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Sample records for human skin wounds

  1. Changes of human skin in subepidermal wound healing process.

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    Sugata, Keiichi; Kitahara, Takashi; Takema, Yoshinori

    2008-11-01

    The wound healing process involves unexplained mechanisms. An aberration in this process is known to cause dermal disorders such as keloid or hypertrophic scars, but the mechanism by which these scars are formed remains to be elucidated. Here we examined the usefulness of a non-invasive optical imaging device to clarify mechanisms of wound healing and of scar formation. An 8 mm experimental wound was made in the forearms of six subjects by a suction blister method. To observe chronological changes associated with wound healing, horizontal cross-sectional images were non-invasively obtained of the wounded area from the skin surface down to 129 microm below at 21.5 microm intervals using in vivo laser confocal scanning microscopy (LCSM). The wounds were covered with a new epidermis by week 2, at which time the dermal papilla count decreased while the thickness from the skin surface to the apex of the dermal papilla increased. The count and the thickness returned to the initial levels when the wound was healed. In two out of six subjects, fibrous tissues were observed in the upper dermis, whereas in one other subject, melanocyte-like dendritic cells were observed in the epidermis-dermis border in later phases of wound healing. This non-invasive method using in vivo LCSM revealed chronological changes in the dermis and epidermis during wound healing. In addition, although a scar was not formed in any of study subjects, this microscopy revealed aspects similar to the fibrous tissue overgrowth or to melanocyte migration, both of which may relate to wound healing. These results indicate the usefulness of this non-invasive method in studies of wound healing and of scar formation.

  2. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH promotes wound re-epithelialisation in frog and human skin.

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    Natalia T Meier

    Full Text Available There remains a critical need for new therapeutics that promote wound healing in patients suffering from chronic skin wounds. This is, in part, due to a shortage of simple, physiologically and clinically relevant test systems for investigating candidate agents. The skin of amphibians possesses a remarkable regenerative capacity, which remains insufficiently explored for clinical purposes. Combining comparative biology with a translational medicine approach, we report the development and application of a simple ex vivo frog (Xenopus tropicalis skin organ culture system that permits exploration of the effects of amphibian skin-derived agents on re-epithelialisation in both frog and human skin. Using this amphibian model, we identify thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH as a novel stimulant of epidermal regeneration. Moving to a complementary human ex vivo wounded skin assay, we demonstrate that the effects of TRH are conserved across the amphibian-mammalian divide: TRH stimulates wound closure and formation of neo-epidermis in organ-cultured human skin, accompanied by increased keratinocyte proliferation and wound healing-associated differentiation (cytokeratin 6 expression. Thus, TRH represents a novel, clinically relevant neuroendocrine wound repair promoter that deserves further exploration. These complementary frog and human skin ex vivo assays encourage a comparative biology approach in future wound healing research so as to facilitate the rapid identification and preclinical testing of novel, evolutionarily conserved, and clinically relevant wound healing promoters.

  3. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) promotes wound re-epithelialisation in frog and human skin.

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    Meier, Natalia T; Haslam, Iain S; Pattwell, David M; Zhang, Guo-You; Emelianov, Vladimir; Paredes, Roberto; Debus, Sebastian; Augustin, Matthias; Funk, Wolfgang; Amaya, Enrique; Kloepper, Jennifer E; Hardman, Matthew J; Paus, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    There remains a critical need for new therapeutics that promote wound healing in patients suffering from chronic skin wounds. This is, in part, due to a shortage of simple, physiologically and clinically relevant test systems for investigating candidate agents. The skin of amphibians possesses a remarkable regenerative capacity, which remains insufficiently explored for clinical purposes. Combining comparative biology with a translational medicine approach, we report the development and application of a simple ex vivo frog (Xenopus tropicalis) skin organ culture system that permits exploration of the effects of amphibian skin-derived agents on re-epithelialisation in both frog and human skin. Using this amphibian model, we identify thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) as a novel stimulant of epidermal regeneration. Moving to a complementary human ex vivo wounded skin assay, we demonstrate that the effects of TRH are conserved across the amphibian-mammalian divide: TRH stimulates wound closure and formation of neo-epidermis in organ-cultured human skin, accompanied by increased keratinocyte proliferation and wound healing-associated differentiation (cytokeratin 6 expression). Thus, TRH represents a novel, clinically relevant neuroendocrine wound repair promoter that deserves further exploration. These complementary frog and human skin ex vivo assays encourage a comparative biology approach in future wound healing research so as to facilitate the rapid identification and preclinical testing of novel, evolutionarily conserved, and clinically relevant wound healing promoters.

  4. Biodegradable Gelatin Microcarriers Facilitate Re-Epithelialization of Human Cutaneous Wounds - An In Vitro Study in Human Skin.

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    Susanna Lönnqvist

    Full Text Available The possibility to use a suspended tridimensional matrix as scaffolding for re-epithelialization of in vitro cutaneous wounds was investigated with the aid of a human in vitro wound healing model based on viable full thickness skin. Macroporous gelatin microcarriers, CultiSpher-S, were applied to in vitro wounds and cultured for 21 days. Tissue sections showed incorporation of wound edge keratinocytes into the microcarriers and thicker neoepidermis in wounds treated with microcarriers. Thickness of the neoepidermis was measured digitally, using immunohistochemical staining of keratins as epithelial demarcation. Air-lifting of wounds enhanced stratification in control wounds as well as wounds with CultiSpher-S. Immunohistochemical staining revealed expression of keratin 5, keratin 10, and laminin 5 in the neoepidermal component. We conclude that the CultiSpher-S microcarriers can function as tissue guiding scaffold for re-epithelialization of cutaneous wounds.

  5. Biodegradable Gelatin Microcarriers Facilitate Re-Epithelialization of Human Cutaneous Wounds - An In Vitro Study in Human Skin

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    Lönnqvist, Susanna; Rakar, Jonathan; Briheim, Kristina; Kratz, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    The possibility to use a suspended tridimensional matrix as scaffolding for re-epithelialization of in vitro cutaneous wounds was investigated with the aid of a human in vitro wound healing model based on viable full thickness skin. Macroporous gelatin microcarriers, CultiSpher-S, were applied to in vitro wounds and cultured for 21 days. Tissue sections showed incorporation of wound edge keratinocytes into the microcarriers and thicker neoepidermis in wounds treated with microcarriers. Thickness of the neoepidermis was measured digitally, using immunohistochemical staining of keratins as epithelial demarcation. Air-lifting of wounds enhanced stratification in control wounds as well as wounds with CultiSpher-S. Immunohistochemical staining revealed expression of keratin 5, keratin 10, and laminin 5 in the neoepidermal component. We conclude that the CultiSpher-S microcarriers can function as tissue guiding scaffold for re-epithelialization of cutaneous wounds. PMID:26061630

  6. A novel model of wound healing in the SCID mouse using a cultured human skin substitute.

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    Windsor, Martin L; Eisenberg, Mark; Gordon-Thomson, Clare; Moore, Geoffrey P M

    2009-02-01

    Studies of skin graft behaviour in rodent excisional wound models are limited by the dominance of wound contracture and graft sloughing as primary healing responses. To slow skin contraction, polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon) rings were inserted into dorso-lateral full-thickness wounds in SCID mice. Cultured skin substitutes (OrCel), composed of cultured human keratinocytes and fibroblasts in a bovine collagen sponge, were implanted within the rings. Examination and histology of grafts 14 days later showed graft take in four of six recipients, with 90% epithelialization and wound contraction of 31-47%. Immunohistochemical studies, using human-specific antisera to distinguish graft from host tissues, showed that regenerated tissue was predominantly human. Staining with anticytokeratin, revealed a multilayered, stratified neoepidermis. HBG were identified in keratinocytes in all epidermal layers. Langerhans cells were absent. Antihuman vimentin, used as a fibroblast marker, confirmed that cells of the neodermis were primarily of human origin. Neoepidermal keratinocytes, primarily in the basal and suprabasal layers, were also stained. Results suggest that the poly(tetrafluoroethylene) ring inhibited graft sloughing and provided a more favourable environment for the skin substitute to regenerate a substantially normal human skin.

  7. The transcriptional activation program of human neutrophils in skin lesions supports their important role in wound healing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theilgaard-Monch, K.; Knudsen, Steen; Follin, P.

    2004-01-01

    receptors involved in inflammatory responses. These findings indicate a change of responsiveness to chemotactic and immunoregulatory mediators once PMNs have migrated to skin lesions and have been activated. Other effects of the up-regulated cytokines/chemokines/enzymes were critical for wound healing......To investigate the cellular fate and function of polymorphonuclear neutrophilic granulocytes (PMNs) attracted to skin wounds, we used a human skin-wounding model and microarray technology to define differentially expressed genes in PMNs from peripheral blood, and PMNs that had transmigrated to skin...... and function, and promotes wound healing....

  8. The Use of Cryopreserved Human Skin Allograft for the Treatment of Wounds With Exposed Muscle, Tendon, and Bone.

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    Wilson, Thomas C; Wilson, Jessica A; Crim, Brandon; Lowery, Nicholas J

    2016-04-01

    Wounds with exposed bone or tendon continue to be a challenge for wound care physicians, and there is little research pertaining to the treatment of these particular wounds with allograft skin. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of a biologically active cryopreserved human skin allograft for treating wounds with exposed bone and/or tendon in the lower extremities. Fifteen patients with 15 wounds at a single hospital-based wound care center were included in the study. Eleven wounds had exposed bone, 1 wound had exposed ten- don, and 3 wounds had exposed bone and tendon. Standard treatment principles with adjunctive cadaveric allograft application were performed on all wounds in the study. In this study 14/15 (93.3%) of the wounds healed completely. The mean duration of days until coverage of the bone and/or tendon with granulation tissue was 36.14 (5.16 weeks) (range 5-117 days). Mean duration to complete healing of the wound was 133 days (19 weeks) (range 53-311 days). The mean number of grafts applied was 2. There were no adverse events directly related to the graft. Zero major amputations and 1 minor amputation occurred. This study found biologically active cryopreserved human skin allografts to be safe and effective in treating difficult wounds with exposed bone and/or tendon. To the authors' knowledge, this is the largest study to date focused on the utilization of allograft skin as an adjunct therapy for lower extremity wounds with exposed tendon and/or bone.

  9. Biological evaluation of human hair keratin scaffolds for skin wound repair and regeneration

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    Xu, Songmei; Sang, Lin [National Engineering Research Center for Biomaterials, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Zhang, Yaping [Engineering Research Center of Biomass Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); Wang, Xiaoliang [National Engineering Research Center for Biomaterials, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Li, Xudong, E-mail: xli20004@yahoo.com [National Engineering Research Center for Biomaterials, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China)

    2013-03-01

    The cytocompatibility, in vivo biodegradation and wound healing of keratin biomaterials were investigated. For the purposes, three groups of keratin scaffolds were fabricated by freeze-drying reduced solutions at 2 wt.%, 4 wt.% and 8 wt.% keratins extracted from human hairs. These scaffolds exhibited evenly distributed high porous structures with pore size of 120-220 {mu}m and the porosity > 90%. NIH3T3 cells proliferated well on these scaffolds in culture lasting up to 22 days. Confocal micrographs stained with AO visually revealed cell attachment and infiltration as well as scaffold architectural stability. In vivo animal experiments were conducted with 4 wt.% keratin scaffolds. Early degradation of subcutaneously implanted scaffolds occurred at 3 weeks in the outermost surface, in concomitant with inflammatory response. At 5 weeks, the overall porous structure of scaffolds severely deteriorated while the early inflammatory response in the outermost surface obviously subsided. A faster keratin biodegradation was observed in repairing full-thickness skin defects. Compared with the blank control, keratin scaffolds gave rise to more blood vessels at 2 weeks and better complete wound repair at 3 weeks with a thicker epidermis, less contraction and newly formed hair follicles. These preliminary results suggest that human hair keratin scaffolds are promising dermal substitutes for skin regeneration. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Preparation of highly-interconnected human hair keratin scaffolds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Long-term cell culturing and in vivo animal experiments with keratin scaffolds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biodegradation is dependent on implantation site and function Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Early vascularization and better repair in treating full-thickness skin wounds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A thicker epidermis, less contraction and newly formed hair follicles are observed.

  10. Human fetal skin fibroblasts: Extremely potent and allogenic candidates for treatment of diabetic wounds.

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    Larijani, Bagher; Ghahari, Aziz; Warnock, Garth L; Aghayan, Hamid Reza; Goodarzi, Parisa; Falahzadeh, Khadijeh; Arjmand, Babak

    2015-06-01

    The number of patients with diabetes has been expected around 300 million by 2025 and 366 million by 2030 by WHO. On the other hand, diabetic wounds as one of the common complications of diabetes represent major health challenges. Recently, wound care biological products have been proposed for treatment of chronic wounds such as the diabetic wound. Accordingly, tissue-engineered skin substitutes have demonstrated promising effects. Some of these products have used adult skin and neonatal foreskin fibroblasts to produce a tissue-engineered skin substitute. Although adult skin and neonatal foreskin fibroblasts have demonstrated promising effects, but fetal skin fibroblasts and keratinocytes have depicted some unique and considerable properties over adult and neonatal skin cells for instance, skin regeneration with no inflammation and scar formation, low immunogenicity, more VEGF-A secretion than their adult counterparts, immunomodulatory effect by the expression of Indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase, more resistance to oxidative and physical stresses, etc. On the other hand fetal dermal cells with intrinsic IDO-dependent immunosuppressive activity have introduced them as an allogeneic alternative for treatment of chronic wounds. Therefore, based on the mentioned advantages they are ideal skin substitutes. Accordingly, we suggest that using these cells alone or in combination with biocompatible scaffolds for treatment of different types of ulcers such as diabetic wounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Human skin wounds: a major and snowballing threat to public health and the economy.

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    Sen, Chandan K; Gordillo, Gayle M; Roy, Sashwati; Kirsner, Robert; Lambert, Lynn; Hunt, Thomas K; Gottrup, Finn; Gurtner, Geoffrey C; Longaker, Michael T

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the United States, chronic wounds affect 6.5 million patients. An estimated excess of US$25 billion is spent annually on treatment of chronic wounds and the burden is rapidly growing due to increasing health care costs, an aging population and a sharp rise in the incidence of diabetes and obesity worldwide. The annual wound care products market is projected to reach $15.3 billion by 2010. Chronic wounds are rarely seen in individuals who are otherwise healthy. In fact, chronic wound patients frequently suffer from "highly branded" diseases such as diabetes and obesity. This seems to have overshadowed the significance of wounds per se as a major health problem. For example, NIH's Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tool (RePORT; http://report.nih.gov/), directed at providing access to estimates of funding for various disease conditions does list several rare diseases but does not list wounds. Forty million inpatient surgical procedures were performed in the United States in 2000, followed closely by 31.5 million outpatient surgeries. The need for post-surgical wound care is sharply on the rise. Emergency wound care in an acute setting has major significance not only in a war setting but also in homeland preparedness against natural disasters as well as against terrorism attacks. An additional burden of wound healing is the problem of skin scarring, a $12 billion annual market. The immense economic and social impact of wounds in our society calls for allocation of a higher level of attention and resources to understand biological mechanisms underlying cutaneous wound complications.

  12. Cell motility in models of wounded human skin is improved by Gap27 despite raised glucose, insulin and IGFBP-5

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    Wright, Catherine S.; Berends, Rebecca F. [Department of Life Sciences, School of Health and Life Sciences, Glasgow Caledonian University, 70 Cowcaddens Road, Glasgow G4 0BA (United Kingdom); Flint, David J. [Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, 161 Cathedral Street, Glasgow G4 0RE (United Kingdom); Martin, Patricia E.M., E-mail: Patricia.Martin@gcu.ac.uk [Department of Life Sciences, School of Health and Life Sciences, Glasgow Caledonian University, 70 Cowcaddens Road, Glasgow G4 0BA (United Kingdom)

    2013-02-15

    Reducing Cx43 expression stimulates skin wound healing. This is mimicked in models when Cx43 function is blocked by the connexin mimetic peptide Gap27. IGF-I also stimulates wound healing with IGFBP-5 attenuating its actions. Further, the IGF-I to IGFBP-5 ratio is altered in diabetic skin, where wound closure is impaired. We investigated whether Gap27 remains effective in augmenting scrape-wound closure in human skin wound models simulating diabetes-induced changes, using culture conditions with raised glucose, insulin and IGFBP-5. Gap27 increased scrape-wound closure in normal glucose and insulin (NGI) and to a lesser extent in high glucose and insulin (HGI). IGF-I enhanced scrape-wound closure in keratinocytes whereas IGFBP-5 inhibited this response. Gap27 overcame the inhibitory effects of IGFBP-5 on IGF-I activity. Connexin-mediated communication (CMC) was reduced in HGI, despite raised Cx43, and Gap27 significantly decreased CMC in NGI and HGI. IGF-I and IGFBP-5 did not affect CMC. IGF-I increased keratinocyte proliferation in NGI, and Gap27 increased proliferation in NGI to a greater extent than in HGI. We conclude that IGF-I and Gap27 stimulate scrape-wound closure by independent mechanisms with Gap27 inhibiting Cx43 function. Gap27 can enhance wound closure in diabetic conditions, irrespective of the IGF-I:IGFBP-5 balance. - Highlights: ► Human organotypic and keratinocyte ‘diabetic’ skin models were used to demonstrate the ability of Gap27 to improve scrape-wound closure. ► Gap27 enhanced scrape-wound closure by reducing Cx43-mediated communication, whereas IGFBP-5 retarded cell migration. ► IGF-I and IGFBP-5 did not affect connexin-mediated pathways. ► Gap27 can override altered glucose, insulin, IGF-I, and IGFBP-5 in ‘diabetic’ skin models and thus has therapeutic potential.

  13. DNA damage in wounded, hypoxic and acidotic human skin fibroblast cell cultures after low laser irradiation

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    Hawkins Evans, D.; Mbene, A.; Zungu, I.; Houreld, N.; Abrahamse, H.

    2009-02-01

    Phototherapy has become more popular and widely used in the treatment of a variety of medical conditions. To ensure sound results as evidence of its effectiveness, well designed experiments must be conducted when determining the effect of phototherapy. Cell culture models such as hypoxic, acidotic and wounded cell cultures simulating different disease conditions including ischemic heart disease, diabetes and wound healing were used to determine the effect of laser irradiation on the genetic integrity of the cell. Even though phototherapy has been found to be beneficial in a wide spectrum of conditions, it has been shown to induce DNA damage. However, this damage appears to be repairable. The risk lies in the fact that phototherapy may help the medical condition initially but damage DNA at the same time leaving undetected damage that may result in late onset, more severe, induced medical conditions including cancer. Human skin fibroblasts were cultured and used to induce a wound (by the central scratch model), hypoxic (by incubation in an anaerobic jar, 95% N2 and 5% O2) and acidotic (reducing the pH of the media to 6.7) conditions. Different models were irradiated using a Helium-Neon (632.8 nm) laser with a power density of 2.07 mW/cm2 and a fluence of 5 J/cm2 or 16 J/cm2. The effect of the irradiation was determined using the Comet assay 1 and 24 h after irradiation. In addition, the Comet assay was performed with the addition of formamidopyrimidine glycosylase (FPG) obviating strand brakes in oxidized bases at a high fluence of 16 J/cm2. A significant increase in DNA damage was seen in all three injured models at both 1 and 24 h post-irradiation when compared to the normal un-injured cells. However, when compared to non-irradiated controls the acidotic model showed a significant decrease in DNA damage 24 h after irradiation indicating the possible induction of cellular DNA repair mechanisms. When wounded cells were irradiated with higher fluences of 16 J/cm2

  14. Significantly Accelerated Wound Healing of Full-Thickness Skin Using a Novel Composite Gel of Porcine Acellular Dermal Matrix and Human Peripheral Blood Cells.

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    Kuna, Vijay K; Padma, Arvind M; Håkansson, Joakim; Nygren, Jan; Sjöback, Robert; Petronis, Sarunas; Sumitran-Holgersson, Suchitra

    2017-02-16

    Here we report the fabrication of a novel composite gel from decellularized gal-gal-knockout porcine skin and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMCs) for full-thickness skin wound healing. Decellularized skin extracellular matrix (ECM) powder was prepared via chemical treatment, freeze drying, and homogenization. The powder was mixed with culture medium containing hyaluronic acid to generate a pig skin gel (PSG). The effect of the gel in regeneration of full-thickness wounds was studied in nude mice. We found significantly accelerated wound closure already on day 15 in animals treated with PSG only or PSG + hPBMCs compared to untreated and hyaluronic acid-treated controls (p skin with well-arranged epidermal cells and restored bilayer structure of the epidermis and dermis. These results suggest that porcine skin ECM gel together with human cells may be a novel and promising biomaterial for medical applications especially for patients with acute and chronic skin wounds.

  15. PREPARATIVE SKIN PREPARATION AND SURGICAL WOUND INFECTION

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    Anjanappa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: It is an established fact now that the normal skin of healthy human beings harbours a rich bacterial fl ora. Normally considered non - pathogenic , these organisms way be a potential source of infection of the surgical wound. Approximately 20% of the resident flora is beyond the reach of surgical scrubs and antiseptics. The goal of surgical preparation of the skin with antiseptics is to remove transient and pathogenic microorganisms on the skin surface and to reduce the resident flora to a low level. Povidone iodine (I odophors and chlorhexidine are most often used antiseptics for pre - operative skin preparation. OBJECTIVES : To evaluate the efficacy of povidone iodine alone and in combination with antiseptic agent containing alcoholic chlorhexidine in preoperative skin p reparation by taking swab culture. (2 To compare the rate of postoperative wound infection in both the groups. METHODS: One hundred patients (fifty in each group undergoing clean elective surgery with no focus of infection on the body were included in th e study. The pre - operative skin preparation in each group is done with the respective antiseptic regimen. In both the groups after application of antiseptics , sterile saline swab culture was taken immediately from site of incision. In cases which showed gr owth of organisms , the bacteria isolated were identified by their morphological and cultural characteristics. Grams staining , coagulase test and antibiotic sensitivity test were done wherever necessary and difference in colonization rates was determined as a measure of efficacy of antiseptic regimen. RESULTS: The results of the study showed that when compared to povidone iodine alone , using a combination of povidone iodine and alcoholic solution of chlorhexidine , the colonization rates of the site of incisi on were reduced significantly. As for the rate of post - operative wound infection , it is also proven that wound infections are also

  16. Human skin wounds: A major and snowballing threat to public health and the economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sen, C.K.; Gordillo, G.M.; Roy, S.

    2009-01-01

    In the United States, chronic wounds affect 6.5 million patients. An estimated excess of US$25 billion is spent annually on treatment of chronic wounds and the burden is rapidly growing due to increasing health care costs, an aging population and a sharp rise in the incidence of diabetes...... and obesity worldwide. The annual wound care products market is projected to reach $15.3 billion by 2010. Chronic wounds are rarely seen in individuals who are otherwise healthy. In fact, chronic wound patients frequently suffer from "highly branded" diseases such as diabetes and obesity. This seems to have...... overshadowed the significance of wounds per se as a major health problem. For example, NIH's Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tool (RePORT; http://report.nih.gov/), directed at providing access to estimates of funding for various disease conditions does list several rare diseases but does not list wounds...

  17. The external microenvironment of healing skin wounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Carla R; Nuutila, Kristo; Lee, Cameron Cy

    2015-01-01

    The skin wound microenvironment can be divided into two main components that influence healing: the external wound microenvironment, which is outside the wound surface; and the internal wound microenvironment, underneath the surface, to which the cells within the wound are exposed. Treatment...... and carbon dioxide), pH, and anti-microbial treatment on the wound. These factors are well described in the literature and can be modified with treatment methods available in the clinic. Understanding the roles of these factors in wound pathophysiology is of central importance in wound treatment...... methods that directly alter the features of the external wound microenvironment indirectly affect the internal wound microenvironment due to the exchange between the two compartments. In this review, we focus on the effects of temperature, pressure (positive and negative), hydration, gases (oxygen...

  18. Flax Fiber Hydrophobic Extract Inhibits Human Skin Cells Inflammation and Causes Remodeling of Extracellular Matrix and Wound Closure Activation

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    Monika Styrczewska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is the basis of many diseases, with chronic wounds amongst them, limiting cell proliferation and tissue regeneration. Our previous preclinical study of flax fiber applied as a wound dressing and analysis of its components impact on the fibroblast transcriptome suggested flax fiber hydrophobic extract use as an anti-inflammatory and wound healing preparation. The extract contains cannabidiol (CBD, phytosterols, and unsaturated fatty acids, showing great promise in wound healing. In in vitro proliferation and wound closure tests the extract activated cell migration and proliferation. The activity of matrix metalloproteinases in skin cells was increased, suggesting activation of extracellular components remodeling. The expression of cytokines was diminished by the extract in a cannabidiol-dependent manner, but β-sitosterol can act synergistically with CBD in inflammation inhibition. Extracellular matrix related genes were also analyzed, considering their importance in further stages of wound healing. The extract activated skin cell matrix remodeling, but the changes were only partially cannabidiol- and β-sitosterol-dependent. The possible role of fatty acids also present in the extract is suggested. The study shows the hydrophobic flax fiber components as wound healing activators, with anti-inflammatory cannabidiol acting in synergy with sterols, and migration and proliferation promoting agents, some of which still require experimental identification.

  19. Flax Fiber Hydrophobic Extract Inhibits Human Skin Cells Inflammation and Causes Remodeling of Extracellular Matrix and Wound Closure Activation.

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    Styrczewska, Monika; Kostyn, Anna; Kulma, Anna; Majkowska-Skrobek, Grazyna; Augustyniak, Daria; Prescha, Anna; Czuj, Tadeusz; Szopa, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is the basis of many diseases, with chronic wounds amongst them, limiting cell proliferation and tissue regeneration. Our previous preclinical study of flax fiber applied as a wound dressing and analysis of its components impact on the fibroblast transcriptome suggested flax fiber hydrophobic extract use as an anti-inflammatory and wound healing preparation. The extract contains cannabidiol (CBD), phytosterols, and unsaturated fatty acids, showing great promise in wound healing. In in vitro proliferation and wound closure tests the extract activated cell migration and proliferation. The activity of matrix metalloproteinases in skin cells was increased, suggesting activation of extracellular components remodeling. The expression of cytokines was diminished by the extract in a cannabidiol-dependent manner, but β-sitosterol can act synergistically with CBD in inflammation inhibition. Extracellular matrix related genes were also analyzed, considering their importance in further stages of wound healing. The extract activated skin cell matrix remodeling, but the changes were only partially cannabidiol- and β-sitosterol-dependent. The possible role of fatty acids also present in the extract is suggested. The study shows the hydrophobic flax fiber components as wound healing activators, with anti-inflammatory cannabidiol acting in synergy with sterols, and migration and proliferation promoting agents, some of which still require experimental identification.

  20. Human lung fibroblast-derived matrix facilitates vascular morphogenesis in 3D environment and enhances skin wound healing.

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    Du, Ping; Suhaeri, Muhammad; Ha, Sang Su; Oh, Seung Ja; Kim, Sang-Heon; Park, Kwideok

    2017-05-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) is crucial to many aspects of vascular morphogenesis and maintenance of vasculature function. Currently the recapitulation of angiogenic ECM microenvironment is still challenging, due mainly to its diverse components and complex organization. Here we investigate the angiogenic potential of human lung fibroblast-derived matrix (hFDM) in creating a three-dimensional (3D) vascular construct. hFDM was obtained via decellularization of in vitro cultured human lung fibroblasts and analyzed via immunofluorescence staining and ELISA, which detect multiple ECM macromolecules and angiogenic growth factors (GFs). Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) morphology was more elongated and better proliferative on hFDM than on gelatin-coated substrate. To prepare 3D construct, hFDM is collected, quantitatively analyzed, and incorporated in collagen hydrogel (Col) with HUVECs. Capillary-like structure (CLS) formation at 7day was significantly better with the groups containing higher doses of hFDM compared to the Col group (control). Moreover, the group (Col/hFDM/GFs) with both hFDM and angiogenic GFs (VEGF, bFGF, SDF-1) showed the synergistic activity on CLS formation and found much larger capillary lumen diameters with time. Further analysis of hFDM via angiogenesis antibody array kit reveals abundant biochemical cues, such as angiogenesis-related cytokines, GFs, and proteolytic enzymes. Significantly up-regulated expression of VE-cadherin and ECM-specific integrin subunits was also noticed in Col/hFDM/GFs. In addition, transplantation of Col/hFMD/GFs with HUVECs in skin wound model presents more effective re-epithelialization, many regenerated hair follicles, better transplanted cells viability, and advanced neovascularization. We believe that current system is a very promising platform for 3D vasculature construction in vitro and for cell delivery toward therapeutic applications in vivo. Functional 3D vasculature construction in vitro is still

  1. Optical coherence tomography: a reliable alternative to invasive histological assessment of acute wound healing in human skin?

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    Greaves, N S; Benatar, B; Whiteside, S; Alonso-Rasgado, T; Baguneid, M; Bayat, A

    2014-04-01

    Gold-standard assessment of acute wound healing has traditionally been through histological analysis of biopsied tissue. However, this process is invasive with recognized side-effects. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive technique generating high-resolution real-time images of cutaneous architecture. To compare OCT with histological assessment of in vivo acute wound healing and ascertain the level of agreement between modalities for measurement of defined cutaneous structures. Punch biopsies (5 mm) were harvested from 50 healthy volunteers. Wounds healed by secondary intention until they were re-excised 7, 14, 21 or 28 days later depending on random group allocation. Wounds were assessed weekly for 6 weeks using OCT and compared with histological findings derived from time-matched biopsies. Dimensions of four cutaneous structures were measured using both modalities and the level of agreement was established by Bland-Altman analysis. The mean greyscale value (MGV) of the upper reticular dermis was derived from OCT images at all time points. Both techniques showed anatomical congruity in normal and wounded skin with correlating architectural changes associated with inflammatory, proliferative and remodelling wound healing phases. MGV was significantly increased 6 weeks after wounding (P = 0·001) and may represent a novel measure of wound fibrosis. Despite good association of histomorphometric values with low but consistent bias (range -4·181 to 0·431 μm), Bland-Altman plots demonstrated poor agreement between OCT and histology. Optical coherence tomography enabled accurate assessment of healing tissue comparable with histological analysis of biopsy specimens. This noninvasive tool is highly suited to wound assessment and may represent a diagnostic alternative to punch biopsies. © 2013 British Association of Dermatologists.

  2. Human Wharton's Jelly Mesenchymal Stem Cells plasticity augments scar-free skin wound healing with hair growth.

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    Sabapathy, Vikram; Sundaram, Balasubramanian; V M, Sreelakshmi; Mankuzhy, Pratheesh; Kumar, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a promising candidate for cell-based transplantation and regenerative medicine therapies. Thus in the present study Wharton's Jelly Mesenchymal Stem Cells (WJ-MSCs) have been derived from extra embryonic umbilical cord matrix following removal of both arteries and vein. Also, to overcome the clinical limitations posed by fetal bovine serum (FBS) supplementation because of xenogeneic origin of FBS, usual FBS cell culture supplement has been replaced with human platelet lysate (HPL). Apart from general characteristic features of bone marrow-derived MSCs, wharton jelly-derived MSCs have the ability to maintain phenotypic attributes, cell growth kinetics, cell cycle pattern, in vitro multilineage differentiation plasticity, apoptotic pattern, normal karyotype-like intrinsic mesenchymal stem cell properties in long-term in vitro cultures. Moreover, the WJ-MSCs exhibited the in vitro multilineage differentiation capacity by giving rise to differentiated cells of not only mesodermal lineage but also to the cells of ectodermal and endodermal lineage. Also, WJ-MSC did not present any aberrant cell state upon in vivo transplantation in SCID mice and in vitro soft agar assays. The immunomodulatory potential assessed by gene expression levels of immunomodulatory factors upon exposure to inflammatory cytokines in the fetal WJ-MSCs was relatively higher compared to adult bone marrow-derived MSCs. WJ-MSCs seeded on decellularized amniotic membrane scaffold transplantation on the skin injury of SCID mice model demonstrates that combination of WJ-MSCs and decellularized amniotic membrane scaffold exhibited significantly better wound-healing capabilities, having reduced scar formation with hair growth and improved biomechanical properties of regenerated skin compared to WJ-MSCs alone. Further, our experimental data indicate that indocyanin green (ICG) at optimal concentration can be resourcefully used for labeling of stem cells and in vivo

  3. Human Wharton's Jelly Mesenchymal Stem Cells plasticity augments scar-free skin wound healing with hair growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikram Sabapathy

    Full Text Available Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are a promising candidate for cell-based transplantation and regenerative medicine therapies. Thus in the present study Wharton's Jelly Mesenchymal Stem Cells (WJ-MSCs have been derived from extra embryonic umbilical cord matrix following removal of both arteries and vein. Also, to overcome the clinical limitations posed by fetal bovine serum (FBS supplementation because of xenogeneic origin of FBS, usual FBS cell culture supplement has been replaced with human platelet lysate (HPL. Apart from general characteristic features of bone marrow-derived MSCs, wharton jelly-derived MSCs have the ability to maintain phenotypic attributes, cell growth kinetics, cell cycle pattern, in vitro multilineage differentiation plasticity, apoptotic pattern, normal karyotype-like intrinsic mesenchymal stem cell properties in long-term in vitro cultures. Moreover, the WJ-MSCs exhibited the in vitro multilineage differentiation capacity by giving rise to differentiated cells of not only mesodermal lineage but also to the cells of ectodermal and endodermal lineage. Also, WJ-MSC did not present any aberrant cell state upon in vivo transplantation in SCID mice and in vitro soft agar assays. The immunomodulatory potential assessed by gene expression levels of immunomodulatory factors upon exposure to inflammatory cytokines in the fetal WJ-MSCs was relatively higher compared to adult bone marrow-derived MSCs. WJ-MSCs seeded on decellularized amniotic membrane scaffold transplantation on the skin injury of SCID mice model demonstrates that combination of WJ-MSCs and decellularized amniotic membrane scaffold exhibited significantly better wound-healing capabilities, having reduced scar formation with hair growth and improved biomechanical properties of regenerated skin compared to WJ-MSCs alone. Further, our experimental data indicate that indocyanin green (ICG at optimal concentration can be resourcefully used for labeling of stem cells

  4. Skin substitute-assisted repair shows reduced dermal fibrosis in acute human wounds validated simultaneously by histology and optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaves, Nicholas S; Iqbal, Syed A; Hodgkinson, Tom; Morris, Julie; Benatar, Brian; Alonso-Rasgado, Teresa; Baguneid, Mohamed; Bayat, Ardeshir

    2015-01-01

    Skin substitutes are heterogeneous biomaterials designed to accelerate wound healing through provision of replacement extracellular matrix. Despite growing evidence for their use in chronic wounds, the role of skin substitutes in acute wound management and their influence on fibrogenesis remains unclear. Skin substitute characteristics including biocompatibility, porosity, and elasticity strongly influence cellular behavior during wound healing. Thus, we hypothesize that structural and biomechanical variation between biomaterials may induce differential scar formation after cutaneous injury. The following human prospective cohort study was designed to investigate this premise. Four 5-mm full thickness punch biopsies were harvested from 50 volunteers. In all cases, site 1 healed by secondary intention, site 2 was treated with collagen-GAG scaffold (CG), and decellularised dermis (DCD) was applied to site 3 while tissue extracted from site 4 was replaced (autograft). Healing tissue was assessed weekly with optical coherence tomography (OCT), before being excised on days 7, 14, 21, or 28 depending on study group allocation for later histological and immunohistochemical evaluation. Extracted RNA was used in microarray analysis and polymerase chain reaction of highlighted genes. Autograft treatment resulted in minimal fibrosis confirmed immunohistochemically and with OCT through significantly lower collagen I levels (p = 0.047 and 0.03) and reduced mean grayscale values (p = 0.038 and 0.015), respectively. DCD developed intermediate scar formation with partial rete ridge reformation and reduced fasiculonodular fibrosis. It was uniquely associated with late up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases 1 and 3, oncostatin M, and interleukin-10 (p = 0.007, 0.04, 0.019, 0.019). Regenerated dermis was significantly thicker in DCD and autografts 28 days post-injury compared with control and CG samples (p = 0.003 and < 0.0001). In conclusion, variable fibrotic outcomes were

  5. Mechanoregulation of Wound Healing and Skin Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Rosińczuk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Basic and clinical studies on mechanobiology of cells and tissues point to the importance of mechanical forces in the process of skin regeneration and wound healing. These studies result in the development of new therapies that use mechanical force which supports effective healing. A better understanding of mechanobiology will make it possible to develop biomaterials with appropriate physical and chemical properties used to treat poorly healing wounds. In addition, it will make it possible to design devices precisely controlling wound mechanics and to individualize a therapy depending on the type, size, and anatomical location of the wound in specific patients, which will increase the clinical efficiency of the therapy. Linking mechanobiology with the science of biomaterials and nanotechnology will enable in the near future precise interference in abnormal cell signaling responsible for the proliferation, differentiation, cell death, and restoration of the biological balance. The objective of this study is to point to the importance of mechanobiology in regeneration of skin damage and wound healing. The study describes the influence of rigidity of extracellular matrix and special restrictions on cell physiology. The study also defines how and what mechanical changes influence tissue regeneration and wound healing. The influence of mechanical signals in the process of proliferation, differentiation, and skin regeneration is tagged in the study.

  6. The role of laser fluence in cell viability, proliferation, and membrane integrity of wounded human skin fibroblasts following helium-neon laser irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Denise H; Abrahamse, Heidi

    2006-01-01

    In medicine, lasers have been used predominantly for applications, which are broadly termed low level laser therapy (LLLT), phototherapy or photobiomodulation. This study aimed to establish cellular responses to Helium-Neon (632.8 nm) laser irradiation using different laser fluences (0.5, 2.5, 5, 10, and 16 J/cm(2)) with a single exposure on 2 consecutive days on normal and wounded human skin fibroblasts. Changes in normal and wounded fibroblast cell morphology were evaluated by light microscopy. Changes following laser irradiation were evaluated by assessing the mitochondrial activity using adenosine triphosphate (ATP) luminescence, cell proliferation using neutral red and an alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assay, membrane integrity using lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and percentage cytotoxicity and DNA damage using the Comet assay. Morphologically, wounded cells exposed to 5 J/cm(2) migrate rapidly across the wound margin indicating a stimulatory or positive influence of phototherapy. A dose of 5 J/cm(2) has a stimulatory influence on wounded fibroblasts with an increase in cell proliferation and cell viability without adversely increasing the amount of cellular and molecular damage. Higher doses (10 and 16 J/cm(2)) were characterized by a decrease in cell viability and cell proliferation with a significant amount of damage to the cell membrane and DNA. Results show that 5 J/cm(2) stimulates mitochondrial activity, which leads to normalization of cell function and ultimately stimulates cell proliferation and migration of wounded fibroblasts to accelerate wound closure. Laser irradiation can modify cellular processes in a dose or fluence (J/cm(2)) dependent manner.

  7. Skin wound healing and phytomedicine: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazyar, Nader; Yaghoobi, Reza; Rafiee, Esmail; Mehrabian, Abolfath; Feily, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Skin integrity is restored by a physiological process aimed at repairing the damaged tissues. The healing process proceeds in four phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation and remodeling. Phytomedicine presents remedies, which possess significant pharmacological effects. It is popular amongst the general population in regions all over the world. Phytotherapeutic agents have been largely used for cutaneous wound healing. These include Aloe vera, mimosa, grape vine, Echinacea, chamomile, ginseng, green tea, jojoba, tea tree oil, rosemary, lemon, soybean, comfrey, papaya, oat, garlic, ginkgo, olive oil and ocimum. Phytotherapy may open new avenues for therapeutic intervention on cutaneous wounds. This article provides a review of the common beneficial medicinal plants in the management of skin wounds with an attempt to explain their mechanisms. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Novel living skin replacement biotherapy approach for wounded skin tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFrance, M L; Armstrong, D W

    1999-04-01

    A novel living skin replacement (LSR) biotherapy concept, addressing the challenging problems related to tissue regeneration and wound healing, is presented for the treatment of skin burns, traumatic injuries and ulcerations. LSR combines elements of cell therapy along with those of tissue engineering to allow for the regeneration of wounded skin. It takes advantage of biodegradable microspheres onto which donor skin epidermal and dermal cells can be attached and expanded in vitro for subsequent direct application down to the deepest recesses of the wound bed. The key element of the biotherapy is the ability of the skin cells to migrate freely from the microspheres into the wound for regeneration of the tissues. The large surface to volume ratio of the microspheres allows for the delivery of appropriate cell numbers while minimizing the amount of biomaterial to be resorbed. This novel approach presents a number of advantages over existing therapies including facilitated cell manipulations, ease of storage and transportation, rapid clinical intervention due to the elimination of any surgical suturing or stapling, and a more natural three-dimensional tissue remodeling and anatomical compliance. Preliminary in vitro and in vivo evidence of the LSR functionality and its potential benefits is presented.

  9. [Effects of human amniotic epithelial stem cells-derived exosomes on healing of wound with full-thickness skin defect in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, B; Wu, G F; Zhang, Y J; Zhang, W; Yang, F F; Xiao, D; Zeng, K X; Shi, J H; Su, L L; Hu, D H

    2017-01-20

    Objective: To investigate the effects of human amniotic epithelial stem cells-derived exosomes on healing of wound with full-thickness skin defect in rats. Methods: (1) Human amniotic epithelial stem cells were isolated from the amnion tissue of 5 full-term pregnant women in Department of Obstetrics of our hospital by the method of trypsin digestion, and their morphology was observed. The third passage of cells were stained with rhodamine-phalloidin for cytoskeleton observation. The third passage of cells were identified with flow cytometry through the detection of expressions of cell surface markers CD29, CD31, CD34, CD90, CD105, SSEA3, SSEA4 and immunity-related marker human leukocyte antigen-D related site (HLA-DR). The third passage of cells were also assessed the ability of adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation. (2) The third passage of human amniotic epithelial stem cells were cultured in DMEM medium supplemented with 10% exosome-free fetal bovine serum. Exosomes were isolated from culture supernatant by the method of ultracentrifugation and represented with scanning electron microscope for morphologic observation. (3) Six adult SD rats were anesthetized, and four 1 cm×1 cm sized wounds with full-thickness skin defect were made on the back of each rat. The wounds on the back of each rat were divided into control group, 25 μg/mL exosomes group, 50 μg/mL exosomes group, and 100 μg/mL exosomes group according to the random number table (with 6 wounds in each group), and a total volume of 100 μL phosphate buffered saline, 25 μg/mL exosomes, 50 μg/mL exosomes, and 100 μg/mL exosomes were evenly injected around the wound through multiple subcutaneous sites, respectively. The wound healing rate was calculated based on measurement on post injury day (PID) 7, 14, and 21. On PID 21, the healed wound tissue of each group was collected and stained with HE to observe and count skin accessories, and the arrangement of collagen fibers was observed with Masson

  10. Flax Fiber Hydrophobic Extract Inhibits Human Skin Cells Inflammation and Causes Remodeling of Extracellular Matrix and Wound Closure Activation

    OpenAIRE

    Styrczewska, Monika; Kostyn, Anna; Kulma, Anna; Majkowska-Skrobek, Grazyna; Augustyniak, Daria; Prescha, Anna; Czuj, Tadeusz; Szopa, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is the basis of many diseases, with chronic wounds amongst them, limiting cell proliferation and tissue regeneration. Our previous preclinical study of flax fiber applied as a wound dressing and analysis of its components impact on the fibroblast transcriptome suggested flax fiber hydrophobic extract use as an anti-inflammatory and wound healing preparation. The extract contains cannabidiol (CBD), phytosterols, and unsaturated fatty acids, showing great promise in wound healing. ...

  11. Effective biofilm removal and changes in bacterial biofilm building capacity after wound debridement with low-frequency ultrasound as part of wound bed preparation before skin grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yarets Y

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Yuliya Yarets Clinical Laboratory Medicine Department, The Republican Scientific Centre for Radiation Medicine and Human Ecology, Gomel, Belarus Abstract: The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of ultrasonic-assisted wound debridement (UAW used for wound bed preparation of chronic wounds prior to skin grafting. Initially, 140 patients were enrolled into study. Group 1 patients (n=53 with critically colonized wounds underwent a single UAW procedure before skin grafting. Group 2 patients (n=87 with colonized wounds received two UAW sessions, skin grafting followed by the second UAW treatment. Initial wound classification in colonized and critically colonized wounds did not correlate with results from microbiological analysis of wound swab samples. Hence, comparison of efficacy of one or two debridement sessions was conducted solely for a similar group of patients, that is, patients with colonized wounds of group 1 (n=40 and group 2 (n=47. In wounds of group 1 patients, a single debridement session resulted in reduction of bacteria from >104 to <104 CFU/mL. However, bacteria remaining at wound site showed minor differences in biofilm slime production, with skin graft failure being observed in 25% cases. In wounds of group 2 patients, two debridement sessions significantly reduced bacterial presence up to <102 CFU/mL. Bacteria remaining at wound site showed low capacity for biofilm slime production and high accumulation of biomass; a complete graft healing was observed in all patients. We suggest two to three debridement sessions with UAW to be most effective in wound bed preparation before skin grafting of chronic wounds. UAW showed to be effective in cleaning the wound bed, destroying the extracellular substances in biofilms, and influencing biofilm slime building capacity of bacteria left at wound site. Keywords: wound debridement, wound bed preparation, biofilm, low-frequency ultrasound, skin grafting, biofilm assay

  12. Gender affects skin wound healing in plasminogen deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønø, Birgitte; Engelholm, Lars Henning; Lund, Leif Røge

    2013-01-01

    closure in female versus male plasmin deficient mice. Further studies showed that this gender effect could not be reversed by ovariectomy, suggesting that female sex-hormones did not mediate the accelerated skin wound healing in plasmin deficient female mice. Histological examination of healed wounds...... or if this gender effect is restricted to skin cancer. To investigate this, we tested the effect of gender on plasmin dependent immune cell migration, accumulation of hepatic fibrin depositions, skin composition, and skin wound healing. Gender did not affect immune cell migration or hepatic fibrin accumulation...... in neither wildtype nor plasmin deficient mice, and the existing differences in skin composition between males and females were unaffected by plasmin deficiency. In contrast, gender had a marked effect on the ability of plasmin deficient mice to heal skin wounds, which was seen as an accelerated wound...

  13. Rate of healing in skin-grafted burn wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, Lisa; Guerrero, Rick; Quesada, Abel R; Chan, Linda S; Garner, Warren L

    2007-08-01

    Skin grafting is a simple and common procedure for achieving wound closure. Despite its widespread use, there is little objective information about the outcomes of skin-grafted burn wounds. The purposes of this study were to determine the length of time it takes to achieve complete wound healing in split-thickness skin-grafted burn wounds and to identify factors that affect time to complete wound healing. The authors prospectively collected information from January through September of 2003 on 52 consecutive patients. Time to complete wound healing was defined as the number of days from burn wound skin grafting until the wound was 100 percent epithelialized. Percentage of total body surface area burned, preoperative prealbumin level, sex, age, graft type, burn mechanism, cause of graft loss, and presence of hypergranulation tissue were assessed and correlated with time to complete wound healing. The time to complete wound healing ranged from 2 to 75 days. Forty-six percent of skin grafts had 100 percent wound closure at postoperative day 7. No grafts were lost to infection. Factors that significantly affected time to complete wound healing were graft loss by seroma, preoperative prealbumin level, presence of hypergranulation tissue, and burns caused by hot solids. The authors' results suggest that most patients will heal skin-grafted burn wounds within 2 weeks. Meticulous attention to prevention of seroma, hypergranulation tissue formation, and malnutrition might decrease time to complete wound healing. Factors thought to influence time to complete wound healing, such as total body surface area burned, sex, age, graft type, and infection, did not significantly affect the authors' patient group.

  14. A potential wound-healing-promoting peptide from salamander skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Lixian; Tang, Jing; Liu, Han; Shen, Chuanbin; Rong, Mingqiang; Zhang, Zhiye; Lai, Ren

    2014-09-01

    Although it is well known that wound healing proceeds incredibly quickly in urodele amphibians, such as newts and salamanders, little is known about skin-wound healing, and no bioactive/effector substance that contributes to wound healing has been identified from these animals. As a step toward understanding salamander wound healing and skin regeneration, a potential wound-healing-promoting peptide (tylotoin; KCVRQNNKRVCK) was identified from salamander skin of Tylototriton verrucosus. It shows comparable wound-healing-promoting ability (EC50=11.14 μg/ml) with epidermal growth factor (EGF; NSDSECPLSHDGYCLHDGVCMYIEALDKYACNCVVGYIGERCQYRDLKWWELR) in a murine model of full-thickness dermal wound. Tylotoin directly enhances the motility and proliferation of keratinocytes, vascular endothelial cells, and fibroblasts, resulting in accelerated reepithelialization and granulation tissue formation in the wound site. Tylotoin also promotes the release of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and interleukin 6 (IL-6), which are essential in the wound healing response. Gene-encoded tylotoin secreted in salamander skin is possibly an effector molecule for skin wound healing. This study may facilitate understanding of the cellular and molecular events that underlie quick wound healing in salamanders. © FASEB.

  15. Reduced engraftment and wound closure of cryopreserved cultured skin substitutes grafted to athymic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harriger, M D; Supp, A P; Swope, V B; Boyce, S T

    1997-09-01

    Cryopreservation of cultured skin substitutes is a requirement for establishment of banks of alternative materials for treatment of acute and chronic skin wounds. To determine whether cryopreservation of skin substitutes that contain cultured cells reduces their efficacy for wound closure, cell-biopolymer grafts were frozen, recovered into culture, and grafted to wounds on athymic mice. Grafts consisted of cultured human keratinocytes and fibroblasts attached to collagen-glycosaminoglycan substrates that were frozen in cell culture medium with 20% serum and 10% DMSO at a controlled rate and stored overnight in liquid nitrogen. After recovery into culture for 24 h, frozen or unfrozen (control) skin substitutes were grafted to full-thickness wounds on athymic mice. Wound area and surface electrical capacitance were measured at 2, 3, and 4 weeks after grafting at which time animals were sacrificed. Wounds were scored for presence of human cells by direct immunofluorescence staining with a monoclonal antibody to HLA-ABC. The data demonstrate that cell-biopolymer grafts are less efficacious after controlled-rate cryopreservation using 10% DMSO as a cryoprotectant. Frozen grafts at 4 weeks after surgery have significantly smaller wound areas, higher capacitance (wetter surface), and fewer healed wounds that contain human cells. The results suggest that these conditions for cryopreservation of cultured grafts reduce graft viability. Improved conditions for cryopreservation are required to maintain viability and efficacy of cultured skin substitutes after frozen storage. Copyright 1997 Academic Press.

  16. Interventions to avoid maceration of the skin and wound bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Richard J; Cutting, Keith F

    In the course of managing exuding wounds, particularly chronic wounds, failure to deal adequately with exudate can lead to exposure of the peri-wound skin to exudate and hence damage. This results in maceration of the skin and wound bed. Maceration is a largely under-recognized problem and one of the causes of delayed wound healing. Previous articles have focused on the nature and causes of maceration. This article describes a wide variety of wounds and skin conditions in which maceration might be present, or develop, during treatment, together with some strategies for avoiding maceration and the evidence base supporting them. It is only by becoming familiar with the various presentations of maceration, and with prophylactic treatment measures, that practitioners can avoid the increased costs and morbidity associated with it.

  17. Biomaterials and Nanotherapeutics for Enhancing Skin Wound Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhamoy Das

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Wound healing is an intricate process that requires complex coordination between many cells and an appropriate extracellular microenvironment. Chronic wounds often suffer from high protease activity, persistent infection, excess inflammation, and hypoxia. While there has been intense investigation to find new methods to improve cutaneous wound care; the management of chronic wounds, burns, and skin wound infection remain challenging clinical problems. Ideally, advanced wound dressings can provide enhanced healing and bridge the gaps in the healing processes that prevent chronic wounds from healing. These technologies have great potential for improving outcomes in patients with poorly healing wounds but face significant barriers in addressing the heterogeneity and clinical complexity of chronic or severe wounds. Active wound dressings aim to enhance the natural healing process and work to counter many aspects that plague poorly healing wounds including excessive inflammation, ischemia, scarring and wound infection. This review paper discusses recent advances in the development of biomaterials and nanoparticle therapeutics to enhance wound healing. In particular, this review focuses on the novel cutaneous wound treatments that have undergone significant preclinical development or currently used in clinical practice.

  18. Bioglass Activated Skin Tissue Engineering Constructs for Wound Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongfei; Peng, Jinliang; Xu, Yuhong; Chang, Jiang; Li, Haiyan

    2016-01-13

    Wound healing is a complicated process, and fibroblast is a major cell type that participates in the process. Recent studies have shown that bioglass (BG) can stimulate fibroblasts to secrete a multitude of growth factors that are critical for wound healing. Therefore, we hypothesize that BG can stimulate fibroblasts to have a higher bioactivity by secreting more bioactive growth factors and proteins as compared to untreated fibroblasts, and we aim to construct a bioactive skin tissue engineering graft for wound healing by using BG activated fibroblast sheet. Thus, the effects of BG on fibroblast behaviors were studied, and the bioactive skin tissue engineering grafts containing BG activated fibroblasts were applied to repair the full skin lesions on nude mouse. Results showed that BG stimulated fibroblasts to express some critical growth factors and important proteins including vascular endothelial growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, epidermal growth factor, collagen I, and fibronectin. In vivo results revealed that fibroblasts in the bioactive skin tissue engineering grafts migrated into wound bed, and the migration ability of fibroblasts was stimulated by BG. In addition, the bioactive BG activated fibroblast skin tissue engineering grafts could largely increase the blood vessel formation, enhance the production of collagen I, and stimulate the differentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts in the wound site, which would finally accelerate wound healing. This study demonstrates that the BG activated skin tissue engineering grafts contain more critical growth factors and extracellular matrix proteins that are beneficial for wound healing as compared to untreated fibroblast cell sheets.

  19. Active wound dressing with artificial capillaries for temporary wound irrigation and skin cell supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plettig, Jörn; Johnen, Christa M; Bräutigam, Kirsten; Zeilinger, Katrin; Borneman, Reinhard; Gerlach, Jörg C

    2012-04-01

    Medical treatment of burns and chronic wounds remains a challenge. We discussed a therapy concept that combines skin cell spray transplantation with a novel wound dressing based on artificial hollow fiber membrane capillaries. In skin cell-based therapy development, autologous skin progenitor cells are isolated from a healthy skin area and sprayed onto the wound. A medical device was introduced that uses perfused capillaries, known from clinical plasma separation, as a temporarily applied extracorporeal wound capillary bed. The functions of the dressing are comparable with those of dialysis; the capillaries, however, are applied externally onto the wound. Perfusion with a clinical peripheral nutrition and buffer solution can provide wound irrigation, wound debris removal, cell nutrition, pH regulation, and electrolyte balance while potentially serving to address delivery of regenerative factors and antibiosis. An innovative active skin wound dressing that provides cell support and stimulates regeneration by wound irrigation is discussed. © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Artificial Organs © 2011, International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Ascorbic acid for the healing of skin wounds in rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lima, CC; Pereira, APC; Silva, JRF; Oliveira, LS; Resck, MCC; Grechi, CO; Bernardes, MTCP; Olímpio, FMP; Santos, AMM; Incerpi, EK; Garcia, JAD

    2009-01-01

    .... OBJECTIVE: to verify the topical effect of ascorbic acid for the healing of rats' skin wounds through the number of macrophages, new vessels and fibroblast verifications in the experimental period...

  1. Augmenting endogenous Wnt signaling improves skin wound healing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Whyte, Jemima L; Smith, Andrew A; Liu, Bo; Manzano, Wilfred R; Evans, Nick D; Dhamdhere, Girija R; Fang, Mark Y; Chang, Howard Y; Oro, Anthony E; Helms, Jill A

    2013-01-01

    .... Utilizing a biochemical approach that mimics the amplified Wnt response of Axin2(LacZ/LacZ) mice, we show that topical application of liposomal Wnt3a to a non-healing wound enhances endogenous Wnt signaling, and results in better skin wound healing...

  2. Skin Wound Healing: An Update on the Current Knowledge and Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorg, Heiko; Tilkorn, Daniel J; Hager, Stephan; Hauser, Jörg; Mirastschijski, Ursula

    2017-01-01

    The integrity of healthy skin plays a crucial role in maintaining physiological homeostasis of the human body. The skin is the largest organ system of the body. As such, it plays pivotal roles in the protection against mechanical forces and infections, fluid imbalance, and thermal dysregulation. At the same time, it allows for flexibility to enable joint function in some areas of the body and more rigid fixation to hinder shifting of the palm or foot sole. Many instances lead to inadequate wound healing which necessitates medical intervention. Chronic conditions such as diabetes mellitus or peripheral vascular disease can lead to impaired wound healing. Acute trauma such as degloving or large-scale thermal injuries are followed by a loss of skin organ function rendering the organism vulnerable to infections, thermal dysregulation, and fluid loss. For this update article, we have reviewed the actual literature on skin wound healing purposes focusing on the main phases of wound healing, i.e., inflammation, proliferation, epithelialization, angiogenesis, remodeling, and scarring. The reader will get briefed on new insights and up-to-date concepts in skin wound healing. The macrophage as a key player in the inflammatory phase will be highlighted. During the epithelialization process, we will present the different concepts of how the wound will get closed, e.g., leapfrogging, lamellipodial crawling, shuffling, and the stem cell niche. The neovascularization represents an essential component in wound healing due to its fundamental impact from the very beginning after skin injury until the end of the wound remodeling. Here, the distinct pattern of the neovascularization process and the special new functions of the pericyte will be underscored. At the end, this update will present 3 topics of high interest in skin wound healing issues, dealing with scarring, tissue engineering, and plasma application. Although wound healing mechanisms and specific cell functions in wound

  3. Genome-wide expression analysis of wounded skin reveals novel genes involved in angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brönneke, Simone; Brückner, Bodo; Söhle, Jörn; Siegner, Ralf; Smuda, Christoph; Stäb, Franz; Wenck, Horst; Kolbe, Ludger; Grönniger, Elke; Winnefeld, Marc

    2015-07-01

    Wound healing is a multistage process involving collaborative efforts of different cell types and distinct cellular functions. Among others, the high metabolic activity at the wound site requires the formation and sprouting of new blood vessels (angiogenesis) to ensure an adequate supply of oxygen and nutrients for a successful healing process. Thus, a cutaneous wound healing model was established to identify new factors that are involved in vascular formation and remodeling in human skin after embryonic development. By analyzing global gene expression of skin biopsies obtained from wounded and unwounded skin, we identified a small set of genes that were highly significant differentially regulated in the course of wound healing. To initially investigate whether these genes might be involved in angiogenesis, we performed siRNA experiments and analyzed the knockdown phenotypes using a scratch wound assay which mimics cell migration and proliferation in vitro. The results revealed that a subset of these genes influence cell migration and proliferation in primary human endothelial cells (EC). Furthermore, histological analyses of skin biopsies showed that two of these genes, ALBIM2 and TMEM121, are colocalized with CD31, a well known EC marker. Taken together, we identified new genes involved in endothelial cell biology, which might be relevant to develop therapeutics not only for impaired wound healing but also for chronic inflammatory disorders and/or cardiovascular diseases.

  4. Antimicrobial peptides secreted by equine mesenchymal stromal cells inhibit the growth of bacteria commonly found in skin wounds

    OpenAIRE

    Harman, Rebecca M.; Yang, Steven; He, Megan K.; Van de Walle, Gerlinde R.

    2017-01-01

    Background The prevalence of chronic skin wounds in humans is high, and treatment is often complicated by the presence of pathogenic bacteria. Therefore, safe and innovative treatments to reduce the bacterial load in cutaneous wounds are needed. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are known to provide paracrine signals that act on resident skin cells to promote wound healing, but their potential antibacterial activities are not well described. The present study was designed to examine the antibac...

  5. Porcine wound models for skin substitution and burn treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelkoop, E.; Bogaerdt, A.J. van den; Lamme, E.N.; Hoekstra, M.J.; Brandsma, K.; Ulrich, M.M.

    2004-01-01

    Skin regeneration is an important field of tissue engineering. Especially in larger burns and chronic wounds, present treatments are insufficient in preventing scar formation and promoting healing. Initial screening of potentially interesting products for skin substitution is usually done by in

  6. The modified Meek technique as a novel method for skin grafting in horses: evaluation of acceptance, wound contraction and closure in chronic wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmink, J M; van den Boom, R; van Weeren, P R; Barneveld, A

    2006-07-01

    The acceptance of skin grafts in horses is unpredictable and the final cosmetic result can be disappointing. Besides movement and infection, graft failure is often caused by chronic inflammation, inherently present during second intention healing of limb wounds in horses. In human burns affected by infection and inflammation, the acceptance of the island skin grafts of the modified Meek technique appeared to be better than meshed sheet skin grafts. The percentage take of Meek micrografts is higher than of other techniques; and rates of both wound contraction and epithelialisation are increased. Large traumatic limb wounds of 13 horses healing by second intention were grafted using the modified Meek technique. Photographs of the wounds were taken at set intervals. Wound areas, and areas of acceptance and rejection were determined using a digital image post processor (Scion Image). The percentages of take, wound contraction and epithelialisation were calculated. The initial mean wound area was 7500 mm2. Graft acceptance was mean +/- s.d. 93.7 +/- 5.9%. Wound closure was due to contraction (55.2 +/- 11.1%) and epithelialisation (44.8 +/- 11.1%) and resulted in a 96.7 +/- 3.6% reduction of the initial wound area 29.1 +/- 6 days after grafting. All wounds showed functional and cosmetic healing. The method for skin grafting in horses achieved higher percentages of take than reported previously and consistent cosmetic and functional results. The grafts increased not only the rate of epithelialisation but also had a strong positive effect on wound contraction, resulting in rapid closure and smaller scars. The modified Meek technique proved to be a novel technique for skin grafting equine wounds in clinical practice, which can be performed easily. The molecular background of the increase of wound contraction by the grafts may provide a clue in the search for medicinal stimulation of wound contraction during second intention healing.

  7. Cell-based regenerative strategies for treatment of diabetic skin wounds, a comparative study between human umbilical cord blood-mononuclear cells and calves' blood haemodialysate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala O El-Mesallamy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diabetes-related foot problems are bound to increase. However, medical therapies for wound care are limited; therefore, the need for development of new treatment modalities to improve wound healing in diabetic patients is essential and constitutes an emerging field of investigation. METHODS: Animals were randomly divided into 8 groups (I-VIII (32 rats/group, all were streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetics except groups III and VIII were non-diabetic controls. The study comprised two experiments; the first included 3 groups. Group I injected with mononuclear cells (MNCs derived from human umbilical cord blood (HUCB, group II a diabetic control group (PBS i.v. The second experiment included 5 groups, groups IV, V, and VI received topical HUCB-haemodialysate (HD, calves' blood HD, and solcoseryl, respectively. Group VII was the diabetic control group (topical saline. Standard circular wounds were created on the back of rats. A sample of each type of HD was analyzed using the high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS system. Wound area measurement and photography were carried out every 4 days. Plasma glucose, catalase (CAT, malondialdehyde (MDA, nitric oxide (NO and platelets count were assessed. Wound samples were excised for hydroxyproline (HP and histopathological study. RESULTS: Treatment with HUCB MNCs or HUCB-HD resulted in wound contraction, increased CAT, NO, platelets count, body weights, and HP content, and decreased MDA and glucose. CONCLUSION: Systemic administration of HUCB MNCs and topical application of the newly prepared HUCB-HD or calves' blood HD significantly accelerated the rate of diabetic wound healing and would open the possibility of their future use in regenerative medicine.

  8. Gender affects skin wound healing in plasminogen deficient mice.

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    Birgitte Rønø

    Full Text Available The fibrinolytic activity of plasmin plays a fundamental role in resolution of blood clots and clearance of extravascular deposited fibrin in damaged tissues. These vital functions of plasmin are exploited by malignant cells to accelerate tumor growth and facilitate metastases. Mice lacking functional plasmin thus display decreased tumor growth in a variety of cancer models. Interestingly, this role of plasmin has, in regard to skin cancer, been shown to be restricted to male mice. It remains to be clarified whether gender also affects other phenotypic characteristics of plasmin deficiency or if this gender effect is restricted to skin cancer. To investigate this, we tested the effect of gender on plasmin dependent immune cell migration, accumulation of hepatic fibrin depositions, skin composition, and skin wound healing. Gender did not affect immune cell migration or hepatic fibrin accumulation in neither wildtype nor plasmin deficient mice, and the existing differences in skin composition between males and females were unaffected by plasmin deficiency. In contrast, gender had a marked effect on the ability of plasmin deficient mice to heal skin wounds, which was seen as an accelerated wound closure in female versus male plasmin deficient mice. Further studies showed that this gender effect could not be reversed by ovariectomy, suggesting that female sex-hormones did not mediate the accelerated skin wound healing in plasmin deficient female mice. Histological examination of healed wounds revealed larger amounts of fibrotic scars in the provisional matrix of plasmin deficient male mice compared to female mice. These fibrotic scars correlated to an obstruction of cell infiltration of the granulation tissue, which is a prerequisite for wound healing. In conclusion, the presented data show that the gender dependent effect of plasmin deficiency is tissue specific and may be secondary to already established differences between genders, such as skin

  9. Gender Affects Skin Wound Healing in Plasminogen Deficient Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rønø, Birgitte; Engelholm, Lars Henning; Lund, Leif Røge; Hald, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The fibrinolytic activity of plasmin plays a fundamental role in resolution of blood clots and clearance of extravascular deposited fibrin in damaged tissues. These vital functions of plasmin are exploited by malignant cells to accelerate tumor growth and facilitate metastases. Mice lacking functional plasmin thus display decreased tumor growth in a variety of cancer models. Interestingly, this role of plasmin has, in regard to skin cancer, been shown to be restricted to male mice. It remains to be clarified whether gender also affects other phenotypic characteristics of plasmin deficiency or if this gender effect is restricted to skin cancer. To investigate this, we tested the effect of gender on plasmin dependent immune cell migration, accumulation of hepatic fibrin depositions, skin composition, and skin wound healing. Gender did not affect immune cell migration or hepatic fibrin accumulation in neither wildtype nor plasmin deficient mice, and the existing differences in skin composition between males and females were unaffected by plasmin deficiency. In contrast, gender had a marked effect on the ability of plasmin deficient mice to heal skin wounds, which was seen as an accelerated wound closure in female versus male plasmin deficient mice. Further studies showed that this gender effect could not be reversed by ovariectomy, suggesting that female sex-hormones did not mediate the accelerated skin wound healing in plasmin deficient female mice. Histological examination of healed wounds revealed larger amounts of fibrotic scars in the provisional matrix of plasmin deficient male mice compared to female mice. These fibrotic scars correlated to an obstruction of cell infiltration of the granulation tissue, which is a prerequisite for wound healing. In conclusion, the presented data show that the gender dependent effect of plasmin deficiency is tissue specific and may be secondary to already established differences between genders, such as skin thickness and

  10. Chitosan Dermal Substitute and Chitosan Skin Substitute Contribute to Accelerated Full-Thickness Wound Healing in Irradiated Rats

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    Abu Bakar Mohd Hilmi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wounds with full-thickness skin loss are commonly managed by skin grafting. In the absence of a graft, reepithelialization is imperfect and leads to increased scar formation. Biomaterials can alter wound healing so that it produces more regenerative tissue and fewer scars. This current study use the new chitosan based biomaterial in full-thickness wound with impaired healing on rat model. Wounds were evaluated after being treated with a chitosan dermal substitute, a chitosan skin substitute, or duoderm CGF. Wounds treated with the chitosan skin substitute showed the most re-epithelialization (33.2 ± 2.8%, longest epithelial tongue (1.62 ± 0.13 mm, and shortest migratory tongue distance (7.11 ± 0.25 mm. The scar size of wounds treated with the chitosan dermal substitute (0.13 ± 0.02 cm and chitosan skin substitute (0.16 ± 0.05 cm were significantly decreased (P<0.05 compared with duoderm (0.45 ± 0.11 cm. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA expression on days 7, 14, and 21 revealed the presence of human hair follicle stem cells and fibroblasts that were incorporated into and surviving in the irradiated wound. We have proven that a chitosan dermal substitute and chitosan skin substitute are suitable for wound healing in full-thickness wounds that are impaired due to radiation.

  11. The Role of Iron in the Skin & Cutaneous Wound Healing

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    Josephine Anne Wright

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this review article we discuss current knowledge about iron in the skin and the cutaneous wound healing process. Iron plays a key role in both oxidative stress and photo-induced skin damage. The main causes of oxidative stress in the skin include reactive oxygen species (ROS generated in the skin by ultraviolet (UVA 320-400 nm portion of the ultraviolet spectrum and biologically available iron. We also discuss the relationships between iron deficiency, anaemia and cutaneous wound healing. Studies looking at this fall into two distinct groups. Early studies investigated the effect of anaemia on wound healing using a variety of experimental methodology to establish anaemia or iron deficiency and focused on wound-strength rather than effect on macroscopic healing or re-epithelialisation. More recent animal studies have investigated novel treatments aimed at correcting the effects of systemic iron deficiency and localised iron overload. Iron overload is associated with local cutaneous iron deposition, which has numerous deleterious effects in chronic venous disease and hereditary haemochromatosis. Iron plays a key role in chronic ulceration and conditions such as Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA and Lupus Erythematosus are associated with both anaemia of chronic disease and dysregulation of local cutaneous iron haemostasis. Iron is a potential therapeutic target in the skin by application of topical iron chelators and novel pharmacological agents, and in delayed cutaneous wound healing by treatment of iron deficiency or underlying systemic inflammation.

  12. A Skin Fixation Method for Decreasing the Influence of Wound Contraction on Wound Healing in a Rat Model

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    Seong Hwan Bae

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe elasticity of the back skin of the rat reduced the tension around wounds during the wound healing process in that region, and thus activates wound contraction. The authors proposed two skin fixation methods using readily available materials to decrease the influence of wound contraction on wound healing and designed an experiment to determine their effects.MethodsThe authors made 36 skin wounds on the backs of 18 rats, and they divided them into three groups. Each group was treated with three different kinds of dressing materials, each with different skin fixing characteristics. Group A was a control group. Group B and group C were dressed by the first and the second skin fixation method. We measured the areas of the wounds post-surgically and calculated the wound area reduction rates.ResultsThe two skin fixation methods both reduced the effect of wound contraction compared to the control group. Each of the two methods had different outcomes in reducing wound contraction.ConclusionsThe experiment demonstrated significant differences among the wound areas and the wound area reduction rates of the three groups as a result of differences in the degree of wound contraction. To obtain accurate results from wound healing experiments, appropriate skin fixation methods must be adopted.

  13. The Microbiota of the Human Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egert, Markus; Simmering, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to sum up important progress in the field of human skin microbiota research that was achieved over the last years.The human skin is one of the largest and most versatile organs of the human body. Owing to its function as a protective interface between the largely sterile interior of the human body and the highly microbially contaminated outer environment, it is densely colonized with a diverse and active microbiota. This skin microbiota is of high importance for human health and well-being. It is implicated in several severe skin diseases and plays a major role in wound infections. Many less severe, but negatively perceived cosmetic skin phenomena are linked with skin microbes, too. In addition, skin microorganisms, in particular on the human hands, are crucial for the field of hygiene research. Notably, apart from being only a potential source of disease and contamination, the skin microbiota also contributes to the protective functions of the human skin in many ways. Finally, the analysis of structure and function of the human skin microbiota is interesting from a basic, evolutionary perspective on human microbe interactions.Key questions in the field of skin microbiota research deal with (a) a deeper understanding of the structure (species inventory) and function (physiology) of the healthy human skin microbiota in space and time, (b) the distinction of resident and transient skin microbiota members, (c) the distinction of beneficial skin microorganisms from microorganisms or communities with an adverse or sickening effect on their hosts, (d) factors shaping the skin microbiota and its functional role in health and disease, (e) strategies to manipulate the skin microbiota for therapeutic reasons.

  14. Generation of a three-dimensional full thickness skin equivalent and automated wounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Angela; Appelt-Menzel, Antje; Kurdyn, Szymon; Walles, Heike; Groeber, Florian

    2015-02-26

    In vitro models are a cost effective and ethical alternative to study cutaneous wound healing processes. Moreover, by using human cells, these models reflect the human wound situation better than animal models. Although two-dimensional models are widely used to investigate processes such as cellular migration and proliferation, models that are more complex are required to gain a deeper knowledge about wound healing. Besides a suitable model system, the generation of precise and reproducible wounds is crucial to ensure comparable results between different test runs. In this study, the generation of a three-dimensional full thickness skin equivalent to study wound healing is shown. The dermal part of the models is comprised of human dermal fibroblast embedded in a rat-tail collagen type I hydrogel. Following the inoculation with human epidermal keratinocytes and consequent culture at the air-liquid interface, a multilayered epidermis is formed on top of the models. To study the wound healing process, we additionally developed an automated wounding device, which generates standardized wounds in a sterile atmosphere.

  15. Preferential recruitment of bone marrow-derived cells to rat palatal wounds but not to skin wounds.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstappen, J.; Rheden, R.E.M. van; Katsaros, C.; Torensma, R.; Hoff, J.W. Von den

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the contribution of bone marrow-derived cells to oral mucosa wounds and skin wounds. BACKGROUND: Bone marrow-derived cells are known to contribute to wound healing, and are able to differentiate in many different tissue-specific cell types. As wound healing in oral mucosa

  16. A Bilayer Engineered Skin Substitute for Wound Repair in an Irradiation-Impeded Healing Model on Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Hilmi, A.B.; Hassan, Asma; Halim, Ahmad Sukari

    2015-01-01

    Objective: An engineered skin substitute is produced to accelerate wound healing by increasing the mechanical strength of the skin wound via high production of collagen bundles. During the remodeling stage of wound healing, collagen deposition is the most important event. The collagen deposition process may be altered by nutritional deficiency, diabetes mellitus, microbial infection, or radiation exposure, leading to impaired healing. This study describes the fabrication of an engineered bilayer skin substitute and evaluates its effectiveness for the production of collagen bundles in an impaired healing model. Approach: Rats were exposed to 10 Gy of radiation. Two months postirradiation, the wounds were excised and treated with one of three skin replacement products: bilayer engineered skin substitutes, chitosan skin templates, or duoderm©. The collagen deposition was analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Results: On day 21 postwound, the irradiated wounds displayed increased collagen bundle deposition after treatment using bilayer engineered skin substitutes (3.4±0.25) and chitosan skin templates (3.2±0.58) compared with duoderm (2.0±0.63). Innovation: We provide the first report on the fabrication of bilayer engineered skin substitutes using high density human dermal fibroblasts cocultured with HFSCs on chitosan skin templates. Conclusion: The high density of fibroblasts significantly increases the penetration of cells into chitosan skin templates, contributing to the fabrication of bilayer engineered skin substitute. PMID:26005597

  17. Ascorbic acid for the healing of skin wounds in rats

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    CC. Lima

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Healing is a complex process that involves cellular and biochemical events. Several medicines have been used in order to shorten healing time and avoid aesthetic damage. OBJECTIVE: to verify the topical effect of ascorbic acid for the healing of rats' skin wounds through the number of macrophages, new vessels and fibroblast verifications in the experimental period; and analyse the thickness and the collagen fibre organization in the injured tissue. METHODS: Male Rattus norvegicus weighing 270 ± 30 g were used. After thionembutal anesthesia, 15 mm transversal incisions were made in the animals' cervical backs. They were divided into two groups: Control Group (CG, n = 12 - skin wound cleaned with water and soap daily; Treated Group (TG, n = 12 - skin wound cleaned daily and treated with ascorbic acid cream (10%. Samples of skin were collected on the 3rd, 7th and 14th days. The sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and picrosirius red for morphologic analysis. The images were obtained and analysed by a Digital Analyser System. RESULTS: The ascorbic acid acted on every stage of the healing process. It reduced the number of macrophages, increased the proliferation of fibroblasts and new vessels, and stimulated the synthesis of thicker and more organized collagen fibres in the wounds when compared to CG. CONCLUSION: Ascorbic acid was shown to have anti-inflammatory and healing effects, guaranteeing a suiTable environment and conditions for faster skin repair.

  18. Ascorbic acid for the healing of skin wounds in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, C C; Pereira, A P C; Silva, J R F; Oliveira, L S; Resck, M C C; Grechi, C O; Bernardes, M T C P; Olímpio, F M P; Santos, A M M; Incerpi, E K; Garcia, J A D

    2009-11-01

    Healing is a complex process that involves cellular and biochemical events. Several medicines have been used in order to shorten healing time and avoid aesthetic damage. to verify the topical effect of ascorbic acid for the healing of rats' skin wounds through the number of macrophages, new vessels and fibroblast verifications in the experimental period; and analyse the thickness and the collagen fibre organization in the injured tissue. Male Rattus norvegicus weighing 270 +/- 30 g were used. After thionembutal anesthesia, 15 mm transversal incisions were made in the animals' cervical backs. They were divided into two groups: Control Group (CG, n = 12) - skin wound cleaned with water and soap daily; Treated Group (TG, n = 12) - skin wound cleaned daily and treated with ascorbic acid cream (10%). Samples of skin were collected on the 3rd, 7th and 14th days. The sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and picrosirius red for morphologic analysis. The images were obtained and analysed by a Digital Analyser System. The ascorbic acid acted on every stage of the healing process. It reduced the number of macrophages, increased the proliferation of fibroblasts and new vessels, and stimulated the synthesis of thicker and more organized collagen fibres in the wounds when compared to CG. Ascorbic acid was shown to have anti-inflammatory and healing effects, guaranteeing a suiTable environment and conditions for faster skin repair.

  19. Liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin accelerates skin wound healing in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Tsuyoshi; Kawaguchi, Akira T; Takekoshi, Susumu; Miyasaka, Muneo; Tanaka, Rica

    2012-02-01

    Effects of liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin with high O₂ affinity (m-LEH, P₅₀O₂ = 17 mm Hg) on skin wound healing in mice were examined. Two full-thickness dorsal wounds 6 mm in diameter encompassed by silicone stents were created in Balb/c mice. Two days later (day 2), the animals randomly received intravenous m-LEH (2 mL/kg, n = 12), homologous blood transfusion (red blood cell [RBC], n = 11), or saline (n = 12). The same treatment was repeated 4 days after wounding (day 4), and the sizes of the skin defects and ulcers were monitored on days 0, 2, 4, and 7, when all animals were euthanized for morphological studies. While the size of the skin defect in relation to the stent ring remained the same in all groups, the size of the ulcer compared with the skin defect (or silicone stent) became significantly reduced on days 4 and 7 in mice treated with m-LEH (46 ± 10% of pretreatment size, P size reduction, while there was no difference in surface blood flow or CD31 expression among the groups. The results suggest that m-LEH (2 mL/kg) may accelerate skin wound healing in Balb/c mice via mechanism(s) involving reduced inflammation and increased metabolism, but not by improved hemodynamics or endothelial regeneration. © 2012, Copyright the Authors. Artificial Organs © 2012, International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Increased Wound-Healing Rate In Pig Skin Treated By Helium-Neon Laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abergel, R. Patrick; Glassberg, Edward; Uitto, Jouni

    1988-06-01

    We have demonstrated that 11cNc, laws stimulate collagen synthesis both in human stun fibroblast cultures and hairless mice in vivo. Subscqucnt studies on pig skin have also idcntificd the mechanism of the collagen stimulation. Both type 1 and typc 111 procolagcn mRNA, levels were markcdly elevated at day 17 and 26 in wounds treated by laser. Furthermore, typo ill procollagen was cicvatcd in carly stages of wound healing, at day 10, confirming the notion that typc 111 collagen accumulation precedes that of typc 1 in wound healing processes. (for summary,please see table and references below)

  1. Decellularized scaffolds containing hyaluronic acid and EGF for promoting the recovery of skin wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhengzheng; Tang, Yan; Fang, Hongdou; Su, Zhongchun; Xu, Bin; Lin, Yongliang; Zhang, Peng; Wei, Xing

    2015-01-01

    There is no effective therapy for the treatment of deep and large area skin wounds. Decellularized scaffolds can be prepared from animal tissues and represent a promising biomaterial for investigation in tissue regeneration studies. In this study, MTT assay showed that epidermal growth factor (EGF) increased NIH3T3 cell proliferation in a bell-shaped dose response, and the maximum cell proliferation was achieved at a concentration of 25 ng/ml. Decellularized scaffolds were prepared from pig peritoneum by a series of physical and chemical treatments. Hyaluronic acid (HA) increased EGF adsorption to the scaffolds. Decellularized scaffolds containing HA sustained the release of EGF compared to no HA. Rabbits contain relatively large skin surface and are less expensive and easy to be taken care, so that a rabbit wound healing model was use in this study. Four full-thickness skin wounds were created in each rabbit for evaluation of the effects of the scaffolds on the skin regeneration. Wounds covered with scaffolds containing either 1 or 3 μg/ml EGF were significantly smaller than with vaseline oil gauzes or with scaffolds alone, and the wounds covered with scaffolds containing 1 μg/ml EGF recovered best among all four wounds. Hematoxylin-Eosin staining confirmed these results by demonstrating that significantly thicker dermis layers were also observed in the wounds covered by the decellularized scaffolds containing HA and either 1 or 3 μg/ml EGF than with vaseline oil gauzes or with scaffolds alone. In addition, the scaffolds containing HA and 1 μg/ml EGF gave thicker dermis layers than HA and 3 μg/ml EGF and showed the regeneration of skin appendages on day 28 post-transplantation. These results demonstrated that decellularized scaffolds containing HA and EGF could provide a promising way for the treatment of human skin injuries.

  2. Acute propranolol infusion stimulates protein synthesis in rabbit skin wound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Jun; Meng, Chengyue; Chinkes, David L; Finnerty, Celeste C; Aarsland, Asle; Jeschke, Marc G; Herndon, David N

    2009-05-01

    Propranolol administration has been demonstrated to improve cardiac work, decrease energy expenditure, and attenuate lipolysis in burned patients; however, its effect on wound healing has not been reported. In rabbits, a partial-thickness skin donor site wound was created on the back, and catheters were placed in the carotid artery and jugular vein. A nasogastric feeding tube was placed for enteral feeding. On day 5 after injury, stable isotope tracers were infused to determine protein and DNA kinetics in the wound. Propranolol hydrochloride was injected in 1 group during the tracer infusion to decrease heart rate, and the other group without propranolol injection served as a control. The propranolol infusion decreased heart rate by 21%. The protein fractional synthetic rate in the wound was greater in the propranolol group (8.6 +/- 0.9 vs 6.1 +/- 0.5%/day, P cascades in local wounds were not affected after propranolol treatment. Propranolol infusion increased wound protein synthetic rate and tended to increase wound protein deposition rate, which might be beneficial to wound healing. These changes might reflect a systemic response to the beta-adrenergic blockade.

  3. A process model of healing and personal transformation in persons with chronic skin wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Katherine C

    2006-10-01

    Utilizing Newman's research as praxis process, this research examined the patterns of those living with chronic skin wounds. Ten men and 8 women, primarily of retirement age and living with chronic skin wounds for a year or more, reflected upon important relationships and life events during two in-depth interviews and a self-expressive drawing. Emerging from each participant's pattern was the link among human development, expanding consciousness, and processing a serious physical threat. Considering data across participants, five themes emerged from the data with evolution of a process model of wholistic healing that has implications for advanced nursing practice.

  4. Skin-resident stem cells and wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Yohei; Akamatsu, Hirohiko; Hasebe, Yuichi; Hasegawa, Seiji; Sugiura, Kazumitsu

    2017-01-01

    CD271 is common stem cell marker for the epidermis and dermis. We assessed a kinetic movement of epidermal and dermal CD271+ cells in the wound healing process to elucidate the possible involvement with chronic skin ulcers. Epidermal CD271+ cells were proliferated and migrated from 3 days after wounding. Purified epidermal CD271+ cells expressed higher TGFβ2 and VEGFα transcripts than CD271- cells. Delayed wound healing was observed in the aged mice compared with young mice. During the wound healing process, the peak of dermal CD271+ cell accumulation was delayed in aged mice compared with young mice. The expression levels of collagen-1, -3, -5, F4-80, EGF, FGF2, TGFβ1, and IL-1α were significantly increased in young mice compared with aged mice. Furthermore, purified dermal CD271+ cells expressed higher FGF2, EGF, PDGFB, and TGFβ1 gene transcripts than CD271- cells. These results suggested that epidermal and dermal CD271+ cells were closely associated with wound healing process by producing various growth factors. Epidermal and dermal CD271+ cells in chronic skin ulcer patients were significantly reduced compared with healthy controls. Thus, both epidermal and dermal stem cells can play an important role in wound healing process.

  5. Methods to study differences in cell mobility during skin wound healing in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monsuur, H.N.; Boink, M.A.; Weijers, E.M.; Roffel, S.; Breetveld, M.; Gefen, A.; van den Broek, L.J.; Gibbs, S.

    2016-01-01

    Wound healing events which occur in humans are difficult to study in animals due to differences in skin physiology. Furthermore there are increasing restrictions in Europe for using animals for testing the therapeutic properties of new compounds. Therefore, in line with the 3Rs (reduction,

  6. Nanofibrillar cellulose wound dressing in skin graft donor site treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkarainen, T; Koivuniemi, R; Kosonen, M; Escobedo-Lucea, C; Sanz-Garcia, A; Vuola, J; Valtonen, J; Tammela, P; Mäkitie, A; Luukko, K; Yliperttula, M; Kavola, H

    2016-12-28

    Although new therapeutic approaches for burn treatment have made progress, there is still need for better methods to enhance wound healing and recovery especially in severely burned patients. Nanofibrillar cellulose (NFC) has gained attention due to its renewable nature, good biocompatibility and excellent physical properties that are of importance for a range of applications in pharmaceutical and biomedical fields. In the present study, we investigated the potential of a wood based NFC wound dressing in a clinical trial on burn patients. Previously, we have investigated NFC as a topical functionalized wound dressing that contributes to improve wound healing in mice. Wood based NFC wound dressing was tested in split-thickness skin graft donor site treatment for nine burn patients in clinical trials at Helsinki Burn Centre. NFC dressing was applied to split thickness skin graft donor sites. The dressing gradually dehydrated and attached to donor site during the first days. During the clinical trials, physical and mechanical properties of NFC wound dressing were optimized by changing its composition. From patient 5 forward, NFC dressing was compared to commercial lactocapromer dressing, Suprathel® (PMI Polymedics, Germany). Epithelialization of the NFC dressing-covered donor site was faster in comparison to Suprathel®. Healthy epithelialized skin was revealed under the detached NFC dressing. NFC dressing self-detached after 11-21days for patients 1-9, while Suprathel® self-detached after 16-28days for patients 5-9. In comparison studies with patients 5-9, NFC dressing self-detached on average 4days earlier compared with Suprathel®. Lower NFC content in the material was evaluated to influence the enhanced pliability of the dressing and attachment to the wound bed. No allergic reaction or inflammatory response to NFC was observed. NFC dressing did not cause more pain for patients than the traditional methods to treat the skin graft donor sites. Based on the

  7. Recipient Wound Bed Characteristics Affect Scarring and Skin Graft Contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-13

    The use of autograft skin is essential in the treatment of full thickness burns and large cutaneous defects. Both autograft thickness and condition...of the wound bed modulate aesthetic and functional outcomes. Thicker autografts contract less and maintain greater functionality as the scar matures

  8. Evaluation of Healing Intervals of Incisional Skin Wounds of Goats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to compare the healing intervals among simple interrupted (SI), ford interlocking (FI) and subcuticular (SC) suture patterns in goats. We hypothesized that these common suture patterns used for closure of incisional skin wounds may have effect on the healing interval. To test this hypothesis, two ...

  9. Topical haemostatic agents for skin wounds: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewold, Marieke D.; Gribnau, Astrid J.; Ubbink, Dirk T.

    2011-01-01

    Various agents and techniques have been introduced to limit intra-operative blood loss from skin lesions. No uniformity regarding the type of haemostasis exists and this is generally based on the surgeon's preference. To study the effectiveness of haemostatic agents, standardized wounds like donor

  10. Porcine intact and wounded skin responses to atmospheric nonthermal plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Andrew S; Kalghatgi, Sameer; Dobrynin, Danil; Sensenig, Rachel; Cerchar, Ekaternia; Podolsky, Erica; Dulaimi, Essel; Paff, Michelle; Wasko, Kimberly; Arjunan, Krishna Priya; Garcia, Kristin; Fridman, Gregory; Balasubramanian, Manjula; Ownbey, Robert; Barbee, Kenneth A; Fridman, Alexander; Friedman, Gary; Joshi, Suresh G; Brooks, Ari D

    2013-01-01

    Thermal plasma is a valued tool in surgery for its coagulative and ablative properties. We suggested through in vitro studies that nonthermal plasma can sterilize tissues, inactive pathogens, promote coagulation, and potentiate wound healing. The present research was undertaken to study acute toxicity in porcine skin tissues. We demonstrate that floating electrode-discharge barrier discharge (FE-DBD) nonthermal plasma is electrically safe to apply to living organisms for short periods. We investigated the effects of FE-DBD plasma on Yorkshire pigs on intact and wounded skin immediately after treatment or 24h posttreatment. Macroscopic or microscopic histological changes were identified using histological and immunohistochemical techniques. The changes were classified into four groups for intact skin: normal features, minimal changes or congestive changes, epidermal layer damage, and full burn and into three groups for wounded skin: normal, clot or scab, and full burn-like features. Immunohistochemical staining for laminin layer integrity showed compromise over time. A marker for double-stranded DNA breaks, γ-H2AX, increased over plasma-exposure time. These findings identified a threshold for plasma exposure of up to 900s at low power and <120s at high power. Nonthermal FE-DBD plasma can be considered safe for future studies of external use under these threshold conditions for evaluation of sterilization, coagulation, and wound healing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm aggravates skin inflammatory response in BALB/c mice in a novel chronic wound model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trøstrup, Hannah; Thomsen, Kim; Christophersen, Lars J

    2013-01-01

    model in C3H/HeN and BALB/c mice. The chronic wound was established by an injection of seaweed alginate-embedded P. aeruginosa PAO1 beneath a third-degree thermal lesion providing full thickness skin necrosis, as in human chronic wounds. Cultures revealed growth of PA, and both alginate with or without...

  12. Treatment of postoperative lower extremity wounds using human fibroblast-derived dermis: a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Russell M; Smith, Nicholas C; Dux, Katherine; Stuck, Rodney M

    2014-04-01

    Human fibroblast-derived dermis skin substitute is a well-studied treatment for diabetic foot ulcers; however, no case series currently exist for its use in healing postoperative wounds of the lower extremity. A retrospective analysis was conducted on 32 lower extremity postoperative wounds treated weekly with human fibroblast-derived dermis skin substitute. Postoperative wounds were defined as a wound resulting from an open partial foot amputation, surgical wound dehiscence, or nonhealing surgical wound of the lower extremity. Wound surface area was calculated at 4 and 12 weeks or until wound closure if prior to 12 weeks. Postoperative wounds treated with weekly applications showed mean improvement in surface area reduction of 63.6% at 4 weeks and 96.1% at 12 weeks. More than 56% of all wounds healed prior to the 12-week endpoint. Additionally, only one adverse event was noted in this group. This retrospective review supports the use of human fibroblast-derived dermis skin substitute in the treatment of postoperative lower extremity wounds. This advanced wound care therapy aids in decreased total healing time and increased rate of healing for not only diabetic foot wounds but also postoperative wounds of the lower extremity, as demonstrated by this retrospective review.

  13. Diagnosis of Vitality in Skin Wounds in the Ligature Marks Resulting From Suicide Hanging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legaz Pérez, Isabel; Falcón, Maria; Gimenez, M; Diaz, F Martínez; Pérez-Cárceles, M D; Osuna, E; Nuno-Vieira, D; Luna, A

    2017-09-01

    Ascertaining the vital origin of skin wounds is one of the most challenging problems in forensic pathology. The forensic literature describes biomarkers and methods for differentiating vital and postmortem wounds, although no clear conclusions have been reached. The aim of this study was to characterize human vital wounds by analyzing the concentrations of metallic ions and the expression of P-selectin and cathepsin D in skin wounds in the ligature marks in a cohort of suicidal hangings for which vitality was previously demonstrated.A total of 71 skin wounds were analyzed within a postmortem interval of 19 to 36 hours. The concentration of Fe, Zn, Mg, and Ca and the expression of P-selectin and cathepsin D were analyzed together and separately. The majority of autopsied suicidal hangings were men (86%) with complete hanging mode (60.7%) in which there was a high frequency of subcutaneous injuries (78.3%). High concentrations of Ca and Mg compared with Fe and Zn were found. Ca and Zn concentrations decreased, and Fe concentration increased with the seriousness of the injury. A high percentage of moderately negative expression of both proteins was correlated with subcutaneous injury and low or medium concentrations of Fe.In conclusion, the joint study of metallic ions and proteins allows to characterize and to differentiate an injured vital wound of noninjured skin, especially when the damage in the tissue affects to the majority of the structures of the skin, but these results will need to be complemented with other biomarkers in time-controlled samples to further help in the differentiation of vital and postmortem wounds.

  14. CLINICAL RESULTS FROM THE TREATMENT OF CHRONIC SKIN WOUNDS WITH PLATELET RICH PLASMA (PRP

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    Pencho Kossev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To show platelet rich plasma (PRP application of chronic skin wounds and to evaluate the results from the treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 14 patients with problematic skin wounds had been treated at the clinic for a period of five years (from May 2009 to December 2014 with the following patient sex ratio: male patients - 5 and female patients - 9. Average age - 48,5 (30-76. Patients with Type 2 Diabetes - 4, with decubitus ulcers - 6, traumatic - 8, with infection - 5. Based on a scheme developed by us, all cases were treated by administering platelet-rich plasma, derived by PRGF Endoret system. Follow-up period was within 4 - 6 months (4,5 on average. RESULTS: The results have been evaluated based on the following functional scoring systems - Total wound score, Total anatomic score and Total score (20. The baseline values at the very beginning of the follow-up period were as follows: Total wound score - 12 p.; Total anatomic score - 10 p., Total score - 17 p. By the end of the treatment period the score was 0 p., which means excellent results, i.e. complete healing of the wounds. CONCLUSION: We believe that the application of PRP may become optimal therapy in the treatment of difficult to heal wounds around joints, bone, subject tendons, plantar surface of the foot, etc., as it opens new perspectives in the field of human tissue regeneration.

  15. Topical haemostatic agents for skin wounds: a systematic review

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    Ubbink Dirk T

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various agents and techniques have been introduced to limit intra-operative blood loss from skin lesions. No uniformity regarding the type of haemostasis exists and this is generally based on the surgeon's preference. To study the effectiveness of haemostatic agents, standardized wounds like donor site wounds after split skin grafting (SSG appear particularly suitable. Thus, we performed a systematic review to assess the effectiveness of haemostatic agents in donor site wounds. Methods We searched all randomized clinical trials (RCTs on haemostasis after SSG in Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library until January 2011. Two reviewers independently assessed trial relevance and quality and performed data analysis. Primary endpoint was effectiveness regarding haemostasis. Secondary endpoints were wound healing, adverse effects, and costs. Results Nine relevant RCTs with a fair methodological quality were found, comparing epinephrine, thrombin, fibrin sealant, alginate dressings, saline, and mineral oil. Epinephrine achieved haemostasis significantly faster than thrombin (difference up to 2.5 minutes, saline or mineral oil (up to 6.5 minutes. Fibrin sealant also resulted in an up to 1 minute quicker haemostasis than thrombin and up to 3 minutes quicker than placebo, but was not directly challenged against epinephrine. Adverse effects appeared negligible. Due to lack of clinical homogeneity, meta-analysis was impossible. Conclusion According to best available evidence, epinephrine and fibrin sealant appear superior to achieve haemostasis when substantial topical blood loss is anticipated, particularly in case of (larger SSGs and burn debridement.

  16. Effects and mechanisms of a microcurrent dressing on skin wound healing: a review.

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    Yu, Chao; Hu, Zong-Qian; Peng, Rui-Yun

    2014-01-01

    The variety of wound types has resulted in a wide range of wound dressings, with new products frequently being introduced to target different aspects of the wound healing process. The ideal wound dressing should achieve rapid healing at a reasonable cost, with minimal inconvenience to the patient. Microcurrent dressing, a novel wound dressing with inherent electric activity, can generate low-level microcurrents at the device-wound contact surface in the presence of moisture and can provide an advanced wound healing solution for managing wounds. This article offers a review of the effects and mechanisms of the microcurrent dressing on the healing of skin wounds.

  17. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of wound and skin cleansers at nontoxic concentrations.

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    Rani, Suriani Abdul; Hoon, Russell; Najafi, Ramin Ron; Khosrovi, Behzad; Wang, Lu; Debabov, Dmitri

    2014-02-01

    To determine in vitro antibacterial activity of commercially available skin, wound, and skin/wound cleansers at cell-safe (nontoxic) concentrations. Saline and 19 other commercial wound and skin cleansers were evaluated for cytotoxic effects on mouse dermal fibroblasts. Cells were exposed to serial 10-fold dilutions of each cleanser until treatment-induced cytotoxicity was comparable to the baseline cytotoxicity of unexposed control fibroblasts. Antimicrobial "time-kill" kinetics of these test concentrations of cleansers was tested against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The experimental design allowed calculation of relative cytotoxicity indexes ranging from 0 to 100,000. Shur-Clens Restore Wound Cleanser (ConvaTec, Skillman, New Jersey) and saline were found to be the least toxic (toxicity index: 0); Hibiclens (Mölnlycke Health Care, Norcross, Georgia), Restore Skin Cleanser (Hollister Inc, Libertyville, Illinois), and Betadine Surgical Scrub (Pursue Products LP, Stamford, Connecticut) were found to be the most toxic (toxicity index: 10,000). At noncytotoxic concentrations, NeutroPhase (NovaBay Pharmaceuticals Inc, Emeryville, California) was the most rapidly bactericidal, achieving a 4-log reduction in colony-forming units in less than 1 minute. Puracyn (Innovacyn Inc, Rialto, California) was next at 30 minutes, whereas most of the agents tested required more than 24 hours. Wound healing depends on controlling bacterial balance while maintaining the viability of the healing tissues. In vitro toxicity indexes provide helpful guidelines subsequent to in vivo evaluations and clinical applications. The study findings suggest that NeutroPhase, in contrast with many commercially available wound cleansers, has rapid bactericidal activity at concentrations that are safe for human cells.

  18. Amniotic membrane as part of a skin substitute for full-thickness wounds: an experimental evaluation in a porcine model.

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    Loeffelbein, Denys J; Baumann, Claudia; Stoeckelhuber, Mechthild; Hasler, Rafael; Mücke, Thomas; Steinsträßer, Lars; Drecoll, Enken; Wolff, Klaus-Dietrich; Kesting, Marco R

    2012-07-01

    We evaluated the use of human amniotic membrane (HAM) as a graft material for the treatment of iatrogenic full-thickness (FT) skin wounds in a porcine model with a view to reducing donor site morbidity in free flap transfer. Forty experimental FT-wounds were covered with an autologous split-thickness skin graft (STSG) alone or in combination with a mono- or multilayer HAM or Integra(®). Untreated wounds served as controls. Clinical evaluation and biopsy-sampling for histological and immunohistochemical staining with von-Willebrand-factor (vWF) antibody, laminin antibody, Ki-67 antibody, and smooth muscle actin (αSMA) antibody were performed on days 5, 7, 10, 20, 40, and 60 after surgical intervention. Considerable disparities in the estimated criteria were observed between the various treatment groups of the FT-wounds. The use of HAM was found to have an accelerating impact on re-epithelialization. The multilayered amnion membrane showed better results than the Integra(®) and monolayer technique in terms of contraction rate, inflammation, and scarring and seemed useful as a dermal substitute in FT-wounds giving comparable results to STSG coverage alone. This study demonstrates the successful application of HAM as part of a skin substitute in FT-wounds in minipigs. The results offer promise as a simple and effective technique for the application of multilayer HAM in iatrogenic human skin defects and the acceleration of wound healing. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. From germ theory to germ therapy: skin microbiota, chronic wounds, and probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Victor W; Martindale, Robert G; Longaker, Michael T; Gurtner, Geoffrey C

    2013-11-01

    Microorganisms living throughout the body comprise the human "microbiota" and play an important role in health and disease. Recent research suggests that alterations in the skin microbiota may underlie chronic wound pathology. Probiotics are bacteria or yeast that confer a health benefit on the host and may have a role in preventing and treating nonhealing wounds by modulating host-microbe interactions. The English literature on skin microbiota, chronic wounds, biofilms, and probiotics is reviewed. Recent evidence indicates that disruption of microbial communities and bacteria-host interactions may contribute to impaired wound healing. Preclinical and human studies highlight the potential of probiotics to prevent or treat various infectious, immune-mediated, and inflammatory diseases. Advances in molecular sequencing and microbiology have shed light on the importance of the human microbiota in development, health, and disease. Probiotics represent a novel approach to altering the microbial environment with beneficial bacteria. Ongoing challenges include the need for better understanding of therapeutic mechanisms, improved regulation of manufacturing practices, and validation in controlled human trials. Current evidence suggests that probiotic-based therapies have considerable potential to exploit host-microbe relationships and improve clinical outcomes.

  20. Retracted: Exosomes secreted by human urine-derived stem cells accelerate skin wound healing by promoting angiogenesis in rat by Yuan H, Guan J, Zhang J, Zhang R, Li M.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The above article, published online on 21 April 2016 in Wiley Online Library (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/cbin.10615/full), has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the journal Editor, Sergio Schenkman, and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. The retraction has been agreed because the authors discovered inconsistent results in repeated tests. The authors and publisher apologise for any inconvenience. Reference Yuan H, Guan J, Zhang J, Zhang R, LiM(2016) Exosomes secreted by human urine-derived stem cells accelerate skin wound healing by promoting angiogenesis in rat. Cell Biol Int, Accepted Author Manuscript. https://doi.org/10.1002/cbin.10615. © 2017 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  1. Initial Characterization of the Pig Skin Bacteriome and Its Effect on In Vitro Models of Wound Healing.

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    Matthew K McIntyre

    Full Text Available Elucidating the roles and composition of the human skin microbiome has revealed a delicate interplay between resident microbes and wound healing. Evolutionarily speaking, normal cutaneous flora likely has been selected for because it potentiates or, at minimum, does not impede wound healing. While pigs are the gold standard model for wound healing studies, the porcine skin microbiome has not been studied in detail. Herein, we performed 16S rDNA sequencing to characterize the pig skin bacteriome at several anatomical locations. Additionally, we used bacterial conditioned-media with in vitro techniques to examine the paracrine effects of bacterial-derived proteins on human keratinocytes (NHEK and fibroblasts (NHDF. We found that at the phyla level, the pig skin bacteriome is similar to that of humans and largely consists of Firmicutes (55.6%, Bacteroidetes (20.8%, Actinobacteria (13.3%, and Proteobacteria (5.1% however species-level differences between anatomical locations exist. Studies of bacterial supernatant revealed location-dependent effects on NHDF migration and NHEK apoptosis and growth factor release. These results expand the limited knowledge of the cutaneous bacteriome of healthy swine, and suggest that naturally occurring bacterial flora affects wound healing differentially depending on anatomical location. Ultimately, the pig might be considered the best surrogate for not only wound healing studies but also the cutaneous microbiome. This would not only facilitate investigations into the microbiome's role in recovery from injury, but also provide microbial targets for enhancing or accelerating wound healing.

  2. Clinical application of a tissue-cultured skin autograft: an alternative for the treatment of non-healing or slowly healing wounds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zöller, Nadja; Valesky, Eva; Butting, Manuel; Hofmann, Matthias; Kippenberger, Stefan; Bereiter-Hahn, Jürgen; Bernd, August; Kaufmann, Roland

    2014-01-01

    The treatment regime of non-healing or slowly healing wounds is constantly improving. One aspect is surgical defect coverage whereby mesh grafts and keratinocyte suspension are applied. Tissue-cultured skin autografts may be an alternative for the treatment of full-thickness wounds and wounds that cover large areas of the body surface. Autologous epidermal and dermal cells were isolated, expanded in vitro and seeded on collagen-elastin scaffolds. The developed autograft was immunohistochemically characterized and subsequently transplanted onto a facial chronic ulceration of a 71-year-old patient with vulnerable atrophic skin. Characterization of the skin equivalent revealed comparability to healthy human skin due to the epidermal strata, differentiation and proliferation markers. Within 138 days, the skin structure at the transplantation site closely correlated with the adjacent undisturbed skin. The present study demonstrates the comparability of the developed organotypic skin equivalent to healthy human skin and the versatility for clinical applications.

  3. PLATELET-RICH PLASMA (PRP FOR THE TREATMENT OF PROBLEMATIC SKIN WOUNDS

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    Tsvetan Sokolov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To show platelet-rich plasma (PRP application of problematic skin wounds and to evaluate the results from the treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 31 patients with problematic skin wounds had been treated at the clinic for a period of five years (from May 2010 to September 2015 with the following patient sex ratio: male patients– 13 and female patients– 18. Average age– 46,5 (22-82. Patients with Type 2 Diabetes– 10, with decubitus ulcers– 2, traumatic– 29, with infection– 12, acute– 15, chronic– 16. Based on a scheme developed by us, all cases were treated by administering platelet-rich plasma, derived by PRGF Endoret system. Follow-up period was within 4 – 6 months (4,5 on average. We used platelet rich plasma derived by PRGF Endoret system, applied on the wound bed on a weekly basis. RESULTS: The results have been evaluated based on the following functional scoring systems - Total wound score, Total anatomic score and Total score (20. The baseline values at the very beginning of the follow-up period were as follows: Total wound score – 10 p.; Total anatomic score – 8 p., Total score – 15 p. By the end of the treatment period the score was 0 p., which means excellent results, i.e. complete healing of the wounds. CONCLUSION: We believe that the application of PRP may become optimal therapy in the treatment of difficult to heal wounds around joints, bone, subject tendons, plantar surface of the foot, etc., as it opens new perspectives in the field of human tissue regeneration.

  4. Analysis of inflammatory cells and mediators in skin wound biopsies to determine wound age in living subjects in forensic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronczek, Judith; Lulf, Ronald; Korkmaz, H Ibrahim; Witte, Birgit I; van de Goot, Franklin R W; Begieneman, Mark P V; Schalkwijk, C G; Krijnen, Paul A J; Rozendaal, Lawrence; Niessen, Hans W M; Reijnders, Udo J L

    2015-02-01

    In forensic medicine it is important to determine the age of skin wounds in living subjects. The aim of this study was to assess whether analysis of inflammatory cells and inflammatory mediators in skin biopsies of wounds from living subjects could improve wound age determination. Biopsies (n=101), representing the superficial border area of a skin wound, were taken from skin injuries of known wound age (range: 4.5 hours to 25 days) of living subjects. All biopsies were analyzed for 3 inflammatory cell markers (MPO, CD45 and CD68) and 4 inflammatory mediators (MIP-1, IL-8, CML and vitronectin). For quantification, biopsies were subdivided in 4 different timeframes: 0.2-2 days, 2-4 days, 4-10 days and 10-25 days old wounds. Subsequently, a probability scoring system was developed. MPO, CD45, MIP-1, IL-8 (inflammatory cell markers) and N(epsilon)-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) positivity were maximal in wounds of 0.2-2 days old and then decreased in time. Remarkably, CD45, CD68 and CML showed a minor but non-significant increase again in 10-25 days old wounds. MPO and CD68 positivity was significantly lower in 4-25 days old wounds compared to 0.2-4 days old wounds. MPO positivity was also significantly lower in 10-25 days old wounds compared to 0.2-10 days old wounds. For CD45, MIP-1, IL-8 and CML no significant differences between the age groups were found. In case of vitronectin positivity in the extravasate or when the number of MIP-1 or IL-8-positive cells was more than 10 cells/mm(2) the probability that a wound was more than 10 days old was 0%. A probability scoring system of all analyzed markers can be used to calculate individual wound age probabilities in biopsies of skin wounds of living subjects. We have developed a probability scoring system of inflammatory cells and mediators that can be used to determine wound age in skin biopsies of living subjects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Negative pressure wound therapy for skin grafts and surgical wounds healing by primary intention.

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    Webster, Joan; Scuffham, Paul; Stankiewicz, Monica; Chaboyer, Wendy P

    2014-10-07

    Indications for the use of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) are broadening with a range of systems now available on the market, including those designed for use on clean, closed incisions and skin grafts. Reviews have concluded that the evidence for the effectiveness of NPWT remains uncertain, however, it is a rapidly evolving therapy. Consequently, an updated systematic review of the evidence for the effects of NPWT on postoperative wounds expected to heal by primary intention is required. To assess the effects of NPWT on surgical wounds (primary closure, skin grafting or flap closure) that are expected to heal by primary intention. We searched the following electronic databases to identify reports of relevant randomised clinical trials: the Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register (searched 28 January 2014); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2013, issue 12); Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (2013, issue 12); Ovid MEDLINE (2011 to January 2014); Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations 24 January 2014); Ovid EMBASE (2011 to January 2014 Week 44); and EBSCO CINAHL (2011 to January 2014). We conducted a separate search to identify economic evaluations. We included trials if they allocated patients to treatment randomly and compared NPWT with any other type of wound dressing, or compared one type of NPWT with a different type of NPWT. We assessed trials for their appropriateness for inclusion and for their quality. This was done by three review authors working independently, using pre-determined inclusion and quality criteria. In this first update, we included an additional four trials, taking the total number of trials included to nine (785 participants). Three trials involved skin grafts, four included orthopaedic patients and two included general surgery and trauma surgery patients; all the included trials had unclear or high risk of bias for one or more of the quality indicators we assessed. Seven

  6. Skin lesions in Lorestan province chemically wounded combatants

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    roghaye Jebraili

    2004-01-01

    Findings: All of the studied cases with mean age of 39.26 years old had skin manifestations among which the most common symptoms were itching , burning ,dry skin , scaling. From view point of lesions, the most common signs were erythema (81% , excoriation (87.9% and pruritic papules (49.5%. Final diagnosis in 78% of the patients was chronic dermatitis and in 7.7% of them was seborrhoeic dermatitis and in 8.8% both chronic and seborrhoeic dermatitis were observed .During exposure to chemical gases only 37.9% of these combatants had used special masks and 40% had properly worn special clothes to protect themselves which covered their body completely , but rest of them had either used protection instruments improperly or had not used them at all. Most of the lesions were in trunk , lower extremities , abdomen , head and neck .78% of the cases had multiple lesions Conclusion: Regarding the results of this study all of the chemical wounded combatants of Lorestan province suffer from different degrees of skin lesions , although more than half of them were not aware of kind and nature of the chemical gases , but it is suggested to do further studies on long-term effects of these chemical gases.

  7. Epidermal skin grafting in patients with complex wounds: a case series.

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    Bhatia, A

    2016-03-01

    Complex wounds are often difficult to close and sometimes require a split-thickness skin graft (STSG). However, epidermal skin grafts, which contain only an epidermal layer of skin, are a viable option for wound coverage in these challenging wounds. We report our experience using an automated epidermal harvesting tool to harvest epidermal skin grafts for the treatment of complex wounds. Epidermal skin grafts were harvested from the patient's thigh, which was first washed with isopropyl alcohol. After harvesting, they were transferred to the recipient site using a film dressing. A bolster dressing using gauze and a self-adherent wrap held the grafts in place. We selected 34 patients with wounds that had been present from several weeks to over a year. Prior treatments, included skin substitutes, alginate dressings, Unna Boot, and collagen dressings. There were 17 female and 17 male patients with a mean age of 67.1 years (range: 37-103). Wound types were: traumatic wounds, diabetic foot ulcers, venous stasis ulcers, pressure ulcers, and surgical wounds. Patient comorbidities included hypertension, diabetes, congestive heart failure, and osteoarthritis. Mean epithelialisation rate at the recipient site was 7.0 weeks (range: 1-35 weeks). Wound complications included drainage, hypergranulation, and oedema. At follow-up 82.4% (28/34) of wounds were healed, 2.9% (1/34) wounds showed improved healing, 11.8% (4/34) of wounds did not heal, and 2.9% (1/34) were lost to follow-up. All donor sites healed without complications. In our cohort, use of epidermal skin grafts in conjunction with bolster dressings resulted in full closure or wound improvement of a majority of patients. Epidermal grafting provides another treatment option to physicians when only the epidermal layer is needed. Dr. Bhatia is a consultant for KCI, an Acelity company.

  8. Different types of biotechnological wound coverages created with the application of alive human cells

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    Papuga A. Ye.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the development and the implementation of the new biotechnological wound coverings (skin equivalents designed for temporal or permanent replacement of damaged or destroyed areas of human skin remains extremely actual relevant in clinical practice. Skin equivalents or equivalents of individual skin layers which include alive cells of different types take a special place among the artificial wound coverings. They mostly contain two basic types of cells – fibroblasts and keratinocytes (together or separately. Such bioconstructions are usually served as temporary coverings, which supply the damaged skin by biologically active substances and stimulate the regeneration of the patient's own tissues. In this review we consider as commercially available wound coverings and those which are still studied in the laboratories. Until now ideal substitutes of natural skin have not yet created, so the efforts of many researchers are focusing on the solution of this problem.

  9. Wound-Healing Peptides for Treatment of Chronic Diabetic Foot Ulcers and Other Infected Skin Injuries

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    Ana Gomes

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available As the incidence of diabetes continues to increase in the western world, the prevalence of chronic wounds related to this condition continues to be a major focus of wound care research. Additionally, over 50% of chronic wounds exhibit signs and symptoms that are consistent with localized bacterial biofilms underlying severe infections that contribute to tissue destruction, delayed wound-healing and other serious complications. Most current biomedical approaches for advanced wound care aim at providing antimicrobial protection to the open wound together with a matrix scaffold (often collagen-based to boost reestablishment of the skin tissue. Therefore, the present review is focused on the efforts that have been made over the past years to find peptides possessing wound-healing properties, towards the development of new and effective wound care treatments for diabetic foot ulcers and other skin and soft tissue infections.

  10. An Alternative Treatment Strategy for Complicated Chronic Wounds: Negative Pressure Therapy over Mesh Skin Graft

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    Michele Maruccia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Extensive skin defect represents a real problem and major challenge in plastic and reconstructive surgery. On one hand, skin grafts offer a practical method to deal with skin defects despite their unsuitability for several complicated wounds. On the other hand, negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT, applied before skin grafting, promotes granulation tissue growth. The aim of the study is to evaluate the improvement in wound healing given by the merger of these two different approaches. We treated 23 patients for large wounds of multiple factors. Of these, 15 were treated with the application of V.A.C.® Therapy (KCI Medical S.r.l., Milan, Italy, in combination with skin grafts after a prior unsuccessful treatment of 4 weeks with mesh skin grafts and dressings. Another 8 were treated with only mesh skin graft. Pain reduction and wound area reduction were found statistically significant (p<0.0009, p<0.0001. Infection was resolved in almost all patients. According to our study, the use of the negative pressure wound therapy over mesh skin grafts is significantly effective especially in wounds resistant to conventional therapies, thereby improving the rate of skin graft take.

  11. Treatment of equine leg wounds using skin grafts: Thirty-five cases, 1975-1988

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    French, Daniel A.; Fretz, Peter B.

    1990-01-01

    A retrospective study was conducted on 35 equine patients with lower leg wounds that were managed utilizing skin graft procedures. Two pinch graft, five punch graft, seven tunnel graft, eight split-thickness mesh graft and thirteen full-thickness mesh expansion graft procedures were performed in the initial treatment. The average wound size was 188 cm2. Twentyfour cases had pregrafting complications: 10 wounds developed sequestra; three wounds were grossly contaminated and infected; and 11 ca...

  12. Liposome-Encapsulated Hemoglobin Accelerates Skin Wound Healing in Diabetic dB/dB Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Tsuyoshi; Kawaguchi, Akira T; Takekoshi, Susumu; Miyasaka, Muneo; Sumiyoshi, Hideaki; Tanaka, Rica

    2017-04-01

    Since liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin with high O2 affinity (h-LEH, P50 O2  = 10 mm Hg) has been reported to accelerate skin wound healing in normal mice, it was tested in dB/dB mice with retarded wound healing, as seen in human diabetics. Two full-thickness dorsal wounds 6 mm in diameter encompassed by silicone stents were created in dB/dB mice. Two days later (day 2), the animals were randomly assigned to receive intravenous h-LEH (2 mL/kg, n = 7) or saline (2 mL/kg, n = 7). The same treatment was repeated 4 days after wounding (day 4), and the size of the skin lesions was analyzed by photography, surface perfusion was detected by Laser-Doppler imager, and plasma cytokines and chemokines were determined on days 0, 2, 4, and 7, when all animals were euthanized for morphological studies. The size of the ulcer compared to the skin defect or silicone stent became significantly reduced on days 4 and 7 in mice treated with h-LEH (47 ± 8% of original size), similar to the level in wild-type mice, compared to saline-treated dB/dB mice (68 ± 18%, P size reduction, while there was no significant difference in chemokines, histological granulation, epithelial thickness, and granulocyte infiltration detected by immunohistochemical staining in the ulcer between the treatment groups. The results suggest that h-LEH (2 mL/kg) early after wounding may accelerate skin wound healing in dB/dB mice to levels equivalent to wild-type mice probably via mechanism(s) involving reduced hypoxia, increased surface perfusion, suppressed inflammation, accelerated in situ cell proliferation and protein synthesis. © 2017 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The alarmin HMGB-1 influences healing outcomes in fetal skin wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardenne, Adrienne D; Wulff, Brian C; Wilgus, Traci A

    2013-01-01

    In mice, cutaneous wounds generated early in development (embryonic day 15, E15) heal scarlessly, while wounds generated late in gestation (embryonic day 18, E18) heal with scar formation. Even though both types of wounds are generated in the same sterile uterine environment, scarless fetal wounds heal without inflammation, but a strong inflammatory response is observed in scar-forming fetal wounds. We hypothesized that altered release of alarmins, endogenous molecules that trigger inflammation in response to damage, may be responsible for the age-related changes in inflammation and healing outcomes in fetal skin. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the alarmin high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB-1) is involved in fetal wound repair. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that in unwounded skin, E18 keratinocytes expressed higher levels of HMGB-1 compared with E15 keratinocytes. After injury, HMGB-1 was released to a greater extent from keratinocytes at the margin of scar-forming E18 wounds, compared with scarless E15 wounds. Furthermore, instead of healing scarlessly, E15 wounds healed with scars when treated with HMGB-1. HMGB-1-injected wounds also had more fibroblasts, blood vessels, and macrophages compared with control wounds. Together, these data suggest that extracellular HMGB-1 levels influence the quality of healing in cutaneous wounds. © 2013 by the Wound Healing Society.

  14. Assessment of skin wound healing with a multi-aperture camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabili, Marjan; Libin, Alex; Kim, Loan; Groah, Susan; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C.

    2009-02-01

    A clinical trial was conducted at the National Rehabilitation Hospital on 15 individuals to assess whether Rheparan Skin, a bio-engineered component of the extracellular matrix of the skin, is effective at promoting healing of a variety of wounds. Along with standard clinical outcome measures, a spectroscopic camera was used to assess the efficacy of Rheparan skin. Gauzes soaked with Rheparan skin were placed on volunteers wounds for 5 minutes twice weekly for four weeks. Images of the wounds were taken using a multi spectral camera and a digital camera at baseline and weekly thereafter. Spectral images collected at different wavelengths were used combined with optical skin models to quantify parameters of interest such as oxygen saturation (SO2), water content, and melanin concentration. A digital wound measurement system (VERG) was also used to measure the size of the wound. 9 of the 15 measured subjects showed a definitive improvement post treatment in the form of a decrease in wound area. 7 of these 9 individuals also showed an increase in oxygen saturation in the ulcerated area during the trial. A similar trend was seen in other metrics. Spectral imaging of skin wound can be a valuable tool to establish wound-healing trends and to clarify healing mechanisms.

  15. Biotechnological Management of Skin Burn Injuries: Challenges and Perspectives in Wound Healing and Sensory Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Dorothée; Laverdet, Betty; Buhé, Virginie; Trouillas, Marina; Ghazi, Kamélia; Alexaline, Maïa M; Egles, Christophe; Misery, Laurent; Coulomb, Bernard; Lataillade, Jean-Jacques; Berthod, François; Desmoulière, Alexis

    2017-02-01

    Many wound management protocols have been developed to improve wound healing after burn with the primordial aim to restore the barrier function of the skin and also provide a better esthetic outcome. Autologous skin grafts remain the gold standard in the treatment of skin burn, but this treatment has its limitation especially for patients presenting limited donor sites due to extensive burn areas. Deep burn injuries also alter the integrity of skin-sensitive innervation and have an impact on patient's quality of life by compromising perceptions of touch, temperature, and pain. Thus, patients can suffer from long-term disabilities ranging from cutaneous sensibility loss to chronic pain. The cellular mechanisms involved in skin reinnervation following injury are not elucidated yet. Depending on the depth of the burn, nerve sprouting can occur from the wound bed or the surrounding healthy tissue, but somehow this process fails to provide correct reinnervation of the wound during scarring. In addition, several clinical observations indicate that damage to the peripheral nervous system influences wound healing, resulting in delayed wound healing or chronic wounds, underlining the role of innervation and neuromediators for normal cutaneous tissue repair development. Promising tissue engineering strategies, including the use of biomaterials, skin substitutes, and stem cells, could provide novel alternative treatments in wound healing and help in improving patient's sensory recovery.

  16. Hibiscus syriacus Extract from an Established Cell Culture Stimulates Skin Wound Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. di Martino

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Higher plants are the source of a wide array of bioactive compounds that support skin integrity and health. Hibiscus syriacus, family Malvaceae, is a plant of Chinese origin known for its antipyretic, anthelmintic, and antifungal properties. The aim of this study was to assess the healing and hydration properties of H. syriacus ethanolic extract (HSEE. We established a cell culture from Hibiscus syriacus leaves and obtained an ethanol soluble extract from cultured cells. The properties of the extract were tested by gene expression and functional analyses on human fibroblast, keratinocytes, and skin explants. HSEE treatment increased the healing potential of fibroblasts and keratinocytes. Specifically, HSEE significantly stimulated fibronectin and collagen synthesis by 16 and 60%, respectively, while fibroblasts contractility was enhanced by 30%. These results were confirmed on skin explants, where HSEE accelerated the wound healing activity in terms of epithelium formation and fibronectin production. Moreover, HSEE increased the expression of genes involved in skin hydration and homeostasis. Specifically, aquaporin 3 and filaggrin genes were enhanced by 20 and 58%, respectively. Our data show that HSEE contains compounds capable of stimulating expression of biomarkers relevant to skin regeneration and hydration thereby counteracting molecular pathways leading to skin damage and aging.

  17. Wound Healing from Dermal Grafts Containing CD34+ Cells Is Comparable to Wound Healing with Split-Thickness Skin Micrografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuutila, Kristo; Singh, Mansher; Kruse, Carla; Eriksson, Elof

    2017-08-01

    Epidermal stem cells present in the skin appendages of the dermis might be crucial in wound healing. In this study, the authors located these cells in the dermis and evaluated their contribution to full-thickness wound healing in a porcine model. Four sequentially deeper 0.35-mm-thick skin grafts were harvested from the same donor site going down to 1.4 mm in depth (layers 1 through 4). The layers were minced to 0.8 × 0.8 × 0.35-mm micrografts and transplanted (1:2) onto full-thickness porcine wounds. Healing was monitored up to 28 days and biopsy specimens were collected on days 6 and 10. Multiple wound healing parameters were used to assess the quality of healing. The authors' results showed that wounds transplanted with layer 2 (0.35 to 0.7 mm) and layer 3 (0.7 to 1.05 mm) micrografts demonstrated reepithelialization rates comparable to that of split-thickness skin graft (layer 1, 0.00 to 0.35 mm; split-thickness skin graft) at day 10. At day 28, dermal micrografts (layers 2 and 3) showed quality of healing comparable to that of split-thickness skin grafts (layer 1) in terms of wound contraction and scar elevation index. The amounts of epidermal stem cells [cluster of differentiation (CD) 34] and basal keratinocytes (KRT14) at each layer were quantified by immunohistochemistry. The analysis showed that layers 2 and 3 contained the most CD34 cells and layer 1 was the richest in KRT14 cells. The immunohistochemistry also indicated that, by day 6, CD34 cells had differentiated into KRT14 cells, which migrated from the grafts and contributed to the reepithelialization of the wound.

  18. Utility of a human-mouse xenograft model and in vivo near-infrared fluorescent imaging for studying wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Victoria K; Tassi, Elena; Schmidt, Marcel O; McNish, Sean; Baker, Stephen; Attinger, Christopher; Wang, Hong; Shara, Nawar; Wellstein, Anton

    2015-12-01

    To study the complex cellular interactions involved in wound healing, it is essential to have an animal model that adequately mimics the human wound microenvironment. Currently available murine models are limited because wound contraction introduces bias into wound surface area measurements. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate utility of a human-mouse xenograft model for studying human wound healing. Normal human skin was harvested from elective abdominoplasty surgery, xenografted onto athymic nude (nu/nu) mice, and allowed to engraft for 3 months. The graft was then wounded using a 2-mm punch biopsy. Wounds were harvested on sequential days to allow tissue-based markers of wound healing to be followed sequentially. On the day of wound harvest, mice were injected with XenoLight RediJect cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) probe and imaged according to package instructions. Immunohistochemistry confirms that this human-mouse xenograft model is effective for studying human wound healing in vivo. Additionally, in vivo fluorescent imaging for inducible COX-2 demonstrated upregulation from baseline to day 4 (P = 0·03) with return to baseline levels by day 10, paralleling the reepithelialisation of the wound. This human-mouse xenograft model, combined with in vivo fluorescent imaging provides a useful mechanism for studying molecular pathways of human wound healing. © 2013 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2013 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Impaired Biomechanical Properties of Diabetic Skin Implications in Pathogenesis of Diabetic Wound Complications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bermudez, Dustin M.; Herdrich, Benjamin J.; Xu, Junwang; Lind, Robert; Beason, David P.; Mitchell, Marc E.; Soslowsky, Louis J.; Liechty, Kenneth W.

    Diabetic skin is known to have deficient wound healing properties, but little is known of its intrinsic biomeclhanical properties. We hypothesize that diabetic skin possesses inferior biomechanical properties at baseline, rendering it more prone to injury. Skin from diabetic and nondiabetic mice and

  20. Wound healing properties of ethyl acetate fraction of Moringa oleifera in normal human dermal fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivapragasam Gothai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Wounds are the outcome of injuries to the skin that interrupt the soft tissue. Healing of a wound is a complex and long-drawn-out process of tissue repair and remodeling in response to injury. A large number of plants are used by folklore traditions for treatment of cuts, wounds and burns. Moringa oleifera is an herb used as traditional folk medicine for the treatment of various skin wounds and associated diseases. The underlying mechanisms of wound healing activity of ethyl acetate fraction of M. oleifera leaves extract are completely unknown. Methods: In the current study, ethyl acetate fraction of Moringa oleifera leaves was investigated for its efficacy on cell viability, proliferation and migration (wound closure rate in human normal dermal fibroblast cells. Results: Results revealed that lower concentration (12.5 and micro;g/ml, 25 and micro;g/ml, and 50 and micro;g/ml of ethyl acetate fraction of M. oleifera leaves showed remarkable proliferative and migratory effect on normal human dermal fibroblasts. Conclusion: The present study suggested that ethyl acetate fraction of M. oleifera leaves might be a potential therapeutic agent for skin wound healing by promoting fibroblast proliferation and migration through increasing the wound closure rate corroborating its traditional use. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2016; 5(1.000: 1-6

  1. Wound healing properties of ethyl acetate fraction of Moringa oleifera in normal human dermal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gothai, Sivapragasam; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Tan, Woan Sean; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2016-01-01

    Wounds are the outcome of injuries to the skin that interrupt the soft tissue. Healing of a wound is a complex and long-drawn-out process of tissue repair and remodeling in response to injury. A large number of plants are used by folklore traditions for the treatment of cuts, wounds and burns. Moringa oleifera (MO) is an herb used as a traditional folk medicine for the treatment of various skin wounds and associated diseases. The underlying mechanisms of wound healing activity of ethyl acetate fraction of MO leaves extract are completely unknown. In the current study, ethyl acetate fraction of MO leaves was investigated for its efficacy on cell viability, proliferation and migration (wound closure rate) in human normal dermal fibroblast cells. Results revealed that lower concentration (12.5 µg/ml, 25 µg/ml, and 50 µg/ml) of ethyl acetate fraction of MO leaves showed remarkable proliferative and migratory effect on normal human dermal fibroblasts. This study suggested that ethyl acetate fraction of MO leaves might be a potential therapeutic agent for skin wound healing by promoting fibroblast proliferation and migration through increasing the wound closure rate corroborating its traditional use.

  2. The Effect of Combined Pulsed Wave Low-Level Laser Therapy and Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Conditioned Medium on Open Skin Wound Healing in Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouriran, Ramin; Piryaei, Abbas; Mostafavinia, Ataroalsadat; Zandpazandi, Sara; Hendudari, Farzane; Amini, Abdollah; Bayat, Mohammad

    2016-08-01

    The nobility of this scientific study was to investigate the combined effects of pulsed wave low-level laser therapy (PWLLLT) and human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell-conditioned medium (hBM-MSC-CM) on the biomechanical parameters of wounds in an experimental model for diabetes mellitus (DM). PWLLLT exhibited biostimulatory effects on wounds in diabetic animals. Secretomes can be administered into wounds by the use of BM-MSC-CM. Type I DM was induced in rats by streptozotocin (STZ). Two wounds were made on proximal and distal parts in the dorsal region of each rat. Rats were divided into four groups. The first group was considered as the control group. The second group received hBM-MSC-CM. The third group received PWLLLT. The fourth group received hBM-MSC-CM+LASER. hBM-MSC-CM was administrated twice intraperitoneally. The proximal wounds in the third and fourth groups were treated with a pulsed laser by 890 nm wavelength, 80 Hz frequency, and 0.2 J/cm(2) energy densities. On the 15th day, a standard sample from each healing wound was submitted for biomechanical examination. The data were analyzed by analysis of variance test. PWLLLT and hBM-MSC-CM, alone or in combination, significantly increased biomechanical parameters within the healing wounds. However, PWLLLT was statistically more effective compared with the hBM-MSC-CM. In the third and fourth groups, the numbers of wound closures were significantly enhanced in proximal part, contrary to the control ones. It was magnificently attained that PWLLLT significantly accelerated the wound healing process in the experimental model for STZ-induced type I DM rats.

  3. Wounding alters blood chemistry parameters and skin mineralocorticoid receptors in house sparrows (Passer domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattin, Christine R; DuRant, Sarah E; Romero, L Michael

    2015-06-01

    Because skin is an important physical barrier against pathogens, the ability to quickly and effectively heal wounds directly impacts an animal's health. The hormone corticosterone (CORT) has many complex effects on immune function and can slow wound healing. It has been suggested that CORT's role during wound healing may be to act as a "brake" on inflammation and cell proliferation. This project aimed to clarify the role of CORT in the healing process by quantifying concentrations of its two intracellular receptors, glucocorticoid receptors (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptors (MR), in the skin of wounded (n = 9) or unwounded (n = 8) house sparrows (Passer domesticus) using radioligand binding assays. We also quantified GR and MR in liver, spleen and pectoralis muscle, as well as several blood chemistry parameters, hypothesizing that wounding would alter whole-body energy use. One day post-wounding, wounded birds had higher blood glucose and lower aspartate aminotransferase (a marker indicating muscle damage or catabolism) compared to controls, which may be related to animals' changing metabolic needs in response to lymphocyte and macrophage recruitment at the wound site. Birds had significantly decreased MR, but not GR, in the skin of wounded legs compared to the skin of unwounded legs. There was also a trend towards lower MR in wounded skin compared to unwounded birds. Receptors in the three other tissues did not differ between groups. This study suggests that decreasing the skin's sensitivity to CORT immediately after wounding may be a necessary part of the normal healing process in wild birds. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Temporal localization of immunoreactive transforming growth factor beta1 in normal equine skin and in full-thickness dermal wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theoret, Christine L; Barber, Spencer M; Gordon, John R

    2002-01-01

    To describe the localization of immunoreactive transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 in both normal skin and full-thickness dermal wounds of the limb and the thorax of the horse. Six full-thickness excisional wounds were created on the lateral aspect of one metacarpal region and on the midthoracic area of each horse. Sequentially collected tissue specimens from wound margins were assessed for TGF-beta1 expression by immunohistochemistry. Four horses (2 to 4 years of age). A neutralizing monoclonal anti-human TGF-beta1 antibody was used to detect the spatial expression of TGF-beta1 protein by immunohistochemical localization in biopsies obtained before wounding and at 12 and 24 hours, and 5, 10, and 14 days. No differences in localization of immunoreactive TGF-beta1 were detected between limb and thorax, for either intact skin or wounds. Unwounded epidermis stained moderately for TGF-beta1 protein throughout all layers, whereas the dermis was relatively devoid of immunoreactivity. During the acute stage of repair, migrating epithelium lost its stain, whereas cells of epidermal appendages remained strongly immunoreactive. The epithelium recovered its TGF-beta1 immunoreactivity during wound remodeling, although cells of the stratum corneum remained negative. Macrophages of the inflammatory exudate had positive cytoplasmic staining that diminished with time. Immunoreactivity of granulation tissue fibroblasts was evident early on and increased throughout the repair process. TGF-beta1 is constitutively expressed in normal, unwounded equine epithelium. Its expression is upregulated within the skin on injury and is associated with the cells involved in wound repair. A more precise understanding of the temporal and spatial expression of TGF-beta1 during wound repair in horses should provide the groundwork for possible future manipulations of both normal and aberrant tissue repair. Copyright 2002 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons

  5. Alteration of Biomechanical Properties of Skin During the Course of Healing of Partial-thickness Wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Manuel; Rothenberger, Jens; Tolzmann, Dascha; Petersen, Wiebke; Schaller, Hans-Eberhard; Rahmanian-Schwarz, Afshin

    2015-05-01

    The incidence of partial-thickness wounds is high and, until recently, little was known about the alteration of the biomechanical properties of the skin in these wounds during the course of healing. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the biomechanical changes in skin elasticity. Fourteen standardized skin defects were created on the back of fourteen adult male Lewis rats (Charles River Laboratories International, Inc, Wilmington, MA) using a skin dermatome. Biomechanical properties of the skin were determined every 10 days over a period of 3 months using a skin elasticity measurement device (Cutometer MPA 580, Courage and Khazaka, Cologne, Germany). Calculated elasticity (UE), firmness of skin (R0), and overall elasticity (R8) were assessed. In addition, histological evaluation was performed in regard to quality of skin. After an initial decrease of UE, R0, and R8 until 30 days after surgery, the values of R0 and R8 increased between day 50 and day 60. Starting on day 60, a further decrease of values was indicated. The alteration of biomechanical properties of skin is a function of tissue structure. The presented results demonstrate the complex changes of skin biomechanical properties in the course of healing of partial-thickness wounds. This study could serve as a model to compare the effectiveness of different wound dressings in regard to skin elasticity.

  6. Evaluation of Wound Healing Efficacy of an Antimicrobial Spray Dressing at Skin Donor Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lien-Guo; Fu, Keng-Yen; Hsieh, Pai-Shan; Hung, Yu-Min; Wang, Yi-Wen; Hsia, Li-Chaun; Chang, Shun-Cheng; Wang, Chih-Hsin; Teng, Shou-Cheng; Chen, Shyi-Gen; Chen, Tim-Mo; Dai, Niann-Tzyy

    2015-08-01

    Autologous skin transplantation is a common treatment for patients with full-thickness burns. Postoperative wound care is essential for skin graft donor and recipient sites, but traditional wound dressings such as cotton and gauze do not form an effective barrier to bacteria, and patients can feel uncomfortable when replacing dressings. The goal of this study was to evaluate the use of an antimicrobial spray dressing (JUC Spray Dressing, NMS Technologies Co Ltd, Nanjing, China), with respect to its antimicrobial efficiency and the degree of pain experienced by patients. The authors found the antimicrobial spray can reduce pain during the recovery period, while providing equivalent antibacterial protection to the control treatment (AQUACEL Hydrofiber Wound Dressing, ConvaTec, Bridgewater, NJ) based on skin culture tests. The spray did not adversely affect the wound site recovery. No significant side effects were present during the treatment period. This antimicrobial spray could potentially be used in wound dressing applications.

  7. Skin wound healing in MMP2-deficient and MMP2 / plasminogen double-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøssing, Signe; Rønø, Birgitte; Hald, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    activation (PA) system and the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family. Treatment with the broad spectrum MMP inhibitor, galardin, delays wound healing in wildtype mice and completely arrest wound healing in plasminogen (Plg)-deficient mice, indicating a functional overlap between plasmin- and galardin......During healing of incisional skin wounds, migrating keratinocytes dissect their way under the crust to re-epithelialize the wounded area. The efficiency of this tissue remodelling process depends on the concomitant activity of several extracellular proteases, including members of the plasminogen......-sensitive MMPs during wound healing. To address whether MMP2 is accountable for the galardin-induced healing deficiency in wildtype and Plg-deficient mice, incisional skin wounds were generated in MMP2 single-deficient mice and in MMP2/Plg double-deficient mice and followed until healed. Alternatively, tissue...

  8. New skin closure system facilitates wound healing after cardiovascular implantable electronic device surgery

    OpenAIRE

    De Maria, Elia

    2015-01-01

    The manuscript describes the efficacy of a new skin closure system (ZipLine™) for wound closure after pacemaker/implantable cardioverter defibrillator surgery. The system is particularly useful when wound healing is difficult with traditional methods and in patients at high risk for surgical site infections (SSIs). This skin closure option is easy and quick to apply and remove, and produces excellent cosmetic results. Although it is associated with a minimal expense upcharge, the benefits, in...

  9. Decreasing Skin Graft Contraction through Topical Wound Bed Preparation with Anti-Inflammatory Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    recipient wound bed to decrease skin graft contraction. 2. KEYWORDS: Skin graft contraction; burn ; prolonged inflammation; anti-inflammatory; wound bed. 3...per experiment What was accomplished under these goals? In the first goal (A.1.2.1), the screening animal models using the Yorkshire pig for burn ...be secondary to indomethacin toxicity, infection or technical failure. In the next experimental animal, in order to rule out the possibility for

  10. Analysis of morphological characteristics and expression levels of extracellular matrix proteins in skin wounds to determine wound age in living subjects in forensic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronczek, Judith; Lulf, Ronald; Korkmaz, H Ibrahim; Witte, Birgit I; van de Goot, Franklin R W; Begieneman, Mark P V; Krijnen, Paul A J; Rozendaal, Lawrence; Niessen, Hans W M; Reijnders, Udo J L

    2015-01-01

    Wound age determination in living subjects is important in routine diagnostics in forensic medicine. Macroscopical description of a wound to determine wound age however is inadequate. The aim of this study was to assess whether it would be feasible to determine wound age via analysis of morphological characteristics and extracellular matrix proteins in skin biopsies of living subjects referred to a forensic outpatient clinic. Skin biopsies (n=101), representing the border area of the wound, were taken from skin injuries of known wound age (range: 4.5h-25 days) in living subjects. All biopsies were analyzed for 3 morphological features (ulceration, parakeratosis and hemorrhage) and 3 extracellular matrix markers (collagen III, collagen IV and α-SMA). For quantification, biopsies were subdivided in 4 different timeframes: 0.2-2 days, 2-4 days, 4-10 days and 10-25 days old wounds. Subsequently, a probability scoring system was developed. For hemorrhage, collagen III, collagen IV and α-SMA expression no relation with wound age was found. Ulceration was only found in wounds of 0.2-2, 2-4 and 4-10 days old, implying that the probability that a wound was more than 10 days old in case of ulceration is equal to 0%. Also parakeratosis was almost exclusively found in wounds of 0.2-2, 2-4 and 4-10 days old, except for one case with a wound age of 15 days old. The probability scoring system of all analyzed markers, as depicted above, however can be used to calculate individual wound age probabilities in biopsies of skin wounds of living subjects. We have developed a probability scoring system, analysing morphological characteristics and extracellular matrix proteins in superficial skin biopsies of wounds in living subjects that can be applied in forensic medicine for wound age determination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Gene expression profiling of Lucilia sericata larvae extraction/secretion-treated skin wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Erdal; Aksöz, İlayda; Arkan, Hülya; Coşkunpınar, Ender; Akbaş, Fahri; Onaran, İlhan

    2014-10-25

    The larvae of Lucilia sericata have been successfully used as medicinal maggots in the healing of wounds. The excretion/secretion (ES) products of the larvae have been shown to efficiently debride wounds and help the healing process. The mechanisms underlying ES-induced wound healing are not yet completely understood. One of the intriguing questions is the role of ESs in modulating gene expression at the transcriptional level in the skin wound environment during the healing process. To address this question, a study was conducted in which the ES-induced gene expression profile in wound biopsies and ES-treated wounds of rat skin in comparison with control group was analyzed at the molecular level by monitoring the expression of genes associated with wound healing. The expression levels of 82 genes at 4, 7, and 10 days after wounding were determined using a PCR array system following cDNA synthesis. A comparison from wounds revealed that 38 mRNAs (≥5-fold expression) were differentially expressed in the ES-treated skin. For 27 genes, the multiple-test corrected p-value was statistically significant (p≤0.00061). The expression pattern of these mRNAs was also altered during a period of 10 days. Many of the upregulated or downregulated mRNAs with therapy were extracellular matrix, cell adhesion-related proteins and growth factors. The genes that have the highest fold change (>1000-fold) were Col1a2, Col4a1, Ctsk, Ccl7, Angpt1, Cd40lg, Egf and Itgb5. Several of these gene products might play key roles in ES-induced wound healing. These findings may provide new insight for an understanding of the therapeutic potential of ESs for wound healing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Human umbilical mesenchymal stem cells conditioned medium promote primary wound healing regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Liliek Kusindarta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This research was conducted to clarify the capability of human umbilical mesenchymal stem cells conditioned medium (HU-MSCM to promote regenerations of primary wound healing on the incision skin injury. Materials and Methods: In this study, two approaches in vitro and in vivo already done. On in vitro analysis, tube formation was performed using HU vein endothelial cells in the presence of HU-MSCM, in some experiments cells line was incubated prior the presence of lipopolysaccharide and HU-MSCM then apoptosis assay was performed. Furthermore, in vivo experiments 12 female rats (Rattus norvegicus were used after rats anesthetized, 7 mm wound was made by incision on the left side of the body. The wound was treated with HU-MSCM containing cream, povidone iodine was run as a control. Wound healing regenerations on the skin samples were visualized by hematoxylin-eosin staining. Results: In vitro models elucidate HU-MSCM may decreasing inflammation at the beginning of wound healing, promote cell migration and angiogenesis. In addition in vivo models show that the incision length on the skin is decreasing and more smaller, HE staining describe decreasing of inflammation phase, increasing of angiogenesis, accelerate fibroplasia, and maturation phase. Conclusions: Taken together our observation indicates that HU-MSCM could promote the acceleration of skin tissue regenerations in primary wound healing process.

  13. Human umbilical mesenchymal stem cells conditioned medium promote primary wound healing regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusindarta, Dwi Liliek; Wihadmadyatami, Hevi; Fibrianto, Yuda Heru; Nugroho, Widagdo Sri; Susetya, Heru; Musana, Dewi Kania; Wijayanto, Hery; Prihatna, Surya Agus; Wahyuni, A. E. T. H.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This research was conducted to clarify the capability of human umbilical mesenchymal stem cells conditioned medium (HU-MSCM) to promote regenerations of primary wound healing on the incision skin injury. Materials and Methods: In this study, two approaches in vitro and in vivo already done. On in vitro analysis, tube formation was performed using HU vein endothelial cells in the presence of HU-MSCM, in some experiments cells line was incubated prior the presence of lipopolysaccharide and HU-MSCM then apoptosis assay was performed. Furthermore, in vivo experiments 12 female rats (Rattus norvegicus) were used after rats anesthetized, 7 mm wound was made by incision on the left side of the body. The wound was treated with HU-MSCM containing cream, povidone iodine was run as a control. Wound healing regenerations on the skin samples were visualized by hematoxylin-eosin staining. Results: In vitro models elucidate HU-MSCM may decreasing inflammation at the beginning of wound healing, promote cell migration and angiogenesis. In addition in vivo models show that the incision length on the skin is decreasing and more smaller, HE staining describe decreasing of inflammation phase, increasing of angiogenesis, accelerate fibroplasia, and maturation phase. Conclusions: Taken together our observation indicates that HU-MSCM could promote the acceleration of skin tissue regenerations in primary wound healing process. PMID:27397984

  14. New skin closure system facilitates wound healing after cardiovascular implantable electronic device surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Maria, Elia

    2015-08-16

    The manuscript describes the efficacy of a new skin closure system (ZipLine™) for wound closure after pacemaker/implantable cardioverter defibrillator surgery. The system is particularly useful when wound healing is difficult with traditional methods and in patients at high risk for surgical site infections (SSIs). This skin closure option is easy and quick to apply and remove, and produces excellent cosmetic results. Although it is associated with a minimal expense upcharge, the benefits, including the potential for decrease in SSI, make it attractive and worth considering for skin closure in device patients, particularly those at increased risk of complications.

  15. Antioxidant capacity of 3D human skin EpiDerm model: effects of skin moisturizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazul-Bilska, A T; Bilski, J J; Redmer, D A; Reynolds, L P; Abdullah, K M; Abdullah, A

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of skin moisturizers on total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of human skin using EpiDerm model. Three different skin moisturizers containing antioxidant ingredients (samples 1-3) or aloe vera extract were topically applied to EpiDerm units and incubated for 2 and 24 h to determine acute and longer-term effects of applied samples on TAC and glutathione peroxidase activity in medium and/or homogenized skin tissues. Total antioxidant capacity in medium and skin homogenates was enhanced (P affect TAC. Glutathione peroxidase activity was enhanced (P < 0.0001) in medium and skin homogenates by sample 2 but not by any other sample. These data demonstrate high potential of gel and cream (samples 2 and 3) containing antioxidant ingredients in enhancing antioxidant capacity of EpiDerm which will likely contribute to overall skin health. Results of this experiment will help to better understand mechanisms of effects of skin moisturizers containing antioxidant ingredients on skin function at the tissue level and to establish effective strategies for skin protection and clinical treatments of skin disorders and possibly healing wounds.

  16. The effect of local hyperglycemia on skin cells in vitro and on wound healing in euglycemic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Carla R; Singh, Mansher; Sørensen, Jens A

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Multiple previous studies have established that high systemic blood glucose concentration impairs skin wound healing. However, the effects of local hyperglycemia on wound healing are not well defined. Comprehensive animal studies and in vitro studies using both fibroblasts and keratin......BACKGROUND: Multiple previous studies have established that high systemic blood glucose concentration impairs skin wound healing. However, the effects of local hyperglycemia on wound healing are not well defined. Comprehensive animal studies and in vitro studies using both fibroblasts...

  17. Clinical Experience and Best Practices Using Epidermal Skin Grafts on Wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsner, Robert S; Bernstein, Brent; Bhatia, Animesh; Lantis, John; Le, Lam; Lincoln, Katherine; Liu, Paul; Rodgers, Lee; Shaw, Mark; Young, David

    2015-11-01

    Over the years, autologous skin grafting has been used extensively to achieve wound closure, optimize a functional scar, and improve aesthetic outcomes for the patient. Although a vast majority of the literature is on the use of full-thickness and split-thickness skin grafts, epidermal skin grafts (ESGs) have emerged as a viable option in the reconstructive ladder when only the epidermal layer is needed. These grafts are distinct from other types of autologous skin grafts in that they can be harvested without anesthesia and leave minimal or no scarring at the donor site. In order to explore the use of ESGs in the continuum of primary wound closure, a multidisciplinary expert panel convened in October 2014, in Las Vegas, NV, to review the scientific basis and clinical uses of epidermal grafting. This publication provides an overview of epidermal grafting, recommendations for graft application, and potential roles for its use in wound care and closure.

  18. Foxn1 Transcription Factor Regulates Wound Healing of Skin through Promoting Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Gawronska-Kozak

    Full Text Available Transcription factors are key molecules that finely tune gene expression in response to injury. We focused on the role of a transcription factor, Foxn1, whose expression is limited to the skin and thymus epithelium. Our previous studies showed that Foxn1 inactivity in nude mice creates a pro-regenerative environment during skin wound healing. To explore the mechanistic role of Foxn1 in the skin wound healing process, we analyzed post-injured skin tissues from Foxn1::Egfp transgenic and C57BL/6 mice with Western Blotting, qRT-PCR, immunofluorescence and flow cytometric assays. Foxn1 expression in non-injured skin localized to the epidermis and hair follicles. Post-injured skin tissues showed an intense Foxn1-eGFP signal at the wound margin and in leading epithelial tongue, where it co-localized with keratin 16, a marker of activated keratinocytes. This data support the concept that suprabasal keratinocytes, expressing Foxn1, are key cells in the process of re-epithelialization. The occurrence of an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT was confirmed by high levels of Snail1 and Mmp-9 expression as well as through co-localization of vimentin/E-cadherin-positive cells in dermis tissue at four days post-wounding. Involvement of Foxn1 in the EMT process was verified by co-localization of Foxn1-eGFP cells with Snail1 in histological sections. Flow cytometric analysis showed the increase of double positive E-cadherin/N-cadherin cells within Foxn1-eGFP population of post-wounded skin cells isolates, which corroborated histological and gene expression analyses. Together, our findings indicate that Foxn1 acts as regulator of the skin wound healing process through engagement in re-epithelization and possible involvement in scar formation due to Foxn1 activity during the EMT process.

  19. Bubaline Cholecyst Derived Extracellular Matrix for Reconstruction of Full Thickness Skin Wounds in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Shakya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An acellular cholecyst derived extracellular matrix (b-CEM of bubaline origin was prepared using anionic biological detergent. Healing potential of b-CEM was compared with commercially available collagen sheet (b-CS and open wound (C in full thickness skin wounds in rats. Thirty-six clinically healthy adult Sprague Dawley rats of either sex were randomly divided into three equal groups. Under general anesthesia, a full thickness skin wound (20 × 20 mm2 was created on the dorsum of each rat. The defect in group I was kept as open wound and was taken as control. In group II, the defect was repaired with commercially available collagen sheet (b-CS. In group III, the defect was repaired with cholecyst derived extracellular matrix of bovine origin (b-CEM. Planimetry, wound contracture, and immunological and histological observations were carried out to evaluate healing process. Significantly (P<0.05 increased wound contraction was observed in b-CEM (III as compared to control (I and b-CS (II on day 21. Histologically, improved epithelization, neovascularization, fibroplasia, and best arranged collagen fibers were observed in b-CEM (III as early as on postimplantation day 21. These findings indicate that b-CEM have potential for biomedical applications for full thickness skin wound repair in rats.

  20. Pulsed electromagnetic fields accelerate wound healing in the skin of diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudarzi, Iran; Hajizadeh, Sohrab; Salmani, Mahmoud E; Abrari, Kataneh

    2010-05-01

    Delayed wound healing is a common complication in diabetes mellitus. From this point of view, the main purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of extremely low frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields (ELF PEMFs) on skin wound healing in diabetic rats. In this study, diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats via a single subcutaneous injection of 65 mg/kg streptozocin (freshly dissolved in sterile saline, 0.9%). One month after the induction of diabetes, a full-thickness dermal incision (35 mm length) was made on the right side of the paravertebral region. The wound was exposed to ELF PEMF (20 Hz, 4 ms, 8 mT) for 1 h per day. Wound healing was evaluated by measuring surface area, percentage of healing, duration of healing, and wound tensile strength. Obtained results showed that the duration of wound healing in diabetic rats in comparison with the control group was significantly increased. In contrast, the rate of healing in diabetic rats receiving PEMF was significantly greater than in the diabetic control group. The wound tensile strength also was significantly greater than the control animals. In addition, the duration of wound healing in the control group receiving PEMF was less than the sham group. Based on the above-mentioned results we concluded that this study provides some evidence to support the use of ELF PEMFs to accelerate diabetic wound healing. Further research is needed to determine the PEMF mechanisms in acceleration of wound healing in diabetic rats.

  1. Barbatiman and chitosan creams as adjuvants in rabbit skin wound healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Rocha de Oliveira Lima

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 5% barbatiman and 5% chitosan creams were evaluated as adjuvants in the tissue repair process by secondary intention of rabbit’s skin wounds. Four equidistant wounds were induced in the dorsal skin of 20 adult male rabbits, which were submitted to healing by secondary intention and treated with 5% chitosan cream (QC, n=5, 5% barbatiman cream (BC, n=5, 2% allantoin cream (n=5, and base cream (n=5. The creams were applied with the aid of disposable spatulas after washing the wounds. The wounds were daily analyzed by clinical examination for 21 days and histological analyses were performed on the 3rd, 14th, and 21st day after induction. The microscopic evaluation of the wounds of all groups showed macroscopic features of the healing process at different time intervals. The QC and BC treatments helped in the skin repair process in rabbits when compared to the other two treatments. They induced fibroblast activation and early collagen deposition, and modulated re-epithelialization and neovascularization. Thus, it was concluded that BC and QC are efficient and economically feasible as adjuvants in the healing process of skin wounds in rabbits.

  2. EASApprox® skin-stretching system: A secure and effective method to achieve wound closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mingzhi; Zhang, Zhen; Liu, Tao; Liu, Song; Li, Gang; Liu, Zhaochang; Huang, Jingyang; Chen, Song; Li, Linan; Guo, Li; Qiu, Yang; Wan, Jiajia; Liu, Yuejian; Wu, Tao; Wang, Xiaoyong; Lu, Ming; Wang, Shouyu

    2017-01-01

    Large skin defects are commonly observed in the clinic and have attracted much attention recently. Therefore, finding an effective solution for large skin defects is a global problem. The objective of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of the EASApprox® skin-stretching system for closing large skin defects. Skin defects (5×5 cm) were created on the forearms of 9 Bama miniature pigs, which were randomly divided into the following three groups: Direct suture, the new EASApprox® skin-stretching device and Kirschner wires. Microcirculation was assessed before surgery and after wound closure. Following the different treatments, the defects were sutured, and wound healing was assessed based on a clinical score. Furthermore, microscopic and ultramicroscopic structures were evaluated, including collagen, elastic fibers and the microvessel density. Significant differences in the clinical score and microvessel density were observed among the groups. Additionally, the mean length obtained for elastic fibers was larger than that obtained for the other two groups. Finally, the new EASApprox® skin-stretching device resulted in successful wound management and with only minor side effects on skin histology and microcirculation. Therefore, this method has the potential to be used for healing large skin defects. PMID:28672963

  3. A short peptide from frog skin accelerates diabetic wound healing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Han; Duan, Zilei; Tang, Jing; Lv, Qiumin; Rong, Mingqiang; Lai, Ren

    2014-01-01

    ...‐thickness dermal wound in both normal and diabetic animals. In addition to its strong angiogenic ability with respect to the upregulation of some angiogenic proteins, CW 49 also showed a significant anti...

  4. The Pharmaceutical Device Prisma® Skin Promotes in Vitro Angiogenesis through Endothelial to Mesenchymal Transition during Skin Wound Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Belvedere

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Glycosaminoglycans are polysaccharides of the extracellular matrix supporting skin wound closure. Mesoglycan is a mixture of glycosaminoglycans such as chondroitin-, dermatan-, heparan-sulfate and heparin and is the main component of Prisma® Skin, a pharmaceutical device developed by Mediolanum Farmaceutici S.p.a. Here, we show the in vitro effects of this device in the new vessels formation by endothelial cells, since angiogenesis represents a key moment in wound healing. We found a strong increase of migration and invasion rates of these cells treated with mesoglycan and Prisma® Skin which mediate the activation of the pathway triggered by CD44 receptor. Furthermore, endothelial cells form longer capillary-like structures with a great number of branches, in the presence of the same treatments. Thus, the device, thanks to the mesoglycan, leads the cells to the Endothelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition, suggesting the switch to a fibroblast-like phenotype, as shown by immunofluorescence assays. Finally, we found that mesoglycan and Prisma® Skin inhibit inflammatory reactions such as nitric oxide secretion and NF-κB nuclear translocation in endothelial cells and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α production by macrophages. In conclusion, based on our data, we suggest that Prisma® Skin may be able to accelerate angiogenesis in skin wound healing, and regulate inflammation avoiding chronic, thus pathological, responses.

  5. Topical treatment with basic fibroblast growth factor promotes wound healing and barrier recovery induced by skin abrasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamizo, S; Egawa, G; Doi, H; Natsuaki, Y; Miyachi, Y; Kabashima, K

    2013-01-01

    It has been reported that basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) promotes the healing of skin ulceration by inducing fibroblast proliferation, yet the role of bFGF on epidermal barrier function, especially from the perspective of scratch-induced skin abrasion, remains unknown. To this end, we initially developed an epidermal abrasion mouse model induced by scratching with a stainless-steel wire brush, and examined the effects of bFGF on the wound healing induced by skin abrasion. This procedure induced a significant elevation of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) in a scratch-count-dependent manner. This elevated TEWL was significantly decreased following topical application of bFGF to the skin. In addition, bFGF increased the expression of Ki67 in keratinocytes following mechanical scratching. These results suggest that bFGF enhances keratinocyte proliferation, which, in turn, repairs the skin barrier disruption and wounds caused by scratching in mice. Consistently, bFGF stimulated proliferation of normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK). Intriguingly, the effect of bFGF and other growth factors on NHEK proliferation was additive. However, high cell density diminished the effect of bFGF on NHEK proliferation. This particular result can be explained by our observation that FGF receptor mRNA expression in NHEK was low under conditions of high cell density. Our findings suggest that bFGF stimulates keratinocyte proliferation, especially in a lower cell density environment, to repair skin wound in accord with skin barrier recovery. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Biomechanical Skin Property Evaluation for Wounds Treated With Synthetic and Biosynthetic Wound Dressings and a Newly Developed Collagen Matrix During Healing of Superficial Skin Defects in a Rat Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Manuel; Engelke, Anne-Sophie; Tolzmann, Dascha Sophie; Rahmanian-Schwarz, Afshin; Schaller, Hans-Eberhard; Rothenberger, Jens

    2016-09-01

    There is a high prevalence of superficial wounds such as partial-thickness burns. Treatment of these wounds frequently includes temporary application of wound dressings. The aim of this study was to compare a newly developed collagen matrix with commonly used temporary skin dressings for treatment of partial-thickness skin defects. Through a skin dermatome, 42 standardized superficial skin defects were generated on the back of 28 adult male Lewis rats. The wounds were treated with a synthetic wound dressing (Suprathel, Polymedics Innovations Inc, Woodstock, GA) (n = 14), a biosynthetic skin dressing (Biobrane, Smith & Nephew, Hull, UK) (n = 14), or a newly developed bovine collagen matrix, Collagen Cell Carrier (Viscofan BioEngineering, Weinheim, Germany) (n = 14). Biomechanical properties of the skin were determined and compared every 10 days over a 3-month period of using the Cutometer MPA 580 (Courage + Khazaka Electronic GmbH, Cologne, Germany). As opposed to healthy skin, statistically significant differences were detected between days 10 and 30, and between days 60 and 80, for calculated elasticity (Ue), firmness of skin (R0), and overall elasticity (R8). After 3 months, no statistically significant differences in skin elasticity were detected between the different wound dressings. The presented results give an opportunity to compare the wound dressings used for treatment with respect to skin elasticity and reveal the potential of the bovine collagen matrix in the treatment of superficial skin defects; therefore the results facilitate further evaluation of collagen matrix in surgical applications and regenerative medicine.

  7. Knockout of endothelial cell-derived endothelin-1 attenuates skin fibrosis but accelerates cutaneous wound healing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsunari Makino

    Full Text Available Endothelin (ET-1 is known for the most potent vasoconstrictive peptide that is released mainly from endothelial cells. Several studies have reported ET-1 signaling is involved in the process of wound healing or fibrosis as well as vasodilation. However, little is known about the role of ET-1 in these processes. To clarify its mechanism, we compared skin fibrogenesis and wound repair between vascular endothelial cell-specific ET-1 knockout mice and their wild-type littermates. Bleomycin-injected fibrotic skin of the knockout mice showed significantly decreased skin thickness and collagen content compared to that of wild-type mice, indicating that bleomycin-induced skin fibrosis is attenuated in the knockout mice. The mRNA levels of transforming growth factor (TGF-β were decreased in the bleomycin-treated skin of ET-1 knockout mice. On the other hand, skin wound healing was accelerated in ET-1 knockout mice, which was indicated by earlier granulation tissue reduction and re-epithelialization in these mice. The mRNA levels of TGF-β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF were reduced in the wound of ET-1 knockout mice. In endothelial ET-1 knockout mouse, the expression of TNF-α, CTGF and TGF-β was down-regulated. Bosentan, an antagonist of dual ET receptors, is known to attenuate skin fibrosis and accelerate wound healing in systemic sclerosis, and such contradictory effect may be mediated by above molecules. The endothelial cell-derived ET-1 is the potent therapeutic target in fibrosis or wound healing, and investigations of the overall regulatory mechanisms of these pathological conditions by ET-1 may lead to a new therapeutic approach.

  8. The immunology of the porcine skin and its value as a model for human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerfield, Artur; Meurens, François; Ricklin, Meret E

    2015-07-01

    The porcine skin has striking similarities to the human skin in terms of general structure, thickness, hair follicle content, pigmentation, collagen and lipid composition. This has been the basis for numerous studies using the pig as a model for wound healing, transdermal delivery, dermal toxicology, radiation and UVB effects. Considering that the skin also represents an immune organ of utmost importance for health, immune cells present in the skin of the pig will be reviewed. The focus of this review is on dendritic cells, which play a central role in the skin immune system as they serve as sentinels in the skin, which offers a large surface area exposed to the environment. Based on a literature review and original data we propose a classification of porcine dendritic cell subsets in the skin corresponding to the subsets described in the human skin. The equivalent of the human CD141(+) DC subset is CD1a(-)CD4(-)CD172a(-)CADM1(high), that of the CD1c(+) subset is CD1a(+)CD4(-)CD172a(+)CADM1(+/low), and porcine plasmacytoid dendritic cells are CD1a(-)CD4(+)CD172a(+)CADM1(-). CD209 and CD14 could represent markers of inflammatory monocyte-derived cells, either dendritic cells or macrophages. Future studies for example using transriptomic analysis of sorted populations are required to confirm the identity of these cells. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. The anti-motility signaling mechanism of TGFβ3 that controls cell traffic during skin wound healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arum Han

    2012-09-01

    When skin is wounded, migration of epidermal keratinocytes at the wound edge initiates within hours, whereas migration of dermal fibroblasts toward the wounded area remains undetectable until several days later. This “cell type traffic” regulation ensures proper healing of the wound, as disruptions of the regulation could either cause delay of wound healing or result in hypertrophic scars. TGFβ3 is the critical traffic controller that selectively halts migration of the dermal, but not epidermal, cells to ensure completion of wound re-epithelialization prior to wound remodeling. However, the mechanism of TGFβ3's anti-motility signaling has never been investigated. We report here that activated TβRII transmits the anti-motility signal of TGFβ3 in full to TβRI, since expression of the constitutively activated TβRI-TD mutant was sufficient to replace TGFβ3 to block PDGF-bb-induced dermal fibroblast migration. Second, the three components of R-Smad complex are all required. Individual downregulation of Smad2, Smad3 or Smad4 prevented TGFβ3 from inhibiting dermal fibroblast migration. Third, Protein Kinase Array allowed us to identify the protein kinase A (PKA as a specific downstream effector of R-Smads in dermal fibroblasts. Activation of PKA alone blocked PDGF-bb-induced dermal fibroblast migration, just like TGFβ3. Downregulation of PKA's catalytic subunit nullified the anti-motility signaling of TGFβ3. This is the first report on anti-motility signaling mechanism by TGFβ family cytokines. Significance of this finding is not only limited to wound healing but also to other human disorders, such as heart attack and cancer, where the diseased cells have often managed to avoid the anti-motility effect of TGFβ.

  10. Bioprinted Amniotic Fluid-Derived Stem Cells Accelerate Healing of Large Skin Wounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skardal, Aleksander; Mack, David; Kapetanovic, Edi; Atala, Anthony; Jackson, John D.; Yoo, James

    2012-01-01

    Stem cells obtained from amniotic fluid show high proliferative capacity in culture and multilineage differentiation potential. Because of the lack of significant immunogenicity and the ability of the amniotic fluid-derived stem (AFS) cells to modulate the inflammatory response, we investigated whether they could augment wound healing in a mouse model of skin regeneration. We used bioprinting technology to treat full-thickness skin wounds in nu/nu mice. AFS cells and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were resuspended in fibrin-collagen gel and “printed” over the wound site. At days 0, 7, and 14, AFS cell- and MSC-driven wound closure and re-epithelialization were significantly greater than closure and re-epithelialization in wounds treated by fibrin-collagen gel only. Histological examination showed increased microvessel density and capillary diameters in the AFS cell-treated wounds compared with the MSC-treated wounds, whereas the skin treated only with gel showed the lowest amount of microvessels. However, tracking of fluorescently labeled AFS cells and MSCs revealed that the cells remained transiently and did not permanently integrate in the tissue. These observations suggest that the increased wound closure rates and angiogenesis may be due to delivery of secreted trophic factors, rather than direct cell-cell interactions. Accordingly, we performed proteomic analysis, which showed that AFS cells secreted a number of growth factors at concentrations higher than those of MSCs. In parallel, we showed that AFS cell-conditioned media induced endothelial cell migration in vitro. Taken together, our results indicate that bioprinting AFS cells could be an effective treatment for large-scale wounds and burns. PMID:23197691

  11. Platelet-Rich Plasma Combined With Skin Substitute for Chronic Wound Healing: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Rebecca L.; Hunt, Allen R.; Collins, John C.; DeSmet, Marie; Barnes, Sara

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: Contemporary management of chronic wounds focuses on improving natural healing and individualization of treatment. Incorporating multiple therapies has become increasingly common. Of interest are autologous growth factors, which are especially important in chronic wound healing and may contribute to tissue formation and epithelialization. Autologous platelet concentrate or platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a concentration of at least five autologous growth factors and has been shown to accelerate wound healing and may have infection-fighting properties. Chronic wound healing is complicated by both decreased growth factor availability and infection, making PRP use valuable in these types of wounds. In this report, the use of PRP therapy alone and in combination with a bioengineered skin substitute as a platelet-rich tissue graft in a chronic, non-healing wound is detailed. Over 27 weeks, the patient received multiple therapies in attempts to heal a severe decubitus ulcer of the sacrum. The introduction of PRP therapy at Week 14 led to a 26% reduction in wound depth over 4 weeks. At Week 19, PRP therapy was combined with a powdered skin substitute to create a platelet-rich tissue graft. The combination brought dramatic results, eliminating wound tunneling and reducing the wound dimensions from 6.2 cm long × 6.7 cm wide × 2.7 cm deep to 5.0 cm long × 6.0 cm wide × 1.4 cm deep. The promising observations from this case report indicate that further study on the combining of PRP therapy and skin substitutes is necessary. PMID:17089514

  12. StrataGraft skin substitute is well-tolerated and is not acutely immunogenic in patients with traumatic wounds: results from a prospective, randomized, controlled dose escalation trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centanni, John M.; Straseski, Joely A.; Wicks, April; Hank, Jacquelyn A.; Rasmussen, Cathy A.; Lokuta, Mary A.; Schurr, Michael J.; Foster, Kevin N.; Faucher, Lee D.; Caruso, Daniel M.; Comer, Allen R.; Allen-Hoffmann, B. Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to assess the immunogenicity and antigenicity of StrataGraft skin tissue in a randomized phase I/II clinical trial for the temporary management of full-thickness skin loss. Summary Background Data StrataGraft skin tissue consists of a dermal equivalent containing human dermal fibroblasts and a fully-stratified, biologically active epidermis derived from NIKS cells, a pathogen-free, long-lived, consistent, human keratinocyte progenitor. Methods Traumatic skin wounds often require temporary allograft coverage to stabilize the wound bed until autografting is possible. StrataGraft and cadaveric allograft were placed side-by-side on 15 patients with full-thickness skin defects for one week prior to autografting. Allografts were removed from the wound bed and examined for allogeneic immune responses. Immunohistochemistry and indirect immunofluorescence were used to assess tissue structure and cellular composition of allografts. In vitro lymphocyte proliferation assays, chromium-release assays, and development of antibodies were used to examine allogeneic responses. Results One week after patient exposure to allografts, there were no differences in the numbers of T or B lymphocytes or Langerhans cells present in StrataGraft skin substitute compared to cadaver allograft, the standard of care. Importantly, exposure to StrataGraft skin substitute did not induce the proliferation of patient peripheral blood mononuclear cells to NIKS keratinocytes or enhance cell-mediated lysis of NIKS keratinocytes in vitro. Similarly, no evidence of antibody generation targeted to the NIKS keratinocytes was seen. Conclusions These findings indicate that StrataGraft tissue is well-tolerated and not acutely immunogenic in patients with traumatic skin wounds. Notably, exposure to StrataGraft did not increase patient sensitivity toward or elicit immune responses against the NIKS keratinocytes. We envision this novel skin tissue technology will be widely used

  13. Carbonate ion-enriched hot spring water promotes skin wound healing in nude rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyan Liang

    Full Text Available Hot spring or hot spa bathing (Onsen is a traditional therapy for the treatment of certain ailments. There is a common belief that hot spring bathing has therapeutic effects for wound healing, yet the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. To examine this hypothesis, we investigated the effects of Nagano hot spring water (rich in carbonate ion, 42°C on the healing process of the skin using a nude rat skin wound model. We found that hot spring bathing led to an enhanced healing speed compared to both the unbathed and hot-water (42°C control groups. Histologically, the hot spring water group showed increased vessel density and reduced inflammatory cells in the granulation tissue of the wound area. Real-time RT-PCR analysis along with zymography revealed that the wound area of the hot spring water group exhibited a higher expression of matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9 compared to the two other control groups. Furthermore, we found that the enhanced wound healing process induced by the carbonate ion-enriched hot spring water was mediated by thermal insulation and moisture maintenance. Our results provide the evidence that carbonate ion-enriched hot spring water is beneficial for the treatment of skin wounds.

  14. Comparison of five dermal substitutes in full-thickness skin wound healing in a porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philandrianos, Cécile; Andrac-Meyer, Lucile; Mordon, Serge; Feuerstein, Jean-Marc; Sabatier, Florence; Veran, Julie; Magalon, Guy; Casanova, Dominique

    2012-09-01

    The wound healing attributes of five acellular dermal skin substitutes were compared, in a two-step procedure, in a porcine model. Ten pigs were included in this experimental and randomized study. During the first step, dermal substitutes (Integra(®), ProDerm(®), Renoskin(®), Matriderm(®) 2mm and Hyalomatrix(®) PA) were implanted into full-thickness skin wounds and the epidermis was reconstructed during a second step procedure at day 21 using autologous split-thickness skin graft or cultured epithelial autograft. Seven pigs were followed-up for 2 months and 3 pigs for 6 months. Dermal substitute incorporation, epidermal graft takes, wound contraction and Vancouver scale were assessed, and histological study of the wounds was performed. Results showed significant differences between groups in dermis incorporation and in early wound contraction, but there was no difference in wound contraction and in Vancouver scale after 2 and 6 months of healing. We conclude there was no long-term difference of scar qualities in our study between the different artificial dermis. More, there was no difference between artificial dermis and the control group. This study makes us ask questions about the benefit of artificial dermis used in a two-step procedure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  15. Nanotechnology-Based Therapies for Skin Wound Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Tocco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The cutting-edge combination of nanotechnology with medicine offers the unprecedented opportunity to create materials and devices at a nanoscale level, holding the potential to revolutionize currently available macroscale therapeutics. Nanotechnology already provides a plethora of advantages to medical care, and the success of nanoparticulate systems suggests that a progressive increase in the exploration of their potential will take place in the near future. An overview on the current applications of nanotechnology to wound healing and wound care is presented.

  16. Development of a Full-Thickness Human Skin Equivalent In Vitro Model Derived from TERT-Immortalized Keratinocytes and Fibroblasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, C.M.A.; van Lier, A.; Roffel, S.; Kramer, D.; Scheper, R.J.; Gibbs, S.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, human skin equivalents (HSEs) used for in vitro assays (e.g., for wound healing) make use of primary human skin cells. Limitations of primary keratinocytes and fibroblasts include availability of donor skin and donor variation. The use of physiologically relevant cell lines could solve

  17. In vitro evaluation of Spirulina platensis extract incorporated skin cream with its wound healing and antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunes, Seda; Tamburaci, Sedef; Dalay, Meltem Conk; Deliloglu Gurhan, Ismet

    2017-12-01

    Algae have gained importance in cosmeceutical product development due to their beneficial effects on skin health and therapeutical value with bioactive compounds. Spirulina platensis Parachas (Phormidiaceae) is renowned as a potential source of high-value chemicals and recently used in skincare products. This study develops and evaluates skin creams incorporated with bioactive S. platensis extract. Spirulina platensis was cultivated, the aqueous crude extract was prepared and in vitro cytotoxicity of S. platensis extract in the range of 0.001-1% concentrations for 1, 3 and 7 d on HS2 keratinocyte cells was determined. Crude extracts were incorporated in skin cream formulation at 0.01% (w/w) concentration and in vitro wound healing and genotoxicity studies were performed. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to determine the collagen activity. 0.1% S. platensis extract exhibited higher proliferation activity compared with the control group with 198% of cell viability after 3 d. Skin cream including 1.125% S. platensis crude extract showed enhanced wound healing effect on HS2 keratinocyte cell line and the highest HS2 cell viability % was obtained with this concentration. The micronucleus (MN) assay results indicated that S. platensis extract incorporated creams had no genotoxic effect on human peripheral blood cells. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that collagen 1 immunoreactivity was improved by increased extract concentration and it was strongly positive in cells treated with 1.125% extract incorporated skin cream. The cell viability, wound healing activity and genotoxicity results showed that S. platensis incorporated skin cream could be of potential value in cosmeceutical and biomedical applications.

  18. Antimicrobial peptides secreted by equine mesenchymal stromal cells inhibit the growth of bacteria commonly found in skin wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, Rebecca M; Yang, Steven; He, Megan K; Van de Walle, Gerlinde R

    2017-07-04

    The prevalence of chronic skin wounds in humans is high, and treatment is often complicated by the presence of pathogenic bacteria. Therefore, safe and innovative treatments to reduce the bacterial load in cutaneous wounds are needed. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are known to provide paracrine signals that act on resident skin cells to promote wound healing, but their potential antibacterial activities are not well described. The present study was designed to examine the antibacterial properties of MSC from horses, as this animal model offers a readily translatable model for MSC therapies in humans. Specifically, we aimed to (i) evaluate the in vitro effects of equine MSC on the growth of representative gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial species commonly found in skin wounds and (ii) define the mechanisms by which MSC inhibit bacterial growth. MSC were isolated from the peripheral blood of healthy horses. Gram-negative E. coli and gram-positive S. aureus were cultured in the presence of MSC and MSC conditioned medium (CM), containing all factors secreted by MSC. Bacterial growth was measured by plating bacteria and counting viable colonies or by reading the absorbance of bacterial cultures. Bacterial membrane damage was detected by incorporation of N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine (NPN). Antimicrobial peptide (AMP) gene and protein expression by equine MSC were determined by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively. Blocking of AMP activity of MSC CM was achieved using AMP-specific antibodies. We found that equine MSC and MSC CM inhibit the growth of E. coli and S. aureus, and that MSC CM depolarizes the cell membranes of these bacteria. In addition, we found that equine MSC CM contains AMPs, and blocking these AMPs with antibodies reduces the effects of MSC CM on bacteria. Our results demonstrate that equine MSC inhibit bacterial growth and secrete factors that compromise the membrane integrity of bacteria commonly found in skin wounds. We also identified

  19. Stem Cell Therapy for Healing Wounded Skin and Soft Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT...2008; 180:569-579. 53. Danon D, Kowatch MA, Roth GS. Promotion of wound repair in old mice by local injection ofmacrophages. Proc Natl Acad Sci US A

  20. Effects of Intense Pulsed Light on Tissue Vascularity and Wound Healing: A Study with Mouse Island Skin Flap Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trinh Cao Minh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intense pulsed light (IPL has been used extensively in aesthetic and cosmetic dermatology. To test whether IPL could change the tissue vascularity and improve wound healing, mice were separated into 4 groups. Mice in Group I were not treated with IPL, whereas, dorsal skins of mice in Groups II, III, and IV were treated with 35 J/cm2, 25 J/cm2, and 15 J/cm2 IPL, respectively. After 2 weeks, dorsal island skin flaps were raised, based on the left deep circumflex iliac vessels as pedicles; then, survival rate was assessed. Flaps in Group IV (treated with lowest dose of IPL have a survival rate significantly higher than other groups. Counting blood vessels did not demonstrate any significant differences; however, vessel dilation was found in this group. The results show that IPL at the therapeutic doses which are usually applied to humans is harmful to mouse dorsal skin and did not enhance wound healing, whereas, IPL at much lower dose could improve wound healing. The possible mechanism is the dilation of tissue vasculature thanks to the electromagnetic character of IPL. Another mechanism could be the heat-shock protein production.

  1. The morphological effect of electron irradiation on the healing of skin wounds and skin grafts in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Q

    1995-07-01

    Current oncological practice frequently uses pre-, intra- or post-operative radiotherapy/chemotherapy. Before such treatment can begin it is imperative to establish that satisfactory wound healing will occur. Many previous studies have examined the response of wound healing to ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. In general, clinical and experimental reports indicate that ionizing radiation produces poor to difficult healing of wounds, and can even prevent healing altogether. It is for this reason that the effect of radiation on wound repair has been a long standing concern for surgeons, radiotherapists and radiobiologists. Electron irradiation produces large differences in depth-dose distributions. This enables the delivery of a constant maximal dose throughout the superficial layer of tissue, for example, the total depth of skin, with less damage in deeper tissue layers, compared to that produced by the use of electromagnetic radiation such as X-rays. It is for this reason that electron beam irradiation has been selected as a radiation source for radiation of the graft bed. To date there have been few morphological examinations of the effect of electron radiation on the healing of skin wounds in rats. A review of the literature shows no information on the use of radiation of the graft bed in skin graft surgery. In the present work the processes involved in wound repair in response to radiation were studied, morphologically, using two experimental models, incisional wounds combined with pre-operative radiation and skin autografts combined with radiation of the wound bed. In the latter case an unirradiated skin graft was surgically attached to an irradiated wound bed. Light microscopy (LM), backscattered electron imaging (BEI), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used as investigative tools. These repair processes include inflammation, re-epithelialization, re-formation of the dermo-epidermal junction, re

  2. Enhancement of skin wound healing with decellularized scaffolds loaded with hyaluronic acid and epidermal growth factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Zhongchun; Ma, Huan; Wu, Zhengzheng [Institute of Biomedicine, National Engineering Research Center of Genetic Medicine, Key Lab for Genetic Medicine of Guangdong Province, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Zeng, Huilan [Department of Hematology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Li, Zhizhong [Department of Bone, The First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Wang, Yuechun; Liu, Gexiu [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Xu, Bin; Lin, Yongliang; Zhang, Peng [Grandhope Biotech Co., Ltd., Building D, #408, Guangzhou International Business Incubator, Guangzhou Science Park, Guangzhou 510663, Guangdong (China); Wei, Xing, E-mail: wei70@hotmail.com [Institute of Biomedicine, National Engineering Research Center of Genetic Medicine, Key Lab for Genetic Medicine of Guangdong Province, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

    2014-11-01

    Current therapy for skin wound healing still relies on skin transplantation. Many studies were done to try to find out ways to replace skin transplantation, but there is still no effective alternative therapy. In this study, decellularized scaffolds were prepared from pig peritoneum by a series of physical and chemical treatments, and scaffolds loaded with hyaluronic acid (HA) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) were tested for their effect on wound healing. MTT assay showed that EGF increased NIH3T3 cell viability and confirmed that EGF used in this study was biologically active in vitro. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed that HA stably attached to scaffolds even after soaking in PBS for 48 h. ELISA assay showed that HA increased the adsorption of EGF to scaffolds and sustained the release of EGF from scaffolds. Animal study showed that the wounds covered with scaffolds containing HA and EGF recovered best among all 4 groups and had wound healing rates of 49.86%, 70.94% and 87.41% respectively for days 10, 15 and 20 post-surgery compared to scaffolds alone with wound healing rates of 29.26%, 42.80% and 70.14%. In addition, the wounds covered with scaffolds containing EGF alone were smaller than no EGF scaffolds on days 10, 15 and 20 post-surgery. Hematoxylin–Eosin (HE) staining confirmed these results by showing that on days 10, 15 and 20 post-surgery, the thicker epidermis and dermis layers were observed in the wounds covered with scaffolds containing HA and EGF than scaffolds alone. In addition, the thicker epidermis and dermis layers were also observed in the wounds covered with scaffolds containing EGF than scaffolds alone. Skin appendages were observed on day 20 only in the wound covered with scaffolds containing HA and EGF. These results demonstrate that the scaffolds containing HA and EGF can enhance wound healing. - Highlights: • HA can increase the adsorption of EGF to decellularized scaffolds. • HA can sustain the release of EGF from

  3. The role of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cell derivatives in skin wound healing in diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mayo, Tomas; Conget, Paulette; Becerra-Bayona, Silvia; Sossa, Claudia L; Galvis, Virgilio; Arango-Rodríguez, Martha L

    2017-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have shown to be a promising tool in cell therapies to treat different conditions. Several pre-clinical and clinical studies have proved that the transplantation of MSCs improves wound healing. Here, we compare the beneficial effects of mouse bone marrow-derived allogeneic MSCs (allo-mBM-MSCs) and their acelullar derivatives (allo-acd-mMSCs) on skin wound healing in Non-Obese Diabetic (NOD) mice. One dose of allo-mBM-MSCs (1×106 cells) or one dose of allo-acd-mMSCs (1X) were intradermally injected around wounds in 8-10 week old female NOD mice. Wound healing was evaluated macroscopically (wound closure) every two days, and microscopically (reepithelialization, dermoepidermal junction, skin appendage regeneration, leukocyte infiltration, vascularization, granulation tissue formation, and density of collagen fibers in the dermis) after 16 days of MSC injection. In addition, we measured growth factors and specific proteins that were present in the allo-acd-mMSCs. Results showed significant differences in the wound healing kinetics of lesions that received allo-acd-mMSCs compared to lesions that received vehicle or allo-mBM-MSCs. In particular, mice treated with allo-acd-mMSCs reached significantly higher percentages of wound closure at day 4, 6 and 8, relative to the allo-mBM-MSCs and vehicle groups (p healing process. Specifically, they caused a less pronounced inflammatory severe response (p healing such as IGF-1, KGF, HGF, VEGF, ANG-2, MMP-1, CoL-1 and PGE2. Compared to allo-acd-mMSCs, the administration of allo-mBM-MSCs is insufficient for wound healing in diabetic mice and delays the therapeutic effect, which maybe explained by the fact that trophic factors secreted by MSCs are critical for skin regeneration, and not the cells per se, suggesting that MSCs may require some time to secrete these factors after their administration.

  4. Constitutive expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 α in keratinocytes during the repair of skin wounds in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschene, Karine; Céleste, Christophe; Boerboom, Derek; Theoret, Christine L

    2011-01-01

    As a transient hypoxic state exists within skin wounds in horses and may be important for the healing process, this study sought to identify a molecular hypoxia response occurring in horse limb and body wounds healing by second intention. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α) protein expression was studied throughout repair by Western blotting and immunofluorescence. Paradoxically, HIF1α was strongly expressed in intact skin and its expression decreased dramatically following wounding (pwounded tissue. HIF1α levels reincreased in parallel with the epithelialization process, and more rapidly in body wounds than in limb wounds (pequine keratinocytes in both intact and wounded skin, and may regulate the expression of CDKN1A in this cell type. © 2011 by the Wound Healing Society.

  5. Skin and the non-human human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rösing, Lilian Munk

    2013-01-01

    ) article 'Visualizing the mind: Looking at Titian's Flaying of Marsyas', addressing features of the painting not commented on by Hart, and supplementing Hart's (Kleinian) theoretical frame by involving Didier Anzieu's 'skin ego', Slavoj Zizek's concept of the 'non-human', Giorgio Agamben's term...

  6. Skin temperature during cutaneous wound healing in an equine model of cutaneous fibroproliferative disorder: kinetics and anatomic-site differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celeste, Christophe J; Deschesne, Karine; Riley, Christopher B; Theoret, Christine L

    2013-02-01

    To map skin temperature kinetics, and by extension skin blood flow throughout normal or abnormal repair of full-thickness cutaneous wounds created on the horse body and limb, using infrared thermography. Experimental. Standardbreds (n = 6), aged 3-4 years. Three cutaneous wounds were created on the dorsolateral surface of each metacarpus and on the lateral thoracic wall. Thoracic skin wounds and those on 1 randomly chosen forelimb healed by second intention without a bandage, whereas contralateral limb wounds were bandaged to induce formation of exuberant granulation tissue (EGT). Thermal data were collected from all planned wound sites before the surgical procedure (baseline), and at 24, 48, 96 hours, 1, 2, and 4 weeks after wounding. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA and a priori contrasts submitted to Bonferroni sequential correction. Level of significance was P wound temperature (CWT) increased temporally from preoperative period to week 1 postwounding, independently of anatomic location (P wounds was significantly less than that of body wounds throughout healing (P wounds managed with bandages and developing EGT was significantly less than that of unbandaged limb wounds, which did not develop EGT (P ≤ .01). CWT varied with anatomic location and throughout healing. CWT of wounds developing EGT was significantly less than that of wounds without EGT. © Copyright 2012 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  7. Negative-pressure wound dressings to secure split-thickness skin grafts in the perineum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyeong-Tae; Pyon, Jai-Kyong; Lim, So-Young; Mun, Goo-Hyun; Oh, Kap Sung; Bang, Sa-Ik

    2014-04-01

    Several researches have shown that negative-pressure wound dressings can secure split-thickness skin grafts and improve graft survival. However, in anatomically difficult body regions such as the perineum it is questionable whether these dressings have similar beneficial effects. In this study, we evaluated the effects of negative-pressure wound dressings on split-thickness skin grafts in the perineum by comparing wound healing rate and complication rate with that of tie-over dressings. A retrospective chart review was performed for the patients who underwent a split-thickness skin graft to reconstruct perineal skin defects between January 2007 and December 2011. After grafting, the surgeon selected patients to receive either a negative-pressure dressing or a tie-over dressing. In both groups, the initial dressing was left unchanged for 5 days, then changed to conventional wet gauze dressing. Graft success was assessed 2 weeks after surgery by a single clinician. A total of 26 patients were included in this study. The mean age was 56·6 years and the mean wound size was 273·1 cm(2). Among them 14 received negative-pressure dressings and 12 received tie-over dressings. Negative-pressure dressing group had higher graft taken rate (P = 0·036) and took shorter time to complete healing (P = 0·01) than tie-over dressing group. The patients with negative-pressure dressings had a higher rate of graft success and shorter time to complete healing, which has statistical significance. Negative-pressure wound dressing can be a good option for effective management of skin grafts in the perineum. © 2012 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2012 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Evaluation of Epidermal Skin Grafts for the Treatment of Complex Wounds in a Wound Care Center: A 94-Patient Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Katherine; Hyde, Jessica

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, a new technology for autologous epidermal harvesting has been developed to produce epidermal skin grafts (ESGs) for use over wounds. This technology employs negative pressure and heat to raise the epidermal skin layer, allowing for consistent and reproducible epidermal harvesting. The aim of this case series is to present the authors' experience using an automated, epidermal harvesting system to produce ESGs to treat wounds of patients with multiple comorbidities. This case series was conducted between January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2014. Patients with wounds (≤ 25 cm2) that failed to heal were treated with ESGs by a group of 3 wound care physicians in 2 outpatient wound care centers in a community health center setting. A total of 94 patients with 102 wounds were identified. Of the 94 patients, 3 were noncompliant and 9 were lost to follow-up. Therefore, 82 patients with 90 wounds were included in the analysis. The majority of wounds demonstrated epithelialization (83/90, 92.2%). Of the 90 wounds, 75 (83.3%) healed following epidermal grafting, 4 (4.4%) wounds displayed improvement, and 11 (12.2%) did not heal. Minimal or no pain at the donor site was reported by the patients, and all donor sites healed without complications. This case series provides additional evidence for the use of ESGs for the treatment of wounds that fail to heal.

  9. Advanced skin, scar and wound care centre for children: A new era of care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Burd

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced wound care centres are now a well established response to the growing epidemic of chronic wounds in the adult population. Is the concept transferable to children? Whilst there is not the same prevalence of chronic wounds in children there are conditions affecting the integumentary system that do have a profound effect on the quality of life of both children and their families. We have identified conditions involving the skin, scars and wounds which contribute to a critical number of potential patients that can justify the setting up of an advanced skin, scar and wound care centre for children. The management of conditions such as giant naevi, extensive scarring and epidermolysis bullosa challenge medical professionals and lead to new and novel treatments to be developed. The variation between and within such conditions calls for a customizing of individual patient care that involves a close relationship between research scientists and clinicians. This is translational medicine of its best and we predict that this is the future of wound care particularly and specifically in children.

  10. Integrin alpha3beta1 inhibits directional migration and wound re-epithelialization in the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margadant, Coert; Raymond, Karine; Kreft, Maaike; Sachs, Norman; Janssen, Hans; Sonnenberg, Arnoud

    2009-01-15

    Re-epithelialization after skin wounding requires both migration and hyperproliferation of keratinocytes. Laminin-332 is deposited during migration over the provisional matrix. To investigate the function of the laminin-332 binding integrin alpha3beta1 in wound re-epithelialization, we generated Itga3flox/flox; K14-Cre mice lacking the alpha3 subunit specifically in the basal layer of the epidermis. These mice are viable but display several skin defects, including local inflammation, hair loss, basement membrane duplication and microblistering at the dermal-epidermal junction, whereas hemidesmosome assembly and keratinocyte differentiation are not impaired. Wound healing is slightly faster in the absence of integrin alpha3beta1, whereas proliferation, the distribution of other integrins and the deposition of basement membrane proteins in the wound bed are unaltered. In vitro, cell spreading is rescued by increased surface expression of alpha6beta1 integrin in the absence of integrin alpha3. The alpha3-deficient keratinocytes migrate with an increased velocity and persistence, whereas proliferation, growth factor signaling, hemidesmosome assembly, and laminin-332 deposition appeared to be normal. We suggest that integrin alpha3beta1 delays keratinocyte migration during wound re-epithelialization, by binding to the laminin-332 that is newly deposited on the wound bed.

  11. Multiphoton microscopy for skin wound healing study in terms of cellular metabolism and collagen regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deka, Gitanjal; Okano, Kazunori; Wu, Wei-Wen; Kao, Fu-Jen

    2014-02-01

    Multiphoton microscopy was employed to study normal skin wound healing in live rats noninvasively. Wound healing is a process involving series of biochemical events. This study evaluates the regeneration of collagen and change in cellular metabolic activity during wound healing in rats, with second harmonic generation (SHG) and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM), respectively. In eukaryotic cells ATP is the molecule that holds the energy for cellular functioning. Whereas NADH is an electron donor in the metabolic pathways, required to generate ATP. Fluorescence lifetime of NADH free to protein bound ratio was evaluated to determine the relative metabolic activity. The FLIM data were acquired by a TCSPC system using SPCM software and analyzed by SPCImage software. Additionally, polarization resolved SHG signals were also collected to observe the changes in optical birefringence and hence the anisotropy of regenerated collagens from rat wound biopsy samples. Mat lab programming was used to process the data to construct the anisotropy images. Results indicated that, cells involved in healing had higher metabolic activity during the first week of healing, which decreases gradually and become equivalent to normal skin upon healing completes. A net degradation of collagen during the inflammatory phase and net regeneration starting from day 5 were observed in terms of SHG signal intensity change. Polarization resolved SHG imaging of the wound biopsy sample indicates higher value of anisotropy in proliferative phase, from day 4th to 8th, of wound formation; however the anisotropy decreases upon healing.

  12. Wound closure after split-thickness skin grafting is accelerated with the use of continuous direct anodal microcurrent applied to silver nylon wound contact dressings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckfeldt, Roger; Flick, A Bart; Mikkelson, Debbie; Lowe, Cindy; Finley, Phillip J

    2007-01-01

    Wound healing after graft closure of excised burn wounds is a critical factor in the recovery process after thermal injury. Processes that speed time to stable wound closure should lead to improved outcomes, shorter lengths of hospital stays, and decreased complications. A randomized clinical trial to test the ability of continuous direct anodal microcurrent application to silver nylon wound contact dressings was designed. Time for wound closure after split-thickness skin grafting was observed. Thirty patients with full-thickness thermal burns were randomized into two groups. The control group received postoperative dressing care using moistened silver nylon fabric covered with gauze after tangential burn wound excision and split-thickness skin grafting. The study group received an identical protocol with the addition of continuous direct anodal microcurrent application. Time to 95% wound closure was measured using digital photography. The digital photographs were evaluated by a burn surgeon blinded to the patient's randomization. An independent t-test was used to analyze the data. The study group experienced a 36% reduction in time to wound closure (mean of 4.6 days) as compared to the control group (mean of 7.2 days). This was statistically significant at a P value of microcurrent decreased time to wound closure after split-thickness skin grafting.

  13. Effect of Postoperative Diclofenac on Anastomotic Healing, Skin Wounds and Subcutaneous Collagen Accumulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, M; Krarup, Peter-Martin; Kongsbak, Mikkel

    2012-01-01

    diclofenac treatment significantly inhibited collagen deposition in subcutaneous granulation tissue. Anastomotic strength and skin wound strength were not significantly affected. The ePTFE model is suitable for assessing the effect of various drugs on collagen formation and thus on wound healing....... and an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) tube was placed subcutaneously. Incisional and anastomotic wound breaking strength and hydroxyproline content in the ePTFE tubes were measured 7 days after the operation. Results: We found no significant differences in any of the breaking strength measurements......, but showed a median 38% reduction in hydroxyproline deposition as a result of diclofenac treatment (p = 0.03). In the placebo group, subcutaneous collagen deposition tended to correlate positively with skin incisional but negatively with anastomotic bio-mechanical strength. Conclusion: Postoperative...

  14. Full-thickness skin grafting to cover equine wounds caused by laceration or tumor resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Ferenc; Schumacher, Jim; Castro, Fernando; Perkins, Justin

    2010-08-01

    To describe and evaluate full-thickness skin grafting of equine wounds. Case series. Adult horses (n=6). A full-thickness graft was harvested from the pectoral region with the horse anesthetized or standing and sedated after local anesthetic infiltration. Grafts were attached to the cutaneous margin of the wound with staples and/or sutures if the horse was anesthetized or if the recipient site was desensitized. Cyanoacrylate glue was used to attach the grafts to the cutaneous margin of the wound of 3 horses. Medical records were reviewed for history, physical examination findings, grafting technique, postoperative complications, and outcome. Three horses had full-thickness skin grafting to cover a fresh defect created by excision of a cutaneous neoplasm, and 3 horses had full-thickness skin grafting to cover a fresh or granulating laceration. Grafts were completely accepted in 5 horses. The superficial layers of all grafts sloughed, but the final cosmetic appearance of accepted grafts was good. Full-thickness skin grafting can be performed in standing sedated horses with good cosmesis, especially when the meshed graft is expanded minimally. Good acceptance of a full-thickness graft can be expected, regardless of whether the graft is applied to a fresh or granulating wound.

  15. Profibrinolytic effects of metalloproteinases during skin wound healing in the absence of plasminogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Kirsty A; Almholt, Kasper; Ploug, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Genetic ablation of plasminogen (Plg) and pharmacological inhibition of metalloproteinase activity by galardin delay skin wound healing in mice, whereas the combined inhibition of these two enzyme systems completely prevents healing. In this study, the impact of plasmin and metalloproteinases as ...

  16. Innate sensing of microbial products promotes wound-induced skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoste, Esther; Arwert, Esther N.; Lal, Rohit; South, Andrew P.; Salas-Alanis, Julio C.; Murrell, Dedee F.; Donati, Giacomo; Watt, Fiona M.

    2015-01-01

    The association between tissue damage, chronic inflammation and cancer is well known. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Here we characterize a mouse model in which constitutive epidermal extracellular-signal-regulated kinase-MAP-kinase signalling results in epidermal inflammation, and skin wounding induces tumours. We show that tumour incidence correlates with wound size and inflammatory infiltrate. Ablation of tumour necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)-1/-2, Myeloid Differentiation primary response gene 88 or Toll-like receptor (TLR)-5, the bacterial flagellin receptor, but not other innate immune sensors, in radiosensitive leukocytes protects against tumour formation. Antibiotic treatment inhibits, whereas injection of flagellin induces, tumours in a TLR-5-dependent manner. TLR-5 is also involved in chemical-induced skin carcinogenesis in wild-type mice. Leukocytic TLR-5 signalling mediates upregulation of the alarmin HMGB1 (High Mobility Group Box 1) in wound-induced papillomas. HMGB1 is elevated in tumours of patients with Recessive Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa, a disease characterized by chronic skin damage. We conclude that in our experimental model the combination of bacteria, chronic inflammation and wounding cooperate to trigger skin cancer. PMID:25575023

  17. Differential cytokine activity and morphology during wound healing in the neonatal and adult rat skin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wagner, W; Wehrmann, M

    2007-01-01

    .... Cytokines are known to play a key role in this process. The current study investigated the differential cytokine activity and healing morphology during healing of incisional skin wounds in rats of the ages neonatal (p0), 3 days old (p3...

  18. Genetically modified porcine split-thickness skin grafts as an alternative to allograft for provision of temporary wound coverage: preliminary characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leto Barone, Angelo A; Mastroianni, Melissa; Farkash, Evan A; Mallard, Christopher; Albritton, Alexander; Torabi, Radbeh; Leonard, David A; Kurtz, Josef M; Sachs, David H; Cetrulo, Curtis L

    2015-05-01

    Temporary coverage of severely burned patients with cadaver allograft skin represents an important component of burn care, but is limited by availability and cost. Porcine skin shares many physical properties with human skin, but is susceptible to hyperacute rejection due to preformed antibodies to α-1,3-galactose (Gal), a carbohydrate on all porcine cells. Our preliminary studies have suggested that skin grafts from α-1,3-galactosyltransferase knock out (GalT-KO) miniature swine might provide temporary wound coverage comparable to allografts, since GalT-KO swine lack this carbohydrate. To further evaluate this possibility, eight non-human primates received primary autologous, allogeneic, GalT-KO, and GalT+xenogeneic skin grafts. Additionally, secondary grafts were placed to assess whether sensitization would affect the rejection time course of identical-type grafts. We demonstrate that both GalT-KO xenografts and allografts provide temporary coverage of partial- and full-thickness wounds for up to 11 days. In contrast, GalT+xenografts displayed hyperacute rejection, with no signs of vascularization and rapid avulsion from wounds. Furthermore, secondary GalT-KO transplants failed to vascularize, demonstrating that primary graft rejection sensitizes the recipient. We conclude that GalT-KO xenografts may provide temporary coverage of wounds for a duration equivalent to allografts, and thus, could serve as a readily available alternative treatment of severe burns. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  19. High prevalence of skin and wound care of hospitalized elderly in Brazil: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rosa Silva, Carleara Ferreira; Santana, Rosimere Ferreira; de Oliveira, Beatriz Guitton Renaud Baptista; do Carmo, Thalita Gomes

    2017-02-02

    Skin changes caused by aging increase the risk of skin damages, such as pressure ulcers, during hospitalization of elderly patients. There is few information about the cost of wound treatment in Brazil. Conversely, skin and wound problems are highly reported among hospitalized elderly patients and caregivers. The purpose is to analyze the socio-demographic and clinical profile associated with skin and wound care in hospitalized elderly. This is a prospective observational study. The sample consisted of 75 patients, aged 60 years or more, randomly selected in three hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Data extraction from nursing records of the sample, using cross mapping with Nursing Interventions Classification. Data Synthesis supported by SAS 6.11 (SAS Institute, Inc. Cary North Carolina) in association with SPSS version 14.0 and statistics analysis. The findings were: age standard deviation 7.8, with minimum as 60, and maximum as 91 years old. Prevalence of women and married seniors. High prevalence of long-term hospitalization. There were 21 Nursing Interventions in the nursing records and seventeen of them related to skin and wound care. They were described in 57 nursing activities, present during 376 evaluations and repeated 1756 times. A significant difference was obtained between age and the presence of the nursing interventions "Positioning" (p-0.004), Eye Care/Hygiene (p- < 0.0001) and Oral Health Maintenance (p-0.0003). The skin care to prevention and treatment of skin damages represented the major demand of nursing interventions in different clinical conditions of hospitalized elderly.

  20. Wound culture isolated antibiograms and caregiver-reported skin care practices in children with epidermolysis bullosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Hannah M; Levin, Laura E; Garzon, Maria C; Lauren, Christine T; Planet, Paul J; Kittler, Nicole W; Whittier, Susan; Morel, Kimberly D

    2017-11-06

    Many patients with epidermolysis bullosa (EB) require intensive daily wound care and individualized treatment plans. Understanding patient's home skin care routines and emerging antibiotic resistance patterns in EB wounds is necessary to optimize treatment recommendations. The objective was to identify patterns of antimicrobial resistance in EB wounds and characterize patient's home practices of skin care and bathing. This was an observational study of 23 children with EB at an outpatient pediatric dermatology practice in New York City from 2012 to 2014. Information on individual bathing and skin care practices and wound cultures was collected as part of routine examinations and an institutional review board-approved antibiogram protocol. Sixty wound cultures were collected from 23 patients. Eleven organisms were isolated, most commonly methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus, Streptococcus species, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Six patients (26%) were colonized with methicillin-resistant S. aureus. Over the course of the study, 13 patients (56%) were found to have mupirocin-resistant S. aureus. More than half of participants reported mupirocin or bacitracin use. Fewer than half indicated that they regularly used dilute bleach or dilute vinegar as part of their bathing routine. Numerous organisms, including resistant bacteria, are known to colonize the wounds of individuals with EB. Mupirocin resistance was prevalent and more than half of the participants reported its use. Testing for mupirocin resistance may be considered for certain patients. These observations may help guide questions for future longitudinal multicenter studies with the goal of optimizing EB wound care recommendations. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Ischaemic wound complications in above-knee amputations in relation to the skin perfusion pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, P

    1980-01-01

    Healing of the stumps in 59 above-knee amputations was correlated with the local skin perfusion pressure (SPP) measured preoperatively as the external pressure required to stop isotope washout using 131I-(-) or 125I-(-) antipyrine mixed with histamine. Out of the 11 cases with an SPP below 30 mm......Hg no fewer than 9 (82 per cent) suffered wound complications. Out of the 48 cases with an SPP above 30 mmHg severe wound complications occurred in only 4 cases (8 per cent). The difference in wound complication rate is highly significant (P ... ischaemic wound complications in above-knee amputations as has previously been shown to be the case in below-knee amputations....

  2. Proteolytic signatures define unique thrombin-derived peptides present in human wound fluid in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saravanan, Rathi; Adav, Sunil S; Choong, Yeu Khai

    2017-01-01

    The disease burden of failing skin repair and non-healing ulcers is extensive. There is an unmet need for new diagnostic approaches to better predict healing activity and wound infection. Uncontrolled and excessive protease activity, of endogenous or bacterial origin, has been described as a major...... contributor to wound healing impairments. Proteolytic peptide patterns could therefore correlate and "report" healing activity and infection. This work describes a proof of principle delineating a strategy by which peptides from a selected protein, human thrombin, are detected and attributed to proteolytic...... aureolysin, respectively. Corresponding peptide sequences were identified in wound fluids from acute and non-healing ulcers, and notably, one peptide, FYT21 (FYTHVFRLKKWIQKVIDQFGE), was only present in wound fluid from non-healing ulcers colonized by P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. Our result is a proof...

  3. Distinct Fibroblasts in the Papillary and Reticular Dermis: Implications for Wound Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodley, David T

    2017-01-01

    Human skin wounds heal largely by reparative wound healing rather than regenerative wound healing. Human skin wounds heal with scarring and without pilosebaceous units or other appendages. Dermal fibroblasts come from 2 distinct lineages of cells that have distinct cell markers and, more importantly, distinct functional abilities. Human skin wound healing largely involves the dermal fibroblast lineage from the reticular dermis and not the papillary dermis. If scientists could find a way to stimulate the dermal fibroblast lineages from the papillary dermis in early wound healing, perhaps human skin wounds could heal without scarring and with skin appendages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Mesenchymal stem cell infusion on skin wound healing of dexamethasone immunosuppressed wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betânia Souza Monteiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: To evaluate the therapeutic contribution of MSC intravenous infusion to surgical wound healing in dexamethasone-immunosuppressed rats, thirty-five rats were randomly divided into 2 groups: in the Control Group (CG, five rats received normal saline as 0.2ml subcutaneous (SC injections every 24 hours, for 30 consecutive days and, in the Dexamethasone Group (DG, 30 rats were given 0.2mL subcutaneous dexamethasone (0.1mg kg-1 every 24 hours, for 30 consecutive days. After 30 days, all rats underwent surgery to create an experimental skin wound. The 30 animals of the DG group were divided into two equal groups, which received different treatments: the dexamethasone group (DG received a single application of 0.5ml normal saline, via the intravenous route (IV, 48 hours after wound creation; and the Mesenchymal Stem Cells Dexamethasone group (MSCDG received MSC transplantation at a concentration of 9x106 cells in a single IV application, 48 hours after wound creation. The surgical wounds of CG rats closed on average 14.75 days after creation and DG rats had wounds closed within 22 days; whereas, the surgical wounds of MSCDG rats were closed in 14 days. MSC infusion in dexamethasone-immunosuppressed patients contributed positively to epithelial healing in less time.

  5. Effect of apricot tree resin hydroethanolic extract on skin wound healing in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Javadabadi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background : Impairment of wound healing in chronic diseases is a therapeutic challenge. In terms of anti-inflammatory and regenerative effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of apricot gum tree this extract used on skin wound healing in rats. Materials and Methods: 28 Wistar male rats were divided into four groups: group I, normal without surgery, group II, control group without treatment, group III, a wound treatment with Vaseline, and group I˅, wound care therapy apricot tree resin extract. In the treated and placebo groups after anesthesia applied induction circular wound area of 280 square millimeters behind rats, but treated groups continued treatment for 21 days. Daily treatment was done with hydro-alcoholic extract of apricot tree gum. Wound size is measured every day by analyzing digital images for 21 days and then rats killed and samples were fixed in formalin. Slices were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Tissue sections were studied qualitatively and quantitatively, to check regeneration of cells, the collagen fibers, angiogenesis, and distribution of inflammatory cells. Normal data analyzed using Tukey test and data with non-normal distribution were compared between groups by Mann-Whitney test. Results: Use of apricot tree resin, reduces the blood vessels from the second week onwards, reduction of inflammatory cells and increased collagen fibers and tissue epithelialization. Conclusion: Apricot tree resin extract can promote wound healing faster made substantial improvements.

  6. Expression and function of connexin 43 in human gingival wound healing and fibroblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Tarzemany

    Full Text Available Connexins (C×s are a family of transmembrane proteins that form hemichannels and gap junctions (GJs on the cell membranes, and transfer small signaling molecules between the cytoplasm and extracellular space and between connecting cells, respectively. Among C×s, suppressing C×43 expression or function promotes skin wound closure and granulation tissue formation, and may alleviate scarring, but the mechanisms are not well understood. Oral mucosal gingiva is characterized by faster wound closure and scarless wound healing outcome as compared to skin wounds. Therefore, we hypothesized that C×43 function is down regulated during human gingival wound healing, which in fibroblasts promotes expression of genes conducive for fast and scarless wound healing. Cultured gingival fibroblasts expressed C×43 as their major connexin. Immunostaining of unwounded human gingiva showed that C×43 was abundantly present in the epithelium, and in connective tissue formed large C×43 plaques in fibroblasts. At the early stages of wound healing, C×43 was strongly down regulated in wound epithelial cells and fibroblasts, returning to the level of normal tissue by day 60 post-wounding. Blocking of C×43 function by C×43 mimetic peptide Gap27 suppressed GJ-mediated dye transfer, promoted migration, and caused significant changes in the expression of wound healing-associated genes in gingival fibroblasts. In particular, out of 54 genes analyzed, several MMPs and TGF-β1, involved in regulation of inflammation and extracellular matrix (ECM turnover, and VEGF-A, involved in angiogenesis, were significantly upregulated while pro-fibrotic ECM molecules, including Collagen type I, and cell contractility-related molecules were significantly down regulated. These responses involved MAPK, GSK3α/β and TGF-β signaling pathways, and AP1 and SP1 transcription factors. Thus, suppressed function of C×43 in fibroblasts promotes their migration, and regulates expression of

  7. Human papillomaviruses and skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smola, Sigrun

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) infect squamous epithelia and can induce hyperproliferative lesions. More than 120 different HPV types have been characterized and classified into five different genera. While mucosal high-risk HPVs have a well-established causal role in anogenital carcinogenesis, the biology of cutaneous HPVs is less well understood. The clinical relevance of genus beta-PV infection has clearly been demonstrated in patients suffering from epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV), a rare inherited disease associated with ahigh rate of skin cancer. In the normal population genus beta-PV are suspected to have an etiologic role in skin carcinogenesis as well but this is still controversially discussed. Their oncogenic potency has been investigated in mouse models and in vitro. In 2009, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified the genus beta HPV types 5 and 8 as "possible carcinogenic" biological agents (group 2B) in EV disease. This chapter will give an overview on the knowns and unknowns of infections with genus beta-PV and discuss their potential impact on skin carcinogenesis in the general population.

  8. A Quantitative Analysis of Microcirculation in Skin Defects Covered with Topical Wound Dressings or a Newly Developed Collagen Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Manuel; Medved, Fabian; Petersen, Wiebke; Tolzmann, Dascha Sophie; Rahmanian-Schwarz, Afshin; Schaller, Hans-Eberhard; Rothenberger, Jens

    2017-11-01

    Innovative skin substitutes and temporary wound dressings are frequently used in the treatment of superficial and partial-thickness wounds. The aim of this study was to compare 2 commonly used temporary skin dressings with a newly developed collagen matrix to determine changes in microcirculation as measured by blood flow, hemoglobin oxygenation, and relative hemoglobin values during healing of partial-thickness skin defects. This animal study involved 28 adult male Lewis rats. On the back of each rat, 2 standardized partial-thickness skin defects were generated through a skin dermatome (n = 56). Then, wounds were treated with polylactide-based copolymer skin substitute (Suprathel, PolyMedics, Denkendorf, Germany; n = 14), biosynthetic skin dressing (Biobrane, Smith & Nephew, Hamburg, Germany; n = 14), or Collagen Cell Carrier (CCC; Naturin Viscofan, Weinheim, Germany; n = 14). The remaining control wounds were left untreated (n = 14). Perfusion dynamics were assessed every 10 days for 80 days with the O2C device (LEA Medizintechnik, Gieβen, Germany) to determine blood flow, hemoglobin oxygenation, and relative amount of hemoglobin. Blood flow was increased in all wounds for at least 30 days after wound generation. The relative amounts of hemoglobin were increased in superficial layers (2 mm) for 10 to 20 days. Hemoglobin oxygenation in the superficial layers decreased in the polylactide-based copolymer skin substitute and biosynthetic skin dressing-treated groups and initially increased in the untreated wounds and CCC groups on day 10; these values also decreased. The presented results demonstrate the complex changes in microcirculation in the course of healing partial-thickness wounds with different wound dressings and contribute to a better understanding of these wounds. However, based on the results of the study, a clear recommendation for a specific substitute is not yet possible.

  9. Topical haemostatic agents for skin wounds: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.D. Groenewold (Marieke); A.J. Gribnau (Astrid); D.T. Ubbink (Dirk)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Various agents and techniques have been introduced to limit intra-operative blood loss from skin lesions. No uniformity regarding the type of haemostasis exists and this is generally based on the surgeon's preference. To study the effectiveness of haemostatic agents,

  10. [The experimental study of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on the repair of skin wound combined with local radiation injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Guoping; Su, Yongping; Yan, Guohe; Wang, Meng; Liu, Xiaohong; Xu, Hui; Cheng, Tianmin

    2002-12-10

    To explore the effects of swine bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) on the repair of skin wound combined local irradiation injury and theirs mechanism. MSC were isolated from the adult swine bone marrow and autologous MSC were directly transplanted into the local site full thickness skin incision round wounds combined with 20 Gy irradiation. By means of laser confocal microscopy, quantitative collagen measurement, ELSIA, fibroblasts scrap test, RT-PCR technology and so on in order to observe the effects of MSC promote the repair of wound and theirs mechanism. Transplanted autologous MSC into local skin wound combined with 20 Gy irradiation could accelerate the speed of wound healing, the healing time moved up 3 - 4 days. The granule tissues were abundant in the wounds and the content of collagen was increased in MSC groups. On one hand, MSC attracted the inflammatory cells and repaired cells to immigrate into wounds by themselves or secretion of IL-6, IL-8 and G-CSF and thus initiated the repairing processes. On the other hand, the wound microenviroment induced the proliferation and changes of I collagen mRNA expression of MSC showed that MSC could secrete extracellular matrix or differentiate into fibroblast. Local transplanted MSC promoted the repair of skin wounds combined with irradiation injury. The promotion effects were achieved by the interaction between MSC and wound microenviroment.

  11. Topically Applied Connective Tissue Growth Factor/CCN2 Improves Diabetic Preclinical Cutaneous Wound Healing: Potential Role for CTGF in Human Diabetic Foot Ulcer Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. R. Henshaw

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims/Hypothesis. Topical application of CTGF/CCN2 to rodent diabetic and control wounds was examined. In parallel research, correlation of CTGF wound fluid levels with healing rate in human diabetic foot ulcers was undertaken. Methods. Full thickness cutaneous wounds in diabetic and nondiabetic control rats were treated topically with 1 μg rhCTGF or vehicle alone, on 2 consecutive days. Wound healing rate was observed on day 14 and wound sites were examined for breaking strength and granulation tissue. In the human study across 32 subjects, serial CTGF regulation was analyzed longitudinally in postdebridement diabetic wound fluid. Results. CTGF treated diabetic wounds had an accelerated closure rate compared with vehicle treated diabetic wounds. Healed skin withstood more strain before breaking in CTGF treated rat wounds. Granulation tissue from CTGF treatment in diabetic wounds showed collagen IV accumulation compared with nondiabetic animals. Wound α-smooth muscle actin was increased in CTGF treated diabetic wounds compared with untreated diabetic wounds, as was macrophage infiltration. Endogenous wound fluid CTGF protein rate of increase in human diabetic foot ulcers correlated positively with foot ulcer healing rate (r=0.406; P<0.001. Conclusions/Interpretation. These data collectively increasingly substantiate a functional role for CTGF in human diabetic foot ulcers.

  12. Chitosan dermal substitute and chitosan skin substitute contribute to accelerated full-thickness wound healing in irradiated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Hilmi, Abu Bakar; Halim, Ahmad Sukari; Jaafar, Hasnan; Asiah, Abu Bakar; Hassan, Asma

    2013-01-01

    Wounds with full-thickness skin loss are commonly managed by skin grafting. In the absence of a graft, reepithelialization is imperfect and leads to increased scar formation. Biomaterials can alter wound healing so that it produces more regenerative tissue and fewer scars. This current study use the new chitosan based biomaterial in full-thickness wound with impaired healing on rat model. Wounds were evaluated after being treated with a chitosan dermal substitute, a chitosan skin substitute, or duoderm CGF. Wounds treated with the chitosan skin substitute showed the most re-epithelialization (33.2 ± 2.8%), longest epithelial tongue (1.62 ± 0.13 mm), and shortest migratory tongue distance (7.11 ± 0.25 mm). The scar size of wounds treated with the chitosan dermal substitute (0.13 ± 0.02 cm) and chitosan skin substitute (0.16 ± 0.05 cm) were significantly decreased (P substitute and chitosan skin substitute are suitable for wound healing in full-thickness wounds that are impaired due to radiation.

  13. Regenerative Skin Wound Healing in Mammals: State-of-the-Art on Growth Factor and Stem Cell Based Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bizunesh M. Borena

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mammal skin has a crucial function in several life-preserving processes such as hydration, protection against chemicals and pathogens, initialization of vitamin D synthesis, excretion and heat regulation. Severe damage of the skin may therefore be life-threatening. Skin wound repair is a multiphased, yet well-orchestrated process including the interaction of various cell types, growth factors and cytokines aiming at closure of the skin and preferably resulting in tissue repair. Regardless various therapeutic modalities targeting at enhancing wound healing, the development of novel approaches for this pathology remains a clinical challenge. The time-consuming conservative wound management is mainly restricted to wound repair rather than restitution of the tissue integrity (the so-called “restitutio ad integrum”. Therefore, there is a continued search towards more efficacious wound therapies to reduce health care burden, provide patients with long-term relief and ultimately scarless wound healing. Recent in vivo and in vitro studies on the use of skin wound regenerative therapies provide encouraging results, but more protracted studies will have to determine whether the effect of observed effects are clinically significant and whether regeneration rather than repair can be achieved. For all the aforementioned reasons, this article reviews the emerging field of regenerative skin wound healing in mammals with particular emphasis on growth factor- and stem cell-based therapies.

  14. Regenerative Skin Wound Healing in Mammals: State-of-the-Art on Growth Factor and Stem Cell Based Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borena, Bizunesh M; Martens, Ann; Broeckx, Sarah Y; Meyer, Evelyne; Chiers, Koen; Duchateau, Luc; Spaas, Jan H

    2015-01-01

    Mammal skin has a crucial function in several life-preserving processes such as hydration, protection against chemicals and pathogens, initialization of vitamin D synthesis, excretion and heat regulation. Severe damage of the skin may therefore be life-threatening. Skin wound repair is a multiphased, yet well-orchestrated process including the interaction of various cell types, growth factors and cytokines aiming at closure of the skin and preferably resulting in tissue repair. Regardless various therapeutic modalities targeting at enhancing wound healing, the development of novel approaches for this pathology remains a clinical challenge. The time-consuming conservative wound management is mainly restricted to wound repair rather than restitution of the tissue integrity (the so-called "restitutio ad integrum"). Therefore, there is a continued search towards more efficacious wound therapies to reduce health care burden, provide patients with long-term relief and ultimately scarless wound healing. Recent in vivo and in vitro studies on the use of skin wound regenerative therapies provide encouraging results, but more protracted studies will have to determine whether the effect of observed effects are clinically significant and whether regeneration rather than repair can be achieved. For all the aforementioned reasons, this article reviews the emerging field of regenerative skin wound healing in mammals with particular emphasis on growth factor- and stem cell-based therapies.

  15. Cooperative Regulation of Substrate Stiffness and Extracellular Matrix Proteins in Skin Wound Healing of Axolotls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Yu Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Urodele amphibians (Ambystoma mexicanum, unique among vertebrates, can regenerate appendages and other body parts entirely and functionally through a scar-free healing process. The wound epithelium covering the amputated or damaged site forms early and is essential for initiating the subsequent regenerative steps. However, the molecular mechanism through which the wound reepithelializes during regeneration remains unclear. In this study, we developed an in vitro culture system that mimics an in vivo wound healing process; the biomechanical properties in the system were precisely defined and manipulated. Skin explants that were cultured on 2 to 50 kPa collagen-coated substrates rapidly reepithelialized within 10 to 15 h; however, in harder (1 GPa and other extracellular matrices (tenascin-, fibronectin-, and laminin-coated environments, the wound epithelium moved slowly. Furthermore, the reepithelialization rate of skin explants from metamorphic axolotls cultured on a polystyrene plate (1 GPa increased substantially. These findings afford new insights and can facilitate investigating wound epithelium formation during early regeneration using biochemical and mechanical techniques.

  16. "Healing Effect of Topical Nifedipine on Skin Wounds of Diabetic Rats "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Ebadi

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Non-healing foot ulcers in patients with diabetes are the leading causes of complications such as infection and amputation. Ulceration is the most common single precursor to amputation and has been identified as a causative factor in 85% of lower extremity amputations. It seems that poor outcomes are generally associated with infection, peripheral vascular disease and wounds of increasing depth. Nifedipine, a calcium channel blocker that is mainly used for the treatment of cardiovascular disorders has recently been used to treat wounds caused by peripheral vascular disorders. In present study topical Nifedipine 3% has been used to treat skin wounds in normal and diabetic rats. Effects of Nifedipine were evaluated in three different phases of wound healing process. In both experiments (normal and diabetic rats topical Nifedipine significantly improved inflammatory phase. However, maturation phase was only significantly improved in diabetic rats. Nifedipine did not affect proliferation phase in either group significantly. Overall results of this study showed topical Nifedipine improved skin wound healing process in normal and diabetic rats.

  17. Marine Collagen Peptides from the Skin of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus): Characterization and Wound Healing Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhang; Yang, Ping; Zhou, Chunxia; Li, Sidong; Hong, Pengzhi

    2017-03-30

    Burns can cause tremendous economic problems associated with irreparable harm to patients and their families. To characterize marine collagen peptides (MCPs) from the skin of Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus ), molecular weight distribution and amino acid composition of MCPs were determined, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to analyze the chemical structure. Meanwhile, to evaluate the wound healing activity, in vitro and in vivo experiments were carried out. The results showed that MCPs prepared from the skin of Nile tilapia by composite enzymatic hydrolysis were composed of polypeptides with different molecular weights and the contents of polypeptides with molecular weights of less than 5 kDa accounted for 99.14%. From the amino acid composition, the majority of residues, accounting for over 58% of the total residues in MCPs, were hydrophilic. FTIR indicated that the main molecular conformations inside MCPs were random coil. In vitro scratch assay showed that there were significant effects on the scratch closure by the treatment of MCPs with the concentration of 50.0 μg/mL. In the experiments of deep partial-thickness scald wound in rabbits, MCPs could enhance the process of wound healing. Therefore, MCPs from the skin of Nile tilapia ( O. niloticus ) have promising applications in wound care.

  18. In vivo human skin autofluorescence: color perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utz, Sergei R.; Knuschke, Peter; Mavlyutov, Albert H.; Pilipenko, Helena A.; Sinichkin, Yurii P.

    1996-12-01

    The most frequently used techniques in the human skin diagnostics are reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy. Technique of chromametry is based on color perception of the reflected from the skin white light. In CIE1976 (L*a*b*) color space the quantity estimation of color-difference between different states of the human skin have been defined by changes in parameters of brightness, hue and chroma of reflected light. This report focuses on the use of the perception of the color difference between autofluorescence of the human skin under different conditions for the purpose of skin diagnostics.

  19. Human reconstructed skin xenografts on mice to model skin physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, Giorgiana; Ng, Yi Zhen; Koh, Li Fang; Goh, Christabelle S M; Common, John E

    Xenograft models to study skin physiology have been popular for scientific use since the 1970s, with various developments and improvements to the techniques over the decades. Xenograft models are particularly useful and sought after due to the lack of clinically relevant animal models in predicting drug effectiveness in humans. Such predictions could in turn boost the process of drug discovery, since novel drug compounds have an estimated 8% chance of FDA approval despite years of rigorous preclinical testing and evaluation, albeit mostly in non-human models. In the case of skin research, the mouse persists as the most popular animal model of choice, despite its well-known anatomical differences with human skin. Differences in skin biology are especially evident when trying to dissect more complex skin conditions, such as psoriasis and eczema, where interactions between the immune system, epidermis and the environment likely occur. While the use of animal models are still considered the gold standard for systemic toxicity studies under controlled environments, there are now alternative models that have been approved for certain applications. To overcome the biological limitations of the mouse model, research efforts have also focused on "humanizing" the mice model to better recapitulate human skin physiology. In this review, we outline the different approaches undertaken thus far to study skin biology using human tissue xenografts in mice and the technical challenges involved. We also describe more recent developments to generate humanized multi-tissue compartment mice that carry both a functioning human immune system and skin xenografts. Such composite animal models provide promising opportunities to study drugs, disease and differentiation with greater clinical relevance. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Differentiation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Single-Stage Bipedicle Local Tissue Transfer and Skin Graft for Achilles Tendon Surgery Wound Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Travis J; Avashia, Yash; Mithani, Suhail K; Matson, Andrew P; Lampley, Alexander J; Adams, Samuel B

    2017-02-01

    Achilles tendon and posterior heel wound complications are difficult to treat. These typically require soft tissue coverage via microvascular free tissue transfer at a tertiary referral center. Here, we describe coverage of a series of posterior heel and Achilles wounds via simple, local tissue transfer, called a bipedicle fasciocutaneous flap. This flap can be performed by an orthopaedic foot and ankle surgeon, without resources of tertiary/specialized care or microvascular support. Three patients with separate pathologies were treated with a single-stage bipedicle fasciocutaneous local tissue transfer. Case 1 was a patient with insertional wound breakdown after Achilles debridement and repair to the calcaneus. Case 2 was a heel venous stasis ulcer with calcaneal exposure in a diabetic patient with vasculopathy. Case 3 was a patient with wound breakdown following midsubstance Achilles tendon repair. All three cases were treated with a single-stage bipedicle local tissue transfer for posterior ankle and heel wound complications. All 3 patients demonstrated complete healing of the posterior defect, lateral ankle skin graft recipient site, and the skin graft donor site after surgery. Case 3 had a subsequent recurrent ulceration after initial healing. This was superficial and healed with local wound care. All patients regained full preoperative range of motion and were able to ambulate independently without modified footwear. The bipedicled fasciocutaneous flap described here offers a predictable single stage procedure that can be accomplished by an orthopaedic foot and ankle surgeon without resources of a tertiary care center for posterior foot and ankle defects. This flap can be performed with short operative times and can be customized to facilitate defect coverage. The flap is durable to withstand local tissue stresses required for early ambulation. Despite its reliability, patients require careful follow-up to manage underlying comorbid conditions that may

  1. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SKIN STAPLERS WITH SKIN SUTURES IN ABDOMINAL SKIN WOUND CLOSURE IN GASTROINTESTINAL MALIGNANCY – AN INSTITUTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafeesa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES The objectives of this study were to compare the two techniques, skin staplers and conventional sutures in abdominal skin wound closure with respect to the total cost, operative time required, incidence of wound infection, postoperative pain and cosmetic outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was conducted on 100 patients undergoing elective surgery for GI malignancies from December 2013 to May 2015 in the Department of General Surgery, Government Medical College, Kozhikode. The patients were randomly assigned to closure by suture or staple. RESULT The study groups included 50 patients who underwent wound closure by staplers and 50 patients who underwent closure by non-absorbable ethilon sutures. The time taken for wound closure was found to be statistically significant, with staplers requiring five times less duration than conventional sutures. The average cost of using stapler was found to be significantly more expensive than suture. There was no significant difference in post-operative pain between the two groups. The incidence of wound infection was more in stapler group than in suture group although statistically non-significant. The cosmetic outcome with stapler closure was found to be significantly superior to that with sutures.

  2. Oral administration of antioxidants improves skin wound healing in diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa, Ana Flávia Marçal; Florim, Juliana Costa; Rodrigues, Hosana Gomes; Andrade-Oliveira, Vinicius; Teixeira, Simone A; Vitzel, Kaio Fernando; Curi, Rui; Saraiva Câmara, Niels Olsen; Muscará, Marcelo N; Lamers, Marcelo Lazzaron; Santos, Marinilce Fagundes

    2016-11-01

    Oxidative stress aggravates several long-term complications in diabetes mellitus. We evaluated the effectiveness of the oral administration of antioxidants (vitamins E and C, 40 and 100 mg/kg b.w., respectively) on skin wound healing acceleration in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Mice were wounded 30 days after the induction of diabetes. Antioxidants were effective in preventing oxidative stress, as assessed by TBARS. The enzymes catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase were increased in diabetics on the 3rd day post-wounding; catalase and glutathione peroxidase remained still augmented in diabetics after 14th day postwounding, and the treatment with vitamins restored their activities to control. After 3 days, diabetic mice showed lower infiltration of inflammatory cells (including CD11b + and Ly6G + cells) and reduced levels of KC, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-12 p40 when compared with control mice. The treatment restored cytokine levels. After 14 days, diabetic mice showed late wound closure, persistent inflammation and delayed reepithelialization, accompanied by an increase in MIG + /CD206 - macrophages whereas CD206 + /MIG - macrophages were decreased. Cytokines IL-12p40, TNF-α, IL-1β, and KC were increased and normal levels were restored after treatment with antioxidants. These results suggest that oxidative stress plays a major role in diabetic wound healing impairment and the oral administration of antioxidants improves healing by modulating inflammation and the antioxidant system with no effect on glycemia. © 2016 by the Wound Healing Society.

  3. Life on human surfaces: skin metagenomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alban Mathieu

    Full Text Available The human skin microbiome could provide another example, after the gut, of the strong positive or negative impact that human colonizing bacteria can have on health. Deciphering functional diversity and dynamics within human skin microbial communities is critical for understanding their involvement and for developing the appropriate substances for improving or correcting their action. We present a direct PCR-free high throughput sequencing approach to unravel the human skin microbiota specificities through metagenomic dataset analysis and inter-environmental comparison. The approach provided access to the functions carried out by dominant skin colonizing taxa, including Corynebacterium, Staphylococcus and Propionibacterium, revealing their specific capabilities to interact with and exploit compounds from the human skin. These functions, which clearly illustrate the unique life style of the skin microbial communities, stand as invaluable investigation targets for understanding and potentially modifying bacterial interactions with the human host with the objective of increasing health and well being.

  4. Immunoarchitectural characterization of a human skin model reconstructed in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Ricardo Martinhão Souto

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Over the last few years, different models for human skin equivalent reconstructed in vitro (HSERIV have been reported for clinical usage and applications in research for the pharmaceutical industry. Before release for routine use as human skin replacements, HSERIV models need to be tested regarding their similarity with in vivo skin, using morphological (architectural and immunohistochemical (functional analyses. A model for HSERIV has been developed in our hospital, and our aim here was to further characterize its immunoarchitectural features by comparing them with human skin, before it can be tested for clinical use, e.g. for severe burns or wounds, whenever ancillary methods are not indicated. DESIGN AND SETTING: Experimental laboratory study, in the Skin Cell Culture Laboratory, School of Medical Sciences, Universidade Estadual de Campinas. METHODS: Histological sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, Masson's trichrome for collagen fibers, periodic acid-Schiff reagent for basement membrane and glycogen, Weigert-Van Gieson for elastic fibers and Fontana-Masson for melanocytes. Immunohistochemistry was used to localize cytokeratins (broad spectrum of molecular weight, AE1/AE3, high molecular weight cytokeratins (34βE12, low molecular weight cytokeratins (35βH11, cytokeratins 7 and 20, vimentin, S-100 protein (for melanocytic and dendritic cells, CD68 (KP1, histiocytes and CD34 (QBend, endothelium. RESULTS: Histology revealed satisfactory similarity between HSERIV and in vivo skin. Immunohistochemical analysis on HSERIV demonstrated that the marker pattern was similar to what is generally present in human skin in vivo. CONCLUSION: HSERIV is morphologically and functionally compatible with human skin observed in vivo.

  5. In vivo evaluation of wound bed reaction and graft performance after cold skin graft storage: new targets for skin tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapik, Alicia; Kornmann, Kai; Kerl, Katrin; Calcagni, Maurizio; Schmidt, Christian A; Vollmar, Brigitte; Giovanoli, Pietro; Lindenblatt, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Surplus harvested skin grafts are routinely stored at 4 to 6°C in saline for several days in plastic surgery. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of storage on human skin graft performance in an in vivo intravital microscopic setting after transplantation. Freshly harvested human full-thickness skin grafts and split-thickness skin grafts (STSGs) after storage of 0, 3, or 7 days in moist saline at 4 to 6°C were transplanted into the modified dorsal skinfold chamber, and intravital microscopy was performed to evaluate vessel morphology and angiogenic change of the wound bed. The chamber tissue was harvested 10 days after transplantation for evaluation of tissue integrity and inflammation (hematoxylin and eosin) as well as for immunohistochemistry (human CD31, murine CD31, Ki67, Tdt-mediated dUTP-biotin nick-end labelling). Intravital microscopy results showed no differences in the host angiogenic response between fresh and preserved grafts. However, STSGs and full-thickness skin grafts exhibited a trend toward different timing and strength in capillary widening and capillary bud formation. Preservation had no influence on graft quality before transplantation, but fresh STSGs showed better quality 10 days after transplantation than 7-day preserved grafts. Proliferation and apoptosis as well as host capillary in-growth and graft capillary degeneration were equal in all groups. These results indicate that cells may activate protective mechanisms under cold conditions, allowing them to maintain function and morphology. However, rewarming may disclose underlying tissue damage. These findings could be translated to a new approach for the design of full-thickness skin substitutes.

  6. The alpha3 laminin subunit, alpha6beta4 and alpha3beta1 integrin coordinately regulate wound healing in cultured epithelial cells and in the skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldfinger, L E; Hopkinson, S B; deHart, G W

    1999-01-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that proteolytic processing within the globular domain of the alpha3 subunit of laminin-5 (LN5) converts LN5 from a cell motility-inducing factor to a protein complex that can trigger the formation of hemidesmosomes, certain cell-matrix attachment sites found in epithe......-inhibiting antibodies, we provide evidence that LN5 and its two integrin receptors (alpha6beta4 and alpha3beta1) appear necessary for wound healing to occur in MCF-10A cell culture wounds. We propose a model for healing of wounded epithelial tissues based on these results....... in epithelial cells. We have prepared a monoclonal antibody (12C4) whose epitope is located toward the carboxy terminus of the globular domain of the alpha3 laminin subunit. This epitope is lost from the alpha3 subunit as a consequence of proteolytic processing. Antibody 12C4 stains throughout the matrix...... the wound site. A similar phenomenon is observed in human skin wounds, since we also detect expression of the unprocessed alpha3 laminin subunit at the leading tip of the sheet of epidermal cells that epithelializes skin wounds in vivo. In addition, using alpha3 laminin subunit and integrin function...

  7. Skin appendage-derived stem cells: cell biology and potential for wound repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jiangfan; Yao, Bin; Han, Yutong; Huang, Sha; Fu, Xiaobing

    2016-01-01

    Stem cells residing in the epidermis and skin appendages are imperative for skin homeostasis and regeneration. These stem cells also participate in the repair of the epidermis after injuries, inducing restoration of tissue integrity and function of damaged tissue. Unlike epidermis-derived stem cells, comprehensive knowledge about skin appendage-derived stem cells remains limited. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of skin appendage-derived stem cells, including their fundamental characteristics, their preferentially expressed biomarkers, and their potential contribution involved in wound repair. Finally, we will also discuss current strategies, future applications, and limitations of these stem cells, attempting to provide some perspectives on optimizing the available therapy in cutaneous repair and regeneration.

  8. Human umbilical mesenchymal stem cells conditioned medium promote primary wound healing regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Dwi Liliek Kusindarta3; Hevi Wihadmadyatami; Yuda Heru Fibrianto; Widagdo Sri Nugroho; Heru Susetya; Dewi Kania Musana; Hery Wijayanto; Surya Agus Prihatna; Wahyuni, A. E. T. H.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This research was conducted to clarify the capability of human umbilical mesenchymal stem cells conditioned medium (HU-MSCM) to promote regenerations of primary wound healing on the incision skin injury. Materials and Methods: In this study, two approaches in vitro and in vivo already done. On in vitro analysis, tube formation was performed using HU vein endothelial cells in the presence of HU-MSCM, in some experiments cells line was incubated prior the presence of lipopolysaccharide ...

  9. Use of vacuum-assisted closure for management of a large skin wound in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guille, April E; Tseng, Laura W; Orsher, Robert J

    2007-06-01

    A 9-month-old domestic shorthair cat was evaluated after being struck by a car. The cat had a fractured tibia and avulsion of the tail base. Motor and deep pain sensation were absent from the tail. The fractured tibia was repaired 2 days after the trauma. On the third day, the cat developed tachypnea, dyspnea, high serum urea nitrogen and total bilirubin concentrations, epistaxis, persistent hypotension, and oliguria. The cat recovered with supportive care but developed extensive necrosis of the skin on the dorsum by 9 days after the initial trauma. The skin was debrided from the caudal portion of the scapula to the anus and down each pelvic limb to the level of the distal portion of the femur. The tail was amputated. Wet-to-dry bandages were applied to the wound for 3 days. Approximately 50% of the wound underwent delayed primary closure, and the remainder was managed with vacuum-assisted closure. A healthy granulation bed was quickly established. Vacuum-assisted closure was also applied after graft application. Graft acceptance was 100%, and use of the vacuum-assisted closure bandage was not associated with the complications associated with the traditional bandage. Vacuum-assisted closure is a useful, easily applicable technique for open and grafted wounds, even when wounds are in challenging anatomic locations.

  10. Tap Water has No Influence on Microbial Colonization of Skin Wounds in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende, Margarida; Hochman, Bernardo; Gragnani, Alfredo; Viega, Daniela F; Damasceno, Carlos; Juliano, Yara; Ferreira, Lydie

    2012-09-01

     The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of tap water on microbial colonization of skin wounds in rats. A cir- cular wound 2.4 cm in diameter was created on the back of 40 Wistar rats, which were randomly assigned to the control (n = 20) or study (n = 20) group. The wounds were cleansed daily using a sterile 0.9% sodium chloride solution (control group) or tap water (study group) for 6 days, following a standardized protocol. Sequential samples were collected for microbiological analysis every other day. Microbial growth occurred in 49% of the samples from the control group and in 47% of the samples from the study group (P = 0.39). There was no significant difference in microbial growth between groups for the different culture media: thioglycolate (P = 0.20), mannitol salt agar (P = 0.53), blood agar (P = 0.61), eosin methylene blue agar (P = 0.51), and Sabouraud agar (P = 0.34). The following microorganisms were identified: Bacil- lus subtilis, Staphylococcus sp, Aureobasidium sp, Penicillium sp, and Cladosporium sp. The use of tap water for cleansing skin wounds in rats had no effect on microbial colonization compared with the use of a sterile saline solution. .

  11. Effects of Fibroin Microcarriers on Inflammation and Regeneration of Deep Skin Wounds in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipova, A Y; Nosenko, M A; Malyuchenko, N V; Zvartsev, R V; Moisenovich, A M; Zhdanova, A S; Vasil'eva, T V; Gorshkova, E A; Agapov, I I; Drutskaya, M S; Nedospasov, S A; Moisenovich, M M

    2016-11-01

    The process of tissue regeneration following damage takes place with direct participation of the immune system. The use of biomaterials as scaffolds to facilitate healing of skin wounds is a new and interesting area of regenerative medicine and biomedical research. In many ways, the regenerative potential of biological material is related to its ability to modulate the inflammatory response. At the same time, all foreign materials, once implanted into a living tissue, to varying degree cause an immune reaction. The modern approach to the development of bioengineered structures for applications in regenerative medicine should be directed toward using the properties of the inflammatory response that improve healing, but do not lead to negative chronic manifestations. In this work, we studied the effect of microcarriers comprised of either fibroin or fibroin supplemented with gelatin on the dynamics of the healing, as well as inflammation, during regeneration of deep skin wounds in mice. We found that subcutaneous administration of microcarriers to the wound area resulted in uniform contraction of the wounds in mice in our experimental model, and microcarrier particles induced the infiltration of immune cells. This was associated with increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines TNF, IL-6, IL-1β, and chemokines CXCL1 and CXCL2, which contributed to full functional recovery of the injured area and the absence of fibrosis as compared to the control group.

  12. Marine Collagen Peptides from the Skin of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus): Characterization and Wound Healing Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Zhang; Yang, Ping; Zhou, Chunxia; Li, Sidong; Hong, Pengzhi

    2017-01-01

    Burns can cause tremendous economic problems associated with irreparable harm to patients and their families. To characterize marine collagen peptides (MCPs) from the skin of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), molecular weight distribution and amino acid composition of MCPs were determined, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to analyze the chemical structure. Meanwhile, to evaluate the wound healing activity, in vitro and in vivo experiments were carried out. The r...

  13. Oil Body-Bound Oleosin-rhFGF-10: A Novel Drug Delivery System that Improves Skin Penetration to Accelerate Wound Healing and Hair Growth in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenqing; Yang, Jing; Cai, Jingbo; Wang, Hongyu; Tian, Haishan; Huang, Jian; Qiang, Weidong; Zhang, Linbo; Li, Haiyan; Li, Xiaokun; Jiang, Chao

    2017-10-18

    Recombinant human fibroblast growth factor 10 (rhFGF-10) is frequently used to treat patients with skin injuries. It can also promote hair growth. However, the effective application of rhFGF-10 is limited because of its poor stability and transdermal absorption. In this study, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blotting were used to identify transgenic safflowers carrying a gene encoding an oleosin-rhFGF-10 fusion protein. The size and structural integrity of oleosin-rhFGF-10 in oil bodies extracted from transgenic safflower seeds was characterized by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and western blotting. Oil body extracts containing oleosin-rhFGF-10 were topically applied to mouse skin. The absorption of oleosin-rhFGF-10 was studied by immunohistochemistry. Its efficiency in promoting wound healing and hair regeneration were evaluated in full thickness wounds and hair growth assays. We identified a safflower line that carried the transgene and expressed a 45 kDa oleosin-rhFGF-10 protein. Oil body-bound oleosin-rhFGF-10 was absorbed by the skin with higher efficiency and speed compared with prokaryotically-expressed rhFGF-10. Oleosin-rhFGF-10 also enhanced wound closure and promoted hair growth better than rhFGF-10. The application of oleosin-rhFGF-10 in oil bodies promoted its delivery through the skin, providing a basis for improved therapeutic effects in enhancing wound healing and hair growth.

  14. How to reduce hospital-acquired pressure ulcers on a neuroscience unit with a skin and wound assessment team

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McGuinness, Janice; Persaud-Roberts, Sherry; Marra, Susan; Ramos, Jeannine; Toscano, Diane; Policastro, Linda; Epstein, Nancy E

    2012-01-01

    ...) specialty beds, and (3) a "skin and wound assessment team (SWAT)" that included one (or two) "expert" nurses/nursing assistants who made rounds on all the patients in the unit at least once a week...

  15. Locomotion of human skin keratinocytes on polystyrene, fibrin, and collagen substrata and its modification by cell-to-cell contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drukała, J; Bandura, L; Cieślik, K; Korohoda, W

    2001-01-01

    Epithelial wound repair assures the recovery of the epithelial barrier after wounding. During wound healing epithelial cells migrate to cover the wound surface. The presented experiments were carried out to compare the migration of human keratinocytes from primary and secondary culture on polystyrene, collagen, and fibrin glue used in clinical techniques. The images of migrating keratinocytes were recorded and analyzed using computer-aided methods. The results show that the character of the substrate strongly affects the speed and turning behavior of keratinocytes locomoting over it. The highest motile activity of human skin keratinocytes was found on fibrin glue substratum. It was found that locomotion of freely moving isolated cells was much faster than that of cell sheets. The autologous keratinocytes cultured in vitro were applied with fibrin glue to cover trophic wounds. The transplantation of human autologous keratinocyte suspension in fibrin glue upon long-lasting trophic wounds appeared to induce rapid and permanent wound healing.

  16. Structure-activity analysis of histatin, a potent wound healing peptide from human saliva: cyclization of histatin potentiates molar activity 1000-fold

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudhoff, Menno J.; Kroeze, Kim L.; Nazmi, Kamran; van den Keijbus, Petra A. M.; van 't Hof, Wim; Fernandez-Borja, Mar; Hordijk, Peter L.; Gibbs, Susan; Bolscher, Jan G. M.; Veerman, Enno C. I.

    2009-01-01

    Wounds in the mouth heal faster and with less scarification and inflammation than those in the skin. Saliva is thought to be essential for the superior oral wound healing, but the involved mechanism is still unclear. We have previously discovered that a human-specific peptide, histatin, might be

  17. On the mathematical modeling of wound healing angiogenesis in skin as a reaction-transport process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegg, Jennifer A; Menon, Shakti N; Maini, Philip K; McElwain, D L Sean

    2015-01-01

    Over the last 30 years, numerous research groups have attempted to provide mathematical descriptions of the skin wound healing process. The development of theoretical models of the interlinked processes that underlie the healing mechanism has yielded considerable insight into aspects of this critical phenomenon that remain difficult to investigate empirically. In particular, the mathematical modeling of angiogenesis, i.e., capillary sprout growth, has offered new paradigms for the understanding of this highly complex and crucial step in the healing pathway. With the recent advances in imaging and cell tracking, the time is now ripe for an appraisal of the utility and importance of mathematical modeling in wound healing angiogenesis research. The purpose of this review is to pedagogically elucidate the conceptual principles that have underpinned the development of mathematical descriptions of wound healing angiogenesis, specifically those that have utilized a continuum reaction-transport framework, and highlight the contribution that such models have made toward the advancement of research in this field. We aim to draw attention to the common assumptions made when developing models of this nature, thereby bringing into focus the advantages and limitations of this approach. A deeper integration of mathematical modeling techniques into the practice of wound healing angiogenesis research promises new perspectives for advancing our knowledge in this area. To this end we detail several open problems related to the understanding of wound healing angiogenesis, and outline how these issues could be addressed through closer cross-disciplinary collaboration.

  18. A Comparison of Healing Effects of Propolis and Silver Sulfadiazine on Full Thickness Skin Wounds in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Moghtaday Khorasgani*, A. H. Karimi and M. R. Nazem

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Healing effects of propolis and silver sulfadiazine (SS on skin wounds in rats were compared using qualitative and quantitative parameters and histopathological findings. A total of 30 full thickness skin wounds were created on dorsal aspects of 10 rats; i.e., three wounds on each rat. Of these wounds, 10 each were allocated to group A (propolis, group B (SS and group C (control. The skin wounds in the rats of groups A, B and C were covered daily for 14 days with 50% propolis cream, SS skin cream and bepanthane cream (control, respectively. Postoperatively, the wound surfaces were examined macroscopically and the healing process and the rates of wound expansion, contraction and epithelialization processes were quantitatively analyzed. As a result, propolis was found in general to have a better wound healing effect than others. At the 10th day of experiment histopathologically, there was inflammatory reaction with infiltration of lymphocytes, macrophages and neutrophils and proliferation of fibroblastic loose connective tissue in dermis of rats of all groups. The severity of these changes was lower in propolis treated group compared to other two groups.

  19. Regeneration of Skin Surface by Multipotent Mesenchymal Stem Cells of Adipose Tissue in Laboratory Animals with Infected Wounds

    OpenAIRE

    Sahab, A. Haydar; S. Tretyak; Nedzved, M K; Baranov, E.V.; Nadyrov, E; Lobanok, H.H.; Vasilevich, I.B.; Welcome, M.O.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents results of experimental studies in laboratory animals with a simulated infected wound, for which mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from adipose tissue were used in its treatment. The following peculiarities of MSCs for regeneration of skin defects are established: faster arrest of inflammation, accelerated wound healing processes, as well as observed stimulation of growth of skin appendages. The results of this study may serve the basis for further research from develo...

  20. Neurogenic inflammation in human and rodent skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmelz, M; Petersen, Lars Jelstrup

    2001-01-01

    The combination of vasodilation and protein extravasation following activation of nociceptors has been termed "neurogenic inflammation." In contrast to rodents, no neurogenic protein extravasation can be elicited in healthy human skin. Dermal microdialysis has considerably increased our knowledge...... about neurogenic inflammation in human skin, including the involvement of mast cells....

  1. Influence of acidic pH on keratinocyte function and re-epithelialisation of human in vitro wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnqvist, Susanna; Emanuelsson, Peter; Kratz, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    Chronic wounds are one of the greatest challenges for the healthcare system. Today, a plethora of dressings are used in the treatment of these wounds, each with specific influence on the wound environment. Due to differences in the permeability of the dressings the use will result in differences in the pH balance in the wound bed. However, little is known about how changes in the pH in the wound environment affect the different phases of the healing process. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of acidic pH on the regeneration phase by studying keratinocyte function in vitro and re-epithelialisation in an in vitro model of human skin. In vitro assays showed reduced viability and migration rates in human keratinocytes when pH was lowered. Real time PCR revealed differential expression of genes related to wound healing and environmental impairment. Tissue culture showed no re-epithelialisation of wounds subjected to pH 5.0 and moderate re-epithelialisation at pH 6.0, compared to controls at pH 7.4. The results indicate that lowering pH down to pH 5.0 in wounds is counterproductive in aspect of keratinocyte function which is crucial for successful wound healing.

  2. ANALYSIS OF THE RESULTS OF APPLYING THE METHOD PLATELET-RICH PLASMA (PRP FOR THE TREATMENT OF PROBLEMATIC SKIN WOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsvetan Sokolov

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To show analysis of the results of applying the method platelet-rich plasma (PRP for the treatment of problematic skin wounds. The paper’s objective is to prove its reliability and relevance, to evaluate its efficiency and applicability to Bulgarian patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Out of a total of 154 hospitalized patients with problematic skin wounds 83 have been treated with platelet-rich plasma, comprising the Experimental group (EG, and 71 patients with similar wounds have been treated by using traditional methods for the respective pathology at the Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Vessel and Plastic Surgery Department, comprising the Control Group (CG. Data on the condition of monitored symptoms of researched cases was collected for the research. A variable is defined for every symptom and its value and weight is correspondingly introduced. Scores introduced by Cancela AM are used for the assessment of the respective wound. Each of these scores is used for assessing specific wound parameters: Total Wound Score (TWS; total anatomic score (TAS of wound and Total Score of Wound data (TSWD. RESULTS: Analysis of variance was performed to achieve the objectives and solve the research tasks; variables containing information on initial and final data from each series of experiments have been analyzed in order to determine basic numerical characteristics of variables, and by comparative analysis to check how they tend to vary in experimental (EG and control (CG group. Statistical survey shows that the platelet-rich plasma method gives significant results when treating problematic skin wounds leading to full recovery as compared to traditional methods typical for the pathology. The graphical interpretation allows to identify forecast relations between assessed aspects of problematic wounds and weeks of treatment. CONCLUSION: By analyzing the results of our study we can conclude that the use of platelet-rich plasma to treat

  3. Biostimulative effects of 809 nm diode laser on cutaneous skin wounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solmaz, Hakan; Gülsoy, Murat; Ülgen, Yekta

    2015-03-01

    The use of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) for therapeutic purposes in medicine has become widespread recently. There are many studies in literature supporting the idea of therapeutic effects of laser irradiation on biological tissues. The aim of this study is to investigate the biostimulative effect of 809nm infrared laser irradiation on the healing process of cutaneous incisional skin wounds. 3-4 months old male Wistar Albino rats weighing 300 to 350 gr were used throughout this study. Lowlevel laser therapy was applied through local irradiation of 809nm infrared laser on open skin incisional wounds of 1 cm length. Each animal had six identical incisions on their right and left dorsal region symmetrical to each other. The wounds were separated into three groups of control, 1 J/cm2 and 3 J/cm2 of laser irradiation. Two of these six wounds were kept as control group and did not receive any laser application. Rest of the incisions was irradiated with continuous diode laser of 809nm in wavelength and 20mW power output. Two of them were subjected to laser irradiation of 1 J/cm2 and the other two were subjected to laser light with energy density of 3 J/cm2. Biostimulation effects of irradiation were studied by means of tensile strength tests and histological examinations. Wounded skin samples were morphologically examined and removed for mechanical and histological examinations at days 3, 5 and 7 following the laser applications. Three of the six fragments of skin incisions including a portion of peripheral healthy tissue from each animal were subjected to mechanical tests by means of a universal tensile test machine, whereas the other three samples were embedded in paraffin and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histological examinations. The findings of the study show that tissue repair following laser irradiation of 809nm has been accelerated in terms of tissue morphology, strength and cellular content. These results seem to be consistent with the results of many

  4. Use of skin staples to fix film dressings on scalp donor wounds in patients with burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Reiji; Ishikura, Naotaka; Kawakami, Shigehiko; Heshiki, Takaya; Shimada, Kenichi; Kurosawa, Tomoko

    2002-05-01

    Split-thickness skin grafts (STSGs) from the scalp have been used in large burns. The donor site wounds are usually covered using occlusive dressings, such as film dressings because they contribute to reduce donor site pain and infection under exudative crust and to enhance re-epithelialization. However, it is not always easy to fix such film dressings to the scalp because of the presence of hair. In this paper, we report the use of skin staplers to fix the film dressings. Eight donor sites in four patients were dressed in this way. The patients had 50-78% of the body burned, all of them survived. The mean healing time for the donor sites was 6.8 days. Three patients had their scalps re-harvested several times (range two to three times). There were no infections nor secondary skin ulcers at the donor sites. The technique of this dressing is very simple and speedy, thus we recommend the use of skin staplers to fix the film dressing to scalp donor wounds in patients with burns.

  5. Electrospun poly(l-lactide)/zein nanofiber mats loaded with Rana chensinensis skin peptides for wound dressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mei; Li, Xueqi; Li, Siming; Liu, Yongjia; Hao, Linlin

    2016-09-01

    Electrospun nanofiber mats can display impressive performance as an ideal wound dressing. In this study, poly(l-lactide)(PLLA)/zein nanofiber mats loaded with Rana chensinensis skin peptides (RCSPs) were successfully produced by two different electrospinning techniques, blend and coaxial, with the goal of developing a wound dressing material. The nanofiber mats were investigated by environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), water contact angle, mechanical tests and cell viability. The resulting nanofiber mats exhibited smooth surfaces, tiny diameters and different cross-sectional shapes from pure PLLA and zein nanofibers. The FTIR result showed that PLLA, zein and RCSPs were well dispersed, without chemical interactions. Compared with coaxial nanofiber mats, blending zein-RCSPs with PLLA enhanced hydrophilicity but decreased mechanical properties. Adding RCSPs into the electrospun nanofibers significantly improved the mechanical properties of the mats. Cell viability studies with human foreskin fibroblasts demonstrated that cell growth on PLLA/zein-RCSPs nanofiber mats was significantly higher than that on PLLA/zein nanofiber mats. The results indicate that nanofiber mats containing RCSPs are potential candidates for wound dressing.

  6. Zinc, copper, and selenium tissue levels and their relation to subcutaneous abscess, minor surgery, and wound healing in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirastschijski, Ursula; Martin Moreno, Alicia; Jorgensen, Lars N

    2013-01-01

    Trace element involvement in wounds left to heal by secondary intention needs clarification. We have previously reported faster healing of wounds following acute surgery compared with elective excision of pilonidal sinus disease. The effect of topical zinc on the closure of the excisional wounds...... was mediocre compared with placebo. In contrast, parenteral zinc, copper, and selenium combined appear effective for wound healing in humans. We have investigated zinc, copper, and selenium with respect to (a) impact of acute versus chronic pilonidal sinus and (b) regional concentrations within granulating...... wounds treated topically with placebo or zinc in 42 (33 males) pilonidal disease patients. Baseline serum and skin concentrations of copper correlated (r S = 0.351, p = 0.033, n = 37), but not of zinc or selenium. Patients with abscesses had elevated serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and copper levels (+29...

  7. Topical application of hPDGF-A-modified porcine BMSC and keratinocytes loaded on acellular HAM promotes the healing of combined radiation-wound skin injury in minipigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Guohe; Sun, Huiqin; Wang, Feng; Wang, Junping; Wang, Fengchao; Zou, Zhongmin; Cheng, Tianmin; Ai, Guoping; Su, Yongping

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of cultured cutaneous substitute (CCS) in accelerating the healing of combined radiation-skin wound injury (CRWI) in minipigs. Autologous porcine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC) and skin-derived keratinocytes (SK) were infected by recombinant retrovirus expressing human (h) platelet-derived growth factor-A (hPDGF-A). CCS was constructed by loading acellular human amniotic membrane (HAM) with normal porcine BMSC and SK (BMSC-/SK-CCS) or with hPDGF-A modified counterparts (BMSC+/SK+CCS). The expression of exogenous hPDGF-A in cells and CCS was assessed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The CCS or HAM were grafted to the dorsal CRWI sites (20 Gy local irradiation plus full-thickness skin removal, diameter = 40 mm) of minipigs. Wound healing rate and pathological changes were observed. High levels of hPDGF-A expression were confirmed in gene-modified cells (3780 pg/ml), cultured CCS (506 pg/ml) and transplanted CCS (250 pg/ml). The transplantation of the BMSC+/SK+CCS resulted in a shorter healing time (16-18, days) (P  BMSC-/SK-CCS > HAM > wound control. Pathologically, there were better granulation formation and re-epithelialisation, and collagen deposition in BMSC+/SK+CCS-treated wound than those in other groups. The angiogenesis ability followed the same order as healing rate of different groups. At day 7, the area densities of vasculature in granulation tissue of group BMSC+/SK+CCS, BMSC-/SK-CCS, HAM, wound only were 15.4, 10.3, 6.0 and 5.7%, respectively, while the number densities of vasculature was 767, 691, 126 and 109 (number/mm(2)), respectively. Topical transplantation of hPDGF-A modified CCS may be applicable to the management of refractory wounds.

  8. Examination of the skin barrier repair/wound healing process using a living skin equivalent (LSE) model and matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, E E L; Barrett, M R T; Freeman-Parry, L; Bojar, R A; Clench, M R

    2018-01-21

    Examination of the skin barrier repair/wound healing process using a living skin equivalent (LSE) model and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) to identify lipids directly involved as potential biomarkers. These biomarkers may be used to determine whether an in vivo wound is going to heal for example if infected. An in vitro LSE model was wounded with a scalpel blade and assessed at day 4 post wounding by histology and MALDI-MSI. Samples were sectioned at wound site and were either formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) for histology or snapped frozen (FF) for MSI analysis. The combination of using an in vitro wounded skin model with MSI allowed the identification of lipids involved in the skin barrier repair/wound healing process. The technique was able to highlight lipids directly in the wound site and distinguish differences in lipid distribution between the epidermis and wound site. This novel method of coupling an in vitro LSE with MSI allowed in depth molecular analysis of the skin barrier repair/wound healing process. The technique allowed the identification of lipids directly involved in the skin barrier repair/wound healing process, indicating these biomarkers may be potentially be used within clinic. These biomarkers will help determine, which stage of the skin barrier repair/wound healing process the wound is in to provide the best treatment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. The beneficial effects of Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) on wound healing of rabbit skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pişkin, Ahmet; Altunkaynak, Berrin Zuhal; Tümentemur, Gamze; Kaplan, Süleyman; Yazıcı, Ozgür Bülent; Hökelek, Murat

    2014-08-01

    Momordica charantia (MC; bitter gourd) is a traditional herbal commonly used for its antidiabetic, antioxidant, contraceptive and antibacterial properties. In the current study, the authors aim to observe the topical effect of MC cream on the wound-healing process in rabbits. Moreover, they compare the healing potential with conventional creams used therapeutically. Towards this aim, 28 New Zealand rabbits were divided into four groups and excision wounds (7 cm²) were made on their backs. Open wound dressing was carried out daily for 28 days among the experimental groups with the application of dekspanthenol (Bepanthen®; BP group, n = 7), nitrofurazon (Furacin®; FR group, n = 7) and olive oil extract of MC (MC group, n = 7). No application was made to the control group. At the end of day 28, areas of the skin with initial wound area were en bloc dissected and prepared for histopathological and stereological analysis. Inflammatory cells were abundant in the control group and cream application led to a decrease in the number of these cells, especially in the MC group. The highest number of fibroblasts was detected in the MC group. Furthermore, the MC group displayed the highest fractions of epidermis to papillary dermis, fibroblasts to reticular dermis and collagen fibres to reticular dermis. The MC group also presented a high density of blood vessels, moderate density of collagen fibres and mature fibroblasts. The BP group showed better epithelialisation compared with the FR group, but the latter provided more effective reorganisation of the dermis. Different cream supplements caused healthy and fast wound healing according to untreated controls and the results show that administration of the MC extract improves and accelerates the process of wound healing in rabbits in comparison with the BP and FR extracts.

  10. Moist dressing coverage supports proliferation and migration of transplanted skin micrografts in full-thickness porcine wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackl, Florian; Kiwanuka, Elizabeth; Philip, Justin; Gerner, Philipp; Aflaki, Pejman; Diaz-Siso, J Rodrigo; Sisk, Geoffroy; Caterson, E J; Junker, Johan P E; Eriksson, Elof

    2014-03-01

    Transplantation of skin micrografts in a 1:100 ratio regenerate the epidermis of full-thickness wounds in pigs within 14 days in a wet environment. The aim of the current study was to combine micrografts and commercially available moist dressings. We hypothesized that micrografts regenerate the epidermis when covered with a moist dressing. 5cm×5cm and 10cm×10cm full-thickness wounds were created on the backs of pigs. Wounds were transplanted with 0.8mm×0.8mm micrografts created from a split-thickness skin graft in a 1:100 ratio. 5cm×5cm wounds were treated with wound chambers, moist dressings or dry gauze (non-transplanted control group). 10cm×10cm wounds were compared to non-transplanted wounds, both covered with moist dressings. Reepithelialization was assessed in biopsies from day 10, 14 and 18 post-transplantation. 5cm×5cm transplanted wounds covered with moist dressings showed 69.5±20.6% reepithelialization by day 14 and 90.5±10.4% by day 18, similar to wounds covered with a wound chamber (63.9±16.7 and 86.2±11.9%, respectively). 18 days post-transplantation, 10cm×10cm transplanted wounds covered with moist dressings showed 66.1±10.3% reepithelialization, whereas nontransplanted wounds covered with moist dressings were 40.6±6.6% reepithelialized. We conclude that micrografts combined with clinically available moist dressings regenerate the epidermis of full-thickness wounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  11. Photoprotection of human skin beyond ultraviolet radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grether-Beck, Susanne; Marini, Alessandra; Jaenicke, Thomas; Krutmann, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Photoprotection of human skin by means of sunscreens or daily skin-care products is traditionally centered around the prevention of acute (e.g. sunburn) and chronic (e.g. skin cancer and photoaging) skin damage that may result from exposure to ultraviolet rays (UVB and UVA). Within the last decade, however, it has been appreciated that wavelengths beyond the ultraviolet spectrum, in particular visible light and infrared radiation, contribute to skin damage in general and photoaging of human skin in particular. As a consequence, attempts have been made to develop skin care/sunscreen products that not only protect against UVB or UVA radiation but provide photoprotection against visible light and infrared radiation as well. In this article, we will briefly review the current knowledge about the mechanisms responsible for visible light/infrared radiation-induced skin damage and then, based on this information, discuss strategies that have been successfully used or may be employed in the future to achieve photoprotection of human skin beyond ultraviolet radiation. In this regard we will particularly focus on the use of topical antioxidants and the challenges that result from the task of showing their efficacy. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Exosomes derived from human amniotic epithelial cells accelerate wound healing and inhibit scar formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bin; Zhang, Yijie; Han, Shichao; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Qin; Guan, Hao; Liu, Jiaqi; Shi, Jihong; Su, Linlin; Hu, Dahai

    2017-04-01

    Wound healing is a highly orchestrated physiological process consisting of a complex events, and scarless wound healing is highly desired for the development and application in clinical medicine. Recently, we have demonstrated that human amniotic epithelial cells (hAECs) promoted wound healing and inhibited scar formation through a paracrine mechanism. However, exosomes (Exo) are one of the most important paracrine factors. Whether exosomes derived from human amniotic epithelial cells (hAECs-Exo) have positive effects on scarless wound healing have not been reported yet. In this study, we examined the role of hAECs-Exo on wound healing in a rat model. We found that hAECs, which exhibit characteristics of both embryonic and mesenchymal stem cells, have the potential to differentiate into all three germ layers. hAECs-Exo ranged from 50 to 150 nm in diameter, and positive for exosomal markers CD9, CD63, CD81, Alix, TSG101 and HLA-G. Internalization of hAECs-Exo promoted the migration and proliferation of fibroblasts. Moreover, the deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) were partly abolished by the treatment of high concentration of hAECs-Exo (100 μg/mL), which may be through stimulating the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1). In vivo animal experiments showed that hAECs-Exo improved the skin wound healing with well-organized collagen fibers. Taken together, These findings represent that hAECs-Exo can be used as a novel hope in cell-free therapy for scarless wound healing.

  13. Armpits, Belly Buttons and Chronic Wounds: The ABCs of Our Body Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Chronic Wounds: The ABCs of Our Body Bacteria By Alisa Machalek and Allison MacLachlan Posted April ... treating skin and other conditions. Chronic Wounds and Bacteria Bacteria from human skin grown on agar in ...

  14. Water vapour loss measurements on human skin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, Petrus Gerardus Maria van der

    1984-01-01

    In this thesis, the results of a series of investigations into the barrier function of human skin are presented. In these investigations, the barrier function was assessed by water vapour loss measurements of the skin using a method based on gradient estimation.... Zie: Summary and conclusions

  15. Deposition of contaminant aerosol on human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Kasper Grann; Roed, Jørn; Byrne, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Over recent years, it has been established that deposition of various types of pollutant aerosols (e.g., radioactive) on human skin can have serious deleterious effects on health. However. only few investigations in the past have been devoted to measurement of deposition velocities on skin...

  16. Neutralisation of uPA with a monoclonal antibody reduces plasmin formation and delays skin wound healing in tPA-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jögi, Annika; Rønø, Birgitte; Lund, Ida K

    2010-01-01

    Proteolytic degradation by plasmin and metalloproteinases is essential for epidermal regeneration in skin wound healing. Plasminogen deficient mice have severely delayed wound closure as have mice simultaneously lacking the two plasminogen activators, urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u......PA) and tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA). In contrast, individual genetic deficiencies in either uPA or tPA lead to wound healing kinetics with no or only slightly delayed closure of skin wounds....

  17. Hypertonic Glucose Combined with Negative Pressure Wound Therapy to Prepare Wounds with Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection for Skin Grafting: A Report of 3 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing-Chun; Xian, Chun-Jing; Yu, Jia-Ao; Shi, Kai; Hong, Lei

    2015-06-01

    Soft tissue losses from acute or chronic trauma are a challenge for surgeons. To explore a method to expedite granulation tissue formation in preparation for a split-thickness skin graft (STSG), the medical records of 3 patients - 2 adult men with wounds related to trauma injury and 1 infant with necrotizing fasciitis, all infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa - were reviewed. All wounds were surgically debrided and managed by applying gauze soaked in 50% glucose followed by continuous negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) before definitive skin grafting. NPWT pressure was applied at -80 mm Hg for the 2 adult males (ages 39 and 25 years) and -50 mm Hg for the 7-month-old male infant. The dressings were changed every 2 to 3 days. No adverse events occurred, and wounds were successfully closed with a STSG after an average of 7 days. In 1 case, NPWT was able to help affix dressings in a difficult-to-dress area (genital region). The combination of hypertonic glucose and hand-made, gauze-based NPWT was found to be safe, well-tolerated, and effective in preparing the wound bed for grafting. Prospective, randomized, controlled clinical studies are needed to compare the safety, effectiveness, and efficacy of this method to other treatment approaches for P. aeruginosa-infected wounds.

  18. [The use of negative pressure wound therapy in the fixation of split-thickness skin grafts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulianko, J; Janek, J; Laca, Ľ

    2017-01-01

    Negative pressure wound therapy is one of the latest methods of dealing with complicated healing wounds. It promotes granulation, mechanically attracts the edges of the wound, removes secretions, reduces the number of bacteria in the wound and reduces swelling. In addition to its use to start and enhance the healing process, this method is also important in the fixation of split-thickness skin grafts in non-ideal conditions. The goal of this article is to establish basic indications for negative pressure fixation of meshed split-thickness skin grafts in non-ideal conditions in the wound and to assess the impact of contamination of wounds on engraftment using vacuum therapy. Additional goals are to verify the use of this method of fixation in defects of various etiologies (trauma, ischemia), to optimize and determine the advantages and disadvantages of fixation of grafts using this method in clinical practice, and to evaluate the effectiveness of fixation of meshed split-thickness skin grafts. Set of 89 operated patients of both sexes, various ages, etiologies of defects, in non-ideal conditions; statistical evaluation of the percentage of engraftment, depending on the etiology of the defect, microbial contamination and location of the defect. Measured in vivo using a centimeter measure at the point of maximum length and width. Our set of 100% engraftments of StSG included 68 persons, 65 males and 24 females, in the following age groups: up to 30 years 11 persons; 3050 years 19 persons; 5070 years 38 persons; and above 70 years 21 persons, with negative microbial contamination of the defect in 20 cases, contamination with one germ in 33 cases, contamination with two germs in 22 cases and contamination with three germs in 14 cases. We obtained 100% engraftment in 68 cases, 9099% engraftment in 7 cases, 8089% engraftment in 5 cases, 7079% engraftment in 7 cases, and the 6069% and 5059% sets of engraftment were combined because of the low number of patients in this set

  19. Black and white human skin differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Maibach, H I

    1979-01-01

    This review of black and white human skin differences emphasizes the alleged importance of factors other than the obvious, i.e., skin color. Physicochemical differences and differences in susceptibility to irritants and allergens suggest a more resistant black than white skin. Differences appear...... to exist in the frequency of which several skin diseases occur among blacks and whites. A striking feature in this literature is the disagreement between authors. Common for much of this information is difficulty of interpretation, because of socioeconomic influences and other environmental factors....

  20. Complex lower extremity wounds treated with skin grafts and NPWT: a retrospective review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, R E; Aflaki, P; Gendics, C; Lantis Ii, J C

    2011-10-01

    To evaluate a single centre experience with the use of NPWT for securing split-thickness skin grafts in the management of specifically lower extremity chronic wounds, including revascularised arterial wounds, amputations, diabetic and venous leg ulcers. A seven-year retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database of all the patients who underwent primary split-thickness skin grafts (STSGs) with immediate postoperative NPWT for at least 96 hours was carried out. The percentage graft take after removal of NPWT device and clinical follow-up date were reviewed. A total of 59 skin grafts procedures had adequate follow up to be reviewed. This included 39% post-debridement/ amputation wounds in patients who presented with diabetic foot infection/gangrene, 31% venous leg ulcers, and 31% other post-surgical wounds (arterial ulcers that had undergone revascularisation). The mean percentage graft survival after removal of V.A.C. was 94%; 63% of cases had complete graft survival, 25% had 90-99% survival, and 8.5% had 80-89% survival. Outpatient follow up ranged from 2 weeks to 5 years (mean of 10 months). Fifteen per cent of patients were lost to follow up, and, of the remaining patients, 76% remained completely healed, 10% remained partially healed, and 14% lost the entire STSG. Patients with STSGs secured with NPWT required fewer repeated grafting procedures, had very high initial graft survival with complete recipient bed coverage, and had good long-term wound closure rates compared with historical controls. While retrospective reviews, such as this, support NPWT as a good method of STSG affixation, the paucity of reviews with other study designs does not allow for good historic comparison, so a well-enrolled prospective trial would be of use. Dr J.C. Lantis is a member of the speakers' bureau, has been a site principal investigator of four multicentre trials and has been a consultant for KCI Inc. The same author has no equity in the company and has no financial

  1. Activin controls skin morphogenesis and wound repair predominantly via stromal cells and in a concentration-dependent manner via keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamberger, Casimir; Schärer, Agnes; Antsiferova, Maria; Tychsen, Birte; Pankow, Sandra; Müller, Mischa; Rülicke, Thomas; Paus, Ralf; Werner, Sabine

    2005-09-01

    The transforming growth factor-beta family member activin is a potent regulator of skin morphogenesis and repair. Transgenic mice overexpressing activin in keratinocytes display epidermal hyper-thickening and dermal fibrosis in normal skin and enhanced granulation tissue formation after wounding. Mice overexpressing the secreted activin antagonist follistatin, however, have the opposite wound-healing phenotype. To determine whether activin affects skin morphogenesis and repair via activation of keratinocytes and/or stromal cells, we generated transgenic mice expressing a dominant-negative activin receptor IB mutant (dnActRIB) in keratinocytes. The architecture of adult skin was unaltered in these mice, but delays were observed in postnatal pelage hair follicle morphogenesis and in the first catagen-telogen transformation of hair follicles. Although dnActRIB-transgenic mice showed slightly delayed wound re-epithelialization after skin injury, the strong inhibition of granulation tissue formation seen in follistatin-transgenic mice was not observed. Therefore, although endogenous activin appeared to affect skin morphogenesis and repair predominantly via stromal cells, overexpressed activin strongly affected the epidermis. The epidermal phenotype of activin-overexpressing mice was partially rescued by breeding these animals with dnActRIB-transgenic mice. These results demonstrate that activin affects both stromal cells and keratinocytes in normal and wounded skin and that the effect on keratinocytes is dose-dependent in vivo.

  2. Anti-inflammatory activity of Jatropha curcas Linn. latex in cream formulation on CD68 expression in mice skin wound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nur Salim

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of the present study was to determine the potential of Jatropha curcas latex in the cream formulation on CD68 immune expression (macrophages during inflammatory phase wound healing process in mice skin. Materials and Methods: Amount of 12 two-months-old male mice were used between 30 and 40 g. To surgical procedures, wound skin incision was performed 2.0 cm in length until subcutaneous on the paravertebral of each animal. The treatment was carried under locally anesthetized with procaine cream. The mice were allotted into four groups of each, entire surface of each group wound covered by base cream control, sulfadiazine 0.1% cream, J. curcas latex cream 10% and, 15%, respectively. All experiments were performed twice a day for 3 days. The wound healing was assayed in stained histological sections in immunohistochemical of the wounds. CD68 expression was investigated under a microscope. Results: The results showed that the cream from the 10% and 15% latex of J. curcas revealed moderate immune reaction to CD68 on wound healing. Conclusion: We concluded that the latex cream of J. curcas possesses anti-inflammatory activity in wound healing process of mice skin.

  3. Wound healing in above-knee amputations in relation to skin perfusion pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, P; Dovey, H; Lassen, N A

    1979-01-01

    In 59 above-knee amputations healing of the stumps was correlated with the local skin perfusion pressure (SPP) measured preoperatively as the external pressure required to stop isotope washout using 1318-- or 125I--antipyrine mixed with histamine. Out of the 11 cases with an SPP below 30 mm...... on the stumps was on average only slightly and insignificantly higher than the preoperative values, explaining why the preoperative values related so closely to the postoperative clinical course. We conclude that the SPP can be used to predict ischaemic wound complications in above-knee amputations as has...... previously been shown to be the case in below-knee amputations....

  4. Wound and skin team. Impact on pressure ulcer prevalence in chronic care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton, V; Brazil, K

    1995-02-01

    1. Decreasing the prevalence of pressure ulcers in a chronic care hospital presents a challenge to care providers. 2. The promotion of staff nurses as educational resources has a positive effect on their participation in a wound and skin care team. 3. When basic prevention practices are not in place, risk factors are less useful indicators to predict the development of pressure ulcers. 4. Educating nurses about pressure ulcer etiology, prevention strategies, and treatments has a positive impact on reducing the number of patients who develop pressure ulcers and the number of pressure ulcers that develop on patients in a chronic care hospital.

  5. Effects and Mechanisms of Total Flavonoids from Blumea balsamifera (L. DC. on Skin Wound in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxin Pang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Chinese herbal medicine (CHM evolved through thousands of years of practice and was popular not only among the Chinese population, but also most countries in the world. Blumea balsamifera (L. DC. as a traditional treatment for wound healing in Li Nationality Medicine has a long history of nearly 2000 years. This study was to evaluate the effects of total flavonoids from Blumea balsamifera (L. DC. on skin excisional wound on the back of Sprague-Dawley rats, reveal its chemical constitution, and postulate its action mechanism. The rats were divided into five groups and the model groups were treated with 30% glycerol, the positive control groups with Jing Wan Hong (JWH ointment, and three treatment groups with high dose (2.52 g·kg−1, medium dose (1.26 g·kg−1, and low dose (0.63 g·kg−1 of total flavonoids from B. balsamifera. During 10 consecutive days of treatment, the therapeutic effects of rates were evaluated. On day 1, day 3, day 5, day 7, and day 10 after treatment, skin samples were taken from all the rats for further study. Significant increases of granulation tissue, fibroblast, and capillary vessel proliferation were observed at day 7 in the high dose and positive control groups, compared with the model group, with the method of 4% paraformaldehyde for histopathological examination and immunofluorescence staining. To reveal the action mechanisms of total flavonoids on wound healing, the levels of CD68, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1, and hydroxyproline were measured at different days. Results showed that total flavonoids had significant effects on rat skin excisional wound healing compared with controls, especially high dose ones (p < 0.05. Furthermore, the total flavonoid extract was investigated phytochemically, and twenty-seven compounds were identified from the total flavonoid sample by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass

  6. The Role of Carotenoids in Human Skin

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    Theognosia Vergou

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The human skin, as the boundary organ between the human body and the environment, is under the constant influence of free radicals (FR, both from the outside in and from the inside out. Carotenoids are known to be powerful antioxidant substances playing an essential role in the reactions of neutralization of FR (mainly reactive oxygen species ROS. Carotenoid molecules present in the tissue are capable of neutralizing several attacks of FR, especially ROS, and are then destroyed. Human skin contains carotenoids, such as α-, γ-, β-carotene, lutein, zeaxanthin, lycopene and their isomers, which serve the living cells as a protection against oxidation. Recent studies have reported the possibility to investigate carotenoids in human skin quickly and non-invasively by spectroscopic means. Results obtained from in-vivo studies on human skin have shown that carotenoids are vital components of the antioxidative protective system of the human skin and could serve as marker substances for the overall antioxidative status. Reflecting the nutritional and stress situation of volunteers, carotenoids must be administered by means of antioxidant-rich products, e.g., in the form of fruit and vegetables. Carotenoids are degraded by stress factors of any type, inter alia, sun radiation, contact with environmental hazards, illness, etc. The kinetics of the accumulation and degradation of carotenoids in the skin have been investigated.

  7. Effect of Hevea brasiliensis latex sap gel on healing of acute skin wounds induced on the back of rats

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    Maria Vitória Carmo Penhavel

    Full Text Available Objective : to evaluate the effect of topical delivery of latex cream-gel in acute cutaneous wounds induced on the back of rats. Methods : we subjected sixteen rats to dermo-epidermal excision of a round dorsal skin flap, with 2.5cm diameter. We divided the animals into two groups: Latex Group: application of cream-gel-based latex throughout the wound bed on postoperative days zero, three, six and nine; Control group: no treatment on the wound. Photographs of the lesions were taken on the procedure day and on the 6th and 14th postoperative days, for analyzing the area and the larger diameter of the wound. We carried out euthanasia of all animals on the 14th postoperative day, when we resected he dorsal skin and the underlying muscle layer supporting the wound for histopathological study. Results : there was no statistically significant difference in the percentage of wound closure, in the histopathological findings or in the reduction of the area and of the largest diameter of the wounds among the groups studied on the 14th postoperative day. Conclusion : according to the experimental conditions in which the study was conducted, latex cream-gel did not interfere in the healing of acute cutaneous wounds in rats.

  8. Effect of Hevea brasiliensis latex sap gel on healing of acute skin wounds induced on the back of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penhavel, Maria Vitória Carmo; Tavares, Victor Henrique; Carneiro, Fabiana Pirani; Sousa, João Batista de

    2016-02-01

    to evaluate the effect of topical delivery of latex cream-gel in acute cutaneous wounds induced on the back of rats. we subjected sixteen rats to dermo-epidermal excision of a round dorsal skin flap, with 2.5cm diameter. We divided the animals into two groups: Latex Group: application of cream-gel-based latex throughout the wound bed on postoperative days zero, three, six and nine; no treatment on the wound. Photographs of the lesions were taken on the procedure day and on the 6th and 14th postoperative days, for analyzing the area and the larger diameter of the wound. We carried out euthanasia of all animals on the 14th postoperative day, when we resected he dorsal skin and the underlying muscle layer supporting the wound for histopathological study. there was no statistically significant difference in the percentage of wound closure, in the histopathological findings or in the reduction of the area and of the largest diameter of the wounds among the groups studied on the 14th postoperative day. according to the experimental conditions in which the study was conducted, latex cream-gel did not interfere in the healing of acute cutaneous wounds in rats.

  9. Mechanical compression attenuates normal human bronchial epithelial wound healing

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    Malavia Nikita

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Airway narrowing associated with chronic asthma results in the transmission of injurious compressive forces to the bronchial epithelium and promotes the release of pro-inflammatory mediators and the denudation of the bronchial epithelium. While the individual effects of compression or denudation are well characterized, there is no data to elucidate how these cells respond to the application of mechanical compression in the presence of a compromised epithelial layer. Methods Accordingly, differentiated normal human bronchial epithelial cells were exposed to one of four conditions: 1 unperturbed control cells, 2 single scrape wound only, 3 static compression (6 hours of 30 cmH2O, and 4 6 hours of static compression after a scrape wound. Following treatment, wound closure rate was recorded, media was assayed for mediator content and the cytoskeletal network was fluorescently labeled. Results We found that mechanical compression and scrape injury increase TGF-β2 and endothelin-1 secretion, while EGF content in the media is attenuated with both injury modes. The application of compression after a pre-existing scrape wound augmented these observations, and also decreased PGE2 media content. Compression stimulated depolymerization of the actin cytoskeleton and significantly attenuated wound healing. Closure rate was partially restored with the addition of exogenous PGE2, but not EGF. Conclusion Our results suggest that mechanical compression reduces the capacity of the bronchial epithelium to close wounds, and is, in part, mediated by PGE2 and a compromised cytoskeleton.

  10. Non-lipophilic mycobiota of human skin

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    Katarzyna Talaga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The human skin is inhabited by many species of bacteria and fungi, which are its natural microbiota. Fungi colonizing the skin, including those causing disease, characterized by great variety and variability, can be influenced by various factors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the composition of the non-lipid-dependent fungal microbiota of skin, including the presence of species potentially pathogenic for humans. Fifty-six volunteers of both sexes aged 22–78 were subjected to the study. Swabs were taken from the face, chest, back and interdigital spaces of hands. Mycobiota isolated proved to vary both in terms of the location of occurrence and gender of patients. Interdigital spaces of hands, dominated by yeasts, constitute a location on human skin most contaminated with fungi. Molds were more often isolated from the face and chest. The back was the least contaminated location. There was no difference in fungal incidence in relation to sex.

  11. Mesenchymal stem cells ameliorate impaired wound healing through enhancing keratinocyte functions in diabetic foot ulcerations on the plantar skin of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Jiro; Kamiya, Hideki; Himeno, Tatsuhito; Shibata, Taiga; Kondo, Masaki; Okawa, Tetsuji; Fujiya, Atsushi; Fukami, Ayako; Uenishi, Eita; Seino, Yusuke; Tsunekawa, Shin; Hamada, Yoji; Naruse, Keiko; Oiso, Yutaka; Nakamura, Jiro

    2014-01-01

    Although the initial healing stage involves a re-epithelialization in humans, diabetic foot ulceration (DFU) has been investigated using rodent models with wounds on the thigh skin, in which a wound contraction is initiated. In this study, we established a rodent model of DFU on the plantar skin and evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) in this model. The wounds made on the hind paws or thighs of streptozotocin induced diabetic or control rats were treated with BM-MSCs. Expression levels of phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase (pFAK), matrix metaroprotease (MMP)-2, EGF, and IGF-1, were evaluated in human keratinocytes, which were cultured in conditioned media of BM-MSCs (MSC-CM) with high glucose levels. Re-epithelialization initiated the healing process on the plantar, but not on the thigh, skin. The therapy utilizing BM-MSCs ameliorated the delayed healing in diabetic rats. In the keratinocytes cultured with MSC-CM, the decreased pFAK levels in the high glucose condition were restored, and the MMP2, EGF, and IGF-1 levels increased. Our study established a novel rat DFU model. The impaired healing process in diabetic rats was ameliorated by transplantation of BM-MSCs. This amelioration might be accounted for by the modification of keratinocyte functions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. TAT-Mediated Acidic Fibroblast Growth Factor Delivery to the Dermis Improves Wound Healing of Deep Skin Tissue in Rat.

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    Long Zheng

    Full Text Available The definition of deep tissue injury was derived from multiple clinical cases as "A purple or maroon localized area of discolored intact skin or blood-filled blister due to damage of underlying soft tissue from pressure and/or shear". Acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF significantly improves wound healing under diabetic conditions. However, to date, the therapeutic application of aFGF has been limited, due to its low delivery efficiency and short half-life.Using an animal model of magnet-induced pressure ulcers, transactivator of transcription protein (TAT-aFGF was evaluated for transdermal delivery and wound healing. Immunohistochemistry and Western blotting were also performed to determine the expression of transforming growth factor (TGF-β1, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA, CD68, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA and TGF-β-receptor II (TGF- βRII in cultured human dermal fibroblasts. We found that that mice treated with TAT-aFGF had higher accumulation of aFGF in both dermis and subcutaneous tissues compared with mice treated with aFGF alone. In the remodeling phase, TAT-aFGF treatment decreased the expression of α-SMA to normal levels, thereby facilitating normal wound healing processes and abrogating hypertrophic scarring. In human dermal fibroblasts, TAT-aFGF reversed the suppressive effect of TNF-α on α-SMA expression and restored TGF-βRII and TGF-β1 expression.Our results demonstrate that TAT-aFGF has a favorable therapeutic effect on the healing of subcutaneous deep tissue injury.

  13. Biological Activity of Polynesian Calophyllum inophyllum Oil Extract on Human Skin Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansel, Jean-Luc; Lupo, Elise; Mijouin, Lily; Guillot, Samuel; Butaud, Jean-François; Ho, Raimana; Lecellier, Gaël; Raharivelomanana, Phila; Pichon, Chantal

    2016-07-01

    Oil from the nuts of Calophyllum inophyllum, locally called "Tamanu oil" in French Polynesia, was traditionally used for wound healing and to cure various skin problems and ailments. The skin-active effect of "Tamanu oil emulsion" was investigated on human skin cells (keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts) and showed cell proliferation, glycosaminoglycan and collagen production, and wound healing activity. Transcriptomic analysis of the treated cells revealed gene expression modulation including genes involved in the metabolic process implied in O-glycan biosynthesis, cell adhesion, and cell proliferation. The presence of neoflavonoids as bioactive constituents in Tamanu oil emulsion may contribute to these biological activities. Altogether, consistent data related to targeted histological and cellular functions brought new highlights on the mechanisms involved in these biological processes induced by Tamanu oil effects in skin cells. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Propolis Induces Chondroitin/Dermatan Sulphate and Hyaluronic Acid Accumulation in the Skin of Burned Wound

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    Pawel Olczyk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycans during the wound repair allowed us to apply the burn model in which therapeutic efficacy of propolis and silver sulfadiazine was compared. Burns were inflicted on four pigs. Glycosaminoglycans isolated from healthy and burned skin were quantified using a hexuronic acid assay, electrophoretic fractionation, and densitometric analyses. Using the reverse-phase HPLC the profile of sulfated disaccharides released by chondroitinase ABC from chondroitin/dermatan sulfates was estimated. Chondroitin/dermatan sulfates and hyaluronic acid were found in all samples. Propolis stimulated significant changes in the content of particular glycosaminoglycan types during burn healing. Glycosaminoglycans alterations after silver sulfadiazine application were less expressed. Propolis maintained high contribution of 4-O-sulfated disaccharides to chondroitin/dermatan sulfates structure and low level of 6-O-sulfated ones throughout the observed period of healing. Propolis led to preservation of significant contribution of disulfated disaccharides especially 2,4-O-disulfated ones to chondroitin sulfates/dermatan sulfates structure throughout the observed period of healing. Our findings demonstrate that propolis accelerates the burned tissue repair by stimulation of the wound bed glycosaminoglycan accumulation needed for granulation, tissue growth, and wound closure. Moreover, propolis accelerates chondroitin/dermatan sulfates structure modification responsible for binding growth factors playing the crucial role in the tissue repair.

  15. Three-dimensional graphene foams loaded with bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells promote skin wound healing with reduced scarring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhonghua [Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery, Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan 250021 (China); Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery, The Fourth People' s Hospital Of Jinan, Jinan 250031 (China); Wang, Haiqin [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Fifth People' s Hospital Of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); Yang, Bo; Sun, Yukai [Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery, The Fourth People' s Hospital Of Jinan, Jinan 250031 (China); Huo, Ran, E-mail: rhuo12@163.com [Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery, Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan 250021 (China)

    2015-12-01

    The regeneration of functional skin remains elusive, due to poor engraftment, deficient vascularization, and excessive scar formation. Aiming to overcome these issues, the present study proposed the combination of a three-dimensional graphene foam (GF) scaffold loaded with bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to improve skin wound healing. The GFs demonstrated good biocompatibility and promoted the growth and proliferation of MSCs. Meanwhile, the GFs loaded with MSCs obviously facilitated wound closure in animal model. The dermis formed in the presence of the GF structure loaded with MSCs was thicker and possessed a more complex structure at day 14 post-surgery. The transplanted MSCs correlated with upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), which may lead to neo-vascularization. Additionally, an anti-scarring effect was observed in the presence of the 3D-GF scaffold and MSCs, as evidenced by a downregulation of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) and alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) together with an increase of TGF-β3. Altogether, the GF scaffold could guide the wound healing process with reduced scarring, and the MSCs were crucial to enhance vascularization and provided a better quality neo-skin. The GF scaffold loaded with MSCs possesses necessary bioactive cues to improve wound healing with reduced scarring, which may be of great clinical significance for skin wound healing. - Highlights: • The GFs promoted the growth and proliferation of MSCs. • The GFs loaded with MSCs obviously facilitated wound closure in the animal model. • An anti-scarring effect was observed in the presence of 3D-GF scaffold and MSCs. • The GF scaffold loaded with MSCs has great effect on skin wound healing.

  16. The Crisis in the Humanities: A Self-Inflicted Wound?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalin, Mike

    2017-01-01

    While the allure of Silicon Valley undoubtedly attracts students, the declining interest in the humanities at both the secondary and postsecondary levels is primarily a self-inflicted wound. Many educators often employ teaching methods that alienate students and make them feel as though the only reason for reading literature or studying history is…

  17. The effect of negative pressure wound therapy with periodic instillation using antimicrobial solutions on Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm on porcine skin explants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Priscilla L; Yang, Qingping; Schultz, Gregory S

    2013-12-01

    Negative pressure wound therapy with instillation (NPWTi) is increasingly used as an adjunct therapy for a wide variety of infected wounds. However, the effect of NPWTi on mature biofilm in wounds has not been determined. This study assessed the effects of NPWTi using saline or various antimicrobial solutions on mature Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm using an ex vivo porcine skin explant biofilm model. Treatment consisted of six cycles with 10-minute exposure to instillation solution followed by 4 hours of negative pressure at -125 mm Hg over a 24-hour period. NPWTi using saline reduced bacterial levels by 1-log (logarithmic) of 7-log total colony-forming units (CFUs). In contrast, instillation of 1% povidone iodine (2-log), L-solution (3-log), 0·05% chlorhexidine gluconate (3-log), 0·1% polyhexamethylene biguanide (4-log), 0·2% polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (4-log) and 10% povidone iodine (5-log), all significantly reduced (P porcine skin explants, these ex vivo model data suggest that NPWTi with delivery of active antimicrobial agents enhances the reduction of CFUs by increasing destruction and removal of biofilm bacteria. These results must be confirmed in human studies. © 2013 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Medicalhelplines.com Inc.

  18. Non-invasive in vivo characterization of skin wound healing using label-free multiphoton microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jake D.; Majid, Fariah; Ramser, Hallie; Quinn, Kyle P.

    2017-02-01

    Non-healing ulcerative wounds, such as diabetic foot ulcers, are challenging to diagnose and treat due to their numerous possible etiologies and the variable efficacy of advanced wound care products. Thus, there is a critical need to develop new quantitative biomarkers and diagnostic technologies that are sensitive to wound status in order to guide care. The objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of label-free multiphoton microscopy for characterizing wound healing dynamics in vivo and identifying potential differences in diabetic wounds. We isolated and measured an optical redox ratio of FAD/(NADH+FAD) autofluorescence to provide three-dimensional maps of local cellular metabolism. Using a mouse model of wound healing, in vivo imaging at the wound edge identified a significant decrease in the optical redox ratio of the epidermis (p≤0.0103) between Days 3 through 14 compared to Day 1. This decrease in redox ratio coincided with a decrease in NADH fluorescence lifetime and thickening of the epithelium, collectively suggesting a sensitivity to keratinocyte hyperproliferation. In contrast to normal wounds, we have found that keratinocytes from diabetic wounds remain in a proliferative state at later time points with a lower redox ratio at the wound edge. Microstructural organization and composition was also measured from second harmonic generation imaging of collagen and revealed differences between diabetic and non-diabetic wounds. Our work demonstrates label-free multiphoton microscopy offers potential to provide non-invasive structural and functional biomarkers associated with different stages of skin wound healing, which may be used to detect delayed healing and guide treatment.

  19. Acute effects of low-level laser therapy (660 nm) on oxidative stress levels in diabetic rats with skin wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denadai, Amanda Silveira; Aydos, Ricardo Dutra; Silva, Iandara Schettert; Olmedo, Larissa; de Senna Cardoso, Bruno Mendonça; da Silva, Baldomero Antonio Kato; de Carvalho, Paulo de Tarso Camillo

    2017-09-01

    Laser therapy influences oxidative stress parameters such as the activity of antioxidant enzymes and the production of reactive oxygen species. To analyze the effects of low-level laser therapy on oxidative stress in diabetics rats with skin wounds. Thirty-six animals were divided into 4 groups: NDNI: non-diabetic rats with cutaneous wounds that not received laser therapy; NDI: non-diabetic rats with cutaneous wounds that received laser therapy; DNI: diabetic rats with skin wounds who did not undergo laser therapy; DI: rats with diabetes insipidus and cutaneous wounds and received laser therapy. The animals were treated with LLLT (660 nm, 100 mW, 6 J/cm, spot size 0.028 cm). On the day of killing the animals, tissue-wrapped cutaneous wounds were collected and immediately frozen, centrifuged, and stored to analyze malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Significant difference was observed within the groups of MDA levels (ANOVA, p = 0.0001). Tukey's post-hoc test showed significantly lower values of MDA in irradiated tissues, both in diabetic and non-diabetic rats. ANOVA of the diabetic group revealed a significant difference (p < 0.01) when all groups, except NDI and DI, were compared. LLLT was effective in decreasing MDA levels in acute surgical wounds in diabetic rats.

  20. "Sponge-like" dressings based on biopolymers for the delivery of platelet lysate to skin chronic wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, S; Faccendini, A; Bonferoni, M C; Ferrari, F; Sandri, G; Del Fante, C; Perotti, C; Caramella, C M

    2013-01-20

    The aim of the present work was the development of sponge-like dressings, obtained by freeze-drying, based on chitosan glutamate and sodium hyaluronate for platelet lysate (PL) delivery to chronic skin wounds. A first phase of the research focused on the choice of the best dressing composition to obtain formulations endowed with the desired mechanical and hydration properties. In particular glycine amount (cryoprotectant agent), and water content were considered as formulation variables. The addition of glycerophosphate, used to solubilize chitosan at pH close to neutrality, was also investigated. In the second phase of the research, dressings were loaded with different amounts of PL. The influence of freeze-drying process and of excipients on the biological activity of platelet growth factors was investigated by means of a cell proliferation test using human fibroblasts. PDGF AB (platelet derived growth factor) content was assayed by means of ELISA test. Depending on composition, dressings showed different mechanical and hydration properties that make them suitable to wounds with different exudate amounts. Both freeze-drying process and excipients employed did not disturb the activity of platelet growth factors. The dressings loaded with platelet lysate were characterized by % proliferation values on fibroblast cell comparable to those observed for the fresh hemoderivate. The PDGF AB assay confirmed the results obtained from cell proliferation test. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of commonly used temporary skin dressings and a newly developed collagen matrix for treatment of superficial wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Manuel; Rothenberger, Jens; Engelke, Anne-Sophie; Tolzmann, Dascha Sophie; Esfahani, Babak Janghorban; Schaller, Hans-Eberhard; Rahmanian-Schwarz, Afshin

    2015-12-01

    In the authors' experience, extended superficial-thickness wounds often were treated with the application of synthetic temporary wound dressings. There is a broad range of expensive products available in this market. The aim of this study was to compare commonly used temporary skin dressings with a newly developed collagen matrix. A total of 56 standardized superficial skin defects were generated on the back of 28 adult male Lewis rats using a skin dermatome. The wounds were treated with Biobrane (Smith & Nephew, St Petersburg, Florida) (n = 14), Suprathel (PolyMedics, Denkendorf, Germany) (n = 14), and newly developed Collagen Cell Carrier (Naturin Viscofan, Weinheim, Germany) (CCC; n = 14). Histological evaluation was performed at 3 months' postoperative in regard to quality of newly formed skin. In regard to epidermal cell count and thickness of skin, Biobrane and Suprathel demonstrated comparable values, whereas CCC demonstrated higher epidermal cell count and thicker neoepidermis. The epidermal thickness of CCC was comparable to untreated, healthy skin. The presented results reveal the potential of CCC in the treatment of superficial skin defects and encourages further evaluation of CCC in surgical applications and regenerative medicine.

  2. Elucidation of xenobiotic metabolism pathways in human skin and human skin models by proteomic profiling.

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    Sven van Eijl

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human skin has the capacity to metabolise foreign chemicals (xenobiotics, but knowledge of the various enzymes involved is incomplete. A broad-based unbiased proteomics approach was used to describe the profile of xenobiotic metabolising enzymes present in human skin and hence indicate principal routes of metabolism of xenobiotic compounds. Several in vitro models of human skin have been developed for the purpose of safety assessment of chemicals. The suitability of these epidermal models for studies involving biotransformation was assessed by comparing their profiles of xenobiotic metabolising enzymes with those of human skin. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Label-free proteomic analysis of whole human skin (10 donors was applied and analysed using custom-built PROTSIFT software. The results showed the presence of enzymes with a capacity for the metabolism of alcohols through dehydrogenation, aldehydes through dehydrogenation and oxidation, amines through oxidation, carbonyls through reduction, epoxides and carboxylesters through hydrolysis and, of many compounds, by conjugation to glutathione. Whereas protein levels of these enzymes in skin were mostly just 4-10 fold lower than those in liver and sufficient to support metabolism, the levels of cytochrome P450 enzymes were at least 300-fold lower indicating they play no significant role. Four epidermal models of human skin had profiles very similar to one another and these overlapped substantially with that of whole skin. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The proteomics profiling approach was successful in producing a comprehensive analysis of the biotransformation characteristics of whole human skin and various in vitro skin models. The results show that skin contains a range of defined enzymes capable of metabolising different classes of chemicals. The degree of similarity of the profiles of the in vitro models indicates their suitability for epidermal toxicity testing. Overall, these

  3. Transgenic expression of human cytoxic T-lymphocyte associated antigen4-immunoglobulin (hCTLA4Ig) by porcine skin for xenogeneic skin grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Yang, Hua-Qiang; Jiang, Wen; Fan, Na-Na; Zhao, Ben-Tian; Ou-Yang, Zhen; Liu, Zhao-Ming; Zhao, Yu; Yang, Dong-Shan; Zhou, Xiao-Yang; Shang, Hai-Tao; Wang, Lu-Lu; Xiang, Peng-Ying; Ge, Liang-Peng; Wei, Hong; Lai, Liang-Xue

    2015-04-01

    Porcine skin is frequently used as a substitute of human skin to cover large wounds in clinic practice of wound care. In our previous work, we found that transgenic expression of human cytoxicT-lymphocyte associated antigen4-immunoglobulin (hCTLA4Ig) in murine skin graft remarkably prolonged its survival in xenogeneic wounds without extensive immunosuppression in recipients, suggesting that transgenic hCTLA4Ig expression in skin graft may be an effective and safe method to prolong xenogeneic skin graft survival. In this work, using a transgene construct containing hCTLA4Ig coding sequence under the drive of human Keratine 14 (k14) promoter, hCTLA4Ig transgenic pigs were generated by somatic nuclear transfer. The derived transgenic pigs were healthy and exhibited no signs of susceptibility to infection. The hCTLA4Ig transgene was stably transmitted through germline over generations, and thereby a transgenic pig colony was established. In the derived transgenic pigs, hCTLA4Ig expression in skin was shown to be genetically stable over generations, and detected in heart, kidney and corneal as well as in skin. Transgenic hCTLA4Ig protein in pigs exhibited expected biological activity as it suppressed human lymphocyte proliferation in human mixed lymphocyte culture to extents comparable to those of commercially purchased purified hCTLA4Ig protein. In skin grafting from pigs to rats, transgenic porcine skin grafts exhibited remarkably prolonged survival compared to the wild-type skin grafts derived from the same pig strain (13.33 ± 3.64 vs. 6.25 ± 2.49 days, P porcine skin graft survival in xenogeneic wounds. The transgenic pigs generated in this work can be used as a reproducible resource to provide porcine skin grafts with extended survival for wound coverage, and also as donors to investigate the impacts of hCTLA4Ig on xenotransplantation of other organs (heart, kidney and corneal) due to the ectopic transgenic hCTLA4Ig expression.

  4. Combination Ointment Containing Solid Tranilast Nanoparticles and Dissolved Sericin Is Efficacious for Treating Skin Wound-Healing Deficits and Redness in Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Noriaki; Ogata, Fumihiko; Deguchi, Saori; Ueno, Akina; Kawasaki, Naohito; Ito, Yoshimasa

    2017-01-01

    We attempted to design a combination ointment containing solid tranilast nanoparticles and dissolved sericin as a wound-healing drug (TS-combination ointment), and evaluated its usefulness as therapy for wound-healing deficits in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat (STZ rat) using kinetic analyses as an index. Solid tranilast nanoparticles were prepared by bead mill methods with low-substituted methylcellulose; the mean particle size of the tranilast nanoparticles was 70 nm. The ointment was designed to contain the tranilast nanoparticles plus sericin powder and/or Carbopol® 934. Skin wound healing in STZ rats begins significantly later than in normal rats. Although the skin wound healing rate in STZ rats treated with an ointment containing tranilast nanoparticles was lower than in STZ rats treated with vehicle, the ointment was effective in reducing redness. An ointment containing sericin enhanced the skin-healing rate, but the preventive effect on redness was weak. On the other hand, the combination of tranilast and sericin increased both the skin healing rate and reduction in redness. In conclusion, we have adapted kinetic analyses to skin wound healing in rats, and found these analyses to be useful as an index of wound healing ability by a wound-healing drug. In addition, we show that treatment with the TS-combination ointment enhances the skin wound healing rate and reduces redness. These findings provide information significant to the search for new wound-healing therapies and for the design of wound-healing drugs.

  5. GMSC-Derived Exosomes Combined with a Chitosan/Silk Hydrogel Sponge Accelerates Wound Healing in a Diabetic Rat Skin Defect Model

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    Quan Shi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Delayed wound healing in diabetic patients is one of the most challenging complications in clinical medicine, as it poses a greater risk of gangrene, amputation and even death. Therefore, a novel method to promote diabetic wound healing is of considerable interest at present. Previous studies showed that injection of MSC-derived exosomes has beneficial effects on wound healing. In current studies, we aimed to isolate exosomes derived from gingival mesenchymal stem cells (GMSCs and then loading them to the chitosan/silk hydrogel sponge to evaluate the effects of this novel non-invasive method on skin defects in diabetic rats.Methods: GMSCs were isolated from human gingival connective tissue and characterized by surface antigen analysis and in vitro multipotent differentiation. The cell supernatant was collected to isolate the exosomes. The exosomes were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, Western blot and size distribution analysis. The chitosan/silk-based hydrogel sponge was prepared using the freeze-drying method and then structural and physical properties were characterized. Then, the exosomes were added to the hydrogel and tested in a diabetic rat skin defect model. The effects were evaluated by wound area measurement, histological, immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence analysis.Results: We have successfully isolated GMSCs and exosomes with a mean diameter of 127 nm. The chitosan/silk hydrogel had the appropriate properties of swelling and moisture retention capacity. The in vivo studies showed that the incorporating of GMSC-derived exosomes to hydrogel could effectively promote healing of diabetic skin defects. The histological analysis revealed more neo-epithelium and collagen in the hydrogel-exosome group. In addition, the hydrogel-exosome group had the highest microvessel density and nerve density.Conclusions: The combination of GMSC-derived exosomes and hydrogel could effectively promote skin wound healing

  6. Forensic human identification using skin microbiomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmedes, Sarah E; Woerner, August E; Budowle, Bruce

    2017-09-08

    The human microbiome contributes significantly to the genetic content of the human body. Genetic and environmental factors help shape the microbiome, and as such, the microbiome can be unique to an individual. Previous studies have demonstrated the potential to use microbiome profiling for forensic applications, however a method has yet to identify stable features of skin microbiomes that produce high classification accuracies for samples collected over reasonably long time intervals. A novel approach is described to classify skin microbiomes to their donors by comparing two features types, Propionibacterium acnes pangenome presence/absence features and nucleotide diversities of stable clade-specific markers. Supervised learning was used to attribute skin microbiomes from 14 skin body sites from 12 healthy individuals sampled at three time points over a >2.5 year period with accuracies up to 100% for three body sites. Feature selection identified a reduced subset of markers from each body site that are highly individualizing, identifying 187 markers from 12 clades. Classification accuracies were compared in a formal model testing framework, and the results of this indicate that learners trained on nucleotide diversity perform significantly better than those trained on presence/absence encodings. This study used supervised learning to identify individuals with high accuracy and associated stable features from skin microbiomes over a period of up to almost 3 years. These selected features provide a preliminary marker panel for future development of a robust and reproducible method for skin microbiome profiling for forensic human identification.Importance A novel approach is described to attribute skin microbiomes, collected over a period of >2.5 years, to their individual hosts with a high degree of accuracy. Nucleotide diversities of stable clade-specific markers with supervised learning was used to classify skin microbiomes from a particular individual with up to

  7. Wound closure with human keratinocytes cultured on a polyurethane dressing overlaid on a cultured human dermal replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennekampff, H O; Hansbrough, J F; Kiessig, V; Abiezzi, S; Woods, V

    1996-07-01

    Burn excision followed by immediate wound coverage has become the clinical standard for managing extensive burn injuries in much of the world. When sufficient autograft skin to achieve permanent wound closure is unavailable, cell culture technology has made the use of cultured human keratinocyte (HK) sheets clinically feasible. Whereas previous techniques have focused on development of multilayered, differentiated HK sheets, our attention has been drawn to using HK in a highly proliferative, less differentiated state. Time requirements for preparation of multistratified cultured HK are high, and preparatory steps may destroy important integrin adhesion molecules. We describe the use of HK cultured to single layer confluence on a polyurethane membrane(HD), with serum-free medium. HK-HD grafts were transplanted to full-thickness wounds on athymic mice (n = 31). A second group of mice (DG-HK-HD), n = 28) received a living human dermal replacement containing cultured fibroblasts before placement of HK-HD. Control mice received HD alone (n = 4). Basement membrane proteins on healed wounds and surface integrins on cultured HK were identified by means of immunostaining and direct microscopic visualization. HK cultured just to the confluent state on polyurethane membrane were positive for integrins alpha(5) and alpha(6), major integrins on proliferating HK. Histologic analysis showed epithelialized wounds in all groups after 21 days. Using an anti-human involucrin antibody we demonstrated the presence of HK in 64.5% of the HK-HD group, 61% of the DG-HK-HD group, and 0% in the HD group. Mice that received the living human dermal replacement containing cultured fibroblasts in combination with HK-HD grafts developed a thick, well-vascularized neodermis. Strong laminin and collagen IV staining was observed in wound areas covered with HK. These data show that full-thickness wounds can be closed by application of a single layer of proliferating HK cultured on a biocompatible

  8. Preparation of Artificial Skin that Mimics Human Skin Surface and Mechanical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Rana; Nonomura, Yoshimune

    2017-12-14

    We have developed an artificial skin that mimics the morphological and mechanical properties of human skin. The artificial skin comprises a polyurethane block possessing a microscopically rough surface. We evaluated the tactile sensations when skin-care cream was applied to the artificial skin. Many subjects perceived smooth, moist, and soft feels during the application process. Cluster analysis showed that these characteristic tactile feels are similar to those when skin-care cream is applied to real human skin. Contact angle analysis showed that an oil droplet spread smoothly on the artificial skin surface, which occurred because there were many grooves several hundred micrometers in width on the skin surface. In addition, when the skin-care cream was applied, the change in frictional force during the dynamic friction process increased. These wetting and frictional properties are important factors controlling the similarity of artificial skin to real human skin.

  9. Structural Alteration in Dermal Vessels and Collagen Bundles following Exposure of Skin Wound to Zeolite–Bentonite Compound

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    Shahram Paydar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study examines the impact of one-time direct application of haemostatic agent zeolite–bentonite powder to wounded skin on the healing process in rats. Materials and Methods. 24 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated into two groups (n=12: (1 the rats whose wounds were washed only with sterile normal saline (NS-treated and (2 those treated with zeolite–bentonite compound (ZEO-treated. The wound was circular, full-thickness, and 2 cm in diameter. At the end of the 12th day, six animals from each group were randomly selected and terminated. The remaining rats were terminated after 21 days. Just after scarification, skin samples were excised and sent for stereological evaluation. Results. The results showed a significant difference between the two groups regarding the length density of the blood vessels and diameter of the large and small vessels on the 12th day after the wound was inflicted. Besides, volume density of both the dermis and collagen bundles was reduced by 25% in the ZEO-treated rats in comparison to the NS-treated animals after 21 days. Conclusions. One-time topical usage of zeolite–bentonite haemostatic powder on an animal skin wound might negatively affect the healing process through vasoconstriction and inhibition of neoangiogenesis.

  10. Silibinin regulates matrix metalloproteinase 3 (stromelysine1) gene expression, hexoseamines and collagen production during rat skin wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabandeh, Mohammad Reza; Oryan, Ahamd; Mohhammad-Alipour, Adel; Tabatabaei-Naieni, Abotorab

    2013-08-01

    Silibinin (SB), a flavonoid isolated from the milk thistle, Silybum marianum, has been shown to exhibit protective effects against skin damage. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of topical application of SB on levels of stromelysine 1 (STM1) gene expression, acetyl hexoseamines and collagen production during skin wound healing. Full-thickness skin wounds were topically treated with 10% and 20% SB extract in acetonitril:olive oil (AOO) (4:1) for 30 days, and expression level of STM1 transcript, n-acetyl glucoseamine (NAGLA), n-acetyl galactoseamine (NAGAA) and collagen contents were analyzed on the 10th, 20th and 30th days post wounding. SB in dose- and time-dependent manner accelerated wound closure time and increased levels of STM1 mRNA, hydroxyproline, NAGLA and NAGAA compared to the untreated and vehicle (AOO)-treated rats. The current study provides evidence that SB, by increasing STM1 gene expression and extracellular matrix constituents including glycosaminoglycans and collagen contents, promotes a faster wound healing process and can be used as a healing agent in future. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Spatial and temporal expression of types I and II receptors for transforming growth factor beta in normal equine skin and dermal wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Martin, Isabelle; Theoret, Christine L

    2004-01-01

    To describe immunolocalization of TGF-beta receptors (RI and RII) in normal equine skin and in thoracic or limb wounds, healing normally or with exuberant granulation tissue (EGT). Group A: six wounds on one metacarpus and one midthoracic area. Group B: six wounds on both metacarpi, one of which was bandaged to stimulate EGT. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect RI and RII expression in wound margins. Eight horses, randomly assigned to one of two study groups. Neutralizing polyclonal anti-rabbit RI and RII antibodies were used to detect spatial expression of RI and RII in biopsies obtained before wounding, at 12 and 24 hours, and 5, 10 and 14 days after wounding. RI and RII were co-localized in both unwounded and wounded skin. There were no differences in cell types staining positively between tissues obtained from the limb and the thorax, or from normally healing limb wounds and limb wounds with EGT, at any time. Because of increased cellularity within EGT, staining intensity of limb wounds with 'proud flesh' was greater than limb wounds healing normally, and thoracic wounds, during the proliferative phase of repair. Strong expression of RI and RII, particularly in limb wounds with EGT, suggested that signalling for stimulation of matrix proteins is in place to contribute to scarring. This information may help determine the appropriate time for using receptor antagonists to prevent scarring of limb wounds of horses.

  12. Acceleration of skin wound healing by low-dose indirect ionizing radiation in male rats

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    Nasrollah Jabbari

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A recent hypothesis has revealed that low-dose irradiation (LDI with ionizing radiation might have a promoting effect on fracture healing. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of direct (electron beam and indirect (gamma-ray low-dose ionizing irradiations on the wound healing process in male rats. In 72 male rats, a full-thickness wound was incised. The animals were randomly assigned to three groups, each with 24 rats. The first two groups were named IG–I and IG–II and respectively exposed to electron and gamma-radiations (75 cGy immediately after the surgical procedure. The third group was considered as the control (CG and remained untreated. Skin biopsies from the subgroups were collected on days 3, 7, 15, and 21 after the operation and evaluated using histological and biomechanical methods. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey's post hoc test using SPSS 20 software. Histological studies of tissues showed that the mean number of fibroblasts, macrophages, blood vessel sections, and neutrophils on the third and seventh days after the surgery in the gamma-treated group was higher than that in both other groups. In contrast, on day 21, the mean number of mentioned cells in the gamma-treated group was lower than in the other two groups. In addition, the mean maximum stress value was significantly greater in the gamma-treated group. Results of this study showed that gamma-ray irradiation is effective in the acceleration of wound healing.

  13. Modeling of skin cooling, blood flow, and optical properties in wounds created by electrical shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thu T. A.; Shupp, Jeffrey W.; Moffatt, Lauren T.; Jordan, Marion H.; Jeng, James C.; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C.

    2012-02-01

    High voltage electrical injuries may lead to irreversible tissue damage or even death. Research on tissue injury following high voltage shock is needed and may yield stage-appropriate therapy to reduce amputation rate. One of the mechanisms by which electricity damages tissue is through Joule heating, with subsequent protein denaturation. Previous studies have shown that blood flow had a significant effect on the cooling rate of heated subcutaneous tissue. To assess the thermal damage in tissue, this study focused on monitoring changes of temperature and optical properties of skin next to high voltage wounds. The burns were created between left fore limb and right hind limb extremities of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats by a 1000VDC delivery shock system. A thermal camera was utilized to record temperature variation during the exposure. The experimental results were then validated using a thermal-electric finite element model (FEM).

  14. Does treatment of split-thickness skin grafts with negative-pressure wound therapy improve tissue markers of wound healing in a porcine experimental model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Christopher; Ciraulo, David; Coulter, Michael; Desjardins, Steven; Liaw, Lucy; Peterson, Sarah

    2012-08-01

    Negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) has been used for to treat wounds for more than 15 years and, more recently, has been used to secure split-thickness skin grafts. There are some data to support this use of NPWT, but the actual mechanism by which NPWT speeds healing or improves skin graft take is not entirely known. The purpose of this project was to assess whether NPWT improved angiogenesis, wound healing, or graft survival when compared with traditional bolster dressings securing split-thickness skin grafts in a porcine model. We performed two split-thickness skin grafts on each of eight 30 kg Yorkshire pigs. We took graft biopsies on postoperative days 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 and submitted the samples for immunohistochemical staining, as well as standard hematoxylin and eosin staining. We measured the degree of vascular ingrowth via immunohistochemical staining for von Willenbrand's factor to better identify blood vessel epithelium. We determined the mean cross-sectional area of blood vessels present for each representative specimen, and then compared the bolster and NPWT samples. We also assessed each graft for incorporation and survival at postoperative day 10. Our analysis of the data revealed that there was no statistically significant difference in the degree of vascular ingrowth as measured by mean cross-sectional capillary area (p = 0.23). We did not note any difference in graft survival or apparent incorporation on a macroscopic level, although standard hematoxylin and eosin staining indicated that microscopically, there seemed to be better subjective graft incorporation in the NPWT samples and a nonsignificant trend toward improved graft survival in the NPWT group. We were unable to demonstrate a significant difference in vessel ingrowth when comparing NPWT and traditional bolster methods for split-thickness skin graft fixation. More studies are needed to elucidate the manner by which NPWT exerts its effects and the true clinical magnitude of these

  15. Distant mesenchymal progenitors contribute to skin wound healing and produce collagen: evidence from a murine fetal microchimerism model.

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    Elke Seppanen

    Full Text Available The contribution of distant and/or bone marrow-derived endogenous mesenchymal stem cells (MSC to skin wounds is controversial. Bone marrow transplantation experiments employed to address this have been largely confounded by radiation-resistant host-derived MSC populations. Gestationally-acquired fetal MSC are known to engraft in maternal bone marrow in all pregnancies and persist for decades. These fetal cells home to damaged maternal tissues, mirroring endogenous stem cell behavior. We used fetal microchimerism as a tool to investigate the natural homing and engraftment of distant MSC to skin wounds. Post-partum wild-type mothers that had delivered transgenic pups expressing luciferase under the collagen type I-promoter were wounded. In vivo bioluminescence imaging (BLI was then used to track recruitment of fetal cells expressing this mesenchymal marker over 14 days of healing. Fetal cells were detected in 9/43 animals using BLI (Fisher exact p = 0.01 versus 1/43 controls. These collagen type I-expressing fetal cells were specifically recruited to maternal wounds in the initial phases of healing, peaking on day 1 (n = 43, p<0.01. This was confirmed by detection of Y-chromosome+ve fetal cells that displayed fibroblast-like morphology. Histological analyses of day 7 wounds revealed vimentin-expressing fetal cells in dermal tissue. Our results demonstrate the participation of distant mesenchymal cells in skin wounds. These data imply that endogenous MSC populations are likely recruited from bone marrow to wounds to participate in healing.

  16. Vacuum-assisted wound closure following urine-induced skin and thigh muscle necrosis in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, L; Hotston-Moore, A; Holt, P

    2009-01-01

    Vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) is a relatively new technique for wound management in dogs and cats. It was successfully used in this cat to treat severe urine-induced skin and thigh muscle necrosis, resulting from a traumatic urethral rupture. No complications were encountered with application of the VAC technique and production of a healthy granulation bed, suitable for wound reconstruction, was achieved after only five days of VAC treatment. The marked wound contraction (40.3%) obtained after eight days of treatment, was sufficient to allow closure of the defect using a simple, rotational subdermal plexus flap. This was a safe, effective and efficient treatment for a challenging wound in a difficult anatomical location.

  17. RNA Aptamer Delivery through Intact Human Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenn, Jon D; Neil, Jessica; Donahue, Christine; Demock, Kellie; Tibbetts, Caitlin Vestal; Cote-Sierra, Javier; Smith, Susan H; Rubenstein, David; Therrien, Jean-Philippe; Pendergrast, P Shannon; Killough, Jason; Brown, Marc B; Williams, Adrian C

    2018-02-01

    It is generally recognized that only relatively small molecular weight (typically aptamer, highly specific to the human IL-23 cytokine, with picomolar activity. Results demonstrate penetration of the aptamer into freshly excised human skin using two different fluorescent labels. A dual hybridization assay quantified aptamer from the epidermis and dermis, giving levels far exceeding the cellular half maximal inhibitory concentration values (>100,000-fold), and aptamer integrity was confirmed using an oligonucleotide precipitation assay. A T helper 17 response was stimulated in freshly excised human skin resulting in significantly upregulated IL-17f, and IL-22; topical application of the IL-23 aptamer decreased both IL-17f and IL-22 by approximately 45% but did not result in significant changes to IL-23 mRNA levels, confirming that the aptamer did not globally suppress mRNA levels. This study demonstrates that very-large-molecular-weight RNA aptamers can permeate across the intact human skin barrier to therapeutically relevant levels into both the epidermis and dermis and that the skin-penetrating aptamer retains its biologically active conformational structure capable of binding to endogenous IL-23. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A Prospective, Randomized, Single-Blind Study Comparing Cyanoacrylate Adhesives to Sutures for Wound Closure in Skin Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartenstein, Diana W; Cummins, Deborah L; Rogers, Gary S

    2017-11-01

    Cyanoacrylate tissue adhesives are not more likely to result in wound dehiscence or infection than sutured closures. However, suturing is the gold standard for optimal cosmetic appearance of scars. To determine whether cyanoacrylate tissue adhesives produce a cosmetic outcome equivalent to sutures at 3 months. Secondary outcomes include time for wound closure, time spent on wound care, and surgeon and patient satisfaction. Seventy-one patients scheduled for skin cancer excision at Beverly Hospital were included in this prospective, randomized, single-blind study. Cosmetic appearance was assessed by a masked panel of dermatologists and plastic surgeons who evaluated digital photographs. Secondary outcomes were assessed by nursing recordings and patient and surgeon evaluations. There was no significant difference in wound appearance (Visual Analog Scale: p = .4693, modified Hollander Wound Evaluation Score: p = .6413) between adhesives and sutures. It was faster and easier for a surgeon to use adhesives, and subjects spent less time caring for and were more satisfied by wounds sealed with adhesives than sutures. Cyanoacrylate tissue adhesives produce cosmetic outcomes that are not statistically significantly different than sutures; furthermore, they are associated with fast application, easy wound care, and patient satisfaction.

  19. CONTAMINATED PROBLEMATIC SKIN WOUNDS IN DIABETIC PATIENTS TREATED WITH AUTOLOGOUS PLATELET-RICH PLASMA (PRP: A case series study

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    Tsvetan Sokolov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP on contaminated problematic skin ulcers in patients with diabetes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 6 patients had been treated within the period from 2012 to 2014; they had various types of problematic wounds and diabetes type 2. Patients’ distribution by sex was as follows: 1 man and 5 women; mean age- 68 years. Ulcer types: acute (2 patients, hard-to-heal (2 patients and chronic (2 patients ulcers. The mean size of the skin and soft tissue defect was 9,5 cm2. Pathogenic microflora was isolated in 4 patients - S. aureus in three and Е. Coli in one. Based on a scheme developed by us, all cases were treated by administering platelet-rich plasma, derived by PRGF Endoret system. Follow-up period was within 4 – 6 months (4,5 on average. We used platelet rich plasma derived by PRGF Endoret system, applied on the wound bed on a weekly basis. RESULTS: Application of PRP allowed successful closure of all wounds. There were no complications associated with treatment of PRP. Epithelialization of the wound took 15 weeks on average for all patients. One patient presented with hyperkeratosis. Initial score of followed wounds, based on the scales are as follows: Total wound score – 10 p. Total anatomic score – 8 p. Total score – 15 p. at the initial stage. At the end of the treatment period scores were as follows - 0 p., which means excellent results CONCLUSION: We believe that the application of PRP may become optimal therapy in the treatment of contaminated problematic wounds in diabetic patients. PRP not only stimulates wound healing, but also has antimicrobial properties, which may contribute to the prevention of infections.

  20. Human age and skin physiology shape diversity and abundance of Archaea on skin

    OpenAIRE

    Moissl-Eichinger, C; Probst, AJ; Birarda, G; Auerbach, A; Koskinen, K; Wolf, P; Holman, HYN

    2017-01-01

    © The Author(s) 2017. The human skin microbiome acts as an important barrier protecting our body from pathogens and other environmental influences. Recent investigations have provided evidence that Archaea are a constant but highly variable component of the human skin microbiome, yet factors that determine their abundance changes are unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the abundance of archaea on human skin is influenced by human age and skin physiology by quantitative PCR of 51 diff...

  1. Transforming growth factor-beta3-loaded microtextured membranes for skin regeneration in dermal wounds.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vooijs, D.P.P.; Walboomers, X.F.; Parker, J.A.T.C.; Hoff, J.W. Von den; Jansen, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Adverse effects of wound healing, such as excessive scar tissue formation, wound contraction, or nonhealing wounds represent a major clinical issue in today's healthcare. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta3 has specifically been implicated in wound healing. Our hypothesis was that local

  2. Electrospinning of Poly(ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol Nanofibres Encapsulated with Ag Nanoparticles for Skin Wound Healing

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    Chao Xu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin wound healing is an urgent problem in clinics and military activities. Although significant advances have been made in its treatment, there are several challenges associated with traditional methods, for example, limited donor skin tissue for transplantation and inflammation during long-term healing time. To address these challenges, in this study we present a method to fabricate Poly(ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol (EVOH nanofibres encapsulated with Ag nanoparticle using electrospinning technique. The fibres were fabricated with controlled diameters (59 nm–3 μm by regulating three main parameters, that is, EVOH solution concentration, the electric voltage, and the distance between the injection needle tip (high-voltage point and the fibre collector. Ag was added to the nanofibres to offer long-term anti-inflammation effect by slow release of Ag nanoparticles through gradual degradation of EVOH nanofibre. The method developed here could lead to new dressing materials for treatment of skin wounds.

  3. Comparative histology and immunohistochemistry of porcine versus human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debeer, Sabine; Le Luduec, Jean-Benoît; Kaiserlian, Dominique; Laurent, Philippe; Nicolas, Jean-François; Dubois, Bertrand; Kanitakis, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Porcine skin is increasingly being employed as a model of human skin in various research fields, including pharmacology, toxicology and immunology, with particular interest in percutaneous permeation and organ transplantation. Porcine skin shows several anatomical and physiological similarities, but also some differences, with human skin, but few in depth comparative studies are so far available. To study the immunohistochemical properties of normal porcine skin in comparison with human skin. We performed a histological and immunohistochemical study on frozen and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded skin biopsies from domestic swine and normal human skin, using a panel of 93 monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies recognizing various human and porcine skin cell types or structures. We found that several antibodies used to detect normal human skin cells showed equivalent immunoreactivity on normal porcine skin. However, some antibodies commonly used to detect human skin antigens remained unreactive on porcine skin. Our findings highlight the main immunohistochemical properties of porcine skin in comparison with those of human skin and provide a morphological and immunohistochemical basis useful to researchers using porcine skin.

  4. The Effects of Aloe vera Cream on the Expression of CD4+ and CD8+ Lymphocytes in Skin Wound Healing

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    Yos Adi Prakoso

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to explore the effect of topical application of Aloe vera on skin wound healing. Thirty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 150–200 grams were divided into four groups. All groups were anesthetized, shaved, and exposed to round full-thickness punch biopsy on the back: group I (control; group II (treated with 1% Aloe vera cream; group III (treated with 2% Aloe vera cream; and group IV (treated with madecassol®. The treatments were given once a day. Macroscopic and microscopic examination were observed at 5, 10, and 15 days after skin biopsy. Skin specimens were prepared for histopathological study using H&E stain and IHC stain against CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes. All the data were analyzed using SPSS16. The result showed that topical application of 1% and 2% Aloe vera cream significantly reduced the percentage of the wound, leucocytes infiltration, angiogenesis, and expression of CD8+ lymphocytes and increased the epidermal thickness and the expression of CD4+ lymphocytes (p ≤ 0,05. There was no significant difference in the number of fibroblasts in all groups. Topical application of 1% and 2% Aloe vera cream has wound healing potential via their ability to increase the ratio of CD4+/CD8+ lymphocytes in the wound area.

  5. In situ deposition of a personalized nanofibrous dressing via a handy electrospinning device for skin wound care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Rui-Hua; Jia, Yue-Xiao; Qin, Chong-Chong; Zhan, Lu; Yan, Xu; Cui, Lin; Zhou, Yu; Jiang, Xingyu; Long, Yun-Ze

    2016-02-01

    Current strategies for wound care provide limited relief to millions of patients who suffer from burns, chronic skin ulcers or surgical-related wounds. The goal of this work is to develop an in situ deposition of a personalized nanofibrous dressing via a handy electrospinning (e-spinning) device and evaluate its properties related to skin wound care. MCM-41 type mesoporous silica nanoparticles decorated with silver nanoparticles (Ag-MSNs) were prepared by a facile and environmentally friendly approach, which possessed long-term antibacterial activity and low cytotoxicity. Poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) incorporated with Ag-MSNs was successfully electrospun (e-spun) into nanofibrous membranes. These in situ e-spun nanofibrous membranes allowed the continuous release of Ag ions and showed broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against two common types of pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. In addition, the in vivo studies revealed that these antibacterial nanofibrous membranes could reduce the inflammatory response and accelerate wound healing in Wistar rats. The above results strongly demonstrate that such patient-specific dressings could be broadly applied in emergency medical transport, hospitals, clinics and at the patients' home in the near future.Current strategies for wound care provide limited relief to millions of patients who suffer from burns, chronic skin ulcers or surgical-related wounds. The goal of this work is to develop an in situ deposition of a personalized nanofibrous dressing via a handy electrospinning (e-spinning) device and evaluate its properties related to skin wound care. MCM-41 type mesoporous silica nanoparticles decorated with silver nanoparticles (Ag-MSNs) were prepared by a facile and environmentally friendly approach, which possessed long-term antibacterial activity and low cytotoxicity. Poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) incorporated with Ag-MSNs was successfully electrospun (e-spun) into nanofibrous membranes. These in situ e

  6. Adipose Extracellular Matrix/Stromal Vascular Fraction Gel Secretes Angiogenic Factors and Enhances Skin Wound Healing in a Murine Model

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    Mingliang Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells are an attractive cell type for cytotherapy in wound healing. The authors recently developed a novel, adipose-tissue-derived, injectable extracellular matrix/stromal vascular fraction gel (ECM/SVF-gel for stem cell therapy. This study was designed to assess the therapeutic effects of ECM/SVF-gel on wound healing and potential mechanisms. ECM/SVF-gel was prepared for use in nude mouse excisional wound healing model. An SVF cell suspension and phosphate-buffered saline injection served as the control. The expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1 in ECM/SVF-gel were analyzed at different time points. Angiogenesis (tube formation assays of ECM/SVF-gel extracts were evaluated, and vessels density in skin was determined. The ECM/SVF-gel extract promoted tube formation in vitro and increased the expression of the angiogenic factors VEGF and bFGF compared with those in the control. The expression of the inflammatory chemoattractant MCP-1 was high in ECM/SVF-gel at the early stage and decreased sharply during the late stage of wound healing. The potent angiogenic effects exerted by ECM/SVF-gel may contribute to the improvement of wound healing, and these effects could be related to the enhanced inflammatory response in ECM/SVF-gel during the early stage of wound healing.

  7. The Effects of Topical Application of Thyroid Hormone (Liothyronine, T3 on Skin Wounds in Diabetic Wistar Rats

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    Mahmoud Ali Kaykhaei

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Efficient treatment of skin ulcers, a leading cause of substantial number of morbidities among diabetic patients, is a subject of matter. Objectives Since current therapies are partially effective and/or expensive and topical liothyronine (T3 was shown to get faster wound healing in mice, the present study was designed to assess its effectiveness in diabetic male rats. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, 30 male wistar rats with mean weight of 242 g were randomly assigned into control (group C (n = 10 and diabetic (n = 20 groups. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal (i.p. injection of streptozotocin. Diabetic rats were randomly subdivided into two groups: diabetic T3 group (group A which was treated with 150 ng/day topical T3 and diabetic placebo group (group B received vehicle. Full thickness wound on dorsum was created in each rat (1 cm2. Photographs were taken at baseline, fourth and tenth day to analyze changes in surface areas of wounds. Results Results obtained from the present study showed that baseline surface areas of wounds were similar in all groups. Conversely, wound contraction was significantly better in T3 group in fourth and tenth days compared to placebo group, (P = 0.001, P < 0.00001. Moreover, wound healing was impaired in diabetic placebo group compared to other groups (all P < 0.05. Conclusions This study revealed that topical T3 administration is an effective measure for treatment of ulcers in diabetic male rats.

  8. Models for the study of skin wound healing. The role of Nrf2 and NF-κB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrozova, Nikola; Ulrichova, Jitka; Galandakova, Adela

    2017-03-01

    Nrf2 and NF-κB transcription factors act in wound healing via their anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects or through the immune response. Studying this process is a matter of some importance given the high cost of wound treatment. A major contribution in this regard is being made by models that enable investigation of the involvement of multiple factors in wound healing and testing new curative substances. This literature review was carried out via searches in the PubMed and Web of Science databases up to 2016. It covers skin wound healing, available models for its study (part I), the role of Nrf2 and NF-κB, substances that influence them and whether they can be used as markers (part II). Was found that in vitro assays are used for their availability but a holistic view must be established in vivo. In silico approaches are facilitating assessment of a vast amount of research data. Nfr2 and NF-κB play a crucial and reciprocal role in wound healing. Nrf2 controls repair-associated inflammation and protects against excessive accumulation of ROS while Nf-κB activates the innate immune reaction, proliferation and migration of cells, modulates expression of matrix metalloproteinases, secretion and stability of cytokines and growth factors for wound healing.

  9. Antimicrobial-impregnated dressing combined with negative-pressure wound therapy increases split-thickness skin graft engraftment: a simple effective technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cheng-Chun; Chew, Khong-Yik; Chen, Chien-Chang; Kuo, Yur-Ren

    2015-01-01

    Immobilization and adequate surface contact to wounds are critical for skin graft take. Techniques such as the tie-over dressing, cotton bolster, and vacuum-assisted closure are used to address this, but each has its limitations. This study is designed to assess the effect of antimicrobial-impregnated dressing (AMD) combined with negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) on skin graft survival. Retrospective case-control study : Patients with chronic or contaminated wounds treated with split-thickness skin graft. A broad spectrum of wounds was included, from causes such as trauma, burns, chronic diabetic ulcers, and infection. Antimicrobial-impregnated dressing, which contains 0.2% polyhexamethylene biguanide, with NPWT MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE:: Success of skin graft : In the AMD group, all skin grafts achieved 100% take without secondary intervention. No infection or graft failure was observed in any patients, and no complications, such as hematoma or seroma formation, were noted, although in the control group partial loss of skin grafts was noted in 3 patients. Infection and inadequate immobilization were thought to be the main reasons. There were no hematoma or seroma formations in the control group. Use of an AMD dressing with NPWT after split-thickness skin grafting can be an effective method to ensure good graft to wound contact and enhances skin graft take in chronic and contaminated wounds.

  10. Healing rate and autoimmune safety of full-thickness wounds treated with fish skin acellular dermal matrix versus porcine small-intestine submucosa: a noninferiority study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldursson, Baldur Tumi; Kjartansson, Hilmar; Konrádsdóttir, Fífa; Gudnason, Palmar; Sigurjonsson, Gudmundur F; Lund, Sigrún Helga

    2015-03-01

    A novel product, the fish skin acellular dermal matrix (ADM) has recently been introduced into the family of biological materials for the treatment of wounds. Hitherto, these products have been produced from the organs of livestock. A noninferiority test was used to compare the effect of fish skin ADM against porcine small-intestine submucosa extracellular matrix in the healing of 162 full-thickness 4-mm wounds on the forearm of 81 volunteers. The fish skin product was noninferior at the primary end point, healing at 28 days. Furthermore, the wounds treated with fish skin acellular matrix healed significantly faster. These results might give the fish skin ADM an advantage because of its environmental neutrality when compared with livestock-derived products. The study results on these acute full-thickness wounds might apply for diabetic foot ulcers and other chronic full-thickness wounds, and the shorter healing time for the fish skin-treated group could influence treatment decisions. To test the autoimmune reactivity of the fish skin, the participants were tested with the following ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) tests: RF, ANA, ENA, anti ds-DNA, ANCA, anti-CCP, and anticollagen I and II. These showed no reactivity. The results demonstrate the claims of safety and efficacy of fish skin ADM for wound care. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Efficacy of 50 Hz electromagnetic fields on human epidermal stem cell transplantation seeded in collagen sponge scaffolds for wound healing in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Wen-Fang; Xu, Wei-Cheng; Zhu, Hong-Xiang; Huang, Hong; Wu, Bo; Zhang, Ming-Sheng

    2017-04-01

    To explore the possible efficacy of electromagnetic fields (EMF) for skin tissue engineering, effects of EMF exposure on epidermal stem cells (ESC) seeded in collagen sponge scaffolds for wound healing in a murine model were investigated. The wound models of a full-thickness defect established with 36 7 ∼ 8-week-old nude mice were randomly divided into three groups: a control group, an ESC-only group, and an ESC with EMF exposure group (frequency of 50 Hz, magnetic induction of 5 mT, 60 min per day for 20 days). ESC were separated from human foreskin and cultured in vitro, and then transplanted with collagen sponge scaffolds as a delivery vehicle to wounds of the ESC-only group, and ESC with EMF exposure group was exposed to EMF after ESC transplantation. Effects of EMF on morphological changes and expression of β1 integrin in regenerated skins were observed. Wound healing rates and healing times were collected to evaluate the efficacy of repairment. Results showed that human ESC were successfully transplanted to nude mice, which facilitated the formation of intact skin on nude mice. In contrast to other groups, the wound healing of ESC with EMF exposure group was the fastest (P healing of ESC transplantation, and restore structural integrity of regenerated skin. Bioelectromagnetics. 38:204-212,2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Assessment of reinforced poly(ethylene glycol) chitosan hydrogels as dressings in a mouse skin wound defect model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Szu-Hsien [Institute of Polymer Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei City 10617, Taiwan (China); Tsao, Ching-Ting [Institute of Polymer Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei City 10617, Taiwan (China); Epithelial Biology Laboratory/Transgenic Mice Core-Laboratory, Department of Anatomy, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 33302, Taiwan (China); Chang, Chih-Hao [Department of Orthopedics, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taiwan (China); National Taiwan University College of Medicine, No. 1, Jen-Ai Road, Taipei City 10018, Taiwan (China); Lai, Yi-Ting [Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei City 10617, Taiwan (China); Wu, Ming-Fung [Animal Medicine Center, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Jen-Ai Road, Taipei City 10018, Taiwan (China); Chuang, Ching-Nan [Institute of Polymer Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei City 10617, Taiwan (China); Chou, Hung-Chia [Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei City 10617, Taiwan (China); Wang, Chih-Kuang, E-mail: ckwang@kmu.edu.tw [Department of Medicinal and Applied Chemistry, Kaohsiung Medical University, No. 100, Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Kuo-Haung, E-mail: khhsieh@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Polymer Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei City 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2013-07-01

    Wound dressings of chitosan are biocompatible, biodegradable, antibacterial and hemostatic biomaterials. However, applications for chitosan are limited due to its poor mechanical properties. Here, we conducted an in vivo mouse angiogenesis study on reinforced poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-chitosan (RPC) hydrogels. RPC hydrogels were formed by cross-linking chitosan with PEGs of different molecular weights at various PEG to chitosan ratios in our previous paper. These dressings can keep the wound moist, had good gas exchange capacity, and was capable of absorbing or removing the wound exudate. We examined the ability of these RPC hydrogels and neat chitosan to heal small cuts and full-thickness skin defects on the backs of male Balb/c mice. Histological examination revealed that chitosan suppressed the infiltration of inflammatory cells and accelerated fibroblast proliferation, while PEG enhanced epithelial migration. The RPC hydrogels promoted wound healing in the small cuts and full layer wounds. The optimal RPC hydrogel had a swelling ratio of 100% and a water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of about 2000 g/m{sup 2}/day. In addition, they possess good mechanical property and appropriate degradation rates. Thus, the optimal RPC hydrogel formulation functioned effectively as a wound dressing and promoted wound healing. Highlights: ► Mouse angiogenesis study on reinforced poly(ethylene glycol)-chitosan (RPC) ► Water vapor transmission rate of about 2000 g/m{sup 2}/day is characteristic of RPC. ► RPC suppressed inflammatory cells and accelerated fibroblast proliferation. ► RPC composed of 1000-RP10C90 can be used as a biomaterial for wound dressing.

  13. Comparison of autologous versus allogeneic epithelial-like stem cell treatment in an in vivo equine skin wound model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeckx, Sarah Y; Borena, Bizunesh M; Van Hecke, Lore; Chiers, Koen; Maes, Sofie; Guest, Deborah J; Meyer, Evelyne; Duchateau, Luc; Martens, Ann; Spaas, Jan H

    2015-10-01

    Several studies report beneficial effects of autologous and allogeneic stem cells on wound healing. However, no comparison between autologous versus allogeneic epithelial-like stem cells (EpSCs) has been made so far. For this reason, we first hypothesize that both EpSC types enhance wound healing in comparison to vehicle treatment and untreated controls. Second, on the basis of other studies, we hypothesized that there would be no difference between autologous and allogeneic EpSCs. Twelve full-thickness skin wounds were created in six horses. Each horse was subjected to (i) autologous EpSCs, (ii) allogeneic EpSCs, (iii) vehicle treatment or (iv) untreated control. Wound evaluation was performed at day 3, 7 and 14 through wound exudates and at week 1, 2 and 5 through biopsies. Wound circumference and surface were significantly smaller in autologous EpSC-treated wounds. A significantly lower amount of total granulation tissue (overall) and higher vascularization (week 1) was observed after both EpSC treatments. Significantly more major histocompatibility complex II-positive and CD20-positive cells were noticed in EpSC-treated wounds at week 2. In autologous and allogeneic groups, the number of EpSCs in center biopsies was low after 1 week (11.7% and 6.1%), decreased to 7.6% and 1.7%, respectively (week 2), and became undetectable at week 5. These results confirm the first hypothesis and partially support the second hypothesis. Besides macroscopic improvements, both autologous and allogeneic EpSCs had similar effects on granulation tissue formation, vascularization and early cellular immune response. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Human gingival fibroblasts display a non-fibrotic phenotype distinct from skin fibroblasts in three-dimensional cultures.

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    Wesley Mah

    Full Text Available Scar formation following skin injury can be a major psychosocial and physiological problem. However, the mechanisms of scar formation are still not completely understood. Previous studies have shown that wound healing in oral mucosa is faster, associates with a reduced inflammatory response and results to significantly reduced scar formation compared with skin wounds. In the present study, we hypothesized that oral mucosal fibroblasts from human gingiva are inherently distinct from fibroblasts from breast and abdominal skin, two areas prone to excessive scar formation, which may contribute to the preferential wound healing outcome in gingiva. To this end, we compared the phenotype of human gingival and skin fibroblasts cultured in in vivo-like three-dimensional (3D cultures that mimic the cells' natural extracellular matrix (ECM niche. To establish 3D cultures, five parallel fibroblast lines from human gingiva (GFBLs and breast skin (SFBLs were seeded in high density, and cultured for up to 21 days in serum and ascorbic acid containing medium to induce expression of wound-healing transcriptome and ECM deposition. Cell proliferation, morphology, phenotype and expression of wound healing and scar related genes were analyzed by real-time RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunocytochemical methods. The expression of a set of genes was also studied in three parallel lines of human abdominal SFBLs. Findings showed that GFBLs displayed morphologically distinct organization of the 3D cultures and proliferated faster than SFBLs. GFBLs expressed elevated levels of molecules involved in regulation of inflammation and ECM remodeling (MMPs while SFBLs showed significantly higher expression of TGF-β signaling, ECM and myofibroblast and cell contractility-related genes. Thus, GFBLs display an inherent phenotype conducive for fast resolution of inflammation and ECM remodeling, characteristic for scar-free wound healing, while SFBLs have a profibrotic, scar

  15. Short- and long-term outcomes of small auto- and cryopreserved allograft skin grafting in those with >60%TBSA deep burn wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shizhao, Ji; Yongjun, Zheng; Lisen, Zhang; Pengfei, Luo; Xiaopeng, Zheng; Guangyi, Wang; Shihui, Zhu; Xiaoyan, Hu; Shichu, Xiao; Zhaofan, Xia

    2017-02-01

    The shortage of autologous skin sources not only adds difficulty to the repair of extremely large-area deep burn wounds but affects the healing quality. The aim of the present study is to explore an ideal method for repairing large-areas burn wounds with low scar formation. Between 2002 and 2014, we used grafting of small auto- and cryopreserved allo-skin to repair large-area residual burn wounds in wounds after 21 days 21 patients, and after early excision in 17 patients. The wound healing rate and quality were observed. The skin expansion rate was 1:9-1:16, and the mean area of wounds repaired after three weeks was 64.8±7.3%TBSA, the wound healing rate was 91.8±3.7%. The mean area of the early excision group was 65.9±9.8 TBSA, where the healing rate was 94.5±5.6%. After small auto- and cryopreserved allograft skin grafting, the epidermis of the auto-skin gradually replaced the allo-epidermis, and the allo-dermis persisted for a prolonged period. The dermal collagen fibers at the allo-skin grafting sites were well arranged. At 1-2-year follow-up, observation showed that the Vancouver Scar Scale total score was 4·304±2·363, and we did not discern significant contracture and dysfunction in the large joints of the four extremities. Small auto- and cryopreserved allograft skin grafting of small auto- and allo-skin not only raised the graft expansion rate but offers a stable wound healing rate. This new technique may provide an option for repair of large-area deep burn wounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of apricot tree resin hydroethanolic extract on skin wound healing in rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karim Javadabadi; Mehrangiz Sadoghi; Majid Tavafi; Mohamad Reza Gholami

    2017-01-01

    ... I˅, wound care therapy apricot tree resin extract. In the treated and placebo groups after anesthesia applied induction circular wound area of 280 square millimeters behind rats, but treated groups continued treatment for 21 days...

  17. Hidradenitis Suppurativa: Combined Treatment with Dermal Template, Skin Graft and Negative Pressure Wound Therapy, a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Mata Ribeiro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hidrosadenitis supurativa is a chronic inflammatory disease with great physical and psychological impact. Although conservative treatments may be effective in mild forms of the disease, extensive surgical resection and reconstruction are necessary in more severe forms of the disease. The purpose of this paper is to describe our two-stage reconstructive procedure regarding this kind of disease. We present a clinical case of a patient with severe, bilateral axillary hidrosadenitis. In the first surgical step we excised the lesions and applied the artificial dermis secured with negative pressure wound therapy. In the second step we used a split thickness skin graft to close the wound and again applied negative pressure wound therapy. The graft take was very good, without complications. The cosmetic outcome is acceptable and shoulder mobility was not compromised. No recurrence was detected (nine months follow up.

  18. [Influence of collagen/fibroin scaffolds containing silver nanoparticles on dermal regeneration of full-thickness skin defect wound in rat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Z G; Zhang, L P; Wang, X G; Zhou, H L; Guo, S X; Wu, P; Han, C M

    2017-02-20

    Objective: To explore the influence of collagen/fibroin scaffolds containing silver nanoparticles on dermal regeneration of full-thickness skin defect wound in rat. Methods: Eighty-one collagen/fibroin scaffolds containing silver nanoparticles (with the mass concentration of silver nanoparticles as 10 mg/L) and 81 collagen/fibroin scaffolds without silver nanoparticles were produced respectively with freeze-drying method and enrolled as silver nanoparticles scaffold group (SNS) and control scaffold group (CS). Nine scaffolds in each group were cultured with human fibroblasts. At post culture hour (PCH) 2, 12, and 24, the human fibroblasts adherent to the scaffolds (n=3) in two groups were counted. Four full-thickness skin defect wounds were reproduced on the back of each one of the 36 SD rats. The rats were divided into groups SNS (wounds were transplanted with collagen/fibroin scaffolds containing silver nanoparticles) and CS (wounds were transplanted with collagen/fibroin scaffolds without silver nanoparticles) according to the random number table, with 18 rats in each group. In post surgery week (PSW) 1, 2, and 4, 6 rats in each group were sacrificed respectively for general observation, observation of histological structure, inflammatory cell infiltration, and collagen deposition with HE staining, count of CD68 positive cells with immunohistochemical staining, and mRNA expressions of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-10 with real-time fluorescent quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Data were processed with analysis of variance of factorial design, t test, and Bonferroni correction. Results: (1) At PCH 2, 12, and 24, the numbers of human fibroblasts adherent to the scaffolds in the two groups were close (with t values from 1.77 to 2.60, P values above 0.05). (2) In PSW 1, no obvious symptom of infection was observed in wound or wound edge of rats in group SNS with obvious vascularization of scaffolds, while obvious symptoms of infection were

  19. [Effect of PRX-2 gene transferred by lipofectamine on the proliferation of human skin fibroblasts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hui-feng; Chai, Jia-ke; Lin, Zi-hao

    2011-10-11

    To explore the effects of PRX-2 gene transferred by lipofectamine on the human skin fibroblasts. Normal human skin fibroblasts were cultured and PRX-2 gene was transferred by lipofectamine. The proliferation of fibroblasts was detected by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) and flow cytometry. The proliferation of PRX-2-transfected fibroblasts was stronger than that of normal counterparts. There were fewer cells during G0-G1 period and more cells during S and G2-M periods. The proliferative index increased. The proliferation of fibroblasts may be modified by transfected PRX-2. Thus PRX-2 plays an important role during the healing of human skin wound.

  20. [Effects of arnebia root oil on wound healing of rats with full-thickness skin defect and the related mechanism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, J Y; Ma, Q; Yang, Z B; Gong, J J; Wu, Y S

    2017-09-20

    Objective: To observe the effects of arnebia root oil on wound healing of rats with full-thickness skin defect, and to explore the related mechanism. Methods: Eighty SD rats were divided into arnebia root oil group and control group according to the random number table, with 40 rats in each group, then full-thickness skin wounds with area of 3 cm×3 cm were inflicted on the back of each rat. Wounds of rats in arnebia root oil group and control group were treated with sterile medical gauze and bandage package infiltrated with arnebia root oil gauze or Vaseline gauze, respectively, with dressing change of once every two days. On post injury day (PID) 3, 7, 14, and 21, 10 rats in each group were sacrificed respectively for general observation and calculation of wound healing rate. The tissue samples of unhealed wound were collected for observation of histomorphological change with HE staining, observation of expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) with immunohistochemical staining, and determination of mRNA expressions of VEGF and bFGF with real time fluorescent quantitive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Data were processed with analysis of variance of factorial design, t test, and Bonferroni correction. Results: (1) On PID 3, there were a few secretions in wounds of rats in the two groups. On PID 7, there were fewer secretions and more granulation tissue in wounds of rats in arnebia root oil group, while there were more secretions and less granulation tissue in wounds of rats in control group. On PID 14, most of the wounds of rats in arnebia root oil group were healed and there was much red granulation tissue in unhealed wounds, while part of wounds of rats in control group was healed and there were a few secretions and less granulation tissue in unhealed wounds. On PID 21, wounds of rats in arnebia root oil group were basically healed, while there were still some unhealed wounds of rats in

  1. Evaluation of the healing activity of therapeutic clay in rat skin wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dário, Giordana Maciel; da Silva, Geovana Gomes; Gonçalves, Davi Ludvig; Silveira, Paulo; Junior, Adilson Teixeira; Angioletto, Elidio; Bernardin, Adriano Michael

    2014-10-01

    The use of clays for therapeutic practice is widespread in almost all regions of the world. In this study the physicochemical and microbiological healing characteristics of a clay from Ocara, Brazil, popularly used for therapeutic uses, were analyzed. The presence of Ca, Mg, Al, Fe, and Si was observed, which initially indicated that the clay had potential for therapeutic use. The average particle size of the clay (26.3 μm) can induce the microcirculation of the skin and the XRD analysis shows that the clay is formed by kaolinite and illite, a swelling clay. During the microbiological evaluation there was the need to sterilize the clay for later incorporation into the pharmaceutical formula. The accelerated stability test at 50°C for 3 months has showed that the pharmaceutical formula remained stable with a shelf life of two years. After the stability test the wound-healing capacity of the formulation in rats was evaluated. It was observed that the treatment made with the formulation containing the Ocara clay showed the best results since the formula allowed greater formation of collagen fibers and consequent regeneration of the deep dermis after seven days of treatment and reepithelialization and continuous formation of granulation tissue at the 14th day. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Pig dorsum model for examining impaired wound healing at the skin-implant interface of percutaneous devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Brian Mueller; Betz, Daniel Holod; Ford, Taylor Ann; Beck, James Peter; Bloebaum, Roy Drake; Jeyapalina, Sujee

    2013-09-01

    Percutaneous medical devices are indispensable in contemporary clinical practice, but the associated incidence of low to moderate mortality infections represents a significant economic and personal cost to patients and healthcare providers. Percutaneous osseointegrated prosthetics also suffer from a similar risk of infection, limiting their clinical acceptance and usage in patients with limb loss. We hypothesized that transepidermal water loss (TEWL) management at the skin-implant interface may improve and maintain a stable skin-to-implant interface. In this study, skin reactions in a 3-month, pig dorsum model were assessed using standard histology, immunohistochemistry, and quantitative image analysis. Immunohistochemical analysis of peri-implant tissue explants showed evidence of: continuous healing (cytokeratin 6+), hypergranulation tissue (procollagen+), hyper-vascularity (collagen 4+), and the presence of fibrocytes (CD45+ and procollagen type 1+). Importantly, the gross skin response was correlated to a previous load-bearing percutaneous osseointegrated prosthetic sheep study conducted in our lab. The skin responses of the two models indicated a potentially shared mechanism of wound healing behavior at the skin-implant interface. Although TEWL management did not reduce skin migration at the skin-implant interface, the correlation of qualitative and quantitative measures validated the pig dorsum model as a high-throughput platform for translational science based percutaneous interface investigations in the future.

  3. Harmonics optical biopsy of human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Shih-Peng; Tsai, Tsung-Han; Chu, Shi-Wei; Lee, Wen-Jeng; Liao, Yi-Hua; Huang, Hsin-Yi; Sun, Chi-Kuang

    2005-04-01

    Traditional biopsy requires the removal, fixation, and staining of tissues from the human body. Its procedure is invasive and painful. Therefore, a novel method of optical biopsy is desired which can perform in vivo examination and is noninvasive, highly penetrative, with no energy deposition and damage, without invasive pharmaceutical injection, and with three-dimensional (3D) imaging capability and sub-micron spatial resolution. Two-photon fluorescence microscopy (TPFM) is previously applied for biopsy of skin due to its high lateral resolution, low out-of-focus damage, and intrinsic 3D section capability. However, for future clinical applications without surgery, current 700-850 nm based laser scanning technology still presents several limitations including low penetration depth, in-focus cell damages, multi-photon phototoxicity due to high optical intensity in the 800 nm wavelength region, and toxicity if exogenous fluorescence markers were required. Here we demonstrate a novel noninvasive optical biopsy method called harmonics optical biopsy (HOB), which combines both second harmonic generation imaging and third harmonic generation imaging. Due to virtual transition nature of harmonic generations and based on light sources with an optical wavelength located around the biological penetration window (~1300nm), our HOB can serve as a truly non-invasive biopsy tool with sub-micron three-dimensional spatial resolution without any energy deposition and exogenous contrast agents. From preliminary experiment result, our HOB can reconstruct 3D cellular and subcellular images from skin surface through dermis. Besides, by utilizing backward propagating detection geometry, we will show that this technique is ideal for non-invasive clinical biopsy of human skin diseases and even useful for the early diagnosis of skin cancer symptom such as the angiogenesis.

  4. Global Gene Expression Analysis in PKC[alpha]-/- Mouse Skin Reveals Structural Changes in the Dermis and Defective Wound Granulation Tissue

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nichola H Cooper; Jeya P Balachandra; Matthew J Hardman

    2015-01-01

    .... Detailed analysis of the skin and wounds from wild-type and PKCα-/- mice reveals a failure to upregulate collagen and other ECM components in response to injury, resulting in delayed granulation...

  5. L-PRP/L-PRF in esthetic plastic surgery, regenerative medicine of the skin and chronic wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieslik-Bielecka, Agata; Choukroun, Joseph; Odin, Guillaume; Dohan Ehrenfest, David M

    2012-06-01

    The use of platelet concentrates for topical use is of particular interest for the promotion of skin wound healing. Fibrin-based surgical adjuvants are indeed widely used in plastic surgery since many years in order to improve scar healing and wound closure. However, the addition of platelets and their associated growth factors opened a new range of possibilities, particularly for the treatment of chronic skin ulcers and other applications of regenerative medicine on the covering tissues. In the 4 families of platelet concentrates available, 2 families were particularly used and tested in this clinical field: L-PRP (Leukocyte- and Platelet-rich Plasma) and L-PRF (Leukocyte- and Platelet-Rich Fibrin). These 2 families have in common the presence of significant concentrations of leukocytes, and these cells are important in the local cleaning and immune regulation of the wound healing process. The main difference between them is the fibrin architecture, and this parameter considerably influences the healing potential and the therapeutical protocol associated to each platelet concentrate technology. In this article, we describe the historical evolutions of these techniques from the fibrin glues to the current L-PRP and L-PRF, and discuss the important functions of the platelet growth factors, the leukocyte content and the fibrin architecture in order to optimize the numerous potential applications of these products in regenerative medicine of the skin. Many outstanding perspectives are appearing in this field and require further research.

  6. [Influence of covering of auto-crosslinked sodium hyaluronate gel in combination with xenogenic acellular dermal matrix on healing of full-thickness skin defect wound in pig].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Y X; Zhang, G A; Wan, J B; Zhao, X Z

    2016-09-20

    To explore the influence of covering of auto-crosslinked sodium hyaluronate gel in combination with xenogenic acellular dermal matrix (ADM) on healing of full-thickness skin defect wound in pig. Totally four 10 cm×10 cm full-thickness skin defect wounds were reproduced symmetrically on both sides of spine on the back of each one of the six Chinese experimental minipigs. After autologous microskin grafting, the 4 wounds in each pig were divided into 4 groups according to the random number table, with 6 wounds in each group. Wounds in allogenic skin group (AS) were covered by full-thickness skin from one (not the recipient) of the 6 pigs; wounds in xenogenic skin group (XS) were covered by full-thickness skin of sheep; wounds in xenogenic ADM group (XA) were covered by ADM of sheep; wounds in combination group (C) were covered by ADM of sheep combined with auto-crosslinked sodium hyaluronate gel. The wounds were bound up with pressure, and the dressing was changed once every 7 days. On post surgery day (PSD) 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42 when changing dressing, the condition of wounds and the exfoliation of the covering on microskin were observed, and the complete exfoliation time of the covering was recorded. On PSD 28, 35, and 42, the wound healing rate was calculated. Data were processed with one-way analysis of variance and SNK test. (1) On PSD 7, no fluid appeared under the covering of wounds in groups AS and C, while plenty of fluid appeared under the covering of wounds in groups XS and XA. From PSD 14 to 35, most of the full-thickness skin of pig in group AS did not exfoliate. All the full-thickness skin of sheep in group XS exfoliated, leaving a lot of crusts on the surface of the wounds on PSD 14. Most of the ADM of sheep in group XA separated from the wound with the crusts turning dry and exfoliating on PSD 14. All the ADM of sheep exfoliated with most of the wounds healed in group C on PSD 35. On PSD 42, all the full-thickness skin of pig in group AS

  7. The isolated perfused human skin flap model: A missing link in skin penetration studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ternullo, Selenia; de Weerd, Louis; Flaten, Gøril Eide; Holsæter, Ann Mari; Škalko-Basnet, Nataša

    2017-01-01

    Development of effective (trans)dermal drug delivery systems requires reliable skin models to evaluate skin drug penetration. The isolated perfused human skin flap remains metabolically active tissue for up to 6h during in vitro perfusion. We introduce the isolated perfused human skin flap as a close-to-in vivo skin penetration model. To validate the model's ability to evaluate skin drug penetration the solutions of a hydrophilic (calcein) and a lipophilic (rhodamine) fluorescence marker were applied. The skin flaps were perfused with modified Krebs-Henseleit buffer (pH7.4). Infrared technology was used to monitor perfusion and to select a well-perfused skin area for administration of the markers. Flap perfusion and physiological parameters were maintained constant during the 6h experiments and the amount of markers in the perfusate was determined. Calcein was detected in the perfusate, whereas rhodamine was not detectable. Confocal images of skin cross-sections shoved that calcein was uniformly distributed through the skin, whereas rhodamine accumulated in the stratum corneum. For comparison, the penetration of both markers was evaluated on ex vivo human skin, pig skin and cellophane membrane. The proposed perfused flap model enabled us to distinguish between the penetrations of the two markers and could be a promising close-to-in vivo tool in skin penetration studies and optimization of formulations destined for skin administration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of platelet-rich plasma gel on skin healing in surgical wound in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRossi, Rafael; Coelho, Anna Carolina Anciliero de Oliveira; Mello, Gisele Silveira de; Frazílio, Fabrício Oliveira; Leal, Cássia Rejane Brito; Facco, Gilberto Gonçalves; Brum, Karine Bonucielli

    2009-01-01

    To establish a low-cost method to prepare platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and evaluates the potential of platelet derived factors to enhance wound healing in the surgical wounds in equine. To obtain a PRP gel, calcium gluconate and autologous thrombin were added to platelet-rich plasma. For the tests six saddle horses were used and two surgical incisions were made in each animal. Wounds were treated with PRP gel or untreated. Sequential wound biopsies collected at Treatment 1: at days 5 and 30 and Treatment 2: at days 15 and 45 post wounding permitted comparison of differentiation markers and wound repair. The optimal platelets enrichment over 4.0 time's baseline values was obtained using 300 g for 10 min on the first centrifugation and 640 g for 10 min on the second centrifugation. Wounds treated with PRP gel exhibit more rapid epithelial differentiation and enhanced organization of dermal collagen compared to controls in equine.

  9. Sensory neurons accelerate skin reepithelialization via substance P in an innervated tissue-engineered wound healing model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blais, Mathieu; Mottier, Lorène; Germain, Marie-Anne; Bellenfant, Sabrina; Cadau, Sébastien; Berthod, François

    2014-08-01

    Keratinocytes are responsible for reepithelialization and restoration of the epidermal barrier during wound healing. The influence of sensory neurons on this mechanism is not fully understood. We tested whether sensory neurons influence wound closure via the secretion of the neuropeptide substance P (SP) with a new tissue-engineered wound healing model made of an upper-perforated epidermal compartment reconstructed with human keratinocytes expressing green fluorescent protein, stacked over a dermal compartment, innervated or not with sensory neurons. We showed that sensory neurons secreted SP in the construct and induced a two times faster wound closure in vitro. This effect was partially reproduced by addition of SP in the model without neurons, and completely blocked by a treatment with a specific antagonist of the SP receptor neurokinin-1 expressed by keratinocytes. However, this antagonist did not compromise wound closure compared with the control. Similar results were obtained when the model with or without neurons was transplanted on CD1 mice, while wound closure occurred faster. We conclude that sensory neurons play an important, but not essential, role in wound healing, even in absence of the immune system. This model is promising to study the influence of the nervous system on reepithelialization in normal and pathological conditions.

  10. Accelerated mice skin acute wound healing in vivo by combined treatment of argon and helium plasma needle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Alcantara, Elizabeth; López-Callejas, Régulo; Morales-Ramírez, Pedro R; Peña-Eguiluz, Rosendo; Fajardo-Muñoz, Raúl; Mercado-Cabrera, Antonio; Barocio, Samuel R; Valencia-Alvarado, Raúl; Rodríguez-Méndez, Benjamín G; Muñoz-Castro, Arturo E; de la Piedad-Beneitez, Anibal; Rojas-Olmedo, Israel A

    2013-04-01

    The efficacy of a direct application of plasma needle to in vivo wound healing was experimentally studied in mice. This kind of plasma has achieved considerable success in blood coagulation and tissue restoration in mice. In the development of the present study, an argon plasma needle was chosen for coagulation purposes, whereas for healing purposes, a helium plasma needle was used. Treatment was applied with a plasma needle produced by argon and helium to a wound induced in laboratory mice. Tissue regeneration was carried out by three argon plasma treatments with 0.5 SLPM flow for 1 min and three treatments of helium with 1.5 SLPM flow. Intervals between each treatment were 5 min and 60 min for argon and helium plasmas, respectively, thus completing a total treatment time of 180 min. Histological sections were performed to corroborate the internal bleeding and tissue regeneration. After three treatments with argon plasma, the blood produced in the wound was coagulated and protein material appeared. By means of treatment with helium plasma, an approach of the wound edges was produced until the conclusion thereof. These results were corroborated histologically. This type of acceleration during the skin wound healing process can be attributed to the formation of reactive species such as NO, which were increased in the helium plasma needle with respect to the argon plasma needle. Copyright © 2013 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Skin Wound Healing Potential and Mechanisms of the Hydroalcoholic Extract of Leaves and Oleoresin of Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. Kuntze in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gushiken, Lucas Fernando Sérgio; Hussni, Carlos Alberto; Bastos, Jairo Kenupp; Rozza, Ariane Leite; Beserra, Fernando Pereira; Vieira, Ana Júlia; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Lemos, Marivane; Polizello Junior, Maurilio; da Silva, Jonas Joaquim Mangabeira; Nóbrega, Rafael Henrique; Martinez, Emanuel Ricardo Monteiro; Pellizzon, Cláudia Helena

    2017-01-01

    The wound healing is a complex process which, sometimes, can be a problem in public health because of the possibility of physical disability or even death. Due to the lack of a gold standard drug in skin wound treatment and aiming at the discovery of new treatments in skin repair and the mechanisms involved in the process, we used oleoresin (OR) from Copaifera langsdorffii and hydroalcoholic extract of the leaves (EH) to treat rat skin wounds. For that, male Wistar rats were divided into groups (n = 8): Lanette, Collagenase, 10% EH, or 10% OR and, after anesthesia, one wound of 2 cm was made in the back of animals. The wounds were treated once a day for 3, 7, or 14 days and the wound areas were measured. The rats were euthanized and skin samples destined to biochemical, molecular, and immunohistochemical analysis. The results showed a macroscopic retraction of the wounds of 10% EH and 10% OR creams and both treatments showed anti-inflammatory activity. Molecular and immunohistochemical results demonstrated the activity of Copaifera langsdorffii creams in angiogenesis, reepithelialization, wound retraction, and remodeling mechanisms.

  12. Skin Wound Healing Potential and Mechanisms of the Hydroalcoholic Extract of Leaves and Oleoresin of Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. Kuntze in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Fernando Sérgio Gushiken

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The wound healing is a complex process which, sometimes, can be a problem in public health because of the possibility of physical disability or even death. Due to the lack of a gold standard drug in skin wound treatment and aiming at the discovery of new treatments in skin repair and the mechanisms involved in the process, we used oleoresin (OR from Copaifera langsdorffii and hydroalcoholic extract of the leaves (EH to treat rat skin wounds. For that, male Wistar rats were divided into groups (n=8: Lanette, Collagenase, 10% EH, or 10% OR and, after anesthesia, one wound of 2 cm was made in the back of animals. The wounds were treated once a day for 3, 7, or 14 days and the wound areas were measured. The rats were euthanized and skin samples destined to biochemical, molecular, and immunohistochemical analysis. The results showed a macroscopic retraction of the wounds of 10% EH and 10% OR creams and both treatments showed anti-inflammatory activity. Molecular and immunohistochemical results demonstrated the activity of Copaifera langsdorffii creams in angiogenesis, reepithelialization, wound retraction, and remodeling mechanisms.

  13. Extracellular matrix characterization during healing of full-thickness wounds treated with a collagen/elastin dermal substitute shows improved skin regeneration in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamme, E. N.; de Vries, H. J.; van Veen, H.; Gabbiani, G.; Westerhof, W.; Middelkoop, E.

    1996-01-01

    We investigated the architecture of the extracellular matrix (ECM) during healing of full-thickness wounds in the pig. Two different treatments, one based on epidermal transplantation (split skin mesh grafts, SP wounds) and one consisting of a combination of epidermal transplantation and a dermal

  14. Low-level laser therapy with 810 nm wavelength improves skin wound healing in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancáková, Ludmila; Vasilenko, Tomáš; Kováč, Ivan; Jakubčová, Katarína; Hollý, Martin; Revajová, Viera; Sabol, František; Tomori, Zoltán; Iversen, Marjolein; Gál, Peter; Bjordal, Jan M

    2014-04-01

    The aim of present study was to evaluate whether low-level laser therapy (LLLT) can reverse the impaired wound healing process in diabetic rats. Impaired wound healing in diabetic patients represents a major health problem. Recent studies have indicated that LLLT may improve wound healing in diabetic rats, but the optimal treatment parameters are still unknown. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=21) were randomly divided into three groups: a healthy control group, a diabetic sham-treated group, and a diabetic LLLT-treated group. Diabetes mellitus was then induced by streptozotocin administration to the two diabetic groups. One 4 cm long full thickness skin incision and one full thickness circular excision (diameter=4 mm) were performed on the back of each rat. An infrared 810 nm laser with an output of 30 mW, a power density of 30 mW/cm(2), and a spot size of 1 cm(2) was used to irradiate each wound for 30 sec (daily dose of 0.9 J/cm(2)/wound/day). In diabetic rats, the histology of LLLT-treated excisions revealed a similar healing response to that in nondiabetic controls, with significantly more mature granulation tissue than in the sham-treated diabetic control group. LLLT reduced the loss of tensile strength, and increased the incision wound stiffness significantly compared with sham-irradiated rats, but this did not achieve the same level as in the nondiabetic controls. Our study demonstrates that infrared LLLT can improve wound healing in diabetic rats. Nevertheless, further research needs to be performed to evaluate the exact underlying mechanism and to further optimize LLLT parameters for clinical use.

  15. The top skin-associated genes: a comparative analysis of human and mouse skin transcriptomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Peter Arne; Buhren, Bettina Alexandra; Schrumpf, Holger; Homey, Bernhard; Zlotnik, Albert; Hevezi, Peter

    2014-06-01

    The mouse represents a key model system for the study of the physiology and biochemistry of skin. Comparison of skin between mouse and human is critical for interpretation and application of data from mouse experiments to human disease. Here, we review the current knowledge on structure and immunology of mouse and human skin. Moreover, we present a systematic comparison of human and mouse skin transcriptomes. To this end, we have recently used a genome-wide database of human gene expression to identify genes highly expressed in skin, with no, or limited expression elsewhere - human skin-associated genes (hSAGs). Analysis of our set of hSAGs allowed us to generate a comprehensive molecular characterization of healthy human skin. Here, we used a similar database to generate a list of mouse skin-associated genes (mSAGs). A comparative analysis between the top human (n=666) and mouse (n=873) skin-associated genes (SAGs) revealed a total of only 30.2% identity between the two lists. The majority of shared genes encode proteins that participate in structural and barrier functions. Analysis of the top functional annotation terms revealed an overlap for morphogenesis, cell adhesion, structure, and signal transduction. The results of this analysis, discussed in the context of published data, illustrate the diversity between the molecular make up of skin of both species and grants a probable explanation, why results generated in murine in vivo models often fail to translate into the human.

  16. A comparative study of the effects of 4-META/MMA-TBB resin and cyanoacrylate on wound healing of skin defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidokoro, Ryo; Nakajima, Kei; Kobayashi, Fumitaka; Takeda, Yukihiro; Matsuzaka, Kenichi; Katakura, Akira; Inoue, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the healing process of wounded skin following the application of cyanoacrylate or a 4-(2-methacryloxyethyl) trimellitic anhydride/methyl methacrylate-tributylborane resin (4-META resin). Those materials were applied to skin wound areas in rats, and the regenerating tissues were biopsied and examined at days 1, 3, 5, 7, and 14. Paraffin-embedded specimens were sectioned and stained with hematoxylin and eosin or with Azan-Mallory stain. Sections were also immunohistochemically stained with Pan-cytokeratin and CD68 antibodies. In cyanoacrylate-treated wounds, CD68-positive cells were observed in the connective tissue and their number increased up to day 5. The wound surface was completely covered by epithelial tissue at day 14. In 4-META resin-treated wounds, CD68-positive cells appeared in the soft-tissue hybrid layer (STHL) and epithelial tissue had migrated under the STHL by day 5. The wound surface was completely covered by epithelial tissue at day 7. CD68-positive cells were distributed over the entire area of the cyanoacrylate-treated wounds, but accumulated under the STHL in the 4-META resin-treated wounds. In conclusion, the results suggest that covering skin defects with a 4-META resin is an effective strategy to promote wound healing compared to cyanoacrylate. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Characterization of porcine skin as a model for human skin studies using infrared spectroscopic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Rong; Bhargava, Rohit

    2011-06-07

    Porcine skin is often considered a substitute for human skin based on morphological and functional data, for example, for transdermal drug diffusion studies. A chemical, structural and temporal characterization of porcine skin in comparison to human skin is not available but will likely improve our understanding of this porcine skin model. Here, we employ Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic imaging to holistically measure chemical species as well as spatial structure as a function of time to characterize porcine skin as a model for human skin. Porcine skin was found to resemble human skin spectroscopically and differences are elucidated. Cryo-prepared fresh porcine skin samples for spectroscopic imaging were found to be stable over time and small variations are observed. Hence, we extended characterization to the use of this model for dynamic processes. In particular, the capacity and stability of this model in transdermal diffusion is examined. The results indicate that porcine skin is likely to be an attractive tool for studying diffusion dynamics of materials in human skin.

  18. Buried absorbable polyglactin 910 sutures do not result in stronger wounds in porcine full thickness skin incisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Katy L; Lear, William; Robertson, Bria L; Kruzic, Jamie J

    2016-10-01

    To test the hypothesis that the mechanical strength of wounds closed with a combination of buried dermal absorbable sutures and superficial nonabsorbable nylon sutures will be higher than wounds closed with only superficial nonabsorbable nylon sutures. Four Yucatan pigs were anesthetized and each received four 4.5cm full thickness incisions on their dorsal surfaces, placed 8cm apart. Half of all incisions were randomly allocated and repaired with 3-0 polyglactin 910 (Vicryl(™)) buried dermal absorbable sutures and superficial 3-0 nylon sutures, using a simple interrupted pattern. The other half received only 3-0 nylon sutures. Two pigs were humanely euthanized at day 10, with specimen harvest for mechanical testing; the other two pigs had superficial nylon sutures removed at day 10, as per current clinical practice, and were humanely euthanized at day 42, with specimen harvest for mechanical testing. Tensile loads were applied perpendicularly to the wounds with a displacement rate of 40mm per minute. Wounds at day 42 were >9 times stronger than wounds at day 10 (p<0.0001). There was no difference in average wound strength at either day 10 or day 42 between wounds with and without buried dermal absorbable sutures. Buried dermal absorbable sutures failed to provide additional wound support at either 10 or 42 days. This result may have immediate implications for clinicians who perform cutaneous surgery and keep superficial sutures in for at least 10 days. Future research will be directed to shorter time studies, other buried dermal absorbable suture materials, and alternatives to buried dermal absorbable sutures. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. The current concepts in management of animal (dog, cat, snake, scorpion) and human bite wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Hassan; Rhee, Peter; Pandit, Viraj; Tang, Andrew; Gries, Lynn; Joseph, Bellal

    2015-03-01

    Animal and human bite wounds represent a significant global health issue. In the United States, animal and human bites are a very common health issue, causing significant morbidity and even, in rare scenarios, mortality. Most animal bite wounds in the United States are caused by dogs, with cat bites being a distant second. Human bite wounds constitute a dominant subset of all bite wounds. Several studies of bite wounds have reported improved outcomes with early diagnosis and immediate treatment. However, the available literature on the initial treatment provides a plethora of conflicting opinions and results. In this review, our aim was to identify and assess the current evidence on the management of animal (dog, cat, insects, scorpions, and snakes) and human bite wounds. Review article, level III.

  20. Relating friction on the human skin to the hydration and temperature of the skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veijgen, N.K.; Masen, M.A.; Heide, E. van der

    2013-01-01

    The human skin is constantly in interaction with materials and products. Therefore, skin friction is relevant to all people. In the literature, the frictional properties of the skin have been linked to a large variety of variables, like age, gender and hydration. The present study compares the data

  1. The effect of Echinacea purpurea aerial organ dried extract vs. Zinc oxide on skin wound healing in rat: a morphometric & histopathologic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delazar A

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Because of eventual side effects of chemical drugs, the efficacy of natural wound healing accelerators in long-term diseases and some situations is demanded to practitioners. The initial aim of our study was to assess full thickness excisional skin wound healing and inflammation diminution, Morphometrically and Histopathologically, after topical application of dried extract of Echinacea purpurea aerial part in rats, compared with zinc oxide. "nMethods: Sixty wistar rats received four full thickness excisional wounds with the aim of surgical punch on the back skin under surgical anesthesia. All rats were randomly divided into groups 1, 2 and 3, of Echinacea purpurea, zinc oxide and control, respectively. All of them were treated topically once a day for 21 uninterrupted days. Healing of the wounds was daily measured by taking digital photographs and analysis. Histopathologic assessment was carried out in the 0th, 3rd, 7th, 14th, and 21st days of treatment period as well, and wound healing was assessed using 1 to 6 healing grades. "nResults: According to Morphometric findings, the wound contraction rate in group 1 after 21 days of skin punching, with wound size of 0.18±0.03 mm2 in contrast with group 2, 2.81±0.21mm2, was much higher than that in other groups. Group 1 with wound contraction rate of 2.5 times in the day 7 and 3 times in the day 14 more than group 2, had the best wound contraction (p<0.01. histopathologic assessment revealed that, overall healing rate in the group 1 was highest (p<0.01. "nConclusion: Echinacea purpurea dried herbal extract could be a new capable remedy to accelerate skin wound healing because of its potential anti-phlogosis and wound healing stimulatory properties.

  2. Microporous dermal-mimetic electrospun scaffolds pre-seeded with fibroblasts promote tissue regeneration in full-thickness skin wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvallet, Paul P; Schultz, Matthew J; Mitchell, Elizabeth H; Bain, Jennifer L; Culpepper, Bonnie K; Thomas, Steven J; Bellis, Susan L

    2015-01-01

    Electrospun scaffolds serve as promising substrates for tissue repair due to their nanofibrous architecture and amenability to tailoring of chemical composition. In this study, the regenerative potential of a microporous electrospun scaffold pre-seeded with dermal fibroblasts was evaluated. Previously we reported that a 70% collagen I and 30% poly(Ɛ-caprolactone) electrospun scaffold (70:30 col/PCL) containing 160 μm diameter pores had favorable mechanical properties, supported fibroblast infiltration and subsequent cell-mediated deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM), and promoted more rapid and effective in vivo skin regeneration when compared to scaffolds lacking micropores. In the current study we tested the hypothesis that the efficacy of the 70:30 col/PCL microporous scaffolds could be further enhanced by seeding scaffolds with dermal fibroblasts prior to implantation into skin wounds. To address this hypothesis, a Fischer 344 (F344) rat syngeneic model was employed. In vitro studies showed that dermal fibroblasts isolated from F344 rat skin were able to adhere and proliferate on 70:30 col/PCL microporous scaffolds, and the cells also filled the 160 μm pores with native ECM proteins such as collagen I and fibronectin. Additionally, scaffolds seeded with F344 fibroblasts exhibited a low rate of contraction (~14%) over a 21 day time frame. To assess regenerative potential, scaffolds with or without seeded F344 dermal fibroblasts were implanted into full thickness, critical size defects created in F344 hosts. Specifically, we compared: microporous scaffolds containing fibroblasts seeded for 4 days; scaffolds containing fibroblasts seeded for only 1 day; acellular microporous scaffolds; and a sham wound (no scaffold). Scaffolds containing fibroblasts seeded for 4 days had the best response of all treatment groups with respect to accelerated wound healing, a more normal-appearing dermal matrix structure, and hair follicle regeneration. Collectively these

  3. Microporous dermal-mimetic electrospun scaffolds pre-seeded with fibroblasts promote tissue regeneration in full-thickness skin wounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul P Bonvallet

    Full Text Available Electrospun scaffolds serve as promising substrates for tissue repair due to their nanofibrous architecture and amenability to tailoring of chemical composition. In this study, the regenerative potential of a microporous electrospun scaffold pre-seeded with dermal fibroblasts was evaluated. Previously we reported that a 70% collagen I and 30% poly(Ɛ-caprolactone electrospun scaffold (70:30 col/PCL containing 160 μm diameter pores had favorable mechanical properties, supported fibroblast infiltration and subsequent cell-mediated deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM, and promoted more rapid and effective in vivo skin regeneration when compared to scaffolds lacking micropores. In the current study we tested the hypothesis that the efficacy of the 70:30 col/PCL microporous scaffolds could be further enhanced by seeding scaffolds with dermal fibroblasts prior to implantation into skin wounds. To address this hypothesis, a Fischer 344 (F344 rat syngeneic model was employed. In vitro studies showed that dermal fibroblasts isolated from F344 rat skin were able to adhere and proliferate on 70:30 col/PCL microporous scaffolds, and the cells also filled the 160 μm pores with native ECM proteins such as collagen I and fibronectin. Additionally, scaffolds seeded with F344 fibroblasts exhibited a low rate of contraction (~14% over a 21 day time frame. To assess regenerative potential, scaffolds with or without seeded F344 dermal fibroblasts were implanted into full thickness, critical size defects created in F344 hosts. Specifically, we compared: microporous scaffolds containing fibroblasts seeded for 4 days; scaffolds containing fibroblasts seeded for only 1 day; acellular microporous scaffolds; and a sham wound (no scaffold. Scaffolds containing fibroblasts seeded for 4 days had the best response of all treatment groups with respect to accelerated wound healing, a more normal-appearing dermal matrix structure, and hair follicle regeneration

  4. Decreasing Skin Graft Contraction through Topical Wound Bed Preparation with Anti-Inflammatory Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Wound healing -Contraction ACCOMPLISHMENTS What were the major goals of the project? Develop treatments that modulate inflammation and decrease...subjective observation and objective analysis using the Silhouette Star® we found that modulating the wound at day 3 (late treatment ) lead to...for all treatment groups, Indomethacin treated wounds had the worse graft survival (90.37%) at day 14 (Figure 1). Interestingly, other Indomethacin

  5. Hypoxia pretreatment of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells seeded in a collagen-chitosan sponge scaffold promotes skin wound healing in diabetic rats with hindlimb ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Chuan; Hao, Haojie; Xia, Lei; Liu, Jiejie; Ti, Dongdong; Dong, Liang; Hou, Qian; Song, Haijing; Liu, Huiling; Zhao, Yali; Fu, Xiaobing; Han, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) have properties that make them promising for the treatment of chronic nonhealing wounds. The major challenge is ensuring an efficient, safe, and painless delivery of BM-MSCs. Tissue-engineered skin substitutes have considerable benefits in skin damage resulting from chronic nonhealing wounds. Here, we have constructed a three-dimensional biomimetic scaffold known as collagen-chitosan sponge scaffolds (CCSS) using the cross-linking and freeze-drying method. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that CCSS had an interconnected network pore configuration about 100 μm and exhibited a suitable swelling ratio for maintaining morphological stability and appropriate biodegradability to improve biostability using swelling and degradation assays. Furthermore, BM-MSCs were seeded in CCSS using the two-step seeding method to construct tissue-engineered skin substitutes. In addition, in this three-dimensional biomimetic CCSS, BM-MSCs secreted their own collagen and maintain favorable survival ability and viability. Importantly, BM-MSCs exhibited a significant upregulated expression of proangiogenesis factors, including HIF-1α, VEGF, and PDGF following hypoxia pretreatment. In vivo, hypoxia pretreatment of the skin substitute observably accelerated wound closure via the reduction of inflammation and enhanced angiogenesis in diabetic rats with hindlimb ischemia. Thus, hypoxia pretreatment of the skin substitutes can serve as ideal bioengineering skin substitutes to promote optimal diabetic skin wound healing. © 2015 by the Wound Healing Society.

  6. Mesenchymal stem cells: potential for therapy and treatment of chronic non-healing skin wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marfia, Giovanni; Navone, Stefania Elena; Di Vito, Clara; Ughi, Nicola; Tabano, Silvia; Miozzo, Monica; Tremolada, Carlo; Bolla, Gianni; Crotti, Chiara; Ingegnoli, Francesca; Rampini, Paolo; Riboni, Laura; Gualtierotti, Roberta; Campanella, Rolando

    2015-01-01

    Wound healing is a complex physiological process including overlapping phases (hemostatic/inflammatory, proliferating and remodeling phases). Every alteration in this mechanism might lead to pathological conditions of different medical relevance. Treatments for chronic non-healing wounds are expensive because reiterative treatments are needed. Regenerative medicine and in particular mesenchymal stem cells approach is emerging as new potential clinical application in wound healing. In the past decades, advance in the understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying wound healing process has led to extensive topical administration of growth factors as part of wound care. Currently, no definitive treatment is available and the research on optimal wound care depends upon the efficacy and cost-benefit of emerging therapies. Here we provide an overview on the novel approaches through stem cell therapy to improve cutaneous wound healing, with a focus on diabetic wounds and Systemic Sclerosis-associated ulcers, which are particularly challenging. Current and future treatment approaches are discussed with an emphasis on recent advances.

  7. Comparison of human and porcine skin for characterization of sunscreens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigmann, Hans-Jürgen; Schanzer, Sabine; Patzelt, Alexa; Bahaban, Virginie; Durat, Fabienne; Sterry, Wolfram; Lademann, Jürgen

    2009-03-01

    The universal sun protection factor (USPF) characterizing sunscreen efficacy based on spectroscopically determined data, which were obtained using the tape stripping procedure. The USPF takes into account the complete ultraviolet (UV) spectral range in contrast to the classical sun protection factor (SPF). Until now, the USPF determination has been evaluated only in human skin. However, investigating new filters not yet licensed excludes in vivo investigation on human skin but requires the utilization of a suitable skin model. The penetration behavior and the protection efficacy of 10 commercial sunscreens characterized by USPF were investigated, comparing human and porcine skin. The penetration behavior found for typical UV filter substances is nearly identical for both skin types. The comparison of the USPF obtained for human and porcine skin results in a linear relation between both USPF values with a correlation factor R2=0.98. The results demonstrate the possibility for the use of porcine skin to determine the protection efficacy of sunscreens.

  8. Assessment of Ulcer Wounds Size Using 3D Skin Surface Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hani, Ahmad Fadzil M.; Eltegani, Nejood M.; Hussein, Suraiya H.; Jamil, Adawiyah; Gill, Priya

    In this work 3D surface scans of wounds are used to obtain several measurement including wound top area, true surface area (rue area), depth, and volume for the purpose of assessing the progress of ulcer wounds throughout treatment. KONICA MINOLTA 910 laser scanner is used to obtain the surface scans. The algorithm for estimating top area and true surface area from surface scan can reduce the inaccuracy that might result when using manual method. Two methods for solid construction and volume computation were considered; namely mid-point projection and convex hull approximation (Delaunay tetrahedralization). The performance of convex hull approximation method for volume estimation is improved by performing surface subdivision prior to the approximation. The performance of these algorithms on different patterns of simulated wound models is presented. Furthermore the algorithms are tested in two molded wounds printed using rapid prototyping (RP) technique.

  9. Reduced prevalence and severity of wounds following implementation of the Champions for Skin Integrity model to facilitate uptake of evidence-based practice in aged care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Helen E; Chang, Anne M; Gibb, Michelle; Finlayson, Kathleen J; Parker, Christina; O'Reilly, Maria; McDowell, Jan; Shuter, Patricia

    2017-02-08

    To evaluate the implementation of the Champions for Skin Integrity model on facilitating uptake of evidence-based wound management and improving skin integrity in residents of aged care facilities. The incidence of skin tears, pressure injuries and leg ulcers increases with age, and such wounds can be a serious issue in aged care facilities. Older adults are not only at higher risk for wounds related to chronic disease but also injuries related to falls and manual handling requirements. A longitudinal, pre-post design. The Champions for Skin Integrity model was developed using evidence-based strategies for transfer of evidence into practice. Data were collected before and six months after implementation of the model. Data on wound management and skin integrity were obtained from two random samples of residents (n = 200 pre; n = 201 post) from seven aged care facilities. A staff survey was also undertaken (n = 126 pre; n = 143 post) of experience, knowledge and evidence-based wound management. Descriptive statistics were calculated for all variables. Where relevant, chi-square for independence or t-tests were used to identify differences between the pre-/postdata. There was a significant decrease in the number of residents with a wound of any type (54% pre vs 43% post, χ(2) 4·2, p = 0·041), as well as a significant reduction in specific wound types, for example pressure injuries (24% pre vs 10% post, χ(2) 14·1, p Integrity model has the potential to improve uptake of evidence-based wound management and improve skin integrity for older adults. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Human skin equivalent as an alternative to animal testing

    OpenAIRE

    Mertsching, Heike; Weimer, Michaela; Kersen, Silke; Brunner, Herwig

    2008-01-01

    The 3-D skin equivalent can be viewed as physiologically comparable to the natural skin and therefore is a suitable alternative for animal testing. This highly differentiated in vitro human skin equivalent is used to assess the efficacy and mode of action of novel agents. This model is generated from primary human keratinocytes on a collagen substrate containing human dermal fibroblasts. It is grown at the air-liquid interface which allows full epidermal stratification and epidermal-dermal in...

  11. Influence of beam shape on in-vitro cellular transformations in human skin fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mthunzi, Patience; Forbes, Andrew; Hawkins, Denise; Abrahamse, Heidi; Karsten, Aletta E.

    2005-08-01

    A variety of strategies have been utilised for prevention and treatment of chronic wounds such as leg ulcers, diabetic foot ulcers and pressure sores1. Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) has been reported to be an invaluable tool in the enhancement of wound healing through stimulating cell proliferation, accelerating collagen synthesis and increasing ATP synthesis in mitochondria to name but a few2. This study focused on an in-vitro analysis of the cellular responses induced by treatment with three different laser beam profiles namely, the Gaussian (G), Super Gaussian (SG) and Truncated Gaussian (TG), on normal wounded irradiated (WI) and wounded non-irradiated (WNI) human skin fibroblast cells (WS1), to test their influence in wound healing at 632.8 nm using a helium neon (HeNe) laser. For each beam profile, measurements were made using average energy densities over the sample ranging from 0.2 to 1 J, with single exposures on normal wounded cells. The cells were subjected to different post irradiation incubation periods, ranging from 0 to 24 hours to evaluate the duration (time) dependent effects resulting from laser irradiation. The promoted cellular alterations were measured by increase in cell viability, cell proliferation and cytotoxicity. The results obtained showed that treatment with the G compared to the SG and TG beams resulted in a marked increase in cell viability and proliferation. The data also showed that when cells undergo laser irradiation some cellular processes are driven by the peak energy density rather than the energy of the laser beam. We show that there exist threshold values for damage, and suggest optimal operating regimes for laser based wound healing.

  12. Chemical ecology of interactions between human skin microbiota and mosquitoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhulst, N.O.; Takken, W.; Dicke, M.; Schraa, G.; Smallegange, R.C.

    2010-01-01

    Microbiota on the human skin plays a major role in body odour production. The human microbial and chemical signature displays a qualitative and quantitative correlation. Genes may influence the chemical signature by shaping the composition of the microbiota. Recent studies on human skin microbiota,

  13. In vitro construction of tissue engineered skin for wound repair after escharectomy of third degree scald: An experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-feng MA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To observe the practicability and effect of tissue engineered skin for repairing the wound after escharectomy of third degree scald (TDSE in rat model. Methods  Epithelial cells and fibroblasts from newborn SD rats were isolated by enzyme digestion method and cultured in vitro, and porcine acellular dermal matrix (PADM without cytotoxicity was prepared by hyperosmotic saline/sodium hydroxide method. The fibroblasts were mixed with bovine type Ⅰ collagen and inoculated on the surface of PADM. Third passage of cultured epidermal cells from newborn SD rats were inoculated on the collagen surface of the dermal matrix to obtain tissue engineered skin, and it was used to prepare epidermal cell sheet. Forty-eight SD rats with TDSE wound were randomly divided into two groups, then tissue engineered skin (experiment group, and epidermal cell sheet (control group graftings were performed to cover the wounds respectively. Finally, gross observation and histological changes were observed in grafted area. The wound healing rate and wound contraction rate were compared between the two groups. Microvessel count (MVC was performed with antiCD34 monoclonal antibody immunohistochemical staining technique, and vascular endothelial cells were labeled. Basal membrane of the skin was identified by immunohistochemical anti-Laminin staining technique. Results  There was no obvious sign of acute rejection of the graft in both groups. The graft survival rate was 75.05%±3.69%, 83.12%±3.13% and 92.03%±3.87% at the 2th, 4th and 6th week respectively in the experimental group. The graft survival rate was 77.63%±3.23%, 83.17%±3.92% and 91.09%±3.35% at the 2th, 4th and 6th week in the control group. There was no significant difference between the two groups (P>0.05, but the contraction rate of the grafts was 9.13%±2.27%, 18.52%±3.40%, 23.92%±3.01% at the 2th, 4th, 6th week, respectively, in the experimental group, and 14.21%±3.05%, 29.12%±3

  14. North America Wound, Ostomy, and Continence and Enterostomal Therapy Nurses Current Ostomy Care Practice Related to Peristomal Skin Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, Janice C; McNichol, Laurie; Boarini, Joy

    The purpose of this study was to describe the practice of 796 ostomy nurses in North America in 2014 related to peristomal skin issues. Descriptive study. Participants were 796 wound, ostomy, and continence (WOC) and enterostomal therapy (ET) nurses currently practicing in the United States or Canada and caring for patients with ostomies. The collection of data occurred in conjunction with an educational program on peristomal skin complications and practice issues and solicited the participant's perception on the incidence and frequency of peristomal skin issues as well as on practice patterns. Participants attended an educational program. They were also asked to anonymously respond to multiple-choice questions on ostomy care management via an audience response system followed by discussion of each item and their responses. This descriptive study reports on the answers to the questions as well as the pertinent discussion points. Participants estimated that approximately 77.70% of their patients developed peristomal skin issues. The most commonly encountered problem was irritant contact dermatitis (peristomal moisture-associated skin damage). Contributing factors were inappropriate use of a pouching system owing to lack of follow-up after hospital discharge. Reported interventions for the prevention and management of peristomal skin issues included preoperative stoma site marking, use of a convex pouching system, and barrier rings. However, subsequent discussion revealed that the frequency of use of these products varied considerably. Participants identified shortened hospital stays, absence of preoperative stoma marking, and limited outpatient follow-up as contributing to development of peristomal skin problems. WOC and ET nurses estimate that more than three-quarters of persons living with an ostomy develop peristomal skin problems. Multiple interventions for managing these problems were identified, but some variability in management approaches emerged.

  15. A custom tailored model to investigate skin penetration in porcine skin and its comparison with human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbig, Michael E; Houdek, Pia; Gorissen, Sascha; Zorn-Kruppa, Michaela; Wladykowski, Ewa; Volksdorf, Thomas; Grzybowski, Stephan; Kolios, Georgios; Willers, Christoph; Mallwitz, Henning; Moll, Ingrid; Brandner, Johanna M

    2015-09-01

    Reliable models for the determination of skin penetration and permeation are important for the development of new drugs and formulations. The intention of our study was to develop a skin penetration model which (1) is viable and well supplied with nutrients during the period of the experiment (2) is mimicking human skin as far as possible, but still is independent from the problems of supply and heterogeneity, (3) can give information about the penetration into different compartments of the skin and (4) considers specific inter-individual differences in skin thickness. In addition, it should be quick and inexpensive (5) and without ethical implications (6). Using a chemically divers set of four topically approved active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), namely diclofenac, metronidazole, tazarotene, and terbinafine, we demonstrated that the model allows reliable determination of drug concentrations in different layers of the viable epidermis and dermis. For APIs susceptible for skin metabolism, the extent of metabolic transformation in epidermis and dermis can be monitored. Furthermore, a high degree of accordance in the ability for discrimination of skin concentrations of the substances in different layers was found in models derived from porcine and human skin. Viability, proliferation, differentiation and markers for skin barrier function were surveyed in the model. This model, which we call 'Hamburg model of skin penetration' is particularly suited to support a rational ranking and selection of dermatological formulations within drug development projects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Acceleration of wound healing in acute full-thickness skin wounds using a collagen-binding peptide with an affinity for MSCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huili Wang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have been accepted as a promising cell source in tissue repair and regeneration. However, the inability to enrich MSCs in target areas limits their wide application. As a result, it has been a major goal to induce MSCs to be abundantly and specifically recruited to the injury site. In this study, a peptide with a specific affinity for MSCs (E7 peptide was immobilized to a collagen scaffold via a collagen-binding domain (CBD to construct a functional collagen scaffold. In addition, the hypothesis that this method could recruit MSCs specifically was evaluated in a porcine model. In vivo investigations indicated that due to the immunoreaction, the CBD-MSC-peptide collagen scaffold enhanced MSC adhesion and infiltration and promoted wound healing. At day 7 after surgery, we found more infiltrating cells and capillaries in the Collagen/CBD-E7 peptide group compared to the Scaffold group. At day 14, 21 and 28, a faster healing process was observed in the Collagen/CBD-E7 peptide group, with significant differences compared with the other groups (P < 0.05, P < 0.01. The results demonstrate the potential use of targeted therapy to rapidly heal skin wounds.

  17. Silicon-dioxide-polyvinylpyrrolidone as a wound dressing for skin defects in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öri, Ferenc; Dietrich, Richard; Ganz, Cornelia; Dau, Michael; Wolter, Daniel; Kasten, Annika; Gerber, Thomas; Frerich, Bernhard

    2017-01-01

    There is a high demand for temporary wound dressings that improve wound healing and regeneration. Silicon (as SiO2) has been shown to support the growth and collagen formation in biological systems. A nanocomposite was made from PVP (polyvinylpyrrolidon), nano-sized silica aggregates and water and served for fabrication of a wet dressing material (SiO2-PVP gel, by cross-linking the gel) and a freeze-dried dressing material (SiO2-PVP fleece). Materials were characterized by SAXS, DSC, EDX and viscosity measurements. A 10 mm circular defect was set on both sides of the back of SKH1-hr mice (n = 40) and both dressing materials were compared with untreated controls. After 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 days, the defect regions were explanted and evaluated by histomorphometric measurements and CD31-immunohistochemistry. The microstructure of the compound was composed of fiber like structures. SiO2 nano-aggregates inside the composite remained stable and embedded in a rigid amorphous PVP fraction. In animal experiments, all groups showed a non-irritated defect closure after 9 days. EDX of SiO2-PVP gel and fleeces revealed SiO2-PVP diffusion into the wound. Wound contraction was significantly enhanced after treatment with SiO2-PVP gel followed by SiO2-PVP fleece compared to controls. Re-epithelialization was increased in SiO2-PVP treated wounds and the regenerated epidermis showed a well-differentiated layer structure compared to untreated controls. The results indicate that silica diffuses from the dressing into the wound. Both dressings affect the wound healing. The SiO2-based wound dressing may counteract scarring and might be suitable as a temporary wound dressing. Copyright © 2016 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [The clinical use of cryopreserved human skin allografts for transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Flores, Francisco; Chacón-Gómez, María; Madinaveitia-Villanueva, Juan Antonio; Barrera-Lopez, Araceli; Aguirre-Cruz, Lucinda; Querevalu-Murillo, Walter

    2015-01-01

    The biological recovery of human skin allografts is the gold standard for preservation in Skin Banks. However, there is no worldwide consensus about specific allocation criteria for preserved human skin allografts with living cells. A report is presented on the results of 5 years of experience of using human skin allografts in burned patient in the Skin and Tissue Bank at the "Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitacion" The human skin allografts were obtained from multi-organ donors. processed and preserved at -80 °C for 12 months. Allocation criteria were performed according to blood type match, clinical history, and burned body surface. Up to now, the Skin and Tissue Bank at 'Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitacion" has processed and recovered 125,000 cm(2) of human skin allografts. It has performed 34 surgical implants on 21 burned patients. The average of burn body surface was 59.2%. More than two-thirds (67.7%) of recipients of skin allografts were matched of the same to type blood of the donor, and 66.6% survived after 126 days hospital stay. It is proposed to consider recipient's blood group as allocation criteria to assign tissue; and use human skin allografts on patiens affected with burns over 30% of body surface (according the "rule of the 9"). Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  19. Wound healing: biological effects of Nd:YAG laser on collagen metabolism in pig skin in comparison to thermal burn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, D J; Abergel, R P; Johnston, K J; Adomian, G E; Dwyer, R M; Uitto, J; Lesavoy, M A

    1983-08-01

    Pig skin was treated with the Nd:YAG laser at 1,060 nm or electrocautery, at energy densities of 649 +/- 20 J/cm2 and 612 J/cm2, respectively. Biopsies of treated areas and of normal skin were performed at 7, 14, and 60 days after treatment and processed for histology, electron microscopy and biochemical assays. Wound healing, as shown histologically, was similar in both treated groups. Depth of injury appeared to reach reticular dermis at day 7 in each treated group. However, thermal burn was more destructive of regular collagen, whereas the laser appeared to damage deep dermal blood vessels without destroying surrounding connective tissue. Biochemical assays revealed increased collagen production and increased collagenolytic activity 7 days after laser injury. However, by day 60, there was a reduction in total collagen content in laser treated skin below that of normal skin, which correlated with decreased collagen synthesis and unchanged collagenolytic activity. In burn specimens there was an initial decrease in total collagen content which reverted to normal by day 60. Active collagen degradation occurred at all 3 time points, but a marked increase in synthetic activity occurred as the burn scar was laid down. Laser treatment resulted in reduction of the amount of collagen below that in burn scarred or normal skin, suggesting that classical scar formation may be inhibited. These results indicate that the Nd:YAG laser may be useful for the treatment of keloids and hypertrophic scars.

  20. Setup for investigating gold nanoparticle penetration through reconstructed skin and comparison to published human skin data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labouta, Hagar I.; Thude, Sibylle; Schneider, Marc

    2013-06-01

    Owing to the limited source of human skin (HS) and the ethical restrictions of using animals in experiments, in vitro skin equivalents are a possible alternative for conducting particle penetration experiments. The conditions for conducting penetration experiments with model particles, 15-nm gold nanoparticles (AuNP), through nonsealed skin equivalents are described for the first time. These conditions include experimental setup, sterility conditions, effective applied dose determination, skin sectioning, and skin integrity check. Penetration at different exposure times (two and 24 h) and after tissue fixation (fixed versus unfixed skin) are examined to establish a benchmark in comparison to HS in an attempt to get similar results to HS experiments presented earlier. Multiphoton microscopy is used to detect gold luminescence in skin sections. λex=800 nm is used for excitation of AuNP and skin samples, allowing us to determine a relative index for particle penetration. Despite the observed overpredictability of penetration into skin equivalents, they could serve as a first fast screen for testing the behavior of nanoparticles and extrapolate their penetration behavior into HS. Further investigations are required to test a wide range of particles of different physicochemical properties to validate the skin equivalent-human skin particle penetration relationship.

  1. The influence of growth factors on skin wound healing in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    João De Masi, Elen Carolina David; Campos, Antonio Carlos Ligocki; João De Masi, Flavia David; Ratti, Marco Aurelio Soatti; Ike, Isabela Shin; João De Masi, Roberta David

    2016-01-01

    Healing is a process that restores the physical integrity of body structures. It is a dynamic, complex, multicellular process that involves the extracellular matrix, cytokines, blood cells, and growth factors. Growth factors are proteins that activate and stimulate cell proliferation through the activation of angiogenesis, mitogenesis, and gene transcription, accelerating the healing process. To assess the influence of growth factors on the healing process of wounds made on the backs of female rats compared to the control wound, through macro and microscopy. This study used 45 female Wistar rats, in which three wounds were made on the back. The first was the control wound, the second received epithelial growth factor injection, and the third received a combination of factors. Macroscopic and microscopic assessments were performed on the third, seventh, and 15th days of the experiment. For microscopic analysis, hematoxylin-eosin staining was utilized to assess the inflammatory process; vimentin, for assessment of blood vessels and fibroblasts, and Sirius Red for collagen assessment. In the macroscopic assessment, the use of growth factors resulted in faster healing and decrease of granulation tissue on days seven and 15; (80.31% reduction in the control wound vs. 83.24% in the epithelial wound vs. 100% in the mixed wound). Utilizing microscopy, at the three stages of the experiment, there were no significant differences between the three wounds; however, when comparing the day of euthanization for each type of wound, there was a favorable outcome for epithelial and mixed wounds (between the third vs. 15th day, p<0.001, and in the comparison of the seventh vs. 15th day; p=0.002 and p=0.001 for epithelial and mixed wounds, respectively) with a higher number of fibroblasts, angiogenesis, and collagen type I. The use of growth factors accelerates healing, stimulates greater angiogenic activity, and accelerates fibroplasia and collagen maturation. Copyright © 2015

  2. Red Maca (Lepidium meyenii), a Plant from the Peruvian Highlands, Promotes Skin Wound Healing at Sea Level and at High Altitude in Adult Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuñez, Denisse; Olavegoya, Paola; Gonzales, Gustavo F; Gonzales-Castañeda, Cynthia

    2017-12-01

    Nuñez, Denisse, Paola Olavegoya, Gustavo F. Gonzales, and Cynthia Gonzales-Castañeda. Red maca (Lepidium meyenii), a plant from the Peruvian highlands, promotes skin wound healing at sea level and at high altitude in adult male mice. High Alt Med Biol 18:373-383, 2017.-Wound healing consists of three simultaneous phases: inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. Previous studies suggest that there is a delay in the healing process in high altitude, mainly due to alterations in the inflammatory phase. Maca (Lepidium meyenii) is a Peruvian plant with diverse biological properties, such as the ability to protect the skin from inflammatory lesions caused by ultraviolet radiation, as well as its antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of high altitude on tissue repair and the effect of the topical administration of the spray-dried extract of red maca (RM) in tissue repair. Studies were conducted in male Balb/c mice at sea level and high altitude. Lesions were inflicted through a 10 mm-diameter excisional wound in the skin dorsal surface. Treatments consisted of either (1) spray-dried RM extract or (2) vehicle (VH). Animals wounded at high altitude had a delayed healing rate and an increased wound width compared with those at sea level. Moreover, wounding at high altitude was associated with an increase in inflammatory cells. Treatment with RM accelerated wound closure, decreased the level of epidermal hyperplasia, and decreased the number of inflammatory cells at the wound site. In conclusion, RM at high altitude generate a positive effect on wound healing, decreasing the number of neutrophils and increasing the number of macrophages in the wound healing at day 7 postwounding. This phenomenon is not observed at sea level.

  3. Human age and skin physiology shape diversity and abundance of Archaea on skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moissl-Eichinger, Christine; Probst, Alexander J; Birarda, Giovanni; Auerbach, Anna; Koskinen, Kaisa; Wolf, Peter; Holman, Hoi-Ying N

    2017-06-22

    The human skin microbiome acts as an important barrier protecting our body from pathogens and other environmental influences. Recent investigations have provided evidence that Archaea are a constant but highly variable component of the human skin microbiome, yet factors that determine their abundance changes are unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the abundance of archaea on human skin is influenced by human age and skin physiology by quantitative PCR of 51 different skin samples taken from human subjects of various age. Our results reveal that archaea are more abundant in human subjects either older than 60 years or younger than 12 years as compared to middle-aged human subjects. These results, together with results obtained from spectroscopy analysis, allowed us gain first insights into a potential link of lower sebum levels and lipid content and thus reduced skin moisture with an increase in archaeal signatures. Amplicon sequencing of selected samples revealed the prevalence of specific eury- and mainly thaumarchaeal taxa, represented by a core archaeome of the human skin.

  4. Biogeography and individuality shape function in the human skin metagenome

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Julia; Byrd, Allyson L.; Deming, Clay; Conlan, Sean; Kong, Heidi H.; Segre, Julia A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The varied topography of human skin offers a unique opportunity to study how the body?s microenvironments influence the functional and taxonomic composition of microbial communities. Phylogenetic marker gene-based studies have identified many bacteria and fungi that colonize distinct skin niches. Here, metagenomic analyses of diverse body sites in healthy humans demonstrate that local biogeography and strong individuality define the skin microbiome. We developed a relational analysis ...

  5. Effective herbs on the wound and skin disorders: a ethnobotanical study in Lorestan province, west of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Delfan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify medicinal plants in Lorestan Province (west of Iran in treatment of wound healing and skin lesions. Methods: Questionnaire were made by health volunteers who were trained. The questionnaire about the beliefs and herbal therapy were filled by liaisons trained in the villages. Results: Questionnaire survey showed that 18 medicinal plants from 11 plant families were detected in the province for treating and healing skin lesions. Conclusions: The achieving information in the study reported that bioactive substances in some plants have pharmacologic effects in regulating biological processes which can accelerate healing, reducing inflammation and improving health effects. Suggested ideas in this study should be tested in clinical trials and the effectiveness of their therapeutic effects, their effective recognition and secondary materials in the form of natural medicine must be detected for releasing into the pharmaceutical market.

  6. In vitro and human testing strategies for skin irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, M K; Osborne, R; Perkins, M A

    2000-01-01

    Prior to the manufacture, transport, and marketing of chemicals or products, it is critical to assess their potential for skin toxicity (corrosion or irritation), thereby protecting the worker and consumer from adverse skin effects due to intended or accidental skin exposure. Traditionally, animal testing procedures have provided the data needed to assess the more severe forms of skin toxicity, and current regulations may require animal test data before permission can be obtained to manufacture, transport, or market chemicals or the products that contain them. In recent years, the use of animals to assess skin safety has been opposed by some as inhumane and unnecessary. The conflicting needs of the industrial toxicologist to (1) protect human safety, (2) comply with regulations, and (3) reduce animal testing have led to major efforts to develop alternative, yet predictive, test methods. A variety of in vitro skin corrosion test methods have been developed and several have successfully passed initial international validation. These have included skin or epidermal equivalent assays that have been shown to distinguish corrosive from noncorrosive chemicals. These skin/epidermal equivalent assays have also been modified and used to assess skin irritation potential relative to existing human exposure test data. The data show a good correlation between in vitro assay data and different types of human skin irritation data for both chemicals and consumer products. The effort to eliminate animal tests has also led to the development of a novel human patch test for assessment of acute skin irritation potential. A case study shows the benefits of in vitro and human skin irritation tests compared to the animal tests they seek to replace, and strategies now exist to adequately assess human skin irritation potential without the need to rely on animal test methods.

  7. Molecular cartography of the human skin surface in 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouslimani, Amina; Porto, Carla; Rath, Christopher M.; Wang, Mingxun; Guo, Yurong; Gonzalez, Antonio; Berg-Lyon, Donna; Ackermann, Gail; Moeller Christensen, Gitte Julie; Nakatsuji, Teruaki; Zhang, Lingjuan; Borkowski, Andrew W.; Meehan, Michael J.; Dorrestein, Kathleen; Gallo, Richard L.; Bandeira, Nuno; Knight, Rob; Alexandrov, Theodore; Dorrestein, Pieter C.

    2015-01-01

    The human skin is an organ with a surface area of 1.5–2 m2 that provides our interface with the environment. The molecular composition of this organ is derived from host cells, microbiota, and external molecules. The chemical makeup of the skin surface is largely undefined. Here we advance the technologies needed to explore the topographical distribution of skin molecules, using 3D mapping of mass spectrometry data and microbial 16S rRNA amplicon sequences. Our 3D maps reveal that the molecular composition of skin has diverse distributions and that the composition is defined not only by skin cells and microbes but also by our daily routines, including the application of hygiene products. The technological development of these maps lays a foundation for studying the spatial relationships of human skin with hygiene, the microbiota, and environment, with potential for developing predictive models of skin phenotypes tailored to individual health. PMID:25825778

  8. Molecular cartography of the human skin surface in 3D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouslimani, Amina; Porto, Carla; Rath, Christopher M; Wang, Mingxun; Guo, Yurong; Gonzalez, Antonio; Berg-Lyon, Donna; Ackermann, Gail; Moeller Christensen, Gitte Julie; Nakatsuji, Teruaki; Zhang, Lingjuan; Borkowski, Andrew W; Meehan, Michael J; Dorrestein, Kathleen; Gallo, Richard L; Bandeira, Nuno; Knight, Rob; Alexandrov, Theodore; Dorrestein, Pieter C

    2015-04-28

    The human skin is an organ with a surface area of 1.5-2 m(2) that provides our interface with the environment. The molecular composition of this organ is derived from host cells, microbiota, and external molecules. The chemical makeup of the skin surface is largely undefined. Here we advance the technologies needed to explore the topographical distribution of skin molecules, using 3D mapping of mass spectrometry data and microbial 16S rRNA amplicon sequences. Our 3D maps reveal that the molecular composition of skin has diverse distributions and that the composition is defined not only by skin cells and microbes but also by our daily routines, including the application of hygiene products. The technological development of these maps lays a foundation for studying the spatial relationships of human skin with hygiene, the microbiota, and environment, with potential for developing predictive models of skin phenotypes tailored to individual health.

  9. The percutaneous toxicokinetics of Sulphur mustard in a damaged skin porcine model and the evaluation of WoundStat™ as a topical decontaminant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Charlotte A; Lydon, Helen L; Dalton, Christopher H; Chipman, J Kevin; Graham, John S; Chilcott, Robert P

    2017-09-01

    This study used a damaged skin, porcine model to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of WoundStat™ for decontamination of superficial (non-haemorrhaging), sulphur mustard-contaminated wounds. The dorsal skin of 12 female pigs was subjected to controlled physical damage and exposed to 10 μL (14) C-radiolabelled sulphur mustard ((14) C-SM). Animals were randomly assigned to either a control or a treatment group. In the latter, WoundStat™ was applied 30 s post exposure and left in situ for 1 h. Skin lesion progression and decontaminant efficacy were quantified over 6 h using a range of biophysical measurements. Skin, blood and organ samples were taken post mortem for histopathological assessment, (14) C-SM distribution and toxicokinetic analyses. Application of SM to damaged skin without decontamination was rapidly followed by advanced signs of toxicity, including ulceration and decreased blood flow at the exposure site in all animals. WoundStat™ prevented ulceration and improved blood flow at the exposure site in all decontaminated animals (n = 6). Furthermore, significantly smaller quantities of (14) C-SM were detected in the blood (45% reduction), and recovered from skin (70% reduction) and skin surface swabs (99% reduction) at 6 h post-challenge. Overall, the distribution of (14) C-SM in the internal organs was similar for both groups, with the greatest concentration in the kidneys, followed by the liver and small intestine. WoundStat™ significantly reduced the amount of (14) C-SM recovered from the liver, a key organ for SM metabolism and detoxification. This study demonstrates that WoundStat™ is a suitable product for reducing the ingress and toxicity of a chemical warfare agent. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Expression of transforming growth factor beta(1), beta(3), and basic fibroblast growth factor in full-thickness skin wounds of equine limbs and thorax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theoret, C L; Barber, S M; Moyana, T N; Gordon, J R

    2001-01-01

    To map the expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta(1), TGF-beta(3), and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in full-thickness skin wounds of the horse. To determine whether their expression differs between limbs and thorax, to understand the pathogenesis of exuberant granulation tissue. Six wounds were created on one lateral metacarpal area and one midthoracic area of each horse. Sequential wound biopsies allowed comparison of the temporal expression of growth factors between limb and thoracic wounds. Four 2- to 4-year-old horses. Wounds were assessed grossly and histologically at 12 and 24 hours, and 2, 5, 10, and 14 days postoperatively. ELISAs were used to measure the growth factor concentrations of homogenates of wound biopsies taken at the same timepoints. TGF-beta(1) peaked at 24 hours in both locations and returned to baseline in thoracic wounds by 14 days but remained elevated in limb wounds for the duration of the study. Expression kinetics of TGF-beta(3) differed from those of TGF-beta(1). TGF-beta(3) concentrations gradually increased over time, showing a trend toward an earlier and higher peak in thoracic compared with limb wounds. bFGF expression kinetics resembled those of TGF-beta(1), but no statistically significant differences existed between limb and thoracic wounds. Growth factor expression is up-regulated during normal equine wound repair. TGF-beta(1) and TGF-beta(3) show a reciprocal temporal regulation. Statistically significant differences exist between limb and thoracic wounds with respect to TGF-beta(1) expression. The persistence of TGF-beta(1) expression in leg wounds may be related to the development of exuberant granulation tissue in this location, because TGF-beta(1) is profibrotic. Copyright 2001 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons

  11. N-acetyltransferase in human skin and keratinocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, Tanja; Bonifas, Jutta; Wiegman, Marjon; Pas, Hendrikus; Blömeke, Brunhilde; Coenraads, Pieter Jan; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise

    Background: N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) mediated Nacetylation in human skin and keratinocytes is an important detoxification pathway for aromatic amines including the strong sensitizer para-phenylenediamine (PPD), an important component of oxidative hair dyes. Objectives: Human skin and

  12. Histamine suppresses epidermal keratinocyte differentiation and impairs skin barrier function in a human skin model

    OpenAIRE

    Gschwandtner, M; Mildner, M.; Mlitz, V; Gruber, F; Eckhart, L; Werfel, T.; Gutzmer, R.; Elias, P M; Tschachler, E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Defects in keratinocyte differentiation and skin barrier are important features of inflammatory skin diseases like atopic dermatitis. Mast cells and their main mediator histamine are abundant in inflamed skin and thus may contribute to disease pathogenesis. Methods Human primary keratinocytes were cultured under differentiation-promoting conditions in the presence and absence of histamine, histamine receptor agonists and antagonists. The expression of differentiation-associated gen...

  13. [Effect of mild-warm moxibustion on microcirculation in the raw surface tissue of chronic refractory wound in skin ulcer rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan-hui; Sun, Yong-hui; Sun, Li-hong; Liang, Yu-lei; Zhao, Zhen-shuan; Zhang, Hui-zhen; Li, Xiao-feng

    2011-10-01

    To observe the effects of mild-warm moxibustion on dynamic blood flow, microvessel count (MVC)and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in the wound tissue of the chronic skin ulcer in rats, so as to reveal its underlying mechanism in promoting wound recovery. A total of 104 male SD rats with skin injury were randomly divided into control group (n=8), model group (n=32), TDP (far-infrared heating device) group (n=32) and moxibustion group (n=32). Chronic refractory raw surface wound model was established by muscular injection of Hydrocortisone Sodium Succinate. For rats of the TDP and moxibustion groups, TDP irridiation and mild-warm moxibustion were applied to the raw surface, bilateral "Shenshu" (BL 23) and "Zusanli" (ST 36) for 15 min, once daily for 3, 7 and 14 days respectively. The healing rate and the healing time of raw surface of the wound were observed. The blood flow of the raw surface of the wound tissue was measured by laser Doppler flowmeter and the MVC in granulation tissue of chronic skin ulcer was counted under light microscope. VEGF expression was detected by immunohistochemistry. In comparison with the control group, the healing rate of the wound raw surface was significantly lower and the healing time was prolonged in the model group (P healing rates on day 3, 7, 10 and 14 were significantly higher and the healing time was strikingly faster in both TDP and moxibustion groups (P healing rate and shortening the healing time were significantly better than those of TDP group (P 0.05). Mild-warm moxibustion can promote wound healing, which is closely with its effects in increasing blood flow and MVC, and upregulating VEGF expression in the wound granulation tissue of the chronic skin ulcer.

  14. 6-Formylindolo[3,2-b]Carbazole Accelerates Skin Wound Healing via Activation of ERK, but Not Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morino-Koga, Saori; Uchi, Hiroshi; Mitoma, Chikage; Wu, Zhouwei; Kiyomatsu, Mari; Fuyuno, Yoko; Nagae, Konosuke; Yasumatsu, Mao; Suico, Mary Ann; Kai, Hirofumi; Furue, Masutaka

    2017-10-01

    Wound healing is an elaborate process composed of overlapping phases, such as proliferation and remodeling, and is delayed in several circumstances, including diabetes. Although several treatment strategies for chronic wounds, such as growth factors, have been applied, further alternatives are required. The skin, especially keratinocytes, is continually exposed to UV rays, which impairs wound healing. 6-Formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ) is a tryptophan photoproduct formed by UV exposure, indicating that FICZ might be one of the effectors of UV radiation. In contrast, treatment with tryptophan, the precursor for FICZ, promoted wound closure in keratinocytes. Therefore, the aim of our study was to determine the role of FICZ in wound healing. Here we showed that FICZ enhanced keratinocyte migration through mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation, and promoted wound healing in various mouse models, including db/db mice, which exhibit wound healing impairments because of type 2 diabetes. Moreover, FICZ, the endogenous ligand of an aryl hydrocarbon receptor, accelerated migration even in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor knockdown condition and also promoted wound healing in DBA/2 mice, bearing a low-affinity aryl hydrocarbon receptor, suggesting that FICZ enhanced keratinocyte migration in a mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase-dependent, but aryl hydrocarbon receptor-independent, manner. The function of FICZ might indicate the possibility of its clinical use for intractable chronic wounds. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Proteome Analysis of Human Sebaceous Follicle Infundibula Extracted from Healthy and Acne-Affected Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bek-Thomsen, Malene; Lomholt, Hans B.; Scavenius, Carsten; Enghild, Jan J.; Brüggemann, Holger

    2014-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a very common disease of the pilosebaceous unit of the human skin. The pathological processes of acne are not fully understood. To gain further insight sebaceous follicular casts were extracted from 18 healthy and 20 acne-affected individuals by cyanoacrylate-gel biopsies and further processed for mass spectrometry analysis, aiming at a proteomic analysis of the sebaceous follicular casts. Human as well as bacterial proteins were identified. Human proteins enriched in acne and normal samples were detected, respectively. Normal follicular casts are enriched in proteins such as prohibitins and peroxiredoxins which are involved in the protection from various stresses, including reactive oxygen species. By contrast, follicular casts extracted from acne-affected skin contained proteins involved in inflammation, wound healing and tissue remodeling. Among the most distinguishing proteins were myeloperoxidase, lactotransferrin, neutrophil elastase inhibitor and surprisingly, vimentin. The most significant biological process among all acne-enriched proteins was ‘response to a bacterium’. Identified bacterial proteins were exclusively from Propionibacterium acnes. The most abundant P. acnes proteins were surface-exposed dermatan sulphate adhesins, CAMP factors, and a so far uncharacterized lipase in follicular casts extracted from normal as well as acne-affected skin. This is a first proteomic study that identified human proteins together with proteins of the skin microbiota in sebaceous follicular casts. PMID:25238151

  16. Multiphoton STED and FRET in human skin: Resolving the skin barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonescu, Irina; Dreier, Jes; Brewer, Jonathan R.

    excited STED and Forster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) microscopy to probe the structure of human skin. Super resolution optical microscopy enables resolving structures in the skin below to 60 nm allowing visualization of the stratum corneum intercellular lipid matrix and individual proteins...

  17. Modelling and verification of melanin concentration on human skin type

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Karsten, AE

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available /or in vitro and elucidated the melanosomal differences between 5 the different skin types. Meinhardt et al (9) measured the absorption spectra of in vivo human 6 skin from the lighter skin types before and after exposure to natural UV radiation, while Wan 7... et al (10) measured the epidermal (including the Stratum corneum) transmittance of in vitro 8 light and dark coloured human skin over the UVA, UVB and visible wavelength ranges. 9 None of these studies however specifically determined epidermal...

  18. Use of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells to Support Topical Skin Adhesive for Wound Closure: A Preliminary Report from Animal In Vivo Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Nowacki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the local and systemic effects of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs as a component of topical skin adhesive in an animal artificial wound closure model. In presented study the cosmetic effects, histological analysis, mechanical properties, and cell migration have been assessed to evaluate the usefulness of ADSCs as supporting factor for octyl blend cyanoacrylate adhesive. The total of 40 rats were used and divided into six groups. In the Study Group, ADSCs were administered by multipoint injection of the six surrounding intrawound areas with additional freely leaving procedure of the cells between the skin flaps just before applying adhesive to close the wound. Five control groups without using ADSCs, utilizing different types of standard wound closure, were created in order to check efficiency of experimental stem cell therapy. In our study, we proved that ADSCs could be used effectively also as a supportive tool in topical skin adhesive for wound closure. However we did not achieve any spectacular differences related to such aspects as better mechanical properties or special biological breakthroughs in wound healing properties. The use of stem cells, especially ADSCs for wound closure can provide an inspiring development in plastic and dermatologic surgery.

  19. Hair Follicle Morphogenesis in the Treatment of Mouse Full-Thickness Skin Defects Using Composite Human Acellular Amniotic Membrane and Adipose Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Minjuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Early repair of skin injury and maximal restoration of the function and appearance have become important targets of clinical treatment. In the present study, we observed the healing process of skin defects in nude mice and structural characteristics of the new skin after transplantation of isolated and cultured adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs onto the human acellular amniotic membrane (AAM. The result showed that ADMSCs were closely attached to the surface of AAM and grew well 24 h after seeding. Comparison of the wound healing rate at days 7, 14, and 28 after transplantation showed that ADMSCs seeded on AAM facilitated the healing of full-thickness skin wounds more effectively as compared with either hAM or AAM alone, indicating that ADMSCs participated in skin regeneration. More importantly, we noticed a phenomenon of hair follicle development during the process of skin repair. Composite ADMSCs and AAM not only promoted the healing of the mouse full-thickness defects but also facilitated generation of the appendages of the affected skin, thus promoting restoration of the skin function. Our results provide a new possible therapy idea for the treatment of skin wounds with respect to both anatomical regeneration and functional restoration.

  20. Prevotella colorans sp. nov., isolated from a human wound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhl, Michael; Willmann, Matthias; Liese, Jan; Autenrieth, Ingo B; Marschal, Matthias

    2016-08-01

    A strain of obligately anaerobic, Gram-stain-negative and non-spore-forming rod-shaped bacterium was isolated from a human wound and characterized both phenotypically and genotypically. The strain was moderately saccharolytic and proteolytic. Phylogenetic analysis was based on full-length 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and revealed the strain to represent a member of the genus Prevotella, but to be different from the described species, with the closest relationship to Prevotella bergensis and Prevotella multisaccharivorax. The genomic DNA G+C content was 43.2 mol%. The most abundant cellular long-chain fatty acids were 3-OH iso-C17 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0 and iso-C15 : 0. In view of phenotypical and biochemical characteristics as well as gene sequencing, strain A1336T is considered to represent a novel species within the genus Prevotella, for which the name Prevotella colorans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is A1336T (=DSM 100333T =CCUG 67421T =CCOS 902T).

  1. Human bites (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human bites present a high risk of infection. Besides the bacteria which can cause infection, there is ... the wound extends below the skin. Anytime a human bite has broken the skin, seek medical attention.

  2. Adaptation of human skin color in various populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lian; Xu, Shuhua

    2018-01-01

    Skin color is a well-recognized adaptive trait and has been studied extensively in humans. Understanding the genetic basis of adaptation of skin color in various populations has many implications in human evolution and medicine. Impressive progress has been made recently to identify genes associated with skin color variation in a wide range of geographical and temporal populations. In this review, we discuss what is currently known about the genetics of skin color variation. We enumerated several cases of skin color adaptation in global modern humans and archaic hominins, and illustrated why, when, and how skin color adaptation occurred in different populations. Finally, we provided a summary of the candidate loci associated with pigmentation, which could be a valuable reference for further evolutionary and medical studies. Previous studies generally indicated a complex genetic mechanism underlying the skin color variation, expanding our understanding of the role of population demographic history and natural selection in shaping genetic and phenotypic diversity in humans. Future work is needed to dissect the genetic architecture of skin color adaptation in numerous ethnic minority groups around the world, which remains relatively obscure compared with that of major continental groups, and to unravel the exact genetic basis of skin color adaptation.

  3. Using infrared and Raman microspectroscopies to compare ex vivo involved psoriatic skin with normal human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Marie; Lefèvre, Thierry; Pouliot, Roxane; Auger, Michèle; Laroche, Gaétan

    2015-06-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic dermatosis that affects around 3% of the world's population. The etiology of this autoimmune pathology is not completely understood. The barrier function of psoriatic skin is known to be strongly altered, but the structural modifications at the origin of this dysfunction are not clear. To develop strategies to reduce symptoms of psoriasis or adequate substitutes for modeling, a deep understanding of the organization of psoriatic skin at a molecular level is required. Infrared and Raman microspectroscopies have been used to obtain direct molecular-level information on psoriatic and healthy human skin biopsies. From the intensities and positions of specific vibrational bands, the lipid and protein distribution and the lipid order have been mapped in the different layers of the skin. Results showed a similar distribution of lipids and collagen for normal and psoriatic human skin. However, psoriatic skin is characterized by heterogeneity in lipid/protein composition at the micrometer scale, a reduction in the definition of skin layer boundaries and a decrease in lipid chain order in the stratum corneum as compared to normal skin. A global decrease of the structural organization is exhibited in psoriatic skin that is compatible with an alteration of its barrier properties.

  4. Influence of different cosmetic formulations on the human skin barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, K; Heinrich, U; Tronnier, H

    2014-01-01

    The human skin barrier is an important part of the skin's intactness and its functionality is a precondition for healthy skin. Ingredients in cosmetic formulations, especially penetration enhancers, can influence this barrier function as they transport active agents into deeper skin layers. In this study different cosmetic formulations were tested by 60 healthy female volunteers over a period of 4 weeks. The skin hydration and barrier function before and during the application were measured. Significant changes in both parameters were determined. A negative influence on the barrier function by penetration enhancers could be observed, but it was also found that lamellar lipid structures (DermaMembranSysteme®, DMS®) are able to enhance the skin barrier. Both penetration enhancers as well as DMS can increase skin hydration. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Effect of a topical treatment in organotypic culture of human breast skin after exposure to gamma-rays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Gagliano

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The early radiation of epidermal reactions can lead to healing of the lesion or radiation necrosis. There is no general agreement for either the prevention and/or treatment of radiation skin response, also as little is known about the immediate phases of this phenomenon. We investigated the early effects exerted by Healing and Wound Emulsion (HWE on human skin response after ionizing radiation. Epidermal morphology, Heat Shock Protein (HSP 70, and Transforming Growth Factor-b1 (TGF-b1 gene expression were investigated in organotypic human skin cultures undergoing a double dose of gamma-rays (2 Gy. HSP70 gene expression tended to be induced in the HWE group 6 hours after cream administration and was significantly up-regulated after 48 hours, when epidermal morphological alterations were evident. TGF- b1 seems not affected in cream treated samples. HWE may stimulate skin to mount an early defensive response against damage induced by gamma rays.

  6. Epidermal stem cells - role in normal, wounded and pathological psoriatic and cancer skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamstrup, M.; Faurschou, A.; Gniadecki, R.

    2008-01-01

    in the basal layer of the interfollicular epidermis and in the bulge region of the hair follicle play a critical role for normal tissue maintenance. In wound healing, multipotent epidermal stem cells contribute to re-epithelization. It is possible that defects in growth control of either epidermal stem cells...

  7. Printable Biodegradable Hydrogel for Skin Wound Dressing Using Inkjet Printing Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanez, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Chronic wounds are becoming more frequent. Foot ulcers affect approximately 10%-15% of patients with diabetes throughout their lifetimes, and by 2025, it is estimated the prevalence of diabetes will be 250 million people in the worldwide. There is increased potential for patients with peripheral neuropathy and peripheral vascular disease to suffer…

  8. Enhancement of Ischemic Wound Healing by Spheroid Grafting of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Treated with Low-Level Light Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, In-Su; Chung, Phil-Sang; Ahn, Jin Chul

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether low-level light irradiation prior to transplantation of adipose-derived stromal cell (ASC) spheroids in an animal skin wound model stimulated angiogenesis and tissue regeneration to improve functional recovery of skin tissue. The spheroid, composed of hASCs, was irradiated with low-level light and expressed angiogenic factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF), and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Immunochemical staining analysis revealed that the spheroid of the hASCs was CD31+, KDR+, and CD34+. On the other hand, monolayer-cultured hASCs were negative for these markers. PBS, human adipose tissue-derived stromal cells, and the ASC spheroid were transplanted into a wound bed in athymic mice to evaluate the therapeutic effects of the ASC spheroid in vivo. The ASC spheroid transplanted into the wound bed differentiated into endothelial cells and remained differentiated. The density of vascular formations increased as a result of the angiogenic factors released by the wound bed and enhanced tissue regeneration at the lesion site. These results indicate that the transplantation of the ASC spheroid significantly improved functional recovery relative to both ASC transplantation and PBS treatment. These findings suggest that transplantation of an ASC spheroid treated with low-level light may be an effective form of stem cell therapy for treatment of a wound bed.

  9. Tactile-direction-sensitive and stretchable electronic skins based on human-skin-inspired interlocked microstructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jonghwa; Lee, Youngoh; Hong, Jaehyung; Lee, Youngsu; Ha, Minjeong; Jung, Youngdo; Lim, Hyuneui; Kim, Sung Youb; Ko, Hyunhyub

    2014-12-23

    Stretchable electronic skins with multidirectional force-sensing capabilities are of great importance in robotics, prosthetics, and rehabilitation devices. Inspired by the interlocked microstructures found in epidermal-dermal ridges in human skin, piezoresistive interlocked microdome arrays are employed for stress-direction-sensitive, stretchable electronic skins. Here we show that these arrays possess highly sensitive detection capability of various mechanical stimuli including normal, shear, stretching, bending, and twisting forces. Furthermore, the unique geometry of interlocked microdome arrays enables the differentiation of various mechanical stimuli because the arrays exhibit different levels of deformation depending on the direction of applied forces, thus providing different sensory output patterns. In addition, we show that the electronic skins attached on human skin in the arm and wrist areas are able to distinguish various mechanical stimuli applied in different directions and can selectively monitor different intensities and directions of air flows and vibrations.

  10. Biological stimulation of the Human skin applying health promoting light and plasma sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awakowicz, P.; Bibinov, N. [Center for Plasma Science and Technology, Ruhr-University, Bochum (Germany); Born, M.; Niemann, U. [Philips Research, Aachen (Germany); Busse, B. [Zell-Kontakt GmbH, Noerten-Hardenberg (Germany); Gesche, R.; Kuehn, S.; Porteanu, H.E. [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut fuer Hoechstfrequenztechnik, Berlin (Germany); Helmke, A. [University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Goettingen (Germany); Kaemling, A.; Wandke, D. [CINOGY GmbH, Duderstadt (Germany); Kolb-Bachofen, V.; Liebmann, J. [Institute for Immunobiology, Heinrich-Heine University, Duesseldorf (Germany); Kovacs, R.; Mertens, N.; Scherer, J. [Aurion Anlagentechnik GmbH, Seligenstadt (Germany); Oplaender, C.; Suschek, C. [Clinic for Plastic Surgery, University Clinic, Aachen (Germany); Vioel, W. [Laser-Laboratorium, Goettingen (Germany); University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Goettingen (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    In the frame of BMBF project ''BioLiP'', new physical treatment techniques aiming at medical treatment of the human skin have been developed. The acronym BioLiP stands for ''Desinfektion, Entkeimung und biologische Stimulation der Haut durch gesundheitsfoerdernde Licht- und Plasmaquellen'' (Disinfection, germ reduction and biological stimulation of the human skin by health promoting light and plasma sources). A source applying a low-temperature dielectric barrier discharge plasma (DBD) has been investigated on its effectiveness for skin disinfection and stimulation of biological material. Alternatively an atmospheric plasma source consisting of a microwave resonator combined with a solid state power oscillator has been examined. This concept which allows for a compact and efficient design avoiding external microwave power supply and matching units has been optimized with respect to nitrogen monoxide (NO) production in high yields. In both cases various application possibilities in the medical and biological domain are opened up. Light sources in the visible spectral range have been investigated with respect to the proliferation of human cell types. Intensive highly selective blue light sources based on LED technology can slow down proliferation rates without inducing toxic effects which offers new opportunities for treatments of so-called hyperproliferative skin conditions (e.g. with psoriasis or in wound healing) using UV-free light. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. Aloesin from Aloe vera accelerates skin wound healing by modulating MAPK/Rho and Smad signaling pathways in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahedi, Hussain Mustatab; Jeong, Minsun; Chae, Jae Kyoung; Do, Seon Gil; Yoon, Hyeokjun; Kim, Sun Yeou

    2017-05-15

    Cutaneous wound healing is a complex process involving various regulatory factors at the molecular level. Aloe vera is widely used for cell rejuvenation, wound healing, and skin moisturizing. This study aimed to investigate the effects of aloesin from Aloe vera on cutaneous wound healing and mechanisms involved therein. This study consisted of both in vitro and in vivo experiments involving skin cell lines and mouse model to demonstrate the wound healing effects of aloesin by taking into account several parameters ranging from cultured cell migration to wound healing in mice. The activities of Smad signaling molecules (Smad2 and Smad3), MAPKs (ERK and JNK), and migration-related proteins (Cdc42, Rac1, and α-Pak) were assessed after aloesin treatment in cultured cells (1, 5 and 10µM) and mouse skin (0.1% and 0.5%). We also monitored macrophage recruitment, secretion of cytokines and growth factors, tissue development, and angiogenesis after aloesin treatment using IHC analysis and ELISAs. Aloesin increased cell migration via phosphorylation of Cdc42 and Rac1. Aloesin positively regulated the release of cytokines and growth factors (IL-1β, IL-6, TGF-β1 and TNF-α) from macrophages (RAW264.7) and enhanced angiogenesis in endothelial cells (HUVECs). Aloesin treatment accelerated wound closure rates in hairless mice by inducing angiogenesis, collagen deposition and granulation tissue formation. More importantly, aloesin treatment resulted in the activation of Smad and MAPK signaling proteins that are key players in cell migration, angiogenesis and tissue development. Aloesin ameliorates each phase of the wound healing process including inflammation, proliferation and remodeling through MAPK/Rho and Smad signaling pathways. These findings indicate that aloesin has the therapeutic potential for treating cutaneous wounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Histometric and histophatologic evaluation of the effects of Equistum arvense herbal extract versus Zinc Oxide in rabbit skin wound healing model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-08-01

    Equistum arvense, also called horsetail has been widely used in traditional medicine for wound healing due to having free silica. Also this plant has an important role in enhancing skin elasticity and resistance, and can be effective in restoration of tissue after cell death. The aim of this work was to evaluate histometrically and histopathologically the ability of dried extract ointment of Equistem arvense in enhancing the healing process of full- thickness excisional skin wound in rabbits following topical application, compared with zinc oxide ointment. Under surgical anesthesia, full thickness similar excisional wounds were made on the back of 40 rabbits that were divided into 4 groups of Equistum arvense 20%, zinc oxide ointment, eucerin, and control. A double-blind method was employed throughout the study. All the cases were treated with topical ointments daily for 28 days. Healing process of the wounds were quantified daily and compared using digital photography and image analysis software. Histopathologic examination was performed on days 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 and the wound healing was scored using healing grades I to VI with regard to the wound healing parameters such as oedema, congestion & hemorrhage, fibroplasia, epithelium regeneration, wound contraction, collagen deposition and granulation tissue maturation. The overall out come of the wound recovery for each individual group was calculated, and the results were put under statistical analysis using SPSS software. According to histometric findings, the skin contraction rate in equistum arvense 20% group on treatment period was much higher than that in the other groups. Also, histopathologic results revealed that overall healing rate into group I in the second and third weeks was higher than that in the other groups (p

  13. In-vivo spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements of human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Danny; Schulz, Benjamin; Ruebhausen, Michael

    2004-03-01

    Human skin can be described as a layered biological tissue. Knowledge of the behaviour of the optical properties of skin across the layers is limited. We describe an ellipsometric setup for spectrally resolved in-vivo measurements of human skin and show measurements of the complex refractive index N=n+ik of the finger of several volunteers over a range from 330 to 780 nm. A tapestripping study of human skin reveals the profile of the complex refractive index extracted from a simple bulk model over the stratum corneum. Fits of the evolution of n and k to an exponential function show that after approximately five strips a steady state is reached. A refined model applying an effective medium approximation accounting for surface roughness describes the development of the ellipsometric parameter Ψ in terms of the skin's increased water content with deeper depth of the measured layer.

  14. A comparative study of histopathological effects of aqueous extract of cinnamon and honey with sulfadiazine on skin burn wound healing in rats infected with Pseudomonas aeuroginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Valilou

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a ubiquitous opportunistic pathogen, is the most common infective agent of burn wounds. The aim of this study was to compare the histopathological effect of a mixture of aqueous extract of cinnamon and honey with silver sulfadiazine on the healing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infected second grade skin burn wounds in rats. To this end, 60 male rats were randomly assigned to four experimental groups (15 rats in each group. After inducing anesthesia, second grade burn wound with the diameter of 12 mm was created in the dorsal region of rats. Then, 1.5×108 cfu/ml P. aeruginosa PA01was equally bestrewed on the wound of all rats. Every 12 hours, silver sulfadiazine (group 1, honey (group 2 and aqueous extract of cinnamon and honey (group 3 were applied to the wounds and group 4 was kept as control. On days 7, 14, and 21, five rats were selected from each group at each time point and after inducing anesthesia and measuring the diameter of the wound by coliseum, microbial and histopathological samples were taken from the wounds. Microbial studies showed that in all groups except the control group, the growth of the microbe was stopped. Histopathological observations regarding wound healing and diameter showed that there was a significant difference between treatment groups and the control group on days 7, 14 and 21 (p

  15. Measurement of interstitial cetirizine concentrations in human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Jelstrup; Church, M K; Rihoux, J P

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of the present study was to measure the concentrations of cetirizine in the extracellular water compartment in intact human skin and assess simultaneously inhibition of histamine-induced wheal and flare reactions. METHODS: Skin cetirizine levels were collected by the micro...

  16. Variables influencing the frictional behaviour of in vivo human skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veijgen, N.K.; Masen, Marc Arthur; van der Heide, Emile

    2013-01-01

    In the past decades, skin friction research has focused on determining which variables are important to affect the frictional behaviour of in vivo human skin. Until now, there is still limited knowledge on these variables. This study has used a large dataset to identify the effect of variables on

  17. Comparison of the Skin Penetration of 3 Metabolically Stable Chemicals Using Fresh and Frozen Human Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques-Jamin, Carine; Duplan, Hélène; Rothe, Helga; Vaillant, Ophelie; Eilstein, Joan; Grégoire, Sebastien; Cubberley, Richard; Lange, Daniela; Ellison, Corie; Klaric, Martina; Hewitt, Nicola; Schepky, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    The Cosmetics Europe ADME Task Force is developing in vitro and in silico tools for predicting skin and systemic concentrations after topical application of cosmetic ingredients. There are conflicting reports as to whether the freezing process affects the penetration of chemicals; therefore, we evaluated whether the storage of human skin used in our studies (8-12 weeks at -20°C) affected the penetration of model chemicals. Finite doses of trans-cinnamic acid (TCA), benzoic acid (BA), and 6-methylcoumarin (6MC) (non-volatile, non-protein reactive and metabolically stable in skin) were applied to fresh and thawed frozen skin from the same donors. The amounts of chemicals in different skin compartments were analysed after 24 h. Although there were some statistical differences in some parameters for 1 or 2 donors, the penetration of TCA, BA, and 6MC was essentially the same in fresh and frozen skin, i.e., there were no biologically relevant differences in penetration values. Statistical differences that were evident indicated that penetration was marginally lower in frozen than in fresh skin, indicating that the barrier function of the skin was not lost. The penetration of the 3 chemicals was essentially unaffected by freezing the skin at -20°C for up to 12 weeks. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Efficacy of a single high dose versus multiple low doses of LLLT on wounded skin fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Denise H.; Abrahamse, Heidi

    2007-07-01

    Background/purpose: In vivo studies have demonstrated that phototherapy accelerates wound healing in the clinical environment; however the exact mechanism is still not completely understood. The main focus of this study was to use in vitro laboratory results to establish an effective treatment regimen that may be practical and applicable to the clinical environment. This in vitro study aimed to compare the cellular responses of wounded fibroblasts following a single exposure of 5 J/cm2 or multiple exposures of low doses (2.5 J/cm2 or 5 J/cm2) on one day of the week to a single application of a higher dose (16 J/cm2) on day 1 and day 4. Methodology: Cellular responses to Helium-Neon (632.8 nm) laser irradiation were evaluated by measuring changes in cell morphology, cell viability, cell proliferation, membrane integrity and DNA damage. Results: Wounded cells exposed to 5 J/cm2 on day 1 and day 4 showed an increase in cell viability, increase in the release of bFGF, increase in cell density, decrease in ALP enzyme activity and decrease in caspase 3/7 activity indicating a stimulatory effect. Wounded cells exposed to three doses of 5 J/cm2 on day 1 showed a decrease in cell viability and cell proliferation and an increase in LDH cytotoxicity and DNA damage indicating an inhibitory effect. Conclusion: Results indicate that cellular responses are influenced by the combination of dose administered, number of exposures and time between exposures. Single doses administered with sufficient time between exposures is more beneficial to restoring cell function than multiple doses within a short period. Although this work confirms previous reports on the cumulative effect of laser irradiation it provides essential information for the initiation of in vivo clinical studies.

  19. Predictive Analysis of Mechanistic Triggers and Mitigation Strategies for Pathological Scarring in Skin Wounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-12

    Medical Research and Materiel Command, Fort Detrick, MD 21702; and †Center for Wound Healing and Tissue Regeneration, College of Dentistry , Univer- sity...fi- broblast levels. The most influential processes for total collagen concen- tration regulation on day 40 postinjury were fibroblast apoptosis (P#58...centration regulation on day 40 postinjury was fibroblast apoptosis (P#58). Note that the bars representing the eFAST sensitivities are superimposed

  20. Myelinated and unmyelinated nerve fibers reinnervate tissue-engineered dermo-epidermal human skin analogs in an in vivo model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedermann, T; Klar, A S; Böttcher-Haberzeth, S; Reichmann, E; Meuli, M

    2016-12-01

    The clinical application of autologous tissue-engineered skin analogs is an important strategy to cover large skin defects. Investigating biological dynamics, such as reinnervation after transplantation, is essential to improve the quality of such skin analogs. Previously, we have examined that our skin substitutes are reinnervated by host peripheral nerve fibers as early as 8 weeks after transplantation. Here, we wanted to investigate the presence and possible differences regarding myelinated and unmyelinated host nerve fibers 15 weeks after the transplantation of light and dark human tissue-engineered skin analogs. Human epidermal keratinocytes, melanocytes, and dermal fibroblasts were isolated from human light and dark skin biopsies. Keratinocytes and melanocytes were seeded on fibroblast-containing collagen type I hydrogels after expansion in culture. After additional culturing, the tissue-engineered dermo-epidermal skin analogs were transplanted onto full-thickness skin wounds created on the back of immuno-incompetent rats. Skin substitutes were excised and analyzed 15 weeks after transplantation. Histological sections were examined with regard to the ingrowth pattern of myelinated and unmyelinated nerve fibers into the skin analogs using markers, such as Substance P, NF200, and S100-Beta. We found myelinated and unmyelinated peripheral host nerve fibers 15 weeks after transplantation in the dermal part of our human skin substitutes. In particular, we identified large-diameter-myelinated Aβ- and Aδ-fibers, and small-diameter C-fibers. Furthermore, we observed myelinated nerves in close proximity to CD31-positive blood capillaries. In the long run, both types of ingrown host fibers showed an identical pattern in both light and dark skin analogs. Our data suggest that myelinated and unmyelinated peripheral nerves reinnervate human skin substitutes in a long-term in vivo transplantation assay. Our tissue-engineered skin analogs attract A- and C-fibers to

  1. Reproducible pattern of microRNA in normal human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Line; Kaczkowski, Bogumil; Gniadecki, Robert

    2010-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis via specific targeting of messenger RNA (mRNA). Aberrant mRNA expression contributes to pathological processes such as carcinogenesis. To take advantage of miRNA profiling in skin disease it is essential to investigate miRNA...... expression pattern in normal human skin. Here we investigated miRNA expression profiles from skin biopsies of 8 healthy volunteers taken from sun protected and mildly photo damaged skin using the modified protocol for miRNA extraction. We were able to show a constant pattern of miRNA expression between...... different individuals. We did not find any significant differences in miRNA expression between sun protected and mildly photodamaged skin. These results may be valuable for future design of studies on miRNA expression in skin disease....

  2. Differentially expressed wound healing-related microRNAs in the human diabetic cornea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent A Funari

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs are powerful gene expression regulators, but their corneal repertoire and potential changes in corneal diseases remain unknown. Our purpose was to identify miRNAs altered in the human diabetic cornea by microarray analysis, and to examine their effects on wound healing in cultured telomerase-immortalized human corneal epithelial cells (HCEC in vitro. Total RNA was extracted from age-matched human autopsy normal (n=6 and diabetic (n=6 central corneas, Flash Tag end-labeled, and hybridized to Affymetrix® GeneChip® miRNA Arrays. Select miRNAs associated with diabetic cornea were validated by quantitative RT-PCR (Q-PCR and by in situ hybridization (ISH in independent samples. HCEC were transfected with human pre-miR™miRNA precursors (h-miR or their inhibitors (antagomirs using Lipofectamine 2000. Confluent transfected cultures were scratch-wounded with P200 pipette tip. Wound closure was monitored by digital photography. Expression of signaling proteins was detected by immunostaining and Western blot. Using microarrays, 29 miRNAs were identified as differentially expressed in diabetic samples. Two miRNA candidates showing the highest fold increased in expression in the diabetic cornea were confirmed by Q-PCR and further characterized. HCEC transfection with h-miR-146a or h-miR-424 significantly retarded wound closure, but their respective antagomirs significantly enhanced wound healing vs. controls. Cells treated with h-miR-146a or h-miR-424 had decreased p-p38 and p-EGFR staining, but these increased over control levels close to the wound edge upon antagomir treatment. In conclusion, several miRNAs with increased expression in human diabetic central corneas were found. Two such miRNAs inhibited cultured corneal epithelial cell wound healing. Dysregulation of miRNA expression in human diabetic cornea may be an important mediator of abnormal wound healing.

  3. Recovery of the Decorin-Enriched Fraction, Extract (D, From Human Skin: An Accelerated Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denys N. Wheatley

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The original extraction procedure of Engel and Catchpole [1] has often been used to recover decorin-enriched material from the skin. This material has a strong inhibitory effect on fibroblast proliferation, and clearly suppresses it in skin except after the first 5–6 days of wounding when new scaffold material is required. The aim of our present study has been to find and evaluate the product of a faster recovery method, and to check its consistency as a more reliable means of regularly obtaining sufficient material for topical application in wounds that might become hypertrophic. Modifications of the original Toole and Lowther [2] extraction procedure have been carefully evaluated in an attempt to cut preparation time without compromising biological activity of the inhibitory extract. We have devised a faster recovery procedure without compromising biological activity, even if initial recovery has been somewhat reduced. The latter problem could be offset by repeated cycles of the final extraction step. The main inhibitory activity is shown to be within the decorin-enriched “extract D,” as the core protein and DSPG II. Adjustment of the extract towards neutrality after dialysis against water keeps most of the extracted protein in solution and yielded a decorin-enriched preparation that had a specific activity equivalent to that of the old method. It also yielded a fraction that was readily lyophilised to give a small amount of material that could be stored indefinitely without loss of activity and readily redissolved in aqueous solution. A reliable and relatively quick method is presented for the production, from human skin, of a decorin-enriched preparation that has strong fibroblast inhibitory action. The value of the procedure is that it is inexpensive and can produce the quantities that might be used topically in reducing hypertrophic scarring of wounds.

  4. Effect of Different Skin Penetration Promoters in Halobetasol Propionate Permeation and Retention in Human Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Carvajal-Vidal

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Halobetasol propionate (HB is a potent synthetic corticosteroid used against inflammatory skin diseases, such as dermatitis, eczema, and psoriasis, among others. The aim of this study is to define how the presence of different skin penetration enhancers (nonane, menthone, limonene, azone, carene, decanol, linoleic acid and cetiol affects the penetration and retention in skin of HB. To determine drug penetration through skin, 5% of each promoter was used in an ex vivo system with human skin on Franz cells. The results showed that the highest permeation occurs in the presence of menthone, followed by nonane. Permeation parameters were determined. The in vivo test was assessed, and the formulation containing HB-menthone presented better anti-inflammatory efficacy. These results are useful to generate a specific treatment according to each patient’s needs, and the inflammatory characteristics of the disease.

  5. Can immunohistochemistry quantification of Cathepsin-D be useful in the differential diagnosis between vital and post-mortem wounds in humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montisci, Massimo; Corradin, Matteo; Giacomelli, Luciano; Viel, Guido; Cecchetto, Giovanni; Ferrara, Santo Davide

    2014-07-01

    Markers of skin wound vitality and the research methodology used for their determination are still matters of debate in forensic pathology. Cathepsin-D, a lysosomal enzyme, is the most expressed cathepsin in human skin, and although it seems to have the necessary requirements to be utilized as a vitality marker, past research has provided no definitive and clear response on its potential usefulness. Immunohistochemistry with monoclonal antibodies and image analysis has been employed to detect and quantify the expression of Cathepsin-D in human skin wounds. We analyzed skin fragments obtained from 20 living individuals (group A) and 20 persons deceased from natural causes (group B). For each case, five skin fragments were withdrawn at 0', 5', 10', 30', and 90' after abdominal incision. Once the samples were formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded, we analyzed the expression of Cathepsin-D through the quantification of the immunohistochemistry signal by image analysis. Immunoreactivity was displayed in Pixels of positive area measured by image analysis and converted in micrometer squares. The average levels of Cathepsin-D were higher in group B than in group A, except in three cases which showed a lower expression, with a statistically significant difference of Cathepsin-D expression between the two groups (p vital and post-mortem injuries.

  6. Preliminary characterization of human skin microbiome in healthy Egyptian individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, M; Solyman, S; Taha, M; Hanora, A

    2016-07-31

    Human skin is a large, complex ecosystem that harbors diverse microbial communities. The rapid advances in molecular techniques facilitate the exploration of skin associated bacterial populations. The objective of this study was to perform a preliminary characterization of skin associated bacterial populations in Egyptian individuals. Samples were collected from five healthy subjects from two skin sites; Antecubital Fossa (AF) and Popliteal Fossa (PF). Genomic DNA was extracted and used to amplify bacterial 16S rRNA genes which were sequenced on Illumina MiSeq platform. The two sites showed distinct diversity where PF was more diverse than AF. Taxonomic analysis of sequences revealed four main phyla Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Deinococcus-Thermus, with Proteobacteria presenting the highest diversity. Klebsiella, Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Escherichia were the most predominant genera. Our data suggest that environmental factors can shape the composition of the skin microbiome in certain geographical regions. This study presents a new insight for subsequent analyses of human microbiome in Egypt.

  7. New insights in Staphylococcus pseudintermedius pathogenicity: antibiotic-resistant biofilm formation by a human wound-associated strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompilio, Arianna; De Nicola, Serena; Crocetta, Valentina; Guarnieri, Simone; Savini, Vincenzo; Carretto, Edoardo; Di Bonaventura, Giovanni

    2015-05-21

    Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is an opportunistic pathogen recognized as the leading cause of skin, ear, and post-operative bacterial infections in dogs and cats. Zoonotic infections have also recently been reported causing endocarditis, infection of surgical wounds, rhinosinusitis, and catheter-related bacteremia. The aim of the present study is to evaluate, for the first time, the pathogenic potential of S. pseudintermedius isolated from a human infection. To this end, strain DSM 25713, which was recently isolated from a wound of a leukemic patient who underwent a bone marrow transplantation, was investigated for biofilm formation and antibiotic-resistance under conditions relevant for wound infection. The effect of pH (5.5, 7.1, and 8.7) and the presence of serum (diluted at 1:2, 1:10, and 1:100) on biofilm formation was assessed through a crystal violet assay. The presence of serum significantly reduced the ability to form biofilm, regardless of the pH value tested. In vitro activity of eight antibiotics against biofilm formation and mature 48 h-old biofilms was comparatively assessed by crystal violet assay and viable cell count, respectively. Antibiotics at sub-inhibitory concentrations reduced biofilm formation in a dose-dependent manner, although cefoxitin was the most active, causing a significant reduction already at 1/8xMIC. Rifampicin showed the highest activity against preformed biofilms (MBEC90: 2xMIC). None of the antibiotics completely eradicated the preformed biofilms, regardless of tested concentrations. Confocal and electron microscopy analyses of mature biofilm revealed a complex "mushroom-like" architecture consisting of microcolonies embedded in a fibrillar extracellular matrix. For the first time, our results show that human wound-associated S. pseudintermedius is able to form inherently antibiotic-resistant biofilms, suggestive of its pathogenic potential, and consistent with recent reports of zoonotic infections.

  8. Effect of Recombinant Human Epidermal Growth Factor Against Cutaneous Scar Formation in Murine Full-thickness Wound Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Seok; Tark, Kwan Chul; Rah, Dong Kyun; Hong, Joon Pio

    2010-01-01

    A visible cutaneous scar develops from the excess formation of immature collagen in response to an inflammatory reaction. This study examined the role of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in the formation of cutaneous scars. Twenty Crl:CD-1 (ICR) mice were used and 2 full-thickness skin wounds were made on the dorsum of each mouse. One of the wounds was treated with recombinant human EGF by local application and the other was treated with saline for control until complete healing was achieved. The EGF-treated group's wounds healed faster than the control group's. The width of the scar was smaller by 30% and the area was smaller by 26% in the EGF-treated group. Inflammatory cell numbers were significantly lower in the EGF-treated group. The expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 in the EGF-treated group was increased. It was observed that the amount of collagen in the EGF-treated group was larger than the control group. In the EGF-treated group, the visible external scars were less noticeable than that in the control group. These results suggest that EGF can reduce cutaneous scars by suppressing inflammatory reactions, decreasing expression of TGF-β1, and mediating the formation of collagen. PMID:20358003

  9. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy with RLP068 kills methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and improves wound healing in a mouse model of infected skin abrasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchio, Daniela; Dai, Tianhong; Huang, Liyi; Fantetti, Lia; Roncucci, Gabrio; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an alternative treatment for infections that can kill drug resistant bacteria without damaging host-tissue. In this study we used bioluminescent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, in a mouse skin abrasion model, to investigate the effect of PDT on bacterial inactivation and wound healing. RLP068/Cl, a tetracationic Zn(II)phthalocyanine derivative and toluidine blue (TBO) were used. The light-dose response of PDT to kill bacteria in vivo and the possible recurrence in the days post-treatment were monitored by real-time bioluminescence imaging, and wound healing by digital photography. The results showed PDT with RLP068/Cl (but not TBO) was able to kill bacteria, to inhibit bacterial re-growth after the treatment and to significantly accelerate the wound healing process. Successive bioluminescence images of a representative mouse skin scratch model infected with 108 CFU MRSA. PMID:22987338

  10. [Preliminary study of biomechanic property on human forethigh skin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C; Chen, H

    1997-12-01

    HLC0-I biomechanical living-tissues testing mechanic was adopted for testing the biomechanical property of normal adult forethigh skin. The figures acquired were calculated using one dimension strain energy function and the constitutive equation of mono-way stress and strain was established. The results showed that the relationship between stress and strain could be expressed by the exponential function. The rise of stress was not evident when the strain was lower than 1.2, but the stress rose much sharply when the strain was higher than 1.2. The curves were nonlinear. This suggests that when we sew up a wound or perform skin transplantation, the strain should be lower than 1.2.

  11. Tribological behaviour of skin equivalents and ex-vivo human skin against the material components of artificial turf in sliding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales Hurtado, Marina; Peppelman, P.; Zeng, Xiangqiong; van Erp, P.E.J.; van der Heide, Emile

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to analyse the interaction of three artificial skin equivalents and human skin against the main material components of artificial turf. The tribological performance of Lorica, Silicone Skin L7350 and a recently developed Epidermal Skin Equivalent (ESE) were studied and compared to

  12. Vehicle effects on human stratum corneum absorption and skin penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Alissa; Jung, Eui-Chang; Zhu, Hanjiang; Zou, Ying; Hui, Xiaoying; Maibach, Howard

    2017-05-01

    This study evaluated the effects of three vehicles-ethanol (EtOH), isopropyl alcohol (IPA), and isopropyl myristate (IPM)-on stratum corneum (SC) absorption and diffusion of the [(14)C]-model compounds benzoic acid and butenafine hydrochloride to better understand the transport pathways of chemicals passing through and resident in SC. Following application of topical formulations to human dermatomed skin for 30 min, penetration flux was observed for 24 h post dosing, using an in vitro flow-through skin diffusion system. Skin absorption and penetration was compared to the chemical-SC (intact, delipidized, or SC lipid film) binding levels. A significant vehicle effect was observed for chemical skin penetration and SC absorption. IPA resulted in the greatest levels of intact SC/SC lipid absorption, skin penetration, and total skin absorption/penetration of benzoic acid, followed by IPM and EtOH, respectively. For intact SC absorption and total skin absorption/penetration of butenafine, the vehicle that demonstrated the highest level of sorption/penetration was EtOH, followed by IPA and IPM, respectively. The percent doses of butenafine that were absorbed in SC lipid film and penetrated through skin in 24 h were greatest for IPA, followed by EtOH and IPM, respectively. The vehicle effect was consistent between intact SC absorption and total chemical skin absorption and penetration, as well as SC lipid absorption and chemical penetration through skin, suggesting intercellular transport as a main pathway of skin penetration for model chemicals. These results suggest the potential to predict vehicle effects on skin permeability with simple SC absorption assays. As decontamination was applied 30 min after chemical exposure, significant vehicle effects on chemical SC partitioning and percutaneous penetration also suggest that skin decontamination efficiency is vehicle dependent, and an effective decontamination method should act on chemical solutes in the lipid domain.

  13. Histamine suppresses epidermal keratinocyte differentiation and impairs skin barrier function in a human skin model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gschwandtner, M; Mildner, M; Mlitz, V; Gruber, F; Eckhart, L; Werfel, T; Gutzmer, R; Elias, P M; Tschachler, E

    2013-01-01

    Background Defects in keratinocyte differentiation and skin barrier are important features of inflammatory skin diseases like atopic dermatitis. Mast cells and their main mediator histamine are abundant in inflamed skin and thus may contribute to disease pathogenesis. Methods Human primary keratinocytes were cultured under differentiation-promoting conditions in the presence and absence of histamine, histamine receptor agonists and antagonists. The expression of differentiation-associated genes and epidermal junction proteins was quantified by real-time PCR, Western blot, and immunofluorescence labeling. The barrier function of human skin models was tested by the application of biotin as tracer molecule. Results The addition of histamine to human keratinocyte cultures and organotypic skin models reduced the expression of the differentiation-associated proteins keratin 1/10, filaggrin, and loricrin by 80–95%. Moreover, the addition of histamine to skin models resulted in the loss of the granular layer and thinning of the epidermis and stratum corneum by 50%. The histamine receptor H1R agonist, 2-pyridylethylamine, suppressed keratinocyte differentiation to the same extent as did histamine. Correspondingly, cetirizine, an antagonist of H1R, virtually abrogated the effect of histamine. The expression of tight junction proteins zona occludens-1, occludin, claudin-1, and claudin-4, as well as that of desmosomal junction proteins corneodesmosin and desmoglein-1, was down-regulated by histamine. The tracer molecule biotin readily penetrated the tight junction barrier of skin cultures grown in the presence of histamine, while their diffusion was completely blocked in nontreated controls. Conclusions Our findings suggest a new mechanism by which mast cell activation and histamine release contribute to skin barrier defects in inflammatory skin diseases. PMID:23157658

  14. Saliva and wound healing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, H.S.; Ligtenberg, A.J.M.; Veerman, E.C.I.; Ligtenberg, A.J.M.; Veerman, E.C.I.

    2014-01-01

    Oral wounds heal faster and with less scar formation than skin wounds. One of the key factors involved is saliva, which promotes wound healing in several ways. Saliva creates a humid environment, thus improving the survival and functioning of inflammatory cells that are crucial for wound healing. In

  15. Genistein aglycone improves skin repair in an incisional model of wound healing: a comparison with raloxifene and oestradiol in ovariectomized rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, H; Polito, F; Altavilla, D; Irrera, N; Minutoli, L; Calò, M; Adamo, EB; Vaccaro, M; Squadrito, F; Bitto, A

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: Oestrogen loss at menopause is frequently related to poor wound healing. Genistein has been tested in anti-ageing cosmetic preparations with interesting results on skin health. Here, we investigated the effects of the genistein aglycones, given systemically, in an incisional model of wound healing, compared to systemic oestradiol and raloxifene. Experimental approach: Six months after ovariectomy (OVX), rats were randomly assigned to groups of 12 animals each and treated daily with genistein aglycone (1 and 10 mg·kg−1 s.c.), raloxifene hydrochloride (0.05 and 0.5 mg·kg−1 s.c.) or 17-α-ethinyl oestradiol (0.003 and 0.03 mg·kg−1 s.c.) for 12 weeks. Untreated OVX and sham OVX rats were used as controls. Then, 14 or 7 days before the end of the experiment, an incisional wound healing procedure was performed and skin specimens were collected to evaluate molecular, histological and functional measurements. Key results: Seven and fourteen days after wounding, samples from OVX rats showed a decrease in transforming growth factor-β1, tissue transglutaminase 2 and vascular endothelial growth factor compared to samples from sham OVX rats. Oestradiol, raloxifene and genistein all significantly modified this decrease, but the lowest genistein dose exerted a greater effect than the other treatments. Moreover, the lowest dose of genistein was the most effective in improving skin healing and wound tensile strength. Conclusions and implications: Genistein aglycone might be an alternative therapy for the management of skin wound healing. PMID:20590611

  16. Coverage error of commercial skin pigments as compared to human facial skin tones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hungerford, Elizabeth; Beatty, Mark W; Marx, David B; Simetich, Bobby; Wee, Alvin G

    2013-11-01

    It is unknown if present-day pigments used for intrinsic colouration of maxillofacial prostheses are representative of human facial skin tones. This study's purpose was to measure L*a*b* values of pigmented elastomers coloured by eleven skin tone pigments and determine coverage error (CE) when the pigments were compared to human facial lip and nose colour data. 11 skin tone pigments were combined at 0.1%, 1% and 10% by weight with A-2186 elastomer (n=3). L*a*b* values were measured with a spectrophotometer and group means were used to calculate ΔE* colour differences with each L*a*b* value obtained for human nose and lip. Pigmented elastomer CEs were calculated for nose and lip. Results were compared to CEs for proposed shade guide colours obtained from clustering analyses of facial skin colours. L* values of pigmented elastomers generally were higher than those measured for nose and lip, whereas a* values were lower. CEs for pigmented elastomers were higher than those obtained from the proposed shade guide obtained from clustered skin measurements. Overall, the current commercial elastomers appeared to be too white and not red enough to adequately match the skin tones of the subject population. Adjustments must be made to the existing pigmenting system in order to adequately match the skin colours of the study population. The creation of a shade guide and a collection of intrinsic pigments representing the realm of human facial skin colours would greatly decrease the time a patient must sit while the clinician is obtaining an acceptable colour match for the silicone to be used for processing the final prosthesis, thereby increasing both patient satisfaction and clinician productivity. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Action of ascorbic acid on the healing of malnourished rats'skin wounds

    OpenAIRE

    Nai, Gisele Alborghetti; Manzoli, Louise Maria Freitas; SILVA, Tayane Carvalho Isidoro da; Mamede, Larissa de Queiroz; Disconzi, Mary Ellen de Oliveira Martins; Giuffrida, Rogério

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the action of ascorbic acid on the healing of malnourished rats' cutaneous wounds compared with normal weight rats. Methods: We used 92 adult, male Wistar rats divided into four groups: 24 normal weight rats given only water and chow; 24 normal weight rats given vitamin C by gavage (340 mg/kg 12/12 hours); 22 malnourished rats given only water and chow; and 22 malnourished rats given vitamin C by gavage (340 mg/kg 12/12 hours). Malnutrition was induced by feeding the...

  18. Anti-microbial and skin wound dressing application of molecular iodine nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Kaliyaperumal; Bharathi Babu, Divya; Jayakumar, Gomathi; Dhinakar Raj, Gopal

    2017-10-01

    In this study, iodine nanoparticles were synthesized without use of any stabilizer by a new co-precipitation process using polyvinyl pyrolidone, calcium lactate, disodium hydrogen phosphate and iodine solution as precursor and the reaction was catalyzed by sodium hydroxide. Ten mg of the synthesized nanoparticles killed 95% of bacteria and inhibited 90% of bio film formation. Assays on membrane disintegration activities of the nanoparticles indicated that these nanoparticles destroyed the extracellular membrane of the bacteria. The wound healing application evaluated using mice model showed that it was hastened by iodine nanoparticles.

  19. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells transplantation promotes cutaneous wound healing of severe burned rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lingying; Yu, Yonghui; Hou, Yusen; Chai, Jiake; Duan, Hongjie; Chu, Wanli; Zhang, Haijun; Hu, Quan; Du, Jundong

    2014-01-01

    Severe burns are a common and highly lethal trauma. The key step for severe burn therapy is to promote the wound healing as early as possible, and reports indicate that mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy contributes to facilitate wound healing. In this study, we investigated effect of human umbilical cord MSCs (hUC-MSCs) could on wound healing in a rat model of severe burn and its potential mechanism. Adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into sham, burn, and burn transplanted hUC-MSCs. GFP labeled hUC-MSCs or PBS was intravenous injected into respective groups. The rate of wound closure was evaluated by Image Pro Plus. GFP-labeled hUC-MSCs were tracked by in vivo bioluminescence imaging (BLI), and human-specific DNA expression in wounds was detected by PCR. Inflammatory cells, neutrophils, macrophages, capillaries and collagen types I/III in wounds were evaluated by histochemical staining. Wound blood flow was evaluated by laser Doppler blood flow meter. The levels of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory factors, VEGF, collagen types I/III in wounds were analyzed using an ELISA. We found that wound healing was significantly accelerated in the hUC-MSC therapy group. The hUC-MSCs migrated into wound and remarkably decreased the quantity of infiltrated inflammatory cells and levels of IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α and increased levels of IL-10 and TSG-6 in wounds. Additionally, the neovascularization and levels of VEGF in wounds in the hUC-MSC therapy group were markedly higher than those in other control groups. The ratio of collagen types I and III in the hUC-MSC therapy group were markedly higher than that in the burn group at indicated time after transplantation. The study suggests that hUC-MSCs transplantation can effectively improve wound healing in severe burned rat model. Moreover, these data might provide the theoretical foundation for the further clinical application of hUC-MSC in burn areas.

  20. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells transplantation promotes cutaneous wound healing of severe burned rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingying Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Severe burns are a common and highly lethal trauma. The key step for severe burn therapy is to promote the wound healing as early as possible, and reports indicate that mesenchymal stem cell (MSC therapy contributes to facilitate wound healing. In this study, we investigated effect of human umbilical cord MSCs (hUC-MSCs could on wound healing in a rat model of severe burn and its potential mechanism. METHODS: Adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into sham, burn, and burn transplanted hUC-MSCs. GFP labeled hUC-MSCs or PBS was intravenous injected into respective groups. The rate of wound closure was evaluated by Image Pro Plus. GFP-labeled hUC-MSCs were tracked by in vivo bioluminescence imaging (BLI, and human-specific DNA expression in wounds was detected by PCR. Inflammatory cells, neutrophils, macrophages, capillaries and collagen types I/III in wounds were evaluated by histochemical staining. Wound blood flow was evaluated by laser Doppler blood flow meter. The levels of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory factors, VEGF, collagen types I/III in wounds were analyzed using an ELISA. RESULTS: We found that wound healing was significantly accelerated in the hUC-MSC therapy group. The hUC-MSCs migrated into wound and remarkably decreased the quantity of infiltrated inflammatory cells and levels of IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α and increased levels of IL-10 and TSG-6 in wounds. Additionally, the neovascularization and levels of VEGF in wounds in the hUC-MSC therapy group were markedly higher than those in other control groups. The ratio of collagen types I and III in the hUC-MSC therapy group were markedly higher than that in the burn group at indicated time after transplantation. CONCLUSION: The study suggests that hUC-MSCs transplantation can effectively improve wound healing in severe burned rat model. Moreover, these data might provide the theoretical foundation for the further clinical application of hUC-MSC in burn areas.

  1. From frog integument to human skin: dermatological perspectives from frog skin biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, Iain S; Roubos, Eric W; Mangoni, Maria Luisa; Yoshizato, Katsutoshi; Vaudry, Hubert; Kloepper, Jennifer E; Pattwell, David M; Maderson, Paul F A; Paus, Ralf

    2014-08-01

    For over a century, frogs have been studied across various scientific fields, including physiology, embryology, neuroscience, (neuro)endocrinology, ecology, genetics, behavioural science, evolution, drug development, and conservation biology. In some cases, frog skin has proven very successful as a research model, for example aiding in the study of ion transport through tight epithelia, where it has served as a model for the vertebrate distal renal tubule and mammalian epithelia. However, it has rarely been considered in comparative studies involving human skin. Yet, despite certain notable adaptations that have enabled frogs to survive in both aquatic and terrestrial environments, frog skin has many features in common with human skin. Here we present a comprehensive overview of frog (and toad) skin ontogeny, anatomy, cytology, neuroendocrinology and immunology, with special attention to its unique adaptations as well as to its similarities with the mammalian integument, including human skin. We hope to provide a valuable reference point and a source of inspiration for both amphibian investigators and mammalian researchers studying the structural and functional properties of the largest organ of the vertebrate body. © 2013 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2013 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  2. Anti-aging effects of Piper cambodianum P. Fourn. extract on normal human dermal fibroblast cells and a wound-healing model in mice

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    Lee H

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Hyunji Lee,1 Youngeun Hong,1 So Hee Kwon,2 Jongsun Park,1 Jisoo Park1 1Department of Pharmacology and Medical Science, Metabolic Diseases and Cell Signaling Laboratory, Research Institute for Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, 2Department of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Yonsei Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Yonsei University, Incheon, South Korea Background: Aging of skin is associated with environmental factors such as ultraviolet rays, air pollution, gravity, and genetic factors, all of which can lead to wrinkling of skin. Previous reports suggest that the wound repair is impaired by the aging process and strategies to manipulate the age-related wound healing are necessary in order to stimulate repair.Objective: Several traditional plant extracts are well-known for their properties of skin protection and care. Piper cambodianum P. Fourn. (PPF, a member of Piperacecae, is a plant found in Vietnam that might have therapeutic properties. Therefore, the effects of PPF stem and leaf extract on aging process were investigated in vitro and in vivo.Methods: PPF extract dissolved in methanol was investigated using Western blotting, real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, flow cytometry, and cell wound-healing assays. We assessed the anti-aging effect of PPF in mouse using the wound-healing assay. The results were analyzed by Student’s unpaired t-test; *P<0.05 and **P<0.01 were considered to indicate significant and highly significant values, respectively, compared with corresponding controls.Results: PPF treatment demonstrated in vitro and in vivo anti-aging activity. Western blot analysis of PPF-treated normal human dermal fibroblast cells showed a dose-dependent increase in the expression of extracellular matrix genes such as collagen and elastin, but decreased expression of the aging gene matrix metalloproteinase-3. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed

  3. An athymic rat model of cutaneous radiation injury designed to study human tissue-based wound therapy

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    Rifkin Lucas H

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To describe a pilot study for a novel preclinical model used to test human tissue-based therapies in the setting of cutaneous radiation injury. Methods A protocol was designed to irradiate the skin of athymic rats while sparing the body and internal organs by utilizing a non-occlusive skin clamp along with an x-ray image guided stereotactic irradiator. Each rat was irradiated both on the right and the left flank with a circular field at a 20 cm source-to-surface distance (SSD. Single fractions of 30.4 Gy, 41.5 Gy, 52.6 Gy, 65.5 Gy, and 76.5 Gy were applied in a dose-finding trial. Eight additional wounds were created using the 41.5 Gy dose level. Each wound was photographed and the percentage of the irradiated area ulcerated at given time points was analyzed using ImageJ software. Results No systemic or lethal sequelae occurred in any animals, and all irradiated skin areas in the multi-dose trial underwent ulceration. Greater than 60% of skin within each irradiated zone underwent ulceration within ten days, with peak ulceration ranging from 62.1% to 79.8%. Peak ulceration showed a weak correlation with radiation dose (r = 0.664. Mean ulceration rate over the study period is more closely correlated to dose (r = 0.753. With the highest dose excluded due to contraction-related distortions, correlation between dose and average ulceration showed a stronger relationship (r = 0.895. Eight additional wounds created using 41.5 Gy all reached peak ulceration above 50%, with all healing significantly but incompletely by the 65-day endpoint. Conclusions We developed a functional preclinical model which is currently used to evaluate human tissue-based therapies in the setting of cutaneous radiation injury. Similar models may be widely applicable and useful the development of novel therapies which may improve radiotherapy management over a broad clinical spectrum.

  4. Early Gene Expression in Wounded Human Keratinocytes Revealed by DNA Microarray Analysis

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    Pascal Barbry

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Wound healing involves several steps: spreading of the cells, migration and proliferation. We have profiled gene expression during the early events of wound healing in normal human keratinocytes with a home-made DNA microarray containing about 1000 relevant human probes. An original wounding machine was used, that allows the wounding of up to 40% of the surface of a confluent monolayer of cultured cells grown on a Petri dish (compared with 5% with a classical ‘scratch’ method. The two aims of the present study were: (a to validate a limited number of genes by comparing the expression levels obtained with this technique with those found in the literature; (b to combine the use of the wounding machine with DNA microarray analysis for large-scale detection of the molecular events triggered during the early stages of the wound-healing process. The time-courses of RNA expression observed at 0.5, 1.5, 3, 6 and 15 h after wounding for genes such as c-Fos, c-Jun, Egr1, the plasminogen activator PLAU (uPA and the signal transducer and transcription activator STAT3, were consistent with previously published data. This suggests that our methodologies are able to perform quantitative measurement of gene expression. Transcripts encoding two zinc finger proteins, ZFP36 and ZNF161, and the tumour necrosis factor α-induced protein TNFAIP3, were also overexpressed after wounding. The role of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK in wound healing was shown after the inhibition of p38 by SB203580, but our results also suggest the existence of surrogate activating pathways.

  5. Wound healing in below-knee amputations in relation to skin perfusion pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, P; Sager, P; Lassen, N A

    1979-01-01

    In 60 below-knee amputations the healing of the stumps was correlated with the local skin perfusion pressure (SPP) measured preoperatively as the external pressure required to stop isotope washout using 131I- or 125I--antipyrine mixed with histamine. Of the eight cases with an SPP below 20 mm...

  6. Living skin substitutes: survival and function of fibroblasts seeded in a dermal substitute in experimental wounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamme, E. N.; van Leeuwen, R. T.; Jonker, A.; van Marle, J.; Middelkoop, E.

    1998-01-01

    The healing of full-thickness skin defects requires extensive synthesis and remodeling of dermal and epidermal components. Fibroblasts play an important role in this process and are being incorporated in the latest generation of artificial dermal substitutes. We studied the fate of fibroblasts

  7. The Role of Human Adult Peripheral and Umbilical Cord Blood Platelet-Rich Plasma on Proliferation and Migration of Human Skin Fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Seyedeh-Sara; Mahmoodi, Mahdokht; Rafati, Ali Reza; Manafi, Farzad; Mehrabani, Davood

    2017-05-01

    Wound healing is a complex and dynamic process following damage in tissue structures. Due to extensive skin damage caused by burn injuries, this study determined the role of human adult peripheral and umbilical cord blood platelet-rich plasma on proliferation and migration in human skin fibroblasts. Platelet-rich plasma (5, 10, 15, 20 and 50% PRP) from human umbilical cord blood and adult peripheral blood were provided and added to fibroblasts cultured from a human skin sample. Migration and proliferation of fibroblasts were assessed in comparison to 10% FBS and by the fibroblast responses to a concentration gradient. All components of the umbilical cord blood PRP significantly stimulated the growth of fibroblasts when compared to the negative control. Fibroblast growth was enhanced in a dose dependent manner. All fibroblast cultures retained normal morphology. No significant difference was noted between umbilical cord blood and adult peripheral blood PRP preparations regarding cell proliferation and migration, but the difference to 10% FBS was significant. 1% and 50% PRP reduced cellular proliferation. The 20% umbilical cord blood PRP and 10% adult peripheral blood PRP had a significant stimulatory effect on the migration of the skin fibroblast cells in comparison with 10% FBS. As PRP could promote the migration and proliferation of dermal fibroblasts, it can be safely added in cultures when treatment of chronic wounds without triggering the immune response is needed.

  8. A hypoxia response element in the Vegfa promoter is required for basal Vegfa expression in skin and for optimal granulation tissue formation during wound healing in mice.

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    Domenic Ciarlillo

    Full Text Available Hypoxia in skin wounds is thought to contribute to healing through the induction of hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1. Although HIF-1 can regulate the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor A (Vegfa, whether hypoxia and HIF-1 are required to induce Vegfa expression in the context of wound healing is unknown. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated Vegfa expression and wound healing in mutant mice that lack a functional HIF-1 binding site in the Vegfa promoter. Full-thickness excisional wounds were made using a biopsy punch, left to heal by second intention, and granulation tissue isolated on a time course during healing. mRNA levels of Vegfa and its target genes platelet-derived growth factors B (Pdgfb and stromal cell-derived factor-1 (Sdf1 were measured by RT-qPCR, and HIF-1alpha and VEGFA protein levels measured by immunoblotting. Lower levels of Vegfa, Pdgf1 and Sdf1 mRNA were found in intact skin of mutant mice relative to wild-type controls (n = 6 mice/genotype, whereas levels in granulation tissue during wound healing were unaltered. VEGFA protein levels were also lower in intact skin of the mutant versus the wild-type mice. Decreased Vegfa mRNA levels in skin of mutant mice could not be attributed to decreased HIF-1alpha protein expression, and were therefore a consequence of the loss of HIF-1 responsiveness of the Vegfa promoter. Comparative histologic analyses of healing wounds in mutant and wild-type mice (n = 8 mice/genotype revealed significant defects in granulation tissue in the mutant mice, both in terms of quantity and capillary density, although epithelialization and healing rates were unaltered. We conclude that HIF-1 is not a major regulator of Vegfa expression during wound healing; rather, it serves to maintain basal levels of expression of Vegfa and its target genes in intact skin, which are required for optimal granulation tissue formation in response to wounding.

  9. [Study of skin retraction applied to the treatment of skin tumors. Mapping of the human body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, P; Benatar, M; Cardot-Leccia, N; Lebreton, E; Chignon-Sicard, B

    2012-04-01

    Skin, the main organ of the human body, is equipped with own biomechanical characteristics, highly variable depending on intra-individual factors (location, weight status, dermatological diseases…) and interindividual (age, sex…). Despite some recent cutometric studies, our review of the literature shows that there is no currently reliable analytical model representing the biomechanical behavior of the skin. Yet, this is a central issue in dermatology surgery, especially in the treatment of skin tumors, for the proper observance of surgical margins. We studied prospectively on 75 resection specimens (about 71 patient(s)), for the treatment of skin lesions tumor suspicious or known malignant or benign. Room dimensions were measured before and 5 minutes after excision, leading us to calculate a ratio of retraction of the skin surface. This retraction was correlated with age, gender, tumor type, and anatomic location of the site of excision. The power of retraction of the skin varies significantly by region of the body. It is maximum in the upper limb (hand excluded) and in the cervical region. At the cephalic region, skin of the ear and periorbital skin have capacities of important early retraction. Unlike the lower limb (foot excluded), the back skin of the nose and face appear to be a minimum of shrinkage. Age also seems to change on that capacity shrinkage, sex would have no influence. Our study confirms the variations in the ability of skin retraction based on a number of factors. In dermato-oncology, that power retraction could cause significant differences between clinical surgical margins and final pathologist margins. We believe it must be taken into account by the couple surgeon-pathologist, especially in the context of invasive and/or recurrent tumors. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  10. Effects of 630 nm Red and 460 nm Blue Light Emitting Diode Irradiation on Healing of the Skin Wound in Japanese Big-ear White Rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanhong; Zhang, Jigang; Xu, Yanfeng; Han, Yunlin; Jiang, Binbin; Huang, Lan; Zhu, Hua; Xu, Yuhuan; Yang, Weiling; Qin, Chuan

    2017-06-20

    Objective To observe the effects of 630 nm red light and 460 nm blue light emitting diode irradiation on the healing of skin wounds in Japanese big-ear white rabbits. Methods The skin wound model was established with 8 Japanese big-ear white rabbits. Three parts of vulnus in each rabbit were used:two parts of vulnus were irradiated vertically by red and blue LED light,respectively(15 min/time),and the distance between lights and wounds was 15 cm;the 3rd part of the wound was used as a control. On the 21st day of the wounds exposure to light,the number of healing wounds and the percentage of healing area were recorded and the treatment effect of these two light sources was compared. HE staining was used to analyze the newborn tissue structure. Masson staining was used to observe the proliferation of skin collagen fibers. Immuohistochemical staining was used to analyze fibroblast growth factor(FGF),epidermal growth factor(EGF),endothelial growth factor(CD31),proliferating cell nuclear antigen(Ki-67),and inflammatory cytokines(CD68)infiltration in the skin. Results The healing rate in the red light,blue light,and control groups was 50.0%(4/8),25.0%(2/8),and 12.5%(1/8),respectively. Since the 12th day after modeling,the healing area percentage in the red light group was significantly higher than those in the blue light and control groups(Plight group was(2.95±0.34)mm,which was significantly higher than that in control group [(2.52±0.42)mm;F=3.182,P=0.016)]. The average optical density of collagen fibers was 0.15±0.03 in red light group,which was significantly higher than that of the blue light group(0.09±0.01;F=7.316,P=0.012)and control(0.07±0.01;F=7.316,P=0.003). The results of immunohistochemistry showed the expression levels of EGF,FGF,CD31 antigen,and Ki-67 in the red light group were significantly higher than those in the blue light and control groups,whereas the CD68 expression was significantly lower(Plight irradiation can promote the healing of skin wounds

  11. Tissue concentration of transforming growth factor beta1 and basic fibroblast growth factor in skin wounds created with a CO2 laser and scalpel: a comparative experimental study, using an animal model of skin resurfacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolis, Evangelos N; Kaklamanos, Ioannis G; Spanakis, Nicholas; Filippou, Dimitrios K; Panagiotaropoulos, Theophanis; Tsakris, Athanassios; Siomos, Konstadinos

    2007-01-01

    Although a number of ablative-laser techniques based on CO(2) and Er: YAG laser devices have been successfully developed and used in the clinical setting, the bio-molecular processes influencing wound healing after exposure to laser energy are not well elucidated. In this study, we aim to assess the impact of the mechanism of injury on the secretion of transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in various stages of wound healing, in wounds created with a CO(2) laser and scalpel. Ten Wistar rats were used to determine the levels of growth factor proteins TGF-beta1 and bFGF after CO(2) laser- and scalpel-induced skin injury. Tissue was excised on day 0 for untreated skin (control sites), and on days 1, 10, 30, and 90 following laser and scalpel surgery. Specimens were processed for histopathological analysis and for determining the concentration of growth factors by a Western blot technique. The concentration of TGF-beta1 increased markedly, at day 1 postinjury, from a baseline of 130+/-16 mm(2) (mean surface area of blotted-protein lanes) to 261+/-23 mm(2) and 394+/-22 mm(2) for laser-inflicted injury and scalpel wounds, respectively; the latter values were found to differ significantly (plaser sites (553+/-45 mm(2)) and the corresponding scalpel sites (418+/-41 mm(2)). Laser energy alters local tissue secretion of TGF-beta1 and bFGF of skin injuries created with the CO(2) laser compared with wounds created with a scalpel. These differences might have an impact on various aspects of wound healing of skin injuries created by a laser.

  12. In-vitro percutaneous absorption of losartan potassium in human skin and prediction of human skin permeability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petkar K.C.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the feasibility of transdermal controlled administration of Losartan potassium (LP across human cadaver skin. Study also defines the influence of capsaicin, sex and site of application on permeation characteristics and determined an appropriate animal model for human skin permeability. The permeation of LP of various formulations was studied using Keshary-Chein diffusion cell. Optimized controlled formulation (without capsaicin released 42.17% (±1.85 of LP in 12 hr whereas treatment formulation (with capsaicin 0.028 % w/v released 48.94% (±1.71 of LP with significant difference on null hypothesis. Influence of sex showed statistically significant difference for permeation of LP through male and female rats, as well as male and female mice across both the abdominal and dorsal sides of the skin (p<0.05. Similarly statistically significant differences were noted for permeation of LP across male and female mice abdomen-dorsal, but not for male rat abdomen-dorsal and female rat abdomen-dorsal. Furthermore, in-vitro permeation of LP across human skin was compared with the permeation across rat and mice skins. Male rat and male mice dorsal skin was found to have closer permeability characteristics to human than other skin membranes, but the Factor of Difference values were < 3 for all membranes which were used suggesting the membranes are good models for human skin permeability. In conclusion simple transdermal adhesive patches formulations incorporating high molecular weight of LP can deliver a dose in-vivo and proposed model skin membranes can be utilized for future pharmacokineic and toxicokinetic studies as well as metabolism studies of LP

  13. Human Skin 3D Bioprinting Using Scaffold-Free Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourchet, Léa J; Thepot, Amélie; Albouy, Marion; Courtial, Edwin J; Boher, Aurélie; Blum, Loïc J; Marquette, Christophe A

    2017-02-01

    Organ in vitro synthesis is one of the last bottlenecks between tissue engineering and transplantation of synthetic organs. Bioprinting has proven its capacity to produce 3D objects composed of living cells but highly organized tissues such as full thickness skin (dermis + epidermis) are rarely attained. The focus of the present study is to demonstrate the capability of a newly developed ink formulation and the use of an open source printer, for the production of a really complete skin model. Proofs are given through immunostaining and electronic microscopy that the bioprinted skin presents all characteristics of human skin, both at the molecular and macromolecular level. Finally, the printability of large skin objects is demonstrated with the printing of an adult-size ear. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Oxidative Stress in Aging Human Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinnerthaler, Mark; Bischof, Johannes; Streubel, Maria Karolin; Trost, Andrea; Richter, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress in skin plays a major role in the aging process. This is true for intrinsic aging and even more for extrinsic aging. Although the results are quite different in dermis and epidermis, extrinsic aging is driven to a large extent by oxidative stress caused by UV irradiation. In this review the overall effects of oxidative stress are discussed as well as the sources of ROS including the mitochondrial ETC, peroxisomal and ER localized proteins, the Fenton reaction, and such enzymes as cyclooxygenases, lipoxygenases, xanthine oxidases, and NADPH oxidases. Furthermore, the defense mechanisms against oxidative stress ranging from enzymes like superoxide dismutases, catalases, peroxiredoxins, and GSH peroxidases to organic compounds such as L-ascorbate, α-tocopherol, beta-carotene, uric acid, CoQ10, and glutathione are described in more detail. In addition the oxidative stress induced modifications caused to proteins, lipids and DNA are discussed. Finally age-related changes of the skin are also a topic of this review. They include a disruption of the epidermal calcium gradient in old skin with an accompanying change in the composition of the cornified envelope. This modified cornified envelope also leads to an altered anti-oxidative capacity and a reduced barrier function of the epidermis. PMID:25906193

  15. Oxidative Stress in Aging Human Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Rinnerthaler

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress in skin plays a major role in the aging process. This is true for intrinsic aging and even more for extrinsic aging. Although the results are quite different in dermis and epidermis, extrinsic aging is driven to a large extent by oxidative stress caused by UV irradiation. In this review the overall effects of oxidative stress are discussed as well as the sources of ROS including the mitochondrial ETC, peroxisomal and ER localized proteins, the Fenton reaction, and such enzymes as cyclooxygenases, lipoxygenases, xanthine oxidases, and NADPH oxidases. Furthermore, the defense mechanisms against oxidative stress ranging from enzymes like superoxide dismutases, catalases, peroxiredoxins, and GSH peroxidases to organic compounds such as L-ascorbate, α-tocopherol, beta-carotene, uric acid, CoQ10, and glutathione are described in more detail. In addition the oxidative stress induced modifications caused to proteins, lipids and DNA are discussed. Finally age-related changes of the skin are also a topic of this review. They include a disruption of the epidermal calcium gradient in old skin with an accompanying change in the composition of the cornified envelope. This modified cornified envelope also leads to an altered anti-oxidative capacity and a reduced barrier function of the epidermis.

  16. Real-time imaging of suction blistering in human skin using optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Joana C.O.; Palero, Jonathan A.; Jurna, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Separation of skin epidermis from the dermis by suction blistering has been used with high success rate for autologous skin epidermal grafting in burns, chronic wounds and vitiligo transplantation treatment. Although commercial products that achieve epidermal grafting by suction blistering are presently available, there is still limited knowledge and understanding on the dynamic process of epidermal-dermal separation during suction blistering. In this report we integrated a suction system to an Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) which allowed for the first time, real-time imaging of the suction blistering process in human skin. We describe in this report the evolution of a suction blister where the growth is modeled with a Boltzmann sigmoid function. We further investigated the relationship between onset and steady-state blister times, blister growth rate, applied suction pressure and applied local skin temperature. Our results show that while the blister time is inversely proportional to the applied suction pressure, the relationship between the blister time and the applied temperature is described by an exponential decay. PMID:26713194

  17. Time-dependent effects of low-level laser therapy on the morphology and oxidative response in the skin wound healing in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Reggiani Vilela; Novaes, Rômulo Dias; Cupertino, Marli do Carmo; Moraes, Bruna; Leite, João Paulo Viana; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo Gouveia; Pinto, Marcus Vinicius de Mello; da Matta, Sérgio Luis Pinto

    2013-02-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of different energy densities provided by low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on the morphology of scar tissue and the oxidative response in the healing of secondary intention skin wounds in rats. Twenty-four male adult Wistar rats were used. Skin wounds were made on the backs of the animals, which were randomized into three groups of eight animals each as follows, 0.9% saline (control); laser GaAsAl 30 J/cm(2) (L30); laser GaAsAl 90 J/cm(2) (L90). The experiment lasted 21 days. Every 7 days, the wound contraction index (WCI) was calculated and tissue from different wounds was removed to assess the proportion of cells and blood vessels, collagen maturation index (CMI), thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) levels and catalase activity (CAT). On the 7th and 14th days, the WCI and the proportion of cells were significantly higher in groups L30 and L90 compared to the control (p wounded tissue, constituting a possible mechanism through which the LLLT exerts its effects in the initial phases of tissue repair.

  18. The use of wound healing assessment methods in psychological studies: a review and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koschwanez, Heidi E; Broadbent, Elizabeth

    2011-02-01

    To provide a critical review of methods used to assess human wound healing in psychological research and related disciplines, in order to guide future research into psychological influences on wound healing. Acute wound models (skin blister, tape stripping, skin biopsy, oral palate biopsy, expanded polytetrafluoroethylene tubing), surgical wound healing assessment methods (wound drains, wound scoring), and chronic wound assessment techniques (surface area, volumetric measurements, wound composition, and assessment tools/scoring systems) are summarized, including merits, limitations, and recommendations. Several dermal and mucosal tissue acute wound models have been established to assess the effects of psychological stress on the inflammatory, proliferative, and repair phases of wound healing in humans, including material-based models developed to evaluate factors influencing post-surgical recovery. There is a paucity of research published on psychological factors influencing chronic wound healing. There are many assessment techniques available to study the progression of chronic wound healing but many difficulties inherent to long-term clinical studies. Researchers need to consider several design-related issues when conducting studies into the effects of psychological stress on wound healing, including the study aims, type of wound, tissue type, setting, sample characteristics and accessibility, costs, timeframe, and facilities available. Researchers should consider combining multiple wound assessment methods to increase the reliability and validity of results and to further understand mechanisms that link stress and wound healing. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  19. Comparison of skin decontamination efficacy of commercial decontamination products following exposure to VX on human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thors, L; Koch, M; Wigenstam, E; Koch, B; Hägglund, L; Bucht, A

    2017-08-01

    The decontamination efficacy of four commercially available skin decontamination products following exposure to the nerve agent VX was evaluated in vitro utilizing a diffusion cell and dermatomed human skin. The products included were Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL), the Swedish decontamination powder 104 (PS104), the absorbent Fuller's Earth and the aqueous solution alldecontMED. In addition, various decontamination procedures were assessed to further investigate important mechanisms involved in the specific products, e.g. decontamination removal from skin, physical removal by sponge swabbing and activation of degradation mechanisms. The efficacy of each decontamination product was evaluated 5 or 30 min after dermal application of VX (neat or diluted to 20% in water). The RSDL-lotion was superior in reducing the penetration of VX through human skin, both when exposed as neat agent and when diluted to 20% in water. Swabbing with the RSDL-sponge during 2 min revealed decreased efficacy compared to applying the RSDL-lotion directly on the skin for 30 min. Decontamination with Fuller's Earth and alldecontMED significantly reduced the penetration of neat concentration of VX through human skin. PS104-powder was insufficient for decontamination of VX at both time-points, independently of the skin contact time of PS104. The PS104-slurry (a mixture of PS104-powder and water), slightly improved the decontamination efficacy. Comparing the time-points for initiated decontamination revealed less penetrated VX for RSDL and Fuller's Earth when decontamination was initiated after 5 min compared to 30 min post-exposure, while alldecontMED displayed similar efficacy at both time-points. Decontamination by washing with water only resulted in a significant reduction of penetrated VX when washing was performed 5 min after exposure, but not when decontamination was delayed to 30 min post-exposure of neat VX. In conclusion, early initiated decontamination with the

  20. Microneedle enhanced delivery of cosmeceutically relevant peptides in human skin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousuf H Mohammed

    Full Text Available Peptides and proteins play an important role in skin health and well-being. They are also found to contribute to skin aging and melanogenesis. Microneedles have been shown to substantially enhance skin penetration and may offer an effective means of peptide delivery enhancement. The aim of this investigation was to assess the influence of microneedles on the skin penetration of peptides using fluorescence imaging to determine skin distribution. In particular the effect of peptide chain length (3, 4, 5 amino acid chain length on passive and MN facilitated skin penetration was investigated. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to image fluorescence intensity and the area of penetration of fluorescently tagged peptides. Penetration studies were conducted on excised full thickness human skin in Franz type diffusion cells for 1 and 24 hours. A 2 to 22 fold signal improvement in microneedle enhanced delivery of melanostatin, rigin and pal-KTTKS was observed. To our knowledge this is the first description of microneedle enhanced skin permeation studies on these peptides.

  1. Developing a predictive model of human skin coloring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, Symon; Claridge, Ela

    1996-04-01

    A model of color formation within human skin has been developed to aid the characterization of pigmented skin lesions from their digitized color images. The model is based on the Kublenka-Munk theory of scattering and absorption within inhomogeneous materials and the physics pertaining to their color properties. By considering the skin to be a layered construction of such materials, the stratum corneum, epidermis, papillary dermis and reticular dermis, and by exploiting the physics related to the optical interface between these layers, the model generates all possible colors occurring within normal human skin. In particular, the model predicts that all skin colors have to lie on a simple curved surface patch within a three- dimensional color space bounded by two physiologically meaningful axes, one corresponding to the amount of melanin within the epidermis and the other to the amount of blood within the dermis. These predictions were verified by comparing the CIE LMS coordinates of a representative, cross-racial sample of fifty skin images with the LMS coordinates predicted by the model. The results show that, within the predicted error bounds, the coordinates for normal skin colors do indeed lie on the curved surface generated by the model. Several possible applications of this representation are outlined, including images representing the melanin and blood components separately, as well as the possibility of measuring the Breslow thickness of melanocytic invasion within malignant melanoma.

  2. Skin Blood Perfusion and Oxygenation Colour Affect Perceived Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Ian D.; Coetzee, Vinet; Law Smith, Miriam; Perrett, David I.

    2009-01-01

    Skin blood perfusion and oxygenation depends upon cardiovascular, hormonal and circulatory health in humans and provides socio-sexual signals of underlying physiology, dominance and reproductive status in some primates. We allowed participants to manipulate colour calibrated facial photographs along empirically-measured oxygenated and deoxygenated blood colour axes both separately and simultaneously, to optimise healthy appearance. Participants increased skin blood colour, particularly oxygenated, above basal levels to optimise healthy appearance. We show, therefore, that skin blood perfusion and oxygenation influence perceived health in a way that may be important to mate choice. PMID:19337378

  3. NLRP3 Inflammasome Expression and Signaling in Human Diabetic Wounds and in High Glucose Induced Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaotian Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. To investigate the contribution and mechanism of NLRP3 inflammasome expression in human wounds in diabetes mellitus and in high glucose induced macrophages. Methods. In the present study, we compared the expression of NLRP3 inflammasome in debridement wound tissue from diabetic and nondiabetic patients. We also examined whether high glucose induces NLRP3 inflammasome expression in cultures THP-1-derived macrophages and the influence on IL-1β expression. Results. The expressions of NLRP3, caspase1, and IL-1β, at both the mRNA and protein level, were significantly higher in wounds of diabetic patients compared with nondiabetic wounds (P<0.05. High glucose induced a significant increase in NLRP3 inflammasome and IL-1β expression in THP-1-derived macrophages. M1 macrophage surface marker with CCR7 was significantly upregulated after high glucose stimulation. SiRNA-mediated silencing of NLRP3 expression downregulates the expression of IL-1β. Conclusion. The higher expression of NLRP3, caspase1, and secretion of IL-1β, signaling, and activation might contribute to the hyperinflammation in the human diabetic wound and in high glucose induced macrophages. It may be a novel target to treat the DM patients with chronic wound.

  4. Human skin wetness perception: psychophysical and neurophysiological bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filingeri, Davide; Havenith, George

    2015-01-01

    The ability to perceive thermal changes in the surrounding environment is critical for survival. However, sensing temperature is not the only factor among the cutaneous sensations to contribute to thermoregulatory responses in humans. Sensing skin wetness (i.e. hygrosensation) is also critical both for behavioral and autonomic adaptations. Although much has been done to define the biophysical role of skin wetness in contributing to thermal homeostasis, little is known on the neurophysiological mechanisms underpinning the ability to sense skin wetness. Humans are not provided with skin humidity receptors (i.e., hygroreceptors) and psychophysical studies have identified potential sensory cues (i.e. thermal and mechanosensory) which could contribute to sensing wetness. Recently, a neurophysiological model of human wetness sensitivity has been developed. In helping clarifying the peripheral and central neural mechanisms involved in sensing skin wetness, this model has provided evidence for the existence of a specific human hygrosensation strategy, which is underpinned by perceptual learning via sensory experience. Remarkably, this strategy seems to be shared by other hygroreceptor-lacking animals. However, questions remain on whether these sensory mechanisms are underpinned by specific neuromolecular pathways in humans. Although the first study on human wetness perception dates back to more than 100 years, it is surprising that the neurophysiological bases of such an important sensory feature have only recently started to be unveiled. Hence, to provide an overview of the current knowledge on human hygrosensation, along with potential directions for future research, this review will examine the psychophysical and neurophysiological bases of human skin wetness perception. PMID:27227008

  5. Human skin hypoxia modulates cerebrovascular and autonomic functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Pucci

    Full Text Available Because the skin is an oxygen sensor in amphibians and mice, we thought to confirm this function also in humans. The human upright posture, however, introduces additional functional demands for the maintenance of oxygen homeostasis in which cerebral blood flow and autonomic nervous system (ANS function may also be involved. We examined nine males and three females. While subjects were breathing ambient air, at sea level, we changed gases in a plastic body-bag during two conditions of the experiment such as to induce skin hypoxia (with pure nitrogen or skin normoxia (with air. The subjects performed a test of hypoxic ventilatory drive during each condition of the experiment. We found no differences in the hypoxic ventilatory drive tests. However, ANS function and cerebral blood flow velocities were modulated by skin hypoxia and the effect was significantly greater on the left than right middle cerebral arteries. We conclude that skin hypoxia modulates ANS function and cerebral blood flow velocities and this might impact life styles and tolerance to ambient hypoxia at altitude. Thus the skin in normal humans, in addition to its numerous other functions, is also an oxygen sensor.

  6. Sacha Inchi Oil (Plukenetia volubilis L.), effect on adherence of Staphylococus aureus to human skin explant and keratinocytes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Aspajo, German; Belkhelfa, Haouaria; Haddioui-Hbabi, Laïla; Bourdy, Geneviève; Deharo, Eric

    2015-08-02

    Plukenetia volubilis L. (Euphorbiaceae) is a domesticated vine distributed from the high-altitude Andean rain forest to the lowlands of the Peruvian Amazon. Oil from the cold-pressed seeds, sold under the commercial name of Sacha Inchi Oil (SIO) is actually much in favour because it contains a high percentage of omega 3 and omega 6, and is hence used as a dietary supplement. SIO is also used traditionally for skin care, in order to maintain skin softness, and for the treatment of wounds, insect bites and skin infections, in a tropical context where the skin is frequently damaged. This study was designed in order to verify whether the traditional use of SIO for skin care would have any impact on Staphylococcus aureus growth and skin adherence, as S. aureus is involved in many skin pathologies (impetigo, folliculitis, furuncles and subcutaneous abscesses) being one if the main pathogens that can be found on the skin. Therefore, our objective was to assess SIO bactericidal activity and interference with adherence to human skin explants and the keratinocyte cell line. Cytotoxicity on that cells was also determined. The activity of SIO was compared to coconut oil (CocO), which is widely used for skin care but has different unsaturated fatty acids contents. Laboratory testing with certified oil, determined antibacterial activity against radio labelled S. aureus. Cytotoxic effects were measured with XTT on keratinocyte cells and with neutral red on human skin explants; phenol was used as cytotoxic control. Adherence assays were carried out by mixing H3-labelled S. aureus bacteria with keratinocyte cells and human skin explants, incubated with oils 2h before (to determine the inhibition of adherence, assimilated to a preventive effect) or 2h after the contact of the biological material with S. aureus (to assess the detachment of the bacteria, assimilated to a curative effect). Residual radioactivity measured after washings made it possible to determine the adherence

  7. Mobile phone radiation might alter protein expression in human skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nylund Reetta

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Earlier we have shown that the mobile phone radiation (radiofrequency modulated electromagnetic fields; RF-EMF alters protein expression in human endothelial cell line. This does not mean that similar response will take place in human body exposed to this radiation. Therefore, in this pilot human volunteer study, using proteomics approach, we have examined whether a local exposure of human skin to RF-EMF will cause changes in protein expression in living people. Results Small area of forearm's skin in 10 female volunteers was exposed to RF-EMF (specific absorption rate SAR = 1.3 W/kg and punch biopsies were collected from exposed and non-exposed areas of skin. Proteins extracted from biopsies were separated using 2-DE and protein expression changes were analyzed using PDQuest software. Analysis has identified 8 proteins that were statistically significantly affected (Anova and Wilcoxon tests. Two of the proteins were present in all 10 volunteers. This suggests that protein expression in human skin might be affected by the exposure to RF-EMF. The number of affected proteins was similar to the number of affected proteins observed in our earlier in vitro studies. Conclusion This is the first study showing that molecular level changes might take place in human volunteers in response to exposure to RF-EMF. Our study confirms that proteomics screening approach can identify protein targets of RF-EMF in human volunteers.

  8. Effects of Biosynthetic Human Epidermal Growth Factor on Wound Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    orl ~o~ NPTIS CRA1 iii I ~~*~*........ oV unit!." .,z; ’ V *1 -qlfi-I I . e,, -. 00% 1*. .P f tN N N. -.’U N, ~ w i STATEMENT OF PROBILE UNDER STUDY...sites could be selected on patients which were not likely to have impaired wound healing such as diabetics or patients receiving steroids or...EGF in diabetic ulcers is just beginning at the University of Louisville and at other universities. Compared to mid-dermal injuries, the use of

  9. Myofibroblast Expression in Skin Wounds Is Enhanced by Collagen III Suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed M. Al-Qattan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Generally speaking, the excessive expression of myofibroblasts is associated with excessive collagen production. One exception is seen in patients and animal models of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV in which the COL3A1 gene mutation results in reduced collagen III but with concurrent increased myofibroblast expression. This paradox has not been examined with the use of external drugs/modalities to prevent hypertrophic scars. In this paper, we injected the rabbit ear wound model of hypertrophic scarring with two doses of a protein called nAG, which is known to reduce collagen expression and to suppress hypertrophic scarring in that animal model. The higher nAG dose was associated with significantly less collagen III expression and concurrent higher degree of myofibroblast expression. We concluded that collagen III content of the extracellular matrix may have a direct or an indirect effect on myofibroblast differentiation. However, further research is required to investigate the pathogenesis of this paradoxical phenomenon.

  10. Composition of human skin microbiota affects attractiveness to malaria mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels O Verhulst

    Full Text Available The African malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto continues to play an important role in malaria transmission, which is aggravated by its high degree of anthropophily, making it among the foremost vectors of this disease. In the current study we set out to unravel the strong association between this mosquito species and human beings, as it is determined by odorant cues derived from the human skin. Microbial communities on the skin play key roles in the production of human body odour. We demonstrate that the composition of the skin microbiota affects the degree of attractiveness of human beings to this mosquito species. Bacterial plate counts and 16S rRNA sequencing revealed that individuals that are highly attractive to An. gambiae s.s. have a significantly higher abundance, but lower diversity of bacteria on their skin than individuals that are poorly attractive. Bacterial genera that are correlated with the relative degree of attractiveness to mosquitoes were identified. The discovery of the connection between skin microbial populations and attractiveness to mosquitoes may lead to the development of new mosquito attractants and personalized methods for protection against vectors of malaria and other infectious diseases.

  11. Biogeography and individuality shape function in the human skin metagenome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Julia; Byrd, Allyson L; Deming, Clay; Conlan, Sean; Kong, Heidi H; Segre, Julia A

    2014-10-02

    The varied topography of human skin offers a unique opportunity to study how the body's microenvironments influence the functional and taxonomic composition of microbial communities. Phylogenetic marker gene-based studies have identified many bacteria and fungi that colonize distinct skin niches. Here metagenomic analyses of diverse body sites in healthy humans demonstrate that local biogeography and strong individuality define the skin microbiome. We developed a relational analysis of bacterial, fungal and viral communities, which showed not only site specificity but also individual signatures. We further identified strain-level variation of dominant species as heterogeneous and multiphyletic. Reference-free analyses captured the uncharacterized metagenome through the development of a multi-kingdom gene catalogue, which was used to uncover genetic signatures of species lacking reference genomes. This work is foundational for human disease studies investigating inter-kingdom interactions, metabolic changes and strain tracking, and defines the dual influence of biogeography and individuality on microbial composition and function.

  12. In vivo study of human skin using pulsed terahertz radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickwell, E [Semiconductor Physics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge University, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Cole, B E [TeraView Ltd, Unit 302/4 Cambridge Science Park, Cambridge CB4 0WG (United Kingdom); Fitzgerald, A J [TeraView Ltd, Unit 302/4 Cambridge Science Park, Cambridge CB4 0WG (United Kingdom); Pepper, M [Semiconductor Physics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge University, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Wallace, V P [TeraView Ltd, Unit 302/4 Cambridge Science Park, Cambridge CB4 0WG (United Kingdom)

    2004-05-07

    Studies in terahertz (THz) imaging have revealed a significant difference between skin cancer (basal cell carcinoma) and healthy tissue. Since water has strong absorptions at THz frequencies and tumours tend to have different water content from normal tissue, a likely contrast mechanism is variation in water content. Thus, we have previously devised a finite difference time-domain (FDTD) model which is able to closely simulate the interaction of THz radiation with water. In this work we investigate the interaction of THz radiation with normal human skin on the forearm and palm of the hand in vivo. We conduct the first ever systematic in vivo study of the response of THz radiation to normal skin. We take in vivo reflection measurements of normal skin on the forearm and palm of the hand of 20 volunteers. We compare individual examples of THz responses with the mean response for the areas of skin under investigation. Using the in vivo data, we demonstrate that the FDTD model can be applied to biological tissue. In particular, we successfully simulate the interaction of THz radiation with the volar forearm. Understanding the interaction of THz radiation with normal skin will form a step towards developing improved imaging algorithms for diagnostic detection of skin cancer and other tissue disorders using THz radiation.

  13. Cortisol extraction through human skin by reverse iontophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Stephanie A; Heikenfeld, Jason; Brooks, Tiffany; Esfandiari, Leyla; Boyce, Steven; Park, Yoonjee; Kasting, Gerald B

    2017-04-01

    Continuous monitoring of cortisol at the surface of the skin would advance the diagnosis and treatment of cortisol-related diseases, or of elevated cortisol levels related to stress in otherwise healthy populations. Reliable and accurate detection of cortisol at the skin surface remains a limiting factor in real-time monitoring of cortisol. To address this limitation, cortisol extraction through excised human skin by reverse iontophoresis was studied in vitro in side-by-side diffusion cells using a radiolabeled probe. The skin was subjected to four direct current regimens (0, 28, 56, 113μAcm -2 ) with the anode in the donor chamber and the cumulative cortisol concentrations recorded in the receiver chamber. The 56 and 113μAcm -2 regimens significantly increased transport of 3 H-cortisol through the skin, and current density correlated directly with transcutaneous transport of 3 H-cortisol. The threshold of detection of electroosmotic versus passive diffusion of cortisol through the skin was between 28 and 56μAcm -2 . The results of this study are significant in examining how lipophilic analytes found in the bloodstream respond to reverse iontophoresis across the skin. In addition, a device integration technique is presented which illustrates how continuous cortisol extraction and sensing could potentially be achieved in a conventional wearable format. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Recombinant Lucilia sericata chymotrypsin in a topical hydrogel formulation degrades human wound eschar ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britland, Stephen; Smith, Annie; Finter, Wayne; Eagland, Donald; Vowden, Kath; Vowden, Peter; Telford, Gary; Brown, Alan; Pritchard, David

    2011-01-01

    Larval biotherapy is a debridement tool used in wound management. The mechanism of action involves degradation of eschar by serine proteases including chymotrypsin within the alimentary fluids of first instar Lucilia sericata. With the rationale of obviating some limitations of biotherapy, including cost, complexity of use, and patient reticence, the present study describes a mobile hydrogel formulation containing freeze-dried recombinant L. sericata chymotrypsin designed for topical application. Neither freeze-drying nor formulation into the hydrogel significantly attenuated the measured activity of released enzyme compared to fresh-frozen enzyme in aqueous solution. Gel electrophoresis confirmed qualitatively that the chymotrypsin/hydrogel formulation both with and without supplementary urea at 10% (w) /(v) degraded human chronic wound eschar ex vivo. Mindful that the hallmark of intractability of chronic wounds is aberrant biochemistry, the pH activity profile for the enzyme/hydrogel formulation was compared with exudate pH in chronic wounds of mixed aetiology in a cohort of 48 hospital in-patients. Five patients' wounds were acidic, however, the remainder were predominantly alkaline and coincided with the pH optimum for the insect enzyme. Thus, a recombinant L. sericata chymotrypsin and hydrogel formulation could represent a pragmatic alternative to larval therapy for the management of chronic wounds. Copyright © 2011 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  15. Gene expression signature of fibroblast serum response predicts human cancer progression: similarities between tumors and wounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Y Chang

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Cancer invasion and metastasis have been likened to wound healing gone awry. Despite parallels in cellular behavior between cancer progression and wound healing, the molecular relationships between these two processes and their prognostic implications are unclear. In this study, based on gene expression profiles of fibroblasts from ten anatomic sites, we identify a stereotyped gene expression program in response to serum exposure that appears to reflect the multifaceted role of fibroblasts in wound healing. The genes comprising this fibroblast common serum response are coordinately regulated in many human tumors, allowing us to identify tumors with gene expression signatures suggestive of active wounds. Genes induced in the fibroblast serum-response program are expressed in tumors by the tumor cells themselves, by tumor-associated fibroblasts, or both. The molecular features that define this wound-like phenotype are evident at an early clinical stage, persist during treatment, and predict increased risk of metastasis and death in breast, lung, and gastric carcinomas. Thus, the transcriptional signature of the response of fibroblasts to serum provides a possible link between cancer progression and wound healing, as well as a powerful predictor of the clinical course in several common carcinomas.

  16. OCT monitoring of cosmetic creams in human skin in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seung Hee; Yoon, Chang Han; Conroy, Leigh; Vitkin, I. Alex

    2012-02-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a tool currently used for noninvasive diagnosis of human disease as well as for monitoring treatment during or after therapy. In this study, OCT was used to examine penetration and accumulation of cosmetic creams on human hand skin. The samples varied in collagen content with one formulation containing soluble collagen as its primary active ingredient. Collagen is a major connective tissue protein that is essential in maintaining health vitality and strength of many organs. The penetration and localization of collagen in cosmetic creams is thought to be the main determinant of the efficacy of new collagen synthesis. Detection and quantification of collagen in cosmetic creams applied to skin may thus help predict the eventual efficacy of the product in skin collagen regeneration. We hypothesize that the topically applied collagen may be detectable by OCT through its modulation of skin scattering properties. To test this hypothesis, we used a FDML swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) system. A particular location on the skin of two male adult volunteers was used to investigate 4 different cosmetic creams. The duration of OCT monitoring of cosmetic penetration into skin ranged from 5 minutes to 2 hours following topical application. The results showed that OCT can discriminate between a cream with collagen and other collagen-free formulations. Thus it seems feasible that OCT intensity can monitor the in vivo effects of topical application of collagen contained in cosmetic formulations.

  17. Manejo quirúrgico urgente de heridas faciales por mordedura humana Urgent surgical management of facial human bite wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fernández García

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Las heridas por mordedura pueden generar algunas dificultades quirúrgicas en su manejo inicial debido a su especial predisposición a las complicaciones sépticas y la importante destrucción tisular frecuentemente asociada. Sin embargo, es importante su reparación inmediata, especialmente en el caso de amputaciones y colgajos por avulsión. Las mordeduras humanas se hallan envueltas además en consideraciones psicológicas que incrementan la dificultad del tratamiento debido a las espectativas estéticas de los pacientes que las sufren. Este trabajo analiza 7 casos de mordedura facial humana desde los puntos de vista epidemiológico y clínico. Presentamos y discutimos el uso de los tejidos amputados como fuente de injertos de piel, injertos condrales y el papel de los colgajos locales en dos tiempos en la cirugía de urgencia de estas lesiones.Bite wounds can create several surgical difficulties in their initial management due to the special facility for infectious complications and the frequent association with extensive tissue damage. However, the immediate repair its desirable, mainly in amputations and flap avulsions. The human bite wounds are also involved by psychological considerations that increase the difficulty of the treatment due to patient´s aesthetic expectations. This article analyzes 7 cases of facial human bites under the epidemiological and clinical points of view. The use of the amputated tissues to obtain skin grafts, condral grafts, and the role of local two stage flaps in the emergency surgery of these wounds are exposed and discussed.

  18. Human Umbilical Cord Wharton Jelly-Derived Adult Mesenchymal Stem Cells, in Biohybrid Scaffolds, for Experimental Skin Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanucci, Pia; di Pasquali, Camilla; Ferri, Ivana; Sidoni, Angelo; Cervelli, Valerio

    2017-01-01

    The ultimate goal for skin tissue engineering is to regenerate skin lesions to allow the full restoration of morphological and functional properties as what they were before injury. To this end, we have assembled a new prototype of a biomimetic human umbilical cord adult mesenchymal stem cell (hUCMS)/fibrin-based scaffold. We have fully characterized the proposed dermal equivalent (DE) in vitro, to assess morphological, functional, and biological properties of the encased cells. We transplanted DE subcutaneously into immunocompetent rodents, to verify its full biocompatibility. Finally, we studied DE graft effects on full-thickness wounds, in immunocompetent mice to demonstrate its capability to drive the healing process in the absence of significant scarring tissue. The excellent outcome of these in vivo studies fuels hope that this new approach, based on a biohybrid DE, may be applied to the operative treatment of skin lesions (i.e., diabetic foot ulcers and burns) in man. PMID:29456556

  19. Human Umbilical Cord Wharton Jelly-Derived Adult Mesenchymal Stem Cells, in Biohybrid Scaffolds, for Experimental Skin Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Montanucci

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The ultimate goal for skin tissue engineering is to regenerate skin lesions to allow the full restoration of morphological and functional properties as what they were before injury. To this end, we have assembled a new prototype of a biomimetic human umbilical cord adult mesenchymal stem cell (hUCMS/fibrin-based scaffold. We have fully characterized the proposed dermal equivalent (DE in vitro, to assess morphological, functional, and biological properties of the encased cells. We transplanted DE subcutaneously into immunocompetent rodents, to verify its full biocompatibility. Finally, we studied DE graft effects on full-thickness wounds, in immunocompetent mice to demonstrate its capability to drive the healing process in the absence of significant scarring tissue. The excellent outcome of these in vivo studies fuels hope that this new approach, based on a biohybrid DE, may be applied to the operative treatment of skin lesions (i.e., diabetic foot ulcers and burns in man.

  20. Animal models of chronic wound care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trøstrup, Hannah; Thomsen, Kim; Calum, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    on nonhealing wounds. Relevant hypotheses based on clinical or in vitro observations can be tested in representative animal models, which provide crucial tools to uncover the pathophysiology of cutaneous skin repair in infectious environments. Disposing factors, species of the infectious agent(s), and time....... An inhibiting effect of bacterial biofilms on wound healing is gaining significant clinical attention over the last few years. There is still a paucity of suitable animal models to recapitulate human chronic wounds. The etiology of the wound (venous insufficiency, ischemia, diabetes, pressure) has to be taken...... of establishment of the infection are well defined in suitable animal models. In addition, several endpoints can be involved for evaluation. Animals do not display chronic wounds in the way that humans do. However, in many cases, animal models can mirror the pathological conditions observed in humans, although...

  1. Human skin color clustering for face detection

    OpenAIRE

    Kovač, Jure; Peer, Peter; Solina, Franc

    2003-01-01

    Computer vision is one out of many areas that wants to understand the process of human functionality and copy that process with intention to complement human life with intelligent machines. For better human–computer interaction it is necessary for the machine to see people. This can be achieved by employing face detection algorithms, like the one used in the installation “15 Seconds of Fame”. Mentioned installation unites the areas of modern art and technology. Its algorithm...

  2. Human skin colour clustering for face detection

    OpenAIRE

    Solina, Franc; Peer, Peter; Kovač, Jure

    2015-01-01

    Computer vision is one out of many areas that wants to understand the process of human functionality and copy that process with intention to complement human life with intelligent machines. For better human–computer interaction it is necessary for the machine to see people. This can be achieved by employing face detection algorithms, like the one used in the installation “15 Seconds of Fame”. Mentioned installation unites the areas of modern art and technology. Its algorithm...

  3. An in vitro model for detecting skin irritants: methyl green-pyronine staining of human skin explant cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, J. J. L.; Lehé, C.; Cammans, K. D. A.; Das, P. K.; Elliott, G. R.

    2002-01-01

    We evaluated the potential of human organotypic skin explant cultures (hOSECs) for screening skin irritants. Test chemicals were applied to the epidermis of the skin explants which were incubated for 4, 24 or 48 h in tissue culture medium. A decrease in epidermal RNA staining, visualised in frozen

  4. Stromal cells from subcutaneous adipose tissue seeded in a native collagen/elastin dermal substitute reduce wound contraction in full thickness skin defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, H J; Middelkoop, E; van Heemstra-Hoen, M; Wildevuur, C H; Westerhof, W

    1995-10-01

    Dermal substitutes seeded with cultured fibroblasts have been developed to improve dermal regeneration in full thickness wounds. Because of cell cultivation, 3 weeks are required before patients can be treated with these autologous adipose tissue. This substitute is easily fabricated within hours, which allows immediate treatment of full thickness defects. Porcine full thickness wounds were substituted with native collagen/alpha-elastin hydrolysate matrices. One group of matrices was left unseeded as negative control. The second was seeded with cultured dermal fibroblasts as positive control. The third was seeded with a stromal-vascular-fraction of adipose tissue, and the fourth was seeded with a stromal fraction with few vascular fragments (SF). All substitutes were covered with split skin mesh grafts and were protected against dehydration and infection with a microporous polyether urethane membrane. For 8 weeks, weekly biopsies were taken, myofibroblasts and fibroblasts were counted, thickness of the granulation tissue band was measured, and wound contraction and histology were evaluated. Negative control and stromal-vascular-fraction substitutes were invaded by high numbers of myofibroblasts and fibroblasts. They did not reduce wound contraction, and scar tissue was formed. SF substitutes reduced the accumulation of myofibroblasts and fibroblasts and prevented the formation of granulation tissue. As a result, dermal regeneration improved, and wound contraction was less than by the other substitutes. Adipose tissue cell isolates included vascular fragments containing endothelial cells. Seeded in dermal substitutes, these vascular fragments induced hypergranulation tissue formation and caused wound contraction. SF substitutes contained few endothelial cells. As a result, the contraction arresting effect of the seeded stromal cell fraction was effective. Our concept of a cellular dermal substitute seeded with stromal cells from adipose tissue is feasible and allows

  5. Efficacy of topical and systemic antibiotic treatment of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a murine superficial skin wound infection model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vingsbo Lundberg, Carina; Frimodt-Møller, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a rapidly spreading pathogen associated predominantly with skin infections. The lack of clinical evidence indicating the best treatment strategy to combat MRSA skin infections prompted us to investigate the efficacy of available treatment options...... in an experimental skin wound infection model in mice. Mice were treated either topically with retapamulin (1%), fusidic acid (2%) or mupirocin (2%) or systemically with linezolid (50-100 mg/kg/day) or vancomycin (50-200 mg/kg/day) twice daily for 3 days or 6 days and the total bacterial loads in the skin lesions...... were determined. Retapamulin, fusidic acid and mupirocin treatment for 3 days reduced the bacterial loads by 2.5, 2.9 and 2.0 log(10) CFU, respectively, and treatment for 6 days by 5.0, 4.2 and 5.1 log(10) CFU, respectively, compared with non-treated controls (P...

  6. Analysis of Reparative Activity of Platelet Lysate: Effect on Cell Monolayer Recovery In Vitro and Skin Wound Healing In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeeva, N S; Shanskii, Ya D; Sviridova, I K; Karalkin, P A; Kirsanova, V A; Akhmedova, S A; Kaprin, A D

    2016-11-01

    Platelet lysate prepared from donor platelet concentrate and pooled according to a developed technique stimulates migration of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells of the human adipose tissue and promotes healing of the monolayer defect in cultures of human fibroblasts and multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells in vitro in concentrations close those of fetal calf serum (5-10%). Lysate of platelets from platelet-rich rat blood plasma stimulated healing of the skin defect by promoting epithelialization and granulation tissue formation. The regenerative properties of platelet lysate in vivo increased with increasing its concentration.

  7. Phytochemical Composition, Antioxidant Activity, and the Effect of the Aqueous Extract of Coffee (Coffea arabica L. Bean Residual Press Cake on the Skin Wound Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Celis Lopes Affonso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The world coffee consumption has been growing for its appreciated taste and its beneficial effects on health. The residual biomass of coffee, originated in the food industry after oil extraction from coffee beans, called coffee beans residual press cake, has attracted interest as a source of compounds with antioxidant activity. This study investigated the chemical composition of aqueous extracts of coffee beans residual press cake (AE, their antioxidant activity, and the effect of topical application on the skin wound healing, in animal model, of hydrogels containing the AE, chlorogenic acid (CGA, allantoin (positive control, and carbopol (negative control. The treatments’ performance was compared by measuring the reduction of the wound area, with superior result (p<0.05 for the green coffee AE (78.20% with respect to roasted coffee AE (53.71%, allantoin (70.83%, and carbopol (23.56%. CGA hydrogels reduced significantly the wound area size on the inflammatory phase, which may be associated with the well known antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions of that compound. The topic use of the coffee AE studied improved the skin wound healing and points to an interesting biotechnological application of the coffee bean residual press cake.

  8. Phytochemical Composition, Antioxidant Activity, and the Effect of the Aqueous Extract of Coffee (Coffea arabica L.) Bean Residual Press Cake on the Skin Wound Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affonso, Regina Celis Lopes; Voytena, Ana Paula Lorenzen; Fanan, Simone; Pitz, Heloísa; Coelho, Daniela Sousa; Horstmann, Ana Luiza; Pereira, Aline; Uarrota, Virgílio Gavicho; Hillmann, Maria Clara; Varela, Lucas Andre Calbusch; Ribeiro-do-Valle, Rosa Maria; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    The world coffee consumption has been growing for its appreciated taste and its beneficial effects on health. The residual biomass of coffee, originated in the food industry after oil extraction from coffee beans, called coffee beans residual press cake, has attracted interest as a source of compounds with antioxidant activity. This study investigated the chemical composition of aqueous extracts of coffee beans residual press cake (AE), their antioxidant activity, and the effect of topical application on the skin wound healing, in animal model, of hydrogels containing the AE, chlorogenic acid (CGA), allantoin (positive control), and carbopol (negative control). The treatments' performance was compared by measuring the reduction of the wound area, with superior result (p coffee AE (78.20%) with respect to roasted coffee AE (53.71%), allantoin (70.83%), and carbopol (23.56%). CGA hydrogels reduced significantly the wound area size on the inflammatory phase, which may be associated with the well known antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions of that compound. The topic use of the coffee AE studied improved the skin wound healing and points to an interesting biotechnological application of the coffee bean residual press cake.

  9. Anti-aging effects of Piper cambodianum P. Fourn. extract on normal human dermal fibroblast cells and a wound-healing model in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunji; Hong, Youngeun; Kwon, So Hee; Park, Jongsun; Park, Jisoo

    2016-01-01

    Aging of skin is associated with environmental factors such as ultraviolet rays, air pollution, gravity, and genetic factors, all of which can lead to wrinkling of skin. Previous reports suggest that the wound repair is impaired by the aging process and strategies to manipulate the age-related wound healing are necessary in order to stimulate repair. Several traditional plant extracts are well-known for their properties of skin protection and care. Piper cambodianum P. Fourn. (PPF), a member of Piperacecae, is a plant found in Vietnam that might have therapeutic properties. Therefore, the effects of PPF stem and leaf extract on aging process were investigated in vitro and in vivo. PPF extract dissolved in methanol was investigated using Western blotting, real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, flow cytometry, and cell wound-healing assays. We assessed the anti-aging effect of PPF in mouse using the wound-healing assay. The results were analyzed by Student's unpaired t-test; *P<0.05 and **P<0.01 were considered to indicate significant and highly significant values, respectively, compared with corresponding controls. PPF treatment demonstrated in vitro and in vivo anti-aging activity. Western blot analysis of PPF-treated normal human dermal fibroblast cells showed a dose-dependent increase in the expression of extracellular matrix genes such as collagen and elastin, but decreased expression of the aging gene matrix metalloproteinase-3. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that PPF-treated cells displayed dose-dependent increase in messenger RNA expression levels of collagen, elastin, and hyaluronan synthase-2 and decreased expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase-1 aging gene. PPF treatment led to decreased production of reactive oxygen species in cells subjected to ultraviolet irradiation. Furthermore, PPF extract showed positive wound-healing effects in mice. This study demonstrated the anti-aging and wound

  10. Hydrogen sulphide and phosphine interactions with human skin in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskin, Sharyn; Heath, Linda; Pisaniello, Dino; Evans, Richard; Edwards, John W; Logan, Michael; Baxter, Christina

    2017-04-01

    Accidental or intentional releases of toxic gases can have significant public health consequences and emergency resource demands. Management of exposed individuals during hazardous material incidents should be risk and evidence based, but there are knowledge gaps in relation to dermal absorption of gases and management advice for potentially exposed individuals. Using a modified Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in vitro toxicology protocol with human donor skin, this article reports on two common and odorous chemicals, hydrogen sulphide and phosphine. Results show that undamaged human skin provides a good barrier to hydrogen sulphide (up to 800 ppm) and phosphine (up to 1000 ppm) penetration for up to 30 min exposures, with little variability in the presence of clothing or in elevated temperature and humidity conditions. A practical guideline template for skin decontamination has been developed, and implications of the research for first responders are outlined.

  11. Technical note: comparing von Luschan skin color tiles and modern spectrophotometry for measuring human skin pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiatoniowski, Anna K; Quillen, Ellen E; Shriver, Mark D; Jablonski, Nina G

    2013-06-01

    Prior to the introduction of reflectance spectrophotometry into anthropological field research during the 1950s, human skin color was most commonly classified by visual skin color matching using the von Luschan tiles, a set of 36 standardized, opaque glass tiles arranged in a chromatic scale. Our goal was to establish a conversion formula between the tile-based color matching method and modern reflectance spectrophotometry to make historical and contemporary data comparable. Skin pigmentation measurements were taken on the forehead, inner upper arms, and backs of the hands using both the tiles and a spectrophotometer on 246 participants showing a broad range of skin pigmentation. From these data, a second-order polynomial conversion formula was derived by jackknife analysis to estimate melanin index (M-index) based on tile values. This conversion formula provides a means for comparing modern data to von Luschan tile measurements recorded in historical reports. This is particularly important for populations now extinct, extirpated, or admixed for which tile-based measures of skin pigmentation are the only data available. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Wound bed preparation with 10-percent phenytoin ointment increases the take of split-thickness skin graft in large diabetic ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, Nidal; Albsoul, Abla; Badran, Darwish; Obedi, Salwan

    2006-10-31

    Healing of large diabetic foot ulcers may be difficult, particularly if the blood supply and chronic infection do not allow primary suturing. Split-thickness skin graft is a simple reconstructive technique used to close large wounds. Phenytoin is known to promote healing mainly by increasing granulation tissue formation. The effectiveness of topical phenytoin in wound-bed preparation (WBP) for split thickness skin grafting has been examined in 16 patients with large diabetic foot ulcers. All patients were treated with standard wound bed preparation including debridement of necrotic tissue. Topical phenytoin (10 % w/w ointment) was applied for 2-8 weeks prior to performance of autografting. Clinical and histologic evaluations were performed. The graft survival was 100 percent In twelve patients, 80-90 percent in three patients take and 60 percent in one patient. Neither local nor systemic side effects were observed. The authors conclude that phenytoin ointment is a safe and efficacious treatment to enhance the survival of split-thickness skin grafts in large chronic diabetic ulcers.

  13. Cellularized Bilayer Pullulan-Gelatin Hydrogel for Skin Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Mathew N; Jeschke, Marc G; Amini-Nik, Saeid

    2016-05-01

    Skin substitutes significantly reduce the morbidity and mortality of patients with burn injuries and chronic wounds. However, current skin substitutes have disadvantages related to high costs and inadequate skin regeneration due to highly inflammatory wounds. Thus, new skin substitutes are needed. By combining two polymers, pullulan, an inexpensive polysaccharide with antioxidant properties, and gelatin, a derivative of collagen with high water absorbency, we created a novel inexpensive hydrogel-named PG-1 for "pullulan-gelatin first generation hydrogel"-suitable for skin substitutes. After incorporating human fibroblasts and keratinocytes onto PG-1 using centrifugation over 5 days, we created a cellularized bilayer skin substitute. Cellularized PG-1 was compared to acellular PG-1 and no hydrogel (control) in vivo in a mouse excisional skin biopsy model using newly developed dome inserts to house the skin substitutes and prevent mouse skin contraction during wound healing. PG-1 had an average pore size of 61.69 μm with an ideal elastic modulus, swelling behavior, and biodegradability for use as a hydrogel for skin substitutes. Excellent skin cell viability, proliferation, differentiation, and morphology were visualized through live/dead assays, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine proliferation assays, and confocal microscopy. Trichrome and immunohistochemical staining of excisional wounds treated with the cellularized skin substitute revealed thicker newly formed skin with a higher proportion of actively proliferating cells and incorporation of human cells compared to acellular PG-1 or control. Excisional wounds treated with acellular or cellularized hydrogels showed significantly less macrophage infiltration and increased angiogenesis 14 days post skin biopsy compared to control. These results show that PG-1 has ideal mechanical characteristics and allows ideal cellular characteristics. In vivo evidence suggests that cellularized PG-1 promotes skin regeneration and may

  14. Neurotrophin-3 is increased in skin in human diabetic neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, A; Wellmer, A; Facer, P; Saldanha, G; Kopelman, P; Lindsay, R; Anand, P

    1998-01-01

    Neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), a member of the neurotrophin family, has been shown to be necessary for the development of muscle spindle and Merkel cell afferent nerve fibres in animal models.The presence of NT-3 in the suprabasal epidermis, where many unmyelinated sensory fibres terminate, has been shown for the first time. As these fibres are affected in early diabetic neuropathy and a clinical trial of recombinant human NT-3 in diabetic neuropathy is in progress, the concentrations of endogenous NT-3 in skin of 24 patients at different stages of diabetic polyneuropathy have been investigated. NT-3 concentrations, measured with a specific immunoassay, were significantly higher in affected skin biopsies from patients with diabetic neuropathy than matched control skin (diabetic skin 6.32(1.18) pg/mg v control skin 1.28 (0.05) (mean (SEM)); p<0.004, Mann-Whitney U test), particularly in the later stages. The optical density of NT-3-immunostaining was also significantly greater in the epidermis in diabetic patients (diabetic epidermis 0.30(0.06) v controls 0.24 (0.01); p<0.02). No correlation was found between individual quantitative sensory tests and the increase of NT-3 concentration. The increase of NT-3 seems to reflect the degree of skin denervation in diabetic neuropathy, and may represent a compensatory mechanism. The concentrations of NT-3 in other peripheral targets deserve study in diabetic neuropathy.

 PMID:9728960

  15. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy with RLP068 kills methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and improves wound healing in a mouse model of infected skin abrasion PDT with RLP068/Cl in infected mouse skin abrasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchio, Daniela; Dai, Tianhong; Huang, Liyi; Fantetti, Lia; Roncucci, Gabrio; Hamblin, Michael R

    2013-09-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an alternative treatment for infections that can kill drug resistant bacteria without damaging host-tissue. In this study we used bioluminescent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, in a mouse skin abrasion model, to investigate the effect of PDT on bacterial inactivation and wound healing. RLP068/Cl, a tetracationic Zn(II)phthalocyanine derivative and toluidine blue (TBO) were used. The light-dose response of PDT to kill bacteria in vivo and the possible recurrence in the days post-treatment were monitored by real-time bioluminescence imaging, and wound healing by digital photography. The results showed PDT with RLP068/Cl (but not TBO) was able to kill bacteria, to inhibit bacterial re-growth after the treatment and to significantly accelerate the wound healing process (© 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim). Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. The effect of combined photobiomodulation and metformin on open skin wound healing in a non-genetic model of type II diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari, Mohammadali; Kanonisabet, Ali; Safakhah, Mandanad; Azimzadeh, Zahra; Mostafavinia, Ataroalsadat; Taheri, Soudabeh; Amini, Abdollah; Ghorishi, Seyed Kamran; JalaliFiroozkohi, Reza; Bayat, Sahar; Bayat, Mohammad

    2017-04-01

    This study intended to examine the combined influences of photobiomodulation (PBM) and metformin on the microbial flora and biomechanical parameters of wounds in a non-genetic model of type II diabetes mellitus (TII DM). We induced a non-genetic model of TII DM in 20 rats by feeding them a 10% fructose solution for 2weeks followed by an injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 40mg/kg). After 21days from the injection of STZ, we induced one full-thickness skin wound in each of the diabetic rats. We randomly divided the rats into four groups: i) placebo; ii) pulsed wave laser (890nm, 80Hz, 0.324J/cm 2 ); iii) metformin; and iv) laser+metformin. Rats received daily intraperitoneal injections of metformin (50mg/kg). On days 7and 15 we inspected the microbial flora of each wound. On day 15 we obtained a standard sample from each healing wound for biomechanical analyses. PBM significantly decreased colony-forming units (CFUs) 7days after wound infliction compared to the placebo group (LSD test, p=0.012). Metformin significantly enhanced the biomechanical property (stress high load) of the wounds compared to the placebo group (LSD test, p=0.028). We observed the same significant result for PBM compared to the placebo group (LSD test, p=0.047). PBM significantly accelerated the wound healing process and significantly reduced CFUs of bacteria in a non-genetic rat model of TII DM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Enhancement of Human Cheek Skin Texture by Acacia Nilotica Bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of a topical application of a cream formulation containing extract of Acacia nilotica bark extract on human cheek skin texture. Methods: A cream containing 3 % concentrated extract of Acacia nilotica bark was developed by entrapping the extract in the internal aqueous phase of the cream having strong antioxidant activity.

  18. Human skin Langerhans cells are targets of dengue virus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, SJL; Grouard-Vogel, G; Mascola, [No Value; Brachtel, E; Putvatana, R; Louder, MK; Filgueira, L; Marovich, MA; Wong, HK; Blauvelt, A; Murphy, GS; Robb, ML; Innes, BL; Birx, DL; Hayes, CG; Frankel, SS

    Dengue virus (DV), an arthropod-borne flavivirus, causes a febrile illness for which there is no antiviral treatment and no vaccine(1,2). Macrophages are important in dengue pathogenesis; however, the initial target cell for DV infection remains unknown. As DV is introduced into human skin by

  19. Frederiksenia canicola gen. nov., sp. nov. isolated from dogs and human dog-bite wounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korczak, Bożena M.; Bisgaard, Magne; Christensen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Polyphasic analysis was done on 24 strains of Bisgaard taxon 16 from five European countries and mainly isolated from dogs and human dog-bite wounds. The isolates represented a phenotypically and genetically homogenous group within the family Pasteurellaceae. Their phenotypic profile was similar...

  20. Sarcoptes scabiei mites modulate gene expression in human skin equivalents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjorie S Morgan

    Full Text Available The ectoparasitic mite, Sarcoptes scabiei that burrows in the epidermis of mammalian skin has a long co-evolution with its hosts. Phenotypic studies show that the mites have the ability to modulate cytokine secretion and expression of cell adhesion molecules in cells of the skin and other cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems that may assist the mites to survive in the skin. The purpose of this study was to identify genes in keratinocytes and fibroblasts in human skin equivalents (HSEs that changed expression in response to the burrowing of live scabies mites. Overall, of the more than 25,800 genes measured, 189 genes were up-regulated >2-fold in response to scabies m