Sample records for human skin grafted

  1. Transgenic expression of human cytoxic T-lymphocyte associated antigen4-immunoglobulin (hCTLA4Ig) by porcine skin for xenogeneic skin grafting. (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Yang, Hua-Qiang; Jiang, Wen; Fan, Na-Na; Zhao, Ben-Tian; Ou-Yang, Zhen; Liu, Zhao-Ming; Zhao, Yu; Yang, Dong-Shan; Zhou, Xiao-Yang; Shang, Hai-Tao; Wang, Lu-Lu; Xiang, Peng-Ying; Ge, Liang-Peng; Wei, Hong; Lai, Liang-Xue


    Porcine skin is frequently used as a substitute of human skin to cover large wounds in clinic practice of wound care. In our previous work, we found that transgenic expression of human cytoxicT-lymphocyte associated antigen4-immunoglobulin (hCTLA4Ig) in murine skin graft remarkably prolonged its survival in xenogeneic wounds without extensive immunosuppression in recipients, suggesting that transgenic hCTLA4Ig expression in skin graft may be an effective and safe method to prolong xenogeneic skin graft survival. In this work, using a transgene construct containing hCTLA4Ig coding sequence under the drive of human Keratine 14 (k14) promoter, hCTLA4Ig transgenic pigs were generated by somatic nuclear transfer. The derived transgenic pigs were healthy and exhibited no signs of susceptibility to infection. The hCTLA4Ig transgene was stably transmitted through germline over generations, and thereby a transgenic pig colony was established. In the derived transgenic pigs, hCTLA4Ig expression in skin was shown to be genetically stable over generations, and detected in heart, kidney and corneal as well as in skin. Transgenic hCTLA4Ig protein in pigs exhibited expected biological activity as it suppressed human lymphocyte proliferation in human mixed lymphocyte culture to extents comparable to those of commercially purchased purified hCTLA4Ig protein. In skin grafting from pigs to rats, transgenic porcine skin grafts exhibited remarkably prolonged survival compared to the wild-type skin grafts derived from the same pig strain (13.33 ± 3.64 vs. 6.25 ± 2.49 days, P porcine skin graft survival in xenogeneic wounds. The transgenic pigs generated in this work can be used as a reproducible resource to provide porcine skin grafts with extended survival for wound coverage, and also as donors to investigate the impacts of hCTLA4Ig on xenotransplantation of other organs (heart, kidney and corneal) due to the ectopic transgenic hCTLA4Ig expression.

  2. A gene therapy approach for long-term normalization of blood pressure in hypertensive mice by ANP-secreting human skin grafts. (United States)

    Therrien, Jean-Philippe; Kim, Soo Mi; Terunuma, Atsushi; Qin, Yan; Tock, Christine L; Pfützner, Wolfgang; Ohyama, Manabu; Schnermann, Jurgen; Vogel, Jonathan C


    The use of bioengineered human skin as a bioreactor to deliver therapeutic factors has a number of advantages including accessibility that allows manipulation and monitoring of genetically modified cells. We demonstrate a skin gene therapy approach that can regulate blood pressure and treat systemic hypertension by expressing atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), a hormone able to decrease blood pressure, in bioengineered human skin equivalents (HSE). Additionally, the expression of a selectable marker gene, multidrug resistance (MDR) type 1, is linked to ANP expression on a bicistronic vector and was coexpressed in the human keratinocytes and fibroblasts of the HSE that were grafted onto immunocompromised mice. Topical treatments of grafted HSE with the antimitotic agent colchicine select for keratinocyte progenitors that express both MDR and ANP. Significant plasma levels of human ANP were detected in mice grafted with HSE expressing ANP from either keratinocytes or fibroblasts, and topical selection of grafted HSE resulted in persistent high levels of ANP expression in vivo. Mice with elevated plasma levels of human ANP showed lower renin levels and, correspondingly, had lower systemic blood pressure than controls. Furthermore, mice with HSE grafts expressing human ANP did not develop elevated blood pressure when fed a high-salt diet. These findings illustrate the potential of this human skin gene therapy approach to deliver therapeutic molecules systemically for long-term treatment of diverse diseases.

  3. Skin graft influence in human tissue radiated in nude mice regeneration; Influencia do enxerto de pele humana irradiada na regeneracao tecidual de camundongos nude

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    Miranda, Jurandir Tomaz de


    Over the last few years it has increased the interest in the human skin grafts radio sterilized for application mainly in extensive and deep burns. Because these grafts quickly grip and present antigenic lower potential, compared with other treatments used. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the histoarchitecture of human skin grafts irradiated with doses 25 kGy, 50 kGy and non-irradiated during the repair tissue process in nude mice submitted by skin grafting in the dorsal region. Three groups of animals received irradiated human skin grafts (25 kGy and 50 kGy) and non-irradiated and were euthanized on the 3{sup rd}, 7{sup th} and 21{sup th} day after the surgery. Indeed, routine histologic procedures, tissue samples were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) for quantification of keratinocytes, fibroblasts, immune cells and blood vessels and immunofluorescence (IF) was performed to determine the expression human collagen type I and collagen type I and III mouse. Therefore, quantification of both the cells and the collagen types was performed by image analysis using Image-Pro Plus 6.0 software. Histologic results demonstrated at a dose of 25 kGy that human skin irradiation when grafted influences the increase in the number of cells in wound site over time and it provides better dispersion of these cells. In addition, on the 21{sup st} day, three groups of animals with human skin graft were embedded part of the graft in the healing process. On the other hand, the group not irradiated showed greater incorporation of the graft (43 %), but less production of collagen type III mouse (22 %). Since the groups irradiated skin graft showed lower graft incorporation (6 and 15%), but with greater production of collagen type III mice (35 % and 28 % to 25 kGy and 50 kGy, respectively). In conclusion, this study presented that the group irradiated to 25 kGy and it has a higher cell proliferation and vessel formation, and better remodeling of the healing area. (author)

  4. Lack of cross-sensitization between α-1,3-galactosyltransferase knockout porcine and allogeneic skin grafts permits serial grafting. (United States)

    Albritton, Alexander; Leonard, David A; Leto Barone, Angelo; Keegan, Josh; Mallard, Christopher; Sachs, David H; Kurtz, Josef M; Cetrulo, Curtis L


    The current standard of care for burns requiring operative treatment consists of early burn excision and autologous split-thickness skin grafting. However, in large burns, sufficient donor sites may not be available to achieve total coverage, necessitating temporary coverage with allogeneic human cadaver skin grafts or synthetic skin substitutes. A previous study from this laboratory demonstrated that skin grafts from alpha-1,3 galactosyltransferase knockout (GalT-KO) miniature swine enjoyed survival comparable to that of allogeneic skin grafts in baboons. In the present study, we have evaluated the immune response against sequential GalT-KO and allogeneic skin grafts to determine whether such serial grafts could extend the period of temporary wound coverage before definitive grafting with autologous skin. We report that rejection of primary GalT-KO skin grafts led to an anti-xenogeneic humoral response with no evidence for sensitization to alloantigens nor acceleration of rejection of allogeneic skin grafts. Similarly, presensitization with allogeneic skin did not lead to accelerated rejection of xenogeneic skin. These data suggest that GalT-KO skin grafts could provide an early first-line treatment in the management of severe burns that would not preclude subsequent use of allografts, and that serial grafting of GalT-KO skin and allogeneic skin could potentially be used to provide an extended period of temporary burn wound coverage.

  5. Effectiveness of fibrin glue in adherence of skin graft

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    Konda Sireesha Reddy


    Full Text Available Background: Graft fixation is important for graft take. Fibrin glue has been proposed as an ideal material, because of its human origin and it provides firm adhesion in seconds or minutes. Objective: To evaluate the efficiency of fibrin glue, in increasing the take of skin graft. Assessment includes surgical time taken for graft fixation, haematoma/seroma formation, engraftment and wound closure by day 14. Methods: The study is an observational prospective study conducted in the Department of Plastic Surgery, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Puducherry, from January 2016 to June 2016. Sixteen patients who underwent split skin grafting were assessed during the study period. Fibrin glue was used on the recipient bed before grafting. Results: Better haemostasis and graft adhesion, with a significant reduction of surgical time, were noted. Conclusion: The safety profile of fibrin glue was excellent as indicated by the lack of any related serious adverse experiences. These findings demonstrate that it is safe and effective for attachment of skin grafts, with outcomes at least as good as conventional methods.

  6. Meshed split skin graft for extensive vitiligo

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    Srinivas C


    Full Text Available A 30 year old female presented with generalized stable vitiligo involving large areas of the body. Since large areas were to be treated it was decided to do meshed split skin graft. A phototoxic blister over recipient site was induced by applying 8 MOP solution followed by exposure to UVA. The split skin graft was harvested from donor area by Padgett dermatome which was meshed by an ampligreffe to increase the size of the graft by 4 times. Significant pigmentation of the depigmented skin was seen after 5 months. This procedure helps to cover large recipient areas, when pigmented donor skin is limited with minimal risk of scarring. Phototoxic blister enables easy separation of epidermis thus saving time required for dermabrasion from recipient site.

  7. Complications in skin grafts when continuing antithrombotic therapy prior to cutaneous surgery requiring skin grafting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarjis, Reem Dina; Jørgensen, Lone; Finnerup, Kenneth


    Abstract The risk of postoperative bleeding and wound healing complications in skin grafts among anticoagulated patients undergoing cutaneous surgery has not been firmly established. The objective was to examine the literature and assess the risk of postoperative bleeding or wound healing...... complications in skin grafts among anticoagulated patients, compared with patients who discontinue or patients who are not receiving antithrombotic therapy prior to cutaneous surgery requiring skin grafting. A systematic review examining the effect of antithrombotic therapy on cutaneous surgery was performed...... in terms of hemostasis by the surgeon and good pressure dressings. Care should be taken when operating on anticoagulated patients undergoing cutaneous surgery requiring skin grafting. However, graft failure is rare and, given the risk of thrombotic events, the reviewed studies recommend continuing all...

  8. A Comparative Examination of the Clinical Outcome and Histological Appearance of Cryopreserved and Fresh Split-Thickness Skin Grafts. (United States)

    Holzer, Paul W; Leonard, David A; Shanmugarajah, Kumaran; Moulton, Krysta N; Ng, Zhi Yang; Cetrulo, Curtis L; Sachs, David H

    The clinical use of frozen, human allogeneic skin grafts is considered a suitable alternative to freshly harvested allogeneic skin grafts when the latter are not available. However, limited functional and histological information exists regarding the effects of cryopreservation on allogeneic skin grafts, especially those across mismatched histocompatibility barriers. Thus, we performed a side-by-side comparative study of fresh vs frozen skin grafts, across both minor and major histocompatibility barriers, in a miniature swine model. Since porcine skin shares many physical and immunological properties with human skin, our findings have relevance to current clinical practices involving allogeneic grafting and may support future, temporary wound therapies involving frozen xenografts, comprised genetically modified porcine skin. Four miniature swine underwent harvest and grafting of split-thickness skin, with and without cryopreservation, in order to observe autologous grafts and grafts across minor and major histocompatibility barriers. A biopsy of the grafts was done at regular intervals for study of architecture, vascularization, and outcomes. All grafts vascularized without technical complications. Differences were noted in the early appearance of some fresh vs frozen grafts, but no significant difference was observed in overall survival times in any of the experimental groups. These results demonstrate that despite early observable differences in the healing process, cryopreservation and thawing does not significantly affect long-term graft survival or time to rejection, thus supporting the clinical and experimental use of fresh and frozen split-thickness skin grafts as comparable and interchangeable.

  9. Reduced engraftment and wound closure of cryopreserved cultured skin substitutes grafted to athymic mice. (United States)

    Harriger, M D; Supp, A P; Swope, V B; Boyce, S T


    Cryopreservation of cultured skin substitutes is a requirement for establishment of banks of alternative materials for treatment of acute and chronic skin wounds. To determine whether cryopreservation of skin substitutes that contain cultured cells reduces their efficacy for wound closure, cell-biopolymer grafts were frozen, recovered into culture, and grafted to wounds on athymic mice. Grafts consisted of cultured human keratinocytes and fibroblasts attached to collagen-glycosaminoglycan substrates that were frozen in cell culture medium with 20% serum and 10% DMSO at a controlled rate and stored overnight in liquid nitrogen. After recovery into culture for 24 h, frozen or unfrozen (control) skin substitutes were grafted to full-thickness wounds on athymic mice. Wound area and surface electrical capacitance were measured at 2, 3, and 4 weeks after grafting at which time animals were sacrificed. Wounds were scored for presence of human cells by direct immunofluorescence staining with a monoclonal antibody to HLA-ABC. The data demonstrate that cell-biopolymer grafts are less efficacious after controlled-rate cryopreservation using 10% DMSO as a cryoprotectant. Frozen grafts at 4 weeks after surgery have significantly smaller wound areas, higher capacitance (wetter surface), and fewer healed wounds that contain human cells. The results suggest that these conditions for cryopreservation of cultured grafts reduce graft viability. Improved conditions for cryopreservation are required to maintain viability and efficacy of cultured skin substitutes after frozen storage. Copyright 1997 Academic Press.

  10. Evolution of instruments for harvest of the skin grafts

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    Faisal Ameer


    Full Text Available Background: The harvest of autologous skin graft is considered to be a fundamental skill of the plastic surgeon. The objective of this article is to provide an interesting account of the development of skin grafting instruments as we use them today in various plastic surgical procedures. Materials and Methods: The authors present the chronological evolution and modifications of the skin grafting knife, including those contributions not often cited in the literature, using articles sourced from MEDLINE, ancient manuscripts, original quotes, techniques and illustrations. Results: This article traces the evolution of instrumentation for harvest of skin grafts from free hand techniques to precise modern automated methods. Conclusions: Although skin grafting is one of the basic techniques used in reconstructive surgery yet harvest of a uniform graft of desired thickness poses a challenge. This article is dedicated to innovators who have devoted their lives and work to the advancement of the field of plastic surgery.

  11. In vivo evaluation of wound bed reaction and graft performance after cold skin graft storage: new targets for skin tissue engineering. (United States)

    Knapik, Alicia; Kornmann, Kai; Kerl, Katrin; Calcagni, Maurizio; Schmidt, Christian A; Vollmar, Brigitte; Giovanoli, Pietro; Lindenblatt, Nicole


    Surplus harvested skin grafts are routinely stored at 4 to 6°C in saline for several days in plastic surgery. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of storage on human skin graft performance in an in vivo intravital microscopic setting after transplantation. Freshly harvested human full-thickness skin grafts and split-thickness skin grafts (STSGs) after storage of 0, 3, or 7 days in moist saline at 4 to 6°C were transplanted into the modified dorsal skinfold chamber, and intravital microscopy was performed to evaluate vessel morphology and angiogenic change of the wound bed. The chamber tissue was harvested 10 days after transplantation for evaluation of tissue integrity and inflammation (hematoxylin and eosin) as well as for immunohistochemistry (human CD31, murine CD31, Ki67, Tdt-mediated dUTP-biotin nick-end labelling). Intravital microscopy results showed no differences in the host angiogenic response between fresh and preserved grafts. However, STSGs and full-thickness skin grafts exhibited a trend toward different timing and strength in capillary widening and capillary bud formation. Preservation had no influence on graft quality before transplantation, but fresh STSGs showed better quality 10 days after transplantation than 7-day preserved grafts. Proliferation and apoptosis as well as host capillary in-growth and graft capillary degeneration were equal in all groups. These results indicate that cells may activate protective mechanisms under cold conditions, allowing them to maintain function and morphology. However, rewarming may disclose underlying tissue damage. These findings could be translated to a new approach for the design of full-thickness skin substitutes.

  12. Development of culture techniques of keratinocytes for skin graft production. (United States)

    Masahiro, Kino-oka; Taya, Masahito


    The in vitro cultures of human tissues have attracted a great deal of medical attention as a promising technique for repairing defective tissues in vivo. In the last decade many companies have been established for supplying the regenerated grafts by means of tissue cultures of skin, cartilage, bone and so on. From the viewpoint of biochemical engineering, however, the culture systems for these tissues are not so sophisticated nor so programmed as the submerged culture systems developed for microorganisms. In manufacturing skin grafts, for instance, the raw materials of cells harvested from patients are heterogeneous, and the products of cultured tissues vary in the required size for individual epithelial sheets. Therefore, a reliable and robust process is desired for the production of cultured tissues with high reproducibility and quality. This review focuses on the strategies for developing the culture processes of keratinocytes targeting the epithelial sheet production, including (i) the introduction of culture techniques for keratinocyte cells and survey of skin graft production as it is, (ii) construction of kinetic model of cell growth, (iii) evaluation of cell properties based on image-analyzing techniques, and (iv) design of bioreactor system.

  13. Feasibility of the Use of RapiGraft and Skin Grafting in Reconstructive Surgery

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    Jung Dug Yang


    Full Text Available BackgroundSkin grafting is a relatively simple and thus widely used procedure. However, the elastic and structural quality of grafted skin is poor. Recently, various dermal substitutes have been developed to overcome this disadvantage of split-thickness skin grafts. The present study aims to determine the feasibility of RapiGraft as a new dermal substitute.MethodsThis prospective study included 20 patients with partial- or full-thickness skin defects; the patients were enrolled between January 2013 and March 2014. After skin defect debridement, the wound was divided into two parts by an imaginary line. Split-thickness skin grafting alone was performed on one side (group A, and RapiGraft and split-thickness skin grafting were used on the other side (group B. All patients were evaluated using photographs and self-questionnaires. The Manchester scar scale (MSS, a chromameter, and a durometer were used for the scar evaluation. The average follow-up period was 6 months.ResultsThe skin graft take rates were 93% in group A and 89% in group B, a non-significant difference (P=0.082. Statistically, group B had significantly lower MSS, vascularity, and pigmentation results than group A (P<0.05 for all. However, the groups did not differ significantly in pliability (P=0.155.ConclusionsThe present study indicates that a simultaneous application of RapiGraft and a split-thickness skin graft is safe and yields improved results. Therefore, we conclude that the use of RapiGraft along with skin grafting will be beneficial for patients requiring reconstructive surgery.

  14. Delayed grafting for banked skin graft in lymph node flap transfer. (United States)

    Ciudad, Pedro; Date, Shivprasad; Orfaniotis, Georgios; Dower, Rory; Nicoli, Fabio; Maruccia, Michele; Lin, Shu-Ping; Chuang, Chu-Yi; Chuang, Tsan-Yu; Wang, Gou-Jen; Chen, Hung-Chi


    Over the last decade, lymph node flap (LNF) transfer has turned out to be an effective method in the management of lymphoedema of extremities. Most of the time, the pockets created for LNF cannot be closed primarily and need to be resurfaced with split thickness skin grafts. Partial graft loss was frequently noted in these cases. The need to prevent graft loss on these iatrogenic wounds made us explore the possibility of attempting delayed skin grafting. We have herein reported our experience with delayed grafting with autologous banked split skin grafts in cases of LNF transfer for lymphoedema of the extremities. Ten patients with International Society of Lymphology stage II-III lymphoedema of upper or lower extremity were included in this study over an 8-month period. All patients were thoroughly evaluated and subjected to lymph node flap transfer. The split skin graft was harvested and banked at the donor site, avoiding immediate resurfacing over the flap. The same was carried out in an aseptic manner as a bedside procedure after confirming flap viability and allowing flap swelling to subside. Patients were followed up to evaluate long-term outcomes. Flap survival was 100%. Successful delayed skin grafting was done between the 4th and 6th post-operative day as a bedside procedure under local anaesthesia. The split thickness skin grafts (STSG) takes more than 97%. One patient needed additional medications during the bedside procedure. All patients had minimal post-operative pain and skin graft requirement. The patients were also reported to be satisfied with the final aesthetic results. There were no complications related to either the skin grafts or donor sites during the entire period of follow-up. Delayed split skin grafting is a reliable method of resurfacing lymph node flaps and has been shown to reduce the possibility of flap complications as well as the operative time and costs. © 2016 Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Rate of healing in skin-grafted burn wounds. (United States)

    Jewell, Lisa; Guerrero, Rick; Quesada, Abel R; Chan, Linda S; Garner, Warren L


    Skin grafting is a simple and common procedure for achieving wound closure. Despite its widespread use, there is little objective information about the outcomes of skin-grafted burn wounds. The purposes of this study were to determine the length of time it takes to achieve complete wound healing in split-thickness skin-grafted burn wounds and to identify factors that affect time to complete wound healing. The authors prospectively collected information from January through September of 2003 on 52 consecutive patients. Time to complete wound healing was defined as the number of days from burn wound skin grafting until the wound was 100 percent epithelialized. Percentage of total body surface area burned, preoperative prealbumin level, sex, age, graft type, burn mechanism, cause of graft loss, and presence of hypergranulation tissue were assessed and correlated with time to complete wound healing. The time to complete wound healing ranged from 2 to 75 days. Forty-six percent of skin grafts had 100 percent wound closure at postoperative day 7. No grafts were lost to infection. Factors that significantly affected time to complete wound healing were graft loss by seroma, preoperative prealbumin level, presence of hypergranulation tissue, and burns caused by hot solids. The authors' results suggest that most patients will heal skin-grafted burn wounds within 2 weeks. Meticulous attention to prevention of seroma, hypergranulation tissue formation, and malnutrition might decrease time to complete wound healing. Factors thought to influence time to complete wound healing, such as total body surface area burned, sex, age, graft type, and infection, did not significantly affect the authors' patient group.

  16. Experimental model of cultured skin graft

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alfredo Gragnani; Jeffrey R. Morgan; Lydia Masako Ferreira


    .... It permits the xenografting evaluation of cultured cells graft or of the genetically modified cells and of the association of the cultured cells and the dermal substitutes, the composite grafts, and of the autografting...

  17. History of free skin grafting. Knowledge of empiricism?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klasen, Hendrik Jan


    In the course of more than a hundred years, skin grafting has become a standard procedure in surgery. The indications for the several types of grafting have become rather uniform.The technical aids at the operations only differ in details. Especially the vast experience gained in World War II

  18. The Use of Platelet-Rich Plasma for Storage of Surplus Harvested Skin Grafts. (United States)

    Keskin, Ilknur; Ayturk, Nilufer; Sutcu, Mustafa; Keskin, Mustafa; Mudok, Tangul


    There is a need for improved methods and storage media to sustain the tissue viability of autologous skin grafts. To compare histological changes in human skin grafts stored in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) with those of grafts stored in saline. Eight circular, 3-mm full-thickness skin graft samples were harvested from the abdominal skin of each of 5 patients scheduled to undergo an abdominoplasty procedure. Four of these graft samples were stored in saline, and the other 4 were stored in saline mixed with PRP prepared from the patient's own venous blood. Histological assessment of the microscopic appearance of the samples was performed on days 5, 8, 11, and 14. The integrity of the epidermal-dermal junction, number of keratinocytes with perinuclear halos, collagen organization, and number of fibroblasts per field were assessed. The cellular apoptosis rate was also measured on these same days. On day 5, significant differences were observed microscopically between the PRP- and saline-stored grafts (P nuclear swelling with pleomorphism, as well as early nuclear halo formation. The cell viability rate of the PRP group was significantly higher than that of the saline-stored group on day 8 (P < .05). Platelet-rich plasma and its inherent growth factors supported longer graft survival; however, its effect lasted only until day 8. Platelet-rich plasma may be beneficial if grafts need to be stored for delayed application(s).

  19. Human Effector Memory T Helper Cells Engage with Mouse Macrophages and Cause Graft-versus-Host-Like Pathology in Skin of Humanized Mice Used in a Nonclinical Immunization Study. (United States)

    Sundarasetty, Balasai; Volk, Valery; Theobald, Sebastian J; Rittinghausen, Susanne; Schaudien, Dirk; Neuhaus, Vanessa; Figueiredo, Constanca; Schneider, Andreas; Gerasch, Laura; Mucci, Adele; Moritz, Thomas; von Kaisenberg, Constantin; Spineli, Loukia M; Sewald, Katherina; Braun, Armin; Weigt, Henning; Ganser, Arnold; Stripecke, Renata


    Humanized mice engrafted with human hematopoietic stem cells and developing functional human T-cell adaptive responses are in critical demand to test human-specific therapeutics. We previously showed that humanized mice immunized with long-lived induced-dendritic cells loaded with the pp65 viral antigen (iDCpp65) exhibited a faster development and maturation of T cells. Herein, we evaluated these effects in a long-term (36 weeks) nonclinical model using two stem cell donors to assess efficacy and safety. Relative to baseline, iDCpp65 immunization boosted the output of effector memory CD4 + T cells in peripheral blood and lymph nodes. No weight loss, human malignancies, or systemic graft-versus-host (GVH) disease were observed. However, for one reconstitution cohort, some mice immunized with iDCpp65 showed GVH-like signs on the skin. Histopathology analyses of the inflamed skin revealed intrafollicular and perifollicular human CD4 + cells near F4/80 + mouse macrophages around hair follicles. In spleen, CD4 + cells formed large clusters surrounded by mouse macrophages. In plasma, high levels of human T helper 2-type inflammatory cytokines were detectable, which activated in vitro the STAT5 pathway of murine macrophages. Despite this inflammatory pattern, human CD8 + T cells from mice with GVH reacted against the pp65 antigen in vitro. These results uncover a dynamic cross-species interaction between human memory T cells and mouse macrophages in the skin and lymphatic tissues of humanized mice. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Does Topical Application of Bupivacaine (marcaine) to Skin Graft ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moriarty sign designates that when split skin donor site is more painful than recipient site, good graft take is likely. This prospective study was designed for the dual purpose of confirming the validity of Moriarty sign and to determine if bupivacaine topical anaesthetic application to split skin donor site will influence the sign.

  1. Degloved foot sole successfully reconstructed with split thickness skin grafts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, Loes; Holtslag, Herman R.; Schellekens, Pascal P A; Leenen, Luke P H


    Introduction The current opinion is that split thickness skin grafts are not suitable to reconstruct a degloved foot sole. The tissue is too fragile to carry full bodyweight; and therefore, stress lesions frequently occur. The treatment of choice is the reuse of the avulsed skin whenever possible,

  2. Dupuytren Disease Infiltrating a Full-Thickness Skin Graft. (United States)

    Wade, Ryckie George; Igali, Laszlo; Figus, Andrea


    Although the role of the skin in the development and propagation of Dupuytren disease remains unclear, dermofasciectomy and full-thickness skin grafting (FTSG) appears to delay recurrence. In 2011, a 71-year-old, left-handed man presented with recurrent Dupuytren disease in the dominant hand. In 1991, he originally underwent a primary dermofasciectomy and FTSG for Dupuytren disease involving the palmar skin. Twenty years later, the left middle finger was drawn into flexion by a recurrent cord, and the old graft and adjacent palmar skin were clinically involved by fibromatosis. We performed a revision dermofasciectomy and FTSG. Microscopic analysis of the excised graft demonstrated dense infiltration of the entire skin graft by Dupuytren disease, with areas of active and burnt-out fibromatosis distinct from hypertrophic scarring. This report of Dupuytren fibromatosis infiltrating a skin graft raises questions about the pathophysiology of Dupuytren disease. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Allogeneic split-skin grafting in stem cell transplanted patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jan Kyrre Berg; Vindeløv, Lars; Schmidt, G.


    SUMMARY: We present a unique case of a bone marrow stem cell transplanted (BMT) patient with cutaneous chronic Graft versus Host Disease (cGvHD) who underwent successful allogeneic split-thickness skin graft (STSG) transplantation. BMT had previously been carried out due to myelodysplasia and non......). Allogeneic skin grafts are known to be acutely rejected. Successful allogeneic STSG has only been reported in sporadic cases of identical twins (isotransplantation). This case is the first to demonstrate what works in theory: the immune system of a stem cell transplanted patient with 100% or mixed stable...... donor chimaerism will not recognise skin from the stem cell donor as foreign. Due to advances in haematology, the number of BMT patients and their long-term survival is expected to increase. cGvHD, predisposing to skin problems and ulcerations, complicates up to 70% of cases of BMT. In BMT patients...

  4. Feasibility of Human Skin Grafts on An Isolated But Accessible Vascular Supply on Athymic Rats As a System to Study Percutaneous Penetration and Cutaneous Injury (United States)


    Bordetella pertussis toxin: Bordeteila pertussis toxin (BPT) is known to prolong grafts across major histocompatibility (MHC) barriers (28). Rats...that indicate an absence of cell-mediated immune responses in nude rats (10,34,35), the present observations suggest that an immunologic mechanism is... immunologic properties (30). The cytotoxic response of lymphocytes of draining lymph nodes of the rats which have rejected HSTSG to human peripheral

  5. Use of Preputial Skin as Cutaneous Graft after Nevus Excision

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    A. D'Alessio


    Full Text Available We report a four-year-old boy with a nevus covering all the plantar side of his second finger on the left foot. He was also affected by congenital phimosis. Surgical excision of the nevus was indicated, but the skin defect would have been too large to be directly closed. The foreskin was taken as a full-thickness skin graft to cover the cutaneous defect of the finger. The graft intake was favourable and provided a functional repair with good aesthetic characteristic.

  6. The Use of Matriderm and Autologous Skin Graft in the Treatment of Full Thickness Skin Defects

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    Jang Hwan Min


    Full Text Available Background For patients with full thickness skin defects, autologous Split-thickness skin grafts (STSG are generally regarded as the mainstay of treatment. However, skin grafts have some limitations, including undesirable outcomes resulting from scars, poor elasticity, and limitations in joint movement due to contractures. In this study, we present outcomes of Matriderm grafts used for various skin tissue defects whether it improves on these drawbacks. Methods From January 2010 to March 2012, a retrospective review of patients who had undergone autologous STSG with Matriderm was performed. We assessed graft survival to evaluate the effectiveness of Matriderm. We also evaluated skin quality using a Cutometer, Corneometer, Tewameter, or Mexameter, approximately 12 months after surgery. Results A total of 31 patients underwent STSG with Matriderm during the study period. The success rate of skin grafting was 96.7%. The elasticity value of the portion on which Matriderm was applied was 0.765 (range, 0.635-0.800, the value of the trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL was 10.0 (range, 8.15-11.00 g/hr/m2, and the humidification value was 24.0 (range, 15.5-30.0. The levels of erythema and melanin were 352.0 arbitrary unit (AU (range, 299.25-402.75 AU and 211.0 AU (range, 158.25-297.00 AU, respectively. When comparing the values of elasticity and TEWL of the skin treated with Matriderm to the values of the surrounding skin, there was no statistically significant difference between the groups. Conclusions The results of this study demonstrate that a dermal substitute (Matriderm with STSG was adopted stably and with minimal complications. Furthermore, comparing Matriderm grafted skin to normal skin using Cutometer, Matriderm proved valuable in restoring skin elasticity and the skin barrier.

  7. Bioengineering dermo-epidermal skin grafts with blood and lymphatic capillaries. (United States)

    Marino, Daniela; Luginbühl, Joachim; Scola, Simonetta; Meuli, Martin; Reichmann, Ernst


    The first bioengineered, autologous, dermo-epidermal skin grafts are presently undergoing clinical trials; hence, it is reasonable to envisage the next clinical step at the forefront of plastic and burn surgery, which is the generation of autologous skin grafts that contain vascular plexuses, preformed in vitro. As the importance of the blood, and particularly the lymphatic vascular system, is increasingly recognized, it is attractive to engineer both human blood and lymphatic vessels in one tissue or organ graft. We show here that functional lymphatic capillaries can be generated using three-dimensional hydrogels. Like normal lymphatics, these capillaries branch, form lumen, and take up fluid in vitro and in vivo after transplantation onto immunocompromised rodents. Formation of lymphatic capillaries could be modulated by both lymphangiogenic and anti-lymphangiogenic stimuli, demonstrating the potential usefulness of this system for in vitro testing. Blood and lymphatic endothelial cells never intermixed during vessel development, nor did blood and lymphatic capillaries anastomose under the described circumstances. After transplantation of the engineered grafts, the human lymphatic capillaries anastomosed to the nude rat's lymphatic plexus and supported fluid drainage. Successful preclinical results suggest that these skin grafts could be applied on patients suffering from severe skin defects.

  8. Grafting of venous leg ulcers. An intraindividual comparison between cultured skin equivalents and full-thickness skin punch grafts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, M. A.; Nanninga, P. B.; van Eendenburg, J. P.; Westerhof, W.; Mekkes, J. R.; van Ginkel, C. J.


    Skin equivalents that consisted of a noncontracted collagen gel populated with allogeneic fibroblasts and covered with autologous cultured keratinocytes were used for grafting venous leg ulcers. The results were compared in the same patient with those obtained with a routinely used standard method

  9. [Meek technique skin graft for treating exceptionally large area burns]. (United States)

    Xu, Qinglian; Cai, Chen; Yu, Youxin; Tang, Yizhong; Hu, Delin; Liu, Sheng; Qi, Weiwei; Shi, Jie


    To investigate the clinical effect of Meek technique skin graft in treating exceptionally large area burns. The clinical data were retrospectively analysed from 10 cases of exceptionally large area burns treated with Meek technique skin graft from April 2009 to February 2010 (Meek group), and were compared with those from 10 cases of exceptionally large area burns treated with the particle skin with large sheet of skin allograft transplantation from January 2002 to December 2006 (particle skin group). In Meek group, there were 8 males and 2 females with an average age of 34.5 years (range, 5-55 years), including 6 cases of flame burns, 2 cases of hot liquid burns, 1 case of electrical burn, and 1 case of high-temperature dust burn. The burn area was 82.6% +/- 3.1% of total body surface area (TBSA). The most were deep II degree to III degree burns. The time from burn to hospitalization was (3.5 +/- 1.3) hours. In particle skin group, there were 8 males and 2 females with an average age of 36.8 years (range, 18-62 years), including 5 cases of flame burns, 2 cases of hot liquid burns, and 3 cases of gunpowder explosion injury. The burn area was 84.1% +/- 7.4% of TBSA. The most were deep II degree to III degree burns. The time from burn to hospitalization was (4.9 +/- 2.2) hours. There was no significant difference in general data between 2 groups (P > 0.05). The skin graft survival rate, the time of skin fusion, the systemic wound healing time, and the treatment cost of 1% of burn area were 91.23% +/- 5.61%, (11.14 +/- 2.12) days, (38.89 +/- 10.36) days, and (5113.28 +/- 552.44) yuan in Meek group, respectively; and were 78.65% +/- 12.29%, (18.37 +/- 4.63) days, (48.73 +/- 16.92) days, and (7386.36 +/- 867.64) yuan in particle skin group; showing significant differences between 2 groups (P burns with the advantages of high survival rate of skin graft, short time of skin fusion, and low treatment cost of 1% of burn area.

  10. Evaluation of hand function after early excision and skin grafting of burns versus delayed skin grafting: a randomized clinical trial. (United States)

    Omar, Mohammed T Ahmed; Hassan, Ahmed A


    Thermal injury of the hand is characterized by disfigurement and deformity with marked problems because the patient is no longer able to perform the daily living activities and function at school or work. Early excision and grafting (E&G) were introduced to decrease hospital stay, hospital cost, and septic complications and to eliminate burn toxins. In this study, E&G was compared with delayed skin grafting in deep hand burns. 40 patients with deep second- and third- degree hand burns with average burn size less than 30% total body surface area (TBSA) were randomly divided into E&G group and delayed grafting group. All hands in both groups were subjected to pre and post operative program of physiotherapy. Measurement of total active motion (TAM) of each digit and grip strength was recorded pre and post operative. Hand function using Jebsen-Taylor hand function test (JTHFT) was recorded three months after operation in both groups. There were statistically significant differences in both groups regarding to TAM, hand grip strength and Jebsen-Taylor hand function test favoring the E&G group. The study concluded that early excision and skin grafting with physiotherapy gave better results than delayed grafting in terms of preservation of hand function and shortened hospital stay. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  11. Treatment of equine leg wounds using skin grafts: Thirty-five cases, 1975-1988


    French, Daniel A.; Fretz, Peter B.


    A retrospective study was conducted on 35 equine patients with lower leg wounds that were managed utilizing skin graft procedures. Two pinch graft, five punch graft, seven tunnel graft, eight split-thickness mesh graft and thirteen full-thickness mesh expansion graft procedures were performed in the initial treatment. The average wound size was 188 cm2. Twentyfour cases had pregrafting complications: 10 wounds developed sequestra; three wounds were grossly contaminated and infected; and 11 ca...

  12. Treatment of Mesh Skin Grafted Scars Using a Plasma Skin Regeneration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takamitsu Higashimori


    Full Text Available Objectives. Several modalities have been advocated to treat traumatic scars, including surgical techniques and laser resurfacing. Recently, a plasma skin regeneration (PSR system has been investigated. There are no reports on plasma treatment of mesh skin grafted scars. The objective of our study is to evaluate the effectiveness and complications of plasma treatment of mesh skin grafted scars in Asian patients. Materials and Methods. Four Asian patients with mesh skin grafted scars were enrolled in the study. The plasma treatments were performed at monthly intervals with PSR, using energy settings of 3 to 4 J. Improvement was determined by patient questionnaires and physician evaluation of digital photographs taken prior to treatment and at 3 months post treatment. The patients were also evaluated for any side effects from the treatment. Results. All patients showed more than 50% improvement. The average pain score on a 10-point scale was 6.9 +/− 1.2 SD and all patients tolerated the treatments. Temporary, localized hypopigmentation was observed in two patients. Hyperpigmentation and worsening of scarring were not observed. Conclusions. Plasma treatment is clinically effective and is associated with minimal complications when used to treat mesh skin grafted scars in Asian patients.

  13. Penile Reconstruction with Skin Grafts and Dermal Matrices: Indications and Management. (United States)

    Triana Junco, Paloma; Dore, Mariela; Nuñez Cerezo, Vanesa; Jimenez Gomez, Javier; Miguel Ferrero, Miriam; Díaz González, Mercedes; Lopez-Pereira, Pedro; Lopez-Gutierrez, Juan Carlos


    Introduction  The penis eventually needs specific cutaneous coverage in the context of reconstructive procedures following trauma or congenital anomalies. Local flaps are the first choice but are not always available after multiple previous procedures. In these cases, skin graft and dermal matrices should be considered. Materials and Methods  This study was a retrospective review of the past 4 years of four patients with severe loss of penile shaft skin who underwent skin reconstruction. Dermal matrices and skin grafts were utilized. Dermal matrices were placed for a median of 4.5 weeks (3.0-6.0 weeks). The skin graft was harvested from the inner thigh region for split-thickness skin graft (STSG) and the inguinal region for full-thickness skin graft (FTSG). Results  The four patients presented with complete loss of skin in the penile shaft. One patient had a vesical exstrophy, one had a buried penis with only one corpus cavernosum, one had a wide congenital lymphedema of the genitalia, and one had a lack of skin following circumcision at home. They underwent reconstruction with three patients undergoing split-thickness skin graft; two dermal matrices; and one full-thickness graft, respectively, thereby achieving a good cosmetic and functional result. There were no complications, and all the patients successfully accepted the graft. Conclusion  Dermal matrices and skin grafts may serve as effective tools in the management of severe penile skin defects unable to be covered with local flaps.

  14. Nanofibrillar cellulose wound dressing in skin graft donor site treatment. (United States)

    Hakkarainen, T; Koivuniemi, R; Kosonen, M; Escobedo-Lucea, C; Sanz-Garcia, A; Vuola, J; Valtonen, J; Tammela, P; Mäkitie, A; Luukko, K; Yliperttula, M; Kavola, H


    Although new therapeutic approaches for burn treatment have made progress, there is still need for better methods to enhance wound healing and recovery especially in severely burned patients. Nanofibrillar cellulose (NFC) has gained attention due to its renewable nature, good biocompatibility and excellent physical properties that are of importance for a range of applications in pharmaceutical and biomedical fields. In the present study, we investigated the potential of a wood based NFC wound dressing in a clinical trial on burn patients. Previously, we have investigated NFC as a topical functionalized wound dressing that contributes to improve wound healing in mice. Wood based NFC wound dressing was tested in split-thickness skin graft donor site treatment for nine burn patients in clinical trials at Helsinki Burn Centre. NFC dressing was applied to split thickness skin graft donor sites. The dressing gradually dehydrated and attached to donor site during the first days. During the clinical trials, physical and mechanical properties of NFC wound dressing were optimized by changing its composition. From patient 5 forward, NFC dressing was compared to commercial lactocapromer dressing, Suprathel® (PMI Polymedics, Germany). Epithelialization of the NFC dressing-covered donor site was faster in comparison to Suprathel®. Healthy epithelialized skin was revealed under the detached NFC dressing. NFC dressing self-detached after 11-21days for patients 1-9, while Suprathel® self-detached after 16-28days for patients 5-9. In comparison studies with patients 5-9, NFC dressing self-detached on average 4days earlier compared with Suprathel®. Lower NFC content in the material was evaluated to influence the enhanced pliability of the dressing and attachment to the wound bed. No allergic reaction or inflammatory response to NFC was observed. NFC dressing did not cause more pain for patients than the traditional methods to treat the skin graft donor sites. Based on the

  15. Palmar crease release and secondary full-thickness skin grafts for contractures in primary full-thickness skin grafts during growth spurts in pediatric palmar hand burns. (United States)

    Oh, Suk-Joon; Kim, Seon Gyu; Cho, Jin Kyung; Sung, Chang Min


    Pediatric palmar hand burns are a difficult problem because of the serious hand deformity, with functional impairment resulting from rapid growth. In cases of severe pediatric palmar hand burns, a secondary full-thickness skin graft after a primary full-thickness skin graft offers a reliable way of obtaining the required functional and aesthetic outcomes.This study retrospectively evaluated 28 children who required palmar crease releases and secondary full-thickness skin grafts during the past 12 years. The case records were reviewed for sex and age distributions, injury mechanism, and time interval between the primary and secondary full-thickness skin grafts. Surgical procedures included secondary full-thickness skin grafts and incisional releases of grafted skin on the involved creases. There were 19 men and 9 women. The mean age at the time of the burn injury was 10.1 months (range, 5-19 months). The mean age at the time of the secondary full-thickness skin graft was 8.3 years (range, 3-17 years). The most common mechanism of burn injury was steam (n = 24). The median time interval from the primary to the secondary full-thickness skin graft was 67 months (range, 8-156 months). The number of released creases was 81. The number of palmar web contractures in 23 patients was 52. A secondary full-thickness skin graft was more frequently necessary in patients with a primary full-thickness skin graft in the proximal digital crease and palmar web areas. All patients achieved adequate digital length and palmar web contour after surgery. Our patients should be observed until the rapid pubertal growth period.

  16. Clinical Experience and Best Practices Using Epidermal Skin Grafts on Wounds. (United States)

    Kirsner, Robert S; Bernstein, Brent; Bhatia, Animesh; Lantis, John; Le, Lam; Lincoln, Katherine; Liu, Paul; Rodgers, Lee; Shaw, Mark; Young, David


    Over the years, autologous skin grafting has been used extensively to achieve wound closure, optimize a functional scar, and improve aesthetic outcomes for the patient. Although a vast majority of the literature is on the use of full-thickness and split-thickness skin grafts, epidermal skin grafts (ESGs) have emerged as a viable option in the reconstructive ladder when only the epidermal layer is needed. These grafts are distinct from other types of autologous skin grafts in that they can be harvested without anesthesia and leave minimal or no scarring at the donor site. In order to explore the use of ESGs in the continuum of primary wound closure, a multidisciplinary expert panel convened in October 2014, in Las Vegas, NV, to review the scientific basis and clinical uses of epidermal grafting. This publication provides an overview of epidermal grafting, recommendations for graft application, and potential roles for its use in wound care and closure.

  17. Mycophenolic acid derivative 118 improves outcome of skin grafts by suppressing IL-17 production. (United States)

    Kong, Fang-yuan; Chen, Wei; He, Shi-jun; Lin, Ze-min; Li, Xin; Zhang, Xiao-hui; Yang, Xiao-qian; Zhu, Feng-hua; Tong, Xian-kun; Zhou, Yu; Tang, Wei; Duan, Wen-hu; Zuo, Jian-ping


    To investigate the effects and underlying mechanisms of 118, a novel derivative of mycophenolic acid, in a murine allogeneic skin graft model. Skin grafts were conducted by grafting BALB/c donor tail skin into C57BL/6 skin beds (allograft) or by grafting female C57BL/6 donor tail skin into female C57BL/6 skin beds (syngraft). The mice were treated with the derivative 118 (40 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1), po) for 13 d (3 d before and 10 d after transplantation). Skin grafts, splenocytes and graft-infiltrated lymphocytes were isolated and examined ex vivo. The effects of the derivative 118 on naive CD4(+) T cell differentiation were examined in vitro. Treatment with the derivative 118 dramatically increased the survival rate of murine allogeneic skin grafts. Flow cytometric analysis and H&E staining showed that the derivative significantly decreased inflammatory cell infiltration into the grafts. The levels of the chemokines CXCL1, CXCL2, CCL7, and CCL2 were reduced in the derivative 118-treated grafts. Additionally, the derivative 118 significantly suppressed the IL-17 levels in the grafts but did not affect the differentiation of systemic helper T cells in the murine allogeneic skin graft model. Furthermore, IL-23p19 expression was suppressed in the grafts from the derivative 118-treated group, which might be due to decreases in TLR4 and MyD88 expression. Finally, the derivative 118 did not exert direct influences on helper T cell differentiation in vitro. Treatment with the mycophenolic acid derivative 118 improves murine allogeneic skin grafts by decreasing IL-23 expression and suppressing local IL-17 secretion in the grafts, rather than directly inhibiting Th17 differentiation.

  18. Full-thickness skin grafting to cover equine wounds caused by laceration or tumor resection. (United States)

    Tóth, Ferenc; Schumacher, Jim; Castro, Fernando; Perkins, Justin


    To describe and evaluate full-thickness skin grafting of equine wounds. Case series. Adult horses (n=6). A full-thickness graft was harvested from the pectoral region with the horse anesthetized or standing and sedated after local anesthetic infiltration. Grafts were attached to the cutaneous margin of the wound with staples and/or sutures if the horse was anesthetized or if the recipient site was desensitized. Cyanoacrylate glue was used to attach the grafts to the cutaneous margin of the wound of 3 horses. Medical records were reviewed for history, physical examination findings, grafting technique, postoperative complications, and outcome. Three horses had full-thickness skin grafting to cover a fresh defect created by excision of a cutaneous neoplasm, and 3 horses had full-thickness skin grafting to cover a fresh or granulating laceration. Grafts were completely accepted in 5 horses. The superficial layers of all grafts sloughed, but the final cosmetic appearance of accepted grafts was good. Full-thickness skin grafting can be performed in standing sedated horses with good cosmesis, especially when the meshed graft is expanded minimally. Good acceptance of a full-thickness graft can be expected, regardless of whether the graft is applied to a fresh or granulating wound.

  19. Autologous miniature punch skin grafting in stable vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savant S


    Full Text Available Autologous split thickness miniature punch skin grafting is one of the surgical modes of treatment of stable vitiligo. Out of 87 different sites, of stable vitiligo, occurring in 62 cases, (32 focal, 22 segmental and 8 generalised 75 sites showed total repigmentation with excellent cosmetic colour match. Out of the 62 cases, 46 cases who were treated postsurgically with PUVA therapy repigmented within 2 ½ to 3 months, 10 cases, who received no treatment postsurgically repigmented by 3 ½ to 6 months. In addition 6 cases in whom no treatment was given postsurgically had to be given PUVA therapy 3 months after surgery as there was poor repigmentation. The complications seen were graft rejection due to improper immobilization in 6 cases, graft rejection due to secondary infection in 1, contact allergic dermatitis to framycetin in 3, and reactivation of vitiligo in 2. Side effects seen were cobblestoning in 32, sinking pits in 12, variegated appearance in 4, and superficial scarring at donor site in all 62 cases.

  20. One-sheet spiraling full thickness skin graft for penile resurfacing after paraffinoma excision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theddeus O.H. Prasetyono


    Full Text Available In the midst of on-going non-illicit practice of silicone or paraffin injection to enlarge penis, the author reported 3 cases of surgical treatment to resurface the body of the penis after excision of the destructed penile skin using full thickness skin graft. The skin excision was performed technically through penile body degloving procedure. Full thickness skin graft was then applied as a single sheet donor tissue to cover the denuded penile body spirally. The full thickness graft, which is relatively easy to be performed, is no doubt much thinner than a skin flap, while it also bears a smaller degree of secondary contraction than split skin graft. The color of the skin is considerably matched as it comes from the groin, which is a nearby area of penis. The size and skin sensitization of the penis looks to be natural. The only disadvantage is the common possibility of either spiral or circular junctional scar in between graft edges and between the graft and the penile mucosa and skin to develop hypertrophic scar. However, this possible scar problem applies also to any other surgical scar with any donor tissue. Fortunately, the 3 cases posed no scar problem and normal appearance. All the patients have also regained their normal sexual function. (Med J Indones 2011; 20:222-5Keywords: full thickness skin graft, paraffinoma, siliconoma, sexual function

  1. A comparative study of early-delayed skin grafting and late or non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To demonstrate the benefits of performing a split skin graft within 15 days post burn and explore the differences in duration of hospital stay, occurrence of infection and contracture formation in comparison to standard care currently provided at U.T.H (late or non split skin graft). Design: This was a prospective, ...

  2. A comparative study of early-delayed skin grafting and late or non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT. Objectives: To demonstrate the benefits of performing a split skin graft within 15 days post burn and explore the differences in duration of hospital stay, occurrence of infection and contracture formation in comparison to standard care currently provided at U.T.H (late or non split skin graft). Design: This was a ...

  3. Improvement of skin quality after fat grafting: clinical observation and an animal study. (United States)

    Mojallal, Ali; Lequeux, Charlotte; Shipkov, Christo; Breton, Pierre; Foyatier, Jean-Louis; Braye, Fabienne; Damour, Odile


    Restoration of volume and contour defects is a challenge in plastic surgery. Autologous fat tissue transfer is gaining increasing popularity in this field. The aim of this study was to investigate the histologic modifications of the skin after fat tissue grafting on an animal model. Thirty nude mice, divided into three groups, were used in the experiment. All 30 mice received human fat tissue on one side. On the opposite side, 10 mice received nothing (negative control group), 10 mice received cell proliferation medium, and the remaining 10 mice received only subcutaneous tunneling. Eight weeks later, biopsies of the skin and subcutaneous tissue were performed and specimens were analyzed by hematoxylin-phloxin-saffron staining. Dermis thickness was measured. To differentiate human from murine collagen fibers, human and murine collagen type I antibodies were used. The other types of collagen were investigated by immunohistochemistry (immunostaining) using collagen type III, V, and VI antibodies. Fat tissue was found in all animals. Macroscopically, fat tissue presented normal aspects, with abundant peripheral neovascularization. Histologic examination showed abundant extracellular matrix around the injected human fat tissue. This was attributable to increased type I collagen fibers of murine origin as a result of the murine fibroblast stimulation by the grafted human fat tissue. Dermal thickness after fat grafting was significantly greater. This was not attributable to inflammatory reactions, because no modification was detected in our control groups. This study shows that fat tissue grafting stimulates a neosynthesis of collagen fibers at the recipient site and makes the dermis thicker. However, the long-term effects remain undetermined and need further investigation.

  4. Tissue-engineered skin preserving the potential of epithelial cells to differentiate into hair after grafting. (United States)

    Larouche, Danielle; Cuffley, Kristine; Paquet, Claudie; Germain, Lucie


    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether tissue-engineered skin produced in vitro was able to sustain growth of hair follicles in vitro and after grafting. Different tissues were designed. Dissociated newborn mouse keratinocytes or newborn mouse hair buds (HBs) were added onto dermal constructs consisting of a tissue-engineered cell-derived matrix elaborated from either newborn mouse or adult human fibroblasts cultured with ascorbic acid. After 7-21 days of maturation at the air-liquid interface, no hair was noticed in vitro. Epidermal differentiation was observed in all tissue-engineered skin. However, human fibroblast-derived tissue-engineered dermis (hD) promoted a thicker epidermis than mouse fibroblast-derived tissue-engineered dermis (mD). In association with mD, HBs developed epithelial cyst-like inclusions presenting outer root sheath-like attributes. In contrast, epidermoid cyst-like inclusions lined by a stratified squamous epithelium were present in tissues composed of HBs and hD. After grafting, pilo-sebaceous units formed and hair grew in skin elaborated from HBs cultured 10-26 days submerged in culture medium in association with mD. However, the number of normal hair follicles decreased with longer culture time. This hair-forming capacity after grafting was not observed in tissues composed of hD overlaid with HBs. These results demonstrate that epithelial stem cells can be kept in vitro in a permissive tissue-engineered dermal environment without losing their potential to induce hair growth after grafting.

  5. An Alternative Treatment Strategy for Complicated Chronic Wounds: Negative Pressure Therapy over Mesh Skin Graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Maruccia


    Full Text Available Extensive skin defect represents a real problem and major challenge in plastic and reconstructive surgery. On one hand, skin grafts offer a practical method to deal with skin defects despite their unsuitability for several complicated wounds. On the other hand, negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT, applied before skin grafting, promotes granulation tissue growth. The aim of the study is to evaluate the improvement in wound healing given by the merger of these two different approaches. We treated 23 patients for large wounds of multiple factors. Of these, 15 were treated with the application of V.A.C.® Therapy (KCI Medical S.r.l., Milan, Italy, in combination with skin grafts after a prior unsuccessful treatment of 4 weeks with mesh skin grafts and dressings. Another 8 were treated with only mesh skin graft. Pain reduction and wound area reduction were found statistically significant (p<0.0009, p<0.0001. Infection was resolved in almost all patients. According to our study, the use of the negative pressure wound therapy over mesh skin grafts is significantly effective especially in wounds resistant to conventional therapies, thereby improving the rate of skin graft take.

  6. Preauricular full-thickness skin grafting in medial canthal reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Corredor-Osorio


    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma in medial canthal is a surgical challenge to oculoplastic surgeon. We report a case an 80 –year-old woman who presented with a vegetative tumor in the right inferior medial canthus that increased slowly in size over the past two years. An excisional biopsy from the tumor was suggestive of a basal cell carcinoma. A full-thickness excision of the tumor within the oncologic safety limits, was performed. A wide range of reconstruction techniques should be customized to the individual patient. In this case, the use of a preauricular full. Thickness skin graft was a favorable option, without complications, and with acceptable functional and cosmetic results. The aim of the treatment is to restore anatomy, functional and cosmetic of the patients.

  7. The Use of Glabrous Skins Grafts in the Treatment of Pediatric Palmar Hand Burns. (United States)

    Friel, Michael T; Duquette, Steve P; Ranganath, Bharat; Burkey, Brooke A; Glat, Paul M; Davis, Wellington J


    An often overlooked, yet useful, technique in the treatment of palmar hand burns is the use of glabrous skin grafting, particularly in dark-skinned individuals. Pediatric palmar burns are a particularly unique subset of burns. The typical split-thickness or full-thickness skin grafts leave a notably different skin texture and pigmentation. It is also known that the psychological aspects of a pediatric burn can be quite burdensome for a child as he or she progresses through childhood and adolescence. For a dark-skinned patient the placement a standard full-thickness skin graft in a nonpigmented palm provides for a constant reminder of a traumatic event. We report a case series of pediatric patients who were managed with glabrous skin grafting from the plantar aspect of the foot. A retrospective review of palmar skin burns requiring grafting at a single pediatric burn center experience over a 2 and a half year time period was performed. Seventeen patients were identified. Our treatment algorithm for deep partial thickness burns first relies on a combination of operative and nonoperative measures to expedite the demarcation of the burn injury. If the burn is full thickness in nature or if a lack of progression of healing is identified within the first 14 days of injury, then skin grafting is recommended. Our technique for performing the graft is described. The average age at time of surgery was 2.05 years (6 months to 6.8 years). Fourteen of the 17 patients had darker skin types (Fitzpatrick Type III-VI) and identified themselves as either Hispanic or African American. The average size of the area requiring skin graft after debridement was 0.94% total body surface area (0.5%-2.0%). Of the patients that were not lost to follow-up, 1 patient required additional grafting after developing a finger contracture for splint noncompliance. Aesthetically, the wounds went on to heal with an excellent pigment match and an inconspicuous donor site. In the management of deep

  8. Skin grafting in severely contracted socket with the use of ′Compo′

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betharia S


    Full Text Available The results of split thickness autologous skin grafting along with the use of a dental impression material (Compo, a thermoplastic substance are presented in a series of 11 patients of acquired, severely contracted, anophthalmic sockets. Only the fornix fixation sutures and the central tarsorrhaphy were employed for the proper placement of graft without the use of retention devices. Artificial eyes were successfully fitted and retained subsequently after 6 weeks of grafting.

  9. The modified Meek technique as a novel method for skin grafting in horses: evaluation of acceptance, wound contraction and closure in chronic wounds. (United States)

    Wilmink, J M; van den Boom, R; van Weeren, P R; Barneveld, A


    The acceptance of skin grafts in horses is unpredictable and the final cosmetic result can be disappointing. Besides movement and infection, graft failure is often caused by chronic inflammation, inherently present during second intention healing of limb wounds in horses. In human burns affected by infection and inflammation, the acceptance of the island skin grafts of the modified Meek technique appeared to be better than meshed sheet skin grafts. The percentage take of Meek micrografts is higher than of other techniques; and rates of both wound contraction and epithelialisation are increased. Large traumatic limb wounds of 13 horses healing by second intention were grafted using the modified Meek technique. Photographs of the wounds were taken at set intervals. Wound areas, and areas of acceptance and rejection were determined using a digital image post processor (Scion Image). The percentages of take, wound contraction and epithelialisation were calculated. The initial mean wound area was 7500 mm2. Graft acceptance was mean +/- s.d. 93.7 +/- 5.9%. Wound closure was due to contraction (55.2 +/- 11.1%) and epithelialisation (44.8 +/- 11.1%) and resulted in a 96.7 +/- 3.6% reduction of the initial wound area 29.1 +/- 6 days after grafting. All wounds showed functional and cosmetic healing. The method for skin grafting in horses achieved higher percentages of take than reported previously and consistent cosmetic and functional results. The grafts increased not only the rate of epithelialisation but also had a strong positive effect on wound contraction, resulting in rapid closure and smaller scars. The modified Meek technique proved to be a novel technique for skin grafting equine wounds in clinical practice, which can be performed easily. The molecular background of the increase of wound contraction by the grafts may provide a clue in the search for medicinal stimulation of wound contraction during second intention healing.

  10. A comparative study of early-delayed skin grafting and late or non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative study of early-delayed skin grafting and late or non-grafting of deep partial thickness burns at the University Teaching Hospital. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more ...

  11. StrataGraft skin substitute is well-tolerated and is not acutely immunogenic in patients with traumatic wounds: results from a prospective, randomized, controlled dose escalation trial (United States)

    Centanni, John M.; Straseski, Joely A.; Wicks, April; Hank, Jacquelyn A.; Rasmussen, Cathy A.; Lokuta, Mary A.; Schurr, Michael J.; Foster, Kevin N.; Faucher, Lee D.; Caruso, Daniel M.; Comer, Allen R.; Allen-Hoffmann, B. Lynn


    Objective The goal of this study was to assess the immunogenicity and antigenicity of StrataGraft skin tissue in a randomized phase I/II clinical trial for the temporary management of full-thickness skin loss. Summary Background Data StrataGraft skin tissue consists of a dermal equivalent containing human dermal fibroblasts and a fully-stratified, biologically active epidermis derived from NIKS cells, a pathogen-free, long-lived, consistent, human keratinocyte progenitor. Methods Traumatic skin wounds often require temporary allograft coverage to stabilize the wound bed until autografting is possible. StrataGraft and cadaveric allograft were placed side-by-side on 15 patients with full-thickness skin defects for one week prior to autografting. Allografts were removed from the wound bed and examined for allogeneic immune responses. Immunohistochemistry and indirect immunofluorescence were used to assess tissue structure and cellular composition of allografts. In vitro lymphocyte proliferation assays, chromium-release assays, and development of antibodies were used to examine allogeneic responses. Results One week after patient exposure to allografts, there were no differences in the numbers of T or B lymphocytes or Langerhans cells present in StrataGraft skin substitute compared to cadaver allograft, the standard of care. Importantly, exposure to StrataGraft skin substitute did not induce the proliferation of patient peripheral blood mononuclear cells to NIKS keratinocytes or enhance cell-mediated lysis of NIKS keratinocytes in vitro. Similarly, no evidence of antibody generation targeted to the NIKS keratinocytes was seen. Conclusions These findings indicate that StrataGraft tissue is well-tolerated and not acutely immunogenic in patients with traumatic skin wounds. Notably, exposure to StrataGraft did not increase patient sensitivity toward or elicit immune responses against the NIKS keratinocytes. We envision this novel skin tissue technology will be widely used

  12. Influence of body mass index on skin grafting in pediatric burns. (United States)

    Sharp, Nicole E; Thomas, Priscilla G; Sherman, Ashley K; St Peter, Shawn D; Juang, David


    There is heterogeneous literature on the association of obese and underweight body habitus on burn outcomes in adult and pediatric literature. We examine the effect of standardized pediatric body mass index (BMI) categories skin graft utilisation. A retrospective chart review was performed on children who underwent burn treatment from January 1995 to November 2011. BMI was categorized by standard definitions: underweight (95%). There were 1164 patients: 77 underweight, 604 normal, 215 overweight, and 268 obese patients. No differences existed between group demographics. Grafts were performed in 39% of underweight, 27% of normal, 22% of overweight, and 27% of obese patients. Underweight children had nearly a 2 fold increase in their risk of full thickness burns and were 1.8 times more likely to undergo skin grafting than normal BMI children. Overweight children had a significant decrease in the incidence skin grafting by 23% then compared to normal weight children. There were no differences in percent TBSA burned or percent TBSA grafted using ANOVA. Underweight pediatric burn victims have an increased risk for skin grafting while mildly overweight children are slightly protected from skin grafting. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  13. Surgical Methods for Full-Thickness Skin Grafts to Induce Alopecia Areata in C3H/HeJ Mice (United States)

    Silva, Kathleen A; Sundberg, John P


    Alopecia areata is a cell-mediated autoimmune disease of humans and many domestic and laboratory animal species. C3H/HeJ inbred mice spontaneously develop alopecia areata at a low frequency (approximately 20% by 12 mo of age). Transferring full-thickness skin grafts from affected, older mice to young mice of the same strain reliably reproduces alopecia areata, thus enabling investigators to study disease pathogenesis or intervention with a variety of therapeutic approaches. We here describe in detail how to perform full-thickness skin grafts and the follow-up procedures necessary to consistently generate mice with alopecia areata. These engrafted mice can be used to study the pathogenesis of cell-mediated autoimmune disease and for drug-efficacy trials. This standard protocol can be used for many other purposes when studying abnormal skin phenotypes in laboratory mice. PMID:24210015

  14. Use of a Purse-String Suture to Reduce Skin Graft Requirements. (United States)

    McCue, Jonathan; Kalliainen, Loree K


    When a wound cannot be closed in a linear fashion and either a local flap or skin graft is needed, a purse-string suture can be a useful adjunct to wound closure. Local tissue architecture is maintained in cases where clear surgical margins have not been achieved at the time of extirpative skin cancer surgery. We hypothesized that this technique could be applied to a range of wound sizes and locations to avoid or reduce the need for skin grafting. We applied a non-absorbable purse-string suture to wounds in 18 patients over a 15-month period and measured the defect size before and after application of the suture intraoperatively. Residual defects were covered with full- or split-thickness skin grafts. Postoperative wound area, scar hypertrophy, partial graft loss and dehiscence following suture removal were additional outcomes. Ten patients achieved primary wound closure with the purse-string suture, while additional skin grafting was required in eight patients. Wounds closed primarily did not re-expand. Skin-grafted subjects had a 53.8% intraoperative wound area reduction but the skin grafts expanded during recovery, and ultimate reduction diminished to 11% on late follow-up. Wounds accounting for this late re-expansion were located on the extremities. Purse-string sutures are helpful for wound closure in wounds that cannot be closed primarily. They can decrease the size of a skin graft if the wound cannot be closed completely. Wound re-expansion, particularly in extremity defects, may occur following early removal of the tension-bearing purse string.

  15. Decreasing Skin Graft Contraction through Topical Wound Bed Preparation with Anti-Inflammatory Agents (United States)


    recipient wound bed to decrease skin graft contraction. 2. KEYWORDS: Skin graft contraction; burn ; prolonged inflammation; anti-inflammatory; wound bed. 3...per experiment What was accomplished under these goals? In the first goal (A.1.2.1), the screening animal models using the Yorkshire pig for burn secondary to indomethacin toxicity, infection or technical failure. In the next experimental animal, in order to rule out the possibility for

  16. Radiation induced graft copolymerization of methyl methacrylate onto chrome-tanned pig skins (United States)

    Pietrucha, K.; Pȩkala, W.; Kroh, J.

    Graft copolymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) onto chrome-tanned pig skins was carried out by the irradiation with 60Co ?-rays. The grafted polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) chains were isolated by acid hydrolysis of the collagen backbone in order to characterize the graft copolymers. Proof of grafting was obtained through the detection of amino acid endgroups in the isolated grafts by reaction with ninhydrin. The grafting yield of MMA in aqueous emulsion was found to be higher than that for pure MMA and MMA in acetone. The degree of grafting increases with increasing monomer concentration in emulsion and reaches maximum at radiation dose ca 15 kGy. The yield of grafting is very high - ca 90% of monomer converts into copolymer and only 10% is converted into homopolymer. The present paper reports the physical properties of chrome-tanned pig skins after graft polymerization with MMA in emulsion. Modified leathers are more resistant against water absorption and abrasion in comparison with unmodified ones. They have more uniform structure over the whole surface, greater thickness and stiffness. The results reported seem to indicate that MMA may be used in the production of shoe upper and sole leathers. The mechanism of some of the processes occuring during radiation grafting of MMA in water emulsion on tanned leathers has been also suggested and discussed.

  17. Negative-pressure wound dressings to secure split-thickness skin grafts in the perineum. (United States)

    Lee, Kyeong-Tae; Pyon, Jai-Kyong; Lim, So-Young; Mun, Goo-Hyun; Oh, Kap Sung; Bang, Sa-Ik


    Several researches have shown that negative-pressure wound dressings can secure split-thickness skin grafts and improve graft survival. However, in anatomically difficult body regions such as the perineum it is questionable whether these dressings have similar beneficial effects. In this study, we evaluated the effects of negative-pressure wound dressings on split-thickness skin grafts in the perineum by comparing wound healing rate and complication rate with that of tie-over dressings. A retrospective chart review was performed for the patients who underwent a split-thickness skin graft to reconstruct perineal skin defects between January 2007 and December 2011. After grafting, the surgeon selected patients to receive either a negative-pressure dressing or a tie-over dressing. In both groups, the initial dressing was left unchanged for 5 days, then changed to conventional wet gauze dressing. Graft success was assessed 2 weeks after surgery by a single clinician. A total of 26 patients were included in this study. The mean age was 56·6 years and the mean wound size was 273·1 cm(2). Among them 14 received negative-pressure dressings and 12 received tie-over dressings. Negative-pressure dressing group had higher graft taken rate (P = 0·036) and took shorter time to complete healing (P = 0·01) than tie-over dressing group. The patients with negative-pressure dressings had a higher rate of graft success and shorter time to complete healing, which has statistical significance. Negative-pressure wound dressing can be a good option for effective management of skin grafts in the perineum. © 2012 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2012 Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Epidermal skin grafting in patients with complex wounds: a case series. (United States)

    Bhatia, A


    Complex wounds are often difficult to close and sometimes require a split-thickness skin graft (STSG). However, epidermal skin grafts, which contain only an epidermal layer of skin, are a viable option for wound coverage in these challenging wounds. We report our experience using an automated epidermal harvesting tool to harvest epidermal skin grafts for the treatment of complex wounds. Epidermal skin grafts were harvested from the patient's thigh, which was first washed with isopropyl alcohol. After harvesting, they were transferred to the recipient site using a film dressing. A bolster dressing using gauze and a self-adherent wrap held the grafts in place. We selected 34 patients with wounds that had been present from several weeks to over a year. Prior treatments, included skin substitutes, alginate dressings, Unna Boot, and collagen dressings. There were 17 female and 17 male patients with a mean age of 67.1 years (range: 37-103). Wound types were: traumatic wounds, diabetic foot ulcers, venous stasis ulcers, pressure ulcers, and surgical wounds. Patient comorbidities included hypertension, diabetes, congestive heart failure, and osteoarthritis. Mean epithelialisation rate at the recipient site was 7.0 weeks (range: 1-35 weeks). Wound complications included drainage, hypergranulation, and oedema. At follow-up 82.4% (28/34) of wounds were healed, 2.9% (1/34) wounds showed improved healing, 11.8% (4/34) of wounds did not heal, and 2.9% (1/34) were lost to follow-up. All donor sites healed without complications. In our cohort, use of epidermal skin grafts in conjunction with bolster dressings resulted in full closure or wound improvement of a majority of patients. Epidermal grafting provides another treatment option to physicians when only the epidermal layer is needed. Dr. Bhatia is a consultant for KCI, an Acelity company.

  19. Genetically modified porcine split-thickness skin grafts as an alternative to allograft for provision of temporary wound coverage: preliminary characterization. (United States)

    Leto Barone, Angelo A; Mastroianni, Melissa; Farkash, Evan A; Mallard, Christopher; Albritton, Alexander; Torabi, Radbeh; Leonard, David A; Kurtz, Josef M; Sachs, David H; Cetrulo, Curtis L


    Temporary coverage of severely burned patients with cadaver allograft skin represents an important component of burn care, but is limited by availability and cost. Porcine skin shares many physical properties with human skin, but is susceptible to hyperacute rejection due to preformed antibodies to α-1,3-galactose (Gal), a carbohydrate on all porcine cells. Our preliminary studies have suggested that skin grafts from α-1,3-galactosyltransferase knock out (GalT-KO) miniature swine might provide temporary wound coverage comparable to allografts, since GalT-KO swine lack this carbohydrate. To further evaluate this possibility, eight non-human primates received primary autologous, allogeneic, GalT-KO, and GalT+xenogeneic skin grafts. Additionally, secondary grafts were placed to assess whether sensitization would affect the rejection time course of identical-type grafts. We demonstrate that both GalT-KO xenografts and allografts provide temporary coverage of partial- and full-thickness wounds for up to 11 days. In contrast, GalT+xenografts displayed hyperacute rejection, with no signs of vascularization and rapid avulsion from wounds. Furthermore, secondary GalT-KO transplants failed to vascularize, demonstrating that primary graft rejection sensitizes the recipient. We conclude that GalT-KO xenografts may provide temporary coverage of wounds for a duration equivalent to allografts, and thus, could serve as a readily available alternative treatment of severe burns. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  20. A novel model of wound healing in the SCID mouse using a cultured human skin substitute. (United States)

    Windsor, Martin L; Eisenberg, Mark; Gordon-Thomson, Clare; Moore, Geoffrey P M


    Studies of skin graft behaviour in rodent excisional wound models are limited by the dominance of wound contracture and graft sloughing as primary healing responses. To slow skin contraction, polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon) rings were inserted into dorso-lateral full-thickness wounds in SCID mice. Cultured skin substitutes (OrCel), composed of cultured human keratinocytes and fibroblasts in a bovine collagen sponge, were implanted within the rings. Examination and histology of grafts 14 days later showed graft take in four of six recipients, with 90% epithelialization and wound contraction of 31-47%. Immunohistochemical studies, using human-specific antisera to distinguish graft from host tissues, showed that regenerated tissue was predominantly human. Staining with anticytokeratin, revealed a multilayered, stratified neoepidermis. HBG were identified in keratinocytes in all epidermal layers. Langerhans cells were absent. Antihuman vimentin, used as a fibroblast marker, confirmed that cells of the neodermis were primarily of human origin. Neoepidermal keratinocytes, primarily in the basal and suprabasal layers, were also stained. Results suggest that the poly(tetrafluoroethylene) ring inhibited graft sloughing and provided a more favourable environment for the skin substitute to regenerate a substantially normal human skin.

  1. [Devine's technique with free skin grafting for concealed penis with prepuce deficit]. (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-Wen; Xu, Yao-Ting; Shen, Zhi-Jie; Li, Du-Jian; Gu, Wei; Huang, Ru-Qiang


    To investigate the clinical effect of Devine's technique with free skin grafting in the treatment of concealed penis with prepuce deficit. This study included 7 children with concealed penis, aged 6 - 15 (mean 8.6) years, 6 of them treated by circumcision previously. All the patients underwent Devine's operation to resect the inelasticity sarcolemma and lengthen the penis. The length of prepuce deficit ranged from 2 to 4 cm. Intermediate split thickness skin grafts of the corresponding length were taken from the femoribus internus to wrap up the tunica albuginea penis, followed by the procedures of saturation, encapsulation and fixation. Surgery time ranged from 70 to 120 minutes, averaging 90.5 minutes. The penis was prolonged about 2 - 4 cm after surgery. A 6-month follow-up revealed desirable penile appearance and normal penile erection. Devine's technique with free skin grafting from the femoribus internus is an ideal treatment for concealed penis with prepuce deficit.

  2. [Hair removal with intense pulsed light (IPL) for hairy skin grafts]. (United States)

    Huo, Meng-Hua; Yao, Li-Ying; Chen, Guo-Zhang


    To evaluate the hair-removal effect of IPL for hairy skin grafts. 10 patients with hairy skin grafts were treated with IPL (ELITEplus) for hair removal 3 to 5 times at intervals of 2 months. The patients received IPL(610 - 1 000 nm) with spot size of 10 mm x 50 mm, pulse width of 5 msec with a delay of 2 - 20 msec, fluence of 30 - 38.3 J/cm2 . The treatment was well tolerated with no need of anesthesia in all the patients. The hairs were removed completely after 3 to 5 treatments. The treated site could be washed as usual with no need of dressing. There was no blister, infection, hyperpigmentation and scarring. Only vellus were existed during the follow-up period of 6 - 12 months. IPL is a safe and reliable method to remove unwanted hair on skin grafts. It can be easily performed with a lower complication.

  3. Association of Pretransplant Skin Cancer With Posttransplant Malignancy, Graft Failure and Death in Kidney Transplant Recipients. (United States)

    Kang, Woosun; Sampaio, Marcelo Santos; Huang, Edmund; Bunnapradist, Suphamai


    Posttransplant malignancy (PTM) is one of the leading causes of late death in kidney recipients. Those with a cancer history may be more prone to develop a recurrent or a new cancer. We studied the association between pretransplant skin cancer, PTM, death, and graft failure. Primary adult kidney recipients transplanted between 2005 and 2013 were included. Malignancy information was obtained from Organ Procurement Kidney Transplant Network/United Network for Organ Sharing registration and follow-up forms. Posttransplant malignancy was classified into skin cancer, solid tumor, and posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD). Competing risk and survival analysis with adjustment for confounders were used to calculate risk for PTM, death and graft failure in recipients with pretransplant skin cancer compared with those without cancer. Risk was reported in hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). The cohort included 1671 recipients with and 102 961 without pretransplant skin malignancy. The 5-year cumulative incidence of PTM in patients with and without a pretransplant skin cancer history was 31.6% and 7.4%, respectively (P skin cancer had increased risk of PTM (sub-HR [SHR], 2.60; 95% CI, 2.27-2.98), and posttransplant skin cancer (SHR, 2.92; 95% CI, 2.52-3.39), PTLD (SHR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.01-3.66), solid tumor (SHR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.04-1.99), death (HR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.07-1.34), and graft failure (HR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.05-1.30) when compared with those without pretransplant malignancy. Pretransplant skin cancer was associated with an increased risk of posttransplant skin cancer, PTLD, solid organ cancer, death and graft failure.

  4. Antecedent thermal injury worsens split-thickness skin graft quality: A clinically relevant porcine model of full-thickness burn, excision and grafting. (United States)

    Carlsson, Anders H; Rose, Lloyd F; Fletcher, John L; Wu, Jesse C; Leung, Kai P; Chan, Rodney K


    Current standard of care for full-thickness burn is excision followed by autologous split-thickness skin graft placement. Skin grafts are also frequently used to cover surgical wounds not amenable to linear closure. While all grafts have potential to contract, clinical observation suggests that antecedent thermal injury worsens contraction and impairs functional and aesthetic outcomes. This study evaluates the impact of antecedent full-thickness burn on split-thickness skin graft scar outcomes and the potential mediating factors. Full-thickness contact burns (100°C, 30s) were created on the backs of anesthetized female Yorkshire Pigs. After seven days, burn eschar was tangentially excised and covered with 12/1000th inch (300μm) split-thickness skin graft. For comparison, unburned wounds were created by sharp excision to fat before graft application. From 7 to 120days post-grafting, planimetric measurements, digital imaging and biopsies for histology, immunohistochemistry and gene expression were obtained. At 120days post-grafting, the Observer Scar Assessment Scale, colorimetry, contour analysis and optical graft height assessments were performed. Twenty-nine porcine wounds were analyzed. All measured metrics of clinical skin quality were significantly worse (pskin graft quality, likely by multiple mechanisms including burn-related inflammation, microscopically inadequate excision, and dysregulation of tissue remodeling. A valid, reliable, clinically relevant model of full-thickness burn, excision and skin replacement therapy has been demonstrated. Future research to enhance quality of skin replacement therapies should be directed toward modulation of inflammation and assessments for complete excision. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  5. Skin and the non-human human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rösing, Lilian Munk


    ) article 'Visualizing the mind: Looking at Titian's Flaying of Marsyas', addressing features of the painting not commented on by Hart, and supplementing Hart's (Kleinian) theoretical frame by involving Didier Anzieu's 'skin ego', Slavoj Zizek's concept of the 'non-human', Giorgio Agamben's term...

  6. Effective biofilm removal and changes in bacterial biofilm building capacity after wound debridement with low-frequency ultrasound as part of wound bed preparation before skin grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yarets Y


    Full Text Available Yuliya Yarets Clinical Laboratory Medicine Department, The Republican Scientific Centre for Radiation Medicine and Human Ecology, Gomel, Belarus Abstract: The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of ultrasonic-assisted wound debridement (UAW used for wound bed preparation of chronic wounds prior to skin grafting. Initially, 140 patients were enrolled into study. Group 1 patients (n=53 with critically colonized wounds underwent a single UAW procedure before skin grafting. Group 2 patients (n=87 with colonized wounds received two UAW sessions, skin grafting followed by the second UAW treatment. Initial wound classification in colonized and critically colonized wounds did not correlate with results from microbiological analysis of wound swab samples. Hence, comparison of efficacy of one or two debridement sessions was conducted solely for a similar group of patients, that is, patients with colonized wounds of group 1 (n=40 and group 2 (n=47. In wounds of group 1 patients, a single debridement session resulted in reduction of bacteria from >104 to <104 CFU/mL. However, bacteria remaining at wound site showed minor differences in biofilm slime production, with skin graft failure being observed in 25% cases. In wounds of group 2 patients, two debridement sessions significantly reduced bacterial presence up to <102 CFU/mL. Bacteria remaining at wound site showed low capacity for biofilm slime production and high accumulation of biomass; a complete graft healing was observed in all patients. We suggest two to three debridement sessions with UAW to be most effective in wound bed preparation before skin grafting of chronic wounds. UAW showed to be effective in cleaning the wound bed, destroying the extracellular substances in biofilms, and influencing biofilm slime building capacity of bacteria left at wound site. Keywords: wound debridement, wound bed preparation, biofilm, low-frequency ultrasound, skin grafting, biofilm assay

  7. A Rare Case of Penile Lymphangioma Circumscriptum Treated with the Split-Thickness Skin Grafting Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurullah Hamidi


    Full Text Available Lymphangioma circumscriptum (LC is an uncommon type of microcystic lymphatic malformation involving the skin and mucosa caused by saccular dilatation of lymphatic channels. Patients may suffer from edema, vesiculopustular lesions and lymphatic leakage. There are many treatment methods for the management of lymphangioma circumscriptum. In this paper, we present a 10-year-old patient who had penile edema treated with split-thickness skin grafting technique.

  8. An in vivo comparison of commonly used topical antimicrobials on skin graft healing after full-thickness burn injury. (United States)

    Abbas, Ozan L; Borman, Huseyin; Bahar, Taner; Ertaş, Nilgün M; Haberal, Mehmet


    Topical antimicrobials are frequently used for local control of infections in burn patients. It has been postulated that these agents retard wound healing. There are limited data about the effects of topical antimicrobial agents on skin graft healing. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of nitrofurazone, 1% silver sulfadiazine, and povidone-iodine on skin graft healing. Forty male rats were used in this study. A meshed skin graft, placed on an excised burn wound, was used as a model to compare topical agents with a control group. Skin graft survival rates, closure of meshed graft interstices (based on physical parameters, namely epithelialization and wound contraction), and histological changes were analyzed. Graft take was more than 85% in all groups. There was no difference between the mean values of the percent graft survival for each group (P > .05). Epithelialization occurred significantly earlier in animals in the nitrofurazone group (P .05). There was no histological difference between the biopsy specimens of skin grafts. In specimens obtained from the interstices of the meshed graft, no significant differences were found among the groups regarding the wound healing parameters (P > .05). We found that nitrofurazone, silver sulfadiazine, and povidone-iodine had no negative effect on graft healing and take in noncontaminated burn wounds.

  9. Reconstruction of large upper eyelid defects with a free tarsal plate graft and a myocutaneous pedicle flap plus a free skin graft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Peter B


    PURPOSE: To review and present the results of a one-step method employing a free tarsal plate graft and a myocutaneous pedicle flap plus a free skin graft for reconstruction of large upper eyelid defects after tumour surgery. METHODS: This was a retrospective case-series of 8 patients who underwe...

  10. The Microbiota of the Human Skin. (United States)

    Egert, Markus; Simmering, Rainer


    The aim of this chapter is to sum up important progress in the field of human skin microbiota research that was achieved over the last years.The human skin is one of the largest and most versatile organs of the human body. Owing to its function as a protective interface between the largely sterile interior of the human body and the highly microbially contaminated outer environment, it is densely colonized with a diverse and active microbiota. This skin microbiota is of high importance for human health and well-being. It is implicated in several severe skin diseases and plays a major role in wound infections. Many less severe, but negatively perceived cosmetic skin phenomena are linked with skin microbes, too. In addition, skin microorganisms, in particular on the human hands, are crucial for the field of hygiene research. Notably, apart from being only a potential source of disease and contamination, the skin microbiota also contributes to the protective functions of the human skin in many ways. Finally, the analysis of structure and function of the human skin microbiota is interesting from a basic, evolutionary perspective on human microbe interactions.Key questions in the field of skin microbiota research deal with (a) a deeper understanding of the structure (species inventory) and function (physiology) of the healthy human skin microbiota in space and time, (b) the distinction of resident and transient skin microbiota members, (c) the distinction of beneficial skin microorganisms from microorganisms or communities with an adverse or sickening effect on their hosts, (d) factors shaping the skin microbiota and its functional role in health and disease, (e) strategies to manipulate the skin microbiota for therapeutic reasons.

  11. A comparative study of early-delayed skin grafting and late or non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, University of Zambia. Corresponding Author;. Dr. Mirriam Maimbo ... Objectives: To demonstrate the benefits of performing a split skin graft within 15 days post burn and explore .... The purpose, procedures benefits and risks of the study were fully explained to patients, guardians ...

  12. A Newly‑devised Technique for the Fixation of Mesh Skin Graft

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    meshed to cover a greater surface area at the recipient site. This meshing also allows for the egress of serous and sanguinous fluids. Surgical staples are a common and ... Key words: Dermabond, mesh, octyl-2-cyanoacrylate, skin graft. Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery,. Keio University School of Medicine, ...

  13. Bedside Split Thickness Skin Graft using a Safety Razor Blade: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: Orthopedic and Plastic surgeons deal with wounds on daily basis. Open fractures are prone ... Because of patient poverty or for the expediency of dealing with wounds as fast as possible, bedside split thickness skin graft using hand-held razor blade may be employed to cover wounds. We present our ...

  14. Erythema persists longer than one year in split-thickness skin graft donor sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Patricia L; Jorgensen, Lars N; Jørgensen, Bo


    on the thigh using a pneumatic dermatome in 19 consecutive Caucasian patients, median age 70 years, age range 44-86 years, who were undergoing skin graft surgery for leg ulcers. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL), erythema and pigmentation were measured quantitatively using non-invasive devices...

  15. Unusual Huge Keratoacanthoma in Sites of in the Previous Split-Thickness Skin Grafted Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Uygur


    Full Text Available Keratoacanthoma (KA is a fairly common keratinizing, squamous neoplasm. The exact etiology of KA is unknown. However, ultraviolet radiation, trauma, chemical carcinogens, viral infections, immunosuppression, genetic factors, radiation and thermal burns have been accused of pathogenesis. In here, we represent an unusual huge KA arising from the previous reconstructed with split-thickness skin graft on the dorsal foot.

  16. Human papillomaviruses and skin cancer. (United States)

    Smola, Sigrun


    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) infect squamous epithelia and can induce hyperproliferative lesions. More than 120 different HPV types have been characterized and classified into five different genera. While mucosal high-risk HPVs have a well-established causal role in anogenital carcinogenesis, the biology of cutaneous HPVs is less well understood. The clinical relevance of genus beta-PV infection has clearly been demonstrated in patients suffering from epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV), a rare inherited disease associated with ahigh rate of skin cancer. In the normal population genus beta-PV are suspected to have an etiologic role in skin carcinogenesis as well but this is still controversially discussed. Their oncogenic potency has been investigated in mouse models and in vitro. In 2009, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified the genus beta HPV types 5 and 8 as "possible carcinogenic" biological agents (group 2B) in EV disease. This chapter will give an overview on the knowns and unknowns of infections with genus beta-PV and discuss their potential impact on skin carcinogenesis in the general population.

  17. Real-time demonstration of split skin graft inosculation and integra dermal matrix neovascularization using confocal laser scanning microscopy. (United States)

    Greenwood, John; Amjadi, Mahyar; Dearman, Bronwyn; Mackie, Ian


    During the first 48 hours after placement, an autograft "drinks" nutrients and dissolved oxygen from fluid exuding from the underlying recipient bed ("plasmatic imbibition"). The theory of inosculation (that skin grafts subsequently obtain nourishment via blood vessel "anastomosis" between new vessels invading from the wound bed and existing graft vessels) was hotly debated from the late 19th to mid-20th century. This study aimed to noninvasively observe blood flow in split skin grafts and Integra dermal regeneration matrix to provide further proof of inosculation and to contrast the structure of vascularization in both materials, reflecting mechanism. Observations were made both clinically and using confocal microscopy on normal skin, split skin graft, and Integra. The VivaScope allows noninvasive, real-time, in vivo images of tissue to be obtained. Observations of blood flow and tissue architecture in autologous skin graft and Integra suggest that 2 very different processes are occurring in the establishment of circulation in each case. Inosculation provides rapid circulatory return to skin grafts whereas slower neovascularization creates an unusual initial Integra circulation. The advent of confocal laser microscopy like the VivaScope 1500, together with "virtual" journals such as ePlasty, enables us to provide exciting images and distribute them widely to a "reading" audience. The development of the early Integra vasculature by neovascularization results in a large-vessel, high-volume, rapid flow circulation contrasting markedly from the inosculatory process in skin grafts and the capillary circulation in normal skin and merits further (planned) investigation.

  18. Split thickness skin grafts in four cases of medial meatal fibrosis of the external auditory canal. (United States)

    Ribeiro, Andreia; Leonardo, Abílio; e Rodrigues, Manuel Rodrigues; Lopes, Gustavo


    Medial meatal fibrosis is a rare condition in which the medial portion of the external auditory canal is obliterated with fibrous tissue. We selected 4 cases of patients with medial meatal fibrosis with a history of recurrent otorrhea who underwent surgery during the years of 2012 and 2013, presenting the surgical results here. Physical examination showed an obliterated external auditory canal and conductive hypoacusis. All cases were solved using a split thickness skin graft from the thigh. The surgical principles that appear to correlate with a favorable outcome are the removal of all fibrous tissue and unhealthy skin, a wide canaloplasty and the use of a split thickness skin graft. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Patología Cérvico-Facial. All rights reserved.

  19. Recipient Wound Bed Characteristics Affect Scarring and Skin Graft Contraction (United States)


    The use of autograft skin is essential in the treatment of full thickness burns and large cutaneous defects. Both autograft thickness and condition...of the wound bed modulate aesthetic and functional outcomes. Thicker autografts contract less and maintain greater functionality as the scar matures

  20. In vivo human skin autofluorescence: color perception (United States)

    Utz, Sergei R.; Knuschke, Peter; Mavlyutov, Albert H.; Pilipenko, Helena A.; Sinichkin, Yurii P.


    The most frequently used techniques in the human skin diagnostics are reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy. Technique of chromametry is based on color perception of the reflected from the skin white light. In CIE1976 (L*a*b*) color space the quantity estimation of color-difference between different states of the human skin have been defined by changes in parameters of brightness, hue and chroma of reflected light. This report focuses on the use of the perception of the color difference between autofluorescence of the human skin under different conditions for the purpose of skin diagnostics.

  1. Human reconstructed skin xenografts on mice to model skin physiology. (United States)

    Salgado, Giorgiana; Ng, Yi Zhen; Koh, Li Fang; Goh, Christabelle S M; Common, John E

    Xenograft models to study skin physiology have been popular for scientific use since the 1970s, with various developments and improvements to the techniques over the decades. Xenograft models are particularly useful and sought after due to the lack of clinically relevant animal models in predicting drug effectiveness in humans. Such predictions could in turn boost the process of drug discovery, since novel drug compounds have an estimated 8% chance of FDA approval despite years of rigorous preclinical testing and evaluation, albeit mostly in non-human models. In the case of skin research, the mouse persists as the most popular animal model of choice, despite its well-known anatomical differences with human skin. Differences in skin biology are especially evident when trying to dissect more complex skin conditions, such as psoriasis and eczema, where interactions between the immune system, epidermis and the environment likely occur. While the use of animal models are still considered the gold standard for systemic toxicity studies under controlled environments, there are now alternative models that have been approved for certain applications. To overcome the biological limitations of the mouse model, research efforts have also focused on "humanizing" the mice model to better recapitulate human skin physiology. In this review, we outline the different approaches undertaken thus far to study skin biology using human tissue xenografts in mice and the technical challenges involved. We also describe more recent developments to generate humanized multi-tissue compartment mice that carry both a functioning human immune system and skin xenografts. Such composite animal models provide promising opportunities to study drugs, disease and differentiation with greater clinical relevance. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Differentiation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Life on human surfaces: skin metagenomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alban Mathieu

    Full Text Available The human skin microbiome could provide another example, after the gut, of the strong positive or negative impact that human colonizing bacteria can have on health. Deciphering functional diversity and dynamics within human skin microbial communities is critical for understanding their involvement and for developing the appropriate substances for improving or correcting their action. We present a direct PCR-free high throughput sequencing approach to unravel the human skin microbiota specificities through metagenomic dataset analysis and inter-environmental comparison. The approach provided access to the functions carried out by dominant skin colonizing taxa, including Corynebacterium, Staphylococcus and Propionibacterium, revealing their specific capabilities to interact with and exploit compounds from the human skin. These functions, which clearly illustrate the unique life style of the skin microbial communities, stand as invaluable investigation targets for understanding and potentially modifying bacterial interactions with the human host with the objective of increasing health and well being.

  3. A preclinical model for the analysis of genetically modified human skin in vivo. (United States)

    Del Rio, Marcela; Larcher, Fernando; Serrano, Fernando; Meana, Alvaro; Muñoz, Marta; Garcia, Marta; Muñoz, Evangelina; Martin, Clara; Bernad, Antonio; Jorcano, José Luis


    Although skin is perhaps the most accessible of all somatic tissues for therapeutic gene transfer, it is a challenging site when attempting gene delivery. In addition to the transience of gene expression, important obstacles to cutaneous gene therapy have included the inability to sustain gene expression in a large proportion of keratinocytes within a given skin compartment. In this study, we have developed a novel experimental strategy that allows long-term regeneration of entirely genetically engineered human skin on the backs of NOD/SCID mice. Primary human keratinocytes were infected with a retroviral vector encoding the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) produced by transient transfection of 293T cells. EGFP expression allowed cell-sorting selection of a polyclonal population of productively transduced keratinocytes that were assembled in a live fibroblast-containing fibrin dermal matrix and orthotopically grafted onto mice. Epifluorescent illumination of the transplanted zone allowed in vivo monitoring of the genetically modified graft. EGFP-positive human skin was present on mice for 22 weeks after grafting. In addition, frozen sections prepared from the grafts displayed consistently strong EGFP-based fluorescence in all epidermal strata at every time point examined. Persistence of transgene expression was further confirmed through EGFP protein immunodetection. Purified EGFP-positive keratinocytes grafted as part of the fibrin-based artificial skin were capable of generating multilayer human epidermis on mice, with well-developed granulosum and corneum strata, and clearly defined rete ridges. Finally, the large proportion of transduced keratinocytes in our grafts allowed us to study, for the first time, the long-term in vivo clonal reconstitution pattern of the regenerated skin. Analysis of the provirus insertion sites indicates that a discrete number of epidermal stem cell clones was responsible for the maintenance of human skin regenerated in NOD

  4. The morphological effect of electron irradiation on the healing of skin wounds and skin grafts in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Q


    Current oncological practice frequently uses pre-, intra- or post-operative radiotherapy/chemotherapy. Before such treatment can begin it is imperative to establish that satisfactory wound healing will occur. Many previous studies have examined the response of wound healing to ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. In general, clinical and experimental reports indicate that ionizing radiation produces poor to difficult healing of wounds, and can even prevent healing altogether. It is for this reason that the effect of radiation on wound repair has been a long standing concern for surgeons, radiotherapists and radiobiologists. Electron irradiation produces large differences in depth-dose distributions. This enables the delivery of a constant maximal dose throughout the superficial layer of tissue, for example, the total depth of skin, with less damage in deeper tissue layers, compared to that produced by the use of electromagnetic radiation such as X-rays. It is for this reason that electron beam irradiation has been selected as a radiation source for radiation of the graft bed. To date there have been few morphological examinations of the effect of electron radiation on the healing of skin wounds in rats. A review of the literature shows no information on the use of radiation of the graft bed in skin graft surgery. In the present work the processes involved in wound repair in response to radiation were studied, morphologically, using two experimental models, incisional wounds combined with pre-operative radiation and skin autografts combined with radiation of the wound bed. In the latter case an unirradiated skin graft was surgically attached to an irradiated wound bed. Light microscopy (LM), backscattered electron imaging (BEI), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used as investigative tools. These repair processes include inflammation, re-epithelialization, re-formation of the dermo-epidermal junction, re

  5. Complex lower extremity wounds treated with skin grafts and NPWT: a retrospective review. (United States)

    Ross, R E; Aflaki, P; Gendics, C; Lantis Ii, J C


    To evaluate a single centre experience with the use of NPWT for securing split-thickness skin grafts in the management of specifically lower extremity chronic wounds, including revascularised arterial wounds, amputations, diabetic and venous leg ulcers. A seven-year retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database of all the patients who underwent primary split-thickness skin grafts (STSGs) with immediate postoperative NPWT for at least 96 hours was carried out. The percentage graft take after removal of NPWT device and clinical follow-up date were reviewed. A total of 59 skin grafts procedures had adequate follow up to be reviewed. This included 39% post-debridement/ amputation wounds in patients who presented with diabetic foot infection/gangrene, 31% venous leg ulcers, and 31% other post-surgical wounds (arterial ulcers that had undergone revascularisation). The mean percentage graft survival after removal of V.A.C. was 94%; 63% of cases had complete graft survival, 25% had 90-99% survival, and 8.5% had 80-89% survival. Outpatient follow up ranged from 2 weeks to 5 years (mean of 10 months). Fifteen per cent of patients were lost to follow up, and, of the remaining patients, 76% remained completely healed, 10% remained partially healed, and 14% lost the entire STSG. Patients with STSGs secured with NPWT required fewer repeated grafting procedures, had very high initial graft survival with complete recipient bed coverage, and had good long-term wound closure rates compared with historical controls. While retrospective reviews, such as this, support NPWT as a good method of STSG affixation, the paucity of reviews with other study designs does not allow for good historic comparison, so a well-enrolled prospective trial would be of use. Dr J.C. Lantis is a member of the speakers' bureau, has been a site principal investigator of four multicentre trials and has been a consultant for KCI Inc. The same author has no equity in the company and has no financial

  6. Calcium alginate dressings promote healing of split skin graft donor sites.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Donoghue, J M


    A prospective controlled trial was carried out to assess the healing efficacy of calcium alginate and paraffin gauze on split skin graft donor sites. Thirty patients were randomised to the calcium alginate group and 21 to the paraffin gauze group. The donor sites were assessed at 10 days post harvesting to determine if they were completely healed (100%) or not. Twenty one of the 30 patients dressed with calcium alginate were completely healed at day 10, while only 7\\/21 in the paraffin gauze group were healed (p < 0.05). There were two infections in the study, both occurring in the alginate group while there was no difference in dressing slippage between the two groups. Calcium alginate dressings provide a significant improvement in healing split skin graft donor sites.

  7. Algorithm for Primary Full-thickness Skin Grafting in Pediatric Hand Burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Seo Park


    Full Text Available BackgroundPediatric hand burns are a difficult problem because they lead to serious hand deformities with functional impairment due to rapid growth during childhood. Therefore, adequate management is required beginning in the acute stage. Our study aims to establish surgical guidelines for a primary full-thickness skin graft (FTSG in pediatric hand burns, based on long-term observation periods and existing studies.MethodsFrom January 2000 to May 2011, 210 patients underwent primary FTSG. We retrospectively studied the clinical course and treatment outcomes based on the patients' medical records. The patients' demographics, age, sex, injury site of the fingers, presence of web space involvement, the incidence of postoperative late deformities, and the duration of revision were critically analyzed.ResultsThe mean age of the patients was 24.4 months (range, 8 to 94 months, consisting of 141 males and 69 females. The overall observation period was 6.9 years (range, 1 to 11 years on average. At the time of the burn, 56 cases were to a single finger, 73 to two fingers, 45 to three fingers, and 22 to more than three. Among these cases, 70 were burns that included a web space (33.3%. During the observation, 25 cases underwent corrective operations with an average period of 40.6 months.ConclusionsIn the volar area, primary full-thickness skin grafting can be a good indication for an isolated injured finger, excluding the web spaces, and injuries of less than three fingers including the web spaces. Also, in the dorsal area, full-thickness skin grafting can be a good indication. However, if the donor site is insufficient and the wound is large, split-thickness skin grafting can be considered.

  8. Neurogenic inflammation in human and rodent skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmelz, M; Petersen, Lars Jelstrup


    The combination of vasodilation and protein extravasation following activation of nociceptors has been termed "neurogenic inflammation." In contrast to rodents, no neurogenic protein extravasation can be elicited in healthy human skin. Dermal microdialysis has considerably increased our knowledge...... about neurogenic inflammation in human skin, including the involvement of mast cells....

  9. Real-Time Demonstration of Split Skin Graft Inosculation and Integra Dermal Matrix Neovascularization Using Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy


    Greenwood, John; Amjadi, Mahyar; Dearman, Bronwyn; Mackie, Ian


    Objectives: During the first 48 hours after placement, an autograft ?drinks? nutrients and dissolved oxygen from fluid exuding from the underlying recipient bed (?plasmatic imbibition?). The theory of inosculation (that skin grafts subsequently obtain nourishment via blood vessel ?anastomosis? between new vessels invading from the wound bed and existing graft vessels) was hotly debated from the late 19th to mid-20th century. This study aimed to noninvasively observe blood flow in split skin g...

  10. Qualitative and semi quantitative analysis in the healing area of athymic nude mice skin engrafted with human skin sterilized with gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Jurandir Tomaz de; Bringel, Fabiana; Alves, Nelson Mendes; Antebi, Uri; Funari, Ana Paula; Mathor, Monica B., E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    In recent decades there has been a great interest in the radio-sterilized grafts for human skin grafts. This tissue is taken from a cadaver or multi-organ donor and samples are processed and stored in glycerol at concentrations above 85%. Although this procedure is carried out under aseptic conditions, after the final packaging one can sterilize the tissues with ionizing radiation in order to increase the safety level of sterility. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the behavior of the healing repair process that occurs between the graft and the skin of athymic NUDE mice. The samples of human skin treated with glycerol were divided into three groups: the control group 1 (non-irradiated), irradiated group 2 at 25 kGy and irradiated group 3, at 50 kGy. These tissues were grafted onto athymic NUDE mice which were sacrificed after 3, 7 and 21 days. After the sacrifice, part of the back fur of the animals containing human skin graft was removed with hematoxylin and eosin (H/E). The histological sections were analyzed for the integrity of tissue, presence and location of keratinocytes, fibroblasts, defense cells and blood vessels. Thus it was examined whether over time the graft was incorporated into the body or if there was a process of healing by secondary intention. (author)

  11. Algorithm for Primary Full-thickness Skin Grafting in Pediatric Hand Burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Seo Park


    Full Text Available Background Pediatric hand burns are a difficult problem because they lead to serious handdeformities with functional impairment due to rapid growth during childhood. Therefore,adequate management is required beginning in the acute stage. Our study aims to establishsurgical guidelines for a primary full-thickness skin graft (FTSG in pediatric hand burns, basedon long-term observation periods and existing studies.Methods From January 2000 to May 2011, 210 patients underwent primary FTSG. Weretrospectively studied the clinical course and treatment outcomes based on the patients’medical records. The patients’ demographics, age, sex, injury site of the fingers, presence ofweb space involvement, the incidence of postoperative late deformities, and the duration ofrevision were critically analyzed.Results The mean age of the patients was 24.4 months (range, 8 to 94 months, consisting of141 males and 69 females. The overall observation period was 6.9 years (range, 1 to 11 yearson average. At the time of the burn, 56 cases were to a single finger, 73 to two fingers, 45 tothree fingers, and 22 to more than three. Among these cases, 70 were burns that included aweb space (33.3%. During the observation, 25 cases underwent corrective operations withan average period of 40.6 months.Conclusions In the volar area, primary full-thickness skin grafting can be a good indicationfor an isolated injured finger, excluding the web spaces, and injuries of less than three fingersincluding the web spaces. Also, in the dorsal area, full-thickness skin grafting can be a goodindication. However, if the donor site is insufficient and the wound is large, split-thicknessskin grafting can be considered.

  12. Photoprotection of human skin beyond ultraviolet radiation. (United States)

    Grether-Beck, Susanne; Marini, Alessandra; Jaenicke, Thomas; Krutmann, Jean


    Photoprotection of human skin by means of sunscreens or daily skin-care products is traditionally centered around the prevention of acute (e.g. sunburn) and chronic (e.g. skin cancer and photoaging) skin damage that may result from exposure to ultraviolet rays (UVB and UVA). Within the last decade, however, it has been appreciated that wavelengths beyond the ultraviolet spectrum, in particular visible light and infrared radiation, contribute to skin damage in general and photoaging of human skin in particular. As a consequence, attempts have been made to develop skin care/sunscreen products that not only protect against UVB or UVA radiation but provide photoprotection against visible light and infrared radiation as well. In this article, we will briefly review the current knowledge about the mechanisms responsible for visible light/infrared radiation-induced skin damage and then, based on this information, discuss strategies that have been successfully used or may be employed in the future to achieve photoprotection of human skin beyond ultraviolet radiation. In this regard we will particularly focus on the use of topical antioxidants and the challenges that result from the task of showing their efficacy. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Fabrication of bi-layer scaffold of keratin nanofiber and gelatin-methacrylate hydrogel: Implications for skin graft. (United States)

    Kim, Jong Wook; Kim, Min Jin; Ki, Chang Seok; Kim, Hyun Jeong; Park, Young Hwan


    Bi-layer scaffold composed of human hair keratin/chitosan nanofiber mat and gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) hydrogel was fabricated by using electrospinning and photopolymerization techniques. To prepare the nanofiber layer, the blend solution of human hair keratin and chitosan (mixture ratio: 5/5) was electrospun using formic acid as a solvent in the presence of poly(ethylene glycol), followed by cross-linking with glutaraldehyde. The tensile strength of the human hair keratin/chitosan nanofiber mat was much higher than that of pure human hair keratin nanofiber mat. Meanwhile, the blend nanofiber mat was relatively more compatible with HaCaT cell proliferation and keratinocyte differentiation than the pure chitosan nanofiber mat. The bi-layer scaffold was prepared by photopolymerization of GelMA under the cross-linked nanofiber mat. To evaluate the feasibility as a skin graft, human fibroblast was encapsulated in the hydrogel layer and HaCaT cells were cultured on the nanofiber layer and they were co-cultured for 10days. As a result, the encapsulated fibroblasts proliferated in the hydrogel matrix and HaCaT cells formed a cell layer on the top of scaffold, mimicking dermis and epidermis of skin tissue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Water vapour loss measurements on human skin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, Petrus Gerardus Maria van der


    In this thesis, the results of a series of investigations into the barrier function of human skin are presented. In these investigations, the barrier function was assessed by water vapour loss measurements of the skin using a method based on gradient estimation.... Zie: Summary and conclusions

  15. Deposition of contaminant aerosol on human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Kasper Grann; Roed, Jørn; Byrne, M.A.


    Over recent years, it has been established that deposition of various types of pollutant aerosols (e.g., radioactive) on human skin can have serious deleterious effects on health. However. only few investigations in the past have been devoted to measurement of deposition velocities on skin...

  16. Black and white human skin differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Maibach, H I


    This review of black and white human skin differences emphasizes the alleged importance of factors other than the obvious, i.e., skin color. Physicochemical differences and differences in susceptibility to irritants and allergens suggest a more resistant black than white skin. Differences appear...... to exist in the frequency of which several skin diseases occur among blacks and whites. A striking feature in this literature is the disagreement between authors. Common for much of this information is difficulty of interpretation, because of socioeconomic influences and other environmental factors....

  17. Comparative Skin Evaluation After Split-Thickness Skin Grafts Using 2 Different Acellular Dermal Matrices to Cover Composite Forearm Defects. (United States)

    Lee, Myung Chul; Jang, Yong Jun; Yun, In Sik; Lew, Dae Hyun; Lee, Won Jai


    The combination of acellular dermal matrix (ADM) and split-thickness skin graft (STSG) has been widely adopted to overcome functional and cosmetic limitations of conventional STSG. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of this combination using 2 types of ADM: cadaveric acellular dermal matrix (CDM) and bovine acellular dermal matrix (BDM). We recruited 72 patients undergoing autologous STSG to cover radial forearm free flap donor sites. They were included in 1 of 3 therapeutic groups: group 1, STSG using CDM (n = 29); group 2, STSG using BDM (n = 20); and group 3, STSG only (n = 23). Functional skin values for skin elasticity, humidification, transepidermal water loss, and color were determined. Values were compared between graft sites and adjacent normal (control) skin, and between grafted areas of each group. All skin defects were successfully reconstructed without graft loss. Groups 1 and 2 demonstrated better elasticity than did group 3, based on the analysis using the ratio of grafted area to control. Grafted areas in all 3 groups exhibited less moisture than did control normal skin. There was less transepidermal water loss in group 1 than in group 3, which implied that CDM application had better barrier capacity against water evaporation. Graft sites of groups 1 and 3 exhibited darker and redder color compared with control areas. Composite forearm defects were successfully restored and exhibited acceptable quality after treatment with an ADM plus STSG. Applying either CDM or BDM under a STSG was a suitable procedure, as verified by objective measurements. Elasticity was well preserved in CDM and BDM groups. However, both ADMs revealed functional impairment of humidification. Therapeutic IV. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Elephantiasis Nostras Verrucosa. Excision with full-thickness skin grafting of the penis, scrotum, and perineal area. (United States)

    Judge, Nathan; Kilic, Ali


    Elephantiasis nostras verrucosa is a rare cutaneous complication of chronic lymphatic obstruction. It is most commonly caused by bacterial infection, trauma, neoplasia, obesity, and venous stasis. In this report, we describe a case of elephantiasis nostras verrucosa involving the scrotum and perineal area in a 32-year-old. The lesions were excised, and full-thickness skin grafting of the penis, scrotum, and perineal skin was performed. This case demonstrates the efficacy of excision with full-thickness skin grafting of the penis, scrotum, and perineal area in a patient with elephantiasis nostras verrucosa confined to the scrotum and perineal region.

  19. [The use of negative pressure wound therapy in the fixation of split-thickness skin grafts]. (United States)

    Ulianko, J; Janek, J; Laca, Ľ


    Negative pressure wound therapy is one of the latest methods of dealing with complicated healing wounds. It promotes granulation, mechanically attracts the edges of the wound, removes secretions, reduces the number of bacteria in the wound and reduces swelling. In addition to its use to start and enhance the healing process, this method is also important in the fixation of split-thickness skin grafts in non-ideal conditions. The goal of this article is to establish basic indications for negative pressure fixation of meshed split-thickness skin grafts in non-ideal conditions in the wound and to assess the impact of contamination of wounds on engraftment using vacuum therapy. Additional goals are to verify the use of this method of fixation in defects of various etiologies (trauma, ischemia), to optimize and determine the advantages and disadvantages of fixation of grafts using this method in clinical practice, and to evaluate the effectiveness of fixation of meshed split-thickness skin grafts. Set of 89 operated patients of both sexes, various ages, etiologies of defects, in non-ideal conditions; statistical evaluation of the percentage of engraftment, depending on the etiology of the defect, microbial contamination and location of the defect. Measured in vivo using a centimeter measure at the point of maximum length and width. Our set of 100% engraftments of StSG included 68 persons, 65 males and 24 females, in the following age groups: up to 30 years 11 persons; 3050 years 19 persons; 5070 years 38 persons; and above 70 years 21 persons, with negative microbial contamination of the defect in 20 cases, contamination with one germ in 33 cases, contamination with two germs in 22 cases and contamination with three germs in 14 cases. We obtained 100% engraftment in 68 cases, 9099% engraftment in 7 cases, 8089% engraftment in 5 cases, 7079% engraftment in 7 cases, and the 6069% and 5059% sets of engraftment were combined because of the low number of patients in this set

  20. The Role of Carotenoids in Human Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theognosia Vergou


    Full Text Available The human skin, as the boundary organ between the human body and the environment, is under the constant influence of free radicals (FR, both from the outside in and from the inside out. Carotenoids are known to be powerful antioxidant substances playing an essential role in the reactions of neutralization of FR (mainly reactive oxygen species ROS. Carotenoid molecules present in the tissue are capable of neutralizing several attacks of FR, especially ROS, and are then destroyed. Human skin contains carotenoids, such as α-, γ-, β-carotene, lutein, zeaxanthin, lycopene and their isomers, which serve the living cells as a protection against oxidation. Recent studies have reported the possibility to investigate carotenoids in human skin quickly and non-invasively by spectroscopic means. Results obtained from in-vivo studies on human skin have shown that carotenoids are vital components of the antioxidative protective system of the human skin and could serve as marker substances for the overall antioxidative status. Reflecting the nutritional and stress situation of volunteers, carotenoids must be administered by means of antioxidant-rich products, e.g., in the form of fruit and vegetables. Carotenoids are degraded by stress factors of any type, inter alia, sun radiation, contact with environmental hazards, illness, etc. The kinetics of the accumulation and degradation of carotenoids in the skin have been investigated.

  1. Treatment of Diabetic Foot Ulcer Using Matriderm In Comparison with a Skin Graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyojin Jeon


    Full Text Available BackgroundFor patients with neuropathy, vasculopathy, and impairment of wound healing, treatment of a diabetic foot ulcer poses many challenges. A large number of dermal analogues have been invented in an effort to overcome these challenges. Matriderm, a dermal analogue, is made from bovine collagen and elastin. This study was conducted in order to evaluate the effectiveness of Matriderm for treatment of diabetic foot ulcers, in comparison with skin grafting.MethodsSixty patients with diabetic foot ulcer were included in this prospective study. The average age of the patients, who had type II diabetes mellitus, was 58 years old. The patients were allocated to an experimental or control group with their consents. The patients were selected with their consent for inclusion in an experimental group and a control group. Patients in the experimental group received a Matriderm appliance and a split-thickness skin graft, while those in the control group received only a split-thickness skin graft.ResultsA shorter hospitalization period (7.52 weeks was observed in the experimental group than in the control group (9.22 weeks, and a shorter period of time (8.61 weeks was required for complete healing, compared with the control group (12.94 weeks, with statistical significance (P<0.05. A higher elasticity ratio of the affected side to the non-affected side was observed in the experimental group, compared with the control group (P<0.01.ConclusionsMatriderm enables effective healing and improves elasticity in treatment of patients with diabetic foot ulcer.

  2. Antimicrobial-impregnated dressing combined with negative-pressure wound therapy increases split-thickness skin graft engraftment: a simple effective technique. (United States)

    Wu, Cheng-Chun; Chew, Khong-Yik; Chen, Chien-Chang; Kuo, Yur-Ren


    Immobilization and adequate surface contact to wounds are critical for skin graft take. Techniques such as the tie-over dressing, cotton bolster, and vacuum-assisted closure are used to address this, but each has its limitations. This study is designed to assess the effect of antimicrobial-impregnated dressing (AMD) combined with negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) on skin graft survival. Retrospective case-control study : Patients with chronic or contaminated wounds treated with split-thickness skin graft. A broad spectrum of wounds was included, from causes such as trauma, burns, chronic diabetic ulcers, and infection. Antimicrobial-impregnated dressing, which contains 0.2% polyhexamethylene biguanide, with NPWT MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE:: Success of skin graft : In the AMD group, all skin grafts achieved 100% take without secondary intervention. No infection or graft failure was observed in any patients, and no complications, such as hematoma or seroma formation, were noted, although in the control group partial loss of skin grafts was noted in 3 patients. Infection and inadequate immobilization were thought to be the main reasons. There were no hematoma or seroma formations in the control group. Use of an AMD dressing with NPWT after split-thickness skin grafting can be an effective method to ensure good graft to wound contact and enhances skin graft take in chronic and contaminated wounds.

  3. [Effects of Meek skin grafting on patients with extensive deep burn at different age groups]. (United States)

    Di, H P; Niu, X H; Li, Q; Li, X L; Xue, J D; Cao, D Y; Han, D W; Xia, C D


    Objective: To investigate the effect of Meek skin grafting on patients with extensive deep burn at different age groups. Methods: Eighty-four patients with extensive deep burns conforming to the study criteria were hospitalized in our unit from April 2011 to April 2015. Patients were divided into children group (C, with age less than 12 years old), young and middle-aged group (YM, with age more than 18 years and less than 50 years old), and old age group (O, with age more than 55 years old) according to age, with 28 patients in each group. All patients received Meek skin grafting treatment. The use of autologous skin area, operation time, wound healing time, and hospitalization time were recorded. The survival rate of skin graft on post operation day 7, complete wound healing rate in post treatment week 2, and the mortality were calculated. Data were processed with one-way analysis of variance, t test, and χ(2) test. Results: The use of autologous skin area of patients in group C was (5.1±1.0)% total body surface area (TBSA), significantly less than (8.3±1.0)%TBSA and (8.3±1.4)%TBSA in groups YM and O, respectively (with t values 32.900 and 52.624, respectively, P values below 0.05). The operation time, wound healing time, and hospitalization time of patients in group C were (1.368±0.562) h, (9.6±0.6) and (32±11) d, significantly shorter than those in group YM [(3.235±0.011) h, (16.9±2.6) and (48±12) d, respectively] and group O [(3.692±0.481) h, (17.3±2.6) and (46±13) d, respectively, with t values from 4.350 to 21.160, P values below 0.05]. The survival rate of skin graft of patients on post operation day 7 in group C was (92±15)%, significantly higher than (81±10)% and (72±12)% in groups YM and O, respectively (with t values 5.509 and 3.229, respectively, P values below 0.05). The above indexes in groups YM and O were similar (with t values from 0.576 to 22.958, P values above 0.05). Complete wound healing rate in post treatment week 2 and the

  4. Treatment of bilateral severe eyelid burns with skin grafts: an odyssey. (United States)

    Mandrekas, Apostolos D; Zambacos, George J; Anastasopoulos, Anastasios


    Eyelid burns occur in about 10% of thermal injuries and pose a considerable challenge for the reconstructive surgeon. A consensus on a treatment regime has not been reached and plastic surgeons are divided on the subject. A case of severe bilateral eyelid burns was treated with full- and split-thickness skin grafts. The patient was first operated at 2 years post-injury, and a total of 5 operations in 5 years were necessary to address recurrent ectropion of both upper and lower eyelids.

  5. Stepwise surgical approach to diabetic partial foot amputations with autogenous split thickness skin grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal L. Ramanujam


    Full Text Available In the surgical treatment of severe diabetic foot infections, substantial soft tissue loss often accompanies partial foot amputations. These sizeable soft tissue defects require extensive care with the goal of expedited closure to inhibit further infection and to provide resilient surfaces capable of withstanding long-term ambulation. Definitive wound closure management in the diabetic population is dependent on multiple factors and can have a major impact on the risk of future diabetic foot complications. In this article, the authors provide an overview of autogenous skin grafting, including anatomical considerations, clinical conditions, surgical approach, and adjunctive treatments, for diabetic partial foot amputations.

  6. Non-lipophilic mycobiota of human skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Talaga


    Full Text Available The human skin is inhabited by many species of bacteria and fungi, which are its natural microbiota. Fungi colonizing the skin, including those causing disease, characterized by great variety and variability, can be influenced by various factors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the composition of the non-lipid-dependent fungal microbiota of skin, including the presence of species potentially pathogenic for humans. Fifty-six volunteers of both sexes aged 22–78 were subjected to the study. Swabs were taken from the face, chest, back and interdigital spaces of hands. Mycobiota isolated proved to vary both in terms of the location of occurrence and gender of patients. Interdigital spaces of hands, dominated by yeasts, constitute a location on human skin most contaminated with fungi. Molds were more often isolated from the face and chest. The back was the least contaminated location. There was no difference in fungal incidence in relation to sex.

  7. Comparison of Human T Cell Repertoire Generated in Xenogeneic Porcine and Human Thymus Grafts1 (United States)

    Shimizu, Ichiro; Fudaba, Yasuhiro; Shimizu, Akira; Yang, Yong-Guang; Sykes, Megan


    Background Xenogeneic thymus transplantation is an effective approach to achieving T cell tolerance across highly disparate xenogeneic species barriers. We have previously demonstrated that phenotypically normal, specifically tolerant human T cells are generated in porcine thymic grafts. In this study, we assessed the diversity of the human T cell repertoire generated in porcine thymic xenografts. We also examined the ability of porcine thymus grafts to coexist with human thymus grafts. Methods Fetal swine (SW) or human (HU) thymus with human fetal liver (FL) fragments were transplanted under the kidney capsule of 3Gy irradiated NOD/SCID mouse recipients. Thymus tissue was harvested approximately 16 weeks post-transplant for analysis of mixed lymphocyte reactions and spectratyping of human CD4 and CD8 single positive (SP) thymocytes. Results TCR β genes of human CD4 and CD8 SP cells developing in HU and SW thymus grafts showed similar, normal CDR3 length distributions. Human T cells developing in SW thymus grafts showed specific unresponsiveness to the MHC of the donor swine, in MLR assays. In 2 of 3 animals receiving SW and HU thymus grafts under opposite kidney capsules, both grafts functioned. In animals with surviving SW grafts, thymocytes from the SW but not the HU grafts showed specific unresponsiveness to the SW donor. Conclusion SW thymus grafts support generation of human T cells with a diverse TCR repertoire. Human thymocytes in human thymus grafts are not tolerized by the presence of an additional porcine thymus, but tolerance might be achieved by post-thymic encounter with porcine antigens. PMID:18724231

  8. Rich plasma platelets employed with surgical sponge in skin grafts in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Morais Pazzini


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Pazzini J.M., Serafim E.L., Uscategui R.R.A., de Almeida V.T., Oliva C.A.C., Gartner F., de Carvalho M.F.F., Reis N. de P., Ferreira M.G.P.A., Moraes P.C., de Oliveira J.A. & De Nardi A.B. [Rich plasma platelets employed with surgical sponge in skin grafts in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus.] Emprego de plasma rico em plaquetas associado à esponja cirúrgica em enxertos cutâneos em coelhos (Oryctolagus cuniculus. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 38(4:397-405, 2016. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Cirurgia Veterinária, Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Campus Jaboticabal, Via de Acesso Paulo Donatto Castellane s/n, Jaboticabal, SP 14884-900, Brazil. E-mail: This work had the purpose to evaluate the effectiveness of PRP gel use associated with surgical sponges improve the integration of skin graft to receptor site. Was conducted a study of 16 rabbits, New Zealand white, female, 60 days old. They were divided into two groups with eight animals each, all of which was undergoing reconstructive surgery technique for making mesh graft. The groups were constituted in Gprpme received PRP gel and Gcme who received 0.9% saline solution combining both surgical sponge as a way of curative. The blood samples the Gprpme group that was done PRP, the mean platelet count after centrifugation was 1,288,750 platelets/uL. The results obtained in the PRP final sample when compared to the inicial were significantly greater. Thus, the double centrifugation protocol for obtaining PRP which was performed in this trial was appropriate, because the platelet concentration after double centrifugation increased three times as compared with the initial count of the blood sample, and it was possible to achieve good therapeutic results. In the macroscopic evaluation of the 3rd day, exudate showed significant differences in Gprpme compared to Gcme. In the evaluations of the 7th and the

  9. Rich plasma platelets employed with surgical sponge in skin grafts in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Morais Pazzini


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Pazzini J.M., Serafim E.L., Uscategui R.R.A., de Almeida V.T., Oliva C.A.C., Gartner F., de Carvalho M.F.F., Reis N. de P., Ferreira M.G.P.A., Moraes P.C., de Oliveira J.A. & De Nardi A.B. [Rich plasma platelets employed with surgical sponge in skin grafts in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus.] Emprego de plasma rico em plaquetas associado à esponja cirúrgica em enxertos cutâneos em coelhos (Oryctolagus cuniculus. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 38(4:397-405, 2016. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Cirurgia Veterinária, Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Campus Jaboticabal, Via de Acesso Paulo Donatto Castellane s/n, Jaboticabal, SP 14884-900, Brazil. E-mail: This work had the purpose to evaluate the effectiveness of PRP gel use associated with surgical sponges improve the integration of skin graft to receptor site. Was conducted a study of 16 rabbits, New Zealand white, female, 60 days old. They were divided into two groups with eight animals each, all of which was undergoing reconstructive surgery technique for making mesh graft. The groups were constituted in Gprpme received PRP gel and Gcme who received 0.9% saline solution combining both surgical sponge as a way of curative. The blood samples the Gprpme group that was done PRP, the mean platelet count after centrifugation was 1,288,750 platelets/uL. The results obtained in the PRP final sample when compared to the inicial were significantly greater. Thus, the double centrifugation protocol for obtaining PRP which was performed in this trial was appropriate, because the platelet concentration after double centrifugation increased three times as compared with the initial count of the blood sample, and it was possible to achieve good therapeutic results. In the macroscopic evaluation of the 3rd day, exudate showed significant differences in Gprpme compared to Gcme. In the evaluations of the 7th and the

  10. [Nylon fixation at the internal and external canthus combined with skin graft for recurrent lower eyelids ectropion]. (United States)

    Yu, Li; Wang, Jiaqi


    To investigate the long-time effects of nylon fixation at the internal and external canthus combined with skin graft for recurrent lower eyelids ectropion. Under local anesthesia, the cicatricial contraction was released to repostion the lower eyelid. Then nylon thread was implanted in the fascial tissue at the upper margin of tarsus and was fixed on the periosteum at the internal and external canthus. The skin graft was applied on the wound of lower eyelids. 12 patients with lower eyelids ectropion at 19 sides were treated with primary healing. The patients were followed up for 6-24 months. All cases were satisfied with functional and cosmetic results. No complication and no recurrence happened. The technique of nylon fixation at the internal and external canthus combined with skin graft is an effective method for recurrent lower eyelids ectropion.

  11. Elucidation of xenobiotic metabolism pathways in human skin and human skin models by proteomic profiling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven van Eijl

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human skin has the capacity to metabolise foreign chemicals (xenobiotics, but knowledge of the various enzymes involved is incomplete. A broad-based unbiased proteomics approach was used to describe the profile of xenobiotic metabolising enzymes present in human skin and hence indicate principal routes of metabolism of xenobiotic compounds. Several in vitro models of human skin have been developed for the purpose of safety assessment of chemicals. The suitability of these epidermal models for studies involving biotransformation was assessed by comparing their profiles of xenobiotic metabolising enzymes with those of human skin. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Label-free proteomic analysis of whole human skin (10 donors was applied and analysed using custom-built PROTSIFT software. The results showed the presence of enzymes with a capacity for the metabolism of alcohols through dehydrogenation, aldehydes through dehydrogenation and oxidation, amines through oxidation, carbonyls through reduction, epoxides and carboxylesters through hydrolysis and, of many compounds, by conjugation to glutathione. Whereas protein levels of these enzymes in skin were mostly just 4-10 fold lower than those in liver and sufficient to support metabolism, the levels of cytochrome P450 enzymes were at least 300-fold lower indicating they play no significant role. Four epidermal models of human skin had profiles very similar to one another and these overlapped substantially with that of whole skin. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The proteomics profiling approach was successful in producing a comprehensive analysis of the biotransformation characteristics of whole human skin and various in vitro skin models. The results show that skin contains a range of defined enzymes capable of metabolising different classes of chemicals. The degree of similarity of the profiles of the in vitro models indicates their suitability for epidermal toxicity testing. Overall, these

  12. Forensic human identification using skin microbiomes. (United States)

    Schmedes, Sarah E; Woerner, August E; Budowle, Bruce


    The human microbiome contributes significantly to the genetic content of the human body. Genetic and environmental factors help shape the microbiome, and as such, the microbiome can be unique to an individual. Previous studies have demonstrated the potential to use microbiome profiling for forensic applications, however a method has yet to identify stable features of skin microbiomes that produce high classification accuracies for samples collected over reasonably long time intervals. A novel approach is described to classify skin microbiomes to their donors by comparing two features types, Propionibacterium acnes pangenome presence/absence features and nucleotide diversities of stable clade-specific markers. Supervised learning was used to attribute skin microbiomes from 14 skin body sites from 12 healthy individuals sampled at three time points over a >2.5 year period with accuracies up to 100% for three body sites. Feature selection identified a reduced subset of markers from each body site that are highly individualizing, identifying 187 markers from 12 clades. Classification accuracies were compared in a formal model testing framework, and the results of this indicate that learners trained on nucleotide diversity perform significantly better than those trained on presence/absence encodings. This study used supervised learning to identify individuals with high accuracy and associated stable features from skin microbiomes over a period of up to almost 3 years. These selected features provide a preliminary marker panel for future development of a robust and reproducible method for skin microbiome profiling for forensic human identification.Importance A novel approach is described to attribute skin microbiomes, collected over a period of >2.5 years, to their individual hosts with a high degree of accuracy. Nucleotide diversities of stable clade-specific markers with supervised learning was used to classify skin microbiomes from a particular individual with up to

  13. Changes in histopathology and cytokeratin AE1/AE3 expression in skin graft with different time on Indonesian local cats. (United States)

    Erwin; Etriwati; Gunanti; Handharyani, Ekowati; Noviana, Deni


    A good skin graft histopathology is followed by formation of hair follicle, sweat gland, sebaceous gland, blood vessel, lightly dense connective tissue, epidermis, and dermis layer. This research aimed to observe histopathology feature and cytokeratin AE1/AE3 expression on cat skin post skin grafting within a different period of time. Nine male Indonesian local cats aged 1-2 years old weighing 3-4 kg were separated into three groups. First surgery created defect wound of 2 cm × 2 cm in size to whole groups. The wounds were left alone for several days, differing in interval between each group, respectively: Group I (for 2 days), Group II (for 4 days), and Group III (for 6 days). The second surgery was done to each group which harvested skin of thoracic area and applied it on recipient wound bed. On day 24 th post skin graft was an examination of histopathology and cytokeratin AE1/AE3 immunohistochemistry. Group I donor skin's epidermis layer had not formed completely whereas epidermis of donor skin of Groups II and III had completely formed. In all group hair follicle, sweat gland, sebaceous gland, and neovascularization were found. The density of connective tissue in Group I was very solid than other groups. Cytokeratin AE1/AE3 expression was found on donor skin's epithelial cell in epidermis and dermis layer with very brown intensity for Group II, brown intensity for Group II, and lightly brown for Group I. Histopathological structure and cytokeratin AE1/AE3 expression post skin graft are better in Groups II and III compared to Group I.

  14. Transplantation of skin grafts and organs infected with Toxoplasma gondii as a source of toxoplasmosis in immunocompromised mice. (United States)

    Belal, Usama Salah; Norose, Kazumi; Mohamed, Rabie Mohamed; Naoi, Koji; Yano, Akihiko


    The possibility of Toxoplasma gondii infection resulting from transplantation of a skin graft and various organs has been investigated. The parasite was detected in very low numbers in all organs examined in wild-type (WT) BALB/c (B/c) mice that received skin grafts from infected interferon gamma knockout (GKO) B/c mice both with and without sulfamethoxazole treatment; all recipient mice survived. In contrast, transplantation of skin grafts from untreated infected WT B/c mice to naïve GKO B/c mice led to the death of all recipients within 20 days post-transplantation; T. gondii was found to be disseminated in all organs examined. Similar results were obtained after transplantation of skin from untreated and treated GKO B/c mice to naïve GKO B/c mice, whereas the recipient GKO B/c mice died within 10 days after intraperitoneal transplantation of lung, heart, brain or small intestine from infected untreated GKO B/c mice. These results indicate that skin grafts as well as various organs infected with T. gondii can be sources of infection in immunocompromised hosts. Toxoplasmosis should therefore be taken into consideration during organ transplantation to immunocompromised hosts.

  15. Bioreactor cultivation of anatomically shaped human bone grafts. (United States)

    Temple, Joshua P; Yeager, Keith; Bhumiratana, Sarindr; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana; Grayson, Warren L


    In this chapter, we describe a method for engineering bone grafts in vitro with the specific geometry of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) condyle. The anatomical geometry of the bone grafts was segmented from computed tomography (CT) scans, converted to G-code, and used to machine decellularized trabecular bone scaffolds into the identical shape of the condyle. These scaffolds were seeded with human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) using spinner flasks and cultivated for up to 5 weeks in vitro using a custom-designed perfusion bioreactor system. The flow patterns through the complex geometry were modeled using the FloWorks module of SolidWorks to optimize bioreactor design. The perfused scaffolds exhibited significantly higher cellular content, better matrix production, and increased bone mineral deposition relative to non-perfused (static) controls after 5 weeks of in vitro cultivation. This technology is broadly applicable for creating patient-specific bone grafts of varying shapes and sizes.

  16. Preparation of Artificial Skin that Mimics Human Skin Surface and Mechanical Properties. (United States)

    Shimizu, Rana; Nonomura, Yoshimune


    We have developed an artificial skin that mimics the morphological and mechanical properties of human skin. The artificial skin comprises a polyurethane block possessing a microscopically rough surface. We evaluated the tactile sensations when skin-care cream was applied to the artificial skin. Many subjects perceived smooth, moist, and soft feels during the application process. Cluster analysis showed that these characteristic tactile feels are similar to those when skin-care cream is applied to real human skin. Contact angle analysis showed that an oil droplet spread smoothly on the artificial skin surface, which occurred because there were many grooves several hundred micrometers in width on the skin surface. In addition, when the skin-care cream was applied, the change in frictional force during the dynamic friction process increased. These wetting and frictional properties are important factors controlling the similarity of artificial skin to real human skin.

  17. RNA Aptamer Delivery through Intact Human Skin. (United States)

    Lenn, Jon D; Neil, Jessica; Donahue, Christine; Demock, Kellie; Tibbetts, Caitlin Vestal; Cote-Sierra, Javier; Smith, Susan H; Rubenstein, David; Therrien, Jean-Philippe; Pendergrast, P Shannon; Killough, Jason; Brown, Marc B; Williams, Adrian C


    It is generally recognized that only relatively small molecular weight (typically aptamer, highly specific to the human IL-23 cytokine, with picomolar activity. Results demonstrate penetration of the aptamer into freshly excised human skin using two different fluorescent labels. A dual hybridization assay quantified aptamer from the epidermis and dermis, giving levels far exceeding the cellular half maximal inhibitory concentration values (>100,000-fold), and aptamer integrity was confirmed using an oligonucleotide precipitation assay. A T helper 17 response was stimulated in freshly excised human skin resulting in significantly upregulated IL-17f, and IL-22; topical application of the IL-23 aptamer decreased both IL-17f and IL-22 by approximately 45% but did not result in significant changes to IL-23 mRNA levels, confirming that the aptamer did not globally suppress mRNA levels. This study demonstrates that very-large-molecular-weight RNA aptamers can permeate across the intact human skin barrier to therapeutically relevant levels into both the epidermis and dermis and that the skin-penetrating aptamer retains its biologically active conformational structure capable of binding to endogenous IL-23. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Single-Stage Bipedicle Local Tissue Transfer and Skin Graft for Achilles Tendon Surgery Wound Complications. (United States)

    Dekker, Travis J; Avashia, Yash; Mithani, Suhail K; Matson, Andrew P; Lampley, Alexander J; Adams, Samuel B


    Achilles tendon and posterior heel wound complications are difficult to treat. These typically require soft tissue coverage via microvascular free tissue transfer at a tertiary referral center. Here, we describe coverage of a series of posterior heel and Achilles wounds via simple, local tissue transfer, called a bipedicle fasciocutaneous flap. This flap can be performed by an orthopaedic foot and ankle surgeon, without resources of tertiary/specialized care or microvascular support. Three patients with separate pathologies were treated with a single-stage bipedicle fasciocutaneous local tissue transfer. Case 1 was a patient with insertional wound breakdown after Achilles debridement and repair to the calcaneus. Case 2 was a heel venous stasis ulcer with calcaneal exposure in a diabetic patient with vasculopathy. Case 3 was a patient with wound breakdown following midsubstance Achilles tendon repair. All three cases were treated with a single-stage bipedicle local tissue transfer for posterior ankle and heel wound complications. All 3 patients demonstrated complete healing of the posterior defect, lateral ankle skin graft recipient site, and the skin graft donor site after surgery. Case 3 had a subsequent recurrent ulceration after initial healing. This was superficial and healed with local wound care. All patients regained full preoperative range of motion and were able to ambulate independently without modified footwear. The bipedicled fasciocutaneous flap described here offers a predictable single stage procedure that can be accomplished by an orthopaedic foot and ankle surgeon without resources of a tertiary care center for posterior foot and ankle defects. This flap can be performed with short operative times and can be customized to facilitate defect coverage. The flap is durable to withstand local tissue stresses required for early ambulation. Despite its reliability, patients require careful follow-up to manage underlying comorbid conditions that may

  19. Surgical Management of Adult Acquired Buried Penis: Escutcheonectomy, Scrotectomy, and Penile Split-thickness Skin Graft. (United States)

    Fuller, Thomas W; Theisen, Katherine; Rusilko, Paul


    To demonstrate the surgical management of adult acquired buried penis (AABP). Affected patients have poor sexual function, urinary dribbling with subsequent skin breakdown, mood disturbance, lichen sclerosus with subsequent urethral stricture, and poor quality of life. Previous efforts have described limited repairs including an isolated resection of the escutcheon, which unfortunately often leads to reburying. We present a more extensive surgical repair including escutcheonectomy, scrotoplasty, and penile split-thickness skin graft (STSG) to provide a durable definitive repair. A retrospective review was conducted of patients managed in 2015-2016. Twelve patients who underwent escutcheonectomy, scrotoplasty, and penile STSG were identified. All patients had morbid obesity as a sole etiology or a significant contributing factor. Outcomes evaluated were surgical complications, reburying of the penis, and graft take rates. Twelve patients underwent repair of AABP. All patients had durable unburying at the intermediate-term follow-up (mean of 8 months). The mean patient body mass index was 45.4 ± 13.8. The operative times, the length of stay, and the estimated blood loss were 312 ± 59 minutes, 5.3 ± 1.1 days, and 304 ± 133 cc, respectively. The STSG take rate was 80%-100% (mean of 91.7%). AABP is a challenging condition to treat. Limited surgical repairs can lead to a reburying of the penis and a progression of urethral disease. Escutcheonectomy, scrotoplasty, and STSG have encouraging intermediate-term outcomes with durable unburying of the penis and good STSG take rates. Further follow-up in larger series is needed, but results are thus far encouraging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Adult skin-derived precursor Schwann cell grafts form growths in the injured spinal cord of Fischer rats. (United States)

    May, Zacnicte; Kumar, Ranjan; Führmann, Tobias; Tam, Roger; Vulic, Katarina; Forero, Juan; Lucas-Osma, Ana M; Fenrich, Keith; Assinck, Peggy; Lee, Michael J; Moulson, Aaron; Shoichet, Molly S; Tetzlaff, Wolfram; Biernaskie, Jeff; Fouad, Karim


    In this study, GFP+ skin-derived precursor Schwann cells (SKP-SCs) from adult rats were grafted into the injured spinal cord of immunosuppressed rats. Our goal was to improve grafted cell survival in the injured spinal cord, which is typically low. Cells were grafted in hyaluronan-methylcellulose hydrogel (HAMC) or hyaluronan-methylcellulose modified with laminin- and fibronectin-derived peptide sequences (eHAMC). The criteria for selection of hyaluronan was for its shear-thinning properties, making the hydrogel easy to inject, methylcellulose for its inverse thermal gelation, helping to keep grafted cells in situ, and fibronectin and laminin to improve cell attachment and, thus, prevent cell death due to dissociation from substrate molecules (i.e., anoikis). Post-mortem examination revealed large masses of GFP+ SKP-SCs in the spinal cords of rats that received cells in HAMC (5 out of n = 8) and eHAMC (6 out of n = 8). Cell transplantation in eHAMC caused significantly greater spinal lesions compared to lesion and eHAMC only control groups. A parallel study showed similar masses in the contused spinal cord of rats after transplantation of adult GFP+ SKP-SCs without a hydrogel or immunosuppression. These findings suggest that adult GFP+ SKP-SCs, cultured/transplanted under the conditions described here, have a capacity for uncontrolled proliferation. Growth-formation in pre-clinical research has also been documented after transplantation of: human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural stem cells (Itakura et al., 2015), embryonic stem cells and embryonic stem cell-derived neurons (Brederlau et al., 2006; Dressel et al., 2008), bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (Jeong et al., 2011) and rat nerve-derived SCs following in vitro expansion for ˃11 passages (Funk et al., 2007; Langford et al., 1988; Morrissey et al., 1991). It is of upmost importance to define the precise culture/transplantation parameters for maintenance of normal cell function and safe

  1. Human age and skin physiology shape diversity and abundance of Archaea on skin


    Moissl-Eichinger, C; Probst, AJ; Birarda, G; Auerbach, A; Koskinen, K; Wolf, P; Holman, HYN


    © The Author(s) 2017. The human skin microbiome acts as an important barrier protecting our body from pathogens and other environmental influences. Recent investigations have provided evidence that Archaea are a constant but highly variable component of the human skin microbiome, yet factors that determine their abundance changes are unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the abundance of archaea on human skin is influenced by human age and skin physiology by quantitative PCR of 51 diff...

  2. Subjective and objective observation of skin graft recovery on Indonesian local cat with different periods of transplantation time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Aim: The success of a skin graft in a cat is highly dependent on the granulation formed by the base of recipient bed. Granulation by the base of recipient bed will form after several days after injury. This research aimed to observe subjective and objective profile of skin graft recovery on forelimb of cats with different periods of donor skin placement. Materials and Methods: Nine male Indonesian local cats aged 1-2 years old, weighing 3-4 kg were divided into three groups. The first surgery for creating defect wound of 2 cm×2 cm in size was performed in the whole group. The wound was left for several days with the respective interval for each group, respectively: Group I (for 2 days, Group II (for 4 days, and Group III (for 6 days. In the whole group, the second surgery was done by the harvesting skin of thoracic area which then applied on recipient bed of respective groups. Result: The donor skin on Group II was accepted faster compared to Group I and Group III. The donor skin did not show color differences compared to surrounding skin, painless, bright red in bleeding test had faster both hair growth and drug absorption. Test toward the size of donor skin and the effect of drugs did not show a significant difference between each group. Conclusion: The observe subjective and objective profile of skin graft recovery on forelimb of cats on Group II were accepted faster compared to Group I and III.

  3. Effects Of Gelatine-Coated Vascular Grafts On Human Neutrophils. (United States)

    Meyer, Frank; Buerger, Thomas; Halloul, Zuhir; Lippert, Hans; König, Brigitte; Tautenhahn, Joerg


    The aim of the study was to investigate the immune-modulatory potential of commercially available PTFE and polyester vascular grafts with and without gelatine-coating. The biomaterial-cell-interaction was characterized by changes of established parameters such as PMN-related receptors/mediators, phagocytosis potential and capacity as well as the effect of an additional plasma-dependent modulation. By means of a standardized experimental in vitro model, various vascular graft material (PTFE/polyester/uncoated/gelatine-coated) was used for incubation with or without plasma and co-culturing with human neutrophile granulocytes (PMN) followed by analysis of representative receptors and mediators (CD62L, CD11b, CXCR2, fMLP-R, IL-8, Elastase, LTB4). Oxidative burst assessed phagocytosis capacity. Comparing the vascular grafts, un-coated PTFE induced the lowest magnitude of cell stimulation whereas in case of gelatine-coating, cell response exceeded those of the other vascular grafts. This was also found comparing the polyester-based prosthetic material. Gelatine-coated polyester led to a more pronounced release of elastase than gelatine-coated PTFE and the uncoated materials. The results of oxidative burst indicated a reduced phagocytosis capacity in case of gelatine-coated polyester. Plasma incubation did also provide an impact on the cellular response. While in case of gelatine-coating, PMN-related receptor stimulation became lower, it increased by native polyester. The latter one did also induce more mediators such as IL-8 and LTB4 than gelatine-coated material. There have been no extensive data on cell-cell interactions, cytokines and general histo-/hemocompatibility of human cells by the new generation of vascular grafts. It remains still open whether healing process and infectious resistance can be compromised by material-dependent over-stimulation or reduced phagocytosis potential of the immune cells of the primary unspecific immune response induced by gelatine

  4. Comparative histology and immunohistochemistry of porcine versus human skin. (United States)

    Debeer, Sabine; Le Luduec, Jean-Benoît; Kaiserlian, Dominique; Laurent, Philippe; Nicolas, Jean-François; Dubois, Bertrand; Kanitakis, Jean


    Porcine skin is increasingly being employed as a model of human skin in various research fields, including pharmacology, toxicology and immunology, with particular interest in percutaneous permeation and organ transplantation. Porcine skin shows several anatomical and physiological similarities, but also some differences, with human skin, but few in depth comparative studies are so far available. To study the immunohistochemical properties of normal porcine skin in comparison with human skin. We performed a histological and immunohistochemical study on frozen and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded skin biopsies from domestic swine and normal human skin, using a panel of 93 monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies recognizing various human and porcine skin cell types or structures. We found that several antibodies used to detect normal human skin cells showed equivalent immunoreactivity on normal porcine skin. However, some antibodies commonly used to detect human skin antigens remained unreactive on porcine skin. Our findings highlight the main immunohistochemical properties of porcine skin in comparison with those of human skin and provide a morphological and immunohistochemical basis useful to researchers using porcine skin.

  5. Wound Healing from Dermal Grafts Containing CD34+ Cells Is Comparable to Wound Healing with Split-Thickness Skin Micrografts. (United States)

    Nuutila, Kristo; Singh, Mansher; Kruse, Carla; Eriksson, Elof


    Epidermal stem cells present in the skin appendages of the dermis might be crucial in wound healing. In this study, the authors located these cells in the dermis and evaluated their contribution to full-thickness wound healing in a porcine model. Four sequentially deeper 0.35-mm-thick skin grafts were harvested from the same donor site going down to 1.4 mm in depth (layers 1 through 4). The layers were minced to 0.8 × 0.8 × 0.35-mm micrografts and transplanted (1:2) onto full-thickness porcine wounds. Healing was monitored up to 28 days and biopsy specimens were collected on days 6 and 10. Multiple wound healing parameters were used to assess the quality of healing. The authors' results showed that wounds transplanted with layer 2 (0.35 to 0.7 mm) and layer 3 (0.7 to 1.05 mm) micrografts demonstrated reepithelialization rates comparable to that of split-thickness skin graft (layer 1, 0.00 to 0.35 mm; split-thickness skin graft) at day 10. At day 28, dermal micrografts (layers 2 and 3) showed quality of healing comparable to that of split-thickness skin grafts (layer 1) in terms of wound contraction and scar elevation index. The amounts of epidermal stem cells [cluster of differentiation (CD) 34] and basal keratinocytes (KRT14) at each layer were quantified by immunohistochemistry. The analysis showed that layers 2 and 3 contained the most CD34 cells and layer 1 was the richest in KRT14 cells. The immunohistochemistry also indicated that, by day 6, CD34 cells had differentiated into KRT14 cells, which migrated from the grafts and contributed to the reepithelialization of the wound.

  6. Negative pressure wound therapy for skin grafts and surgical wounds healing by primary intention. (United States)

    Webster, Joan; Scuffham, Paul; Stankiewicz, Monica; Chaboyer, Wendy P


    Indications for the use of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) are broadening with a range of systems now available on the market, including those designed for use on clean, closed incisions and skin grafts. Reviews have concluded that the evidence for the effectiveness of NPWT remains uncertain, however, it is a rapidly evolving therapy. Consequently, an updated systematic review of the evidence for the effects of NPWT on postoperative wounds expected to heal by primary intention is required. To assess the effects of NPWT on surgical wounds (primary closure, skin grafting or flap closure) that are expected to heal by primary intention. We searched the following electronic databases to identify reports of relevant randomised clinical trials: the Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register (searched 28 January 2014); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2013, issue 12); Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (2013, issue 12); Ovid MEDLINE (2011 to January 2014); Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations 24 January 2014); Ovid EMBASE (2011 to January 2014 Week 44); and EBSCO CINAHL (2011 to January 2014). We conducted a separate search to identify economic evaluations. We included trials if they allocated patients to treatment randomly and compared NPWT with any other type of wound dressing, or compared one type of NPWT with a different type of NPWT. We assessed trials for their appropriateness for inclusion and for their quality. This was done by three review authors working independently, using pre-determined inclusion and quality criteria. In this first update, we included an additional four trials, taking the total number of trials included to nine (785 participants). Three trials involved skin grafts, four included orthopaedic patients and two included general surgery and trauma surgery patients; all the included trials had unclear or high risk of bias for one or more of the quality indicators we assessed. Seven

  7. A prospective randomized controlled trial comparing negative pressure dressing and conventional dressing methods on split-thickness skin grafts in burned patients. (United States)

    Petkar, Kiran S; Dhanraj, Prema; Kingsly, Paul M; Sreekar, H; Lakshmanarao, Aravind; Lamba, Shashank; Shetty, Rahul; Zachariah, Jewel Raj


    Split-thickness skin grafting (SSG) is a technique used extensively in the care of burn patients and is fraught with suboptimal graft take when there is a less-than-ideal graft bed and/or grafting conditions. The technique of Negative Pressure Dressing (NPD), initially used for better wound healing has been tried on skin-grafts and has shown to increase the graft take rates. However, comparative studies between the conventional dressing and vacuum assisted closure on skin grafts in burn patients are unavailable. The present study was undertaken to find out if NPD improves graft take as compared to conventional dressing in burns patients. Consecutive burn patients undergoing split-skin grafting were randomized to receive either a conventional dressing consisting of Vaseline gauze and cotton pads or to have a NPD of 80 mm Hg for four days over the freshly laid SSG. The results in terms of amount of graft take, duration of dressings for the grafted area and the cost of treatment of wound were compared between the two groups. A total of 40 split-skin grafts were put on 30 patients. The grafted wounds included acute and chronic burns wounds and surgically created raw areas during burn reconstruction. Twenty-one of them received NPD and 19 served as controls. Patient profiles and average size of the grafts were comparable between the two groups. The vacuum closure assembly was well tolerated by all patients. Final graft take at nine days in the study group ranged from 90 to 100 per cent with an average of 96.7 per cent (SD: 3.55). The control group showed a graft take ranging between 70 and 100 percent with an average graft take of 87.5 percent (SD: 8.73). Mean duration of continued dressings on the grafted area was 8 days in cases (SD: 1.48) and 11 days in controls (SD: 2.2) after surgery. Each of these differences was found to be statistically significant (pdressing improves graft take in burns patients and can particularly be considered when wound bed and grafting

  8. Skin graft loss resulting from collagenase clostridium histolyticum treatment of Dupuytren contracture: case report and review of the literature. (United States)

    Swanson, Jordan W; Watt, Andrew J; Vedder, Nicholas B


    Treatment of Dupuytren disease with collagenase clostridium histolyticum is increasingly used among hand surgeons. Although it is generally safe and efficacious, complications related to enzymatic fasciotomy occur. Postapproval surveillance and communication among hand surgeons continues to refine the indications, contraindications, and complications recognized in the treatment of Dupuytren disease with enzymatic therapy. Major treatment-related adverse events previously reported include flexor tendon rupture and complex regional pain syndrome. We report a patient who experienced total loss of a well-established volar ring finger skin graft following collagenase injection and propose a potential mechanism of vulnerability. This case may illustrate the susceptibility of type I collagen, which is uniformly present in a healed skin graft bed, to degradation with collagenase. We propose a cautious approach when considering treatment of a Dupuytren cord with collagenase in the presence of an overlying skin graft, regardless of the age of the graft. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Biomedical implications from a morphoelastic continuum model for the simulation of contracture formation in skin grafts that cover excised burns. (United States)

    Koppenol, Daniël C; Vermolen, Fred J


    A continuum hypothesis-based model is developed for the simulation of the (long term) contraction of skin grafts that cover excised burns in order to obtain suggestions regarding the ideal length of splinting therapy and when to start with this therapy such that the therapy is effective optimally. Tissue is modeled as an isotropic, heterogeneous, morphoelastic solid. With respect to the constituents of the tissue, we selected the following constituents as primary model components: fibroblasts, myofibroblasts, collagen molecules, and a generic signaling molecule. Good agreement is demonstrated with respect to the evolution over time of the surface area of unmeshed skin grafts that cover excised burns between outcomes of computer simulations obtained in this study and scar assessment data gathered previously in a clinical study. Based on the simulation results, we suggest that the optimal point in time to start with splinting therapy is directly after placement of the skin graft on its recipient bed. Furthermore, we suggest that it is desirable to continue with splinting therapy until the concentration of the signaling molecules in the grafted area has become negligible such that the formation of contractures can be prevented. We conclude this study with a presentation of some alternative ideas on how to diminish the degree of contracture formation that are not based on a mechanical intervention, and a discussion about how the presented model can be adjusted.

  10. Structural changes of skin and amnion grafts for transplantation purposes following different doses of irradiation. (United States)

    Mrázová, H; Koller, J; Fujeríková, G; Babál, P


    An important part of the preparation of biological material for transplantation is sterilization. The aim of our study was to assess the impact of ionizing radiation on three types of biological tissues and the impact of different doses on cells and extracellular matrix. Three types of frozen tissues (porcine skin xenografts, human skin allografts and human amnion) were divided into five groups, control and groups according to the dose of radiation to which these samples were exposed (12.5, 25, 35 and 50 kGy). The tissue samples were fixed by formalin, processed by routine paraffin technique and stained with hematoxylin and eosin, alcian blue at pH 2.5, orcein, periodic acid schiff reaction and silver impregnation. The staining with hematoxylin and eosin showed hydropic degeneration of the cells of epidermis in xenografts by the dose of 12.5 kGy, in human skin it was observed by the dose of 35 kGy. The staining for elastic fibers revealed damage of fine elastic fibers in the xenografts dermis by the dose of 12.5 kGy, in the allografts by 35 kGy. Another change was the disintegration of basement membrane of epithelium, especially in the human amnion at the dose of 50 kGy. The silver impregnation visualized nuclear chromatin condensation mainly in human amnion at the dose of 12.5 kGy. Our results have shown that the porcine xenografts and human amnion were more sensitive to irradiation than the human skin. In the next phase of the project we will focus at more detailed changes in the tissues using immunohistochemical techniques.

  11. Quality of life and female sexual function after skinning vulvectomy with split-thickness skin graft in women with vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia or vulvar Paget disease. (United States)

    Lavoué, V; Lemarrec, A; Bertheuil, N; Henno, S; Mesbah, H; Watier, E; Levêque, J; Morcel, K


    Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) and vulvar Paget disease are managed with either vulvectomy, destructive treatments (laser, antimitotic drugs) or immunostimulants. All these options are associated with functional complications. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the surgical technique consisting of skinning vulvectomy with split-thickness skin graft, and its effect on overall quality of life and sexual function. A retrospective study was conducted on thirteen patients who underwent skinning vulvectomy with split-thickness skin graft between 1999 and 2009. Overall quality of life and sexual function were assessed with the Medical Outcome Study Short Form 36 (MOS SF-36) and Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), respectively. The median age of patients was 54 (range: 33-77) years. Three patients had Paget disease and 10 patients had VIN lesions. The excision margins were clear in 46% of cases. The incidence of occult cancer was 31%. The mean follow-up period was 77 (±35) months. Four patients experienced a relapse of their intraepithelial disease. The mean disease-free survival was 58 (±44) months. There was no significant difference in MOS SF-36 scores between the study population and the general population. The patients assessed with the FSFI regained normal sexual function after the surgical procedure. Skinning vulvectomy with split-thickness skin graft is a feasible technique yielding good results in terms of quality of life and sexual function. It enables occult cancer to be diagnosed in patients with VIN or Paget disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Large defects in aplasia cutis congenita treated by large-sized thin split-thickness skin grafting: long-term follow-up of 18 patients. (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Qiu, Lin; Fu, Yuexian; Tian, Xiaofei; Yuan, Xingang; Xiao, Jun; Li, Tianwu


    To evaluate the long-term results of using surgical large-sized thin split-thickness skin grafting to treat aplasia cutis congenita (ACC) in neonates. This study included 18 ACC neonates with large skin defects who underwent large-sized thin split-thickness skin grafting at our hospital from March 2002 to November 2011. The size of the lesion was >10% of the total body surface area (TBSA) in 16 patients, 7% of TBSA in one patient, and 3% of TBSA in another patient. The size of the skin graft was designed to be equal to or slightly larger than the size of the lesion. Skin grafts in 16 patients who were followed for periods of 6 months-7 years after surgery showed good survival; however, two patients were lost to follow-up. The wound healed completely without scarring in five patients. One of the five patients who healed without scarring had failed previous conservative treatment. Several mild hypertrophic scars occurred in one patient, and flat, thin, shiny, soft, parchment-like scars were noted in five other patients. Dark red, hard, raised hypertrophic scars occurred in five patients who had partial necrosis in the skin graft after surgery. A large-sized thin split-thickness skin graft can be used to effectively close a wound and permit healing to occur with reduced long-term scarring. This procedure is ideal for treating skin defects in patients with ACC. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  13. Interfacial Chemistry Regulation via a Skin-Grafting Strategy Enables High-Performance Lithium-Metal Batteries. (United States)

    Gao, Yue; Zhao, Yuming; Li, Yuguang C; Huang, Qingquan; Mallouk, Thomas E; Wang, Donghai


    The lithium (Li) metal anode suffers severe interfacial instability from its high reactivity toward liquid electrolytes, especially carbonate-based electrolytes, resulting in poor electrochemical performance of batteries that use 4 V high-capacity cathodes. We report a new skin-grafting strategy that stabilizes the Li metal-liquid electrolyte interface by coating the Li metal surface with poly((N-2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolane-4-methyl)-5-norbornene-exo-2,3-dicarboximide), a chemically and electrochemically active polymer layer. This layer, composed of cyclic ether groups with a stiff polycyclic main chain, serves as a grafted polymer skin on the Li metal anode not only to incorporate ether-based polymeric components into the solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) but also to accommodate Li deposition/dissolution under the skin in a dendrite/moss-free manner. Consequently, a Li-metal battery employing a Li metal anode with the grafted skin paired with LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 cathode has a 90.0% capacity retention after 400 charge/discharge cycles and a capacity of 1.2 mAh/cm(2) in a carbonate-based electrolyte. This proof-of-concept study provides a new direction for regulating the interfacial chemistry of Li metal anodes and for enabling high-performance Li-metal batteries.

  14. Success rate of split-thickness skin grafting of chronic venous leg ulcers depends on the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgsberg, Trine; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Thomsen, Jens Schiersing


    that once chronic venous leg ulcers were colonized (weeks or months preoperatively) by P. aeruginosa, the success rate of skin grafting deteriorated despite aggressive treatment. To investigate this, a retrospective study was performed on the clinical outcome of 82 consecutive patients with chronic venous...... regression analysis was carried out leaving P. aeruginosa as the only predictor left in the model (p¿=¿0.001). This study supports our hypothesis that P. aeruginosa in chronic venous leg ulcers, despite treatment, has considerable impact on partial take or rejection of split-thickness skin grafts....... leg ulcers on 91 extremities, from the 1(st) of March 2005 until the 31(st) of August 2006. This was achieved by analysing the microbiology, demographic data, smoking and drinking habits, diabetes, renal impairment, co-morbidities, approximated size and age of the wounds, immunosuppressive treatment...

  15. Harmonics optical biopsy of human skin (United States)

    Tai, Shih-Peng; Tsai, Tsung-Han; Chu, Shi-Wei; Lee, Wen-Jeng; Liao, Yi-Hua; Huang, Hsin-Yi; Sun, Chi-Kuang


    Traditional biopsy requires the removal, fixation, and staining of tissues from the human body. Its procedure is invasive and painful. Therefore, a novel method of optical biopsy is desired which can perform in vivo examination and is noninvasive, highly penetrative, with no energy deposition and damage, without invasive pharmaceutical injection, and with three-dimensional (3D) imaging capability and sub-micron spatial resolution. Two-photon fluorescence microscopy (TPFM) is previously applied for biopsy of skin due to its high lateral resolution, low out-of-focus damage, and intrinsic 3D section capability. However, for future clinical applications without surgery, current 700-850 nm based laser scanning technology still presents several limitations including low penetration depth, in-focus cell damages, multi-photon phototoxicity due to high optical intensity in the 800 nm wavelength region, and toxicity if exogenous fluorescence markers were required. Here we demonstrate a novel noninvasive optical biopsy method called harmonics optical biopsy (HOB), which combines both second harmonic generation imaging and third harmonic generation imaging. Due to virtual transition nature of harmonic generations and based on light sources with an optical wavelength located around the biological penetration window (~1300nm), our HOB can serve as a truly non-invasive biopsy tool with sub-micron three-dimensional spatial resolution without any energy deposition and exogenous contrast agents. From preliminary experiment result, our HOB can reconstruct 3D cellular and subcellular images from skin surface through dermis. Besides, by utilizing backward propagating detection geometry, we will show that this technique is ideal for non-invasive clinical biopsy of human skin diseases and even useful for the early diagnosis of skin cancer symptom such as the angiogenesis.

  16. The isolated perfused human skin flap model: A missing link in skin penetration studies? (United States)

    Ternullo, Selenia; de Weerd, Louis; Flaten, Gøril Eide; Holsæter, Ann Mari; Škalko-Basnet, Nataša


    Development of effective (trans)dermal drug delivery systems requires reliable skin models to evaluate skin drug penetration. The isolated perfused human skin flap remains metabolically active tissue for up to 6h during in vitro perfusion. We introduce the isolated perfused human skin flap as a close-to-in vivo skin penetration model. To validate the model's ability to evaluate skin drug penetration the solutions of a hydrophilic (calcein) and a lipophilic (rhodamine) fluorescence marker were applied. The skin flaps were perfused with modified Krebs-Henseleit buffer (pH7.4). Infrared technology was used to monitor perfusion and to select a well-perfused skin area for administration of the markers. Flap perfusion and physiological parameters were maintained constant during the 6h experiments and the amount of markers in the perfusate was determined. Calcein was detected in the perfusate, whereas rhodamine was not detectable. Confocal images of skin cross-sections shoved that calcein was uniformly distributed through the skin, whereas rhodamine accumulated in the stratum corneum. For comparison, the penetration of both markers was evaluated on ex vivo human skin, pig skin and cellophane membrane. The proposed perfused flap model enabled us to distinguish between the penetrations of the two markers and could be a promising close-to-in vivo tool in skin penetration studies and optimization of formulations destined for skin administration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Mixed allogeneic reconstitution (A+B----A) to induce donor-specific transplantation tolerance. Permanent acceptance of a simultaneous donor skin graft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ildstad, S.T.; Wren, S.M.; Oh, E.; Hronakes, M.L. (Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (USA))


    Mixed allogeneic reconstitution, in which a mixture of T-cell-depleted bone marrow of syngeneic host and allogeneic donor type is transplanted into a lethally irradiated recipient (A+B----A), results in mixed lymphopoietic chimerism with engraftment of a mixture of both host and donor bone marrow elements. Recipients are specifically tolerant to donor both in vitro and in vivo. Donor-specific skin grafts survive indefinitely when they are placed after full bone marrow repopulation at 28 days, while third-party grafts are rapidly rejected. To determine whether a delay of a month or more for full bone marrow repopulation is required before a donor-specific graft can be placed, we have now examined whether tolerance induction can be achieved if a graft is placed at the time of bone marrow transplantation. Permanent acceptance of donor-specific B10.BR skin grafts occurred when mixed allogeneic chimerism (B10+B10.BR----B10) was induced and a simultaneous allogeneic donor graft placed. In vitro, mixed reconstituted recipients were specifically tolerant to the B10.BR donor lymphoid cells but fully reactive to MHC-disparate third-party (BALB/c; H-2dd) when assessed by mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) and cell-mediated lympholysis (CML) assays. These data therefore indicate that a donor-specific graft placed at the time of mixed allogeneic reconstitution is permanently accepted without rejection. To determine whether an allogeneic skin graft alone without allogeneic bone marrow would be sufficient to induce tolerance, syngeneic reconstitution (B10----B10) was carried out, and a simultaneous B10.BR allogeneic skin graft placed. Although skin grafts were prolonged in all recipients, all grafts rejected when full lymphopoietic repopulation occurred at 28 days.

  18. Does treatment of split-thickness skin grafts with negative-pressure wound therapy improve tissue markers of wound healing in a porcine experimental model? (United States)

    Ward, Christopher; Ciraulo, David; Coulter, Michael; Desjardins, Steven; Liaw, Lucy; Peterson, Sarah


    Negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) has been used for to treat wounds for more than 15 years and, more recently, has been used to secure split-thickness skin grafts. There are some data to support this use of NPWT, but the actual mechanism by which NPWT speeds healing or improves skin graft take is not entirely known. The purpose of this project was to assess whether NPWT improved angiogenesis, wound healing, or graft survival when compared with traditional bolster dressings securing split-thickness skin grafts in a porcine model. We performed two split-thickness skin grafts on each of eight 30 kg Yorkshire pigs. We took graft biopsies on postoperative days 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 and submitted the samples for immunohistochemical staining, as well as standard hematoxylin and eosin staining. We measured the degree of vascular ingrowth via immunohistochemical staining for von Willenbrand's factor to better identify blood vessel epithelium. We determined the mean cross-sectional area of blood vessels present for each representative specimen, and then compared the bolster and NPWT samples. We also assessed each graft for incorporation and survival at postoperative day 10. Our analysis of the data revealed that there was no statistically significant difference in the degree of vascular ingrowth as measured by mean cross-sectional capillary area (p = 0.23). We did not note any difference in graft survival or apparent incorporation on a macroscopic level, although standard hematoxylin and eosin staining indicated that microscopically, there seemed to be better subjective graft incorporation in the NPWT samples and a nonsignificant trend toward improved graft survival in the NPWT group. We were unable to demonstrate a significant difference in vessel ingrowth when comparing NPWT and traditional bolster methods for split-thickness skin graft fixation. More studies are needed to elucidate the manner by which NPWT exerts its effects and the true clinical magnitude of these

  19. The top skin-associated genes: a comparative analysis of human and mouse skin transcriptomes. (United States)

    Gerber, Peter Arne; Buhren, Bettina Alexandra; Schrumpf, Holger; Homey, Bernhard; Zlotnik, Albert; Hevezi, Peter


    The mouse represents a key model system for the study of the physiology and biochemistry of skin. Comparison of skin between mouse and human is critical for interpretation and application of data from mouse experiments to human disease. Here, we review the current knowledge on structure and immunology of mouse and human skin. Moreover, we present a systematic comparison of human and mouse skin transcriptomes. To this end, we have recently used a genome-wide database of human gene expression to identify genes highly expressed in skin, with no, or limited expression elsewhere - human skin-associated genes (hSAGs). Analysis of our set of hSAGs allowed us to generate a comprehensive molecular characterization of healthy human skin. Here, we used a similar database to generate a list of mouse skin-associated genes (mSAGs). A comparative analysis between the top human (n=666) and mouse (n=873) skin-associated genes (SAGs) revealed a total of only 30.2% identity between the two lists. The majority of shared genes encode proteins that participate in structural and barrier functions. Analysis of the top functional annotation terms revealed an overlap for morphogenesis, cell adhesion, structure, and signal transduction. The results of this analysis, discussed in the context of published data, illustrate the diversity between the molecular make up of skin of both species and grants a probable explanation, why results generated in murine in vivo models often fail to translate into the human.

  20. [Previously expanded full-thickness skin grafts. Technical principles. Indications in the repair of sequelae of burns. Apropos of 22 cases]. (United States)

    Foyatier, J L; Gounot, N; Comparin, J P; Delay, E; Masson, C L; Latarjet, J


    Burns raise difficult repair problems. Previously expanded full-thickness skin grafts represent a good solution in many situations. Based on their experience of 22 cases, the authors present a review of the various indications for this technique.

  1. Immunogenicity of unprocessed and photooxidized bovine and human osteochondral grafts in collagen-sensitive mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehmann Paul V


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autologous and allogeneic osteochondral grafts have been used to repair damaged or diseased cartilage. There are drawbacks to both of these methods, however. Another possible source for osteochondral grafting is photooxidized xenograft scaffolds. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the adaptive immune response to unprocessed and photooxidized xenogeneic osteochondral grafts in a collagen-sensitive mouse model. Methods Unprocessed and photooxidized bovine and human osteochondral grafts were used. The grafts were implanted subcutaneously in collagen-sensitive DBA/1LacJ mice for four or twelve weeks. ELISPOT assays were conducted with spleen cells to evaluate the number of collagen-specific T cells that produce IL-2, IL-4, IL-5 or IFN-γ. Serum was collected and ELISA assays were performed to determine the titers of collagen-specific and total IgG, IgG1, IgG2a, or IgM antibodies. Histology was conducted on the retrieved osteochondral grafts. Results Results indicated that, with respect to adaptive T cell immunity, the photooxidized bovine grafts, unprocessed human grafts and photooxidized human grafts did not induce a significant response to collagen. The unprocessed bovine grafts, however, were slightly more immunogenic, inducing a weak immune response. With respect to antibody production, the bovine grafts were less immunogenic than the human grafts. Bovine collagen-specific IgG antibodies were not induced by these grafts, but production of IgM after twelve weeks was observed with both the unprocessed and photooxidized bovine grafts. In contrast, photooxidized human osteochondral grafts induced IgG1 and IgG2a antibodies, while the unprocessed human grafts did not. Pre-existing human collagen-specific IgM antibodies were present in all mice, including sham-operated negative controls that did not receive an implant. Histological analysis revealed some degree of fibrous encapsulation and inflammatory infiltrations in both

  2. Characterization of porcine skin as a model for human skin studies using infrared spectroscopic imaging. (United States)

    Kong, Rong; Bhargava, Rohit


    Porcine skin is often considered a substitute for human skin based on morphological and functional data, for example, for transdermal drug diffusion studies. A chemical, structural and temporal characterization of porcine skin in comparison to human skin is not available but will likely improve our understanding of this porcine skin model. Here, we employ Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic imaging to holistically measure chemical species as well as spatial structure as a function of time to characterize porcine skin as a model for human skin. Porcine skin was found to resemble human skin spectroscopically and differences are elucidated. Cryo-prepared fresh porcine skin samples for spectroscopic imaging were found to be stable over time and small variations are observed. Hence, we extended characterization to the use of this model for dynamic processes. In particular, the capacity and stability of this model in transdermal diffusion is examined. The results indicate that porcine skin is likely to be an attractive tool for studying diffusion dynamics of materials in human skin.

  3. The impact of skin grafting on the quality of life and self-esteem of patients with venous leg ulcers. (United States)

    Salomé, Geraldo M; Blanes, Leila; Ferreira, Lydia M


    The assessment of health-related quality of life in patients with venous leg ulcers provides important information for clinical decision making, evaluation of therapeutic benefits, and prediction of survival probabilities. Health-related quality of life and self-esteem were assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and the Rosenberg self-esteem (RSE) scale, respectively, in patients with venous leg ulcers treated with split-thickness skin grafts. One hundred patients with venous leg ulcers and indication for skin grafting were divided into two groups of 50 patients each: the control group (patients who received conservative treatment) and surgery group (patients who received split-thickness skin grafts). Patients in the surgery group reported significantly higher SF-36 scores (better health status) than controls one month after surgery, as well as 90 and 180 days postoperatively (p quality of life and self-esteem in patients with venous leg ulcers than did compression therapy with Unna's boot.

  4. Reduction of mandibular residual ridge after vestibuloplasty. A two-year follow-up study comparing the Edlan flap, mucosal and skin graft operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillerup, Søren; Eriksen, Erik; Solow, B


    Mandibular residual ridge reduction (RRR) after Edlan flap vestibuloplasty, buccal mucosal graft, and split skin graft vestibuloplasty was measured on lateral cephalometric radiographs obtained 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months postsurgery in 50 patients. The ridge reduction was most severe during the im...


    Gao, Yashan; Zan, Tao; Li, Haizhou; Li, Qingfeng


    To study the treatment results of the pre-expanded flaps for scar contracture on face, neck, and joints by comparing with the skin grafts. A total of 240 cases of scar contracture between July 2004 and June 2014 were included in the study by random sampling; skin grafts were used in 120 cases (skin graft group), and pre-expanded flaps in 120 cases (pre-expanded flap group). There was no significant difference in age, sex, injury sites, and disease duration between 2 groups (P>0.05). Re-operation rate and A&F 0-6 quantization score were used to evaluate the treatment results. The patients were followed up 12 to 75 months (mean, 23.47 months) in the skin graft group, and 12 to 61 months (mean, 19.62 months) in the pre-expanded flap group. The re-operation rate of the skin graft group was 72.5% (87/120), and was significantly higher than that of the pre-expanded flap group (19.2%, 23/120) (P=0.000). The re-operation rate of the neck contracture in teenagers was the highest. It was 93.9% in the skin graft group and 35.0% in the pre-expanded flap group. In the patients who did not undergo re-operations, A&F 0-6 quantization score of the skin graft group was 2.85±1.12, and was significantly lower than that of the pre-expanded flap group (5.22±0.74) (t=13.830, P=0.000). Pre-expanded flap for scar contracture on face, neck, and joints has lower re-operation rate and better aesthetic and functional restoration than skin graft. It should be regarded as the preferred method for teenagers.

  6. Bioengineered Corneas Grafted as Alternatives to Human Donor Corneas in Three High‐Risk Patients

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Buznyk, Oleksiy; Pasyechnikova, Nataliya; Islam, M. Mirazul; Iakymenko, Stanislav; Fagerholm, Per; Griffith, May


    .... In this early observational study, we grafted bioengineered corneal implants made from recombinant human collagen and synthetic phosphorylcholine polymer into three patients for whom donor cornea...

  7. Relating friction on the human skin to the hydration and temperature of the skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veijgen, N.K.; Masen, M.A.; Heide, E. van der


    The human skin is constantly in interaction with materials and products. Therefore, skin friction is relevant to all people. In the literature, the frictional properties of the skin have been linked to a large variety of variables, like age, gender and hydration. The present study compares the data

  8. Efficient in vivo gene transfer to xenotransplanted human skin by lentivirus-mediated, but not by AAV-directed, gene delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Maria Vad; Askou, Anne Louise; Dokkedahl, Karin Stenderup

    Skin is an easily accessible organ, and therapeutic gene transfer to skin remains an attractive alternative for treatment of skin diseases. We compared the potential usefulness of various serotypes of recombinant AAV vectors and lentiviral vectors for gene transfer to human skin in a xenotranspla......Skin is an easily accessible organ, and therapeutic gene transfer to skin remains an attractive alternative for treatment of skin diseases. We compared the potential usefulness of various serotypes of recombinant AAV vectors and lentiviral vectors for gene transfer to human skin...... in a xenotransplanted mouse model. Vector constructs encoding firefly luciferase were packaged in AAV capsids of serotype 1, 2, 5, 6, 8, and 9 and separately administered by intradermal injection in human skin transplants. For all serotypes, live bioimaging demonstrated low levels of transgene expression in the human...... skin graft, and firefly luciferase expression was observed primarily in neighboring tissue beneath or surrounding the graft. In contrast, gene delivery by intradermally injected lentiviral vectors was efficient and led to extensive and persistent firefly luciferase expression within the human skin...

  9. Histopathological diagnosis of graft-versus-host disease of the skin: an interobserver comparison. (United States)

    Ziemer, M; Haeusermann, P; Janin, A; Massi, D; Ziepert, M; Wolff, D; Greinix, H; Hillen, U


    Histopathology is an important tool in diagnosing cutaneous graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). Minimum diagnostic criteria for active chronic GvHD have recently been defined. However, they are not specific and their interpretation is dependent on observer judgement. i) to explore interobserver variability in the interpretation of histopathological changes in GvHD, and ii) to analyse the impact of detailed clinical data on histopathological diagnosis of GvHD. Histopathological slides from 15 skin biopsies of GvHD and from dermatoses with histopathologically similar appearance were sent in two phases to four dermatopathologists experienced in cutaneous GvHD in France, Germany, Italy and Switzerland (first round of 'blind' review followed by a second round with complete clinical information provided). Interface dermatitis, especially vacuolar alteration, was the most inconsistently evaluated, particularly in cases with minor alterations. Interestingly, for vacuolar alteration and apoptotic keratinocytes, interobserver variability was lower in the adnexal epithelia than in the interfollicular epidermis. Complete clinical information resulted in increased diagnostic confidence and greater concordance on the final diagnosis, rising from 53% (first round, k = 0.345, fair agreement) to 80% (second round, k = 0.529, moderate agreement). The percentage of correct diagnoses increased from 33.3% to 80%. For the diagnosis of GvHD, histopathological analysis is of importance, but, for correct diagnosis, the correlation of pathological findings with clinical results is crucial. In cases of minor alteration, histopathologists should focus on the interpretation of vacuolar changes and apoptotic keratinocytes, possibly on the adnexal epithelia. © 2013 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  10. Comparison of human and porcine skin for characterization of sunscreens (United States)

    Weigmann, Hans-Jürgen; Schanzer, Sabine; Patzelt, Alexa; Bahaban, Virginie; Durat, Fabienne; Sterry, Wolfram; Lademann, Jürgen


    The universal sun protection factor (USPF) characterizing sunscreen efficacy based on spectroscopically determined data, which were obtained using the tape stripping procedure. The USPF takes into account the complete ultraviolet (UV) spectral range in contrast to the classical sun protection factor (SPF). Until now, the USPF determination has been evaluated only in human skin. However, investigating new filters not yet licensed excludes in vivo investigation on human skin but requires the utilization of a suitable skin model. The penetration behavior and the protection efficacy of 10 commercial sunscreens characterized by USPF were investigated, comparing human and porcine skin. The penetration behavior found for typical UV filter substances is nearly identical for both skin types. The comparison of the USPF obtained for human and porcine skin results in a linear relation between both USPF values with a correlation factor R2=0.98. The results demonstrate the possibility for the use of porcine skin to determine the protection efficacy of sunscreens.

  11. Ultrathin Skin Grafting in Resistant Stable Vitiligo: A Follow-up Study of 8 Years in 370 Patients. (United States)

    Majid, Imran; Imran, Saher


    Ultrathin skin grafting (UTSG) is a tissue grafting technique used in resistant stable vitiligo. To assess long-term follow-up results achieved with UTSG in vitiligo. Over a span of 8 years, a total of 415 patients with stable vitiligo were treated with UTSG at the authors' institute. Retrospective analysis of results achieved in these patients was performed, and primary end points assessed included the extent and quality of repigmentation achieved and adverse effects from the procedure. Results were correlated with the site, morphological type of vitiligo, duration of stability, postprocedure treatment used, and the age and sex of the patient. Follow-up results were available with 554 lesions in 370 patients. Excellent response (≥90% repigmentation) was documented in 78.9% (437/554) lesions whereas 8.67% (48/554) lesions demonstrated poor results. Pigmentation was retained in >98% (112/114) cases over 4-year follow-up. The commonest adverse effect noted was "perigraft halo" in 12.3% (68/554) lesions. Site and morphological type of vitiligo as well as the postoperative use of phototherapy showed statistically significant correlation with response. Age and sex of the patient and duration of stability beyond 1 year did not influence the outcome. Ultrathin skin grafting provides long-term beneficial results in stable resistant vitiligo.

  12. Skin graft secured by VAC (vacuum-assisted closure) therapy in chronic leg ulcers: A controlled randomized study. (United States)

    Leclercq, A; Labeille, B; Perrot, J-L; Vercherin, P; Cambazard, F


    Leg ulcers are a common condition. There have been very few studies of combined therapy involving VAC (vacuum-assisted closure) and skin graft. We performed a randomized controlled trial of VAC therapy vs. hydrocolloid dressings over 5 days following autologous grafting on chronic leg ulcers. The primary objective was to assess the difference in success (defined as a reduction in wound area of at least 50% at 1 month) between the two dressing methods. Forty-six patients with ulcers present for over one month were included. Following a 7-day hospitalization period, follow-up was performed for 3 months on an outpatient basis. Our study does not demonstrate a statistically significant difference, with a 45.8% success rate in the VAC group vs. 40.9% in the conventional dressing group (P=0.73). In the venous ulcer group, the success rate was 57.9% for VAC vs. 40% for conventional dressings (P=0.3). The difference in favor of VAC in this group was not statistically significant, most likely due to an insufficient number of patients studied. Our study does not demonstrate superiority of VAC associated with skin graft over conventional dressings. We observed more complications with VAC (40%) than with conventional dressings (23%) (P=0.06). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Human skin equivalent as an alternative to animal testing


    Mertsching, Heike; Weimer, Michaela; Kersen, Silke; Brunner, Herwig


    The 3-D skin equivalent can be viewed as physiologically comparable to the natural skin and therefore is a suitable alternative for animal testing. This highly differentiated in vitro human skin equivalent is used to assess the efficacy and mode of action of novel agents. This model is generated from primary human keratinocytes on a collagen substrate containing human dermal fibroblasts. It is grown at the air-liquid interface which allows full epidermal stratification and epidermal-dermal in...

  14. Chemical ecology of interactions between human skin microbiota and mosquitoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhulst, N.O.; Takken, W.; Dicke, M.; Schraa, G.; Smallegange, R.C.


    Microbiota on the human skin plays a major role in body odour production. The human microbial and chemical signature displays a qualitative and quantitative correlation. Genes may influence the chemical signature by shaping the composition of the microbiota. Recent studies on human skin microbiota,

  15. A custom tailored model to investigate skin penetration in porcine skin and its comparison with human skin. (United States)

    Herbig, Michael E; Houdek, Pia; Gorissen, Sascha; Zorn-Kruppa, Michaela; Wladykowski, Ewa; Volksdorf, Thomas; Grzybowski, Stephan; Kolios, Georgios; Willers, Christoph; Mallwitz, Henning; Moll, Ingrid; Brandner, Johanna M


    Reliable models for the determination of skin penetration and permeation are important for the development of new drugs and formulations. The intention of our study was to develop a skin penetration model which (1) is viable and well supplied with nutrients during the period of the experiment (2) is mimicking human skin as far as possible, but still is independent from the problems of supply and heterogeneity, (3) can give information about the penetration into different compartments of the skin and (4) considers specific inter-individual differences in skin thickness. In addition, it should be quick and inexpensive (5) and without ethical implications (6). Using a chemically divers set of four topically approved active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), namely diclofenac, metronidazole, tazarotene, and terbinafine, we demonstrated that the model allows reliable determination of drug concentrations in different layers of the viable epidermis and dermis. For APIs susceptible for skin metabolism, the extent of metabolic transformation in epidermis and dermis can be monitored. Furthermore, a high degree of accordance in the ability for discrimination of skin concentrations of the substances in different layers was found in models derived from porcine and human skin. Viability, proliferation, differentiation and markers for skin barrier function were surveyed in the model. This model, which we call 'Hamburg model of skin penetration' is particularly suited to support a rational ranking and selection of dermatological formulations within drug development projects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Hidradenitis Suppurativa: Combined Treatment with Dermal Template, Skin Graft and Negative Pressure Wound Therapy, a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Mata Ribeiro


    Full Text Available Hidrosadenitis supurativa is a chronic inflammatory disease with great physical and psychological impact. Although conservative treatments may be effective in mild forms of the disease, extensive surgical resection and reconstruction are necessary in more severe forms of the disease. The purpose of this paper is to describe our two-stage reconstructive procedure regarding this kind of disease. We present a clinical case of a patient with severe, bilateral axillary hidrosadenitis. In the first surgical step we excised the lesions and applied the artificial dermis secured with negative pressure wound therapy. In the second step we used a split thickness skin graft to close the wound and again applied negative pressure wound therapy. The graft take was very good, without complications. The cosmetic outcome is acceptable and shoulder mobility was not compromised. No recurrence was detected (nine months follow up.

  17. [The clinical use of cryopreserved human skin allografts for transplantation]. (United States)

    Martínez-Flores, Francisco; Chacón-Gómez, María; Madinaveitia-Villanueva, Juan Antonio; Barrera-Lopez, Araceli; Aguirre-Cruz, Lucinda; Querevalu-Murillo, Walter


    The biological recovery of human skin allografts is the gold standard for preservation in Skin Banks. However, there is no worldwide consensus about specific allocation criteria for preserved human skin allografts with living cells. A report is presented on the results of 5 years of experience of using human skin allografts in burned patient in the Skin and Tissue Bank at the "Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitacion" The human skin allografts were obtained from multi-organ donors. processed and preserved at -80 °C for 12 months. Allocation criteria were performed according to blood type match, clinical history, and burned body surface. Up to now, the Skin and Tissue Bank at 'Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitacion" has processed and recovered 125,000 cm(2) of human skin allografts. It has performed 34 surgical implants on 21 burned patients. The average of burn body surface was 59.2%. More than two-thirds (67.7%) of recipients of skin allografts were matched of the same to type blood of the donor, and 66.6% survived after 126 days hospital stay. It is proposed to consider recipient's blood group as allocation criteria to assign tissue; and use human skin allografts on patiens affected with burns over 30% of body surface (according the "rule of the 9"). Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  18. Real-time imaging of suction blistering in human skin using optical coherence tomography (United States)

    Carvalho, Joana C.O.; Palero, Jonathan A.; Jurna, Martin


    Separation of skin epidermis from the dermis by suction blistering has been used with high success rate for autologous skin epidermal grafting in burns, chronic wounds and vitiligo transplantation treatment. Although commercial products that achieve epidermal grafting by suction blistering are presently available, there is still limited knowledge and understanding on the dynamic process of epidermal-dermal separation during suction blistering. In this report we integrated a suction system to an Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) which allowed for the first time, real-time imaging of the suction blistering process in human skin. We describe in this report the evolution of a suction blister where the growth is modeled with a Boltzmann sigmoid function. We further investigated the relationship between onset and steady-state blister times, blister growth rate, applied suction pressure and applied local skin temperature. Our results show that while the blister time is inversely proportional to the applied suction pressure, the relationship between the blister time and the applied temperature is described by an exponential decay. PMID:26713194

  19. Setup for investigating gold nanoparticle penetration through reconstructed skin and comparison to published human skin data (United States)

    Labouta, Hagar I.; Thude, Sibylle; Schneider, Marc


    Owing to the limited source of human skin (HS) and the ethical restrictions of using animals in experiments, in vitro skin equivalents are a possible alternative for conducting particle penetration experiments. The conditions for conducting penetration experiments with model particles, 15-nm gold nanoparticles (AuNP), through nonsealed skin equivalents are described for the first time. These conditions include experimental setup, sterility conditions, effective applied dose determination, skin sectioning, and skin integrity check. Penetration at different exposure times (two and 24 h) and after tissue fixation (fixed versus unfixed skin) are examined to establish a benchmark in comparison to HS in an attempt to get similar results to HS experiments presented earlier. Multiphoton microscopy is used to detect gold luminescence in skin sections. λex=800 nm is used for excitation of AuNP and skin samples, allowing us to determine a relative index for particle penetration. Despite the observed overpredictability of penetration into skin equivalents, they could serve as a first fast screen for testing the behavior of nanoparticles and extrapolate their penetration behavior into HS. Further investigations are required to test a wide range of particles of different physicochemical properties to validate the skin equivalent-human skin particle penetration relationship.

  20. Can dressings soaked with polyhexanide reduce bacterial loads in full-thickness skin grafting? A randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    Saleh, Karim; Sonesson, Andreas; Persson, Kerstin; Riesbeck, Kristian; Schmidtchen, Artur


    Polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB)-based antiseptic solutions can reduce bacterial loads in different clinical settings and are believed to lower risk of infections. We sought to assess the efficacy of a PHMB-based solution in lowering bacterial loads of full-thickness skin grafting wounds and the risk of surgical site infections (SSIs). In this double-blinded clinical trial, 40 patients planned for facial full-thickness skin grafting were randomized 1:1 to receive tie-over dressings soaked with either PHMB-based solution or sterile water. Quantitative and qualitative bacterial analysis was performed on all wounds before surgery, at the end of surgery, and 7 days postoperatively. In addition, all patients were screened for nasal colonization of Staphylococcus aureus. Analysis of wounds showed no statistically significant difference in bacterial reductions between the groups. The SSI rates were significantly higher in the intervention group (8/20) than in the control group (2/20) (P = .028). Higher postoperative bacterial loads were a common finding in SSIs (P = .011). This was more frequent when S aureus was present postoperatively (P = .034), intraoperatively (P = .03), and in patients with intranasal S aureus colonization (P = .007). Assessment of SSIs is largely subjective. In addition, this was a single-center study and the total number of participants was 40. Soaking tie-over dressings with PHMB solution in full-thickness skin grafting had no effect on postoperative bacterial loads and increased the risk of SSI development. The presence of S aureus intranasally and in wounds preoperatively and postoperatively increased postoperative bacterial loads, which in turn resulted in significantly more SSIs. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Balsam-Pear-Skin-Like Porous Polyacrylonitrile Nanofibrous Membranes Grafted with Polyethyleneimine for Postcombustion CO2Capture. (United States)

    Zhang, Yufei; Guan, Jiming; Wang, Xianfeng; Yu, Jianyong; Ding, Bin


    Amine-containing sorbents have been extensively studied for postcombustion carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) capture because of their ability to chemisorb CO 2 from the flue gas. However, most sorbents are in the form of powders currently, which is not the ideal configuration for the flue gas separation because of the fragile nature and poor mechanical properties, resulting in blocking of the flow pipes and difficult recycling. Herein, we present a novel approach for the facile fabrication of flexible, robust, and polyethyleneimine-grafted (PEI-grafted) hydrolyzed porous PAN nanofibrous membranes (HPPAN-PEI NFMs) through the combination of electrospinning, pore-forming process, hydrolysis reaction, and the subsequent grafting technique. Excitingly, we find that all the resultant porous PAN (PPAN) fibers exhibit a balsam-pear-skin-like porous structure due to the selective removal of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) from PAN/PVP fibers by water extraction. Significantly, the HPPAN-PEI NFMs retain their mesoporosity, as well as exhibit good thermal stability and prominent tensile strength (11.1 MPa) after grafting, guaranteeing their application in CO 2 trapping from the flue gas. When exposed to CO 2 at 40 °C, the HPPAN-PEI NFMs show an enhanced CO 2 adsorption capacity of 1.23 mmol g -1 (based on the overall quantity of the sample) or 6.15 mmol g -1 (based on the quantity of grafted PEI). Moreover, the developed HPPAN-PEI NFMs display significantly selective capture for CO 2 over N 2 and excellent recyclability. The CO 2 capacity retains 92% of the initial value after 20 adsorption-desorption cycle tests, indicating that the resultant HPPAN-PEI NFMs have good long-term stability. This work paves the way for fabricating NFM-based solid adsorption materials endowed with a porous structure applied to efficient postcombustion CO 2 capture.

  2. Human age and skin physiology shape diversity and abundance of Archaea on skin. (United States)

    Moissl-Eichinger, Christine; Probst, Alexander J; Birarda, Giovanni; Auerbach, Anna; Koskinen, Kaisa; Wolf, Peter; Holman, Hoi-Ying N


    The human skin microbiome acts as an important barrier protecting our body from pathogens and other environmental influences. Recent investigations have provided evidence that Archaea are a constant but highly variable component of the human skin microbiome, yet factors that determine their abundance changes are unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the abundance of archaea on human skin is influenced by human age and skin physiology by quantitative PCR of 51 different skin samples taken from human subjects of various age. Our results reveal that archaea are more abundant in human subjects either older than 60 years or younger than 12 years as compared to middle-aged human subjects. These results, together with results obtained from spectroscopy analysis, allowed us gain first insights into a potential link of lower sebum levels and lipid content and thus reduced skin moisture with an increase in archaeal signatures. Amplicon sequencing of selected samples revealed the prevalence of specific eury- and mainly thaumarchaeal taxa, represented by a core archaeome of the human skin.

  3. Biogeography and individuality shape function in the human skin metagenome


    Oh, Julia; Byrd, Allyson L.; Deming, Clay; Conlan, Sean; Kong, Heidi H.; Segre, Julia A.


    Summary The varied topography of human skin offers a unique opportunity to study how the body?s microenvironments influence the functional and taxonomic composition of microbial communities. Phylogenetic marker gene-based studies have identified many bacteria and fungi that colonize distinct skin niches. Here, metagenomic analyses of diverse body sites in healthy humans demonstrate that local biogeography and strong individuality define the skin microbiome. We developed a relational analysis ...

  4. In vitro and human testing strategies for skin irritation. (United States)

    Robinson, M K; Osborne, R; Perkins, M A


    Prior to the manufacture, transport, and marketing of chemicals or products, it is critical to assess their potential for skin toxicity (corrosion or irritation), thereby protecting the worker and consumer from adverse skin effects due to intended or accidental skin exposure. Traditionally, animal testing procedures have provided the data needed to assess the more severe forms of skin toxicity, and current regulations may require animal test data before permission can be obtained to manufacture, transport, or market chemicals or the products that contain them. In recent years, the use of animals to assess skin safety has been opposed by some as inhumane and unnecessary. The conflicting needs of the industrial toxicologist to (1) protect human safety, (2) comply with regulations, and (3) reduce animal testing have led to major efforts to develop alternative, yet predictive, test methods. A variety of in vitro skin corrosion test methods have been developed and several have successfully passed initial international validation. These have included skin or epidermal equivalent assays that have been shown to distinguish corrosive from noncorrosive chemicals. These skin/epidermal equivalent assays have also been modified and used to assess skin irritation potential relative to existing human exposure test data. The data show a good correlation between in vitro assay data and different types of human skin irritation data for both chemicals and consumer products. The effort to eliminate animal tests has also led to the development of a novel human patch test for assessment of acute skin irritation potential. A case study shows the benefits of in vitro and human skin irritation tests compared to the animal tests they seek to replace, and strategies now exist to adequately assess human skin irritation potential without the need to rely on animal test methods.

  5. Late Complication after Superficial Femoral Artery (SFA) Aneurysm: Stent-graft Expulsion Outside the Skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pecoraro, Felice, E-mail:; Sabatino, Ermanno R.; Dinoto, Ettore; Rosa, Giuliana La; Corte, Giuseppe; Bajardi, Guido [University of Palermo, Vascular Surgery Unit (Italy)


    A 78-year-old man presented with a 7-cm aneurysm in the left superficial femoral artery, which was considered unfit and anatomically unsuitable for conventional open surgery for multiple comorbidities. The patient was treated with stent-graft [Viabhan stent-graft (WL Gore and Associates, Flagstaff, AZ)]. Two years from stent-graft implantation, the patient presented a purulent secretion and a spontaneous external expulsion through a fistulous channel. No claudication symptoms or hemorrhagic signs were present. The pus and device cultures were positive for Staphylococcus aureus sensitive to piperacillin/tazobactam. Patient management consisted of fistula drainage, systemic antibiotic therapy, and daily wound dressing. At 1-month follow-up, the wound was closed. To our knowledge, this is the first case of this type of stent-graft complication presenting with external expulsion.

  6. Molecular cartography of the human skin surface in 3D (United States)

    Bouslimani, Amina; Porto, Carla; Rath, Christopher M.; Wang, Mingxun; Guo, Yurong; Gonzalez, Antonio; Berg-Lyon, Donna; Ackermann, Gail; Moeller Christensen, Gitte Julie; Nakatsuji, Teruaki; Zhang, Lingjuan; Borkowski, Andrew W.; Meehan, Michael J.; Dorrestein, Kathleen; Gallo, Richard L.; Bandeira, Nuno; Knight, Rob; Alexandrov, Theodore; Dorrestein, Pieter C.


    The human skin is an organ with a surface area of 1.5–2 m2 that provides our interface with the environment. The molecular composition of this organ is derived from host cells, microbiota, and external molecules. The chemical makeup of the skin surface is largely undefined. Here we advance the technologies needed to explore the topographical distribution of skin molecules, using 3D mapping of mass spectrometry data and microbial 16S rRNA amplicon sequences. Our 3D maps reveal that the molecular composition of skin has diverse distributions and that the composition is defined not only by skin cells and microbes but also by our daily routines, including the application of hygiene products. The technological development of these maps lays a foundation for studying the spatial relationships of human skin with hygiene, the microbiota, and environment, with potential for developing predictive models of skin phenotypes tailored to individual health. PMID:25825778

  7. Molecular cartography of the human skin surface in 3D. (United States)

    Bouslimani, Amina; Porto, Carla; Rath, Christopher M; Wang, Mingxun; Guo, Yurong; Gonzalez, Antonio; Berg-Lyon, Donna; Ackermann, Gail; Moeller Christensen, Gitte Julie; Nakatsuji, Teruaki; Zhang, Lingjuan; Borkowski, Andrew W; Meehan, Michael J; Dorrestein, Kathleen; Gallo, Richard L; Bandeira, Nuno; Knight, Rob; Alexandrov, Theodore; Dorrestein, Pieter C


    The human skin is an organ with a surface area of 1.5-2 m(2) that provides our interface with the environment. The molecular composition of this organ is derived from host cells, microbiota, and external molecules. The chemical makeup of the skin surface is largely undefined. Here we advance the technologies needed to explore the topographical distribution of skin molecules, using 3D mapping of mass spectrometry data and microbial 16S rRNA amplicon sequences. Our 3D maps reveal that the molecular composition of skin has diverse distributions and that the composition is defined not only by skin cells and microbes but also by our daily routines, including the application of hygiene products. The technological development of these maps lays a foundation for studying the spatial relationships of human skin with hygiene, the microbiota, and environment, with potential for developing predictive models of skin phenotypes tailored to individual health.

  8. Histologic evaluation of connective tissue grafts in humans. (United States)

    Harris, Randall J


    The goal of this study was to evaluate the histologic composition of connective tissue grafts removed from the area palatal of the first molar through the premolars. In spite of attempts to remove the epithelium, it remained in 24 of 30 grafts (80%). The incisal portion of the connective tissue graft was comprised of lamina propria. The mean depth of the lamina propria was 3.2 mm (65.2% of the graft). Apical to the lamina propria was the submucosa, which was primarily composed of adipose tissue. The mean depth of the submucosa was 2.0 mm (34.8% of the graft). There was no statistically significant difference in the composition of the grafts based on smoking or age. The grafts were successful in producing root coverage. There were 27 patients with Class I or II recession defects in this study; this group had a mean root coverage of 97.9%. This study demonstrated that most connective tissue grafts are not uniform in composition and quite often contain some epithelium. However, all of the grafts were clinically usable and produced a clinically successful result.

  9. N-acetyltransferase in human skin and keratinocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, Tanja; Bonifas, Jutta; Wiegman, Marjon; Pas, Hendrikus; Blömeke, Brunhilde; Coenraads, Pieter Jan; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise

    Background: N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) mediated Nacetylation in human skin and keratinocytes is an important detoxification pathway for aromatic amines including the strong sensitizer para-phenylenediamine (PPD), an important component of oxidative hair dyes. Objectives: Human skin and

  10. Histamine suppresses epidermal keratinocyte differentiation and impairs skin barrier function in a human skin model


    Gschwandtner, M; Mildner, M.; Mlitz, V; Gruber, F; Eckhart, L; Werfel, T.; Gutzmer, R.; Elias, P M; Tschachler, E.


    Background Defects in keratinocyte differentiation and skin barrier are important features of inflammatory skin diseases like atopic dermatitis. Mast cells and their main mediator histamine are abundant in inflamed skin and thus may contribute to disease pathogenesis. Methods Human primary keratinocytes were cultured under differentiation-promoting conditions in the presence and absence of histamine, histamine receptor agonists and antagonists. The expression of differentiation-associated gen...

  11. Antioxidant capacity of 3D human skin EpiDerm model: effects of skin moisturizers. (United States)

    Grazul-Bilska, A T; Bilski, J J; Redmer, D A; Reynolds, L P; Abdullah, K M; Abdullah, A


    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of skin moisturizers on total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of human skin using EpiDerm model. Three different skin moisturizers containing antioxidant ingredients (samples 1-3) or aloe vera extract were topically applied to EpiDerm units and incubated for 2 and 24 h to determine acute and longer-term effects of applied samples on TAC and glutathione peroxidase activity in medium and/or homogenized skin tissues. Total antioxidant capacity in medium and skin homogenates was enhanced (P affect TAC. Glutathione peroxidase activity was enhanced (P < 0.0001) in medium and skin homogenates by sample 2 but not by any other sample. These data demonstrate high potential of gel and cream (samples 2 and 3) containing antioxidant ingredients in enhancing antioxidant capacity of EpiDerm which will likely contribute to overall skin health. Results of this experiment will help to better understand mechanisms of effects of skin moisturizers containing antioxidant ingredients on skin function at the tissue level and to establish effective strategies for skin protection and clinical treatments of skin disorders and possibly healing wounds.

  12. Multiphoton STED and FRET in human skin: Resolving the skin barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonescu, Irina; Dreier, Jes; Brewer, Jonathan R.

    excited STED and Forster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) microscopy to probe the structure of human skin. Super resolution optical microscopy enables resolving structures in the skin below to 60 nm allowing visualization of the stratum corneum intercellular lipid matrix and individual proteins...

  13. Modelling and verification of melanin concentration on human skin type

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Karsten, AE


    Full Text Available /or in vitro and elucidated the melanosomal differences between 5 the different skin types. Meinhardt et al (9) measured the absorption spectra of in vivo human 6 skin from the lighter skin types before and after exposure to natural UV radiation, while Wan 7... et al (10) measured the epidermal (including the Stratum corneum) transmittance of in vitro 8 light and dark coloured human skin over the UVA, UVB and visible wavelength ranges. 9 None of these studies however specifically determined epidermal...

  14. Short- and long-term outcomes of small auto- and cryopreserved allograft skin grafting in those with >60%TBSA deep burn wounds. (United States)

    Shizhao, Ji; Yongjun, Zheng; Lisen, Zhang; Pengfei, Luo; Xiaopeng, Zheng; Guangyi, Wang; Shihui, Zhu; Xiaoyan, Hu; Shichu, Xiao; Zhaofan, Xia


    The shortage of autologous skin sources not only adds difficulty to the repair of extremely large-area deep burn wounds but affects the healing quality. The aim of the present study is to explore an ideal method for repairing large-areas burn wounds with low scar formation. Between 2002 and 2014, we used grafting of small auto- and cryopreserved allo-skin to repair large-area residual burn wounds in wounds after 21 days 21 patients, and after early excision in 17 patients. The wound healing rate and quality were observed. The skin expansion rate was 1:9-1:16, and the mean area of wounds repaired after three weeks was 64.8±7.3%TBSA, the wound healing rate was 91.8±3.7%. The mean area of the early excision group was 65.9±9.8 TBSA, where the healing rate was 94.5±5.6%. After small auto- and cryopreserved allograft skin grafting, the epidermis of the auto-skin gradually replaced the allo-epidermis, and the allo-dermis persisted for a prolonged period. The dermal collagen fibers at the allo-skin grafting sites were well arranged. At 1-2-year follow-up, observation showed that the Vancouver Scar Scale total score was 4·304±2·363, and we did not discern significant contracture and dysfunction in the large joints of the four extremities. Small auto- and cryopreserved allograft skin grafting of small auto- and allo-skin not only raised the graft expansion rate but offers a stable wound healing rate. This new technique may provide an option for repair of large-area deep burn wounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  15. A Simple Strategy in Avulsion Flap Injury: Prediction of Flap Viability Using Wood's Lamp Illumination and Resurfacing with a Full-thickness Skin Graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyoseob Lim


    Full Text Available Background Extensive degloving injuries of the extremities usually result in necrosis of the flap, necessitating comprehensive skin grafting. Provided there is a sufficient tool to evaluate flap viability, full-thickness skin can be used from a nonviable avulsed flap. We used a Wood's lamp to determine the viability of avulsed flaps in the operation field after intravenous injection of fluorescein dye. Methods We experienced 13 cases during 16 months. Fifteen minutes after the intravenous injection of fluorescein dye, the avulsed skin flaps were examined and non-fluorescent areas were marked under Wood's lamp illumination. The marked area was defatted for full-thickness skin grafting. The fluorescent areas were sutured directly without tension. The non-fluorescent areas were covered by defatted skin. Several days later, there was soft tissue necrosis within the flap area. We measured necrotic area and revised the flap. Results Among all the cases, necrotic area was 21.3% of the total avulsed area. However, if we exclude three cases, one of a carelessly managed patient and two cases of the flaps were inappropriately applied, good results were obtained, with a necrotic area of only 8.4%. Eight patients needed split-thickness skin grafts, and heel pad reconstruction was performed with free flap. Conclusions A full-thickness skin graft from an avulsed flap is a good method for addressing aesthetic concerns without producing donor site morbidity. Fluorescein dye is a useful, simple, and cost-effective tool for evaluating flap viability. Avulsed flap injuries can be managed well with Wood's lamp illumination and a full-thickness skin graft.

  16. Adaptation of human skin color in various populations. (United States)

    Deng, Lian; Xu, Shuhua


    Skin color is a well-recognized adaptive trait and has been studied extensively in humans. Understanding the genetic basis of adaptation of skin color in various populations has many implications in human evolution and medicine. Impressive progress has been made recently to identify genes associated with skin color variation in a wide range of geographical and temporal populations. In this review, we discuss what is currently known about the genetics of skin color variation. We enumerated several cases of skin color adaptation in global modern humans and archaic hominins, and illustrated why, when, and how skin color adaptation occurred in different populations. Finally, we provided a summary of the candidate loci associated with pigmentation, which could be a valuable reference for further evolutionary and medical studies. Previous studies generally indicated a complex genetic mechanism underlying the skin color variation, expanding our understanding of the role of population demographic history and natural selection in shaping genetic and phenotypic diversity in humans. Future work is needed to dissect the genetic architecture of skin color adaptation in numerous ethnic minority groups around the world, which remains relatively obscure compared with that of major continental groups, and to unravel the exact genetic basis of skin color adaptation.

  17. Three donor site dressings in pediatric split-thickness skin grafts: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. (United States)

    McBride, Craig A; Kimble, Roy M; Stockton, Kellie


    For children requiring split-thickness skin grafting for burn injury, the optimum donor site dressing is an ongoing subject of debate. The most common dressings in use, both regionally and worldwide, are calcium alginates. We will compare an alginate with two other dressings, all of which are in current use in the Pegg Leditschke Paediatric Burns Centre (PLPBC), to determine which dressing performs the best. This is a randomised, prospective single center parallel three-arm trial comparing three donor site wound (DSW) dressings: Algisite™ M, a calcium alginate dressing; Cuticerin™, a smooth acetate gauze impregnated with water-repellent ointment (petrolatum, paraffin and Eucerite®) and Sorbact®, a gauze mesh coated with a dialkylcarbamoyl chloride (DACC) and amorphous hydrogel. Primary outcomes are days to complete DSW healing, and pain. Previously validated measures will be used for all outcomes. Secondary outcomes are: itch; scar appearance at three, six and 12 months; ease of dressing application and removal and dressing costs and utility. Results will be analysed on an intention-to-treat basis. Donor site thickness will be measured with a small biopsy from the center of the graft, to document the depth of the DSW across the groups. This study will provide comprehensive short- and long-term data on DSW dressings in pediatric split-thickness skin grafting. The best-performing dressing will become the preferred dressing for the PLPBC. We will provide rigorous data against which other dressings can be compared in future, recognising that alginates are the most common DSW dressing currently in use. Our study design replicates a real-world scenario in order to identify clinically significant differences between the three dressings. This trial was prospectively registered on 8 April 2014 with the Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (identifier: ACTRN12614000380695 ).

  18. Using infrared and Raman microspectroscopies to compare ex vivo involved psoriatic skin with normal human skin (United States)

    Leroy, Marie; Lefèvre, Thierry; Pouliot, Roxane; Auger, Michèle; Laroche, Gaétan


    Psoriasis is a chronic dermatosis that affects around 3% of the world's population. The etiology of this autoimmune pathology is not completely understood. The barrier function of psoriatic skin is known to be strongly altered, but the structural modifications at the origin of this dysfunction are not clear. To develop strategies to reduce symptoms of psoriasis or adequate substitutes for modeling, a deep understanding of the organization of psoriatic skin at a molecular level is required. Infrared and Raman microspectroscopies have been used to obtain direct molecular-level information on psoriatic and healthy human skin biopsies. From the intensities and positions of specific vibrational bands, the lipid and protein distribution and the lipid order have been mapped in the different layers of the skin. Results showed a similar distribution of lipids and collagen for normal and psoriatic human skin. However, psoriatic skin is characterized by heterogeneity in lipid/protein composition at the micrometer scale, a reduction in the definition of skin layer boundaries and a decrease in lipid chain order in the stratum corneum as compared to normal skin. A global decrease of the structural organization is exhibited in psoriatic skin that is compatible with an alteration of its barrier properties.

  19. Influence of different cosmetic formulations on the human skin barrier. (United States)

    Heinrich, K; Heinrich, U; Tronnier, H


    The human skin barrier is an important part of the skin's intactness and its functionality is a precondition for healthy skin. Ingredients in cosmetic formulations, especially penetration enhancers, can influence this barrier function as they transport active agents into deeper skin layers. In this study different cosmetic formulations were tested by 60 healthy female volunteers over a period of 4 weeks. The skin hydration and barrier function before and during the application were measured. Significant changes in both parameters were determined. A negative influence on the barrier function by penetration enhancers could be observed, but it was also found that lamellar lipid structures (DermaMembranSysteme®, DMS®) are able to enhance the skin barrier. Both penetration enhancers as well as DMS can increase skin hydration. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. The immunology of the porcine skin and its value as a model for human skin. (United States)

    Summerfield, Artur; Meurens, François; Ricklin, Meret E


    The porcine skin has striking similarities to the human skin in terms of general structure, thickness, hair follicle content, pigmentation, collagen and lipid composition. This has been the basis for numerous studies using the pig as a model for wound healing, transdermal delivery, dermal toxicology, radiation and UVB effects. Considering that the skin also represents an immune organ of utmost importance for health, immune cells present in the skin of the pig will be reviewed. The focus of this review is on dendritic cells, which play a central role in the skin immune system as they serve as sentinels in the skin, which offers a large surface area exposed to the environment. Based on a literature review and original data we propose a classification of porcine dendritic cell subsets in the skin corresponding to the subsets described in the human skin. The equivalent of the human CD141(+) DC subset is CD1a(-)CD4(-)CD172a(-)CADM1(high), that of the CD1c(+) subset is CD1a(+)CD4(-)CD172a(+)CADM1(+/low), and porcine plasmacytoid dendritic cells are CD1a(-)CD4(+)CD172a(+)CADM1(-). CD209 and CD14 could represent markers of inflammatory monocyte-derived cells, either dendritic cells or macrophages. Future studies for example using transriptomic analysis of sorted populations are required to confirm the identity of these cells. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Tactile-direction-sensitive and stretchable electronic skins based on human-skin-inspired interlocked microstructures. (United States)

    Park, Jonghwa; Lee, Youngoh; Hong, Jaehyung; Lee, Youngsu; Ha, Minjeong; Jung, Youngdo; Lim, Hyuneui; Kim, Sung Youb; Ko, Hyunhyub


    Stretchable electronic skins with multidirectional force-sensing capabilities are of great importance in robotics, prosthetics, and rehabilitation devices. Inspired by the interlocked microstructures found in epidermal-dermal ridges in human skin, piezoresistive interlocked microdome arrays are employed for stress-direction-sensitive, stretchable electronic skins. Here we show that these arrays possess highly sensitive detection capability of various mechanical stimuli including normal, shear, stretching, bending, and twisting forces. Furthermore, the unique geometry of interlocked microdome arrays enables the differentiation of various mechanical stimuli because the arrays exhibit different levels of deformation depending on the direction of applied forces, thus providing different sensory output patterns. In addition, we show that the electronic skins attached on human skin in the arm and wrist areas are able to distinguish various mechanical stimuli applied in different directions and can selectively monitor different intensities and directions of air flows and vibrations.

  2. In-vivo spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements of human skin (United States)

    Chan, Danny; Schulz, Benjamin; Ruebhausen, Michael


    Human skin can be described as a layered biological tissue. Knowledge of the behaviour of the optical properties of skin across the layers is limited. We describe an ellipsometric setup for spectrally resolved in-vivo measurements of human skin and show measurements of the complex refractive index N=n+ik of the finger of several volunteers over a range from 330 to 780 nm. A tapestripping study of human skin reveals the profile of the complex refractive index extracted from a simple bulk model over the stratum corneum. Fits of the evolution of n and k to an exponential function show that after approximately five strips a steady state is reached. A refined model applying an effective medium approximation accounting for surface roughness describes the development of the ellipsometric parameter Ψ in terms of the skin's increased water content with deeper depth of the measured layer.

  3. Measurement of interstitial cetirizine concentrations in human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Jelstrup; Church, M K; Rihoux, J P


    BACKGROUND: The purpose of the present study was to measure the concentrations of cetirizine in the extracellular water compartment in intact human skin and assess simultaneously inhibition of histamine-induced wheal and flare reactions. METHODS: Skin cetirizine levels were collected by the micro...

  4. Variables influencing the frictional behaviour of in vivo human skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veijgen, N.K.; Masen, Marc Arthur; van der Heide, Emile


    In the past decades, skin friction research has focused on determining which variables are important to affect the frictional behaviour of in vivo human skin. Until now, there is still limited knowledge on these variables. This study has used a large dataset to identify the effect of variables on

  5. Comparison of the Skin Penetration of 3 Metabolically Stable Chemicals Using Fresh and Frozen Human Skin. (United States)

    Jacques-Jamin, Carine; Duplan, Hélène; Rothe, Helga; Vaillant, Ophelie; Eilstein, Joan; Grégoire, Sebastien; Cubberley, Richard; Lange, Daniela; Ellison, Corie; Klaric, Martina; Hewitt, Nicola; Schepky, Andreas


    The Cosmetics Europe ADME Task Force is developing in vitro and in silico tools for predicting skin and systemic concentrations after topical application of cosmetic ingredients. There are conflicting reports as to whether the freezing process affects the penetration of chemicals; therefore, we evaluated whether the storage of human skin used in our studies (8-12 weeks at -20°C) affected the penetration of model chemicals. Finite doses of trans-cinnamic acid (TCA), benzoic acid (BA), and 6-methylcoumarin (6MC) (non-volatile, non-protein reactive and metabolically stable in skin) were applied to fresh and thawed frozen skin from the same donors. The amounts of chemicals in different skin compartments were analysed after 24 h. Although there were some statistical differences in some parameters for 1 or 2 donors, the penetration of TCA, BA, and 6MC was essentially the same in fresh and frozen skin, i.e., there were no biologically relevant differences in penetration values. Statistical differences that were evident indicated that penetration was marginally lower in frozen than in fresh skin, indicating that the barrier function of the skin was not lost. The penetration of the 3 chemicals was essentially unaffected by freezing the skin at -20°C for up to 12 weeks. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Aplasia cutis congenita--plastic reconstruction of three scalp and skull defects with two opposed scalp rotation flaps and split thickness skin grafting. (United States)

    Schnabl, S M; Horch, R E; Ganslandt, O; Schroth, M; Dragu, A; Bach, A D; Kneser, U


    Aplasia cutis congenita (ACC) is a rare congenital defect of skin and subcutaneous tissue, more rarely of periosteum, skull and dura. The lesions can involve any location, but most common are scalp defects. We report on the successful treatment of three large defects of the scalp with skull involvement in a newborn girl by early debridement and defect closure with two opposed scalp rotation flaps and an occipital split-thickness skin graft.

  7. Reproducible pattern of microRNA in normal human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Line; Kaczkowski, Bogumil; Gniadecki, Robert


    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis via specific targeting of messenger RNA (mRNA). Aberrant mRNA expression contributes to pathological processes such as carcinogenesis. To take advantage of miRNA profiling in skin disease it is essential to investigate miRNA...... expression pattern in normal human skin. Here we investigated miRNA expression profiles from skin biopsies of 8 healthy volunteers taken from sun protected and mildly photo damaged skin using the modified protocol for miRNA extraction. We were able to show a constant pattern of miRNA expression between...... different individuals. We did not find any significant differences in miRNA expression between sun protected and mildly photodamaged skin. These results may be valuable for future design of studies on miRNA expression in skin disease....

  8. Effect of Different Skin Penetration Promoters in Halobetasol Propionate Permeation and Retention in Human Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Carvajal-Vidal


    Full Text Available Halobetasol propionate (HB is a potent synthetic corticosteroid used against inflammatory skin diseases, such as dermatitis, eczema, and psoriasis, among others. The aim of this study is to define how the presence of different skin penetration enhancers (nonane, menthone, limonene, azone, carene, decanol, linoleic acid and cetiol affects the penetration and retention in skin of HB. To determine drug penetration through skin, 5% of each promoter was used in an ex vivo system with human skin on Franz cells. The results showed that the highest permeation occurs in the presence of menthone, followed by nonane. Permeation parameters were determined. The in vivo test was assessed, and the formulation containing HB-menthone presented better anti-inflammatory efficacy. These results are useful to generate a specific treatment according to each patient’s needs, and the inflammatory characteristics of the disease.

  9. Preliminary characterization of human skin microbiome in healthy Egyptian individuals. (United States)

    Ramadan, M; Solyman, S; Taha, M; Hanora, A


    Human skin is a large, complex ecosystem that harbors diverse microbial communities. The rapid advances in molecular techniques facilitate the exploration of skin associated bacterial populations. The objective of this study was to perform a preliminary characterization of skin associated bacterial populations in Egyptian individuals. Samples were collected from five healthy subjects from two skin sites; Antecubital Fossa (AF) and Popliteal Fossa (PF). Genomic DNA was extracted and used to amplify bacterial 16S rRNA genes which were sequenced on Illumina MiSeq platform. The two sites showed distinct diversity where PF was more diverse than AF. Taxonomic analysis of sequences revealed four main phyla Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Deinococcus-Thermus, with Proteobacteria presenting the highest diversity. Klebsiella, Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Escherichia were the most predominant genera. Our data suggest that environmental factors can shape the composition of the skin microbiome in certain geographical regions. This study presents a new insight for subsequent analyses of human microbiome in Egypt.

  10. Functional and cosmetic outcome of full- versus split-thickness skin grafts in pediatric palmar surface burns: a prospective, independent evaluation. (United States)

    Chan, Queenie E; Barzi, Federica; Harvey, John G; Holland, Andrew J A


    Palmar hand burns continue to be a common injury in the pediatric population, with long-term implications for function, hand rehabilitation, and psychosocial well-being in a growing child. Debate over the choice of full-thickness skin grafts (FTSG) and split skin grafts (SSG) for optimal subsequent functional and cosmetic outcomes continues. This study prospectively evaluated children who required skin grafting of palmar burns at our institution between January 2008 and December 2009. A clinical assessment of the grafted area and donor site using the Vancouver Scar Scale, together with assessment of sensation, hair growth, and the development of contracture was performed by an independent clinician. Thirty-four (16%) of 214 palm burns that presented to our institution during this period required grafting, of which 26 (77%) agreed to participate in this study. At a mean 13.5 months postsurgery, pliability was significantly enhanced in FTSG compared with SSG (P burns after FTSG, although with the exception of scar pliability these differences were small.

  11. Decreasing Skin Graft Contraction through Topical Wound Bed Preparation with Anti-Inflammatory Agents (United States)


    Wound healing -Contraction ACCOMPLISHMENTS What were the major goals of the project? Develop treatments that modulate inflammation and decrease...subjective observation and objective analysis using the Silhouette Star® we found that modulating the wound at day 3 (late treatment ) lead to...for all treatment groups, Indomethacin treated wounds had the worse graft survival (90.37%) at day 14 (Figure 1). Interestingly, other Indomethacin

  12. Tribological behaviour of skin equivalents and ex-vivo human skin against the material components of artificial turf in sliding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales Hurtado, Marina; Peppelman, P.; Zeng, Xiangqiong; van Erp, P.E.J.; van der Heide, Emile


    This research aims to analyse the interaction of three artificial skin equivalents and human skin against the main material components of artificial turf. The tribological performance of Lorica, Silicone Skin L7350 and a recently developed Epidermal Skin Equivalent (ESE) were studied and compared to

  13. Vehicle effects on human stratum corneum absorption and skin penetration. (United States)

    Zhang, Alissa; Jung, Eui-Chang; Zhu, Hanjiang; Zou, Ying; Hui, Xiaoying; Maibach, Howard


    This study evaluated the effects of three vehicles-ethanol (EtOH), isopropyl alcohol (IPA), and isopropyl myristate (IPM)-on stratum corneum (SC) absorption and diffusion of the [(14)C]-model compounds benzoic acid and butenafine hydrochloride to better understand the transport pathways of chemicals passing through and resident in SC. Following application of topical formulations to human dermatomed skin for 30 min, penetration flux was observed for 24 h post dosing, using an in vitro flow-through skin diffusion system. Skin absorption and penetration was compared to the chemical-SC (intact, delipidized, or SC lipid film) binding levels. A significant vehicle effect was observed for chemical skin penetration and SC absorption. IPA resulted in the greatest levels of intact SC/SC lipid absorption, skin penetration, and total skin absorption/penetration of benzoic acid, followed by IPM and EtOH, respectively. For intact SC absorption and total skin absorption/penetration of butenafine, the vehicle that demonstrated the highest level of sorption/penetration was EtOH, followed by IPA and IPM, respectively. The percent doses of butenafine that were absorbed in SC lipid film and penetrated through skin in 24 h were greatest for IPA, followed by EtOH and IPM, respectively. The vehicle effect was consistent between intact SC absorption and total chemical skin absorption and penetration, as well as SC lipid absorption and chemical penetration through skin, suggesting intercellular transport as a main pathway of skin penetration for model chemicals. These results suggest the potential to predict vehicle effects on skin permeability with simple SC absorption assays. As decontamination was applied 30 min after chemical exposure, significant vehicle effects on chemical SC partitioning and percutaneous penetration also suggest that skin decontamination efficiency is vehicle dependent, and an effective decontamination method should act on chemical solutes in the lipid domain.

  14. Biofilm formation by staphylococci on fresh, fresh-frozen and processed human and bovine bone grafts. (United States)

    Clauss, M; Tafin, U F; Bizzini, A; Trampuz, A; Ilchmann, T


    Biofilm formation is a multi-step process influenced by surface properties. We investigated early and mature biofilm of Staphylococcus aureus on 4 different biological calcium phosphate (CaP) bone grafts used for filling bone defects. We investigated standardised cylinders of fresh and fresh-frozen human bone grafts were harvested from femoral heads; processed humanand bovine bone grafts were obtained preformed. Biofilm formation was done in tryptic soy broth (TSB) using S. aureus (ATCC 29213) with static conditions. Biofilm density after 3 h (early biofilm) and 24 h (mature biofilm) was investigated by sonication and microcalorimetry. After 3 h, bacterial density was highest on fresh-frozenandfresh bone grafts. After 24 h, biofilm density was lowest on freshbone grafts (p  0.05). The lowest increase in bacterial density was detected on fresh bone grafts (p bone grafts showed minor structural differences in architecture but marked differences concerning serum coverage and the content of bone marrow, fibrous tissue and bone cells. These variations resulted in a decreased biofilm density on freshand fresh-frozenbone grafts after 24 h, despite an increased early biofilm formation and might also be responsible for the variations in colony morphology (small colonies). Detection of small colony variants by microcalorimetry might be a new approach to improve the understanding of biofilm formation.

  15. Histamine suppresses epidermal keratinocyte differentiation and impairs skin barrier function in a human skin model (United States)

    Gschwandtner, M; Mildner, M; Mlitz, V; Gruber, F; Eckhart, L; Werfel, T; Gutzmer, R; Elias, P M; Tschachler, E


    Background Defects in keratinocyte differentiation and skin barrier are important features of inflammatory skin diseases like atopic dermatitis. Mast cells and their main mediator histamine are abundant in inflamed skin and thus may contribute to disease pathogenesis. Methods Human primary keratinocytes were cultured under differentiation-promoting conditions in the presence and absence of histamine, histamine receptor agonists and antagonists. The expression of differentiation-associated genes and epidermal junction proteins was quantified by real-time PCR, Western blot, and immunofluorescence labeling. The barrier function of human skin models was tested by the application of biotin as tracer molecule. Results The addition of histamine to human keratinocyte cultures and organotypic skin models reduced the expression of the differentiation-associated proteins keratin 1/10, filaggrin, and loricrin by 80–95%. Moreover, the addition of histamine to skin models resulted in the loss of the granular layer and thinning of the epidermis and stratum corneum by 50%. The histamine receptor H1R agonist, 2-pyridylethylamine, suppressed keratinocyte differentiation to the same extent as did histamine. Correspondingly, cetirizine, an antagonist of H1R, virtually abrogated the effect of histamine. The expression of tight junction proteins zona occludens-1, occludin, claudin-1, and claudin-4, as well as that of desmosomal junction proteins corneodesmosin and desmoglein-1, was down-regulated by histamine. The tracer molecule biotin readily penetrated the tight junction barrier of skin cultures grown in the presence of histamine, while their diffusion was completely blocked in nontreated controls. Conclusions Our findings suggest a new mechanism by which mast cell activation and histamine release contribute to skin barrier defects in inflammatory skin diseases. PMID:23157658

  16. The Effects of Aloe Vera Cream on Split-thickness Skin Graft Donor Site Management: A Randomized, Blinded, Placebo-controlled Study . (United States)

    Khorasani, Ghasemali; Ahmadi, Ali; Jalal Hosseinimehr, Seyed; Ahmadi, Amirhossein; Taheri, Ahmadreza; Fathi, Hamidreza


     Purpose. Split-thickness skin graft donor site management is an important patient comfort issue. The present study examined the effects of aloe vera cream compared to placebo cream and gauze dressing on the rates of wound healing and infection at the donor site. Forty-five patients were enrolled in this randomized clinical trial and divided into three groups: control (without topical agent), placebo (base cream without aloe vera), and aloe vera cream groups. All patients underwent split-thickness skin grafting for various reasons, and the skin graft donor site wounds were covered with single-layer gauze without any topical agent, with aloe vera, or with placebo cream. The donor sites were assessed daily postoperatively until complete healing was achieved. Mean time to complete re-epithelization was 17 ± 8.6, 9.7 ± 2.9, and 8.8 ± 2.8 days for control, aloe vera, and placebo groups, respectively. Mean wound healing time in the control group was significantly different from the aloe vera and placebo groups (P aloe vera and placebo groups. This study showed a significantly shorter wound care time for skin graft donor sites in patients who were treated with aloe vera and placebo creams. The moist maintenance effect of these creams may contribute to wound healing.

  17. Outcomes of skin graft reconstructions with the use of Vacuum Assisted Closure (VAC® dressing for irradiated extremity sarcoma defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Craig H


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flaps are currently the predominant method of reconstruction for irradiated wounds. The usefulness of split-thickness skin grafts (STSG in this setting remains controversial. The purpose of this study is to examine the outcomes of STSGs in conjunction with VAC therapy used in the treatment of irradiated extremity wounds. Methods The records of 17 preoperatively radiated patients with extremity sarcomas reconstructed with STSGs in conjunction with VAC® therapy were reviewed regarding details of radiation treatment, wound closure, and outcomes. Results STSGs healed without complications (>95% of the graft take in 12 (71%. Minor loss (6% – 20% surface was noted in 3 patients (17.6% and complete loss in 2 (11.7%. Two patients (11.7% required flap reconstructions and 12 (88% healed without further operative procedures. Conclusion Although flap coverage is an established treatment for radiated wounds, STSG in conjunction with liberal utilization of VAC therapy is an alternative for selected patients where acceptable soft tissue bed is preserved. Healing of the preoperatively radiated wounds can be achieved in the vast majority of such patients with minimal need for additional reconstructive operations.

  18. Luminescent and transparent nanopaper based on rare-earth up-converting nanoparticle grafted nanofibrillated cellulose derived from garlic skin. (United States)

    Zhao, Jingpeng; Wei, Zuwu; Feng, Xin; Miao, Miao; Sun, Lining; Cao, Shaomei; Shi, Liyi; Fang, Jianhui


    Highly flexible, transparent, and luminescent nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) nanopaper with heterogeneous network, functionalized by rare-earth up-converting luminescent nanoparticles (UCNPs), was rapidly synthesized by using a moderate pressure extrusion paper-making process. NFC was successfully prepared from garlic skin using an efficient extraction approach combined with high frequency ultrasonication and high pressure homogenization after removing the noncellulosic components. An efficient epoxidation treatment was carried out to enhance the activity of the UCNPs (NaYF4:Yb,Er) with oleic acid ligand capped on the surface. The UCNPs after epoxidation then reacted with NFC in aqueous medium to form UCNP-grafted NFC nanocomposite (NFC-UCNP) suspensions at ambient temperature. Through the paper-making process, the assembled fluorescent NFC-UCNP hybrid nanopaper exhibits excellent properties, including high transparency, strong up-conversion luminescence, and good flexibility. The obtained hybrid nanopaper was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscope (AFM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), field emission-scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), up-conversion luminescence (UCL) spectrum, and ultraviolet and visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometer. The experimental results demonstrate that the UCNPs have been successfully grafted to the NFC matrix with heterogeneous network. And the superiorly optical transparent and luminescent properties of the nanopaper mainly depend on the ratio of UCNPs to NFC. Of importance here is that, NFC and UCNPs afford the nanopaper a prospective candidate for multimodal anti-counterfeiting, sensors, and ion probes applications.

  19. Coverage error of commercial skin pigments as compared to human facial skin tones. (United States)

    Hungerford, Elizabeth; Beatty, Mark W; Marx, David B; Simetich, Bobby; Wee, Alvin G


    It is unknown if present-day pigments used for intrinsic colouration of maxillofacial prostheses are representative of human facial skin tones. This study's purpose was to measure L*a*b* values of pigmented elastomers coloured by eleven skin tone pigments and determine coverage error (CE) when the pigments were compared to human facial lip and nose colour data. 11 skin tone pigments were combined at 0.1%, 1% and 10% by weight with A-2186 elastomer (n=3). L*a*b* values were measured with a spectrophotometer and group means were used to calculate ΔE* colour differences with each L*a*b* value obtained for human nose and lip. Pigmented elastomer CEs were calculated for nose and lip. Results were compared to CEs for proposed shade guide colours obtained from clustering analyses of facial skin colours. L* values of pigmented elastomers generally were higher than those measured for nose and lip, whereas a* values were lower. CEs for pigmented elastomers were higher than those obtained from the proposed shade guide obtained from clustered skin measurements. Overall, the current commercial elastomers appeared to be too white and not red enough to adequately match the skin tones of the subject population. Adjustments must be made to the existing pigmenting system in order to adequately match the skin colours of the study population. The creation of a shade guide and a collection of intrinsic pigments representing the realm of human facial skin colours would greatly decrease the time a patient must sit while the clinician is obtaining an acceptable colour match for the silicone to be used for processing the final prosthesis, thereby increasing both patient satisfaction and clinician productivity. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Surface modification of nanofibrous polycaprolactone/gelatin composite scaffold by collagen type I grafting for skin tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautam, Sneh [Department of Polymer and Process Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee (India); Chou, Chia-Fu [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Dinda, Amit K. [Department of Pathology, All India Institute of Medical Science, New Delhi (India); Potdar, Pravin D. [Department of Molecular Medicine and Biology, Jaslok Hospital and Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Mishra, Narayan C., E-mail: [Department of Polymer and Process Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee (India)


    In the present study, a tri-polymer polycaprolactone (PCL)/gelatin/collagen type I composite nanofibrous scaffold has been fabricated by electrospinning for skin tissue engineering and wound healing applications. Firstly, PCL/gelatin nanofibrous scaffold was fabricated by electrospinning using a low cost solvent mixture [chloroform/methanol for PCL and acetic acid (80% v/v) for gelatin], and then the nanofibrous PCL/gelatin scaffold was modified by collagen type I (0.2–1.5 wt.%) grafting. Morphology of the collagen type I-modified PCL/gelatin composite scaffold that was analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), showed that the fiber diameter was increased and pore size was decreased by increasing the concentration of collagen type I. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and thermogravimetric (TG) analysis indicated the surface modification of PCL/gelatin scaffold by collagen type I immobilization on the surface of the scaffold. MTT assay demonstrated the viability and high proliferation rate of L929 mouse fibroblast cells on the collagen type I-modified composite scaffold. FE-SEM analysis of cell-scaffold construct illustrated the cell adhesion of L929 mouse fibroblasts on the surface of scaffold. Characteristic cell morphology of L929 was also observed on the nanofiber mesh of the collagen type I-modified scaffold. Above results suggest that the collagen type I-modified PCL/gelatin scaffold was successful in maintaining characteristic shape of fibroblasts, besides good cell proliferation. Therefore, the fibroblast seeded PCL/gelatin/collagen type I composite nanofibrous scaffold might be a potential candidate for wound healing and skin tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • PCL/gelatin/collagen type I scaffold was fabricated for skin tissue engineering. • PCL/gelatin/collagen type I scaffold showed higher fibroblast growth than PCL/gelatin one. • PCL/gelatin/collagen type I might be one of the ideal scaffold for

  1. From frog integument to human skin: dermatological perspectives from frog skin biology. (United States)

    Haslam, Iain S; Roubos, Eric W; Mangoni, Maria Luisa; Yoshizato, Katsutoshi; Vaudry, Hubert; Kloepper, Jennifer E; Pattwell, David M; Maderson, Paul F A; Paus, Ralf


    For over a century, frogs have been studied across various scientific fields, including physiology, embryology, neuroscience, (neuro)endocrinology, ecology, genetics, behavioural science, evolution, drug development, and conservation biology. In some cases, frog skin has proven very successful as a research model, for example aiding in the study of ion transport through tight epithelia, where it has served as a model for the vertebrate distal renal tubule and mammalian epithelia. However, it has rarely been considered in comparative studies involving human skin. Yet, despite certain notable adaptations that have enabled frogs to survive in both aquatic and terrestrial environments, frog skin has many features in common with human skin. Here we present a comprehensive overview of frog (and toad) skin ontogeny, anatomy, cytology, neuroendocrinology and immunology, with special attention to its unique adaptations as well as to its similarities with the mammalian integument, including human skin. We hope to provide a valuable reference point and a source of inspiration for both amphibian investigators and mammalian researchers studying the structural and functional properties of the largest organ of the vertebrate body. © 2013 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2013 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  2. Bioengineering a Human Plasma-Based Epidermal Substitute With Efficient Grafting Capacity and High Content in Clonogenic Cells (United States)

    Alexaline, Maia M.; Trouillas, Marina; Nivet, Muriel; Bourreau, Emilie; Leclerc, Thomas; Duhamel, Patrick; Martin, Michele T.; Doucet, Christelle; Fortunel, Nicolas O.


    Cultured epithelial autografts (CEAs) produced from a small, healthy skin biopsy represent a lifesaving surgical technique in cases of full-thickness skin burn covering >50% of total body surface area. CEAs also present numerous drawbacks, among them the use of animal proteins and cells, the high fragility of keratinocyte sheets, and the immaturity of the dermal-epidermal junction, leading to heavy cosmetic and functional sequelae. To overcome these weaknesses, we developed a human plasma-based epidermal substitute (hPBES) for epidermal coverage in cases of massive burn, as an alternative to traditional CEA, and set up critical quality controls for preclinical and clinical studies. In this study, phenotypical analyses in conjunction with functional assays (clonal analysis, long-term culture, or in vivo graft) showed that our new substitute fulfills the biological requirements for epidermal regeneration. hPBES keratinocytes showed high potential for cell proliferation and subsequent differentiation similar to healthy skin compared with a well-known reference material, as ascertained by a combination of quality controls. This work highlights the importance of integrating relevant multiparameter quality controls into the bioengineering of new skin substitutes before they reach clinical development. Significance This work involves the development of a new bioengineered epidermal substitute with pertinent functional quality controls. The novelty of this work is based on this quality approach. PMID:25848122

  3. Prolonged Survival of Pig Skin on Baboons After Administration of Pig Cells Expressing Human CD47. (United States)

    Tena, Aseda A; Sachs, David H; Mallard, Christopher; Yang, Yong-Guang; Tasaki, Masayuki; Farkash, Evan; Rosales, Ivy A; Colvin, Robert B; Leonard, David A; Hawley, Robert J


    Successful xenotransplantation will likely depend, in part, on the induction of immunological tolerance, because the high levels of immunosuppression otherwise required would likely have unacceptable side effects. Rapid clearance of administered porcine hematopoietic stem cells by primate macrophages has hampered previous attempts to induce tolerance through mixed hematopoietic chimerism across a pig-to-primate barrier. Phagocytosis is normally inhibited by binding of cell surface protein CD47 to macrophage signal regulatory protein α receptors. However, pig CD47 has previously been shown to be ineffective in transducing signals through primate signal regulatory protein α. Mobilized peripheral blood hematopoietic cells from transgenic swine expressing high or low levels of human CD47 were infused into conditioned baboons at 3 time points over a 9-week period. Xenogeneic peripheral blood chimerism was assessed after each infusion. Split thickness skin grafts from the hematopoietic cell donor swine were placed on recipients 5 weeks after the last cell infusion and 7 weeks after the discontinuation of all immunosuppression to test immune response. The level and duration of transient chimerism were substantially greater in baboons receiving hematopoietic cells from a pig expressing high levels of human CD47. Skin graft survival on high CD47 recipients was prolonged as well, in 1 case showing no signs of rejection at least 53 days after placement. Prolongation of transient porcine chimerism via transgenic expression of human CD47 in a primate model is associated with an immune modulating effect, leading to markedly prolonged survival of donor swine skin xenografts that may be applicable to clinical solid organ xenotransplantation.

  4. [Study of skin retraction applied to the treatment of skin tumors. Mapping of the human body]. (United States)

    Dumas, P; Benatar, M; Cardot-Leccia, N; Lebreton, E; Chignon-Sicard, B


    Skin, the main organ of the human body, is equipped with own biomechanical characteristics, highly variable depending on intra-individual factors (location, weight status, dermatological diseases…) and interindividual (age, sex…). Despite some recent cutometric studies, our review of the literature shows that there is no currently reliable analytical model representing the biomechanical behavior of the skin. Yet, this is a central issue in dermatology surgery, especially in the treatment of skin tumors, for the proper observance of surgical margins. We studied prospectively on 75 resection specimens (about 71 patient(s)), for the treatment of skin lesions tumor suspicious or known malignant or benign. Room dimensions were measured before and 5 minutes after excision, leading us to calculate a ratio of retraction of the skin surface. This retraction was correlated with age, gender, tumor type, and anatomic location of the site of excision. The power of retraction of the skin varies significantly by region of the body. It is maximum in the upper limb (hand excluded) and in the cervical region. At the cephalic region, skin of the ear and periorbital skin have capacities of important early retraction. Unlike the lower limb (foot excluded), the back skin of the nose and face appear to be a minimum of shrinkage. Age also seems to change on that capacity shrinkage, sex would have no influence. Our study confirms the variations in the ability of skin retraction based on a number of factors. In dermato-oncology, that power retraction could cause significant differences between clinical surgical margins and final pathologist margins. We believe it must be taken into account by the couple surgeon-pathologist, especially in the context of invasive and/or recurrent tumors. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  5. Use of a hypogastric flap and split-thickness skin grafting for a degloving injury of the penis and scrotum: A different approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvan S


    Full Text Available Penile and scrotal skin avulsions are not common events and are caused usually by accidents with industrial machines or agricultural machines. We report a case of a 27-year-old newly married thin-built patient with avulsion and traumatic degloving of the penile and scrotal skin, with exposure of the corpora cavernosa and copus spongiosum of penis and testes as his loose clothes got entangled in a paddy harvesting machine accidently. Reconstruction was performed using a hypogastric flap and split skin graft, achieving a satisfactory aesthetic result and sexual functions.

  6. Factitious disorder as a differential diagnosis for recurrent skin graft failure.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Seoighe, D M


    This case report presents the history of a 43-year-old man who sustained a relatively minor burn to his face but who subsequently suffered significant morbidity. Although the wound was grafted on a number of occasions, it failed to heal. Multiple investigations were carried out to determine the cause of recurrent wound breakdown. It had been suspected that the patient was interfering with the wound but this could not be proven initially. He was eventually diagnosed with factitious disorder and it was only when this was managed in the multi-disciplinary setting that his wound finally healed.

  7. In-vitro percutaneous absorption of losartan potassium in human skin and prediction of human skin permeability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petkar K.C.


    Full Text Available This study describes the feasibility of transdermal controlled administration of Losartan potassium (LP across human cadaver skin. Study also defines the influence of capsaicin, sex and site of application on permeation characteristics and determined an appropriate animal model for human skin permeability. The permeation of LP of various formulations was studied using Keshary-Chein diffusion cell. Optimized controlled formulation (without capsaicin released 42.17% (±1.85 of LP in 12 hr whereas treatment formulation (with capsaicin 0.028 % w/v released 48.94% (±1.71 of LP with significant difference on null hypothesis. Influence of sex showed statistically significant difference for permeation of LP through male and female rats, as well as male and female mice across both the abdominal and dorsal sides of the skin (p<0.05. Similarly statistically significant differences were noted for permeation of LP across male and female mice abdomen-dorsal, but not for male rat abdomen-dorsal and female rat abdomen-dorsal. Furthermore, in-vitro permeation of LP across human skin was compared with the permeation across rat and mice skins. Male rat and male mice dorsal skin was found to have closer permeability characteristics to human than other skin membranes, but the Factor of Difference values were < 3 for all membranes which were used suggesting the membranes are good models for human skin permeability. In conclusion simple transdermal adhesive patches formulations incorporating high molecular weight of LP can deliver a dose in-vivo and proposed model skin membranes can be utilized for future pharmacokineic and toxicokinetic studies as well as metabolism studies of LP

  8. Human Skin 3D Bioprinting Using Scaffold-Free Approach. (United States)

    Pourchet, Léa J; Thepot, Amélie; Albouy, Marion; Courtial, Edwin J; Boher, Aurélie; Blum, Loïc J; Marquette, Christophe A


    Organ in vitro synthesis is one of the last bottlenecks between tissue engineering and transplantation of synthetic organs. Bioprinting has proven its capacity to produce 3D objects composed of living cells but highly organized tissues such as full thickness skin (dermis + epidermis) are rarely attained. The focus of the present study is to demonstrate the capability of a newly developed ink formulation and the use of an open source printer, for the production of a really complete skin model. Proofs are given through immunostaining and electronic microscopy that the bioprinted skin presents all characteristics of human skin, both at the molecular and macromolecular level. Finally, the printability of large skin objects is demonstrated with the printing of an adult-size ear. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Oxidative Stress in Aging Human Skin (United States)

    Rinnerthaler, Mark; Bischof, Johannes; Streubel, Maria Karolin; Trost, Andrea; Richter, Klaus


    Oxidative stress in skin plays a major role in the aging process. This is true for intrinsic aging and even more for extrinsic aging. Although the results are quite different in dermis and epidermis, extrinsic aging is driven to a large extent by oxidative stress caused by UV irradiation. In this review the overall effects of oxidative stress are discussed as well as the sources of ROS including the mitochondrial ETC, peroxisomal and ER localized proteins, the Fenton reaction, and such enzymes as cyclooxygenases, lipoxygenases, xanthine oxidases, and NADPH oxidases. Furthermore, the defense mechanisms against oxidative stress ranging from enzymes like superoxide dismutases, catalases, peroxiredoxins, and GSH peroxidases to organic compounds such as L-ascorbate, α-tocopherol, beta-carotene, uric acid, CoQ10, and glutathione are described in more detail. In addition the oxidative stress induced modifications caused to proteins, lipids and DNA are discussed. Finally age-related changes of the skin are also a topic of this review. They include a disruption of the epidermal calcium gradient in old skin with an accompanying change in the composition of the cornified envelope. This modified cornified envelope also leads to an altered anti-oxidative capacity and a reduced barrier function of the epidermis. PMID:25906193

  10. Oxidative Stress in Aging Human Skin

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    Mark Rinnerthaler


    Full Text Available Oxidative stress in skin plays a major role in the aging process. This is true for intrinsic aging and even more for extrinsic aging. Although the results are quite different in dermis and epidermis, extrinsic aging is driven to a large extent by oxidative stress caused by UV irradiation. In this review the overall effects of oxidative stress are discussed as well as the sources of ROS including the mitochondrial ETC, peroxisomal and ER localized proteins, the Fenton reaction, and such enzymes as cyclooxygenases, lipoxygenases, xanthine oxidases, and NADPH oxidases. Furthermore, the defense mechanisms against oxidative stress ranging from enzymes like superoxide dismutases, catalases, peroxiredoxins, and GSH peroxidases to organic compounds such as L-ascorbate, α-tocopherol, beta-carotene, uric acid, CoQ10, and glutathione are described in more detail. In addition the oxidative stress induced modifications caused to proteins, lipids and DNA are discussed. Finally age-related changes of the skin are also a topic of this review. They include a disruption of the epidermal calcium gradient in old skin with an accompanying change in the composition of the cornified envelope. This modified cornified envelope also leads to an altered anti-oxidative capacity and a reduced barrier function of the epidermis.

  11. Immunoarchitectural characterization of a human skin model reconstructed in vitro

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    Luís Ricardo Martinhão Souto

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Over the last few years, different models for human skin equivalent reconstructed in vitro (HSERIV have been reported for clinical usage and applications in research for the pharmaceutical industry. Before release for routine use as human skin replacements, HSERIV models need to be tested regarding their similarity with in vivo skin, using morphological (architectural and immunohistochemical (functional analyses. A model for HSERIV has been developed in our hospital, and our aim here was to further characterize its immunoarchitectural features by comparing them with human skin, before it can be tested for clinical use, e.g. for severe burns or wounds, whenever ancillary methods are not indicated. DESIGN AND SETTING: Experimental laboratory study, in the Skin Cell Culture Laboratory, School of Medical Sciences, Universidade Estadual de Campinas. METHODS: Histological sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, Masson's trichrome for collagen fibers, periodic acid-Schiff reagent for basement membrane and glycogen, Weigert-Van Gieson for elastic fibers and Fontana-Masson for melanocytes. Immunohistochemistry was used to localize cytokeratins (broad spectrum of molecular weight, AE1/AE3, high molecular weight cytokeratins (34βE12, low molecular weight cytokeratins (35βH11, cytokeratins 7 and 20, vimentin, S-100 protein (for melanocytic and dendritic cells, CD68 (KP1, histiocytes and CD34 (QBend, endothelium. RESULTS: Histology revealed satisfactory similarity between HSERIV and in vivo skin. Immunohistochemical analysis on HSERIV demonstrated that the marker pattern was similar to what is generally present in human skin in vivo. CONCLUSION: HSERIV is morphologically and functionally compatible with human skin observed in vivo.

  12. One-stage reconstruction of soft tissue defects with the sandwich technique: Collagen-elastin dermal template and skin grafts

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    Uwe Wollina


    Full Text Available Background : A full-thickness soft tissue defect closure often needs complex procedures. The use of dermal templates can be helpful in improving the outcome. Objective : The objective was to evaluate a sandwich technique combining the dermal collagen-elastin matrix with skin grafts in a one-stage procedure. Materials and Methods : Twenty-three patients with 27 wounds were enrolled in this prospective single-centre observational study. The mean age was 74.8 ± 17.2 years. Included were full-thickness defects with exposed bone, cartilage and/ or tendons. The dermal collagen-elastin matrix was applied onto the wound bed accomplished by skin transplants, i.e. ′sandwich′ transplantation. In six wounds, the transplants were treated with intermittent negative pressure therapy. Results : The size of defects was ≤875 cm 2 . The use of the dermal template resulted in a complete and stable granulation in 100% of wounds. Seventeen defects showed a complete closure and 19 achieved a complete granulation with an incomplete closure. There was a marked pain relief. No adverse events were noted due to the dermal template usage. Conclusions : Sandwich transplantation with the collagen-elastin matrix is a useful tool when dealing with full-thickness soft tissue defects with exposed bone, cartilage or tendons.

  13. Comparison of skin decontamination efficacy of commercial decontamination products following exposure to VX on human skin. (United States)

    Thors, L; Koch, M; Wigenstam, E; Koch, B; Hägglund, L; Bucht, A


    The decontamination efficacy of four commercially available skin decontamination products following exposure to the nerve agent VX was evaluated in vitro utilizing a diffusion cell and dermatomed human skin. The products included were Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL), the Swedish decontamination powder 104 (PS104), the absorbent Fuller's Earth and the aqueous solution alldecontMED. In addition, various decontamination procedures were assessed to further investigate important mechanisms involved in the specific products, e.g. decontamination removal from skin, physical removal by sponge swabbing and activation of degradation mechanisms. The efficacy of each decontamination product was evaluated 5 or 30 min after dermal application of VX (neat or diluted to 20% in water). The RSDL-lotion was superior in reducing the penetration of VX through human skin, both when exposed as neat agent and when diluted to 20% in water. Swabbing with the RSDL-sponge during 2 min revealed decreased efficacy compared to applying the RSDL-lotion directly on the skin for 30 min. Decontamination with Fuller's Earth and alldecontMED significantly reduced the penetration of neat concentration of VX through human skin. PS104-powder was insufficient for decontamination of VX at both time-points, independently of the skin contact time of PS104. The PS104-slurry (a mixture of PS104-powder and water), slightly improved the decontamination efficacy. Comparing the time-points for initiated decontamination revealed less penetrated VX for RSDL and Fuller's Earth when decontamination was initiated after 5 min compared to 30 min post-exposure, while alldecontMED displayed similar efficacy at both time-points. Decontamination by washing with water only resulted in a significant reduction of penetrated VX when washing was performed 5 min after exposure, but not when decontamination was delayed to 30 min post-exposure of neat VX. In conclusion, early initiated decontamination with the

  14. Microneedle enhanced delivery of cosmeceutically relevant peptides in human skin.

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    Yousuf H Mohammed

    Full Text Available Peptides and proteins play an important role in skin health and well-being. They are also found to contribute to skin aging and melanogenesis. Microneedles have been shown to substantially enhance skin penetration and may offer an effective means of peptide delivery enhancement. The aim of this investigation was to assess the influence of microneedles on the skin penetration of peptides using fluorescence imaging to determine skin distribution. In particular the effect of peptide chain length (3, 4, 5 amino acid chain length on passive and MN facilitated skin penetration was investigated. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to image fluorescence intensity and the area of penetration of fluorescently tagged peptides. Penetration studies were conducted on excised full thickness human skin in Franz type diffusion cells for 1 and 24 hours. A 2 to 22 fold signal improvement in microneedle enhanced delivery of melanostatin, rigin and pal-KTTKS was observed. To our knowledge this is the first description of microneedle enhanced skin permeation studies on these peptides.

  15. Developing a predictive model of human skin coloring (United States)

    Cotton, Symon; Claridge, Ela


    A model of color formation within human skin has been developed to aid the characterization of pigmented skin lesions from their digitized color images. The model is based on the Kublenka-Munk theory of scattering and absorption within inhomogeneous materials and the physics pertaining to their color properties. By considering the skin to be a layered construction of such materials, the stratum corneum, epidermis, papillary dermis and reticular dermis, and by exploiting the physics related to the optical interface between these layers, the model generates all possible colors occurring within normal human skin. In particular, the model predicts that all skin colors have to lie on a simple curved surface patch within a three- dimensional color space bounded by two physiologically meaningful axes, one corresponding to the amount of melanin within the epidermis and the other to the amount of blood within the dermis. These predictions were verified by comparing the CIE LMS coordinates of a representative, cross-racial sample of fifty skin images with the LMS coordinates predicted by the model. The results show that, within the predicted error bounds, the coordinates for normal skin colors do indeed lie on the curved surface generated by the model. Several possible applications of this representation are outlined, including images representing the melanin and blood components separately, as well as the possibility of measuring the Breslow thickness of melanocytic invasion within malignant melanoma.

  16. Skin Blood Perfusion and Oxygenation Colour Affect Perceived Human Health (United States)

    Stephen, Ian D.; Coetzee, Vinet; Law Smith, Miriam; Perrett, David I.


    Skin blood perfusion and oxygenation depends upon cardiovascular, hormonal and circulatory health in humans and provides socio-sexual signals of underlying physiology, dominance and reproductive status in some primates. We allowed participants to manipulate colour calibrated facial photographs along empirically-measured oxygenated and deoxygenated blood colour axes both separately and simultaneously, to optimise healthy appearance. Participants increased skin blood colour, particularly oxygenated, above basal levels to optimise healthy appearance. We show, therefore, that skin blood perfusion and oxygenation influence perceived health in a way that may be important to mate choice. PMID:19337378

  17. Wound bed preparation with 10-percent phenytoin ointment increases the take of split-thickness skin graft in large diabetic ulcers. (United States)

    Younes, Nidal; Albsoul, Abla; Badran, Darwish; Obedi, Salwan


    Healing of large diabetic foot ulcers may be difficult, particularly if the blood supply and chronic infection do not allow primary suturing. Split-thickness skin graft is a simple reconstructive technique used to close large wounds. Phenytoin is known to promote healing mainly by increasing granulation tissue formation. The effectiveness of topical phenytoin in wound-bed preparation (WBP) for split thickness skin grafting has been examined in 16 patients with large diabetic foot ulcers. All patients were treated with standard wound bed preparation including debridement of necrotic tissue. Topical phenytoin (10 % w/w ointment) was applied for 2-8 weeks prior to performance of autografting. Clinical and histologic evaluations were performed. The graft survival was 100 percent In twelve patients, 80-90 percent in three patients take and 60 percent in one patient. Neither local nor systemic side effects were observed. The authors conclude that phenytoin ointment is a safe and efficacious treatment to enhance the survival of split-thickness skin grafts in large chronic diabetic ulcers.

  18. Wound closure after split-thickness skin grafting is accelerated with the use of continuous direct anodal microcurrent applied to silver nylon wound contact dressings. (United States)

    Huckfeldt, Roger; Flick, A Bart; Mikkelson, Debbie; Lowe, Cindy; Finley, Phillip J


    Wound healing after graft closure of excised burn wounds is a critical factor in the recovery process after thermal injury. Processes that speed time to stable wound closure should lead to improved outcomes, shorter lengths of hospital stays, and decreased complications. A randomized clinical trial to test the ability of continuous direct anodal microcurrent application to silver nylon wound contact dressings was designed. Time for wound closure after split-thickness skin grafting was observed. Thirty patients with full-thickness thermal burns were randomized into two groups. The control group received postoperative dressing care using moistened silver nylon fabric covered with gauze after tangential burn wound excision and split-thickness skin grafting. The study group received an identical protocol with the addition of continuous direct anodal microcurrent application. Time to 95% wound closure was measured using digital photography. The digital photographs were evaluated by a burn surgeon blinded to the patient's randomization. An independent t-test was used to analyze the data. The study group experienced a 36% reduction in time to wound closure (mean of 4.6 days) as compared to the control group (mean of 7.2 days). This was statistically significant at a P value of microcurrent decreased time to wound closure after split-thickness skin grafting.

  19. Human skin wetness perception: psychophysical and neurophysiological bases (United States)

    Filingeri, Davide; Havenith, George


    The ability to perceive thermal changes in the surrounding environment is critical for survival. However, sensing temperature is not the only factor among the cutaneous sensations to contribute to thermoregulatory responses in humans. Sensing skin wetness (i.e. hygrosensation) is also critical both for behavioral and autonomic adaptations. Although much has been done to define the biophysical role of skin wetness in contributing to thermal homeostasis, little is known on the neurophysiological mechanisms underpinning the ability to sense skin wetness. Humans are not provided with skin humidity receptors (i.e., hygroreceptors) and psychophysical studies have identified potential sensory cues (i.e. thermal and mechanosensory) which could contribute to sensing wetness. Recently, a neurophysiological model of human wetness sensitivity has been developed. In helping clarifying the peripheral and central neural mechanisms involved in sensing skin wetness, this model has provided evidence for the existence of a specific human hygrosensation strategy, which is underpinned by perceptual learning via sensory experience. Remarkably, this strategy seems to be shared by other hygroreceptor-lacking animals. However, questions remain on whether these sensory mechanisms are underpinned by specific neuromolecular pathways in humans. Although the first study on human wetness perception dates back to more than 100 years, it is surprising that the neurophysiological bases of such an important sensory feature have only recently started to be unveiled. Hence, to provide an overview of the current knowledge on human hygrosensation, along with potential directions for future research, this review will examine the psychophysical and neurophysiological bases of human skin wetness perception. PMID:27227008

  20. Human skin hypoxia modulates cerebrovascular and autonomic functions.

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    Olivia Pucci

    Full Text Available Because the skin is an oxygen sensor in amphibians and mice, we thought to confirm this function also in humans. The human upright posture, however, introduces additional functional demands for the maintenance of oxygen homeostasis in which cerebral blood flow and autonomic nervous system (ANS function may also be involved. We examined nine males and three females. While subjects were breathing ambient air, at sea level, we changed gases in a plastic body-bag during two conditions of the experiment such as to induce skin hypoxia (with pure nitrogen or skin normoxia (with air. The subjects performed a test of hypoxic ventilatory drive during each condition of the experiment. We found no differences in the hypoxic ventilatory drive tests. However, ANS function and cerebral blood flow velocities were modulated by skin hypoxia and the effect was significantly greater on the left than right middle cerebral arteries. We conclude that skin hypoxia modulates ANS function and cerebral blood flow velocities and this might impact life styles and tolerance to ambient hypoxia at altitude. Thus the skin in normal humans, in addition to its numerous other functions, is also an oxygen sensor.

  1. Effects of human chorionic somatomammotropin and human chorionic gonadotropin on skin homografts in rats. (United States)

    Guisantes, A; Fraga, A; Galimidi, S; Mendez-Tula, A; Brovetto-Cruz, J


    The action of HCS and HCG on cell-mediated immunity has been investigated. Full-thickness skin homografts were performed in 40 whole adult female Wistar rats. Brown rats of the A X C strain were selected as donors. The animals were divided into four groups injected with HCS, HCG, HCS + HCG, and saline. The graft rejection time and the wet and dry weight of thymus and spleen were evaluated. No hormonal treatment showed any effect on skin graft survival. Thymus weight, both wet and dry, decreased significantly by treatment with HCP or HCS + HCG. No modification was observed in spleen weight. These results do not agree with the theory that HCS and HCG modify immunological competence of maternal lymphocytes and thus may contribute to prevent rejection of the fetus.

  2. Full-Thickness Skin Grafting with De-Epithelization of the Wound Margin for Finger Defects with Bone or Tendon Exposure

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    Jun Hee Lee


    Full Text Available BackgroundFull-thickness skin grafts (FTSGs are generally considered unreliable for coverage of full-thickness finger defects with bone or tendon exposure, and there are few clinical reports of its use in this context. However, animal studies have shown that an FTSG can survive over an avascular area ranging up to 12 mm in diameter. In our experience, the width of the exposed bones or tendons in full-thickness finger defects is <7 mm. Therefore, we covered the bone- or tendon-exposed defects of 16 fingers of 10 patients with FTSGs.MethodsThe surgical objectives were healthy granulation tissue formation in the wound bed, marginal de-epithelization of the normal skin surrounding the defect, preservation of the subdermal plexus of the central graft, and partial excision of the dermis along the graft margin. The donor site was the mastoid for small defects and the groin for large defects.ResultsMost of the grafts (15 of 16 fingers survived without significant surgical complications and achieved satisfactory functional and aesthetic results. Minor complications included partial graft loss in one patient, a minimal extension deformity in two patients, a depression deformity in one patient, and mild hyperpigmentation in four patients.ConclusionsWe observed excellent graft survival with this method with no additional surgical injury of the normal finger, satisfactory functional and aesthetic outcomes, and no need for secondary debulking procedures. Potential disadvantages include an insufficient volume of soft tissue and graft hyperpigmentation. Therefore, FTSGs may be an option for treatment of full-thickness finger defects with bone or tendon exposure.

  3. Clinical, histologic, and histomorphometric evaluation of mineralized solvent-dehydrated bone allograf (Puros) in human maxillary sinus grafts. (United States)

    Noumbissi, Sammy S; Lozada, Jaime L; Boyne, Philip J; Rohrer, Michael D; Clem, Donald; Kim, Jay S; Prasad, Hari


    Demineralized freeze-dried bone allografts (DFDBA) have been successfully used alone or in composite grafts for many decades. Little research has been done on the effect of retaining the mineral content of bone allografts. This study histologically and histomorphometrically evaluated a new mineralized bone allograft material placed in human atrophic maxillary sinuses. Seven partially edentulous patients requiring sinus grafts before implant placement were selected for this study Their age range was 56 to 81 years (mean 67.7 years). Test grafts consisted of a mineralized solvent-dehydrated cancellous bone allograft, and control grafts were a composite of DFDBA and deproteinized bovine bone xenograft (1:1). Bilateral cases (n = 3) received both test and control grafts on opposite sides, and unilateral cases received either a test (n = 3) or control (n = 1) graft only. At 10 months, core biopsies were taken from each graft site, and dental implants were placed into the augmented bone. All bone grafts resulted in new bone formation and all implants osseointegrated. Test grafts resorbed and were replaced by newly formed bone significantly faster and in greater quantities than were control grafts. No complications with grafts or implants were noted. Both test and control grafts achieved excellent results. The faster bone formation observed with the test graft may be due, in part, to its smaller particle size compared with the bovine portion of the control graft. Test grafts were either replaced by new bone or displayed new bone-to-particle surface contact in higher percentages than did control grafts. No differences in osseointegration or graft stability were noted 2 years after the study.

  4. Mobile phone radiation might alter protein expression in human skin

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    Nylund Reetta


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Earlier we have shown that the mobile phone radiation (radiofrequency modulated electromagnetic fields; RF-EMF alters protein expression in human endothelial cell line. This does not mean that similar response will take place in human body exposed to this radiation. Therefore, in this pilot human volunteer study, using proteomics approach, we have examined whether a local exposure of human skin to RF-EMF will cause changes in protein expression in living people. Results Small area of forearm's skin in 10 female volunteers was exposed to RF-EMF (specific absorption rate SAR = 1.3 W/kg and punch biopsies were collected from exposed and non-exposed areas of skin. Proteins extracted from biopsies were separated using 2-DE and protein expression changes were analyzed using PDQuest software. Analysis has identified 8 proteins that were statistically significantly affected (Anova and Wilcoxon tests. Two of the proteins were present in all 10 volunteers. This suggests that protein expression in human skin might be affected by the exposure to RF-EMF. The number of affected proteins was similar to the number of affected proteins observed in our earlier in vitro studies. Conclusion This is the first study showing that molecular level changes might take place in human volunteers in response to exposure to RF-EMF. Our study confirms that proteomics screening approach can identify protein targets of RF-EMF in human volunteers.

  5. Composition of human skin microbiota affects attractiveness to malaria mosquitoes.

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    Niels O Verhulst

    Full Text Available The African malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto continues to play an important role in malaria transmission, which is aggravated by its high degree of anthropophily, making it among the foremost vectors of this disease. In the current study we set out to unravel the strong association between this mosquito species and human beings, as it is determined by odorant cues derived from the human skin. Microbial communities on the skin play key roles in the production of human body odour. We demonstrate that the composition of the skin microbiota affects the degree of attractiveness of human beings to this mosquito species. Bacterial plate counts and 16S rRNA sequencing revealed that individuals that are highly attractive to An. gambiae s.s. have a significantly higher abundance, but lower diversity of bacteria on their skin than individuals that are poorly attractive. Bacterial genera that are correlated with the relative degree of attractiveness to mosquitoes were identified. The discovery of the connection between skin microbial populations and attractiveness to mosquitoes may lead to the development of new mosquito attractants and personalized methods for protection against vectors of malaria and other infectious diseases.

  6. Biogeography and individuality shape function in the human skin metagenome. (United States)

    Oh, Julia; Byrd, Allyson L; Deming, Clay; Conlan, Sean; Kong, Heidi H; Segre, Julia A


    The varied topography of human skin offers a unique opportunity to study how the body's microenvironments influence the functional and taxonomic composition of microbial communities. Phylogenetic marker gene-based studies have identified many bacteria and fungi that colonize distinct skin niches. Here metagenomic analyses of diverse body sites in healthy humans demonstrate that local biogeography and strong individuality define the skin microbiome. We developed a relational analysis of bacterial, fungal and viral communities, which showed not only site specificity but also individual signatures. We further identified strain-level variation of dominant species as heterogeneous and multiphyletic. Reference-free analyses captured the uncharacterized metagenome through the development of a multi-kingdom gene catalogue, which was used to uncover genetic signatures of species lacking reference genomes. This work is foundational for human disease studies investigating inter-kingdom interactions, metabolic changes and strain tracking, and defines the dual influence of biogeography and individuality on microbial composition and function.

  7. In vivo study of human skin using pulsed terahertz radiation

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    Pickwell, E [Semiconductor Physics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge University, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Cole, B E [TeraView Ltd, Unit 302/4 Cambridge Science Park, Cambridge CB4 0WG (United Kingdom); Fitzgerald, A J [TeraView Ltd, Unit 302/4 Cambridge Science Park, Cambridge CB4 0WG (United Kingdom); Pepper, M [Semiconductor Physics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge University, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Wallace, V P [TeraView Ltd, Unit 302/4 Cambridge Science Park, Cambridge CB4 0WG (United Kingdom)


    Studies in terahertz (THz) imaging have revealed a significant difference between skin cancer (basal cell carcinoma) and healthy tissue. Since water has strong absorptions at THz frequencies and tumours tend to have different water content from normal tissue, a likely contrast mechanism is variation in water content. Thus, we have previously devised a finite difference time-domain (FDTD) model which is able to closely simulate the interaction of THz radiation with water. In this work we investigate the interaction of THz radiation with normal human skin on the forearm and palm of the hand in vivo. We conduct the first ever systematic in vivo study of the response of THz radiation to normal skin. We take in vivo reflection measurements of normal skin on the forearm and palm of the hand of 20 volunteers. We compare individual examples of THz responses with the mean response for the areas of skin under investigation. Using the in vivo data, we demonstrate that the FDTD model can be applied to biological tissue. In particular, we successfully simulate the interaction of THz radiation with the volar forearm. Understanding the interaction of THz radiation with normal skin will form a step towards developing improved imaging algorithms for diagnostic detection of skin cancer and other tissue disorders using THz radiation.

  8. Cortisol extraction through human skin by reverse iontophoresis. (United States)

    Ventura, Stephanie A; Heikenfeld, Jason; Brooks, Tiffany; Esfandiari, Leyla; Boyce, Steven; Park, Yoonjee; Kasting, Gerald B


    Continuous monitoring of cortisol at the surface of the skin would advance the diagnosis and treatment of cortisol-related diseases, or of elevated cortisol levels related to stress in otherwise healthy populations. Reliable and accurate detection of cortisol at the skin surface remains a limiting factor in real-time monitoring of cortisol. To address this limitation, cortisol extraction through excised human skin by reverse iontophoresis was studied in vitro in side-by-side diffusion cells using a radiolabeled probe. The skin was subjected to four direct current regimens (0, 28, 56, 113μAcm -2 ) with the anode in the donor chamber and the cumulative cortisol concentrations recorded in the receiver chamber. The 56 and 113μAcm -2 regimens significantly increased transport of 3 H-cortisol through the skin, and current density correlated directly with transcutaneous transport of 3 H-cortisol. The threshold of detection of electroosmotic versus passive diffusion of cortisol through the skin was between 28 and 56μAcm -2 . The results of this study are significant in examining how lipophilic analytes found in the bloodstream respond to reverse iontophoresis across the skin. In addition, a device integration technique is presented which illustrates how continuous cortisol extraction and sensing could potentially be achieved in a conventional wearable format. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. OCT monitoring of cosmetic creams in human skin in vivo (United States)

    Han, Seung Hee; Yoon, Chang Han; Conroy, Leigh; Vitkin, I. Alex


    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a tool currently used for noninvasive diagnosis of human disease as well as for monitoring treatment during or after therapy. In this study, OCT was used to examine penetration and accumulation of cosmetic creams on human hand skin. The samples varied in collagen content with one formulation containing soluble collagen as its primary active ingredient. Collagen is a major connective tissue protein that is essential in maintaining health vitality and strength of many organs. The penetration and localization of collagen in cosmetic creams is thought to be the main determinant of the efficacy of new collagen synthesis. Detection and quantification of collagen in cosmetic creams applied to skin may thus help predict the eventual efficacy of the product in skin collagen regeneration. We hypothesize that the topically applied collagen may be detectable by OCT through its modulation of skin scattering properties. To test this hypothesis, we used a FDML swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) system. A particular location on the skin of two male adult volunteers was used to investigate 4 different cosmetic creams. The duration of OCT monitoring of cosmetic penetration into skin ranged from 5 minutes to 2 hours following topical application. The results showed that OCT can discriminate between a cream with collagen and other collagen-free formulations. Thus it seems feasible that OCT intensity can monitor the in vivo effects of topical application of collagen contained in cosmetic formulations.

  10. Human Umbilical Cord Wharton Jelly-Derived Adult Mesenchymal Stem Cells, in Biohybrid Scaffolds, for Experimental Skin Regeneration (United States)

    Montanucci, Pia; di Pasquali, Camilla; Ferri, Ivana; Sidoni, Angelo; Cervelli, Valerio


    The ultimate goal for skin tissue engineering is to regenerate skin lesions to allow the full restoration of morphological and functional properties as what they were before injury. To this end, we have assembled a new prototype of a biomimetic human umbilical cord adult mesenchymal stem cell (hUCMS)/fibrin-based scaffold. We have fully characterized the proposed dermal equivalent (DE) in vitro, to assess morphological, functional, and biological properties of the encased cells. We transplanted DE subcutaneously into immunocompetent rodents, to verify its full biocompatibility. Finally, we studied DE graft effects on full-thickness wounds, in immunocompetent mice to demonstrate its capability to drive the healing process in the absence of significant scarring tissue. The excellent outcome of these in vivo studies fuels hope that this new approach, based on a biohybrid DE, may be applied to the operative treatment of skin lesions (i.e., diabetic foot ulcers and burns) in man. PMID:29456556

  11. Human Umbilical Cord Wharton Jelly-Derived Adult Mesenchymal Stem Cells, in Biohybrid Scaffolds, for Experimental Skin Regeneration

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    Pia Montanucci


    Full Text Available The ultimate goal for skin tissue engineering is to regenerate skin lesions to allow the full restoration of morphological and functional properties as what they were before injury. To this end, we have assembled a new prototype of a biomimetic human umbilical cord adult mesenchymal stem cell (hUCMS/fibrin-based scaffold. We have fully characterized the proposed dermal equivalent (DE in vitro, to assess morphological, functional, and biological properties of the encased cells. We transplanted DE subcutaneously into immunocompetent rodents, to verify its full biocompatibility. Finally, we studied DE graft effects on full-thickness wounds, in immunocompetent mice to demonstrate its capability to drive the healing process in the absence of significant scarring tissue. The excellent outcome of these in vivo studies fuels hope that this new approach, based on a biohybrid DE, may be applied to the operative treatment of skin lesions (i.e., diabetic foot ulcers and burns in man.

  12. Human skin color clustering for face detection


    Kovač, Jure; Peer, Peter; Solina, Franc


    Computer vision is one out of many areas that wants to understand the process of human functionality and copy that process with intention to complement human life with intelligent machines. For better human–computer interaction it is necessary for the machine to see people. This can be achieved by employing face detection algorithms, like the one used in the installation “15 Seconds of Fame”. Mentioned installation unites the areas of modern art and technology. Its algorithm...

  13. Human skin colour clustering for face detection


    Solina, Franc; Peer, Peter; Kovač, Jure


    Computer vision is one out of many areas that wants to understand the process of human functionality and copy that process with intention to complement human life with intelligent machines. For better human–computer interaction it is necessary for the machine to see people. This can be achieved by employing face detection algorithms, like the one used in the installation “15 Seconds of Fame”. Mentioned installation unites the areas of modern art and technology. Its algorithm...

  14. An in vitro model for detecting skin irritants: methyl green-pyronine staining of human skin explant cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, J. J. L.; Lehé, C.; Cammans, K. D. A.; Das, P. K.; Elliott, G. R.


    We evaluated the potential of human organotypic skin explant cultures (hOSECs) for screening skin irritants. Test chemicals were applied to the epidermis of the skin explants which were incubated for 4, 24 or 48 h in tissue culture medium. A decrease in epidermal RNA staining, visualised in frozen

  15. Three-dimensional computer-aided human factors engineering analysis of a grafting robot. (United States)

    Chiu, Y C; Chen, S; Wu, G J; Lin, Y H


    The objective of this research was to conduct a human factors engineering analysis of a grafting robot design using computer-aided 3D simulation technology. A prototype tubing-type grafting robot for fruits and vegetables was the subject of a series of case studies. To facilitate the incorporation of human models into the operating environment of the grafting robot, I-DEAS graphic software was applied to establish individual models of the grafting robot in line with Jack ergonomic analysis. Six human models (95th percentile, 50th percentile, and 5th percentile by height for both males and females) were employed to simulate the operating conditions and working postures in a real operating environment. The lower back and upper limb stresses of the operators were analyzed using the lower back analysis (LBA) and rapid upper limb assessment (RULA) functions in Jack. The experimental results showed that if a leg space is introduced under the robot, the operator can sit closer to the robot, which reduces the operator's level of lower back and upper limbs stress. The proper environmental layout for Taiwanese operators for minimum levels of lower back and upper limb stress are to set the grafting operation at 23.2 cm away from the operator at a height of 85 cm and with 45 cm between the rootstock and scion units.

  16. Effects of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells on the Survival of Rabbit Ear Composite Grafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chae Min Kim


    Full Text Available Background Composite grafts are frequently used for facial reconstruction. However, the unpredictability of the results and difficulties with large defects are disadvantages. Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs express several cytokines, and increase the survival of random flaps and fat grafts owing to their angiogenic potential. Methods This study investigated composite graft survival after ADSC injection. Circular chondrocutaneous composite tissues, 2 cm in diameter, from 15 New Zealand white rabbits were used. Thirty ears were randomly divided into 3 groups. In the experimental groups (1 and 2, ADSCs were subcutaneously injected 7 days and immediately before the operation, respectively. Similarly, phosphate-buffered saline was injected in the control group just before surgery in the same manner as in group 2. In all groups, chondrocutaneous composite tissue was elevated, rotated 90 degrees, and repaired in its original position. Skin flow was assessed using laser Doppler 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 days after surgery. At 1 and 12 days after surgery, the viable area was assessed using digital photography; the rabbits were euthanized, and immunohistochemical staining for CD31 was performed to assess neovascularization. Results The survival of composite grafts increased significantly with the injection of ADSCs (P<0.05. ADSC injection significantly improved neovascularization based on anti-CD31 immunohistochemical analysis and vascular endothelial growth factor expression (P<0.05 in both group 1 and group 2 compared to the control group. No statistically significant differences in graft survival, anti-CD31 neovascularization, or microcirculation were found between groups 1 and 2. Conclusions Treatment with ADSCs improved the composite graft survival, as confirmed by the survival area and histological evaluation. The differences according to the injection timing were not significant.

  17. Bioengineering of functional human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived intestinal grafts. (United States)

    Kitano, Kentaro; Schwartz, Dana M; Zhou, Haiyang; Gilpin, Sarah E; Wojtkiewicz, Gregory R; Ren, Xi; Sommer, Cesar A; Capilla, Amalia V; Mathisen, Douglas J; Goldstein, Allan M; Mostoslavsky, Gustavo; Ott, Harald C


    Patients with short bowel syndrome lack sufficient functional intestine to sustain themselves with enteral intake alone. Transplantable vascularized bioengineered intestine could restore nutrient absorption. Here we report the engineering of humanized intestinal grafts by repopulating decellularized rat intestinal matrix with human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived intestinal epithelium and human endothelium. After 28 days of in vitro culture, hiPSC-derived progenitor cells differentiate into a monolayer of polarized intestinal epithelium. Human endothelial cells seeded via native vasculature restore perfusability. Ex vivo isolated perfusion testing confirms transfer of glucose and medium-chain fatty acids from lumen to venous effluent. Four weeks after transplantation to RNU rats, grafts show survival and maturation of regenerated epithelium. Systemic venous sampling and positron emission tomography confirm uptake of glucose and fatty acids in vivo. Bioengineering intestine on vascularized native scaffolds could bridge the gap between cell/tissue-scale regeneration and whole organ-scale technology needed to treat intestinal failure patients.There is a need for humanised grafts to treat patients with intestinal failure. Here, the authors generate intestinal grafts by recellularizing native intestinal matrix with human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived epithelium and human endothelium, and show nutrient absorption after transplantation in rats.

  18. Bone physiology in human grafted and non-grafted extraction sockets--an immunohistochemical study. (United States)

    Nahles, Susanne; Nack, Claudia; Gratecap, Kerrin; Lage, Hermann; Nelson, John J; Nelson, Katja


    The aim of the present immunohistological investigation was to define and compare the osteogenic potential with the vascularization of the provisional matrix in grafted and ungrafted extraction sockets after 4 and 12 weeks of healing. A total of 33 Patients (15 women, 18 men) with 65 extraction sites with a mean age of 54.4 years (30-73 years) participated in this study. After tooth extraction, the sockets were augmented with Bio-Oss collagen or non-augmented. At implant placement after 4 or 12 weeks bone biopsies were obtained. Within the specimens the osteogenic and endothelial potential of mesenchymal cells was analyzed in the provisional matrix using immunohistochemical analysis with three monoclonal antibodies Cbfa1/Runx2, Osteocalcin (OC), and CD31. Statistical analysis was performed using Mann-Whitney U-test, Spearman's rank-order correlation coefficient, and the two-factorial analysis for repeated measurements. Of the 65 extraction sockets, 25 (13 non-augmented, 12 augmented) sites after 4 weeks healing time and 40 (19 non-augmented, 21 augmented) sites after 12 weeks healing time were involved in the study. No signs of acute or chronic inflammation were noted in any specimens. After 4 weeks, a median amount of 56% (10-85%) of Cbfa1 positive cells and a median amount of cells expressing OC of 21% (5-42%) were measured. A median CD31 score of 5 was observed. After 12 weeks, a median amount of 61% (19-90%) positive cells expressed by Cbfa1/Runx2 staining a median amount of OC positive cells of 9% (2-17%) was measured. The results at 12 weeks revealed a median score of CD31 positive cells of 3. Osteoblastic activity in the provisional matrix was highest after 4 weeks of healing period. The active zone of bone formation is found in the apical region of the extraction socket during the early healing phase, shifting to the coronal region after 12 weeks. A peak of osteoblast activity within the first weeks is followed by a reduction in mature

  19. Surface modification of nanofibrous polycaprolactone/gelatin composite scaffold by collagen type I grafting for skin tissue engineering. (United States)

    Gautam, Sneh; Chou, Chia-Fu; Dinda, Amit K; Potdar, Pravin D; Mishra, Narayan C


    In the present study, a tri-polymer polycaprolactone (PCL)/gelatin/collagen type I composite nanofibrous scaffold has been fabricated by electrospinning for skin tissue engineering and wound healing applications. Firstly, PCL/gelatin nanofibrous scaffold was fabricated by electrospinning using a low cost solvent mixture [chloroform/methanol for PCL and acetic acid (80% v/v) for gelatin], and then the nanofibrous PCL/gelatin scaffold was modified by collagen type I (0.2-1.5wt.%) grafting. Morphology of the collagen type I-modified PCL/gelatin composite scaffold that was analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), showed that the fiber diameter was increased and pore size was decreased by increasing the concentration of collagen type I. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and thermogravimetric (TG) analysis indicated the surface modification of PCL/gelatin scaffold by collagen type I immobilization on the surface of the scaffold. MTT assay demonstrated the viability and high proliferation rate of L929 mouse fibroblast cells on the collagen type I-modified composite scaffold. FE-SEM analysis of cell-scaffold construct illustrated the cell adhesion of L929 mouse fibroblasts on the surface of scaffold. Characteristic cell morphology of L929 was also observed on the nanofiber mesh of the collagen type I-modified scaffold. Above results suggest that the collagen type I-modified PCL/gelatin scaffold was successful in maintaining characteristic shape of fibroblasts, besides good cell proliferation. Therefore, the fibroblast seeded PCL/gelatin/collagen type I composite nanofibrous scaffold might be a potential candidate for wound healing and skin tissue engineering applications. © 2013.

  20. Hydrogen sulphide and phosphine interactions with human skin in vitro. (United States)

    Gaskin, Sharyn; Heath, Linda; Pisaniello, Dino; Evans, Richard; Edwards, John W; Logan, Michael; Baxter, Christina


    Accidental or intentional releases of toxic gases can have significant public health consequences and emergency resource demands. Management of exposed individuals during hazardous material incidents should be risk and evidence based, but there are knowledge gaps in relation to dermal absorption of gases and management advice for potentially exposed individuals. Using a modified Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in vitro toxicology protocol with human donor skin, this article reports on two common and odorous chemicals, hydrogen sulphide and phosphine. Results show that undamaged human skin provides a good barrier to hydrogen sulphide (up to 800 ppm) and phosphine (up to 1000 ppm) penetration for up to 30 min exposures, with little variability in the presence of clothing or in elevated temperature and humidity conditions. A practical guideline template for skin decontamination has been developed, and implications of the research for first responders are outlined.

  1. Implantable arterial grafts from human fibroblasts and fibrin using a multi-graft pulsed flow-stretch bioreactor with noninvasive strength monitoring (United States)

    Syedain, Zeeshan H.; Meier, Lee A.; Bjork, Jason W.; Lee, Ann; Tranquillo, Robert T.


    Tissue-engineered arteries based on entrapment of human dermal fibroblasts in fibrin gel yield completely biological vascular grafts that possess circumferential alignment characteristic of native arteries and essential to their mechanical properties. A bioreactor was developed to condition six grafts in the same culture medium while being subjected to similar cyclic distension and transmural flow resulting from pulsed flow distributed among the graft lumens via a manifold. The lumenal pressure and circumferential stretch were noninvasively monitored and used to calculate stiffness in the range of 80-120 mmHg and then to successfully predict graft burst strength. The length of the graft was incrementally shortened during bioreactor culture to maintain circumferential alignment and achieve mechanical anisotropy comparable to native arteries. After 7-9 weeks of bioreactor culture, the fibrin-based grafts were extensively remodeled by the fibroblasts into circumferentially-aligned tubes of collagen and other extracellular matrix with burst pressures in the range of 1400-1600 mmHg and compliance comparable to native arteries. The tissue suture retention force was also suitable for implantation in the rat model and, with poly(lactic acid) sewing rings entrapped at both ends of the graft, also in the ovine model. The strength achieved with a biological scaffold in such a short duration is unprecedented for an engineered artery. PMID:20934214

  2. Success rate of split-thickness skin grafting of chronic venous leg ulcers depends on the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: a retrospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgsberg, Trine; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Thomsen, Jens Schiersing


    that once chronic venous leg ulcers were colonized (weeks or months preoperatively) by P. aeruginosa, the success rate of skin grafting deteriorated despite aggressive treatment. To investigate this, a retrospective study was performed on the clinical outcome of 82 consecutive patients with chronic venous...... regression analysis was carried out leaving P. aeruginosa as the only predictor left in the model (p¿=¿0.001). This study supports our hypothesis that P. aeruginosa in chronic venous leg ulcers, despite treatment, has considerable impact on partial take or rejection of split-thickness skin grafts....... leg ulcers on 91 extremities, from the 1(st) of March 2005 until the 31(st) of August 2006. This was achieved by analysing the microbiology, demographic data, smoking and drinking habits, diabetes, renal impairment, co-morbidities, approximated size and age of the wounds, immunosuppressive treatment...

  3. Technical note: comparing von Luschan skin color tiles and modern spectrophotometry for measuring human skin pigmentation. (United States)

    Swiatoniowski, Anna K; Quillen, Ellen E; Shriver, Mark D; Jablonski, Nina G


    Prior to the introduction of reflectance spectrophotometry into anthropological field research during the 1950s, human skin color was most commonly classified by visual skin color matching using the von Luschan tiles, a set of 36 standardized, opaque glass tiles arranged in a chromatic scale. Our goal was to establish a conversion formula between the tile-based color matching method and modern reflectance spectrophotometry to make historical and contemporary data comparable. Skin pigmentation measurements were taken on the forehead, inner upper arms, and backs of the hands using both the tiles and a spectrophotometer on 246 participants showing a broad range of skin pigmentation. From these data, a second-order polynomial conversion formula was derived by jackknife analysis to estimate melanin index (M-index) based on tile values. This conversion formula provides a means for comparing modern data to von Luschan tile measurements recorded in historical reports. This is particularly important for populations now extinct, extirpated, or admixed for which tile-based measures of skin pigmentation are the only data available. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. SDR grafting of a murine antibody using multiple human germline templates to minimize its immunogenicity. (United States)

    Gonzales, Noreen R; Padlan, Eduardo A; De Pascalis, Roberto; Schuck, Peter; Schlom, Jeffrey; Kashmiri, Syed V S


    The humanization of mAbs by complementarity-determining region (CDR)-grafting has become a standard procedure to improve the clinical utility of xenogeneic Abs by reducing human anti-murine Ab (HAMA) responses elicited in patients. However, CDR-grafted humanized Abs may still evoke anti-V region responses when administered in patients. To minimize anti-V region responses, the Ab may be humanized by grafting onto the human templates only the specificity-determining residues (SDRs), the residues that are essential for the surface complementarity of the Ab and its ligand. Typically, humanization of an Ab, whether by CDR or SDR grafting, involves the use of a single human template for the entire VL or VH domain of an Ab. We hypothesized, however, that the homology between the human template sequences and mAb to be humanized may be maximized by using templates from multiple human germline sequences corresponding to the different segments of the variable domain. This could be more advantageous in reducing the potential immunogenicity of the humanized Ab. This report describes the SDR grafting of the murine anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) mAb COL-1 using three different human germline V-kappa sequences as templates for the VL CDRs and another human template for the VL frameworks. In competition RIAs, the SDR-grafted COL-1 (HuCOL-1SDR) completely inhibited the binding of radiolabeled murine COL-1 (mCOL-1) to CEA, and showed that its binding affinity is comparable to that of the CDR-grafted Ab (HuCOL-1). The HuCOL-1SDR showed similar binding reactivity to the CEA expressed on the surface of a tumor cell line as the HuCOL-1. More importantly, compared to HuCOL-1 and the "abbreviated" CDR-grafted Ab, HuCOL-1SDR showed lower reactivity to patients' sera carrying anti-V region Abs to mCOL-1. HuCOL-1SDR, which shows a lower sera reactivity than that of the parental Abs while retaining its Ag-binding property, is a potentially useful clinical reagent. To the best of our

  5. Surface functionalization of bioactive glasses with natural molecules of biological significance, part II: Grafting of polyphenols extracted from grape skin (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Ferraris, Sara; Prenesti, Enrico; Verné, Enrica


    Polyphenols, as one of the most important family of phytochemicals protective substances from grape fruit, possess various biological activities and health-promoting benefits, for example: inhibition of some degenerative diseases, cardiovascular diseases and certain types of cancers, reduction of plasma oxidative stress and slowing aging. The combination of polyphenols and biomaterials may have good potential to reach good bioavailability and controlled release, as well as to give biological signaling properties to the biomaterial surfaces. In this research, conventional solvent extraction was developed for obtaining polyphenols from dry grape skins. The Folin&Ciocalteu method was used to determine the amount of total polyphenols in the extracts. Surface functionalization of two bioactive glasses (SCNA and CEL2) was performed by grafting the extracted polyphenols on their surfaces. The effectiveness of the functionalization was tested by UV spectroscopy, which analyzes the amount of polyphenols in the uptake solution (before and after functionalization) and on solid samples, and XPS, which analyzes the presence of phenols on the material surface.

  6. Neurotrophin-3 is increased in skin in human diabetic neuropathy (United States)

    Kennedy, A; Wellmer, A; Facer, P; Saldanha, G; Kopelman, P; Lindsay, R; Anand, P


    Neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), a member of the neurotrophin family, has been shown to be necessary for the development of muscle spindle and Merkel cell afferent nerve fibres in animal models.The presence of NT-3 in the suprabasal epidermis, where many unmyelinated sensory fibres terminate, has been shown for the first time. As these fibres are affected in early diabetic neuropathy and a clinical trial of recombinant human NT-3 in diabetic neuropathy is in progress, the concentrations of endogenous NT-3 in skin of 24 patients at different stages of diabetic polyneuropathy have been investigated. NT-3 concentrations, measured with a specific immunoassay, were significantly higher in affected skin biopsies from patients with diabetic neuropathy than matched control skin (diabetic skin 6.32(1.18) pg/mg v control skin 1.28 (0.05) (mean (SEM)); p<0.004, Mann-Whitney U test), particularly in the later stages. The optical density of NT-3-immunostaining was also significantly greater in the epidermis in diabetic patients (diabetic epidermis 0.30(0.06) v controls 0.24 (0.01); p<0.02). No correlation was found between individual quantitative sensory tests and the increase of NT-3 concentration. The increase of NT-3 seems to reflect the degree of skin denervation in diabetic neuropathy, and may represent a compensatory mechanism. The concentrations of NT-3 in other peripheral targets deserve study in diabetic neuropathy.


  7. Enhancement of Human Cheek Skin Texture by Acacia Nilotica Bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of a topical application of a cream formulation containing extract of Acacia nilotica bark extract on human cheek skin texture. Methods: A cream containing 3 % concentrated extract of Acacia nilotica bark was developed by entrapping the extract in the internal aqueous phase of the cream having strong antioxidant activity.

  8. Human skin Langerhans cells are targets of dengue virus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, SJL; Grouard-Vogel, G; Mascola, [No Value; Brachtel, E; Putvatana, R; Louder, MK; Filgueira, L; Marovich, MA; Wong, HK; Blauvelt, A; Murphy, GS; Robb, ML; Innes, BL; Birx, DL; Hayes, CG; Frankel, SS

    Dengue virus (DV), an arthropod-borne flavivirus, causes a febrile illness for which there is no antiviral treatment and no vaccine(1,2). Macrophages are important in dengue pathogenesis; however, the initial target cell for DV infection remains unknown. As DV is introduced into human skin by

  9. Sarcoptes scabiei mites modulate gene expression in human skin equivalents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjorie S Morgan

    Full Text Available The ectoparasitic mite, Sarcoptes scabiei that burrows in the epidermis of mammalian skin has a long co-evolution with its hosts. Phenotypic studies show that the mites have the ability to modulate cytokine secretion and expression of cell adhesion molecules in cells of the skin and other cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems that may assist the mites to survive in the skin. The purpose of this study was to identify genes in keratinocytes and fibroblasts in human skin equivalents (HSEs that changed expression in response to the burrowing of live scabies mites. Overall, of the more than 25,800 genes measured, 189 genes were up-regulated >2-fold in response to scabies mite burrowing while 152 genes were down-regulated to the same degree. HSEs differentially expressed large numbers of genes that were related to host protective responses including those involved in immune response, defense response, cytokine activity, taxis, response to other organisms, and cell adhesion. Genes for the expression of interleukin-1α (IL-1α precursor, IL-1β, granulocyte/macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF precursor, and G-CSF precursor were up-regulated 2.8- to 7.4-fold, paralleling cytokine secretion profiles. A large number of genes involved in epithelium development and keratinization were also differentially expressed in response to live scabies mites. Thus, these skin cells are directly responding as expected in an inflammatory response to products of the mites and the disruption of the skin's protective barrier caused by burrowing. This suggests that in vivo the interplay among these skin cells and other cell types, including Langerhans cells, dendritic cells, lymphocytes and endothelial cells, is responsible for depressing the host's protective response allowing these mites to survive in the skin.

  10. Tumor angiogenic factor and human skin tumors. (United States)

    Wolf, J E; Hubler, W R


    A transparent acrylic hamster cheek-pouch chamber was used to investigate the elaboration of a tumor angiogenic factor (TAF) by human cutaneous neoplasms; direct tumor implantations, transfilter diffusion, and soluble tumor extracts were used in the study. A diffusible and filterable TAF was extracted from cutaneous tumors and produced distinctive patterns of sequential vasodilatation, tortuosity, and neovascular proliferation in the cheek-pouch membrane. Malignant human neoplasms (eg, melanoma, basal cell epithelioma, squamous cell carcinoma, lymphoma) produced striking neovascularization; vascular tumors (eg, Kaposi sarcoma, pyogenic granuloma, vascular histiocytoma) stimulated dramatic hyperemia and ectasia. Angiogenesis was conspicuously absent after implantation of control materials and nevoid or normal cutaneous components (with the exception of epidermis). Tumor angiogenic factor appears to induce direct stimulation of endothelial cell mitosis and may be essential for survival of nutritionally ravenous neoplastic tissues. The interference with TAF has therapeutic implications.

  11. Raman measurement of carotenoid composition in human skin (United States)

    Ermakov, Igor V.; Ermakova, Maia R.; Gellermann, Werner


    The carotenoids lycopene and beta-carotene are powerful antioxidants in skin and are thought to act as scavengers for free radicals and singlet oxygen. The role of carotenoid species in skin health is of strong current interest. We demonstrate the possibility to use Resonance Raman spectroscopy for fast, non-invasive, highly specific, and quantitative detection of beta-carotene and lycopene in human skin. Analyzing Raman signals originating from the carbon-carbon double bond stretch vibrations of the carotenoid molecules under blue and green laser excitation, we were able to characterize quantitatively the relative concentrations of each carotenoid species in-vivo. In the selective detection, we take advantage of different Raman cross-section spectral profiles for beta-carotene and lycopene molecules, and obtain a quantitative assessment of individual long-chain carotenoid species in the skin rather than their cumulative levels. Preliminary dual-wavelength Raman measurements reveal significant differences in the carotenoid composition of different subjects. The technique holds promise for rapid screening of carotenoid compositions in human skin in large populations and may be suitable in clinical studies for assessing the risk for cutaneous diseases.

  12. Novel Application of Cultured Epithelial Autografts (CEA with Expanded Mesh Skin Grafting Over an Artificial Dermis or Dermal Wound Bed Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadanori Akita


    Full Text Available Cultured epithelial autografts (CEA with highly expanded mesh skin grafts were used for extensive adult burns covering more than 30% of the total body surface area. A prospective study on eight patients assessed subjective and objective findings up to a 12-month follow-up. The results of wound healing for over 1:6 mesh plus CEA, gap 1:6 mesh plus CEA, and 1:3 mesh were compared at 3, 6, and 12 months using extensibility, viscoelasticity, color, and transepidermal water loss by a generalized estimating equation (GEE or generalized linear mixed model (GLMM. No significant differences were observed among the paired treatments at any time point. At 6 and 12 months, over 1:6 mesh plus CEA achieved significantly better expert evaluation scores by the Vancouver and Manchester Scar Scales (p < 0.01. Extended skin grafting plus CEA minimizes donor resources and the quality of scars is equal or similar to that with conventional low extended mesh slit-thickness skin grafting such as 1:3 mesh. A longitudinal analysis of scars may further clarify the molecular changes of scar formation and pathogenesis.

  13. Microsphaeropsis olivacea as an etiological agent of human skin infection. (United States)

    Guarro, J; Mayayo, E; Tapiol, J; Aguilar, C; Cano, J


    Microsphaeropsis olivacea is reported as the agent of a case of human skin infection in an otherwise healthy woman. This fungus has not been reported previously as causing disease in humans. It was identified on the basis of its production of pycnidia and conidial structures typical of the Coelomycetes, and by its light brown, ellipsoid to cylindrical and thick walled conidia. The in vitro inhibitory activity of amphotericin B, fluconazole, flucytosine, itraconazole, ketoconazole and miconazole was determined.


    Cizkova, Dasa; Kakinohana, Osamu; Kucharova, Karolina; Marsala, Silvia; Johe, Karl; Hazel, Thomas; Hefferan, Michael P.; Marsala, Martin


    Transient spinal cord ischemia in humans can lead to the development of permanent paraplegia with prominent spasticity and rigidity. Histopathological analysis of spinal cords in animals with ischemic spastic paraplegia show a selective loss of small inhibitory interneurons in previously ischemic segments but with a continuing presence of ventral α-motoneurons and descending cortico-spinal and rubro-spinal projections. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of human spinal stem cells (hSSCs) implanted spinally in rats with fully developed ischemic paraplegia on the recovery of motor function and corresponding changes in motor evoked potentials. In addition the optimal time frame for cell grafting after ischemia and the optimal dosing of grafted cells were also studied. Spinal cord ischemia was induced for 10 min using intra-aortic balloon and systemic hypotension. In the functional recovery study, hSSCs (10 000–30 000 cells/0.5 μl/injection) were grafted into spinal central gray matter of L2-L5 segments at 21 days after ischemia. Animals were immunosuppressed with Prograf (1mg/kg or 3mg/kg) for the duration of the study. After cell grafting the recovery of motor function was assessed periodically using BBB scoring system and correlated with the recovery of motor evoked potentials. At predetermined times after grafting (2–12 weeks), animals were perfusion-fixed and the survival, and maturation of implanted cells were analyzed using antibodies recognizing human-specific antigens: nuclear protein (hNUMA), neural cell adhesion molecule (hMOC), neuron-specific enolase (hNSE) and synapthophysin (hSYN) as well as the non-human specific antibodies TUJ1, GFAP, GABA, GAD65 and GLYT2. After cell grafting a time-dependent improvement in motor function and suppression of spasticity and rigidity was seen and this improvement correlated with the recovery of motor evoked potentials. Immunohistochemical analysis of grafted lumbar segments at 8 and 12 weeks

  15. Non-invasive monitoring of vascularization of grafted engineered human oral mucosa (United States)

    Wolf, D. E.; Seetamraju, M.; Gurjar, R. S.; Kuo, R. S.; Fasi, A.; Feinberg, S. E.


    Accident victims and victims of explosive devices often suffer from complex maxillofacial injuries. The lips are one of the most difficult areas of the face to reconstruct after an avulsion. Lip avulsion results in compromised facial esthetics and functions of speech and mastication. The process of reconstruction requires assessment of the vascularization of grafted ex vivo engineered tissue while it is buried underneath the skin. We describe the design and animal testing of a hand-held surgical probe based upon diffuse correlation spectroscopy to assess vascularization.

  16. [Effectiveness of scar split thickness skin graft combined with acellular allogeneic dermis in treatment of large deep II degree burn scar]. (United States)

    Cui, Zelong; Yang, Xiaohui; Shou, Jiabao; Wang, Guangyi


    To investigate the feasibility and effectiveness of using scar split thickness skin grafts combined with acellular allogeneic dermis in the treatment of large deep II degree burn scar. Between January 2013 and December 2013, 20 cases of large deep II degree burn scar undergoing plastic operation were enrolled. There were 14 males and 6 females, aged 4 to 60 years (mean, 40 years). Burn reasons included hydrothermal burns in 10 cases, flame burns in 9 cases, and lime burns in 1 case. The burn area accounted for 70% to 96% total body surface area (TBSA) with an average of 79% TBSA. The time from wound healing to scar repair was 3 months to 2 years (mean, 7 months). Based on self-control, 0.7 mm scar split thickness skin graft was used to repair the wound at the right side of joints after scar resection (control group, n=35), 0.5 mm scar split thickness skin graft combined with acellular allogeneic dermis at the left side of joints (trial group, n=30). Difference was not statistically significant in the scar sites between 2 groups (Z=-1.152, P=0.249). After grafting, negative pressure drainage was given for 10 days; plaster was used for immobilization till wound healing; and all patients underwent regular rehabilitation exercises. No significant difference was found in wound healing, infection, and healing time between 2 groups (P > 0.05). All patients were followed up for 6 months. According to the Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS), the score was 5.23 ± 1.41 in trial group and was 10.17 ± 2.26 in control group, showing significant difference (t=8.925, P=0.000). Referring to Activities of Daily Living (ADL) grading standards to assess joint function, the results were excellent in 8 cases, good in 20 cases, fair in 1 case, and poor in 1 case in trial group; the results were excellent in 3 cases, good in 5 cases, fair in 22 cases, and poor in 5 cases in control group; and difference was statistically significant (Z=-4.894, P=0.000). A combination of scar split thickness skin

  17. Characterization of ionizing radiation effects on human skin allografts; Caracterizacao dos efeitos da radiacao ionizante em pele humana para aloenxerto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourroul, Selma Cecilia


    The skin has a fundamental role in the viability of the human body. In the cases of extensive wounds, allograft skin provides an alternative to cover temporarily the damaged areas. After donor screening and preservation in glycerol (above 85%), the skin can be stored in the Skin Banks. The glycerol at this concentration has a bacteriostatic effect after certain time of preservation. On the other hand, skin sterilization by ionizing radiation may reduces the quarantine period for transplantation in patients and its safety is considered excellent. The objectives of this work were to establish procedures using two sources of ionizing radiation for sterilization of human skin allograft, and to evaluate the skin after gamma and electron beam irradiation. The analysis of stress-strain intended to verify possible effects of the radiation on the structure of preserved grafts. Skin samples were submitted to doses of 25 kGy and 50 kGy in an irradiator of {sup 60}Co and in an electron beam accelerator. Morphology and ultra-structure studies were also accomplished. The samples irradiated with a dose of 25 kGy seemed to maintain the bio mechanic characteristics. The gamma irradiated samples with a dose of 50 kGy and submitted to an electron beam at doses of 25 kGy and 50 kGy presented significant differences in the values of the elasticity modulus, in relation to the control. The analysis of the ultramicrographies revealed modifications in the structure and alterations in the pattern of collagen fibrils periodicity of the irradiated samples. (author)

  18. Visible skin condition and perception of human facial appearance. (United States)

    Samson, N; Fink, B; Matts, P J


    Evolutionary psychology suggests that certain human beauty standards have evolved to provide reliable cues of fertility and health. Hence, preferences for some physical characteristics of the face and body are thought to reflect adaptations for the promotion of mate choice. Studies that have investigated facial attractiveness have concentrated mainly on features such as symmetry, averageness and sex-typical traits, which are developed under the influence of sex steroids. Few studies, however, have addressed the effect of human skin condition on perception of facial appearance in this context, and possible implications for sexual selection. There is now accumulating evidence that skin pigmentation and skin surface topography cues, particularly in women, have a significant influence on attractiveness judgements, as they seem primarily to signal aspects of age and health. This article (i) reviews briefly some of the main determinants of visible skin condition, (ii) presents recent evidence on its signalling value in face perception and (iii) suggests areas for future research with reference to an evolutionary psychology framework.

  19. The 24-hour normothermic machine perfusion of discarded human liver grafts. (United States)

    Vogel, Thomas; Brockmann, Jens G; Quaglia, Alberto; Morovat, Alireza; Jassem, Wayel; Heaton, Nigel D; Coussios, Constantin C; Friend, Peter J


    Donor organ shortage necessitates use of less than optimal donor allografts for transplantation. The current cold storage preservation technique fails to preserve marginal donor grafts sufficiently. Evidence from large animal experiments suggests superiority of normothermic machine preservation (NMP) of liver allografts. In this study, we analyze discarded human liver grafts that underwent NMP for the extended period of 24 hours. Thirteen human liver grafts which had been discarded for transplantation were entered into this study. Perfusion was performed with an automated device using an oxygenated, sanguineous perfusion solution at normothermia. Automated control was incorporated for temperature-, flow-, and pressure-regulation as well as oxygenation. All livers were perfused for 24 hours; parameters of biochemical and synthetic liver function as well as histological parameters of liver damage were analyzed. Livers were stratified for expected viability according to the donor's medical history, procurement data, and their macroscopic appearance. Normothermic perfusion preservation of human livers for 24 hours was shown to be technically feasible. Human liver grafts, all of which had been discarded for transplantation, showed levels suggesting organ viability with respect to metabolic and synthetic liver function (to varying degrees). There was positive correlation between instantly available perfusion parameters and generally accepted predictors of posttransplant graft survival. In conclusion, NMP is feasible reliably for periods of at least 24 hours, even in highly suboptimal donor organs. Potential benefits include not only viability testing (as suggested in recent clinical implementations), but also removal of the time constraints associated with the utilization of high-risk livers, and recovery of ischemic and other preretrieval injuries (possibly by enabling therapeutic strategies during NMP). Liver Transplantation 23 207-220 2017 AASLD. © 2016 by the

  20. A novel ATX-S10(Na) photodynamic therapy for human skin tumors and benign hyperproliferative skin. (United States)

    Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Itoh, Yasuhiro; Nakajima, Susumu; Sakata, Isao; Iizuka, Hajime


    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising treatment for various skin tumors and other skin diseases. We investigated the potential therapeutic effects of PDT using ATX-S10(Na) ointment and a diode laser in mouse skin models of experimental skin tumors as well as transplanted human samples of superficial skin tumors and lesional psoriatic skin. ATX-S10(Na) ointment (1% w/v) was introduced into tape-stripped mouse skin, transplanted squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) samples and human skin diseases after topical application, then PDT was performed. ATX-S10(Na) ointment (1% w/v) was introduced effectively into tape-stripped mouse skin and transplanted SCC samples after topical application, but was not detected after 48 h, as assessed by fluorescence microscopy. PDT, using 1% ATX-S10(Na) ointment and diode laser (50 J/cm(2)), was found to decrease epidermal thickness in 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-treated mouse skin by 6 days. PDT with 1% ATX-S10(Na) ointment and diode laser (150 J/cm(2)) was also effective for transplanted SCC, and tumors were eliminated by 6 weeks. PDT against Bowen disease, basal-cell carcinoma, and psoriasis xenografts onto SCID mice also showed marked suppression of tumor growth and cell proliferation, respectively. Our results indicate that ATX-S10(Na)-PDT is an effective treatment for various skin tumors and psoriasis in experimental mouse models.

  1. The reconstruction of a contracted eye socket using a post-auricular full-thickness skin graft. (United States)

    Wei, Yi Hsuan; Liao, Shu Lang


    To report the efficacy of a full-thickness skin graft (FTSG) for the reconstruction of a contracted eye socket. A retrospective, non-comparative, interventional case series. This was a retrospective review of patients with a contracted eye socket who underwent socket reconstruction using a post-auricular FTSG from 2001 to 2011 at the National Taiwan University Hospital. The postoperative results including prosthetic fitting, the cosmetic result, and eyelid function were assessed. There were 11 male and 15 female patients, with a mean age of 52.3 ± 15.6 years (range 21 to 76). The duration of the socket contracture varied from three months to three years (average 7.4 ± 8.1 months). The severity of the socket contracture ranged from grade 2 to grade 4, based on Tawfik's classification. The mean follow-up time was 35.7 ± 9.6 months. After socket reconstruction, using a post-auricular FTSG, 96% of the cases (25 of 26) demonstrated a successful prosthetic fitting and a satisfactory cosmetic outcome. Both good eyelid function and a stable fornix depth were maintained during the follow-up time. One case received a second socket reconstruction three months after the first operation, using a FTSG, because of an inadequate lateral fornix. The final result was satisfactory. There were no serious complications, but a granuloma formed in one case, and there was prolonged discharge in one case. The reconstruction of a contracted eye socket using a post-auricular FTSG is an effective method with a high success rate, which causes less discomfort to donor sites and results in few complications.

  2. Surgical and Functional Outcomes Following Buried Penis Repair With Limited Panniculectomy and Split-thickness Skin Graft. (United States)

    Hampson, Lindsay A; Muncey, Wade; Chung, Paul H; Ma, C C; Friedrich, Jeffrey; Wessells, Hunter; Voelzke, Bryan B


    To report surgical and functional outcomes of buried penis surgery. Outcomes following buried penis surgery at the University of Washington were assessed from June 1, 2005 to June 1, 2016. Patient demographic and surgical data were abstracted from a retrospective chart review. All patients were attempted to be contacted by phone for long-term follow-up. Uni- and multivariate analysis was performed to evaluate for association with any complication. A total of 42 men underwent buried penis repair surgery (mean short-term follow-up 8.1 months). There was an overall 33% 90-day complication rate (21 events). In univariate analysis, body mass index (BMI; P = .02) and no history of gastric bypass (P = .03) were significant predictors of any complication. In multivariate analysis, only BMI remained significant (odds ratio 1.1 for each increase in unit of BMI, 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.27). Twenty-seven patients were reached for long-term follow-up (mean 39 months). Patients reported improvements in every functional domain that was assessed. Of the patients, 85% reported they would undergo buried penis surgery again, 74% that surgery led to a positive change in their lives, and 85% that the surgery had remained a long-term success. Surgical correction of buried penis with penile split-thickness skin graft and limited panniculectomy is well tolerated and results in functional, long-term improvements. BMI is associated with an increased likelihood of a complication following surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Role of customised negative-pressure wound therapy in the integration of split-thickness skin grafts: A randomised control study. (United States)

    Mohsin, Mir; Zargar, Haroon Rashid; Wani, Adil Hafeez; Zaroo, Mohammad Inam; Baba, Peerzada Umar Farooq; Bashir, Sheikh Adil; Rasool, Altaf; Bijli, Akram Hussain


    Split-thickness skin grafting (STSG) is a time-tested technique in wound cover, but many factors lead to suboptimal graft take. Role of custom-made negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is compared with conventional dress in the integration of STSG and its cost is compared with widely used commercially available NPWT. This is a parallel group randomised control study. Block randomisation of 100 patients into one of the two groups (NPWT vs. non-NPWT; 50 patients each) was done. Graft take/loss, length of hospital stay post-grafting, need for regrafting and cost of custom-made negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) dressings as compared to widely used commercially available NPWT were assessed. Mean graft take in the NPWT group was 99.74% ± 0.73% compared to 88.52% ± 9.47% in the non-NPWT group (P = 0.004). None of the patients in the NPWT group required second coverage procedure as opposed to six cases in the non-NPWT group (P = 0.035). All the patients in the NPWT group were discharged within 4-9 days from the day of grafting. No major complication was encountered with the use of custom-made NPWT. Custom-made NPWT dressings were found to be 22 times cheaper than the widely used commercially available NPWT. Custom-made NPWT is a safe, simple and effective technique in the integration of STSG as compared to the conventional dressings. We have been able to reduce the financial burden on the patients as well as the hospital significantly while achieving results at par with other studies which have used commercially available NPWT.

  4. Three-Dimensional In Vitro Skin and Skin Cancer Models Based on Human Fibroblast-Derived Matrix. (United States)

    Berning, Manuel; Prätzel-Wunder, Silke; Bickenbach, Jackie R; Boukamp, Petra


    Three-dimensional in vitro skin and skin cancer models help to dissect epidermal-dermal and tumor-stroma interactions. In the model presented here, normal human dermal fibroblasts isolated from adult skin self-assembled into dermal equivalents with their specific fibroblast-derived matrix (fdmDE) over 4 weeks. The fdmDE represented a complex human extracellular matrix that was stabilized by its own heterogeneous collagen fiber meshwork, largely resembling a human dermal in vivo architecture. Complemented with normal human epidermal keratinocytes, the skin equivalent (fdmSE) thereof favored the establishment of a well-stratified and differentiated epidermis and importantly allowed epidermal regeneration in vitro for at least 24 weeks. Moreover, the fdmDE could be used to study the features of cutaneous skin cancer. Complementing fdmDE with HaCaT cells in different stages of malignancy or tumor-derived cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma cell lines, the resulting skin cancer equivalents (fdmSCEs) recapitulated the respective degree of tumorigenicity. In addition, the fdmSCE invasion phenotypes correlated with their individual degree of tissue organization, disturbance in basement membrane organization, and presence of matrix metalloproteinases. Together, fdmDE-based models are well suited for long-term regeneration of normal human epidermis and, as they recapitulate tumor-specific growth, differentiation, and invasion profiles of cutaneous skin cancer cells, also provide an excellent human in vitro skin cancer model.

  5. Simultaneous dermal matrix and autologous split-thickness skin graft transplantation in a porcine wound model: a three-dimensional histological analysis of revascularization. (United States)

    Wiedner, Maria; Tinhofer, Ines E; Kamolz, Lars-Peter; Seyedian Moghaddam, Atieh; Justich, Ivo; Liegl-Atzwanger, Bernadette; Bubalo, Vladimir; Weninger, Wolfgang J; Lumenta, David B


    Despite the popularity of a simultaneous application of dermal matrices and split-thickness skin grafts, scarce evidence exists about the process of revascularization involved. In this study, we aimed at analyzing the progression of revascularization by high-resolution episcopic microscopy (HREM) in a porcine excisional wound model. Following the surgical procedure creating 5 × 5 cm(2) full-thickness defects on the back, one area was covered with an autologous split-thickness skin graft alone (control group), the other with a collagen-elastin dermal matrix plus split-thickness skin graft (dermal matrix group). Two skin biopsies per each group and location were performed on day 5, 10, 15, and 28 postoperatively and separately processed for H&E as well as HREM. The dermal layer was thicker in the dermal matrix group vs. control on day 5 and 28. No differences were found for revascularization by conventional histology. In HREM, the dermal matrix did not appear to decelerate the revascularization process. The presence of the dermal matrix could be distinguished until day 15. By day 28, the structure of the dermal matrix could no longer be delineated and was replaced by autologous tissue. As assessed by conventional histology and confirmed by HREM, the revascularization process was comparable in both groups, notably with regard to the vertical ingrowth of sprouting vessels. The presented technique of HREM is a valuable addition for analyzing small vessel sprouting in dermal matrices in the future. © 2014 by the Wound Healing Society.

  6. Extracellular depolymerization of hyaluronic acid in cultured human skin fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, T.; Takagaki, K.; Kubo, K.; Morikawa, A.; Tamura, S.; Endo, M. (Hirosaki Univ. School of Medicine (Japan))


    The chain length of ({sup 3}H)hyaluronic acid synthesized by cultivating human skin fibroblasts in the presence of ({sup 3}H)glucosamine was investigated. ({sup 3}H)Hyaluronic acid obtained from the matrix fraction was excluded from a Sepharose CL-2B column irrespective of the incubation period, whereas that from the medium was depolymerized into a constant chain length (Mr = 40,000). The reducing and non-reducing terminals of the depolymerized hyaluronic acid were N-acetylglucosamine and glucuronic acid, respectively. Prolonged incubation produced no oligosaccharides as shown by examination of hyaluronidase digests, suggesting the presence of a novel endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase in cultured human skin fibroblasts.

  7. Hemocompatible control of sulfobetaine-grafted polypropylene fibrous membranes in human whole blood via plasma-induced surface zwitterionization. (United States)

    Chen, Sheng-Han; Chang, Yung; Lee, Kueir-Rarn; Wei, Ta-Chin; Higuchi, Akon; Ho, Feng-Ming; Tsou, Chia-Chun; Ho, Hsin-Tsung; Lai, Juin-Yih


    In this work, the hemocompatibility of zwitterionic polypropylene (PP) fibrous membranes with varying grafting coverage of poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) (PSBMA) via plasma-induced surface polymerization was studied. Charge neutrality of PSBMA-grafted layers on PP membrane surfaces was controlled by the low-pressure and atmospheric plasma treatment in this study. The effects of grafting composition, surface hydrophilicity, and hydration capability on blood compatibility of the membranes were determined. Protein adsorption onto the different PSBMA-grafted PP membranes from human fibrinogen solutions was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with monoclonal antibodies. Blood platelet adhesion and plasma clotting time measurements from a recalcified platelet-rich plasma solution were used to determine if platelet activation depends on the charge bias of the grafted PSBMA layer. The charge bias of PSBMA layer deviated from the electrical balance of positively and negatively charged moieties can be well-controlled via atmospheric plasma-induced interfacial zwitterionization and was further tested with human whole blood. The optimized PSBMA surface graft layer in overall charge neutrality has a high hydration capability and keeps its original blood-inert property of antifouling, anticoagulant, and antithrmbogenic activities when it comes into contact with human blood. This work suggests that the hemocompatible nature of grafted PSBMA polymers by controlling grafting quality via atmospheric plasma treatment gives a great potential in the surface zwitterionization of hydrophobic membranes for use in human whole blood.

  8. Hypertonic Glucose Combined with Negative Pressure Wound Therapy to Prepare Wounds with Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection for Skin Grafting: A Report of 3 Cases. (United States)

    Zhao, Jing-Chun; Xian, Chun-Jing; Yu, Jia-Ao; Shi, Kai; Hong, Lei


    Soft tissue losses from acute or chronic trauma are a challenge for surgeons. To explore a method to expedite granulation tissue formation in preparation for a split-thickness skin graft (STSG), the medical records of 3 patients - 2 adult men with wounds related to trauma injury and 1 infant with necrotizing fasciitis, all infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa - were reviewed. All wounds were surgically debrided and managed by applying gauze soaked in 50% glucose followed by continuous negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) before definitive skin grafting. NPWT pressure was applied at -80 mm Hg for the 2 adult males (ages 39 and 25 years) and -50 mm Hg for the 7-month-old male infant. The dressings were changed every 2 to 3 days. No adverse events occurred, and wounds were successfully closed with a STSG after an average of 7 days. In 1 case, NPWT was able to help affix dressings in a difficult-to-dress area (genital region). The combination of hypertonic glucose and hand-made, gauze-based NPWT was found to be safe, well-tolerated, and effective in preparing the wound bed for grafting. Prospective, randomized, controlled clinical studies are needed to compare the safety, effectiveness, and efficacy of this method to other treatment approaches for P. aeruginosa-infected wounds.

  9. Bone strains around apically free versus grafted implants in the posterior maxilla of human cadavers. (United States)

    Cehreli, Murat Cavit; Akkocaoglu, Murat; Comert, Ayhan; Tekdemir, Ibrahim; Akca, Kivanc


    The objective of this study was to compare the bone strains of apically free versus grafted implants in the posterior maxilla. The experiments were undertaken in four edentulous maxillary posterior regions of fresh human cadavers, having a minimum bone height of 8 mm. In each bone fragment, two Ø 4.1 mm x 12 mm Straumann implants were placed, and insertion torque values (ITV) and implant stability quotients (ISQ) of the implants were quantified to determine implant anchorage. Two splinted crowns were fabricated for each experimental model. Strain gauges were bonded on the buccal and sinus floor cortical bones around apically free and grafted implants. Microstrains were recorded by a data acquisition system and corresponding software at a sample rate of 10 KHz under central and buccally oriented lateral-axial static loads of 100 and 150 N in separate cases. The data were compared by independent T test at a significance level set at PBone tissue strains on the buccal cortical areas adjacent to apically free implants were higher than those of apically grafted implants (Pbone around apically free and grafted implants (PBone strains around anterior implants were higher than those of posterior implants. Microstrains in the sinus floor cortical bone in apically grafted models were slightly higher than apically free models. Bone tissue strains on the buccal cortical areas adjacent to apicallyfree implants are higher than those of apically grafted implants. Sinus lifting, resulting in an enhanced apical support, slightly increases strains at the sinus floor region, but leads to a decrease in bone strains around the collar of supporting implants.

  10. A micromechanical comparison of human and porcine skin before and after preservation by freezing for medical device development


    Ranamukhaarachchi, S. A.; Lehnert, S.; Ranamukhaarachchi, S. L.; Sprenger, L.; Schneider, T.; Mansoor, I.; Rai, K.; H?feli, U. O.; Stoeber, B.


    Collecting human skin samples for medical research, including developing microneedle-based medical devices, is challenging and time-consuming. Researchers rely on human skin substitutes and skin preservation techniques, such as freezing, to overcome the lack of skin availability. Porcine skin is considered the best substitute to human skin, but their mechanical resemblance has not been fully validated. We provide a direct mechanical comparison between human and porcine skin samples using a co...

  11. Humanization of Antibodies Using Heavy Chain Complementarity-determining Region 3 Grafting Coupled with in Vitro Somatic Hypermutation* (United States)

    Bowers, Peter M.; Neben, Tamlyn Y.; Tomlinson, Geoffery L.; Dalton, Jennifer L.; Altobell, Larry; Zhang, Xue; Macomber, John L.; Wu, Betty F.; Toobian, Rachelle M.; McConnell, Audrey D.; Verdino, Petra; Chau, Betty; Horlick, Robert A.; King, David J.


    A method for simultaneous humanization and affinity maturation of monoclonal antibodies has been developed using heavy chain complementarity-determining region (CDR) 3 grafting combined with somatic hypermutation in vitro. To minimize the amount of murine antibody-derived antibody sequence used during humanization, only the CDR3 region from a murine antibody that recognizes the cytokine hβNGF was grafted into a nonhomologous human germ line V region. The resulting CDR3-grafted HC was paired with a CDR-grafted light chain, displayed on the surface of HEK293 cells, and matured using in vitro somatic hypermutation. A high affinity humanized antibody was derived that was considerably more potent than the parental antibody, possessed a low pm dissociation constant, and demonstrated potent inhibition of hβNGF activity in vitro. The resulting antibody contained half the heavy chain murine donor sequence compared with the same antibody humanized using traditional methods. PMID:23355464

  12. Humanization of antibodies using heavy chain complementarity-determining region 3 grafting coupled with in vitro somatic hypermutation. (United States)

    Bowers, Peter M; Neben, Tamlyn Y; Tomlinson, Geoffery L; Dalton, Jennifer L; Altobell, Larry; Zhang, Xue; Macomber, John L; Wu, Betty F; Toobian, Rachelle M; McConnell, Audrey D; Verdino, Petra; Chau, Betty; Horlick, Robert A; King, David J


    A method for simultaneous humanization and affinity maturation of monoclonal antibodies has been developed using heavy chain complementarity-determining region (CDR) 3 grafting combined with somatic hypermutation in vitro. To minimize the amount of murine antibody-derived antibody sequence used during humanization, only the CDR3 region from a murine antibody that recognizes the cytokine hβNGF was grafted into a nonhomologous human germ line V region. The resulting CDR3-grafted HC was paired with a CDR-grafted light chain, displayed on the surface of HEK293 cells, and matured using in vitro somatic hypermutation. A high affinity humanized antibody was derived that was considerably more potent than the parental antibody, possessed a low pm dissociation constant, and demonstrated potent inhibition of hβNGF activity in vitro. The resulting antibody contained half the heavy chain murine donor sequence compared with the same antibody humanized using traditional methods.

  13. Bioreactor based engineering of large-scale human cartilage grafts for joint resurfacing. (United States)

    Santoro, Rosaria; Olivares, Andy L; Brans, Gerben; Wirz, Dieter; Longinotti, Cristina; Lacroix, Damien; Martin, Ivan; Wendt, David


    Apart from partial or total joint replacement, no surgical procedure is currently available to treat large and deep cartilage defects associated with advanced diseases such as osteoarthritis. In this work, we developed a perfusion bioreactor system to engineer human cartilage grafts in a size with clinical relevance for unicompartmental resurfacing of human knee joints (50 mm diameter × 3 mm thick). Computational fluid dynamics models were developed to optimize the flow profile when designing the perfusion chamber. Using the developed system, human chondrocytes could be seeded throughout large 50 mm diameter scaffolds with a uniform distribution. Following two weeks culture, tissues grown in the bioreactor were viable and homogeneously cartilaginous, with biomechanical properties approaching those of native cartilage. In contrast, tissues generated by conventional manual production procedures were highly inhomogeneous and contained large necrotic regions. The unprecedented engineering of human cartilage tissues in this large-scale opens the practical perspective of grafting functional biological substitutes for the clinical treatment for extensive cartilage defects, possibly in combination with surgical or pharmacological therapies to support durability of the implant. Ongoing efforts are aimed at integrating the up-scaled bioreactor based processes within a fully automated and closed manufacturing system for safe, standardized, and GMP compliant production of large-scale cartilage grafts. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The use of split-thickness versus full-thickness skin graft to resurface volar aspect of pediatric burned hands: A systematic review. (United States)

    Prasetyono, Theddeus O H; Sadikin, Patricia M; Saputra, Debby K A


    The aim of this systematic review was to discuss the comparison of split-thickness skin graft (STSG) and full-thickness skin graft (FTSG) use as the treatment for volar digital and palmar burns in children. We conducted PubMed and Cochrane Library searches using keywords "hand injuries", "contracture" and "skin transplantation". The search was limited to studies published from 1st January 1980 until 31st December 2013 and used English language. We selected the studies based on specific inclusion and exclusion criteria. We assessed the quality of the studies by using Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) for cohort studies. We included eight articles in our systematic review. One of those studies is a prospective cohort study and the others are retrospective cohort studies. Based on combined range of motion (ROM) evaluation in three studies, STSG group yielded poorer functional outcomes than FTSG group. However, there is no study which can fairly show that FTSG was significantly superior to STSG to achieve good functional outcomes. Currently, there is no strong, high-quality evidence to prove that FTSG is superior to STSG to cover pediatric palmar burns. Either FTSG or STSG can be utilized with consideration of several influential factors especially splinting and physiotherapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  15. The Use of Cryopreserved Human Skin Allograft for the Treatment of Wounds With Exposed Muscle, Tendon, and Bone. (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas C; Wilson, Jessica A; Crim, Brandon; Lowery, Nicholas J


    Wounds with exposed bone or tendon continue to be a challenge for wound care physicians, and there is little research pertaining to the treatment of these particular wounds with allograft skin. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of a biologically active cryopreserved human skin allograft for treating wounds with exposed bone and/or tendon in the lower extremities. Fifteen patients with 15 wounds at a single hospital-based wound care center were included in the study. Eleven wounds had exposed bone, 1 wound had exposed ten- don, and 3 wounds had exposed bone and tendon. Standard treatment principles with adjunctive cadaveric allograft application were performed on all wounds in the study. In this study 14/15 (93.3%) of the wounds healed completely. The mean duration of days until coverage of the bone and/or tendon with granulation tissue was 36.14 (5.16 weeks) (range 5-117 days). Mean duration to complete healing of the wound was 133 days (19 weeks) (range 53-311 days). The mean number of grafts applied was 2. There were no adverse events directly related to the graft. Zero major amputations and 1 minor amputation occurred. This study found biologically active cryopreserved human skin allografts to be safe and effective in treating difficult wounds with exposed bone and/or tendon. To the authors' knowledge, this is the largest study to date focused on the utilization of allograft skin as an adjunct therapy for lower extremity wounds with exposed tendon and/or bone.

  16. The safety of donor skin preserved with glycerol - Evaluating the Euro Skin Bank preservation procedures of human donor skin against the prEN 12442 standard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geertsma RE; Wassenaar C; LGM


    The procedures for preservation of human donor skin with glycerol, as applied by the Euro Skin Bank (ESB), were evaluated against the prEN 12442 standard: animal tissues and their derivatives used in the manufacture of medical devices. The focus chosen for this review is on risks related to the

  17. In-Vivo Human Skin to Textiles Friction Measurements (United States)

    Pfarr, Lukas; Zagar, Bernhard


    We report on a measurement system to determine highly reliable and accurate friction properties of textiles as needed for example as input to garment simulation software. Our investigations led to a set-up that allows to characterize not just textile to textile but also textile to in-vivo human skin tribological properties and thus to fundamental knowledge about genuine wearer interaction in garments. The method of test conveyed in this paper is measuring concurrently and in a highly time resolved manner the normal force as well as the resulting shear force caused by a friction subject intending to slide out of the static friction regime and into the dynamic regime on a test bench. Deeper analysis of various influences is enabled by extending the simple model following Coulomb's law for rigid body friction to include further essential parameters such as contact force, predominance in the yarn's orientation and also skin hydration. This easy-to-use system enables to measure reliably and reproducibly both static and dynamic friction for a variety of friction partners including human skin with all its variability there might be.

  18. Hyperspectral imaging for detection of cholesterol in human skin (United States)

    Milanič, Matija; Bjorgan, Asgeir; Larsson, Marcus; Marraccini, Paolo; Strömberg, Tomas; Randeberg, Lise L.


    Hypercholesterolemia is characterized by high levels of cholesterol in the blood and is associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. Early detection of hypercholesterolemia is necessary to prevent onset and progress of cardiovascular disease. Optical imaging techniques might have a potential for early diagnosis and monitoring of hypercholesterolemia. In this study, hyperspectral imaging was investigated for this application. The main aim of the study was to identify spectral and spatial characteristics that can aid identification of hypercholesterolemia in facial skin. The first part of the study involved a numerical simulation of human skin affected by hypercholesterolemia. A literature survey was performed to identify characteristic morphological and physiological parameters. Realistic models were prepared and Monte Carlo simulations were performed to obtain hyperspectral images. Based on the simulations optimal wavelength regions for differentiation between normal and cholesterol rich skin were identified. Minimum Noise Fraction transformation (MNF) was used for analysis. In the second part of the study, the simulations were verified by a clinical study involving volunteers with elevated and normal levels of cholesterol. The faces of the volunteers were scanned by a hyperspectral camera covering the spectral range between 400 nm and 720 nm, and characteristic spectral features of the affected skin were identified. Processing of the images was done after conversion to reflectance and masking of the images. The identified features were compared to the known cholesterol levels of the subjects. The results of this study demonstrate that hyperspectral imaging of facial skin can be a promising, rapid modality for detection of hypercholesterolemia.

  19. Mice engrafted with human fetal thymic tissue and hematopoietic stem cells develop pathology resembling chronic graft-versus-host disease. (United States)

    Lockridge, Jennifer L; Zhou, Ying; Becker, Yusof A; Ma, Shidong; Kenney, Shannon C; Hematti, Peiman; Capitini, Christian M; Burlingham, William J; Gendron-Fitzpatrick, Annette; Gumperz, Jenny E


    Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is a significant roadblock to long-term hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation success. Effective treatments for cGVHD have been difficult to develop, in part because of a paucity of animal models that recapitulate the multiorgan pathologies observed in clinical cGVHD. Here we present an analysis of the pathology that occurs in immunodeficient mice engrafted with human fetal HSCs and implanted with fragments of human fetal thymus and liver. Starting at time points generally later than 100 days post-transplantation, the mice developed signs of illness, including multiorgan cellular infiltrates containing human T cells, B cells, and macrophages; fibrosis in sites such as lungs and liver; and thickened skin with alopecia. Experimental manipulations that delayed or reduced the efficiency of the HSC engraftment did not affect the timing or progression of disease manifestations, suggesting that pathology in this model is driven more by factors associated with the engrafted human thymic organoid. Disease progression was typically accompanied by extensive fibrosis and degradation of the thymic organoid, and there was an inverse correlation of disease severity with the frequency of FoxP3(+) thymocytes. Hence, the human thymic tissue may contribute T cells with pathogenic potential, but the generation of regulatory T cells in the thymic organoid may help to control these cells before pathology resembling cGVHD eventually develops. This model thus provides a new system to investigate disease pathophysiology relating to human thymic events and to evaluate treatment strategies to combat multiorgan fibrotic pathology produced by human immune cells. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Phase II Clinical Trial of Intraoral Grafting of Human Tissue-Engineered Oral Mucosa (United States)


    study to assess the safety and efficacy for use of human EVPOME for soft tissue intraoral grafting procedures compared to the “gold standard” palatal...reconstruction of major oral avulsion defects. These defects are seen as secondary to traumatic injuries or oncologic resection and developmental disturbances...The EVPOME will minimize patient morbidity and improve functional outcome measures. Consequently, the goal of our clinical trial is to determine

  1. In vivo human-skin electrical conduction and pain sensations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voegelin, M. R. [Florence, Univ. (Italy). Div. di Fisica Medica. Dipt. di Fisiopatologia; Paoli, G.; Zoppi, M. [Florence, Univ. (Italy). Istituto della I Clinica Medica


    In vivo human skin is stimulated by direct current the intensity of which ranges from 1 {mu}A to 1 mA. They have detected the voltage/current plot and the temporal trend of potential difference between two electrodes placed in a suitable cutaneous region of stimulation, in a group of healthy subjects. They have elaborated a non-linear functional equivalent model to describe the system behaviour. The electrical stimulation can induce painful sensation, over a critical value of the current intensity, and they believe that this sensation is due to thermal dissipation into the inner layers of the skin. In fact, subjects begin to feel pain when the electric power dissipated in the stimulated region for unit time is within the range of 235-260 mcal/cm{sup 2}{center_dot}s, that corresponds to the thermal threshold required to evoke pain.

  2. Collagen synthesis in human musculoskeletal tissues and skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babraj, J A; Cuthbertson, D J R; Smith, K


    We have developed a direct method for the measurement of human musculoskeletal collagen synthesis on the basis of the incorporation of stable isotope-labeled proline or leucine into protein and have used it to measure the rate of synthesis of collagen in tendon, ligament, muscle, and skin....... In postabsorptive, healthy young men (28 +/- 6 yr) synthetic rates for tendon, ligament, muscle, and skin collagen were 0.046 +/- 0.005, 0.040 +/- 0.006, 0.016 +/- 0.002, and 0.037 +/- 0.003%/h, respectively (means +/- SD). In postabsorptive, healthy elderly men (70 +/- 6 yr) the rate of skeletal muscle collagen...... synthesis is greater than in the young (0.023 +/- 0.002%/h, P collagen are similar to those of mixed skeletal muscle protein in the postabsorptive state, whereas the rate for muscle collagen synthesis is much lower in both young and elderly men...

  3. Human skin equivalents for atopic dermatitis : investigating the role of filaggrin in the skin barrier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drongelen, Vincent van


    Atopic Dermatitis (AD) is a frequent occurring inflammatory skin disease causing physical discomfort, social embarrassment and stress. This skin disease is characterized by decreased skin barrier function and various other epidermal changes, as well as immunological changes. A decreased skin barrier

  4. Biology of Zika Virus Infection in Human Skin Cells. (United States)

    Hamel, Rodolphe; Dejarnac, Ophélie; Wichit, Sineewanlaya; Ekchariyawat, Peeraya; Neyret, Aymeric; Luplertlop, Natthanej; Perera-Lecoin, Manuel; Surasombatpattana, Pornapat; Talignani, Loïc; Thomas, Frédéric; Cao-Lormeau, Van-Mai; Choumet, Valérie; Briant, Laurence; Desprès, Philippe; Amara, Ali; Yssel, Hans; Missé, Dorothée


    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family, which includes dengue, West Nile, yellow fever, and Japanese encephalitis viruses, that causes a mosquito-borne disease transmitted by the Aedes genus, with recent outbreaks in the South Pacific. Here we examine the importance of human skin in the entry of ZIKV and its contribution to the induction of antiviral immune responses. We show that human dermal fibroblasts, epidermal keratinocytes, and immature dendritic cells are permissive to the most recent ZIKV isolate, responsible for the epidemic in French Polynesia. Several entry and/or adhesion factors, including DC-SIGN, AXL, Tyro3, and, to a lesser extent, TIM-1, permitted ZIKV entry, with a major role for the TAM receptor AXL. The ZIKV permissiveness of human skin fibroblasts was confirmed by the use of a neutralizing antibody and specific RNA silencing. ZIKV induced the transcription of Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), RIG-I, and MDA5, as well as several interferon-stimulated genes, including OAS2, ISG15, and MX1, characterized by strongly enhanced beta interferon gene expression. ZIKV was found to be sensitive to the antiviral effects of both type I and type II interferons. Finally, infection of skin fibroblasts resulted in the formation of autophagosomes, whose presence was associated with enhanced viral replication, as shown by the use of Torin 1, a chemical inducer of autophagy, and the specific autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine. The results presented herein permit us to gain further insight into the biology of ZIKV and to devise strategies aiming to interfere with the pathology caused by this emerging flavivirus. Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus belonging to the Flaviviridae family. Vector-mediated transmission of ZIKV is initiated when a blood-feeding female Aedes mosquito injects the virus into the skin of its mammalian host, followed by infection of permissive cells via specific receptors. Indeed, skin immune cells, including dermal

  5. In vivo optical coherence tomography of human skin microstructure (United States)

    Sergeev, Alexander M.; Gelikonov, Valentin M.; Gelikonov, Grigory V.; Feldchtein, Felix I.; Pravdenko, Kirill I.; Shabanov, Dmitry V.; Gladkova, Natalia D.; Pochinko, Vitaly; Zhegalov, V.; Dmitriev, G.; Vazina, I.; Petrova, Galina P.; Nikulin, Nikolai K.


    A compact effective optical coherence tomography (OCT) system is presented. It contains approximately equals 0.3 mW superluminescent diode with spectral width 30 nm FWHM (providing approximately equals 15 micrometers longitudinal resolution) and fiber interferometer with integrated longitudinal scanning. The dynamic range 60 dB allows to observe structure of human skin in vivo up to 1.5 mm in depth. A comparison of obtained tomographs with data of histologic analysis of the same samples of the skin have been carried out to identify the observed structures and determine their optical properties. This technique allows one to perform noncontact, noninvasive diagnostic of early stages of different pathological state of the skin, to measure the burn depth and to observe the process of the recovery. Unlike scanning confocal microscopy, OCT is more suitable for an endoscopic investigation of the mucous membranes of hollow organs. Possible diagnostic applications include dermatology, gastroenterology, gynecology, urology, oncology, othorinolaryngology, transplantology. The most promising features are the potential possibility of differential diagnosis of precancer and various types of cancer, estimation of the invasion depth, differential diagnosis of inflammation and dystrophic processes, control of radical operative treatment.

  6. Recovery of latent fingerprints and DNA on human skin. (United States)

    Färber, Doris; Seul, Andrea; Weisser, Hans-Joachim; Bohnert, Michael


    The project "Latent Fingerprints and DNA on Human Skin" was the first systematic research in Europe dealing with detection of fingerprints and DNA left by offenders on the skin of corpses. One thousand samples gave results that allow general statements on the materials and methods used. The tests were carried out according to a uniform trial structure. Fingerprints were deposited by natural donors on corpses. The latent fingerprints were treated with magnetic powder or black fingerprint powder. Afterward, they were lifted with silicone casting material (Isomark(®)) or gelatine foil. All lifts were swabbed to recover DNA. It was possible to visualize comparable and identifiable fingerprints on the skin of corpses (16%). In the same categories, magnetic powder (18.4%) yielded better results than black fingerprint powder (13.6%). The number of comparable and identifiable fingerprints decreased on the lifts (12.7%). Isomark(®) (14.9%) was the better lifting material in comparison with gelatine foil (10.1%). In one-third of the samples, DNA could be extracted from the powdered and lifted latents. Black fingerprint powder delivered the better result with a rate of 2.2% for full DNA profiles and profiles useful for exclusion in comparison with 1.8% for the magnetic powder traces. Isomark(®) (3.1%) yielded better results than gelatine foil (0.6%). © 2010 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  7. Electrical characteristics of female and male human skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalauzi A.


    Full Text Available Bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS is a popular method for characterizing the electrical properties of biological tissues. In this study, BIS measurement data of female and male human skin were analyzed and compared. The electrical characteristics of tissue were followed according to four-parameters of the Cole-Cole model: low frequency resistance R0; high frequency resistance R∞; relaxation time t and parameter a. Individual electrical characteristics of human skin were determined for 30 women and 30 men. The distribution and one-way analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA of the Cole-Cole parameters R0, R∞, t, a within the human population indicated their different dependence on gender. Parameter a, which is higher in the female subjects (a =0.83±0.03 than in the male subjects (a=0.7±0.05, is strongly dependent on gender (p=0. Parameter R∞ also significantly depends on gender (p=0.002, while t and R0 seem to be slightly related to gender (p>0.05. [Acknowledgments - This work was supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Serbia (41006.

  8. Adipogenic differentiation of laser-printed 3D tissue grafts consisting of human adipose-derived stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruene, M; Deiwick, A; Koch, L; Schlie, S; Unger, C; Chichkov, B N [Nanotechnology Department, Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., Hollerithallee 8, 30419 Hannover (Germany); Pflaum, M; Wilhelmi, M; Haverich, A, E-mail: [Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Carl-Neuberg-Strasse 1, 30625 Hannover (Germany)


    Laser-assisted bioprinting (LaBP) allows the realization of computer-generated 3D tissue grafts consisting of cells embedded in a hydrogel environment. In this study, human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) were printed in a free-scalable 3D grid pattern by means of LaBP. We demonstrate that neither the proliferation ability nor the differentiation behaviour of the stem cells was affected by the LaBP procedure. Furthermore, the 3D grafts were differentiated down the adipogenic lineage pathway for 10 days. We verify by quantitative assessments of adipogenic markers that the 3D grafts resemble cell lineages present in natural adipose tissue. Additionally, we provide the proof that even pre-differentiated hASCs could be utilized for the generation of 3D tissue grafts. These results indicate that the biofabrication of living grafts resembling their complex native origin is within reach.

  9. Histological evaluation of human amniotic membrane graft on oral keratinizing mucosa in the rabbit model (A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samandari Najafabadi MH


    Full Text Available Background and Aim: One of the complications following major oral surgeries is mucosal defects and delayed healing process. Up to now, various mucocutaneous grafts have been used in this field and recently, amniotic membrane has been proposed as a biological dressing in dermatologic, ophthalmologic and otolaryngologic practices. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the healing process following human amniotic membrane graft on oral keratinized mucosa of rabbit.Materials and Methods: In this experimental animal study, two surgical mucosal defects with the same size were made in palatal mucosa of 10 rabbits with the same weight, gender and race and a graft of human amniotic membrane was used on one of the defects. On the 7th, 14th and 28th postoperative days, surgical biopsies were randomly obtained from grafted and ungrafted regions of 3, 4 and 3 rabbits, respectively and submitted for microscopic study. Results: According to the results, grafted regions showed more surface epithelialization and thicker newly formed epithelium. Also inflammatory cells infiltration was less in these areas. In all cases, there was a remarkable cartilage formation in the connective tissue of the recipient sites.Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that the use of amniotic membrane graft in oral surgery could be effective in healing process. Additional studies should be done using animal and human models with more samples. Furthermore, the formation of cartilage in the grafted sites and its possible potential in reconstruction of bone defects, needs to be studied.

  10. Steroid synthesis by primary human keratinocytes; implications for skin disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannen, Rosalind F., E-mail: [Centre for Cutaneous Research, Institute of Cell and Molecular Science, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 2AT (United Kingdom); Michael, Anthony E. [Centre for Developmental and Endocrine Signalling, Academic Section of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Division of Clinical Developmental Sciences, 3rd Floor, Lanesborough Wing, St. George' s, University of London, Cranmer Terrace, Tooting, London SW17 0RE (United Kingdom); Jaulim, Adil [Centre for Cutaneous Research, Institute of Cell and Molecular Science, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 2AT (United Kingdom); Bhogal, Ranjit [Life Science, Unilever R and D Colworth House, Sharnbrook, Bedfordshire MK44 1LQ (United Kingdom); Burrin, Jacky M. [Centre for Endocrinology, William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London EC1M 6BQ (United Kingdom); Philpott, Michael P. [Centre for Cutaneous Research, Institute of Cell and Molecular Science, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 2AT (United Kingdom)


    Research highlights: {yields} Primary keratinocytes express the steroid enzymes required for cortisol synthesis. {yields} Normal primary human keratinocytes can synthesise cortisol. {yields} Steroidogenic regulators, StAR and MLN64, are expressed in normal epidermis. {yields} StAR expression is down regulated in eczema and psoriatic epidermis. -- Abstract: Cortisol-based therapy is one of the most potent anti-inflammatory treatments available for skin conditions including psoriasis and atopic dermatitis. Previous studies have investigated the steroidogenic capabilities of keratinocytes, though none have demonstrated that these skin cells, which form up to 90% of the epidermis are able to synthesise cortisol. Here we demonstrate that primary human keratinocytes (PHK) express all the elements required for cortisol steroidogenesis and metabolise pregnenolone through each intermediate steroid to cortisol. We show that normal epidermis and cultured PHK express each of the enzymes (CYP11A1, CYP17A1, 3{beta}HSD1, CYP21 and CYP11B1) that are required for cortisol synthesis. These enzymes were shown to be metabolically active for cortisol synthesis since radiometric conversion assays traced the metabolism of [7-{sup 3}H]-pregnenolone through each steroid intermediate to [7-{sup 3}H]-cortisol in cultured PHK. Trilostane (a 3{beta}HSD1 inhibitor) and ketoconazole (a CYP17A1 inhibitor) blocked the metabolism of both pregnenolone and progesterone. Finally, we show that normal skin expresses two cholesterol transporters, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), regarded as the rate-determining protein for steroid synthesis, and metastatic lymph node 64 (MLN64) whose function has been linked to cholesterol transport in steroidogenesis. The expression of StAR and MLN64 was aberrant in two skin disorders, psoriasis and atopic dermatitis, that are commonly treated with cortisol, suggesting dysregulation of epidermal steroid synthesis in these patients. Collectively these data

  11. Detection of human papillomavirus in nonmelanoma skin cancer lesions and healthy perilesional skin in kidney transplant recipients and immunocompetent patients. (United States)

    Bernat-García, J; Morales Suárez-Varela, M; Vilata-Corell, J J; Marquina-Vila, A


    The influence of human papillomavirus (HPV) on the development of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is a topic of debate. HPV types from the beta genus (HPV-β) have been most frequently associated with the development of skin cancer. To analyze the prevalence and range of HPV types in NMSC lesions and healthy perilesional skin in immunodepressed and immunocompetent patients and to evaluate the influence of various clinical factors on the prevalence of HPV in skin cancer. Nested polymerase chain reaction and sequencing were used to detect HPV in 120 NMSC samples obtained by biopsy from 30 kidney transplant recipients and 30 immunocompetent patients. In all cases, a sample was taken from the tumor site and the surrounding healthy skin. Potential confounders were assessed and the data analyzed by multivariate logistic regression. HPV DNA was detected in 44 (73.3%) of the 60 samples from immunodepressed patients and in 32 (53.3%) of the 60 samples from immunocompetent patients (adjusted odds ratio, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.2-9.6). In both groups of patients, HPV was more common in healthy perilesional skin than in lesional skin. HPV-β was the most common type isolated. We found a wide range of HPV types (mostly HPV-β) in the skin of kidney transplant recipients and immunocompetent patients with skin cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  12. Measurement of interstitial cetirizine concentrations in human skin: correlation of drug levels with inhibition of histamine-induced skin responses. (United States)

    Petersen, L J; Church, M K; Rihoux, J P; Skov, P S


    The purpose of the present study was to measure the concentrations of cetirizine in the extracellular water compartment in intact human skin and assess simultaneously inhibition of histamine-induced wheal and flare reactions. Skin cetirizine levels were collected by the microdialysis technique and analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry detection. Skin levels in 20 subjects were compared to plasma levels for 4 h after a single oral dose of 10 or 20 mg of cetirizine. Skin prick tests were performed with histamine 100 mg/ml. Plasma cetirizine levels increased within 30 min to reach peak values of 315+/-10 and 786+/-45 ng/ml 90-120 min after administration of 10 and 20 mg of cetirizine. This was followed by a slow decline. In the skin, dialysate cetirizine levels (non-protein-bound fraction only) peaked at 1.6+/-0.1 and 2.4+/-0.3 ng/ml at 120-180 min. In vivo recovery of cetirizine was 14.4+/-4.3%. It was estimated that the non-protein-bound concentration of cetirizine in the skin was 50-70% of corresponding plasma values. Both 10- and 20-mg doses of cetirizine inhibited wheal and flare reactions over 240 min. The time vs concentration profile of cetirizine in skin dialysate paralleled the inhibition of skin reactions, but no significant correlations were found between individual cetirizine levels in skin or plasma with wheal and flare reactions. Cetirizine concentrations in the skin could be monitored by the microdialysis technique. The results indicate no simple linear correlation between cetirizine skin levels and inhibition of skin reactions.

  13. Effects of a silicone-coated polyamide net dressing and calcium alginate on the healing of split skin graft donor sites: a prospective randomised trial.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Donoghue, J M


    An open randomised prospectively controlled trial was performed to assess the healing efficacy, slippage rate and degree of discomfort on removal of calcium alginate and a silicone-coated polyamide net dressing on split skin graft donor sites. Sixteen patients were randomised to the calcium alginate group and 14 to the silicone-coated group. The donor sites were assessed at days 7, 10, 14 and up to day 21. The mean time to healing in the calcium alginate group was 8.75 +\\/- 0.78 days (range 7 to 14 days) compared to 12 +\\/- 0.62 days (range 7 to 16 days) for the silicone-coated group (p < 0.01). Although more silicone-coated dressings slipped (5 versus 1), the difference was not statistically significant. Pain during the first dressing change was assessed using a visual analogue pain scale. Although no significant differences were found between the groups, it was necessary to change the dressing protocol in the silicone-coated arm of the trial after entering the first two patients. Overlaid absorbent gauze adhered to the donor site through the fenestrations in the dressing necessitating the placement of paraffin gauze between the experimental dressing and the overlying cotton gauze. There was one infection in the study, occurring in the alginate group. Based on these results we recommend calcium alginate as the dressing of choice for split skin graft donor sites.

  14. Evaluation of Epidermal Skin Grafts for the Treatment of Complex Wounds in a Wound Care Center: A 94-Patient Case Series. (United States)

    Lincoln, Katherine; Hyde, Jessica


    In recent years, a new technology for autologous epidermal harvesting has been developed to produce epidermal skin grafts (ESGs) for use over wounds. This technology employs negative pressure and heat to raise the epidermal skin layer, allowing for consistent and reproducible epidermal harvesting. The aim of this case series is to present the authors' experience using an automated, epidermal harvesting system to produce ESGs to treat wounds of patients with multiple comorbidities. This case series was conducted between January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2014. Patients with wounds (≤ 25 cm2) that failed to heal were treated with ESGs by a group of 3 wound care physicians in 2 outpatient wound care centers in a community health center setting. A total of 94 patients with 102 wounds were identified. Of the 94 patients, 3 were noncompliant and 9 were lost to follow-up. Therefore, 82 patients with 90 wounds were included in the analysis. The majority of wounds demonstrated epithelialization (83/90, 92.2%). Of the 90 wounds, 75 (83.3%) healed following epidermal grafting, 4 (4.4%) wounds displayed improvement, and 11 (12.2%) did not heal. Minimal or no pain at the donor site was reported by the patients, and all donor sites healed without complications. This case series provides additional evidence for the use of ESGs for the treatment of wounds that fail to heal.

  15. Reduction of pain via platelet-rich plasma in split-thickness skin graft donor sites: a series of matched pairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D. Miller


    Full Text Available In the past decade, autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP therapy has seen increasingly widespread integration into medical specialties. PRP application is known to accelerate wound epithelialization rates, and may also reduce postoperative wound site pain. Recently, we observed an increase in patient satisfaction following PRP gel (Angel, Cytomedix, Rockville, MD application to split-thickness skin graft (STSG donor sites. We assessed all patients known to our university-based hospital service who underwent multiple STSGs up to the year 2014, with at least one treated with topical PRP. Based on these criteria, five patients aged 48.4±17.6 (80% male were identified who could serve as their own control, with mean time of 4.4±5.1 years between operations. In both therapies, initial dressing changes occurred on postoperative day (POD 7, with donor site pain measured by Likert visual pain scale. Paired t-tests compared the size and thickness of harvested skin graft and patient pain level, and STSG thickness and surface area were comparable between control and PRP interventions (p>0.05 for all. Donor site pain was reduced from an average of 7.2 (±2.6 to 3 (±3.7, an average reduction in pain of 4.2 (standard error 1.1, p=0.0098 following PRP use. Based on these results, the authors suggest PRP as a beneficial adjunct for reducing donor site pain following STSG harvest.

  16. 'Nosing Around' the human skin: what information is concealed in skin odour? (United States)

    Kippenberger, Stefan; Havlíček, Jan; Bernd, August; Thaçi, Diamant; Kaufmann, Roland; Meissner, Markus


    In today's world, natural body odour is mostly considered as being unpleasant and combated by intensive cleansing, deodorants and perfumes. However, there is evidence that volatile body compounds provide the recipient with important information. Here, we present the chemical identity of odorous compounds derived from odourless precursors within sweat and sebum. Moreover, distinct volatile markers may be relevant for the clinical diagnosis of disease. Interestingly, ageing seems to correlate with the appearance of specific compounds that convey the so-called old man smell. Finally, it is discussed if human skin odour has the quality to act as pheromone transmitting information between individuals in terms of major histocompatibility complex type or reproductive status. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Fractional Calculus Model of Electrical Impedance Applied to Human Skin (United States)

    Vosika, Zoran B.; Lazovic, Goran M.; Misevic, Gradimir N.; Simic-Krstic, Jovana B.


    Fractional calculus is a mathematical approach dealing with derivatives and integrals of arbitrary and complex orders. Therefore, it adds a new dimension to understand and describe basic nature and behavior of complex systems in an improved way. Here we use the fractional calculus for modeling electrical properties of biological systems. We derived a new class of generalized models for electrical impedance and applied them to human skin by experimental data fitting. The primary model introduces new generalizations of: 1) Weyl fractional derivative operator, 2) Cole equation, and 3) Constant Phase Element (CPE). These generalizations were described by the novel equation which presented parameter related to remnant memory and corrected four essential parameters We further generalized single generalized element by introducing specific partial sum of Maclaurin series determined by parameters We defined individual primary model elements and their serial combination models by the appropriate equations and electrical schemes. Cole equation is a special case of our generalized class of models for Previous bioimpedance data analyses of living systems using basic Cole and serial Cole models show significant imprecisions. Our new class of models considerably improves the quality of fitting, evaluated by mean square errors, for bioimpedance data obtained from human skin. Our models with new parameters presented in specific partial sum of Maclaurin series also extend representation, understanding and description of complex systems electrical properties in terms of remnant memory effects. PMID:23577065

  18. Treatment of Skin Avulsion Injuries with Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajime Matsumine, MD, PhD


    Full Text Available Summary: This report describes favorable outcomes in 9 patients with skin avulsion injuries of the extremities who underwent full-thickness skin grafting and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF application. Following removal of contaminated subcutaneous fat tissue on the inside of skin, the avulsed skin was processed into a full-thickness skin graft, with as much of the skin used as possible irrespective of damage. Several drainage holes (5–10 mm in diameter were made on the graft for drainage from the graft bed and to prevent seroma and hematoma formation. Genetically recombinant human bFGF was sprayed at a dose of 1 μg/cm2 onto the graft bed, which was then covered with the graft and sutured. Pressure immobilization with ointment gauzes and elastic bandages was administered for 1 week postoperatively, and the surface of the skin grafts that did not take was scraped away, preserving the revascularized dermal component on the debrided raw surface as much as possible. bFGF was sprayed again onto the debrided surface to promote epithelialization. Wound closure was achieved in all cases with conservative therapy. The surgical procedure was effective in preventing postoperative ulcer formation and scar contracture and resulted in wound healing with the formation of good-quality, flexible scars.

  19. An in vivo swine study for xeno-grafts of calcium sulfate-based bone grafts with human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs). (United States)

    Kuo, Tzong-fu; Lee, Sheng-Yang; Wu, Hong-Da; Poma, Malosi; Wu, Yu-Wei; Yang, Jen-Chang


    The purpose of this in vivo study was to evaluate the effect of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) on various resorbable calcium sulfate/calcium phosphate bone grafts in bone regeneration. Granular particles of calcium sulfate dehydrate (CSD), α-calcium sulfate hemihydrate/amorphous calcium phosphate (α-CSH/ACP), and CSD/β-tricalcium phosphates (β-TCP) were prepared for in vitro dissolution and implantation test. The chemical compositions of specimen residues after dissolution test were characterized by XRD. The ratios of new bone formation for implanted grafts/hDPSCs were evaluated using mandible bony defect model of Lanyu pig. All the graft systems exhibited a similar two-stage dissolution behavior and phase transformation of poor crystalline HAp. Eight weeks post-operation, the addition of hDPSCs to various graft systems showed statistically significant increasing in the ratio of new bone formation (pbone regeneration was rejected. The results suggest that the addition of hDPSCs to calcium sulfate based xenografts could enhance the bone regeneration in the bony defect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Using human epithelial amnion cells in human de-epidermized dermis for skin regeneration. (United States)

    Jiang, Lei-Wei; Chen, Hongduo; Lu, Hongguang


    Human amniotic epithelial cells (hAECs) is a desirable reserve of stem cells. Human de-epidermized dermis (DED) retains basic tissue structure and parts of the basement membrane (BM) components at the acelluIar dermal surface, and provides a potential tool for skin regeneration. To evaluate the potential role of hAECs in skin regeneration, we used DED to perform organotypic culture of hAECs to develop organotypic skin. HAECs were isolated and cultured. Biological characteristics of hAECs were determined by immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry. To prepare DED, the epidermis was removed and then repeated freeze-thaw cycles. HAECs and fibroblast were seeded onto DED to perform the submerged culture for 3 days and then to be maintained at the air-liquid interface for 14 days to form organotypic culture. To identify whether the obtained DED retain the BM structure and components, the histological characteristics of DED and the BM were detected by immunohistochemistry. To evaluate whether the organotypic skin has similar histological characteristics with normal human skin, the marks of epidermal proliferation and differentiation and basement membrane component were detected by immunohistochemistry. Moreover, cell ultrastructure, cell-cell contact and ultrastructure of BM were examined under the transmission electron microscopy. HAECs has stem-cell characteristics with strong pluripotent Oct-4 and embryonic marker SSEA-4 expression. DED has effectively cleansed the cell components and continuous distributions of laminin and collagen IV. The histological appearance of tissue-engineered skin in vitro has 4 to 9 continuous layers of stratified epithelium and is similar to normal human skin in morphology. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that proliferation and differentiation markers such as Ki67, CK19, CK14, CK10, filaggrin but not CK18 expressed similar pattern characteristics to normal human epidermis. In addition, Periodic acid-Schiff stain showed that a uniform red

  1. Study on radiation transfer in human skin for cosmetics (United States)

    Yamada, Jun; Kawamura, Ayumu; Miura, Yoshimasa; Takata, Sadaki; Ogawa, Katsuki


    In order to design cosmetics producing the optical properties that are required for a beautiful skin, the radiation transfer in the skin has been numerically investigated by the Monte Carlo method and the effects of skin texture and cosmetics on the radiation transfer have been empirically investigated using an artificial skin. The numerical analysis showed that the total internal reflection suppresses large portion of radiation going out through the skin surface Additionally, the experimental study revealed that skin texture and cosmetics not only diffusely reflect the incoming radiation, but also lead the internally reflected radiation to the outside of the skin.

  2. Human adipose-derived stem cell spheroid treated with photobiomodulation irradiation accelerates tissue regeneration in mouse model of skin flap ischemia. (United States)

    Park, In-Su; Chung, Phil-Sang; Ahn, Jin Chul; Leproux, Anais


    Skin flap grafting is a form of transplantation widely used in plastic surgery. However, ischemia/reperfusion injury is the main factor which reduces the survival rate of flaps following grafting. We investigated whether photobiomodulation (PBM) precondition prior to human adipose-derived stromal cell (hASC) spheroid (PBM-spheroid) transplantation improved skin tissue functional recovery by the stimulation of angiogenesis and tissue regeneration in skin flap of mice. The LED had an emission wavelength peaked at 660 ± 20 nm (6 J/cm2, 10 mW/cm2). The expression of angiogenic growth factors in PBM-spheroid hASCs was much greater than that of not-PBM-treated spheroid or monolayer-cultured hASCs. From immunochemical staining analysis, the hASCs of PBM-spheroid were CD31+, KDR+, and CD34+, whereas monolayer-cultured hASCs were negative for these markers. To evaluate the therapeutic effect of hASC PBM-spheroid in vivo, PBS, monolayer-cultured hASCs, and not-PBM-spheroid were transplanted into a skin flap model. The animals were observed for 14 days. The PBM-spheroid hASCs transplanted into the skin flap ischemia differentiated into endothelial cells and remained differentiated. Transplantation of PBM-spheroid hASCs into the skin flap ischemia significantly elevated the density of vascular formations through angiogenic factors released by the skin flap ischemia and enhanced tissue regeneration at the lesion site. Consistent with these results, the transplantation of PBM-spheroid hASCs significantly improved functional recovery compared with PBS, monolayer-cultured hASCs, and not-PBM-spheroid treatment. These findings suggest that transplantation of PBM-spheroid hASCs may be an effective stem cell therapy for the treatment of skin flap ischemia.

  3. Laser system for optical biopsy and in-vivo study of the human skin (United States)

    Borisova, Ekaterina G.; Avramov, Lachezar A.


    The aim of this study was to perform a preliminary evaluation of the diagnostic potential of noninvasive laser-induced autofluorescence spectroscopy (LIAFS) for human skin in vivo. The autofluorescence characterization of tissue relies on different spectral properties of tissue. It was demonstrated a differentiation between normal skin and skin with vitaligo. In our experimental investigation of the autofluorescence spectrum of human skin in vivo a nitrogen laser with excitation wavelength 337 nm was used. Two fluorescence bands were observed at 440 and 490 nm, these were attributed to reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and collagen. The intensity of the NADH emission band was markedly reduced in the skin with vitaligo compared with the normal skin, which could indicate different redox conditions in skin with vitaligo. The autofluorescence spectrum of human skin depends on the main internal absorbers, which are blood and melanin. In this study was described the effect caused by melanin content on the shape of the autofluorescence spectrum of human skin. Human skin fluorescence spectrum might provide dermatologists with important information and such investigations are successfully used now in skin disease diagnostics, in investigation of the environmental factor impact or for evaluation of treatment efficiency. The goal of this work is optimization of detection and diagnosis of hollow organs and skin.

  4. Extensive neuronal differentiation of human neural stem cell grafts in adult rat spinal cord.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yan


    Full Text Available Effective treatments for degenerative and traumatic diseases of the nervous system are not currently available. The support or replacement of injured neurons with neural grafts, already an established approach in experimental therapeutics, has been recently invigorated with the addition of neural and embryonic stem-derived precursors as inexhaustible, self-propagating alternatives to fetal tissues. The adult spinal cord, i.e., the site of common devastating injuries and motor neuron disease, has been an especially challenging target for stem cell therapies. In most cases, neural stem cell (NSC transplants have shown either poor differentiation or a preferential choice of glial lineages.In the present investigation, we grafted NSCs from human fetal spinal cord grown in monolayer into the lumbar cord of normal or injured adult nude rats and observed large-scale differentiation of these cells into neurons that formed axons and synapses and established extensive contacts with host motor neurons. Spinal cord microenvironment appeared to influence fate choice, with centrally located cells taking on a predominant neuronal path, and cells located under the pia membrane persisting as NSCs or presenting with astrocytic phenotypes. Slightly fewer than one-tenth of grafted neurons differentiated into oligodendrocytes. The presence of lesions increased the frequency of astrocytic phenotypes in the white matter.NSC grafts can show substantial neuronal differentiation in the normal and injured adult spinal cord with good potential of integration into host neural circuits. In view of recent similar findings from other laboratories, the extent of neuronal differentiation observed here disputes the notion of a spinal cord that is constitutively unfavorable to neuronal repair. Restoration of spinal cord circuitry in traumatic and degenerative diseases may be more realistic than previously thought, although major challenges remain, especially with respect to the

  5. Early excision and grafting, an alternative approach to the surgical management of large body surface area levamisole-adulterated cocaine induced skin necrosis. (United States)

    Miner, Jason; Gruber, Paul; Perry, Travis L


    Levamisole-adulterated cocaine as a cause of retiform purpura progressing to full-thickness skin necrosis was first documented in 2003 and currently comprises over 200 reported cases. Whereas, its presentation, pathophysiology, and diagnostic workup have been reasonably well-defined, only one publication has significantly detailed its surgical management. For this reason there exists a relative absence of data in comparison to its reported incidence to suggest a preferred treatment strategy. In the case mentioned, treatment emphasized delayed surgical intervention while awaiting lesion demarcation and the monitoring of autoantibodies. At our institution we offer an alternative approach and present the case of a 34 year old female who presented with 49% TBSA, levamisole-induced skin necrosis managed with early surgical excision and skin grafting. The patient presented three days following cocaine exposure with painful, purpura involving the ears, nose, buttocks, and bilateral lower extremities which quickly progressed to areas of full-thickness necrosis. Lab analysis demonstrated elevated p-ANCA and c-ANCA, as well as leukopenia, decreased C4 complement, and urinalysis positive for levamisole, corroborating the diagnosis. Contrasting the most thoroughly documented case in which the patient underwent first surgical excision on hospital day 36 and underwent 18 total excisions, our patient underwent first excision on hospital day 10 and received only one primary excision prior to definitive autografting. To our knowledge, this is the largest surface area surgically treated that did not result in surgical amputation or autoamputation of limbs or appendages, respectively. We contend that early excision and grafting provides optimal surgical management of this syndrome while avoiding the morbidity seen with delayed intervention. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Genetic deletion of amphiregulin restores the normal skin phenotype in a mouse model of the human skin disease tylosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishnu Hosur


    Full Text Available In humans, gain-of-function (GOF mutations in RHBDF2 cause the skin disease tylosis. We generated a mouse model of human tylosis and show that GOF mutations in RHBDF2 cause tylosis by enhancing the amount of amphiregulin (AREG secretion. Furthermore, we show that genetic disruption of AREG ameliorates skin pathology in mice carrying the human tylosis disease mutation. Collectively, our data suggest that RHBDF2 plays a critical role in regulating EGFR signaling and its downstream events, including development of tylosis, by facilitating enhanced secretion of AREG. Thus, targeting AREG could have therapeutic benefit in the treatment of tylosis.

  7. Enhancement of human skin facial revitalization by moringa leaf extract cream. (United States)

    Ali, Atif; Akhtar, Naveed; Chowdhary, Farzana


    Solar ultraviolet exposure is the main cause of skin damage by initiation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to skin collagen imperfection and eventually skin roughness. This can be reduced by proper revitalization of skin enhancing younger and healthier appearance. To evaluate the skin facial revitalization effect of a cream formulation containing the Moringa oleifera leaf extract on humans. Active cream containing 3% of the concentrated extract of moringa leaves was developed by entrapping in the inner aqueous phase of cream. Base contained no extract. Skin revitalizing parameters, i.e. surface, volume, texture parameters and surface evaluation of the living skin (SELS) were assessed comparatively after application of the base and active cream on human face using Visioscan(®) VC 98 for a period of 3 months. Surface values were increased by the base and decreased by the active cream. Effects produced for the base and active cream were significant and insignificant, respectively, as observed in the case of surface. Unlike the base, the active cream showed significant effects on skin volume, texture parameters (energy, variance and contrast) and SELS, SEr (skin roughness), SEsc (skin scaliness), SEsm (skin smoothness), and SEw (skin wrinkles) parameters. The results suggested that moringa cream enhances skin revitalization effect and supports anti-aging skin effects.

  8. Porphyrin Metabolisms in Human Skin Commensal Propionibacterium acnes Bacteria: Potential Application to Monitor Human Radiation Risk (United States)

    Shu, M.; Kuo, S.; Wang, Y.; Jiang, Y.; Liu, Y.-T.; Gallo, R.L.; Huang, C.-M.


    Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), a Gram-positive anaerobic bacterium, is a commensal organism in human skin. Like human cells, the bacteria produce porphyrins, which exhibit fluorescence properties and make bacteria visible with a Wood’s lamp. In this review, we compare the porphyrin biosynthesis in humans and P. acnes. Also, since P. acnes living on the surface of skin receive the same radiation exposure as humans, we envision that the changes in porphyrin profiles (the absorption spectra and/or metabolism) of P. acnes by radiation may mirror the response of human cells to radiation. The porphyrin profiles of P. acnes may be a more accurate reflection of radiation risk to the patient than other biodosimeters/biomarkers such as gene up-/down-regulation, which may be non-specific due to patient related factors such as autoimmune diseases. Lastly, we discuss the challenges and possible solutions for using the P. acnes response to predict the radiation risk. PMID:23231351

  9. Beyond CDR-grafting: Structure-guided humanization of framework and CDR regions of an anti-myostatin antibody. (United States)

    Apgar, James R; Mader, Michelle; Agostinelli, Rita; Benard, Susan; Bialek, Peter; Johnson, Mark; Gao, Yijie; Krebs, Mark; Owens, Jane; Parris, Kevin; St Andre, Michael; Svenson, Kris; Morris, Carl; Tchistiakova, Lioudmila


    Antibodies are an important class of biotherapeutics that offer specificity to their antigen, long half-life, effector function interaction and good manufacturability. The immunogenicity of non-human-derived antibodies, which can be a major limitation to development, has been partially overcome by humanization through complementarity-determining region (CDR) grafting onto human acceptor frameworks. The retention of foreign content in the CDR regions, however, is still a potential immunogenic liability. Here, we describe the humanization of an anti-myostatin antibody utilizing a 2-step process of traditional CDR-grafting onto a human acceptor framework, followed by a structure-guided approach to further reduce the murine content of CDR-grafted antibodies. To accomplish this, we solved the co-crystal structures of myostatin with the chimeric (Protein Databank (PDB) id 5F3B) and CDR-grafted anti-myostatin antibody (PDB id 5F3H), allowing us to computationally predict the structurally important CDR residues as well as those making significant contacts with the antigen. Structure-based rational design enabled further germlining of the CDR-grafted antibody, reducing the murine content of the antibody without affecting antigen binding. The overall "humanness" was increased for both the light and heavy chain variable regions.

  10. THz time-domain spectroscopy of human skin tissue for in-body nanonetworks


    Chopra, Nishtha; Yang, Ke; Qammer H. Abbasi; Qaraqe, Khalid A.; Philpott, Mike; Alomainy, Akram


    This paper presents experimental study of real human skin material parameter extraction based on terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy in the band 0.1-2.5 THz. Results in this paper show that electromagnetic properties of the human skin distinctively affect the path loss and noise temperature parameters of the communication link, which are vital for channel modeling of in-body nanonetworks. Refractive index and absorption coefficient values are evaluated for dermis layer of the human skin....

  11. Real-time trace gas sensing of ethylene, propanal and acetaldehyde from human skin in vivo.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moeskops, B.W.M.; Steeghs, M.M.L.; Swam, K. van; Cristescu, S.M.; Scheepers, P.T.J.; Harren, F.J.M.


    Trace gases emitted by human skin in vivo are monitored non-invasively and in real time using laser-based photoacoustic detection and proton-transfer reaction mass spectrometry. A small quartz cuvette is placed on the skin to create a headspace from which a carrier gas transports the skin emissions

  12. Color reproduction of human skin by spectral reflectance using RGB images and the Wiener estimation method (United States)

    Sato, Kiyomi; Miyazawa, Shota; Funamizu, Hideki; Yuasa, Tomonori; Nishidate, Izumi; Aizu, Yoshihisa


    Skin measurements based on spectral reflectance are widely studied in the fields of medical care and cosmetics. It has the advantage that several skin properties can be estimated in the non-invasive and non-contacting manner. In this study, we demonstrate the color reproduction of human skin by spectral reflectance using RGB images and the Wiener estimation method.

  13. Contact modelling of human skin: what value to use for the modulus of elasticity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kuilenburg, Julien; Masen, Marc Arthur; van der Heide, Emile


    In modelling and understanding the contact and friction behaviour of human skin, the elastic modulus of the skin is an important input parameter. For the development of design rules for the engineering of surfaces in contact with the skin an expression that describes the relation between the elastic

  14. In situ depletion of CD4(+) T cells in human skin by Zanolimumab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, L.S.; Skov, L.; Dam, T.N.


    -driving T cells in situ may therefore be a useful approach in the treatment of inflammatory and malignant skin diseases. Depletion of CD4(+) T cells in intact inflamed human skin tissue by Zanolimumab, a fully human therapeutic monoclonal antibody (IgG1, kappa) against CD4, was studied in a human psoriasis...

  15. In vivo optical elastography: stress and strain imaging of human skin lesions (United States)

    Es'haghian, Shaghayegh; Gong, Peijun; Kennedy, Kelsey M.; Wijesinghe, Philip; Sampson, David D.; McLaughlin, Robert A.; Kennedy, Brendan F.


    Probing the mechanical properties of skin at high resolution could aid in the assessment of skin pathologies by, for example, detecting the extent of cancerous skin lesions and assessing pathology in burn scars. Here, we present two elastography techniques based on optical coherence tomography (OCT) to probe the local mechanical properties of skin. The first technique, optical palpation, is a high-resolution tactile imaging technique, which uses a complaint silicone layer positioned on the tissue surface to measure spatially-resolved stress imparted by compressive loading. We assess the performance of optical palpation, using a handheld imaging probe on a skin-mimicking phantom, and demonstrate its use on human skin. The second technique is a strain imaging technique, phase-sensitive compression OCE that maps depth-resolved mechanical variations within skin. We show preliminary results of in vivo phase-sensitive compression OCE on a human skin lesion.

  16. Noninvasive Imaging of Human Immune Responses in a Human Xenograft Model of Graft-Versus-Host Disease. (United States)

    Van Elssen, Catharina H M J; Rashidian, Mohammad; Vrbanac, Vladimir; Wucherpfennig, Kai W; Habre, Zeina El; Sticht, Jana; Freund, Christian; Jacobsen, Johanne T; Cragnolini, Juanjo; Ingram, Jessica; Plaisier, Loes; Spierings, Eric; Tager, Andrew M; Ploegh, Hidde L


    The immune system plays a crucial role in many diseases. Activation or suppression of immunity is often related to clinical outcome. Methods to explore the dynamics of immune responses are important to elucidate their role in conditions characterized by inflammation, such as infectious disease, cancer, or autoimmunity. Immuno-PET is a noninvasive method by which disease and immune cell infiltration can be explored simultaneously. Using radiolabeled antibodies or fragments derived from them, it is possible to image disease-specific antigens and immune cell subsets. Methods: We developed a method to noninvasively image human immune responses in a relevant humanized mouse model. We generated a camelid-derived single-domain antibody specific for human class II major histocompatibility complex products and used it to noninvasively image human immune cell reconstitution in nonobese diabetic severe combined immune deficiency γ-/- mice reconstituted with human fetal thymus, liver, and liver-derived hematopoietic stem cells (BLT mice). Results: We showed imaging of infiltrating immunocytes in BLT mice that spontaneously developed a graft-versus-host-like condition, characterized by alopecia and blepharitis. In diseased animals, we showed an increased PET signal in the liver, attributable to infiltration of activated class II major histocompatibility complex+ T cells. Conclusion: Noninvasive imaging of immune infiltration and activation could thus be of importance for diagnosis and evaluation of treatment of graft-versus-host disease and holds promise for other diseases characterized by inflammation. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  17. Effects of recombinant human interleukin-10 on Treg cells, IL-10 and TGF-β in transplantation of rabbit skin. (United States)

    Liu, Kai Shan; Fan, Xiao Qin; Zhang, Lei; Wen, Qiong Na; Feng, Ji Hong; Chen, Fu Chao; Luo, Jun Min; Sun, Wan Bang


    The current study aimed to investigate the rejection and survival time of grafted skin, and the changes of Treg cells, interleukin 10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) in peripheral blood following skin transplantation with recombinant human interleukin-10 (rhIL-10) or cyclosporin A (CsA), as well as the role of IL-10 in immunological rejection mechanisms. A total of 36 rabbits were divided into two groups. The skin of a donor rabbit was transplanted onto the back of one receptor rabbit. Receptors were randomly divided into six groups, including rhIL-10 low-dose (5 µg/kg/d), rhIL-10 high-dose (10 µg/kg/d), CsA low-dose (5 mg/kg/d), CsA high-dose (10 mg/kg/d), rhIL-10 (5 µg/kg/d) and CsA (5 mg/kg/d) and negative control normal saline (NS; 1 ml/d). All groups received intramuscular drug injection for ten days, beginning one day prior to skin transplantation surgery. Following transplantation, each rabbit's peripheral blood was collected at different times. The changes of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells, IL-10 and TGF-β were determined by flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. When compared with the control group, the rejection and survival times of the experimental groups were longer following skin graft. Compared with the two CsA groups and the control group, the proportion of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells of rhIL-10 groups was significantly upregulated on the 4th and 7th days following surgery. However, TGF-β levels were not significantly different. Data suggested that the concentration of IL-10 was positively correlated with the proportion of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells. In addition, IL-10 may delay the rejection time of rabbit skin transplantation and prolong the survival time. Thus, the role of IL-10 in inhibited allograft rejection may be associated with CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells and IL-10, and may be independent of TGF-β.

  18. Heat Transfer in Human Skin Exposed to Radiation from Forest Fire Taking Into Account Moisture Evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poptsov Nikolay


    Full Text Available Thermal radiation is one of the damaging factors of forest fire. As a result of exposure to radiant heat flow, thermal damage of the human skin is possible. A layer of skin is considered with effective thermophysical characteristics. Thin layer of sweat excretion situated on top of the skin. A mathematical model of heat transfer in the system of “skin-excretion” is developed taking into account evaporation of moisture. Typical simulation results are presented.

  19. Association of human leukocyte antigen donor-recipient matching and pediatric heart transplant graft survival. (United States)

    Butts, Ryan J; Scheurer, Mark A; Atz, Andrew M; Moussa, Omar; Burnette, Ali L; Hulsey, Thomas C; Savage, Andrew J


    The effect of donor-recipient human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matching on outcomes remains relatively unexplored in pediatric patients. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of donor-recipient HLA matching on graft survival in pediatric heart transplantation. The UNOS (United Network for Organ Sharing) database was queried for heart transplants occurring between October 31, 1987, and December 31, 2012, in a recipient aged ≤17 years with ≥1 postoperative follow-up visit. Retransplants were excluded. Transplants were divided into 3 donor-recipient matching groups: no HLA matches (HLA-no), 1 or 2 HLA matches (HLA-low), and 3 to 6 HLA matches (HLA-high). Primary outcome was graft loss. Four thousand four hundred seventy-one heart transplants met the study inclusion criteria. High degree of donor-recipient HLA matching occurred infrequently: HLA-high (n=269; 6%) versus HLA-low (n=2683; 60%) versus HLA-no (n=1495; 34%). There were no differences between HLA matching groups in the frequency of coronary vasculopathy (P=0.19) or rejection in the first post-transplant year (P=0.76). Improved graft survival was associated with a greater degree of HLA donor-recipient matching: HLA-high median survival, 17.1 (95% confidence interval, 14.0-20.2) years; HLA-low median survival, 14.2 (13.1-15.4) years; and HLA-no median survival, 12.1 (10.9-13.3 years) years; P<0.01, log-rank test. In Cox-regression analysis, HLA matching was independently associated with decreased graft loss: HLA-low versus HLA-no hazard ratio, 0.86 (95% confidence interval, 0.74-0.99), P=0.04; HLA-high versus HLA-no, 0.62 (95% confidence interval, 0.43-0.90), P<0.01. Decreased graft loss in pediatric heart transplantation was associated with a higher degree of donor-recipient HLA matching, although a difference in the frequency of early rejection or development of coronary artery vasculopathy was not seen. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Stress-induced responses of human skin fibroblasts in vitro reflect human longevity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Pim; Maier, Andrea B.; van Heemst, Diana; de Koning-Treurniet, Corine; Blom, Joke; Dirks, Roeland W.; Tanke, Hans J.; Westendorp, Rudi G.J.


    Unlike various model organisms, cellular responses to stress have not been related to human longevity. We investigated cellular responses to stress in skin fibroblasts that were isolated from young and very old subjects, and from offspring of nonagenarian siblings and their partners, representatives

  1. Interaction of bovine serum albumin and human blood plasma with PEO-tethered surfaces: Influence of PEO chain length, grafting density, and temperature : Influence of PEO chain length, grafting density, and temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norde, Willem; Gage, D.


    Solid surfaces are modified by grafting poly(ethylene oxide), PEO, to influence their interaction with indwelling particles, in particular molecules of bovine serum albumin and human plasma proteins. As a rule, the grafted PEO layers suppress protein adsorption. The suppression is most effective

  2. Characterizing human skin blood flow regulation in response to different local skin temperature perturbations. (United States)

    Wu, Y; Nieuwenhoff, M D; Huygen, F J P M; van der Helm, F C T; Niehof, S; Schouten, A C


    Small nerve fibers regulate local skin blood flow in response to local thermal perturbations. Small nerve fiber function is difficult to assess with classical neurophysiological tests. In this study, a vasomotor response model in combination with a heating protocol was developed to quantitatively characterize the control mechanism of small nerve fibers in regulating skin blood flow in response to local thermal perturbation. The skin of healthy subjects' hand dorsum (n=8) was heated to 42°C with an infrared lamp, and then naturally cooled down. The distance between the lamp and the hand was set to three different levels in order to change the irradiation intensity on the skin and implement three different skin temperature rise rates (0.03°C/s, 0.02°C/s and 0.01°C/s). A laser Doppler imager (LDI) and a thermographic video camera recorded the temporal profile of the skin blood flow and the skin temperature, respectively. The relationship between the skin blood flow and the skin temperature was characterized by a vasomotor response model. The model fitted the skin blood flow response well with a variance accounted for (VAF) between 78% and 99%. The model parameters suggested a similar mechanism for the skin blood flow regulation with the thermal perturbations at 0.03°C/s and 0.02°C/s. But there was an accelerated skin vasoconstriction after a slow heating (0.01°C/s) (p-valueskin vasodilation was also observed in four out of the seven subjects during the slow heating (0.01°C/s). Our method provides a promising way to quantitatively assess the function of small nerve fibers non-invasively and non-contact. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Engineering an endothelialized vascular graft: a rational approach to study design in a non-human primate model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deirdre E J Anderson

    Full Text Available After many years of research, small diameter, synthetic vascular grafts still lack the necessary biologic integration to perform ideally in clinical settings. Endothelialization of vascular grafts has the potential to improve synthetic graft function, and endothelial outgrowth cells (EOCs are a promising autologous cell source. Yet no work has established the link between endothelial cell functions and outcomes of implanted endothelialized grafts. This work utilized steady flow, oscillatory flow, and tumor necrosis factor stimulation to alter EOC phenotype and enable the formulation of a model to predict endothelialized graft performance. To accomplish this, EOC in vitro expression of coagulation and inflammatory markers was quantified. In parallel, in non-human primate (baboon models, the platelet and fibrinogen accumulation on endothelialized grafts were quantified in an ex vivo shunt, or the tissue ingrowth on implanted grafts were characterized after 1mth. Oscillatory flow stimulation of EOCs increased in vitro coagulation markers and ex vivo platelet accumulation. Steady flow preconditioning did not affect platelet accumulation or intimal hyperplasia relative to static samples. To determine whether in vitro markers predict implant performance, a linear regression model of the in vitro data was fit to platelet accumulation data-correlating the markers with the thromboprotective performance of the EOCs. The model was tested against implant intimal hyperplasia data and found to correlate strongly with the parallel in vitro analyses. This research defines the effects of flow preconditioning on EOC regulation of coagulation in clinical vascular grafts through parallel in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo analyses, and contributes to the translatability of in vitro tests to in vivo clinical graft performance.

  4. Nongrafted Skin Area Best Predicts Exercise Core Temperature Responses in Burned Humans. (United States)

    Ganio, Matthew S; Schlader, Zachary J; Pearson, James; Lucas, Rebekah A I; Gagnon, Daniel; Rivas, Eric; Kowalske, Karen J; Crandall, Craig G


    Grafted skin impairs heat dissipation, but it is unknown to what extent this affects body temperature during exercise in the heat. We examined core body temperature responses during exercise in the heat in a group of individuals with a large range of grafts covering their body surface area (BSA; 0%-75%). Forty-three individuals (19 females) were stratified into groups based on BSA grafted: control (0% grafted, n = 9), 17%-40% (n = 19), and >40% (n = 15). Subjects exercised at a fixed rate of metabolic heat production (339 ± 70 W; 4.3 ± 0.8 W·kg) in an environmental chamber set at 40°C, 30% relative humidity for 90 min or until exhaustion (n = 8). Whole-body sweat rate and core temperatures were measured. Whole-body sweat rates were similar between the groups (control: 14.7 ± 3.4 mL·min, 17%-40%: 12.6 ± 4.0 mL·min; and >40%: 11.7 ± 4.4 mL·min; P > 0.05), but the increase in core temperature at the end of exercise in the >40% BSA grafted group (1.6°C ± 0.5°C) was greater than the 17%-40% (1.2°C ± 0.3°C) and control (0.9°C ± 0.2°C) groups (P skin (expressed in square meters) was the strongest independent predictor of the core temperature increase (r = 0.41). When regrouping all subjects, individuals with the lowest BSA of nongrafted skin (temperature (1.6°C ± 0.5°C) than those with more than 1.5 m nongrafted skin (1.0°C ± 0.3°C; P skin have greater increases in core temperature when exercising in the heat and that the magnitude of this increase is best explained by the amount of nongrafted skin available for heat dissipation.

  5. Instrumentation for the measurement of autofluorescence in the human skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaff, R; Meerwaldt, R; Lutgers, HL; Baptist, R; de Jong, ED; Zijp, [No Value; Links, TP; Smit, AJ; Rakhorst, G; VoDinh, T; Grundfest, WS; Benaron, DA; Cohn, GE


    A setup to measure skin autofluorescence was developed to assess accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGE) in patients noninvasively. The method applies direct blacklight tube illumination of the skin of the lower arm, and spectrometry. The setup displays skin autofluorescence (AF) as a

  6. Comparative ultrasound evaluation of human trabecular bone graft properties after treatment with different sterilization procedures. (United States)

    Vastel, L; Masse, C; Mesnil, P; Crozier, E; Padilla, F; Laugier, P; Mitton, D; Courpied, J P


    New sterilization methods for human bone are likely to affect the mechanical properties of human cancellous grafts. These mechanical properties dictate the short- and mid-term results of the orthopedic procedure. The aim of this study was to compare the effects on bone mechanical properties, as assessed by ultrasound velocity, of different sterilization methods used under similar conditions: bleach and sublimation, humid heat, successive baths of physiological saline with osmotic detersion, and CO(2) in the supercritical phase. Alterations in mechanical properties were small with CO(2) (velocity change: -2%) and humid heat (-2.5%). Osmotic detersion had a significant but moderate effect (-4.7%). The -9% change with the protocol involving bleach suggested a greater than 30% decrease in load to failure, based on earlier studies. Gamma irradiation of defatted trabecular allografts, in a dose of 10 or 25 KGy, produced no significant changes in ultrasound velocity. Powerful protein denaturants used in sterilization protocols substantially alter the mechanical resistance of the grafts, which may jeopardize the orthopedic procedure. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Permeation of chromium salts through human skin in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Bente; Fullerton, A; Avnstorp, C


    of the dichromate solution. Chromium skin levels increased with increasing concentrations of applied chromium salts up to 0.034 M Cr. The amount of chromium in recipient phase and skin layers increased with increasing pH when the applied solution contained potassium dichromate. This was ascribed to a decreased skin...... barrier function of the skin. The amount of chromium found in all skin layers after application of chromium chloride decreased with increasing pH due to lower solubility of the salt. The % of chromium found in the recipient phase as chromium(VI) increased with increasing total chromium concentration...

  8. Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodward, Ruth M [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Cole, Bryan E [TeraView Limited, 302/304 Cambridge Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Wallace, Vincent P [TeraView Limited, 302/304 Cambridge Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Pye, Richard J [Department of Dermatology, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Arnone, Donald D [TeraView Limited, 302/304 Cambridge Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Linfield, Edmund H [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Pepper, Michael [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge (United Kingdom)


    We demonstrate the application of terahertz pulse imaging (TPI) in reflection geometry for the study of skin tissue and related cancers both in vitro and in vivo. The sensitivity of terahertz radiation to polar molecules, such as water, makes TPI suitable for studying the hydration levels in the skin and the determination of the lateral spread of skin cancer pre-operatively. By studying the terahertz pulse shape in the time domain we have been able to differentiate between diseased and normal tissue for the study of basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Basal cell carcinoma has shown a positive terahertz contrast, and inflammation and scar tissue a negative terahertz contrast compared to normal tissue. In vivo measurements on the stratum corneum have enabled visualization of the stratum corneum-epidermis interface and the study of skin hydration levels. These results demonstrate the potential of terahertz pulse imaging for the study of skin tissue and its related disorders, both in vitro and in vivo.

  9. A prospective, randomized, placebo controlled, double blind study of silicone gel in prevention of hypertrophic scar at donor site of skin grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kumar Chittoria


    Full Text Available Background: Hypertrophic scarring at donor site of skin grafting is prevalent among Asians. The effectiveness of silicone gel in scar prevention may influence the surgeons and patients regarding its routine use during the postoperative period. Aims and Objectives: To study the efficacy of silicone gel in prevention of hypertrophic scars at donor site of skin grafting. Design: Prospective randomized placebo controlled double blind study. Setting: The study was conducted in the department of Plastic Surgery, Sri Venkateswara Institute of Medical Sciences (SVIMS University, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India from June 2007 to June 2009. Patients were recruited during follow-up in the OPD. Materials and Methods: The susceptibility to scar development varied among patients; therefore, donor site scars were divided into upper half and lower half. Two types of coded gel prepared by an independent pharmacist were used on either half. Thus, selection and assessment biases and confounders were eliminated. Results: 100 scars in 50 patients were randomized into two arms, 50 control and 50 silicone gel. The median age was 25.5 years and there were 30 men (60% and 20 women (40%. Thirty-seven patients (74% had good compliance. The overall incidence of donor site hypertrophic scar was 94% (47 out of 50. At the second month postoperatively, the silicone gel scars were scored lower when compared with the control scars. The differences were statistically significant in all parameters, including pigmentation ( P = 0.001, Vascularity ( P = 0.010, pliability ( P = 0.001, and height ( P = 0.010. Conclusion: The effect of silicone gel in prevention of hypertrophic scar development in donor site scars is promising. Success of silicone gel in its prophylactic role will create its routine use in all types of surgery to minimize the formation of hypertrophic scars in the early postoperative period.

  10. Monomethylarsonous acid inhibited endogenous cholesterol biosynthesis in human skin fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Lei [Environmental Toxicology Graduate Program, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521-0403 (United States); Xiao, Yongsheng [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521-0403 (United States); Wang, Yinsheng, E-mail: [Environmental Toxicology Graduate Program, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521-0403 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521-0403 (United States)


    Human exposure to arsenic in drinking water is a widespread public health concern, and such exposure is known to be associated with many human diseases. The detailed molecular mechanisms about how arsenic species contribute to the adverse human health effects, however, remain incompletely understood. Monomethylarsonous acid [MMA(III)] is a highly toxic and stable metabolite of inorganic arsenic. To exploit the mechanisms through which MMA(III) exerts its cytotoxic effect, we adopted a quantitative proteomic approach, by coupling stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) with LC-MS/MS analysis, to examine the variation in the entire proteome of GM00637 human skin fibroblasts following acute MMA(III) exposure. Among the ∼ 6500 unique proteins quantified, ∼ 300 displayed significant changes in expression after exposure with 2 μM MMA(III) for 24 h. Subsequent analysis revealed the perturbation of de novo cholesterol biosynthesis, selenoprotein synthesis and Nrf2 pathways evoked by MMA(III) exposure. Particularly, MMA(III) treatment resulted in considerable down-regulation of several enzymes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis. In addition, real-time PCR analysis showed reduced mRNA levels of select genes in this pathway. Furthermore, MMA(III) exposure contributed to a distinct decline in cellular cholesterol content and significant growth inhibition of multiple cell lines, both of which could be restored by supplementation of cholesterol to the culture media. Collectively, the present study demonstrated that the cytotoxicity of MMA(III) may arise, at least in part, from the down-regulation of cholesterol biosynthesis enzymes and the resultant decrease of cellular cholesterol content. - Highlights: • MMA(III)-induced perturbation of the entire proteome of GM00637 cells is studied. • Quantitative proteomic approach revealed alterations of multiple cellular pathways. • MMA(III) inhibits de novo cholesterol biosynthesis. • MMA

  11. Tissue engineering of cultured skin substitutes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Horch, Raymund E; Kopp, Jürgen; Kneser, Ulrich; Beier, Justus; Bach, Alexander D


    .... Tissue‐engineered skin replacements: cultured autologous keratinocyte grafts, cultured allogeneic keratinocyte grafts, autologous/allogeneic composites, acellular biological matrices, and cellular...

  12. A novel approach to measuring the frictional behaviour of human skin in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veijgen, N.K.; Masen, Marc Arthur; van der Heide, Emile


    Friction involving human skin plays a key role in human life. The availability of a portable tribometer improves the accessibility to large number of both subjects and anatomical sites. This is the first mobile device suitable to measure skin friction with a controlled and variable normal load

  13. Barrier function in reconstructed epidermis and its resemblance to native human skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponec, M.; Gibbs, S.; Pilgram, G.; Boelsma, E.; Koerten, H.; Bouwstra, J.; Mommaas, M.


    One of the prerequisites for the use of human skin equivalents for scientific and screening purposes is that their barrier function is similar to that of native skin. Using human epidermis reconstructed on de-epidermized dermis we demonstrated that the formation of the stratum corneum (SC) barrier

  14. Barrier Ëunction in Reconstructed Epidermis and Its Resembiance to Native Human Skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponec, M.; Gibbs, S.; GPilgram, G.; BoeIsma, E.; Koerten, H.; Bouwstra, J.; Mommaas, M.


    One of the prerequisitesforthe use of human skin equivalents for scientific and screening purposes is that their barrierfunction is similar to that of native skin. Using human epidermis reconstructed en de-epidermized dermis we demonstrated that the formation of the stratum corneum (SC) barrier in

  15. Large-scale expansion of human skin-derived precursor cells (hSKPs) in stirred suspension bioreactors. (United States)

    Surrao, Denver C; Boon, Kathryn; Borys, Breanna; Sinha, Sarthak; Kumar, Ranjan; Biernaskie, Jeff; Kallos, Michael S


    Human skin-derived precursor cells (hSKPs) are multipotent adult stem cells found in the dermis of human skin. Incorporation of hSKPs into split-thickness skin grafts (STSGs), the current gold standard to treat severe burns or tissue resections, has been proposed as a treatment option to enhance skin wound healing and tissue function. For this approach to be clinically viable substantial quantities of hSKPs are required, which is the rate-limiting step, as only a few thousand hSKPs can be isolated from an autologous skin biopsy without causing donor site morbidity. In order to produce sufficient quantities of clinically viable cells, we have developed a bioprocess capable of expanding hSKPs as aggregates in stirred suspension bioreactors (SSBs). In this study, we found hSKPs from adult donors to expand significantly more (P < 0.05) at 60 rpm in SSBs than in static cultures. Furthermore, the utility of the SSBs, at 60 rpm is demonstrated by serial passaging of hSKPs from a small starting population, which can be isolated from an autologous skin biopsy without causing donor site morbidity. At 60 rpm, aggregates were markedly smaller and did not experience oxygen diffusional limitations, as seen in hSKPs cultured at 40 rpm. While hSKPs also grew at 80 rpm (0.74 Pa) and 100 rpm (1 Pa), they produced smaller aggregates due to high shear stress. The pH of the media in all the SSBs was closer to biological conditions and significantly different (P < 0.05) from static cultures, which recorded acidic pH conditions. The nutrient concentrations of the media in all the SSBs and static cultures did not drop below acceptable limits. Furthermore, there was no significant build-up of waste products to limit hSKP expansion in the SSBs. In addition, hSKP markers were maintained in the 60 rpm SSB as demonstrated by immunocytochemistry. This method of growing hSKPs in a batch culture at 60 rpm in a SSB represents an important first step in developing an

  16. Insight into the immunobiology of human skin and functional specialization of skin dendritic cell subsets to innovate intradermal vaccination design. (United States)

    Teunissen, M B M; Haniffa, M; Collin, M P


    Dendritic cells (DC) are the key initiators and regulators of any immune response which determine the outcome of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell responses. Multiple distinct DC subsets can be distinguished by location, phenotype, and function in the homeostatic and inflamed human skin. The function of steady-state cutaneous DCs or recruited inflammatory DCs is influenced by the surrounding cellular and extracellular skin microenvironment. The skin is an attractive site for vaccination given the extended local network of DCs and the easy access to the skin-draining lymph nodes to generate effector T cells and immunoglobulin-producing B cells for long-term protective immunity. In the context of intradermal vaccination we describe in this review the skin-associated immune system, the characteristics of the different skin DC subsets, the mechanism of antigen uptake and presentation, and how the properties of DCs can be manipulated. This knowledge is critical for the development of intradermal vaccine strategies and supports the concept of intradermal vaccination as a superior route to the conventional intramuscular or subcutaneous methods.

  17. Under Persistent Assault: Understanding the Factors that Deteriorate Human Skin and Clinical Efficacy of Topical Antioxidants in Treating Aging Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia K. Farris


    Full Text Available Recent studies contend that the skin is subject to far more damage than just ultraviolet (UV light, with infrared radiation and pollution now clearly demonstrated to degrade cutaneous tissue. While consumers continue to strive for new ways to augment the aesthetic appeal and improve the health of their skin, awareness regarding environmental insults and effective ways to protect the skin remains low. New advances in dermatologic science have exponentially increased the available information on the underlying mechanism of cutaneous damage and potential of topical antioxidants to treat aging skin. Combining antioxidants that can work through multiple pathways holds great potential for a cumulative and synergistic way to treat aging skin. Our goal is to provide a comprehensive review on environmental factors that damage human skin, discuss scientifically proven benefits of topical antioxidants, understand challenges of formulating and administering topical antioxidants, evaluate novel mechanisms of antioxidant activity, and suggest practical ways of integrating topical antioxidants with aesthetic procedures to complement clinical outcomes.

  18. Bone grafting: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Joshi


    Full Text Available Bone grafting is the process by which bone is transferred from a source (donor to site (recipient. Due to trauma from accidents by speedy vehicles, falling down from height or gunshot injury particularly in human being, acquired or developmental diseases like rickets, congenital defects like abnormal bone development, wearing out because of age and overuse; lead to bone loss and to replace the loss we need the bone grafting. Osteogenesis, osteoinduction, osteoconduction, mechanical supports are the four basic mechanisms of bone graft. Bone graft can be harvested from the iliac crest, proximal tibia, proximal humerus, proximal femur, ribs and sternum. An ideal bone graft material is biologically inert, source of osteogenic, act as a mechanical support, readily available, easily adaptable in terms of size, shape, length and replaced by the host bone. Except blood, bone is grafted with greater frequency. Bone graft indicated for variety of orthopedic abnormalities, comminuted fractures, delayed unions, non-unions, arthrodesis and osteomyelitis. Bone graft can be harvested from the iliac crest, proximal tibia, proximal humerus, proximal femur, ribs and sternum. By adopting different procedure of graft preservation its antigenicity can be minimized. The concept of bone banking for obtaining bone grafts and implants is very useful for clinical application. Absolute stability require for successful incorporation. Ideal bone graft must possess osteogenic, osteoinductive and osteocon-ductive properties. Cancellous bone graft is superior to cortical bone graft. Usually autologous cancellous bone graft are used as fresh grafts where as allografts are employed as an alloimplant. None of the available type of bone grafts possesses all these properties therefore, a single type of graft cannot be recomm-ended for all types of orthopedic abnormalities. Bone grafts and implants can be selected as per clinical problems, the equipments available and preference of

  19. Effects of early combinatorial treatment of autologous split-thickness skin grafts in red duroc pig model using pulsed dye laser and fractional CO2 laser. (United States)

    Bailey, J Kevin; Blackstone, Britani N; DeBruler, Danielle M; Kim, Jayne Y; Baumann, Molly E; McFarland, Kevin L; Imeokparia, Folasade O; Supp, Dorothy M; Powell, Heather M


    The use of pulsed dye laser (PDL) and fractional CO2 (FX CO2 ) laser therapy to treat and/or prevent scarring following burn injury is becoming more widespread with a number of studies reporting reduction in scar erythema and pruritus following treatment with lasers. While the majority of studies report positive outcomes following PDL or FX CO2 therapy, a number of studies have reported no benefit or worsening of the scar following treatment. The objective of this study was to directly compare the efficacy of PDL, FX CO2 , and PDL + FX CO2 laser therapy in reducing scarring post burn injury and autografting in a standardized animal model. Eight female red Duroc pigs (FRDP) received 4 standardized, 1 in. x 1 in. third degree burns that were excised and autografted. Wound sites were treated with PDL, FX CO2 , or both at 4, 8, and 12 weeks post grafting. Grafts receiving no laser therapy served as controls. Scar appearance, morphology, size, and erythema were assessed and punch biopsies collected at weeks 4, 8, 12, and 16. At week 16, additional tissue was collected for biomechanical analyses and markers for inflammatory cytokines, extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, re-epithelialization, pigmentation, and angiogenesis were quantified at all time points using qRT-PCR. Treatment with PDL, FX CO2 , or PDL + FX CO2 resulted in significantly less contraction versus skin graft only controls with no statistically significant difference among laser therapy groups. Scars treated with both PDL and FX CO2 were visually more erythematous than other groups with a significant increase in redness between two and three standard deviations above normal skin redness. Scars treated with FX CO2 were visually smoother and contained significantly fewer wrinkles. In addition, hyperpigmentation was significantly reduced in scars treated with FX CO2 . The use of fractional carbon dioxide or pulsed dye laser therapy within 1 month of autografting significantly reduced scar

  20. Wound healing from dermal grafts containing CD34+ cells is comparable to split-thickness skin micrografts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nuutila, Kristo; Singh, Mansher; Kruse, Carla


    . At day 28 dermal micrografts (Layers 2 and 3) showed comparable quality of healing to STSGs (Layer 1) in terms of wound contraction and scar elevation index. The amounts of epidermal stem cells (CD34+) and basal keratinocytes (KRT14) at each layer were quantified by immunohistochemistry. CONCLUSIONS......:: The analysis evidenced that Layers 2 and 3 contained the most CD34 positive cells and Layer 1 was the richest in KRT14 positive cells. The immunohistochemistry also indicated that by day 6 CD34 positive cells had differentiated to basal keratinocytes (KRT14), which migrated from the grafts and contributed...

  1. Assessment of Human Acellular Dermis Graft in Porcine Models for Ventral Hernia Repair. (United States)

    Sahoo, Sambit; Baker, Andrew R; Haskins, Ivy N; Krpata, David M; Rosen, Michael J; Derwin, Kathleen A


    Preclinical evaluation of hernia meshes is commonly performed in porcine models. We recently developed two surgically induced porcine hernia models-an incisional and an excisional model-that formed persistent hernias in the absence of graft repair. Herein, we investigate if these models will continue to form a hernia after graft repair. Ten pigs were used to create two hernia models-a 10-cm partial-thickness incisional defect (n = 5) and an 8 × 8-cm full-thickness excisional defect (n = 5). The defects were repaired using a 12 × 12-cm human acellular dermis graft placed in a preperitoneal/retrorectus sublay position and fixed using transfascial sutures. Postoperative management included the use of suction drainage for 1 week and an abdominal binder for 4 weeks in the more severe excisional model. Hernia development was assessed clinically, and hernia defect size and volume were measured using postoperative computed tomography (CT) imaging over 12 weeks. Radiographic inflation testing (2 L inflation), biaxial mechanical testing, and histological evaluation were also performed at 12 weeks. All pigs with the excisional model, but none with the incisional model, developed a clinically relevant hernia. At the end of 12 weeks, the excisional model had a significantly greater hernia defect size (259 ± 51 cm(2) vs. 47 ± 16 cm(2)) and repair volume (865 ± 414 cm(3) vs. 85 ± 52 cm(3)) compared with the incisional model. The excisional model also showed an order of magnitude greater increase in repair volume (280 cm(3) vs. 47 cm(3)) compared with the incisional model upon 2 L inflation. Furthermore, the excisional model showed a trend of having higher dilatational strain at average biaxial load of 250 N and lower stiffness compared with the incisional model. The excisional model had a thin, hypercellular hernia sac spanning the defect, whereas the incisional model had a thick densely fibrotic scar bridging the defect

  2. The release of leukotriene B4 from human skin in response to substance P: evidence for the functional heterogeneity of human skin mast cells among individuals (United States)

    Okabe, T; Hide, M; Koro, O; Nimi, N; Yamamoto, S


    Substance P is located in cutaneous nerve fibres and induces wheal and flare responses, accompanied by granulocyte infiltration, upon intradermal injection. Studies with animal skin and rat peritoneal mast cells have suggested that substance P induces the release of histamine and leukotriene B4 (LTB4), a potent chemoattractant for granulocytes, from skin mast cells. However, the release of LTB4 has not been detected from mast cells enzymatically isolated from human skin. In order to investigate the mechanism of granulocyte infiltration induced by substance P in human skin, we studied the release of LTB4 and histamine in response to substance P, and the effect of dexamethasone using human skin obtained from 22 nonallergic individuals. Histamine was released from all skin tissue samples in a dose-dependent manner. However, the amount of LTB4 release, both constitutive and inducible, was variable among skin preparations. Substance P induced a large release of LTB4 from the skin of eight donors (twice to six times that of the spontaneous release), but no or only negligible release from the skin of 14 donors. The amount of constitutive release of LTB4 correlated with the amount of tissue histamine. Dexamethasone selectively abolished the inducible release of LTB4, without an effect on histamine release and the constitutive release of LTB4. These results suggest that substance P induces the release of LTB4 in a certain population of human individuals by a glucocorticosteroid-dependent mechanism, and plays an important role in neurogenic inflammation with granulocyte infiltration. PMID:11359454

  3. Identification of Biomarkers of Human Skin Ageing in Both Genders. Wnt Signalling - A Label of Skin Ageing? (United States)

    Zampeli, Vasiliki; Elewa, Rana Mohsen; Mlody, Barbara; Hossini, Amir M.; Hermes, Bjoern; Krause, Ulf; Knolle, Juergen; Abdallah, Marwa; Adjaye, James; Zouboulis, Christos C.


    The goal of our work has been to investigate the mechanisms of gender-independent human skin ageing and examine the hypothesis of skin being an adequate model of global ageing. For this purpose, whole genome gene profiling was employed in sun-protected skin obtained from European Caucasian young and elderly females (mean age 26.7±4 years [n1 = 7] and 70.75±3.3 years [n2 = 4], respectively) and males (mean age 25.8±5.2 years [n3 = 6] and 76±3.8 years [n4 = 7], respectively) using the Illumina array platform. Confirmation of gene regulation was performed by real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. 523 genes were significantly regulated in female skin and 401 genes in male skin for the chosen criteria. Of these, 183 genes exhibited increased and 340 decreased expression in females whereas 210 genes showed increased and 191 decreased expression in males with age. In total, 39 genes were common in the target lists of significant regulated genes in males and females. 35 of these genes showed increased (16) or decreased (19) expression independent of gender. Only 4 overlapping genes (OR52N2, F6FR1OP2, TUBAL3 and STK40) showed differential regulation with age. Interestingly, Wnt signalling pathway showed to be significantly downregulated in aged skin with decreased gene and protein expression for males and females, accordingly. In addition, several genes involved in central nervous system (CNS) ageing (f.i. APP, TAU) showed to be expressed in human skin and were significanlty regulated with age. In conclusion, our study provides biomarkers of endogenous human skin ageing in both genders and highlight the role of Wnt signalling in this process. Furthermore, our data give evidence that skin could be used as a good alternative to understand ageing of different tissues such as CNS. PMID:23226273

  4. Targeted sequencing of clade-specific markers from skin microbiomes for forensic human identification. (United States)

    Schmedes, Sarah E; Woerner, August E; Novroski, Nicole M M; Wendt, Frank R; King, Jonathan L; Stephens, Kathryn M; Budowle, Bruce


    The human skin microbiome is comprised of diverse communities of bacterial, eukaryotic, and viral taxa and contributes millions of additional genes to the repertoire of human genes, affecting human metabolism and immune response. Numerous genetic and environmental factors influence the microbiome composition and as such contribute to individual-specific microbial signatures which may be exploited for forensic applications. Previous studies have demonstrated the potential to associate skin microbial profiles collected from touched items to their individual owner, mainly using unsupervised methods from samples collected over short time intervals. Those studies utilize either targeted 16S rRNA or shotgun metagenomic sequencing to characterize skin microbiomes; however, these approaches have limited species and strain resolution and susceptibility to stochastic effects, respectively. Clade-specific markers from the skin microbiome, using supervised learning, can predict individual identity using skin microbiomes from their respective donors with high accuracy. In this study the hidSkinPlex is presented, a novel targeted sequencing method using skin microbiome markers developed for human identification. The hidSkinPlex (comprised of 286 bacterial (and phage) family-, genus-, species-, and subspecies-level markers), initially was evaluated on three bacterial control samples represented in the panel (i.e., Propionibacterium acnes, Propionibacterium granulosum, and Rothia dentocariosa) to assess the performance of the multiplex. The hidSkinPlex was further evaluated for prediction purposes. The hidSkinPlex markers were used to attribute skin microbiomes collected from eight individuals from three body sites (i.e., foot (Fb), hand (Hp) and manubrium (Mb)) to their host donor. Supervised learning, specifically regularized multinomial logistic regression and 1-nearest-neighbor classification were used to classify skin microbiomes to their hosts with up to 92% (Fb), 96% (Mb

  5. Recurrent pyoderma gangrenosum after cesarean delivery successfully treated with vacuum-assisted closure and split thickness skin graft: a case report. (United States)

    Aydın, Serdar; Aydın, Çağrı Arıoğlu; Uğurlucan, Funda Güngör; Yaşa, Cenk; Dural, Özlem


    We describe the case of a 32-year-old woman (gravidity: 4; parity: 2) who underwent cesarean delivery at 37 weeks of gestation and presented with dehiscence and infection of the surgical wound. She had a history of wound infection and dehiscence of the scar from a previous cesarean delivery and dehiscence in the dorsal side of her left hand at the site of intravenous catheterization. The patient was initially diagnosed with a skin infection and later with pyoderma gangrenosum. No evidence of any underlying disease was found. The lesions were treated with systemic corticosteroids and azathioprine, but the lesions were unresponsive to treatment. This complicated case of pyoderma gangrenosum after cesarean delivery, which initially mimicked wound infection, was successfully treated with vacuum-assisted closure and split-thickness skin graft. This synergistic approach with vacuum-assisted closure could be an important treatment option for aggressive and slow-healing lesions. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  6. The cutaneous ecosystem: the roles of the skin microbiome in health and its association with inflammatory skin conditions in humans and animals. (United States)

    Rodrigues Hoffmann, Aline


    Inhabiting a sterile world is no longer an acceptable or desirable concept. Recent studies developed in the microbiome field have unveiled complex microbial populations inhabiting the skin, digestive, respiratory and reproductive tracts. Microbiome studies have opened new venues to explore the human and animal second genome, its functions and its importance in maintaining health. The composition of the skin microbiome varies across different body sites and across individuals, being influenced by different host habits, including for instance age, sex, diet, hygiene and lifestyle. Exposure to a diverse skin microbiome is now considered to be a key component in immune regulation, and imbalances in these microbial populations are being associated with human and animal skin inflammatory disorders. We have learned that in several skin conditions, there is a significant alteration in the diversity and composition of the microbiota colonizing the skin. For instance, in human and animal patients with atopic dermatitis, dysbiosis of the skin microbiota results in lower diversity of microbial populations. Whether these altered microbial populations are the cause or the effect of inflammatory skin conditions seen in humans and animals are still under investigation, but there is no doubt that the microbiome has an important role in maintaining skin health. This review focuses on the most current studies describing the skin microbiome in humans and animals, its role in modulating the immune system, and its association with human and animal skin diseases. © 2017 ESVD and ACVD.

  7. Evaluation of the Healing Potential of Demineralized Dentin Matrix Fixed with Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 in Bone Grafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Yun Kim


    Full Text Available We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of demineralized dentin matrix (DDM fixed with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2 through an experimental and a clinical study. Unilateral upper second and third premolars of eight beagles were extracted. A mucoperiosteal flap was elevated around the extraction socket, and a bone defect was made using a surgical drill. Each DDM was fixed with rhBMP-2, and autogenous bone was grafted at the bone defect area with a collagenous membrane. The beagles were euthanized at two, four, eight, and 12 weeks after receiving the bone graft. Block specimens involving grafted bone and surrounding natural bone were extracted. A total of 23 patients who received bone grafts using human DDM fixed with rhBMP-2 (AutoBT BMP with implant placements (36 implants; maxilla: 14, mandible: 22 were selected. The implant stability, marginal bone loss, and clinical outcome were evaluated. Three trephine cores were harvested fourmonths after bone grafting, and histologic examination was performed. In the histological evaluation performed four weeks after the bone graft, autogenous bone showed 52% new bone formation and DDM fixed with rhBMP-2 showed 33% new bone formation. Twelve weeks after the bone graft, autogenous bone showed 75% new bone formation and DDM fixed with rhBMP-2 showed 48% new bone formation. In the clinical study, favorable osseointegration was obtained in 35 out of 36 implant sites (one case of osseointegration failure. In all cases, severe complications were not observed. Histomorphometrically, new bone formation was observed in 14.98% of the cases. The residual DDM particles were 6.22%. AutoBT BMP provides good osteoinductive and osteoconductive potential and clinical efficacy.

  8. A micromechanical comparison of human and porcine skin before and after preservation by freezing for medical device development (United States)

    Ranamukhaarachchi, S. A.; Lehnert, S.; Ranamukhaarachchi, S. L.; Sprenger, L.; Schneider, T.; Mansoor, I.; Rai, K.; Häfeli, U. O.; Stoeber, B.


    Collecting human skin samples for medical research, including developing microneedle-based medical devices, is challenging and time-consuming. Researchers rely on human skin substitutes and skin preservation techniques, such as freezing, to overcome the lack of skin availability. Porcine skin is considered the best substitute to human skin, but their mechanical resemblance has not been fully validated. We provide a direct mechanical comparison between human and porcine skin samples using a conventional mechano-analytical technique (microindentation) and a medical application (microneedle insertion), at 35% and 100% relative humidity. Human and porcine skin samples were tested immediately after surgical excision from subjects, and after one freeze-thaw cycle at -80 °C to assess the impact of freezing on their mechanical properties. The mechanical properties of fresh human and porcine skin (especially of the stratum corneum) were found to be different for bulk measurements using microindentation; and both types of skin were mechanically affected by freezing. Localized in-plane mechanical properties of skin during microneedle insertion appeared to be more comparable between human and porcine skin samples than their bulk out-of-plane mechanical properties. The results from this study serve as a reference for future mechanical tests conducted with frozen human skin and/or porcine skin as a human skin substitute.

  9. Human Bone Derived Collagen for the Development of an Artificial Corneal Endothelial Graft. In Vivo Results in a Rabbit Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Vázquez

    Full Text Available Corneal keratoplasty (penetrating or lamellar using cadaveric human tissue, is nowadays the main treatment for corneal endotelial dysfunctions. However, there is a worldwide shortage of donor corneas available for transplantation and about 53% of the world's population have no access to corneal transplantation. Generating a complete cornea by tissue engineering is still a tough goal, but an endothelial lamellar graft might be an easier task. In this study, we developed a tissue engineered corneal endothelium by culturing human corneal endothelial cells on a human purified type I collagen membrane. Human corneal endothelial cells were cultured from corneal rims after corneal penetrating keratoplasty and type I collagen was isolated from remnant cancellous bone chips. Isolated type I collagen was analyzed by western blot, liquid chromatography -mass spectrometry and quantified using the exponentially modified protein abundance index. Later on, collagen solution was casted at room temperature obtaining an optically transparent and mechanically manageable membrane that supports the growth of human and rabbit corneal endothelial cells which expressed characteristic markers of corneal endothelium: zonula ocluddens-1 and Na+/K+ ATPase. To evaluate the therapeutic efficiency of our artificial endothelial grafts, human purified type I collagen membranes cultured with rabbit corneal endothelial cells were transplanted in New Zealand white rabbits that were kept under a minimal immunosuppression regimen. Transplanted corneas maintained transparency for as long as 6 weeks without obvious edema or immune rejection and maintaining the same endothelial markers that in a healthy cornea. In conclusion, it is possible to develop an artificial human corneal endothelial graft using remnant tissues that are not employed in transplant procedures. This artificial endothelial graft can restore the integrality of corneal endothelium in an experimental model of

  10. Enhancement of Human Cheek Skin Texture by Acacia Nilotica Bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... < 0.05) and the texture parameter of energy showed significant increase (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Our findings indicate that the cream containing 3 % Acacia nilotica bark extract possesses anti-aging effect and improves skin surface appearance.. Keywords: Acacia nilotica, Cream, Visioscan VC 98, Skin texture, Anti-aging ...

  11. Machine Learning Approaches for Predicting Human Skin Sensitization Hazard (United States)

    One of ICCVAM’s top priorities is the development and evaluation of non-animal approaches to identify potential skin sensitizers. The complexity of biological events necessary for a substance to elicit a skin sensitization reaction suggests that no single in chemico, in vit...

  12. Background free imaging of upconversion nanoparticle distribution in human skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, Zhen; Anissimov, Yuri G.; Zhao, Jiangbo; Nechaev, Andrei V.; Nadort, Annemarie; Jin, Dayong; Prow, Tarl W.; Roberts, Michael S.; Zvyagin, Andrei V.


    Widespread applications of nanotechnology materials have raised safety concerns due to their possible penetration through skin and concomitant uptake in the organism. This calls for systematic study of nanoparticle transport kinetics in skin, where high-resolution optical imaging approaches are

  13. Quality evaluation of meshed split-thickness skin grafts stored at 4°C in isotonic solutions and nutrient media by cell cultures. (United States)

    Li, Zhe; Overend, Christine; Maitz, Peter; Kennedy, Peter


    Excess split-skin autografts harvested and meshed during burn surgery are often stored at 4°C temporarily for later use. The quality of the stored skin is critical to clinical outcome and needs to be assured. Meshed split-thickness skin graft (mSSG) stored in saline, Hartmann's solution and two cell culture media, Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) and DMEM/Ham F12 (DMEM/F12, 3:1 mixture) were analyzed by trypan blue staining, cell culture and microbiological testing through a 28-day time course for cell viability and microbial contamination. mSSG samples in all groups showed a progressive decrease of cell viability and colony forming efficiency through the time course of storage at 4°C. Cell culture media were better than saline and Hartmann's solution in maintaining the viability and growth capability of skin cells. The viability observed by trypan blue staining did not truly reflect the cell growth capacity after storage. mSSG in saline and Hartman's solution retained minimal keratinocyte growth potency after 7 days. mSSG in cell culture media had significant loss of keratinocyte colony growth potency after 7 days and minimal keratinocyte growth after 14 days. Dermal fibroblasts of all groups were less tolerant than keratinocytes to the storage. Microbial contaminations were common in mSSG harvested from burn surgery. Culture media instead of saline or Hartman's solution should be used for temporary storage of mSSG at 4°C. The stored mSSS should be used within seven days to have sufficient viable number and cell growth efficiency. After then, the efficacy of stored mSSG as a source of living cells for wound closure could be full of uncertainty due to significant decrease of keratinocyte colony forming efficiency. Precaution should be taken during skin harvest and storage to minimize the risk of sample contamination. Inclusion of antimicrobial agents in storage solution and microbiological testing are advisable to ensure the quality and clinical outcome

  14. In vivo non-invasive multiphoton tomography of human skin (United States)

    König, Karsten; Riemann, Iris; Ehlers, Alexander; Le Harzic, Ronan


    High resolution non-invasive 3D imaging devices are required to detect pathogenic microorganisms such as Anthrax spores, bacteria, viruses, fungi and chemical agents entering biological tissues such as the epidermis. Due to the low light penetration depth and the biodamage potential, ultraviolet light sources can not be employed to realize intratissue imaging of bio- and chemohazards. We report on the novel near infrared laser technology multiphoton tomography and the high resolution 4D imaging tool DermaInspect for non-invasive detection of intratissue agents and their influence on cellular metabolism based on multiphoton autofluorescence imaging (MAI) and second harmonic generation (SHG). Femtosecond laser pulses in the spectral range of 750 nm to 850 nm have been used to image in vivo human skin with subcellular spatial and picosecond temporal resolution. The non-linear induced autofluorescence of both, skin tissues and microorganisms, originates mainly from naturally endogenous fluorophores/protein structures like NAD(P)H, flavins, keratin, collagen, elastin, porphyrins and melanin. Bacteria emit in the blue/green spectral range due to NAD(P)H and flavoproteins and, in certain cases, in the red spectral range due to the biosynthesis of Zn-porphyrins, coproporphyrin and protoporphyrin. Collagen and exogenous non-centrosymmetric molecules can be detected by SHG signals. The system DermaInspect consists of a wavelength-tunable compact 80/90 MHz Ti:sapphire laser, a scan module with galvo scan mirrors, piezo-driven objective, fast photon detector and time-resolved single photon counting unit. It can be used to perform optical sectioning and 3D autofluorescence lifetime imaging (τ-mapping) with 1 μm spatial resolution and 270 ps temporal resolution. The parameter fluorescence lifetime depends on the type of fluorophore and its microenvironment and can be used to distinguish bio- and chemohazards from cellular background and to gain information for pathogen

  15. Cutaneous in vivo metabolism of topical lidocaine formulation in human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolsted, K; Benfeldt, E; Kissmeyer, A-M


    Little is known about the metabolising capacity of the human skin in relation to topically applied drugs and formulations. We chose lidocaine as a model compound since the metabolic pathways are well known from studies concerning hepatic metabolism following systemic drug administration. However......, the enzymes involved are also expressed in the skin. Hence, the aim of the current study was to investigate the extent of the cutaneous in vivo metabolism of topically applied lidocaine in human volunteers. A dose of 5 mg/cm(2) of Xylocaine(R) (5% lidocaine) ointment was applied onto the buttock skin...... of the volunteers. After 2 h, residual formulation was removed, and two 4-mm punch biopsies were taken from each volunteer. The quantity of lidocaine extracted from the skin samples (epidermis + dermis) was 109 +/- 43 ng/mm(2) skin. One metabolite (monoethylglycine xylidide, MEGX) was detected in skin from 7...

  16. Photoprotection by pistachio bioactives in a 3-dimensional human skin equivalent tissue model. (United States)

    Chen, C-Y Oliver; Smith, Avi; Liu, Yuntao; Du, Peng; Blumberg, Jeffrey B; Garlick, Jonathan


    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated during ultraviolet (UV) light exposure can induce skin damage and aging. Antioxidants can provide protection against oxidative injury to skin via "quenching" ROS. Using a validated 3-dimensional (3D) human skin equivalent (HSE) tissue model that closely mimics human skin, we examined whether pistachio antioxidants could protect HSE against UVA-induced damage. Lutein and γ-tocopherol are the predominant lipophilic antioxidants in pistachios; treatment with these compounds prior to UVA exposure protected against morphological changes to the epithelial and connective tissue compartments of HSE. Pistachio antioxidants preserved overall skin thickness and organization, as well as fibroblast morphology, in HSE exposed to UVA irradiation. However, this protection was not substantiated by the analysis of the proliferation of keratinocytes and apoptosis of fibroblasts. Additional studies are warranted to elucidate the basis of these discordant results and extend research into the potential role of pistachio bioactives promoting skin health.

  17. No effect of Osteoset, a bone graft substitute, on bone healing in humans: a prospective randomized double-blind study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petruskevicius, Juozas; Nielsen, Mette Strange; Kaalund, Søren


    We studied the effects of a newly marketed bone substitute, Osteoset, on bone healing in a tibial defect in humans. 20 patients undergoing an ACL (anterior cruciate ligament) reconstruction with bone-patella tendon-bone graft were block-randomized into 2 groups of 10 each. In the treatment group...

  18. Synaptic inputs from stroke-injured brain to grafted human stem cell-derived neurons activated by sensory stimuli. (United States)

    Tornero, Daniel; Tsupykov, Oleg; Granmo, Marcus; Rodriguez, Cristina; Grønning-Hansen, Marita; Thelin, Jonas; Smozhanik, Ekaterina; Laterza, Cecilia; Wattananit, Somsak; Ge, Ruimin; Tatarishvili, Jemal; Grealish, Shane; Brüstle, Oliver; Skibo, Galina; Parmar, Malin; Schouenborg, Jens; Lindvall, Olle; Kokaia, Zaal


    Transplanted neurons derived from stem cells have been proposed to improve function in animal models of human disease by various mechanisms such as neuronal replacement. However, whether the grafted neurons receive functional synaptic inputs from the recipient's brain and integrate into host neural circuitry is unknown. Here we studied the synaptic inputs from the host brain to grafted cortical neurons derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells after transplantation into stroke-injured rat cerebral cortex. Using the rabies virus-based trans-synaptic tracing method and immunoelectron microscopy, we demonstrate that the grafted neurons receive direct synaptic inputs from neurons in different host brain areas located in a pattern similar to that of neurons projecting to the corresponding endogenous cortical neurons in the intact brain. Electrophysiological in vivo recordings from the cortical implants show that physiological sensory stimuli, i.e. cutaneous stimulation of nose and paw, can activate or inhibit spontaneous activity in grafted neurons, indicating that at least some of the afferent inputs are functional. In agreement, we find using patch-clamp recordings that a portion of grafted neurons respond to photostimulation of virally transfected, channelrhodopsin-2-expressing thalamo-cortical axons in acute brain slices. The present study demonstrates, for the first time, that the host brain regulates the activity of grafted neurons, providing strong evidence that transplanted human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cortical neurons can become incorporated into injured cortical circuitry. Our findings support the idea that these neurons could contribute to functional recovery in stroke and other conditions causing neuronal loss in cerebral cortex. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  19. Morphofunctional evaluation of human skin preserved in glycerol and exposed to gamma radiation: a study in athymic mice; Avaliacao morfofuncional de pele humana conservada em glicerol e submetida a radiacao gama: estudo em camundongos atimicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bringel, Fabiana de Andrade


    Extensive skin lesions expose the body to damaging agents, which makes spontaneous regeneration difficult and, in many cases, leads patient to death. In such cases, if there are no donating areas for autograft, allografts can be used. In this type of graft, tissue is processed in tissue banks, where it can be subjected to radiosterilization. According to in vitro studies, gamma radiation, in doses higher than 25 kGy, induces alterations in skin preserved in glycerol at 85%, reducing the tensile strength of irradiated tissue. Clinical observation also suggests faster integration of such graft with the receptors tissue. In order to assess if the alterations observed in vitro, would compromise in vivo use, transplants of human tissue, irradiated or not, were performed in Nude mice. The skin of the mice was subjected to macroscopic analysis, optical coherence tomography imaging, histological and biomechanical assays. It was possible to conclude that grafts irradiated with 25 kGy promoted greater initial contraction, without alteration of the final dimensions of the repair area, also displaying a faster closing of the wound. Moreover, the use of irradiated grafts (25 and 50 kGy) enabled the formation of a more organized healing process without significant effects on biomechanical properties. (author)

  20. Ontogenesis of the basement membrane zone after grafting cultured human epithelium: a morphologic and immunoelectron microscopic study. (United States)

    Mommaas, A M; Teepe, R G; Leigh, I M; Mulder, A A; Koebrugge, E J; Vermeer, B J


    Sheets of cultured epithelial cells have been successfully used as autografts for the permanent coverage of patients with full-thickness burns and as allografts to stimulate the healing of chronic skin ulcers. The basement membrane zone (BMZ), composed of lamina lucida, lamina densa, and anchoring fibrils, plays a pivotal role in the firm adherence of the epidermis to the dermis. The present study describes the ultrastructural development during various stages of wound healing after resurfacing different wound areas by cultured epithelial grafts. For this purpose, biopsies were obtained from five patients 5 d to 4.5 years after resurfacing full-thickness burns with cultured autografts, and from five patients at various stages after treatment of excised tattoos and chronic skin ulcers with cultured allografts. One biopsy was taken from a spontaneously healed burn wound 30 years post-injury. Ultrathin sections were prepared for transmission and immunoelectron microscopy, using monoclonal antibodies against type IV and VII collagen. Findings were compared to controls of age- and site-matched normal skin. Eleven days after grafting, the first BMZ features had regenerated, including lamina lucida, a discontinuous lamina densa, hemidesmosomes, and sparse anchoring fibrils. The process of de novo synthesis of BMZ components had begun, and within 4 to 5 weeks complete reformation of BMZ was observed, including normal distribution of anchoring fibrils. Immunolabeling of type VII collagen was first observed upon the lower part of lamina densa at day 11 and steadily increased, reaching normal values 5 weeks after grafting. In contrast, gold deposition of type IV collagen upon lamina densa was strongly increased at day 19 compared to normal. This high expression reduced a little at 5 weeks, but remained high up to 30 years after injury. Long-term burn scars exhibited pseudopodia-like extensions of all basal cells, abundant anchoring fibrils, and an increased amount of arching

  1. First donation of human skin obtained from corpse; Primera donacion de piel humana obtenida de cadaver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes F, M.L.; Luna Z, D. [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)


    The first donation of human skin coming from a cadaverous donor was obtained in the State of Mexico. The skin was obtained of a 34 year-old multi organic donor, the extraction of the same was carried out in an operating theatre by medical personnel, supported by personal of the Radio sterilized Tissue Bank (BTR) of the ININ. The skin was transported to the BTR for it processing. (Author)

  2. Nicotinic acid receptor abnormalities in human skin cancer: implications for a role in epidermal differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yira Bermudez

    Full Text Available Chronic UV skin exposure leads to epidermal differentiation defects in humans that can be largely restored by pharmacological doses of nicotinic acid. Nicotinic acid has been identified as a ligand for the human G-protein-coupled receptors GPR109A and GPR109B that signal through G(i-mediated inhibition of adenylyl cyclase. We have examined the expression, cellular distribution, and functionality of GPR109A/B in human skin and skin derived epidermal cells.Nicotinic acid increases epidermal differentiation in photodamaged human skin as judged by the terminal differentiation markers caspase 14 and filaggrin. Both GPR109A and GPR109B genes are transcribed in human skin and in epidermal keratinocytes, but expression in dermal fibroblasts is below limits of detection. Receptor transcripts are greatly over-expressed in squamous cell cancers. Receptor protein in normal skin is prominent from the basal through granular layers of the epidermis, with cellular localization more dispersive in the basal layer but predominantly localized at the plasma membrane in more differentiated epidermal layers. In normal human primary and immortalized keratinocytes, nicotinic acid receptors show plasma membrane localization and functional G(i-mediated signaling. In contrast, in a squamous cell carcinoma derived cell line, receptor protein shows a more diffuse cellular localization and the receptors are nearly non-functional.The results of these studies justify future genetic and pharmacological intervention studies to define possible specific role(s of nicotinic acid receptors in human skin homeostasis.

  3. “Review on Human Face Detection based on Skin Color and Edge Information”


    Divyesh S. Gondaliya; Pratik P. Kamothi; Vicky N. Fudnawala; Kevin P. Patel; Hiren S. Patel; Sapan Naik


    Human face detection system is gradually used for the tracking a human face. Face detection system is mainly used in face reorganization system for detecting human face. Here in this review paper we have describe how face detection system works and where it is useful in real world environment. We have describes different technique like template matching, skin color and edge information based on face detection from skin region, symmetry based face detection and etc.

  4. [Normal and abnormal human skin colour: from research to aesthetics]. (United States)

    Ortonne, J-P


    Skin color is controlled by pigmentary genes that regulate constitutive skin pigmentation and by environmental factors, the most obvious of them being solar U.V. At this time, more than 125 distinct pigmentary genes are known. They affect embryogenesis and survival of the melanocyte system, mélanosome biogenesis, melanogenesis, mélanosome transport and transfer, eumelanins/pheomelanins ratio and epidermal mélanosome turn-over and elimination. The pigmentary disorders of the skin are common and represent an important part of dermatologist activity. They concern at the same time the general dermatology and the aesthetic dermatology.

  5. [Normal and abnormal human skin color: from research to esthetics]. (United States)

    Ortonne, J-P


    Skin color is controlled by pigmentary genes that regulate constitutive skin pigmentation and by environmental factors, the most obvious of them being solar U.V. At this time, more than 130 distinct pigmentary genes are known. They affect embryogenesis and survival of the melanocyte system, mélanosome biogenesis, melanogenesis, mélanosome transport and transfer, eumelanins/pheomelanins ratio and epidermal mélanosome turn-over and elimination. The pigmentary disorders of the skin are common and represent an important part of dermatologist activity. They concern at the same time the general dermatology and the aesthetic dermatology.

  6. In vitro study of ethosome penetration in human skin and hypertrophic scar tissue. (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Wo, Yan; Zhang, Yixin; Wang, Danru; He, Rong; Chen, Huijin; Cui, Daxiang


    The purpose of this study is to characterize a novel transdermal delivery carrier, ethosomes containing 5-fluorouracil. The delivery of drugs from ethosomes in human hypertrophic scar (HS) and the mechanisms of action of ethosomes in human HS were investigated. Percutaneous ethosome permeation was evaluated in vitro in human HS and skin using a Franz's cell. The amount of 5-fluorouracil that permeated HS and skin after 24 hours was most abundant in ethosomes via HS (E-Scar), followed by hydroethanolic solution via HS (H-Scar), ethosomes via skin (E-Skin), and hydroethanolic solution via skin (H-Skin). The penetration of ethosomes in HS and skin was analyzed by ethosomes fluorescently labeled with rhodamine 6GO using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The fluorescence intensity after application for 24 hours was highest in E-Scar, followed by E-Skin, H-Scar, and H-Skin, which indicates the penetration of ethosomes in HS was greatest. In conclusion, we consider that ethosomes are a highly efficient carrier in HS. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Dermal absorption behavior of fluorescent molecules in nanoparticles on human and porcine skin models. (United States)

    Debotton, Nir; Badihi, Amit; Robinpour, Mano; Enk, Claes D; Benita, Simon


    The percutaneous passage of poorly skin absorbed molecules can be improved using nanocarriers, particularly biodegradable polymeric nanospheres (NSs) or nanocapsules (NCs). However, penetration of the encapsulated molecules may be affected by other factors than the nanocarrier properties. To gain insight information on the skin absorption of two fluorescent cargos, DiIC18(5) and coumarin-6 were incorporated in NSs or NCs and topically applied on various human and porcine skin samples. 3D imaging techniques suggest that NSs and NCs enhanced deep dermal penetration of both probes similarly, when applied on excised human skin irrespective of the nature of the cargo. However, when ex vivo pig skin was utilized, the cutaneous absorption of DiIC18(5) was more pronounced by means of PLGA NCs than NSs. In contrast, PLGA NSs noticeably improved the porcine skin penetration of coumarin-6, as compared to the NCs. Furthermore, the porcine skin results were reproducible when triplicated whereas from various human skin samples, as expected, the results were not sufficiently reproducible and large deviations were observed. The overall findings from this comprehensive comparison emphasize the potential of PLGA NCs or NSs to promote cutaneous bioavailability of encapsulated drugs, exhibiting different physicochemical properties but depending on the nature of the skin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Histamine is not released in acute thermal injury in human skin in vivo: a microdialysis study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars J; Pedersen, Juri L; Skov, Per S


    BACKGROUND: Animal models have shown histamine to be released from the skin during the acute phase of a burn injury. The role of histamine during the early phase of thermal injuries in humans remains unclear. PURPOSE: The objectives of this trial were to study histamine release in human skin during...... the acute phase of a standardized thermal injury in healthy volunteers. METHODS: Histamine concentrations in human skin were measured by skin microdialysis technique. Microdialysis fibers were inserted into the dermis in the lower leg in male healthy volunteers. A standardized superficial thermal injury...... was elicited by a heating thermode (49 degrees C) applied to the skin for 5 min. Histamine in dialysate was analyzed for up to 2 h after the injury using two different analytical methods. RESULTS: Spectrofluorometric assay of histamine showed no histamine release in separate studies using 2-min samples over 20...

  9. Visualization studies of human skin in vitro/in vivo under the influence of an electrical field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fatouros, N.E.; Groenink, H.W.M.; Graaff, de A.M.; Aelst, van A.C.; Koerten, H.K.; Bouwstra, J.A.


    The aim of this study was to investigate the local changes in the ultrastructure of human skin after iontophoresis, using cryo-scanning, transmission and freeze fracture electron microscopy in human skin in vitro and in vivo. Human dermatomed skin was subjected to passive diffusion for 6 hours

  10. Effects of sunscreen on human skin's ultraviolet radiation tolerance. (United States)

    Yuan, Chao; Wang, Xue-min; Tan, Yi-mei; Yang, Li-jie; Lin, Yin-fen; Wu, Pei-lan


    To observe the alteration ultraviolet radiation (UVR) of skin's tolerance after its exposure to the small dose of UVR under the protection of sunscreen. Eleven subjects who applied sunscreen were exposed to 0.75 dose minimal persistent pigment darkening (MPPD) and minimal erythema dose (MED) by the Phototherapy Unit for 4 weeks. Each week their MPPDs and MEDs were measured by solar simulator. Meanwhile, SPECTCOLOMETER® and VISIOSCAN VC98® were used to detect the test areas and control areas. The values of MPPD and MED increased significantly after the exposure to UVR. But there were no visible changes on the surface of skin's texture. With the protection of sunscreen, the UVR tolerance of skin was greatly increased after the skin's exposure to the small dose UV. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Effect of terbutaline and bambuterol on immediate-type allergic skin responses and mediator release in human skin. (United States)

    Petersen, L J; Skov, P S


    Beta-2 agonists are potent inhibitors of mast cell degranulation in vitro. Intradermally injected they also inhibit mast cell activation in human skin in vivo. To what extent orally administered beta(2)-agonists inhibit mast cell degranulation and allergic skin responses in vivo in daily recommended doses remains unclear. The main purpose was to study the effects of oral administered terbutaline and bambuterol on allergen- and codeine-induced histamine release and skin responses in intact human skin in vivo. In addition, control studies were carried out with intradermally injected terbutaline. Ten allergic subjects were randomized to receive bambuterol (10 mg tablets twice daily), terbutaline (7.5 mg controlled release tablets twice daily) and corresponding placebo for 5 days with a washout phase of 3 days between treatments in a double-blind, double-dummy, cross-over trial. The patients were studied at the fifth day of each regimen, i.e. at day 5, 13, and 21. Allergen- and codeine-induced histamine release was measured by microdialysis technique. Wheal and flare reactions to allergen, codeine, and histamine were measured planimetrically. Measurements were performed in the morning on day 5 on each regimen before medication and for additional 5 h after administration of the morning dose. In a separate series of experiments in another 10 allergic patients, 1-1,000 nM (0.05-50 pmoles) of terbutaline was injected intradermally for measurement of histamine release, prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) synthesis and skin responses. Neither orally administered terbutaline nor bambuterol significantly reduced allergen- or codeine-induced histamine release. Flare reactions to allergen, codeine and histamine remained unaffected which was also the case for the majority of the wheal reactions. In comparison, intradermally injected terbutaline significantly reduced allergen-induced histamine release, PGD(2) synthesis, and skin reactions. Codeine-induced histamine release remained unaffected

  12. Characterizing human skin blood flow regulation in response to different local skin temperature perturbations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Y.; Nieuwenhoff, M.D.; Huygen, Frank J.P.M.; van der Helm, F. C.T.; Niehof, S.P.; Schouten, A. C.


    Small nerve fibers regulate local skin blood flow in response to local thermal perturbations. Small nerve fiber function is difficult to assess with classical neurophysiological tests. In this study, a vasomotor response model in combination with a heating protocol was developed to quantitatively

  13. Characterizing human skin blood flow regulation in response to different local skin temperature perturbations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Y.; Nieuwenhoff, M.D.; Huygen, F.J.P.M.; van der Helm, F.C.T.; Niehof, S.P.; Schouten, A.C.


    Small nerve fibers regulate local skin blood flow in response to local thermal perturbations. Small nerve fiber function is difficult to assess with classical neurophysiological tests. In this study, a vasomotor response model in combination with a heating protocol was developed to quantitatively

  14. Characterizing human skin blood flow regulation in response to different local skin temperature perturbations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Y.; M.D. Nieuwenhoff (Mariska D.); F.J.P.M. Huygen (Frank); F.C.T. van der Helm (Frans C.); S.P. Niehof (Sjoerd); A.C. Schouten (A.)


    textabstractSmall nerve fibers regulate local skin blood flow in response to local thermal perturbations. Small nerve fiber function is difficult to assess with classical neurophysiological tests. In this study, a vasomotor response model in combination with a heating protocol was developed to

  15. Accumulation of sunscreen in human skin after daily applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodekær, Mette; Akerström, Ulf; Wulf, Hans Christian


    Sunscreen applied to the skin provides a considerable sun protection factor (SPF) even after 8 h. Sunscreen use for consecutive days may therefore result in an accumulation of the product. This study investigated the consequences of accumulation for SPF.......Sunscreen applied to the skin provides a considerable sun protection factor (SPF) even after 8 h. Sunscreen use for consecutive days may therefore result in an accumulation of the product. This study investigated the consequences of accumulation for SPF....

  16. Oral Polypodium leucotomos extract decreases ultraviolet-induced damage of human skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelkamp-Hup, Maritza A.; Pathak, Madhu A.; Parrado, Concepcion; Goukassian, David; Rius-Díaz, Francisca; Mihm, Martín C.; Fitzpatrick, Thomas B.; González, Salvador


    BACKGROUND: UV radiation induces damage to human skin. Protection of skin by an oral photoprotective agent would have substantial benefits. Objective We investigated the photoprotective effect of oral administration of an extract of the natural antioxidant Polypodium leucotomos (PL). METHODS: A

  17. Human skin condition and its associations with nutrient concentrations in serum and diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelsma, E.; Vijver, L.P.L. van de; Goldbohm, R.A.; Klöpping-Ketelaars, I.A.A.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Roza, L.


    Background: Nutritional factors exert promising actions on the skin, but only scant information is available on the modulating effects of physiologic concentrations of nutrients on the skin condition of humans. Objective: The objective was to evaluate whether nutrient concentrations in serum and

  18. Proteomic allergen-peptide/protein interaction assay for the identification of human skin sensitizers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietz, L.; Kinzebach, S.; Ohnesorge, S.; Franke, B.; Goette, I.; Koenig-Gressel, D.; Thierse, H.J.


    Modification of proteins by skin sensitizers is a pivotal step in T cell mediated allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). In this process small reactive chemicals interact covalently or non-covalently with cellular or extracellular skin self-proteins or self-peptides to become recognized by the human

  19. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH promotes wound re-epithelialisation in frog and human skin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia T Meier

    Full Text Available There remains a critical need for new therapeutics that promote wound healing in patients suffering from chronic skin wounds. This is, in part, due to a shortage of simple, physiologically and clinically relevant test systems for investigating candidate agents. The skin of amphibians possesses a remarkable regenerative capacity, which remains insufficiently explored for clinical purposes. Combining comparative biology with a translational medicine approach, we report the development and application of a simple ex vivo frog (Xenopus tropicalis skin organ culture system that permits exploration of the effects of amphibian skin-derived agents on re-epithelialisation in both frog and human skin. Using this amphibian model, we identify thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH as a novel stimulant of epidermal regeneration. Moving to a complementary human ex vivo wounded skin assay, we demonstrate that the effects of TRH are conserved across the amphibian-mammalian divide: TRH stimulates wound closure and formation of neo-epidermis in organ-cultured human skin, accompanied by increased keratinocyte proliferation and wound healing-associated differentiation (cytokeratin 6 expression. Thus, TRH represents a novel, clinically relevant neuroendocrine wound repair promoter that deserves further exploration. These complementary frog and human skin ex vivo assays encourage a comparative biology approach in future wound healing research so as to facilitate the rapid identification and preclinical testing of novel, evolutionarily conserved, and clinically relevant wound healing promoters.

  20. New Regions of the Human Genome Linked to Skin Color Variation in Some African Populations (United States)

    In the first study of its kind, an international team of genomics researchers has identified new regions of the human genome that are associated with skin color variation in some African populations, opening new avenues for research on skin diseases and cancer in all populations.

  1. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) promotes wound re-epithelialisation in frog and human skin. (United States)

    Meier, Natalia T; Haslam, Iain S; Pattwell, David M; Zhang, Guo-You; Emelianov, Vladimir; Paredes, Roberto; Debus, Sebastian; Augustin, Matthias; Funk, Wolfgang; Amaya, Enrique; Kloepper, Jennifer E; Hardman, Matthew J; Paus, Ralf


    There remains a critical need for new therapeutics that promote wound healing in patients suffering from chronic skin wounds. This is, in part, due to a shortage of simple, physiologically and clinically relevant test systems for investigating candidate agents. The skin of amphibians possesses a remarkable regenerative capacity, which remains insufficiently explored for clinical purposes. Combining comparative biology with a translational medicine approach, we report the development and application of a simple ex vivo frog (Xenopus tropicalis) skin organ culture system that permits exploration of the effects of amphibian skin-derived agents on re-epithelialisation in both frog and human skin. Using this amphibian model, we identify thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) as a novel stimulant of epidermal regeneration. Moving to a complementary human ex vivo wounded skin assay, we demonstrate that the effects of TRH are conserved across the amphibian-mammalian divide: TRH stimulates wound closure and formation of neo-epidermis in organ-cultured human skin, accompanied by increased keratinocyte proliferation and wound healing-associated differentiation (cytokeratin 6 expression). Thus, TRH represents a novel, clinically relevant neuroendocrine wound repair promoter that deserves further exploration. These complementary frog and human skin ex vivo assays encourage a comparative biology approach in future wound healing research so as to facilitate the rapid identification and preclinical testing of novel, evolutionarily conserved, and clinically relevant wound healing promoters.

  2. Non-enzymatic NO production in human skin: effect of UVA on cutaneous NO stores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suschek, C.; Opländer, C.; van Faassen, E.E.H.


    Nitric oxide (NO) in human skin has been under investigation since first reports of NOS expression in skin tissue in 1992 [1]. NO plays a key role in the dermal response to external stimuli such as heat, ultraviolet (UV) light, or infection, and in healing of abrasions, lesions or burns. Recently, a

  3. An Invariant-Based Damage Model for Human and Animal Skins. (United States)

    Li, Wenguang; Luo, Xiaoyu Y


    Constitutive modelling of skins that account for damage effects is important to provide insight for various clinical applications, such as skin trauma and injury, artificial skin design, skin aging, disease diagnosis, surgery, as well as comparative studies of skin biomechanics between species. In this study, a new damage model for human and animal skins is proposed for the first time. The model is nonlinear, anisotropic, invariant-based, and is based on the Gasser-Ogden-Holzapfel constitutive law initially developed for arteries. Taking account of the mean collagen fibre orientation and its dispersion, the new model can describe a wide range of skins with damage. The model is first tested on the uniaxial test data of human skin and then applied to nine groups of uniaxial test data for the human, swine, rabbit, bovine and rhino skins. The material parameters can be inversely estimated based on uniaxial tests using the optimization method in MATLAB with a root mean square error ranged between 2.15% and 12.18%. A sensitivity study confirms that the fibre orientation dispersion and the mean fibre angle are among the most important factors that influence the behaviour of the damage model. In addition, these two parameters can only be reliably estimated if some histological information is provided. We also found that depending on the location of skins, the tissue damage may be brittle controlled by the fibre breaking limit (i.e., when the fibre stretch is greater than 1.13-1.32, depending on the species), or ductile (due to both the fibre and the matrix damages). The brittle damages seem to occur mostly in the back, and the ductile damages are seen from samples taken from the belly. The proposed constitutive model may be applied to various clinical applications that require knowledge of the mechanical response of human and animal skins.

  4. Fatty acids penetration into human skin ex vivo: A TOF-SIMS analysis approach. (United States)

    Čižinauskas, Vytis; Elie, Nicolas; Brunelle, Alain; Briedis, Vitalis


    Linoleic, oleic, palmitoleic, palmitic, and stearic fatty acids (FAs) are commonly used in dermatological formulations. They differ by their structure, presence in the skin, and mode of application in pharmaceuticals and cosmetics compounding. These FAs are also known as chemical penetration enhancers, but their mechanisms of penetration enhancement and effect on barrier characteristics of the skin require additional study. In this study, the authors conducted an ex vivo analysis of the distribution of lipid components in the epidermis and dermis of human skin after applying individual FAs. The goal was to elucidate possible mechanisms of penetration enhancement and FA effects on barrier characteristics of the skin. FA penetration studies were conducted ex vivo on human skin and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) bioimaging analysis was performed to visualize and analyze distribution of FAs in skin sections. The current study demonstrated that TOF-SIMS imaging was effective in visualizing the distribution of linoleic, oleic, palmitoleic, palmitic, and stearic acid in the human skin ex vivo after the skin penetration experiment of individual FAs. The integration of the obtained TOF-SIMS images allowed a semiquantitative comparison of the effects induced by individual FA applications on the human skin ex vivo. FAs showed varying abilities to penetrate the skin and disorder the FAs within the skin, based on their structures and physicochemical properties. Linoleic acid penetrated the skin and changed the distribution of all the analyzed FAs. Skin treatment with palmitoleic or oleic acid increased the amounts of singular FAs in the skin. Penetration of saturated FAs was low, but it increased the detected amounts of linoleic acid in both skin layers. The results indicate that application of FAs on the skin surface induce redistribution of native FAs not only in the stratum corneum layer of epidermis but also in the lipid content of full epidermis

  5. Safety of recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB in Augment® Bone Graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A Solchaga


    Full Text Available This article discusses nonclinical and clinical data regarding the safety of recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB as a component of the Augment® Bone Graft (Augment. Augment is a bone graft substitute intended to be used as an alternative to autologous bone graft in the fusion of hindfoot and ankle joints. Nonclinical studies included assessment of the pharmacokinetic profile of intravenously administered recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB in rat and dog, effects of intravenous administration of recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB in a reproductive and development toxicity study in rats, and chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity of Augment in a 12-month implantation model. These studies showed that systemic exposure was brief and clearance was rapid. No signs of toxicity, carcinogenicity, or tumor promotion were observed even with doses far exceeding the maximum clinical dose. Results of clinical trials (605 participants and commercial use of recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB containing products indicate that these products are not associated with increased incidence of adverse events or cancer. The safety data presented provide evidence that recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB is a safe therapeutic when used in combination products as a single administration during surgical procedures for bone repair and fusion. There is no evidence associating use of recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB in Augment with chronic toxicity, carcinogenicity, or tumor promotion.

  6. Cationic membrane-active peptides - anticancer and antifungal activity as well as penetration into human skin. (United States)

    Do, Nhung; Weindl, Günther; Grohmann, Lisa; Salwiczek, Mario; Koksch, Beate; Korting, Hans Christian; Schäfer-Korting, Monika


    Cationic antimicrobial peptides are ancient natural broad-spectrum antibiotics, and several compounds also exhibit anticancer activity. However, most applications pertain to bacterial infections, and treatment for skin cancer is less frequently considered. The cytotoxicity of melittin, cecropin A, protegrin-1 and histatin 5 against squamous skin cancer cell lines and normal human keratinocytes was evaluated and compared to established drugs. The results show that melittin clearly outperforms 5-fluorouracil regarding antitumor activity. Importantly, combined melittin and 5-fluorouracil enhanced cytotoxic effects on cancer cells and reduced toxicity on normal keratinocytes. Additionally, minimum inhibitory concentrations indicate that melittin also shows superior activity against clinical and laboratory strains of Candida albicans compared to amphotericin B. To evaluate its potential for topical applications, human skin penetration of melittin was investigated ex vivo and compared to two non-toxic cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs), low molecular weight protamine (LMWP) and penetratin. The stratum corneum prevents penetration into viable epidermis over 6 h; however, the peptides gain access to the viable skin after 24 h. Inhibition of digestive enzymes during skin penetration significantly enhances the availability of intact peptide. In conclusion, melittin may represent an innovative agent for non-melanoma skin cancer and infectious skin diseases. In order to develop a drug candidate, skin absorption and proteolytic digestion by skin enzymes need to be addressed. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Melanin Transfer in Human 3D Skin Equivalents Generated Exclusively from Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Gledhill

    Full Text Available The current utility of 3D skin equivalents is limited by the fact that existing models fail to recapitulate the cellular complexity of human skin. They often contain few cell types and no appendages, in part because many cells found in the skin are difficult to isolate from intact tissue and cannot be expanded in culture. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs present an avenue by which we can overcome this issue due to their ability to be differentiated into multiple cell types in the body and their unlimited growth potential. We previously reported generation of the first human 3D skin equivalents from iPSC-derived fibroblasts and iPSC-derived keratinocytes, demonstrating that iPSCs can provide a foundation for modeling a complex human organ such as skin. Here, we have increased the complexity of this model by including additional iPSC-derived melanocytes. Epidermal melanocytes, which are largely responsible for skin pigmentation, represent the second most numerous cell type found in normal human epidermis and as such represent a logical next addition. We report efficient melanin production from iPSC-derived melanocytes and transfer within an entirely iPSC-derived epidermal-melanin unit and generation of the first functional human 3D skin equivalents made from iPSC-derived fibroblasts, keratinocytes and melanocytes.

  8. High-Altitude Living Shapes the Skin Microbiome in Humans and Pigs

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    Bo Zeng


    Full Text Available While the skin microbiome has been shown to play important roles in health and disease in several species, the effects of altitude on the skin microbiome and how high-altitude skin microbiomes may be associated with health and disease states remains largely unknown. Using 16S rRNA marker gene sequencing, we characterized the skin microbiomes of people from two racial groups (the Tibetans and the Hans and of three local pig breeds (Tibetan pig, Rongchang pig, and Qingyu pig at high and low altitudes. The skin microbial communities of low-altitude pigs and humans were distinct from those of high-altitude pigs and humans, with five bacterial taxa (Arthrobacter, Paenibacillus, Carnobacterium, and two unclassified genera in families Cellulomonadaceae and Xanthomonadaceae consistently enriched in both pigs and humans at high altitude. Alpha diversity was also significantly lower in skin samples collected from individuals living at high altitude compared to individuals at low altitude. Several of the taxa unique to high-altitude humans and pigs are known extremophiles adapted to harsh environments such as those found at high altitude. Altogether our data reveal that altitude has a significant effect on the skin microbiome of pigs and humans.

  9. Mechanical properties of an artificial vascularized human skin (United States)

    Passot, A.; Cabodevila, G.


    In order to make blood sample tests an artificial skin similar to that of the baby's heel is modeled and realized. The most superficial bloodstream and the two main layers of the skin -epidermis and dermis- have to be recreated. Studies and capillaroscopies of the baby's heel give characteristics of these layers and the bloodstream. The skin is viscohyperelastic, but the choice of materials that will be used is based on the Young's modulus. The epidermis layer is based on a stronger less adhesive silicon rubber Elastosil. The dermis layer is composed of a mixture based on a very soft sticky silicon rubber Silgel and Sylgard. The mixture of Silgel with 5% Sylgard has an elastic modulus of 48 kPa which is similar to that of the dermis. The artificial skin is an assembly of several layers including a layer of Sylgard that is structured by a mold representing the capillary network and adapted to manufacturing processes in a clean room. Each layer is deposited by spin coating and is combined with the other through adhesion. Mechanical tests such as tension are performed to verify the mechanical properties of the artificial skin.

  10. Aromatase activity in human skin fibroblasts grown in cell culture. (United States)

    Berkovitz, G D; Brown, T R; Fujimoto, M


    Recent studies in this laboratory have described an unusual kindred in which gynecomastia resulted from abnormally elevated levels of extraglandular aromatase activity. In order to better understand the molecular mechanisms responsible for the abnormal aromatase activity in these and other patients, we explored the aromatase activity of genital skin fibroblasts. Our studies demonstrate that the kinetic parameters for aromatase in skin are similar to those of other cultured cells and suggest that skin is an important site of extraglandular aromatase activity. These cells also contain 5 alpha-reductase activity and androgen receptors and are, therefore, a model for androgen action and metabolism. For example, they provided a system for the study of the potency and specificity of the aromatase inhibitors 4-OHA and MDL 18,962. Finally, the influence of DEX on aromatase in genital skin fibroblasts differs in some important respects from the pattern of control observed in adipose tissue stromal-vascular cells. These findings suggest that investigating the molecular mechanisms for the regulation of aromatase in skin may provide unique information about the control of the enzyme.

  11. Structural mechanical properties of radiation-sterilized human Bone-Tendon-Bone grafts preserved by different methods. (United States)

    Gut, Grzegorz; Marowska, Joanna; Jastrzebska, Anna; Olender, Ewa; Kamiński, Artur


    To avoid the risk of infectious disease transmission from donor to recipient, allografts should be terminally sterilized. In the previous paper (Kaminski et al. in Cell Tissue Bank 10:215-219, 2009) we presented the effect of various methods of preservation (deep fresh freezing, glycerolization, lyophilization), followed by irradiation with different doses of electron beam (EB), on material (intrinsic) mechanical properties of human patellar tendons cut out as for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, obtained in failure tensile test. As structural mechanical properties are equally important to predict the behaviour of the graft as a whole functional unit, the purpose of the present paper was to show the results for failure load and elongation, obtained in the same experiment. Paired Bone-Tendon-Bone grafts (BTB) were prepared from cadaveric human patella tendons with both patellar and tibial attachments. They were preserved by deep freezing, glycerolization or lyophilization and subsequently EB-irradiated with the doses of 25, 35, 50 or 100 kGy (fresh-frozen grafts) or a single dose of 35 kGy (glycerolized and lyophilized grafts). Each experimental (irradiated) group was provided with control (non-irradiated), donor-matched group. The specimens from all groups were subjected to mechanical failure tensile test with the use of Instron system in order to measure their structural properties (failure load and elongation). All lyophilized grafts were rehydrated before mechanical testing. In our study we did not observe significant deterioration of structural mechanical properties of BTB grafts processed by fresh-freezing and then terminal sterilized with growing doses of EB up to 100 kGy. In contrast, BTB grafts processed by glycerolization or lyophilization and irradiated with 35 kGy showed significant decrease of failure load. Obtained results suggest that deep-frozen irradiated grafts retain their initial mechanical properties to an extent which does not

  12. In vitro dermal absorption of decabromodiphenyl ethane in rat and human skin (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — In vitro dermal absorption of decabromodiphenyl ethane in rat and human skin. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Knudsen, G., J.M. Sanders,...

  13. The moisturizing effects of glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids, on human skin. (United States)

    Yamamoto, Shuhei; Morita, Tomotake; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Yanagidani, Shusaku; Sogabe, Atsushi; Kitamoto, Dai; Kitagawa, Masaru


    Glycolipid biosurfactants, such as mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), are produced by different yeasts belonging to the genus Pseudozyma and have been attracting much attention as new cosmetic ingredients owing to their unique liquid-crystal-forming and moisturizing properties. In this study, the effects of different MEL derivatives on the skin were evaluated in detail using a three-dimensional cultured human skin model and an in vivo human study. The skin cells were cultured and treated with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and the effects of different lipids on the SDS-damaged cells were evaluated on the basis of cell viability. Most MEL derivatives efficiently recovered the viability of the cells and showed high recovery rates (over 80%) comparable with that of natural ceramide. It is interesting that the recovery rate with MEL-A prepared from olive oil was significantly higher than that of MEL-A prepared from soybean oil. The water retention properties of MEL-B were further investigated on human forearm skin in a preliminary study. Compared with the control, the aqueous solution of MEL-B (5 wt%) was estimated to considerably increase the stratum corneum water content in the skin. Moreover, perspiration on the skin surface was clearly suppressed by treatment with the MEL-B solution. These results suggest that MELs are likely to exhibit a high moisturizing action, by assisting the barrier function of the skin. Accordingly, the yeast glycolipids have a strong potential as a new ingredient for skin care products.

  14. Interaction of bovine serum albumin and human blood plasma with PEO-tethered surfaces : influence of PEO chain length, grafting density and temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norde, W.; Gage, R.A.


    Solid surfaces are modified by grafting poly(ethylene oxide), PEO, to influence their interaction with indwelling particles, in particular molecules of bovine serum albumin and human plasma proteins. As a rule, the grafted PEO layers suppress protein adsorption. The suppression is most effective

  15. Novel Inhibitory Effect of N-(2-Hydroxycyclohexylvaliolamine on Melanin Production in a Human Skin Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bum-Ho Bin


    Full Text Available Hyper-pigmentation causes skin darkness and medical disorders, such as post-inflammatory melanoderma and melasma. Therefore, the development of anti-melanogenic agents is important for treating these conditions and for cosmetic production. In our previous paper, we demonstrated that the anti-diabetic drug voglibose, a valiolamine derivative, is a potent anti-melanogenic agent. In addition, we proposed an alternative screening strategy to identify valiolamine derivatives with high skin permeability that act as anti-melanogenic agents when applied topically. In this study, we synthesized several valiolamine derivatives with enhanced lipophilicity and examined their inhibitory effects in a human skin model. N-(2-hydroxycyclohexylvaliolamine (HV possesses a stronger inhibitory effect on melanin production than voglibose in a human skin model, suggesting that HV is a more potent anti-melanogenic agent for the skin.

  16. Melting graft wound syndrome

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    Shiou-Mei Chen


    Full Text Available Melting graft wound syndrome is characterized by progressive epidermal loss from a previously well-taken skin graft, healed burn, or donor site. It may result in considerable morbidity and require prolonged treatment. We report a 23-year-old flame-burned patient with second- to third-degree burns involving more than 70% of the total body surface area, whose condition was complicated with septic shock. The patient presented with erosions and ulcers occurring on previously well-taken skin graft recipient sites over both legs and progressive epidermal loss on donor sites over the back. The patient's presentation was compatible with the diagnosis of melting graft wound syndrome, and we successfully treated the patient with debridement and supportive treatment.

  17. Probe pressure effects on human skin diffuse reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy measurements


    Lim, Liang; Nichols, Brandon; Rajaram, Narasimhan; Tunnell, James W.


    Diffuse reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy are popular research techniques for noninvasive disease diagnostics. Most systems include an optical fiber probe that transmits and collects optical spectra in contact with the suspected lesion. The purpose of this study is to investigate probe pressure effects on human skin spectroscopic measurements. We conduct an in-vivo experiment on human skin tissue to study the short-term (30 s) effects of probe pressure on diffuse reflectance and fluor...

  18. Dietary water affects human skin hydration and biomechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palma L


    Full Text Available Lídia Palma,1 Liliana Tavares Marques,1 Julia Bujan,2,3 Luís Monteiro Rodrigues1,4 1CBIOS – Research Center for Health Science and Technologies, Universidade Lusófona, Campo Grande, Lisboa, Portugal; 2Department of Medicine and Medical Specialities, Universidad de Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, Spain; 3CIBER-BBN, Madrid, España, Spain; 4Department of Pharmacological Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal Abstract: It is generally assumed that dietary water might be beneficial for the health, especially in dermatological (age preventing terms. The present study was designed to quantify the impact of dietary water on major indicators of skin physiology. A total of 49 healthy females (mean 24.5±4.3 years were selected and characterized in terms of their dietary daily habits, especially focused in water consumption, by a Food Frequency Questionnaire. This allowed two groups to be set – Group 1 consuming less than 3,200 mL/day (n=38, and Group 2 consuming more than 3,200 mL/day (n=11. Approximately 2 L of water were added to the daily diet of Group 2 individuals for 1 month to quantify the impact of this surplus in their skin physiology. Measurements involving epidermal superficial and deep hydration, transepidermal water loss, and several biomechanical descriptors were taken at day 0 (T0, 15 (T1, and 30 (T2 in several anatomical sites (face, upper limb, and leg. This stress test (2 L/day for 30 days significantly modified superficial and deep skin hydration, especially in Group 1. The same impact was registered with the most relevant biomechanical descriptors. Thus, in this study, it is clear that higher water inputs in regular diet might positively impact normal skin physiology, in particular in those individuals with lower daily water consumptions. Keywords: dietary water, water consume, skin hydration, TEWL, skin biomechanics

  19. High-load preconditioning of human soft tissue hamstring grafts: An in vitro biomechanical analysis. (United States)

    Lockwood, W Charles; Marchetti, Daniel Cole; Dahl, Kimi D; Mikula, Jacob D; Williams, Brady T; Kheir, Matthew M; Turnbull, Travis Lee; LaPrade, Robert F


    In order to minimize viscoelastic elongation of ACL reconstruction grafts, preconditioning protocols have been employed in clinical practice prior to final graft fixation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate two separate high-load static preconditioning protocols of double-looped semitendinosus-gracilis grafts and compare these results to both a current clinical protocol and a control group with no preconditioning protocol applied. It was hypothesized that a high-load, static preconditioning protocol would minimize graft elongation during a simulated progressive early rehabilitation compared to both the "89 N" clinical protocol and control groups. Grafts were randomly allocated into four preconditioning study groups: (1) control (no preconditioning), (2) clinical protocol (89 N for 15 min), (3) high-load, short duration (600 N for 20 s), and (4) high-load, long duration (600 N for 15 min). After preconditioning, grafts were cyclically loaded between 10 and 400 N at 0.5 Hz for 450 cycles to simulate early postoperative rehabilitation. Graft displacement (elongation) was recorded during both preconditioning and cyclic loading. Increased preconditioning load magnitude and duration significantly reduced graft elongation during cyclic loading (p < 0.05) which corresponded to an inverse relationship with increased elongation during preconditioning. The "600 N for 15 min" protocol resulted in significantly less elongation during simulated early rehabilitation than both the control group and the "89 N for 15 min" protocol (p < 0.001, p < 0.05). Graft elongation during simulated early rehabilitation was significantly reduced by a high-load preconditioning protocol applied for an extended period of time compared to a current common clinical protocol and grafts that were not preconditioned. In addition, the amount of elongation during simulated early rehabilitation was similar between grafts preconditioned using the current clinical practice protocol

  20. Relation between HLA genes, human skin volatiles and attractiveness of humans to malaria mosquitoes. (United States)

    Verhulst, Niels O; Beijleveld, Hans; Qiu, Yu Tong; Maliepaard, Chris; Verduyn, Willem; Haasnoot, Geert W; Claas, Frans H J; Mumm, Roland; Bouwmeester, Harro J; Takken, Willem; van Loon, Joop J A; Smallegange, Renate C


    Chemical cues are considered to be the most important cues for mosquitoes to find their hosts and humans can be ranked for attractiveness to mosquitoes based on the chemical cues they emit. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes are considered to be involved in the regulation of human body odor and may therefore affect human attractiveness to mosquitoes, and hence, affect the force of malaria transmission. In the present study the correlations between HLA profiles, human skin volatiles and human attractiveness to the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto were examined. Skin emanations of 48 volunteers were collected by rubbing a foot over glass beads. Previously the attractiveness of these emanations to An. gambiae was determined. In this study, the chemical composition of these emanations was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) and blood samples of all volunteers were taken for HLA analysis. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), Fisher's exact test and random forest regression were used to test for correlations between individuals classified as either highly or poorly attractive to mosquitoes and their HLA profile and volatile composition. HLA profiling suggests that people carrying HLA gene Cw∗07 are more attractive to mosquitoes. GC-MS revealed that limonene, 2-phenylethanol and 2-ethyl-1-hexanol were associated with individuals that were poorly attractive to An.gambiae and lactic acid, 2-methylbutanoic acid, tetradecanoic acid and octanal with individuals that were highly attractive. Such compounds offer potential for disruption of mosquito behavior in malaria intervention programs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Reduction in skin grafting after the introduction of hydrofiber dressings in partial thickness burns: a comparison between a hydrofiber and silver sulphadiazine. (United States)

    Dokter, J; Boxma, H; Oen, I M M H; van Baar, M E; van der Vlies, C H


    The aim of this study was to compare clinical outcome of children with scald burns treated with a hydrofiber dressing (Aquacel(®), Convatec Inc.) with the former standard of care with silver sulfadiazine (Flammazine(®); Solvay Pharmaceuticals), considering surgical intervention and length of stay (LOS). A retrospective study of all consecutive children from zero to four years with primary scald burns up to 10% admitted to the Burn Centre of the Maasstad Hospital Rotterdam between January 1987 and January 2010 were reviewed. For data collection a prospective computerized database was used. For comparison the study period was divided into two periods representing the period before and after the introduction of the hydrofiber dressing (HFD), respectively 1987-1999 (period 1) and 1999-2010 (period 2). Over the whole study period 27.3% of 502 patients treated with silver sulfadiazine (Ag-SD) underwent surgery, while before the introduction of HFD 30.5% of 338 Ag-SD treated patients were operated upon. After the introduction of the HFD 20.7% of 164 patients treated with Ag-SD eventually underwent skin grafting, a significant difference with the 11.6% of 302 patients whose wounds were dressed with HFD (pburns up to 10% TBSA burned in children aged 0-4 years after the introduction of hydrofiber dressings. The mode of treatment with this wound dressing also limited hospital length of stay. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  2. Split thickness skin grafts for the treatment of non-healing foot and leg ulcers in patients with diabetes: a retrospective review

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    John J. Anderson


    Full Text Available We retrospectively reviewed 107 diabetic patients who received a split thickness skin graft (STSG for treatment of a non-healing diabetic foot or leg ulcer to describe healing times based on patient characteristics, comorbidities or complications. The minimum follow-up was 6 months from the time of STSG application. The mean time to healing among all patients was 5.1 weeks (3 to 16 weeks. The mean healing time for patients with complications was 12.0 weeks (10 to 16 weeks while the mean healing time for those without complications was 4.9 weeks (3 to 10 weeks. Overall complication rate was 2.8%. Patients with a STSG take of less than 95% had a mean healing time of 7.9 weeks compared to 4.8 weeks for those with a STSG take of 100% (p<0.001. The use of autologous STSG for treatment of non-healing diabetic foot and leg wounds is a viable method for soft tissue closure and may present a low complication rate and a satisfactory rate of healing.

  3. Repair of DNA damage in light sensitive human skin diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horkay, I.; Varga, L.; Tam' asi P., Gundy, S.


    Repair of uv-light induced DNA damage and changes in the semiconservative DNA synthesis were studied by in vitro autoradiography in the skin of patients with lightdermatoses (polymorphous light eruption, porphyria cutanea tarda, erythropoietic protoporphyria) and xeroderma pigmentosum as well as in that of healthy controls. In polymorphous light eruption the semiconservative DNA replication rate was more intensive in the area of the skin lesions and in the repeated phototest site, the excision repair synthesis appeared to be unaltered. In cutaneous prophyrias a decreased rate of the repair incorporation could be detected. Xeroderma pigmentosum was characterized by a strongly reduced repair synthesis.

  4. Human in vitro skin organ culture as a model system for evaluating DNA repair. (United States)

    Liu, Hannah; Tuchinda, Papapit; Fishelevich, Rita; Harberts, Erin; Gaspari, Anthony A


    UV-exposures result in accumulation of genetic lesions that facilitate the development of skin cancer. Numerous pharmacologic agents are currently under development to both inhibit formation of DNA lesions and enhance repair. Drugs must be evaluated in vitro, currently performed in cell culture systems, before being tested on humans. Current systems do not account for the architecture and diverse cellularity of intact human skin. To establish a novel, functionally viable, and reproducible in vitro skin organ culture system for studying the effects of various pharmacologic agents on DNA repair. Human skin was obtained from neonatal foreskins. Intact skin punches derived from foreskins were cultured in vitro prior to exposure to UV-irradiation, and evaluated for DNA-damage using a DNA dot blot. Serial skin biopsies were obtained from patients with actinic keratoses treated with topical imiquimod. Expression of immune-stimulating and DNA repair genes was evaluated in ex vivo and in vitro samples. DNA dot blots revealed active repair of UV induced lesions in our in vitro skin organ culture. The photo-protective effect of sunscreen was detected, while imiquimod treatment did not enhance DNA repair in vitro. The DNA repair molecules XPA and XPF were up-regulated in the skin of imiquimod treated patients with actinic keratoses and imiquimod treated bone marrow-derived cell lines, but not keratinocytes. Our in vitro human skin organ culture model detected repair of UV-induced DNA lesions, and may be easily adapted to investigate various photo-protective drugs intended to prevent or treat skin cancer. Copyright © 2014 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Nanocrystalline titanium dioxide and magnesium oxide in vitro dermal absorption in human skin. (United States)

    van der Merwe, Deon; Tawde, Snehal; Pickrell, John A; Erickson, Larry E


    The dermal absorption potential of a nanocrystalline magnesium oxide (MgO) and titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) mixture in dermatomed human skin was assessed in vitro using Bronaugh-type flow-through diffusion cells. Nanocrystalline material was applied to the skin surface at a dose rate of 50 mg/cm(2) as a dry powder, as a water suspension, and as a water/surfactant (sodium lauryl sulfate) suspension, for 8 hours. Dermal absorption of nanocrystalline MgO and TiO(2) through human skin with intact, functional stratum corneum was not detectable under the conditions of this experiment.

  6. Structural and biophysical characteristics of human skin in maintaining proper epidermal barrier function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Boer


    Full Text Available The complex structure of human skin and its physicochemical properties turn it into an efficient outermost defence line against exogenous factors, and help maintain homeostasis of the human body. This role is played by the epidermal barrier with its major part – stratum corneum. The condition of the epidermal barrier depends on individual and environmental factors. The most important biophysical parameters characterizing the status of this barrier are the skin pH, epidermal hydration, transepidermal water loss and sebum excretion. The knowledge of biophysical skin processes may be useful for the implementation of prophylactic actions whose aim is to restore the barrier function.

  7. Reduction of indium-111 platelet deposition on Dacron vascular grafts in humans by aspirin plus dipyridamole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratton, J.R.; Ritchie, J.L.


    Aspirin plus dipyridamole reduces platelet accumulation on short-term Dacron vascular grafts in man. To determine whether drug inhibition of platelet deposition is sustained on older grafts, we studied 18 men aged 41 to 87 years who had Dacron aortic bifurcation grafts in place a mean of 43.4 months (range 9.8 to 121.0) before and during short-term therapy with aspirin (325 mg tid) plus dipyridamole (75 mg tid). During both the baseline and drug studies, indium-111 (/sup 111/In) platelet deposition was quantitated by two techniques, standard planar imaging performed at 24, 48, and 72 hr after injection of platelets and single photon emission computed tomographic imaging performed at 24 and 72 hr after injection. All analyses were performed in a blinded fashion. On both the planar and tomographic images, platelet accumulation on the graft was quantitated by a graft/blood ratio that compared activity in the graft to simultaneously collected whole blood /sup 111/In platelet activity. Aspirin plus dipyridamole reduced the tomographic graft/blood ratio at 24 hr (20.6 +/- 3.5 vs 17.3 +/- 2.5) (+/-SEM) and at 72 hr (29.0 +/- 4.8 vs 25.0 +/- 4.1) after injection of platelets (p = .02). Dacron vascular grafts. Similarly, the planar graft/blood ratio was reduced at 24 hr (2.7 +/- 0.5 vs 2.4 +/- 0.5), 48 hr (3.7 +/- 0.9 vs 3.1 +/- 0.7), and 72 hr (4.0 +/- 0.9 vs 3.6 +/- 0.8) (p = .04). We conclude that aspirin (325 mg tid) plus dipyridamole (75 mg tid) reduces platelet accumulation on long-term Dacron vascular grafts.

  8. A UV-Independent Topical Small-Molecule Approach for Melanin Production in Human Skin

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    Nisma Mujahid


    Full Text Available The presence of dark melanin (eumelanin within human epidermis represents one of the strongest predictors of low skin cancer risk. Topical rescue of eumelanin synthesis, previously achieved in “redhaired” Mc1r-deficient mice, demonstrated significant protection against UV damage. However, application of a topical strategy for human skin pigmentation has not been achieved, largely due to the greater barrier function of human epidermis. Salt-inducible kinase (SIK has been demonstrated to regulate MITF, the master regulator of pigment gene expression, through its effects on CRTC and CREB activity. Here, we describe the development of small-molecule SIK inhibitors that were optimized for human skin penetration, resulting in MITF upregulation and induction of melanogenesis. When topically applied, pigment production was induced in Mc1r-deficient mice and normal human skin. These findings demonstrate a realistic pathway toward UV-independent topical modulation of human skin pigmentation, potentially impacting UV protection and skin cancer risk.

  9. Cell-Type-Specific Differentiation and Molecular Profiles in Skin Transplantation: Implication of Medical Approach for Genetic Skin Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noritaka Oyama


    Full Text Available Skin is highly accessible and valuable organ, which holds promise to accelerate the understanding of future medical innovation in association with skin transplantation, engineering, and wound healing. In skin transplantation biology, multistage and multifocal damages occur in both grafted donor and perilesional host skin and need to be repaired properly for the engraftment and maintenance of characteristic skin architecture. These local events are more unlikely to be regulated by the host immunity, because human skin transplantation has accomplished the donor skin engraftment onto the immunocompromised or immunosuppressive animals. Recent studies have emerged the importance of α-smooth muscle actin- (SMA- positive myofibroblasts, via stage- and cell-specific contribution of TGFβ, PDGF, ET-1, CCN-2 signalling pathways, and mastocyte-derived mediators (e.g., histamine and tryptase, for the functional reorganisation of the grafted skin. Moreover, particular cell lineages from bone marrow (BM cells have been shown to harbour the diferentiation capacity into multiple skin cell phenotypes, including epidermal keratinocytes and dermal endothelial cells and pericytes, undercontrolled by chemokines or cytokines. From a dermatological viewpoint, we review the recent update of cell-type- and molecular-specific action associated with reconstitution of the grafted skin and also focus on the novel application of BM transplantation medicine in genetic skin diseases.

  10. The effect of skin aging on the percutaneous penetration of chemicals through human skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roskos, K.V.


    Despite much research into the mechanisms of cutaneous aging and the identification of significant age-associated biological and biophysical changes within the skin, the question how does aging affect percutaneous absorption (PA) in vivo remains unanswered. The author has made in vivo measurements of PA in young (18-40 years) and old (> 65 years) subjects. Standard radiotracer methodology was employed and PA was quantified from the urinary excretion profiles of {sup 14}C radiolabel (corrected for incomplete renal elimination). Testosterone (TST), estradiol (EST), hydrocortisone (HC), benzoic acid (BA), acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and caffeine (CAFF) have been studied. Penetration of HC, BA, ASA, and CAFF were significantly lower in aged subjects whereas TST and EST absorption were not distinguishable from the young controls. Thus it appears that aging can affect PA in vivo and that relatively hydrophilic compounds may be most sensitive. Work was done to elucidate whether the observations were related to documented skin aging changes. Cutaneous microcirculation efficiency suspected to decline with increasing age, could not be correlated with the observed penetration changes. However, in vivo infrared spectroscopic studies of aged stratum corneum (SC) reveal a decreased amount of epidermal lipid. The diminished lipid content implies a diminished dissolution medium for compounds administered to the skin surface. They hypothesize that the compounds most affected by a loss of SC lipids would be those compounds whose overall solubility is lowest (compounds with lower octanol-water partition coefficients, eg., HC, BA, ASA and CAFF). Conversely, a diminished lipid content may not affect dissolution into the SC of highly lipophilic compounds (e.g., TST and EST).

  11. Imaging of human skin lesions with the multispectral dermoscope (United States)

    Kapsokalyvas, Dimitrios; Bruscino, Nicola; Alfieri, Domenico; de Giorgi, Vincenzo; Cannarozzo, Giovanni; Lotti, Torello; Pavone, Francesco S.


    The Dermoscope is a widespread and essential tool for dermatology. It reveals morphologic characteristics and aid the identification and diagnosis of a skin lesion. The diagnosis though is not always unambiguous and still the use of Dermoscopy doesn't obviate the need for histopathological verification. We report on the development of the Multispectral Dermoscope which employs high luminance LEDs with emission at three distinct spectral regions (470 nm, 530 nm, 625 nm). The illumination is polarized and an analyzer is used for the detection. Subsequent image analysis for enhancing the contrast for single scattered photons, hemoglobin absorption and melanin absorption is performed. Features like the surface texture of the skin, scattering structures in the epidermis, blood vessel morphology even in pigmented lesions and melanin localization have been observed in various skin pathologies. The device has been tested on volunteers and the features revealed have proven to be helpful in the diagnosis of skin lesions. Use of the Multispectral Dermoscope could improve the sensitivity and specificity of Dermoscopy.

  12. Predicting human epidermal melanin concentrations for different skin tones

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smit, Jacoba E


    Full Text Available In the past 50 years lasers has found numerous applications in medicine. One of their advantages is their use for minimalistic or non-invasive diagnosis and treatment. Often that means light penetration through skin and the correct dose required...

  13. Hendersonula Toruloidea Infection of Human Skin and Nails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S M Singh


    Full Text Available Four cases of skin and nail infection by Hendersonula toruloidea are described from India. Infections were confined to the feet which showed scaling and dystrophic nails. The presence of brown hyphae with knobbled swellings in the nail tissue and repeated isolation of H. toraloidea in pure culture are taken as evidence that this fungus was invading the tissues.

  14. Dietary water affects human skin hydration and biomechanics (United States)

    Palma, Lídia; Marques, Liliana Tavares; Bujan, Julia; Rodrigues, Luís Monteiro


    It is generally assumed that dietary water might be beneficial for the health, especially in dermatological (age preventing) terms. The present study was designed to quantify the impact of dietary water on major indicators of skin physiology. A total of 49 healthy females (mean 24.5±4.3 years) were selected and characterized in terms of their dietary daily habits, especially focused in water consumption, by a Food Frequency Questionnaire. This allowed two groups to be set – Group 1 consuming less than 3,200 mL/day (n=38), and Group 2 consuming more than 3,200 mL/day (n=11). Approximately 2 L of water were added to the daily diet of Group 2 individuals for 1 month to quantify the impact of this surplus in their skin physiology. Measurements involving epidermal superficial and deep hydration, transepidermal water loss, and several biomechanical descriptors were taken at day 0 (T0), 15 (T1), and 30 (T2) in several anatomical sites (face, upper limb, and leg). This stress test (2 L/day for 30 days) significantly modified superficial and deep skin hydration, especially in Group 1. The same impact was registered with the most relevant biomechanical descriptors. Thus, in this study, it is clear that higher water inputs in regular diet might positively impact normal skin physiology, in particular in those individuals with lower daily water consumptions. PMID:26345226

  15. A controlled laboratory comparison of 4 topical skin creams moisturizing capability on human subjects. (United States)

    Young, Daniel L; Chakravarthy, Debashish


    This study compares human skin capacitance (moisture) readings after the application of 4 different, commercially available, topical skin creams. Twenty-one subjects (15 women and 6 men) aged 49.38 ± 11.02) years (mean ± SD) participated. This study was conducted in a climate-controlled laboratory on healthy human subjects. Randomized experimental study comparing 4 topical skin creams for their effect on human skin capacitance (moisture). Subject forearm skin was conditioned for 7 days prior to testing by washing with a standard soap and application of no other products. Each subject was marked with 5 test sites on the forearms. Sites on the volar surface of each subject's forearms were randomly assigned for application of 1 of 4 product pairs, consisting of a cleanser and a topical skin cream or a control site. A Corneometer was used to measure skin capacitance. Each site on the arms was cleaned and dried, tested again for moisture content, subjected to topical skin cream application, and finally tested again for moisture content. Changes were measured by subtracting the capacitance readings at baseline from values measured following topical skin cream application for each test site. The mean change in capacitance was 13.9 for product 1, 10.3 for product 3, 8.7 for product 2, 1.6 for product 4, and 0.8 for the control site. The mean capacitance change in sites treated with product 1 (13.9 ± 8.0, mean ± SD) was significantly greater than all others. There was no difference between the change in capacitance of product 2 (mean = 8.7, SD = 4.9) and product 3 (10.3 ± 7.1) t(20) = 1.081, P = .293, nor between product 4 (1.6 ± 3.9) and the control site (0.3, ± 2.2) t(20) = 0.779, P = .445. The capacitance change of products 2 and 3 was greater than that of product 4 and the control site. Commercially available topical skin creams vary in their impact on human skin capacitance. In this study, sites tested with product 1 had a greater skin capacitance reading than

  16. Development of a Full-Thickness Human Skin Equivalent In Vitro Model Derived from TERT-Immortalized Keratinocytes and Fibroblasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, C.M.A.; van Lier, A.; Roffel, S.; Kramer, D.; Scheper, R.J.; Gibbs, S.


    Currently, human skin equivalents (HSEs) used for in vitro assays (e.g., for wound healing) make use of primary human skin cells. Limitations of primary keratinocytes and fibroblasts include availability of donor skin and donor variation. The use of physiologically relevant cell lines could solve

  17. Segmentation of hyper-pigmented spots in human skin using automated cluster analysis (United States)

    Gossage, Kirk W.; Weissman, Jesse; Velthuizen, Robert


    The appearance and color distribution of skin are important characteristics that affect the human perception of health and vitality. Dermatologists and other skin researchers often use color and appearance to diagnose skin conditions and monitor the efficacy of procedures and treatments. Historically, most skin color and chromophore measurements have been performed using reflectance spectrometers and colorimeters. These devices acquire a single measurement over an integrated area defined by an aperture, and are therefore poorly suited to measure the color of pigmented lesions or other blemishes. Measurements of spots smaller than the aperture will be washed out with background, and spots that are larger may not be adequately sampled unless the blemish is homogenous. Recently, multispectral imaging devices have become available for skin imaging. These devices are designed to image regions of skin and provide information about the levels of endogenous chromophores present in the image field of view. This data is presented as four images at each measurement site including RGB color, melanin, collagen, and blood images. We developed a robust segmentation technique that can segment skin blemishes in these images and provide more precise values of melanin, blood, and collagen by only analyzing the segmented region of interest. Results from hundreds of skin images show this to be a robust automated segmentation technique over a range of skin tones and shades.

  18. Monte Carlo simulation of light reflection from cosmetic powder particles near the human skin surface (United States)

    Okamoto, Takashi; Kumagawa, Tatsuya; Motoda, Masafumi; Igarashi, Takanori; Nakao, Keisuke


    The reflection and scattering properties of light incident on human skin covered with powder particles have been investigated. A three-layer skin structure with a pigmented area is modeled, and the propagation of light in the skin's layers and in a layer of particles near the skin's surface is simulated using the Monte Carlo method. Assuming that only single scattering of light occurs in the powder layer, the simulation results show that the reflection spectra of light from the skin change with the size of powder particles. The color difference between normal and discolored skin is found to decrease considerably when powder particles with a diameter of approximately 0.25 μm are present near the skin's surface. The effects of the medium surrounding the particles, and the influence of the distribution of particle size (polydispersity), are also examined. It is shown that a surrounding medium with a refractive index close to that of the skin substantially suppresses the extreme spectral changes caused by the powder particles covering the skin surface.

  19. Effectiveness of hand washing on the removal of iron oxide nanoparticles from human skin ex vivo. (United States)

    Lewinski, Nastassja A; Berthet, Aurélie; Maurizi, Lionel; Eisenbeis, Antoine; Hopf, Nancy B


    In this study, the effectiveness of washing with soap and water in removing nanoparticles from exposed skin was investigated. Dry, nanoscale hematite (α-Fe2O3) or maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) powder, with primary particle diameters between 20-30 nm, were applied to two samples each of fresh and frozen ex vivo human skin in two independent experiments. The permeation of nanoparticles through skin, and the removal of nanoparticles after washing with soap and water were investigated. Bare iron oxide nanoparticles remained primarily on the surface of the skin, without penetrating beyond the stratum corneum. Skin exposed to iron oxide nanoparticles for 1 and 20 hr resulted in removal of 85% and 90%, respectively, of the original dose after washing. In the event of dermal exposure to chemicals, removal is essential to avoid potential local irritation or permeation across skin. Although manufactured at an industrial scale and used extensively in laboratory experiments, limited data are available on the removal of engineered nanoparticles after skin contact. Our finding raises questions about the potential consequences of nanoparticles remaining on the skin and whether alternative washing methods should be proposed. Further studies on skin decontamination beyond use of soap and water are needed to improve the understanding of the potential health consequences of dermal exposure to nanoparticles.

  20. Fermentation of Propionibacterium acnes, a commensal bacterium in the human skin microbiome, as skin probiotics against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muya Shu

    Full Text Available Bacterial interference creates an ecological competition between commensal and pathogenic bacteria. Through fermentation of milk with gut-friendly bacteria, yogurt is an excellent aid to balance the bacteriological ecosystem in the human intestine. Here, we demonstrate that fermentation of glycerol with Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes, a skin commensal bacterium, can function as a skin probiotic for in vitro and in vivo growth suppression of USA300, the most prevalent community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA. We also promote the notion that inappropriate use of antibiotics may eliminate the skin commensals, making it more difficult to fight pathogen infection. This study warrants further investigation to better understand the role of fermentation of skin commensals in infectious disease and the importance of the human skin microbiome in skin health.

  1. Histological advantages of the tumor graft: a murine model involving transplantation of human pancreatic cancer tissue fragments. (United States)

    Akashi, Yoshimasa; Oda, Tatsuya; Ohara, Yusuke; Miyamoto, Ryoichi; Hashimoto, Shinji; Enomoto, Tsuyoshi; Yamada, Keiichi; Kobayashi, Akihiko; Fukunaga, Kiyoshi; Ohkochi, Nobuhiro


    Experimental data based on cell line-derived xenograft models (cell xenograft) seldom reproduce the clinical situation, and therefore we demonstrated here the superiority of a murine model involving transplantation of human pancreatic cancer tissue fragments (tumor graft), focusing on the histological features and drug delivery characteristics. Tumor pieces from 10 pancreatic cancer patients were transplanted into SCID (severe combined immunodeficient) mice. Histological characteristics of tumor grafts, including morphology, desmoplastic reaction, and vascularization, were compared with those of cell xenografts. Drug delivery was evaluated by quantifying the concentrations of injected drug, and the results were compared with its histological features. Eight of the 10 transplanted tumors successfully engrafted. Histological comparisons between tumor grafts and cell xenografts revealed the following: the amount of stroma was more (22.9% ± 11.8% vs 10.8% ± 5.4%; P cancer cell distance was longer (35.3 ± 39.0 vs 3.9 ± 3.1 μm; P Pancreatic tumor grafts better reproduce the histological nature of clinical cancer and thus provide a more realistic model that is applicable for pharmacokinetic studies.

  2. Selective purging of human multiple myeloma cells from autologous stem cell transplant grafts using oncolytic myxoma virus


    Bartee, Eric; Chan, Winnie S.; Moreb, Jan S.; Cogle, Christopher R.; McFadden, Grant


    Autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) and novel therapies have improved overall survival of patients with multiple myeloma; however, most patients relapse and eventually succumb to their disease. Evidence indicates that residual cancer cells contaminate autologous grafts and may contribute to early relapses after ASCT. Here, we demonstrate that ex vivo treatment with an oncolytic poxvirus called myxoma virus results in specific elimination of human myeloma cells by inducing rapid cellul...

  3. [Preliminary study of biomechanic property on human forethigh skin]. (United States)

    Liu, C; Chen, H


    HLC0-I biomechanical living-tissues testing mechanic was adopted for testing the biomechanical property of normal adult forethigh skin. The figures acquired were calculated using one dimension strain energy function and the constitutive equation of mono-way stress and strain was established. The results showed that the relationship between stress and strain could be expressed by the exponential function. The rise of stress was not evident when the strain was lower than 1.2, but the stress rose much sharply when the strain was higher than 1.2. The curves were nonlinear. This suggests that when we sew up a wound or perform skin transplantation, the strain should be lower than 1.2.

  4. Effect of human leukocyte antigen-C and -DQ matching on pediatric heart transplant graft survival. (United States)

    Butts, Ryan J; Savage, Andrew J; Nietert, Paul J; Kavarana, Minoo; Moussa, Omar; Burnette, Ali L; Atz, Andrew M


    A higher degree of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matching at the A, B, and DR loci has been associated with improved long-term survival after pediatric heart transplantation in multiple International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation registry reports. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of HLA matching at the C and DQ loci with pediatric graft survival. The United Network of Organ Sharing database was queried for isolated heart transplants that occurred from 1988 to 2012 with a recipient age of 17 or younger and at least 1 postoperative follow-up encounter. When HLA matching at the C or DQ loci were analyzed, only transplants with complete typing of donor and recipient at the respective loci were included. Transplants were divided into patients with at least 1 match at the C locus (C-match) vs no match (C-no), and at least 1 match at the DQ (DQ-match) locus vs no match (DQ-no). Primary outcome was graft loss. Univariate analysis was performed with the log-rank test. Cox regression analysis was performed with the following patient factors included in the model: recipient age, ischemic time; recipient on ventilator, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, ventricular assist device, or inotropes at transplant; recipient serum bilirubin and creatinine closest to transplant, ratio of donor weight to recipient weight, underlying cardiac diagnosis, crossmatch results, transplant year, and HLA matching at the A, B, and DR loci. Complete typing at the C locus occurred in 2,429 of 4,731 transplants (51%), and complete typing at the DQ locus occurred in 3,498 of 4,731 transplants (74%). Patient factors were similar in C-match and C-no, except for year of transplant (median year, 2007 [interquartile range, 1997-2010] vs year 2005 [interquartile range, 1996-2009], respectively; p = 0.03) and the degree of HLA matching at the A, B, and DR loci (high level of HLA matching in 11.9% vs 3%, respectively; p survival: 13.1 years [95% confidence interval {CI

  5. Ultrathin conformal devices for precise and continuous thermal characterization of human skin (United States)

    Webb, R. Chad; Bonifas, Andrew P.; Behnaz, Alex; Zhang, Yihui; Yu, Ki Jun; Cheng, Huanyu; Shi, Mingxing; Bian, Zuguang; Liu, Zhuangjian; Kim, Yun-Soung; Yeo, Woon-Hong; Park, Jae Suk; Song, Jizhou; Li, Yuhang; Huang, Yonggang; Gorbach, Alexander M.; Rogers, John A.


    Precision thermometry of the skin can, together with other measurements, provide clinically relevant information about cardiovascular health, cognitive state, malignancy and many other important aspects of human physiology. Here, we introduce an ultrathin, compliant skin-like sensor/actuator technology that can pliably laminate onto the epidermis to provide continuous, accurate thermal characterizations that are unavailable with other methods. Examples include non-invasive spatial mapping of skin temperature with millikelvin precision, and simultaneous quantitative assessment of tissue thermal conductivity. Such devices can also be implemented in ways that reveal the time-dynamic influence of blood flow and perfusion on these properties. Experimental and theoretical studies establish the underlying principles of operation, and define engineering guidelines for device design. Evaluation of subtle variations in skin temperature associated with mental activity, physical stimulation and vasoconstriction/dilation along with accurate determination of skin hydration through measurements of thermal conductivity represent some important operational examples.

  6. The Effects of Mucopolysaccharide Polysulphate on Hydration and Elasticity of Human Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rungsima Wanitphakdeedecha


    Full Text Available Background. Mucopolysaccharide polysulphate (MPS has been used in medicine as an anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic agent for over 50 years. Its chemical structure permits considerable hydrogen bonding with adjacent water molecules, which effectively leads to hydration of the surrounding tissue. In addition, it stimulates endogenous hyaluronate synthesis, resulting in an increase in water-binding capacity and viscoelasticity of the skin. Objective. To study the efficacy of 0.1% MPS on hydration and elasticity of human skin. Methods. The first part of this study was a randomized double blind placebo-controlled study which included 60 female volunteers aged 30–45 years with dry skin, defined by Corneometer CM 825. The volunteers were treated with either 0.1% MPS or vehicle control. All subjects were asked to apply 1 g of cream to their face twice daily for a total period of 4 weeks. Skin hydration and elasticity were measured at baseline and week 4 with Corneometer CM 825 and cutometer MPA 580, respectively, at forehead and both cheeks. The second part of this study focused on the efficacy of 0.1% MPS on skin hydration after single application. 20 female volunteers aged 30–45 years with dry skin, defined by Corneometer CM 825, were recruited to the study. All subjects were asked to apply 2 g of 0.1% MPS cream on entirely randomly selected forearm. Skin hydration at the middle of both forearms was measured at baseline, immediately after application, and every 1 hour after application for a period of 10 hours. Results. 57 subjects (28 in vehicle control group, 29 in MPS completed treatment protocol. The baseline skin hydration of both groups was not significantly different (P=0.47. Hower, there was a statistically significant difference in skin hydration at 4 weeks between MPS and placebo group (P=0.01. Skin elasticity was significantly improved at week 4 in both groups (vehicle-control, P<0.01, and MPS, P<0.01. However, no

  7. Microneedles permit transdermal delivery of a skin-impermeant medication to humans. (United States)

    Wermeling, Daniel P; Banks, Stan L; Hudson, David A; Gill, Harvinder S; Gupta, Jyoti; Prausnitz, Mark R; Stinchcomb, Audra L


    Drugs with poor oral bioavailability usually are administered by hypodermic injection, which causes pain, poor patient compliance, the need for trained personnel, and risk of infectious disease transmission. Transdermal (TD) delivery provides an excellent alternative, but the barrier of skin's outer stratum corneum (SC) prevents delivery of most drugs. Micrometer-scale microneedles (MNs) have been used to pierce animal and human cadaver skin and thereby enable TD delivery of small molecules, proteins, DNA, and vaccines for systemic action. Here, we present a clinical study of MN-enhanced delivery of a medication to humans. Naltrexone (NTX) is a potent mu-opioid receptor antagonist used to treat opiate and alcohol dependence. This hydrophilic and skin-impermeant molecule was delivered from a TD patch to healthy human subjects with and without pretreatment of the skin with MNs. Whereas delivery from a standard NTX TD patch over a 72-h period yielded undetectable drug plasma levels, pretreatment of skin with MNs achieved steady-state plasma concentrations within 2 h of patch application and were maintained for at least 48 h. The MNs and NTX patch were well tolerated with mild systemic and application site side effects. The MN arrays were painless upon administration and not damaged during skin insertion, and no MNs were broken off into the skin. This human proof-of-concept study demonstrates systemic administration of a hydrophilic medication by MN-enhanced TD delivery. These findings set the stage for future human studies of skin-impermeant medications and biopharmaceuticals for clinical applications.


    Paul, Courtney; Samdani, Amer F.; Betz, Randal R.; Fischer, Itzhak; Neuhuber, Birgit


    Study Design Three groups of 6 rats received subtotal cervical spinal cord hemisections followed with marrow stromal cell (MSC) transplants by lumbar puncture (LP), intravenous delivery (IV) or direct injection into the injury (control). Animals survived for 4 or 21 days. Objective Cell therapy is a promising strategy for the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI). The mode of cell delivery is crucial for the translation to the clinic. Injections directly into the parenchyma may further damage already compromised tissue; therefore, less invasive methods like LP or IV delivery are preferable. Summary of Background Data Human bone marrow stromal cells (MSC) are multipotent mesenchymal adult stem cells that have a potential for autologous transplantation, obviating the need for immune suppression. While previous studies have established that MSC can be delivered to the injured spinal cord by both LP and IV, the efficacy of cell delivery has not been directly compared with respect to efficacy of delivery and effects on the host. Methods Purified MSC from a human donor were transplanted into the CSF at the lumbar region (LP), into the femoral vein (IV), or directly into the injury (control). After sacrifice, spinal cord sections were analyzed for MSC graft size, tissue sparing, host immune response, and glial scar formation, using specific antibodies as well as Nissl-myelin staining. Results LP delivery of MSC to the injured spinal cord is superior to IV delivery. Cell engraftment and tissue sparing were significantly better after LP delivery and host immune response after LP delivery was reduced compared to IV delivery. Conclusions LP is an ideal minimally-invasive technique to deliver cellular transplants to the injured spinal cord. It is superior to IV delivery and, together with the potential for autologous transplantation, lends itself for clinical application. PMID:19182705

  9. Labetalol, nebivolol, and propranolol relax human radial artery used as coronary bypass graft. (United States)

    Korkmaz, Ozge; Saraç, Bülent; Göksel, Sabahattin; Yildirim, Sahin; Berkan, Ocal; Bagcivan, Ihsan


    Beta-blockers are a heterogeneous class of agents that are used in the treatment of many cardiovascular diseases, especially hypertension and atherosclerosis, and that are commonly prescribed after cardiac surgery. In the present study, the aim is to investigate the vasorelaxant effects of some common beta-adrenoceptor blockers on the human radial artery in vitro, as well as their relaxation mechanisms. Radial artery rings sourced from human patients were mounted in an organ bath and tested for changes in isometric tension in relaxation response to labetalol, nebivolol, and propranolol in the presence and absence of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (3 × 10(-5) mol/L) and tetraethyl ammonium (3 × 10(-4) mol/L). The labetalol (10(-8) to 10(-4) mol/L), nebivolol (10(-8) to 10(-4) mol/L), and propranolol (10(-8) to 10(-4) mol/L) induced concentration-dependent relaxations on the radial artery rings, which had been precontracted with phenylephrine (10(-6) mol/L). The relaxation response induced by labetalol in the isolated radial artery rings was significantly higher when compared with the nebivolol and propranolol samples (P labetalol, nebivolol, and propranolol (P labetalol, nebivolol, and propranolol was due partly to the Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels. In addition, the relaxation induced by nebivolol was largely related with nitric oxide release. Nebivolol, and partly propranolol, may provide significant therapeutic benefit, but labetalol can be a good alternative for coronary artery bypass grafting with radial artery use. Copyright © 2015 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Skin tissue engineering--in vivo and in vitro applications. (United States)

    Groeber, Florian; Holeiter, Monika; Hampel, Martina; Hinderer, Svenja; Schenke-Layland, Katja


    Significant progress has been made over the years in the development of in vitro-engineered substitutes that mimic human skin, either to be used as grafts for the replacement of lost skin or for the establishment of human-based in vitro skin models. This review summarizes these advances in in vivo and in vitro applications of tissue-engineered skin. We further highlight novel efforts in the design of complex disease-in-a-dish models for studies ranging from disease etiology to drug development and screening. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Permeation of platinum and rhodium nanoparticles through intact and damaged human skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauro, Marcella [University of Trieste, Clinical Unit of Occupational Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences (Italy); Crosera, Matteo; Bianco, Carlotta; Adami, Gianpiero; Montini, Tiziano; Fornasiero, Paolo [University of Trieste, Department of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences (Italy); Jaganjac, Morana [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Laboratory for Oxidative Stress, Department of Molecular Medicine (Croatia); Bovenzi, Massimo; Filon, Francesca Larese, E-mail: [University of Trieste, Clinical Unit of Occupational Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences (Italy)


    The aim of the study was to evaluate percutaneous penetration of platinum and rhodium nanoparticles (PtNPs: 5.8 ± 0.9 nm, RhNPs: 5.3 ± 1.9 nm) through human skin. Salts compounds of these metals are sensitizers and some also carcinogenic agents. In vitro permeation experiments were performed using Franz diffusion cells with intact and damaged skin. PtNPs and RhNPs, stabilized with polyvinylpyrrolidone, were synthesized by reduction of Na{sub 2}PtC{sub l6} and RhCl{sub 3}·3H{sub 2}O respectively. Suspensions with a concentration of 2.0 g/L of PtNPs and RhNPs were dispersed separately in synthetic sweat at pH 4.5 and applied as donor phases to the outer surface of the skin for 24 h. Measurements of the content of the metals in the receiving solution and in the skin were performed subsequently. Rhodium skin permeation was demonstrated through damaged skin, with a permeation flux of 0.04 ± 0.04 μg cm{sup −2} h{sup −1} and a lag time of 7.9 ± 1.1 h, while no traces of platinum were found in receiving solutions. Platinum and rhodium skin-analysis showed significantly higher concentrations of the metals in damaged skin. Rh and Pt applied as NPs can penetrate the skin barrier and Rh can be found in receiving solutions. These experiments pointed out the need for skin contamination prevention, since even a minor injury to the skin barrier can significantly increase penetration.

  12. Chromium content in human skin after in vitro application of ordinary cement and ferrous-sulphate-reduced cement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fullerton, A; Gammelgaard, Bente; Avnstorp, C


    The amount of chromium found in human skin after in vitro application of cement suspensions on full-thickness human skin in diffusion cells was investigated. Cement suspensions made from ordinary Portland cement or Portland cement with the chromate reduced with added ferrous sulphate were used....... The cement suspensions were either applied on the skin surface under occlusion for 48 h or applied repeatedly every 24 h for 96 h. No statistically significant difference in chromium content of skin layers between skin exposed to ordinary Portland cement, skin exposed to cement with added ferrous sulphate...... and unexposed skin was observed, despite a more permeable skin barrier at the alkaline pH of the cement suspensions, i.e., pH 12.5. Increased chromium levels in epidermis and dermis were seen when ordinary Portland cement was applied as a suspension with added sodium sulphate (20%) on the skin surface for 96 h...

  13. Essential role of RAB27A in determining constitutive human skin color.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuko Yoshida-Amano

    Full Text Available Human skin color is predominantly determined by melanin produced in melanosomes within melanocytes and subsequently distributed to keratinocytes. There are many studies that have proposed mechanisms underlying ethnic skin color variations, whereas the processes involved from melanin synthesis in melanocytes to the transfer of melanosomes to keratinocytes are common among humans. Apart from the activities in the melanogenic rate-limiting enzyme, tyrosinase, in melanocytes and the amounts and distribution patterns of melanosomes in keratinocytes, the abilities of the actin-associated factors in charge of melanosome transport within melanocytes also regulate pigmentation. Mutations in genes encoding melanosome transport-related molecules, such as MYO5A, RAB27A and SLAC-2A, have been reported to cause a human pigmentary disease known as Griscelli syndrome, which is associated with diluted skin and hair color. Thus we hypothesized that process might play a role in modulating skin color variations. To address that hypothesis, the correlations of expression of RAB27A and its specific effector, SLAC2-A, to melanogenic ability were evaluated in comparison with tyrosinase, using human melanocytes derived from 19 individuals of varying skin types. Following the finding of the highest correlation in RAB27A expression to the melanogenic ability, darkly-pigmented melanocytes with significantly higher RAB27A expression were found to transfer significantly more melanosomes to keratinocytes than lightly-pigmented melanocytes in co-culture and in human skin substitutes (HSSs in vivo, resulting in darker skin color in concert with the difference observed in African-descent and Caucasian skins. Additionally, RAB27A knockdown by a lentivirus-derived shRNA in melanocytes concomitantly demonstrated a significantly reduced number of transferred melanosomes to keratinocytes in co-culture and a significantly diminished epidermal melanin content skin color intensity (

  14. Essential role of RAB27A in determining constitutive human skin color. (United States)

    Yoshida-Amano, Yasuko; Hachiya, Akira; Ohuchi, Atsushi; Kobinger, Gary P; Kitahara, Takashi; Takema, Yoshinori; Fukuda, Mitsunori


    Human skin color is predominantly determined by melanin produced in melanosomes within melanocytes and subsequently distributed to keratinocytes. There are many studies that have proposed mechanisms underlying ethnic skin color variations, whereas the processes involved from melanin synthesis in melanocytes to the transfer of melanosomes to keratinocytes are common among humans. Apart from the activities in the melanogenic rate-limiting enzyme, tyrosinase, in melanocytes and the amounts and distribution patterns of melanosomes in keratinocytes, the abilities of the actin-associated factors in charge of melanosome transport within melanocytes also regulate pigmentation. Mutations in genes encoding melanosome transport-related molecules, such as MYO5A, RAB27A and SLAC-2A, have been reported to cause a human pigmentary disease known as Griscelli syndrome, which is associated with diluted skin and hair color. Thus we hypothesized that process might play a role in modulating skin color variations. To address that hypothesis, the correlations of expression of RAB27A and its specific effector, SLAC2-A, to melanogenic ability were evaluated in comparison with tyrosinase, using human melanocytes derived from 19 individuals of varying skin types. Following the finding of the highest correlation in RAB27A expression to the melanogenic ability, darkly-pigmented melanocytes with significantly higher RAB27A expression were found to transfer significantly more melanosomes to keratinocytes than lightly-pigmented melanocytes in co-culture and in human skin substitutes (HSSs) in vivo, resulting in darker skin color in concert with the difference observed in African-descent and Caucasian skins. Additionally, RAB27A knockdown by a lentivirus-derived shRNA in melanocytes concomitantly demonstrated a significantly reduced number of transferred melanosomes to keratinocytes in co-culture and a significantly diminished epidermal melanin content skin color intensity (ΔL* = 4.4) in the

  15. Gene delivery into human skin in vitro using biphasic lipid vesicles. (United States)

    Foldvari, Marianna; Kumar, Praveen; King, Martin; Batta, Ravinder; Michel, Deborah; Badea, Ildiko; Wloch, Mary


    Topical gene delivery to the skin shows great potential for painless, non-invasive administration of novel vaccines and therapeutic agents. The challenge is to develop a pharmaceutically acceptable system that can deliver suitable amounts of plasmid DNA to produce the desired level of response. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively assess DNA delivery by a novel lipid-based biphasic delivery system into the viable layers of excised human skin. Biphasic lipid vesicle formulations, incorporating plasmid DNA were evaluated in vitro in flow-through diffusion cells. Fifty mg DNA formulation containing 10 microg DNA was applied to full-thickness human breast skin for 24 hours. Residual formulation was removed and the skin was washed with PBS, then tape-stripped, followed by DNase treatment to remove surface bound DNA. Skin samples were homogenised and digested overnight with Proteinase K. The resulting supernatant was used as a template for quantitative PCR. Three formulations yielded a significant degree of dermal absorption compared to the controls. Formulation 26-3-2-DNA indicated that approximately 1x10(9) copies of plasmid were absorbed per cm2 skin. Other formulations resulted in 5x10(6) copies/cm2 skin (17C3-1-DNA) and 5x10(8) copies/cm2 skin (26-3-1-DNA). Biphasic vesicles delivered significant quantities of plasmid DNA into the 'viable' layers of human skin in vitro. The successful delivery of this large (approximately 4,400 kDa) charged molecule through intact stratum corneum represents a major advance in transdermal macromolecule delivery.

  16. Exploring the potentials of nurture: 2(nd) and 3(rd) generation explant human skin equivalents. (United States)

    Danso, Mogbekeloluwa O; van Drongelen, Vincent; Mulder, Aat; Gooris, Gert; van Smeden, Jeroen; El Ghalbzouri, Abdoelwaheb; Bouwstra, Joke A


    Explant human skin equivalents (Ex-HSEs) can be generated by placing a 4mm skin biopsy onto a dermal equivalent. The keratinocytes migrate from the biopsy onto the dermal equivalent, differentiate and form the epidermis of 1(st) generation Ex-HSEs. This is especially suitable for the expansion of skin material from which only small fragments of skin can be harvested e.g. diseased skin. We evaluated whether 2(nd) and 3(rd) generation Ex-HSEs can also be generated from a single skin biopsy whilst maintaining the epidermal properties of 1(st) generation Ex-HSEs and native human skin. 2(nd) generation Ex-HSEs were produced by placing a biopsy from the 1(st) generation Ex-HSE onto a new dermal equivalent. Likewise, the 3(rd) generation Ex-HSEs were generated from a 2(nd) generation Ex-HSE biopsy. We show for the first time that Ex-HSEs can be passaged to the 2(nd) and 3(rd) generation and display similar epidermal morphology and expression of differentiation markers as in native human skin and 1(st) generation Ex-HSEs except for involucrin. The 2(nd) and 3(rd) generation Ex-HSEs also show many similarities with 1(st) generation Ex-HSEs in lipid properties e.g. presence of all lipid classes, similar fatty acid chain length distribution and lamellar lipid organization. However, some differences arise in increased level of hexagonal lateral packing and a change in ceramide profiling. The changes in specific lipid classes were also accompanied by changes in the expression of the enzymes responsible for their synthesis. The expansion of skin biopsies to the 2(nd) and 3(rd) generation Ex-HSEs could be a promising method to expand valuable epidermal tissue to analyze morphological and differentiation parameters in the native epidermis. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evolution of Hemodynamic and Functional Human Kidney Graft Dose Response to Dopamine Using an Implantable Doppler Device. (United States)

    Bataille, Aurélien; Payen, Didier; Villiers, Stéphane; Chazalet, Jean-Jacques; Jacob, Laurent


    The relation between dopamine infusion and renal hemodynamics and function has not been studied in renal allografts during early recovery. We analyzed the dose response of dopamine infusion on renal blood flow and function in human kidney transplant recipients at reperfusion and during early graft recovery. Phasic and mean renal blood flow was measured by the pulsed Doppler technique using implantable Doppler microprobes in contact with the graft artery. Systemic and renal parameters were recorded on dopamine infusion (0, 3, 5, and 10 μg·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹) immediately after transplant (day 0) in 13 patients and at day 6 in 7/13 patients with early graft recovery. Results are expressed as median and interquartile range between the 25th and 75th percentiles. At day 0, 3 μg·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹) dopamine did not increase mean renal blood flow over baseline (580 mL/min [219-663 mL/min] vs 542 mL/min [207-686 mL/min]; P = .84). There was an absence of effect with higher dopamine doses, whereas cardiac output, heart rate, and systolic and mean arterial pressure were significantly increased. Urinary sodium excretion, creatinine clearance, and urine output increased dose dependently, with a positive correlation between the increase in urine output and mean arterial pressure (r = 0.48, P < .001). At day 6, 3 μg·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹ dopamine increased mean renal blood flow over baseline (318 mL/min [234-897 mL/min] vs 191 mL/min [173-706 mL/min]; P = .016), with no further increase at higher doses. Immediately after transplant, kidney grafts with ischemic-reperfusion injury are fully dilated and do not respond to dopamine. The specific renal effects observed are due to systemic hemodynamic status. Vascular responsiveness to a "renal dopamine dose" returns on graft recovery.

  18. Airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons trigger human skin cells aging through aryl hydrocarbon receptor. (United States)

    Qiao, Yuan; Li, Qiang; Du, Hong-Yang; Wang, Qiao-Wei; Huang, Ye; Liu, Wei


    Accumulating evidence suggests that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) which adsorbed on the surface of ambient air particulate matters (PM), are the major toxic compound to cause cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, even cancer. However, its detrimental effects on human skin cell remain unclear. Here, we demonstrated that SRM1649b, a reference urban dust material of PAH, triggers human skin cells aging through cell cycle arrest, cell growth inhibition and apoptosis. Principally, SRM1649b facilitated Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) translocated into nucleus, subsequently activated ERK/MAPK signaling pathway, and upregulated aging-related genes expression. Most important, we found that AhR antagonist efficiently revert the aging of skin cells. Thus our novel findings firstly revealed the mechanism of skin aging under PAH contamination and provided potential strategy for clinical application. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. French Maritime Pine Bark Extract (Pycnogenol®) Effects on Human Skin: Clinical and Molecular Evidence. (United States)

    Grether-Beck, Susanne; Marini, Alessandra; Jaenicke, Thomas; Krutmann, Jean


    Nutritional strategies to benefit skin health are of growing importance. Current approaches mainly involve nutritional supplements containing antioxidants which were initially designed to protect human skin against ultraviolet radiation-induced damage. Within recent years, however, a growing number of studies suggests that the beneficial effects of these products clearly extend beyond photoprotection. In this review we take the nutritional supplement Pycnogenol®, which is based on an extract prepared from French marine pine bark extract, as an example to illustrate this development. Accordingly, the existing data provide compelling evidence that Pycnogenol® intake does not only provide photoprotection, but may be used to (i) reduce hyperpigmentation of human skin and (ii) improve skin barrier function and extracellular matrix homeostasis. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Kanglaite attenuates UVB-induced down-regulation of aquaporin-3 in cultured human skin keratinocytes (United States)



    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of skin photoaging. Depending on the wavelength of UV, the epidermis is affected primarily by UVB. One major characteristic of photoaging is the dehydration of the skin. Membrane-inserted water channels (aquaporins) are involved in this process. In this study we demonstrated that UVB radiation induced aquaporin-3 (AQP3) down-regulation in cultured human skin keratinocytes. Kanglaite is a mixture consisting of extractions of Coix Seed, which is an effective anti-neoplastic agent and can inhibit the activities of protein kinase C and NF-κB. We demonstrated that Kanglaite inhibited UVB-induced AQP3 down-regulation of cultured human skin keratinocytes. Our findings provide a potential new agent for anti-photoaging. The related molecular mechanisms remain to be further elucidated. PMID:22211241

  1. Optical palpation in vivo: imaging human skin lesions using mechanical contrast (United States)

    Es'haghian, Shaghayegh; Kennedy, Kelsey M.; Gong, Peijun; Sampson, David D.; McLaughlin, Robert A.; Kennedy, Brendan F.


    We demonstrate the first application of the recently proposed method of optical palpation to in vivo imaging of human skin. Optical palpation is a tactile imaging technique that probes the spatial variation of a sample's mechanical properties by producing an en face map of stress measured at the sample surface. This map is determined from the thickness of a translucent, compliant stress sensor placed between a loading element and the sample and is measured using optical coherence tomography. We assess the performance of optical palpation using a handheld imaging probe on skin-mimicking phantoms, and demonstrate its use on human skin lesions. Our results demonstrate the capacity of optical palpation to delineate the boundaries of lesions and to map the mechanical contrast between lesions and the surrounding normal skin.

  2. Influence of two different IR radiators on the antioxidative potential of the human skin (United States)

    Darvin, M. E.; Patzelt, A.; Meinke, M.; Sterry, W.; Lademann, J.


    Resonance Raman spectroscopy was used for the fast in vivo detection of the concentration of carotenoid antioxidant substances such as beta-carotene and lycopene in human skin and for the measurement of their degradation dynamics, subsequent to infrared (IR) irradiation emitted by two different IR radiators applied at the same power density. One of the radiators was equipped with a water filter in front of the radiation source (WIRA) and the other was a usual broadband system without a water filter (standard IR radiator - SIR). It was found that the SIR exerted a higher influence on the degradation of carotenoids in the skin than the WIRA. Furthermore, all twelve volunteers who participated in the study felt that the irradiation with the SIR was disagreeably warmer on the skin surface compared to the WIRA, in spite of the same power density values for both radiators on the skin surface. The average degradation magnitude of the carotenoids in the skin of all volunteers after an IR irradiation was determined at 23% for WIRA and 33% for the SIR. A correlation (R2 ~ 0.6) was found between the individual level of carotenoids in the skin of the volunteers and the magnitude of degradation of the carotenoids for both IR radiators. Taking the previous investigations into consideration, which clearly showed production of free radicals in the skin subsequent to IR irradiation, it can be concluded that during the application of WIRA irradiation on the skin, fewer radicals are produced in comparison to the SIR.

  3. Automated epidermis segmentation in histopathological images of human skin stained with hematoxylin and eosin (United States)

    Kłeczek, Paweł; Dyduch, Grzegorz; Jaworek-Korjakowska, Joanna; Tadeusiewicz, Ryszard


    Background: Epidermis area is an important observation area for the diagnosis of inflammatory skin diseases and skin cancers. Therefore, in order to develop a computer-aided diagnosis system, segmentation of the epidermis area is usually an essential, initial step. This study presents an automated and robust method for epidermis segmentation in whole slide histopathological images of human skin, stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Methods: The proposed method performs epidermis segmentation based on the information about shape and distribution of transparent regions in a slide image and information about distribution and concentration of hematoxylin and eosin stains. It utilizes domain-specific knowledge of morphometric and biochemical properties of skin tissue elements to segment the relevant histopathological structures in human skin. Results: Experimental results on 88 skin histopathological images from three different sources show that the proposed method segments the epidermis with a mean sensitivity of 87 %, a mean specificity of 95% and a mean precision of 57%. It is robust to inter- and intra-image variations in both staining and illumination, and makes no assumptions about the type of skin disorder. The proposed method provides a superior performance compared to the existing techniques.

  4. Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy of Human Skin Using a Commercial Fiber Optic Spectrometer (United States)

    Atencio, J. A. Delgado; Rodríguez, M. Cunill; Montiel, S. Vázquez y.; Gutiérrez, J. L.; Martínez, F.; Gutiérrez, B.; Orozco, E.; Castro, Jorge; Rodríguez, A. Cornejo


    Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy is a reliable and easy to implement technique in human tissue characterization. In this work we evaluate the performance of the commercial USB4000 miniature fiber optic spectrometer in the in-vivo measurement of the diffuse reflectance spectra of different healthy skin sites and lesions in a population of 54 volunteers. Results show, that this spectrometer reproduces well the typical signatures of skin spectra over the 400-1000 nm region. Remarkable spectral differences exist between lesions and normal surrounding skin. A diffusion-based model was used to simulate reflectance spectra collected by the optical probe of the system.

  5. Acoustic absorption measurement of human hair and skin within the audible frequency range. (United States)

    Katz, B F


    Utilizing the two-microphone impedance tube method, the acoustic absorption of human skin and hair is measured in the frequency range 1-6 kHz. Various locations on a number of human subjects are measured to determine if the presence of bone or an air pocket affects the acoustic absorption of human skin. The absorption coefficient of human hair is also measured. Additional techniques are utilized to minimize errors due to sample mounting methods. Techniques are employed to minimize potential errors in sensor and sample locations. The results of these measurements are compared to relevant historical papers on similar investigations. Results for skin measurements compare well with previous work. Measured hair absorption data do not agree with previous work in the area but do coincide with expected trends, which previous works do not.

  6. Lipid-colloid dressing shows improved reepithelialization, pain relief, and corneal barrier function in split-thickness skin-graft donor wound healing. (United States)

    Tanaka, Katsuya; Akita, Sadanori; Yoshimoto, Hiroshi; Houbara, Seiji; Hirano, Akiyoshi


    Donor-site wound healing was tested with a nonadherent petrolatum- and hydrocolloid-impregnated polyester, a lipid-colloid dressing, and a nonadherent polyester dressing, supplemented with petrolatum manually by a physician onsite. Ten patients, 1 woman and 9 men (22 to 79 years old; average 58.4 ± 17.54 years), were enrolled in this prospective comparison study. The split-thickness skin graft was 14.5 ± 7.49 cm long × 8.2 ± 4.07 cm wide (5.5-27 cm long and 4.0-14.0 wide) and 14/1000 inches (0.356 mm) deep. The degree of reepithelialization in lipid-colloid dressing was significantly better than that in polyester mesh dressing, with 1.7 ± 1.00 and 2.8 ± 0.83 for the lipid-colloid dressing and polyester mesh dressing, respectively (P colloid dressing than that in polyester dressing, 1.7 ± 1.11 and 2.9 ± 1.12 for the lipid-colloid dressing and polyester mesh dressing, respectively (P colloid at wound healing was significantly smaller than those in polyester mesh (effective contact coefficient: 11.7 ± 1.87% and 15.6 ± 3.09% for lipid-colloid and polyester mesh, respectively, P colloid and polyester mesh, respectively, P colloid polyester dressing has superior wound healing and pain relief and demonstrates better corneal barrier function delineated by effective contact coefficient and corneal thickness at healing in split-thickness donors. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. A prospective clinical trial comparing Biobrane(®) Dressilk(®) and PolyMem(®) dressings on partial-thickness skin graft donor sites. (United States)

    Schulz, Alexandra; Depner, Christian; Lefering, Rolf; Kricheldorff, Julian; Kästner, Sonja; Fuchs, Paul Christian; Demir, Erhan


    In a single-center, prospective, randomized clinical trial three different configured wound dressings Biobrane(®), Dressilk(®) and PolyMem(®) were compared with each other regarding objective and subjective healing parameters and cost efficiency. 28 burn patients received surgical treatment with split-thickness skin grafting, while utilizing Biobrane(®), Dressilk(®) and PolyMem(®) as a single bound donor site wound dressing in all patients. Following a standardized case report form, we monitored several parameters such as pain, transparency of the dressing, active bleeding, exudation and inflammation by using the Verbal Rating Scale 1-10 through out. With regard to re-epithelialization, pain and acute bleeding all three dressings were equivalent. Dressilk(®) and Biobrane(®) presented clearly superior to PolyMem(®) in both wound assessment and in the reduction of mild inflammation and exudation. High subjective satisfaction rates were reported with Dressilk(®) and Biobrane(®) dressings in regard to comfort and mobility. During the continuous monitoring period Biobrane(®) outperformed Dressilk(®) by providing higher wound transparency rates and offering a better level of wound control during the entire study period. Regarding their cost efficiency, PolyMem(®) and Dressilk(®) are clearly superior to Biobrane(®). The "ideal" wound dressing maximizes patients' comfort while reducing pain and the risk of pulling off migrating epidermal cells from the wound surface. In addition reliable wound status evaluation (minimizing complications), an increase of treatment cost value efficacy, and reduced hospitalization rates should be provided. Dressilk(®) and Biobrane(®) were favored by patients and surgeons for providing an effective and safe healing environment, with overall low complication rates with respect to infection and exudation. Regarding cost-effectiveness PolyMem(®) and Dressilk(®) presented superior to Biobrane(®). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd

  8. Vascular effects of leukotriene D4 in human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H


    as a mediator of the axon reflex, and show that LTD4 causes a direct vasodilatory effect that is not mediated via histamine or cyclooxygenase products. The laser-Doppler flowmeter was applied for dynamic studies of the vasopressor response in the skin during a Valsalva maneuver, and the relative changes...... in blood flow were confirmed by control estimates of the blood flow rate by a 133xenon washout method. The pressor response to a Valsalva maneuver was reversed by local nerve block, but not affected by LTD4. Therefore LTD4 did not interfere with the sympathetic activity on the cutaneous vessels...

  9. Transdermal iontophoresis of the dopamine agonist 5-OH-DPAT in human skin in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nugroho, AK; Li, L; Dijkstra, D; Wikstrom, H; Danhof, M; Bouwstra, JA


    The feasibility of transdermal iontophoretic delivery of a potent dopamine agonist 5-OH-DPAT was studied in vitro in side by side diffusion cells across human stratum corneum (HSC) and dermatomed human skin (DHS) according to the following protocol: 6 h of passive diffusion, 9 h of iontophoresis and

  10. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) in human skin : A comparison of different antibodies for immunohistochemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan, N; de Leij, LFMH; Buurman, W; Timens, W; ten Duis, HJ

    Conflicting results have been reported regarding the localization and presence of TNF alpha in normal human skin, To study TNF alpha expression, we tested a panel of antibodies directed against human TNF alpha, First, antibodies were tested for immunoreactivity on cytospots of isolated

  11. An immunohistological study of anhydrous topical ascorbic acid compositions on ex vivo human skin. (United States)

    Heber, Geoffrey K; Markovic, Boban; Hayes, Amanda


    Ascorbic acid has numerous essential and beneficial functions in normal and photoaged skin. Ionisation of ascorbic acid in aqueous topical formulations leads to oxidative degradation. Ascorbic acid in an anhydrous vehicle would inherently have greater stability. The objective of this study was to observe the effects of two anhydrous formulations containing microfine particles of ascorbic acid on neocollagenesis and cytokeratin production in ex vivo human skin. Vitamin C preparations were applied topically onto the surface of freshly excised human abdominal skin. Following an exposure time of 48 h with appropriate controls, skin discs were cut into sections, placed on slides and assessed using immunohistochemical (antibodies: collagen type I, III, cytokeratin) staining. Analysis was performed using microscopy and descriptive rating. Both formulations resulted in increased production of collagen types I and III and cytokeratin. The application of anhydrous formulations containing microfine particles of ascorbic acid to ex vivo human skin in this study resulted in neocollagenesis and increased production of cytokeratin. This approach appears to enable biological effects of ascorbic acid in the skin using a vehicle which would provide it greater stability than an aqueous vehicle.

  12. Two-wavelength Raman detector for noninvasive measurements of carotenes and lycopene in human skin (United States)

    Ermakov, Igor V.; Ermakova, Maia R.; Gellermann, Werner


    Carotenoids are an important part of the antioxidant system in human skin. Carotenoid molecules, provided by fruits and vegetables, are potent free radical quenchers that accumulate in the body. If not balanced by carotenoids and other antioxidants, free radicals may cause premature skin aging, oxidative cell damage, and even skin cancers. As carotenoids depletion may predispose a person to cancer or other disease, rapid and noninvasive measurement of carotenoid level in skin may be of preventive or diagnostic help. At the very least, such measurement can be used to obtain a biomarker for healthy levels of fruit and vegetable consumption. Recently we have developed noninvasive optical technique based on Raman spectroscopy. In this paper we describe compact optical detector for clinical applications that utilizes two-wavelength excitation. It selectively measures the two most prominent skin carotenoids found in the human skin, lycopene and carotenes. According to the medical literature, these two compounds may play different roles in the human body and be part of different tissue defense mechanisms. Dual-wavelength Raman measurements reveal significant differences in the carotenoid composition of different subjects.

  13. Protection effect of cosmetics on human skin under simulated rigorous environment. (United States)

    Cheng, Yan; Dong, Yi-Yang; Dong, Mei-Xian; Wang, Chao; Su, Ning; Sun, Yuan-Tao; Liu, Juan; Zheng, Hong-Yan; Schrader, Andreas; Rohr, Mathias; Liu, Wei


    The efficacy of cosmetics on human skin measured under normal mild laboratory environment might be discounted by exterior environment factors such as wind, UV exposure, etc. Few studies have focused on the 'genuine' efficacy of cosmetics on human skin during exposure to external rigorous environment. The aim of this study was to develop a model for the evaluation of the efficacy of cosmetics on human skin under simulated rigorous environment. We measured skin water content and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) before and after products application under simulated windy and sub-erythema UV exposure treatment in a constant temperature and humidity laboratory. The results showed that the products had higher water content and lower TEWL at 2, 4 and 8 h of products application, and ameliorated the skin moisturization situation after a 3-week continuous use of the products. In addition, the products might protect the skin to maintain the normal water content and TEWL under the simulated windy or sub-erythema UV exposure treatment in our laboratory when compared with untreated area. Our data indicate that this model may provide a more accurate evaluation for the genuine moisturizing effect of cosmetics under external natural climate.

  14. Surface free energy of the human skin and its critical surface tension of wetting in the skin/surfactant aqueous solution/air system. (United States)

    Krawczyk, J


    The purpose of these studies was to determine the surface free energy of the human skin and its critical surface tension of wetting in the skin--surfactant aqueous solution--air system in relation to different types of surfactants. The surface free energy of the skin and its components was calculated using the equilibrium advancing contact angle values of water, formamide, and diiodomethane on the forearm skin surface. Next, taking into account the measured values of the contact angle of aqueous solutions of SDDS, CTAB, TX-100 and TX-114 on the skin surface and data of their surface tension, the critical surface tension of the skin wetting was determined. We can classify the skin surface as low-energetic one. The critical surface tension of the skin wetting depends on the type of surfactant. It is possible to determine the critical surface tension of the human skin wetting on the basis of the values of the contact angle of aqueous solutions of surfactants and their surface tension. In this respect, nonionic surfactants seem to be the most appropriate. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Ultra-pure soft water ameliorates atopic skin disease by preventing metallic soap deposition in NC/Tnd mice and reduces skin dryness in humans. (United States)

    Tanaka, Akane; Matsuda, Akira; Jung, Kyungsook; Jang, Hyosun; Ahn, Ginnae; Ishizaka, Saori; Amagai, Yosuke; Oida, Kumiko; Arkwright, Peter D; Matsuda, Hiroshi


    Mineral ions in tap water react with fatty acids in soap, leading to the formation of insoluble precipitate (metallic soap) on skin during washing. We hypothesised that metallic soap might negatively alter skin conditions. Application of metallic soap onto the skin of NC/Tnd mice with allergic dermatitis further induced inflammation with elevation of plasma immunoglobulin E and proinflammatory cytokine expression. Pruritus and dryness were ameliorated when the back of mice was washed with soap in Ca2+- and Mg2+-free ultra-pure soft water (UPSW). Washing in UPSW, but not tap water, also protected the skin of healthy volunteers from the soap deposition. Furthermore, 4 weeks of showering with UPSW reduced dryness and pruritus of human subjects with dry skin. Washing with UPSW may be therapeutically beneficial in patients with skin troubles.

  16. Analysis of human perception of facial skin radiance by means of image histogram parameters of surface and subsurface reflections from the skin. (United States)

    Matsubara, Akira; Liang, Zhiwu; Sato, Yuji; Uchikawa, Keiji


    The appearance of the skin is the result of complicated light-skin interactions involving surface and subsurface reflections. Radiant skin is a complicated attribute but is important for skin beauty. The aim of the present study was to achieve an understanding of the association between human perceptions of skin radiance and image histogram parameters from technically recorded images of surface and subsurface reflections. Facial images of 45 subjects were evaluated visually by 30 respondents and were also computer analyzed in terms of their image histogram parameters. A partial least squares regression model was created to explain visual perceptions in terms of the image histogram parameters. Visual perceptions of subsurface reflections can be explained in terms of the mean from the subsurface reflection image histogram, and visual perceptions of surface reflections can be explained in terms of the standard deviation (SD) and skewness from the surface reflection image histogram. Skin radiance can be explained in terms of the mean from the subsurface reflection and the SD from the surface reflection. To acquire skin radiance, a surface reflection component that makes the skin look shiny and a subsurface reflection component that is in line with skin fairness are both needed. A balance of these features provides the origin of skin radiance. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. The altered landscape of the human skin microbiome in patients with primary immunodeficiencies. (United States)

    Oh, Julia; Freeman, Alexandra F; Park, Morgan; Sokolic, Robert; Candotti, Fabio; Holland, Steven M; Segre, Julia A; Kong, Heidi H


    While landmark studies have shown that microbiota activate and educate host immunity, how immune systems shape microbiomes and contribute to disease is incompletely characterized. Primary immunodeficiency (PID) patients suffer recurrent microbial infections, providing a unique opportunity to address this issue. To investigate the potential influence of host immunity on the skin microbiome, we examined skin microbiomes in patients with rare monogenic PIDs: hyper-IgE (STAT3-deficient), Wiskott-Aldrich, and dedicator of cytokinesis 8 syndromes. While specific immunologic defects differ, a shared hallmark is atopic dermatitis (AD)-like eczema. We compared bacterial and fungal skin microbiomes (41 PID, 13 AD, 49 healthy controls) at four clinically relevant sites representing the major skin microenvironments. PID skin displayed increased ecological permissiveness with altered population structures, decreased site specificity and temporal stability, and colonization with microbial species not observed in controls, including Clostridium species and Serratia marcescens. Elevated fungal diversity and increased representation of opportunistic fungi (Candida, Aspergillus) supported increased PID skin permissiveness, suggesting that skin may serve as a reservoir for the recurrent fungal infections observed in these patients. The overarching theme of increased ecological permissiveness in PID skin was counterbalanced by the maintenance of a phylum barrier in which colonization remained restricted to typical human-associated phyla. Clinical parameters, including markers of disease severity, were positively correlated with prevalence of Staphylococcus, Corynebacterium, and other less abundant taxa. This study examines differences in microbial colonization and community stability in PID skin and informs our understanding of host-microbiome interactions, suggesting a bidirectional dialogue between skin commensals and the host organism.

  18. In vivo multimodality video microscopy of human skin in the vertical plane (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Wu, Zhenguo; Tian, Yunxian; Zhao, Jianhua; Lui, Harvey; McLean, David I.; Zeng, Haishan


    Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) and multiphoton microscopy (MPM) are non-invasive methods of acquiring morphological images of the skin in vivo. Most research in this area focuses on instruments that are configured for two-dimensional imaging in a horizontal plane parallel to the skin surface. In contrast, conventional histopathologic evaluation of the skin is based on vertical tissue sections that show microscopic features and their interrelationships according to their depth within the skin. The ability to similarly depict the skin in the vertical plane during in vivo microscopic imaging poses several significant challenges with respect to imaging speed, resolution and extractable information. Aiming to address above challenges, we developed a laser scanning multimodal microscopy system which combines RCM and MPM, and has the ability to do fast xz scanning to achieve high resolution vertical "optical sectioning" of in vivo human skin at video rates. RCM and MPM images are obtained simultaneously and co-registered thereby providing complementary morphological information. To validate the performance of this system vertical section RCM and MPM microscopic images of normal human skin in vivo were obtained at half video rates (15 frames/s). Using our system it is possible to discern the following structures: all layers of the epidermis including the stratum lucidum, the dermal-epidermal junction, and the papillary dermis. Blood flow is also visible as evidenced by blood cell movement within vessels. The effective imaging depth is about 200 micrometers. This system provides a means of interrogating human skin noninvasively at an orientation analogous to conventional histological sectioning.

  19. Effects of hypobaric pressure on human skin: implications for cryogen spray cooling (part II). (United States)

    Aguilar, Guillermo; Franco, Walfre; Liu, Jie; Svaasand, Lars O; Nelson, J Stuart


    Clinical results have demonstrated that dark purple port wine stain (PWS) birthmarks respond favorably to laser induced photothermolysis after the first three to five treatments. Nevertheless, complete blanching is rarely achieved and the lesions stabilize at a red-pink color. In a feasibility study (Part I), we showed that local hypobaric pressure on PWS human skin prior to laser irradiation induced significant lesion blanching. The objective of the present study (Part II) is to investigate the effects of hypobaric pressures on the efficiency of cryogen spray cooling (CSC), a technique that assists laser therapy of PWS and other dermatoses. Experiments were carried out within a suction cup and vacuum chamber to study the effect of hypobaric pressure on the: (1) interaction of cryogen sprays with human skin; (2) spray atomization; and (3) thermal response of a model skin phantom. A high-speed camera was used to acquire digital images of spray impingement on in vivo human skin and spray cones generated at different hypobaric pressures. Subsequently, liquid cryogen was sprayed onto a skin phantom at atmospheric and 17, 34, 51, and 68 kPa (5, 10, 15, and 20 in Hg) hypobaric pressures. A fast-response temperature sensor measured sub-surface phantom temperature as a function of time. Measurements were used to solve an inverse heat conduction problem to calculate surface temperatures, heat flux, and overall heat extraction at the skin phantom surface. Under hypobaric pressures, cryogen spurts did not produce skin indentation and only minimal frost formation. Sprays also showed shorter jet lengths and better atomization. Lower minimum surface temperatures and higher overall heat extraction from skin phantoms were reached. The combined effects of hypobaric pressure result in more efficient cryogen evaporation that enhances heat extraction and, therefore, improves the epidermal protection provided by CSC. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Predictive performance for human skin sensitizing potential of the human cell line activation test (h-CLAT). (United States)

    Nukada, Yuko; Ashikaga, Takao; Sakaguchi, Hitoshi; Sono, Sakiko; Mugita, Nanae; Hirota, Morihiko; Miyazawa, Masaaki; Ito, Yuichi; Sasa, Hitoshi; Nishiyama, Naohiro


    Recent changes in regulatory restrictions and social opposition to animal toxicology experiments have driven the need for reliable in vitro tests for predicting the skin sensitizing potentials of a wide variety of industrial chemicals. Previously, we developed the human cell line activation test (h-CLAT) as a cell-based assay to predict the skin sensitizing potential of chemicals, and showed the correspondence between the h-CLAT and the murine local lymph node assay results. This study was conducted to investigate the predictive performance of the h-CLAT for human skin sensitizing potential. We selected a total of 66 test chemicals with known human sensitizing potential, and tested all chemicals with the h-CLAT. We then evaluated the performance of the h-CLAT in predicting human sensitizing potential. Forty-five of 51 tested sensitizers were positive in the h-CLAT, indicating relatively high sensitivity. Also, 10 of 15 non-sensitizers were correctly detected as negative. The overall agreement between human data and h-CLAT outcome was 83%. Furthermore, the h-CLAT could accurately predict the human sensitizing potential of 23 tested chemicals that were amines, heterocyclic compounds, or sulfur compounds. Our data indicate the utility of the h-CLAT for predicting the human skin sensitizing potential of a variety of chemicals. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. Integrating a human thermoregulatory model with a clothing model to predict core and skin temperatures. (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Weng, Wenguo; Wang, Faming; Song, Guowen


    This paper aims to integrate a human thermoregulatory model with a clothing model to predict core and skin temperatures. The human thermoregulatory model, consisting of an active system and a passive system, was used to determine the thermoregulation and heat exchanges within the body. The clothing model simulated heat and moisture transfer from the human skin to the environment through the microenvironment and fabric. In this clothing model, the air gap between skin and clothing, as well as clothing properties such as thickness, thermal conductivity, density, porosity, and tortuosity were taken into consideration. The simulated core and mean skin temperatures were compared to the published experimental results of subject tests at three levels of ambient temperatures of 20 °C, 30 °C, and 40 °C. Although lower signal-to-noise-ratio was observed, the developed model demonstrated positive performance at predicting core temperatures with a maximum difference between the simulations and measurements of no more than 0.43 °C. Generally, the current model predicted the mean skin temperatures with reasonable accuracy. It could be applied to predict human physiological responses and assess thermal comfort and heat stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Climate change, ozone depletion and the impact on ultraviolet exposure of human skin. (United States)

    Diffey, Brian


    For 30 years there has been concern that anthropogenic damage to the Earth's stratospheric ozone layer will lead to an increase of solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation reaching the Earth's surface, with a consequent adverse imp