI, respectively. Regions of interest were placed over the left ventricle, left ventricular chamber, lung and skeletal muscle. Graphical analysis demonstrated average baseline myocardial binding potentials (BP) of 4.37{+-}0.91 with [{sup 11}C]CFN and 3.86{+-}0.60 with [{sup 11}C]MeNTI. Administration of 0.2 mg/kg naloxone prior to [{sup 11}C]CFN produced a 25% reduction in BP in one subject in comparison with baseline values, and a 19% decrease in myocardial distribution volume (DV). Administration of 1 mg/kg of naloxone before [{sup 11}C]MeNTI in another subject produced a 14% decrease in BP and a 21% decrease in the myocardial DV. These results demonstrate the ability to image these receptors in vivo by PET. PET imaging of cardiac opioid receptors may help to better understand their role in cardiovascular pathophysiology and the effect of abuse of opioids and drugs on heart function. (orig.)

  5. Prospective analysis of magnetic resonance imaging accuracy in diagnosing traumatic injuries of the posterior ligamentous complex of the thoracolumbar spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizones, Javier; Sánchez-Mariscal, Felisa; Zúñiga, Lorenzo; Álvarez, Patricia; Izquierdo, Enrique

    2013-04-20

    Prospective cohort study. To study magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) accuracy in diagnosing posterior ligamentous complex (PLC) damage, when applying the new dichotomic instability criteria in a prospective cohort of patients with vertebral fracture. Recent studies dispute MRI accuracy to diagnose PLC injuries. They analyze the complex based on 3 categories (intact/indeterminate/rupture), including the indeterminate in the ruptured group (measurement bias) in the accuracy analysis. Moreover, fractures with conservative treatment (selection bias) are not included. Both facts reduce the specificity. A recent study has proposed new criteria where posterior instability is determined with supraspinous ligament (SSL) rupture. Prospective study of patients with acute thoracolumbar fracture, using radiography and MRI (FS-T2-w/short-tau inversion-recovery sequences). 1. The integrity (ruptured/unruptured) of each isolated component of the PLC (facet capsules, interspinous ligament, SSL, and ligamentum flavum) was assessed via MRI and surgical findings. 2. PLC integrity as a whole was assessed, adopting the new dichotomic stability criteria from previous studies. In the MR images, PLC is considered ruptured when the SSL is found discontinued, and intact when not (this excludes the "indeterminate" category). In surgically treated fractures, PLC stability as a whole was assessed dynamically (ruptured/unruptured). In conservative fractures, PLC stability was assessed according to change in vertebral kyphosis measured with the local kyphotic angle at 2-year follow-up (ruptured if difference is > 5°/unruptured if difference is PLC damage. Fifty-eight vertebral fractures were studied (38 surgical, 20 conservative), of which 50% were in males; average age, 40.4 years. MRI sensitivity for injury diagnosis of each isolated PLC component varied between 92.3% (interspinous ligament) and 100% (ligamentum flavum). Specificity varied between 52% (facet capsules) and 100% (SSL). PLC

  6. Volume of Lytic Vertebral Body Metastatic Disease Quantified Using Computed Tomography–Based Image Segmentation Predicts Fracture Risk After Spine Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thibault, Isabelle [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier de L' Universite de Québec–Université Laval, Quebec, Quebec (Canada); Whyne, Cari M. [Orthopaedic Biomechanics Laboratory, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Department of Surgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Zhou, Stephanie; Campbell, Mikki [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Atenafu, Eshetu G. [Department of Biostatistics, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Myrehaug, Sten; Soliman, Hany; Lee, Young K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Ebrahimi, Hamid [Orthopaedic Biomechanics Laboratory, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Department of Surgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Yee, Albert J.M. [Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Sahgal, Arjun, E-mail: arjun.sahgal@sunnybrook.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To determine a threshold of vertebral body (VB) osteolytic or osteoblastic tumor involvement that would predict vertebral compression fracture (VCF) risk after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), using volumetric image-segmentation software. Methods and Materials: A computational semiautomated skeletal metastasis segmentation process refined in our laboratory was applied to the pretreatment planning CT scan of 100 vertebral segments in 55 patients treated with spine SBRT. Each VB was segmented and the percentage of lytic and/or blastic disease by volume determined. Results: The cumulative incidence of VCF at 3 and 12 months was 14.1% and 17.3%, respectively. The median follow-up was 7.3 months (range, 0.6-67.6 months). In all, 56% of segments were determined lytic, 23% blastic, and 21% mixed, according to clinical radiologic determination. Within these 3 clinical cohorts, the segmentation-determined mean percentages of lytic and blastic tumor were 8.9% and 6.0%, 0.2% and 26.9%, and 3.4% and 15.8% by volume, respectively. On the basis of the entire cohort (n=100), a significant association was observed for the osteolytic percentage measures and the occurrence of VCF (P<.001) but not for the osteoblastic measures. The most significant lytic disease threshold was observed at ≥11.6% (odds ratio 37.4, 95% confidence interval 9.4-148.9). On multivariable analysis, ≥11.6% lytic disease (P<.001), baseline VCF (P<.001), and SBRT with ≥20 Gy per fraction (P=.014) were predictive. Conclusions: Pretreatment lytic VB disease volumetric measures, independent of the blastic component, predict for SBRT-induced VCF. Larger-scale trials evaluating our software are planned to validate the results.

  7. Image-Guided Cryoablation of the Spine in a Swine Model: Clinical, Radiological, and Pathological Findings with Light and Electron Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Ricardo Miguel Costa de, E-mail: ricardomcfreitas@gmail.com; Andrade, Celi Santos, E-mail: celis.andrade@hotmail.com; Caldas, José Guilherme Mendes Pereira, E-mail: jgmpcaldas@uol.com.br [Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, Department of Radiology, Interventional Radiology Unit of the Instituto de Radiologia (Brazil); Tsunemi, Miriam Harumi, E-mail: miharumi@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho, Department of Biostatistics, Biosciences Institute (Brazil); Ferreira, Lorraine Braga, E-mail: lorraine.braga@gmail.com; Arana-Chavez, Victor Elias, E-mail: vearana@usp.br [Faculdade de Odontologia da Universidade de São Paulo, Department of Oral Pathology (Brazil); Cury, Patrícia Maluf, E-mail: pmcury@hotmail.com [Faculdade de Medicina de São José do Rio Preto, Department of Pathology and Forensic Medicine (Brazil)

    2015-10-15

    PurposeThis study was designed to present the feasibility of an in vivo image-guided percutaneous cryoablation of the porcine vertebral body.MethodsThe institutional animal care committee approved this study. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT)-guided vertebral cryoablations (n = 22) were performed in eight pigs with short, 2-min, single or double-freezing protocols. Protective measures to nerves included dioxide carbon (CO{sub 2}) epidural injections and spinal canal temperature monitoring. Clinical, radiological, and pathological data with light (n = 20) or transmission electron (n = 2) microscopic analyses were evaluated after 6 days of clinical follow-up and euthanasia.ResultsCBCT/fluoroscopic-guided transpedicular vertebral body cryoprobe positioning and CO{sub 2} epidural injection were successful in all procedures. No major complications were observed in seven animals (87.5 %, n = 8). A minor complication was observed in one pig (12.5 %, n = 1). Logistic regression model analysis showed the cryoprobe-spinal canal (Cp-Sc) distance as the most efficient parameter to categorize spinal canal temperatures lower than 19 °C (p < 0.004), with a significant Pearson’s correlation test (p < 0.041) between the Cp-Sc distance and the lowest spinal canal temperatures. Ablation zones encompassed pedicles and the posterior wall of the vertebral bodies with an inflammatory rim, although no inflammatory infiltrate was depicted in the surrounding neural structures at light microscopy. Ultrastructural analyses evidenced myelin sheath disruption in some large nerve fibers, although neurological deficits were not observed.ConclusionsCBCT-guided vertebral cryoablation of the porcine spine is feasible under a combination of a short freezing protocol and protective measures to the surrounding nerves. Ultrastructural analyses may be helpful assess the early modifications of the nerve fibers.

  8. Image-Guided Cryoablation of the Spine in a Swine Model: Clinical, Radiological, and Pathological Findings with Light and Electron Microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, Ricardo Miguel Costa de; Andrade, Celi Santos; Caldas, José Guilherme Mendes Pereira; Tsunemi, Miriam Harumi; Ferreira, Lorraine Braga; Arana-Chavez, Victor Elias; Cury, Patrícia Maluf

    2015-01-01

    PurposeThis study was designed to present the feasibility of an in vivo image-guided percutaneous cryoablation of the porcine vertebral body.MethodsThe institutional animal care committee approved this study. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT)-guided vertebral cryoablations (n = 22) were performed in eight pigs with short, 2-min, single or double-freezing protocols. Protective measures to nerves included dioxide carbon (CO 2 ) epidural injections and spinal canal temperature monitoring. Clinical, radiological, and pathological data with light (n = 20) or transmission electron (n = 2) microscopic analyses were evaluated after 6 days of clinical follow-up and euthanasia.ResultsCBCT/fluoroscopic-guided transpedicular vertebral body cryoprobe positioning and CO 2 epidural injection were successful in all procedures. No major complications were observed in seven animals (87.5 %, n = 8). A minor complication was observed in one pig (12.5 %, n = 1). Logistic regression model analysis showed the cryoprobe-spinal canal (Cp-Sc) distance as the most efficient parameter to categorize spinal canal temperatures lower than 19 °C (p < 0.004), with a significant Pearson’s correlation test (p < 0.041) between the Cp-Sc distance and the lowest spinal canal temperatures. Ablation zones encompassed pedicles and the posterior wall of the vertebral bodies with an inflammatory rim, although no inflammatory infiltrate was depicted in the surrounding neural structures at light microscopy. Ultrastructural analyses evidenced myelin sheath disruption in some large nerve fibers, although neurological deficits were not observed.ConclusionsCBCT-guided vertebral cryoablation of the porcine spine is feasible under a combination of a short freezing protocol and protective measures to the surrounding nerves. Ultrastructural analyses may be helpful assess the early modifications of the nerve fibers

  9. Traumatic thoracolumbar spine fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Siebenga (Jan)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractTraumatic spinal fractures have the lowest functional outcomes and the lowest rates of return to work after injury of all major organ systems.1 This thesis will cover traumatic thoracolumbar spine fractures and not osteoporotic spine fractures because of the difference in fracture

  10. Image Visual Realism: From Human Perception to Machine Computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shaojing; Ng, Tian-Tsong; Koenig, Bryan L; Herberg, Jonathan S; Jiang, Ming; Shen, Zhiqi; Zhao, Qi

    2017-08-30

    Visual realism is defined as the extent to which an image appears to people as a photo rather than computer generated. Assessing visual realism is important in applications like computer graphics rendering and photo retouching. However, current realism evaluation approaches use either labor-intensive human judgments or automated algorithms largely dependent on comparing renderings to reference images. We develop a reference-free computational framework for visual realism prediction to overcome these constraints. First, we construct a benchmark dataset of 2520 images with comprehensive human annotated attributes. From statistical modeling on this data, we identify image attributes most relevant for visual realism. We propose both empirically-based (guided by our statistical modeling of human data) and CNN-learned features to predict visual realism of images. Our framework has the following advantages: (1) it creates an interpretable and concise empirical model that characterizes human perception of visual realism; (2) it links computational features to latent factors of human image perception.

  11. Development of a human body RMN imaging device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint-Jalmes, H.

    1984-03-01

    Imaging device for human body is studied in this thesis. The section images presented are got by a projection-reconstruction method associated to a section plane selection by an oscillating gradient application. Different stages of the machine development are presented: - design and calculation of a resistive magnet for very homogeneous field imaging - design of gradient coils for imaging magnets - realization of control and acquisition interfaces - realization of imaging software in real time [fr

  12. Thoracic spine pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksey Ivanovich Isaikin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thoracic spine pain, or thoracalgia, is one of the common reasons for seeking for medical advice. The epidemiology and semiotics of pain in the thoracic spine unlike in those in the cervical and lumbar spine have not been inadequately studied. The causes of thoracic spine pain are varied: diseases of the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, pulmonary, and renal systems, injuries to the musculoskeletal structures of the cervical and thoracic portions, which require a thorough differential diagnosis. Facet, costotransverse, and costovertebral joint injuries and myofascial syndrome are the most common causes of musculoskeletal (nonspecific pain in the thoracic spine. True radicular pain is rarely encountered. Traditionally, treatment for thoracalgia includes a combination of non-drug and drug therapies. The cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitor meloxicam (movalis may be the drug of choice in the treatment of musculoskeletal pain.

  13. Hierarchical imaging of the human knee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Georg; Götz, Christian; Deyhle, Hans; Müller-Gerbl, Magdalena; Zanette, Irene; Zdora, Marie-Christine; Khimchenko, Anna; Thalmann, Peter; Rack, Alexander; Müller, Bert

    2016-10-01

    Among the clinically relevant imaging techniques, computed tomography (CT) reaches the best spatial resolution. Sub-millimeter voxel sizes are regularly obtained. For investigations on true micrometer level lab-based μCT has become gold standard. The aim of the present study is the hierarchical investigation of a human knee post mortem using hard X-ray μCT. After the visualization of the entire knee using a clinical CT with a spatial resolution on the sub-millimeter range, a hierarchical imaging study was performed using a laboratory μCT system nanotom m. Due to the size of the whole knee the pixel length could not be reduced below 65 μm. These first two data sets were directly compared after a rigid registration using a cross-correlation algorithm. The μCT data set allowed an investigation of the trabecular structures of the bones. The further reduction of the pixel length down to 25 μm could be achieved by removing the skin and soft tissues and measuring the tibia and the femur separately. True micrometer resolution could be achieved after extracting cylinders of several millimeters diameters from the two bones. The high resolution scans revealed the mineralized cartilage zone including the tide mark line as well as individual calcified chondrocytes. The visualization of soft tissues including cartilage, was arranged by X-ray grating interferometry (XGI) at ESRF and Diamond Light Source. Whereas the high-energy measurements at ESRF allowed the simultaneous visualization of soft and hard tissues, the low-energy results from Diamond Light Source made individual chondrocytes within the cartilage visual.

  14. MO-FG-CAMPUS-JeP3-02: A Novel Setup Approach to Improve C-Spine Curvature Reproducibility for Head and Neck Radiotherapy Using Optical Surface Imaging with Two Regions of Interest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, K; Gil, M; Li, G [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Della Biancia, C [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a novel approach to improve cervical spine (c-spine) curvature reproducibility for head and neck (HN) patients using optical surface imaging (OSI) with two regions of interests (ROIs). Methods: The OSI-guided, two-step setup procedure requires two ROIs: ROI-1 of the shoulders and ROI-2 of the face. The neck can be stretched or squeezed in superior-inferior (SI) direction using a specially-designed sliding head support. We hypothesize that when these two ROIs are aligned, the c-spine should fall into a naturally reproducible position under same setup conditions. An anthropomorphous phantom test was performed to examine neck pitch angles comparing with the calculated angles. Three volunteers participated in the experiments, which start with conventional HN setup using skin markers and room lasers. An OSI image and lateral photo-picture were acquired as the references. In each of the three replicate tests, conventional setup was first applied after volunteers got on the couch. ROI-1 was aligned by moving the body, followed by ROI-2 alignment via adjusting head position and orientation under real-time OSI guidance. A final static OSI image and lateral picture were taken to evaluate both anterior and posterior surface alignments. Three degrees of freedom can be adjusted if an open-face mask was applied, including head SI shift using the sliding head support and pitch-and-roll rotations using a commercial couch extension. Surface alignment was analyzed comparing with conventional setup. Results: The neck pitch angle measured by OSI is consistent with the calculated (0.2±0.6°). Volunteer study illustrated improved c-spine setup reproducibility using OSI comparing with conventional setup. ROI alignments with 2mm/1° tolerance are achieved within 3 minutes. Identical knee support is important to achieve ROI-1 pitch alignment. Conclusion: The feasibility of this novel approach has been demonstrated for c-spine curvature setup reproducibility. Further

  15. Which is the ideal point of time to perform intraoperative 3D imaging in dorsal stabilisation of thoracolumbar spine fractures? A matched pair analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, M; Mittlmeier, T; Gierer, P; Rotter, R; Harms, C; Gradl, G

    2010-10-01

    After dorsal stabilisation of vertebral fractures by an internal fixateur the postoperative computed tomography is a standard procedure to control the positions of the pedicle screws, the success of the reposition, the clearance of the spinal canal and to plane an additive secondary ventral stabilisation. An intraoperative scan with a 3D image intensifier may clarify these questions directly after the implantation with the possibility of an immediate correction of the implants. The aim of this study was to find out the optimal point of time to perform an intraoperative 3D scan and if a postoperative computed tomography is dispensable. Intraoperative 3D scans were carried out on 33 patients with thoracolumbar spine fractures (T11-L5) after bi-segmental fixateur interne montage (Group 1). A matched pair group of 33 patients (Group 2) with a 3D scan after implantation of pedicle screws was built. A postoperative computed tomography of the instrumented spinal section was done in all patients. The following measurements were done in sagittal and axial reconstruction planes and were compared: classification of screw positions, maximal axial diameter of pedicles, cortical perforation of the screws. Additionally in Group 1 the distance between the upper and lower end plates of the injured section, the height of posterior vertebral body wall, the dislocation of the posterior wall and the minimal diameter of the spinal canal were measured. The intraoperative scoring of pedicle screws positions and the measurement of pedicle width showed in both groups a significant accordance with the computed tomography determinations. The measurements "posterior wall dislocation" and "diameter of spinal canal" were only possible in 24 3D scans and showed a significant difference compared with the CT data. The picture quality in Group 2 was scored significantly better than for Group 1 with the complete assembly of the fixateur. The ideal point of time for an intraoperative 3D imaging with

  16. [Application of Finite Element Method in Thoracolumbar Spine Traumatology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Qiu, Yong-gui; Shao, Yu; Gu, Xiao-feng; Zeng, Ming-wei

    2015-04-01

    The finite element method (FEM) is a mathematical technique using modern computer technology for stress analysis, and has been gradually used in simulating human body structures in the biomechanical field, especially more widely used in the research of thoracolumbar spine traumatology. This paper reviews the establishment of the thoracolumbar spine FEM, the verification of the FEM, and the thoracolumbar spine FEM research status in different fields, and discusses its prospects and values in forensic thoracolumbar traumatology.

  17. Fine structure of synapses on dendritic spines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eFrotscher

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Camillo Golgi’s Reazione Nera led to the discovery of dendritic spines, small appendages originating from dendritic shafts. With the advent of electron microscopy (EM they were identified as sites of synaptic contact. Later it was found that changes in synaptic strength were associated with changes in the shape of dendritic spines. While live-cell imaging was advantageous in monitoring the time course of such changes in spine structure, EM is still the best method for the simultaneous visualization of all cellular components, including actual synaptic contacts, at high resolution. Immunogold labeling for EM reveals the precise localization of molecules in relation to synaptic structures. Previous EM studies of spines and synapses were performed in tissue subjected to aldehyde fixation and dehydration in ethanol, which is associated with protein denaturation and tissue shrinkage. It has remained an issue to what extent fine structural details are preserved when subjecting the tissue to these procedures. In the present review, we report recent studies on the fine structure of spines and synapses using high-pressure freezing (HPF, which avoids protein denaturation by aldehydes and results in an excellent preservation of ultrastructural detail. In these studies, HPF was used to monitor subtle fine-structural changes in spine shape associated with chemically induced long-term potentiation (cLTP at identified hippocampal mossy fiber synapses. Changes in spine shape result from reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. We report that cLTP was associated with decreased immunogold labeling for phosphorylated cofilin (p-cofilin, an actin-depolymerizing protein. Phosphorylation of cofilin renders it unable to depolymerize F-actin, which stabilizes the actin cytoskeleton. Decreased levels of p-cofilin, in turn, suggest increased actin turnover, possibly underlying the changes in spine shape associated with cLTP. The findings reviewed here establish HPF as

  18. The postoperative spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS) is one of the most perplexing medical and medicoeconomic problems facing our health system today. In many studies reoperation rates tend to be between 10 and 20%, but as many as 20-45% 3 of patients may have persistent back or radicular pain following what was to have been definitive therapy. The causes for the FBSS are very complex. The Workmen's Compensation system and medicolegal trends toward very high settlements of litigation for injury have provided serious incentive for patients to remain symptomatic. It is difficult to analyze any statistical survey of symptomatic back patients without serious bias from this group of patients. Others suggest that patients with severe psychological problems, drug abuse, and alcoholism are inappropriately selected as surgical candidates. They believe that careful psychological evaluation of patients minimizes FBSS. Even if all extrinsic factors could be eliminated, the problem of failed back surgery would still be a major one. This chapter is based on a review of 300 postoperative lumbar spine multiplanar CT scans performed over a 15-month period. All patients had a complete set of axial images, with sagittal and coronal reformations photographed twice: optimized once for bone definition and once for soft-tissue contrast resolution

  19. The Management of Unstable Cervical Spine Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venu M. Nemani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Injuries to the cervical spine can cause potentially devastating morbidity and even mortality. In this review we discuss the anatomy and biomechanics of the cervical spine. The evaluation and treatment of cervical spine injuries begins with the prompt immobilization of suspected injuries in the field. Once an assessment of the patient's neurological status is made, imaging studies are obtained, which can include X-rays, CT, and MRI. Careful scrutiny of the imaging studies for bony and/or ligamentous injury allows the physician to determine the mechanism of injury, which guides treatment. The ultimate treatment plan can consist of non-operative or operative management, and depends on patient specific factors (medical condition and neurological status, the mechanism of injury, and the resultant degree of instability. With prompt diagnosis and appropriate management, the morbidity of these injuries can be minimized.

  20. Microwave Imaging of Human Forearms: Pilot Study and Image Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Gilmore

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a pilot study using a microwave tomography system in which we image the forearms of 5 adult male and female volunteers between the ages of 30 and 48. Microwave scattering data were collected at 0.8 to 1.2 GHz with 24 transmitting and receiving antennas located in a matching fluid of deionized water and table salt. Inversion of the microwave data was performed with a balanced version of the multiplicative-regularized contrast source inversion algorithm formulated using the finite-element method (FEM-CSI. T1-weighted MRI images of each volunteer’s forearm were also collected in the same plane as the microwave scattering experiment. Initial “blind” imaging results from the utilized inversion algorithm show that the image quality is dependent on the thickness of the arm’s peripheral adipose tissue layer; thicker layers of adipose tissue lead to poorer overall image quality. Due to the exible nature of the FEM-CSI algorithm used, prior information can be readily incorporated into the microwave imaging inversion process. We show that by introducing prior information into the FEM-CSI algorithm the internal anatomical features of all the arms are resolved, significantly improving the images. The prior information was estimated manually from the blind inversions using an ad hoc procedure.

  1. RSA in Spine: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humadi, Ali; Dawood, Sulaf; Halldin, Klas; Freeman, Brian

    2017-12-01

    Systematic review of literature. This systematic review was conducted to investigate the accuracy of radiostereometric analysis (RSA), its assessment of spinal motion and disorders, and to investigate the limitations of this technique in spine assessment. Systematic review in all current literature to invesigate the role of RSA in spine. The results of this review concluded that RSA is a very powerful tool to detect small changes between 2 rigid bodies such as a vertebral segment. The technique is described for animal and human studies for cervical and lumbar spine and can be used to analyze range of motion, inducible displacement, and fusion of segments. However, there are a few disadvantages with the technique; RSA percutaneous procedure needs to be performed to implant the markers (and cannot be used preoperatively), one needs a specific knowledge to handle data and interpret the results, and is relatively time consuming and expensive. RSA should be looked at as a very powerful research instrument and there are many questions suitable for RSA studies.

  2. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Spine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... headsets so that the child can watch a movie while the scan is being performed. Thus, the ... the possible charges you will incur. Web page review process: This Web page is reviewed regularly by ...

  3. Meninges of the spine (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by 3 connective tissue layers collectively called the meninges. Consisting of the pia mater (closest to the ... the dura mater (farthest from the CNS), the meninges also support blood vessels and contain cerebrospinal fluid. ...

  4. The prevalence of cervical myelopathy among subjects with narrow cervical spinal canal in a population-based magnetic resonance imaging study: the Wakayama Spine Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Keiji; Yoshimura, Noriko; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Muraki, Shigeyuki; Ishimoto, Yuyu; Yamada, Hiroshi; Takiguchi, Noboru; Nakagawa, Yukihiro; Minamide, Akihito; Oka, Hiroyuki; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Kozo; Akune, Toru; Yoshida, Munehito

    2014-12-01

    A narrow cervical spinal canal (CSC) is a well-known risk factor for cervical myelopathy (CM). However, no epidemiologic data of the CSC based on a population-based cohort are available. The purpose of the study was to investigate the age-related differences in CSC diameters on plain radiographs and to examine the associated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities including cervical cord compression and increased signal intensity (ISI) as well as the clinical CM with the narrow CSC. This was a cross-sectional study. Data were obtained from the baseline survey of the Wakayama Spine Study that was performed from 2008 to 2010 in a western part of Japan. Finally, a total of 959 subjects (319 men and 640 women; mean age, 66.4 years) were included. The outcome measures included in the study were the CSC diameter at C5 level on plain radiographs, cervical cord compression and ISI on sagittal T2-weighted MRI, and physical signs related to CM (eg, the Hoffmann reflex, hyperreflexia of the patellar tendon, the Babinski reflex, sensory and motor function, and bowel/bladder symptoms). The age-related differences of CSC diameters in men and women were investigated by descriptive statistics. The prevalence of MRI abnormalities and clinical CM was compared among the groups divided by the CSC diameter (less than 13, 13-15, and 15 mm or more). In addition, a logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the association of the CSC diameter with cervical cord compression/clinical CM after overall adjustment for age, sex, and body mass index. The CSC diameter was narrower with increasing age in both men and women. The prevalence of cervical cord compression, ISI, and the clinical CM was significantly higher in the narrower CSC group. The prevalence of cervical cord compression, ISI, and CM among subjects with CSC diameter less than 13 mm was 38.0%, 5.4%, and 10.1%, respectively. In the logistic model, the CSC diameter was a significant predictive factor for the

  5. Management of thoracolumbar spine trauma An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rajasekaran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thoracolumbar spine fractures are common injuries that can result in significant disability, deformity and neurological deficit. Controversies exist regarding the appropriate radiological investigations, the indications for surgical management and the timing, approach and type of surgery. This review provides an overview of the epidemiology, biomechanical principles, radiological and clinical evaluation, classification and management principles. Literature review of all relevant articles published in PubMed covering thoracolumbar spine fractures with or without neurologic deficit was performed. The search terms used were thoracolumbar, thoracic, lumbar, fracture, trauma and management. All relevant articles and abstracts covering thoracolumbar spine fractures with and without neurologic deficit were reviewed. Biomechanically the thoracolumbar spine is predisposed to a higher incidence of spinal injuries. Computed tomography provides adequate bony detail for assessing spinal stability while magnetic resonance imaging shows injuries to soft tissues (posterior ligamentous complex [PLC] and neurological structures. Different classification systems exist and the most recent is the AO spine knowledge forum classification of thoracolumbar trauma. Treatment includes both nonoperative and operative methods and selected based on the degree of bony injury, neurological involvement, presence of associated injuries and the integrity of the PLC. Significant advances in imaging have helped in the better understanding of thoracolumbar fractures, including information on canal morphology and injury to soft tissue structures. The ideal classification that is simple, comprehensive and guides management is still elusive. Involvement of three columns, progressive neurological deficit, significant kyphosis and canal compromise with neurological deficit are accepted indications for surgical stabilization through anterior, posterior or combined approaches.

  6. Anatomy of the Spine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... curve of the neck is described as a lordosis or lordotic curve, and looks like a “C” ... like the cervical spine, creating a normal lumbar lordosis. The five lumbar vertebral bodies are the weight- ...

  7. SpineData

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kent, Peter; Kongsted, Alice; Jensen, Tue Secher

    2015-01-01

    Background: Large-scale clinical registries are increasingly recognized as important resources for quality assurance and research to inform clinical decision-making and health policy. We established a clinical registry (SpineData) in a conservative care setting where more than 10,000 new cases...... of spinal pain are assessed each year. This paper describes the SpineData registry, summarizes the characteristics of its clinical population and data, and signals the availability of these data as a resource for collaborative research projects. Methods: The SpineData registry is an Internet-based system...... that captures patient data electronically at the point of clinical contact. The setting is the government-funded Medical Department of the Spine Centre of Southern Denmark, Hospital Lillebaelt, where patients receive a multidisciplinary assessment of their chronic spinal pain. Results: Started in 2011...

  8. Periscopic Spine Surgery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cleary, Kevin R

    2000-01-01

    .... Key research accomplishments for the first year are: ̂Demonstrated the value of intraoperative CT for visualization and verification of the anatomy in complex spine surgeries in the neurosurgery operating room...

  9. Beyond the spine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donovan, James; Cassidy, J David; Cancelliere, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Over the past two decades, clinical research within the chiropractic profession has focused on the spine and spinal conditions, specifically neck and low back pain. However, there is now a small group of chiropractors with clinical research training that are shifting their focus away from...... highlight recent research in these new areas and discuss how clinical research efforts in musculoskeletal areas beyond the spine can benefit patient care and the future of the chiropractic profession....

  10. SPECT/CT for imaging of the spine and pelvis in clinical routine: a physician's perspective of the adoption of SPECT/CT in a clinical setting with a focus on trauma surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheyerer, Max J.; Zimmermann, Stefan M.; Osterhoff, Georg; Simmen, Hans-Peter; Werner, Clement M.L. [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Surgery, Division of Trauma Surgery, Zuerich (Switzerland); Pietsch, Carsten [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Medical Radiology, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-05-15

    Injuries of the axial skeleton are an important field of work within orthopaedic surgery and traumatology. Most lesions following trauma may be diagnosed by means of conventional plain radiography, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. However, for some aspects SPECT/ CT can be helpful even in a trauma setting. In particular, the combination of highly sensitive but nonspecific scintigraphy with nonsensitive but highly specific computed tomography makes it particularly useful in anatomically complex regions such as the pelvis and spine. From a trauma surgeon's point of view, the four main indications for nuclear medicine imaging are the detection of (occult) fractures, and the imaging of inflammatory bone and joint diseases, chronic diseases and postoperative complications such as instability of instrumentation or implants. The aim of the present review was to give an overview of the adoption of SPECT/CT in a clinical setting. (orig.)

  11. Study of factors controlling exposure dose and image quality of C-arm in operation room according to detector size of it (Mainly L-Spine AP study)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chui, Sung Hyun; Jo, Hwang Woo [Dept. of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chun, Woon Kwan; Song, Ha Jin [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Dong, Kyung Rae [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Gwangju Health University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Eun Jin [Dept. of Public Health and Medicine, Dongshin University, Naju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Time of operation has been reduced and accuracy of operation has been improved since C-arm, which offer real-time image of patient, was introduced in operation room. However, because of the contamination of patient, C-arm could not be used more appropriately. Therefore, this study is to know factors of controlling exposure dose, image quality and the exposed dose of health professional in operation room. Height of Wilson frame (bed for operation) was fixed at 130 cm. Then, Model 76-2 Phantom, which was set by assembling manual of Fluke Company, was set on the bed. Head/Spine Fluoroscopy AEC mode was set for exposure condition. According to detector size of C-arm, the absorbed dose per min was measured in the 7 steps OFD (cm) from 10 cm to 40 cm (10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 cm). In each step of OFD, the absorbed dose per min of same diameter of collimation was measured. Moreover, using Nero MAX Model 8000, exposure dose per min was measured according to 3 step of distance from detector (20 cm, 60 cm, 100 cm). Finally, resolution was measured by CDRH Disc Phantom and magnification of each OFD was measured by aluminum stick bar. According to detector size of C-arm, difference of absorbed dose shows that the dose of 20 cm OFD is 1.750 times higher than the dose of 40 cm OFD. It means that the C-arm, which has smaller size of detector, shows the bigger difference of absorbed dose per min (p<0.05). In the difference of absorbed dose in the same step of OFD (from 20 cm to 40 cm), the absorbed dose of 9 inch detect or C-arm was 1.370 times higher than 12 inch' s (p<0.05). When OFD was set to 20 cm OFD, the absorbed dose of non-collimation case was approximately 0.816 times lower than the absorbed dose of collimation cases (p<0.05). When the distance was 20 cm from detector, exposed does includes first-ray and scatter-ray. When the distance was 60 cm and 100 cm from detector, exposed does includes just scatter-ray. So, there was the 2.200 times difference of absorbed

  12. Sacroiliac joint injection using the posterior superior iliac spines as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Limitations in the availability of such image guided techniques in health ... School of Medical Sciences, University of Science and Technology between 2006 and ... The needle position from the posterior superior iliac spine and its angle of ...

  13. Microwave non-contact imaging of subcutaneous human body tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kletsov, Andrey; Chernokalov, Alexander; Khripkov, Alexander; Cho, Jaegeol; Druchinin, Sergey

    2015-10-01

    A small-size microwave sensor is developed for non-contact imaging of a human body structure in 2D, enabling fitness and health monitoring using mobile devices. A method for human body tissue structure imaging is developed and experimentally validated. Subcutaneous fat tissue reconstruction depth of up to 70 mm and maximum fat thickness measurement error below 2 mm are demonstrated by measurements with a human body phantom and human subjects. Electrically small antennas are developed for integration of the microwave sensor into a mobile device. Usability of the developed microwave sensor for fitness applications, healthcare, and body weight management is demonstrated.

  14. Benign compression fractures of the spine: signal patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Kyung Nam; Choi, Woo Suk; Lee, Sun Wha; Lim, Jae Hoon

    1992-01-01

    Fifteen patients with 38 compression fractures of the spine underwent magnetic resonance(MR) imaging. We retrospectively evaluated MR images in those benign compression fractures. MR images showed four patterns in T1-weighted images. MR imaging patterns were normal signal(21), band like low signal(8), low signal with preservation of peripheral portion of the body(8), and diffuse low signal through the vertebral body(1). The low signal portions were changed to high signal intensities in T2-weighted images. In 7 of 15 patients (11 compression fractures), there was a history of trauma, and the remaining 8 patients (27 compression fractures) had no history of trauma. Benign compression fractures of trauma, remained 8 patients (27 compression fractures) were non-traumatic. Benign compression fractures of the spine reveal variable signal intensities in MR imagings. These patterns of benign compression fractures may be useful in interpretation of MR imagings of the spine

  15. Image enhancement using thermal-visible fusion for human detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaihidee, Ezrinda Mohd; Hawari Ghazali, Kamarul; Zuki Saleh, Mohd

    2017-09-01

    An increased interest in detecting human beings in video surveillance system has emerged in recent years. Multisensory image fusion deserves more research attention due to the capability to improve the visual interpretability of an image. This study proposed fusion techniques for human detection based on multiscale transform using grayscale visual light and infrared images. The samples for this study were taken from online dataset. Both images captured by the two sensors were decomposed into high and low frequency coefficients using Stationary Wavelet Transform (SWT). Hence, the appropriate fusion rule was used to merge the coefficients and finally, the final fused image was obtained by using inverse SWT. From the qualitative and quantitative results, the proposed method is more superior than the two other methods in terms of enhancement of the target region and preservation of details information of the image.

  16. Imaging Human Brain Perfusion with Inhaled Hyperpolarized 129Xe MR Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Madhwesha R; Stewart, Neil J; Griffiths, Paul D; Norquay, Graham; Wild, Jim M

    2018-02-01

    Purpose To evaluate the feasibility of directly imaging perfusion of human brain tissue by using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with inhaled hyperpolarized xenon 129 ( 129 Xe). Materials and Methods In vivo imaging with 129 Xe was performed in three healthy participants. The combination of a high-yield spin-exchange optical pumping 129 Xe polarizer, custom-built radiofrequency coils, and an optimized gradient-echo MR imaging protocol was used to achieve signal sensitivity sufficient to directly image hyperpolarized 129 Xe dissolved in the human brain. Conventional T1-weighted proton (hydrogen 1 [ 1 H]) images and perfusion images by using arterial spin labeling were obtained for comparison. Results Images of 129 Xe uptake were obtained with a signal-to-noise ratio of 31 ± 9 and demonstrated structural similarities to the gray matter distribution on conventional T1-weighted 1 H images and to perfusion images from arterial spin labeling. Conclusion Hyperpolarized 129 Xe MR imaging is an injection-free means of imaging the perfusion of cerebral tissue. The proposed method images the uptake of inhaled xenon gas to the extravascular brain tissue compartment across the intact blood-brain barrier. This level of sensitivity is not readily available with contemporary MR imaging methods. © RSNA, 2017.

  17. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the human spine from bi-planar radiographs: using multiscale wavelet analysis and spline interpolators for semi-automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschenes, Sylvain; Godbout, Benoit; Branchaud, Dominic; Mitton, David; Pomero, Vincent; Bleau, Andre; Skalli, Wafa; de Guise, Jacques A.

    2003-05-01

    We propose a new fast stereoradiographic 3D reconstruction method for the spine. User input is limited to few points passing through the spine on two radiographs and two line segments representing the end plates of the limiting vertebrae. A 3D spline that hints the positions of the vertebrae in space is then generated. We then use wavelet multi-scale analysis (WMSA) to automatically localize specific features in both lateral and frontal radiographs. The WMSA gives an elegant spectral investigation that leads to gradient generation and edge extraction. Analysis of the information contained at several scales leads to the detection of 1) two curves enclosing the vertebral bodies' walls and 2) inter-vertebral spaces along the spine. From this data, we extract four points per vertebra per view, corresponding to the corners of the vertebral bodies. These points delimit a hexahedron in space where we can match the vertebral body. This hexahedron is then passed through a 3D statistical database built using local and global information generated from a bank of normal and scoliotic spines. Finally, models of the vertebrae are positioned with respect to these landmarks, completing the 3D reconstruction.

  18. Trichinella spiralis in human muscle (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the parasite Trichinella spiralis in human muscle tissue. The parasite is transmitted by eating undercooked meats, especially pork. The cysts hatch in the intestines and produce large numbers of larvae that migrate into muscle tissue. The cysts ...

  19. Human gene therapy and imaging in neurological diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, Andreas H.; Winkler, Alexandra; Castro, Maria G.; Lowenstein, Pedro

    2005-01-01

    Molecular imaging aims to assess non-invasively disease-specific biological and molecular processes in animal models and humans in vivo. Apart from precise anatomical localisation and quantification, the most intriguing advantage of such imaging is the opportunity it provides to investigate the time course (dynamics) of disease-specific molecular events in the intact organism. Further, molecular imaging can be used to address basic scientific questions, e.g. transcriptional regulation, signal transduction or protein/protein interaction, and will be essential in developing treatment strategies based on gene therapy. Most importantly, molecular imaging is a key technology in translational research, helping to develop experimental protocols which may later be applied to human patients. Over the past 20 years, imaging based on positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been employed for the assessment and ''phenotyping'' of various neurological diseases, including cerebral ischaemia, neurodegeneration and brain gliomas. While in the past neuro-anatomical studies had to be performed post mortem, molecular imaging has ushered in the era of in vivo functional neuro-anatomy by allowing neuroscience to image structure, function, metabolism and molecular processes of the central nervous system in vivo in both health and disease. Recently, PET and MRI have been successfully utilised together in the non-invasive assessment of gene transfer and gene therapy in humans. To assess the efficiency of gene transfer, the same markers are being used in animals and humans, and have been applied for phenotyping human disease. Here, we review the imaging hallmarks of focal and disseminated neurological diseases, such as cerebral ischaemia, neurodegeneration and glioblastoma multiforme, as well as the attempts to translate gene therapy's experimental knowledge into clinical applications and the way in which this process is being promoted through the use of

  20. Sodium MR imaging of human brain neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Shu; Yoshikawa, Kohki; Takakura, Kintomo; Iio, Masahiro

    1988-01-01

    We reported the experience of the sodium magnetic resonance imaging of 5 patients with brain tumors (4 astrocytomas and 1 craniopharyngioma), using a Siemens 1.5 Tesla superconductive magnet. We used two-dimensional Fourier imaging with a spin-echo scanning sequence (and with the repetition time of 140 msec and the echo time of 11 - 14 msec). The radiofrequency was maintained at 17 MHz. Sodium MR imaging was achieved with a 64 x 64 data acquisition (30 mm slice thickness) in 19.1 min. On the sodium MRI, all four astrocytomas, along with the eye balls and the cerebrospinal fluid spaces, appeared as high-intensity areas. Peritumoral edema is also visualized as highly intense, so that it is difficult to discriminate tumor extent from the surrounding edema. Our comparative studies with malignant glioma cases using the same equipment are needed to clarify the relationship between sodium signal intensities and the malignancy of gliomas, and to evaluate the potential clinical utility of sodium MRI. A craniopharyngioma than contained a yellowish cystic fluid with a sodium concentration as high as CSF was shown on sodium MRI as a mass with highly intense signals. The ability to differentiate extracellular from intracellular sodium, that has been studied by several investigators, would greatly augment the clinical specificity of MR imaging. (author)

  1. Object recognition in images by human vision and computer vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Q.; Dijkstra, J.; Vries, de B.

    2010-01-01

    Object recognition plays a major role in human behaviour research in the built environment. Computer based object recognition techniques using images as input are challenging, but not an adequate representation of human vision. This paper reports on the differences in object shape recognition

  2. Monte Carlo modeling of human tooth optical coherence tomography imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Boya; Meng, Zhuo; Wang, Longzhi; Liu, Tiegen

    2013-01-01

    We present a Monte Carlo model for optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging of human tooth. The model is implemented by combining the simulation of a Gaussian beam with simulation for photon propagation in a two-layer human tooth model with non-parallel surfaces through a Monte Carlo method. The geometry and the optical parameters of the human tooth model are chosen on the basis of the experimental OCT images. The results show that the simulated OCT images are qualitatively consistent with the experimental ones. Using the model, we demonstrate the following: firstly, two types of photons contribute to the information of morphological features and noise in the OCT image of a human tooth, respectively. Secondly, the critical imaging depth of the tooth model is obtained, and it is found to decrease significantly with increasing mineral loss, simulated as different enamel scattering coefficients. Finally, the best focus position is located below and close to the dental surface by analysis of the effect of focus positions on the OCT signal and critical imaging depth. We anticipate that this modeling will become a powerful and accurate tool for a preliminary numerical study of the OCT technique on diseases of dental hard tissue in human teeth. (paper)

  3. Human low vision image warping - Channel matching considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juday, Richard D.; Smith, Alan T.; Loshin, David S.

    1992-01-01

    We are investigating the possibility that a video image may productively be warped prior to presentation to a low vision patient. This could form part of a prosthesis for certain field defects. We have done preliminary quantitative studies on some notions that may be valid in calculating the image warpings. We hope the results will help make best use of time to be spent with human subjects, by guiding the selection of parameters and their range to be investigated. We liken a warping optimization to opening the largest number of spatial channels between the pixels of an input imager and resolution cells in the visual system. Some important effects are not quantified that will require human evaluation, such as local 'squashing' of the image, taken as the ratio of eigenvalues of the Jacobian of the transformation. The results indicate that the method shows quantitative promise. These results have identified some geometric transformations to evaluate further with human subjects.

  4. Resonant imaging of carotenoid pigments in the human retina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellermann, Werner; Emakov, Igor V.; McClane, Robert W.

    2002-06-01

    We have generated high spatial resolution images showing the distribution of carotenoid macular pigments in the human retina using Raman spectroscopy. A low level of macular pigments is associated with an increased risk of developing age-related macular degeneration, a leading cause of irreversible blindness. Using excised human eyecups and resonant excitation of the pigment molecules with narrow bandwidth blue light from a mercury arc lamp, we record Raman images originating from the carbon-carbon double bond stretch vibrations of lutein and zeaxanthin, the carotenoids comprising human macular pigments. Our Raman images reveal significant differences among subjects, both in regard to absolute levels as well as spatial distribution within the macula. Since the light levels used to obtain these images are well below established safety limits, this technique holds promise for developing a rapid screening diagnostic in large populations at risk for vision loss from age-related macular degeneration.

  5. Functional MRI studies of human vision on a clinical imager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, J.S.; Lewine, J.D.; Aine, C.J.; van Hulsteyn, D.; Wood, C.C.; Sanders, J.; Maclin, E.; Belliveau, J.W.; Caprihan, A.

    1992-01-01

    During the past decade, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has become the method of choice for imaging the anatomy of the human brain. Recently, Belliveau and colleagues have reported the use of echo planar magnetic resonance imaging (EPI) to image patterns of neural activity. Here, we report functional MR imaging in response to visual stimulation without the use of contrast agents, and without the extensive hardware modifications required for EPI. Regions of activity were observed near the expected locations of V1, V2 and possibly V3 and another active region was observed near the parietal-occipital sulcus on the superior surface of the cerebrum. These locations are consistent with sources observed in neuromagnetic studies of the human visual response

  6. Tuberculosis of the cervical spine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuberculosis of the cervical spine is rare, comprising 3 -. 5% of cases of tuberculosis of the spine. Eight patients with tuberculosis of the cervicaJ spine seen during 1989 -. 1992 were reviewed. They all presented with neck pain. The 4 children presented with a kyphotic deformity. In all the children the disease was extensive, ...

  7. Sci-Fri AM: MRI and Diagnostic Imaging - 02: Quality Improvement: Diagnostic Reference Levels for Interior Health CT exams – L-Spine, Chest/Abdomen/pelvis, Abdomen/Pelvis, Head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjarnason, Thorarin

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostic Reference Levels are used to optimize patient dose and image quality in the clinical setting. It is assumed that the majority of exams are of diagnostic quality, or the radiologists would request protocol adjustments. By investigating the dose indicator distributions from all scanners, the upper DRL can be set to the 75th percentile of the distribution and a lower DRL can be set to the 10th percentile. Scanners using doses consistently outside the upper/lower DRL range can be adjusted accordingly. 11 CT scanners, all contributing to the American College of Radiology Dose Index Registry (ACR DIR) were used in this study. Dose indicator data were compiled from the ACR DIR data and local DRLs established. Scanners with median doses outside the upper/lower DRL were followed-up with. Using effective dose and exam volumes, collective dose was determined before and after protocol adjustments to evaluate the effect of this quality improvement effort. The quality initiative is complete for L-spine and Chest/Abdomen/Pelvis exams and only initial surveys were completed for Head and Abdomen/Pelvis examsg. Median Scanner Dose reductions were 8.8 and 4.9 % for L-spine and Chest/Abdomen/Pelvis exams, respectively, resulting with collective dose reductions of 0.7 and 3.2 person•Sv/yr. Follow-up is ongoing for Abdomen/Pelvis and Head exams.

  8. Sci-Fri AM: MRI and Diagnostic Imaging - 02: Quality Improvement: Diagnostic Reference Levels for Interior Health CT exams – L-Spine, Chest/Abdomen/pelvis, Abdomen/Pelvis, Head

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjarnason, Thorarin [Diagnostic Imaging / Interior Health, Mathematics, Statistics, Physics & Computer Science / UBCO (Canada); Radiology / UBC (Canada)

    2016-08-15

    Diagnostic Reference Levels are used to optimize patient dose and image quality in the clinical setting. It is assumed that the majority of exams are of diagnostic quality, or the radiologists would request protocol adjustments. By investigating the dose indicator distributions from all scanners, the upper DRL can be set to the 75th percentile of the distribution and a lower DRL can be set to the 10th percentile. Scanners using doses consistently outside the upper/lower DRL range can be adjusted accordingly. 11 CT scanners, all contributing to the American College of Radiology Dose Index Registry (ACR DIR) were used in this study. Dose indicator data were compiled from the ACR DIR data and local DRLs established. Scanners with median doses outside the upper/lower DRL were followed-up with. Using effective dose and exam volumes, collective dose was determined before and after protocol adjustments to evaluate the effect of this quality improvement effort. The quality initiative is complete for L-spine and Chest/Abdomen/Pelvis exams and only initial surveys were completed for Head and Abdomen/Pelvis examsg. Median Scanner Dose reductions were 8.8 and 4.9 % for L-spine and Chest/Abdomen/Pelvis exams, respectively, resulting with collective dose reductions of 0.7 and 3.2 person•Sv/yr. Follow-up is ongoing for Abdomen/Pelvis and Head exams.

  9. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging and human genetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hengstschlaeger, Markus

    2006-01-01

    The use of fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in addition to prenatal genetic testing and sonography, has the potential to improve prenatal diagnosis of genetic disorders. MRI plays an important role in the evaluation of fetal abnormalities and malformations. Fetal MRI often enables a differential diagnosis, a determination of the extent of the disorder, the prognosis, and an improvement in therapeutic management. For counseling of parents, as well as to basically understand how genetic aberrations affect fetal development, it is of great importance to correlate different genotypes with fetal MRI data

  10. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging and human genetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hengstschlaeger, Markus [Medical Genetics, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: markus.hengstschlaeger@meduniwien.ac.at

    2006-02-15

    The use of fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in addition to prenatal genetic testing and sonography, has the potential to improve prenatal diagnosis of genetic disorders. MRI plays an important role in the evaluation of fetal abnormalities and malformations. Fetal MRI often enables a differential diagnosis, a determination of the extent of the disorder, the prognosis, and an improvement in therapeutic management. For counseling of parents, as well as to basically understand how genetic aberrations affect fetal development, it is of great importance to correlate different genotypes with fetal MRI data.

  11. Tuberculosis of the spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Psarras, H.; Faraj, J.; Gouliamos, A.; Kalovidouris, A.; Vlahos, L.; Papavassiliou, C.

    1985-07-01

    Two surgically proven cases of turberculous psoas abscess are presented. The common findings on CT were low-density paraspinal masses and extension of the lesions which followed the typical distribution of iliopsoas muscle in both cases. The skeletal findings from the spine are also discussed. Our cases indicate the complementary use of plain radiography and CT in the investigation of tuberculous spondylitis.

  12. Imaging Monoamine Oxidase in the Human Brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, J. S.; Volkow, N. D.; Wang, G-J.; Logan, Jean

    1999-11-10

    Positron emission tomography (PET) studies mapping monoamine oxidase in the human brain have been used to measure the turnover rate for MAO B; to determine the minimum effective dose of a new MAO inhibitor drug lazabemide and to document MAO inhibition by cigarette smoke. These studies illustrate the power of PET and radiotracer chemistry to measure normal biochemical processes and to provide information on the effect of drug exposure on specific molecular targets.

  13. Imaging Monoamine Oxidase in the Human Brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, J. S.; Volkow, N. D.; Wang, G-J.; Logan, Jean

    1999-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) studies mapping monoamine oxidase in the human brain have been used to measure the turnover rate for MAO B; to determine the minimum effective dose of a new MAO inhibitor drug lazabemide and to document MAO inhibition by cigarette smoke. These studies illustrate the power of PET and radiotracer chemistry to measure normal biochemical processes and to provide information on the effect of drug exposure on specific molecular targets

  14. Color enhancement in multispectral image of human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsui, Masanori; Murakami, Yuri; Obi, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Ohyama, Nagaaki

    2003-07-01

    Multispectral imaging is receiving attention in medical color imaging, as high-fidelity color information can be acquired by the multispectral image capturing. On the other hand, as color enhancement in medical color image is effective for distinguishing lesion from normal part, we apply a new technique for color enhancement using multispectral image to enhance the features contained in a certain spectral band, without changing the average color distribution of original image. In this method, to keep the average color distribution, KL transform is applied to spectral data, and only high-order KL coefficients are amplified in the enhancement. Multispectral images of human skin of bruised arm are captured by 16-band multispectral camera, and the proposed color enhancement is applied. The resultant images are compared with the color images reproduced assuming CIE D65 illuminant (obtained by natural color reproduction technique). As a result, the proposed technique successfully visualizes unclear bruised lesions, which are almost invisible in natural color images. The proposed technique will provide support tool for the diagnosis in dermatology, visual examination in internal medicine, nursing care for preventing bedsore, and so on.

  15. Human fascioliasis: MR imaging findings of hepatic lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cevikol, Can; Karaali, Kamil; Senol, Utku; Kabaalioglu, Adnan; Apaydin, Ali; Lueleci, Ersin; Saba, Rabin

    2003-01-01

    Our objective was to describe MR imaging findings of liver lesions in human fascioliasis. The MR imaging of the liver was performed in 29 patients with fascioliasis. Seventeen patients were women and 12 were men, with a mean age of 47.5 years (age range 17-75 years). Hepatic lesions were grouped into five types based on their signal characteristics. Three patients had normal imaging findings. One or more lesions were observed in the other 26 patients. The lesion types and the frequency of appearances were as follows: hyperintensity of the liver capsule on T2-weighted images (n=16, 55.2%); ill-defined slightly hyperintense areas on T2-weighted images (n=18, 62.1%); lesions which were hypointense on T1-weighted and hyperintense on T2-weighted images (n=10, 34.5%); hypointense on T1-weighted images and centrally hypo- or hyperintense, surrounded by peripherally less hyperintense area on T2-weighted images (n=4, 13.8%); and hypointense foci or ill-defined hypointense areas on T1- and T2-weighted images (n=10, 34.5%). We describe the MR imaging features of the disease. Our findings may help the differential diagnosis in which fascioliasis should be added to the list. (orig.)

  16. [Human physiology: images and practices of the reflex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wübben, Yvonne

    2010-01-01

    The essay examines the function of visualizations and practices in the formation of the reflex concept from Thomas Willis to Marshall Hall. It focuses on the specific form of reflex knowledge that images and practices can contain. In addition, the essay argues that it is through visual representations and experimental practices that technical knowledge is transferred to the field of human reflex physiology. When using technical metaphors in human physiology authors often seem to feel obliged to draw distinctions between humans, machines and animals. On closer scrutiny, these distinctions sometimes fail to establish firm borders between the human and the technical.

  17. MRI of cervical spine injuries complicating ankylosing spondylitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koivikko, Mika P.; Koskinen, Seppo K. [Helsinki Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Toeoeloe Hospital, Department of Radiology, Helsinki (Finland)

    2008-09-15

    The objective was to study characteristic MRI findings in cervical spine fractures complicating ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Technical issues related to MRI are also addressed. A review of 6,774 consecutive cervical spine multidetector CT (MDCT) scans obtained during 6.2 years revealed 33 ankylosed spines studied for suspected acute cervical spine injury complicating AS. Of these, 20 patients also underwent MRI. On MRI, of these 20 patients, 19 had a total of 29 cervical and upper thoracic spine fractures. Of 20 transverse fractures traversing both anterior and posterior columns, 7 were transdiskal and exhibited less bone marrow edema than did those traversing vertebral bodies. One Jefferson's, 1 atlas posterior arch (Jefferson's on MDCT), 2 odontoid process, and 5 non-contiguous spinous process fractures were detectable. MRI showed 2 fractures that were undetected by MDCT, and conversely, MDCT detected 6 fractures not seen on MRI; 16 patients had spinal cord findings ranging from impingement and contusion to complete transection. Magnetic resonance imaging can visualize unstable fractures of the cervical and upper thoracic spine. Paravertebral hemorrhages and any ligamentous injuries should alert radiologists to seek transverse fractures. Multiple fractures are common and often complicated by spinal cord injuries. Diagnostic images can be obtained with a flexible multipurpose coil if the use of standard spine array coil is impossible due to a rigid collar or excessive kyphosis. (orig.)

  18. Tagging like Humans: Diverse and Distinct Image Annotation

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Baoyuan

    2018-03-31

    In this work we propose a new automatic image annotation model, dubbed {\\\\bf diverse and distinct image annotation} (D2IA). The generative model D2IA is inspired by the ensemble of human annotations, which create semantically relevant, yet distinct and diverse tags. In D2IA, we generate a relevant and distinct tag subset, in which the tags are relevant to the image contents and semantically distinct to each other, using sequential sampling from a determinantal point process (DPP) model. Multiple such tag subsets that cover diverse semantic aspects or diverse semantic levels of the image contents are generated by randomly perturbing the DPP sampling process. We leverage a generative adversarial network (GAN) model to train D2IA. Extensive experiments including quantitative and qualitative comparisons, as well as human subject studies, on two benchmark datasets demonstrate that the proposed model can produce more diverse and distinct tags than the state-of-the-arts.

  19. Acquired pathology of the pediatric spine and spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palasis, Susan; Hayes, Laura L.

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric spine pathology poses a diagnostic challenge for radiologists. Acquired spine pathology often yields nonspecific signs and symptoms in children, especially in the younger age groups, and diagnostic delay can carry significant morbidity. This review is focused on some of the more common diagnostic dilemmas we face when attempting to evaluate and diagnose acquired pediatric spine anomalies in daily practice. An understanding of some of the key differentiating features of these disease processes in conjunction with pertinent history, physical exam, and advanced imaging techniques can indicate the correct diagnosis. (orig.)

  20. Acquired pathology of the pediatric spine and spinal cord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palasis, Susan; Hayes, Laura L. [Children' s Healthcare of Atlanta, Department of Radiology at Scottish Rite, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Pediatric spine pathology poses a diagnostic challenge for radiologists. Acquired spine pathology often yields nonspecific signs and symptoms in children, especially in the younger age groups, and diagnostic delay can carry significant morbidity. This review is focused on some of the more common diagnostic dilemmas we face when attempting to evaluate and diagnose acquired pediatric spine anomalies in daily practice. An understanding of some of the key differentiating features of these disease processes in conjunction with pertinent history, physical exam, and advanced imaging techniques can indicate the correct diagnosis. (orig.)

  1. Visible Korean human images on MIOS system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Har, Donghwan; Son, Young-Ho; Lee, Sung-Won; Lee, Jung Beom

    2004-05-01

    Basically, photography has the attributes of reason, which encompasses the scientific knowledge of optics, physics and chemistry, and delicate sensibility of individuals. Ultimately, the photograph pursues "effective communication." Communication is "mental and psychosocial exchange mediated by material symbols, such as language, gesture and picture," and it has four compositions: "sender, receiver, message and channel." Recently, a change in the communication method is on the rise in the field of art and culture, including photography. Until now, communication was mainly achieved by the form of messages unilaterally transferred from senders to receivers. But, nowadays, an interactive method, in which the boundary of sender and receiver is obscure, is on the increase. Such new communication method may be said to have arrived from the desire of art and culture societies, pursuing something new and creative in the background of utilization of a variety of information media. The multi-view screen we developed is also a communication tool capable of effective interaction using photos or motion pictures. The viewer can see different images at different locations. It utilizes the basic lenticular characteristics, which have been used in printing. Each motion picture is displayed on the screen without crosstalk. The multi-view screen is different in many aspects from other display media, and is expected to be utilized in many fields, including advertisement, display and education.

  2. WE-AB-BRA-07: Operating Room Quality Assurance (ORQA) for Spine Surgery Using Known-Component 3D-2D Image Registration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uneri, A; De Silva, T; Goerres, J; Jacobson, M; Ketcha, M; Reaungamornrat, S; Siewerdsen, J [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Kleinszig, G [Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Bayern (Germany); Vogt, S [Siemens Healthcare, Malvern, PA (United States); Khanna, A [Johns Hopkins Health Care and Surgery Center, Bethesda, MD (United States); Wolinsky, J [The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Intraoperative x-ray radiography/fluoroscopy is commonly used to qualitatively assess delivery of surgical devices (e.g., spine pedicle screws) but can fail to reliably detect suboptimal placement (e.g., breach of adjacent critical structures). We present a method wherein prior knowledge of the patient and surgical components is leveraged to match preoperative CT and intraoperative radiographs for quantitative assessment of 3D pose. The method presents a new means of operating room quantitative quality assurance (ORQA) that could improve quality and safety, and reduce the frequency of revision surgeries. Methods: The algorithm (known-component registration, KC-Reg) uses patient-specific preoperative CT and parametrically defined surgical component models within a robust 3D-2D registration method to iteratively optimize gradient similarity using the covariance matrix adaptation evolution strategy. Advances from previous work address key challenges to clinical translation: i) absolving the need for offline geometric calibration of the C-arm; and ii) solving multiple component bodies simultaneously, thereby allowing QA in a single step (e.g., spinal construct with 4–20 screws), rather than sequential QA of each component. Performance was tested in a spine phantom with 10 pedicle screws, and first results from clinical studies are reported. Results: Phantom experiments demonstrated median target registration error (TRE) of (1.0±0.3) mm at the screw tip and (0.7°±0.4°) in angulation. The simultaneous multi-body registration approach improved TRE from the previous (sequential) method by 42%, reduced outliers, and fits into the natural workflow. Initial application of KC-Reg in clinical data shows TRE of (2.5±4.5) mm and (4.7°±0.5°). Conclusion: The KC-Reg algorithm offers a potentially valuable method for quantitative QA of the surgical product, using radiographic systems that are already within the surgical arsenal. For spine surgery, the method

  3. WE-AB-BRA-07: Operating Room Quality Assurance (ORQA) for Spine Surgery Using Known-Component 3D-2D Image Registration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uneri, A; De Silva, T; Goerres, J; Jacobson, M; Ketcha, M; Reaungamornrat, S; Siewerdsen, J; Kleinszig, G; Vogt, S; Khanna, A; Wolinsky, J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Intraoperative x-ray radiography/fluoroscopy is commonly used to qualitatively assess delivery of surgical devices (e.g., spine pedicle screws) but can fail to reliably detect suboptimal placement (e.g., breach of adjacent critical structures). We present a method wherein prior knowledge of the patient and surgical components is leveraged to match preoperative CT and intraoperative radiographs for quantitative assessment of 3D pose. The method presents a new means of operating room quantitative quality assurance (ORQA) that could improve quality and safety, and reduce the frequency of revision surgeries. Methods: The algorithm (known-component registration, KC-Reg) uses patient-specific preoperative CT and parametrically defined surgical component models within a robust 3D-2D registration method to iteratively optimize gradient similarity using the covariance matrix adaptation evolution strategy. Advances from previous work address key challenges to clinical translation: i) absolving the need for offline geometric calibration of the C-arm; and ii) solving multiple component bodies simultaneously, thereby allowing QA in a single step (e.g., spinal construct with 4–20 screws), rather than sequential QA of each component. Performance was tested in a spine phantom with 10 pedicle screws, and first results from clinical studies are reported. Results: Phantom experiments demonstrated median target registration error (TRE) of (1.0±0.3) mm at the screw tip and (0.7°±0.4°) in angulation. The simultaneous multi-body registration approach improved TRE from the previous (sequential) method by 42%, reduced outliers, and fits into the natural workflow. Initial application of KC-Reg in clinical data shows TRE of (2.5±4.5) mm and (4.7°±0.5°). Conclusion: The KC-Reg algorithm offers a potentially valuable method for quantitative QA of the surgical product, using radiographic systems that are already within the surgical arsenal. For spine surgery, the method

  4. Three-dimensional CT of the pediatric spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starshak, R.J.; Crawford, C.R.; Waisman, R.C.; Sty, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    CT of the spine has been shown to be useful in evaluating congenital, neoplastic, inflammatory, and traumatic lesions. Any portion of the neural arch may be involved by these disease processes. The complex nature of the spinal column can make evaluation of these abnormalities difficult on axial CT. This is especially true if the spine is distorted by scoliosis, kyphosis, or lordosis. This exhibit illustrates the advantages and drawbacks of three-dimensional CT reconstructed images of spinal abnormalities in children

  5. The top 100 classic papers in lumbar spine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberger, Jeremy; Skovrlj, Branko; Caridi, John M; Cho, Samuel K

    2015-05-15

    Bibliometric review of the literature. To analyze and quantify the most frequently cited papers in lumbar spine surgery and to measure their impact on the entire lumbar spine literature. Lumbar spine surgery is a dynamic and complex field. Basic science and clinical research remain paramount in understanding and advancing the field. While new literature is published at increasing rates, few studies make long-lasting impacts. The Thomson Reuters Web of Knowledge was searched for citations of all papers relevant to lumbar spine surgery. The number of citations, authorship, year of publication, journal of publication, country of publication, and institution were recorded for each paper. The most cited paper was found to be the classic paper from 1990 by Boden et al that described magnetic resonance imaging findings in individuals without back pain, sciatica, and neurogenic claudication showing that spinal stenosis and herniated discs can be incidentally found when scanning patients. The second most cited study similarly showed that asymptomatic patients who underwent lumbar spine magnetic resonance imaging frequently had lumbar pathology. The third most cited paper was the 2000 publication of Fairbank and Pynsent reviewing the Oswestry Disability Index, the outcome-measure questionnaire most commonly used to evaluate low back pain. The majority of the papers originate in the United States (n=58), and most were published in Spine (n=63). Most papers were published in the 1990s (n=49), and the 3 most common topics were low back pain, biomechanics, and disc degeneration. This report identifies the top 100 papers in lumbar spine surgery and acknowledges those individuals who have contributed the most to the advancement of the study of the lumbar spine and the body of knowledge used to guide evidence-based clinical decision making in lumbar spine surgery today. 3.

  6. Processed images in human perception: A case study in ultrasound breast imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yap, Moi Hoon [Department of Computer Science, Loughborough University, FH09, Ergonomics and Safety Research Institute, Holywell Park (United Kingdom)], E-mail: M.H.Yap@lboro.ac.uk; Edirisinghe, Eran [Department of Computer Science, Loughborough University, FJ.05, Garendon Wing, Holywell Park, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Bez, Helmut [Department of Computer Science, Loughborough University, Room N.2.26, Haslegrave Building, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

    2010-03-15

    Two main research efforts in early detection of breast cancer include the development of software tools to assist radiologists in identifying abnormalities and the development of training tools to enhance their skills. Medical image analysis systems, widely known as Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CADx) systems, play an important role in this respect. Often it is important to determine whether there is a benefit in including computer-processed images in the development of such software tools. In this paper, we investigate the effects of computer-processed images in improving human performance in ultrasound breast cancer detection (a perceptual task) and classification (a cognitive task). A survey was conducted on a group of expert radiologists and a group of non-radiologists. In our experiments, random test images from a large database of ultrasound images were presented to subjects. In order to gather appropriate formal feedback, questionnaires were prepared to comment on random selections of original images only, and on image pairs consisting of original images displayed alongside computer-processed images. We critically compare and contrast the performance of the two groups according to perceptual and cognitive tasks. From a Receiver Operating Curve (ROC) analysis, we conclude that the provision of computer-processed images alongside the original ultrasound images, significantly improve the perceptual tasks of non-radiologists but only marginal improvements are shown in the perceptual and cognitive tasks of the group of expert radiologists.

  7. Processed images in human perception: A case study in ultrasound breast imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yap, Moi Hoon; Edirisinghe, Eran; Bez, Helmut

    2010-01-01

    Two main research efforts in early detection of breast cancer include the development of software tools to assist radiologists in identifying abnormalities and the development of training tools to enhance their skills. Medical image analysis systems, widely known as Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CADx) systems, play an important role in this respect. Often it is important to determine whether there is a benefit in including computer-processed images in the development of such software tools. In this paper, we investigate the effects of computer-processed images in improving human performance in ultrasound breast cancer detection (a perceptual task) and classification (a cognitive task). A survey was conducted on a group of expert radiologists and a group of non-radiologists. In our experiments, random test images from a large database of ultrasound images were presented to subjects. In order to gather appropriate formal feedback, questionnaires were prepared to comment on random selections of original images only, and on image pairs consisting of original images displayed alongside computer-processed images. We critically compare and contrast the performance of the two groups according to perceptual and cognitive tasks. From a Receiver Operating Curve (ROC) analysis, we conclude that the provision of computer-processed images alongside the original ultrasound images, significantly improve the perceptual tasks of non-radiologists but only marginal improvements are shown in the perceptual and cognitive tasks of the group of expert radiologists.

  8. Contextual Learning Induces Dendritic Spine Clustering in Retrosplenial Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam C Frank

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Molecular and electrophysiological studies find convergent evidence suggesting that plasticity within a dendritic tree is not randomly dispersed, but rather clustered into functional groups. Further, results from in silico neuronal modeling show that clustered plasticity is able to increase storage capacity 45 times compared to dispersed plasticity. Recent in vivo work utilizing chronic 2-photon microscopy tested the clustering hypothesis and showed that repetitive motor learning is able to induce clustered addition of new dendritic spines on apical dendrites of L5 neurons in primary motor cortex; moreover, clustered spines were found to be more stable than non-clustered spines, suggesting a physiological role for spine clustering. To further test this hypothesis we used in vivo 2-photon imaging in Thy1-YFP-H mice to chronically examine dendritic spine dynamics in retrosplenial cortex (RSC during spatial learning. RSC is a key component of an extended spatial learning and memory circuit that includes hippocampus and entorhinal cortex. Importantly, RSC is known from both lesion and immediate early gene studies to be critically involved in spatial learning and more specifically in contextual fear conditioning. We utilized a modified contextual fear conditioning protocol wherein animals received a mild foot shock each day for five days; this protocol induces gradual increases in context freezing over several days before the animals reach a behavioral plateau. We coupled behavioral training with four separate in vivo imaging sessions, two before training begins, one early in training, and a final session after training is complete. This allowed us to image spine dynamics before training as well as early in learning and after animals had reached behavioral asymptote. We find that this contextual learning protocol induces a statistically significant increase in the formation of clusters of new dendritic spines in trained animals when compared to home

  9. Tuberculosis of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Psarras, H.; Faraj, J.; Gouliamos, A.; Kalovidouris, A.; Vlahos, L.; Papavassiliou, C.

    1985-01-01

    Two surgically proven cases of turberculous psoas abscess are presented. The common findings on CT were low-density paraspinal masses and extension of the lesions which followed the typical distribution of iliopsoas muscle in both cases. The skeletal findings from the spine are also discussed. Our cases indicate the complementary use of plain radiography and CT in the investigation of tuberculous spondylitis. (orig.) [de

  10. Rendering the Topological Spines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves-Rivera, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-05-05

    Many tools to analyze and represent high dimensional data already exits yet most of them are not flexible, informative and intuitive enough to help the scientists make the corresponding analysis and predictions, understand the structure and complexity of scientific data, get a complete picture of it and explore a greater number of hypotheses. With this in mind, N-Dimensional Data Analysis and Visualization (ND²AV) is being developed to serve as an interactive visual analysis platform with the purpose of coupling together a number of these existing tools that range from statistics, machine learning, and data mining, with new techniques, in particular with new visualization approaches. My task is to create the rendering and implementation of a new concept called topological spines in order to extend ND²AV's scope. Other existing visualization tools create a representation preserving either the topological properties or the structural (geometric) ones because it is challenging to preserve them both simultaneously. Overcoming such challenge by creating a balance in between them, the topological spines are introduced as a new approach that aims to preserve them both. Its render using OpenGL and C++ and is currently being tested to further on be implemented on ND²AV. In this paper I will present what are the Topological Spines and how they are rendered.

  11. RECONSTRUCTION OF HUMAN LUNG MORPHOLOGY MODELS FROM MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reconstruction of Human Lung Morphology Models from Magnetic Resonance ImagesT. B. Martonen (Experimental Toxicology Division, U.S. EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709) and K. K. Isaacs (School of Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27514)

  12. Quantitative analysis and classification of AFM images of human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurden, S P; Monteiro, V F; Longo, E; Ferreira, M M C

    2004-07-01

    The surface topography of human hair, as defined by the outer layer of cellular sheets, termed cuticles, largely determines the cosmetic properties of the hair. The condition of the cuticles is of great cosmetic importance, but also has the potential to aid diagnosis in the medical and forensic sciences. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been demonstrated to offer unique advantages for analysis of the hair surface, mainly due to the high image resolution and the ease of sample preparation. This article presents an algorithm for the automatic analysis of AFM images of human hair. The cuticular structure is characterized using a series of descriptors, such as step height, tilt angle and cuticle density, allowing quantitative analysis and comparison of different images. The usefulness of this approach is demonstrated by a classification study. Thirty-eight AFM images were measured, consisting of hair samples from (a) untreated and bleached hair samples, and (b) the root and distal ends of the hair fibre. The multivariate classification technique partial least squares discriminant analysis is used to test the ability of the algorithm to characterize the images according to the properties of the hair samples. Most of the images (86%) were found to be classified correctly.

  13. In vivo sodium ({sup 23}Na) imaging of the human kidneys at 7 T: Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haneder, Stefan [University Medical Center Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Mannheim (Germany); Medical University of Vienna/Vienna General Hospital, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Juras, Vladimir; Trattnig, Siegfried; Zbyn, Stefan [Medical University of Vienna/Vienna General Hospital, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Michaely, Henrik J.; Schoenberg, Stefan O. [University Medical Center Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Mannheim (Germany); Deligianni, Xeni; Bieri, Oliver [University of Basel Hospital, Department of Radiology, Division of Radiological Physics, Basel (Switzerland)

    2014-02-15

    To evaluate the feasibility of in vivo {sup 23}Na imaging of the corticomedullary {sup 23}Na gradient and to measure {sup 23}Na transverse relaxation times (T2*) in human kidneys. In this prospective, IRB-approved study, eight healthy volunteers (4 female, 4 male; mean age 29.4 ± 3.6 years) were examined on a 7-T whole-body MR system using a {sup 23}Na-only spine-array coil. For morphological {sup 23}Na-MRI, a 3D gradient echo (GRE) sequence with a variable echo time scheme (vTE) was used. T2* times were calculated using a multiecho 3D vTE-GRE approach. {sup 23}Na signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) were given on a pixel-by-pixel basis for a 20-mm section from the cortex in the direction of the medulla. T2* maps were calculated by fitting the {sup 23}Na signal decay monoexponentially on a pixel-by-pixel basis, using least squares fit. Mean corticomedullary {sup 23}Na-SNR increased from the cortex (32.2 ± 5.6) towards the medulla (85.7 ± 16.0). The SNR increase ranged interindividually from 57.2 % to 66.3 %. Mean {sup 23}Na-T2* relaxation times differed statistically significantly (P < 0.001) between the cortex (17.9 ± 0.8 ms) and medulla (20.6 ± 1.0 ms). The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of in vivo {sup 23}Na MRI of the corticomedullary {sup 23}Na gradient and to measure the {sup 23}Na T2* relaxation times of human kidneys at 7 T. (orig.)

  14. Structural health monitoring (vibration) as a tool for identifying structural alterations of the lumbar spine: a twin control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawchuk, Gregory N; Hartvigsen, Jan; Edgecombe, Tiffany; Prasad, Narasimha; van Dieen, Jaap H

    2016-03-11

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) is an engineering technique used to identify mechanical abnormalities not readily apparent through other means. Recently, SHM has been adapted for use in biological systems, but its invasive nature limits its clinical application. As such, the purpose of this project was to determine if a non-invasive form of SHM could identify structural alterations in the spines of living human subjects. Lumbar spines of 10 twin pairs were visualized by magnetic resonance imaging then assessed by a blinded radiologist to determine whether twin pairs were structurally concordant or discordant. Vibration was then applied to each subject's spine and the resulting response recorded from sensors overlying lumbar spinous processes. The peak frequency, area under the curve and the root mean square were computed from the frequency response function of each sensor. Statistical analysis demonstrated that in twins whose structural appearance was discordant, peak frequency was significantly different between twin pairs while in concordant twins, no outcomes were significantly different. From these results, we conclude that structural changes within the spine can alter its vibration response. As such, further investigation of SHM to identify spinal abnormalities in larger human populations is warranted.

  15. Radionuclide imaging of the liver in human fascioliasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, J.V.; Bermudez, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    The clinical, laboratory, and scintigraphic findings in four cases of human fascioliasis are described. Acute onset of fever, abdominal pain, and weight loss in a person who has ingested watercress constitutes the clinical syndrome often seen. Eosinophilia and alteration in liver function tests, particularly alkaline phosphatase are frequent. Tc-99m sulfur colloid images showed hepatomegaly in four patients, focal defects in two, splenomegaly in three, and increased splenic uptake in two. Gallium citrate (Ga 67) images show increased uptake in the focal lesions in two of two. Sonographic imaging showed focal lucent abnormality in one of three. Liver biopsy findings were nonspecific. The differential diagnosis from other invasive parasitic diseases is discussed. A possible role of hepatic imaging in the evaluation of fascioliasis is suggested

  16. Images of war: using satellite images for human rights monitoring in Turkish Kurdistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, Hugo; Jongerden, Joost; van Etten, Jacob

    2008-09-01

    In areas of war and armed conflict it is difficult to get trustworthy and coherent information. Civil society and human rights groups often face problems of dealing with fragmented witness reports, disinformation of war propaganda, and difficult direct access to these areas. Turkish Kurdistan was used as a case study of armed conflict to evaluate the potential use of satellite images for verification of witness reports collected by human rights groups. The Turkish army was reported to be burning forests, fields and villages as a strategy in the conflict against guerrilla uprising. This paper concludes that satellite images are useful to validate witness reports of forest fires. Even though the use of this technology for human rights groups will depend on some feasibility factors such as prices, access and expertise, the images proved to be key for analysis of spatial aspects of conflict and valuable for reconstructing a more trustworthy picture.

  17. Spinal imaging and image analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Yao, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    This book is instrumental to building a bridge between scientists and clinicians in the field of spine imaging by introducing state-of-the-art computational methods in the context of clinical applications.  Spine imaging via computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and other radiologic imaging modalities, is essential for noninvasively visualizing and assessing spinal pathology. Computational methods support and enhance the physician’s ability to utilize these imaging techniques for diagnosis, non-invasive treatment, and intervention in clinical practice. Chapters cover a broad range of topics encompassing radiological imaging modalities, clinical imaging applications for common spine diseases, image processing, computer-aided diagnosis, quantitative analysis, data reconstruction and visualization, statistical modeling, image-guided spine intervention, and robotic surgery. This volume serves a broad audience as  contributions were written by both clinicians and researchers, which reflects the inte...

  18. Tryptophan autofluorescence imaging of neoplasms of the human colon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Bhaskar; Renkoski, Timothy; Graves, Logan R.; Rial, Nathaniel S.; Tsikitis, Vassiliki Liana; Nfonsom, Valentine; Pugh, Judith; Tiwari, Piyush; Gavini, Hemanth; Utzinger, Urs

    2012-01-01

    Detection of flat neoplasia is a major challenge in colorectal cancer screening, as missed lesions can lead to the development of an unexpected `incident' cancer prior to the subsequent endoscopy. The use of a tryptophan-related autofluorescence has been reported to be increased in murine intestinal dysplasia. The emission spectra of cells isolated from human adenocarcinoma and normal mucosa of the colon were studied and showed markedly greater emission intensity from cancerous cells compared to cells obtained from the surrounding normal mucosa. A proto-type multispectral imaging system optimized for ultraviolet macroscopic imaging of tissue was used to obtain autofluorescence images of surgical specimens of colonic neoplasms and normal mucosa after resection. Fluorescence images did not display the expected greater emission from the tumor as compared to the normal mucosa, most probably due to increased optical absorption and scattering in the tumors. Increased fluorescence intensity in neoplasms was observed however, once fluorescence images were corrected using reflectance images. Tryptophan fluorescence alone may be useful in differentiating normal and cancerous cells, while in tissues its autofluorescence image divided by green reflectance may be useful in displaying neoplasms.

  19. Adding Image Constraints to Inverse Kinematics for Human Motion Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaume-i-Capó, Antoni; Varona, Javier; González-Hidalgo, Manuel; Perales, Francisco J.

    2009-12-01

    In order to study human motion in biomechanical applications, a critical component is to accurately obtain the 3D joint positions of the user's body. Computer vision and inverse kinematics are used to achieve this objective without markers or special devices attached to the body. The problem of these systems is that the inverse kinematics is "blinded" with respect to the projection of body segments into the images used by the computer vision algorithms. In this paper, we present how to add image constraints to inverse kinematics in order to estimate human motion. Specifically, we explain how to define a criterion to use images in order to guide the posture reconstruction of the articulated chain. Tests with synthetic images show how the scheme performs well in an ideal situation. In order to test its potential in real situations, more experiments with task specific image sequences are also presented. By means of a quantitative study of different sequences, the results obtained show how this approach improves the performance of inverse kinematics in this application.

  20. In Vivo H MR spectroscopic imaging of human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Bo Young; Suh, Tae Suk; Choi, Kyo Ho; Bahk, Yong Whee; Shinn, Kyung Sub

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the spatial distribution of various proton metabolites in the human brain with use of water-suppressed in vivo H MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) technique. All of water-suppressed in vivo H MRSI were performed on 1.5 T whole-body MRI/MRS system using Stimulated Echo Acquisition Method (STEAM) Chemical Shift Imaging (CSI) pulse sequence. T1-weighted MR images were used for CSI field of view (FOV; 24 cm). Voxel size of 1.5 cm 3 was designated from the periphery of the brain which was divided by 1024 X 16 X 16 data points. Metabolite images of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), creatine/ phosphocreatine (Cr) + choline/phosphocholine (Cho), and complex of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) + glutamate (Glu) were obtained on the human brain. Our preliminary study suggests that in vivo H MRSI could provide the metabolite imaging to compensate for hypermetabolism on Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scans on the basis of the metabolic informations on brain tissues. The unique ability of in vivo H MRSI to offer noninvasive information about tissue biochemistry in disease states will stimulate on clinical research and disease diagnosis

  1. Imaging of Human Hepatic Stem Cells In Vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, E.W.

    2006-01-01

    Report on progress in MRI and PET of stem cell tracking. Human hepatic stem cell imaging for both MRI and PET have been accomplished within SCID/nod mice, and succeeded in cell specificity labeling with in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo image tracking. For MRI, stem cell labeling was accomplished by two methods: (1) in vitro labeling the stem cells just prior to in vivo transplantation, and/or (2) transplanting the stem cells into SCID/nod mice and in vivo specificity labeling the cells just prior to MRI. For labeling techniques 1 and 2, multiple image controls were utilized and include: (A) stem cells(-) and contrast label(-), (B) stem cells(+) and contrast label(-), and (C) stem cells(-) and contrast label(+) help to confirm signal noise background interference, which is a result of slight nonspecific cell labeling. Contrast labeled stem cells are directly transplanted into liver tissues, the tissues excised, and immediately MR imaged to determine cell dispersion dynamics. In this method, the contrast labeled cells appear as void foci throughout the organs. The images are imported into Metamorph imaging software and analyzed for foci radii, diameter, and to discern spheroid volumes. Then, cell numbers are extrapolated to understand ''imaged'' cell aggregate requirements using this technique. For this ex vivo method, a cell aggregate of ∼100 stem cells is required to MRI monitor signal activities. For in vivo imaging, contrast labeled human stem cells within SCID/nod mice are also confirmed as small foci voids and are evident within liver tissues. Initially, these short-term studies where accomplished by in vitro labeling stem cells, transplanting the cells, then in vivo imaging the tissues between days 3-15. Next and to avoid imaged time limitations of detaching contrast agents, the proliferative stem cells were labeled after transplantation, and before MR imaging. This was accomplished to confirm the ability to specifically label unique cell subsets after the

  2. Dendritic spine morphology and dynamics in health and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee S

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Stacey Lee,1 Huaye Zhang,2 Donna J Webb1,3,4 1Department of Biological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, 2Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ, 3Department of Cancer Biology, 4Vanderbilt Kennedy Center for Research on Human Development, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA Abstract: Dendritic spines are actin-rich structures that form the postsynaptic terminals of excitatory synapses in the brain. The development and plasticity of spines are essential for cognitive processes, such as learning and memory, and defects in their density, morphology, and size underlie a number of neurological disorders. In this review, we discuss the contribution and regulation of the actin cytoskeleton in spine formation and plasticity as well as learning and memory. We also highlight the role of key receptors and intracellular signaling pathways in modulating the development and morphology of spines and cognitive function. Moreover, we provide insight into spine/synapse defects associated with several neurological disorders and the molecular mechanisms that underlie these spine defects. Keywords: dendritic spines, synapses, synaptic plasticity, actin cytoskeleton, glutamate receptors, neurological disorders

  3. tuberculosis of the cervical spine mimicking a paraplegic tumour in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-05-05

    May 5, 2011 ... Magnetic Resonence Imaging. (MRI)and x-rays revealed an infiltrative lesion of C6-C7 vertebrae. Our main diffential ... response to result in caseation and abscess formation. INTRODUCTION. Tuberculosis (TB) of the ... MRI cervical spine coronal view (T2 weighted image). Notice the absence of significant ...

  4. Microstructure imaging of human rectal mucosa using multiphoton microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, N. R.; Chen, G.; Chen, J. X.; Yan, J.; Zhuo, S. M.; Zheng, L. Q.; Jiang, X. S.

    2011-01-01

    Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) has high resolution and sensitivity. In this study, MPM was used to image microstructure of human rectal mucosa. The morphology and distribution of the main components in mucosa layer, absorptive cells and goblet cells in the epithelium, abundant intestinal glands in the lamina propria and smooth muscle fibers in the muscularis mucosa were clearly monitored. The variations of these components were tightly relevant to the pathology in gastrointestine system, especially early rectal cancer. The obtained images will be helpful for the diagnosis of early colorectal cancer.

  5. Spine oncology: Daedalus, Theseus, and the Minotaur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donthineni, Rakesh; Ofluoglu, Onder

    2009-01-01

    Over the past three decades, progress has been dramatic in the management of spine tumors. For example, advanced imaging technologies made available at manageable costs have lowered the threshold for scanning. CT, MRI, and PET imaging modalities have greatly enhanced the ability of the surgeon to accurately delineate the extension of the lesion within the bone, the soft tissue, and the spinal canal. Such enhancements have led to great leaps forward in preoperative planning and postoperative evaluation, including improved reconstruction options are resulting in improved outcomes. This article introduces the theme of this volume.

  6. Modeling human faces with multi-image photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Apuzzo, Nicola

    2002-03-01

    Modeling and measurement of the human face have been increasing by importance for various purposes. Laser scanning, coded light range digitizers, image-based approaches and digital stereo photogrammetry are the used methods currently employed in medical applications, computer animation, video surveillance, teleconferencing and virtual reality to produce three dimensional computer models of the human face. Depending on the application, different are the requirements. Ours are primarily high accuracy of the measurement and automation in the process. The method presented in this paper is based on multi-image photogrammetry. The equipment, the method and results achieved with this technique are here depicted. The process is composed of five steps: acquisition of multi-images, calibration of the system, establishment of corresponding points in the images, computation of their 3-D coordinates and generation of a surface model. The images captured by five CCD cameras arranged in front of the subject are digitized by a frame grabber. The complete system is calibrated using a reference object with coded target points, which can be measured fully automatically. To facilitate the establishment of correspondences in the images, texture in the form of random patterns can be projected from two directions onto the face. The multi-image matching process, based on a geometrical constrained least squares matching algorithm, produces a dense set of corresponding points in the five images. Neighborhood filters are then applied on the matching results to remove the errors. After filtering the data, the three-dimensional coordinates of the matched points are computed by forward intersection using the results of the calibration process; the achieved mean accuracy is about 0.2 mm in the sagittal direction and about 0.1 mm in the lateral direction. The last step of data processing is the generation of a surface model from the point cloud and the application of smooth filters. Moreover, a

  7. Spine segmentation from C-arm CT data sets: application to region-of-interest volumes for spinal interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buerger, C.; Lorenz, C.; Babic, D.; Hoppenbrouwers, J.; Homan, R.; Nachabe, R.; Racadio, J. M.; Grass, M.

    2017-03-01

    Spinal fusion is a common procedure to stabilize the spinal column by fixating parts of the spine. In such procedures, metal screws are inserted through the patients back into a vertebra, and the screws of adjacent vertebrae are connected by metal rods to generate a fixed bridge. In these procedures, 3D image guidance for intervention planning and outcome control is required. Here, for anatomical guidance, an automated approach for vertebra segmentation from C-arm CT images of the spine is introduced and evaluated. As a prerequisite, 3D C-arm CT images are acquired covering the vertebrae of interest. An automatic model-based segmentation approach is applied to delineate the outline of the vertebrae of interest. The segmentation approach is based on 24 partial models of the cervical, thoracic and lumbar vertebrae which aggregate information about (i) the basic shape itself, (ii) trained features for image based adaptation, and (iii) potential shape variations. Since the volume data sets generated by the C-arm system are limited to a certain region of the spine the target vertebra and hence initial model position is assigned interactively. The approach was trained and tested on 21 human cadaver scans. A 3-fold cross validation to ground truth annotations yields overall mean segmentation errors of 0.5 mm for T1 to 1.1 mm for C6. The results are promising and show potential to support the clinician in pedicle screw path and rod planning to allow accurate and reproducible insertions.

  8. How does image noise affect actual and predicted human gaze allocation in assessing image quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhrbein, Florian; Goddard, Peter; Schneider, Michael; James, Georgina; Guo, Kun

    2015-07-01

    A central research question in natural vision is how to allocate fixation to extract informative cues for scene perception. With high quality images, psychological and computational studies have made significant progress to understand and predict human gaze allocation in scene exploration. However, it is unclear whether these findings can be generalised to degraded naturalistic visual inputs. In this eye-tracking and computational study, we methodically distorted both man-made and natural scenes with Gaussian low-pass filter, circular averaging filter and Additive Gaussian white noise, and monitored participants' gaze behaviour in assessing perceived image qualities. Compared with original high quality images, distorted images attracted fewer numbers of fixations but longer fixation durations, shorter saccade distance and stronger central fixation bias. This impact of image noise manipulation on gaze distribution was mainly determined by noise intensity rather than noise type, and was more pronounced for natural scenes than for man-made scenes. We furthered compared four high performing visual attention models in predicting human gaze allocation in degraded scenes, and found that model performance lacked human-like sensitivity to noise type and intensity, and was considerably worse than human performance measured as inter-observer variance. Furthermore, the central fixation bias is a major predictor for human gaze allocation, which becomes more prominent with increased noise intensity. Our results indicate a crucial role of external noise intensity in determining scene-viewing gaze behaviour, which should be considered in the development of realistic human-vision-inspired attention models. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Quantifying the quality of medical x-ray images: An evaluation based on normal anatomy for lumbar spine and chest radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingberg, Anders Martin

    Optimisation in diagnostic radiology requires accurate methods for determination of patient absorbed dose and clinical image quality. Simple methods for evaluation of clinical image quality are at present scarce and this project aims at developing such methods. Two methods are used and further developed; fulfillment of image criteria (IC) and visual grading analysis (VGA). Clinical image quality descriptors are defined based on these two methods: image criteria score (ICS) and visual grading analysis score (VGAS), respectively. For both methods the basis is the Image Criteria of the ``European Guidelines on Quality Criteria for Diagnostic Radiographic Images''. Both methods have proved to be useful for evaluation of clinical image quality. The two methods complement each other: IC is an absolute method, which means that the quality of images of different patients and produced with different radiographic techniques can be compared with each other. The separating power of IC is, however, weaker than that of VGA. VGA is the best method for comparing images produced with different radiographic techniques and has strong separating power, but the results are relative, since the quality of an image is compared to the quality of a reference image. The usefulness of the two methods has been verified by comparing the results from both of them with results from a generally accepted method for evaluation of clinical image quality, receiver operating characteristics (ROC). The results of the comparison between the two methods based on visibility of anatomical structures and the method based on detection of pathological structures (free-response forced error) indicate that the former two methods can be used for evaluation of clinical image quality as efficiently as the method based on ROC. More studies are, however, needed for us to be able to draw a general conclusion, including studies of other organs, using other radiographic techniques, etc. The results of the experimental

  10. Analysis of images of acute human and animal leukaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feinermann, Emmanuel

    1981-01-01

    This research thesis first proposes a review of the development of stereology: historical backgrounds, basic principles. It discusses the choices regarding instrumentation: Coulter counter (principle and theory), quantitative analysis of particles, image analyser (optical microscope, epidiascope, scanners, detection, electronic pencil, computers, programming and data processing system), and stereo-logical parameters. The author then reports the stereo-logical study of acute human leukaemia: definition, classification, determination of spherical particle size distribution, lympho-blast size distributions. He reports the comparative study of rat L 5222 leukaemia and Brown Norway rat acute myelocytic leukaemia, and discusses their relationship with acute human leukaemia

  11. Anatomy and biomechanics of the back muscles in the lumbar spine with reference to biomechanical modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L.; Zee, M. de; Rasmussen, J.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the development of a musculoskeletal model of the human lumbar spine with focus on back muscles. It includes data from literature in a structured form.......This article describes the development of a musculoskeletal model of the human lumbar spine with focus on back muscles. It includes data from literature in a structured form....

  12. Rigid Spine Syndrome among Children in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan Koul

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Rigidity of the spine is common in adults but is rarely observed in children. The aim of this study was to report on rigid spine syndrome (RSS among children in Oman. Methods: Data on children diagnosed with RSS were collected consecutively at presentation between 1996 and 2014 at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH in Muscat, Oman. A diagnosis of RSS was based on the patient’s history, clinical examination, biochemical investigations, electrophysiological findings, neuro-imaging and muscle biopsy. Atrophy of the paraspinal muscles, particularly the erector spinae, was the diagnostic feature; this was noted using magnetic resonance imaging of the spine. Children with disease onset in the paraspinal muscles were labelled as having primary RSS or rigid spinal muscular dystrophy. Secondary RSS was classified as RSS due to the late involvement of other muscle diseases. Results: Over the 18-year period, 12 children were included in the study, with a maleto- female ratio of 9:3. A total of 10 children were found to have primary RSS or rigid spinal muscular dystrophy syndrome while two had secondary RSS. Onset of the disease ranged from birth to 18 months of age. A family history was noted, with two siblings from one family and three siblings from another (n = 5. On examination, children with primary RSS had typical features of severe spine rigidity at onset, with the rest of the neurological examination being normal. Conclusion: RSS is a rare disease with only 12 reported cases found at SQUH during the study period. Cases of primary RSS should be differentiated from the secondary type.

  13. Axial positrons emission tomography: from mouse to human brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brard, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Positrons emission tomography is a nuclear imaging technics using nuclear decays. It is used both in clinical and preclinical studies. The later requires the use of small animals such as the mouse. The objective is to obtain the best signal with the best spatial resolution. Yet, a weight ratio between humans and mice indicates the need of a sub-millimeter resolution. A conventional scanner is based on detection modules surrounding the object to image and arranged perpendicularly. This implies a strong relationship between efficiency and spatial resolution. This work focuses on the axial geometry in which detection modules are arranged parallel to the object. This limits the relationship between the figures of merit, leading to both high spatial resolution and efficiency. The simulations of prototypes showed great perspectives in term of sub-millimeter resolution with efficiencies of 15 or 40% according to the scanner's axial extension. These results indicate great perspectives for both clinical and preclinical imaging. (author)

  14. A Randomized Controlled Trial to Assess Pain and Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Based (MRI-Based) Structural Spine Changes in Low Back Pain Patients After Yoga Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telles, Shirley; Bhardwaj, Abhishek K.; Gupta, Ram K.; Sharma, Sachin K.; Monro, Robin; Balkrishna, Acharya

    2016-01-01

    Background The present study aimed at determining whether 12 weeks of yoga practice in patients with chronic LBP and MRI-based degenerative changes would result in differences in: (i) self-reported pain, anxiety, and spinal flexibility; and (ii) the structure of the discs or vertebrae. Material/Methods Sixty-two persons with MRI-proven degenerative intervertebral discs (group mean ±S.D., 36.2±6.4 years; 30 females) were randomly assigned to yoga and control groups. However, testing was conducted on only 40 subjects, so only their data are included in this study. The assessments were: self-reported pain, state anxiety, spinal flexibility, and MRI of the lumbosacral spine, performed using a 1.5 Tesla system with a spinal surface column. The yoga group was taught light exercises, physical postures, breathing techniques, and yoga relaxation techniques for 1 hour daily for 3 months. No intervention was given to the control group except for routine medical care. A repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) with post hoc analyses (which was Bonferroni-adjusted) was used. The Ethics Committee of Patanjali Research Foundation had approved the study which had been registered in the Clinical Trials Registry of India (CTRI/2012/11/003094). Results The yoga group showed a significant reduction in self-reported pain and state anxiety in a before/after comparison at 12 weeks. A few patients in both groups showed changes in the discs and vertebrae at post-intervention assessment. Conclusions Within 12 weeks, yoga practice reduced pain and state anxiety but did not alter MRI-proven changes in the intervertebral discs and in the vertebrae.

  15. Sodium-23 MRI of whole spine at 3 Tesla using a 5-channel receive-only phased-array and a whole-body transmit resonator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malzacher, Matthias; Kalayciyan, Raffi; Konstandin, Simon; Schad, Lothar R. [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Computer Assisted Clinical Medicine; Haneder, Stefan [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine; University Hospital of Cologne, Koeln (Germany). Dept. of Radiology

    2016-05-01

    Sodium magnetic resonance imaging ({sup 23}Na MRI) is a unique and non-invasive imaging technique which provides important information on cellular level about the tissue of the human body. Several applications for {sup 23}Na MRI were investigated with regard to the examination of the tissue viability and functionality for example in the brain, the heart or the breast. The {sup 23}Na MRI technique can also be integrated as a potential monitoring instrument after radiotherapy or chemotherapy. The main contribution in this work was the adaptation of {sup 23}Na MRI for spine imaging, which can provide essential information on the integrity of the intervertebral disks with respect to the early detection of disk degeneration. In this work, a transmit-only receive-only dual resonator system was designed and developed to cover the whole human spine using {sup 23}Na MRI and increase the receive sensitivity. The resonator system consisted of an already presented {sup 23}Na whole-body resonator and a newly developed 5-channel receive-only phased-array. The resonator system was first validated using bench top and phantom measurements. A threefold SNR improvement at the depth of the spine (∝7 cm) over the whole-body resonator was achieved using the spine array. {sup 23}Na MR measurements of the human spine using the transmit-only receive-only resonator system were performed on a healthy volunteer within an acquisition time of 10 minutes. A density adapted 3D radial sequence was chosen with 6 mm isotropic resolution, 49 ms repetition time and a short echo time of 540 μs. Furthermore, it was possible to quantify the tissue sodium concentration in the intervertebral discs in the lumbar region (120 ms repetition time) using this setup.

  16. Micromechanics of Sea Urchin spines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Tsafnat

    Full Text Available The endoskeletal structure of the Sea Urchin, Centrostephanus rodgersii, has numerous long spines whose known functions include locomotion, sensing, and protection against predators. These spines have a remarkable internal microstructure and are made of single-crystal calcite. A finite-element model of the spine's unique porous structure, based on micro-computed tomography (microCT and incorporating anisotropic material properties, was developed to study its response to mechanical loading. Simulations show that high stress concentrations occur at certain points in the spine's architecture; brittle cracking would likely initiate in these regions. These analyses demonstrate that the organization of single-crystal calcite in the unique, intricate morphology of the sea urchin spine results in a strong, stiff and lightweight structure that enhances its strength despite the brittleness of its constituent material.

  17. Analysis of image acquisition, post-processing and documentation in adolescents with spine injuries. Comparison before and after referral to a university hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemburg, S.P.; Roggenland, D.; Nicolas, V.; Heyer, C.M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Systematic evaluation of imaging situation and standards in acute spinal injuries of adolescents. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of imaging studies of transferred adolescents with spinal injuries and survey of transferring hospitals (TH) with respect to the availability of modalities and radiological expertise and post-processing and documentation of CT studies were performed. Repetitions of imaging studies and cumulative effective dose (CED) were noted. Results: 33 of 43 patients (77 %) treated in our hospital (MA 17.2 years, 52 % male) and 25 of 32 TH (78 %) were evaluated. 24-hr availability of conventional radiography and CT was present in 96 % and 92 % of TH, whereas MRI was available in only 36 %. In 64 % of TH, imaging expertise was guaranteed by an on-staff radiologist. During off-hours radiological service was provided on an on-call basis in 56 % of TH. Neuroradiologic and pediatric radiology expertise was not available in 44 % and 60 % of TH, respectively. CT imaging including post-processing and documentation matched our standards in 36 % and 32 % of cases. The repetition rate of CT studies was 39 % (CED 116.08 mSv). Conclusion: With frequent CT repetitions, two-thirds of re-examined patients revealed a different clinical estimation of trauma severity and insufficient CT quality as possible causes for re-examination. A standardization of initial clinical evaluation and CT imaging could possibly reduce the need for repeat examinations. (orig.)

  18. Laparoscopic optical coherence tomographic imaging of human ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariri, Lida P.; Bonnema, Garret T.; Schmidt, Kathy; Korde, Vrushali; Winkler, Amy M.; Hatch, Kenneth; Brewer, Molly; Barton, Jennifer K.

    2009-02-01

    Ovarian cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death among women. If diagnosed at early stages, 5-year survival rate is 94%, but drops to 68% for regional disease and 29% for distant metastasis; only 19% of cases are diagnosed at early, localized stages. Optical coherence tomography is a recently emerging non-destructive imaging technology, achieving high axial resolutions (10-20 µm) at imaging depths up to 2 mm. Previously, we studied OCT in normal and diseased human ovary ex vivo. Changes in collagen were suggested with several images that correlated with changes in collagen seen in malignancy. Areas of necrosis and blood vessels were also visualized using OCT, indicative of an underlying tissue abnormality. We recently developed a custom side-firing laparoscopic OCT (LOCT) probe fabricated for in vivo imaging. The LOCT probe, consisting of a 38 mm diameter handpiece terminated in a 280 mm long, 4.6 mm diameter tip for insertion into the laparoscopic trocar, is capable of obtaining up to 9.5 mm image lengths at 10 µm axial resolution. In this pilot study, we utilize the LOCT probe to image one or both ovaries of 17 patients undergoing laparotomy or transabdominal endoscopy and oophorectomy to determine if OCT is capable of differentiating normal and neoplastic ovary. We have laparoscopically imaged the ovaries of seventeen patients with no known complications. Initial data evaluation reveals qualitative distinguishability between the features of undiseased post-menopausal ovary and the cystic, non-homogenous appearance of neoplastic ovary such as serous cystadenoma and endometroid adenocarcinoma.

  19. The spine problem: Finding a function for dendritic spines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah eMalanowski

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Why do neurons have dendritic spines? This question— the heart of what Yuste calls the spine problem— presupposes that why-questions of this sort have scientific answers: that empirical findings can favor or count against claims about why neurons have spines. Here we show how such questions can receive empirical answers. We construe such why-questions as questions about how spines make a difference to the behavior of some mechanism that we take to be significant. Why-questions are driven fundamentally by the effort to understand how some item, such as the dendritic spine, is situated in the causal structure of the world (the causal nexus. They ask for a filter on that busy world that allows us to see a part’s individual contribution to a mechanism, independent of everything else going on. So understood, answers to why-questions can be assessed by testing the claims these answers make about the causal structure of a mechanism. We distinguish four ways of making a difference to a mechanism (necessary, modulatory, component, background condition, and we sketch their evidential requirements. One consequence of our analysis is that there are many spine problems and that any given spine problem might have many acceptable answers.

  20. Live cell imaging of in vitro human trophoblast syncytialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Dang, Yan-Li; Zheng, Ru; Li, Yue; Li, Weiwei; Lu, Xiaoyin; Wang, Li-Juan; Zhu, Cheng; Lin, Hai-Yan; Wang, Hongmei

    2014-06-01

    Human trophoblast syncytialization, a process of cell-cell fusion, is one of the most important yet least understood events during placental development. Investigating the fusion process in a placenta in vivo is very challenging given the complexity of this process. Application of primary cultured cytotrophoblast cells isolated from term placentas and BeWo cells derived from human choriocarcinoma formulates a biphasic strategy to achieve the mechanism of trophoblast cell fusion, as the former can spontaneously fuse to form the multinucleated syncytium and the latter is capable of fusing under the treatment of forskolin (FSK). Live-cell imaging is a powerful tool that is widely used to investigate many physiological or pathological processes in various animal models or humans; however, to our knowledge, the mechanism of trophoblast cell fusion has not been reported using a live- cell imaging manner. In this study, a live-cell imaging system was used to delineate the fusion process of primary term cytotrophoblast cells and BeWo cells. By using live staining with Hoechst 33342 or cytoplasmic dyes or by stably transfecting enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and DsRed2-Nuc reporter plasmids, we observed finger-like protrusions on the cell membranes of fusion partners before fusion and the exchange of cytoplasmic contents during fusion. In summary, this study provides the first video recording of the process of trophoblast syncytialization. Furthermore, the various live-cell imaging systems used in this study will help to yield molecular insights into the syncytialization process during placental development. © 2014 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  1. Comparison study on CNR and SNR of thoracic spine lateral radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Won [Dept. of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Min, Jung Whan; Lyu, Kwang Yeul [Dept. of Radiology, Shingu University, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung Min [Dept. of Radiological Science, College of Health Science, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hei Woun [Dept. of Radiological Science, Beakseok Culture University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joo Ah [Dept. of Oncology, Catholic University of Korea Incheon St.Mary,s Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Jae Hong [Dept. of Oncology, Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Dong Chan [Dept. of Radiology, Dong Guk University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Soon Cheol [Dept. of Radiology, Kang Dong Kyung Hee University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    This study was proven for the T-spine breathing technique in lateral projection, using computer radiogr