Sample records for human sialyltransferase st3gal

  1. Expression of Functional Human Sialyltransferases ST3Gal1 and ST6Gal1 in Escherichia coli.

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    Maria Elena Ortiz-Soto

    Full Text Available Sialyltransferases (STs are disulfide-containing, type II transmembrane glycoproteins that catalyze the transfer of sialic acid to proteins and lipids and participate in the synthesis of the core structure oligosaccharides of human milk. Sialic acids are found at the outermost position of glycostructures, playing a key role in health and disease. Sialylation is also essential for the production of recombinant therapeutic proteins (RTPs. Despite their importance, availability of sialyltransferases is limited due to the low levels of stable, soluble and active protein produced in bacterial expression systems, which hampers biochemical and structural studies on these enzymes and restricts biotechnological applications. We report the successful expression of active human sialyltransferases ST3Gal1 and ST6Gal1 in commercial Escherichia coli strains designed for production of disulfide-containing proteins. Fusion of hST3Gal1 with different solubility enhancers and substitution of exposed hydrophobic amino acids by negatively charged residues (supercharging-like approach were performed to promote solubility and folding. Co-expression of sialyltransferases with the chaperon/foldases sulfhydryl oxidase, protein disulfide isomerase and disulfide isomerase C was explored to improve the formation of native disulfide bonds. Active sialyltransferases fused with maltose binding protein (MBP were obtained in sufficient amounts for biochemical and structural studies when expressed under oxidative conditions and co-expression of folding factors increased the yields of active and properly folded sialyltransferases by 20%. Mutation of exposed hydrophobic amino acids increased recovery of active enzyme by 2.5-fold, yielding about 7 mg of purified protein per liter culture. Functionality of recombinant enzymes was evaluated in the synthesis of sialosides from the β-d-galactoside substrates lactose, N-acetyllactosamine and benzyl 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-3-O-(β-d-galactopyranosyl-α-d-galactopyranoside.

  2. Structure-function analysis of the human sialyltransferase ST3Gal I - Role of N-glycosylation and a novel conserved sialylmotif

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeanneau, C.; Chazalet, V.; Auge, C.


    of these residues and of the conserved residues of motif VS (HX4E) was assessed using as a template the human ST3Gal I. Mutational analysis showed that residues His(299) and Tyr(300) of the new motif, and His(316) of the VS motif, are essential for activity since their substitution by alanine yielded inactive...... showed that none of the mutants tested had any significant effect in nucleotide donor binding. Instead the mutant proteins were affected in their binding to the acceptor and/or demonstrated lower catalytic efficiency. Although the human ST3Gal I has four N-glycan attachment sites in its catalytic domain...... that are potentially glycosylated, none of them was shown to be necessary for enzyme activity. However, N-glycosylation appears to contribute to the proper folding and trafficking of the enzyme....

  3. Development of Monoclonal Antibodies against CMP-N-Acetylneuraminate-beta-galactosamide-alpha-2,3-sialyltransferase 1 (ST3Gal-I) Recombinant Protein Expressed in E. coli. (United States)

    Gupta, Anuj Kumar; Kaur, Parvinder; Patil, Harshada; Kadam, Pallavi; Bhanushali, Paresh B; Chugh, Manoj


    Aberrant glycosylation is one of the major hallmarks of cancer with altered gene expression signatures of sialyltransferases. ST3Gal-I, a sialyltransferase, is known to play a crucial role in sialylation of T antigen in bladder cancer and it has reported elevated expression in breast carcinogenesis with increased tumor progression stages. The aim of the current study is to develop new monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against human ST3Gal-I and evaluate their diagnostic potential. We developed a repertoire of stable hybridoma cell lines producing high-affinity IgG antibodies against recombinant human ST3Gal-I, expressed in E. coli BL21-DE3 strain. In order to demonstrate the diagnostic value of the mAbs, various clones were employed for the immunohistochemistry analysis of ST3Gal-I expression in cancerous tissues. Antibodies generated by 7E51C83A10 clone demonstrated a strong and specific fluorescence staining in breast cancer tissue sections and did not exhibit significant background in fibroadenoma sections. In conclusion, the mAbs raised against recombinant ST3Gal-I recognize cellular ST3Gal-I and represent a promising diagnostic tool for the immunodetection of ST3Gal-I expressing cells. Specific-reactivity of clone 7E51C83A10 mAbs towards ST3Gal-I was also confirmed by immunoblotting. Therefore, our observations warrant evaluation of ST3Gal-I as a potential marker for cancer diagnosis at larger scale.

  4. Deficiency of the Sialyltransferase St3Gal4 Reduces-Ccl5Mediated Myeloid Cell Recruitment and Arrest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Döring, Yvonne; Noels, Heidi; Mandl, Manuela; Kramp, Birgit; Neideck, Carlos; Lievens, Dirk; Drechsler, Maik; Megens, Remco T. A.; Tilstam, Pathricia V.; Langer, Marcella; Hartwig, Helene; Theelen, Wendy; Marth, Jamey D.; Sperandio, Markus; Soehnlein, Oliver; Weber, Christian


    Rationale: Sialylation by 2,3-sialyltransferases has been shown to be a crucial glycosylation step in the generation of functional selectin ligands. Recent evidence suggests that sialylation also affects the binding of chemokines to their corresponding receptor. Objective: Because the chemokine

  5. Association of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the ST3GAL4 Gene with VWF Antigen and Factor VIII Activity.

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    Jaewoo Song

    Full Text Available VWF is extensively glycosylated with biantennary core fucosylated glycans. Most N-linked and O-linked glycans on VWF are sialylated. FVIII is also glycosylated, with a glycan structure similar to that of VWF. ST3GAL sialyltransferases catalyze the transfer of sialic acids in the α2,3 linkage to termini of N- and O-glycans. This sialic acid modification is critical for VWF synthesis and activity. We analyzed genetic and phenotypic data from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC study for the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the ST3GAL4 gene with plasma VWF levels and FVIII activity in 12,117 subjects. We also analyzed ST3GAL4 SNPs found in 2,535 subjects of 26 ethnicities from the 1000 Genomes (1000G project for ethnic diversity, SNP imputation, and ST3GAL4 haplotypes. We identified 14 and 1,714 ST3GAL4 variants in the ARIC GWAS and 1000G databases respectively, with 46% being ethnically diverse in their allele frequencies. Among the 14 ST3GAL4 SNPs found in ARIC GWAS, the intronic rs2186717, rs7928391, and rs11220465 were associated with VWF levels and with FVIII activity after adjustment for age, BMI, hypertension, diabetes, ever-smoking status, and ABO. This study illustrates the power of next-generation sequencing in the discovery of new genetic variants and a significant ethnic diversity in the ST3GAL4 gene. We discuss potential mechanisms through which these intronic SNPs regulate ST3GAL4 biosynthesis and the activity that affects VWF and FVIII.

  6. Alpha2,3-sialyltransferase III knockdown sensitized ovarian cancer cells to cisplatin-induced apoptosis. (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Yiting; Lin, Haiyingjie; Liu, Yan; Tan, Yi; Lin, Jie; Gao, Fenze; Lin, Shaoqiang


    Emerging evidence indicates that β-galactoside-α2,3-sialyltransferase III (ST3Gal3) involves in development, inflammation, neoplastic transformation, and metastasis. However, the role of ST3Gal3 in regulating cancer chemoresistance remains elusive. Herein, we investigated the functional effects of ST3Gal3 in cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cells. We found that the levels of ST3Gal3 mRNA differed significantly among ovarian cancer cell lines. HO8910PM cells that have high invasive and metastatic capacity express elevated ST3Gal3 mRNA and are resistant to cisplatin, comparing to SKOV3 cells that have a lower level of ST3Gal3 expression and are more chemosensitive to cisplatin. We found that the expression of ST3Gal3 has reverse correlation with the dosage of cisplatin used in both SKOV3 and HO8910PM cells, and high dose of cisplatin could down-regulate ST3Gal3 expression. We then examined the functional effects of ST3Gal3 knockdown in cancer cell lines using FACS analysis. The number of apoptotic cells was much higher in cells if ST3Gal3 expression was knocked down by siRNA and/or by treating cells with higher dosage of cisplatin in comparison to control cells. Interestingly, in HO8910PM cells with ST3Gal3 knockdown, the levels of caspase 8 and caspase 3 proteins increased, which was more obvious in cells treated with both ST3Gal3 knockdown and cisplatin, suggesting that ST3Gal3 knockdown synergistically enhanced cisplatin-induced apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells. Taken together, these results uncover an alternative mechanism of cisplatin-resistance through ST3Gal3 and open a window for effective prevention of chemoresistance and relapse of ovarian cancer by targeting ST3Gal3. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Glycomic and sialoproteomic data of gastric carcinoma cells overexpressing ST3GAL4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mereiter, Stefan; Magalhães, Ana; Adamczyk, Barbara


    -MS/MS identification was performed. This analysis identified 47 proteins with significantly increased sialylation. The data in this article is associated with the research article published in Biochim Biophys Acta "Glycomic analysis of gastric carcinoma cells discloses glycans as modulators of RON receptor tyrosine......Gastric carcinoma MKN45 cells stably transfected with the full-length ST3GAL4 gene were characterised by glycomic and sialoproteomic analysis. Complementary strategies were applied to assess the glycomic alterations induced by ST3GAL4 overexpression. The N- and O-glycome data were generated in two...... parallel structural analyzes, based on PGC-ESI-MS/MS. Data on glycan structure identification and relative abundance in ST3GAL4 overexpressing cells and respective mock control are presented. The sialoproteomic analysis based on titanium-dioxide enrichment of sialopeptides with subsequent LC...

  8. Enhanced sialyltransferases transcription in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. (United States)

    López-Morales, Dolores; Velázquez-Márquez, Noé; Valenzuela, Olivia; Santos-López, Gerardo; Reyes-Leyva, Julio; Vallejo-Ruiz, Verónica


    Altered sialylation observed during oncogenic transformation, tumor metastases and invasion, has been associated with enhanced sialyltransferases (STs) transcription. Increased mRNA expression of STs (ST6Gal I, ST3Gal III) has been detected in invasive cervical squamous cell carcinoma. A study of the sialic acid concentration in local tissue of cervix and in serum showed a slight elevation in benign inflammatory lesions and a moderate elevation in severe neoplasia, but to date, altered expression of STs in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia has not yet been evaluated. This study investigates the changes in mRNA expression of three STs (ST6Gal I, ST3Gal III, and ST3Gal IV) in cervical intraepithelial lesions (CIN). Alterations of these STs mRNA expression were examined in 35 cervix specimens classified as normal, CIN 1, CIN 2 and CIN 3, by semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, mRNA expression of the three STs was enhanced in CIN 1, CIN 2 and CIN 3 with respect to normal tissue, with a significant difference of p altered expression of ST3Gal III, ST3Gal IV and ST6Gal I in CIN could play an important role during malignant transformation and could be related with the enhanced sialic acid expression detected in neoplasic tissues.

  9. Expression of sialyltransferase activity on intact human neutrophils


    Rifat, Salahaldin; Kang, Tae Jin; Mann, Dean; Zhang, Lei; Puche, Adam C.; Stamatos, Nicholas M.; Goldblum, Simeon E.; Brossmer, Reinhard; Cross, Alan S.


    Endogenous polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN)-associated sialidase activity enhances PMN adhesion to and migration across the endothelium through the removal of sialylated cell-surface residues. We tested the hypothesis that PMNs also express sialyltransferase (ST) activity that restores sialyl residues to the PMN surface. We developed a highly sensitive fluorometric assay to demonstrate that intact human PMNs can mediate and accept sialyl residue transfer. This ST activity is inhibited by a S...

  10. Over-expression of ST3Gal-I promotes mammary tumorigenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Picco, Gianfranco; Julien, Sylvain; Brockhausen, Inka


    3Gal-I adds sialic acid to the galactose residue of core 1 (Galbeta1,3GalNAc) O-glycans and this enzyme is over-expressed in breast cancer resulting in the expression of sialylated core 1 glycans. In order to study the role of ST3Gal-I in mammary tumor development, we developed transgenic mice...... and lactating mammary glands, the stomach, lungs and intestine. Although no obvious defects were observed in the fully developed mammary gland, when these mice were crossed with PyMT mice, a highly significant decrease in tumor latency was observed compared to the PyMT mice on an identical background...

  11. Expression of sialyltransferase activity on intact human neutrophils. (United States)

    Rifat, Salahaldin; Kang, Tae Jin; Mann, Dean; Zhang, Lei; Puche, Adam C; Stamatos, Nicholas M; Goldblum, Simeon E; Brossmer, Reinhard; Cross, Alan S


    Endogenous polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN)-associated sialidase activity enhances PMN adhesion to and migration across the endothelium through the removal of sialylated cell-surface residues. We tested the hypothesis that PMNs also express sialyltransferase (ST) activity that restores sialyl residues to the PMN surface. We developed a highly sensitive fluorometric assay to demonstrate that intact human PMNs can mediate and accept sialyl residue transfer. This ST activity is inhibited by a ST inhibitor, CMP, which also inhibits the transendothelial migration of PMNs in response to IL-8 in vitro and in vivo. We conclude that intact PMNs express sialidase and ST activities that permit rapid modulation of their surface sialylation and their ability to adhere to and migrate across the endothelium.

  12. Expression of active human sialyltransferase ST6GalNAcI in Escherichia coli

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    Schwartz Marc F


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of terminal, surface-exposed sialic acid moieties can greatly enhance the in vivo half-life of glycosylated biopharmaceuticals and improve their therapeutic efficacy. Complete and homogeneous sialylation of glycoproteins can be efficiently performed enzymically in vitro but this process requires large amounts of catalytically active sialyltransferases. Furthermore, standard microbial hosts used for large-scale production of recombinant enzymes can only produce small quantities of glycosyltransferases of animal origin, which lack catalytic activity. Results and conclusion In this work, we have expressed the human sialyltransferase ST6GalNAc I (ST6, an enzyme that sialylates O-linked glycoproteins, in Escherichia coli cells. We observed that wild-type bacterial cells are able to produce only very small amounts of soluble ST6 enzyme. We have found, however, that engineered bacterial strains which possess certain types of oxidative cytoplasm or which co-express the molecular chaperones/co-chaperones trigger factor, DnaK/DnaJ, GroEL/GroES, and Skp, can produce greatly enhanced amounts of soluble ST6. Furthermore, we have developed a novel high-throughput assay for the detection of sialyltransferase activity and used it to demonstrate that the bacterially expressed ST6 enzyme is active and able to transfer sialic acid onto a desialylated O-glycoprotein, bovine submaxillary mucin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of expression of active human sialyltransferase in bacteria. This system may be used as a starting point for the evolution of sialyltransferases with better expression characteristics or altered donor/acceptor specificities.

  13. Overexpression of α-2,6 sialyltransferase stimulates propagation of human influenza viruses in Vero cells. (United States)

    Li, N; Qi, Y; Zhang, F Y; Yu, X H; Wu, Y G; Chen, Y; Jiang, C L; Kong, W


    Human influenza viruses are major concern as the leading cause of global pandemics. In infecting cells, they preferentially bind to sialyloligosaccharides containing terminal N-acetyl sialic acid linked to galactose by an α-2,6-linkage (NeuAcα2,6Gal). The amount of NeuAcα2,6Gal in Vero cells, which are predominantly used for production of influenza vaccines over the past 30 years, may not be as high as that in epithelial cells of human respiratory tract, what leads to the suboptimal virus growth in Vero cells. In this study, we stably transfected Vero cells with cDNA of human α-2,6-sialyltransferase (SIAT1), an enzyme catalyzing α-2,6-sialylation of galactose on glycoproteins. Overexpression of SIAT1 in the transfected Vero cells (Vero-SIAT1 cells) was confirmed by Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence microscopy. Vero-SIAT1 cells expressed 7 times higher amounts of NeuAcα2,6Gal, but 3 times lower amounts of NeuAcα2,3Gal as compared to parental Vero cells. Furthermore, the influenza viruses A (H1N1 and H3N2) and B grew in Vero-SIAT1 cells to the higher titers than in Vero cells. Taken together, these results imply that Vero-SIAT1 cells are useful not only for the propagation of human influenza viruses, but also for the preparation of influenza vaccines.

  14. Sialyltransferase and Neuraminidase Levels/Ratios and Sialic Acid Levels in Peripheral Blood B Cells Correlate with Measures of Disease Activity in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Pilot Study.

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    Lieh-Bang Liou

    Full Text Available We attempted to determine whether the level of enzymes sialyltransferase (ST and neuraminidase (Neu and sialic acid (SIA in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE correlates with the SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI and in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA correlates with the Disease Activity Score28 (DAS28.We examined cell-surface levels of ST6Gal-1, Neu1, ST3Gal-1, Neu3, α-2,6-SIA, and α-2,3-SIA by using fluorescent anti-enzyme antibodies, fluorescent-conjugated Sambucus nigra lectin, and fluorescent-conjugated Maackia amurensis lectin on blood cells in SLE and RA patients and assessed correlations of these levels with SLEDAI and with DAS28. Areas under the curve (AUC were calculated for different variables against SLEDAI.The B-cell ST3Gal-1/Neu3 ratio positively correlated with SLEDAI scores (ρ = 0.409 and P = 0.002, statistically significant after Bonferroni' correction for multiple analyses.. It was supported by the inverse correlation of B-cell Neu3 levels with SLEDAI scores (ρ = -0.264, P = 0.048. The B-cell ST3Gal-1/Neu3 ratio against SLEDAI yielded an AUC of 0.689, which was comparable to that of anti-dsDNA levels at 0.635. In contrast, both ST3Gal-1 and Neu3 levels of RA B cells (r = 0.376, P = 0.013; r = 0.425, P = 0.005, respectively correlated positively with high disease-activity DAS28 scores.B-cell ST3Gal-1/Neu3 ratios in SLE and B-cell ST3Gal-1 and Neu3 levels in RA with high disease-activity DAS28 scores correlated with disease activity measures and may be useful in monitoring disease activities.

  15. Probing the CMP‐Sialic Acid Donor Specificity of Two Human β‐d‐Galactoside Sialyltransferases (ST3Gal I and ST6Gal I) Selectively Acting on O‐ and N‐Glycosylproteins (United States)

    Noel, Maxence; Gilormini, Pierre‐André; Cogez, Virginie; Yamakawa, Nao; Vicogne, Dorothée; Lion, Cédric; Biot, Christophe; Guérardel, Yann


    Abstract Sialylation of glycoproteins and glycolipids is catalyzed by sialyltransferases in the Golgi of mammalian cells, whereby sialic acid residues are added at the nonreducing ends of oligosaccharides. Because sialylated glycans play critical roles in a number of human physio‐pathological processes, the past two decades have witnessed the development of modified sialic acid derivatives for a better understanding of sialic acid biology and for the development of new therapeutic targets. However, nothing is known about how individual mammalian sialyltransferases tolerate and behave towards these unnatural CMP‐sialic acid donors. In this study, we devised several approaches to investigate the donor specificity of the human β‐d‐galactoside sialyltransferases ST6Gal I and ST3Gal I by using two CMP‐sialic acids: CMP‐Neu5Ac, and CMP‐Neu5N‐(4pentynoyl)neuraminic acid (CMP‐SiaNAl), an unnatural CMP‐sialic acid donor with an extended and functionalized N‐acyl moiety. PMID:28395125

  16. Probing the CMP-Sialic Acid Donor Specificity of Two Human β-d-Galactoside Sialyltransferases (ST3Gal I and ST6Gal I) Selectively Acting on O- and N-Glycosylproteins. (United States)

    Noel, Maxence; Gilormini, Pierre-André; Cogez, Virginie; Yamakawa, Nao; Vicogne, Dorothée; Lion, Cédric; Biot, Christophe; Guérardel, Yann; Harduin-Lepers, Anne


    Sialylation of glycoproteins and glycolipids is catalyzed by sialyltransferases in the Golgi of mammalian cells, whereby sialic acid residues are added at the nonreducing ends of oligosaccharides. Because sialylated glycans play critical roles in a number of human physio-pathological processes, the past two decades have witnessed the development of modified sialic acid derivatives for a better understanding of sialic acid biology and for the development of new therapeutic targets. However, nothing is known about how individual mammalian sialyltransferases tolerate and behave towards these unnatural CMP-sialic acid donors. In this study, we devised several approaches to investigate the donor specificity of the human β-d-galactoside sialyltransferases ST6Gal I and ST3Gal I by using two CMP-sialic acids: CMP-Neu5Ac, and CMP-Neu5N-(4pentynoyl)neuraminic acid (CMP-SiaNAl), an unnatural CMP-sialic acid donor with an extended and functionalized N-acyl moiety. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  17. Presence of cytidine 5'-monophospho-N-acetylneuraminic acid:Gal beta 1-3GalNAc-R alpha(2-3)-sialyltransferase in normal human leukocytes and increased activity of this enzyme in granulocytes from chronic myelogenous leukemia patients. (United States)

    Baker, M A; Kanani, A; Brockhausen, I; Schachter, H; Hindenburg, A; Taub, R N


    We have examined granulocytes from patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and from normal subjects to determine whether activity of a specific sialyltransferase might account for the aberrant sialylation of O-linked membrane oligosaccharides in CML cells. Total membrane preparations of morphologically mature CML and normal granulocytes were tested for sialyltransferase activity using the substrates galactosyl-beta 1-3-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-alpha-O-nitrophenyl and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-alpha-phenyl. N-Acetyl-D-galactosamine-alpha-phenyl was not an acceptor with either CML or normal cells. With galactosyl-beta 1-3-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-alpha-O-nitrophenyl, sialyltransferase activity was 2.8 times higher in CML cells compared to normal cells. Product identification by high performance liquid chromatography showed that enzyme from both normal and CML granulocytes linked sialic acid to galactosyl-beta 1-3-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-R by the alpha(2-3) and not the alpha(2-6) linkage. The enzyme CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid: galactosyl-beta 1-3-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-R alpha(2-3)-sialyltransferase has not previously been described in human granulocytes. The marked increase in activity of this enzyme in CML and the resulting increase in sialylation may contribute to the pathophysiological behavior of CML granulocytes.

  18. Photobacterium sp. JT-ISH-224 produces two sialyltransferases, alpha-/beta-galactoside alpha2,3-sialyltransferase and beta-galactoside alpha2,6-sialyltransferase. (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Hiroshi; Takakura, Yoshimitsu; Mine, Toshiki; Yamamoto, Takeshi


    A novel bacterium, Photobacterium sp. JT-ISH-224, that produces alpha-/beta-galactoside alpha2,3-sialyltransferase and beta-galactoside alpha2,6-sialyltransferase, was isolated from the gut of a Japanese barracuda. The genes that encode the enzymes were cloned from the genomic library of the bacterium using the genes encoding alpha-/beta-galactoside alpha2,3-sialyltransferase from P. phosphoreum and beta-galactoside alpha2,6-sialyltransferase from P. damselae as probes. The nucleotide sequences were determined, and open reading frames of 1,230 and 1,545 bp for encoding an alpha2,3-sialyltransferase and an alpha2,6-sialyltransferase of 409- and 514-amino acid residues, respectively, were identified. The alpha2,3-sialyltransferase had 92% amino acid sequence identity with the P. phosphoreum alpha2,3-sialyltransferase, whereas the alpha2,6-sialyltransferase had 54% amino acid sequence identity with the P. damselae alpha2,6-sialyltransferase. For both enzymes, the DNA fragments that encoded the full-length protein and its truncated form lacking the putative signal peptide sequence were amplified by a polymerase chain reaction and cloned into an expression vector. Each gene was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the lysate from each strain had enzymatic activity. The alpha2,3-sialyltransferase catalysed the transfer of N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuAc) from CMP-NeuAc to lactose, alpha-methyl-galactopyranoside and beta-methyl-galactopyranoside with low apparent K(m) and the alpha2,6-sialyltransferase catalysed the transfer of NeuAc from CMP-NeuAc to lactose with low apparent K(m).

  19. Stable expression of human thyrotropin (hTSH) in mammalian cells (CHO) expressing {alpha}2,6 sialyltransferase; Expressao estavel tireotrofina humana (r-hTSH) em celulas de mamifero (CHO) que expressam {alpha}2,6 sialiltransferase

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    Damiani, Renata


    A CHO cell line, previously genetically modified by the introduction of rat {alpha}2,6-sialyltransferase cDNA, generated for the first time a human-like sialylated recombinant hTSH (hlsr-hTSH) more similar to the native hormone, with 61% of {alpha}2,3- and 39% of {alpha}2,6-linked sialic acid residues. The best clone, when submitted to gene amplification with up to 8 {mu}M methotrexate, presented a secretion level of {approx}2 {mu}g hTSH/10{sup 6} cells/day, useful for product purification and characterization. The relative molecular masses (M{sub r}) of the heterodimer and of the {alpha}- and {beta}-subunits of purified hlsr-hTSH, determined by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, and the relative hydrophobicities, determined by RP-HPLC, were not remarkably different from those presented by two r-hTSH preparations secreted by normal CHO cells. Some differences were observed, though, in N-glycan composition, with more tri- and much more tetra-sialylated structures in hlsr-hTSH. When analyzed via an in vivo bioassay based on hTSH-induced T{sub 4} release in mice, hlsr-hTSH was shown to be equipotent (p > 0.05) with the commercial preparation of r-hTSH (Thyrogen), and 1.5-fold more potent than native hTSH (p < 0.001). (author)

  20. Highly Substituted Cyclopentane-CMP Conjugates as Potent Sialyltransferase Inhibitors. (United States)

    Li, Wenming; Niu, Youhong; Xiong, De-Cai; Cao, Xiaoping; Ye, Xin-Shan


    Sialylconjugates on cell surfaces are involved in many biological events such as cellular recognition, signal transduction, and immune response. It has been reported that aberrant sialylation at the nonreducing end of glycoconjugates and overexpression of sialyltransferases (STs) in cells are correlated with the malignance, invasion, and metastasis of tumors. Therefore, inhibitors of STs would provide valuable leads for the discovery of antitumor drugs. On the basis of the transition state of the enzyme-catalyzed sialylation reaction, we proposed that the cyclopentane skeleton in its two puckered conformations might mimic the planar structure of the donor (CMP-Neu5Ac) in the transition state. A series of cyclopentane-containing compounds were designed and synthesized by coupling different cyclopentane α-hydroxyphosphonates with cytidine phosphoramidite. Their inhibitory activities against recombinant human ST6Gal-I were assayed, and a potent inhibitor 48l with a Ki of 0.028 ± 0.006 μM was identified. The results show that the cyclopentanoid-type compounds could become a new type of sialyltransferase inhibitors as biological probes or drug leads.

  1. Sialyltransferase activity probably counteracts that of sialidase as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sialyltransferase activity probably counteracts that of sialidase as one of the possible mechanisms of natural recovery or stabilization of erythrocyte mass in trypanosome-infected animals - A perspective.

  2. Sialylation by ?-galactoside ?-2,6-sialyltransferase and N-glycans regulate cell adhesion and invasion in human anaplastic large cell lymphoma


    Suzuki, Osamu; ABE, MASAFUMI; HASHIMOTO Yuko


    The interaction between cell surface glycans and extracellular matrix (ECM) including galectins is known to be closely associated with tumor cell adhesion, invasion and metastasis. We analyzed the roles of cell surface sialylation or glycosylation in galectin or ECM-mediated cell adhesion and invasion of human malignant lymphoma cells. Neuraminidase from Arthrobacter ureafaciens (AU) treatment resulted in reduction of cell adhesion to galectin-8 in human anaplastic large cell lymphoma (H-ALCL...

  3. A new assay for determining ganglioside sialyltransferase activities lactosylceramide-2,3-sialyltransferase (SAT I) and monosialylganglioside-2,3-sialyltransferase (SAT IV). (United States)

    Sun, Cynthia Q; Hubl, Ulrike; Hoefakker, Petra; Vasudevamurthy, Madhusudan K; Johnson, Keryn D


    A new assay for the determination of lactosylceramide-2,3-sialyltransferase (SAT I, EC and monosialoganglioside sialyltransferase (SAT IV, EC is described. The assay utilised the commercially available fluorophore labelled sphingolipids, boron dipyrromethene difluoride (BODIPY) lactosylceramide (LacCer), and BODIPY-monosialotetrahexosylganglioside (GM1) as the acceptor substrates, for SAT I and SAT IV, respectively. HPLC coupled with fluorescence detection was used to analyse product formation. The analysis was performed in a quick and automated fashion. The assay showed good linearity for both BODIPY sphingolipids with a quantitative detection limit of 0.05 pmol. The high sensitivity enabled the detection of SAT I and SAT IV activities as low as 0.001 μU, at least 200 fold lower than that of most radiometric assays. This new assay was applied to the screening of SAT I and SAT IV activities in ovine and bovine organs (liver, heart, kidney, and spleen). The results provided evidence that young animals, such as calves, start to produce ganglioside sialyltransferases as early as 7 days after parturition and that levels change during maturation. Among the organs tested from a bovine source, spleen had the highest specific ganglioside sialyltransferase activity. Due to the organ size, the greatest total ganglioside sialyltransferase activities (SAT I and SAT IV) were detected in the liver of both bovine and ovine origin.

  4. Sialylation regulates brain structure and function. (United States)

    Yoo, Seung-Wan; Motari, Mary G; Susuki, Keiichiro; Prendergast, Jillian; Mountney, Andrea; Hurtado, Andres; Schnaar, Ronald L


    Every cell expresses a molecularly diverse surface glycan coat (glycocalyx) comprising its interface with its cellular environment. In vertebrates, the terminal sugars of the glycocalyx are often sialic acids, 9-carbon backbone anionic sugars implicated in intermolecular and intercellular interactions. The vertebrate brain is particularly enriched in sialic acid-containing glycolipids termed gangliosides. Human congenital disorders of ganglioside biosynthesis result in paraplegia, epilepsy, and intellectual disability. To better understand sialoglycan functions in the nervous system, we studied brain anatomy, histology, biochemistry, and behavior in mice with engineered mutations in St3gal2 and St3gal3, sialyltransferase genes responsible for terminal sialylation of gangliosides and some glycoproteins. St3gal2/3 double-null mice displayed dysmyelination marked by a 40% reduction in major myelin proteins, 30% fewer myelinated axons, a 33% decrease in myelin thickness, and molecular disruptions at nodes of Ranvier. In part, these changes may be due to dysregulation of ganglioside-mediated oligodendroglial precursor cell proliferation. Neuronal markers were also reduced up to 40%, and hippocampal neurons had smaller dendritic arbors. Young adult St3gal2/3 double-null mice displayed impaired motor coordination, disturbed gait, and profound cognitive disability. Comparisons among sialyltransferase mutant mice provide insights into the functional roles of brain gangliosides and sialoglycoproteins consistent with related human congenital disorders. © FASEB.

  5. Human leukemic myeloblasts and myeloblastoid cells contain the enzyme cytidine 5'-monophosphate-N-acetylneuraminic acid:Gal beta 1-3GalNAc alpha (2-3)-sialyltransferase. (United States)

    Kanani, A; Sutherland, D R; Fibach, E; Matta, K L; Hindenburg, A; Brockhausen, I; Kuhns, W; Taub, R N; van den Eijnden, D H; Baker, M A


    We have examined the role of CMP-NeuAc:Gal beta 1-3GalNAc-R alpha(2-3)-sialyltransferase in fresh leukemia cells and leukemia-derived cell lines. Enzyme activity in normal granulocytes using Gal beta 1-3GalNAc alpha-o-nitrophenyl as substrate was 1.5 +/- 0.7 nmol/mg/h whereas activity in morphologically mature granulocytes from 6 patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) was 4.2 +/- 1.6 nmol/mg/h (P less than 0.05). Myeloblasts from 5 patients with CML in blast crisis showed enzyme activity levels of 6.5 +/- 2.5 nmol/mg/h. From 2 patients with CML, both blasts and granulocytes were obtained, with higher enzyme activity in the patients' blasts (7.1 nmol/mg/h) than in their granulocytes (4.9 nmol/mg/h) in both cases, suggesting that the increase in enzyme activity is related to the differentiation or proliferation status of the CML cells. However, similarly high enzyme levels were also seen in myeloblasts from acute myeloblastic leukemia patients (5.6 +/- 1.4 nmol/mg/h) and in some acute myeloblastic leukemia-derived cell lines (KG1a and HL60), suggesting that increased levels of this enzyme are not directly correlated with the presence of the Ph1 chromosome. This alpha(2-3)-sialyltransferase activity can also be detected in normal peripheral blood lymphocytes and exhibits increased activity in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. These data suggest that the level of enzyme activity may vary with growth rate and maturation status in myeloid and lymphoid hemopoietic cells. Finally, we have identified a glycoprotein in acute myeloblastic leukemia cells that serves as a substrate for the alpha(2-3)-sialyltransferase. The desialylated form of the glycoprotein was resialylated in vitro by the purified placental form of this alpha(2-3)-sialyltransferase and exhibits a molecular weight of about 150,000.

  6. Loss-of-function mutation in bi-functional marine bacterial sialyltransferase. (United States)

    Kajiwara, Hitomi; Katayama, Sakurako; Kakuta, Yoshimitsu; Okino, Nozomu; Ito, Makoto; Mine, Toshiki; Yamamoto, Takeshi


    An α2,3-sialyltransferase produced by Photobacterium phosphoreum JT-ISH-467 is a bi-functional enzyme showing both α2,3-sialyltransferase and α2,3-linkage specific sialidase activity. To date, the crystal structures of several sialyltransferases have been solved, but the roles of amino acid residues around the catalytic site have not been completely clarified. Hence we performed a mutational study using α2,3-sialyltransferase cloned from P. phosphoreum JT-ISH-467 as a model enzyme to study the role of the amino acid residues around the substrate-binding site. It was found that a mutation of the glutamic acid at position 342 in the sialyltransferase resulted in a loss of sialidase activity, although the mutant showed no decrease in sialyltransferase activity. Based on this result, it is strongly expected that the Glu342 of the enzyme is an important amino acid residue for sialidase activity.

  7. Role of sialic acid for platelet life span: exposure of beta-galactose results in the rapid clearance of platelets from the circulation by asialoglycoprotein receptor-expressing liver macrophages and hepatocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anne Louise; Rumjantseva, Viktoria; Nayeb-Hashemi, Sara


    Although surface sialic acid is considered a key determinant for the survival of circulating blood cells and glycoproteins, its role in platelet circulation lifetime is not fully clarified. We show that thrombocytopenia in mice deficient in the St3gal4 sialyltransferase gene (St3Gal-IV(-/-) mice)...

  8. Increased activity of a specific sialyltransferase in chronic myelogenous leukemia. (United States)

    Baker, M A; Taub, R N; Kanani, A; Brockhausen, I; Hindenburg, A


    Granulocytes from patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) are morphologically identical to their normal counterparts but show marked differences in circulation patterns and in some membrane properties. We have previously shown that there is abnormal lectin binding to CML granulocytes, and aberrant sialylation of membrane glycoproteins. To examine the changes in sialylation of CML granulocytes further, we have studied membrane preparations from CML and normal granulocytes for specific sialyltransferase activity. Because sialyltransferase enzymes are specific for the configuration of the acceptor group, enzyme activity was assayed by measuring transfer of sialic acid from CMP-14C-sialic acid to substrates of defined structure. As compared with those of normal counterparts, CML extracts catalyzed a 50% higher overall rate of sialylation of asialofetuin, a substrate possessing both N- and O-linked acceptors. Studies of enzyme specificity utilizing porcine and ovine submaxillary mucins, antifreeze glycoprotein and alpha-1 acid glycoprotein as acceptors showed that the increased sialylation by CML extracts was due primarily to substrates with the O-linked Gal beta 1----3GaINAc acceptor group. These data suggest that sialyltransferase activity is increased in CML granulocytes compared to normal granulocytes and that the increased enzyme activity is specific for O-linked Gal beta 1----3GaINAc. This enzyme activity may be directly responsible for the abnormal membrane sialylation and pathophysiological behavior of these cells.

  9. Modulating the regioselectivity of a Pasteurella multocida sialyltransferase for biocatalytic production of 3'- and 6'-sialyllactose. (United States)

    Guo, Yao; Jers, Carsten; Meyer, Anne S; Li, Haiying; Kirpekar, Finn; Mikkelsen, Jørn D


    Several bacterial sialyltransferases have been reported to be multifunctional also catalysing sialidase and trans-sialidase reactions. In this study, we examined the trans-sialylation efficacy and regioselectivity of mutants of the multifunctional Pasteurella multocida sialyltransferase (PmST) for catalysing the synthesis of 3'- and 6'-sialyllactose using casein glycomacropeptide as sialyl-donor and lactose as acceptor. The mutation P34H led to a 980-fold increase in α-2,6-sialyltransferase activity (with cytidine-5'-monophospho-N-acetylneuraminic acid as donor), while its α-2,3-sialyltransferase activity was abolished. Histidine in this position is conserved in α-2,6-sialyltransferases and has been suggested, and recently confirmed, to be the determinant for strict regiospecificity in the sialyltransferase reaction. Our data verified this theorem. In trans-sialidase reactions, the P34H mutant displayed a distinct preference for 6'-sialyllactose synthesis but low levels of 3'-sialyllactose were also produced. The sialyllactose yield was however lower than when using PmSTWT under optimal conditions for 6'-sialyllactose formation. The discrepancy in regiospecificity between the two reactions could indicate subtle differences in the substrate binding site in the two reactions. In contrast, the two mutations E271F and R313Y led to preferential synthesis of 3'-sialyllactose over 6'-sialyllactose and the double mutant (PmSTE271F/R313Y) exhibited the highest α-2,3-regioselectivity via reduced sialidase and α-2,6-trans-sialidase activity. The double mutant PmSTE271F/R313Y thus showed the highest α-2,3-regioselectivity and constitutes an interesting enzyme for regioselective synthesis of α-2,3-sialylated glycans. This study has expanded the understanding of the structure-function relationship of multifunctional, bacterial sialyltransferases and provided new enzymes for regioselective glycan sialylation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics Study of the Sialyltransferase Reaction Mechanism. (United States)

    Hamada, Yojiro; Kanematsu, Yusuke; Tachikawa, Masanori


    The sialyltransferase is an enzyme that transfers the sialic acid moiety from cytidine 5'-monophospho-N-acetyl-neuraminic acid (CMP-NeuAc) to the terminal position of glycans. To elucidate the catalytic mechanism of sialyltransferase, we explored the potential energy surface along the sialic acid transfer reaction coordinates by the hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics method on the basis of the crystal structure of sialyltransferase CstII. Our calculation demonstrated that CstII employed an S N 1-like reaction mechanism via the formation of a short-lived oxocarbenium ion intermediate. The computational barrier height was 19.5 kcal/mol, which reasonably corresponded with the experimental reaction rate. We also found that two tyrosine residues (Tyr156 and Tyr162) played a vital role in stabilizing the intermediate and the transition states by quantum mechanical interaction with CMP.

  11. CMP substitutions preferentially inhibit polysialic acid synthesis


    Miyazaki, Tatsuo; Angata, Kiyohiko; Seeberger, Peter H.; Hindsgaul, Ole; Fukuda, Minoru


    It is widely reported that derivatives of sugar moieties can be used to metabolically label cell surface carbohydrates or inhibit a particular glycosylation. However, few studies address the effect of substitution of the cytidylmonophosphate (CMP) portion on sialyltransferase activities. Here we first synthesized 2′-O-methyl CMP and 5-methyl CMP and then asked if these CMP derivatives are recognized by α2,3-sialyltransferases (ST3Gal-III and ST3Gal-IV), α2,6-sialyltransferase (ST6Gal-I), and ...

  12. Cigarette smoking alters sialylation in the Fallopian tube of women, with implications for the pathogenesis of ectopic pregnancy. (United States)

    Nio-Kobayashi, Junko; Abidin, Hazirah B Z; Brown, Jeremy K; Iwanaga, Toshihiko; Horne, Andrew W; Duncan, W Colin


    Sialylation creates a negative charge on the cell surface that can interfere with blastocyst implantation. For example, α2,6-sialylation on terminal galactose, catalyzed by the sialyltransferase ST6GAL1, inhibits the binding of galectin-1, a β-galactoside-binding lectin. We recently reported the potential involvement of galectin-1 and -3 in the pathogenesis of tubal ectopic pregnancy; however, the precise role of galectins and their ligand glycoconjugates remain unclear. Here, we investigated the expression of the genes encoding α2,3- and α2,6-galactoside sialyltransferases (ST3GAL1-6 and ST6GAL1-2) and the localization of sialic acids in the Fallopian tube of women with or without ectopic implantation. ST6GAL1 expression was higher in the mid-secretory phase than the proliferative phase of non-pregnant women (P < 0.0001), whereas ST6GAL1 (P < 0.0001), ST3GAL3 (P = 0.0029), ST3GAL5 (P = 0.0089), and ST3GAL6 (P = 0.0018) were all lower in Fallopian tubes with ectopic implantations. α2,3- and α2,6-sialic acids, however, both remained enriched on the surface of Fallopian tube epithelium. Cigarette smoking, a major risk factor for tubal ectopic pregnancy, was associated with reduced mid-secretory-phase expression of ST6GAL1 (P = 0.0298), but elevated expression of ST3GAL5 (P = 0.0006), an enzyme known to be involved in ciliogenesis. Indeed, sialic acid-containing ciliated inclusion cysts, which are associated with abnormal ciliogenesis, were observed within the epithelium at a higher frequency in women who smoked (P = 0.0177), suggesting that abnormal ciliogenesis is associated with smoking. Thus, cigarette smoking alters sialylation in the Fallopian tube epithelium, and is potentially a source of decreased tubal transport and increased receptivity for blastocyst in the human Fallopian tube. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 83: 1083-1091, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Modulating the regioselectivity of a Pasteurella multocida sialyltransferase for biocatalytic production of 3'- and 6'-sialyllactose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Yao; Jers, Carsten; Meyer, Anne S.


    ST) for catalysing the synthesis of 3'- and 6'-sialyllactose using casein glycomacropeptide as sialyl-donor and lactose as acceptor. The mutation P34H led to a 980-fold increase in α-2,6-sialyltransferase activity (with cytidine-5'-monophospho-N-acetylneuraminic acid as donor), while its α-2,3-sialyltransferase......Several bacterial sialyltransferases have been reported to be multifunctional also catalysing sialidase and trans-sialidase reactions. In this study, we examined the trans-sialylation efficacy and regioselectivity of mutants of the multifunctional Pasteurella multocida sialyltransferase (Pm...... and α-2,6-trans-sialidase activity. The double mutant PmSTE271F/R313Y thus showed the highest α-2,3-regioselectivity and constitutes an interesting enzyme for regioselective synthesis of α-2,3-sialylated glycans. This study has expanded the understanding of the structure-function relationship...

  14. CMP substitutions preferentially inhibit polysialic acid synthesis. (United States)

    Miyazaki, Tatsuo; Angata, Kiyohiko; Seeberger, Peter H; Hindsgaul, Ole; Fukuda, Minoru


    It is widely reported that derivatives of sugar moieties can be used to metabolically label cell surface carbohydrates or inhibit a particular glycosylation. However, few studies address the effect of substitution of the cytidylmonophosphate (CMP) portion on sialyltransferase activities. Here we first synthesized 2'-O-methyl CMP and 5-methyl CMP and then asked if these CMP derivatives are recognized by alpha2,3-sialyltransferases (ST3Gal-III and ST3Gal-IV), alpha2,6-sialyltransferase (ST6Gal-I), and alpha2,8-sialyltransferase (ST8Sia-II, ST8Sia-III, and ST8Sia-IV). We found that ST3Gal-III and ST3Gal-IV but not ST6Gal-I was inhibited by 2'-O-methyl CMP as potently as by CMP, while ST3Gal-III, ST3Gal-IV, and ST6Gal-I were moderately inhibited by 5-methyl CMP. Previously, it was reported that polysialyltransferase ST8Sia-II but not ST8Sia-IV was inhibited by CMP N-butylneuraminic acid. We found that ST8Sia-IV as well as ST8Sia-II and ST8Sia-III are inhibited by 2'-O-methyl CMP as robustly as by CMP and moderately by 5-methyl CMP. Moreover, the addition of CMP, 2'-O-methyl CMP, and 5-methyl CMP to the culture medium resulted in the decrease of polysialic acid expression on the cell surface and NCAM of Chinese hamster ovary cells. These results suggest that 2'-O-methyl CMP and 5-methyl CMP can be used to preferentially inhibit sialyltransferases, in particular, polysialyltransferases in vitro and in vivo. Such inhibition may be useful to determine the function of a carbohydrate synthesized by a specific sialyltransferase such as polysialyltransferase.

  15. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic characterization of the α2,6-sialyltransferase from Photobacterium sp. JT-ISH-224

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okino, Nozomu; Kakuta, Yoshimitsu, E-mail: [Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Bioresource and Bioenvironmental Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Kajiwara, Hitomi; Ichikawa, Masako; Takakura, Yoshimitsu [Glycotechnology Business Unit, Japan Tobacco Inc., 700 Higashibara, Iwata, Shizuoka 438-0802 (Japan); Ito, Makoto [Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Bioresource and Bioenvironmental Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Yamamoto, Takeshi, E-mail: [Glycotechnology Business Unit, Japan Tobacco Inc., 700 Higashibara, Iwata, Shizuoka 438-0802 (Japan); Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Bioresource and Bioenvironmental Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan)


    Crystallization of the α2,6-sialyltransferase from Photobacterium. Sialyltransferases transfer sialic acid from cytidine-5-monophospho-N-acetylneuraminic acid (CMP-NeuAc) to the nonreducing termini of the oligosaccharyl structures of various glycoproteins and glycolipids. The newly cloned α2,6-sialyltransferase from Photobacterium sp. JT-ISH-224 (from the Vibrionaceae family) is composed of two domains: an unknown N-terminal domain and a catalytic C-terminal domain which shares significant homology with the Pasteurella multocida multifunctional sialyltransferase. The putative mature form of JT-ISH-224 α2,6-sialyltransferase was overproduced in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 293 K. The crystal belonged to space group P3{sub 1}21 or P3{sub 2}21, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 90.29, c = 204.33 Å. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.5 Å resolution.

  16. Synthesis of CMP-9''-modified-sialic acids as donor substrate analogues for mammalian and bacterial sialyltransferases. (United States)

    Kajihara, Yasuhiro; Kamitani, Toshimi; Sato, Reiko; Kamei, Naoki; Miyazaki, Tatsuo; Okamoto, Ryo; Sakakibara, Thoru; Tsuji, Takashi; Yamamoto, Takeshi


    Cytidine-5'-monophospho-sialic acid (CMP-Neu5Ac) derivatives bearing a phenyl group in which the tether length between the phenyl group and the 9-position of Neu5Ac varied were synthesized and evaluated as substrates for sialyltransferases. In the synthesis of the compounds, a coupling reaction between methyl 5-acetamido-4,7,8-tri-O-acetyl-9-azido-3,5,9-trideoxy-beta-D-glycero-D-galacto-2-nonulopyranosonate and 2-cyanoethyl 2',3'-O,N4, triacetylcytidine-5'-yl N,N-diisopropylphosphoramidite was carried out and the phosphite derivative thus obtained was oxidized and then deprotected to yield CMP-9''-azido-Neu5Ac. Modification of the 9-amino group prepared by reduction of the azido groups was performed by the use of several phenyl-substituted alkylcarboxylic acid derivatives. Using these CMP-9''-modified-Neu5Ac analogues bearing the phenyl-substituted alkyl-amide group, sialyltransferase assays were performed with both rat liver alpha-(2-->6)-sialyltransferase and Photobacterium alpha-(2-->6)-sialyltransferase. These 9-modified analogues could be transferred to disaccharide acceptors, and a practical enzymatic synthesis using CMP-9''-modified-Neu5Ac yielded sialoside analogues and sialylglycoproteins in good yield. These experiments demonstrate that the Photobacterium sialyltransferase can be used in the synthesis of sialoside analogues having a large substituent at the 9-position of Neu5Ac.

  17. Cytidine 5'-monophosphate (CMP)-induced structural changes in a multifunctional sialyltransferase from Pasteurella multocida. (United States)

    Ni, Lisheng; Sun, Mingchi; Yu, Hai; Chokhawala, Harshal; Chen, Xi; Fisher, Andrew J


    Sialyltransferases catalyze reactions that transfer a sialic acid from CMP-sialic acid to an acceptor (a structure terminated with galactose, N-acetylgalactosamine, or sialic acid). They are key enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of sialic acid-containing oligosaccharides, polysaccharides, and glycoconjugates that play pivotal roles in many critical physiological and pathological processes. The structures of a truncated multifunctional Pasteurella multocida sialyltransferase (Delta24PmST1), in the absence and presence of CMP, have been determined by X-ray crystallography at 1.65 and 2.0 A resolutions, respectively. The Delta24PmST1 exists as a monomer in solution and in crystals. Different from the reported crystal structure of a bifunctional sialyltransferase CstII that has only one Rossmann domain, the overall structure of the Delta24PmST1 consists of two separate Rossmann nucleotide-binding domains. The Delta24PmST1 structure, thus, represents the first sialyltransferase structure that belongs to the glycosyltransferase-B (GT-B) structural group. Unlike all other known GT-B structures, however, there is no C-terminal extension that interacts with the N-terminal domain in the Delta24PmST1 structure. The CMP binding site is located in the deep cleft between the two Rossmann domains. Nevertheless, the CMP only forms interactions with residues in the C-terminal domain. The binding of CMP to the protein causes a large closure movement of the N-terminal Rossmann domain toward the C-terminal nucleotide-binding domain. Ser 143 of the N-terminal domain moves up to hydrogen-bond to Tyr 388 of the C-terminal domain. Both Ser 143 and Tyr 388 form hydrogen bonds to a water molecule, which in turn hydrogen-bonds to the terminal phosphate oxygen of CMP. These interactions may trigger the closure between the two domains. Additionally, a short helix near the active site seen in the apo structure becomes disordered upon binding to CMP. This helix may swing down upon binding to

  18. Alpha 1,3-Galactosyltransferase Deficiency in Pigs Increases Sialyltransferase Activities That Potentially Raise Non-Gal Xenoantigenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Yi Park


    Full Text Available We examined whether deficiency of the GGTA1 gene in pigs altered the expression of several glycosyltransferase genes. Real-time RT-PCR and glycosyltransferase activity showed that 2 sialyltransferases [α2,3-sialyltransferase (α2,3ST and α2,6-sialyltransferase (α2,6ST] in the heterozygote GalT KO liver have higher expression levels and activities compared to controls. Enzyme-linked lectin assays indicated that there were also more sialic acid-containing glycoconjugate epitopes in GalT KO livers than in controls. The elevated level of sialic-acid-containing glycoconjugate epitopes was due to the low level of α-Gal in heterozygote GalT KO livers. Furthermore, proteomics analysis showed that heterozygote GalT KO pigs had a higher expression of NAD+-isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH, which is related to the CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase (CMAH enzyme reaction. These findings suggest the deficiency of GGTA1 gene in pigs results in increased production of N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc due to an increase of α2,6-sialyltransferase and a CMAH cofactor, NAD+-IDH. This indicates that Neu5Gc may be a critical xenoantigen. The deletion of the CMAH gene in the GalT KO background is expected to further prolong xenograft survival.

  19. Crystal structure of alpha/beta-galactoside alpha2,3-sialyltransferase from a luminous marine bacterium, Photobacterium phosphoreum. (United States)

    Iwatani, Toru; Okino, Nozomu; Sakakura, Mai; Kajiwara, Hitomi; Takakura, Yoshimitsu; Kimura, Makoto; Ito, Makoto; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Kakuta, Yoshimitsu


    Alpha/beta-galactoside alpha2,3-sialyltransferase produced by Photobacterium phosphoreum JT-ISH-467 is a unique enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of N-acetylneuraminic acid residue from cytidine monophosphate N-acetylneuraminic acid to acceptor carbohydrate groups. The enzyme recognizes both mono- and di-saccharides as acceptor substrates, and can transfer Neu5Ac to both alpha-galactoside and beta-galactoside, efficiently. To elucidate the structural basis for the broad acceptor substrate specificity, we determined the crystal structure of the alpha2,3-sialyltransferase in complex with CMP. The overall structure belongs to the glycosyltransferase-B structural group. We could model a reasonable active conformation structure based on the crystal structure. The predicted structure suggested that the broad substrate specificity could be attributed to the wider entrance of the acceptor substrate binding site.

  20. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) host cell engineering to increase sialylation of recombinant therapeutic proteins by modulating sialyltransferase expression. (United States)

    Lin, Nan; Mascarenhas, Joaquina; Sealover, Natalie R; George, Henry J; Brooks, Jeanne; Kayser, Kevin J; Gau, Brian; Yasa, Isil; Azadi, Parastoo; Archer-Hartmann, Stephanie


    N-Glycans of human proteins possess both α2,6- and α2,3-linked terminal sialic acid (SA). Recombinant glycoproteins produced in Chinese hamster overy (CHO) only have α2,3-linkage due to the absence of α2,6-sialyltransferase (St6gal1) expression. The Chinese hamster ST6GAL1 was successfully overexpressed using a plasmid expression vector in three recombinant immunoglobulin G (IgG)-producing CHO cell lines. The stably transfected cell lines were enriched for ST6GAL1 overexpression using FITC-Sambucus nigra (SNA) lectin that preferentially binds α2,6-linked SA. The presence of α2,6-linked SA was confirmed using a novel LTQ Linear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry (LTQ MS) method including MSn fragmentation in the enriched ST6GAL1 Clone 27. Furthermore, the total SA (mol/mol) in IgG produced by the enriched ST6GAL1 Clone 27 increased by 2-fold compared to the control. For host cell engineering, the CHOZN(®) GS host cell line was transfected and enriched for ST6GAL1 overexpression. Single-cell clones were derived from the enriched population and selected based on FITC-SNA staining and St6gal1 expression. Two clones ("ST6GAL1 OE Clone 31 and 32") were confirmed for the presence of α2,6-linked SA in total host cell protein extracts. ST6GAL1 OE Clone 32 was subsequently used to express SAFC human IgG1. The recombinant IgG expressed in this host cell line was confirmed to have α2,6-linked SA and increased total SA content. In conclusion, overexpression of St6gal1 is sufficient to produce recombinant proteins with increased sialylation and more human-like glycoprofiles without combinatorial engineering of other sialylation pathway genes. This work represents our ongoing effort of glycoengineering in CHO host cell lines for the development of "bio-better" protein therapeutics and cell culture vaccine production. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  1. Lassa virus entry requires a trigger-induced receptor switch (United States)

    Jae, Lucas T.; Raaben, Matthijs; Herbert, Andrew S.; Kuehne, Ana I.; Wirchnianski, Ariel S.; Soh, Timothy; Stubbs, Sarah H.; Janssen, Hans; Damme, Markus; Saftig, Paul; Whelan, Sean P.; Dye, John M.; Brummelkamp, Thijn R.


    Lassa virus spreads from rodents to humans and can lead to lethal hemorrhagic fever. Despite its broad tropism, chicken cells were reported to resist infection thirty years ago. We show that Lassa virus readily engaged its cell surface receptor α-dystroglycan in avian cells, but virus entry in susceptible species involved a pH-dependent switch to an intracellular receptor, the lysosome-resident protein LAMP1. Iterative haploid screens revealed that the sialyltransferase ST3GAL4 was required for the interaction of the virus glycoprotein with LAMP1. A single glycosylated residue in LAMP1, present in susceptible species but absent in birds, was essential for interaction with the Lassa virus envelope protein and subsequent infection. The resistance of Lamp1-deficient mice to Lassa virus highlights the relevance of this receptor switch in vivo. PMID:24970085

  2. Virus entry. Lassa virus entry requires a trigger-induced receptor switch. (United States)

    Jae, Lucas T; Raaben, Matthijs; Herbert, Andrew S; Kuehne, Ana I; Wirchnianski, Ariel S; Soh, Timothy K; Stubbs, Sarah H; Janssen, Hans; Damme, Markus; Saftig, Paul; Whelan, Sean P; Dye, John M; Brummelkamp, Thijn R


    Lassa virus spreads from a rodent to humans and can lead to lethal hemorrhagic fever. Despite its broad tropism, chicken cells were reported 30 years ago to resist infection. We found that Lassa virus readily engaged its cell-surface receptor α-dystroglycan in avian cells, but virus entry in susceptible species involved a pH-dependent switch to an intracellular receptor, the lysosome-resident protein LAMP1. Iterative haploid screens revealed that the sialyltransferase ST3GAL4 was required for the interaction of the virus glycoprotein with LAMP1. A single glycosylated residue in LAMP1, present in susceptible species but absent in birds, was essential for interaction with the Lassa virus envelope protein and subsequent infection. The resistance of Lamp1-deficient mice to Lassa virus highlights the relevance of this receptor switch in vivo. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  3. Mechanistic study of CMP-Neu5Ac hydrolysis by α2,3-sialyltransferase from Pasteurella dagmatis. (United States)

    Schmölzer, Katharina; Luley-Goedl, Christiane; Czabany, Tibor; Ribitsch, Doris; Schwab, Helmut; Weber, Hansjörg; Nidetzky, Bernd


    Bacterial sialyltransferases of the glycosyltransferase family GT-80 exhibit pronounced hydrolase activity toward CMP-activated sialyl donor substrates. Using in situ proton NMR, we show that hydrolysis of CMP-Neu5Ac by Pasteurella dagmatis α2,3-sialyltransferase (PdST) occurs with axial-to-equatorial inversion of the configuration at the anomeric center to release the α-Neu5Ac product. We propose a catalytic reaction through a single displacement-like mechanism where water replaces the sugar substrate as a sialyl group acceptor. PdST variants having His(284) in the active site replaced by Asn, Asp or Tyr showed up to 10(4)-fold reduced activity, but catalyzed CMP-Neu5Ac hydrolysis with analogous inverting stereochemistry. The proposed catalytic role of His(284) in the PdST hydrolase mechanism is to facilitate the departure of the CMP leaving group. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. α-2,3-sialyltransferase expression level impacts the kinetics of lipooligosaccharide sialylation, complement resistance, and the ability of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to colonize the murine genital tract. (United States)

    Lewis, Lisa A; Gulati, Sunita; Burrowes, Elizabeth; Zheng, Bo; Ram, Sanjay; Rice, Peter A


    Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae modify the terminal lacto-N-neotetraose moiety of their lipooligosaccharide (LOS) with sialic acid. N. gonorrhoeae LOS sialylation blocks killing by complement, which is mediated at least in part by enhanced binding of the complement inhibitor factor H (FH). The role of LOS sialylation in resistance of N. meningitidis to serum killing is less well defined. Sialylation in each species is catalyzed by the enzyme LOS α-2,3-sialyltransferase (Lst). Previous studies have shown increased Lst activity in N. gonorrhoeae compared to N. meningitidis due to an ~5-fold increase in lst transcription. Using isogenic N. gonorrhoeae strains engineered to express gonococcal lst from either the N. gonorrhoeae or N. meningitidis lst promoter, we show that decreased expression of lst (driven by the N. meningitidis promoter) reduced LOS sialylation as determined by less incorporation of tritium-labeled cytidine monophospho-N-acetylneuraminic acid (CMP-NANA; the donor molecule for sialic acid). Diminished LOS sialylation resulted in reduced rates of FH binding and increased pathway activation compared to N. gonorrhoeae promoter-driven lst expression. The N. meningitidis lst promoter generated sufficient Lst to sialylate N. gonorrhoeae LOS in vivo, and the level of sialylation after 24 h in the mouse genital tract was sufficient to mediate resistance to human serum ex vivo. Despite demonstrable LOS sialylation in vivo, gonococci harboring the N. meningitidis lst promoter were outcompeted by those with the N. gonorrhoeae lst promoter during coinfection of the vaginal tract of estradiol-treated mice. These data highlight the importance of high lst expression levels for gonococcal pathogenesis. Neisseria gonorrhoeae has become resistant to nearly every therapeutic antibiotic used and is listed as an "urgent threat" by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Novel therapies are needed to combat drug

  5. A Pasteurella multocida sialyltransferase displaying dual trans-sialidase activities for production of 3'-sialyl and 6'-sialyl glycans. (United States)

    Guo, Yao; Jers, Carsten; Meyer, Anne S; Arnous, Anis; Li, Haiying; Kirpekar, Finn; Mikkelsen, Jørn D


    This study examined a recombinant Pasteurella multocida sialyltransferase exhibiting dual trans-sialidase activities. The enzyme catalyzed trans-sialylation using either 2-O-(p-nitrophenyl)-α-d-N-acetylneuraminic acid or casein glycomacropeptide (whey protein) as the sialyl donor and lactose as the acceptor, resulting in production of both 3'-sialyllactose and 6'-sialyllactose. This is the first study reporting α-2,6-trans-sialidase activity of this sialyltransferase (EC and A response surface design was used to evaluate the effects of three reaction parameters (pH, temperature, and lactose concentration) on enzymatic production of 3'- and 6'-sialyllactoses using 5% (w/v) casein glycomacropeptide (equivalent to 9mM bound sialic acid) as the donor. The maximum yield of 3'-sialyllactose (2.75±0.35mM) was achieved at a reaction condition with pH 6.4, 40°C, 100mM lactose after 6h; and the largest concentration of 6'-sialyllactose (3.33±0.38mM) was achieved under a condition with pH 5.4, 40°C, 100mM lactose after 8h. 6'-sialyllactose was presumably formed from α-2,3 bound sialic acid in the casein glycomacropeptide as well as from 3'-sialyllactose produced in the reaction. The kcat/Km value for the enzyme using 3'-sialyllactose as the donor for 6'-sialyllactose synthesis at pH 5.4 and 40°C was determined to be 23.22±0.7M(-1)s(-1). Moreover, the enzyme was capable of catalyzing the synthesis of both 3'- and 6'-sialylated galactooligosaccharides, when galactooligosaccharides served as acceptors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. NMR spectroscopic characterization of the sialyltransferase CstII from Campylobacter jejuni: histidine 188 is the general base. (United States)

    Chan, Patrick H W; Lairson, Luke L; Lee, Ho Jun; Wakarchuk, Warren W; Strynadka, Natalie C J; Withers, Stephen G; McIntosh, Lawrence P


    Cell surface glycans are often terminated by sialic acid, which is incorporated onto sugar acceptors by sialyltransferases. The crystal structure of the GT family 42 Campylobacter jejuni alpha-2,3/2,8-sialyltransferase (CstII) provides key insights into the sialyl-transfer mechanism, including tentative identification of His188 as the catalytic base. In support of this hypothesis, the CstII-H188A mutant is able to catalyze sialyl transfer from CMP-Neu5Ac to added anions such as azide and formate but not to its natural sugar acceptor lactose. Complementing this work, NMR spectroscopy was used to investigate the structure and dynamics of CstII and to measure the intrinsic pK(a) value of His188 for comparison with the pK(a) determined from the pH-dependent k(cat)/K(M) of the enzyme. By systematically introducing point mutations at the subunit interfaces, two active monomeric variants, CstII-F121D and CstII-Y125Q, were obtained and characterized. In contrast to the wild-type tetramer, the monomeric CstII variants yielded good quality (1)H/(15)N-HSQC and (1)H/(13)C-methyl-TROSY NMR spectra. However, the absence of signals from approximately one-half of the amides in the (1)H/(15)N-HSQC spectra of both monomeric forms suggests that the enzyme undergoes substantial conformational exchange on a millisecond to microsecond time scale. The histidine pK(a) values of CstII-F121D in its apo form were measured by monitoring the pH-dependent chemical shifts of [(13)C(epsilon1)]histidine, biosynthetically incorporated into the otherwise uniformly deuterated protein. Consistent with its proposed catalytic role, the site-specific pK(a) value approximately 6.6 of His188 matches the apparent pK(a) value approximately 6.5 governing the pH dependence of k(cat)/K(M) for CstII toward CMP-Neu5Ac in the presence of saturating acceptor substrate.

  7. Purification, cloning, and expression of an alpha/beta-galactoside alpha-2,3-sialyltransferase from a luminous marine bacterium, Photobacterium phosphoreum. (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Hiroshi; Takakura, Yoshimitsu; Yamamoto, Takeshi


    A novel sialyltransferase, alpha/beta-galactoside alpha-2,3-sialyltransferase, was purified from the cell lysate of a luminous marine bacterium, Photobacterium phosphoreum JT-ISH-467, isolated from the Japanese common squid (Todarodes pacificus). The gene encoding the enzyme was cloned from the genomic library of the bacterium using probes derived from the NH(2)-terminal and internal amino acid sequences. An open reading frame of 409 amino acids was identified, and the sequence had 32% identity with that of beta-galactoside alpha-2,6-sialyltrasferase in Photobacterium damselae JT0160. DNA fragments that encoded the full-length protein and a protein that lacked the sequence between the 2nd and 24th residues at the NH(2) terminus were amplified by polymerase chain reactions and cloned into an expression vector. The full-length and truncated proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli, producing active enzymes of 0.25 and 305 milliunits, respectively, per milliliter of the medium in the lysate of E. coli. The truncated enzyme was much more soluble without detergent than the full-length enzyme. The enzyme catalyzed the transfer of N-acetylneuraminic acid from CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid to disaccharides, such as lactose and N-acetyllactosamine, with low apparent K(m) and to monosaccharides, such as alpha-methyl-galactopyranoside and beta-methyl-galactopyranoside, with much lower apparent K(m). Thus, this sialyltransferase is unique and should be very useful for achieving high productivity in E. coli with a wide substrate range.

  8. Combinatorial genome and protein engineering yields monoclonal antibodies with hypergalactosylation from CHO cells. (United States)

    Chung, Cheng-Yu; Wang, Qiong; Yang, Shuang; Ponce, Sean A; Kirsch, Brian J; Zhang, Hui; Betenbaugh, Michael J


    One of the key quality attributes of monoclonal antibodies is the glycan pattern and distribution. Two terminal galactose residues typically represent a small fraction of the total glycans from antibodies. However, antibodies with defined glycosylation properties including enhanced galactosylation have been shown to exhibit altered properties for these important biomedical modalities. In this study, the disruption of two α-2,3 sialyltransferases (ST3GAL4 and ST3GAL6) from Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells was combined with protein engineering of the Fc region to generate an IgG containing 80% bigalactosylated and fucosylated (G2F) glycoforms. Expression of the same single amino acid mutant (F241A) IgG in CHO cells with a triple gene knockout of fucosyltransferase (FUT8) plus ST3GAL4 and ST3GAL6 lowered the galactosylation glycoprofile to 65% bigalactosylated G2 glycans. However, overexpression of IgGs with four amino acid substitutions recovered the G2 glycoform composition approximately 80%. Combining genome and protein engineering in CHO cells will provide a new antibody production platform that enables biotechnologists to generate glycoforms standards for specific biomedical and biotechnology applications. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. The α2,3-sialyltransferase encoded by myxoma virus is a virulence factor that contributes to immunosuppression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bérengère Boutard

    Full Text Available Myxoma virus (MYXV induces a lethal disease called Myxomatosis in European rabbits. MYXV is one of the rare viruses that encodes an α2,3-sialyltransferase through its M138L gene. In this study, we showed that although the absence of the enzyme was not associated with any in vitro deficit, the M138L deficient strains are highly attenuated in vivo. Indeed, while all rabbits infected with the parental and the revertant strains died within 9 days post-infection from severe myxomatosis, all but one rabbit inoculated with the M138L deficient strains survived the infection. In primary lesions, this resistance to the infection was associated with an increased ability of innate immune cells, mostly neutrophils, to migrate to the site of virus replication at 4 days post-infection. This was followed by the development of a better specific immune response against MYXV. Indeed, at day 9 post-infection, we observed an important proliferation of lymphocytes and an intense congestion of blood vessels in lymph nodes after M138L knockouts infection. Accordingly, in these rabbits, we observed an intense mononuclear cell infiltration throughout the dermis in primary lesions and higher titers of neutralizing antibodies. Finally, this adaptive immune response provided protection to these surviving rabbits against a challenge with the MYXV WT strain. Altogether, these results show that expression of the M138L gene contributes directly or indirectly to immune evasion by MYXV. In the future, these results could help us to better understand the pathogenesis of myxomatosis but also the importance of glycans in regulation of immune responses.

  10. The α2,3-sialyltransferase encoded by myxoma virus is a virulence factor that contributes to immunosuppression. (United States)

    Boutard, Bérengère; Vankerckhove, Sophie; Markine-Goriaynoff, Nicolas; Sarlet, Mickaël; Desmecht, Daniel; McFadden, Grant; Vanderplasschen, Alain; Gillet, Laurent


    Myxoma virus (MYXV) induces a lethal disease called Myxomatosis in European rabbits. MYXV is one of the rare viruses that encodes an α2,3-sialyltransferase through its M138L gene. In this study, we showed that although the absence of the enzyme was not associated with any in vitro deficit, the M138L deficient strains are highly attenuated in vivo. Indeed, while all rabbits infected with the parental and the revertant strains died within 9 days post-infection from severe myxomatosis, all but one rabbit inoculated with the M138L deficient strains survived the infection. In primary lesions, this resistance to the infection was associated with an increased ability of innate immune cells, mostly neutrophils, to migrate to the site of virus replication at 4 days post-infection. This was followed by the development of a better specific immune response against MYXV. Indeed, at day 9 post-infection, we observed an important proliferation of lymphocytes and an intense congestion of blood vessels in lymph nodes after M138L knockouts infection. Accordingly, in these rabbits, we observed an intense mononuclear cell infiltration throughout the dermis in primary lesions and higher titers of neutralizing antibodies. Finally, this adaptive immune response provided protection to these surviving rabbits against a challenge with the MYXV WT strain. Altogether, these results show that expression of the M138L gene contributes directly or indirectly to immune evasion by MYXV. In the future, these results could help us to better understand the pathogenesis of myxomatosis but also the importance of glycans in regulation of immune responses.

  11. Spin-labeled analogs of CMP-NeuAc as NMR probes of the alpha-2,6-sialyltransferase ST6Gal I. (United States)

    Liu, Shan; Venot, Andre; Meng, Lu; Tian, Fang; Moremen, Kelley W; Boons, Geert-Jan; Prestegard, James H


    Structural data on mammalian proteins are often difficult to obtain by conventional NMR approaches because of an inability to produce samples with uniform isotope labeling in bacterial expression hosts. Proteins with sparse isotope labels can be produced in eukaryotic hosts by using isotope-labeled forms of specific amino acids, but structural analysis then requires information from experiments other than nuclear Overhauser effects. One source of alternate structural information is distance-dependent perturbation of spin relaxation times by nitroxide spin-labeled analogs of natural protein ligands. Here, we introduce spin-labeled analogs of sugar nucleotide donors for sialyltransferases, specifically, CMP-TEMPO (CMP-4-O-[2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl]) and CMP-4carboxyTEMPO (CMP-4-O-[4-carboxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinine-1-oxyl]). An ability to identify resonances from active site residues and produce distance constraints is illustrated on a (15)N phenylalanine-labeled version of the structurally uncharacterized, alpha-2,6-linked sialyltransferase, ST6Gal I.

  12. Active-Site His85 of Pasteurella dagmatis Sialyltransferase Facilitates Productive Sialyl Transfer and So Prevents Futile Hydrolysis of CMP-Neu5Ac. (United States)

    Schmölzer, Katharina; Eibinger, Manuel; Nidetzky, Bernd


    Sialyltransferases of the GT-80 glycosyltransferase family are considered multifunctional because of the array of activities detected. They exhibit glycosyl transfer, trans-sialylation, and hydrolysis activities. How these enzymes utilize their active-site residues in balancing the different enzymatic activities is not well understood. In this study of Pasteurella dagmatis α2,3sialyltransferase, we show that the conserved His85 controls efficiency and selectivity of the sialyl transfer. A His85→Asn variant was 200 times less efficient than wild-type for sialylation of lactose, and exhibited relaxed site selectivity to form not only the α2,3- but also the α2,6-sialylated product (21 %). The H85N variant was virtually inactive in trans-sialylation but showed almost the same CMP-Neu5Ac hydrolase activity as wild-type. The competition between sialyl transfer and hydrolysis in the conversion of CMP-Neu5Ac was dependent on the lactose concentration; this was characterized by a kinetic partition ratio of 85 m-1 for the H85N variant, compared to 17 000 m-1 for the wild-type enzyme. His85 promotes the productive sialyl transfer to lactose and so prevents hydrolysis of CMP-Neu5Ac in the reaction. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Glycomic analysis of gastric carcinoma cells discloses glycans as modulators of RON receptor tyrosine kinase activation in cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mereiter, Stefan; Magalhães, Ana; Adamczyk, Barbara


    gastric carcinoma cells transfected with the sialyltransferase ST3GAL4 were established as a model overexpressing sialylated terminal glycans. We have evaluated at the structural level the glycome and the sialoproteome of this gastric cancer cell line applying liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry...... known to be key players in malignancy. Further analysis of RON confirmed its modification with SLe(X) and the concomitant activation. SLe(X) and RON co-expression was validated in gastric tumors. CONCLUSION: The overexpression of ST3GAL4 interferes with the overall glycophenotype of cancer cells...... affecting a multitude of key proteins involved in malignancy. Aberrant glycosylation of the RON receptor was shown as an alternative mechanism of oncogenic activation. GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides novel targets and points to an integrative tumor glycomic/proteomic-profiling for gastric cancer...

  14. A Pasteurella multocida sialyltransferase displaying dual trans-sialidase activities for production of 3′-sialyl and 6′-sialyl glycans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Yao; Jers, Carsten; Meyer, Anne S.


    tThis study examined a recombinant Pasteurella multocida sialyltransferase exhibiting dual trans-sialidase activities. The enzyme catalyzed trans-sialylation using either 2-O-(p-nitrophenyl)--d-N-acetylneuraminic acid or casein glycomacropeptide (whey protein) as the sialyl donor and lactose asthe......, andlactose concentration) on enzymatic production of 3- and 6-sialyllactoses using 5% (w/v) casein glyco-macropeptide (equivalent to 9 mM bound sialic acid) as the donor. The maximum yield of 3-sialyllactose(2.75 ± 0.35 mM) was achieved at a reaction condition with pH 6.4, 40◦C, 100 mM lactose after 6 h......; andthe largest concentration of 6-sialyllactose (3.33 ± 0.38 mM) was achieved under a condition with pH5.4, 40◦C, 100 mM lactose after 8 h. 6-sialyllactose was presumably formed from -2,3 bound sialic acidin the casein glycomacropeptide as well as from 3-sialyllactose produced in the reaction. The kcat...

  15. Milk oligosaccharide sialyl(α2,3)lactose activates intestinal CD11c+ cells through TLR4. (United States)

    Kurakevich, Ekaterina; Hennet, Thierry; Hausmann, Martin; Rogler, Gerhard; Borsig, Lubor


    Breast milk oligosaccharides shape the intestinal environment by affecting mucosal immunity and bacterial colonization. To clarify the role of milk oligosaccharide sialyl(α2,3)lactose (3SL) in intestinal physiology and disease, we investigated colitis development in Il10(-/-) mice exposed to normal or 3SL-deficient milk during lactation. Onset and progression of intestinal inflammation were delayed in Il10(-/-) mice deficient for the α2,3 sialyltransferase 4 (ST3GAL4) responsible for 3SL biosynthesis. The proinflammatory role of 3SL was confirmed by showing that oral supplementation of newborn Il10(-/-);St3gal4(-/-) mice with 3SL increased colitis severity. Conversely, fostering of newborn Il10(-/-) mice to lactating St3gal4(-/-) mothers reduced colitis severity. 3SL directly stimulated mesenteric lymph node CD11c(+) dendritic cells and induced production of cytokines required for expansion of TH1 and TH17 T cells. The stimulatory effect of 3SL was attenuated in Tlr4-deficient CD11c(+) cells, demonstrating that 3SL induces inflammation through Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling. Thus, 3SL directly modulates mucosal immunity, which increases susceptibility to colitis.

  16. Synthesis of sialoglycopolypeptide for potentially blocking influenza virus infection using a rat α2,6-sialyltransferase expressed in BmNPV bacmid-injected silkworm larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogata Makoto


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sialic acid is a deoxy uronic acid with a skeleton of nine carbons which is mostly found on cell surface in animals. This sialic acid on cell surface performs various biological functions by acting as a receptor for microorganisms, viruses, toxins, and hormones; by masking receptors; and by regulating the immune system. In order to synthesize an artificial sialoglycoprotein, we developed a large-scale production of rat α2,6-sialyltransferase (ST6Gal1. The ST6Gal1 was expressed in fifth instar silkworm larval hemolymph using recombinant both cysteine protease- and chitinase-deficient Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV-CP--Chi- bacmid. The expressed ST6Gal1 was purified, characterized and used for sialylation of asialoglycopolypeptide. We tested the inhibitory effect of the synthesized α2,6-sialoglycopolypeptide on hemagglutination by Sambucus nigra (SNA lectin. Results FLAG-tagged recombinant ST6Gal1 was expressed efficiently and purified by precipitation with ammonium sulphate followed by affinity chromatography on an anti-FLAG M2 column, generating 2.2 mg purified fusion protein from only 11 silkworm larvae, with a recovery yield of 64%. The purified ST6Gal1 was characterized and its N-glycan patterns were found to be approximately paucimannosidic type by HPLC mapping method. Fluorescently-labelled N-acetyllactosamine (LacNAc glycoside containing dansyl group was synthesized chemo-enzymatically as high-sensitivity acceptor substrate for ST6Gal1. The acceptor substrate specificity of the enzyme was similar to that of rat liver ST6Gal1. The fluorescent glycoside is useful as a substrate for a highly sensitive picomole assay of ST6Gal1. Asialoglycopolypeptide was regioselectively and quantitatively sialylated by catalytic reaction at the terminal Gal residue to obtain α2,6-sialoglycopolypeptide using ST6Gal1. The α2,6-sialoglycopolypeptide selectively inhibited hemagglutination induced by Sambucus nigra (SNA lectin

  17. ST6Gal-I sialyltransferase promotes tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-mediated cancer cell survival via sialylation of the TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) death receptor. (United States)

    Holdbrooks, Andrew T; Britain, Colleen M; Bellis, Susan L


    Activation of the tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) death receptor by TNF induces either cell survival or cell death. However, the mechanisms mediating these distinct outcomes remain poorly understood. In this study, we report that the ST6Gal-I sialyltransferase, an enzyme up-regulated in numerous cancers, sialylates TNFR1 and thereby protects tumor cells from TNF-induced apoptosis. Using pancreatic and ovarian cancer cells with ST6Gal-I knockdown or overexpression, we determined that α2-6 sialylation of TNFR1 had no effect on early TNF-induced signaling events, including the rapid activation of NF-κB, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and Akt (occurring within 15 min). However, upon extended TNF treatment (6-24 h), cells with high ST6Gal-I levels exhibited resistance to TNF-induced apoptosis, as indicated by morphological evidence of cell death and decreased activation of caspases 8 and 3. Correspondingly, at these later time points, high ST6Gal-I expressers displayed sustained activation of the survival molecules Akt and NF-κB. Additionally, extended TNF treatment resulted in the selective enrichment of clonal variants with high ST6Gal-I expression, further substantiating a role for ST6Gal-I in cell survival. Given that TNFR1 internalization is known to be essential for apoptosis induction, whereas survival signaling is initiated by TNFR1 at the plasma membrane, we examined TNFR1 localization. The α2-6 sialylation of TNFR1 was found to inhibit TNF-induced TNFR1 internalization. Thus, by restraining TNFR1 at the cell surface via sialylation, ST6Gal-I acts as a functional switch to divert signaling toward survival. These collective findings point to a novel glycosylation-dependent mechanism that regulates the cellular response to TNF and may promote cancer cell survival within TNF-rich tumor microenvironments. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Aberrant SSEA-4 upregulation mediates myofibroblast activity to promote pre-cancerous oral submucous fibrosis (United States)

    Yu, Cheng-Chia; Yu, Chuan-Hang; Chang, Yu-Chao


    Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF), regarded as a precancerous condition, is characterized by juxta-epithelial inflammatory reaction followed by fibro-elastic change in the lamina properia and epithelial atrophy. The pathologic mechanisms of OSF still need to be further clarified. In the study, we investigated the functional expression of SSEA-4, which is a well-known stemness marker, in myofibroblast activity and the clinical significance in OSF tissues. The expression of SSEA-4 in OSF was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining. Functional analysis of SSEA-4 on myofibroblast activity of OSF was achieved by lentiviral silencing ST3GAL2. Immunohisitochemistry demonstrated that SSEA-4 expression was significantly higher expression in areca quid chewing-associated OSF tissues than those of normal oral mucosa tissues. From flow cytometry analysis, arecoline dose-dependently activated SSEA-4 expression in primary human normal buccal mucosal fibroblasts (BMFs). Sorted SSEA-4-positive cells from fibrotic BMFs (fBMFs) have higher colony-forming unit, collagen gel contraction, and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression than SSEA-4-negative subset. Knockdown of ST3GAL2 in fBMFs suppressed SSEA-4 expression, collagen contraction, migration, invasiveness, and wound healing capability. Consistently, silencing ST3GAL2 was found to repress arecoline-induced myofibroblast activity in BMFs. The study highlights SSEA-4 as a critical marker for therapeutic intervention to mediate myofibroblast transdifferentiation in areca quid chewing-associated OSF.

  19. Enhanced sialylation and in vivo efficacy of recombinant human α-galactosidase through in vitro glycosylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngsoo Sohn


    Full Text Available Human α-galactosidase A (GLA has been used in enzymereplacement therapy for patients with Fabry disease. Weexpressed recombinant GLA from Chinese hamster ovary cellswith very high productivity. When compared to an approvedGLA (agalsidase beta, its size and charge were found to besmaller and more neutral. These differences resulted from thelack of terminal sialic acids playing essential roles in the serumhalf-life and proper tissue targeting. Because a simplesialylation reaction was not enough to increase the sialic acidcontent, a combined reaction using galactosyltransferase,sialyltransferase, and their sugar substrates at the same timewas developed and optimized to reduce the incubation time.The product generated by this reaction had nearly the samesize, isoelectric points, and sialic acid content as agalsidasebeta. Furthermore, it had better in vivo efficacy to degrade theaccumulated globotriaosylceramide in target organs of Fabrymice compared to an unmodified version. [BMB Reports 2013;46(3: 157-162

  20. Production of human milk oligosaccharides by enzymatic and whole-cell microbial biotransformations. (United States)

    Sprenger, Georg A; Baumgärtner, Florian; Albermann, Christoph


    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) are almost unique constituents of breast milk and are not found in appreciable amounts in cow milk. Due to several positive aspects of HMO for the development, health, and wellbeing of infants, production of HMO would be desirable. As a result, scientists from different disciplines have developed methods for the preparation of single HMO compounds. Here, we review approaches to HMO preparation by (chemo-)enzymatic syntheses or by whole-cell biotransformation with recombinant bacterial cells. With lactose as acceptor (in vitro or in vivo), fucosyltransferases can be used for the production of 2'-fucosyllactose, 3-fucosyllactose, or more complex fucosylated core structures. Sialylated HMO can be produced by sialyltransferases and trans-sialidases. Core structures as lacto-N-tetraose can be obtained by glycosyltransferases from chemical donor compounds or by multi-enzyme cascades; recent publications also show production of lacto-N-tetraose by recombinant Escherichia coli bacteria and approaches to obtain fucosylated core structures. In view of an industrial production of HMOs, the whole cell biotransformation is at this stage the most promising option to provide human milk oligosaccharides as food additive. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Selectin ligands and tumor-associated carbohydrate structures: specificities of alpha 2,3-sialyltransferases in the assembly of 3'-sialyl-6-sialyl/sulfo Lewis a and x, 3'-sialyl-6'-sulfo Lewis x, and 3'-sialyl-6-sialyl/sulfo blood group T-hapten. (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, E V; Jain, R K; Larsen, R D; Wlasichuk, K; Matta, K L


    The sequence in the assembly of the functional unit of selectin ligands containing sulfate, sialic acid, and fucose and also tumor-associated O-glycan structures was studied by examining the specificities of alpha 2,3-sialyltransferases (ST). The first enzyme, porcine liver ST, was 57, 37, and 79% active (Km: 0.105, 0.420, and 0.200 mM), respectively, toward 6-sulfo, 6-sialyl, or 6-O-methyl derivatives of the Gal beta 1,3GalNAc alpha- unit; C-3 or C-6 substitution on Gal abolished sialylation. An acrylamide copolymer (MW approximately 40,000) containing approximately 40 T-haptens and asialo Cowper's gland mucin (MW approximately 200,000) containing approximately 48 T-haptens was 5-fold more active as an acceptor as compared to Gal beta 1, 3GalNAc alpha-O-Al on a molecular weight basis. The second enzyme, a cloned alpha-2,3-ST specific for lactose-based structure, was 70, 102, and 108% active (Km: 0.500, 0.210, and 0.330 mM), respectively, toward 6-sialyl, 6-sulfo, or 6-O-methyl derivatives of the Gal beta 1,3GlcNAc beta- unit; C-3 and C-6 substitution on Gal abolished sialylation. Gal beta 1,4GlcNAc beta- and its 6-sulfo derivative were approximately 20% active; the Lewis a structure, Gal beta 1,3- (Fuc alpha 1,4)GlcNAc beta-, was not an acceptor. The acrylamide copolymers containing approximately 40 units of Gal beta 1,3GlcNAc beta-, Gal beta 1,3(6-sulfo)GlcNAc beta-, or fetuin triantennary asialo or bovine IgG diantennary glycopeptides were respectively 5.9-, 5.4-, 0.7-, and 0.1-fold as active. A transfer of 7-9 mol of NeuAc per mole of the above copolymers was catalyzed by this ST, the sialyl linkage being susceptible to alpha 2,3-specific sialidase. A partially purified Colo 205 Lewis type (alpha 1, 3/4) fucosyltransferase catalyzed the formation of 3'-sialyl-6-sulfo Lewis a from [9-3H]NeuAc alpha 2, 3Gal beta 1, 3(6-sulfo)GlcNAc beta-O-Allyl and copolymer containing [9-3H]NeuAc alpha 2, 3Gal beta 1, 3(6-sulfo)GlcNAc beta- units, using GDP[14C]Fuc as fucosyl

  2. The expression of essential components for human influenza virus internalisation in Vero and MDCK cells. (United States)

    Ugiyadi, Maharani; Tan, Marselina I; Giri-Rachman, Ernawati A; Zuhairi, Fawzi R; Sumarsono, Sony H


    MDCK and Vero cell lines have been used as substrates for influenza virus replication. However, Vero cells produced lower influenza virus titer yield compared to MDCK. Influenza virus needs molecules for internalisation of the virus into the host cell, such as influenza virus receptor and clathrin. Human influenza receptor is usually a membrane protein containing Sia(α2,6) Gal, which is added into the protein in the golgi apparatus by α2,6 sialyltransferase (SIAT1). Light clathrin A (LCA), light clathrin B (LCB) and heavy clathrin (HC) are the main components needed for virus endocytosis. Therefore, it is necessary to compare the expression of SIAT1 and clathrin in Vero and MDCK cells. This study is reporting the expression of SIAT1 and clathrin observed in both cells with respect to the levels of (1) RNA by using RT-PCR, (2) protein by using dot blot analysis and confocal microscope. The results showed that Vero and MDCK cells expressed both SIAT1 and clathrin proteins, and the expression of SIAT1 in MDCK was higher compared to Vero cells. On the other hand, the expressions of LCA, LCB and HC protein in MDCK cells were not significantly different to Vero cells. This result showed that the inability of Vero cells to internalize H1N1 influenza virus was possibly due to the lack of transmembrane protein receptor which contained Sia(α2,6) Gal.

  3. A functional splice variant of the human Golgi CMP-sialic acid transporter. (United States)

    Salinas-Marín, Roberta; Mollicone, Rosella; Martínez-Duncker, Iván


    The human Golgi Cytidine-5'-monophospho-N-acetylneuraminic acid (CMP-Sia) transporter SLC35A1, a member of the nucleotide sugar transporter family, translocates CMP-Sia from the cytosol into the Golgi lumen where sialyltransferases use it as donor substrate for the synthesis of sialoglycoconjugates. In 2005, we reported a novel Congenital Disorder of Glycosylation (CDG) termed CDG-IIf or SLC35A1-CDG, characterized by macrothrombocytopenia, neutropenia and complete lack of the sialyl-Lex antigen (NeuAcα2-3Galβ1-4(Fucα1-3)GlcNAc-R) on polymorphonuclear cells. This disease was caused by the presence of inactive SLC35A1 alleles. It was also found that the SLC35A1 generates additional isoforms through alternative splicing. In this work, we demonstrate that one of the reported isoforms, the del177 with exon 6 skipping, is able to maintain sialylation in HepG2 cells submitted to wt knockdown and restore sialylation to normal levels in the Chinese Hamester Ovary (CHO) cell line Lec2 mutant deficient in CMP-Sia transport. The characteristics of the alternatively spliced protein are discussed as well as therapeutic implications of this finding in CDGs caused by mutations in nucleotide sugar transporters (NSTs).

  4. Canine and feline parvoviruses preferentially recognize the non-human cell surface sialic acid N-glycolylneuraminic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Löfling, Jonas [Departments of Medicine and Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Glycobiology Research and Training Center, Center for Academic Research and Training in Anthropogeny, 9500 Gilman Drive, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Michael Lyi, Sangbom; Parrish, Colin R. [Baker Institute for Animal Health, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Varki, Ajit, E-mail: [Departments of Medicine and Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Glycobiology Research and Training Center, Center for Academic Research and Training in Anthropogeny, 9500 Gilman Drive, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)


    Feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) is a pathogen whose canine-adapted form (canine parvovirus (CPV)) emerged in 1978. These viruses infect by binding host transferrin receptor type-1 (TfR), but also hemagglutinate erythrocytes. We show that hemagglutination involves selective recognition of the non-human sialic acid N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) but not N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), which differs by only one oxygen atom from Neu5Gc. Overexpression of α2-6 sialyltransferase did not change binding, indicating that both α2-3 and α2-6 linkages are recognized. However, Neu5Gc expression on target cells did not enhance CPV or FPV infection in vitro. Thus, the conserved Neu5Gc-binding preference of these viruses likely plays a role in the natural history of the virus in vivo. Further studies must clarify relationships between virus infection and host Neu5Gc expression. As a first step, we show that transcripts of CMAH (which generates Neu5Gc from Neu5Ac) are at very low levels in Western dog breed cells. - Highlights: ► Feline and canine parvoviruses recognize Neu5Gc but not Neu5Ac, which differ by one oxygen atom. ► The underlying linkage of these sialic acids does not affect recognition. ► Induced Neu5Gc expression on target cells that normally express Neu5Ac did not enhance infection. ► Thus, the conserved binding preference plays an important yet unknown role in in vivo infections. ► Population and breed variations in Neu5Gc expression occur, likely by regulating the gene CMAH.

  5. Chemoenzymatic synthesis of 2-azidoethyl-ganglio-oligosaccharides GD3, GT3, GM2, GD2, GT2, GM1, and GD1a. (United States)

    Blixt, Ola; Vasiliu, Daniela; Allin, Kirk; Jacobsen, Nathan; Warnock, Dawn; Razi, Nahid; Paulson, James C; Bernatchez, Stéphane; Gilbert, Michel; Wakarchuk, Warren


    We have synthesized several ganglio-oligosaccharide structures using glycosyltransferases from Campylobacter jejuni. The enzymes, alpha-(2-->3/8)-sialyltransferase (Cst-II), beta-(1-->4)-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase (CgtA), and beta-(1-->3)-galactosyltransferase (CgtB), were produced in large-scale fermentation from Escherichia coli and further characterized based on their acceptor specificities. 2-Azidoethyl-glycosides corresponding to the oligosaccharides of GD3 (alpha-D-Neup5Ac-(2-->8)-alpha-D-Neup5Ac-(2-->3)-beta-D-Galp-(1-->4)-beta-D-Glcp-), GT3 (alpha-D-Neup5Ac-(2-->8)-alpha-D-Neup5Ac-(2-->8)-alpha-D-Neup5Ac-(2-->3)-beta-D-Galp-(1-->4)-beta-D-Glcp-), GM2 (beta-D-GalpNAc-(1-->4)-[alpha-D-Neup5Ac-(2-->3)]-beta-D-Galp-(1-->4)-beta-D-Glcp-), GD2 (beta-D-GalpNAc-(1-->4)-[alpha-D-Neup5Ac-(2-->8)-alpha-D-Neup5Ac-(2-->3)]-beta-D-Galp-(1-->4)-beta-D-Glcp-), GT2 (beta-D-GalpNAc-(1-->4)-[alpha-D-Neup5Ac-(2-->8)-alpha-D-Neup5Ac-(2-->8)-alpha-D-Neup5Ac-(2-->3)]-beta-D-Galp-(1-->4)-beta-D-Glcp-), and GM1 (beta-D-Galp-(1-->3)-beta-D-GalpNAc-(1-->4)-[alpha-D-Neup5Ac-(2-->3)]-beta-D-Galp-(1-->4)-beta-D-Glcp-) were synthesized in high yields (gram-scale). In addition, a mammalian alpha-(2-->3)-sialyltransferase (ST3Gal I) was used to sialylate GM1 and generate GD1a (alpha-D-Neup5Ac-(2-->3)-beta-D-Galp-(1-->3)-beta-D-GalpNAc-(1-->4)-[alpha-D-Neup5Ac-(2-->3)]-beta-D-Galp-(1-->4)-beta-D-Glcp-) oligosaccharide. We also cloned and expressed a rat UDP-N-acetylglucosamine-4'epimerase (GalNAcE) in E. coli AD202 cells for cost saving in situ conversion of less expensive UDP-GlcNAc to UDP-GalNAc.

  6. Cell recognition molecule L1 promotes embryonic stem cell differentiation through the regulation of cell surface glycosylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ying [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044 (China); Department of Clinical Laboratory, Second Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116023 (China); Huang, Xiaohua [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044 (China); Department of Clinical Biochemistry, College of Laboratory Medicine, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044 (China); An, Yue [Department of Clinical Laboratory, Second Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116023 (China); Ren, Feng [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044 (China); Yang, Zara Zhuyun; Zhu, Hongmei; Zhou, Lei [The Key Laboratory of Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine, Institute of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Kunming Medical University, Kunming 650228 (China); Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, Monash University, Clayton 3800 (Australia); He, Xiaowen; Schachner, Melitta [Keck Center for Collaborative Neuroscience and Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Xiao, Zhicheng, E-mail: [The Key Laboratory of Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine, Institute of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Kunming Medical University, Kunming 650228 (China); Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, Monash University, Clayton 3800 (Australia); Ma, Keli, E-mail: [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044 (China); Li, Yali, E-mail: [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044 (China); Department of Anatomy, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119078 (Singapore)


    Highlights: •Down-regulating FUT9 and ST3Gal4 expression blocks L1-induced neuronal differentiation of ESCs. •Up-regulating FUT9 and ST3Gal4 expression in L1-ESCs depends on the activation of PLCγ. •L1 promotes ESCs to differentiate into neuron through regulating cell surface glycosylation. -- Abstract: Cell recognition molecule L1 (CD171) plays an important role in neuronal survival, migration, differentiation, neurite outgrowth, myelination, synaptic plasticity and regeneration after injury. Our previous study has demonstrated that overexpressing L1 enhances cell survival and proliferation of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) through promoting the expression of FUT9 and ST3Gal4, which upregulates cell surface sialylation and fucosylation. In the present study, we examined whether sialylation and fucosylation are involved in ESC differentiation through L1 signaling. RNA interference analysis showed that L1 enhanced differentiation of ESCs into neurons through the upregulation of FUT9 and ST3Gal4. Furthermore, blocking the phospholipase Cγ (PLCγ) signaling pathway with either a specific PLCγ inhibitor or knockdown PLCγ reduced the expression levels of both FUT9 and ST3Gal4 mRNAs and inhibited L1-mediated neuronal differentiation. These results demonstrate that L1 promotes neuronal differentiation from ESCs through the L1-mediated enhancement of FUT9 and ST3Gal4 expression.

  7. More Human than Human. (United States)

    Lawrence, David


    Within the literature surrounding nonhuman animals on the one hand and cognitively disabled humans on the other, there is much discussion of where beings that do not satisfy the criteria for personhood fit in our moral deliberations. In the future, we may face a different but related problem: that we might create (or cause the creation of) beings that not only satisfy but exceed these criteria. The question becomes whether these are minimal criteria, or hierarchical, such that those who fulfill them to greater degree should be afforded greater consideration. This article questions the validity and necessity of drawing divisions among beings that satisfy the minimum requirements for personhood; considering how future beings-intelligent androids, synthezoids, even alternate-substrate sentiences-might fit alongside the "baseline" human. I ask whether these alternate beings ought to be considered different to us, and why this may or may not matter in terms of a notion of "human community." The film Blade Runner, concerned in large part with humanity and its key synthezoid antagonist Roy Batty, forms a framing touchstone for my discussion. Batty is stronger, faster, more resilient, and more intelligent than Homo sapiens. His exploits, far beyond the capability of normal humans, are contrasted with his frailty and transient lifespan, his aesthetic appreciation of the sights he has seen, and his burgeoning empathy. Not for nothing does his creator within the mythos term him "more human than human."

  8. Human rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaay Fortman, B. de


    Human rights reflect a determined effort to protect the dignity of each and every human being against abuse of power. This endeavour is as old as human history. What is relatively new is the international venture for the protection of human dignity through internationally accepted legal standards

  9. Human Rights, Human Needs, Human Development, Human Security


    Gasper, D.R.


    Human rights, human development and human security form increasingly important, partly interconnected, partly competitive and misunderstood ethical and policy discourses. Each tries to humanize a pre-existing and unavoidable major discourse of everyday life, policy and politics; each has emerged within the United Nations world; each relies implicitly on a conceptualisation of human need; each has specific strengths. Yet mutual communication, understanding and co-operation are deficient, espec...

  10. Human Monkeypox

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilson, Mary E; Hughes, James M; McCollum, Andrea M; Damon, Inger K


    Human monkeypox is found primarily in forested areas of Central Africa. This article provides a basic review of the clinical, epidemiological, and biological factors that contribute to human disease...

  11. Human microbiomics


    Rajendhran, J.; Gunasekaran, P.


    The sequencing of the human genome has driven the study of human biology in a significant way and enabled the genome-wide study to elucidate the molecular basis of complex human diseases. Recently, the role of microbiota on human physiology and health has received much attention. The influence of gut microbiome (the collective genomes of the gut microbiota) in obesity has been demonstrated, which may pave the way for new prophylactic and therapeutic strategies such as bacteriotherapy. The sig...

  12. Human Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)


    textabstract‘Human development’ language spread gradually in circles of national and international development policy and planning from the 1970s and acquired a definitive form in the 1990s in the United Nations Development Programme’s Human Development Reports (HDRs). Human development was defined

  13. Human Smuggling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siegel - Rozenblit, Dina|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/152524096; Zaitch, Damian|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/183348486


    Human smuggling is based on a consensus between smuggler, smuggled, and his/her family (which usually guarantees or effectuates payment). However, unauthorized immigrants are violating immigration laws and human smugglers are profiting from enabling illegal immigration. Both human smuggling and its

  14. Human Technology and Human Affects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent


    Human Technology and Human Affects  This year Samsung introduced a mobile phone with "Soul". It was made with a human touch and included itself a magical touch. Which function does technology and affects get in everyday aesthetics like this, its images and interactions included this presentation...... will ask and try to answer. The mobile phone and its devices are depicted as being able to make a unique human presence, interaction, and affect. The medium, the technology is a necessary helper to get towards this very special and lost humanity. Without the technology, no special humanity - soul...... - is the prophecy. This personification or anthropomorphism is important for the branding of new technology. The technology is seen as creating a technotranscendens towards a more qualified humanity, which is in contact with the fundamental human values like intuition, vision, and sensing; all the qualities...

  15. Human Parvoviruses. (United States)

    Qiu, Jianming; Söderlund-Venermo, Maria; Young, Neal S


    Parvovirus B19 (B19V) and human bocavirus 1 (HBoV1), members of the large Parvoviridae family, are human pathogens responsible for a variety of diseases. For B19V in particular, host features determine disease manifestations. These viruses are prevalent worldwide and are culturable in vitro, and serological and molecular assays are available but require careful interpretation of results. Additional human parvoviruses, including HBoV2 to -4, human parvovirus 4 (PARV4), and human bufavirus (BuV) are also reviewed. The full spectrum of parvovirus disease in humans has yet to be established. Candidate recombinant B19V vaccines have been developed but may not be commercially feasible. We review relevant features of the molecular and cellular biology of these viruses, and the human immune response that they elicit, which have allowed a deep understanding of pathophysiology. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Microbiology.

  16. Human Rights/Human Needs. (United States)

    Canning, Cynthia


    The faculty of Holy Names High School developed an interdisciplinary human rights program with school-wide activities focusing on three selected themes: the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, in conjunction with Human Rights Week; Food; and Women. This article outlines major program activities. (SJL)

  17. Glycoengineering of Chinese hamster ovary cells for enhanced erythropoietin N-glycan branching and sialylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Bojiao; Gao, Yuan; Chung, Cheng-yu


    -glycosylation of recombinant erythropoietin (rEPO), a human α2,6-sialyltransferase (ST6Gal1) was expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells. Sialylation increased on both EPO and CHO cellular proteins as observed by SNA lectin analysis, and HPLC profiling revealed that the sialic acid content of total glycans on EPO...

  18. Digital Humanities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brügger, Niels


    Digital humanities is an umbrella term for theories, methodologies, and practices related to humanities scholarship that use the digital computer as an integrated and essential part of its research and teaching activities. The computer can be used for establishing, finding, collecting......, and preserving material to study, as an object of study in its own right, as an analytical tool, or for collaborating, and for disseminating results. The term "digital humanities" was coined around 2001, and gained currency within academia in the following years. However, computers had been used within...... the humanities for decades, starting with research fields such as humanities computing or computational linguistics in the 1950s, and later new media studies and internet studies. The historical development of digital humanities has been characterized by a focus on three successive, but co-existing types...

  19. Human evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llamas, Bastien; Willerslev, Eske; Orlando, Ludovic Antoine Alexandre


    The field of human ancient DNA (aDNA) has moved from mitochondrial sequencing that suffered from contamination and provided limited biological insights, to become a fully genomic discipline that is changing our conception of human history. Recent successes include the sequencing of extinct hominins......, and true population genomic studies of Bronze Age populations. Among the emerging areas of aDNA research, the analysis of past epigenomes is set to provide more new insights into human adaptation and disease susceptibility through time. Starting as a mere curiosity, ancient human genetics has become...

  20. Human Rights, Human Needs, Human Development, Human Security - Relationships between four international human discourses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)


    markdownabstractAbstract: Human rights, human development and human security form increasingly important, partly interconnected, partly competitive and misunderstood ethical and policy discourses. Each tries to humanize a pre-existing and unavoidable major discourse of everyday life, policy and

  1. Human Rights and Human Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Possenti


    Full Text Available There seems to be two different versions of human rights in Western tradition: say Rationalistic and Christian; the former adopted in revolutionary France, the latter highly developed in Renaissance Spain. Current relativistic criticisms attempt to deny the universality of human rights alleging that this theory has been created in Western countries or it has no strong justification, and therefore cannot have universal approach; but this objection can be dismissed with an alternative justification of human rights.

  2. Think Human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Charlotte Marie Bisgaard


    years' campaigns suggests that the theory of communication underlying the campaign has its basis in mechanical action rather than in human communication. The practice of 'Communication design' is investigated in relation to this metaphorical 'machine thinking' model of communication and contrasted...... with the human-centered theory of communication advocated by integrationism....

  3. Human trichuriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betson, Martha; Søe, Martin Jensen; Nejsum, Peter


    Human trichuriasis is a neglected tropical disease which affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide and is particularly prevalent among children living in areas where sanitation is poor. This review examines the current knowledge on the taxonomy, genetics and phylogeography of human Trichuris...

  4. Human kapital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grosen, Anders; Nielsen, Peder Harbjerg


    finansiel og human kapital. Den traditionelle rådgivnings snævre synsvinkel kan føre til forkerte investeringsråd. Der skal derfor opfordres til, at de finansielle virksomheder i tilrettelæggelsen af deres rådgivning af private kunder systematisk inddrager den humane kapitals størrelse og karakteristika i...

  5. Human Computation

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    What if people could play computer games and accomplish work without even realizing it? What if billions of people collaborated to solve important problems for humanity or generate training data for computers? My work aims at a general paradigm for doing exactly that: utilizing human processing power to solve computational problems in a distributed manner. In particular, I focus on harnessing human time and energy for addressing problems that computers cannot yet solve. Although computers have advanced dramatically in many respects over the last 50 years, they still do not possess the basic conceptual intelligence or perceptual capabilities...

  6. Enzymatic production of human milk oligosaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Yao

    . A recombinant Pasteurella multocida sialyltransferase (EC 2.4.99.-), namely PmST, exhibiting promiscuous trans-sialidase activities was examined. The enzyme catalysed α-2,3- and α-2,6- sialylation of lactose using either 2- O -(p-nitrophenyl)-α- D - N -acetylneuraminic acid or casein glycomacropeptide...... as a sialyl donor. This is the first study reporting α-2,6-trans-sialidase activity of this enzyme. Using response surface design allowed identification of two differently optimised conditions for PmST-catalysed production of 3'-sialyllactose and 6'-sialyllactose, giving maximum yields of 2.8 mM and 3.3 m......M from casein glycomacropeptide (9 mM bound sialic acid), respectively. The k cat / K m value for PmST catalysing 6'-sialyllactose synthesis using 3'-sialyllactose as donor was 23.2±0.7 M -1 s -1 . Further, the enzyme was capable of catalysing synthesis of both 3'- and 6'-sialylated...

  7. Human phantom

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    This human phantom has been received by CERN on loan from the State Committee of the USSR for the Utilization of Atomic Energy. It is used by the Health Physics Group to study personel radiation doses near the accelerators.

  8. Human expunction (United States)

    Klee, Robert


    Thomas Nagel in `The Absurd' (Nagel 1971) mentions the future expunction of the human species as a `metaphor' for our ability to see our lives from the outside, which he claims is one source of our sense of life's absurdity. I argue that the future expunction (not to be confused with extinction) of everything human - indeed of everything biological in a terran sense - is not a mere metaphor but a physical certainty under the laws of nature. The causal processes by which human expunction will take place are presented in some empirical detail, so that philosophers cannot dismiss it as merely speculative. I also argue that appeals to anthropic principles or to forms of mystical cosmology are of no plausible avail in the face of human expunction under the laws of physics.

  9. Human brucellosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franco, María Pía; Mulder, Maximilian; Gilman, Robert H.; Smits, Henk L.


    Human brucellosis still presents scientists and clinicians with several challenges, such as the understanding of pathogenic mechanisms of Brucella spp, the identification of markers for disease severity, progression, and treatment response, and the development of improved treatment regimens.

  10. Human Toxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jolliet, Olivier; Fantke, Peter


    This chapter reviews the human toxicological impacts of chemicals and how to assess these impacts in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA), in order to identify key processes and pollutants. The complete cause-effect pathway – from emissions of toxic substances up to damages on human health...... on characterisation factors means that results should by default be reported and interpreted in log scales when comparing scenarios or substance contribution! We conclude by outlining future trends in human toxicity modelling for LCIA, with promising developments for (a) better estimates of degradation halflives, (b......) the inclusion of ionization of chemicals in human exposure including bioaccumulation, (c) metal speciation, (d) spatialised models to differentiate the variability associated with spatialisation from the uncertainty, and (e) the assessment of chemical exposure via consumer products and occupational settings...

  11. Human ehrlichiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đokić Milomir


    Full Text Available Background. Human ehrlichiosis is a newly recognized disease. It is a tick-borne disease caused by several bacterial species of the genhus Erlichia. These are small gram-negative pleomorphic cocci, that are obligatory intracellular bacteria. Tick Ixodes is the principle vector in Europe, and Amblyomma americanum in the United States. Bacterial organisms replicate in a tick, and are transmited from infected cells in a vector to the blood cells of animals or humans. Human ehrlichiosis is a name for a group of diseases caused by different species of Ehrlichia. One of them is the disease named human monocytic ehrlichiosis, caused by Ehrlichia chaffeensis, and the other is a human granulocytic ehrlichiosis caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilia. Case report. We reported a 23-year-old patient admitted for the clinical treatment with the symptoms of high febrility (above 40 °C, headache, vomiting, general weakness and exhaustion, but without data on a tick bite. The patient was treated with trimetoprim-sulfamethoxazole for a week when Ehrlichia chaffeensis was confirmed by the immunofluoroscence test, and the therapy contimed with doxacyclin. Conclusion. Human ehrlichiosis is also present in our country, so this disease should be considered everyday, especially in infectology practice.

  12. Pseudomonas aeruginosa pyocyanin modulates mucin glycosylation with sialyl-Lewis(x) to increase binding to airway epithelial cells. (United States)

    Jeffries, Jayme L; Jia, Jing; Choi, Woosuk; Choe, Shawn; Miao, Jinfeng; Xu, Ying; Powell, Rebecca; Lin, Jingjun; Kuang, Zhizhou; Gaskins, H Rex; Lau, Gee W


    Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients battle life-long pulmonary infections with the respiratory pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA). An overabundance of mucus in CF airways provides a favorable niche for PA growth. When compared with that of non-CF individuals, mucus of CF airways is enriched in sialyl-Lewis(x), a preferred binding receptor for PA. Notably, the levels of sialyl-Lewis(x) directly correlate with infection severity in CF patients. However, the mechanism by which PA causes increased sialylation remains uncharacterized. In this study, we examined the ability of PA virulence factors to modulate sialyl-Lewis(x) modification in airway mucins. We found pyocyanin (PCN) to be a potent inducer of sialyl-Lewis(x) in both mouse airways and in primary and immortalized CF and non-CF human airway epithelial cells. PCN increased the expression of C2/4GnT and ST3Gal-IV, two of the glycosyltransferases responsible for the stepwise biosynthesis of sialyl-Lewis(x), through a tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-mediated phosphoinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC)-dependent pathway. Furthermore, PA bound more efficiently to airway epithelial cells pre-exposed to PCN in a flagellar cap-dependent manner. Importantly, antibodies against sialyl-Lewis(x) and anti-TNF-α attenuated PA binding. These results indicate that PA secretes PCN to induce a favorable environment for chronic colonization of CF lungs by increasing the glycosylation of airway mucins with sialyl-Lewis(x).

  13. [Humanized childbirth]. (United States)

    Kuo, Su-Chen


    Childbirth is a major event in a family. The expectant parent's perception of the childbirth experience influences his or her development as a parent. Making childbirth a positive and satisfying experience for women is the responsibility of health care providers. Women want to have physical and emotional privacy during labor and delivery, and to experience both in a friendly, comfortable environment. For women expected to undergo normal deliveries, humanized childbirth is one accessible approach. This article explores the definition and evolution of humanized childbirth and the care practice that it involves. It also explores birth plans and birth experiences, and the improvements necessary to routine labor practices to enable women to participate in decision making about their childbirth experiences. The author emphasizes that when health-care providers recognize the value of humanized childbirth and make changes accordingly, the dignity of women's childbirth experiences will be enhanced.

  14. Human monkeypox. (United States)

    McCollum, Andrea M; Damon, Inger K


    Human monkeypox is a zoonotic Orthopoxvirus with a presentation similar to smallpox. Clinical differentiation of the disease from smallpox and varicella is difficult. Laboratory diagnostics are principal components to identification and surveillance of disease, and new tests are needed for a more precise and rapid diagnosis. The majority of human infections occur in Central Africa, where surveillance in rural areas with poor infrastructure is difficult but can be accomplished with evidence-guided tools and educational materials to inform public health workers of important principles. Contemporary epidemiological studies are needed now that populations do not receive routine smallpox vaccination. New therapeutics and vaccines offer hope for the treatment and prevention of monkeypox; however, more research must be done before they are ready to be deployed in an endemic setting. There is a need for more research in the epidemiology, ecology, and biology of the virus in endemic areas to better understand and prevent human infections.

  15. Human mimicry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chartrand, T.L.; Baaren, R.B. van


    Human mimicry is ubiquitous, and often occurs without the awareness of the person mimicking or the person being mimicked. First, we briefly describe some of the major types of nonconscious mimicry—verbal, facial, emotional, and behavioral—and review the evidence for their automaticity. Next, we

  16. Practicing Humanities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimmler, Antje


    and self-reflective democracy. Contemporary humanities have adopted a new orientation towards practices, and it is not clear how this fits with the ideals of ‘Bildung’ and ‘pure science’. A possible theoretical framework for this orientation towards practices could be found in John Dewey’s pragmatic...

  17. Human waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amin, Md Nurul; Kroeze, Carolien; Strokal, Maryna


    Many people practice open defecation in south Asia. As a result, lot of human waste containing nutrients such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) enter rivers. Rivers transport these nutrients to coastal waters, resulting in marine pollution. This source of nutrient pollution is, however, ignored in

  18. Human Parasites


    Davis, Ryan S.; Hodgson, Erin W.


    Entomologists often get “bug” samples for identification, including those that accidentally infest residences. In the United States, we are fortunate to have very few arthropods (e.g., insects, spiders, mites, ticks, etc.) that actually infest or feed on humans.

  19. Human steroidogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus Y; Ezcurra, Diego


    reviews current knowledge of the regulation of progesterone in the human ovary during the follicular phase and highlights areas where knowledge remains limited. In this review, we provide in-depth information outlining the regulation and function of gonadotropins in the complicated area of steroidogenesis...

  20. Human Parechoviruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Thea Kølsen; Harvala, Heli; Midgley, Sofie


    Infections with human parechoviruses (HPeV) are highly prevalent, particularly in neonates, where they may cause substantial morbidity and mortality. The clinical presentation of HPeV infection is often indistinguishable from that of enterovirus (EV) infection and may vary from mild disease...

  1. Nothing Human (United States)

    Wharram, C. C.


    In this essay C. C. Wharram argues that Terence's concept of translation as a form of "contamination" anticipates recent developments in philosophy, ecology, and translation studies. Placing these divergent fields of inquiry into dialogue enables us read Terence's well-known statement "I am a human being--I deem nothing…

  2. Human Trafficking (United States)

    Wilson, David McKay


    The shadowy, criminal nature of human trafficking makes evaluating its nature and scope difficult. The U.S. State Department and anti-trafficking groups estimate that worldwide some 27 million people are caught in a form of forced servitude today. Public awareness of modern-day slavery is gaining momentum thanks to new abolitionist efforts. Among…

  3. Human monkeypox. (United States)

    Jezek, Z; Gromyko, A I; Szczeniowski, M V


    Human monkeypox, occurring in the tropical rainforest of west and central Africa, is regarded as the most important orthopoxvirus infection for epidemiological surveillance during the post-smallpox era. This disease, first recognized in Zaïre in 1970 resembles smallpox clinically but differs epidemiologically. Clinical features, their evolution and sequelae of monkeypox could be compared with discrete ordinary or modified type of smallpox. A case-fatality rate of 14% has been observed but some cases can be exceedingly mild or atypical and may easily remain undetected and unreported. Pronounced lymphadenopathy has been the only clinical feature found commonly in monkeypox but not in smallpox. Fifty-seven cases of human monkeypox have occurred since 1970, in the tropical rainforests in six west and central African countries, the majority of them (45) being reported from Zaïre. The disease appears to be more frequent in dry season. Children below ten years of age comprise 84% of the cases. Smallpox vaccination protects against monkeypox. Clusters of cases have been observed in certain areas within countries and within affected households. Human-to-human spread has possibly occurred seven times. No cases of possible tertiary spread were observed. The secondary attack rate among susceptible close household contacts was 10%, among all susceptible contacts 5%. This is much lower than that occurring with smallpox, which is between 25-40%. The limited avidity of monkeypox virus for human beings indicates that monkeypox is probably a zoonosis, although the animal reservoir(s) have not yet been identified. The low transmissibility, resulting in low frequency of disease in man indicates that monkeypox is not a public health problem. Human monkeypox has been a relatively newly recognized disease. Studies are in progress to identify the natural cycle of monkeypox virus and to define better its clinical and epidemiological characteristics. Special surveillance is maintained in

  4. Human Rights, Human Needs, Human Development, Human Security : Relationships between four international 'human' discourses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)


    textabstractHuman rights, human development and human security form increasingly important, partly interconnected, partly competitive and misunderstood ethical and policy discourses. Each tries to humanize a pre-existing and unavoidable major discourse of everyday life, policy and politics; each

  5. Human Development Report 2000: Human Rights and Human Development


    United Nations Development Programme, UNDP


    The Human Development Report 2000 looks at human rights as an intrinsic part of development—and at development as a means to realizing human rights. It shows how human rights bring principles of accountability and social justice to the process of human development.

  6. Human Rights in the Humanities (United States)

    Harpham, Geoffrey


    Human rights are rapidly entering the academic curriculum, with programs appearing all over the country--including at Duke, Harvard, Northeastern, and Stanford Universities; the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; the Universities of Chicago, of Connecticut, of California at Berkeley, and of Minnesota; and Trinity College. Most of these…

  7. O-glycosylation of the coronavirus M protein. Differential localization of sialyltransferases in N and O linked glycosylation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horzinek, M.C.; Locker, J.K.; Griffiths, G.; Rottier, P.J.M.


    It has previously been shown that the M (E1) glycoprotein of mouse hepatitis virus strain A59 (MHV-A59) contains only O-linked oligosaccharides and localizes to the Golgi region when expressed independently. A detailed pulse-chase analysis was made of the addition of O-linked sugars to the M

  8. Human Protothecosis (United States)

    Lass-Flörl, Cornelia; Mayr, Astrid


    Human protothecosis is a rare infection caused by members of the genus Prototheca. Prototheca species are generally considered to be achlorophyllic algae and are ubiquitous in nature. The occurrence of protothecosis can be local or disseminated and acute or chronic, with the latter being more common. Diseases have been classified as (i) cutaneous lesions, (ii) olecranon bursitis, or (iii) disseminated or systemic manifestations. Infections can occur in both immunocompetent and immunosuppressed patients, although more severe and disseminated infections tend to occur in immunocompromised individuals. Prototheca wickerhamii and Prototheca zopfii have been associated with human disease. Usually, treatment involves medical and surgical approaches; treatment failure is not uncommon. Antifungals such as ketoconazole, itraconazole, fluconazole, and amphotericin B are the most commonly used drugs to date. Among them, amphotericin B displays the best activity against Prototheca spp. Diagnosis is largely made upon detection of characteristic structures observed on histopathologic examination of tissue. PMID:17428884

  9. Human paleoneurology

    CERN Document Server


    The book presents an integrative review of paleoneurology, the study of endocranial morphology in fossil species. The main focus is on showing how computed methods can be used to support advances in evolutionary neuroanatomy, paleoanthropology and archaeology and how they have contributed to creating a completely new perspective in cognitive neuroscience. Moreover, thanks to its multidisciplinary approach, the book addresses students and researchers approaching human paleoneurology from different angles and for different purposes, such as biologists, physicians, anthropologists, archaeologists

  10. Human Cloning (United States)


    research group, headed by Douglas Melton and Kevin Eggan, submitted their proposal to a Harvard committee composed of ethicists, scientists and public...United States. Although the company offered no proof of its claim, Dr . Brigette Boisselier, Managing Director of Clonaid, stated that genetic tests would...a year of the Dolly announcement, concerns over human cloning were heightened when Dr . Richard Seed, a Chicago scientist, announced on January 7

  11. Human universe

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, Brian


    Human life is a staggeringly strange thing. On the surface of a ball of rock falling around a nuclear fireball in the blackness of a vacuum the laws of nature conspired to create a naked ape that can look up at the stars and wonder where it came from. What is a human being? Objectively, nothing of consequence. Particles of dust in an infinite arena, present for an instant in eternity. Clumps of atoms in a universe with more galaxies than people. And yet a human being is necessary for the question itself to exist, and the presence of a question in the universe - any question - is the most wonderful thing. Questions require minds, and minds bring meaning. What is meaning? I don't know, except that the universe and every pointless speck inside it means something to me. I am astonished by the existence of a single atom, and find my civilisation to be an outrageous imprint on reality. I don't understand it. Nobody does, but it makes me smile. This book asks questions about our origins, our destiny, and our place i...

  12. Human Being Human: Culture and the Soul


    Hauke, Chris


    Human Being Human explores the classical question 'What is a human being?'\\ud \\ud In examining our human being, Christopher Hauke challenges the notion of human nature, questions the assumed superiority of human consciousness and rational thinking and pays close attention to the contradiction of living simultaneously as an autonomous individual and a member of the collective community. The main chapters include:\\ud \\ud who's in charge here?\\ud knowledge power and human being\\ud that thinking ...

  13. Introduction: Digital Humanities, Public Humanities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Christie


    Full Text Available NANO: New American Notes Online: An Interdisciplinary Academic Journal for Big Ideas in a Small World. This special issue shows how both public and digital humanities research can be rendered more persuasive through engagement with cultures beyond the academy. More specifically, the aim of this special issue is to demonstrate how investments in technologies and computation are not necessarily antithetical to investments in critical theory and social justice.

  14. Human Computing, Virtual Humans and Artificial Imperfection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruttkay, Z.M.; Reidsma, Dennis; Nijholt, Antinus; Quek, F.; Yang, Y.


    In this paper we raise the issue whether imperfections, characteristic of human-human communication, should be taken into account when developing virtual humans. We argue that endowing virtual humans with the imperfections of humans can help making them more ‘comfortable’ to interact with. That is,

  15. Human Capital, (Human) Capabilities and Higher Education (United States)

    Le Grange, L.


    In this article I initiate a debate into the (de)merits of human capital theory and human capability theory and discuss implications of the debate for higher education. Human capital theory holds that economic growth depends on investment in education and that economic growth is the basis for improving the quality of human life. Human capable…

  16. Humanizing Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Tanya Søndergaard


    The article proposes the urban digital gallery as an opportunity to explore the relationship between ‘human’ and ‘technology,’ through the programming of media architecture. It takes a curatorial perspective when proposing an ontological shift from considering media facades as visual spectacles...... agency and a sense of being by way of dematerializing architecture. This is achieved by way of programming the symbolic to provide new emotional realizations and situations of enlightenment in the public audience. This reflects a greater potential to humanize the digital in media architecture....

  17. Think Human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Charlotte Marie Bisgaard


    The paper probes the background of the dire rhetoric of the Danish National Health Board’s 40 week anti-alcohol consumption campaign, in particular the model of communication implied by the campaign's strategy. Contrasting the campaign's strategy in 2011 with the results of evaluations of previous...... years' campaigns suggests that the theory of communication underlying the campaign has its basis in mechanical action rather than in human communication. The practice of 'Communication design' is investigated in relation to this metaphorical 'machine thinking' model of communication and contrasted...

  18. Human Factors Planning Guidelines (United States)


    To ensure human factors considerations are fully incorporated in the system : development, the Integrated Product Team (IPT) or Program Manager initiates a : Human Factors Program (HFP) that addresses the human performance and human : resource parame...

  19. The Digital Humanities as a Humanities Project (United States)

    Svensson, Patrik


    This article argues that the digital humanities can be seen as a humanities project in a time of significant change in the academy. The background is a number of scholarly, educational and technical challenges, the multiple epistemic traditions linked to the digital humanities, the potential reach of the field across and outside the humanities,…

  20. NATO Human View Architecture and Human Networks (United States)

    Handley, Holly A. H.; Houston, Nancy P.


    The NATO Human View is a system architectural viewpoint that focuses on the human as part of a system. Its purpose is to capture the human requirements and to inform on how the human impacts the system design. The viewpoint contains seven static models that include different aspects of the human element, such as roles, tasks, constraints, training and metrics. It also includes a Human Dynamics component to perform simulations of the human system under design. One of the static models, termed Human Networks, focuses on the human-to-human communication patterns that occur as a result of ad hoc or deliberate team formation, especially teams distributed across space and time. Parameters of human teams that effect system performance can be captured in this model. Human centered aspects of networks, such as differences in operational tempo (sense of urgency), priorities (common goal), and team history (knowledge of the other team members), can be incorporated. The information captured in the Human Network static model can then be included in the Human Dynamics component so that the impact of distributed teams is represented in the simulation. As the NATO militaries transform to a more networked force, the Human View architecture is an important tool that can be used to make recommendations on the proper mix of technological innovations and human interactions.

  1. Digital Humanities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørn


    overgangen fra trykkekultur til digital kultur. For det første problemstillingen omkring digitalisering af litterær kulturarv med fokus på kodning og tagging af teksten samt organisering i hypertekststrukturer. For det andet reorganiseringen af det digitale dokument i dataelementer og database. For det......Artiklen præsenterer først nogle generelle problemstillinger omkring Digital Humanities (DH) med det formål at undersøge dem nærmere i relation til konkrete eksempler på forskellige digitaliseringsmåder og ændringer i dokumentproduktion. I en nærmere afgrænsning vælger artiklen den tendens i DH......, der betragter DH som forbundet med "making" og "building" af digitale objekter og former. Dette kan også karakteriseres som DH som praktisk-produktiv vending. Artiklen har valgt tre typer af digitalisering. De er valgt ud fra, at de skal repræsentere forskellige måder at håndtere digitaliseringen på...

  2. Human Rhinoviruses (United States)

    Lamson, Daryl M.; St. George, Kirsten; Walsh, Thomas J.


    Human rhinoviruses (HRVs), first discovered in the 1950s, are responsible for more than one-half of cold-like illnesses and cost billions of dollars annually in medical visits and missed days of work. Advances in molecular methods have enhanced our understanding of the genomic structure of HRV and have led to the characterization of three genetically distinct HRV groups, designated groups A, B, and C, within the genus Enterovirus and the family Picornaviridae. HRVs are traditionally associated with upper respiratory tract infection, otitis media, and sinusitis. In recent years, the increasing implementation of PCR assays for respiratory virus detection in clinical laboratories has facilitated the recognition of HRV as a lower respiratory tract pathogen, particularly in patients with asthma, infants, elderly patients, and immunocompromised hosts. Cultured isolates of HRV remain important for studies of viral characteristics and disease pathogenesis. Indeed, whether the clinical manifestations of HRV are related directly to viral pathogenicity or secondary to the host immune response is the subject of ongoing research. There are currently no approved antiviral therapies for HRVs, and treatment remains primarily supportive. This review provides a comprehensive, up-to-date assessment of the basic virology, pathogenesis, clinical epidemiology, and laboratory features of and treatment and prevention strategies for HRVs. PMID:23297263

  3. Human Factors in Human-Systems Integration (United States)

    Fitts, David J.; Sandor, Aniko; Litaker, Harry L., Jr.; Tillman, Barry


    Any large organization whose mission is to design and develop systems for humans, and train humans needs a well-developed integration and process plan to deal with the challenges that arise from managing multiple subsystems. Human capabilities, skills, and needs must be considered early in the design and development process, and must be continuously considered throughout the development lifecycle. This integration of human needs within system design is typically formalized through a Human-Systems Integration (HSI) program. By having an HSI program, an institution or organization can reduce lifecycle costs and increase the efficiency, usability, and quality of its products because human needs have been considered from the beginning.

  4. Humane Education: An Overview. (United States)

    Whitlock, Eileen S.; Westerlund, Stuart R.

    This booklet traces the historical development of human education as it has been instilled into the young people of America from colonial times to the present and provides a future prognosis of humaneness in the schools. Humane education promotes humane behavior and is an important part of the humane movement in the United States, although until…

  5. IVI human factors strategy (United States)


    This document focuses on human factors research that supports the Intelligent Vehicle Initiative (IVI). The status of the problem areas within categories used often by the human factors community to organize human factors process is discussed. A simi...

  6. Human Factors Job Aid (United States)


    The purpose of this Human Factors Job Aid is to serve as a desk reference for : human factors integration during system acquisition. The first chapter contains : an overview of the FAA human factors process in system acquisitions. The : remaining eig...

  7. The golden triangle of human dignity: human security, human development and human rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaay Fortman, B. de


    The success or failure of processes of democratization cannot be detached from processes of development related to the aspirations of people at the grassroots. Human rights, in a more theoretical terminology, require human development in order to enhance human security.

  8. Human-machine interactions (United States)

    Forsythe, J Chris [Sandia Park, NM; Xavier, Patrick G [Albuquerque, NM; Abbott, Robert G [Albuquerque, NM; Brannon, Nathan G [Albuquerque, NM; Bernard, Michael L [Tijeras, NM; Speed, Ann E [Albuquerque, NM


    Digital technology utilizing a cognitive model based on human naturalistic decision-making processes, including pattern recognition and episodic memory, can reduce the dependency of human-machine interactions on the abilities of a human user and can enable a machine to more closely emulate human-like responses. Such a cognitive model can enable digital technology to use cognitive capacities fundamental to human-like communication and cooperation to interact with humans.

  9. Special Section: Human Rights (United States)

    Frydenlund, Knut; And Others


    Eleven articles examine human rights in Europe. Topics include unemployment, human rights legislation, role of the Council of Europe in promoting human rights, labor unions, migrant workers, human dignity in industralized societies, and international violence. Journal available from Council of Europe, Directorate of Press and Information, 67006…

  10. ISS Payload Human Factors (United States)

    Ellenberger, Richard; Duvall, Laura; Dory, Jonathan


    The ISS Payload Human Factors Implementation Team (HFIT) is the Payload Developer's resource for Human Factors. HFIT is the interface between Payload Developers and ISS Payload Human Factors requirements in SSP 57000. ? HFIT provides recommendations on how to meet the Human Factors requirements and guidelines early in the design process. HFIT coordinates with the Payload Developer and Astronaut Office to find low cost solutions to Human Factors challenges for hardware operability issues.

  11. Human Dignity, Three Human Rights, and Pedagogy. (United States)

    Vandenberg, Donald


    A general theory of value is outlined to show that moral agency is necessary to human dignity and that liberty, equality, and fraternity are necessary to moral agency. These ideals can be implemented in schools and human dignity can be at the core of the professional ethics of teaching. (MT)

  12. Human dignity, bioethics, and human rights. (United States)

    Häyry, Matti; Takala, Tuija


    The authors analyse and assess the Universal Draft Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights published by UNESCO. They argue that the Draft has two main weaknesses. It unnecessarily confines the scope of bioethics to life sciences and their practical applications. And it fails to spell out the intended role of human dignity in international ethical regulation.

  13. [Humanization in health care]. (United States)

    Oliveira, Beatriz Rosana Gonçalves de; Collet, Neusa; Viera, Cláudia Silveira


    This study aims to reflect on humanization in health care, recovering the history of understanding about mankind, the human and humanity, until humanization in humanity and health. We discuss the national humanization program in hospital care and reflect on this proposal and on the issue of humanization in Brazilian health care nowadays. Communication is indispensable to establish humanization, as well as technical and material conditions. Both users and health professionals need to be heard, building a network of dialogues to think and promote singular humanization actions. For this process to take effect, there is a need to involve the whole that makes up the health service. This group involves different professionals, such as managers, public policy makers, professional councils and education institutions.

  14. Global Law: Humanism and Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilane Serratine Grubba


    Full Text Available This article discusses the ideal of human rights before globalizatórios inflows. It begins with a general statement about the legal globalization, comparing it with the Global Law in the political and economic implications. Later, it approaches the ideal predicted with transnationalism. Proposes a reflection on the present Human Rights. Also, rethinks the lines of the complex web of Global Law, its institutions and its actors, which circulate between the public and private plans. There is no sense in space maintenance of the ideal of human rights only in the state or territory in international treaties originally linked to the states.

  15. Human Resource Accounting System (United States)

    Cerullo, Michael J.


    Main objectives of human resource accounting systems are to satisfy the informational demands made by investors and by operating managers. The paper's main concern is with the internal uses of a human asset system. (Author)

  16. Telling the Human Story. (United States)

    Richardson, Miles


    Proposes that one of the fundamental human attributes is telling stories. Explores the debate on whether Neanderthals possessed language ability. Discusses the role of the "human story" in teaching anthropology. (DH)

  17. Human Use Index (Future) (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Human land uses may have major impacts on ecosystems, affecting biodiversity, habitat, air and water quality. The human use index (also known as U-index) is the...

  18. Human Use Index (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Human land uses may have major impacts on ecosystems, affecting biodiversity, habitat, air and water quality. The human use index (also known as U-index) is the...

  19. Immunology Taught by Humans


    Davis, Mark M


    After a half-century of mouse-dominated research, human immunology is making a comeback. Informed by mouse studies and powered by new techniques, human immune research is both advancing disease treatment and providing new insights into basic biology.

  20. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Screening (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... 6348 Email CDC-INFO U.S. Department of Health & Human Services HHS/Open TOP

  1. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) (United States)

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Vaccine: What You Need to Know (VIS) ... Why get vaccinated? HPV vaccine prevents infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) types that are associated with many ...

  2. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine (United States)

    Why get vaccinated?HPV vaccine prevents infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) types that are associated with cause ... at HPV Vaccine (Human Papillomavirus) Information Statement. U.S. Department of Health and ...

  3. Human Parainfluenza Viruses (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIVs) Note: Javascript is disabled or ... . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) commonly cause respiratory illnesses in ...

  4. Human bites (image) (United States)

    Human bites present a high risk of infection. Besides the bacteria which can cause infection, there is ... the wound extends below the skin. Anytime a human bite has broken the skin, seek medical attention.

  5. HPV (Human Papillomavirus) (United States)

    ... Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women HPV (human papillomavirus) Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Español In Chamorro In Urdu In Vietnamese HPV (human papillomavirus) is a sexually transmitted virus. It is ...

  6. Humane Education in Action. (United States)

    Savesky, Kathy


    Provides a brief history and description of a field test in the United States and Canada of the National Association for the Advancement of Humane Education's humane education curriculum guide for grades 1-6. (CS)

  7. Human papillomavirus molecular biology. (United States)

    Harden, Mallory E; Munger, Karl

    Human papillomaviruses are small DNA viruses with a tropism for squamous epithelia. A unique aspect of human papillomavirus molecular biology involves dependence on the differentiation status of the host epithelial cell to complete the viral lifecycle. A small group of these viruses are the etiologic agents of several types of human cancers, including oral and anogenital tract carcinomas. This review focuses on the basic molecular biology of human papillomaviruses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Human Resource Management System


    Navaz, A. S. Syed; Fiaz, A. S. Syed; Prabhadevi, C.; Sangeetha, V.; Gopalakrishnan, S.


    The paper titled HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM is basically concerned with managing the Administrator of HUMAN RESOURCE Department in a company. A Human Resource Management System, refers to the systems and processes at the intersection between human resource management and information technology. It merges HRM as a discipline and in particular its basic HR activities and processes with the information technology field, whereas the programming of data processing systems evolved into standa...

  9. Has Human Evolution Stopped?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan R. Templeton


    Full Text Available It has been argued that human evolution has stopped because humans now adapt to their environment via cultural evolution and not biological evolution. However, all organisms adapt to their environment, and humans are no exception. Culture defines much of the human environment, so cultural evolution has actually led to adaptive evolution in humans. Examples are given to illustrate the rapid pace of adaptive evolution in response to cultural innovations. These adaptive responses have important implications for infectious diseases, Mendelian genetic diseases, and systemic diseases in current human populations. Moreover, evolution proceeds by mechanisms other than natural selection. The recent growth in human population size has greatly increased the reservoir of mutational variants in the human gene pool, thereby enhancing the potential for human evolution. The increase in human population size coupled with our increased capacity to move across the globe has induced a rapid and ongoing evolutionary shift in how genetic variation is distributed within and among local human populations. In particular, genetic differences between human populations are rapidly diminishing and individual heterozygosity is increasing, with beneficial health effects. Finally, even when cultural evolution eliminates selection on a trait, the trait can still evolve due to natural selection on other traits. Our traits are not isolated, independent units, but rather are integrated into a functional whole, so selection on one trait can cause evolution to occur on another trait, sometimes with mildly maladaptive consequences.

  10. International Human Rights Kit. (United States)

    Woito, Robert, Ed.

    Designed for students, educators, and citizens interested in human rights, the booklet presents resources for learning about the facts, perspectives, and existing procedures and institutions to promote human rights. Chapter one explores the relationship between human rights and war. Chapter two presents a self-survey to help readers clarify…

  11. Human Machine Learning Symbiosis (United States)

    Walsh, Kenneth R.; Hoque, Md Tamjidul; Williams, Kim H.


    Human Machine Learning Symbiosis is a cooperative system where both the human learner and the machine learner learn from each other to create an effective and efficient learning environment adapted to the needs of the human learner. Such a system can be used in online learning modules so that the modules adapt to each learner's learning state both…

  12. Humanities Review Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Humanities Review Journal is published in June and December by Humanities Research Forum. The Journal publishes original, well-researched papers, review essays, interviews, resume, and commentaries, which offer new insights into the various disciplines in the Humanities. The focus is on issues about Africa.

  13. A Human Rights Glossary. (United States)

    Flowers, Nancy


    Presents a human rights glossary that includes definitions of basic terms, treaties, charters, and groups/organizations that have been featured in previous articles in this edition of "Update on Law-Related Education"; the human rights terms have been compiled as part of the celebration of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights…

  14. Esprit: A Humanities Magazine. (United States)

    Parker, Donald G.; Capella, Barry John

    In March 1984, the first issue of "Esprit," a semi-annual humanities magazine for the 56 two-year colleges in New York State, was published. The magazine seeks to confront the apparent decline of student interest in the humanities, community doubts about the relevance of the humanities, and the seeming indifference to the special truths…

  15. Visible Human Project (United States)

    ... NLM Mobile Gallery Site Navigation Home The Visible Human Project ® Overview The Visible Human Project ® is an outgrowth of the NLM's 1986 ... dimensional representations of the normal male and female human bodies. Acquisition of transverse CT, MR and cryosection ...

  16. Modeling Human Leukemia Immunotherapy in Humanized Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxing Xia


    Full Text Available The currently available human tumor xenograft models permit modeling of human cancers in vivo, but in immunocompromised hosts. Here we report a humanized mouse (hu-mouse model made by transplantation of human fetal thymic tissue plus hematopoietic stem cells transduced with a leukemia-associated fusion gene MLL-AF9. In addition to normal human lymphohematopoietic reconstitution as seen in non-leukemic hu-mice, these hu-mice showed spontaneous development of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL, which was transplantable to secondary recipients with an autologous human immune system. Using this model, we show that lymphopenia markedly improves the antitumor efficacy of recipient leukocyte infusion (RLI, a GVHD-free immunotherapy that induces antitumor responses in association with rejection of donor chimerism in mixed allogeneic chimeras. Our data demonstrate the potential of this leukemic hu-mouse model in modeling leukemia immunotherapy, and suggest that RLI may offer a safe treatment option for leukemia patients with severe lymphopenia.

  17. From Human Past to Human Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Bednarik


    Full Text Available This paper begins with a refutation of the orthodox model of final Pleistocene human evolution, presenting an alternative, better supported account of this crucial phase. According to this version, the transition from robust to gracile humans during that period is attributable to selective breeding rather than natural selection, rendered possible by the exponential rise of culturally guided volitional choices. The rapid human neotenization coincides with the development of numerous somatic and neural detriments and pathologies. Uniformitarian reasoning based on ontogenic homology suggests that the cognitive abilities of hominins are consistently underrated in the unstable orthodoxies of Pleistocene archaeology. A scientifically guided review establishes developmental trajectories defining recent changes in the human genome and its expressions, which then form the basis of attempts to extrapolate from them into the future. It is suggested that continuing and perhaps accelerating unfavorable genetic changes to the human species, rather than existential threats such as massive disasters, pandemics, or astrophysical events, may become the ultimate peril of humanity.

  18. Human Beings And Water


    Pakpahan, Putra Andika


    The writer of this paper on this writing is talking about the human beings and water. Water is one of the very fundamentally things that human beings need to keep their lives. Human beings sometimes do not realise that the water is very important for them because they actually cannot live their lives without the present of water. Human beings can keep their lives without rice, but cannot without water. For instances the use of water for human beings are domestic use, cooking, washing, bathing...

  19. Rethinking medical humanities. (United States)

    Chiapperino, Luca; Boniolo, Giovanni


    This paper questions different conceptions of Medical Humanities in order to provide a clearer understanding of what they are and why they matter. Building upon former attempts, we defend a conception of Medical Humanities as a humanistic problem-based approach to medicine aiming at influencing its nature and practice. In particular, we discuss three main conceptual issues regarding the overall nature of this discipline: (i) a problem-driven approach to Medical Humanities; (ii) the need for an integration of Medical Humanities into medicine; (iii) the methodological requirements that could render Medical Humanities an effective framework for medical decision-making.

  20. Situating Human Sexual Conditioning. (United States)

    Hoffmann, Heather


    Conditioning is often thought of as a basic, automatic learning process that has limited applicability to higher-level human behavior. In addition, conditioning is seen as separable from, and even secondary to, "innate" processes. These ideas involve some misconceptions. The aim of this article is to provide a clearer, more refined sense of human sexual conditioning. After providing some background information and reviewing what is known from laboratory conditioning studies, human sexual conditioning is compared to sexual conditioning in nonhumans, to "innate" sexual responding, and to other types of human learning processes. Recommendations for moving forward in human sexual conditioning research are included.

  1. Integrated Environmental Modelling: human decisions, human challenges (United States)

    Glynn, Pierre D.


    Integrated Environmental Modelling (IEM) is an invaluable tool for understanding the complex, dynamic ecosystems that house our natural resources and control our environments. Human behaviour affects the ways in which the science of IEM is assembled and used for meaningful societal applications. In particular, human biases and heuristics reflect adaptation and experiential learning to issues with frequent, sharply distinguished, feedbacks. Unfortunately, human behaviour is not adapted to the more diffusely experienced problems that IEM typically seeks to address. Twelve biases are identified that affect IEM (and science in general). These biases are supported by personal observations and by the findings of behavioural scientists. A process for critical analysis is proposed that addresses some human challenges of IEM and solicits explicit description of (1) represented processes and information, (2) unrepresented processes and information, and (3) accounting for, and cognizance of, potential human biases. Several other suggestions are also made that generally complement maintaining attitudes of watchful humility, open-mindedness, honesty and transparent accountability. These suggestions include (1) creating a new area of study in the behavioural biogeosciences, (2) using structured processes for engaging the modelling and stakeholder communities in IEM, and (3) using ‘red teams’ to increase resilience of IEM constructs and use.

  2. Oxytocin and Human Evolution. (United States)

    Carter, C Sue


    A small, but powerful neuropeptide, oxytocin coordinates processes that are central to both human reproduction and human evolution. Also embedded in the evolution of the human nervous system are unique pathways necessary for modern human sociality and cognition. Oxytocin is necessary for facilitating the birth process, especially in light of anatomical restrictions imposed by upright human locomotion, which depends on a fixed pelvis. Oxytocin, by facilitating birth, allowed the development of a large cortex and a protective bony cranium. The complex human brain in turn permitted the continuing emergence of social sensitivity, complex thinking, and language. After birth is complete, oxytocin continues to support human development by providing direct nutrition, in the form of human milk, and emotional and intellectual support through high levels of maternal behavior and selective attachment. Oxytocin also encourages social sensitivity and reciprocal attunement, on the part of both the mother and child, which are necessary for human social behavior and for rearing an emotionally healthy human child. Oxytocin supports growth during development, resilience, and healing across the lifespan. Oxytocin dynamically moderates the autonomic nervous system, and effects of oxytocin on vagal pathways allowing high levels of oxygenation and digestion necessary to support adaptation in a complex environment. Finally, oxytocin has anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, helping to explain the pervasive adaptive consequences of social behavior for emotional and physical health.

  3. Human Capital and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Jacobs


    Full Text Available A study of sustainability needs to consider the role of all forms of capital—natural, biological, social, technological, financial, cultural—and the complex ways in which they interact. All forms of capital derive their value, utility and application from human mental awareness, creativity and social innovation. This makes human capital, including social capital, the central determinant of resource productivity and sustainability. Humanity has entered the Anthropocene Epoch in which human changes have become the predominant factor in evolution. Humanity is itself evolving from animal physicality to social vitality to mental individuality. This transition has profound bearing on human productive capabilities, adaptability, creativity and values, the organization of economy, public policy, social awareness and life styles that determine sustainability. This article examines the linkages between population, economic development, employment, education, health, social equity, cultural values, energy intensity and sustainability in the context of evolving human consciousness. It concludes that development of human capital is the critical determinant of long-term sustainability and that efforts to accelerate the evolution of human consciousness and emergence of mentally self-conscious individuals will be the most effective approach for ensuring a sustainable future. Education is the primary lever. Human choice matters.

  4. Humanities, Digital Humanities, Media studies, Internet studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brügger, Niels

    Todays expanding digital landscape constitutes an important research object as well as the research environment for the Humanities at the beginning of the 21st century. Taking this state of affairs as a starting point this inaugural lecture presents a vision for how the digital affects the interp......Todays expanding digital landscape constitutes an important research object as well as the research environment for the Humanities at the beginning of the 21st century. Taking this state of affairs as a starting point this inaugural lecture presents a vision for how the digital affects...... the interplay between four areas which until now to a certain extent have been separated: Traditional Hu- manities, Digital Humanities, Media studies, and Internet studies. The vision is followed by an outline of how it can be unfolded in concrete activities, in the form of research projects, research...

  5. Human Performance in Space (United States)

    Jones, Patricia M.; Fiedler, Edna


    Human factors is a critical discipline for human spaceflight. Nearly every human factors research area is relevant to space exploration -- from the ergonomics of hand tools used by astronauts, to the displays and controls of a spacecraft cockpit or mission control workstation, to levels of automation designed into rovers on Mars, to organizational issues of communication between crew and ground. This chapter focuses more on the ways in which the space environment (especially altered gravity and the isolated and confined nature of long-duration spaceflight) affects crew performance, and thus has specific novel implications for human factors research and practice. We focus on four aspects of human performance: neurovestibular integration, motor control and musculo-skeletal effects, cognitive effects, and behavioral health. We also provide a sampler of recent human factors studies from NASA.

  6. Bursty human dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Karsai, Márton; Kaski, Kimmo


    This book provides a comprehensive overview on emergent bursty patterns in the dynamics of human behaviour. It presents common and alternative understanding of the investigated phenomena, and points out open questions worthy of further investigations. The book is structured as follows. In the introduction the authors discuss the motivation of the field, describe bursty phenomena in case of human behaviour, and relate it to other disciplines. The second chapter addresses the measures commonly used to characterise heterogeneous signals, bursty human dynamics, temporal paths, and correlated behaviour. These definitions are first introduced to set the basis for the discussion of the third chapter about the observations of bursty human patterns in the dynamics of individuals, dyadic interactions, and collective behaviour. The subsequent fourth chapter discusses the models of bursty human dynamics. Various mechanisms have been proposed about the source of the heterogeneities in human dynamics, which leads to the in...

  7. Outsourcing in Human Resource


    Oliver Pamelan


    The research paper aimed to contribute to the literature of Human Resource Management Planning and employment through the widely used function of the outsourcing human resource. The research paper is based on the description of the process of outsourcing with the reference to the theories of outsourcing management activities. It also explained the effects of this function through measuring the benefits and drawbacks of the outsourcing human resource while planning the employment strategies. T...

  8. The Humanities Matter! Infographic


    Terras, M. M.; Priego, E.; Liu, A.; Rockwell, G.; Sinclair, S.; Henseler, C.; Thomas, L.


    The Humanities are academic disciplines that seek to understand and interpret the human experience, from individuals to entire cultures, engaging in the discovery, preservation, and communication of the past and present record to enable a deeper understanding of contemporary society. The Humanities encompass literature, classics, ancient and modern languages, history, philoso - phy, media studies, the fine and performing arts, and other related subjects. It can be a challenge to show the bene...

  9. Human Resource Planning


    Lache Cãtãlina


    The objective of human resource planning is to adapt the human capital needed to develop the enterprises’ activities and to accomplish their priority objectives on the medium and/or short term. Human resource planning is a dynamic activity, time being an essential variable, both in what regards the quantitative side (adapting the number of jobs according to the organisation’s evolution in time) and the qualitative side (harmonising the jobs’ complexity with technological changes). The quantit...

  10. Crimes against humanity


    Podlahová, Veronika


    57 Resumé "Crimes against humanity" (the thesis title) Crimes against humanity constitute one of the three integral parts of "crimes under international law." At the same time they represent the most severe form of infringement of fundamental human rights that are as the principle value protected by the international community and its peremptory rules. Although these crimes have not emerged during the 20th century for the first time, it was the World War II., which established the term "crime...

  11. Modern Human Capital Management


    Feldberger, Madita


    Title: Modern Human Capital Management Seminar date: 30th of May 2008 Course: Master thesis in Business Administration, 15 ECTS Authors: Madita Feldberger Supervisor: Lars Svensson Keywords: Human capital, SWOT Analysis, Strategic Map, Balanced Scorecard Research Problem: Despite of the success of Human Capital Management (HCM) in research it did not arrive yet in the HR departments of many companies. Numerous firms even have problems to set their strategic goals with focus on HR. The HR Bala...

  12. Human hemoglobin genetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honig, G.R.; Adams, J.G.


    This book contains the following 10 chapters: Introduction; The Human Hemoglobins; The Human Globin Genes; Hemoglobin Synthesis and Globin Gene Expression; The Globin Gene Mutations - A. Mechanisms and Classification; The Globin Gene Mutations - B. Their Phenotypes and Clinical Expression; The Genetics of the Human Globin Gene Loci: Formal Genetics and Gene Linkage; The Geographic Distribution of Globin Gene Variation; Labortory Identification, Screening, Education, and Counseling for Abnormal Hemoglobins and Thalassemias; and Approaches to the Treatment of the Hemoglobin Disorders.

  13. Human Performance Research Center (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Biochemistry:Improvements in energy metabolism, muscular strength and endurance capacity have a basis in biochemical and molecular adaptations within the human body....

  14. Human cloning 2001. (United States)

    Healy, David L; Weston, Gareth; Pera, Martin F; Rombauts, Luk; Trounson, Alan O


    This review summaries human cloning from a clinical perspective. Natural human clones, that is, monozygotic twins, are increasing in the general community. Iatrogenic human clones have been produced for decades in infertile couples given fertility treatment such as ovulation induction. A clear distinction must be made between therapeutic cloning using embryonic stem cells and reproductive cloning attempts. Unlike the early clinical years of in vitro fertilization, with cloning there is no animal model that is safe and dependable. Until there is such a model, 'Dolly'-style human cloning is medically unacceptable.

  15. Robotics for Human Exploration (United States)

    Fong, Terrence; Deans, Mathew; Bualat, Maria


    Robots can do a variety of work to increase the productivity of human explorers. Robots can perform tasks that are tedious, highly repetitive or long-duration. Robots can perform precursor tasks, such as reconnaissance, which help prepare for future human activity. Robots can work in support of astronauts, assisting or performing tasks in parallel. Robots can also perform "follow-up" work, completing tasks designated or started by humans. In this paper, we summarize the development and testing of robots designed to improve future human exploration of space.

  16. [Human physiology: kidney]. (United States)

    Natochin, Iu V


    The content of human physiology as an independent part of current physiology is discussed. Substantiated is the point that subjects of human physiology are not only special sections of physiology where functions are inherent only in human (physiology of intellectual activity, speech, labor, sport), but also in peculiarities of functions, specificity of regulation of each of physiological systems. By the example of physiology of kidney and water-salt balance there are shown borders of norm, peculiarities of regulation in human, new chapters of renal physiology which have appeared in connection with achievements of molecular physiology.

  17. Challenges for Virtual Humans in Human Computing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reidsma, Dennis; Ruttkay, Z.M.; Huang, T; Nijholt, Antinus; Pantic, Maja; Pentland, A.

    The vision of Ambient Intelligence (AmI) presumes a plethora of embedded services and devices that all endeavor to support humans in their daily activities as unobtrusively as possible. Hardware gets distributed throughout the environment, occupying even the fabric of our clothing. The environment


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives To determine whether raised levels of serum Beta -HCG) are associated with higher grade and Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin ( -HCG in higher category tumors and whether in patients with raised levels of -HCG their sera the rise (above normal range) and the fall (to normal) in levels would correspond with ...

  19. Developing Human Resources through Actualizing Human Potential (United States)

    Clarken, Rodney H.


    The key to human resource development is in actualizing individual and collective thinking, feeling and choosing potentials related to our minds, hearts and wills respectively. These capacities and faculties must be balanced and regulated according to the standards of truth, love and justice for individual, community and institutional development,…

  20. Skin and the non-human human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rösing, Lilian Munk


    ) article 'Visualizing the mind: Looking at Titian's Flaying of Marsyas', addressing features of the painting not commented on by Hart, and supplementing Hart's (Kleinian) theoretical frame by involving Didier Anzieu's 'skin ego', Slavoj Zizek's concept of the 'non-human', Giorgio Agamben's term...

  1. Human Resource Accounting (United States)

    Woodruff, Robert L., Jr.


    An interview is reported which discussed the implications for the hiring, recruiting, screening and development of employees in the light of human resource accounting, here defined as the identification, accumulation and dissemination of information about human resources in dollar terms. (SA)

  2. Human-centred Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bason, Christian


    Design approaches are now being applied all over the world as a powerful approach to innovating public policies and services. Christian Bason, author of Leading public design: Discovering human-centred governance, argues that by bringing design methods into play, public managers can lead change...... with citizens at the centre, and discover a new model for steering public organisations: human-centred governance....

  3. Human Mind Maps (United States)

    Glass, Tom


    When students generate mind maps, or concept maps, the maps are usually on paper, computer screens, or a blackboard. Human Mind Maps require few resources and little preparation. The main requirements are space where students can move around and a little creativity and imagination. Mind maps can be used for a variety of purposes, and Human Mind…

  4. Dynamics of human movement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, Hubertus F.J.M.


    The part of (bio)mechanics that studies the interaction of forces on the human skeletal system and its effect on the resulting movement is called rigid body dynamics. Some basic concepts are presented: A mathematical formulation to describe human movement and how this relates on the mechanical loads

  5. Biodemography of human ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaupel, James W


    Human senescence has been delayed by a decade. This finding, documented in 1994 and bolstered since, is a fundamental discovery about the biology of human ageing, and one with profound implications for individuals, society and the economy. Remarkably, the rate of deterioration with age seems...

  6. the human genome project

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    have resulted in the biological diversity, both past and present, on this planet. RAJ RAMESAR. MSc, PhD. Professor and Head. Division of Human Genetics. Faculty of Health Sciences. University of Cape Town. Raj Ramesar serves as Director of the MRC. Human Genetics Research Unit and. CANSA's Colorectal Cancer ...

  7. Translating the human microbiome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, J.; Vos, de W.M.; Distefano, P.S.; Doré, J.; Huttenhower, C.; Knight, R.; Lawley, T.D.; Raes, J.; Turnbaugh, P.


    Over the past decade, an explosion of descriptive analyses from initiatives, such as the Human Microbiome Project (HMP) and the MetaHIT project, have begun to delineate the human microbiome. Inhabitants of the intestinal tract, nasal passages, oral cavities, skin, gastrointestinal tract and

  8. Damping Effect of Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars

    Passive humans (sitting or standing) might well be present on flooring-systems, footbridges or other structures that carry humans. An active croud of people might generate structural vibrations, and these might be problematic. The passive crowd of people, however, will interact with the structura...

  9. Evaluating the Humanities (United States)

    Brody, Howard


    How can one measure the value of teaching the humanities? The problem of assessment and accountability is prominent today, of course, in secondary and higher education. It is perhaps even more acute for those who teach the humanities in nontraditional settings, such as medical and other professional schools. The public assumes that academes can…

  10. The Humanities' Value (United States)

    Harpham, Geoffrey Galt


    Why should society support the humanities when so many people are suffering from the effects of the economic crisis? What claim do the humanities, or scholarship generally, have on increasingly limited resources? Shouldn't such pursuits be considered luxuries at a time when people should be focusing on essentials? The alleviation of human…

  11. Manage "Human Capital" Strategically (United States)

    Odden, Allan


    To strategically manage human capital in education means restructuring the entire human resource system so that schools not only recruit and retain smart and capable individuals, but also manage them in ways that support the strategic directions of the organization. These management practices must be aligned with a district's education improvement…

  12. Incorporating Human Interindividual Biotransformation ... (United States)

    The protection of sensitive individuals within a population dictates that measures other than central tendencies be employed to estimate risk. The refinement of human health risk assessments for chemicals metabolized by the liver to reflect data on human variability can be accomplished through (1) the characterization of enzyme expression in large banks of human liver samples, (2) the employment of appropriate techniques for the quantification and extrapolation of metabolic rates derived in vitro, and (3) the judicious application of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling. While in vitro measurements of specific biochemical reactions from multiple human samples can yield qualitatively valuable data on human variance, such measures must be put into the perspective of the intact human to yield the most valuable predictions of metabolic differences among humans. For quantitative metabolism data to be the most valuable in risk assessment, they must be tied to human anatomy and physiology, and the impact of their variance evaluated under real exposure scenarios. For chemicals metabolized in the liver, the concentration of parent chemical in the liver represents the substrate concentration in the MichaelisMenten description of metabolism. Metabolic constants derived in vitro may be extrapolated to the intact liver, when appropriate conditions are met. Metabolic capacity Vmax; the maximal rate of the reaction) can be scaled directly to the concentration

  13. Damping Effect of Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars

    Passive humans (sitting or standing) might well be present on flooring-systems, footbridges or other structures that carry humans. An active croud of people might generate structural vibrations, and these might be problematic. The passive crowd of people, however, will interact with the structural...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emmanuel Ameh

    Abstract. An up-to-date review on human paragonimiasis in Africa was carried out to determine the current geographical distribution of human cases and analyze the animal reservoir, snails and crustaceans which intervene in the local life cycle of Paragonimus species. Two countries, i.e., Cameroon and. Nigeria, were ...

  15. Human Rights, History of

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Baets, Antoon; Wright, James


    In this article, six basic debates about human rights are clarified from a historical perspective: the origin of human rights as moral rights connected to the natural law doctrine and opposed to positive rights; the wave of criticism of their abstract and absolute character by nineteenth-century

  16. Modeling human color categorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon; Schouten, Th.E.; Kisters, P.M.F.

    A unique color space segmentation method is introduced. It is founded on features of human cognition, where 11 color categories are used in processing color. In two experiments, human subjects were asked to categorize color stimuli into these 11 color categories, which resulted in markers for a

  17. Fungi that Infect Humans. (United States)

    Köhler, Julia R; Hube, Bernhard; Puccia, Rosana; Casadevall, Arturo; Perfect, John R


    Fungi must meet four criteria to infect humans: growth at human body temperatures, circumvention or penetration of surface barriers, lysis and absorption of tissue, and resistance to immune defenses, including elevated body temperatures. Morphogenesis between small round, detachable cells and long, connected cells is the mechanism by which fungi solve problems of locomotion around or through host barriers. Secretion of lytic enzymes, and uptake systems for the released nutrients, are necessary if a fungus is to nutritionally utilize human tissue. Last, the potent human immune system evolved in the interaction with potential fungal pathogens, so few fungi meet all four conditions for a healthy human host. Paradoxically, the advances of modern medicine have made millions of people newly susceptible to fungal infections by disrupting immune defenses. This article explores how different members of four fungal phyla use different strategies to fulfill the four criteria to infect humans: the Entomophthorales, the Mucorales, the Ascomycota, and the Basidiomycota. Unique traits confer human pathogenic potential on various important members of these phyla: pathogenic Onygenales comprising thermal dimorphs such as Histoplasma and Coccidioides; the Cryptococcus spp. that infect immunocompromised as well as healthy humans; and important pathogens of immunocompromised patients-Candida, Pneumocystis, and Aspergillus spp. Also discussed are agents of neglected tropical diseases important in global health such as mycetoma and paracoccidiomycosis and common pathogens rarely implicated in serious illness such as dermatophytes. Commensalism is considered, as well as parasitism, in shaping genomes and physiological systems of hosts and fungi during evolution.

  18. Businesses’ human rights responsibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne Lewis


    Full Text Available There is no international human rights law standard that expresslyprohibits businesses’ arbitrary displacement of persons. Businessesdo, however, have the responsibility to avoid infringements of humanrights that could lead to displacement and also to take actions toremedy their human rights violations that might lead to displacement.

  19. Global Journal of Humanities

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Homepage Image. Global Journal of Humanities is aimed at promoting reasearch in all areas of Humanities including philosophy, languages, linguistics, literature, history, fine/applied arts, theater arts, architecture, etc. Visit the Global Journal Series website here: ...

  20. Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis, Japan (United States)

    Gaowa; Wuritu; Kawamori, Fumihiko; Wu, Dongxing; Yoshikawa, Yuko; Chiya, Seizou; Fukunaga, Kazutoshi; Funato, Toyohiko; Shiojiri, Masaaki; Nakajima, Hideki; Hamauzu, Yoshiji; Takano, Ai; Kawabata, Hiroki; Ando, Shuji; Kishimoto, Toshio


    We retrospectively confirmed 2 cases of human Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection. Patient blood samples contained unique p44/msp2 for the pathogen, and antibodies bound to A. phagocytophilum antigens propagated in THP-1 rather than HL60 cells. Unless both cell lines are used for serodiagnosis of rickettsiosis-like infections, cases of human granulocytic anaplasmosis could go undetected. PMID:23460988

  1. Humane Education Projects Handbook. (United States)

    Junior League of Ogden, UT.

    This handbook was developed to promote interest in humane education and to encourage the adoption of humane education projects. Although specifically designed to assist Junior Leagues in developing such projects, the content should prove valuable to animal welfare organizations, zoos, aquariums, nature centers, and other project-oriented groups…

  2. Human migraine models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Helle Klingenberg


    , which is a human experience. A set-up for investigations of experimental headache and migraine in humans, has been evaluated and headache mechanisms explored by using nitroglycerin and other headache-inducing agents. Nitric oxide (NO) or other parts of the NO activated cascade seems to be responsible...

  3. Overophedning af det humane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen Nepper


    Anmelder Marius Gudmand-Høyer, Sverre Raffnsøe og Morten Raffnsøe-Møller (red.): "Den humane vending. En antologi", Aarhus Universitetsforlag......Anmelder Marius Gudmand-Høyer, Sverre Raffnsøe og Morten Raffnsøe-Møller (red.): "Den humane vending. En antologi", Aarhus Universitetsforlag...

  4. The Human Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

     Bent Fausing  "The Humane Technology", abstract (for The Two Cultures: Balancing Choices and Effects Oxford University July 20-26, 2008). The paper will investigate the use of technology in everyday aesthetics such as TV-commercials for mobile phones for Nokia, which slogan is, as it is well known...... for as a better humanity.      The paper will investigate how the two cultures are combined in this way in a TV-commercial. Technology points, is the conclusion, towards a forgotten pre-human and not to the often-motioned post-human condition.    ......, "Nokia - connecting people". Which function does this technology get in narratives, images, interactions and affects here?      The mobile phone and its digital camera are depicted as being able to make a unique human presence and interaction. The medium, the technology is a necessary helper to get...

  5. Humanity at the Edge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Mette N.; Gjødsbøl, Iben M.; Dam, Mie S.


    At the heart of anthropology and the social sciences lies a notion of human existence according to which humans and animals share the basic need for food, but only humans have the capacity for morality. Based on fieldwork in a pig laboratory, a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), and a dementia...... nursing home, we follow practices of feeding precarious lives lacking most markers of human personhood, including the exercise of moral judgment. Despite the absence of such markers, laboratory researchers and caregivers in these three sites do not abstain from engaging in questions about the moral status...... of the piglets, infants, and people with dementia in their care. They continually negotiate how their charges belong to the human collectivity and thereby challenge the notion of ‘the human’ that is foundational to anthropology. Combining analytical approaches that do not operate with a fixed boundary between...

  6. Refractoriness in human atria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skibsbye, Lasse; Jespersen, Thomas; Christ, Torsten


    rhythm and chronic atrial fibrillation tissues and was neither affected by changes in frequency (1 vs. 3Hz). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest a preferentially voltage-dependent, rather than time-dependent, effect with respect to refractoriness at physiologically relevant rates in human atria. However...... drugs. Cardiomyocyte excitability depends on availability of sodium channels, which involves both time- and voltage-dependent recovery from inactivation. This study therefore aims to characterise how sodium channel inactivation affects refractoriness in human atria. METHODS AND RESULTS: Steady......-state activation and inactivation parameters of sodium channels measured in vitro in isolated human atrial cardiomyocytes were used to parameterise a mathematical human atrial cell model. Action potential data were acquired from human atrial trabeculae of patients in either sinus rhythm or chronic atrial...

  7. Human gliomas contain morphine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Peter; Rasmussen, Mads; Zhu, Wei


    BACKGROUND: Morphine has been found in cancer cell lines originating from human and animal cells. Thus, it became important to demonstrate whether or not actual tumours contain this opiate alkaloid. MATERIAL/METHODS: Human glioma tissues were biochemically treated to isolate and separate endogeno...... of the solutions used in the study nor was it present as a residual material in blank HPLC runs. CONCLUSIONS: Morphine is present in human gliomas, suggesting that it may exert an action that effects tumour physiology/pathology.......BACKGROUND: Morphine has been found in cancer cell lines originating from human and animal cells. Thus, it became important to demonstrate whether or not actual tumours contain this opiate alkaloid. MATERIAL/METHODS: Human glioma tissues were biochemically treated to isolate and separate endogenous...

  8. The human cell atlas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Regev, Aviv; Teichmann, Sarah A.; Lander, Eric S.


    The recent advent of methods for high-throughput single-cell molecular profiling has catalyzed a growing sense in the scientific community that the time is ripe to complete the 150-year-old effort to identify all cell types in the human body. The Human Cell Atlas Project is an international...... collaborative effort that aims to define all human cell types in terms of distinctive molecular profiles (such as gene expression profiles) and to connect this information with classical cellular descriptions (such as location and morphology). An open comprehensive reference map of the molecular state of cells...... in healthy human tissues would propel the systematic study of physiological states, developmental trajectories, regulatory circuitry and interactions of cells, and also provide a framework for understanding cellular dysregulation in human disease. Here we describe the idea, its potential utility, early...

  9. Designing Human Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper

    Design is increasingly becoming a part of the university curriculum and research agenda. The keynote present and discuss Designing Human Technologies – an initiative aiming at establishing a design oriented main subject area alongside traditional main subject areas such as Natural Science......, the Humanities, and Social Science. The initiative broadens the perspective of IS and recognize reflections on aesthetics, ethics, values, connections to politics, and strategies for enabling a better future as legitimate parts of the research agenda. Designing Human Technologies is a design-oriented Strategic...... Research Initiative supporting Roskilde University’s new Humanities and Technology bachelor programme (‘HumTek’), and its three dimensions: Design, Humanities, and Technology. The research initiative involves 70 researchers from different departments and research groups at Roskilde University through...

  10. Functional relationships of the sialyltransferases involved in expression of the polysialic acid capsules of Escherichia coli K1 and K92 and Neisseria meningitidis groups B or C. (United States)

    Steenbergen, Susan M; Vimr, Eric R


    Polysialic acid (PSA) capsules are cell-associated homopolymers of alpha2,8-, alpha2,9-, or alternating alpha2,8/2,9-linked sialic acid residues that function as essential virulence factors in neuroinvasive diseases caused by certain strains of Escherichia coli and Neisseria meningitidis. PSA chains structurally identical to the bacterial alpha2,8-linked capsular polysaccharides are also synthesized by the mammalian central nervous system, where they regulate neuronal function in association with the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). Despite the structural identity between bacterial and NCAM PSAs, the respective polysialyltransferases (polySTs) responsible for polymerizing sialyl residues from donor CMP-sialic acid are not homologous glycosyltransferases. To better define the mechanism of capsule biosynthesis, we established the functional interchangeability of bacterial polySTs by complementation of a polymerase-deficient E. coli K1 mutant with the polyST genes from groups B or C N. meningitidis and the control E. coli K92 polymerase gene. The biochemical and immunochemical results demonstrated that linkage specificity is dictated solely by the source of the polymerase structural gene. To determine the molecular basis for linkage specificity, we created chimeras of the K1 and K92 polySTs by overlap extension PCR. Exchanging the first 52 N-terminal amino acids of the K1 NeuS with the C terminus of the K92 homologue did not alter specificity of the resulting chimera, whereas exchanging the first 85 or reciprocally exchanging the first 100 residues did. These results demonstrated that linkage specificity is dependent on residues located between positions 53 and 85 from the N terminus. Site-directed mutagenesis of the K92 polyST N terminus indicated that no single residue alteration was sufficient to affect specificity, consistent with the proposed function of this domain in orienting the acceptor. The combined results provide the first evidence for residues critical to acceptor binding and elongation in polysialyltransferase.

  11. Human Milk Banking. (United States)

    Haiden, Nadja; Ziegler, Ekhard E


    Human milk banks play an essential role by providing human milk to infants who would otherwise not be able to receive human milk. The largest group of recipients are premature infants who derive very substantial benefits from it. Human milk protects premature infants from necrotizing enterocolitis and from sepsis, two devastating medical conditions. Milk banks collect, screen, store, process, and distribute human milk. Donating women usually nurse their own infants and have a milk supply that exceeds their own infants' needs. Donor women are carefully selected and are screened for HIV-1, HIV-2, human T-cell leukemia virus 1 and 2, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and syphilis. In the milk bank, handling, storing, processing, pooling, and bacterial screening follow standardized algorithms. Heat treatment of human milk diminishes anti-infective properties, cellular components, growth factors, and nutrients. However, the beneficial effects of donor milk remain significant and donor milk is still highly preferable in comparison to formula. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Human Power Empirically Explored

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, A.J.


    Harvesting energy from the users' muscular power to convert this into electricity is a relatively unknown way to power consumer products. It nevertheless offers surprising opportunities for product designers; human-powered products function independently from regular power infrastructure, are convenient and can be environmentally and economically beneficial. This work provides insight into the knowledge required to design human-powered energy systems in consumer products from a scientific perspective. It shows the developments of human-powered products from the first introduction of the BayGen Freeplay radio in 1995 till current products and provides an overview and analysis of 211 human-powered products currently on the market. Although human power is generally perceived as beneficial for the environment, this thesis shows that achieving environmental benefit is only feasible when the environmental impact of additional materials in the energy conversion system is well balanced with the energy demands of the products functionality. User testing with existing products showed a preference for speeds in the range of 70 to 190 rpm for crank lengths from 32 to 95 mm. The muscular input power varied from 5 to 21 W. The analysis of twenty graduation projects from the Faculty of Industrial Design Engineering in the field of human-powered products, offers an interesting set of additional practice based design recommendations. The knowledge based approach of human power is very powerful to support the design of human-powered products. There is substantial potential for improvements in the domains energy conversion, ergonomics and environment. This makes that human power, when applied properly, is environmentally and economically competitive over a wider range of applications than thought previously.

  13. Genetics of human hydrocephalus. (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Williams, Michael A; Rigamonti, Daniele


    Human hydrocephalus is a common medical condition that is characterized by abnormalities in the flow or resorption of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), resulting in ventricular dilatation. Human hydrocephalus can be classified into two clinical forms, congenital and acquired. Hydrocephalus is one of the complex and multifactorial neurological disorders.A growing body of evidence indicates that genetic factors play a major role in the pathogenesis of hydrocephalus. An understanding of the genetic components and mechanism of this complex disorder may offer us significant insights into the molecular etiology of impaired brain development and an accumulation of the cerebrospinal fluid in cerebral compartments during the pathogenesis of hydrocephalus. Genetic studies in animal models have started to open the way for understanding the underlying pathology of hydrocephalus. At least 43 mutants/loci linked to hereditary hydrocephalus have been identified in animal models and humans. Up to date, 9 genes associated with hydrocephalus have been identified in animal models. In contrast, only one such gene has been identified in humans. Most of known hydrocephalus gene products are the important cytokines, growth factors or related molecules in the cellular signal pathways during early brain development. The current molecular genetic evidence from animal models indicate that in the early development stage, impaired and abnormal brain development caused by abnormal cellular signaling and functioning, all these cellular and developmental events would eventually lead to the congenital hydrocephalus. Owing to our very primitive knowledge of the genetics and molecular pathogenesis of human hydrocephalus, it is difficult to evaluate whether data gained from animal models can be extrapolated to humans. Initiation of a large population genetics study in humans will certainly provide invaluable information about the molecular and cellular etiology and the developmental mechanisms of human

  14. Human exposure to aluminium. (United States)

    Exley, Christopher


    Human activities have circumvented the efficient geochemical cycling of aluminium within the lithosphere and therewith opened a door, which was previously only ajar, onto the biotic cycle to instigate and promote the accumulation of aluminium in biota and especially humans. Neither these relatively recent activities nor the entry of aluminium into the living cycle are showing any signs of abating and it is thus now imperative that we understand as fully as possible how humans are exposed to aluminium and the future consequences of a burgeoning exposure and body burden. The aluminium age is upon us and there is now an urgent need to understand how to live safely and effectively with aluminium.

  15. Aluminium in human sweat. (United States)

    Minshall, Clare; Nadal, Jodie; Exley, Christopher


    It is of burgeoning importance that the human body burden of aluminium is understood and is measured. There are surprisingly few data to describe human excretion of systemic aluminium and almost no reliable data which relate to aluminium in sweat. We have measured the aluminium content of sweat in 20 healthy volunteers following mild exercise. The concentration of aluminium ranged from 329 to 5329μg/L. These data equate to a daily excretion of between 234 and 7192μg aluminium and they strongly suggest that perspiration is the major route of excretion of systemic aluminium in humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Wear in human knees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Wang


    Full Text Available Wear occurs in natural knee joints and plays a pivotal factor in causing articular cartilage degradation in osteoarthritis (OA processes. Wear particles are produced in the wear process and get involved in inflammation of human knees. This review presents progresses in the mechanical and surface morphological studies of articular cartilages, wear particles analysis techniques for wear studies and investigations of human knee synovial fluid in wear of human knees. Future work is also included for further understanding of OA symptoms and their relations which may shed light on OA causes.

  17. Human Genome Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Block, S. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Cornwall, J. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Dally, W. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Dyson, F. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Fortson, N. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Joyce, G. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Kimble, H. J. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Lewis, N. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Max, C. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Prince, T. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Schwitters, R. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Weinberger, P. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Woodin, W. H. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office


    The study reviews Department of Energy supported aspects of the United States Human Genome Project, the joint National Institutes of Health/Department of Energy program to characterize all human genetic material, to discover the set of human genes, and to render them accessible for further biological study. The study concentrates on issues of technology, quality assurance/control, and informatics relevant to current effort on the genome project and needs beyond it. Recommendations are presented on areas of the genome program that are of particular interest to and supported by the Department of Energy.

  18. Human Capital and Development


    Rodolfo E. Manuelli


    Perhaps no question has attracted as much attention in the economics literature as “Why are some countries richer than others?” In this article, the author revisits the “development problem” and provides some estimates of the importance of human capital in accounting for cross-country differences in output per worker. His results suggest that human capital has a central role in determining the wealth of nations and that the quality of human capital varies systematically with the level of deve...

  19. Human pancreas development. (United States)

    Jennings, Rachel E; Berry, Andrew A; Strutt, James P; Gerrard, David T; Hanley, Neil A


    A wealth of data and comprehensive reviews exist on pancreas development in mammals, primarily mice, and other vertebrates. By contrast, human pancreatic development has been less comprehensively reviewed. Here, we draw together those studies conducted directly in human embryonic and fetal tissue to provide an overview of what is known about human pancreatic development. We discuss the relevance of this work to manufacturing insulin-secreting β-cells from pluripotent stem cells and to different aspects of diabetes, especially permanent neonatal diabetes, and its underlying causes. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. Human dignity and bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović Miloš


    Full Text Available By opening the field of bioethics followed a new wave of intense debate on the theological, philosophical and legal significance of the concept of human dignity . Exactly ten years ago (December 2003 American bioethicist Ruth Maclin has proposed to divest ourselves of the concept of human dignity because it is vague, useless and redundant and that, without any loss, we can replace it by the ethical principle of personal autonomy. Her article was followed by harsh reactions and opposite views. What is this term in so broad, almost inflationary and opposite use is not a reason to deprive him, but, on the contrary, it shows how important it is and that it should be determined at least outline. As universal values and general concept, the human dignity has no pre-defined and narrow, precise meaning. It is more an evaluation horizon, the guiding principle and regulatory ideas that must constantly define and codify by many guaranted human rights and fundamental freedoms. As generic notion of each reasonable law, it is their foundation and a common denominator, legitimising basis of natural but also of positive law. As intrinsic and static value which means the humaneness, the humanity it is absolute, inherent to every human being without distinction and conditioning, as a unique and unrepeatable creation. In this meaning, the dignity is the obligation and limitation of the state, society and each of us. As an ethical and dynamic category, it is not given to us, but it is assign to us, and it is not in us, but always before us, as a guide of our actions in accordance with virtues, to treat ourselves, each other and the nature in a human way. The century in which we live is named the century of molecular biology and genetic engineering because of the enormous potential but also risks to human dignity. Because of that human dignity has become a central principle in all international documents relating to the human genome, genetics and bioethics, adopted

  1. Sulfatases and human disease. (United States)

    Diez-Roux, Graciana; Ballabio, Andrea


    Sulfatases are a highly conserved family of proteins that cleave sulfate esters from a wide range of substrates. The importance of sulfatases in human metabolism is underscored by the presence of at least eight human monogenic diseases caused by the deficiency of individual sulfatases. Sulfatase activity requires a unique posttranslational modification, which is impaired in patients with multiple sulfatase deficiency (MSD) due to a mutation of the sulfatase modifying factor 1 (SUMF1). Here we review current knowledge and future perspectives on the evolution of the sulfatase gene family, on the role of these enzymes in human metabolism, and on new developments in the therapy of sulfatase deficiencies.

  2. Propelling medical humanities in China. (United States)

    Tang, Wei


    Advances in the study of the medical humanities and medical humanities education have been made over the past few decades. Many influential journals have published articles examining the role of medical humanities and medical humanities education, the development and evaluation of medical humanities, and the design of a curriculum for medical humanities education in Western countries. However, most articles related to medical humanities in China were published in Chinese, moreover, researchers have worked in relative isolation and published in disparate journals, so their work has not been systematically presented to and evaluated by international readers. The six companion articles featured in this issue describe the current status and challenge of medical humanities and medical humanities education in China in the hope of providing international readers with a novel and meaningful glimpse into medical humanities in China. This Journal is calling for greater publication of research on medical humanities and medical humanities education to propel medical humanities in China.

  3. Human Research Program (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Strategically, the HRP conducts research and technology development that: 1) enables the development or modification of Agency-level human health and performance...

  4. The human urine metabolome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bouatra, Souhaila; Aziat, Farid; Mandal, Rupasri; Guo, An Chi; Wilson, Michael R; Knox, Craig; Bjorndahl, Trent C; Krishnamurthy, Ramanarayan; Saleem, Fozia; Liu, Philip; Dame, Zerihun T; Poelzer, Jenna; Huynh, Jessica; Yallou, Faizath S; Psychogios, Nick; Dong, Edison; Bogumil, Ralf; Roehring, Cornelia; Wishart, David S


    .... Many of these compounds are poorly characterized and poorly understood. In an effort to improve our understanding of this biofluid we have undertaken a comprehensive, quantitative, metabolome-wide characterization of human urine...

  5. The bionic human


    Francalanza, Emmanuel;


    Faster, fitter and flawless? What would it take to build a Bionic Human? Emmanuel Francalanza delved into research at the Faculty of Engineering to see how Malta could contribute. 3D Art by Jean Claude Vancell.

  6. Human Resource Planning (United States)

    Hoffman, W. H.; Wyatt, L. L.


    By using the total resource approach, we have focused attention on the need to integrate human resource planning with other business plans and highlighted the importance of a productivity strategy. (Author)

  7. Human factors in aviation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Salas, Eduardo; Maurino, Daniel E


    .... HFA offers a comprehensive overview of the topic, taking readers from the general to the specific, first covering broad issues, then the more specific topics of pilot performance, human factors...

  8. Extraterritorial Human Rights Obligations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amsinck Boie, Hans Nikolaj; Torp, Kristian

    The book addresses the issue of corporate respect for human rights by examining if and how states are obligated to ensure that corporations originating from their jurisdiction respect human rights when they operate abroad. The existence of such a duty is much debated by academics at national...... and international level, and in an attempt to bring something new to the table, the book examines both if states have extraterritorial obligations in regard to their corporations and what can be required of states under such an obligation. The complex issue of states and corporate respect for human rights cannot...... adequately be addressed without including the approach to the problem taken in practice; Corporate Social Responsibility, CSR. The book therefore draws upon the concept of CSR and the approaches developed here and discusses whether states may utilize the CSR-based concept of human rights due diligence...

  9. Aerospace Human Factors (United States)

    Jordan, Kevin


    The following contains the final report on the activities related to the Cooperative Agreement between the human factors research group at NASA Ames Research Center and the Psychology Department at San Jose State University. The participating NASA Ames division has been, as the organization has changed, the Aerospace Human Factors Research Division (ASHFRD and Code FL), the Flight Management and Human Factors Research Division (Code AF), and the Human Factors Research and Technology Division (Code IH). The inclusive dates for the report are November 1, 1984 to January 31, 1999. Throughout the years, approximately 170 persons worked on the cooperative agreements in one capacity or another. The Cooperative Agreement provided for research personnel to collaborate with senior scientists in ongoing NASA ARC research. Finally, many post-MA/MS and post-doctoral personnel contributed to the projects. It is worth noting that 10 former cooperative agreement personnel were hired into civil service positions directly from the agreements.

  10. Journal of Humanities: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Dr. Japhet Bakuwa Copy and Production Editor Chancellor College Publications Journal of Humanities Chancellor College Publications PO Box 280 Zomba Malawi Email: ...

  11. Business and Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    This article analyses the United Nations (UN) Guidelines on Business and Human Rights adopted in 2011 by the UN Human Rights Council from the perspective of Transnational Business Governance Interactions (TBGI) analytical framework (Eberlein et al. 2014). The article identifies and discusses dime...... business governance suggests that this form of governance offers prospects for public institutions as a means towards regulating global sustainability concerns.......This article analyses the United Nations (UN) Guidelines on Business and Human Rights adopted in 2011 by the UN Human Rights Council from the perspective of Transnational Business Governance Interactions (TBGI) analytical framework (Eberlein et al. 2014). The article identifies and discusses...... that the UN Guiding Principles are unique in several respects of relevance to transnational business governance interaction and indicate the relevance of the TBGI approach to public regulatory transnational business governance initiatives. The analysis of the Guiding Principles as interactional transnational...

  12. Human Reliability Program Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodin, Michael


    This presentation covers the high points of the Human Reliability Program, including certification/decertification, critical positions, due process, organizational structure, program components, personnel security, an overview of the US DOE reliability program, retirees and academia, and security program integration.

  13. Human Bond Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, Ramjee


    Modern dexterous communication technology is progressively enabling humans to communicate their information through them with speech (aural) and media (optical) as underpinning essence. Humans realize this kind of aural and optical information by their optical and auditory senses. However, due...... to certain constraints, the ability to incorporate the other three sensory features namely, olfactory, gustatory, and tactile are still far from reality. Human bond communication is a novel concept that incorporates olfactory, gustatory, and tactile that will allow more expressive and holistic sensory...... information exchange through communication techniques for more human sentiment centric communication. This concept endorses the need of inclusion of other three senses and proposes an innovative approach of holistic communication for future communication network....

  14. Strategic Human Resources Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marta Muqaj


    Strategic Human Resources Management (SHRM) represents an important and sensitive aspect of the functioning and development of a company, business, institution, state, public or private agency of a country...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Kaluđerović


    Full Text Available In this paper the authors analyze the process of negotiating and beginning of the United Nations Declaration on Human Cloning as well as the paragraphs of the very Declaration. The negotiation was originally conceived as a clear bioethical debate that should have led to a general agreement to ban human cloning. However, more often it had been discussed about human rights, cultural, civil and religious differences between people and about priorities in case of eventual conflicts between different value systems. In the end, a non-binding Declaration on Human Cloning had been adopted, full of numerous compromises and ambiguous formulations, that relativized the original intention of proposer states. According to authors, it would have been better if bioethical discussion and eventual regulations on cloning mentioned in the following text had been left over to certain professional bodies, and only after the public had been fully informed about it should relevant supranational organizations have taken that into consideration.

  16. Science and Humanism (United States)

    Auger, Pierre


    Science and humanism are separated so completely as to bring about the creation of two cultures quite distinct from each other within contemporary civilization. Pragmatic, rational attitudes are needed on both sides to bring them together. (DF)

  17. Human Capital Tracking Tool - (United States)

    Department of Transportation — AVS is now required to collect, track, and report on data from the following Flight, Business and Workforce Plan. The Human Resource Management’s Performance Target...

  18. Human Factors Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The purpose of the Human Factors Laboratory is to further the understanding of highway user needs so that those needs can be incorporated in roadway design,...

  19. Human Power Empirically Explored

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, A.J.


    Harvesting energy from the users’ muscular power to convert this into electricity is a relatively unknown way to power consumer products. It nevertheless offers surprising opportunities for product designers; human-powered products function independently from regular power infrastructure, are


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph. D. Student Ioana - Julieta Josan


    Full Text Available Once with the development of the human capital theory, the education received an economic value. Leading theorists and specialists in the field have shown that the remarkable economic effects of the investments in education influence the chances of acquiring a job and earnings, demonstrating how the theory justifies such an investment. At the hand, the allocation of resources in human capital brings performance and benefits to companies investing in their employees. Also, the investment in human capital is strategic for any country that seeks to create a knowledge economy. Considering the above arguments, the aim of this paper is to highlight the characteristics of investment in human capital, the types of investment, the factors of education investment and the entities interested in investing and their benefits.

  1. Human female meiosis revised

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capalbo, Antonio; Hoffmann, Eva R.; Cimadomo, Danilo


    in the female germline is a crucial step towards the development of new diagnostic approaches and, possibly, for the development of therapeutic targets and molecules. Here, we have reviewed emerging mechanisms that may drive human aneuploidy, in particular the maternal age effect. SEARCH METHODS We conducted...... a systematic search in PubMed Central of the primary literature from 1990 through 2016 following the PRISMA guidelines, using MeSH terms related to human aneuploidy. For model organism research, we conducted a literature review based on references in human oocytes manuscripts and general reviews related...... to chromosome segregation in meiosis and mitosis. OUTCOMES Advances in genomic and imaging technologies are allowing unprecedented insight into chromosome segregation in human oocytes. This includes the identification of a novel chromosome segregation error, termed reverse segregation, as well as sister...

  2. Human Assisted Assembly Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Automatic assembly sequencing and visualization tools are valuable in determining the best assembly sequences, but without Human Factors and Figure Models (HFFMs) it is difficult to evaluate or visualize human interaction. In industry, accelerating technological advances and shorter market windows have forced companies to turn to an agile manufacturing paradigm. This trend has promoted computerized automation of product design and manufacturing processes, such as automated assembly planning. However, all automated assembly planning software tools assume that the individual components fly into their assembled configuration and generate what appear to be a perfectly valid operations, but in reality the operations cannot physically be carried out by a human. Similarly, human figure modeling algorithms may indicate that assembly operations are not feasible and consequently force design modifications; however, if they had the capability to quickly generate alternative assembly sequences, they might have identified a feasible solution. To solve this problem HFFMs must be integrated with automated assembly planning to allow engineers to verify that assembly operations are possible and to see ways to make the designs even better. Factories will very likely put humans and robots together in cooperative environments to meet the demands for customized products, for purposes including robotic and automated assembly. For robots to work harmoniously within an integrated environment with humans the robots must have cooperative operational skills. For example, in a human only environment, humans may tolerate collisions with one another if they did not cause much pain. This level of tolerance may or may not apply to robot-human environments. Humans expect that robots will be able to operate and navigate in their environments without collisions or interference. The ability to accomplish this is linked to the sensing capabilities available. Current work in the field of cooperative

  3. Pushing Human Frontiers (United States)

    Zubrin, Robert


    With human colonization of Mars, I think you will see a higher standard of civilization, just as America set a higher standard of civilization which then promulgated back into Europe. I think that if you want to maximize human potential, you need a higher standard of civilization, and that becomes an example that benefits everyone. Without an open frontier, closed world ideologies, such as the Malthus Theory, tend to come to the forefront. It is that there are limited resources; therefore, we are all in deadly competition with each other for the limited pot. The result is tyrannical and potentially genocidal regimes, and we've already seen this in the twentieth century. There s no truth in the Malthus Theory, because human beings are the creators of their resources. With every mouth comes a pair of hands and a brain. But if it seems to be true, you have a vector in this direction, and it is extremely unfortunate. It is only in a universe of infinite resources that all humans can be brothers and sisters. The fundamental question which affects humanity s sense of itself is whether the world is changeable or fixed. Are we the makers of our world or just its inhabitants? Some people have a view that they re living at the end of history within a world that s already defined, and there is no fundamental purpose to human life because there is nothing humans can do that matters. On the other hand, if humans understand their own role as the creators of their world, that s a much more healthy point of view. It raises the dignity of humans. Indeed, if we do establish a new branch of human civilization on Mars that grows in time and potency to the point where it cannot really settle Mars, but transforms Mars, and brings life to Mars, we will prove to everyone and for all time the precious and positive nature of the human species and every member of it.

  4. Human-Robot Biodynamics


    Ivancevic, Vladimir G.


    This paper presents the scientific body of knowledge behind the Human Biodynamics Engine (HBE), a human motion simulator developed on the concept of Euclidean motion group SE(3), with 270 active degrees of freedom, force-velocity-time muscular mechanics and two-level neural control - formulated in the fashion of nonlinear humanoid robotics. The following aspects of the HBE development are described: geometrical, dynamical, control, physiological, AI, behavioral and complexity, together with s...

  5. Reclaiming human machine nature


    Fass, Didier


    International audience; Extending and modifying his domain of life by artifact production is one of the main characteristics of humankind. From the first hominid, who used a wood stick or a stone for extending his upper limbs and augmenting his gesture strength, to current systems engineers who used technologies for augmenting human cognition, perception and action, extending human body capabilities remains a big issue. From more than fifty years cybernetics, computer and cog-nitive sciences ...

  6. Genetics of human hydrocephalus


    Zhang, Jun; Michael A. Williams; Rigamonti, Daniele


    Human hydrocephalus is a common medical condition that is characterized by abnormalities in the flow or resorption of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), resulting in ventricular dilatation. Human hydrocephalus can be classified into two clinical forms, congenital and acquired. Hydrocephalus is one of the complex and multifactorial neurological disorders. A growing body of evidence indicates that genetic factors play a major role in the pathogenesis of hydrocephalus. An understanding of the genetic co...

  7. Human ocular anatomy. (United States)

    Kels, Barry D; Grzybowski, Andrzej; Grant-Kels, Jane M


    We review the normal anatomy of the human globe, eyelids, and lacrimal system. This contribution explores both the form and function of numerous anatomic features of the human ocular system, which are vital to a comprehensive understanding of the pathophysiology of many oculocutaneous diseases. The review concludes with a reference glossary of selective ophthalmologic terms that are relevant to a thorough understanding of many oculocutaneous disease processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Evolution and human sexuality. (United States)

    Gray, Peter B


    The aim of this review is to put core features of human sexuality in an evolutionary light. Toward that end, I address five topics concerning the evolution of human sexuality. First, I address theoretical foundations, including recent critiques and developments. While much traces back to Darwin and his view of sexual selection, more recent work helps refine the theoretical bases to sex differences and life history allocations to mating effort. Second, I consider central models attempting to specify the phylogenetic details regarding how hominin sexuality might have changed, with most of those models honing in on transitions from a possible chimpanzee-like ancestor to the slightly polygynous and long-term bonded sociosexual partnerships observed among most recently studied hunter-gatherers. Third, I address recent genetic and physiological data contributing to a refined understanding of human sexuality. As examples, the availability of rapidly increasing genomic information aids comparative approaches to discern signals of selection in sexuality-related phenotypes, and neuroendocrine studies of human responses to sexual stimuli provide insight into homologous and derived mechanisms. Fourth, I consider some of the most recent, large, and rigorous studies of human sexuality. These provide insights into sexual behavior across other national samples and on the Internet. Fifth, I discuss the relevance of a life course perspective to understanding the evolution of human sexuality. Most research on the evolution of human sexuality focuses on young adults. Yet humans are sexual beings from gestation to death, albeit in different ways across the life course, and in ways that can be theoretically couched within life history theory. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.



    Dr. M. Panneerselvam


    Electronic Human Resource Management is an essence the revolution of human resource functions to management and employees. These functions are typically used via intranet and web technology. This helps the organization to improve their standards where they can able to review and forward. All those documents can be viewed within a fraction of second with help of client and server links. The phenomenon of E- HRM deserves closer and more fundamental roots to HR activity. The E-HRM develops and b...

  10. Human motricity and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Sérgio Vieira e Cunha


    Full Text Available If human motricity science intends to study motor conduct (or actions in which the human being pursues transcendence (or surmounting, it inevitably relates to the large realm of health. What are the aspects it evinces? Transdisciplinarity, solidarity among the various knowledge types (including poetical, complexity, (where the physical is integrated but surmounted and the firm belief that to be healthy is to have in ourselves, alive and working, the capacity for surmounting anything.

  11. Human Germline Genome Editing. (United States)

    Ormond, Kelly E; Mortlock, Douglas P; Scholes, Derek T; Bombard, Yvonne; Brody, Lawrence C; Faucett, W Andrew; Garrison, Nanibaa' A; Hercher, Laura; Isasi, Rosario; Middleton, Anna; Musunuru, Kiran; Shriner, Daniel; Virani, Alice; Young, Caroline E


    With CRISPR/Cas9 and other genome-editing technologies, successful somatic and germline genome editing are becoming feasible. To respond, an American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG) workgroup developed this position statement, which was approved by the ASHG Board in March 2017. The workgroup included representatives from the UK Association of Genetic Nurses and Counsellors, Canadian Association of Genetic Counsellors, International Genetic Epidemiology Society, and US National Society of Genetic Counselors. These groups, as well as the American Society for Reproductive Medicine, Asia Pacific Society of Human Genetics, British Society for Genetic Medicine, Human Genetics Society of Australasia, Professional Society of Genetic Counselors in Asia, and Southern African Society for Human Genetics, endorsed the final statement. The statement includes the following positions. (1) At this time, given the nature and number of unanswered scientific, ethical, and policy questions, it is inappropriate to perform germline gene editing that culminates in human pregnancy. (2) Currently, there is no reason to prohibit in vitro germline genome editing on human embryos and gametes, with appropriate oversight and consent from donors, to facilitate research on the possible future clinical applications of gene editing. There should be no prohibition on making public funds available to support this research. (3) Future clinical application of human germline genome editing should not proceed unless, at a minimum, there is (a) a compelling medical rationale, (b) an evidence base that supports its clinical use, (c) an ethical justification, and (d) a transparent public process to solicit and incorporate stakeholder input. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Human Genetics. All rights reserved.



    Ph. D. Student Ioana - Julieta Josan


    Once with the development of the human capital theory, the education received an economic value. Leading theorists and specialists in the field have shown that the remarkable economic effects of the investments in education influence the chances of acquiring a job and earnings, demonstrating how the theory justifies such an investment. At the hand, the allocation of resources in human capital brings performance and benefits to companies investing in their employees. Also, the investment in hu...

  13. Deuteronomy and Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Braulik


    Full Text Available If one compares the articles of the "Universal Declaration of Human Rights" dated December 10th, 1948, with the regulations of the book of Deuteronomy, one detects a surprising abundance of correspondences, or at least of similar tendencies, between them. As the social theorists of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the architects of the catalogue of Human Rights, knew the Scripture very well. References to Deuteronomy are historically well probable and factually hardly coincidental. Deuteronomy rightly boasts about its social laws (4:8 that are unique in the Ancient Near East. The paper orientates itself to the short formula of Human Rights and at the same time to the normative basic character of each human right, as it is formulated in the first article of the declaration: "liberty", "equality", "fraternity". Each of these basic categories are concretised in terms of several Deuteronomic regulations and prove themselves to be central matters of concern within the YHWH religion. Finally, it is outlined how the connection between Deuteronomy and modem expressions of human rights might be explained, and further it is shown what actually makes up the peculiarity of biblical thinking on human rights.

  14. Proteomics of human mitochondria. (United States)

    Palmfeldt, Johan; Bross, Peter


    Proteomics have passed through a tremendous development in the recent years by the development of ever more sensitive, fast and precise mass spectrometry methods. The dramatically increased research in the biology of mitochondria and their prominent involvement in all kinds of diseases and ageing has benefitted from mitochondrial proteomics. We here review substantial findings and progress of proteomic analyses of human cells and tissues in the recent past. One challenge for investigations of human samples is the ethically and medically founded limited access to human material. The increased sensitivity of mass spectrometry technology aids in lowering this hurdle and new approaches like generation of induced pluripotent cells from somatic cells allow to produce patient-specific cellular disease models with great potential. We describe which human sample types are accessible, review the status of the catalog of human mitochondrial proteins and discuss proteins with dual localization in mitochondria and other cellular compartments. We describe the status and developments of pertinent mass spectrometric strategies, and the use of databases and bioinformatics. Using selected illustrative examples, we draw a picture of the role of proteomic analyses for the many disease contexts from inherited disorders caused by mutation in mitochondrial proteins to complex diseases like cancer, type 2 diabetes and neurodegenerative diseases. Finally, we speculate on the future role of proteomics in research on human mitochondria and pinpoint fields where the evolving technologies will be exploited. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Cytokines in human milk. (United States)

    Garofalo, Roberto


    Epidemiologic studies conducted in the past 30 years to investigate the protective functions of human milk strongly support the notion that breastfeeding prevents infantile infections, particularly those affecting the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts. However, more recent clinical and experimental observations also suggest that human milk not only provides passive protection, but also can directly modulate the immunological development of the recipient infant. The study of this remarkable defense system in human milk has been difficult because of its biochemical complexity, the small concentration of certain bioactive components, the compartmentalization of some of these agents, the dynamic quantitative and qualitative changes of milk during lactation, and the lack of specific reagents to quantify these agents. However, a host of bioactive substances, including hormones, growth factors, and immunological factors such as cytokines, have been identified in human milk. Cytokines are pluripotent polypeptides that act in autocrine/paracrine fashions by binding to specific cellular receptors. They operate in networks and orchestrate the development and functions of immune system. Several different cytokines and chemokines have been discovered in human milk in the past years, and the list is growing very rapidly. This article will review the current knowledge about the increasingly complex network of chemoattractants, activators, and anti-inflammatory cytokines present in human milk and their potential role in compensating for the developmental delay of the neonate immune system. Copyright 2010. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  16. Human Factors Review Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paramore, B.; Peterson, L.R. (eds.)


    ''Human Factors'' is concerned with the incorporation of human user considerations into a system in order to maximize human reliability and reduce errors. This Review Plan is intended to assist in the assessment of human factors conditions in existing DOE facilities. In addition to specifying assessment methodologies, the plan describes techniques for improving conditions which are found to not adequately support reliable human performance. The following topics are addressed: (1) selection of areas for review describes techniques for needs assessment to assist in selecting and prioritizing areas for review; (2) human factors engineering review is concerned with optimizing the interfaces between people and equipment and people and their work environment; (3) procedures review evaluates completeness and accuracy of procedures, as well as their usability and management; (4) organizational interface review is concerned with communication and coordination between all levels of an organization; and (5) training review evaluates training program criteria such as those involving: trainee selection, qualification of training staff, content and conduct of training, requalification training, and program management.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Abram


    Full Text Available From an initial project to investigate the relationship between magic and traditional medicine as practiced by shamans in Southern rural Asia, the focus of attention gradually shifted to an awareness of the negotiation traditional medicine people or shamans exert between the human community and the larger community of beings. This attentiveness to a more-than-human world does not occur at a supernatural domain above nature or inside her personal self but is the result of the shaman’s special ability to project her consciousness horizontally to other forms of sensibility with which human existence is interwoven. The ecological function of the shaman is to maintain a constant balance between what is taken and what is given from the human community to the larger community. The spirits of indigenous cultures are not defined in opposition to materiality but are essentially those modes of intelligence or awareness that do not possess a human form. By exploring different landscapes, and the sensibility living in them, a new sensitivity is awoken that allows for communication with those intelligences. However, the drowning of these other voices in Western culture, which reduces otherness to an object, creates an uneasiness that is hardly perceived except as an inability to interact with anything more-than-human and its dire consequences in the form of “civilization’s” destructive behavior.

  18. Habitability and Human Factors Contributions to Human Space Flight (United States)

    Sumaya, Jennifer Boyer


    This slide presentation reviews the work of the Habitability and Human Factors Branch in support of human space flight in two main areas: Applied support to major space programs, and Space research. The field of Human Factors applies knowledge of human characteristics for the design of safer, more effective, and more efficient systems. This work is in several areas of the human space program: (1) Human-System Integration (HSI), (2) Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, (3) Extravehicular Activity (EVA), (4) Lunar Surface Systems, (5) International Space Station (ISS), and (6) Human Research Program (HRP). After detailing the work done in these areas, the facilities that are available for human factors work are shown.

  19. Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (United States)

    ... education Fact Sheet PFS005: Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus AUGUST 2015 • Reasons for Getting Tested • Who Should ... For More Information • Glossary Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that ...

  20. Human bites - self-care (United States)

    Bites - human - self-care ... Human bites can occur in 2 ways: If someone bites you If your hand comes into contact ... bite to express anger or other negative feelings. Human bites may be more dangerous than animal bites. ...

  1. Developing Human Performance Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey Joe; Bruce Hallbert; Larry Blackwood; Donald Dudehoeffer; Kent Hansen


    Through the reactor oversight process (ROP), the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) monitors the performance of utilities licensed to operate nuclear power plants. The process is designed to assure public health and safety by providing reasonable assurance that licensees are meeting the cornerstones of safety and designated crosscutting elements. The reactor inspection program, together with performance indicators (PIs), and enforcement activities form the basis for the NRC’s risk-informed, performance based regulatory framework. While human performance is a key component in the safe operation of nuclear power plants and is a designated cross-cutting element of the ROP, there is currently no direct inspection or performance indicator for assessing human performance. Rather, when human performance is identified as a substantive cross cutting element in any 1 of 3 categories (resources, organizational or personnel), it is then evaluated for common themes to determine if follow-up actions are warranted. However, variability in human performance occurs from day to day, across activities that vary in complexity, and workgroups, contributing to the uncertainty in the outcomes of performance. While some variability in human performance may be random, much of the variability may be attributed to factors that are not currently assessed. There is a need to identify and assess aspects of human performance that relate to plant safety and to develop measures that can be used to successfully assure licensee performance and indicate when additional investigation may be required. This paper presents research that establishes a technical basis for developing human performance measures. In particular, we discuss: 1) how historical data already gives some indication of connection between human performance and overall plant performance, 2) how industry led efforts to measure and model human performance and organizational factors could serve as a data source and basis for a

  2. Interaction Between Humans and Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars


    On structures two types of humans may be present. (1) Active humans and (2) passive humans (sitting or standing on the structure). The active humans can excite the structure and cause structural vibrations. The mass of the passive humans will interact with the structure and basically it changes...... the structural system (modal characteristics and structural vibration levels). The paper addresses this subject and explores the implications of having passive humans present on the structure....

  3. Towards a better understanding of human smuggling


    Heckmann, Friedrich


    Contents: What is human smuggling?; How can we know about human smuggling?; Human smuggling as a migration phenomenon; Human smuggling as a business; The social organizing of human smuggling; Fighting against human smuggling.

  4. Why Geo-Humanities (United States)

    Graells, Robert Casals i.; Sibilla, Anna; Bohle, Martin


    Anthropogenic global change is a composite process. It consists of societal processes (in the 'noosphere') and natural processes (in the 'bio-geosphere'). The 'noosphere' is the ensemble of social, cultural or political insights ('shared subjective mental concepts') of people. Understanding the composite of societal and natural processes ('human geo-biosphere intersections'), which shapes the features of anthropogenic global change, would benefit from a description that draws equally on natural sciences, social sciences and humanities. To that end it is suggested to develop a concept of 'geo-humanities': This essay presents some aspects of its scope, discussing "knowledge that is to manage", "intentions that are to shape", "choices that are to justify" and "complexity that is to handle". Managing knowledge: That people understand anthropogenic global change requires their insights into how 'human geosphere intersections' function. Insights are formed ('processed') in the noosphere by means of interactions between people. Understanding how 'human geosphere intersections' functions combines scientific, engineering and economic studies with studies of the dynamics of the noosphere. Shaping intentions: During the last century anthropogenic global change developed as the collateral outcome of humankind's accumulated actions. It is caused by the number of people, the patterns of their consumption of resources, and the alterations of their environments. Nowadays, anthropogenic global chance is either an intentional negligence or a conscious act. Justifying choices: Humanity has alternatives how to alter Earth at planetary scale consciously. For example, there is a choice to alter the geo-biosphere or to adjust the noosphere. Whatever the choice, it will depend on people's world-views, cultures and preferences. Thus beyond issues whether science and technology are 'sound' overarching societal issues are to tackle, such as: (i) how to appropriate and distribute natural

  5. Humanity and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Kun Lin


    Full Text Available So far our open access publishing company MDPI (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute has published mainly science, medicine and technology journals. To become a multidisciplinary publisher, we launched the journal Sustainability [1]. More recently, we started to run several social science journals, including Societies [2], Religions [3], Administrative Sciences [4] and Behavioral Sciences [5]. Today we published the first paper [6] of the inaugural issue of Humanities (ISSN 2076-0787. This will be an international open access journal, publishing scholarly papers of high quality across all humanities disciplines. As a publisher, I would like to publish journals surrounding the topics of sustainability and I believe the humanities as a discipline of academic studies are very important. As a scientist, I believed science and technology will only benefit human beings. I was raised in a small village, living a very primitive life in a peasant family: no electricity, no machines, of course no TV and no refrigerator. Now, the life of my children is completely different. Even my own life has completely changed. I have witnessed very rapid changes: more and more machines are used to consume mineral resources and energy and to pollute the environment, in order to produce more and more powerful machines (we are also launching a journal titled Machines, in which the relationship between Man and machine should be an interesting topic.. Machines are more and more like human individuals consuming resources themselves (we are launching a journal titled Resources. [...

  6. Human milk banking guidelines. (United States)

    Bharadva, Ketan; Tiwari, Satish; Mishra, Sudhir; Mukhopadhyay, Kanya; Yadav, Balraj; Agarwal, R K; Kumar, Vishesh


    WHO and UNICEF state that the use of human milk from other sources should be the first alternative when it is not possible for the mother to breastfeed. Human milk banks should be made available in appropriate situations. The IYCF Chapter is actively concerned about the compelling use of formula feeds in the infants because of the non availability of human breast milk banks. A National Consultative Meet for framing guidelines was summoned by the IYCF Chapter and the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India on 30th June, 2013, with representations from various stakeholders. The guidelines were drafted after an extensive literature review and discussions. Though these guidelines are based on the experiences and guidelines from other countries, changes have been made to suit the Indian setup, culture and needs, without compromising scientific evidence. To ensure quality of donated breast milk as a safe end product. Human Milk Banking Association should be constituted, and human milk banks should be established across the country. National coordination mechanism should be developed with a secretariat and technical support to follow-up on action in States. Budgetary provisions should be made available for the activities.

  7. The human serum metabolome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Psychogios


    Full Text Available Continuing improvements in analytical technology along with an increased interest in performing comprehensive, quantitative metabolic profiling, is leading to increased interest pressures within the metabolomics community to develop centralized metabolite reference resources for certain clinically important biofluids, such as cerebrospinal fluid, urine and blood. As part of an ongoing effort to systematically characterize the human metabolome through the Human Metabolome Project, we have undertaken the task of characterizing the human serum metabolome. In doing so, we have combined targeted and non-targeted NMR, GC-MS and LC-MS methods with computer-aided literature mining to identify and quantify a comprehensive, if not absolutely complete, set of metabolites commonly detected and quantified (with today's technology in the human serum metabolome. Our use of multiple metabolomics platforms and technologies allowed us to substantially enhance the level of metabolome coverage while critically assessing the relative strengths and weaknesses of these platforms or technologies. Tables containing the complete set of 4229 confirmed and highly probable human serum compounds, their concentrations, related literature references and links to their known disease associations are freely available at

  8. Philosophical foundations of human rights

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, Matthew S


    What makes something a human right? What is the relationship between the moral foundations of human rights and human rights law? What are the difficulties of appealing to human rights? This book offers the first comprehensive survey of current thinking on the philosophical foundations of human rights. Divided into four parts, this book focusses firstly on the moral grounds of human rights, for example in our dignity, agency, interests or needs. 'Secondly, it looks at the implications that different moral perspectives on human rights bear for human rights law and politics. Thirdly, it discusses specific and topical human rights including freedom of expression and religion, security, health and more controversial rights such as a human right to subsistence. The final part discusses nuanced critical and reformative views on human rights from feminist, Kantian and relativist perspectives among others. The essays represent new and canonical research by leading scholars in the field. Each part is comprised of a set...

  9. Infants' Responses to Real Humans and Representations of Humans (United States)

    Heron, Michelle; Slaughter, Virginia


    Infants' responses to typical and scrambled human body shapes were assessed in relation to the realism of the human body stimuli presented. In four separate experiments, infants were familiarized to typical human bodies and then shown a series of scrambled human bodies on the test. Looking behaviour was assessed in response to a range of different…

  10. Medical practice, human experimentation and the sanctity of human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... human health and the sanctity of human life. In checkmating these dangers, the paper recommends and canvasses for the adoption of the ethical principles of the Nuremberg code of 1947 in properly regulating human experimentation so as to maximize its benefits and at the same time respect the sanctity of human life.

  11. Movement coordination in applied human-human and human-robot interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubö, Anna; Vesper, Cordula; Wiesbeck, Mathey


    and describing human-human interaction in terms of goal-oriented movement coordination is considered an important and necessary step for designing and describing human-robot interaction. In the present scenario, trajectories of hand and finger movements were recorded while two human participants performed......The present paper describes a scenario for examining mechanisms of movement coordination in humans and robots. It is assumed that coordination can best be achieved when behavioral rules that shape movement execution in humans are also considered for human-robot interaction. Investigating...... coordination were affected. Implications for human-robot interaction are discussed....

  12. [Diagnosis of human toxocarosis]. (United States)

    Roldán, William H; Espinoza, Yrma A; Huapaya, Pedro E; Jiménez, Susana


    Human toxocarosis is an important parasitic zoonosis caused by larval stages of Toxocara species, the roundworms from dogs and cats. Larval migration through different soft tissues in the human generates several clinical entities in the patient, such as visceral larva migrans, ocular toxocarosis, and neurotoxocarosis. Definitive diagnosis by histopathological methods is very difficult or almost impossible and, nowadays, the diagnosis is usually made by clinical signs/symptoms, epidemiological background of the patient and the use of hematological and immunological tests which finally help to confirm the clinical suspicion of the illness. The purpose of this paper was to update the available knowledge on the use of different tools for both the diagnosis and following up of human toxocarosis.

  13. Social cognition in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frith, Christopher; Frith, Uta


    We review a diversity of studies of human social interaction and highlight the importance of social signals. We also discuss recent findings from social cognitive neuroscience that explore the brain basis of the capacity for processing social signals. These signals enable us to learn about...... the world from others, to learn about other people, and to create a shared social world. Social signals can be processed automatically by the receiver and may be unconsciously emitted by the sender. These signals are non-verbal and are responsible for social learning in the first year of life. Social...... signals can also be processed consciously and this allows automatic processing to be modulated and overruled. Evidence for this higher-level social processing is abundant from about 18 months of age in humans, while evidence is sparse for non-human animals. We suggest that deliberate social signalling...

  14. Philanthropy and Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Øjvind


    in Germany, England, France and USA. In each tradition is developed special features of the concept of philanthropy. The four traditions are summarized in the UN universal human rights, which has become the common normative reference for global philanthropy. In this way philanthropy has become, in a modern......, and normally utilized to promote one’s own prestige in the city-state. In Roman context, universal humanism, humanitas, was invented. This universal perspective was also supported by Christianity. It is this universal concept of philanthropy which is the foundation for the different philanthropic traditions...... sense, a charitable act with the aim to promote human happiness independent of gender, class, race, etc. This is the genealogy of the modern understanding of philanthropy, which will be developed in this paper....

  15. Human Systems Design Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens


    This paper deals with the problem of designing more humanised computer systems. This problem can be formally described as the need for defining human design criteria, which — if used in the design process - will secure that the systems designed get the relevant qualities. That is not only...... the necessary functional qualities but also the needed human qualities. The author's main argument is, that the design process should be a dialectical synthesis of the two points of view: Man as a System Component, and System as Man's Environment. Based on a man's presentation of the state of the art a set...... of design criteria is suggested and their relevance discussed. The point is to focus on the operator rather than on the computer. The crucial question is not to program the computer to work on its own conditions, but to “program” the operator to function on human conditions....

  16. Abortion and human rights. (United States)

    Shaw, Dorothy


    Abortion has been a reality in women's lives since the beginning of recorded history, typically with a high risk of fatal consequences, until the last century when evolutions in the field of medicine, including techniques of safe abortion and effective methods of family planning, could have ended the need to seek unsafe abortion. The context of women's lives globally is an important but often ignored variable, increasingly recognised in evolving human rights especially related to gender and reproduction. International and regional human rights instruments are being invoked where national laws result in violations of human rights such as health and life. The individual right to conscientious objection must be respected and better understood, and is not absolute. Health professional organisations have a role to play in clarifying responsibilities consistent with national laws and respecting reproductive rights. Seeking common ground using evidence rather than polarised opinion can assist the future focus. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Whither medical humanities? (United States)

    Singh, Navjeevan


    Understanding the medical humanities (MH) and their role in medical education is in its infancy in India. Students are initiated into professional (medical) education too early in life, usually at the expense of a basic grounding in the humanities, resulting in warped intellectual growth. The author, arguing against the wholesale import of foreign systems, advocates free inquiry by medical educators to evolve a humanities programme for medical students derived from our own cultural context. This essay describes the early experiences of efforts to make a beginning at the University College of Medical Sciences, Delhi. The author reviews the various strategies used and the challenges of introducing the subject to the current generation of medical students.

  18. Medical humanities ... almost. (United States)

    Dangayach, Neha


    Brought up in the traditional education system in a large teaching hospital in Mumbai, India, I moved on to do specialisation in neurology in the United States of America. The Indian system of pre-medical education mandates early choices between the humanities and the sciences and thus precludes a more well-rounded development of a student. Though medical humanities is not taught as a subject as part of the medical curriculum in India, listening to inspiring and learned teachers and the daily interaction with scores of patients who are willing to submit themselves to examination "in the cause of medical education" is a humbling experience to a sensitive student. I see similar willingness in patients in the United States. However, a formal course in the medical humanities, including arts, literature, and philosophy will surely enrich the experience of a larger number of undergraduates and postgraduates learning the core subjects and help in moulding a more rounded physician.

  19. Human-Robot Interaction (United States)

    Rochlis-Zumbado, Jennifer; Sandor, Aniko; Ezer, Neta


    Risk of Inadequate Design of Human and Automation/Robotic Integration (HARI) is a new Human Research Program (HRP) risk. HRI is a research area that seeks to understand the complex relationship among variables that affect the way humans and robots work together to accomplish goals. The DRP addresses three major HRI study areas that will provide appropriate information for navigation guidance to a teleoperator of a robot system, and contribute to the closure of currently identified HRP gaps: (1) Overlays -- Use of overlays for teleoperation to augment the information available on the video feed (2) Camera views -- Type and arrangement of camera views for better task performance and awareness of surroundings (3) Command modalities -- Development of gesture and voice command vocabularies

  20. Humanities under Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Mittelstrass


    Full Text Available The Humanities have a problem with visibility both in the public sphere and in the academic system itself, and they have an organisational problem when compared with other sections of the academic system. They also have a funding problem, particularly in a European context, i.e., in the framework of the European research policy. The topic of this position paper is the essential role of the Humanities when dealing with the European project, the framing of Europe. In this respect, in contrast to the natural and social sciences, the Humanities need specific models of research funding, more individualised and of more interdisciplinary character. Additionally, they may need more multi-national centres for advanced studies on a European level, thus also solving their visibility and organisational problems.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Miovska Spaseva


    Full Text Available The article examines the complex role and great responsibility of the education today in development of the moral strength and human values of the children and youth. At the beginning of the article the author reconsiders the pedagogical ideas of Maria Montessori and her concept of education for peace as an instrument for reconstruction of the society and for improvement of the human living. Than the analysis of the moral values in the contemporary society is made and several issues and dilemmas are discussed referring the value disorientation of the youth and the importance of the models of adult’s moral behavior in their search for personal identity. On the basis of this analysis, the human dimension of the education is elaborated enhancing the need for its understanding as support of development, which is based on several crucial elements: love, freedom and spirit of community.

  2. Human Relations-skolen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, Steen


    Human Relations-skolen er en samlebetegnelse for to forskningsretninger, som tilsammen bidrog som nogle af de første til at indkredse og belyse de mellemmenneskelige relationers betydning for motivation og trivsel i arbejdslivet, og som skulle få stor ind"ydelse ikke bare på organisationsteorien......, men også arbejdssociologien, arbejdspsykologien og human resource development. Den første retning udsprang af de såkaldte Hawthorne-eksperimenter og psykologen Elton Mayos bearbejdelse af resultaterne derfra. Den anden er en løsere gruppering bestående af navne som Abraham Maslow og Frederick Herzberg......, som formulerede en række teorier og modeller om menneskets motivation, trivsel og behov i arbejdslivet. Selvom de ikke nødvendigvis relaterede sig til hinandens arbejde, er de forskellige bidragsydere i dag kendt som repræsentanter for den paradigmatiske betegnelse Human Relations. Undertiden skelnes...

  3. Defining Human Enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordberg, Ana


    Emerging technologies open the prospect of extraordinary interventions on the human body. These may go beyond what is strictly necessary to sustain health and well-being. While responding to social and ethical challenges of such advances, the Law simultaneously faces the challenge of reflecting...... on the legitimacy to legislate and on whether the existing legal framework is appropriate to address the various concerns. In order to do so, it is crucial to establish clear legal definitions. Precise distinctions between interventions on the human body are intrinsically difficult to formulate. However, subject......-matter definitions are vital legal tools to determine what is currently regulated in established fields of law and whether there is room for a new legal field – Enhancement Law. This paper provides a reflection on the relevance of establishing a legal definition of human enhancement and to what extent different...

  4. The Human Centrifuge (United States)

    van Loon, Jack J. W. A.


    Life on Earth has developed at unit gravity, 9.81 m/s2, which was a major factor especially when vertebrates emerged from water onto land in the late Devonian, some 375 million years ago. But how would nature have evolved on a larger planet? We are able to address this question simply in experiments using centrifuges. Based on these studies we have gained valuable insights in the physiological process in plants and animals. They adapt to a new steady state suitable for the high-g environments applied. Information on mammalian adaptations to hyper-g is interesting or may be even vital for human space exploration programs. It has been shown in long duration animal hypergravity studies, ranging from snails, rats to primates, that various structures like muscles, bones, neuro-vestibular, or the cardio-vascular system are affected. However, humans have never been exposed to a hyper-g environment for long durations. Centrifuge studies involving humans are mostly in the order of hours. The current work on human centrifuges are all focused on short arm systems to apply short periods of artificial gravity in support of long duration space missions in ISS or to Mars. In this paper we will address the possible usefulness of a large human centrifuge on Earth. In such a centrifuge a group of humans can be exposed to hypergravity for, in principle, an unlimited period of time like living on a larger planet. The input from a survey under scientists working in the field of gravitational physiology, but also other disciplines, will be discussed.

  5. Handbook of human computation

    CERN Document Server

    Michelucci, Pietro


    This volume addresses the emerging area of human computation, The chapters, written by leading international researchers, explore existing and future opportunities to combine the respective strengths of both humans and machines in order to create powerful problem-solving capabilities. The book bridges scientific communities, capturing and integrating the unique perspective and achievements of each. It coalesces contributions from industry and across related disciplines in order to motivate, define, and anticipate the future of this exciting new frontier in science and cultural evolution. Reade

  6. We Are Human Beings (United States)

    McGee, Andrew


    In this paper, I examine Jeff McMahan’s arguments for his claim that we are not human organisms, and the arguments of Derek Parfit to the same effect in a recent paper. McMahan uses these arguments to derive conclusions concerning the moral status of embryos and permanent vegetative state (PVS) patients. My claim will be that neither thinker has successfully shown that we are not human beings, and therefore these arguments do not establish the ethical conclusions that McMahan has sought to draw from the arguments in respect of the moral status of embryos and PVS patients. PMID:26810918

  7. Human Body Exergy Metabolism


    Mady, Carlos


    The exergy analysis of the human body is a tool that can provide indicators of health and life quality. To perform the exergy balance it is necessary to calculate the metabolism on an exergy basis, or metabolic exergy, although there is not yet consensus in its calculation procedure. Hence, the aim of this work is to provide a general method to evaluate this physical quantity for human body based on indirect calorimetry data. To calculate the metabolism on an exergy basis it is necessary to d...

  8. Business and Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin


    This article analyses the United Nations (UN) Guidelines on Business and Human Rights adopted in 2011 by the UN Human Rights Council from the perspective of transnational business governance interactions (TBGI) analytical framework.1 The article identifies and discusses dimensions of interaction...... in several areas of relevance to transnational business governance interaction and indicates the relevance of the TBGI approach to public regulatory transnational business governance initiatives. The analysis of the Guiding Principles as interactional transnational business governance suggests that this form...... of governance offers prospects for public institutions as a means towards regulating global sustainability concerns....

  9. Ayahuasca and human destiny. (United States)

    McKenna, Dennis J


    In this essay, the author shares his personal reflections gleaned from a lifetime of research with ayahuasca, and speculates on the societal, political, planetary, and evolutionary implications of humanity's aeons-old symbiosis with this shamanic plant. The thesis is developed that at this critical historical juncture, ayahuasca has developed a strategy to broadcast its message to a wider world--a reflection of the urgent need to avert global ecological catastrophe. While ayahuasca has much to teach us, the critical question is, will humanity hear it, and heed it, in time?

  10. When computers were human

    CERN Document Server

    Grier, David Alan


    Before Palm Pilots and iPods, PCs and laptops, the term ""computer"" referred to the people who did scientific calculations by hand. These workers were neither calculating geniuses nor idiot savants but knowledgeable people who, in other circumstances, might have become scientists in their own right. When Computers Were Human represents the first in-depth account of this little-known, 200-year epoch in the history of science and technology. Beginning with the story of his own grandmother, who was trained as a human computer, David Alan Grier provides a poignant introduction to the wider wo

  11. Human Environmental Disease Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taboureau, Olivier; Audouze, Karine


    During the past decades, many epidemiological, toxicological and biological studies have been performed to assess the role of environmental chemicals as potential toxicants for diverse human disorders. However, the relationships between diseases based on chemical exposure have been rarely studied...... by computational biology. We developed a human environmental disease network (EDN) to explore and suggest novel disease-disease and chemical-disease relationships. The presented scored EDN model is built upon the integration on systems biology and chemical toxicology using chemical contaminants information...

  12. Experimental headache in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Helle Klingenberg


    The need for valid human experimental models of headache is obvious. Several compounds have been proposed as headache-inducing agents, but only the nitroglycerin (NTG) model has been validated. In healthy subjects, intravenous infusions of the nitric oxide (NO) donor NTG induce a dose-dependent h......The need for valid human experimental models of headache is obvious. Several compounds have been proposed as headache-inducing agents, but only the nitroglycerin (NTG) model has been validated. In healthy subjects, intravenous infusions of the nitric oxide (NO) donor NTG induce a dose...

  13. On human health. (United States)

    van Spijk, Piet


    If it is true that health is a priority objective of medicine, then medical practice can only be successful if the meaning of the term "health" is known. Various attempts have been made over the years to define health. This paper proposes a new definition. In addition to current health concepts, it also takes into account the distinction between specifically human (great) health and health as the absence of disease and illness-i.e. small health. The feeling of leading a life that makes sense plays a key role in determining specifically human great health.

  14. The Humanities, Human Rights, and the Comparative Imagination


    McClennen, Sophia A.


    In her paper "The Humanities, Human Rights, and the Comparative Imagination" Sophia A. McClennen argues that understanding the relationship between culture and human rights depends on humanist perspectives attentive to the relationship between storytelling and identity, mass culture and ideology, text and audience, critical thinking and engaged citizenship. After briefly considering how the divide between the humanities and human rights advocates developed and how it might best be overcome, s...

  15. Human Modeling for Ground Processing Human Factors Engineering Analysis (United States)

    Stambolian, Damon B.; Lawrence, Brad A.; Stelges, Katrine S.; Steady, Marie-Jeanne O.; Ridgwell, Lora C.; Mills, Robert E.; Henderson, Gena; Tran, Donald; Barth, Tim


    There have been many advancements and accomplishments over the last few years using human modeling for human factors engineering analysis for design of spacecraft. The key methods used for this are motion capture and computer generated human models. The focus of this paper is to explain the human modeling currently used at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), and to explain the future plans for human modeling for future spacecraft designs

  16. Human Modeling For Ground Processing Human Factors Engineering Analysis (United States)

    Tran, Donald; Stambolian, Damon; Henderson, Gena; Barth, Tim


    There have been many advancements and accomplishments over that last few years using human modeling for human factors engineering analysis for design of spacecraft and launch vehicles. The key methods used for this are motion capture and computer generated human models. The focus of this paper is to explain the different types of human modeling used currently and in the past at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) currently, and to explain the future plans for human modeling for future spacecraft designs.

  17. Human Rights: The Essential Reference. (United States)

    Devine, Carol; Hansen, Carol Rae; Wilde, Ralph; Bronkhorst, Daan; Moritz, Frederic A.; Rolle, Baptiste; Sherman, Rebecca; Southard, Jo Lynn; Wilkinson, Robert; Poole, Hilary, Ed.

    This reference work documents the history of human rights theory, explains each article of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, explores the contemporary human rights movement, and examines the major human rights issues facing the world today. This book is the first to combine historical and contemporary perspectives on these critical…

  18. Making IBM's Computer, Watson, Human (United States)

    Rachlin, Howard


    This essay uses the recent victory of an IBM computer (Watson) in the TV game, "Jeopardy," to speculate on the abilities Watson would need, in addition to those it has, to be human. The essay's basic premise is that to be human is to behave as humans behave and to function in society as humans function. Alternatives to this premise are considered…

  19. Humane Education and Global Education. (United States)

    Selby, David


    Presents and explains model representing four dimensions of global education: temporal, spatial, issues, and inner. Presents six principal areas covered by humane curricula; the relationships between humane education, environmental education, and human rights education; and two humane education activities for the secondary and elementary/secondary…

  20. Humanism in Education (United States)

    Armstrong, Michael


    This is the text of Michael Armstrong's address to the Brian Simon Centenary conference, held at the Institute of Education on 26 March 2015. Michael Armstrong celebrates the humanism that underlay Brian's belief in a common system of education, democratic and non-selective, and finds its counterpart in the creative practice of school children.

  1. Hauntings of Human Nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clasen, Mathias


    The central conflicts of Stephen King’s horror novel The Shining are rooted in human nature and reflect evolutionarily recurrent adaptive problems—the problem of balancing conflicting evolved motives, such as motives for selfish status striving versus motives for affiliative nurturing behavior...

  2. Human Resource Outsourcing Success


    Hasliza Abdul-Halim; Elaine Ee; T. Ramayah; Noor Hazlina Ahmad


    The existing literature on partnership seems to take the relationship between partnership quality and outsourcing success for granted. Therefore, this article aims at examining the role of service quality in strengthening the relationship between partnership quality and human resource (HR) outsourcing success. The samples were obtained from 96 manufacturing organizations in Penang, Malaysia. The results showed that par...

  3. Computational human body models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wismans, J.S.H.M.; Happee, R.; Dommelen, J.A.W. van


    Computational human body models are widely used for automotive crashsafety research and design and as such have significantly contributed to a reduction of traffic injuries and fatalities. Currently crash simulations are mainly performed using models based on crash-dummies. However crash dummies

  4. Human mesenchymal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Basem; Kassem, Moustapha


    introduced into clinical medicine in variety of applications and through different ways of administration. Here, we discuss approaches for isolation, characterization and directing differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC). An update of the current clinical use of the cells is also provided....

  5. Animal and human influenzas. (United States)

    Peiris, M; Yen, H-L


    Influenza type A viruses affect humans and other animals and cause significant morbidity, mortality and economic impact. Influenza A viruses are well adapted to cross species barriers and evade host immunity. Viruses that cause no clinical signs in wild aquatic birds may adapt in domestic poultry to become highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses which decimate poultry flocks. Viruses that cause asymptomatic infection in poultry (e.g. the recently emerged A/H7N9 virus) may cause severe zoonotic disease and pose a major pandemic threat. Pandemic influenza arises at unpredictable intervals from animal viruses and, in its global spread, outpaces current technologies for making vaccines against such novel viruses. Confronting the threat of influenza in humans and other animals is an excellent example of a task that requires a One Health approach. Changes in travel, trade in livestock and pets, changes in animal husbandry practices, wet markets and complex marketing chains all contribute to an increased risk of the emergence of novel influenza viruses with the ability to cross species barriers, leading to epizootics or pandemics. Coordinated surveillance at the animal- human interface for pandemic preparedness, risk assessment, risk reduction and prevention at source requires coordinated action among practitioners in human and animal health and the environmental sciences. Implementation of One Health in the field can be challenging because of divergent short-term objectives. Successful implementation requires effort, mutual trust, respect and understanding to ensure that long-term goals are achieved without adverse impacts on agricultural production and food security.

  6. Human social genomics. (United States)

    Cole, Steven W


    A growing literature in human social genomics has begun to analyze how everyday life circumstances influence human gene expression. Social-environmental conditions such as urbanity, low socioeconomic status, social isolation, social threat, and low or unstable social status have been found to associate with differential expression of hundreds of gene transcripts in leukocytes and diseased tissues such as metastatic cancers. In leukocytes, diverse types of social adversity evoke a common conserved transcriptional response to adversity (CTRA) characterized by increased expression of proinflammatory genes and decreased expression of genes involved in innate antiviral responses and antibody synthesis. Mechanistic analyses have mapped the neural "social signal transduction" pathways that stimulate CTRA gene expression in response to social threat and may contribute to social gradients in health. Research has also begun to analyze the functional genomics of optimal health and thriving. Two emerging opportunities now stand to revolutionize our understanding of the everyday life of the human genome: network genomics analyses examining how systems-level capabilities emerge from groups of individual socially sensitive genomes and near-real-time transcriptional biofeedback to empirically optimize individual well-being in the context of the unique genetic, geographic, historical, developmental, and social contexts that jointly shape the transcriptional realization of our innate human genomic potential for thriving.

  7. Assessment of human exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebret, E. [RIVM-National Inst. of Public Health and Environmental Protection (Netherlands)


    This article describes some of the features of the assessment of human exposure to environmental pollutants in epidemiological studies. Since exposure assessment in air pollution epidemiology studies typically involve professionals from various backgrounds, interpretation of a concepts like `exposure` may vary. A brief descriptions is therefore given by way of introduction

  8. Humanities Review Journal: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. Papers for Humanities Review Journal should be submitted in English and should not exceed 25 pages typed double-spaced on A4 paper. References should be listed alphabetically at the end of the paper. Two copies of the paper, plus a 3_ diskette in Microsoft Word should be submitted. Neither ...

  9. Human Learning and Memory (United States)

    Lieberman, David A.


    This innovative textbook is the first to integrate learning and memory, behaviour, and cognition. It focuses on fascinating human research in both memory and learning (while also bringing in important animal studies) and brings the reader up to date with the latest developments in the subject. Students are encouraged to think critically: key…

  10. Human Memory: The Basics (United States)

    Martinez, Michael E.


    The human mind has two types of memory: short-term and long-term. In all types of learning, it is best to use that structure rather than to fight against it. One way to do that is to ensure that learners can fit new information into patterns that can be stored in and more easily retrieved from long-term memory.

  11. Home heating & human health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongeneel, Sophie


    Human health is influenced by pollutants in the air. Since people spend over 80% of their time indoors, indoor air quality may be more related to health problems than outdoor air qual-ity. Indoor air quality is deteriorating because of energy conservation

  12. Children Are Human Beings (United States)

    Bossard, James H. S.


    The basic assumption underlying this article is that the really significant changes in human history are those that occur, not in the mechanical gadgets which men use nor in the institutionalized arrangements by which they live, but in their attitudes and in the values which they accept. The revolutions of the past that have had the greatest…

  13. Is human fecundity changing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smarr, Melissa M; Sapra, Katherine J; Gemmill, Alison


    Fecundity, the biologic capacity to reproduce, is essential for the health of individuals and is, therefore, fundamental for understanding human health at the population level. Given the absence of a population (bio)marker, fecundity is assessed indirectly by various individual-based (e.g. semen ...

  14. The Humanization of Science. (United States)

    Larson, James H.


    Describes an exercise which focuses on the ethical and human aspects of science. Outlines the approach and components of a writing assignment based on a literary and humanistic analysis of "The Double Helix" by James Watson. Provides sample questions and examples of integrative literary works. (ML)

  15. Dermatophilus congolensis human infection. (United States)

    Towersey, L; Martins, E de C; Londero, A T; Hay, R J; Soares Filho, P J; Takiya, C M; Martins, C C; Gompertz, O F


    Four cases of human dermatophilosis observed in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, are reported. Data that suggest nail infection by Dermatophilus congolensis are presented. The clinical spectrum of the disease ranged from an asymptomatic infection to a pustular eruption. Our findings suggest that epidermal Langerhans cells play a role in the pathogenesis of the infection.

  16. Marketing Human Resource Development. (United States)

    Frank, Eric, Ed.


    Describes three human resource development activities: training, education, and development. Explains marketing from the practitioners's viewpoint in terms of customer orientation; external and internal marketing; and market analysis, research, strategy, and mix. Shows how to design, develop, and implement strategic marketing plans and identify…

  17. Human Work Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopes, Arminda; Ørngreen, Rikke

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the Third IFIP WG 13.6 Working Conference on Human Work Interaction Design, HWID 2012, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in December 2012. The 16 revised papers presented were carefully selected for inclusion in this volume...

  18. Lessons in Human Relations. (United States)

    Glenn, Joanne Lozar


    Explores the importance of relationship literacy--the ability to create good relationships with others--in the next economy and offers perspectives on how business education instructors can help students develop and improve their human relations skills for business success. (Author/JOW)

  19. Journal of Humanities

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Humanities is a theoretical journal which aims to challenge, provoke and excite thinking in the areas of the classics, fine performing arts, literature and orature, linguistics, theology and philosophy. The journal appears annually and is sponsored by the Research and Publications Committee of the Univeristy of ...

  20. Human paragonimiasis in Africa. (United States)

    Aka, N'Da A; Adoubryn, Koffi; Rondelaud, Daniel; Dreyfuss, Gilles


    An up-to-date review on human paragonimiasis in Africa was carried out to determine the current geographical distribution of human cases and analyze the animal reservoir, snails and crustaceans which intervene in the local life cycle of Paragonimus species. Two countries, i.e., Cameroon and Nigeria, were mainly affected by this disease, while the distribution of human cases in the other eight states of the intertropical zone was scattered. Infected patients were currently few in number and two Poragonimus species: P. africanus and P. uterobilateralis, were found. The animal reservoir is mainly constituted by crab-eating mammals. The identity of the host snail remains doubtful and was either a prosobranch, or a land snail. Seven crab species belonging to Callinectes, Liberonautes and Sudononautes genera are able to harbour paragonimid metacercariae. Due to the current low prevalence of human paragonimiasis recorded in Africa and the high cost of wide-scale screenings for this disease, training of technicians in anti-tuberculosis centers would be the most realistic attitude to detect mycobacteria and/or Paragonimus eggs during the same sputum examination.

  1. Oxytocin promotes human ethnocentrism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Dreu, C.K.W.; Greer, L.L.; van Kleef, G.A.; Shalvi, S.; Handgraaf, M.J.J.


    Human ethnocentrism—the tendency to view one's group as centrally important and superior to other groups—creates intergroup bias that fuels prejudice, xenophobia, and intergroup violence. Grounded in the idea that ethnocentrism also facilitates within-group trust, cooperation, and coordination, we

  2. Biotechnologies and Human Dignity (United States)

    Sweet, William; Masciulli, Joseph


    In this article, the authors review some contemporary cases where biotechnologies have been employed, where they have had global implications, and where there has been considerable debate. The authors argue that the concept of dignity, which lies at the center of such documents as the 2005 Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights, the…

  3. Radar: Human Safety Net (United States)

    Ritz, John M.


    Radar is a technology that can be used to detect distant objects not visible to the human eye. A predecessor of radar, called the telemobiloscope, was first used to detect ships in the fog in 1904 off the German coast. Many scientists have worked on the development and refinement of radar (Hertz with electromagnetic waves; Popov with determining…

  4. Superintelligence, Humans, and War (United States)


    artificial intelligence. “The Navy’s Aegis Combat System is a computerized command, decision, and weapon-control program conceived because humans were no...continues to invest in highly technological weapons systems ...perform tasks that were only imagined 10 years ago. For example, Apple’s Siri will provide answers to verbally asked questions. There are driving

  5. Antihumanism in the Humanities. (United States)

    Schwartz, Joel


    Analyzes the antihumanistic elements of Jacques Derrida's theory of deconstruction. Argues that the modern French intellectuals, including Foucault, Derrida, and Lacan, have had an antihumanistic effect on the American social sciences and humanities by rejecting the existence of truth, morality, and rationality. (FMW)

  6. Human Actions Made Tangible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Jacob; Caglio, Agnese; Jensen, Lars Christian


    , a method developed to engage people from different backgrounds in collaboratively analysing videos with the help of physical objects. We will present one of these tools, Action Scrabble, for analysing temporal organisation of human actions. We work with a case of skilled forklift truck driving...

  7. Human-Centered Aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulyk, Olga Anatoliyivna; Kosara, R.; Urquiza, J.; Wassink, I.; Kerren, A.; Ebert, A.; Meyer, J.


    Humans have remarkable perceptual capabilities. These capabilities are heavily underestimated in current visualizations. Often, this is due to the lack of an in-depth user study to set the requirements for optimal visualizations. The designer does not understand what kind of information should be

  8. Soil Borne Human Diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeffery, Simon; Van der Putten, Wim H.


    Soils are home to a remarkable array of biodiversity with some estimates stating that 25% of the Earth’s species find their home in the soil. Of these organisms, the vast majority are not of any threat to human health, but rather function to provide numerous ecosystem services which emerge through

  9. Disability and Human Supports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff McNair


    Full Text Available This article provides a brief overview of models of disability growing out of the field of disability studies and leading to a call for interventions going beyond a simply medical model approach. A brief discussion of human supports/services is provided such that readers engaged in the development of services/supports can base them on best principles.

  10. Structurally abnormal human autosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Chapter 25, discusses structurally abnormal human autosomes. This discussion includes: structurally abnormal chromosomes, chromosomal polymorphisms, pericentric inversions, paracentric inversions, deletions or partial monosomies, cri du chat (cat cry) syndrome, ring chromosomes, insertions, duplication or pure partial trisomy and mosaicism. 71 refs., 8 figs.

  11. Humane Treatment of Animals. (United States)

    Dawson, Joan Smithey

    This booklet is designed to give teachers resource information about the humane treatment of and care for animals. The topics are presented as springboards for discussion and class activity. Topics include the care of dogs, cats, birds, horses, and fish; wildlife and ecological relationships; and careers with animals. Illustrations on some pages…


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These researchers tested the effect of. Hallucinogenic ... stories illustrating human cruelty as well as strong advocacy for the ... Experiments must be strictly beneficial to individuals,their communities, or the society in general. Same experiments previously conducted on animals and the natural history of the disease must be ...

  13. "Healthy" Human Development Indices (United States)

    Engineer, Merwan; Roy, Nilanjana; Fink, Sari


    In the Human Development Index (HDI), life expectancy is the only indicator used in modeling the dimension "a long and healthy life". Whereas life expectancy is a direct measure of quantity of life, it is only an indirect measure of healthy years lived. In this paper we attempt to remedy this omission by introducing into the HDI the morbidity…

  14. Haptocorrin in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkbak, Anne Louise; Nexo, Ebba; Poulsen, Steen Seier


    knowledge concerning its function and its distribution in adult and foetal life is limited. In this study, we present data on the tissue expression of haptocorrin and on the relation between analogues on haptocorrin and vitamin B(12) status in humans. Methods: Polyclonal antibodies towards haptocorrin were...

  15. Cobalamin analogues in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hardlei, Tore Forsingdal; Obeid, Rima; Herrmann, Wolfgang


    BACKGROUND: Haptocorrin (HC) carries cobalamin analogues (CorA), but whether CorA are produced in the body is unknown. All cobalamins (Cbl) to the foetus are delivered by the Cbl-specific protein transcobalamin (TC), and therefore analysis of cord serum for CorA may help to clarify the origin of ......A in the human body are derived from Cbl....

  16. Studying Human Origins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corbey, Raymond; Roebroeks, Wil


    This history of human origin studies covers a wide range of disciplines. This important new study analyses a number of key episodes from palaeolithic archaeology, palaeoanthropology, primatology and evolutionary theory in terms of various ideas on how one should go about such reconstructions and

  17. Human memory search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davelaar, E.J.; Raaijmakers, J.G.W.; Hills, T.T.; Robbins, T.W.; Todd, P.M.


    The importance of understanding human memory search is hard to exaggerate: we build and live our lives based on what whe remember. This chapter explores the characteristics of memory search, with special emphasis on the use of retrieval cues. We introduce the dependent measures that are obtained

  18. Inconvenient Human Rights (United States)

    Ryan, Natasha


    Abstract Following an increase in Roma migration under the European “freedom of movement” laws, Swedish municipalities initiated more than 80 evictions of informal Roma settlements on the grounds of poor sanitation between 2013 and 2016. These evictions echo policies from earlier in the 20th century, when Roma living in Sweden were often marginalized through the denial of access to water and sanitation facilities. The recent Swedish evictions also follow similar government actions across Europe, where Roma settlements are controlled through the denial of access to water and sanitation. However, access to water and sanitation—central aspects of human health—are universal human rights that must be available to all people present in a jurisdiction, regardless of their legal status. The evictions described here violated Sweden’s obligations under both European and international human rights law. More positive government responses are required, such as providing shelters or camping sites, setting up temporary facilities, and directly engaging with communities to address water and sanitation issues. The authors conclude by providing guidance on how states and municipalities can meet their human rights obligations with respect to water and sanitation for vulnerable Roma individuals and informal settlements in their communities. PMID:29302163

  19. Selenium and Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Abedi


    Full Text Available Introduction: Selenium is an essential element for human health and it is toxic at high concentrations. Selenium is a constituent component of selenoproteins that have enzymatic and structural roles in human biochemistry. Selenium is a best antioxidant and catalyst for production of thyroid hormone. This element has the key role in the immune function; prevention of AIDS progression and the deactivity of toxins. Furthermore, selenium is essential for sperm motility and can reduce abortions. Selenium deficiency was also associated with adverse mood states. The findings regarding cardiovascular disease risk related to selenium deficiency is unclear, though other conditions such as vascular inflammation, oxidative stress and selenium deficiency can cause this disease too. Moreover, consuming of 60 mg of selenium per day may be associated with reduction of cancer risk. In this study, a review of studies has been performed on the biochemical function of selenium toxicity, and its effects on human health. Furthermore, certain identified cancers associated with selenium have been discussed to absorb more attention to the status of this element and also as a guide for further studies. Selenium plays the dual character (useful and harmful in human health, and then it is necessary to determine the concentration of this element in body fluids and tissues. An appropriate method for routine measurement of selenium in clinical laboratories is electro thermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS with very low detection limit and good precision.

  20. Cultivating human nature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derksen, Maarten


    Evolutionary psychology claims to offer a unified perspective on human nature and culture, which can serve to further the integration of psychology and the social sciences. I describe four approaches to evolutionary psychology, and note increasing attention to the agency of the individual in

  1. Pesticides and Human Health (United States)

    ... types of pesticides Disponible en español Pesticides and Human Health Pesticides have a specific purpose in society. Pesticides are ... aging populations may be more sensitive to the effects of pesticides than others. To reduce the risk of health problems from pesticides there are several things you ...

  2. Human oocyte cryopreservation. (United States)

    Tao, Tao; Zhang, Wenling; Del Valle, Alfonso


    This review summarized the clinical breakthroughs in the human oocyte cryopreservation field in the past 2 years and gave special emphasis on the role of vitrification method. Human oocyte cryopreservation is an attractive strategy to preserve female fertility, as it offers more opportunities to the future destination of the female gametes and also raises fewer legal and ethical questions compared with embryo cryopreservation. It became promising in recent years because of dramatic improvement in cryopreservation technologies. Human oocyte cryopreservation would not become a clinical routine until the availability of reliable cryopreservation methods and long-term follow-up results of the babies born by this technique. Oocyte cryopreservation produced very exciting results with pregnancy and implantation rates comparable to embryo cryopreservation and in some cases comparable to fresh in-vitro fertilization cycles with both modified slow-freezing and vitrification methods. A cancer patient conceived and delivered her own babies by this technology after recovery from the disease. Oocyte cryopreservation became a new focus in assisted reproductive technology. We witnessed the advanced development of human oocyte cryopreservation in the past years because of increasing demand, medically, legally and ethically, and also because of the dramatic improvement of the freezing technique. There is still a long way to go to integrate it into a routine clinical procedure to benefit more patients and encourage clinicians to follow the standard protocols.

  3. Human perspectives in horticulture (United States)

    Charles A. Lewis


    Gardening produces not only vegetables and flowers, but also social and behavioral benefits. In low-income housing sites in New York, Philadelphia, and Chicago, gardening programs have resulted in reduced vandalism, new neighborliness, cleaned and painted buildings and streets, and other improvements. The human response to plants, and the qualities of plants that...

  4. Human social genomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven W Cole


    Full Text Available A growing literature in human social genomics has begun to analyze how everyday life circumstances influence human gene expression. Social-environmental conditions such as urbanity, low socioeconomic status, social isolation, social threat, and low or unstable social status have been found to associate with differential expression of hundreds of gene transcripts in leukocytes and diseased tissues such as metastatic cancers. In leukocytes, diverse types of social adversity evoke a common conserved transcriptional response to adversity (CTRA characterized by increased expression of proinflammatory genes and decreased expression of genes involved in innate antiviral responses and antibody synthesis. Mechanistic analyses have mapped the neural "social signal transduction" pathways that stimulate CTRA gene expression in response to social threat and may contribute to social gradients in health. Research has also begun to analyze the functional genomics of optimal health and thriving. Two emerging opportunities now stand to revolutionize our understanding of the everyday life of the human genome: network genomics analyses examining how systems-level capabilities emerge from groups of individual socially sensitive genomes and near-real-time transcriptional biofeedback to empirically optimize individual well-being in the context of the unique genetic, geographic, historical, developmental, and social contexts that jointly shape the transcriptional realization of our innate human genomic potential for thriving.

  5. Human health and groundwater (United States)

    The high quality of most groundwaters, consequent upon the self-purification capacity of subsurface strata, has long been a key factor in human health and wellbeing. More than 50% of the world’s population now rely on groundwater for their supply of drinking water – and in most circumstances a prope...

  6. Haptic Physical Human Assistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keemink, Arvid Quintijn Leon


    This dissertation covers three aspects of upper-extremity exoskeleton design: 1) Kinematics & motion: How to support the full range of motion of the human shoulder? We present a 2D visualization method that can show coupling between the range of motion (ROM) of rotations of the glenohumeral joint.

  7. Human Rights in Prisons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jefferson, Andrew M.; Gaborit, Liv Stoltze

    Drawing on participatory action research conducted in Sierra Leone, Kosovo and the Philippines, Human Rights in Prisons analyses encounters between rights-based non-governmental organisations and prisons. It explores the previously under-researched perspectives of prison staff and prisoners...

  8. Animal and Human Communication. (United States)

    Rummel, Lynda

    Several misconceptions regarding the status of human communication systems relative to the systems of other animals are discussed in this paper. Arguments are offered supporting the expansion of the communication discipline to include the study of the communication systems of other species. The "communicative continuity" view which ranks…

  9. Humane Education in Kindergarten (United States)

    Montgomery, Charlotte Baker


    Describes objectives and activities of a humane education program to teach kindergarten students to respect animals. Activities include daily manners practice, observation of nature, bringing animals to the classroom, field trips, and organizing a be kind to animals week. For journal availability, see SO 505 454. (Author/DB)

  10. Human Babesiosis, Bolivia, 2013. (United States)

    Gabrielli, Simona; Totino, Valentina; Macchioni, Fabio; Zuñiga, Freddy; Rojas, Patricia; Lara, Yuni; Roselli, Mimmo; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Cancrini, Gabriella


    To investigate human babesiosis in the Bolivian Chaco, in 2013 we tested blood samples from 271 healthy persons living in 2 rural communities in this region. Microscopy and PCR indicated that 3.3% of persons were positive for Babesia microti parasites (US lineage); seroprevalence was 45.7%. Appropriate screening should mitigate the risk for transfusion-associated babesiosis.

  11. Human-Robot Interaction (United States)

    Sandor, Aniko; Cross, E. Vincent, II; Chang, Mai Lee


    Human-robot interaction (HRI) is a discipline investigating the factors affecting the interactions between humans and robots. It is important to evaluate how the design of interfaces affect the human's ability to perform tasks effectively and efficiently when working with a robot. By understanding the effects of interface design on human performance, workload, and situation awareness, interfaces can be developed to appropriately support the human in performing tasks with minimal errors and with appropriate interaction time and effort. Thus, the results of research on human-robot interfaces have direct implications for the design of robotic systems. For efficient and effective remote navigation of a rover, a human operator needs to be aware of the robot's environment. However, during teleoperation, operators may get information about the environment only through a robot's front-mounted camera causing a keyhole effect. The keyhole effect reduces situation awareness which may manifest in navigation issues such as higher number of collisions, missing critical aspects of the environment, or reduced speed. One way to compensate for the keyhole effect and the ambiguities operators experience when they teleoperate a robot is adding multiple cameras and including the robot chassis in the camera view. Augmented reality, such as overlays, can also enhance the way a person sees objects in the environment or in camera views by making them more visible. Scenes can be augmented with integrated telemetry, procedures, or map information. Furthermore, the addition of an exocentric (i.e., third-person) field of view from a camera placed in the robot's environment may provide operators with the additional information needed to gain spatial awareness of the robot. Two research studies investigated possible mitigation approaches to address the keyhole effect: 1) combining the inclusion of the robot chassis in the camera view with augmented reality overlays, and 2) modifying the camera

  12. Cosmic Humanity: Utopia, Realities, Prospects


    Sergey Krichevsky


    The philosophical foundations of the theory and practice of the creation of cosmic humanity as a process of the evolution of human civilization, the emergence into space, with the prospect of resettlement outside the Earth are considered. There is a connection between myths, fantasies, ideas, concepts and projects aimed at the exploration of outer space, the creation of cosmic humanity. A new and voluminous definition of cosmic humanity in the evolutionary paradigm is given. Cosmic humanity i...

  13. Pragmatic Challenges to Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaumburg-Müller, Sten


    Pragmatism offers a platform for posing relevant questions. This article uses a pragmatic point of departure to question a natural law conception of human rights and to take a closer look at three pressing human rights problems: The human rights situation in states with little or no state capacity......; the revision and adaptation of human rights law; and the not straightforward relationship betweemn human rights and democracy....

  14. International terrorism and human rights


    Gurská, Zuzana


    Summary: International Terrorism and Human Rights Key words: international terrorism, antiterrorist measures, human rights First part of the thesis is centered on characteristics of international terrorism, concept of human rights and three aspects of their mutual relationship: the immediate impact of terrorist attacks on human rights of their direct victims and the society as a whole and aspects linked to the states' response consisting of human rights breaches of suspects during repressive ...

  15. Human mammary microenvironment better regulates the biology of human breast cancer in humanized mouse model. (United States)

    Zheng, Ming-Jie; Wang, Jue; Xu, Lu; Zha, Xiao-Ming; Zhao, Yi; Ling, Li-Jun; Wang, Shui


    During the past decades, many efforts have been made in mimicking the clinical progress of human cancer in mouse models. Previously, we developed a human breast tissue-derived (HB) mouse model. Theoretically, it may mimic the interactions between "species-specific" mammary microenvironment of human origin and human breast cancer cells. However, detailed evidences are absent. The present study (in vivo, cellular, and molecular experiments) was designed to explore the regulatory role of human mammary microenvironment in the progress of human breast cancer cells. Subcutaneous (SUB), mammary fat pad (MFP), and HB mouse models were developed for in vivo comparisons. Then, the orthotopic tumor masses from three different mouse models were collected for primary culture. Finally, the biology of primary cultured human breast cancer cells was compared by cellular and molecular experiments. Results of in vivo mouse models indicated that human breast cancer cells grew better in human mammary microenvironment. Cellular and molecular experiments confirmed that primary cultured human breast cancer cells from HB mouse model showed a better proliferative and anti-apoptotic biology than those from SUB to MFP mouse models. Meanwhile, primary cultured human breast cancer cells from HB mouse model also obtained the migratory and invasive biology for "species-specific" tissue metastasis to human tissues. Comprehensive analyses suggest that "species-specific" mammary microenvironment of human origin better regulates the biology of human breast cancer cells in our humanized mouse model of breast cancer, which is more consistent with the clinical progress of human breast cancer.

  16. The Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights. (United States)

    Mayor, Federico


    Since 1985, UNESCO studies ethical questions arising in genetics. In 1992, I established the International Bioethics Committee at UNESCO with the mission to draft the Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights, which was adopted by UNESCO in 1997 and the United Nations in 1998. The Declaration relates the human genome with human dignity, deals with the rights of the persons concerned by human genome research and provides a reference legal framework for both stimulating the ethical debate and the harmonization of the law worldwide, favouring useful developments that respect human dignity.

  17. Digitalization of the human mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr.Sc. Drita Mehmeti


    Full Text Available The human faces with various problems already in its first steps in live, and carriers of such life situations are found in various ages which bring new currents in the way of life. Starting from the ancient Greek thought, the human and its mind made the centre of the world, already orienting the Western thought towards the study of the human mind (namely human reason, since it made the key tool for human survival. Although human problems have been discussed throughout various ages, they have not been able to resolve in full the human problems, and therefore, the same issues were taken by the representatives of the socalled “critical theory”, who used the theory to criticize the way of live Western civilization was offering, known as digitalization of the human mind. The human problems are addressed in a poly-dimensional manner. The factors affecting the human mind are: industrial civilization, technical progress, automation, overtly influence of machinery on humans, substitution of cultural values, which in sum have developed a new World Order, where the ruler is technology. In the modern world, the human fails to recognize himself, since he is out of himself and lives according to the rules set forth by the “remote control”. In the flow of this kind of livelihood, human alienates, or in other words, the human goes out of himself, trying to adapt maximally to the requirements of the new way of life.

  18. Human Integration Design Processes (HIDP) (United States)

    Boyer, Jennifer


    The purpose of the Human Integration Design Processes (HIDP) document is to provide human-systems integration design processes, including methodologies and best practices that NASA has used to meet human systems and human rating requirements for developing crewed spacecraft. HIDP content is framed around human-centered design methodologies and processes in support of human-system integration requirements and human rating. NASA-STD-3001, Space Flight Human-System Standard, is a two-volume set of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Agency-level standards established by the Office of the Chief Health and Medical Officer, directed at minimizing health and performance risks for flight crews in human space flight programs. Volume 1 of NASA-STD-3001, Crew Health, sets standards for fitness for duty, space flight permissible exposure limits, permissible outcome limits, levels of medical care, medical diagnosis, intervention, treatment and care, and countermeasures. Volume 2 of NASASTD- 3001, Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health, focuses on human physical and cognitive capabilities and limitations and defines standards for spacecraft (including orbiters, habitats, and suits), internal environments, facilities, payloads, and related equipment, hardware, and software with which the crew interfaces during space operations. The NASA Procedural Requirements (NPR) 8705.2B, Human-Rating Requirements for Space Systems, specifies the Agency's human-rating processes, procedures, and requirements. The HIDP was written to share NASA's knowledge of processes directed toward achieving human certification of a spacecraft through implementation of human-systems integration requirements. Although the HIDP speaks directly to implementation of NASA-STD-3001 and NPR 8705.2B requirements, the human-centered design, evaluation, and design processes described in this document can be applied to any set of human-systems requirements and are independent of reference

  19. Rendering Humanities Sustainable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Bednarik


    Full Text Available Launching a journal intended to cover the entire humanities is certainly an audacious project, for two reasons at least. Firstly, this journal will be expected to cover much academic diversity, particularly by including the “social sciences.” However, in this time of rampant overspecialization, perhaps it is precisely such wholeness and breadth of vision that could become a journal’s strength. Secondly, since the viability of the humanities has been questioned from a number of perspectives it seems essential to meet these challenges by reinventing the discipline in response to issues raised—also a major task. It involves justifying the continuation of humanistic traditions. For this, humanists need to consider the nature of these challenges, understand and analyze them, and respond to them. It is therefore inevitable that a forward-looking, new journal in this discipline will deem it relevant to review these matters. [...

  20. Human biology of taste. (United States)

    Gravina, Stephen A; Yep, Gregory L; Khan, Mehmood


    Taste or gustation is one of the 5 traditional senses including hearing, sight, touch, and smell. The sense of taste has classically been limited to the 5 basic taste qualities: sweet, salty, sour, bitter, and umami or savory. Advances from the Human Genome Project and others have allowed the identification and determination of many of the genes and molecular mechanisms involved in taste biology. The ubiquitous G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) make up the sweet, umami, and bitter receptors. Although less clear in humans, transient receptor potential ion channels are thought to mediate salty and sour taste; however, other targets have been identified. Furthermore, taste receptors have been located throughout the body and appear to be involved in many regulatory processes. An emerging interplay is revealed between chemical sensing in the periphery, cortical processing, performance, and physiology and likely the pathophysiology of diseases such as diabetes.

  1. Human corneal epithelial subpopulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Chris Bath


    subpopulations in human corneal epithelium using a combination of laser capture microdissection and RNA sequencing for global transcriptomic profiling. We compared dissociation cultures, using either expansion on γ-irradiated NIH/3T3 feeder cells in serum-rich medium or expansion directly on plastic in serum......-free EpiLife medium, using a range of physiologically relevant oxygen concentrations (2%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%). Using immunocytochemistry and advanced fluorescence microscopy, cells were characterized regarding growth, cell cycle distribution, colony-forming efficiency (CFE), phenotypes...... was not dependent on the system used for propagation (Bath et al. 2013a). Laser capture microdissection was used to isolate cellular subpopulations in situ from the spatially defined differentiation pathway in human corneal epithelium according to an optimized protocol for maintenance of expression profiles...

  2. Human spinal motor control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bo


    interneurons and exert a direct (willful) muscle control with the aid of a context-dependent integration of somatosensory and visual information at cortical level. However, spinal networks also play an important role. Sensory feedback through spinal circuitries is integrated with central motor commands...... and contributes importantly to the muscle activity underlying voluntary movements. Regulation of spinal interneurons is used to switch between motor states such as locomotion (reciprocal innervation) and stance (coactivation pattern). Cortical regulation of presynaptic inhibition of sensory afferents may focus...... the central motor command by opening or closing sensory feedback pathways. In the future, human studies of spinal motor control, in close collaboration with animal studies on the molecular biology of the spinal cord, will continue to document the neural basis for human behavior. Expected final online...

  3. Sleep and Human Aging. (United States)

    Mander, Bryce A; Winer, Joseph R; Walker, Matthew P


    Older adults do not sleep as well as younger adults. Why? What alterations in sleep quantity and quality occur as we age, and are there functional consequences? What are the underlying neural mechanisms that explain age-related sleep disruption? This review tackles these questions. First, we describe canonical changes in human sleep quantity and quality in cognitively normal older adults. Second, we explore the underlying neurobiological mechanisms that may account for these human sleep alterations. Third, we consider the functional consequences of age-related sleep disruption, focusing on memory impairment as an exemplar. We conclude with a discussion of a still-debated question: do older adults simply need less sleep, or rather, are they unable to generate the sleep that they still need? Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Posthumanism: beyond humanism? (United States)

    Valera, Luca


    The focal point of posthumanism consists not as such in an a-critical acceptance of the technological promises - like there is for transhumanism - but in a total contamination and hybridization of human beings with other living beings and machines (these are the two main forms of contamination). The change of perspective untaken by posthumanism would be, thus, a paradigmatic shift in anthropology. As with ecologism, posthumanism, in order to obtain total contamination and man's openness to otherness, proposes the elimination and the fluidification of boundaries, thus even denying man's identity, and, with it, the very possibility of openness. However, by denying the identity, one denies the condition of possibility of thought, just as it has been manifested in history until now: hence we understand how, primarily, posthumanism is not configured as an adequate philosophical reflection, but as a narrative that takes origin from certain requirements, which are eminently human, and that discloses its deeply anthropogenic roots.

  5. Human freedom and enhancement. (United States)

    Heilinger, Jan-Christoph; Crone, Katja


    Ideas about freedom and related concepts like autonomy and self-determination play a prominent role in the moral debate about human enhancement interventions. However, there is not a single understanding of freedom available, and arguments referring to freedom are simultaneously used to argue both for and against enhancement interventions. This gives rise to misunderstandings and polemical arguments. The paper attempts to disentangle the different distinguishable concepts, classifies them and shows how they relate to one another in order to allow for a more structured and clearer debate. It concludes in identifying the individual underpinnings and the social conditions of choice and decision-making as particularly salient dimensions of freedom in the ethical debate about human enhancement.

  6. Human Cytomegalovirus Persistence


    Goodrum, Felicia; Caviness, Katie; Zagallo, Patricia


    Viral persistence is the rule following infection with all herpesviruses. The β-herpesvirus, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), persists through chronic and latent states of infection. Both the chronic and latent states of infection contribute to HCMV persistence and to the high HCMV seroprevalence worldwide. The chronic infection is poorly defined molecularly, but clinically manifests as low-level virus shedding over extended periods of time and often in the absence of symptoms. Latency requires ...

  7. Neanderthals and Modern Humans (United States)

    Finlayson, Clive


    The Neanderthals were a people native to Europe during the Pleistocene period, who became extinct between forty and thirty thousand years ago. Challenging the commonly held view that extinction was caused by the arrival of our ancestors, Clive Finlayson provides evidence that their extinction actually occurred because the Neanderthals could not adapt fast enough to changing ecological and environmental conditions, not their relationship with modern humans.

  8. The Human Body Sword

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris Borer


    Full Text Available The human body shield problem involves an apparent dilemma for a libertarian, forcing him to choose between his own death and the death of an innocent person. This paper argues that the non-aggression principle permits a forceful response against the property of innocent individuals when a conflict is initiated with that property. In other words, a libertarian may shoot the hostage in order to save himself.

  9. Wilhelm Roepke: Economic humanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Božo


    Full Text Available The paper presents the basic ideas of the great German thinker Wilhelm Roepke advocated a free market acting in a particular social context (comprising of market insti­tutions, and a particular system of values created within the society and not by the market itself. He substantiated why free market economy has to be supplemented with a particular social ethics. He argued in favor of a society that defends and advances human liberty.

  10. Glycogen metabolism in humans ? ??


    Adeva-Andany, María M.; González-Lucán, Manuel; Donapetry-García, Cristóbal; Fernández-Fernández, Carlos; Ameneiros-Rodríguez, Eva


    In the human body, glycogen is a branched polymer of glucose stored mainly in the liver and the skeletal muscle that supplies glucose to the blood stream during fasting periods and to the muscle cells during muscle contraction. Glycogen has been identified in other tissues such as brain, heart, kidney, adipose tissue, and erythrocytes, but glycogen function in these tissues is mostly unknown. Glycogen synthesis requires a series of reactions that include glucose entrance into the cell through...

  11. Decoding the human genome

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit; Antonerakis, S E


    Decoding the Human genome is a very up-to-date topic, raising several questions besides purely scientific, in view of the two competing teams (public and private), the ethics of using the results, and the fact that the project went apparently faster and easier than expected. The lecture series will address the following chapters: Scientific basis and challenges. Ethical and social aspects of genomics.

  12. Human Hearing Loss


    Ware, Stacy Lee


    Hearing loss affects as much as 5% of the global human population and its negative consequences, often exacerbated by cultural bias or distributive injustice, include delayed cognitive and language development, learning deficits and poor academic performance, chronic unemployment and dependency, poverty, elevated risk of harm and poor health. This paper is based on a review of the academic literature as well as other credible published resources to identify the principal causes of hearing los...

  13. Post-human Viewing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette


    This article discusses the relationship between theories of photography and mobile phone footage. In doing so, it asks if theories of photography still apply in a technologically saturated world of imagery. Technology is an increasingly important part of viewing imagery today and enables imagery ...... implications. The author takes photojournalism and, in particular, mobile phone footage as a starting point for an exploration of the (post-human) body as evidence and sign of authenticity in the modern age of digital communications and journalism....

  14. Human resource management


    Balážová, Barbora


    Human resource management is currently regarded as one of the most important areas of management of the organization. Its task is to ensure and maintain sufficient number of skilled and motivated employees and their optimum use to achieve the planned prosperity and competitiveness of the organization. This task is pursued through partial personnel activities (the creation and analysis of jobs, personnel planning, acquisition, selection, recruitment and orientation of staff, evaluation and com...

  15. Human Resource Management Roles


    Tamara R. Mitchell


    The roles of Human Resource and Management play a vital role in the success of the organization. Internal recruitment is more valuable than external recruitment because it is less expensive, the employee’s skills are well known and companies that do internal recruitment have an important tool to boost morale in the organization. Performance management is an important part of an organization. The most important thing is that it strengthens the supervisor and employee relationship and promotes ...

  16. Human health and groundwater


    Candela Lledó, Lucila


    Strategic overview series of the International Association of Hydrogeologists-IAH. This Series is designed both to inform professionals in other sectors of key interactions with groundwater resources and hydrogeological science, and to guide IAH members in their outreach to related sectors. The naturally high microbiological and chemical quality of groundwater, captured at springheads and in shallow galleries and dugwells, has been vital for human survival, wellbeing and development from o...

  17. The effects of human resource flexibility on human resources development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SeidMehdi Veise


    Full Text Available Human resources are the primary factor for development of competitiveness and innovation and reaching competitive advantage and they try to improve corporate capabilities through various characteristics such as value creation, scarcity and difficulty of imitation. This paper investigates the effect of human resource flexibility and its dimensions on human resource development and its dimensions. The survey was conducted using descriptive-correlation method that intended to describe how human resource flexibility was effective on human resource development. Questionnaire was tool of data collection. The statistical population included one hundred employees of the Electric Company in Ilam province, thus census method was used. Reliability of the questionnaire was measured via Cronbach's alpha equal to 0.96. The findings revealed that flexibility and its dimensions were effective on human resource development and dimensions of it. As a result, human resource flexibility should be considered for development of human resources and employees with the highest flexibility should be selected.

  18. Human parasitology worldwide research. (United States)

    Garrido-Cardenas, Jose Antonio; Mesa-Valle, Concepción; Manzano-Agugliaro, Francisco


    In this article, the trends in human parasitology have been studied through the analysis of the number of publications in this area. The parameters studied were: number of articles, language, countries and institutions with the highest number of publications, and keywords with greater presence in the articles of human parasitology. The results of the analysis confirm the growing interest in this area, observing an exponential growth in the number of publications in the last decades. We also verified that the main country in terms of scientific production is the USA, although among the most important institutions, we find non-US centres such as the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation and the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. For observing the relative importance of the journals that publish articles in this specific topic, an index has been created based on the h-index of the journal with publications related to human parasitology and divided by every 100 items. This rank is led fist by 'Journal of Medical Entomology' closely followed by 'Parasitology'. The analysis of the keywords allows to draw conclusions about the great importance of malaria in the current world research. A change in analytical methodology is also observed, and molecular techniques are now being imposed. These techniques, in the near future, have to influence in an improvement in the treatments and prevention of the diseases caused by parasites. Finally, it can be seen that diseases traditionally studied as helminthiasis and amebiasis are currently as well studied as others such as toxoplasmosis or leishmaniasis.

  19. Mapping the human genome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantor, Charles R.


    The following pages aim to lay a foundation for understanding the excitement surrounding the ''human genome project,'' as well as to convey a flavor of the ongoing efforts and plans at the Human Genome Center at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Our own work, of course, is only part of a broad international effort that will dramatically enhance our understanding of human molecular genetics before the end of this century. In this country, the bulk of the effort will be carried out under the auspices of the Department of Energy and the National Institutes of Health, but significant contributions have already been made both by nonprofit private foundations and by private corporation. The respective roles of the DOE and the NIH are being coordinated by an inter-agency committee, the aims of which are to emphasize the strengths of each agency, to facilitate cooperation, and to avoid unnecessary duplication of effort. The NIH, for example, will continue its crucial work in medical genetics and in mapping the genomes of nonhuman species. The DOE, on the other hand, has unique experience in managing large projects, and its national laboratories are repositories of expertise in physics, engineering, and computer science, as well as the life sciences. The tools and techniques the project will ultimately rely on are thus likely to be developed in multidisciplinary efforts at laboratories like LBL. Accordingly, we at LBL take great pride in this enterprise -- an enterprise that will eventually transform our understanding of ourselves.

  20. Human Melia azedarach poisoning. (United States)

    Phua, Dong Haur; Tsai, Wei-Jen; Ger, Jiin; Deng, Jou-Fang; Yang, Chen-Chang


    In traditional Chinese medicine, Melia azedarach (Ku-lian) is used orally and topically as an antiparasitic and antifungal agent. Although toxicity of this plant has been widely described in veterinary literature, human poisoning is rarely reported. We describe five patients with M. azedarach poisoning who recovered with supportive care. Five patients were identified retrospectively from the database of the Taiwan National Poison Center at the Taipei Veterans General Hospital. Three cases were on-site patients, and two were telephone consultations from outside hospitals. Neurological symptoms were the major manifestation in four cases: weakness, myalgia, numbness, and ptosis. Treatment was symptomatic and supportive; all patients recovered without sequelae. It is not known which limonoids are responsible for human toxicity. In the Chinese medical literature, human M. azedarach poisoning is said to occur if six to nine fruits, 30 to 40 seeds, or 400 g of the bark is consumed. Onset of symptoms typically occurs within 4-6 h, but as short as 0.5 h had been documented. In our patients, the onset of M. azedarach poisoning was variable, ranging from a few hours to up to 3 weeks after consumption of the herb. M. azedarach poisoning may result in gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, respiratory, or neurological effects, and death in severe cases.

  1. Human innate lymphoid cells. (United States)

    Mjösberg, Jenny; Spits, Hergen


    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are increasingly acknowledged as important mediators of immune homeostasis and pathology. ILCs act as early orchestrators of immunity, responding to epithelium-derived signals by expressing an array of cytokines and cell-surface receptors, which shape subsequent immune responses. As such, ILCs make up interesting therapeutic targets for several diseases. In patients with allergy and asthma, group 2 innate lymphoid cells produce high amounts of IL-5 and IL-13, thereby contributing to type 2-mediated inflammation. Group 3 innate lymphoid cells are implicated in intestinal homeostasis and psoriasis pathology through abundant IL-22 production, whereas group 1 innate lymphoid cells are accumulated in chronic inflammation of the gut (inflammatory bowel disease) and lung (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), where they contribute to IFN-γ-mediated inflammation. Although the ontogeny of mouse ILCs is slowly unraveling, the development of human ILCs is far from understood. In addition, the growing complexity of the human ILC family in terms of previously unrecognized functional heterogeneity and plasticity has generated confusion within the field. Here we provide an updated view on the function and plasticity of human ILCs in tissue homeostasis and disease. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Psychophysics of human echolocation. (United States)

    Schörnich, Sven; Wallmeier, Ludwig; Gessele, Nikodemus; Nagy, Andreas; Schranner, Michael; Kish, Daniel; Wiegrebe, Lutz


    The skills of some blind humans orienting in their environment through the auditory analysis of reflections from self-generated sounds have received only little scientific attention to date. Here we present data from a series of formal psychophysical experiments with sighted subjects trained to evaluate features of a virtual echo-acoustic space, allowing for rigid and fine-grain control of the stimulus parameters. The data show how subjects shape both their vocalisations and auditory analysis of the echoes to serve specific echo-acoustic tasks. First, we show that humans can echo-acoustically discriminate target distances with a resolution of less than 1 m for reference distances above 3.4 m. For a reference distance of 1.7 m, corresponding to an echo delay of only 10 ms, distance JNDs were typically around 0.5 m. Second, we explore the interplay between the precedence effect and echolocation. We show that the strong perceptual asymmetry between lead and lag is weakened during echolocation. Finally, we show that through the auditory analysis of self-generated sounds, subjects discriminate room-size changes as small as 10%.In summary, the current data confirm the practical efficacy of human echolocation, and they provide a rigid psychophysical basis for addressing its neural foundations.

  3. Human viruses and cancer. (United States)

    Morales-Sánchez, Abigail; Fuentes-Pananá, Ezequiel M


    The first human tumor virus was discovered in the middle of the last century by Anthony Epstein, Bert Achong and Yvonne Barr in African pediatric patients with Burkitt's lymphoma. To date, seven viruses -EBV, KSHV, high-risk HPV, MCPV, HBV, HCV and HTLV1- have been consistently linked to different types of human cancer, and infections are estimated to account for up to 20% of all cancer cases worldwide. Viral oncogenic mechanisms generally include: generation of genomic instability, increase in the rate of cell proliferation, resistance to apoptosis, alterations in DNA repair mechanisms and cell polarity changes, which often coexist with evasion mechanisms of the antiviral immune response. Viral agents also indirectly contribute to the development of cancer mainly through immunosuppression or chronic inflammation, but also through chronic antigenic stimulation. There is also evidence that viruses can modulate the malignant properties of an established tumor. In the present work, causation criteria for viruses and cancer will be described, as well as the viral agents that comply with these criteria in human tumors, their epidemiological and biological characteristics, the molecular mechanisms by which they induce cellular transformation and their associated cancers.

  4. Human Viruses and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Morales-Sánchez


    Full Text Available The first human tumor virus was discovered in the middle of the last century by Anthony Epstein, Bert Achong and Yvonne Barr in African pediatric patients with Burkitt’s lymphoma. To date, seven viruses -EBV, KSHV, high-risk HPV, MCPV, HBV, HCV and HTLV1- have been consistently linked to different types of human cancer, and infections are estimated to account for up to 20% of all cancer cases worldwide. Viral oncogenic mechanisms generally include: generation of genomic instability, increase in the rate of cell proliferation, resistance to apoptosis, alterations in DNA repair mechanisms and cell polarity changes, which often coexist with evasion mechanisms of the antiviral immune response. Viral agents also indirectly contribute to the development of cancer mainly through immunosuppression or chronic inflammation, but also through chronic antigenic stimulation. There is also evidence that viruses can modulate the malignant properties of an established tumor. In the present work, causation criteria for viruses and cancer will be described, as well as the viral agents that comply with these criteria in human tumors, their epidemiological and biological characteristics, the molecular mechanisms by which they induce cellular transformation and their associated cancers.

  5. Science and Human Experience (United States)

    Cooper, Leon N.


    Part I. Science and Society: 1. Science and human experience; 2. Does science undermine our values?; 3. Can science serve mankind?; 4. Modern science and contemporary discomfort: metaphor and reality; 5. Faith and science; 6. Art and science; 7. Fraud in science; 8. Why study science? The keys to the cathedral; 9. Is evolution a theory? A modest proposal; 10. The silence of the second; 11. Introduction to Copenhagen; 12. The unpaid debt; Part II. Thought and Consciousness: 13. Source and limits of human intellect; 14. Neural networks; 15. Thought and mental experience: the Turing test; 16. Mind as machine: will we rubbish human experience?; 17. Memory and memories: a physicist's approach to the brain; 18. On the problem of consciousness; Part III. On the Nature and Limits of Science: 19. What is a good theory?; 20. Shall we deconstruct science?; 21. Visible and invisible in physical theory; 22. Experience and order; 23. The language of physics; 24. The structure of space; 25. Superconductivity and other insoluble problems; 26. From gravity to light and consciousness: does science have limits?

  6. Human prion diseases. (United States)

    Thakur, Rajeev; Vincent, Yasmeen Marbaniang; Chaturvedi, Sujata


    Prion diseases is another name for a group of 'transmissible spongiform encephalopathies'. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, the first prion disease described in humans, occurs in sporadic, familial or iatrogenic form. Other transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in humans such as familial Creutzfeldt-]akob disease, Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease and fatal familial Insomnia have been shown to be associated with specific prion protein gene mutations. In 1996, a new variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease was reported in the United Kingdom among young patients with unusual clinical features and unique neuropathological findings. This new form could be due to transmission to humans of the agent causing bovine spongiform encephalopathy. While examination of brain tissue is the key to making a diagnosis, it is not always possible antemortem. Immunological tests such as ELISA or western blot assays along with tests for 1 4-3-3 protein in the cerebrospinal fluid remain the main tools of diagnosis. Conventional disinfection and sterilization practices are Ineffective for these agents. The unusual properties of prions pose a challenge for treatment, surveillance and control of these diseases.

  7. Computing human image annotation. (United States)

    Channin, David S; Mongkolwat, Pattanasak; Kleper, Vladimir; Rubin, Daniel L


    An image annotation is the explanatory or descriptive information about the pixel data of an image that is generated by a human (or machine) observer. An image markup is the graphical symbols placed over the image to depict an annotation. In the majority of current, clinical and research imaging practice, markup is captured in proprietary formats and annotations are referenced only in free text radiology reports. This makes these annotations difficult to query, retrieve and compute upon, hampering their integration into other data mining and analysis efforts. This paper describes the National Cancer Institute's Cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid's (caBIG) Annotation and Image Markup (AIM) project, focusing on how to use AIM to query for annotations. The AIM project delivers an information model for image annotation and markup. The model uses controlled terminologies for important concepts. All of the classes and attributes of the model have been harmonized with the other models and common data elements in use at the National Cancer Institute. The project also delivers XML schemata necessary to instantiate AIMs in XML as well as a software application for translating AIM XML into DICOM S/R and HL7 CDA. Large collections of AIM annotations can be built and then queried as Grid or Web services. Using the tools of the AIM project, image annotations and their markup can be captured and stored in human and machine readable formats. This enables the inclusion of human image observation and inference as part of larger data mining and analysis activities.

  8. Human Provenancing: It's Elemental… (United States)

    Meier-Augenstein, Wolfram; Kemp


    Forensic science already uses a variety of methods often in combination to determine a deceased person's identity if neither personal effects nor next of kin (or close friends) can positively identify the victim. While disciplines such as forensic anthropology are able to work from a blank canvass as it were and can provide information on age, gender and ethnical grouping, techniques such as DNA profiling do rely on finding a match either in a database or a comparative sample presumed to be an ante-mortem sample of the victim or from a putative relation. Chances for either to succeed would be greatly enhanced if information gained from a forensic anthropological examination and, circumstances permitting a facial reconstruction could be linked to another technique that can work from a blank canvass or at least does not require comparison to a subject specific database. With the help of isotope ratio mass spectrometry even the very atoms from which a body is made can be used to say something about a person that will help to focus human identification using traditional techniques such as DNA, fingerprints and odontology. Stable isotope fingerprinting works on the basis that almost all chemical elements and in particular the so-called light elements such as carbon (C) that comprise most of the human body occur naturally in different forms, namely isotopes. 2H isotope abundance values recorded by the human body through food and drink ultimately reflect averaged isotopic composition of precipitation or ground water. Stable isotope analysis of 2H isotopic composition in different human tissue such as hair, nails, bone and teeth enables us to construct a time resolved isotopic profile or ‘fingerprint' that may not necessarily permit direct identification of a murder victim or mass disaster victim but in conjunction with forensic anthropological information will provide sufficient intelligence to construct a profile for intelligence lead identification stating where a

  9. Human bite and human immune deficiency virus (HIV) transmission ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The concentration of human immune deficiency virus (HIV) in the saliva of a carrier is low. As a result, human bite is not considered the traditional route of HIV infection transmission. Aim: To report a case of HIV sero-positivity following a human bite. Setting: University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port ...

  10. Animal continuities. Arguments against human/non-human animal dichotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Ignacio Vernal


    Full Text Available At present, there is still a deep need to differentiate the members of the species Homo sapiens from the individuals belonging to the rest of the animal kingdom. As a consequence of this need arises the dichotomy human/non-human animal based on artificial and groundless differences that leads to actions always harmful to the non-human animals. In this work we want to show, on the one hand, that many of the characteristics proposed as specifically human are shared by at least some non-human animal species, and on the other hand, that specifically human characteristics do exist, but from this fact does not follow that we should draw a sharp line between human and non-human animals. We reject the speciesist and segregationist perspective that establishes that only human beings possess a singular position in nature. Every animal species has its own characteristics and, therefore, there would be no place for a human exception, but there would be as many exceptions as animal species exist in the nature. Instead of the abyss established between human animals and non-human animals, we defend the perspective of the animal continuum, which allows recognizing the characteristics that we share with other animal species and, therefore, promotes the end of the speciesism.

  11. Victim and the victor: Humanism and new humanism in Chris ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On New Humanism and Broken Chains, the paper affirms that Humanity's dualism is the central tenet of New Humanism. The chains of fornication and adultery of victims like Dr Imasuen, Dr Osaze, Blossom, Daisy and Tonia were only broken and they became victors when they repented of their sins and accepted God's ...

  12. Human to human transmission of arthropod-borne pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martina, Byron E.; Barzon, Luisa; Pijlman, Gorben P.; Fuente, de la José; Rizzoli, Annapaola; Wammes, Linda J.; Takken, Willem; Rij, van Ronald P.; Papa, Anna


    Human-to-human (H2H) transmitted arthropod-borne pathogens are a growing burden worldwide, with malaria and dengue being the most common mosquito-borne H2H transmitted diseases. The ability of vectors to get infected by humans during a blood meal to further propel an epidemic depends on complex

  13. Human to human transmission of arthropod-borne pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martina, B.E.; Barzon, L.; Pijlman, G.P.; Fuente, J. de la; Rizzoli, A.; Wammes, L.J.; Takken, W.; Rij, R.P. van; Papa, A.


    Human-to-human (H2H) transmitted arthropod-borne pathogens are a growing burden worldwide, with malaria and dengue being the most common mosquito-borne H2H transmitted diseases. The ability of vectors to get infected by humans during a blood meal to further propel an epidemic depends on complex

  14. Human Resource Management and Human Resource Development: Evolution and Contributions (United States)

    Richman, Nicole


    Research agrees that a high performance organization (HPO) cannot exist without an elevated value placed on human resource management (HRM) and human resource development (HRD). However, a complementary pairing of HRM and HRD has not always existed. The evolution of HRD from its roots in human knowledge transference to HRM and present day HRD…

  15. Human dignity according to international instruments on human rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pablo Alzina de Aguilar


    Full Text Available According to international instruments on human rights, the dignity of the human person is the foundation of human rights, and both human dignity and human rights are inherent to the human being, universal and inviolable. This understanding of human dignity is not a fruitless truism, but the solid foundation on which to build a world community under the rule of the new ius gentium: the International Law for Humankind. Moreover, it is the clue to answer many questions raised by the new world of globalization and of the exponential growth of international rules.Consequently, there is a need to a common doctrine on a notion of human dignity which will allow the implementation and adjudication of the aforementioned instruments, at the service of the human person and in conformity with the juridical conscience which they reflect. Philosophy of Law concepts which can be traced back to Aristotle provide that notion. According to these concepts, the demanding nature of “human dignity” sustains the notion of “legal personhood”, and both notions pertain to the realm of Law and Right, not of Morale and Values. Thus, human dignity and human rights are and must be, respectively, a basic principle and a necessary part of any Law system, including international law

  16. Human-Centered Computing: Toward a Human Revolution


    Jaimes, Alejandro; Gatica-Perez, Daniel; Sebe, Nicu; Huang, Thomas S.


    Human-centered computing studies the design, development, and deployment of mixed-initiative human-computer systems. HCC is emerging from the convergence of multiple disciplines that are concerned both with understanding human beings and with the design of computational artifacts.

  17. The Humanization of Information Science (United States)

    Elman, Stanley A.


    Information science is presently a mechanistic discipline which needs to be humanized. There must be more communication between librarians and information scientists, perhaps through seminars and exchanges, to bring the advantages of computerization to bear on human needs. (LS)

  18. Administrative Aspects of Human Experimentation. (United States)

    Irvine, George W.


    The following administrative aspects of scientific experimentation with human subjects are discussed: the definition of human experimentation; the distinction between experimentation and treatment; investigator responsibility; documentation; the elements and principles of informed consent; and the administrator's role in establishing and…

  19. Human Exposure Database System (HEDS) (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Human Exposure Database System (HEDS) provides public access to data sets, documents, and metadata from EPA on human exposure. It is primarily intended for...

  20. Fire Control and Human Evolution. (United States)

    Russell, Claire


    Briefly outlines some aspects of the discovery of fire control by primitive people, such as the preadaptation for speech, the evolution of the human brain, and natural selection for human nakedness or loss of hair. (CS)

  1. Human Health at the Beach (United States)

    ... Agency Search Search Beaches Contact Us Share LEARN: Human Health at the Beach Swimming at beaches with ... water pollution, there are other potential threats to human health at the beach to be aware of. ...

  2. Humane Education: A Forgotten Mandate (United States)

    Quinn, Peter J.


    Discusses the importance of humane education (i.e., the teaching of the principles of justice, goodwill, and respect for all living creatures) and offers suggestions for integrating humane education in the elementary school curriculum. (JG)

  3. Humane Education and Some Implications (United States)

    Carding, Tony


    The article explores some of the relationships between the value of humane education and those of education concerning the environment and education for international understanding and respect of human rights. (Author)

  4. Humane Education: A Curriculum Approach. (United States)

    Pearce, Robert W.


    Describes a curriculum-based approach to humane education and addresses the role of humane education in the school curriculum as well as the relationship's of education to other facets of animal welfare work. (Author/DS)

  5. Picasso: (in)human face


    Cox, Neil


    Rejecting the notion that Picasso's representations of faces should always be considered in a biographical context as portraits, it is argued that in considering them as human faces we encounter a crisis in the idea of an essential humanity. The essay then discusses Picasso's faces relation to Georges Bataille's treatment of vernacular portrait photography and of animality in human emotional expression, arguing that Picasso's human faces court the inhuman. This inhuman countenance, bred so ef...

  6. Sex differences in human gregariousness


    Benenson, Joyce F.; Sandra Stella; Anthony Ferranti


    Research on human sociality rarely includes kinship, social structure, sex, and familiarity, even though these variables influence sociality in non-human primates. However, cross-cultural ethnographic and observational studies with humans indicate that, beginning after age 5 years, males and females form differing social structures with unrelated individuals in a community. Specifically, compared with females, human males exhibit greater tolerance for and form larger, interconnected groups of...

  7. Human Milk-Treatment and Quality of Banked Human Milk. (United States)

    Picaud, Jean-Charles; Buffin, Rachel


    The aim of human milk banks is to deliver safe and high quality donor human milk. Treatment of human milk has to destroy most microorganisms while preserving immunological and nutrient components, which is obtained when using low time low temperature pasteurization. However it destroys bile-simulated lipase, reduces lactoferrin, lysozyme, immunoglobulins, and bactericidal capacity of human milk. New methods are under investigation such as high temperature short time pasteurization, high pressure processing, or ultraviolet irradiation. They have been tested in experimental conditions and there are promising results, but they have to be tested in real conditions in human milk bank. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Human Rights, Anti-Metaphysics and Legal Humanism


    Oliveira, Lauro Ericksen Cavalcanti de


    It discusses the philosophical and ethical perspective of human rights and points its framming on post-modern and anti-metaphysical nowadays tendencies. It scopes in general, to explain the  concept  and  foundations  of  human  rights  under  the  historical  premisses  of  legal humanism. Specifically, it aims to shows the historical evolution of human rights to the posr- modernity, and to analyze how the methaphysical entwining of the man reflects on human rights interpretation. Methodolog...

  9. Rejecting medical humanism: medical humanities and the metaphysics of medicine. (United States)

    Bishop, Jeffrey P


    The call for a narrative medicine has been touted as the cure-all for an increasingly mechanical medicine. It has been claimed that the humanities might create more empathic, reflective, professional and trustworthy doctors. In other words, we can once again humanise medicine through the addition of humanities. In this essay, I explore how the humanities, particularly narrative medicine, appeals to the metaphysical commitments of the medical institution in order to find its justification, and in so doing, perpetuates a dualism of humanity that would have humanism as the counterpoint to the biopsychosociologisms of our day.

  10. Humanity and Human Rights: The Contours of International Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyassu Gayim


    Full Text Available Laws regulate conducts by responding to social and political requirements. This holds true for the law of nations as well. Contemporary international law follows two separate tracks when it comes to regulating human rights and humanitarian questions. If international human rights law and international humanitarian law are intended to protect the dignity and worth of human beings, as it is often said, why follow separate tracks? Does humanity really exist? If it does, how does it relate to human rights? If the two are distinct, where do they converge? This article highlights these questions by revisiting the contours of international law.

  11. Anti-humanism of the human rights ideology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirić Jovan


    Full Text Available How can we say that the ideology of human rights is not human? Yes, we can say that, because the human rights of one person usually stay in confrontation with the human rights of some other person. There is no social conflict and the law deals with social conflicts, which could be arranged by respecting the human rights of both sides. SomeoneÆs human right always has to be refused in some way. The author talks about that in this article. He talks about criminal law for example and that the human rights of an accused and convicted offender stay in confrontation with the human rights of a victim. If we respect the human rights of the accused and the convicted person it does mean that we do not respect enough the human rights of the victim. Because of that, the human rights are not a good concept to build-up the law system. Something that is more objective then 'my' or 'his', (individual understanding of what is the human right, what is the justice has to exist. TodayÆs concept of human rights is based on reducing the state regulation, but it does mean that there is no criteria which is above our individual points of view. In that situation of total individualism no oneÆs human right could be respected well. That is the second name for the anarchy, where we can not speak about the law and the human rights. On the other side, the problem of human rights is very much connected with the problem of understanding what is normal, what is moral, what is justice and the answer to those questions is very different in different societies and different cultures. If we are trying to build one global law system, in fact we are reducing the human right of people from different civilizations to have their own different answer on what is moral. That is also one very interesting paradox of the ideology of human rights which we can express in a very strange sentence: 'there is no human rights for those who are against human rights!',

  12. Human factors in network security


    Jones, Francis B.


    Human factors, such as ethics and education, are important factors in network information security. This thesis determines which human factors have significant influence on network security. Those factors are examined in relation to current security devices and procedures. Methods are introduced to evaluate security effectiveness by incorporating the appropriate human factors into network security controls

  13. Human capital and career success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Kato, Takao

    formal schooling and subsequent human capital obtained informally on the job are found to be complements in the production of career success. Fourth, though there is a large body of the literature on the relationship between firm-specific human capital and wages, the relative value of firm-specific human...

  14. Legon Journal of the Humanities

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Founded in 1974, Legon Journal of the Humanities (LJH) is a peer-reviewed periodical published by the College of Humanities, University of Ghana. LJH welcomes the following types of contributions in the humanities from scholars in all countries: research articles; reviews of new and particularly noteworthy books and ...

  15. Human Rights and Public Education (United States)

    Bowring, Bill


    This article attempts a contrast to the contribution by Hugh Starkey. Rather than his account of the inexorable rise of human rights discourse, and of the implementation of human rights standards, human rights are here presented as always and necessarily scandalous and highly contested. First, I explain why the UK has lagged so far behind its…

  16. A Hierarchy of Human Rights. (United States)

    Brockett, Charles

    To establish an objective conception of human rights, one must first identify basic needs intrinsic to all people and then determine whether these needs are or can be hierarchically ordered. Many scholars have conducted research on the concept of human needs, particularly in the area of human rights. Among these scholars are Abraham H. Maslow…

  17. The human and fire connection (United States)

    Theresa B. Jain


    We refer to fire as a natural disturbance, but unlike other disturbances such as forest insects and diseases, fire has had an intimate relationship with humans. Fire facilitated human evolution over two million years ago when our ancestors began to use fire to cook. Fire empowered our furbearers to adapt to cold climates, allowing humans to disperse and settle into...

  18. Leadership in a Humane Organization (United States)

    Dimitrov, Danielle


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the way leadership influences an organization to become humane through its features and behaviors; as well as the organizational circumstances in which humane leadership can be nurtured. The first empirical case study, in the fields of Human Resource Development (HRD) and hospitality management, to…

  19. Human Rights and the Statistician. (United States)

    Spirer, Herbert F.

    Statisticians can help to improve human rights reporting. The statistician's approach to measurement, summary, and interpretation is needed to understand and help reduce human rights violations. Statistical problems in the measurement and analysis of human rights violations include: lack of agreement on the definition; great difficulties in…

  20. Human memory B cells. (United States)

    Seifert, M; Küppers, R


    A key feature of the adaptive immune system is the generation of memory B and T cells and long-lived plasma cells, providing protective immunity against recurring infectious agents. Memory B cells are generated in germinal center (GC) reactions in the course of T cell-dependent immune responses and are distinguished from naive B cells by an increased lifespan, faster and stronger response to stimulation and expression of somatically mutated and affinity matured immunoglobulin (Ig) genes. Approximately 40% of human B cells in adults are memory B cells, and several subsets were identified. Besides IgG(+) and IgA(+) memory B cells, ∼50% of peripheral blood memory B cells express IgM with or without IgD. Further smaller subpopulations have additionally been described. These various subsets share typical memory B cell features, but likely also fulfill distinct functions. IgM memory B cells appear to have the propensity for refined adaptation upon restimulation in additional GC reactions, whereas reactivated IgG B cells rather differentiate directly into plasma cells. The human memory B-cell pool is characterized by (sometimes amazingly large) clonal expansions, often showing extensive intraclonal IgV gene diversity. Moreover, memory B-cell clones are frequently composed of members of various subsets, showing that from a single GC B-cell clone a variety of memory B cells with distinct functions is generated. Thus, the human memory B-cell compartment is highly diverse and flexible. Several B-cell malignancies display features suggesting a derivation from memory B cells. This includes a subset of chronic lymphocytic leukemia, hairy cell leukemia and marginal zone lymphomas. The exposure of memory B cells to oncogenic events during their generation in the GC, the longevity of these B cells and the ease to activate them may be key determinants for their malignant transformation.

  1. Human due diligence. (United States)

    Harding, David; Rouse, Ted


    Most companies do a thorough job of financial due diligence when they acquire other companies. But all too often, deal makers simply ignore or underestimate the significance of people issues in mergers and acquisitions. The consequences are severe. Most obviously, there's a high degree of talent loss after a deal's announcement. To make matters worse, differences in decision-making styles lead to infighting; integration stalls; and productivity declines. The good news is that human due diligence can help companies avoid these problems. Done early enough, it helps acquirers decide whether to embrace or kill a deal and determine the price they are willing to pay. It also lays the groundwork for smooth integration. When acquirers have done their homework, they can uncover capability gaps, points of friction, and differences in decision making. Even more important, they can make the critical "people" decisions-who stays, who goes, who runs the combined business, what to do with the rank and file-at the time the deal is announced or shortly thereafter. Making such decisions within the first 30 days is critical to the success of a deal. Hostile situations clearly make things more difficult, but companies can and must still do a certain amount of human due diligence to reduce the inevitable fallout from the acquisition process and smooth the integration. This article details the steps involved in conducting human due diligence. The approach is structured around answering five basic questions: Who is the cultural acquirer? What kind of organization do you want? Will the two cultures mesh? Who are the people you most want to retain? And how will rank-and-file employees react to the deal? Unless an acquiring company has answered these questions to its satisfaction, the acquisition it is making will be very likely to end badly.

  2. Humanizing the Information Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H. Billington


    Full Text Available Provides a brief historical perspective on the role of books and libraries in the United States and asks whether the impact of electronic media will result in the loss of the ’values of the book culture that made democracy and the responsible use of freedom possible’. Describes the efforts of the Library of Congress to create a National Digital Library of American history and culture, to make free and reliable educational content accessible on the Web and develop human mediators who can help integrate new online knowledge with the older wisdom in books.

  3. Human - Robot Proximity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt

    The media and political/managerial levels focus on the opportunities to re-perform Denmark through digitization. Feeding assistive robotics is a welfare technology, relevant to citizens with low or no function in their arms. Despite national dissemination strategies, it proves difficult to recruit...... the study that took place as multi-sited ethnography at different locations in Denmark and Sweden. Based on desk research, observation of meals and interviews I examine socio-technological imaginaries and their practical implications. Human - robotics interaction demands engagement and understanding...

  4. Magnetic human body communication. (United States)

    Park, Jiwoong; Mercier, Patrick P


    This paper presents a new human body communication (HBC) technique that employs magnetic resonance for data transfer in wireless body-area networks (BANs). Unlike electric field HBC (eHBC) links, which do not necessarily travel well through many biological tissues, the proposed magnetic HBC (mHBC) link easily travels through tissue, offering significantly reduced path loss and, as a result, reduced transceiver power consumption. In this paper the proposed mHBC concept is validated via finite element method simulations and measurements. It is demonstrated that path loss across the body under various postures varies from 10-20 dB, which is significantly lower than alternative BAN techniques.

  5. Human Genome Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The DOE Human Genome program has grown tremendously, as shown by the marked increase in the number of genome-funded projects since the last workshop held in 1991. The abstracts in this book describe the genome research of DOE-funded grantees and contractors and invited guests, and all projects are represented at the workshop by posters. The 3-day meeting includes plenary sessions on ethical, legal, and social issues pertaining to the availability of genetic data; sequencing techniques, informatics support; and chromosome and cDNA mapping and sequencing.

  6. Structure of human adenovirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemerow, Glen R.; Stewart, Phoebe L.; Reddy, Vijay S. (Scripps); (Vanderbilt)


    A detailed structural analysis of the entire human adenovirus capsid has been stymied by the complexity and size of this 150 MDa macromolecular complex. Over the past 10 years, the steady improvements in viral genome manipulation concomitant with advances in crystallographic techniques and data processing software has allowed structure determination of this virus by X-ray diffraction at 3.5 {angstrom} resolution. The virus structure revealed the location, folds, and interactions of major and minor (cement proteins) on the inner and outer capsid surface. This new structural information sheds further light on the process of adenovirus capsid assembly and virus-host cell interactions.

  7. [Human brown adipose tissue]. (United States)

    Virtanen, Kirsi A; Nuutila, Pirjo


    Adult humans have heat-producing and energy-consuming brown adipose tissue in the clavicular region of the neck. There are two types of brown adipose cells, the so-called classic and beige adipose cells. Brown adipose cells produce heat by means of uncoupler protein 1 (UCP1) from fatty acids and sugar. By applying positron emission tomography (PET) measuring the utilization of sugar, the metabolism of brown fat has been shown to multiply in the cold, presumably influencing energy consumption. Active brown fat is most likely present in young adults, persons of normal weight and women, least likely in obese persons.

  8. Human Transposon Tectonics (United States)

    Burns, Kathleen H.; Boeke, Jef D.


    Mobile DNAs have had a central role in shaping our genome. More than half of our DNA is comprised of interspersed repeats resulting from replicative copy and paste events of retrotransposons. Although most are fixed, incapable of templating new copies, there are important exceptions to retrotransposon quiescence. De novo insertions cause genetic diseases and cancers, though reliably detecting these occurrences has been difficult. New technologies aimed at uncovering polymorphic insertions reveal that mobile DNAs provide a substantial and dynamic source of structural variation. Key questions going forward include the how and how much new transposition events affect human health and disease. PMID:22579280


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William R. Hamel; Spivey Douglass; Sewoong Kim; Pamela Murray; Yang Shou; Sriram Sridharan; Ge Zhang; Scott Thayer; Rajiv V. Dubey


    The remediation and deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) of nuclear waste storage tanks using telerobotics is one of the most challenging tasks faced in environmental cleanup. Since a number of tanks have reached the end of their design life and some of them have leaks, the unstructured, uncertain and radioactive environment makes the work inefficient and expensive. However, the execution time of teleoperation consumes ten to hundred times that of direct contact with an associated loss in quality. Thus, a considerable effort has been expended to improve the quality and efficiency of telerobotics by incorporating into teleoperation and robotic control functions such as planning, trajectory generation, vision, and 3-D modeling. One example is the Robot Task Space Analyzer (RTSA), which has been developed at the Robotics and Electromechanical Systems Laboratory (REMSL) at the University of Tennessee in support of the D&D robotic work at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the National Energy Technology Laboratory. This system builds 3-D models of the area of interest in task space through automatic image processing and/or human interactive manual modeling. The RTSA generates a task plan file, which describes the execution of a task including manipulator and tooling motions. The high level controller of the manipulator interprets the task plan file and executes the task automatically. Thus, if the environment is not highly unstructured, a tooling task, which interacts with environment, will be executed in the autonomous mode. Therefore, the RTSA not only increases the system efficiency, but also improves the system reliability because the operator will act as backstop for safe operation after the 3-D models and task plan files are generated. However, unstructured conditions of environment and tasks necessitate that the telerobot operates in the teleoperation mode for successful execution of task. The inefficiency in the teleoperation mode led to the research

  10. Human adaptation to smog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, G.W. (Univ. of California, Irvine) Jacobs, S.V.; Frager, N.B.


    This study examined the health effects of human adaptation to photochemical smog. A group of recent arrivals to the Los Angeles air basin were compared to long-term residents of the basin. Evidence for adaptation included greater irritation and respiratory problems among the recent arrivals and desensitization among the long-term residents in their judgments of the severity of the smog problem to their health. There was no evidence for biochemical adaptation as measured by hemoglobin response to oxidant challenge. The results were discussed in terms of psychological adaption to chronic environmental stressors.

  11. Strength of human pulleys. (United States)

    Manske, P R; Lesker, P A


    The length, breaking stength, and tensile strength of each of the annular fibroosseous pulleys of digital flexor sheath in ten fresh human cadaver specimens were measured. The first annular pulley and the fourth annular pulley were found to be the strongest, while the second annular pulley was the weakest. The design of artificial pulleys should reproduce the strength of the first annular and fourth annular pulleys. Suggested minimum requirements for the breaking strength of artificial implant pulleys may be made based on these studies.

  12. Human Islet Amyloid Polypeptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosicka, Iga


    Diabetes mellitus type II is a metabolic disease affecting millions of people worldwide. The disease is associated with occurence of insoluble, fibrillar, protein aggregates in islets of Langerhans in the pancreas - islet amyloid. The main constituent of these protein fibers is the human islet...... amyloid polypeptide, which has a propensity to form oligomeric and fibrillar aggregates consisting of stable beta-sheets. These aggregates are toxic to the pancreatic cells. In-depth knowledge of the mechanisms of islet amyloid formation is an important step towards better understanding of the etiology...... of diabetes type II, while revealing the structure(s) of islet amyloid fibrils is necessary for potential design of therapeutic agents....

  13. Human Ressource Management


    Larsen, Camilla


    Projektet undersøger hvordan den engelske virksomhed The Body Shop anvender Human Ressource management i deres organisation. Jeg har selv arbejdet i firmaet i 6 år, hvilket selvfølgelig har givet mig en del problematikker. Jeg har ved brug af Kvale og Brinkmanns interview teori lavet to interviews med hhv. HR-assistenten Nanna Broholm og Retail Academy Træneren Susan Chahrour. De har givet mig en indsigt i deres arbejde, og hvordan The Body Shop forholder sig til forskellige faktorer. I proje...

  14. Human Work Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonçalves, Frederica; Campos, Pedro; Clemmensen, Torkil


    In this paper, we review research in the emerging practice and research field of Human Work Interaction Design (HWID). We present a HWID framework, and a sample of 54 HWID related papers from workshops, conferences and journals from the period 2009–2014. We group the papers into six topical groups....... Furthermore, much focus has been on studying design sketching or implemented systems-in-use, while little attention has been paid to mature design (prototypes) or early implementation (content templates). In conclusion, we recommend an update to the framework so that it can be also useful for research...

  15. Human Work Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonçalves, Frederica; Campos, Pedro; Clemmensen, Torkil


    In this paper, we review research in the emerging practice and research field of Human Work Interaction Design (HWID). We present a HWID frame-work, and a sample of 54 papers from workshops, conferences and journals from the period 2009-2014. We group the papers into six topical groups, and then at....... Furthermore, much focus has been on studying design sketching or implemented systems-in-use, while little attention has been paid to mature design (prototypes) or early implementation (content templates). In conclusion, we recommend an update to the framework so that it can be also useful for research...

  16. Machines Imitating Humans (United States)

    Zia-Ul-Haque, Qazi S. M.; Wang, Zhiliang; Zhang, Xueyuan

    The authors have synthesized the emotion in the speech of robot. The modeling of emotion in speech relies on a number of parameters among others, fundamental frequency (F0) level, voice quality, or articulation precision etc. As an initial work for synthesizing emotion in speech, we utilized the three voice features provided by the TTS engine of Microsoft Speech SDK i.e. pitch, rate and volume. Speech with these parameters controlled, was generated randomly with 20 sentences for each emotion and perception by human hearers were collected.

  17. Visual Analysis of Humans

    CERN Document Server

    Moeslund, Thomas B


    This unique text/reference provides a coherent and comprehensive overview of all aspects of video analysis of humans. Broad in coverage and accessible in style, the text presents original perspectives collected from preeminent researchers gathered from across the world. In addition to presenting state-of-the-art research, the book reviews the historical origins of the different existing methods, and predicts future trends and challenges. This title: features a Foreword by Professor Larry Davis; contains contributions from an international selection of leading authorities in the field; includes

  18. Human Work Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the Third IFIP WG 13.6 Working Conference on Human Work Interaction Design, HWID 2012, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in December 2012. The 16 revised papers presented were carefully selected for inclusion in this volume....... The papers reflect many different areas and address many complex and diverse work domains, ranging from medical user interfaces, work and speech interactions at elderly care facilities, greenhouse climate control, navigating through large oil industry engineering models, crisis management, library usability...

  19. More Than Human Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    In this episode of AnthroPod, guest producers Stine Krøijer and Astrid Oberborbeck Andersen take up a debate that is central to current environmental and political anthropology: namely, how ethnographers can identify and describe the political when earth beings, spirits, or nonhuman others become...... part of the ethnographic equation? How can we methodologically and theoretically engage with these beings as they become entwined in political processes? The episode is built around a recording of a workshop on “More than Human Politics,” which was held in the Department of Anthropology...



    Shashank Shekhar Tiwari*, Shivani Joshi, Tanvi Mittal, Shruti Jain


    This project deals with the nervous system and its function in brain. Here connectome means the microscopic neural connectivity and its mapping between all the neurons present in the brain which further represents their graphical representation on the visual screen also which will further help us to zoom into a region to explore the cells and the functions depending on it and taking this one step ahead the memory implementation in human brain so it will be used as a memory unit except the fac...





    This paper presents the most representative approaches to concepts of human resources, human resource management and strategic human resource management in the last two decades, based on purely theoretical analysis of the concepts mentioned above. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate through a critical analysis of concepts, that in this era of change and uncertainty, attention to human resources of an organization has changed radically. It can be seen by analyzing the definitions, evol...





    This paper presents the most representative approaches to concepts of human resources, human resource management and strategic human resource management in the last two decades, based on purely theoretical analysis of the concepts mentioned above. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate through a critical analysis of concepts, that in this era of change and uncertainty, attention to human resources of an organization has changed radically. It can be seen by analyzing the definitions, e...

  3. The Specificity of Human Aesthetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouchet, Dominique


    Today, humankind is being reintroduced within nature. Humankind is no longer presented as supernatural to nature. There is no longer a clear divide between animal and human. What makes us human is neither culture, nor language nor labor, nor art, but the degree of complexity those products......, and the craving to make sense of all kinds of relations that characterizes humans. Being able to produce artworks as external representations aimed at “the other,” made of internal representations is thus essential to humanity. Human aesthetics is not so much an issue of beauty but of imagination and social...

  4. [Terrorism and human behavior]. (United States)

    Leistedt, S J


    Theories of religion are essential for understanding current trends in terrorist activities. The aim of this work is to clarify religion's role in facilitating terror and outline in parallel with recent theoretical developments on terrorism and human behaviour. Several databases were used such as PubCentral, Scopus, Medline and Science Direct. The search terms "terrorism", "social psychology", "religion", "evolution", and "cognition" were used to identify relevant studies in the databases. This work examines, in a multidimensional way, how terrorists employ these features of religion to achieve their goals. In the same way, it describes how terrorists use rituals to conditionally associate emotions with sanctified symbols that are emotionally evocative and motivationally powerful, fostering group solidarity, trust, and cooperation. Religious beliefs, including promised rewards in the afterlife, further serve to facilitate cooperation by altering the perceived payoffs of costly actions, including suicide bombing. The adolescent pattern of brain development is unique, and young adulthood presents an ideal developmental stage to attract recruits and enlist them in high-risk behaviors. This work offers insights, based on this translational analysis, concerning the links between religion, terrorism and human behavior. Copyright © 2017 L'Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. First human Cerenkography. (United States)

    Spinelli, Antonello Enrico; Ferdeghini, Marco; Cavedon, Carlo; Zivelonghi, Emanuele; Calandrino, Riccardo; Fenzi, Alberto; Sbarbati, Andrea; Boschi, Federico


    Cerenkov luminescence imaging is an emerging optical preclinical modality based on the detection of Cerenkov radiation induced by beta particles when traveling though biological tissues with a velocity greater than the speed of light. We present the first human Cerenkography obtained by detecting Cerenkov radiation escaping the thyroid gland of a patient treated for hyperthyroidism. The Cerenkov light was detected using an electron multiplied charge coupled device and a conventional C-mount lens. The system set-up has been tested by using a slab of ex vivo tissue equal to a 1 cm slice of chicken breast in order to simulate optical photons attenuation. We then imaged for 2 min the head and neck region of a patient treated orally 24 h before with 550 MBq of I-131. Co-registration between photographic and Cerenkov images showed a good localization of the Cerenkov light within the thyroid region. In conclusion, we showed that it is possible to obtain a planar image of Cerenkov photons escaping from a human tissue. Cerenkography is a potential novel medical tool to image superficial organs of patients treated with beta minus radiopharmaceuticals and can be extended to the imaging of beta plus emitters.

  6. Our humanity at CERN

    CERN Multimedia


    Diversity and respect are defining aspects of CERN and something that I am very proud of. Our institution is the closest to a true meritocracy that I have ever experienced in my long career, and as such is a valuable role model for the world. It is a place where everyone is welcome, and where anyone can succeed, regardless of his or her ethnicity, beliefs or sexual orientation. It is therefore with some disappointment that I have learned of a spate of recent events concerning posters put up around the Laboratory by our LGBT community.   Freedom of expression is a fundamental human right. One needs to look no further than the Universal Declaration of Human Rights for common-sense clarity on this issue. It states that: ‘everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers’. In line with that, I fully supp...

  7. Predicting Human Cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J Nay

    Full Text Available The Prisoner's Dilemma has been a subject of extensive research due to its importance in understanding the ever-present tension between individual self-interest and social benefit. A strictly dominant strategy in a Prisoner's Dilemma (defection, when played by both players, is mutually harmful. Repetition of the Prisoner's Dilemma can give rise to cooperation as an equilibrium, but defection is as well, and this ambiguity is difficult to resolve. The numerous behavioral experiments investigating the Prisoner's Dilemma highlight that players often cooperate, but the level of cooperation varies significantly with the specifics of the experimental predicament. We present the first computational model of human behavior in repeated Prisoner's Dilemma games that unifies the diversity of experimental observations in a systematic and quantitatively reliable manner. Our model relies on data we integrated from many experiments, comprising 168,386 individual decisions. The model is composed of two pieces: the first predicts the first-period action using solely the structural game parameters, while the second predicts dynamic actions using both game parameters and history of play. Our model is successful not merely at fitting the data, but in predicting behavior at multiple scales in experimental designs not used for calibration, using only information about the game structure. We demonstrate the power of our approach through a simulation analysis revealing how to best promote human cooperation.

  8. Humanization of mathematics learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Bayu Kurniawan


    Full Text Available The study concerned here was to describe (1 the characteristics of humanistic mathematics learning and (2 the stages to actualize such learning. The said study was a qualitative one employing the phenomenological approach with six stages of inductive analysis. The data were validated by using the data source triangulation technique. The study involved 75 students of an elementary school, SD Mangunan, Berbah, Sleman, 36 students of a state senior high school, SMA Negeri 1 of Sewon, Bantul, and 42 students of another state senior high school, SMA Negeri 1 of Dlingo, Bantul. The results of the validation showed that the data were valid and consistent. The conclusions of the study are as follows. (1 Humanistic mathematics learning is characterized by the facts that the use of the mathematics learning media gives students space and time to explore and construct mathematical concept understanding and mathematics learning methods are applied by using an inductive approach. (2 The stages to realize humanistic mathematics learning include the setting of mathematics learning objectives based on humanism, existentialism, and religious teachings by building individual students’ strengths through independent and civilized manners, the setting of mathematics learning goals emphasizing balance among the domains of idea, intention, and action, and the setting of the development of contextual and cooperative mathematics learning strategies. Keywords: humanization, mathematics learning

  9. On Human Essence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Fernández Beites


    Full Text Available To offer a response to the challenge posed by the existentialism of M. Heidegger, the present work uses the ontology proposed by X. Zubiri in Sobre la esencia. The work, then, deals with thinking «about essence», but above all, «about human essence», which creates the difficulty raised by existentialism. The difference between «constitutive» and «conditional» proposed by Zubiri is studied in order to highlight the human being’s (and of all living beings in general character of not being made once and for all. If we designate essence in the classical sense (unalterable essence as «constitutive», we propose to bring Zubiri’s intuition to its limit by acknowledging another «essential» level, which is the «constitutional». The constitutional is not essential in tradition’s strict sense, but neither is it accidental; it is essential in a new sense, allowing the incorporation of changes in essenceitself. Thus, one arrives at the so-called processive (or dynamic essences, which, for not being made once and for all, necessarily include their being made.

  10. The human gut resistome (United States)

    van Schaik, Willem


    In recent decades, the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens has become a major threat to public health. Bacteria can acquire antibiotic resistance genes by the mobilization and transfer of resistance genes from a donor strain. The human gut contains a densely populated microbial ecosystem, termed the gut microbiota, which offers ample opportunities for the horizontal transfer of genetic material, including antibiotic resistance genes. Recent technological advances allow microbiota-wide studies into the diversity and dynamics of the antibiotic resistance genes that are harboured by the gut microbiota (‘the gut resistome’). Genes conferring resistance to antibiotics are ubiquitously present among the gut microbiota of humans and most resistance genes are harboured by strictly anaerobic gut commensals. The horizontal transfer of genetic material, including antibiotic resistance genes, through conjugation and transduction is a frequent event in the gut microbiota, but mostly involves non-pathogenic gut commensals as these dominate the microbiota of healthy individuals. Resistance gene transfer from commensals to gut-dwelling opportunistic pathogens appears to be a relatively rare event but may contribute to the emergence of multi-drug resistant strains, as is illustrated by the vancomycin resistance determinants that are shared by anaerobic gut commensals and the nosocomial pathogen Enterococcus faecium. PMID:25918444

  11. Adipokines in human reproduction. (United States)

    Dupont, Joëlle; Pollet-Villard, Xavier; Reverchon, Maxime; Mellouk, Namya; Levy, Rachel


    Adipose tissue communicates with other central and peripheral organs by the synthesis and release of substances called adipokines. The most studied adipokine is leptin but others have been recently identified including resistin, adiponectin, chemerin, omentin and visfatin. These adipokines have a critical role in the development of obesity-related complications and inflammatory conditions. However, they are also involved in other functions in the organism including reproductive functions. Indeed, many groups have demonstrated that adipokine receptors, such as adiponectin and chemerin, but also adipokines themselves (adiponectin, chemerin, resistin, visfatin and omentin) are expressed in human peripheral reproductive tissues and that these adipokines are likely to exert direct effects on these tissues. After a brief description of these new adipokines, an overview of their actions in different human reproductive organs (hypothalamus, pituitary, ovary, testis, uterus and placenta) will be presented. Finally, comments will be made on the eventual alterations of these adipokines in reproductive disorders, with special attention to polycystic ovary syndrome, a disease characterized by dysfunction of gonadal axis and systemic nerve endocrine metabolic network with a prevalence of up to 10% in women of reproductive age.

  12. Rangifer and human interests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Anderson


    Full Text Available This article reviews biological and anthropological literatute on wild and tame Rangifer to demonstrate the powerful effect that this species has had on the imaginations of biologists, social scientists and local hunters. Through identifying a general 'human interest' in Rangifer, the author argues that there is great potential for these three communities to work together. To demonstrate this idea, the paper reviews several examples of successful and unsuccessful 'alliances' between local peoples and both natural and social scientists which have had a fundamental impact upon the history of these sciences. The paper examines recent theorerical models which suggest that human action is a major factor in the behaviour and ecology of the animals. The paper also analyses the ideas of many indigenous people for whom there is no categorical difference between semi-domesticated, semi-sedentary and migratory Rangifer through comparison with many 'anomalous' texts in English and Russian language wildlife biology. By reviewing the history of scholarly interest in Rangifer, the author argues that contemporary models of Rangifer behaviour and identity could be 'revitalised' and 'recalibrated' through the establishment of that dialogue between scientists and local peoples which so characterised the 19th century. Such a dialogue, it is argued, would help mediate many of the political conflicts now appearing in those districts where Rangifer migrate.

  13. Human metabolism of caesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raeaef, C.L. [Lund Univ., Dept. of Radiation Physics in Malmoe (Sweden); Falk, R. [Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (Sweden); Lauridsen, Bente [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark); Rahola, T. [STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland); Soogard-Hansen, J. [NRPA - Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway)


    A study of the human biokinetics of caesium in two forms, i.) incorporated in foodstuff (137Cs in perch and mushrooms) and ii.) in ionic state ({sup 134}Cs in aqueous solution) has been carried out at the department of Radiation Physics in Malmoe, starting in 2001. The results of the pilot study were published in 2004, and a continuation of that study has now been carried out by means of NKS funding (NKS-B Cskinetik). The aim is to, i.) investigate whether Scandinavian populations exhibit shorter biological half-time of radiocaesium than other populations; ii.) extend the biokinetic study to additional human subjects from the other Nordic countries. Results from the continued study further indicate a near complete absorption of radiocaesium in the gastro-intestinal tract, be it in ion state or contained in food matrix. So far, the literature survey of Nordic studies on biokinetics of Cs suggests that the biological half time is somewhat shorter among Scandinavian males (84 days vs. ICRP-value of 110 days), although females do not exhibit any significant difference (64 days vs ICRP value of 65 days). (au)

  14. Human Life History Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine J. Chua


    Full Text Available Human life history (LH strategies are theoretically regulated by developmental exposure to environmental cues that ancestrally predicted LH-relevant world states (e.g., risk of morbidity–mortality. Recent modeling work has raised the question of whether the association of childhood family factors with adult LH variation arises via (i direct sampling of external environmental cues during development and/or (ii calibration of LH strategies to internal somatic condition (i.e., health, which itself reflects exposure to variably favorable environments. The present research tested between these possibilities through three online surveys involving a total of over 26,000 participants. Participants completed questionnaires assessing components of self-reported environmental harshness (i.e., socioeconomic status, family neglect, and neighborhood crime, health status, and various LH-related psychological and behavioral phenotypes (e.g., mating strategies, paranoia, and anxiety, modeled as a unidimensional latent variable. Structural equation models suggested that exposure to harsh ecologies had direct effects on latent LH strategy as well as indirect effects on latent LH strategy mediated via health status. These findings suggest that human LH strategies may be calibrated to both external and internal cues and that such calibrational effects manifest in a wide range of psychological and behavioral phenotypes.

  15. The Human Variome Project. (United States)

    Burn, John; Watson, Michael


    The practical realization of genomics has meant a growing realization that variant interpretation is a major barrier to practical use of DNA sequence data. The late Professor Dick Cotton devoted his life to innovation in molecular genetics and was a prime mover in the international response to the need to understand the "variome." His leadership resulted in the launch first of the Human Genetic Variation Society and then, in 2006, an international agreement to launch the Human Variome Project (HVP), aimed at data integration enabled by standards and infrastructure of the databases of variants being identified in families with a range of inherited disorders. The project attracted a network of affiliates across 81 countries and earned formal recognition by UNESCO, which now hosts its biennial meetings. It has also signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the World Health Organization. Future progress will depend on longer term secure funding and integration with the efforts of the genomics community where the rapid advances in sequencing technology have enabled variant capture on a previously unimaginable scale. Efforts are underway to integrate the efforts of HVP with those of the Global Alliance for Genomics and Health to provide a lasting legacy of Dick Cotton's vision. © 2016 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  16. Human activity recognition and prediction

    CERN Document Server


    This book provides a unique view of human activity recognition, especially fine-grained human activity structure learning, human-interaction recognition, RGB-D data based action recognition, temporal decomposition, and causality learning in unconstrained human activity videos. The techniques discussed give readers tools that provide a significant improvement over existing methodologies of video content understanding by taking advantage of activity recognition. It links multiple popular research fields in computer vision, machine learning, human-centered computing, human-computer interaction, image classification, and pattern recognition. In addition, the book includes several key chapters covering multiple emerging topics in the field. Contributed by top experts and practitioners, the chapters present key topics from different angles and blend both methodology and application, composing a solid overview of the human activity recognition techniques. .

  17. [A cyborg is only human]. (United States)

    Schermer, Maartje H N


    New biomedical technologies make it possible to replace parts of the human body or to substitute its functions. Examples include artificial joints, eye lenses and arterial stents. Newer technologies use electronics and software, for example in brain-computer interfaces such as retinal implants and the exoskeleton MindWalker. Gradually we are creating cyborgs: hybrids of man and machine. This raises the question: are cyborgs still humans? It is argued that they are. First, because employing technology is a typically human characteristic. Second, because in western thought the human mind, and not the body, is considered to be the seat of personhood. However, it has been argued by phenomenological philosophers that the body is more than just an object but is also a subject, important for human identity. From this perspective, we can appreciate that a bionic body does not make one less human, but it does influence the experience of being human.

  18. Leptospirosis in Humans (United States)

    Levett, Paul N.


    Leptospirosis is a widespread and potentially fatal zoonosis that is endemic in many tropical regions and causes large epidemics after heavy rainfall and flooding. Infection results from direct or indirect exposure to infected reservoir host animals that carry the pathogen in their renal tubules and shed pathogenic leptospires in their urine. Although many wild and domestic animals can serve as reservoir hosts, the brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) is the most important source of human infections. Individuals living in urban slum environments characterized by inadequate sanitation and poor housing are at high risk of rat exposure and leptospirosis. The global burden of leptospirosis is expected to rise with demographic shifts that favor increases in the number of urban poor in tropical regions subject to worsening storms and urban flooding due to climate change. Data emerging from prospective surveillance studies suggest that most human leptospiral infections in endemic areas are mild or asymptomatic. Development of more severe outcomes likely depends on three factors: epidemiological conditions, host susceptibility, and pathogen virulence (Fig. 1). Mortality increases with age, particularly in patients older than 60 years of age. High levels of bacteremia are associated with poor clinical outcomes and, based on animal model and in vitro studies, are related in part to poor recognition of leptospiral LPS by human TLR4. Patients with severe leptospirosis experience a cytokine storm characterized by high levels of IL-6, TNF-alpha, and IL-10. Patients with the HLA DQ6 allele are at higher risk of disease, suggesting a role for lymphocyte stimulation by a leptospiral superantigen. Leptospirosis typically presents as a nonspecific, acute febrile illness characterized by fever, myalgia, and headache and may be confused with other entities such as influenza and dengue fever. Newer diagnostic methods facilitate early diagnosis and antibiotic treatment. Patients progressing to

  19. The human urine metabolome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souhaila Bouatra

    Full Text Available Urine has long been a "favored" biofluid among metabolomics researchers. It is sterile, easy-to-obtain in large volumes, largely free from interfering proteins or lipids and chemically complex. However, this chemical complexity has also made urine a particularly difficult substrate to fully understand. As a biological waste material, urine typically contains metabolic breakdown products from a wide range of foods, drinks, drugs, environmental contaminants, endogenous waste metabolites and bacterial by-products. Many of these compounds are poorly characterized and poorly understood. In an effort to improve our understanding of this biofluid we have undertaken a comprehensive, quantitative, metabolome-wide characterization of human urine. This involved both computer-aided literature mining and comprehensive, quantitative experimental assessment/validation. The experimental portion employed NMR spectroscopy, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS, direct flow injection mass spectrometry (DFI/LC-MS/MS, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC experiments performed on multiple human urine samples. This multi-platform metabolomic analysis allowed us to identify 445 and quantify 378 unique urine metabolites or metabolite species. The different analytical platforms were able to identify (quantify a total of: 209 (209 by NMR, 179 (85 by GC-MS, 127 (127 by DFI/LC-MS/MS, 40 (40 by ICP-MS and 10 (10 by HPLC. Our use of multiple metabolomics platforms and technologies allowed us to identify several previously unknown urine metabolites and to substantially enhance the level of metabolome coverage. It also allowed us to critically assess the relative strengths and weaknesses of different platforms or technologies. The literature review led to the identification and annotation of another 2206 urinary compounds and was used to help guide the subsequent experimental studies. An online database

  20. Human dignity and human rights in bioethics: the Kantian approach. (United States)

    Rothhaar, Markus


    The concept of human dignity plays an important role in the public discussion about ethical questions concerning modern medicine and biology. At the same time, there is a widespread skepticism about the possibility to determine the content and the claims of human dignity. The article goes back to Kantian Moral Philosophy, in order to show that human dignity has in fact a determinable content not as a norm in itself, but as the principle and ground of human rights and any deontological norms in biomedical ethics. When it comes to defining the scope of human dignity, i.e., the question which entities are protected by human dignity, Kant clearly can be found on the "pro life"-side of the controversy. This, however, is the result of some specific implications of Kant's transcendental approach that may be put into question.

  1. Energy and human health. (United States)

    Smith, Kirk R; Frumkin, Howard; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Butler, Colin D; Chafe, Zoë A; Fairlie, Ian; Kinney, Patrick; Kjellstrom, Tord; Mauzerall, Denise L; McKone, Thomas E; McMichael, Anthony J; Schneider, Mycle


    Energy use is central to human society and provides many health benefits. But each source of energy entails some health risks. This article reviews the health impacts of each major source of energy, focusing on those with major implications for the burden of disease globally. The biggest health impacts accrue to the harvesting and burning of solid fuels, coal and biomass, mainly in the form of occupational health risks and household and general ambient air pollution. Lack of access to clean fuels and electricity in the world's poor households is a particularly serious risk for health. Although energy efficiency brings many benefits, it also entails some health risks, as do renewable energy systems, if not managed carefully. We do not review health impacts of climate change itself, which are due mostly to climate-altering pollutants from energy systems, but do discuss the potential for achieving near-term health cobenefits by reducing certain climate-related emissions.

  2. Art and human nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirta Toledo


    Full Text Available This article presents a visual artist’s point of view about art. This view confronts the Eurocentric traditional cannon with some ignored, but valuable traditions, thus proposing a contra-canon. These ideas are examined on the light of a variety of sources, including prehistoric, pre-Columbian, and 20th century art expressions, in a variety of media, from sculpture to literature. Recent art expressions are characterized by their incorporation of minority values and perspectives that challenge “universal” views. Using samples of works from Latino and African American artists, the author shows that, even today, art is a means to know the world and its people, to exhibit personal life, to create personal symbolism, and to show one’s identity or the search for it. Like the human nature it represents, art has multiple faces.

  3. Human immunodeficiency virus endocrinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Sinha


    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV endocrinopathy encompasses a broad spectrum of disorders. Almost all the endocrine organs are virtually affected by HIV infection. HIV can directly alter glandular function. More commonly secondary endocrine dysfunction occurs due to opportunistic infections and neoplasms in immunocompromised state. The complex interaction between HIV infection and endocrine system may be manifested as subtle biochemical and hormonal perturbation to overt glandular failure. Antiretroviral therapy as well as other essential medications often result in adverse endocrinal consequences. Apart from adrenal insufficiency, hypogonadism, diabetes and bone loss, AIDS wasting syndrome and HIV lipodystrophy need special reference. Endocrinal evaluation should proceed as in other patients with suspected endocrine dysfunction. Available treatment options have been shown to improve quality of life and long-term mortality in AIDS patients.

  4. Human Work Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    . The papers reflect many different areas and address many complex and diverse work domains, ranging from medical user interfaces, work and speech interactions at elderly care facilities, greenhouse climate control, navigating through large oil industry engineering models, crisis management, library usability......This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the Third IFIP WG 13.6 Working Conference on Human Work Interaction Design, HWID 2012, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in December 2012. The 16 revised papers presented were carefully selected for inclusion in this volume......, and mobile probing. They have been organized in the following topical sections: work analysis: dimensions and methods; interactions, models and approaches; and evaluations, interactions and applications....

  5. Human Work Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the Third IFIP WG 13.6 Working Conference on Human Work Interaction Design, HWID 2012, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in December 2012. The 16 revised papers presented were carefully selected for inclusion in this volume. ......, and mobile probing. They have been organized in the following topical sections: work analysis: dimensions and methods; interactions, models and approaches; and evaluations, interactions and applications........ The papers reflect many different areas and address many complex and diverse work domains, ranging from medical user interfaces, work and speech interactions at elderly care facilities, greenhouse climate control, navigating through large oil industry engineering models, crisis management, library usability...

  6. Redesigned Human Metabolic Simulator (United States)

    Duffield, Bruce; Jeng, Frank; Lange, Kevin


    A design has been formulated for a proposed improved version of an apparatus that simulates atmospheric effects of human respiration by introducing controlled amounts of carbon dioxide, water vapor, and heat into the air. Denoted a human metabolic simulator (HMS), the apparatus is used for testing life-support equipment when human test subjects are not available. The prior version of the HMS, to be replaced, was designed to simulate the respiratory effects of as many as four persons. It exploits the catalytic combustion of methyl acetate, for which the respiratory quotient (the molar ratio of carbon dioxide produced to oxygen consumed) is very close to the human respiratory quotient of about 0.86. The design of the improved HMS provides for simulation of the respiratory effects of as many as eight persons at various levels of activity. The design would also increase safety by eliminating the use of combustion. The improved HMS (see figure) would include a computer that would exert overall control. The computer would calculate the required amounts of oxygen removal, carbon dioxide addition, water addition, and heat addition by use of empirical equations for metabolic profiles of respiration and heat. A blower would circulate air between the HMS and a chamber containing a life-support system to be tested. With the help of feedback from a mass flowmeter, the blower speed would be adjusted to regulate the rate of flow according to the number of persons to be simulated and to a temperature-regulation requirement (the air temperature would indirectly depend on the rate of flow, among other parameters). Oxygen would be removed from the circulating air by means of a commercially available molecular sieve configured as an oxygen concentrator. Oxygen, argon, and trace amounts of nitrogen would pass through a bed in the molecular sieve while carbon dioxide, the majority of nitrogen, and other trace gases would be trapped by the bed and subsequently returned to the chamber. If

  7. Food addiction in humans. (United States)

    Pelchat, Marcia Levin


    Most of the evidence for or against food addiction in humans focuses on similarities between food craving and drug craving. There are numerous parallels in neuroanatomy, neurochemistry, and learning. Indeed, brain mechanisms for craving probably evolved to promote seeking of natural rewards and are taken over by drugs of abuse. Healthy, normal weight individuals, by definition, do not suffer from food addiction; however, overweight and obese individuals could meet clinical criteria. Palatable foods are not responsible for the obesity problem, because even nonpalatable foods can come to be desired and potentially overconsumed. It may be the way in which foods are consumed (e.g. alternating access and restriction) rather than their sensory properties that leads to an addictive eating pattern.

  8. Human physiology in space (United States)

    Vernikos, J.


    The universality of gravity (1 g) in our daily lives makes it difficult to appreciate its importance in morphology and physiology. Bone and muscle support systems were created, cellular pumps developed, neurons organised and receptors and transducers of gravitational force to biologically relevant signals evolved under 1g gravity. Spaceflight provides the only microgravity environment where systematic experimentation can expand our basic understanding of gravitational physiology and perhaps provide new insights into normal physiology and disease processes. These include the surprising extent of our body's dependence on perceptual information, and understanding the effect and importance of forces generated within the body's weightbearing structures such as muscle and bones. Beyond this exciting prospect is the importance of this work towards opening the solar system for human exploration. Although both appear promising, we are only just beginning to taste what lies ahead.

  9. Advances in human genetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, H.; Hirschhorn, K. (eds.)


    This book has five chapters covering peroxisomal diseases, X-linked immunodeficiencies, genetic mutations affecting human lipoproteins and their receptors and enzymes, genetic aspects of cancer, and Gaucher disease. The chapter on peroxisomes covers their discovery, structure, functions, disorders, etc. The chapter on X-linked immunodeficiencies discusses such diseases as agammaglobulinemia, severe combined immunodeficiency, Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, animal models, linkage analysis, etc. Apolipoprotein formation, synthesis, gene regulation, proteins, etc. are the main focus of chapter 3. The chapter on cancer covers such topics as oncogene mapping and the molecular characterization of some recessive oncogenes. Gaucher disease is covered from its diagnosis, classification, and prevention, to its organ system involvement and molecular biology.

  10. Human Reliability Program Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landers, John; Rogers, Erin; Gerke, Gretchen


    A Human Reliability Program (HRP) is designed to protect national security as well as worker and public safety by continuously evaluating the reliability of those who have access to sensitive materials, facilities, and programs. Some elements of a site HRP include systematic (1) supervisory reviews, (2) medical and psychological assessments, (3) management evaluations, (4) personnel security reviews, and (4) training of HRP staff and critical positions. Over the years of implementing an HRP, the Department of Energy (DOE) has faced various challenges and overcome obstacles. During this 4-day activity, participants will examine programs that mitigate threats to nuclear security and the insider threat to include HRP, Nuclear Security Culture (NSC) Enhancement, and Employee Assistance Programs. The focus will be to develop an understanding of the need for a systematic HRP and to discuss challenges and best practices associated with mitigating the insider threat.

  11. The human myotendinous junction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, A B; Larsen, M; Mackey, Abigail


    been described in three dimensions (3D). The aim of this study was to describe the ultrastructure of the human MTJ and render 3D reconstructions. Fourteen subjects (age 25 ± 3 years) with isolated injury of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), scheduled for reconstruction with a semitendinosus....../gracilis graft were included. Semitendinosus and gracilis tendons were stripped as grafts for the ACL reconstruction. The MTJ was isolated from the grafts and prepared for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy. It was possible to isolate recognizable MTJ tissue...... tissue. The 3D reconstruction revealed that tendon made ridge-like protrusions, which interdigitiated with groove-like indentations in the muscle cell....

  12. [Infection by human cytomegalovirus]. (United States)

    Sanbonmatsu Gámez, Sara; Ruiz, Mercedes Pérez; Navarro Marí, José María


    Prevalence of human cytomegalovirus infection is very high worldwide. Following primary infection, the virus remains latent, being able to cause recurrences either by reinfection with a new strain or by reactivation of the replication of the latent virus. The most severe disease is seen in congenital infection and in immunosuppressed patients, in whom the virus act as an opportunistic pathogen. Serological techniques are the methods of choice in primary infection and to determine the immune status against CMV in organ donor and receptor. Although well-standardized studies are lacking, the recent commercial availability of methods that measure cellular immune response are promising to predict the risk of CMV disease in immunosuppressed individuals. Molecular assays, that have gradually been substituting viral culture and/or antigen detection, are the most widely used methods for the diagnosis and control of CMV infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  13. Human Work Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopes, Arminda; Ørngreen, Rikke

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the Third IFIP WG 13.6 Working Conference on Human Work Interaction Design, HWID 2012, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in December 2012. The 16 revised papers presented were carefully selected for inclusion in this volume....... The papers reflect many different areas and address many complex and diverse work domains, ranging from medical user interfaces, work and speech interactions at elderly care facilities, greenhouse climate control, navigating through large oil industry engineering models, crisis management, library usability......, and mobile probing. They have been organized in the following topical sections: work analysis: dimensions and methods; interactions, models and approaches; and evaluations, interactions and applications....

  14. Chemical allergy in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimber, Ian; Basketter, David A; Thyssen, Jacob P


    Abstract There is considerable interest in the immunobiological processes through which the development of allergic sensitization to chemicals is initiated and orchestrated. One of the most intriguing issues is the basis for the elicitation by chemical sensitizers of different forms of allergic...... reaction; that is, allergic contact dermatitis or sensitization of the respiratory tract associated with occupational asthma. Studies in rodents have revealed that differential forms of allergic sensitization to chemicals are, in large part at least, a function of the selective development of discrete...... functional sub-populations of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-lymphocytes. Evidence for a similar association of chemical allergy in humans with discrete T-lymphocyte populations is, however, limited. It is of some interest, therefore, that two recent articles from different teams of investigators have shed new light...

  15. Human distal gut microbiome. (United States)

    Marchesi, Julian R


    The distal gut and its associated microbiota is a new frontier in the quest to understand human biology and evolution. The renaissance in this field has been partly driven by advances in sequencing technology and also by the application of a variety of 'omic' technologies in a systems biology framework. In the initial stages of understanding what constitutes the gut, culture-independent methods, primarily inventories of 16S rRNA genes, have provided a clear view of the main taxonomic groups of Bacteria in the distal gut and we are now moving towards defining the functions that reside in the distal gut microbiome. This review will explore recent advances in the area of the distal gut and the use of a variety of omic approaches to determine what constitutes this fascinating collection of microbes. © 2011 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Realistic computerized human phantoms (United States)

    Zankl, M.; Veit, R.; Petoussi, N.; Mannweiler, E.; Wittmann, A.; Drexler, G.


    To estimate the risk resulting from exposures to ionizing radiation, the organ and tissue doses should be assessed. A convenient method is the calculation of these doses using representations of the human body, called models or phantoms, together with computer codes simulating the transport of radiation in the body. Most commonly used are mathematical phantoms whose external and internal volumes are defined by simple geometric bodies. More recently, phantoms constructed from computed tomographic data of real persons were introduced as an improvement. These phantoms present advantages concerning the location and shape of the organs, in particular the hard bone and bone marrow, whose distribution can be assessed with high resolution. So far, three of these phantoms were constructed at the GSF, a fourth is under process. The construction technique is described, and some calculational results of organ doses due to external photon irradiation are presented.

  17. Probing human response times (United States)

    Johansen, Anders


    In a recent preprint (Dialog in e-mail traffic, preprint cond-mat/0304433), the temporal dynamics of an e-mail network has been investigated by Eckmann, Moses and Sergi. Specifically, the time period between an e-mail message and its reply were recorded. It will be shown here that their data agrees quantitatively with the frame work proposed to explain a recent experiment on the response of “internauts” to a news publication (Physica A 296(3-4) (2001) 539) despite differences in communication channels, topics, time-scale and socio-economic characteristics of the two population. This suggest a generalized response time distribution ∼ t-1 for human populations in the absence of deadlines with important implications for psychological and social studies as well the study of dynamical networks.

  18. Human Resource Outsourcing Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasliza Abdul-Halim


    Full Text Available The existing literature on partnership seems to take the relationship between partnership quality and outsourcing success for granted. Therefore, this article aims at examining the role of service quality in strengthening the relationship between partnership quality and human resource (HR outsourcing success. The samples were obtained from 96 manufacturing organizations in Penang, Malaysia. The results showed that partnership quality variables such as trust, business understanding, and communication have significant positive impact on HR outsourcing success, whereas in general, service quality was found to partially moderate these relationships. Therefore, comprehending the HR outsourcing relationship in the context of service quality may assist the organizations to accomplish HR outsourcing success by identifying areas of expected benefits and improvements.

  19. Human-computer interface (United States)

    Anderson, Thomas G.


    The present invention provides a method of human-computer interfacing. Force feedback allows intuitive navigation and control near a boundary between regions in a computer-represented space. For example, the method allows a user to interact with a virtual craft, then push through the windshield of the craft to interact with the virtual world surrounding the craft. As another example, the method allows a user to feel transitions between different control domains of a computer representation of a space. The method can provide for force feedback that increases as a user's locus of interaction moves near a boundary, then perceptibly changes (e.g., abruptly drops or changes direction) when the boundary is traversed.

  20. Human rabies in Iran. (United States)

    Farahtaj, Firouzeh; Fayaz, Ahmad; Howaizi, Nader; Biglari, Peyvand; Gholami, Alirez


    Like most Asian and African countries, Iran is highly endemic for rabies, which is a preventable disease with the timely utilisation of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). With the availability of affordable vaccination in Iran, there are still several rabies deaths which are assumed misdiagnosed or received ineffective PEP. We reviewed the files of 16 human rabies deaths, consisting of two groups: 1, ineffective treatment; and 2, erroneous PEP. Most of the studied cases were male and were from rural areas. Stray dogs were found to be the common biting animal (68.75%). Of the patients, 10/16 (62.5%) who had injuries on their head and/or face demonstrated shorter incubation periods. The incubation period was longer in a 4-year-old boy who sustained injuries in his abdomen and back. All the patients in group 1 received four doses of vaccine and administration of human rabies immune globulin (HRIG), and death occurred with the mean of 49 days after the bite. This mean was 27 days in three patients in group 2, who received vaccine without administration of HRIG. In a total of 1,188,579 cases of PEP given in Iran during: 2002-2011, it is not known whether all PEPs were correctly administered by World Health Organization standards. Extending rabies awareness programmes and timely PEP education in the community in accordance with the implementation of rabies control measures might lead to a decrease in these unfortunate scenarios and heavy financial burden of vaccination required due to the prevalence of rabies. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions:

  1. Human diet and cognition. (United States)

    Stevenson, Richard J; Prescott, John


    Cognition influences what, when and how much we eat, which in turn affects the brain and hence cognition. In this overview, focusing mainly on the human literature, we start by examining cognitive influences on food and eating. This includes food preferences and choices (e.g., effects of learning, advertising, and cultural taboos), food habits relating to when and how much to eat (e.g., the concept of meals, dieting, and hunger strikes), the perception of food (e.g., the influence of appearance, food labels, and conceptions of naturalness), and how food perception is influenced by expertise. We also review how these various influences are disrupted by abnormalities of cognition (e.g., Gourmand syndrome, amnesia, and anorexia nervosa). The second part of the overview focuses on how diet affects cognition. We start by looking at the acute effects of diet, notably the impact of breakfast on cognitive performance in children. This is followed by a review of the effects of extended dietary exposures-years and lifetimes of particular diets. Here we look at the impacts of protein-energy malnourishment and Western-style diets, and their different, but adverse affects on cognition, and the beneficial effects on cognition of breast-feeding and certain dietary practices. We then outline how diet and cooking may have allowed the evolution of the large energy-hungry human brain. This overview serves to illustrate the multiple interactions that exist between cognition and diet, their importance to health and disease, and their impact on thinking about the role of conscious processes in decision making. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:463-475. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1290 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. AIDS and human rights. (United States)

    Tarantola, D; Mann, J


    HIV/AIDS is a health problem that is inseparable from individual and collective behavior and social forces, particularly linked with societal respect for human rights and dignity. In its second decade, the HIV/AIDS pandemic continues to thrive. Where organized communities have access to adequate information, education, and services, the incidence of infection has begun to decline. Elsewhere, HIV continues to reach new populations and new geographic areas. Lessons learned in more than a decade of prevention work point to new directions for expanding national responses, at a time when the UNAIDS program, to be launched in January 1996, offers opportunities for innovative, broad-based, coordinated, and expanded global action. Prevention activities have shown that the spread of HIV can be effectively reduced. Public health interventions, including providing information and applying prevention methods, reduce the probability of infection, the risk of transmission, and the chances of not accessing appropriate care or support once infection has set in. These are proximal interventions that yield the short-term benefits of the decline of incidence and improved quality and duration of life for those infected. Societal vulnerability translates today into the focus the pandemic has on individuals, communities, and nations that are disadvantaged, marginalized, or discriminated against for reasons of gender, age, race, sexual orientation, economic status, or cultural, religious, or political affiliation. A fully expanded response to HIV/AIDS requires a combination of risk-reduction (proximal) and contextual interventions--those directed at reducing vulnerability through social change to enable people to exert control over their own health. Contextual actions can be implemented in the short term (changing laws, policies, practices that discriminate, promoting human rights, developing the most vulnerable communities) and in the long term (cultural changes, gender equality in

  3. Strategic Human Resources Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Muqaj


    Full Text Available Strategic Human Resources Management (SHRM represents an important and sensitive aspect of the functioning and development of a company, business, institution, state, public or private agency of a country. SHRM is based on a point of view of the psychological practices, especially by investing on empowerment, broad training and teamwork. This way it remains the primary resource to maintain stability and competitiveness. SHRM has lately evolved on fast and secure steps, and the transformation from Management of Human Resources to SHRM is becoming popular, but it still remains impossible to exactly estimate how much SHRM has taken place in updating the practices of HRM in organizations and institutions in general. This manuscript aims to make a reflection on strategic management, influence factors in its practices on some organizations. Researchers aim to identify influential factors that play key roles in SHRM, to determine its challenges and priorities which lay ahead, in order to select the most appropriate model for achieving a desirable performance. SHRM is a key factor in the achievement of the objectives of the organization, based on HR through continuous performance growth, it’s a complex process, unpredictable and influenced by many outside and inside factors, which aims to find the shortest way to achieve strategic competitive advantages, by creating structure planning, organizing, thinking values, culture, communication, perspectives and image of the organization. While traditional management of HR is focused on the individual performance of employees, the scientific one is based on the organizational performance, the role of the HRM system as main factor on solving business issues and achievement of competitive advantage within its kind.

  4. Epigenetics of human papillomaviruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johannsen, Eric [Department of Oncology, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Department of Medicine, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); McArdle Laboratory for Cancer Research, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Lambert, Paul F., E-mail: [Department of Oncology, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); McArdle Laboratory for Cancer Research, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)


    Human papilllomaviruses (HPVs) are common human pathogens that infect cutaneous or mucosal epithelia in which they cause warts, self-contained benign lesions that commonly regress. The HPV life cycle is intricately tied to the differentiation of the host epithelium it infects. Mucosotropic HPVs are the most common sexually transmitted pathogen known to mankind. A subset of the mucosotropic HPVs, so-called high risk HPVs, is etiologically associated with numerous cancers of the anogenital tract, most notably the cervix, as well as a growing fraction of head and neck cancers. In these cancers, the HPV genome, which normally exists an a double stranded, circular, nuclear plasmid, is commonly found integrated into the host genome and expresses two viral oncogenes, E6 and E7, that are implicated in the development and maintainance of the cancers caused by these high risk HPVs. Numerous studies, primarily on the high risk HPV16, have documented that the methylation status of the viral genome changes not only in the context of the viral life cycle but also in the context of the progressive neoplastic disease that culminates in cancer. In this article, we summarize the knowledge gained from those studies. We also provide the first analysis of available ChIP-seq data on the occupancy of both epigentically modified histones as well as transcription factors on the high risk HPV18 genome in the context of HeLa cells, a cervical cancer-derived cell line that has been the subject of extensive analyses using this technique. - Highlights: • Methylation status of HPV genomes is dynamic. • Changes are seen in both the viral life cycle and neoplasia. • Histone modification status at LCR is predictive of transcription factor occupancy. • Novel transcription factor binding noted by ChIP-seq.

  5. The Human Intestinal Microbiome: A New Frontier of Human Biology


    Hattori, Masahira; Taylor, Todd D.


    To analyze the vast number and variety of microorganisms inhabiting the human intestine, emerging metagenomic technologies are extremely powerful. The intestinal microbes are taxonomically complex and constitute an ecologically dynamic community (microbiota) that has long been believed to possess a strong impact on human physiology. Furthermore, they are heavily involved in the maturation and proliferation of human intestinal cells, helping to maintain their homeostasis and can be causative o...

  6. Human trafficking in Asia: a heinous crime against humanities


    Mohajan, Haradhan


    This paper discusses the human trafficking especially women and children trafficking in Asia. Human trafficking is not only a local problem but also a global concern. It is performed for various purposes such as labor, prostitution, organ transplant, drug couriers, and arm smuggling and affects virtually every country in the world. Recently trafficking of human being increased alarmingly due to globalization and liberalization. In Bangladesh and Nepal trafficking becomes an important issue re...

  7. Human subjects research handbook: Protecting human research subjects. Second edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This handbook serves as a guide to understanding and implementing the Federal regulations and US DOE Orders established to protect human research subjects. Material in this handbook is directed towards new and continuing institutional review board (IRB) members, researchers, institutional administrators, DOE officials, and others who may be involved or interested in human subjects research. It offers comprehensive overview of the various requirements, procedures, and issues relating to human subject research today.

  8. Genetics and recent human evolution. (United States)

    Templeton, Alan R


    Starting with "mitochondrial Eve" in 1987, genetics has played an increasingly important role in studies of the last two million years of human evolution. It initially appeared that genetic data resolved the basic models of recent human evolution in favor of the "out-of-Africa replacement" hypothesis in which anatomically modern humans evolved in Africa about 150,000 years ago, started to spread throughout the world about 100,000 years ago, and subsequently drove to complete genetic extinction (replacement) all other human populations in Eurasia. Unfortunately, many of the genetic studies on recent human evolution have suffered from scientific flaws, including misrepresenting the models of recent human evolution, focusing upon hypothesis compatibility rather than hypothesis testing, committing the ecological fallacy, and failing to consider a broader array of alternative hypotheses. Once these flaws are corrected, there is actually little genetic support for the out-of-Africa replacement hypothesis. Indeed, when genetic data are used in a hypothesis-testing framework, the out-of-Africa replacement hypothesis is strongly rejected. The model of recent human evolution that emerges from a statistical hypothesis-testing framework does not correspond to any of the traditional models of human evolution, but it is compatible with fossil and archaeological data. These studies also reveal that any one gene or DNA region captures only a small part of human evolutionary history, so multilocus studies are essential. As more and more loci became available, genetics will undoubtedly offer additional insights and resolutions of human evolution.

  9. Human Performance Modeling for Dynamic Human Reliability Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boring, Ronald Laurids [Idaho National Laboratory; Joe, Jeffrey Clark [Idaho National Laboratory; Mandelli, Diego [Idaho National Laboratory


    Part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Light Water Reac- tor Sustainability (LWRS) Program, the Risk-Informed Safety Margin Charac- terization (RISMC) Pathway develops approaches to estimating and managing safety margins. RISMC simulations pair deterministic plant physics models with probabilistic risk models. As human interactions are an essential element of plant risk, it is necessary to integrate human actions into the RISMC risk framework. In this paper, we review simulation based and non simulation based human reliability analysis (HRA) methods. This paper summarizes the founda- tional information needed to develop a feasible approach to modeling human in- teractions in RISMC simulations.

  10. Human milk donation is an alternative to human milk bank. (United States)

    Hsu, Ho-Torng; Fong, Tze-Vun; Hassan, Nurulhuda Mat; Wong, Hoi-Ling; Rai, Jasminder Kaur; Khalid, Zorina


    Human milk bank is a source of human milk supply in many neonatal intensive care units. However, there are some hospitals without this facility because of financial or religious impediments, such as the Muslim community. We introduced human milk donation as an alternative to human milk banking based on Islamic principles. The suitable donor is a healthy rooming-in mother whose expressed breastmilk is in excess of her baby's demand. The milk is used after 72 hours of freezing at -20°C. The donor must fulfill the criteria for selection of donors and be nonreactive to human immunodeficiency virus and syphilis. Once the recipient's family and the donor state their desire for the human milk donation, a meeting with both parties is made. Unpasteurized frozen-thawed donor's milk will be provided to the recipient after written consents are obtained from both parties. This study was carried out in the Duchess of Kent Hospital (Sandakan, Sabah, Malaysia) between January 2009 and December 2010. A total of 48 babies received donated breastmilk. Forty-two infants were from the special care nursery, and the remaining six were from the pediatric ward. Eighty-eight percent of the donors and 77% of the recipients were Muslims. Sixty percent of the infants who received donated human milk were premature. Two infants died because of the underlying nature of their disease. Human milk donation is an option for hospitals without a human milk bank or in the Muslim community.

  11. Human development index as a measure of human development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović Bojana


    Full Text Available Human development is “a process of expanding the real freedoms that people enjoy” (Sen 1999: 3. Therefore, widening of people’s choices should be the goal of the public policies aiming at human development promotion. In order to assess the level of human development, to compare it with other countries’ achievements, or to evaluate different policy proposals, decision-makers have to rely on an accurate indicator of human development. Since gross national product (GNP and gross domestic product (GDP could not serve this function, the human development index (HDI has been introduced as a more adequate measure. The aim of this paper is to discuss whether human development index reflects the basic tenets of human development. The arguments presented lead to the conclusion that the HDI does not fully reflect the ideas of human development. Since human development is much broader concept than any individual indicator could capture, country’s level of development should be assessed by the combination of different indicators.

  12. Analysis of human emotion in human-robot interaction (United States)

    Blar, Noraidah; Jafar, Fairul Azni; Abdullah, Nurhidayu; Muhammad, Mohd Nazrin; Kassim, Anuar Muhamed


    There is vast application of robots in human's works such as in industry, hospital, etc. Therefore, it is believed that human and robot can have a good collaboration to achieve an optimum result of work. The objectives of this project is to analyze human-robot collaboration and to understand humans feeling (kansei factors) when dealing with robot that robot should adapt to understand the humans' feeling. Researches currently are exploring in the area of human-robot interaction with the intention to reduce problems that subsist in today's civilization. Study had found that to make a good interaction between human and robot, first it is need to understand the abilities of each. Kansei Engineering in robotic was used to undergo the project. The project experiments were held by distributing questionnaire to students and technician. After that, the questionnaire results were analyzed by using SPSS analysis. Results from the analysis shown that there are five feelings which significant to the human in the human-robot interaction; anxious, fatigue, relaxed, peaceful, and impressed.

  13. Impact of Human like Cues on Human Trust in Machines: Brain Imaging and Modeling Studies for Human-Machine Interactions (United States)


    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2018-0006 Impact of Human like Cues on Human Trust in Machines: Brain Imaging and Modeling Studies for Human -Machine Interactions...AND SUBTITLE Impact of Human like Cues on Human Trust in Machines: Brain Imaging and Modeling Studies for Human -Machine Interactions 5a.  CONTRACT...DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED: PB Public Release 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT When a human and an intelligent machine work together as a team, human

  14. The Consequences of Human Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Hodgson


    Full Text Available Human behavior is founded on a complex interaction of influences that derive from sources both extraneous and intrinsic to the brain. It is the ways these various influences worked together in the past to fashion modern human cognition that can help elucidate the probable course of future human endeavor. A particular concern of this chapter is the way cognition has been shaped and continues to depend on prevailing environmental and ecological conditions. Whether the human predicament can be regarded simply as another response to such conditions similar to that of other organisms or something special will also be addressed. More specifically, it will be shown that, although the highly artificial niche in which most humans now live has had profound effects on ways of thinking, constraints deriving from a shared evolutionary heritage continue to have substantial effects on behavior. The way these exigencies interact will be explored in order to understand the implications for the future wellbeing of humanity.

  15. Entrepreneurs’ human and social capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shayegheh Ashourizadeh, Shayegheh; Rezaei, Shahamak; Schøtt, Thomas


    Abstract: It is widely acknowledged that entrepreneurs’ human capital in form of education and social capital in form of networking are mutually beneficial and also that both human and social capital benefit their performance. Here, the hypothesis is that human and social capital, in combination......, provide added value and jointly add a further boost to performance, specifically if the form of exporting. Global Entrepreneurship Monitor provides data on 52,946 entrepreneurs, who reported on exporting and networking for advice. Hierarchical linear modelling shows that human capital promotes social...... capital, that human capital and social capital (specifically networking in the international environment, work-place, professions and market, but not in the private sphere) both benefit export directly and that human capital amplifies the benefit of social capital, especially through international...

  16. Metabolic hypothesis for human altriciality. (United States)

    Dunsworth, Holly M; Warrener, Anna G; Deacon, Terrence; Ellison, Peter T; Pontzer, Herman


    The classic anthropological hypothesis known as the "obstetrical dilemma" is a well-known explanation for human altriciality, a condition that has significant implications for human social and behavioral evolution. The hypothesis holds that antagonistic selection for a large neonatal brain and a narrow, bipedal-adapted birth canal poses a problem for childbirth; the hominin "solution" is to truncate gestation, resulting in an altricial neonate. This explanation for human altriciality based on pelvic constraints persists despite data linking human life history to that of other species. Here, we present evidence that challenges the importance of pelvic morphology and mechanics in the evolution of human gestation and altriciality. Instead, our analyses suggest that limits to maternal metabolism are the primary constraints on human gestation length and fetal growth. Although pelvic remodeling and encephalization during hominin evolution contributed to the present parturitional difficulty, there is little evidence that pelvic constraints have altered the timing of birth.

  17. Quality in Human Resource Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kjeld

    resource practice in industrial and service-related work processes. The focus in these studies is directed at behavioural processes between managers and employees, especially at individual and group level. The conclusion is that quality in human resource practice can be considered to be a social process......Abstract: Quality in Human Resource Practice – a process perspective The purpose of this article is to establish criteria for what quality in human resource practice (HRP) actually means. The general thesis is that quality in human resource practices is shaped within social processes in the HRM...... areas (recruitment, training, work environment etc.). Initially the concept of quality is defined in general on the basis of selections from the HRM literature, and then related to human resource practice. The question posed in the article is then answered using examples from case studies of human...

  18. Disease consequences of human adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin C. Fay


    Full Text Available Adaptive evolution has provided us with a unique set of characteristics that define us as humans, including morphological, physiological and cellular changes. Yet, natural selection provides no assurances that adaptation is without human health consequences; advantageous mutations will increase in frequency so long as there is a net gain in fitness. As such, the current incidence of human disease can depend on previous adaptations. Here, I review genome-wide and gene-specific studies in which adaptive evolution has played a role in shaping human genetic disease. In addition to the disease consequences of adaptive phenotypes, such as bipedal locomotion and resistance to certain pathogens, I review evidence that adaptive mutations have influenced the frequency of linked disease alleles through genetic hitchhiking. Taken together, the links between human adaptation and disease highlight the importance of their combined influence on functional variation within the human genome and offer opportunities to discover and characterize such variation.

  19. Genome engineering in human cells. (United States)

    Song, Minjung; Kim, Young-Hoon; Kim, Jin-Soo; Kim, Hyongbum


    Genome editing in human cells is of great value in research, medicine, and biotechnology. Programmable nucleases including zinc-finger nucleases, transcription activator-like effector nucleases, and RNA-guided engineered nucleases recognize a specific target sequence and make a double-strand break at that site, which can result in gene disruption, gene insertion, gene correction, or chromosomal rearrangements. The target sequence complexities of these programmable nucleases are higher than 3.2 mega base pairs, the size of the haploid human genome. Here, we briefly introduce the structure of the human genome and the characteristics of each programmable nuclease, and review their applications in human cells including pluripotent stem cells. In addition, we discuss various delivery methods for nucleases, programmable nickases, and enrichment of gene-edited human cells, all of which facilitate efficient and precise genome editing in human cells.

  20. Population Genomics of Human Adaptation


    Lachance, Joseph; Tishkoff, Sarah A.


    Recent advances in genotyping technologies have facilitated genome-wide scans for natural selection. Identification of targets of natural selection will shed light on processes of human adaptation and evolution and could be important for identifying variation that influences both normal human phenotypic variation as well as disease susceptibility. Here we focus on studies of natural selection in modern humans who originated ~200,000 years go in Africa and migrated across the globe ~50,000 – 1...