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Sample records for human sex hormone-binding

  1. SHBG (Sex Hormone Binding Globulin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) Send Us Your Feedback ... As Testosterone-estrogen Binding Globulin TeBG Formal Name Sex Hormone Binding Globulin This article was last reviewed ...

  2. Human sex hormone-binding globulin gene expression- multiple promoters and complex alternative splicing

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    Rosner William

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG regulates free sex steroid concentrations in plasma and modulates rapid, membrane based steroid signaling. SHBG is encoded by an eight exon-long transcript whose expression is regulated by a downstream promoter (PL. The SHBG gene was previously shown to express a second major transcript of unknown function, derived from an upstream promoter (PT, and two minor transcripts. Results We report that transcriptional expression of the human SHBG gene is far more complex than previously described. PL and PT direct the expression of at least six independent transcripts each, resulting from alternative splicing of exons 4, 5, 6, and/or 7. We mapped two transcriptional start sites downstream of PL and PT, and present evidence for a third SHBG gene promoter (PN within the neighboring FXR2 gene; PN regulates the expression of at least seven independent SHBG gene transcripts, each possessing a novel, 164-nt first exon (1N. Transcriptional expression patterns were generated for human prostate, breast, testis, liver, and brain, and the LNCaP, MCF-7, and HepG2 cell lines. Each expresses the SHBG transcript, albeit in varying abundance. Alternative splicing was more pronounced in the cancer cell lines. PL- PT- and PN-derived transcripts were most abundant in liver, testis, and prostate, respectively. Initial findings reveal the existence of a smaller immunoreactive SHBG species in LNCaP, MCF-7, and HepG2 cells. Conclusion These results extend our understanding of human SHBG gene transcription, and raise new and important questions regarding the role of novel alternatively spliced transcripts, their function in hormonally responsive tissues including the breast and prostate, and the role that aberrant SHBG gene expression may play in cancer.

  3. Endocrine Disruption: Computational Perspectives on Human Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin and Phthalate Plasticizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Ishfaq A.; Turki, Rola F.; Abuzenadah, Adel M.; Damanhouri, Ghazi A.; Beg, Mohd A.

    2016-01-01

    Phthalates are a class of high volume production chemicals used as plasticizers for household and industrial use. Several members of this chemical family have endocrine disrupting activity. Owing to ubiquitous environmental distribution and exposure of human population at all stages of life, phthalate contamination is a continuous global public health problem. Clinical and experimental studies have indicated that several phthalates are associated with adverse effects on development and function of human and animal systems especially the reproductive system and exposures during pregnancy and early childhood are by far of utmost concern. Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a plasma carrier protein that binds androgens and estrogens and represents a potential target for phthalate endocrine disruptor function in the body. In the present study, the binding mechanism of the nine phthalates i.e. DMP, DBP, DIBP, BBP, DNHP, DEHP, DNOP, DINP, DIDP with human SHBG was delineated by molecular docking simulation. Docking complexes of the nine phthalates displayed interactions with 15–31 amino acid residues of SHBG and a commonality of 55–95% interacting residues between natural ligand of SHBG, dihydrotestosterone, and the nine phthalate compounds was observed. The binding affinity values were more negative for long chain phthalates DEHP, DNOP, DINP, and DIDP compared to short chain phthalates such as DMP and DBP. The Dock score and Glide score values were also higher for long chain phthalates compared to short chain phthalates. Hence, overlapping of interacting amino acid residues between phthalate compounds and natural ligand, dihydrotestosterone, suggested potential disrupting activity of phthalates in the endocrine homeostasis function of SHBG, with long chain phthalates expected to be more potent than the short chain phthalates. PMID:26963243

  4. Identification, characterization and expression of novel Sex Hormone Binding Globulin alternative first exons in the human prostate

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    de Torres Inés

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG gene, located at 17p13.1, comprises, at least, two different transcription units regulated by two different promoters. The first transcription unit begins with the exon 1 sequence and is responsible for the production of plasma SHBG by the hepatocytes, while the second begins with an alternative exon 1 sequence, which replaces the exon 1 present in liver transcripts. Alternative exon 1 transcription and translation has only been demonstrated in the testis of transgenic mice containing an 11-kb human SHBG transgene and in the human testis. Our goal has been to further characterize the 5' end of the SHBG gene and analyze the presence of the SHBG alternative transcripts in human prostate tissue and derived cell lines. Results Using a combination of in silico and in vitro studies, we have demonstrated that the SHBG gene, along with exon 1 and alternative exon 1 (renamed here exon 1A, contains four additional alternative first exons: the novel exons 1B, 1C, and 1E, and a previously identified exon 1N, which has been further characterized and renamed as exon 1D. We have shown that these four alternative first exons are all spliced to the same 3' splice site of SHBG exon 2, and that exon 1A and the novel exon 1B can be spliced to exon 1. We have also demonstrated the presence of SHBG transcripts beginning with exons 1B, 1C and 1D in prostate tissues and cell lines, as well as in several non-prostatic cell lines. Finally, the alignment of the SHBG mammalian sequences revealed that, while exons 1C, 1D and 1E are very well conserved phylogenetically through non-primate mammal species, exon 1B probably aroused in apes due to a single nucleotide change that generated a new 5' splice site in exon 1B. Conclusion The identification of multiple transcription start sites (TSS upstream of the annotated first exon of human SHBG, and the detection of the alternative transcripts in human prostate

  5. Adiponectin And Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin In Preeclampsia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was designed to investigate the circulating levels of adiponectin, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), total and free testosterone in preeclamptic women in comparison with normotensive pregnant controls. The aim of this work was extended to study the correlations between these biochemical indices, ...

  6. Human sex hormone-binding globulin as a potential target of alternate plasticizers: an in silico study

    OpenAIRE

    Sheikh, Ishfaq A.; Yasir, Muhammad; Abu-Elmagd, Muhammad; Dar, Tanveer A.; Abuzenadah, Adel M; Ghazi A Damanhouri; Al-Qahtani, Mohammed; Beg, Mohd A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Currently, alternate plasticizers are used to replace phthalate plasticizers in children?s toys, medical equipments and food packaging, due to the adverse effects of phthalate compounds on human health and laws prohibiting their use. Current information regarding the safety and potential adverse effects of alternate plasticizers is limited and recent studies have found alternate plasticizers to display similar characteristics to those observed in phthalate plasticizers. This study ...

  7. Increased sex hormone-binding globulin levels in children and adolescents with thyrotoxicosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J; Jensen, Rikke Bodin Beck; Juul, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Thyrotoxicosis is a rare condition in pediatric patients, and optimal treatment can be difficult to achieve in some children. To our knowledge, no studies have evaluated sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels in hyperthyroid children and adolescents in relation to age- and gender-related norm......Thyrotoxicosis is a rare condition in pediatric patients, and optimal treatment can be difficult to achieve in some children. To our knowledge, no studies have evaluated sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels in hyperthyroid children and adolescents in relation to age- and gender...

  8. Sex hormone-binding globulin levels predict insulin sensitivity, disposition index, and cardiovascular risk during puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kaspar; Aksglaede, Lise; Munch-Andersen, Thor

    2009-01-01

    Early puberty is associated with increased risk of subsequent cardiovascular disease. Low sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels are a feature of early puberty and of conditions associated with increased cardiovascular risk. The aim of the present study was to evaluate SHBG as a predictor...... of glucose metabolism and metabolic risk during puberty....

  9. Sex Hormone Binding Globulin Modifies Testosterone Action and Metabolism in Prostate Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Huika; Pham, Thy; McWhinney, Brett C.; Ungerer, Jacobus P.; Pretorius, Carel J.; Richard, Derek J.; Mortimer, Robin H.; d'Emden, Michael C.; Richard, Kerry

    2016-01-01

    Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) is the major serum carrier of sex hormones. However, growing evidence suggests that SHBG is internalised and plays a role in regulating intracellular hormone action. This study was to determine whether SHBG plays a role in testosterone uptake, metabolism, and action in the androgen sensitive LNCaP prostate cancer cell line. Internalisation of SHBG and testosterone, the effects of SHBG on testosterone uptake, metabolism, regulation of androgen responsive gen...

  10. Sex hormone binding globulin and corticosteroid binding globulin as major effectors of steroid action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Jack D; Jirikowski, Gustav F

    2014-03-01

    Contrary to the long-held postulate of steroid-hormone binding globulin action, these protein carriers of steroids are major players in steroid actions in the body. This manuscript will focus on our work with sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG) and demonstrate how they are actively involved in the uptake, intracellular transport, and possibly release of steroids from cells. This manuscript will also discuss our own findings that the steroid estradiol is taken up into the cell, as demonstrated by uptake of fluorescence labeled estradiol into Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, and into the cytoplasm where it may have multiple actions that do not seem to involve the cell nucleus. This manuscript will focus mainly on events in two compartments of the cell, the plasma membrane and the cytoplasm. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of weight reduction on insulin sensitivity, sex hormone-binding globulin, sex hormones and gonadotrophins in obese children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkebaek, N H; Lange, Aksel; Holland-Fischer, P

    2010-01-01

    Obesity in men is associated with reduced insulin sensitivity and hypoandrogenism, while obesity in women is associated with reduced insulin sensitivity and hyperandrogenism. In children, the effect of obesity and weight reduction on the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis is rarely investigated....... The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of weight reduction in obese Caucasian children on insulin sensitivity, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), DHEAS and the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis....

  12. The biomarker sex hormone-binding globulin - from established applications to emerging trends in clinical medicine.

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    Thaler, Markus A; Seifert-Klauss, Vanadin; Luppa, Peter B

    2015-10-01

    Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a serum glycoprotein exhibiting the unique feature of binding sex steroids with high affinity and specificity. Its serum levels are regulated not only by androgens and estrogens but also by thyroid hormones and other metabolic factors. Several disease conditions are accompanied by altered SHBG levels such as hyper- and hypoandrogenism, thyroid disorders, pituitary diseases, liver disorders, and breast as well as prostate cancer. Additionally, several drugs and alcohol consumption influence serum concentrations of SHBG. In some cases, altered SHBG levels are a specific result of the underlying pathology. In others, they merely constitute an epiphenomenon, which still might offer the possibility of using serum measurements of SHBG as surrogate marker. This review article portrays the different disorders associated with altered SHBG levels and discusses the usefulness of SHBG as disease biomarker from a clinicians as well as from an endocrinological researchers point of view. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Genetic evidence that raised sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perry, John R B; Weedon, Michael N; Langenberg, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological studies consistently show that circulating sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels are lower in type 2 diabetes patients than non-diabetic individuals, but the causal nature of this association is controversial. Genetic studies can help dissect causal directions of epidemiologi...

  14. Evaluation of a sex hormone-binding globulin automated chemiluminescent assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittadi, Ruggero; Fabricio, Aline S C; Michilin, Silvia; Gion, Massimo

    2013-09-01

    Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is the main transport protein of sex steroids. This study evaluated the analytical performance of the recently developed Access SHBG assay (Beckman Coulter) and compared it with other commercial methods for the determination of serum SHBG. Clinical validation was also performed. Analytical performance including within-run and between-run imprecision was assessed for Access SHBG assay on the automated Beckman UniCel DxI800 analyzer. Linearity was assessed using five dilutions of the serum samples. For methods comparison, SHBG levels were determined also with Immulite 2000 analyzer (Siemens Healthcare) using clinical serum samples (n = 104). For clinical validation 135 specimens from healthy subjects, pregnant women, hypothyroid and hyperthyroid patients were analyzed. Total coefficients of variation were 90% recovery for all samples and for all dilution rates. Comparison analysis (Bland-Altman difference analysis and Passing-Bablock regression) showed an acceptable agreement between selected methods. SHBG values measured by Access SHBG assay in different groups of subjects were in agreement with other clinical evidence. Automated Access SHBG assay appears to be a reliable and easy to perform assay, as necessary for application in routine diagnostics.

  15. Female hyperandrogenemia and normal serum levels of testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin

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    Karina Danilowicz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the reference values usually employed for endocrine biochemical measurements are those suggested by the suppliers of commercial kits despite their advice that each laboratory should set its own reference values. Our objectives were to (i determine reference ranges for serum testosterone (T and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG appropriate to our laboratory and population, and (ii to analyze their influence on evaluating hyperandrogenemia. SHBG and T were measured, and free and bioavailable testosterone calculated, in (a 30 selected non-hyperandrogenic women, (b 87 non-selected healthy female blood donors, (c 53 women with hyperandrogenism, and (d 38 women with hyperandrogenic disorders but without biochemical hyperandrogenemia according to normal ranges suggested by the kit manufacturer. Mean serum SHBG concentrations were significantly different among all four groups. SHBG levels were significantly higher in selected normal women (group a. Using our results for this selected control group as new reference values, 12 out of 38 (31.6% women with hyperandrogenic disorders without apparent hyperandrogenemia (group d were recategorized as hyperandrogenemic. Similarly, 4 out of 63 (6.4% non-selected, normal weight, women (group b, were recategorized as hyperandrogenic. Therefore, the diagnosis of hyperandrogenemia would improve accuracy by using customized reference SHBG values instead of those suggested by the suppliers.

  16. [Influence of water fluoride exposure on sex hormone binding globulin and testosterone in adult male].

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    Zhou, Tong; Yang, Rupu; Li, Shihong; Zheng, Guoqing; Xi, Yu; Cheng, Xuemin; Hou, Jiaxiang; Cui, Liuxin; Ba, Yue

    2013-03-01

    To explore the influence of water fluoride exposure on sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and testosterone in adult male. Cross-sectional study was conducted in three villages of Tongxu county including high fluoride group (HFG), defluoridation project group (DFPG) and control group (CG) based on the fluoride concentration in drinking water. Adult male who were born and raised in the village and aged 18 - 50 years old were recruited using cluster sampling. Fasting blood and morning urine samples were collected. The fluoride levels in drinking water and urine were detected by fluoride-ion selective electrode method. Serum SHBG level was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The chemical luminescence immune analysis method was used to detect serum testosterone content. Serum SHBG level was 47.85 nmol/L in CG, 31.37 nmol/L in DFPG and 24.52 nmol/L in HFG respectively. There were significant difference among of three groups (P < 0.05). Serum testosterone level was 3.69 ng/ml in CG, 4.61 ng/ml in DFPG and 4.83 ng/ml in HFG respectively. Serum testosterone level in HFG was significantly higher than that in CG (P < 0.05). Serum SHBG level in HFG has positive correlation with serum testosterone (r = 0.230, P = 0.049), which has not been observed in DFPG and CG. Long-time fluorine exposure may affect serum SHBG and testosterone level in adult male.

  17. Association between sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG and metabolic syndrome among men

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    Emmanuela Quental Callou de Sá

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Metabolic syndrome consists of a set of factors that imply increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. The objective here was to evaluate the association between sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG, sex hormones and metabolic syndrome among men. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective analysis on data from the study "Endogenous oestradiol but not testosterone is related to coronary artery disease in men", conducted in a hospital in São Paulo. METHODS: Men (aged 40-70 who underwent coronary angiography were selected. The age, weight, height, waist circumference, body mass index and prevalence of dyslipidemia, hypertension and diabetes of each patient were registered. Metabolic syndrome was defined in accordance with the criteria of the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (NCEP-ATPIII. Serum samples were collected to assess the levels of glucose, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol (high density lipoprotein, triglycerides, albumin, SHBG, estradiol and total testosterone (TT. The levels of LDL-cholesterol (low density lipoprotein were calculated using Friedewald's formula and free testosterone (FT and bioavailable testosterone (BT using Vermeulen's formula. RESULTS: 141 patients were enrolled in the study. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was significantly higher in the first SHBG tercile than in the second and third terciles. A statistically significant positive association between the SHBG and TT values was observed, but no such association was seen between SHBG, BT and FT. CONCLUSION: Low serum levels of SHBG are associated with higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome among male patients, but further studies are required to confirm this association.

  18. Non-protein bound oestradiol, sex hormone binding globulin, breast cancer and breast cancer risk.

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    Bruning, P. F.; Bonfrèr, J. M.; Hart, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    It has recently been found by various authors that despite a normal serum concentration of oestradiol (E2), the percentage of non-protein-bound or free E2 is abnormally high in breast cancer patients. Since it is the free E2 which is considered to be biologically active, confirmation of this finding would be most relevant to the pathogenesis of breast cancer. Using Hammond's centrifugal ultrafiltration dialysis method we have measured free E2 in heparinized plasma from 68 premenopausal women (a) at high familial risk of breast cancer (n = 18), (b) with benign breast disease (n = 17), (c) cured of T1N0M0 breast cancer at least 6 months previously (n = 17) and (d) normal controls matched for age, parity and Quetelet index (n = 16). Sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) was measured as [3H]-dihydrotestosterone binding capacity. Free E2 and SHBG were also measured in the serum of (e) postmenopausal patients having breast cancer (n = 38) and (f) matched control cancer patients (n = 67). We confirmed a very good inverse correlation between log free E2 per cent and log SHBG (P less than 0.0001). The regression lines for groups (a)-(d) were not statistically different. The regression lines for groups (e) and (f) were identical and ran nearly parallel to those for groups (a)-(d) though somewhat lower. This small difference may be ascribed to menopausal status. Therefore, we found no difference in free E2 percentage, calculated free E2 concentration or SHBG between premenopausal women at risk, women with benign breast disease, patients cured for early breast cancer or having breast cancer and matched controls. However, postmenopausal breast cancer patients had a significantly higher total serum E2 concentration and, by consequence a higher calculated free E2 concentration compared to the carefully matched control group. PMID:4038881

  19. The association between sex hormone-binding globulin and type 2 diabetes in Nigerian men

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    Fayefori M. Abbiyesuku

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epidemiological studies have shown that sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG has a role in glucose homeostasis in both men and women. However, a prospective study on Japanese-American subjects concluded that SHBG was not a significant risk factor in either men or women, suggesting ethnic differences. We were not aware of any evaluation of SHBG in subjects of African ancestry. Objectives: We investigated the association between SHBG and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic diabetic men in a hospital in Nigeria. Method: Forty-eight male subjects with type 2 diabetes and 20 non-diabetic male subjects were recruited in this cross-sectional hospital-based study by the convenient sampling method.Height and circumferences around the waist and hip were measured to the nearest 0.5 cm and the waist–hip ratio was calculated from this measurement. Weight was measured and body mass index was calculated. Fasting plasma glucose concentration was measured by the glucose oxidase method with a between-run coefficient of variation of 3%. Insulin and SHBG were measured by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Results: There was a statistically-significant difference between test results for the diabetic and non-diabetic patients. The mean SHBG concentration was higher in the non-diabetic group (42.2 nmol/L than the diabetic group (30.5 nmol/L. A significant inverse association between insulin resistance and SHBG was observed (r = 0.353, p < 0.015. Conclusion: This study supported earlier observations that a significant inverse correlation exists between SHBG and insulin resistance and provides evidence that the relationship may extend to type 2 diabetic men of African ancestry in Nigeria.

  20. Dietary Patterns and Plasma Sex Hormones, Prolactin, and Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin in Premenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirko, Kelly A; Spiegelman, Donna; Barnett, Junaidah B; Cho, Eunyoung; Willett, Walter C; Hankinson, Susan E; Eliassen, A Heather

    2016-05-01

    Sex hormones are important for breast cancer, but it is unclear whether dietary patterns influence hormone concentrations. Dietary pattern adherence scores for the alternate Mediterranean diet (aMED), Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH), and Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI) were calculated from semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires administered in 1995 and 1999. Premenopausal plasma concentrations of sex hormones were measured in samples collected in 1996 to 1999. We used generalized linear models to calculate geometric mean hormone concentrations across quartiles of dietary pattern scores among 1,990 women in the Nurses' Health Study II. We did not observe significant associations between sex hormone concentrations and the DASH pattern and only one suggestive association between follicular estrone concentrations and the aMED pattern [top vs. bottom quartile -4.4%, 95% confidence interval (CI), -10.6% to 2.1%; Ptrend = 0.06]. However, women in the top versus bottom quartile of AHEI score had lower concentrations of follicular (-9.1%; 95% CI, -16.1% to -1.4%; Ptrend = 0.04) and luteal (-7.5%; 95% CI, -13.6% to -0.9%; Ptrend = 0.01) estrone, luteal-free (-9.3%; 95% CI, -16.8% to -1.1%; Ptrend = 0.01) and total (-6.7 %; 95% CI, -14.3% to 1.5%; Ptrend = 0.04) estradiol, follicular estradiol (-14.2%; 95% CI, -24.6% to -2.4%; Ptrend = 0.05), and androstenedione (-7.8%; 95% CI, -15.4% to 0.4%; Ptrend = 0.03). Diet quality measured by the AHEI is inversely associated with premenopausal estrogen concentrations. Given that we did not observe similar associations with the aMED or DASH patterns, our findings should be interpreted with caution. Given the role of estrogens in breast cancer etiology, our findings add to the substantial evidence on the benefits of adhering to a healthy diet. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(5); 791-8. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  1. Sex Hormones, Gonadotropins, and Sex Hormone-binding Globulin in Infants Fed Breast Milk, Cow Milk Formula, or Soy Formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xin; Wang, Lei; Wu, Chunhua; Shi, Huijing; Zhou, Zhijun; Montgomery, Scott; Cao, Yang

    2017-06-28

    Measurement of endogenous hormones in early life is important to investigate the effects of hormonally active environmental compounds. To assess the possible hormonal effects of different feeding regimens in different sample matrices of infants, 166 infants were enrolled from two U.S hospitals between 2006 and 2009. The children were classified into exclusive soy formula, cow milk formula or breast milk regimens. Urine, saliva and blood samples were collected over the first 12 months of life. Estradiol, estrone, testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels were measured in the three matrices. Lower estradiol and LH levels were found in urine and saliva samples of soy formula-fed boys compared to cow formula-fed boys. Higher LH level was found in urine samples of soy formula-fed girls compared to cow formula-fed girls. However, we found neither a neonatal testosterone rise in the boys nor a gender-specific difference in testosterone levels, which suggests that urinary testosterone levels may not accurately reflect blood levels during mini-puberty. Nevertheless, our study shows that blood, urine and saliva samples are readily collectible and suitable for multi-hormone analyses in children and allow examination of hypotheses concerning endocrine effects from dietary compounds.

  2. Estimating age-specific trends in circulating testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin in males and females across the lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handelsman, David J; Sikaris, Ken; Ly, Lam P

    2016-05-01

    Age-specific trends of serum testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin across the full lifespan have not been reported. We deduced age-specific trends in serum testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin in males and females between ages 10 and 90 from a large sample of consecutive results from a single large pathology laboratory. Coded results of 110,712 consecutive blood samples requesting serum testosterone over seven years (2007-2013) comprising blood testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin and calculated free testosterone together with gender and age were analysed create smoothed age-specific centiles (2.5%, 5%, 25%, 50%, 75%, 95%, 97.5%) for males and females. These identified the pubertal increases in serum testosterone in males peaking at 20 years of age and remaining stable thereafter until the eighth decade. In females, circulating testosterone peaked in late adolescence and declined gradually over the next two decades but remained stable across menopause and beyond. After early childhood, serum sex hormone-binding globulin declines to a nadir in males at the age of 20 years and remains stable till the sixth decade with a gradual, progressive rise thereafter. In females, the sex hormone-binding globulin nadir is reached earlier with levels rising gradually and progressively with age thereafter and accelerating after the age of 70 years. Females also exhibit a second sex hormone-binding globulin peak during reproductive ages reflected only in upper centiles due to effects of pregnancy and oral contraceptive use in a significant minority of females. This large sample of clinical data provides a comprehensive profile of androgen status across the lifespan from early adolescence to late old age. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Sex hormone binding globulin - an important biomarker for predicting PCOS risk: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deswal, Ritu; Yadav, Arun; Dang, Amita Suneja

    2018-02-01

    Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a glycoprotein which regulates bioavailability of sex steroid hormones. Interest in SHBG has escalated in recent years because of its inverse association with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), obesity, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes type II. This meta-analysis was performed to examine the associations of SHBG with PCOS and to correlate serum SHBG levels with various PCOS associated endocrine and metabolic dysregulation as well as to determine the effects of various therapeutic agents on serum SHBG levels in PCOS patients in order to assess the true accuracy of SHBG in the prediction of PCOS. A literature search was performed using Pub-Med, Science direct, google scholar, EMBASE, and Cochrane library. A total of 675 relevant records were identified, of which 62 articles were included. Meta-analysis using a random-effects model was performed using STATA version 13 to calculate standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (95 % CIs). SHBG levels in controls were significantly higher than that of PCOS patients (SMD= -0.83, 95%CI = -1.01, -0.64), with significant heterogeneity across studies (I 2 = 93.9% and p=0.000). Our results suggest that the lower serum SHBG levels are associated with the risk of PCOS. SHBG may also play an important role in various metabolic disturbances in PCOS patients. Therapeutic interventions improved SHBG levels in PCOS women which further reduced PCOS associated complications. Therefore, SHBG levels may prove to be a useful biomarker for the diagnosis and treatment of PCOS. Systematic review registration: PROSPERO CRD42017057972 Abbreviations: PCOS: polycystic ovary syndrome; SHBG: sex hormone-binding globulin.

  4. Low Levels of Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin Constitute an Independent Risk Factor for Arterial Stiffness in Korean Women

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    Kunhee Han

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The association between sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG and arterial stiffness in women is not conclusive. In addition, obesity might also be involved in the relationship between SHBG and atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between SHBG and arterial stiffness in association with central obesity in women. This cross-sectional study included 381 women who participated in the health checkup programs in one hospital. The brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV was measured as a marker for arterial stiffness. A negative correlation was observed between SHBG levels and baPWV (rho = −0.281. The relationship was significant even after adjusting for potential confounders (beta = −0.087 in fully adjusted model. After considering the interaction between central obesity and SHBG levels, the significant association was evident only in obese women (P for interaction = 0.025. Adjustment for a 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD risk scores, instead of each cardiovascular risk factor individually, did not affect the significance of the relationship between SHBG levels and baPWV. Serum levels of SHBG were negatively associated with arterial stiffness independent of cardiovascular risk factors or 10-year ASCVD risk scores in Korean women. The relationship may be potentiated by central obesity.

  5. Cross-sectional association of coffee and caffeine consumption with sex hormone-binding globulin in healthy nondiabetic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihan-Le Bars, Florence; Gusto, Gaëlle; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Bonnet, Fabrice

    2017-11-01

    Low sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a consistent risk factor for type 2 diabetes, particularly in women. Coffee consumption has been associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes, but its effects on SHBG are less known. This was a cross-sectional study of 2377 nondiabetic pre- and postmenopausal women from the E3N cohort study whose baseline SHBG was measured. Information on diet (including coffee and caffeine consumption), lifestyle and medical conditions was collected through questionnaires. The relationship between coffee and caffeine consumption and SHBG was modelled, with adjustment for covariates and stratification by body mass index (BMI) categories (caffeine (≥265 mg/day) intakes were associated with a reduced risk of being in the 1st quartile of the SHBG level distribution (consumption and SHBG levels. In multivariate models stratified on BMI categories and menopausal status, associations were restricted to women with a BMI ≥25 kg/m2 or being postmenopausal. The association with SHBG was consistently noted with consumption of both caffeinated coffee and caffeine, but not decaffeinated coffee. Consumption of high coffee and caffeine is associated with a reduced risk of low SHBG, an established risk marker for T2DM, which might contribute to the protective effects of coffee for type 2 diabetes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Association of sex hormone-binding globulin and free testosterone with mortality in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tint, Aye N; Hoermann, Rudolf; Wong, Henry; Ekinci, Elif I; MacIsaac, Richard J; Jerums, George; Zajac, Jeffrey D; Grossmann, Mathis

    2016-01-01

    Low circulating testosterone levels have been associated with increased mortality in men. We hypothesized that the prognostic role of testosterone in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is influenced by its carrier protein sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). We conducted a prospective cohort study at a tertiary referral centre. In total, 531 men with T2DM presenting to a diabetes clinic in 2004-2005 were followed prospectively until death, or July 31, 2014, and a survival analysis was performed. The main outcome measure was all cause mortality. Over a mean (S.D.) follow up of 7.6 years (2.6) 175 men (33%) died. In Cox proportional hazard models both higher SHBG (Hazard Ratio (HR) 1.012 (95% CI 1.002-1.022), P=0.02) and lower calculated free testosterone (cFT) (HR 0.995 (95% CI 0.993-0.998), P=0.001) were risk factors for all cause mortality independently of age, BMI, presence of macro- and microvascular disease, duration of T2DM, hemoglobin, renal function, insulin use, C-reactive protein and homeostatic model of insulin resistance. By contrast, the inverse association of total testosterone (TT) with mortality weakened after these adjustments (P=0.11). SHBG remained associated with mortality (Ptestosterone, has intrinsic biological roles, or is a marker of poor health requires further study. © 2016 European Society of Endocrinology.

  7. Low Levels of Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin Constitute an Independent Risk Factor for Arterial Stiffness in Korean Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kunhee; Chun, Hyejin; Kim, Moon-Jong; Cho, Doo-Yeoun; Lee, Soo-Hyun; Won, Bo Youn; Kim, Kwang-Min; Joo, Nam-Seok; Kim, Young-Sang

    2017-01-01

    The association between sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and arterial stiffness in women is not conclusive. In addition, obesity might also be involved in the relationship between SHBG and atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between SHBG and arterial stiffness in association with central obesity in women. This cross-sectional study included 381 women who participated in the health checkup programs in one hospital. The brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) was measured as a marker for arterial stiffness. A negative correlation was observed between SHBG levels and baPWV (rho = -0.281). The relationship was significant even after adjusting for potential confounders (beta = -0.087 in fully adjusted model). After considering the interaction between central obesity and SHBG levels, the significant association was evident only in obese women (P for interaction = 0.025). Adjustment for a 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk scores, instead of each cardiovascular risk factor individually, did not affect the significance of the relationship between SHBG levels and baPWV. Serum levels of SHBG were negatively associated with arterial stiffness independent of cardiovascular risk factors or 10-year ASCVD risk scores in Korean women. The relationship may be potentiated by central obesity.

  8. Vitamin D is significantly associated with total testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin in Malaysian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Kok-Yong; Ima-Nirwana, Soelaiman; Wan Ngah, Wan Zurinah

    2015-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies in the Caucasian population have shown a significant relationship between vitamin D and testosterone levels, but data in the Asian population are limited. This study aimed to determine the association between vitamin D and testosterone levels in Malaysian men. Chinese and Malay men (n = 382) aged 20 years or above residing in the Klang Valley, Malaysia were recruited. Their fasting blood was collected for serum testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) assays. Relationship between 25(OH)D and testosterone levels was analyzed using multiple regression analysis. Testosterone and SHBG levels among subjects with different vitamin D status were compared using univariate analysis. Confounders such as age, ethnicity and body mass index (BMI) were adjusted. 25(OH)D was significantly and positively associated with total testosterone and SHBG levels before and after adjustment for age and ethnicity (p  0.05). 25(OH)D is significantly associated with total testosterone and SHBG in Malaysian men but this association is BMI-dependent.

  9. Genetic evidence that raised sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, John R.B.; Weedon, Michael N.; Langenberg, Claudia; Jackson, Anne U.; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Sparsø, Thomas; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Grallert, Harald; Ferrucci, Luigi; Maggio, Marcello; Paolisso, Giuseppe; Walker, Mark; Palmer, Colin N.A.; Payne, Felicity; Young, Elizabeth; Herder, Christian; Narisu, Narisu; Morken, Mario A.; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Owen, Katharine R.; Shields, Beverley; Knight, Beatrice; Bennett, Amanda; Groves, Christopher J.; Ruokonen, Aimo; Jarvelin, Marjo Riitta; Pearson, Ewan; Pascoe, Laura; Ferrannini, Ele; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Stringham, Heather M.; Scott, Laura J.; Kuusisto, Johanna; Nilsson, Peter; Neptin, Malin; Gjesing, Anette P.; Pisinger, Charlotta; Lauritzen, Torsten; Sandbaek, Annelli; Sampson, Mike; Zeggini, MAGIC, Ele; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Hansen, Torben; Schwarz, Peter; Illig, Thomas; Laakso, Markku; Stefansson, Kari; Morris, Andrew D.; Groop, Leif; Pedersen, Oluf; Boehnke, Michael; Barroso, Inês; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Hattersley, Andrew T.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Frayling, Timothy M.

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological studies consistently show that circulating sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels are lower in type 2 diabetes patients than non-diabetic individuals, but the causal nature of this association is controversial. Genetic studies can help dissect causal directions of epidemiological associations because genotypes are much less likely to be confounded, biased or influenced by disease processes. Using this Mendelian randomization principle, we selected a common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) near the SHBG gene, rs1799941, that is strongly associated with SHBG levels. We used data from this SNP, or closely correlated SNPs, in 27 657 type 2 diabetes patients and 58 481 controls from 15 studies. We then used data from additional studies to estimate the difference in SHBG levels between type 2 diabetes patients and controls. The SHBG SNP rs1799941 was associated with type 2 diabetes [odds ratio (OR) 0.94, 95% CI: 0.91, 0.97; P = 2 × 10−5], with the SHBG raising allele associated with reduced risk of type 2 diabetes. This effect was very similar to that expected (OR 0.92, 95% CI: 0.88, 0.96), given the SHBG-SNP versus SHBG levels association (SHBG levels are 0.2 standard deviations higher per copy of the A allele) and the SHBG levels versus type 2 diabetes association (SHBG levels are 0.23 standard deviations lower in type 2 diabetic patients compared to controls). Results were very similar in men and women. There was no evidence that this variant is associated with diabetes-related intermediate traits, including several measures of insulin secretion and resistance. Our results, together with those from another recent genetic study, strengthen evidence that SHBG and sex hormones are involved in the aetiology of type 2 diabetes. PMID:19933169

  10. Low Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin Levels Associate with Prediabetes in Chinese Men Independent of Total Testosterone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhu

    Full Text Available The association ns between prediabetes and androgens have been rarely reported, especially in Chinese men. We aimed to investigate whether androgens were associated with the prevalence of prediabetes diagnosed with new American Diabetes Association criteria in Chinese men and then to assess which androgen value was the most relevant factor.A total of 2654 men (52.6±13.4 years old were selected. Serum total testosterone (TT, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG and free testosterone (FT were measured. Covariance analysis of different androgen values were performed in age subgroups. Multinomial logistic regression was used for the association of TT, SHBG and FT with prediabetes and diabetes, as well as prediabetes in age subgroups.According to ADA new criteria, normoglycemia, prediabetes, and diabetes were diagnosed in 1405, 907 and 342 men, respectively. In covariance analysis, SHBG of prediabetes were found lower than that of normoglycemia but higher than that of diabetes (P <0.05. In multinomial logistic regression, serum TT and SHBG were inversely associated with prediabetes and diabetes. While, after full adjustment for age, residence area, economic status, waist circumference, metabolic factors, other two androgen values and HOMA-IR, only the associations of SHBG with prevalence of prediabetes and diabetes persisted statistically significant, especially in the elderly with prediabetes (all P for trend <0.05.Serum androgen was inversely associated with prediabetes and diabetes in Chinese men. Low serum SHBG was the most relevant factor for prediabetes and diabetes. Whether it is an independent predictor for incident prediabetes in Chinese men needs further explorations.

  11. Phthalate exposure and reproductive hormones and sex-hormone binding globulin before puberty - Phthalate contaminated-foodstuff episode in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Hui-Ju; Chen, Chu-Chih; Wu, Ming-Tsang; Chen, Mei-Lien; Sun, Chien-Wen; Wu, Wen-Chiu; Huang, I-Wen; Huang, Po-Chin; Yu, Tzu-Yun; Hsiung, Chao A; Wang, Shu-Li

    2017-01-01

    In May 2011, a major incident involving phthalates-contaminated foodstuffs occurred in Taiwan. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was added to foodstuffs, mainly juice, jelly, tea, sports drink, and dietary supplements. Concerns arose that normal pubertal development, especially reproductive hormone regulation in children, could be disrupted by DEHP exposure. To investigate the association between phthalate exposure and reproductive hormone levels among children following potential exposure to phthalate-tainted foodstuffs. A total of 239 children aged <12 years old were recruited from 3 hospitals in north, central, and south Taiwan after the episode. Structured questionnaires were used to collect the frequency and quantity of exposures to 5 categories of phthalate-contaminated foodstuffs to assess phthalate exposure in children. Urine samples were collected for the measurement of phthalate metabolites. The estimated daily intake of DEHP exposure at the time of the contamination incident occurred was calculated using both questionnaire data and urinary DEHP metabolite concentrations. Multiple regression analyses were applied to assess associations between phthalate exposure and reproductive hormone levels in children. After excluding children with missing data regarding exposure levels and hormone concentrations and girls with menstruation, 222 children were included in the statistical analyses. After adjustment for age and birth weight, girls with above median levels of urinary mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate, mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate, and sum of mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate concentrations had higher odds of above median follicle-stimulating hormone concentrations. Girls with above median estimated average daily DEHP exposures following the contamination episode also had higher odds of sex hormone-binding globulin above median levels. Phthalate exposure was associated with alterations of reproductive hormone levels in girls.

  12. Genome-wide association study of circulating estradiol, testosterone, and sex hormone-binding globulin in postmenopausal women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Prescott

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have successfully identified common genetic variants that contribute to breast cancer risk. Discovering additional variants has become difficult, as power to detect variants of weaker effect with present sample sizes is limited. An alternative approach is to look for variants associated with quantitative traits that in turn affect disease risk. As exposure to high circulating estradiol and testosterone, and low sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG levels is implicated in breast cancer etiology, we conducted GWAS analyses of plasma estradiol, testosterone, and SHBG to identify new susceptibility alleles. Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility (CGEMS data from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS, and Sisters in Breast Cancer Screening data were used to carry out primary meta-analyses among ~1600 postmenopausal women who were not taking postmenopausal hormones at blood draw. We observed a genome-wide significant association between SHBG levels and rs727428 (joint β = -0.126; joint P = 2.09 × 10(-16, downstream of the SHBG gene. No genome-wide significant associations were observed with estradiol or testosterone levels. Among variants that were suggestively associated with estradiol (P<10(-5, several were located at the CYP19A1 gene locus. Overall results were similar in secondary meta-analyses that included ~900 NHS current postmenopausal hormone users. No variant associated with estradiol, testosterone, or SHBG at P<10(-5 was associated with postmenopausal breast cancer risk among CGEMS participants. Our results suggest that the small magnitude of difference in hormone levels associated with common genetic variants is likely insufficient to detectably contribute to breast cancer risk.

  13. Genetics of Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin and Testosterone Levels in Fertile and Infertile Men of Reproductive Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorova, Marina; Punab, Margus; Poolamets, Olev; Adler, Mart; Vihljajev, Vladimir; Laan, Maris

    2017-06-01

    Testosterone (T) is a central androgenic hormone, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is the major determinant of its bioactivity. There are no acknowledged genetic variants with clear-cut clinical implications, modulating T levels in men. To confirm genetic associations of top loci (SHBG, GCKR, SLCO1B1, and JMJD1C) from genome-wide association (GWA) studies for serum SHBG and T. Groups differing in general and reproductive parameters: young men (n = 540; 19.3 ± 1.8 years), severe idiopathic male infertility patients (n = 641; 31.6 ± 6.0 years), and male partners of pregnant women (n = 324; 31.9 ± 6.6 years). All patients were recruited at the Andrology Centre, Tartu University Hospital, Estonia. Genetic associations with reproductive hormones, testicular and sperm parameters (linear regression, additive model); intergroup allele/genotype distribution comparisons. Associations with serum SHBG levels were robust for SHBG -68 G>A [rs1799941; meta-analysis: P = 3.7 × 10-14; allelic effect (standard error) = 4.67 (0.62) nmol/L], SHBG +1091 C>T [rs727428; P = 7.3 × 10-11; -3.74 (0.57)], SHBG Pro185Leu [rs6258; P = 1.2 × 10-4, -12.2 (3.17)], and GCKR Pro446Leu [rs1260326; P = 1.5 × 10-4; -2.2 (0.59)]. Measured T concentrations correlated with genetically modulated levels of SHBG (r = 0.48 to 0.74, P rs4149056), and JMJD1C intronic variant rs7910927. Claims were replicated and additional associations were detected for four of seven tested GWAS top loci. Perspective clinical investigations of these variants are hypotestosteronemia among aging men and pharmacogenetics of hormone replacement therapy.

  14. First Trimester Maternal Glycated Hemoglobin and Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin Do Not Predict Third Trimester Glucose Intolerance of Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, Erica K; Boggess, Kim A; Mathew, Leny; Culhane, Jennifer

    2017-04-01

    Early pregnancy prediction of third trimester glucose intolerance may identify a population of women whose trajectory toward gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is modifiable. We assessed whether first trimester glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), markers of insulin resistance, predicted third trimester glucose intolerance. Nondiabetic women with singleton pregnancies enrolled in a prospective observational study, 11 0/7 to 14 6/7 weeks. At enrollment, maternal characteristics, medical history, and blood samples were collected for HbA1c and SHBG. Two-step GDM screening was performed, 22 0/7 to 33 6/7 weeks. A 50 g oral glucose tolerance test ≥130 mg/dL defined screen positive, or glucose intolerance. Carpenter-Coustan criteria diagnosed GDM. Means HbA1c and SHBG were compared between glucose-intolerant versus normoglycemic women, and GDM versus no GDM women. We report unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (OR; 95% confidence interval [CI]) of regression analyses. Adjusted models include race, enrollment body mass index, and history of GDM. Among 250 women, 29% were glucose intolerant and 6% had GDM. Among glucose-intolerant women, HbA1c was higher (5.3 ± 0.3 vs. 5.1 ± 0.3, P = .01) and associated with glucose intolerance in unadjusted, but not adjusted, models (OR: 2.9, 95% CI: 1.2-7.1; adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 2.0, 95% CI: 0.7-5.4). Among GDM women, HbA1c was higher (5.4 ± 0.4 vs 5.2 ± 0.3, P = .002) and SHBG was lower (228 ± 72 vs 288 ± 93 mmol/L, P = .02). The HbA1c predicted GDM in unadjusted (OR: 13.2, 95% CI: 2.6-68.0) but not adjusted (aOR: 6.7, 95% CI: 0.8-55.2) models. Although metabolic alterations may well precede third trimester glucose intolerance, neither HbA1c of SHBG remained an independent predictor of glucose intolerance or GDM in adjusted models.

  15. The effects of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee on sex hormone-binding globulin and endogenous sex hormone levels: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wedick Nicole M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Findings from observational studies suggest that sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG and endogenous sex hormones may be mediators of the putative relation between coffee consumption and lower risk of type 2 diabetes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee on SHBG and sex hormone levels. Findings After a two-week run-in phase with caffeine abstention, we conducted an 8-week parallel-arm randomized controlled trial. Healthy adults (n = 42 were recruited from the Boston community who were regular coffee consumers, nonsmokers, and overweight. Participants were randomized to five 6-ounce cups of caffeinated or decaffeinated instant coffee or water (control group per day consumed with each meal, mid-morning, and mid-afternoon. The main outcome measures were SHBG and sex hormones [i.e., testosterone, estradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate]. No significant differences were found between treatment groups for any of the studied outcomes at week 8. At 4 weeks, decaffeinated coffee was associated with a borderline significant increase in SHBG in women, but not in men. At week 4, we also observed several differences in hormone concentrations between the treatment groups. Among men, consumption of caffeinated coffee increased total testosterone and decreased total and free estradiol. Among women, decaffeinated coffee decreased total and free testosterone and caffeinated coffee decreased total testosterone. Conclusions Our data do not indicate a consistent effect of caffeinated coffee consumption on SHBG in men or women, however results should be interpreted with caution given the small sample size. This is the first randomized trial investigating the effects of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee on SHBG and sex hormones and our findings necessitate further examination in a larger intervention trial.

  16. Characterization of human follicle-stimulating hormone binding to human granulosa cells by an immunoenzymological method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrotin, F; Royere, D; Roussie, M; Combarnous, Y; Lansac, J; Müh, J P

    1992-04-01

    An original, nonradiometric method has been developed for studying the binding parameters of native follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) to its specific receptors in human ovarian granulosa cells. After binding and washing of the cells, hFSH was desorbed from its receptors and quantitatively measured by a specific enzyme immunoassay (EIA) in which nonspecific binding was estimated in the presence of an excess of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG/PMSG), which binds to human FSH receptors but does not interfere in the hFSH EIA. This method makes use of native nonmodified hFSH molecules (in contrast to radiometric methods) and permits direct estimation of the binding parameters (Kd and total number of sites). The Kd of hFSH for its human granulosa receptors measured by this technique (4.8 +/- 0.3 x 10(-10) M) is close to that determined by other methods. However, we found a total number of specific FSH receptors per granulosa cell (1 to 6 x 10(4) higher than that reported by others by Scatchard analysis of competition dose-response curves in radioreceptor assays. The method is also sensitive enough to measure the in vivo occupancy of receptors by endogenous hFSH, which was found to be less than 6% in women undergoing hormonal treatment for in vitro fertilization.

  17. Effect of triiodothyronine (L-T/sub 3/) and weight loss on sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG) in hirsute obese women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavaliere, H.; Medeiros Neto, G.A. (Sao Paulo Univ. (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina)

    1984-06-01

    The effect of a 60-day period of treatment with L-T/sub 3/ (200 ..mu..g/day) was evaluated in hirsute obese women and normal controls. The obese patients were also submitted to a low calorie high protein diet. Mean initial weight significantly declined with a significant lowering of the mean DHEA-S level. There were changes in serum T/sub 3/ which rose in both obese and normal patients. Serum sex-hormone binding globulin levels at baseline studies were significantly higher in normal controls than in obese patients. At the end of the 60-day period of L-T/sub 3/ administration it was observed in both groups a 2-4 fold increase in serum SHBG levels but normal controls had significantly higher mean values than obese individuals.

  18. A genome-wide association meta-analysis of circulating sex hormone-binding globulin reveals multiple Loci implicated in sex steroid hormone regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea D Coviello

    Full Text Available Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG is a glycoprotein responsible for the transport and biologic availability of sex steroid hormones, primarily testosterone and estradiol. SHBG has been associated with chronic diseases including type 2 diabetes (T2D and with hormone-sensitive cancers such as breast and prostate cancer. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS meta-analysis of 21,791 individuals from 10 epidemiologic studies and validated these findings in 7,046 individuals in an additional six studies. We identified twelve genomic regions (SNPs associated with circulating SHBG concentrations. Loci near the identified SNPs included SHBG (rs12150660, 17p13.1, p = 1.8 × 10(-106, PRMT6 (rs17496332, 1p13.3, p = 1.4 × 10(-11, GCKR (rs780093, 2p23.3, p = 2.2 × 10(-16, ZBTB10 (rs440837, 8q21.13, p = 3.4 × 10(-09, JMJD1C (rs7910927, 10q21.3, p = 6.1 × 10(-35, SLCO1B1 (rs4149056, 12p12.1, p = 1.9 × 10(-08, NR2F2 (rs8023580, 15q26.2, p = 8.3 × 10(-12, ZNF652 (rs2411984, 17q21.32, p = 3.5 × 10(-14, TDGF3 (rs1573036, Xq22.3, p = 4.1 × 10(-14, LHCGR (rs10454142, 2p16.3, p = 1.3 × 10(-07, BAIAP2L1 (rs3779195, 7q21.3, p = 2.7 × 10(-08, and UGT2B15 (rs293428, 4q13.2, p = 5.5 × 10(-06. These genes encompass multiple biologic pathways, including hepatic function, lipid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism and T2D, androgen and estrogen receptor function, epigenetic effects, and the biology of sex steroid hormone-responsive cancers including breast and prostate cancer. We found evidence of sex-differentiated genetic influences on SHBG. In a sex-specific GWAS, the loci 4q13.2-UGT2B15 was significant in men only (men p = 2.5 × 10(-08, women p = 0.66, heterogeneity p = 0.003. Additionally, three loci showed strong sex-differentiated effects: 17p13.1-SHBG and Xq22.3-TDGF3 were stronger in men, whereas 8q21.12-ZBTB10 was stronger in women. Conditional analyses identified additional signals at the SHBG gene that together almost double the proportion

  19. A genome-wide association meta-analysis of circulating sex hormone-binding globulin reveals multiple Loci implicated in sex steroid hormone regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coviello, Andrea D; Haring, Robin; Wellons, Melissa; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Lehtimäki, Terho; Keildson, Sarah; Lunetta, Kathryn L; He, Chunyan; Fornage, Myriam; Lagou, Vasiliki; Mangino, Massimo; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Chen, Brian; Eriksson, Joel; Garcia, Melissa; Liu, Yong Mei; Koster, Annemarie; Lohman, Kurt; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Petersen, Ann-Kristin; Prescott, Jennifer; Stolk, Lisette; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Wood, Andrew R; Zhuang, Wei Vivian; Ruokonen, Aimo; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Pouta, Anneli; Bandinelli, Stefania; Biffar, Reiner; Brabant, Georg; Cox, David G; Chen, Yuhui; Cummings, Steven; Ferrucci, Luigi; Gunter, Marc J; Hankinson, Susan E; Martikainen, Hannu; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Illig, Thomas; Jansson, John-Olov; Johnson, Andrew D; Karasik, David; Karlsson, Magnus; Kettunen, Johannes; Kiel, Douglas P; Kraft, Peter; Liu, Jingmin; Ljunggren, Östen; Lorentzon, Mattias; Maggio, Marcello; Markus, Marcello R P; Mellström, Dan; Miljkovic, Iva; Mirel, Daniel; Nelson, Sarah; Morin Papunen, Laure; Peeters, Petra H M; Prokopenko, Inga; Raffel, Leslie; Reincke, Martin; Reiner, Alex P; Rexrode, Kathryn; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Schwartz, Stephen M; Siscovick, David; Soranzo, Nicole; Stöckl, Doris; Tworoger, Shelley; Uitterlinden, André G; van Gils, Carla H; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Wichmann, H-Erich; Zhai, Guangju; Bhasin, Shalender; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Chanock, Stephen J; De Vivo, Immaculata; Harris, Tamara B; Hunter, David J; Kähönen, Mika; Liu, Simin; Ouyang, Pamela; Spector, Tim D; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Viikari, Jorma; Wallaschofski, Henri; McCarthy, Mark I; Frayling, Timothy M; Murray, Anna; Franks, Steve; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; de Jong, Frank H; Raitakari, Olli; Teumer, Alexander; Ohlsson, Claes; Murabito, Joanne M; Perry, John R B

    2012-01-01

    Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a glycoprotein responsible for the transport and biologic availability of sex steroid hormones, primarily testosterone and estradiol. SHBG has been associated with chronic diseases including type 2 diabetes (T2D) and with hormone-sensitive cancers such as breast and prostate cancer. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis of 21,791 individuals from 10 epidemiologic studies and validated these findings in 7,046 individuals in an additional six studies. We identified twelve genomic regions (SNPs) associated with circulating SHBG concentrations. Loci near the identified SNPs included SHBG (rs12150660, 17p13.1, p = 1.8 × 10(-106)), PRMT6 (rs17496332, 1p13.3, p = 1.4 × 10(-11)), GCKR (rs780093, 2p23.3, p = 2.2 × 10(-16)), ZBTB10 (rs440837, 8q21.13, p = 3.4 × 10(-09)), JMJD1C (rs7910927, 10q21.3, p = 6.1 × 10(-35)), SLCO1B1 (rs4149056, 12p12.1, p = 1.9 × 10(-08)), NR2F2 (rs8023580, 15q26.2, p = 8.3 × 10(-12)), ZNF652 (rs2411984, 17q21.32, p = 3.5 × 10(-14)), TDGF3 (rs1573036, Xq22.3, p = 4.1 × 10(-14)), LHCGR (rs10454142, 2p16.3, p = 1.3 × 10(-07)), BAIAP2L1 (rs3779195, 7q21.3, p = 2.7 × 10(-08)), and UGT2B15 (rs293428, 4q13.2, p = 5.5 × 10(-06)). These genes encompass multiple biologic pathways, including hepatic function, lipid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism and T2D, androgen and estrogen receptor function, epigenetic effects, and the biology of sex steroid hormone-responsive cancers including breast and prostate cancer. We found evidence of sex-differentiated genetic influences on SHBG. In a sex-specific GWAS, the loci 4q13.2-UGT2B15 was significant in men only (men p = 2.5 × 10(-08), women p = 0.66, heterogeneity p = 0.003). Additionally, three loci showed strong sex-differentiated effects: 17p13.1-SHBG and Xq22.3-TDGF3 were stronger in men, whereas 8q21.12-ZBTB10 was stronger in women. Conditional analyses identified additional signals at the SHBG gene that together almost double the

  20. Human growth hormone binding and stimulation of insulin biosynthesis in cloned rat insulinoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Billestrup, Nils

    1985-01-01

    Binding of 125I labelled human growth hormone to cloned insulin producing RIN-5AH cells is described. Binding was specific for somatotropic hormones since both human and rat growth hormone could compete for binding sites, whereas much higher concentrations of lactogenic hormones were needed...

  1. Effect of the human follicle-stimulating hormone-binding inhibitor ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-binding inhibitor (FSHBI), purified by our laboratory from human ovarian follicular fluid, has been shown to suppress ovulation and induce follicular atresia/apoptosis in mice as well as impair fertility in marmosets, the new world monkeys. The octapeptide, a peptide corresponding to ...

  2. Ovarian cancer risk and common variation in the sex hormone-binding globulin gene: a population-based case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeager Meredith

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG is a carrier protein that modulates the bio-availability of serum sex steroid hormones, which may be involved in ovarian cancer. We evaluated whether common genetic variation in SHBG and its 3' neighbor ATP1B2, in linkage disequilibrium, is associated with the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. Methods The study population included 264 women with ovarian carcinoma and 625 controls participating in a population-based case-control study in Poland. Five common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in SHGB and five in ATP1B2 were selected to capture most common variation in this region. Results None of the SNPs evaluated was significantly associated with ovarian cancer risk, including the putative functional SNPs SHBG D356N (rs6259 and -67G>A 5'UTR (rs1799941. However, our data were consistent with a decreased ovarian cancer risk associated with the variant alleles for these two SNPs, which have been previously associated with increased circulating levels of SHBG. Conclusion These data do not support a substantial association between common genetic variation in SHBG and ovarian cancer risk.

  3. Associations of sex hormone-binding globulin and testosterone with diabetes among men and women (the Saku Diabetes study: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goto Atsushi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG levels and sex hormones have been implicated in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. As fatty liver has been suggested to be a major determinant of SHBG levels, we examined whether the associations of SHBG and testosterone with diabetes were independent of fatty liver. Methods We conducted a case–control study that included 300 diabetes cases (215 men and 85 women and 300 matched controls from the Saku cohort study. Diabetes was defined by either fasting plasma glucose levels ≥126 mg/dL, 2-h post-load glucose levels ≥200 mg/dL after a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test, or diabetes diagnosed by physicians. We fitted conditional logistic regression models to examine the associations between SHBG and total testosterone levels with diabetes by sex. To evaluate the impact of fatty liver, we used the fatty liver index (FLI, a validated measure derived from serum triglyceride levels, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, and γ-glutamyltransferase levels. Results After adjusting for age, family history of diabetes, smoking, physical activity, BMI, and FLI, SHBG levels were inversely associated with diabetes among women (odds ratio [OR] comparing the highest with the lowest quartiles, 0.13 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.02–0.96], but not among men. Similar patterns were observed in a subgroup analysis restricted to postmenopausal women"(OR, 0.12 [95% CI, 0.01–1.17]. In contrast, testosterone levels were inversely associated with diabetes among men (OR, 0.45 [95% CI, 0.23–0.89], but not among women. Conclusions Our findings suggest that SHBG in women and testosterone in men may be inversely associated with diabetes.

  4. Low levels of sex hormone-binding globulin and hyperproinsulinemia as markers of increased pancreatic ß-cell demand in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. Reis

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Low levels of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG are considered to be an indirect index of hyperinsulinemia, predicting the later onset of diabetes mellitus type 2. In the insulin resistance state and in the presence of an increased pancreatic ß-cell demand (e.g. obesity both absolute and relative increases in proinsulin secretion occur. In the present study we investigated the correlation between SHBG and pancreatic ß-cell secretion in men with different body compositions. Eighteen young men (30.0 ± 2.4 years with normal glucose tolerance and body mass indexes (BMI ranging from 22.6 to 43.2 kg/m2 were submitted to an oral glucose tolerance test (75 g and baseline and 120-min blood samples were used to determine insulin, proinsulin and C-peptide by specific immunoassays. Baseline SHBG values were significantly correlated with baseline insulin (r = -0.58, P28 kg/m2, N = 8 and nonobese (BMI £25 kg/m2, N = 10 groups, significantly lower levels of SHBG were found in the obese subjects. The obese group had significantly higher baseline proinsulin, C-peptide and 120-min proinsulin and insulin levels. For the first time using a specific assay for insulin determination, a strong inverse correlation between insulinemia and SHBG levels was confirmed. The finding of a strong negative correlation between SHBG levels and pancreatic ß-cell secretion, mainly for the 120-min post-glucose load proinsulin levels, reinforces the concept that low SHBG levels are a suitable marker of increased pancreatic ß-cell demand.

  5. Association of free testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin with metabolic syndrome and subclinical atherosclerosis but not blood pressure in hypertensive perimenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszanecka, Agnieszka; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina; Czarnecka, Danuta

    2016-06-01

    Data on the role of androgens as potential mediators of increasing cardiovascular risk in women at midlife are controversial. The aim of the study was to analyze the relationship of free testosterone (FT) and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) with blood pressure and subclinical organ damage and metabolic syndrome (MS) in middle aged hypertensive women. One hundred and fifty-two women with newly diagnosed arterial hypertension were included in the study. In all subjects blood pressure measurements were performed as well as echocardiographic examination with left ventricular structure and function assessment (GE Vivid 7.0), carotid ultrasound with measurement of intima-media thickness (IMT), and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) measurement (Sphygmocor). A fasting blood sample was taken to measure glucose and lipid concentrations. Serum testosterone and SHBG were measured. Free testosterone was calculated according to the Vermeulen formula. Metabolic syndrome was defined following the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) recommendations. Free testosterone was significantly higher and SHBG lower in women with MS independently of menopausal status. The odds ratio of MS per quartile increment in FT after adjustment for covariates was 2.06 (95% CI: 1.16-3.65). There was no correlation between FT, SHBG and blood pressure. Free testosterone was associated with decreased left ventricular diastolic function (E/A ratio β = -0.19, p = 0.05) and subclinical atherosclerosis (IMT β = 0.34, p = 0.009), but not arterial stiffness. Free testosterone and SHBG independently of menopause status are related to MS. Free testosterone is associated with worse metabolic profile, subclinical atherosclerosis and impaired diastolic function of the left ventricle.

  6. Are there variances of calculated free testosterone attributed to variations in albumin and sex hormone-binding globulin concentrations in men?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guay, André T; Traish, Abdulmaged M; Hislop-Chestnut, Diane T; Doros, Gheorghe; Gawoski, John M

    2013-01-01

    Calculated free testosterone (cFT) is determined from total testosterone (TT), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), and albumin (Alb) levels using mathematical formulae. Variations in cFT due to changes in SHBG or Alb have not been investigated. We evaluated potential cFT variances determined with fixed Alb (4.3 g/dL) and measured Alb, and the point at which low SHBG and Alb combinations produced significant cFT variance. We analyzed 11,176 data points from 5,797 men. cFT values with fixed versus actual Alb values were evaluated and compared. cFT levels were theoretically determined for all possible combinations of TT, SHBG, and Alb (8,343,552 combinations). Agreement between the 2 measures was assessed with Lin's concordance coefficient. Mean Alb was 4.06 ± 0.32 g/dL. Mean SHBG was 39.0 ± 23.6 nmol/L. A fixed Alb of 4.3 g/dL did not produce significant variance for most cFT evaluations. Accuracy decreased when Alb was ≤3.5 g/dL in combination with SHBG ≤30 nmol/L, and this occurred in 1.2% of all data points. A fixed Alb of 4.3 g/dL is acceptable for most clinical evaluations. If Alb is ≤3.5 g/dL and SHBG is ≤30 nmol/L, the variance increases, and a free testosterone (FT) measurement by equilibrium dialysis is warranted for better accuracy.

  7. Associations of cortisol/testosterone and cortisol/sex hormone-binding globulin ratios with atherosclerosis in middle-age women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju-Mi; Colangelo, Laura A; Schwartz, Joseph E; Yano, Yuichiro; Siscovick, David S; Seeman, Teresa; Schreiner, Pamela J; Liu, Kiang J; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Greenland, Philip

    2016-05-01

    The cortisol/testosterone (C/T) ratio has been hypothesized to be a better predictor of atherosclerosis than cortisol alone. No study has assessed whether the C/T and C/sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) ratios are associated with atherosclerosis in a U.S. population sample. This substudy included 367 women who had both cortisol from year 15 and testosterone and SHBG at year 16 of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study, an ongoing observational cohort in the United States. Of these, intima-media thickness (IMT) was available at follow-up year 20 in 339 (n = 332 with measurement at carotid bulb), and 303 were free of prevalent coronary artery calcium (CAC) at year 15. Area under the curve (AUC) of salivary cortisol was available in 302 individuals. Ratios of AUCs of cortisol to total testosterone, free testosterone, and SHBG were categorized into tertiles. Associations with CAC and IMT were assessed by regression models adjusted for age, race, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, menopause, oral contraceptive use, diabetes, alcohol, and smoking. Only the highest tertile of the AUC/free testosterone ratio was positively associated with carotid bulb IMT (β = 0.088, P = 0.006). This tertile was also positively associated with new onset CAC between year 15 and 25 (OR 3.45, 95% CI 1.18-10.06). Tertiles of cortisol or testosterone alone were not associated with new onset CAC. AUC/Free testosterone ratio may be more associated with atherosclerosis in women than either indicator alone. The ratio may serve as a suitable biomarker of cortisol-linked stress. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Identification of common variants in the SHBG gene affecting sex hormone-binding globulin levels and breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Deborah J; Healey, Catherine S; Baynes, Caroline; Kalmyrzaev, Bolot; Ahmed, Shahana; Dowsett, Mitch; Folkerd, Elizabeth; Luben, Robert N; Cox, David; Ballinger, Dennis; Pharoah, Paul D P; Ponder, Bruce A J; Dunning, Alison M; Easton, Douglas F

    2008-12-01

    Circulating levels of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) are inversely associated with breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women. Three polymorphisms within the SHBG gene have been reported to affect SHBG levels, but there has been no systematic attempt to identify other such variants. We looked for associations between SHBG levels in 1,134 healthy, postmenopausal women and 11 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in or around the SHBG gene. Associations between SHBG SNPs and breast cancer were tested in up to 6,622 postmenopausal breast cancer cases and 6,784 controls. Ten SNPs within or close to the SHBG gene were significantly associated with SHBG levels as was the (TAAAA)(n) polymorphism. The best-fitting combination of rs6259, rs858521, and rs727428 and body mass index, waist, hip, age, and smoking status accounted for 24% of the variance in SHBG levels (natural logarithm transformed). Haplotype analysis suggested that rs858518, rs727428, or a variant in linkage disequilibrium with them acts to decrease SHBG levels but that this effect is neutralized by rs6259 (D356N). rs1799941 increases SHBG levels, but the previously reported association with (TAAAA)(n) repeat length appears to be a consequence of linkage disequilibrium with these SNPs. One further SHBG SNP was significantly associated with breast cancer (rs6257, per-allele odds ratio, 0.88; 95% confidence interval, 0.82-0.95; P = 0.002). At least 3 SNPs showed associations with SHBG levels that were highly significant but relatively small in magnitude. rs6257 is a potential breast cancer susceptibility variant, but relationships between the genetic determinants of SHBG levels and breast cancer are complex.

  9. Sex hormone binding globulin phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornelisse, M M; Bennett, Patrick; Christiansen, M

    1994-01-01

    system allowing us to distinguish between the different electrophoretic patterns in small amounts of plasma or serum (10 microliters). Small aliquots of Blue Sepharose were added to diluted sera or plasma samples for removal of albumin and the supernatants were subsequently applied to Western blotting...

  10. SHBG (Sex Hormone Binding Globulin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... menstrual periods, infertility , acne, and excess facial and body hair ( hirsutism ). These signs and symptoms and others are ... infertility , irregular menstrual periods, and excess facial and body hair in women. What does the test result mean? ...

  11. Effects of intraperitoneal insulin versus subcutaneous insulin administration on sex hormone-binding globulin concentrations in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Boering

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims Elevated sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG concentrations have been described in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM, probably due to low portal insulin concentrations. We aimed to investigate whether the route of insulin administration, continuous intraperitoneal insulin infusion (CIPII, or subcutaneous (SC, influences SHBG concentrations among T1DM patients. Methods Post hoc analysis of SHBG in samples derived from a randomized, open-labeled crossover trial was carried out in 20 T1DM patients: 50% males, mean age 43 (±13 years, diabetes duration 23 (±11 years, and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c 8.7 (±1.1 (72 (±12 mmol/mol. As secondary outcomes, testosterone, 17-β-estradiol, luteinizing hormone (LH, and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH were analyzed. Results Estimated mean change in SHBG was −10.3nmol/L (95% CI: −17.4, −3.2 during CIPII and 3.7nmol/L (95% CI: −12.0, 4.6 during SC insulin treatment. Taking the effect of treatment order into account, the difference in SHBG between therapies was −6.6nmol/L (95% CI: −17.5, 4.3; −12.7nmol/L (95% CI: −25.1, −0.4 for males and −1.7nmol/L (95% CI: −24.6, 21.1 for females, respectively. Among males, SHBG and testosterone concentrations changed significantly during CIPII; −15.8nmol/L (95% CI: −24.2, −7.5 and −8.3nmol/L (95% CI: −14.4, −2.2, respectively. The difference between CIPII and SC insulin treatment was also significant for change in FSH 1.2U/L (95% CI: 0.1, 2.2 among males. Conclusions SHBG concentrations decreased significantly during CIPII treatment. Moreover, the difference in change between CIPII and SC insulin therapy was significant for SHBG and FSH among males. These findings support the hypothesis that portal insulin administration influences circulating SHBG and sex steroids.

  12. Testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin and the metabolic syndrome in men: an individual participant data meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith S Brand

    Full Text Available Low total testosterone (TT and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG concentrations have been associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS in men, but the reported strength of association varies considerably.We aimed to investigate whether associations differ across specific subgroups (according to age and body mass index (BMI and individual MetS components.Two previously published meta-analyses including an updated systematic search in PubMed and EMBASE.Cross-sectional or prospective observational studies with data on TT and/or SHBG concentrations in combination with MetS in men.We conducted an individual participant data meta-analysis of 20 observational studies. Mixed effects models were used to assess cross-sectional and prospective associations of TT, SHBG and free testosterone (FT with MetS and its individual components. Multivariable adjusted odds ratios (ORs and hazard ratios (HRs were calculated and effect modification by age and BMI was studied.Men with low concentrations of TT, SHBG or FT were more likely to have prevalent MetS (ORs per quartile decrease were 1.69 (95% CI 1.60-1.77, 1.73 (95% CI 1.62-1.85 and 1.46 (95% CI 1.36-1.57 for TT, SHBG and FT, respectively and incident MetS (HRs per quartile decrease were 1.25 (95% CI 1.16-1.36, 1.44 (95% 1.30-1.60 and 1.14 (95% 1.01-1.28 for TT, SHBG and FT, respectively. Overall, the magnitude of associations was largest in non-overweight men and varied across individual components: stronger associations were observed with hypertriglyceridemia, abdominal obesity and hyperglycaemia and associations were weakest for hypertension.Associations of testosterone and SHBG with MetS vary according to BMI and individual MetS components. These findings provide further insights into the pathophysiological mechanisms linking low testosterone and SHBG concentrations to cardiometabolic risk.

  13. Reference Ranges and Association of Age and Lifestyle Characteristics with Testosterone, Sex Hormone Binding Globulin, and Luteinizing Hormone among 1166 Western Chinese Men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xubo Shen

    Full Text Available Decreased total testosterone (TT is the recommended metric to identify age-related hypogonadism. However, average TT and the extent to which it varies by age, can vary substantially among different populations. Population-specific reference ranges are needed to understand normal versus abnormal TT levels. Therefore, the goal for this study was to describe androgen concentrations and their correlates among Western Chinese men. We completed a population-based, cross-sectional study including 227 young adults (YA (20-39 years and 939 older adults (OA (40-89 years. We measured TT, sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG, luteinizing hormone (LH, testosterone secreting index (TSI, and calculated free testosterone (cFT. Reference ranges for this population were determined using average YA concentrations. Multivariable regression models were used to predict hormone concentrations adjusting for age, waist-to-height ratio (WHR, marital status, education, occupation, smoking, alcohol, blood glucose, and blood pressure. Among OA, 3.8% had low TT, 15.2% had low cFT, 26.3% had low TSI, 21.6% had high SHBG, and 6.1% had high LH. Average cFT was significantly lower in OA (0.30 nmol/L; standard deviation (SD: 0.09 versus YA (0.37; SD: 0.11 but TT was not different in OA (16.82 nmol/L; SD: 4.80 versus YA (16.88; SD: 5.29. In adjusted models increasing age was significantly associated with increased SHBG or LH, and decreased cFT or TSI; however, TT was not significantly associated with age (β = 0.02 nmol/L; 95% confidence interval (CI: -0.01, 0.04. Higher WHR was associated with significantly decreased TT, SHBG, TSI, and LH. The only variable significantly related to cFT was age (β = -0.0033; 95% CI:-0.0037, -0.0028; suggesting that cFT measurements would not be confounded by other lifestyle factors. In conclusion, cFT, but not TT, varies with age in this population, suggesting cFT may be a better potential marker for age-related androgen deficiency than TT among

  14. Use of statins is associated with lower serum total and non-sex hormone-binding globulin-bound testosterone levels in male participants of the Rotterdam Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Keyser, Catherine E; de Lima, Filipe Valerio; de Jong, Frank H; Hofman, Albert; de Rijke, Yolanda B; Uitterlinden, André G; Visser, Loes E; Stricker, Bruno H

    2015-08-01

    Statins, or HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, decrease cholesterol production. Because cholesterol is a precursor of the testosterone biosynthesis pathway, there is some concern that statins might lower serum testosterone levels. The objective of the present study was to investigate the association between the use of statins and serum testosterone levels in men. Cross-sectional study within the prospective population-based Rotterdam Study. We included 4166 men with available data on total testosterone, non-sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG)-bound testosterone, and medication use. Multivariable linear regression analysis was used to compare the differences in serum testosterone levels (nmol/l) between current, past, and never statin users. We considered dose and duration of use. Analyses were adjusted for age, BMI, cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and estradiol levels. We identified 577 current (mean age 64.1 years), 148 past (mean age 64.6 years), and 3441 never (mean age 64.6 years) statin users. Adjusted for all covariables, current statin use of 1-≤ 6 months or >6 months was significantly associated with lower total testosterone levels as compared to non-users (β -1.24, 95% CI -2.17, -0.31, and β -1.14, 95% CI -2.07, -0.20 respectively). Current use of 1-≤ 6 months was also associated with significantly lower non-SHBG-bound testosterone levels (β -0.42, 95% CI -0.82, -0.02). There was a trend toward lower testosterone levels at higher statin doses both for total (P(trend) 2.9 × 10(-5)) and non-SHBG-bound (P(trend) 2.0 × 10(-4)) testosterone. No association between past statin use and testosterone levels was found. We showed that current use of statins was associated with significantly lower serum total and non-SHBG-bound testosterone levels. The clinical relevance of this association should be further investigated. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.

  15. Consideration on some hormone binding proteins patterns during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, M A; Miller, N J; Hamdi, I M; el-Adawi, S A; al-Zaid, M; al-Awqati, M A

    1991-02-01

    Serum concentrations of sex hormone binding globulin, transcortin, thyroxine binding globulin, transthyretin together with retinol binding protein, ceruloplasmin, transferrin and albumin were measured sequentially in pregnant women in order to derive more definite suppositions relating to the prime function of hormone binding proteins. Thus, the fact that except for transthyretin all other specific hormone binding proteins exhibited appreciable but significantly variable increases would suggest: a) the apparent existence of more complex mechanisms regulating protein metabolism during pregnancy than hitherto postulated (i.e. the general notion of an integrated estrogen influence); b) a major and distinctive role for each of the hormone binding proteins is plausible since alterations in hormonal requirements by the fetus as pregnancy progresses can not be provided by the almost constant transplacental transfer rate of the "free" hormone moiety.

  16. Sex hormone binding globulin decrease as potential pathogenetic factor for hirsutism in adolescent girls Disminución de la globulina transportadora de hormonas sexuales como factor patogénico de hirsutismo en la adolescencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Cross

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigated 252 non-obese female subjects aged 13-39 years to evaluate if an exaggerated descent of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG levels during adolescence can play a role in the development of hirsutism. Body hair was assessed according to Ferriman and Gallwey (FG, with a stringent criterion of normality of 4 and controls (FG Se investigaron 252 mujeres con peso normal, de 13 a 39 años de edad, para evaluar si un descenso exagerado en los niveles de la globulina transportadora de hormonas sexuales ("sex hormone binding globulin"; SHBG puede tener un rol en el desarrollo de hirsutismo. Este signo fue evaluado con la escala de Ferriman y Gallwey (FG, empleando un criterio riguroso de normalidad 4 y controles (FG < 4, ciclos menstruales regulares, sin acné. En adolescentes de 15-18 años, los valores de SHBG fueron menores en las "hirsutas", los niveles de FT fueron similares en ambos grupos y el índice de FG correlacionó inversamente con SHBG. En las mujeres de 19-39 años, los niveles de FT fueron mayores en las "hirsutas", los valores de SHBG fueron similares en ambos grupos y FG correlacionó positivamente con FT. Los valores más bajos de SHBG se observaron entre 15 y 18 años, pero la pendiente de disminución a partir de los valores de 13-14 años fue mayor en el grupo de "hirsutas". Los valores de FT se incrementaron progresivamente con la edad, pero el aumento fue mayor en el grupo de "hirsutas". Estos resultados sugieren un rol importante del descenso de SHBG en la adolescencia vs. un incremento más acentuado de los niveles de testosterona en las adultas, como factores que condicionan el desarrollo del hirsutismo en esos dos diferentes periodos de la vida.

  17. Relation of total and free testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin with cardiovascular risk factors in men aged 24-45 years. The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firtser, Sonja; Juonala, Markus; Magnussen, Costan G; Jula, Antti; Loo, Britt-Marie; Marniemi, Jukka; Viikari, Jorma S A; Toppari, Jorma; Perheentupa, Antti; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Raitakari, Olli T

    2012-05-01

    Total and free testosterone decrease gradually in men with advancing age but it is not completely known how lower levels of testosterone are related with various cardiovascular risk factors. We studied the levels of total testosterone, calculated free testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and their relations with cardiovascular risk factors in young Finnish men. The study cohort consisted of 24-45-year-old men participating the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study in the follow-up surveys performed in 2001 (N=1024) and 2007 (N=991). Levels of total testosterone, SHBG, lipids, glucose, insulin, blood pressure and anthropometric factors were measured and free testosterone was calculated. In multivariable analyses adjusted for age, body mass index and life-style factors (alcohol consumption, smoking and physical activity), total and calculated free testosterone were inversely correlated with triglycerides (both Ptestosterone and SHBG were associated with higher levels of triglycerides and insulin six years later (all Ptestosterone and SHBG are associated with favourable cardiovascular risk profile characterized by lower levels of triglycerides, insulin and systolic blood pressure, and higher levels of HDL-cholesterol. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sex differences in human gregariousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce F. Benenson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Research on human sociality rarely includes kinship, social structure, sex, and familiarity, even though these variables influence sociality in non-human primates. However, cross-cultural ethnographic and observational studies with humans indicate that, beginning after age 5 years, males and females form differing social structures with unrelated individuals in a community. Specifically, compared with females, human males exhibit greater tolerance for and form larger, interconnected groups of peers which we term “gregariousness.” To examine sex differences in gregariousness early in life when children first interact with peers without adult supervision, 3- to 6-year-old children were given the choice to enter one of three play areas: an empty one, one with an adult, or one with a familiar, same-sex peer. More males than females initially chose the play area with the same-sex peer, especially after age 5 years. Sex differences in gregariousness with same-sex peers likely constitute one facet of human sociality.

  19. Sex differences in human gregariousness

    OpenAIRE

    Benenson, Joyce F.; Sandra Stella; Anthony Ferranti

    2015-01-01

    Research on human sociality rarely includes kinship, social structure, sex, and familiarity, even though these variables influence sociality in non-human primates. However, cross-cultural ethnographic and observational studies with humans indicate that, beginning after age 5 years, males and females form differing social structures with unrelated individuals in a community. Specifically, compared with females, human males exhibit greater tolerance for and form larger, interconnected groups of...

  20. Changes in growth hormone-binding protein in girls with central precocious puberty treated with a depot preparation of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, S B; Donnadieu, M; Chaussain, J L

    1993-01-01

    Growth hormone-binding protein (GHBP) was studied in 11 girls with true precocious puberty, aged 7.3 +/- 0.2 years (mean +/- SE), before and after the first 6 months of treatment with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogue D-Trp6-LHRH. The 125I-human GH was incubated with 150 microliters of serum, bound and free GH were separated by gel filtration. The levels of GHBP increased significantly from 24.2 +/- 1.3 to 28.1 +/- 1.9% (p pubertal spurt is mediated by a sex-steroid-induced rise in GH concentration, and they suggest that the levels of GHBP may be related to the GH secretion and its variation with treatment.

  1. Insulin-like growth factors, insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 protease, and growth hormone-binding protein in lipodystrophic human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Steen B; Andersen, Ove; Hansen, Birgitte Rønde

    2004-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-lipodystrophy is associated with impaired growth hormone (GH) secretion. It remains to be elucidated whether insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs), IGFBP-3 protease, and GH-binding protein (GHBP) are abnormal in HIV......-lipodystrophy. These parameters were measured in overnight fasting serum samples from 16 Caucasian males with HIV-lipodystrophy (LIPO) and 15 Caucasian HIV-infected males without lipodystrophy (NONLIPO) matched for age, weight, duration of HIV infection, and antiretroviral therapy. In LIPO, abdominal fat mass and insulin...... concentration were increased (>90%, P protease were similar between groups (all P > .5), whereas, in LIPO, IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2 were reduced (-36%, P

  2. Decreasing Human Trafficking through Sex Work Decriminalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Erin; D'Adamo, Kate

    2017-01-01

    In order to decrease human trafficking, health care workers should support the full decriminalization of prostitution. Similar to trafficking in other forms of labor, preventing trafficking in the sex trade requires addressing the different forms of marginalization that create vulnerable communities. By removing punitive laws that prevent reporting of exploitation and abuse, decriminalization allows sex workers to work more safely, thereby reducing marginalization and vulnerability. Decriminalization can also help destigmatize sex work and help resist political, social, and cultural marginalization of sex workers. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Molecular characterization of a genetic variant of the steroid hormone-binding globulin gene in heterozygous subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, D.O.; Catterall, J.F. [Population Council, New York, NY (United States); Carino, C. [Instituto National de la Nutricion, Mexico City, MX (United States)] [and others

    1995-04-01

    Steroid hormone-binding globulin in human serum displays different isoelectric focusing (IEF) patterns among individuals, suggesting genetic variation in the gene for this extracellular steroid carrier protein. Analysis of allele frequencies and family studies suggested the existence of two codominant alleles of the gene. Subsequent determination of the molecular basis of a variant of the gene was carried out using DNA from homozygous individuals from a single Belgian family. It was of interest to characterize other variant individuals to determine whether all variants identified by IEF phenotyping were caused by the same mutation or whether other mutations occurred in the gene in different populations. Previous studies identified Mexican subjects who were heterozygous for the variant IEF phenotype. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to localize the mutation in these subjects and to purify the variant allele for DNA sequence analysis. The results show that the mutation in this population is identical to that identified in the Belgian family, and no other mutations were detected in the gene. These data represent the first analysis of steroid hormone-binding globulin gene variation in heterozygous subjects and further support the conclusion of biallelism of the gene worldwide. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Human male meiotic sex chromosome inactivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke de Vries

    Full Text Available In mammalian male gametogenesis the sex chromosomes are distinctive in both gene activity and epigenetic strategy. At first meiotic prophase the heteromorphic X and Y chromosomes are placed in a separate chromatin domain called the XY body. In this process, X,Y chromatin becomes highly phosphorylated at S139 of H2AX leading to the repression of gonosomal genes, a process known as meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI, which has been studied best in mice. Post-meiotically this repression is largely maintained. Disturbance of MSCI in mice leads to harmful X,Y gene expression, eventuating in spermatocyte death and sperm heterogeneity. Sperm heterogeneity is a characteristic of the human male. For this reason we were interested in the efficiency of MSCI in human primary spermatocytes. We investigated MSCI in pachytene spermatocytes of seven probands: four infertile men and three fertile controls, using direct and indirect in situ methods. A considerable degree of variation in the degree of MSCI was detected, both between and within probands. Moreover, in post-meiotic stages this variation was observed as well, indicating survival of spermatocytes with incompletely inactivated sex chromosomes. Furthermore, we investigated the presence of H3K9me3 posttranslational modifications on the X and Y chromatin. Contrary to constitutive centromeric heterochromatin, this heterochromatin marker did not specifically accumulate on the XY body, with the exception of the heterochromatic part of the Y chromosome. This may reflect the lower degree of MSCI in man compared to mouse. These results point at relaxation of MSCI, which can be explained by genetic changes in sex chromosome composition during evolution and candidates as a mechanism behind human sperm heterogeneity.

  5. {sup 18F} FDG Uptake of Human Testis on PET/CT: Correlation with Age, Sex Hormones, and Vasectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Seung Hwan; Eo, Jae Sun; Lee, Jong Jin; Chung, June Key; Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Myung Chul [Seoul National Univ. Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate glucose metabolism of normal human testis on {sup 18F} FDG PET/CT and to assess possible correlation among age, the serum levels of sex hormones, and vasectomy. {sup 18F} FDG PET/CT was performed in 66 normal healthy men (50.8{+-}13.6 years, range 22-81), and mean standard uptake values (SUV) of {sup 18F} FDG in testis and adductor muscle were measured. Testis muscle SUV ratios (T/M ratios) were calculated. Serum levels of total testosterone, free testosterone, estradiol, and of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were measured. We searched for correlations between T/M ratios and age and the serum concentrations of sex hormones. {sup 18F} FDG PET/CT was also performed in 32 vasectomized men (55.7{+-}7.8 years, range 38-71) and 52 nonvasectomized men (55.4{+-}11.6 years, range 37-72). Mean SUVs of testis and adductor muscle were measured, and T/M ratios were calculated. A significant age related decline was found in T/M ratio (r=-0.509, p<0.0001). Serum levels of total testosterone and free testosterone were also found to be positively correlated with T/M ratio (r=-0.427, p=0.0003; r=0.435, p=0.0003, respectively). The mean SUV and T/M ratio of vasectomized men were significantly lower than those of nonvasectomized men (p<0.0378 and p=0.0001, respectively). Glucose metabolism in the testis in an adult population was found to be correlated with age, serum sex hormone level, and vasectomy history. These results indicate that testicular {sup 18F} FDG uptake may have attributed to testicular function and testicular histology. Our findings may have important implications for the interpretation of testicular {sup 18F} FDG uptake in the normal adult population.

  6. Secular decline in male testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin serum levels in Danish population surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Anna-Maria; Jensen, Tina Kold; Juul, Anders

    2007-01-01

    Adverse secular trends in male reproductive health have been reported to be reflected in increased testicular cancer risk and decreased semen quality in more recently born men. These secular trends may also be reflected by changes in Leydig cell function.......Adverse secular trends in male reproductive health have been reported to be reflected in increased testicular cancer risk and decreased semen quality in more recently born men. These secular trends may also be reflected by changes in Leydig cell function....

  7. Secular decline in male testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin serum levels in Danish population surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Anna-Maria; Jensen, Tina K; Juul, Anders

    2007-01-01

    Adverse secular trends in male reproductive health have been reported to be reflected in increased testicular cancer risk and decreased semen quality in more recently born men. These secular trends may also be reflected by changes in Leydig cell function....

  8. Sex hormone-binding globulin as a marker for the thrombotic risk of hormonal contraceptives.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raps, M.; Helmerhorst, F.; Fleischer, K.; Thomassen, S.; Rosendaal, F.; Rosing, J.; Ballieux, B.; Vliet, H. van

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It takes many years to obtain reliable values for the risk of venous thrombosis of hormonal contraceptive users from clinical data. Measurement of activated protein C (APC) resistance via thrombin generation is a validated test for determining the thrombogenicity of hormonal

  9. Structural and functional sex differences in the human hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaab, D F; Chung, W C; Kruijver, F P; Hofman, M A; Ishunina, T A

    2001-09-01

    Sex differences in the brain may be the basis not only for sex differences in reproduction, gender identity (the feeling of being male or female), and sexual orientation (heterosexuality vs homosexuality), but also for the sex difference in prevalence of psychiatric and neurological diseases ( Swaab and Hofman, 1995 ). In this brief article we discuss a few examples of structural and functional sex differences in the human brain. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  10. Human sex differences in sexual psychology and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okami, P; Shackelford, T K

    2001-01-01

    Because age and sex constitute the only distinct anatomical and physiological morphs (types) of the human species, universal sex differences ought to be expected. According to Darwinian theory, the most numerous sex differences are likely to be found in the domains of sexuality and reproduction. We first briefly review the basic model of the adaptationist program of modern Darwinian psychology. We then present evidence suggesting substantial sex differences in the following domains of sexual behavior: Mate preferences, interest in casual sex, interest in partner variety, jealousy, fantasy, sexual "plasticity," and magnitude of intrinsic sexual motivation. We then propose a program for research and explanation of sex differences that invokes both proximate and ultimate variables where appropriate. This program is based in modern Darwinian theory, neuroendocrinology, human genetics, and social and behavioral sciences. We conclude by considering sociopolitical implications of research on sex differences.

  11. Molecular sex differences in human serum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan M Ramsey

    Full Text Available Sex is an important factor in the prevalence, incidence, progression, and response to treatment of many medical conditions, including autoimmune and cardiovascular diseases and psychiatric conditions. Identification of molecular differences between typical males and females can provide a valuable basis for exploring conditions differentially affected by sex.Using multiplexed immunoassays, we analyzed 174 serum molecules in 9 independent cohorts of typical individuals, comprising 196 males and 196 females. Sex differences in analyte levels were quantified using a meta-analysis approach and put into biological context using k-means to generate clusters of analytes with distinct biological functions. Natural sex differences were established in these analyte groups and these were applied to illustrate sexually dimorphic analyte expression in a cohort of 22 males and 22 females with Asperger syndrome. Reproducible sex differences were found in the levels of 77 analytes in serum of typical controls, and these comprised clusters of molecules enriched with distinct biological functions. Analytes involved in fatty acid oxidation/hormone regulation, immune cell growth and activation, and cell death were found at higher levels in females, and analytes involved in immune cell chemotaxis and other indistinct functions were higher in males. Comparison of these naturally occurring sex differences against a cohort of people with Asperger syndrome indicated that a cluster of analytes that had functions related to fatty acid oxidation/hormone regulation was associated with sex and the occurrence of this condition.Sex-specific molecular differences were detected in serum of typical controls and these were reproducible across independent cohorts. This study extends current knowledge of sex differences in biological functions involved in metabolism and immune function. Deviations from typical sex differences were found in a cluster of molecules in Asperger syndrome

  12. Molecular Sex Differences in Human Serum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Ramsey (Jordan); E. Schwarz (Emanuel); P.C. Guest (Paul); N.J.M. van Beveren (Nico); F.M. Leweke (Marcus); M. Rothermundt (Matthias); B. Bogerts (Bernhard); J. Steiner (Johann); L. Ruta (Liliana); S. Baron-Cohen (Simon); S. Bahn (Sabine)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Sex is an important factor in the prevalence, incidence, progression, and response to treatment of many medical conditions, including autoimmune and cardiovascular diseases and psychiatric conditions. Identification of molecular differences between typical males and females

  13. Molecular Sex Differences in Human Serum

    OpenAIRE

    Ramsey, Jordan M.; Emanuel Schwarz; Paul C. Guest; van Beveren, Nico J. M.; Markus Leweke, F.; Matthias Rothermundt; Bernhard Bogerts; Johann Steiner; Liliana Ruta; Simon Baron-Cohen; Sabine Bahn

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Sex is an important factor in the prevalence, incidence, progression, and response to treatment of many medical conditions, including autoimmune and cardiovascular diseases and psychiatric conditions. Identification of molecular differences between typical males and females can provide a valuable basis for exploring conditions differentially affected by sex. Methodology/Principal Findings: Using multiplexed immunoassays, we analyzed 174 serum molecules in 9 independent...

  14. Sex Hormones, Gonadotropins, and Sex Hormone-binding Globulin in Infants Fed Breast Milk, Cow Milk Formula, or Soy Formula

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Xin; Wang, Lei; Wu, Chunhua; Shi, Huijing; Zhou, Zhijun; Montgomery, Scott; Cao, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Measurement of endogenous hormones in early life is important to investigate the effects of hormonally active environmental compounds. To assess the possible hormonal effects of different feeding regimens in different sample matrices of infants, 166 infants were enrolled from two U.S hospitals between 2006 and 2009. The children were classified into exclusive soy formula, cow milk formula or breast milk regimens. Urine, saliva and blood samples were collected over the first 12 months of life....

  15. Human Lung Tissue Transcriptome : Influence of Sex and Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dugo, Matteo; Cotroneo, Chiara E.; Lavoie-Charland, Emilie; Incarbone, Matteo; Santambrogio, Luigi; Rosso, Lorenzo; van den Berge, Maarten; Nickle, David; Pare, Peter D.; Bosse, Yohan; Dragani, Tommaso A.; Colombo, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Background Sex and age strongly influence the pathophysiology of human lungs, but scarce information is available about their effects on pulmonary gene expression. Methods We followed a discovery-validation strategy to identify sex-and age-related transcriptional differences in lung. Results We

  16. Combating human trafficking in the sex trade: can sex workers do it better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Smarajit; Dey, Bharati; Reza-Paul, Sushena; Steen, Richard

    2014-12-01

    The dominant anti-trafficking paradigm conflates trafficking and sex work, denying evidence that most sex workers choose their profession and justifying police actions that disrupt communities, drive sex workers underground and increase vulnerability. We review an alternative response to combating human trafficking and child prostitution in the sex trade, the self-regulatory board (SRB) developed by Durbar Mahila Samanwaya Committee (DMSC, Sonagachi). DMSC-led interventions to remove minors and unwilling women from sex work account for over 80% of successful 'rescues' reported in West Bengal. From 2009 through 2011, 2195 women and girls were screened by SRBs: 170 (7.7%) minors and 45 (2.1%) unwilling adult women were assisted and followed up. The remaining 90.2% received counselling, health care and the option to join savings schemes and other community programmes designed to reduce sex worker vulnerability. Between 1992 and 2011 the proportion of minors in sex work in Sonagachi declined from 25 to 2%. With its universal surveillance of sex workers entering the profession, attention to rapid and confidential intervention and case management, and primary prevention of trafficking-including microcredit and educational programmes for children of sex workers-the SRB approach stands as a new model of success in anti-trafficking work. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Human male meiotic sex chromosome inactivation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, M. de; Vosters, S.; Merkx, G.F.M.; Hauwers, K.W.M. d'; Wansink, D.G.; Ramos, L.; Boer, P. de

    2012-01-01

    In mammalian male gametogenesis the sex chromosomes are distinctive in both gene activity and epigenetic strategy. At first meiotic prophase the heteromorphic X and Y chromosomes are placed in a separate chromatin domain called the XY body. In this process, X,Y chromatin becomes highly

  18. Disorders of sex development expose transcriptional autonomy of genetic sex and androgen-programmed hormonal sex in human blood leukocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holterhus, Paul-Martin; Bebermeier, Jan-Hendrik; Werner, Ralf; Demeter, Janos; Richter-Unruh, Annette; Cario, Gunnar; Appari, Mahesh; Siebert, Reiner; Riepe, Felix; Brooks, James D; Hiort, Olaf

    2009-01-01

    Background Gender appears to be determined by independent programs controlled by the sex-chromosomes and by androgen-dependent programming during embryonic development. To enable experimental dissection of these components in the human, we performed genome-wide profiling of the transcriptomes of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in patients with rare defined "disorders of sex development" (DSD, e.g., 46, XY-females due to defective androgen biosynthesis) compared to normal 46, XY-males and 46, XX-females. Results A discrete set of transcripts was directly correlated with XY or XX genotypes in all individuals independent of male or female phenotype of the external genitalia. However, a significantly larger gene set in the PBMC only reflected the degree of external genital masculinization independent of the sex chromosomes and independent of concurrent post-natal sex steroid hormone levels. Consequently, the architecture of the transcriptional PBMC-"sexes" was either male, female or even "intersex" with a discordant alignment of the DSD individuals' genetic and hormonal sex signatures. Conclusion A significant fraction of gene expression differences between males and females in the human appears to have its roots in early embryogenesis and is not only caused by sex chromosomes but also by long-term sex-specific hormonal programming due to presence or absence of androgen during the time of external genital masculinization. Genetic sex and the androgen milieu during embryonic development might therefore independently modulate functional traits, phenotype and diseases associated with male or female gender as well as with DSD conditions. PMID:19570224

  19. Sex beyond the genitalia: The human brain mosaic

    OpenAIRE

    Joel, Daphna; Berman, Zohar; Tavor, Ido; Wexler, Nadav; Gaber, Olga; Stein, Yaniv; Shefi, Nisan; Pool, Jared; Urchs, Sebastian; Margulies, Daniel S.; Liem, Franziskus; Hänggi, Jürgen; Jäncke, Lutz; Assaf, Yaniv

    2015-01-01

    Whereas a categorical difference in the genitals has always been acknowledged, the question of how far these categories extend into human biology is still not resolved. Documented sex/gender differences in the brain are often taken as support of a sexually dimorphic view of human brains ("female brain" or "male brain"). However, such a distinction would be possible only if sex/gender differences in brain features were highly dimorphic (i.e., little overlap between the forms of these features ...

  20. An Allometric Analysis of Sex and Sex Chromosome Dosage Effects on Subcortical Anatomy in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clasen, Liv; Giedd, Jay N.; Blumenthal, Jonathan; Lerch, Jason P.; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Raznahan, Armin

    2016-01-01

    Structural neuroimaging of humans with typical and atypical sex-chromosome complements has established the marked influence of both Yand X-/Y-chromosome dosage on total brain volume (TBV) and identified potential cortical substrates for the psychiatric phenotypes associated with sex-chromosome aneuploidy (SCA). Here, in a cohort of 354 humans with varying karyotypes (XX, XY, XXX, XXY, XYY, XXYY, XXXXY), we investigate sex and SCA effects on subcortical size and shape; focusing on the striatum, pallidum and thalamus. We find large effect-size differences in the volume and shape of all three structures as a function of sex and SCA. We correct for TBV effects with a novel allometric method harnessing normative scaling rules for subcortical size and shape in humans, which we derive here for the first time. We show that all three subcortical volumes scale sublinearly with TBV among healthy humans, mirroring known relationships between subcortical volume and TBV among species. Traditional TBV correction methods assume linear scaling and can therefore invert or exaggerate sex and SCA effects on subcortical anatomy. Allometric analysis restricts sex-differences to: (1) greater pallidal volume (PV) in males, and (2) relative caudate head expansion and ventral striatum contraction in females. Allometric analysis of SCA reveals that supernumerary X- and Y-chromosomes both cause disproportionate reductions in PV, and coordinated deformations of striatopallidal shape. Our study provides a novel understanding of sex and sex-chromosome dosage effects on subcortical organization, using an allometric approach that can be generalized to other basic and clinical structural neuroimaging settings. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Sex and sex-chromosome dosage (SCD) are known to modulate human brain size and cortical anatomy, but very little is known regarding their impact on subcortical structures that work with the cortex to subserve a range of behaviors in health and disease. Moreover

  1. Sex for Sale: Globalization and Human Trafficking

    OpenAIRE

    Aiello, Annmarie

    2009-01-01

    The practice of trafficking has many different facets; drug trafficking, arms trafficking and human trafficking complete the top three illegal trafficking practices today. Human trafficking may be the third highest illegal trafficking practice, however there is inadequate mainstream information on the affects of the trade and horrifying issues that incorporate trafficking in human beings. This paper will discuss how the globalized world has been enabling trafficking in human beings with a con...

  2. Sexual Selection and the Evolution of Human Sex Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. Geary

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Darwin’s (1871 theory of sexual selection and the associated mechanisms of intrasexual competition (e.g., male-male competition and intersexual choice (e.g., female choice of mates have guided the scientific study of sex differences in hundreds of non-human species. These mechanisms and several recent advances in our understanding of the evolution and expression of sex differences in non-human species are described. The usefulness of this theory for approaching the study human sex differences is illustrated with discussion of patterns of women’s mate preferences and choices and with discussion of men’s one-on-one and coalitional competition. A comparison of these aspects of intersexual choice and intrasexual competition in humans and non-human species is provided, as is discussion of cultural variation in the expression of these behaviors. cultural influences (Maccoby & Jacklin, 1974.

  3. Same-sex twins are taller and heavier than opposite-sex twins (but only if breastfed): Possible evidence for sex bias in human breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Satoshi; Segal, Nancy L

    2017-04-01

    Recent studies show that human and other mammalian breast milk may be tailored for the sex of the offspring. Such sex bias suggests that opposite-sex twins, who receive breast milk that cannot simultaneously be tailored for both sexes, may be at a disadvantage for growth compared with same-sex twins. An analysis of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) shows that, controlling for sex, age, birth weight, and zygosity, breastfed same-sex twins are, on average, about 1 inch taller and 12 pounds heavier than their opposite-sex counterparts through adolescence and early adulthood. In contrast, never-breastfed same-sex twins tend to be shorter and lighter than their opposite-sex counterparts. These results may be potential evidence for sex bias in human breast milk and its long-term effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Sex-biased genetic effects on gene regulation in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimas, Antigone S.; Nica, Alexandra C.; Montgomery, Stephen B.; Stranger, Barbara E.; Raj, Towfique; Buil, Alfonso; Giger, Thomas; Lappalainen, Tuuli; Gutierrez-Arcelus, Maria; McCarthy, Mark I.; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T.

    2012-01-01

    Human regulatory variation, reported as expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs), contributes to differences between populations and tissues. The contribution of eQTLs to differences between sexes, however, has not been investigated to date. Here we explore regulatory variation in females and males and demonstrate that 12%–15% of autosomal eQTLs function in a sex-biased manner. We show that genes possessing sex-biased eQTLs are expressed at similar levels across the sexes and highlight cases of genes controlling sexually dimorphic and shared traits that are under the control of distinct regulatory elements in females and males. This study illustrates that sex provides important context that can modify the effects of functional genetic variants. PMID:22960374

  5. Human Sex Trafficking in America: What Counselors Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litam, Stacey Diane A.

    2017-01-01

    The social justice issue of human sex trafficking is a global form of oppression that places men, women and children at risk for sexual exploitation. Although a body of research exists on the topics of human trafficking, literature specific to the mental health implications for counselors working with this population is limited. Counselors should…

  6. Effect of the human follicle-stimulating hormone-binding inhibitor ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    LH) secreted by the anterior pituitary are the prime factors responsible for the development of follicles to the preovulatory stage (Vitt et al 2000). FSH provides the primary (endocrine) stimulus for folliculo- genesis via the activation of ...

  7. Sex differences in human mortality: the role of genetic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, I

    1983-01-01

    This paper reviews evidence concerning genetic factors that influence sex differences in human mortality, with attention to the interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Some widely quoted earlier conclusions, for example, that males have consistently higher fetal mortality than females, are not supported by current evidence. For example, for late fetal mortality, males had higher rates than females in earlier historical data, but not in recent data for several advanced industrial countries. This reflects a changing balance between an inherently greater female vulnerability for one major type of late fetal mortality and inherently greater male vulnerability for several other types of late fetal mortality that have declined in importance as health care has improved. Males appear to be inherently more vulnerable than females to infant mortality, although the causes of this vulnerability are poorly understood. X-linked immunoregulatory genes appear to contribute to greater female resistance to infectious diseases. Despite these apparent inherent advantages for females, in some situations females have had higher infant mortality and higher infectious disease mortality than males, apparently due to environmental disadvantages for females, such as less adequate diet and health care. Inherent sex differences in reproductive physiology and anatomy contribute to higher female mortality for breast cancer and maternal mortality. For these causes of death, as for the other categories discussed, the death rates and thus the contributions to sex differences in total mortality vary considerably depending on environmental conditions. Several hypothesized contributions of sex hormones to sex differences in mortality are at present controversial due to contradictions and limitations in the available data. There may be effects of male sex hormones on sex differences in behavior which contribute to males' higher death rates for accidents and other violent causes. Women

  8. The treatment of sex offenders: evidence, ethics, and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birgden, Astrid; Cucolo, Heather

    2011-09-01

    Public policy is necessarily a political process with the law and order issue high on the political agenda. Consequently, working with sex offenders is fraught with legal and ethical minefields, including the mandate that community protection automatically outweighs offender rights. In addressing community protection, contemporary sex offender treatment is based on management rather than rehabilitation. We argue that treatment-as-management violates offender rights because it is ineffective and unethical. The suggested alternative is to deliver treatment-as-rehabilitation underpinned by international human rights law and universal professional ethics. An effective and ethical community-offender balance is more likely when sex offenders are treated with respect and dignity that, as human beings, they have a right to claim.

  9. Sex Differences in White Matter Microstructure in the Human Brain Predominantly Reflect Differences in Sex Hormone Exposure.

    OpenAIRE

    van Hemmen, J; Saris, I. M. J.; Cohen-Kettenis, P. T.; Veltman, D.J.; Pouwels, P.J.W.; Bakker, Julie

    2017-01-01

    Sex differences have been described regarding several aspects of human brain morphology; however, the exact biological mechanisms underlying these differences remain unclear in humans. Women with the complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS), who lack androgen action in the presence of a 46,XY karyotype, offer the unique opportunity to study isolated effects of sex hormones and sex chromosomes on human neural sexual differentiation. In the present study, we used diffusion tensor imaging...

  10. Functional sex differences in human primary auditory cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruytjens, Liesbet; Georgiadis, Janniko R.; Holstege, Gert; Wit, Hero P.; Albers, Frans W. J.; Willemsen, Antoon T. M.

    2007-01-01

    Background We used PET to study cortical activation during auditory stimulation and found sex differences in the human primary auditory cortex (PAC). Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in 10 male and 10 female volunteers while listening to sounds (music or white noise) and during a

  11. Sex hormones and the immune response in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, Annechien; Heineman, Maas Jan; Faas, Marijke M.

    2005-01-01

    In addition to their effects on sexual differentiation and reproduction, sex hormones appear to influence the immune system. This results in a sexual dimorphism in the immune response in humans: for instance, females produce more vigorous cellular and more vigorous humoral immune reactions, are more

  12. Human Performance: Psychological and Physiological Sex Differences (A Selected Bibliography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-01

    Psychology of Women, 1977, _2, 187-190. 16. Wlrtenberg, J. Review of Humanness: An exploration into the mythologies about women and men edited by...aggression shows sex differences (Summary of paper presented by R. P. Rohner at the Easter Psychological Association Meeting, 1976). Behavior Today

  13. Osteometric sex determination of burned human skeletal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, D; Thompson, T J U; Cunha, E

    2013-10-01

    Sex determination of human burned skeletal remains is extremely hard to achieve because of heat-related fragmentation, warping and dimensional changes. In particular, the latter is impeditive of osteometric analyses that are based on references developed on unburned bones. New osteometric references were thus obtained which allow for more reliable sex determinations. The calcined remains of cremated Portuguese individuals were examined and specific standard measurements of the humerus, femur, talus and calcaneus were recorded. This allowed for the compilation of new sex discriminating osteometric references which were then tested on independent samples with good results. Both the use of simple section points and of logistic regression equations provided successful sex classification scores. These references may now be used for the sex determination of burned skeletons. Its reliability is highest for contemporary Portuguese remains but nonetheless these results have important repercussion for forensic research. More conservative use of these references may also prove valuable for other populations as well as for archaeological research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  14. Sex hormone receptors are present in the human suprachiasmatic nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruijver, Frank P M; Swaab, Dick F

    2002-05-01

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the clock of the brain that orchestrates circadian and circannual biological rhythms, such as the rhythms of hormones, body temperature, sleep and mood. These rhythms are frequently disturbed in menopause and even more so in dementia and can be restored in postmenopausal women by sex hormone replacement therapy (SHRT). Although it seems clear, both from clinical and experimental studies, that sex hormones influence circadian rhythms, it is not known whether this is by a direct or an indirect effect on the SCN. Therefore, using immunocytochemistry in the present study, we investigated whether the human SCN expresses sex hormone receptors in 5 premenopausal women and 5 young men. SCN neurons appeared to contain estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha), estrogen receptor-beta (ERbeta) and progesterone receptors. Median ratings of ER immunoreactivity per individual and per gender group revealed a statistically significantly stronger nuclear ERalpha expression pattern in female SCN neurons (p sexual dimorphic tendency was observed for nuclear ERbeta (p > 0.1) and progesterone receptors (p > 0.7). These data seem to support previously reported functional and structural SCN differences in relation to sex and sexual orientation and indicate for the first time that estrogen and progesterone may act directly on neurons of the human biological clock. In addition, the present findings provide a potential neuroendocrine mechanism by which SHRT can act to improve or restore SCN-related rhythm disturbances, such as body temperature, sleep and mood. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  15. Persistent Graves' hyperthyroidism despite rapid negative conversion of thyroid-stimulating hormone-binding inhibitory immunoglobulin assay results: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Nobumasa; Kaneko, Masanori; Kitazawa, Masaru; Uemura, Yasuyuki; Minagawa, Shinichi; Miyakoshi, Masashi; Kaneko, Kenzo; Kamoi, Kyuzi

    2017-02-06

    Graves' disease is an autoimmune thyroid disorder characterized by hyperthyroidism, and patients exhibit thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody. The major methods of measuring circulating thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody include the thyroid-stimulating hormone-binding inhibitory immunoglobulin assays. Although the diagnostic accuracy of these assays has been improved, a minority of patients with Graves' disease test negative even on second-generation and third-generation thyroid-stimulating hormone-binding inhibitory immunoglobulins. We report a rare case of a thyroid-stimulating hormone-binding inhibitory immunoglobulin-positive patient with Graves' disease who showed rapid lowering of thyroid-stimulating hormone-binding inhibitory immunoglobulin levels following administration of the anti-thyroid drug thiamazole, but still experienced Graves' hyperthyroidism. A 45-year-old Japanese man presented with severe hyperthyroidism (serum free triiodothyronine >25.0 pg/mL; reference range 1.7 to 3.7 pg/mL) and tested weakly positive for thyroid-stimulating hormone-binding inhibitory immunoglobulins on second-generation tests (2.1 IU/L; reference range Graves' hyperthyroidism. The possible explanations for serial changes in the thyroid-stimulating hormone-binding inhibitory immunoglobulin results in our patient include the presence of thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody, which is bioactive but less reactive on thyroid-stimulating hormone-binding inhibitory immunoglobulin assays, or the effect of reduced levels of circulating thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody upon improvement of thyroid autoimmunity with thiamazole treatment. Physicians should keep in mind that patients with Graves' disease may show thyroid-stimulating hormone-binding inhibitory immunoglobulin assay results that do not reflect the severity of Graves' disease or indicate the outcome of the disease, and that active Graves' disease may persist even after negative

  16. SEX DIFFERENCES AND REPRODUCTIVE HORMONE INFLUENCES ON HUMAN ODOR PERCEPTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, Richard L.; Cameron, E. Leslie

    2009-01-01

    The question of whether men and women differ in their ability to smell has been the topic of scientific investigation for over a hundred years. Although conflicting findings abound, most studies suggest that, for at least some odorants, women outperform men on tests of odor detection, identification, discrimination, and memory. Most functional imaging and electrophysiological studies similarly imply that, when sex differences are present, they favor women. In this review we examine what is known about sex-related alterations in human smell function, including influences of the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, gonadectomy, and hormone replacement therapy on a range of olfactory measures. We conclude that the relationship between reproductive hormones and human olfactory function is complex and that simple associations between circulating levels of gonadal hormones and measures of olfactory function are rarely present. PMID:19272398

  17. Polycystic ovary syndrome, hyperandrogenemia, sex hormone-binding globulin, and risks of pregnancy complications in singleton pregnancies after assisted reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naver, Klara

    2014-01-01

    Et klinisk prospektivt multicenterstudie. Projektet består af prægravid karakteristik af kvinder med og uden polycystisk ovariesyndrom (PCOS) før de opstarter fertilitetsbehandling. Når deltagerne er blevet gravide følges de i graviditeten med ultralydskanninger og målinger af insulin resistens, ...

  18. Postmenopausal sex hormones in relation to body fat distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liedtke, S.; Schmidt, M.E.; Vrieling, A.; Lukanova, A.; Becker, S.; Kaaks, R.; Zaineddin, A.K.; Buck, K.; Benner, A.; Chang-Claude, J.; Steindorf, K.

    2012-01-01

    Being overweight or obese increases the risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. A potential reason may be the frequently observed positive association of BMI with endogenous sex hormones and its negative association with sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). The purpose of this study was to investigate

  19. Functional sex differences in human primary auditory cortex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruytjens, Liesbet [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Groningen (Netherlands); University Medical Center Utrecht, Department Otorhinolaryngology, P.O. Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Georgiadis, Janniko R. [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Groningen (Netherlands); Holstege, Gert [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Center for Uroneurology, Groningen (Netherlands); Wit, Hero P. [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Groningen (Netherlands); Albers, Frans W.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department Otorhinolaryngology, P.O. Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Willemsen, Antoon T.M. [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2007-12-15

    We used PET to study cortical activation during auditory stimulation and found sex differences in the human primary auditory cortex (PAC). Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in 10 male and 10 female volunteers while listening to sounds (music or white noise) and during a baseline (no auditory stimulation). We found a sex difference in activation of the left and right PAC when comparing music to noise. The PAC was more activated by music than by noise in both men and women. But this difference between the two stimuli was significantly higher in men than in women. To investigate whether this difference could be attributed to either music or noise, we compared both stimuli with the baseline and revealed that noise gave a significantly higher activation in the female PAC than in the male PAC. Moreover, the male group showed a deactivation in the right prefrontal cortex when comparing noise to the baseline, which was not present in the female group. Interestingly, the auditory and prefrontal regions are anatomically and functionally linked and the prefrontal cortex is known to be engaged in auditory tasks that involve sustained or selective auditory attention. Thus we hypothesize that differences in attention result in a different deactivation of the right prefrontal cortex, which in turn modulates the activation of the PAC and thus explains the sex differences found in the activation of the PAC. Our results suggest that sex is an important factor in auditory brain studies. (orig.)

  20. Functional sex differences in human primary auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruytjens, Liesbet; Georgiadis, Janniko R; Holstege, Gert; Wit, Hero P; Albers, Frans W J; Willemsen, Antoon T M

    2007-12-01

    We used PET to study cortical activation during auditory stimulation and found sex differences in the human primary auditory cortex (PAC). Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in 10 male and 10 female volunteers while listening to sounds (music or white noise) and during a baseline (no auditory stimulation). We found a sex difference in activation of the left and right PAC when comparing music to noise. The PAC was more activated by music than by noise in both men and women. But this difference between the two stimuli was significantly higher in men than in women. To investigate whether this difference could be attributed to either music or noise, we compared both stimuli with the baseline and revealed that noise gave a significantly higher activation in the female PAC than in the male PAC. Moreover, the male group showed a deactivation in the right prefrontal cortex when comparing noise to the baseline, which was not present in the female group. Interestingly, the auditory and prefrontal regions are anatomically and functionally linked and the prefrontal cortex is known to be engaged in auditory tasks that involve sustained or selective auditory attention. Thus we hypothesize that differences in attention result in a different deactivation of the right prefrontal cortex, which in turn modulates the activation of the PAC and thus explains the sex differences found in the activation of the PAC. Our results suggest that sex is an important factor in auditory brain studies.

  1. THE AGE OF FREE WILL AND HUMAN VALUES : Sex Tourisms Evolution and Its Impact

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Mahfuz; Baghdasaryan, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    This thesis discussed about sex tourism which refers to how sex tourism works and its history. Human trafficking and sex trafficking was discussed as well as sex tourism which is involved directly to tourism industry was explained. The main goal of this thesis was to raise awareness of sex tourism violations. This thesis is about sex tourism and discussed the definition of rules and regulations from different international organizations and international newspapers and magazines as well a...

  2. Sex determination of human skeletal populations using latent profile analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passalacqua, Nicholas V; Zhang, Zhen; Pierce, Steven J

    2013-08-01

    Accurately estimating biological sex from the human skeleton can be especially difficult for fragmentary or incomplete remains often encountered in bioarchaeological contexts. Where typical anatomically dimorphic skeletal regions are incomplete or absent, observers often take their best guess to classify biological sex. Latent profile analysis (LPA) is a mixture modeling technique which uses observed continuous data to estimate unobserved categorical group membership using posterior probabilities. In this study, sex is the latent variable (male and female are the two latent classes), and the indicator variables used here were eight standard linear measurements (long bone lengths, diaphyseal and articular breadths, and circumferences). Mplus (Muthén and Muthén: Mplus user's guide, 6th ed. Los Angeles: Muthén & Muthén, 2010) was used to obtain maximum likelihood estimates for latent class membership from a known sample of individuals from the forensic data bank (FDB) (Jantz and Moore-Jansen: Database for forensic anthropology in the United States 1962-1991, Ann Arbor, MI: Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research, 2000) (n = 1,831), yielding 87% of correct classification for sex. Then, a simulation extracted 5,000 different random samples of 206 complete cases each from the FDB (these cases also had known sex). We then artificially imposed patterns of missing data similar to that observed in a poorly preserved bioarchaeological sample from Medieval Asturias, Spain (n = 206), and ran LPA on each sample. This tested the efficacy of LPA under extreme conditions of poor preservation (missing data, 42%). The simulation yielded an average of 82% accuracy, indicating that LPA is robust to large amounts of missing data when analyzing incomplete skeletons. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Sex beyond the genitalia: The human brain mosaic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel, Daphna; Berman, Zohar; Tavor, Ido; Wexler, Nadav; Gaber, Olga; Stein, Yaniv; Shefi, Nisan; Pool, Jared; Urchs, Sebastian; Margulies, Daniel S.; Liem, Franziskus; Hänggi, Jürgen; Jäncke, Lutz; Assaf, Yaniv

    2015-01-01

    Whereas a categorical difference in the genitals has always been acknowledged, the question of how far these categories extend into human biology is still not resolved. Documented sex/gender differences in the brain are often taken as support of a sexually dimorphic view of human brains (“female brain” or “male brain”). However, such a distinction would be possible only if sex/gender differences in brain features were highly dimorphic (i.e., little overlap between the forms of these features in males and females) and internally consistent (i.e., a brain has only “male” or only “female” features). Here, analysis of MRIs of more than 1,400 human brains from four datasets reveals extensive overlap between the distributions of females and males for all gray matter, white matter, and connections assessed. Moreover, analyses of internal consistency reveal that brains with features that are consistently at one end of the “maleness-femaleness” continuum are rare. Rather, most brains are comprised of unique “mosaics” of features, some more common in females compared with males, some more common in males compared with females, and some common in both females and males. Our findings are robust across sample, age, type of MRI, and method of analysis. These findings are corroborated by a similar analysis of personality traits, attitudes, interests, and behaviors of more than 5,500 individuals, which reveals that internal consistency is extremely rare. Our study demonstrates that, although there are sex/gender differences in the brain, human brains do not belong to one of two distinct categories: male brain/female brain. PMID:26621705

  4. Sex beyond the genitalia: The human brain mosaic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel, Daphna; Berman, Zohar; Tavor, Ido; Wexler, Nadav; Gaber, Olga; Stein, Yaniv; Shefi, Nisan; Pool, Jared; Urchs, Sebastian; Margulies, Daniel S; Liem, Franziskus; Hänggi, Jürgen; Jäncke, Lutz; Assaf, Yaniv

    2015-12-15

    Whereas a categorical difference in the genitals has always been acknowledged, the question of how far these categories extend into human biology is still not resolved. Documented sex/gender differences in the brain are often taken as support of a sexually dimorphic view of human brains ("female brain" or "male brain"). However, such a distinction would be possible only if sex/gender differences in brain features were highly dimorphic (i.e., little overlap between the forms of these features in males and females) and internally consistent (i.e., a brain has only "male" or only "female" features). Here, analysis of MRIs of more than 1,400 human brains from four datasets reveals extensive overlap between the distributions of females and males for all gray matter, white matter, and connections assessed. Moreover, analyses of internal consistency reveal that brains with features that are consistently at one end of the "maleness-femaleness" continuum are rare. Rather, most brains are comprised of unique "mosaics" of features, some more common in females compared with males, some more common in males compared with females, and some common in both females and males. Our findings are robust across sample, age, type of MRI, and method of analysis. These findings are corroborated by a similar analysis of personality traits, attitudes, interests, and behaviors of more than 5,500 individuals, which reveals that internal consistency is extremely rare. Our study demonstrates that, although there are sex/gender differences in the brain, human brains do not belong to one of two distinct categories: male brain/female brain.

  5. PARTIALLY CONSTRAINED SEX ALLOCATION AND THE INDIRECT EFFECTS OF ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNOLOGIES ON THE HUMAN SEX RATIO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Ian C W; Maalouf, Walid E

    2017-05-01

    Infertility affects around 15% of human couples and in many countries approximately 1-4% of babies are born following Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART). Several ART techniques are used and these differentially affect the sex ratio of offspring successfully produced. These direct effects on sex ratio also have the potential to influence, indirectly, the sex ratios of offspring born to untreated couples. This is of concern because human sex ratio bias may adversely affect public health. Here the extent of indirect effects of ART that could operate, via Fisherian frequency-dependent natural selection, on the progeny sex ratio of unassisted members of a population is heuristically modelled. Given the degrees to which ART techniques bias sex ratios directly, it is predicted that well over 20% of couples would have to reproduce via ART for there to be any discernible effect on the sex ratios produced, in response, by the remainder of the population. This value is greater than the estimated prevalence of infertility problems among human couples. It is concluded that providing ART to couples with fertility problems does not currently generate significant ethical issues or public health concern in terms of indirect effects on the offspring sex ratios of untreated couples.

  6. Sex differences in the human peripheral blood transcriptome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, R.; Batista, S.; Brooks, A.I.; Tischfield, J.A.; Willemsen, G.; Grootheest, G. van; Hottenga, J.J.; Milaneschi, Y.; Mbarek, H.; Madar, V.; Peyrot, W.J.; Vink, J.M.; Verweij, C.L.; Geus, E.J.C. de; Smit, J.H.; Wright, F.A.; Sullivan, P.F.; Boomsma, D.I.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Genomes of men and women differ in only a limited number of genes located on the sex chromosomes, whereas the transcriptome is far more sex-specific. Identification of sex-biased gene expression will contribute to understanding the molecular basis of sex-differences in complex traits and

  7. Hyperglycemia induces elevated expression of thyroid hormone binding protein in vivo in kidney and heart and in vitro in mesangial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Kafaji, Ghada [Diabetes Research Group, Division of Reproduction and Endocrinology, King' s College London (United Kingdom); Malik, Afshan N., E-mail: afshan.malik@kcl.ac.uk [Diabetes Research Group, Division of Reproduction and Endocrinology, King' s College London (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-22

    During a search for glucose-regulated abundant mRNAs in the diabetic rat kidney, we cloned thyroid hormone binding protein (THBP), also known as {mu}-crystallin or CRYM. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hyperglycemia/high glucose on the expression of THBP. THBP mRNA copy numbers were determined in kidneys and hearts of diabetic GK rats vs normoglycemic Wistar rats, and in human mesangial cells (HMCs) exposed to high glucose using real-time qPCR, and THBP protein levels were measured by Western blotting and immunofluorescence. Intracellular ROS was measured in THBP transfected cells using DCF fluorescence. Hyperglycemia significantly increased THBP mRNA in GK rat kidneys (326 {+-} 50 vs 147 {+-} 54, p < 0.05), and hearts (1583 {+-} 277 vs 191 {+-} 63, p < 0.05). Moreover, the levels of THBP mRNA increased with age and hyperglycemia in GK rat kidneys, whereas in normoglycemic Wistar rat kidneys there was a decline with age. High glucose significantly increased THBP mRNA (92 {+-} 37 vs 18 {+-} 4, p < 0.005), and protein in HMCs. The expression of THBP as a fusion protein in transfected HMCs resulted in reduction of glucose-induced intracellular ROS. We have shown that THBP mRNA is increased in diabetic kidney and heart, is regulated by high glucose in renal cells, and appears to attenuate glucose-induced intracellular ROS. These data suggest that THBP may be involved in the cellular pathways activated in response to glucose. This is the first report linking hyperglycemia with THBP and suggests that the role of THBP in diabetic complications should be further investigated.

  8. Human semen quality and the secondary sex ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jisuk Bae

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between semen quality and the secondary sex ratio (SSR, defined as the ratio of male to female live births. Our study cohort comprised 227 male partners who were enrolled prior to conception in Michigan and Texas between 2005 and 2009, and prospectively followed through delivery of a singleton birth. The male partners provided a baseline and a follow-up semen sample a month apart. Semen analysis was conducted to assess 27 parameters including five general characteristics, six sperm head measures, 14 morphology measures, and two sperm chromatin stability assay measures. Modified Poisson regression models with a robust error variance were used to estimate the relative risk (RR and 95% confidence interval (95% CI of a male birth for each semen parameter, after adjusting for potential confounders. Of the 27 semen parameters, only the percentage of bicephalic sperm was significantly associated with the SSR (2 nd vs 1 st quartile, RR, 0.65, 95% CI, 0.45-0.95, P = 0.03; 4 th vs 1 st quartile, RR, 0.61, 95% CI, 0.38-1.00, P < 0.05 before rounding to two decimal places, suggestive of a higher percentage of bicephalic sperm being associated with an excess of female births. Given the exploratory design of the present study, this preconception cohort study suggests no clear signal that human semen quality is associated with offspring sex determination.

  9. Time for sex: nycthemeral distribution of human sexual behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Refinetti Roberto

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nycthemeral (daily oscillation has been documented in a variety of physiological and behavioral processes. The present study was carried out to evaluate the existence of a nycthemeral rhythm of human sexual behavior and to identify environmental factors responsible for the rhythmic pattern. Methods Non-traditional university students (ages 18 to 51 years recorded the times of day when they went to sleep, when they woke up, and when they had sex for 3 consecutive weeks. They also answered a questionnaire designed to identify the causes of their selection of time for sex. Results The majority of sexual encounters took place at bedtime (11 pm to 1 am. The most common explanations for this temporal pattern were the rigidity of the professional work schedule and family obligations and the availability of the partner, which reduced the opportunity for sexual encounters at other times of the day. Conclusion Most sexual encounters take place around bedtime. Although the presence of an endogenous component responsible for this temporal pattern cannot be excluded, the evidence indicates strong environmental forcing, particularly from the work/family schedule of the individuals and from partner availability.

  10. Sex Differences in White Matter Microstructure in the Human Brain Predominantly Reflect Differences in Sex Hormone Exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hemmen, J; Saris, I M J; Cohen-Kettenis, P T; Veltman, D J; Pouwels, P J W; Bakker, J

    Sex differences have been described regarding several aspects of human brain morphology; however, the exact biological mechanisms underlying these differences remain unclear in humans. Women with the complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS), who lack androgen action in the presence of a 46,XY

  11. Sex Differences in White Matter Microstructure in the Human Brain Predominantly Reflect Differences in Sex Hormone Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hemmen, J; Saris, I M J; Cohen-Kettenis, P T; Veltman, D J; Pouwels, P J W; Bakker, J

    2017-05-01

    Sex differences have been described regarding several aspects of human brain morphology; however, the exact biological mechanisms underlying these differences remain unclear in humans. Women with the complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS), who lack androgen action in the presence of a 46,XY karyotype, offer the unique opportunity to study isolated effects of sex hormones and sex chromosomes on human neural sexual differentiation. In the present study, we used diffusion tensor imaging to investigate white matter (WM) microstructure in 46,XY women with CAIS (n = 20), 46,XY comparison men (n = 30), and 46,XX comparison women (n = 30). Widespread sex differences in fractional anisotropy (FA), with higher FA in comparison men than in comparison women, were observed. Women with CAIS showed female-typical FA throughout extended WM regions, predominantly due to female-typical radial diffusivity. These findings indicate a predominant role of sex hormones in the sexual differentiation of WM microstructure, although sex chromosome genes and/or masculinizing androgen effects not mediated by the androgen receptor might also play a role. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Common non-hormone binding component in non-transformed chick oviduct receptors of four steroid hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joab, I; Radanyi, C; Renoir, M; Buchou, T; Catelli, M G; Binart, N; Mester, J; Baulieu, E E

    Steroid hormones produce a response in target cells by binding to hormone-specific soluble receptors, which undergo a transformational change, leading to their interaction with chromatin and to modified gene expression. In a previous paper, we described a monoclonal antibody, BF4, that specifically recognizes and binds the non-transformed '8S' form of chicken oviduct progesterone receptor (8S-PR). We now show that BF4 does not form an immune complex with the 4S transformed form of 3H-progestin-labelled progesterone receptor, but does interact with the 8S non-transformed forms of the oestrogen, androgen and glucocorticosteroid receptors. Our results suggest that the antigenic determinant recognized by BF4 is present on a non-hormone binding unit, which we identify as a polypeptide of molecular weight (MW) 90,000 in the case of the progesterone receptor, and that this unit is common to other 8S non-transformed chicken steroid receptors.

  13. Relationship between sex hormone levels, bone mineral density ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Also, subjects were excluded from the study if they had conditions affecting bone metabolism. Different biochemical parameters were assayed: Testosterone, Estradiol, sex hormone binding globulin, Osteocalcin, vitamin D, crosslaps, intact parathyroid hormone and alkaline phosphatase. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry ...

  14. Structural and functional sex differences in the human hypothalamus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swaab, D. F.; Chung, W. C.; Kruijver, F. P.; Hofman, M. A.; Ishunina, T. A.

    2001-01-01

    Sex differences in the brain may be the basis not only for sex differences in reproduction, gender identity (the feeling of being male or female), and sexual orientation (heterosexuality vs homosexuality), but also for the sex difference in prevalence of psychiatric and neurological diseases ( Swaab

  15. Sex differences in social focus across the lifecycle in humans

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, Kunal; Monsivais, Daniel; Dunbar, Robin I M; Kaski, Kimmo

    2015-01-01

    Age and gender are two important factors that play crucial roles in the way organisms allocate their social effort. In this study, we analyse a large mobile phone dataset to explore the way lifehistory influences human sociality and the way social networks are structured. Our results indicate that these aspects of human behaviour are strongly related to the age and gender such that younger individuals have more contacts and, among them, males more than females. However, the rate of decrease in the number of contacts with age differs between males and females, such that there is a reversal in the number of contacts around the late 30s. We suggest that this pattern can be attributed to the difference in reproductive investments that are made by the two sexes. We analyse the inequality in social investment patterns and suggest that the age and gender-related differences that we find reflect the constraints imposed by reproduction in a context where time (a form of social capital) is limited.

  16. Growth hormone-binding proteins in high-speed cytosols of multiple tissues of the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herington, A C; Ymer, S; Roupas, P; Stevenson, J

    1986-04-11

    Soluble, specific binding protein(s) for growth hormone (GH) have been identified and partially characterized in high-speed cytosolic preparations from a number of rabbit tissues. The binding of 125I-labelled human GH to proteins in liver, heart, adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and kidney cytosols was dependent on time and cytosolic protein concentration. By Scatchard analysis, the binding affinities (KA: (2-7) X 10(9) M-1) were somewhat higher than those generally reported for membrane GH receptors. The binding proteins had a greater specificity for somatotrophic hormones than lactogenic hormones, although the kidney appeared to have, in addition, a lactogen-binding protein. By gel filtration, the Mr of the cytosolic GH-binding protein was approximately 100 000 in all tissues. None of the binding proteins was detectable by the poly(ethylene glycol) precipitation method used widely for soluble hormone receptors. The cytosolic GH-binding proteins also cross-reacted with a monoclonal antibody to the rabbit liver membrane GH receptor. These results indicate the ubiquitous presence of apparently naturally soluble GH-binding proteins in the cytosolic fractions of several tissues in the rabbit. Of great interest is their presence in muscle, where GH receptors or binding proteins have not previously been detected, despite muscle being recognized as a classical GH target tissue.

  17. Sex Reversal in Non-Human Placental Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parma, Pietro; Veyrunes, Frédéric; Pailhoux, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Gonads are very peculiar organs given their bipotential competence. Indeed, early differentiating genital ridges evolve into either of 2 very distinct organs: the testis or the ovary. Accumulating evidence now demonstrates that both genetic pathways must repress the other in order for the organs to differentiate properly, meaning that if this repression is disrupted or attenuated, the other pathway may completely or partially be expressed, leading to disorders of sex development. Among these disorders are the cases of XY male-to-female and XX female-to-male sex reversals as well as true hermaphrodites, in which there is a discrepancy between the chromosomal and gonadal sex. Here, we review known cases of XY and XX sex reversals described in mammals, focusing mostly on domestic animals where sex reversal pathologies occur and on wild species in which deviations from the usual XX/XY system have been documented. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Sex ratio at birth and mortality rates are negatively related in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhukar Shivajirao Dama

    Full Text Available Evolutionary theory posits that resource availability and parental investment ability could signal offspring sex selection, in order to maximize reproductive returns. Non-human studies have provided evidence for this phenomenon, and maternal condition around the time of conception has been identified as most important factor that influence offspring sex selection. However, studies on humans have reported inconsistent results, mostly due to use of disparate measures as indicators of maternal condition. In the present study, the cross-cultural differences in human natal sex ratio were analyzed with respect to indirect measures of condition namely, life expectancy and mortality rate. Multiple regression modeling suggested that mortality rates have distinct predictive power independent of cross-cultural differences in fertility, wealth and latitude that were earlier shown to predict sex ratio at birth. These findings suggest that sex ratio variation in humans may relate to differences in parental and environmental conditions.

  19. Human Trafficking and the Sex Industry in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana María Pena Rios

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper will examine the demand for the sex industry in Japan and the subsequent supply of foreign women from across the world. What drives demand for foreign women to work in the Japanese sex industry? What are the local drivers that bring women into the sex industry? How are the systems in place that brought these women across the world? What is the connection with organized crime, economic instability, and legal systems? This paper seeks to address these questions and pose possible solutions.

  20. Adult sex ratios and reproductive strategies: a critical re-examination of sex differences in human and animal societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schacht, Ryan; Kramer, Karen L; Székely, Tamás; Kappeler, Peter M

    2017-09-19

    It is increasingly recognized that the relative proportion of potential mates to competitors in a population impacts a range of sex-specific behaviours and in particular mating and reproduction. However, while the adult sex ratio (ASR) has long been recognized as an important link between demography and behaviour, this relationship remains understudied. Here, we introduce the first inter-disciplinary collection of research on the causes and consequences of variation in the ASR in human and animal societies. This important topic is relevant to a wide audience of both social and biological scientists due to the central role that the relative number of males to females in a population plays for the evolution of, and contemporary variation in, sex roles across groups, species and higher taxa. The articles in this theme issue cover research on ASR across a variety of taxa and topics. They offer critical re-evaluations of theoretical foundations within both evolutionary and non-evolutionary fields, and propose innovative methodological approaches, present new empirical examples of behavioural consequences of ASR variation and reveal that the ASR plays a major role in determining population viability, especially in small populations and species with labile sex determination. This introductory paper puts the contributions of the theme issue into a broader context, identifies general trends across the literature and formulates directions for future research.This article is part of the themed issue 'Adult sex ratios and reproductive decisions: a critical re-examination of sex differences in human and animal societies'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  1. Evidence of adaptive intergenerational sex ratio adjustment in contemporary human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shige

    2014-03-01

    Using the abrupt decline in sex ratio at birth in China during and immediately after the 1959-1961 Great Leap Forward Famine in China as a natural experiment, this study conducts difference-in-differences analysis to test the hypothesis that changes in the sex ratio at birth of the maternal generation can produce adaptive changes in the sex ratio at birth of the offspring generation toward the opposite direction, which was derived from the developmental and evolutionary psychological literature on female reproductive strategy. The results show that, after controlling for sex-selective abortion, the decline in the sex ratio at birth in 1962-1964 caused a substantial increase in the sex ratio at birth among children whose mothers were born in 1963. Such finding suggests the presence of adaptive intergenerational sex ratio adjustment in humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Cell Type-Specific Expression of Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone-Binding Protein in GABAergic Interneurons in the Prefrontal Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle D. Ketchesin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Corticotropin-releasing hormone-binding protein (CRH-BP is a secreted glycoprotein that binds CRH with very high affinity to modulate CRH receptor activity. CRH-BP is widely expressed throughout the brain, with particularly high expression in regions such as the amygdala, hippocampus, ventral tegmental area and prefrontal cortex (PFC. Recent studies suggest a role for CRH-BP in stress-related psychiatric disorders and addiction, with the PFC being a potential site of interest. However, the molecular phenotype of CRH-BP-expressing cells in this region has not been well-characterized. In the current study, we sought to determine the cell type-specific expression of CRH-BP in the PFC to begin to define the neural circuits in which this key regulator is acting. To characterize the expression of CRH-BP in excitatory and/or inhibitory neurons, we utilized dual in situ hybridization to examine the cellular colocalization of CRH-BP mRNA with vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT or glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD mRNA in different subregions of the PFC. We show that CRH-BP is expressed predominantly in GABAergic interneurons of the PFC, as revealed by the high degree of colocalization (>85% between CRH-BP and GAD. To further characterize the expression of CRH-BP in this heterogenous group of inhibitory neurons, we examined the colocalization of CRH-BP with various molecular markers of GABAergic interneurons, including parvalbumin (PV, somatostatin (SST, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP and cholecystokinin (CCK. We demonstrate that CRH-BP is colocalized predominantly with SST in the PFC, with lower levels of colocalization in PV- and CCK-expressing neurons. Our results provide a more comprehensive characterization of the cell type-specific expression of CRH-BP and begin to define its potential role within circuits of the PFC. These results will serve as the basis for future in vivo studies to manipulate CRH-BP in a cell type-specific manner to better

  3. Placental expression of estrogen receptor beta and its hormone binding variant – comparison with estrogen receptor alpha and a role for estrogen receptors in asymmetric division and differentiation of estrogen-dependent cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henley Donald C

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During human pregnancy, the production of 17-beta-estradiol (E2 rises steadily to eighty fold at term, and placenta has been found to specifically bind estrogens. We have recently demonstrated the expression of estrogen receptor alpha (ER-alpha protein in human placenta and its localization in villous cytotrophoblast (CT, vascular pericytes, and amniotic fibroblasts. In vitro, E2 stimulated development of large syncytiotrophoblast (ST aggregates. In the present study we utilized ER-beta affinity purified polyclonal (N19:sc6820 and ER-alpha monoclonal (clone h-151 antibodies. Western blot analysis revealed a single ~52 kDa ER-beta band in chorionic villi (CV protein extracts. In CV, strong cytoplasmic ER-beta immunoreactivity was confined to ST. Dual color immunohistochemistry revealed asymmetric segregation of ER-alpha in dividing villous CT cells. Prior to separation, the cell nuclei more distant from ST exhibited high ER-alpha, while cell nuclei associated with ST showed diminution of ER-alpha and appearance of ER-beta. In trophoblast cultures, development of ST aggregates was associated with diminution of ER-alpha and appearance of ER-beta immunoreactivity. ER-beta was also detected in endothelial cells, amniotic epithelial cells and fibroblasts, extravillous trophoblast (nuclear and cytoplasmic and decidual cells (cytoplasmic only. In addition, CFK-E12 (E12 and CWK-F12 (F12 monoclonal antibodies, which recognize ~64 kDa ER-beta with hormone binding domain, showed nuclear-specific reactivity with villous ST, extravillous trophoblast, and amniotic epithelium and fibroblasts. Western blot analysis indicated abundant expression of a ~64 kDa ER-beta variant in trophoblast cultures, significantly higher when compared to the chorionic villi and freshly isolated trophoblast cell protein extracts. This is the first report on ER-beta expression in human placenta and cultured trophoblast. Our data indicate that during trophoblast

  4. A statistical analysis of the effect of warfare on the human secondary sex ratio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graffelman, J.; Hoekstra, R.F.

    2000-01-01

    Many factors have been hypothesized to affect the human secondary sex ratio (the annual percentage of males among all live births), among them race, parental ages, and birth order. Some authors have even proposed warfare as a factor influencing live birth sex ratios. The hypothesis that during and

  5. Trends of human sex ratio at birth and twinning rate in Ibadan, south ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The human sex ratio at birth (SRB) and frequency of twinning are demographic parameters that vary among populations. A retrospective study was carried out to investigate the trend of SRB, as well as twinning rate in Ibadan, Nigeria. Data on sexes of singletons, twins, triplets and quadruplets from 1997 to 2008 collected ...

  6. High human immunodeficiency virus incidence in a cohort of Rwandan female sex workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braunstein, Sarah L.; Ingabire, Chantal M.; Kestelyn, Evelyne; Uwizera, Aline Umutoni; Mwamarangwe, Lambert; Ntirushwa, Justin; Nash, Denis; Veldhuijzen, Nienke J.; Nel, Annalene; Vyankandondera, Joseph; van de Wijgert, Janneke H. H. M.

    2011-01-01

    Measurement of human immunodeficiency virus(HIV) incidence among female sex workers in Rwanda is a key part of preparing for HIV prevention trials. HIV-negative, nonpregnant female sex workers (N =397) were tested for HIV-1, sexually transmitted infections, and pregnancy quarterly for 12 months, and

  7. Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Intention among College Men: What's Oral Sex Got to Do with It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Richard A.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Salazar, Laura F.; Nash, Rachel; Younge, Sinead; Head, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To identify associations between engaging in oral sex and perceived risk of oral cancer among college men. Also, to identify associations, and their moderating factors, between oral sex and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine acceptance. Methods: Young men were recruited from 2 university campuses in the South (N = 150). Men completed an…

  8. Exocranial surfaces for sex assessment of the human cranium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musilová, Barbora; Dupej, Ján; Velemínská, Jana; Chaumoitre, Kathia; Bruzek, Jaroslav

    2016-12-01

    Determination of sex is one of the most important and challenging disciplines in biological anthropology. Creating a robust tool for sexing crania is crucial for forensic anthropology, especially in this period of migration, travel, and globalization, when different populations are mixed together in one region. Many different approaches to sex estimation using the skull have been published; however, population specificity and oscillation of variable sexual dimorphism typically reduces their effectiveness. The aim of this study was to create a robust classifier using virtual anthropology without the use of a CT scanner. The entire cranial surface was analyzed using coherent point drift-dense correspondence analysis and classification was performed using a support vector machine with a radial kernel, minimizing subjective error. The study sample consisted of 103 CT scans of a recent southern French population. Virtual scans of 52 males and 51 females (age from 18 to 92) were analyzed using 3D software systems (Rapidform, Avizo, Morphome3cs) and innovative approaches in geometric morphometrics. Leave-one-out crossvalidation was also applied. Sex differences in shape and form were displayed by colour scale maps. The whole cranial surface was significantly different between males and females in size (form). Sexual dimorphism was significantly lower in senile skulls. The most exclusive areas were the supraorbital region, orbits, cheek bones, nasal apertures, mastoids, and external occipital protuberances. The method provided a high level of classification accuracy (90.3%) in sexing male and female skulls and is a valuable tool for sex determination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Human rights abuses and collective resilience among sex workers in four African countries: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Sex work is a criminal offence, virtually throughout Africa. This criminalisation and the intense stigma attached to the profession shapes interactions between sex workers and their clients, family, fellow community members, and societal structures such as the police and social services. Methods We explore the impact of violence and related human rights abuses on the lives of sex workers, and how they have responded to these conditions, as individuals and within small collectives. These analyses are based on data from 55 in-depth interviews and 12 focus group discussions with female, male and transgender sex workers in Kenya, South Africa, Uganda and Zimbabwe. Data were collected by sex worker outreach workers trained to conduct qualitative research among their peers. Results In describing their experiences of unlawful arrests and detention, violence, extortion, vilification and exclusions, participants present a picture of profound exploitation and repeated human rights violations. This situation has had an extreme impact on the physical, mental and social wellbeing of this population. Overall, the article details the multiple effects of sex work criminalisation on the everyday lives of sex workers and on their social interactions and relationships. Underlying their stories, however, are narratives of resilience and resistance. Sex workers in our study draw on their own individual survival strategies and informal forms of support and very occasionally opt to seek recourse through formal channels. They generally recognize the benefits of unified actions in assisting them to counter risks in their environment and mobilise against human rights violations, but note how the fluctuant and stigmatised nature of their profession often undermines collective action. Conclusions While criminal laws urgently need reform, supporting sex work self-organisation and community-building are key interim strategies for safeguarding sex workers’ human rights and improving

  10. Kisspeptin Expression in the Human Infundibular Nucleus in Relation to Sex, Gender Identity, and Sexual Orientation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taziaux, Melanie; Staphorsius, Annemieke S; Ghatei, Mohammad A; Bloom, Stephen R; Swaab, Dick F; Bakker, Julie

    CONTEXT: Since the discovery of its central role in reproduction, our functional neuroanatomical knowledge of the hypothalamic kisspeptin system is predominantly based on animal studies. Although sex differences in kisspeptin expression have been shown in humans in adulthood, the developmental

  11. SEX WORK, LAW, AND VIOLENCE: BEDFORD V. CANADA AND THE HUMAN RIGHTS OF SEX WORKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Hudson

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In Bedford v. Canada, two levels of Ontario courts ruled that a selection of criminal laws prohibiting prostitution-related activities unjustifiably deprive sex workers of their right to liberty and security of the person.The courts struck down or modified some of the offending provisions to ensure that sex workers are better able to take precautions against violence. While sex workers consider the Ontario Superior Court of Justice ruling a victory and the Ontario Court of Appeal ruling a partial victory, the government, some women’s rights groups, and other defenders of the provisions argue that courts ventured into a “policy thicket”, which is to suggest that they had stepped outside of their legitimate institutional role. Associated concerns include that the decisions effectively constitutionalize prostitution and will pre-empt or curtail Parliament’s consideration of legislative options.      In this paper, the authors clarify misconceptions about the constitutional foundations and implications of Bedford, and explore how the ruling might affect legal and policy-based interactions among various stakeholders. Approaching constitutional rights as discursive mechanisms, rather than as “trumps”, we argue that Bedford will not hinder the continuation of democratic debate about whether, how, and why aspects of sex work should be regulated. To the contrary, Bedford is more likely to enhance the quality of debates by making them more inclusive of the perspectives of sex workers as well as accommodative of growing empirical research that has hitherto been ignored or misrecognized.   Dans l’affaire Bedford v. Canada, deux tribunaux ontariens ont conclu que des dispositions législatives du droit criminel interdisant les activités liées à la prostitution privaient de façon injustifiée les travailleurs et travailleuses du sexe du droit à la liberté et à la sécurité de leur personne. Ces tribunaux ont d

  12. Carrying Behavior in Humans: Analysis of Sex Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenni, Donald A.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Reported is a significant correlation between book carrying behavior and sex stereotype which appear to be a consequence of social modeling. Second grade and older males typically carry books at their sides while females carry books against their chests. Kindergarten and first grade students typically carry books by their sides. (SL)

  13. Socioeconomic status determines sex-dependent survival of human offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodegom, van D.; Rozing, M.P.; May, L.; Meij, H.J.; Thomese, F.; Zwaan, B.J.; Westendorp, R.G.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background and objectives: In polygynous societies, rich men have many offspring through the marriage of multiple wives. Evolutionary, rich households would therefore benefit more from sons, and according to the Trivers–Willard hypothesis, parents invest more in offspring of the sex that has the

  14. Vulnerability of Nigerian Secondary School to Human Sex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim is to assess in-school students' knowledge and awareness of, and attitude toward sex trafficking as a way to understanding their personal vulnerability to trafficking. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered in 2004-2005 to a classroom random sample of 689 adolescents in the age range of 16-20 years.

  15. Sex Ratio at Birth and Mortality Rates Are Negatively Related in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Madhukar Shivajirao Dama

    2011-01-01

    Evolutionary theory posits that resource availability and parental investment ability could signal offspring sex selection, in order to maximize reproductive returns. Non-human studies have provided evidence for this phenomenon, and maternal condition around the time of conception has been identified as most important factor that influence offspring sex selection. However, studies on humans have reported inconsistent results, mostly due to use of disparate measures as indicators of maternal c...

  16. The Impact of Working with Human Sex Trafficking Survivors on Clinicians' Personal and Professional Lives

    OpenAIRE

    Thai, An Xuan

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological study considered the experience of a clinician working with victims and survivors of human sex trafficking and their families. In the overwhelming majority of cases, family members were not involved in the clinical treatment of human sex trafficking survivors. The clinicians primarily worked with the individual client. The data from phone interviews was analyzed using thematic analysis, which resulted in the following themes emerging: vulnerability to seco...

  17. Skeletal sexing standards of human remains in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Gulhan, O

    2017-01-01

    The identification of victims involved in mass fatality incidents, as well as the identification of unknown individuals in criminal cases has become an increasingly important issue nowadays. Sex assessment represents a key point in forensic evaluations due to its significance in providing biological identity. Even though the availability of documented skeletal remains to forensic practitioners is a common practice in many countries, in Turkey, contemporary documented skeletal remains are not ...

  18. Does sexual selection explain human sex differences in aggression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, John

    2009-08-01

    I argue that the magnitude and nature of sex differences in aggression, their development, causation, and variability, can be better explained by sexual selection than by the alternative biosocial version of social role theory. Thus, sex differences in physical aggression increase with the degree of risk, occur early in life, peak in young adulthood, and are likely to be mediated by greater male impulsiveness, and greater female fear of physical danger. Male variability in physical aggression is consistent with an alternative life history perspective, and context-dependent variability with responses to reproductive competition, although some variability follows the internal and external influences of social roles. Other sex differences, in variance in reproductive output, threat displays, size and strength, maturation rates, and mortality and conception rates, all indicate that male aggression is part of a sexually selected adaptive complex. Physical aggression between partners can be explained using different evolutionary principles, arising from the conflicts of interest between males and females entering a reproductive alliance, combined with variability following differences in societal gender roles. In this case, social roles are particularly important since they enable both the relatively equality in physical aggression between partners from Western nations, and the considerable cross-national variability, to be explained.

  19. Sex differences in intrinsic brain functional connectivity underlying human shyness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xun; Wang, Siqi; Kendrick, Keith Maurice; Wu, Xi; Yao, Li; Lei, Du; Kuang, Weihong; Bi, Feng; Huang, Xiaoqi; He, Yong; Gong, Qiyong

    2015-12-01

    Shyness is a fundamental trait associated with social-emotional maladaptive behaviors, including many forms of psychopathology. Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that hyper-responsivity to social and emotional stimuli occurs in the frontal cortex and limbic system in shy individuals, but the relationship between shyness and brain-wide functional connectivity remains incompletely understood. Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, we addressed this issue by exploring the relationship between regional functional connectivity strength (rFCS) and scores of shyness in a cohort of 61 healthy young adults and controlling for the effects of social and trait anxiety scores. We observed that the rFCS of the insula positively correlated with shyness scores regardless of sex. Furthermore, we found that there were significant sex-by-shyness interactions in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and insula (two core nodes of the salience network) as well as the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex: the rFCS values of these regions positively correlated with shyness scores in females but negatively correlated in males. Taken together, we provide evidence for intrinsic functional connectivity differences in individuals with different degrees of shyness and that these differences are sex-dependent. These findings might have important implications on the understanding of biological mechanisms underlying emotional and cognitive processing associated with shyness. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Sex hormones in postmenopausal women with primary biliary cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, U; Almdal, T; Christensen, E

    1991-01-01

    To evaluate serum sex hormone profiles in nonalcoholic postmenopausal women with liver disease, 25 women with primary biliary cirrhosis (11 in cirrhotic stage) and 46 healthy controls were studied. The patients had significantly (p less than 0.05) elevated serum concentrations of estrone and andr......To evaluate serum sex hormone profiles in nonalcoholic postmenopausal women with liver disease, 25 women with primary biliary cirrhosis (11 in cirrhotic stage) and 46 healthy controls were studied. The patients had significantly (p less than 0.05) elevated serum concentrations of estrone...... and androstenedione and significantly (p less than 0.05) lower concentrations of estrone sulfate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone compared with the 46 controls. Serum concentrations of sex hormone binding globulin, testosterone, non-sex hormone binding globulin-bound testosterone...... and non-protein-bound testosterone did not differ significantly (p greater than 0.05) between primary biliary cirrhosis patients and controls. Patients in the cirrhotic stage had significantly (p less than 0.05) higher concentrations of sex hormone binding globulin than did controls. Patients...

  1. Molecular sex identification of dry human teeth specimens from Sokoto, Northwestern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagga, Ad; Ahmed, H Oon; Ismail, Sm; Tadros, Aa

    2014-05-01

    The advent of molecular techniques has revolutionized the ability of scientists to estimate the sex of individuals. Forensic odontology plays an important role in establishing the sex of victims with bodies mutilated beyond recognition due to major disaster. The genetic difference between males and females is defined by the presence or absence of the Y-chromosome. The use of alphoid-repeat primers in sex estimation was first applied on dried blood. Generally, the X, Y alphoid repeats blind test attest to the accuracy of genetic testing, and also point the potential for occasional error in morphometric sexing. To estimate genetic sex of dry human teeth specimens from Sokoto, Northwestern Nigeria, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A single-blind study of DNA analysis for sex estimation of nine dry human teeth specimens from Sokoto, Northwestern Nigeria, through PCR, using alphoid repeats primers, was undertaken. The genetic sex of each group of the teeth samples were accurately (100%) identified. For each group of teeth, PCR Sensitivity = 100%, Specificity = 0%, Predictive value of positive test = 100%, Predictive value of negative test = 0%, False positive rate = 0%, False negative rate = 0%, Efficiency of test = 100%. Fisher's exact probability test P = 1. Z-test: z- and P values were invalid. This study has demonstrated the successful use of alphoid-repeat primers in genetic sex identification of human dry teeth samples from Sokoto, Northwestern Nigeria. This is the first known study estimating the sex of human dry teeth specimens by means of PCR in Nigeria. There is need for further studies in Nigeria to complement the findings of this study.

  2. Circulating sex hormones in relation to anthropometric, sociodemographic and behavioural factors in an international dataset of 12,300 men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor L Watts

    Full Text Available Sex hormones have been implicated in the etiology of a number of diseases. To better understand disease etiology and the mechanisms of disease-risk factor associations, this analysis aimed to investigate the associations of anthropometric, sociodemographic and behavioural factors with a range of circulating sex hormones and sex hormone-binding globulin.Statistical analyses of individual participant data from 12,330 male controls aged 25-85 years from 25 studies involved in the Endogenous Hormones Nutritional Biomarkers and Prostate Cancer Collaborative Group. Analysis of variance was used to estimate geometric means adjusted for study and relevant covariates.Older age was associated with higher concentrations of sex hormone-binding globulin and dihydrotestosterone and lower concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, free testosterone, androstenedione, androstanediol glucuronide and free estradiol. Higher body mass index was associated with higher concentrations of free estradiol, androstanediol glucuronide, estradiol and estrone and lower concentrations of dihydrotestosterone, testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin, free testosterone, androstenedione and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate. Taller height was associated with lower concentrations of androstenedione, testosterone, free testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin and higher concentrations of androstanediol glucuronide. Current smoking was associated with higher concentrations of androstenedione, sex hormone-binding globulin and testosterone. Alcohol consumption was associated with higher concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, androstenedione and androstanediol glucuronide. East Asians had lower concentrations of androstanediol glucuronide and African Americans had higher concentrations of estrogens. Education and marital status were modestly associated with a small number of hormones.Circulating sex hormones in men are strongly associated with age and body mass

  3. Sex differences in drug addiction and response to exercise intervention: From human to animal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuehui; Zhao, Min; Zhou, Chenglin; Li, Rena

    2016-01-01

    Accumulated research supports the idea that exercise could be an option of potential prevention and treatment for drug addiction. During the past few years, there has been increased interest in investigating of sex differences in exercise and drug addiction. This demonstrates that sex-specific exercise intervention strategies may be important for preventing and treating drug addiction in men and women. However, little is known about how and why sex differences are found when doing exercise-induced interventions for drug addiction. In this review, we included both animal and human that pulled subjects from a varied age demographic, as well as neurobiological mechanisms that may highlight the sex-related differences in these potential to assess the impact of sex-specific roles in drug addiction and exercise therapies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Sex differences in drug addiction and response to exercise intervention: from human to animal studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuehui; Zhao, Min; Zhou, Chenglin; Li, Rena

    2015-01-01

    Accumulated research supports the idea that exercise could be an option of potential prevention and treatment for drug addiction. During the past few years, there has been increased interest in investigating of sex differences in exercise and drug addiction. This demonstrates that sex-specific exercise intervention strategies may be important for preventing and treating drug addiction in men and women. However, little is known about how and why sex differences are found when doing exercise-induced interventions for drug addiction. In this review, we included both animal and human that pulled subjects from a varied age demographic, as well as neurobiological mechanisms that may highlight the sex-related differences in these potential to assess the impact of sex-specific roles in drug addiction and exercise therapies. PMID:26182835

  5. The Effects of Control of Resources on Magnitudes of Sex Differences in Human Mate Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fhionna Moore

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We tested the hypothesis that magnitudes of sex differences in human mate preferences would be inversely related to control of resources. Specifically, we predicted that the ideal partner age, maximum and minimum partner ages tolerated and preferences for “physical attractiveness” over “good financial prospects” of female participants would approach parity with that of men with increasing control of resources. In a sample of 3770 participants recruited via an online survey, the magnitudes of sex differences in age preferences increased with resource control whereas the sex difference in preferences for “physical attractiveness” over “good financial prospects” disappeared when resource control was high. Results are inconsistent, and are discussed in the context of adaptive tradeoff and biosocial models of sex differences in human mate preferences.

  6. Kisspeptin Expression in the Human Infundibular Nucleus in Relation to Sex, Gender Identity, and Sexual Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taziaux, Melanie; Staphorsius, Annemieke S; Ghatei, Mohammad A; Bloom, Stephen R; Swaab, Dick F; Bakker, Julie

    2016-06-01

    Since the discovery of its central role in reproduction, our functional neuroanatomical knowledge of the hypothalamic kisspeptin system is predominantly based on animal studies. Although sex differences in kisspeptin expression have been shown in humans in adulthood, the developmental origin of this sex difference is unknown. Our objectives were to determine the following: 1) when during development the sex difference in kisspeptin expression in the infundibular nucleus would emerge and 2) whether this sex difference is related to sexual orientation or transsexuality. Postmortem hypothalamic tissues were collected by The Netherlands Brain Bank, and sections were stained for kisspeptin by immunohistochemistry. Hypothalami of 43 control subjects were categorized into three periods: infant/prepubertal (six girls, seven boys), adult (11 women, seven men), and elderly (six aged women, six aged men). Eight male-to-female (MTF) transsexuals, three HIV(+) heterosexual men, and five HIV(+) homosexual men were also analyzed. We estimated the total number of kisspeptin-immunoreactive neurons within the infundibular nucleus. Quantitative analysis confirmed that the human infundibular kisspeptin system exhibits a female-dominant sex difference. The number of kisspeptin neurons is significantly greater in the infant/prepubertal and elderly periods compared with the adult period. Finally, in MTF transsexuals, but not homosexual men, a female-typical kisspeptin expression was observed. These findings suggest that infundibular kisspeptin neurons are sensitive to circulating sex steroid hormones throughout life and that the sex reversal observed in MTF transsexuals might reflect, at least partially, an atypical brain sexual differentiation.

  7. Bedford v. Canada: a paradigmatic case toward ensuring the human and health rights of sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galldin, Karin; Robertson, Leslie; Wiseman, Charlene

    2011-10-01

    The Criminal Code of Canada prohibits certain aspects of sex work: the keeping of a common bawdy-house, living off the avails of prostitution and communicating for the purposes of prostitution in a public place. These legal constraints impede sex workers' ability to practise their profession safely and without risk to their bodily integrity; they also impair their personal autonomy and can lead to their stigmatization. Bedford v. Canada is a groundbreaking case, since the applicants and intervening organizations seek to overturn aspects of Canadian law that specifically put the health and human rights of sex workers at risk.

  8. Sex differences in anxiety during adolescence : evidence from rodents and humans

    OpenAIRE

    Lynn, Debra Alana

    2012-01-01

    Anxiety disorders commonly emerge during adolescence, and girls are diagnosed with these disorders more frequently than boys. Understanding why anxiety disorders emerge and why non-clinical anxiety symptoms increase during adolescence is important for understanding this sex difference and how to treat adolescent sufferers. Potential mechanisms, such as puberty or cognitive biases, can be investigated both in humans and in rodent models of anxiety. This thesis aimed to characterise sex differe...

  9. The representation of sex workers in South African media: Danger, morals and human rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally Hunt

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The ideological construct of gender typically positions women below men, and “others” certain types of women even more, especially those distinguished from idealised femininity by aspects of their sexuality. This paper explores the representation of sex work and sex workers in the South African media in 2009 and 2010, a time during which there was an increase in news coverage of sex work during the 2010 FIFA World Cup. Analysis of the two data sets revealed that sex work is still often perceived as immoral and dangerous, and that sex workers – overwhelmingly represented as women – are criminalised for their actions while client agency is largely obscured, which is in line with previous studies of South African newspapers. However, a strong liberal representation of sex workers was also found in one data set, which advocates the decriminalisation of sex work in the context of human rights. The use of the term “sex work” and its derivatives, rather than “prostitution”, was found to index this progressive stance.

  10. THE LANCET SERIES ON HIV IN SEX WORKERS; PAPER 4 BURDEN AND HIV IMPACT OF HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS AGAINST SEX WORKERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Michele R.; Crago, Anna-Louise; Ka Hon Chu, Sandra; Sherman, Susan G.; Saraswathi Seshu, Meena; Buthelezi, Kholi; Dhaliwal, Mandeep; Beyrer, Chris

    2015-01-01

    We reviewed evidence from over 800 studies and reports on the burden and HIV impact of human rights abuses against sex workers across policy climates. Published research documents widespread abuses of human rights perpetrated by both state and non-state actors. Such violations facilitate HIV vulnerability, both directly and indirectly, and undermine effective HIV prevention and intervention efforts. Violations include homicide, physical and sexual violence from law enforcement, clients and intimate partners, unlawful arrest and detention, discrimination in accessing health services, and forced HIV testing. Abuses occur across all policy regimes, though most profoundly so where sex work is criminalized through punitive law. Protection of sex workers’ human rights is critical to respect, protect and fulfill human rights, and to improve their health and wellbeing. Findings affirm the value of rights-based HIV responses for sex workers, and underscore the obligation of states to uphold the rights of this marginalized population. PMID:25059943

  11. Current states of opinion and future directions on the epidemiology of sex differences in human pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigil, Jacob M

    2011-01-01

    One of the most commonly neglected findings in the human pain literature is the observation of sex differences in the mechanisms that support the phenotypic expression of pain. The present commentary describes an assessment of the prevalence of observed sex differences in various pain processes, and of how expert pain researchers interpret the epidemiology and, hence, the proximate and ultimate causes of such differences. Forty-two pain investigators completed an anonymous survey on the epidemiology of sex differences in the human pain experience. Investigator responses indicated that sex differences are pervasive across various areas of pain research, that sex differences are particularly pronounced in the area of situational influences on pain behaviors, and that contemporary pain researchers largely disagree on the epidemiology of, and hence, proximate and ultimate causes of the differences. The relevance of social situational factors on sex differences in pain behaviours is discussed in the context of evolutionary, developmental, social psychology and pain sensory systems that may function, in part, for regulating interpersonal intimacy. PMID:22059202

  12. A meta-analysis of sex differences in human brain structure☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruigrok, Amber N.V.; Salimi-Khorshidi, Gholamreza; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Lombardo, Michael V.; Tait, Roger J.; Suckling, John

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence, age of onset, and symptomatology of many neuropsychiatric conditions differ between males and females. To understand the causes and consequences of sex differences it is important to establish where they occur in the human brain. We report the first meta-analysis of typical sex differences on global brain volume, a descriptive account of the breakdown of studies of each compartmental volume by six age categories, and whole-brain voxel-wise meta-analyses on brain volume and density. Gaussian-process regression coordinate-based meta-analysis was used to examine sex differences in voxel-based regional volume and density. On average, males have larger total brain volumes than females. Examination of the breakdown of studies providing total volumes by age categories indicated a bias towards the 18–59 year-old category. Regional sex differences in volume and tissue density include the amygdala, hippocampus and insula, areas known to be implicated in sex-biased neuropsychiatric conditions. Together, these results suggest candidate regions for investigating the asymmetric effect that sex has on the developing brain, and for understanding sex-biased neurological and psychiatric conditions. PMID:24374381

  13. Proximate causes of the variation of the human sex ratio at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, William H

    2015-12-01

    There is evidence that the human sex ratio (proportion males at birth) is the result of two processes. First, the sexes of zygotes (from which the primary sex ratio would be calculated) are thought to be partially controlled by the hormone levels of both parents around the time of conception. Second, this primary sex ratio is apparently modified downwards by male-sex-selective spontaneous abortion caused by high levels of maternal stress-induced adrenal androgens, thus yielding the sex ratio at birth (the secondary sex ratio). Since maternal stress is one cause of spontaneous abortion (and of other forms of reproductive sub-optimality), and since some forms of pharmacological treatment of maternal stress are deleterious to the foetus, best practice would suggest non-pharmacological treatment (e.g. psychotherapy, hypnosis or massage) for pregnant women who have a previous history of spontaneous abortion, preterm birth or low-birth-weight infants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The influence of sex hormones on seizures in dogs and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Meervenne, Sofie A E; Volk, Holger A; Matiasek, Kaspar; Van Ham, Luc M L

    2014-07-01

    Epilepsy is the most common chronic neurological disorder in both humans and dogs. The effect of sex hormones on seizures is well documented in human medicine. Catamenial epilepsy is defined as an increase in frequency and severity of seizures during certain periods of the menstrual cycle. Oestradiol increases seizure activity and progesterone is believed to exhibit a protective effect. The role of androgens is controversial and there is a lack of research focusing on androgens and epilepsy. Indeed, little is known about the influence of sex hormones on epilepsy in dogs. Sterilisation is believed to improve seizure control, but no systematic research has been conducted in this field. This review provides an overview of the current literature on the influence of sex hormones on seizures in humans. The literature on idiopathic epilepsy in dogs was assessed to identify potential risk factors related to sex and sterilisation status. In general, there appears to be an over-representation of male dogs with idiopathic epilepsy but no explanation for this difference in prevalence between sexes has been reported. In addition, no reliable conclusions can be drawn on the effect of sterilisation due to the lack of focused research and robust scientific evidence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Identifying domestic and international sex-trafficking victims during human service provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macy, Rebecca J; Graham, Laurie M

    2012-04-01

    Children, youth, and adults of both genders are sex trafficked into and throughout the United States every day. Regrettably, little attention has been given to how human service providers might identify the sex-trafficking victims they are likely to encounter. To address this knowledge gap, the authors review 20 documents with the aim of detecting and synthesizing service identification recommendations in the scientific literature, government reports, and documents produced by organizations working with sex-trafficking victims. The review shows consensus regarding identification recommendations, including (a) trafficking indicators, (b) victim interaction strategies, (c) immediate response strategies, and (d) child-specific information. The review also shows consensus regarding screening questions that are important for service providers to use in identifying sex-trafficking victims. These questions relate to the victims' safety, employment, living environment, and travel and immigration status in addition to specific questions used with children and youth. The review results offer human service providers a preliminary set of screening strategies and questions that can be used to identify sex-trafficking victims in the context of human services. Building on the review findings, the authors offer policy and research recommendations.

  16. Sex hormone effects on autonomic mechanisms of thermoregulation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charkoudian, Nisha; Stachenfeld, Nina

    2016-04-01

    Autonomic mechanisms are fundamental to human physiological thermoregulation, and female reproductive hormones have substantial influences on several aspects of these mechanisms. Of these, the best recognized are the thermoregulatory responses that occur at menopause (hot flushes) and the changes in body temperature within the menstrual cycle which may help couples predict ovulation. Our goal in this brief review is to summarize current knowledge regarding the influences of reproductive hormones on autonomic mechanisms in human thermoregulation. In general, estrogens tend to promote lower body temperatures via augmentation of heat dissipation responses, whereas progesterone tends to promote higher body temperatures. Recent evidence suggests specific influences of estrogens on central autonomic nuclei involved in control of skin blood flow and sweating. Estrogens also augment vasodilation by direct effects on peripheral blood vessels. Influences of progesterone are less well understood, but include both centrally regulated changes in thermoregulatory set-point as well as and peripheral effects, including augmented vasoconstriction in the skin. We conclude with a brief discussion of thermoregulatory adjustments associated with changing hormone levels during menopause, pregnancy and polycystic ovary syndrome. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Association between sex hormone-binding globulin levels and activated protein C resistance in explaining the risk of thrombosis in users of oral contraceptives containing different progestogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, Huib A.A.M.; Frolich, Marijke; Christella, M.; Thomassen, L.G.D.; Doggen, Catharina Jacoba Maria; Rosendaal, Frits R.; Rosing, Jan; Helmerhorst, Frans M.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have shown that both the estrogen dose and progestogen type of oral contraceptives contribute to the increased risk of thrombosis in oral contraceptive users. Thrombin generation-based activated protein C (APC) sensitivity is a global test for the net

  18. Associations of sex-hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) with non-SHBG-bound levels of testosterone and estradiol in independently living men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ronde, W; van der Schouw, YT; Muller, M; Grobbee, DE; Gooren, LJG; Pols, HAP; de Jong, FH

    Results of in vitro experiments indicate that with increasing concentrations of SHBG, testosterone ( T) is preferentially bound to SHBG in comparison with estradiol (E2). In these studies, the ratio of non-SHBG-bound E2 (non-SHBG-E2) to non-SHBG-T increased with increasing levels of SHBG. SHBG has

  19. Associations of sex-hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) with non-SHBG-bound levels of testosterone and estradiol in independently living men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ronde, W.; van der Schouw, Y.T.; Muller, M.; Grobbee, D.E.; Gooren, L.J.; Pols, H.A.; de Jong, F.H.

    Results of in vitro experiments indicate that with increasing concentrations of SHBG, testosterone (T) is preferentially bound to SHBG in comparison with estradiol (E2). In these studies, the ratio of non-SHBG-bound E2 (non-SHBG-E2) to non-SHBG-T increased with increasing levels of SHBG. SHBG has

  20. Cows with follicular fluid androgen excess exhibit anovulation and have altered circulating sex hormone binding globulin, gonadotropin secretion and plasma and follicular fluid composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our laboratory identified a group of cows with excess intrafollicular concentrations of androstenedione (A4; >30 fold), reduced calving rates, and theca gene expression profiles similar to women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS). Based on these previous studies, we hypothesized that High A4 cows...

  1. Inhibin A, inhibin B, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, estradiol, and sex hormone-binding globulin levels in 473 healthy infant girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chellakooty, M; Schmidt, I M; Haavisto, A M

    2003-01-01

    The early postnatal regulation of reproductive hormones seems to be more complex in girls than in boys. The aim of this study was to describe inhibins A and B, FSH, LH, estradiol, and SHBG in a large prospective cohort of 473 unselected, healthy, 3-month-old girls. In full term, appropriate-for- ...

  2. The Potential Biochemical Diagnosis Criteria and Therapeutic Effect Indexes: Sex Hormone Binding Globulin Levels and Free Androgen Index in Blood of Patients With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-02

    The Investigators Collected 534 PCOS Patients as the Case Group,and 580 Infertile Women With Normal Ovulatory Cycle of the Control Group;; At the Same Time, the Investigators Continuedly Collect Cases to October 2012, and Totally Collected 579 Patients With PCOS Altogether;; 534 Patients in the Cases Group and 580 Women in the Control Group Received no Measures, While 579 Patients Received Drugs;; The Investigators Monitored Basic Indexes in Blood of All the Subjects in This Suvey,and Also Monitored Indexes of 579 Patients After Treatment.

  3. Functional Neuroanatomy of Human Cortex Cerebri in Relation to Wanting Sex and Having It

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgiadis, Janniko R.

    Neuroanatomical textbooks typically restrict the central nervous system control of sexual responsiveness to the hypothalamus, brainstem and spinal cord. However, for all its primitive functions human sex is surprisingly complex and versatile. This review aims to extend the neuroanatomy of sexual

  4. Sex Differences in a Human Analogue of the Radial Arm Maze: The ''17-Box Maze Test''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Q.; Abrahams, S.; Jussab, F.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated sex differences in spatial memory using a human analogue of the Radial Arm Maze: a revision on the Nine Box Maze originally developed by Abrahams, Pickering, Polkey, and Morris (1997) called the 17-Box Maze Test herein. The task encourages allocentric spatial processing, dissociates object from spatial memory, and…

  5. Family Life and Human Development (Sex Education): The Prince George's County Public Schools Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Michael J.

    1981-01-01

    The Prince George's County schools' sex education program for grades K-12 was developed and implemented in the late 1960s and has three focus areas: family life and interpersonal relationships; the physiological and personality changes during puberty; and advanced physiology and psychology of human sexual behavior. The program augments what the…

  6. Activity of vasopressinergic neurones of the human supraoptic nucleus is age- and sex-dependent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ishunina, T. A.; Salehi, A.; Hofman, M. A.; Swaab, D. F.

    1999-01-01

    In the human hypothalamus, arginine-vasopressin (AVP) is produced for a major part by the neurones of the supraoptic nucleus (SON). Since plasma AVP levels in men were reported to be higher than those of women and we did not find a sex difference in the neurone number, a higher vasopressinergic

  7. Human subcortical brain asymmetries in 15,847 people worldwide reveal effects of age and sex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guadalupe, Tulio; Mathias, Samuel R.; Vanerp, Theo G. M.; Whelan, Christopher D.; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Abe, Yoshinari; Abramovic, Lucija; Agartz, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A.; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Aribisala, Benjamin S.; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Arolt, Volker; Artiges, Eric; Ayesa-Arriola, Rosa; Baboyan, Vatche G.; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth; Bastin, Mark E.; Baune, Bernhard T.; Blangero, John; Bokde, Arun L. . W.; Boedhoe, Premika S. . W.; Bose, Anushree; Brem, Silvia; Brodaty, Henry; Bromberg, Uli; Brooks, Samantha; Buechel, Christian; Buitelaar, Jan; Calhoun, Vince D.; Cannon, Dara M.; Cattrell, Anna; Cheng, Yuqi; Conrod, Patricia J.; Conzelmann, Annette; Corvin, Aiden; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Crivello, Fabrice; Dannlowski, Udo; De Zubicaray, Greig I.; De Zwarte, Sonja M. C.; Deary, Ian J.; Desrivieres, Sylvane; Doan, Nhat Trung; Donohoe, Gary; Dorum, Erlend S.; Ehrlich, Stefan; Espeseth, Thomas; Fernandez, Guillen; Flor, Herta; Fouche, Jean-Paul; Frouin, Vincent; Fukunaga, Masaki; Gallinat, Jurgen; Garavan, Hugh; Gill, Michael; Suarez, Andrea Gonzalez; Gowland, Penny; Grabe, Hans J.; Grotegerd, Dominik; Gruber, Oliver; Hagenaars, Saskia; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hauser, Tobias U.; Heinz, Andreas; Hibar, Derrek P.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Hoogman, Martine; Howells, Fleur M.; Hu, Hao; Pol, Hilleke E. Hulshoff; Huyser, Chaim; Ittermann, Bernd; Jahanshad, Neda; Jonsson, Erik G.; Jurk, Sarah; Kahn, Rene S.; Kelly, Sinead; Kraemer, Bernd; Kugel, Harald; Kwon, Jun Soo; Lemaitre, Herve; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Lochner, Christine; Luciano, Michelle; Marquand, Andre F.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Martinez-Zalacain, Ignacio; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Mataix-Cols, David; Mather, Karen; McDonald, Colm; McMahon, Katie L.; Medland, Sarah E.; Menchon, Jose M.; Morris, Derek W.; Mothersill, Omar; Maniega, Susana Munoz; Mwangi, Benson; Nakamae, Takashi; Nakao, Tomohiro; Narayanaswaamy, Janardhanan C.; Nees, Frauke; Nordvik, Jan E.; Onnink, A. Marten H.; Opel, Nils; Ophoff, Roel; Martinot, Marie-Laure Paillere; Orfanos, Dimitri Papadopoulos; Pauli, Paul; Paus, Tomas; Poustka, Luise; Reddy, Janardhan Y. C.; Renteria, Miguel E.; Roiz-Santianez, Roberto; Roos, Annerine; Royle, Natalie A.; Sachdev, Perminder; Sanchez-Juan, Pascual; Schmaal, Lianne; Schumann, Gunter; Shumskaya, Elena; Smolka, Michael N.; Soares, Jair C.; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Stein, Dan J.; Strike, Lachlan T.; Toro, Roberto; Turner, Jessica A.; Tzourio-Mazoyer, Nathalie; Uhlmann, Anne; Hernandez, Maria Valdes; Van den Heuvel, Odile A.; Van der Meer, Dennis; Van Haren, Neeltje E. M.; Veltman, Dick J.; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Vetter, Nora C.; Vuletic, Daniella; Walitza, Susanne; Walter, Henrik; Walton, Esther; Wang, Zhen; Wardlaw, Joanna; Wen, Wei; Westlye, Lars T.; Whelan, Robert; Wittfeld, Katharina; Wolfers, Thomas; Wright, Margaret J.; Xu, Jian; Xu, Xiufeng; Yun, Je-Yeon; Zhao, JingJing; Franke, Barbara; Thompson, Paul M.; Glahn, David C.; Mazoyer, Bernard; Fisher, Simon E.; Francks, Clyde

    2017-01-01

    The two hemispheres of the human brain differ functionally and structurally. Despite over a century of research, the extent to which brain asymmetry is influenced by sex, handedness, age, and genetic factors is still controversial. Here we present the largest ever analysis of subcortical brain

  8. Sex-related shape dimorphism in the human radiocarpal and midcarpal joints

    OpenAIRE

    Kivell, Tracy L.; Guimont, Isabelle; Wall, Christine E.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has revealed significant size differences between human male and female carpal bones but it is unknown if there are significant shape differences as well. This study investigated sex-related shape variation and allometric patterns in five carpal bones that make up the radiocarpal and midcarpal joints in modern humans. We found that many aspects of carpal shape (76% of all variables quantified) were similar between males and females, despite variation in size. However, 10 of ...

  9. Recent advances in sex identification of human skeletal remains in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Štrkalj

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We review methods of sex estimation from human skeletal remains in South Africa within the forensic context. Sex is one of the key variables in obtaining a biological profile of the individual or population whose remains are analysed. Sex estimation based on the morphological characteristics of skeletal elements is population specific and thus the establishment of regional criteria is one of the imperatives for modern forensic anthropology. A literature review was carried out wherein the available methods of sex identification (morphological, metrical, geometric morphometrics and molecular from South African skeletal material were critically examined. The approaches to sex estimation based on bone morphology have a long and productive history in South Africa. A number of approaches providing accurate results on the local populations have been developed. Research in molecular sex determination methods is still in its infancy in South Africa and the first innovative studies appeared only in recent years. While each of the four methods analysed is bounded by a number of constraints, they seem to complement each other and provide the best results when applied in conjunction with each other.

  10. Evaluating Human Rights Advocacy on Criminal Justice and Sex Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amon, Joseph; Wurth, Margaret; McLemore, Megan

    2015-06-11

    Between October 2011 and September 2013, we conducted research on the use, by police and/or prosecutors, of condom possession as evidence of intent to engage in prostitution-related offenses. We studied the practice in five large, geographically diverse cities in the U.S. To facilitate our advocacy on this issue, conducted concurrent to and following our research, we developed an advocacy framework consisting of six dimensions: (1) raising awareness, (2) building and engaging coalitions, (3) framing debate, (4) securing rhetorical commitments, (5) reforming law and policy, and (6) changing practice. Using a case study approach, we describe how this framework also provided a basis for the evaluation of our work, and discuss additional considerations and values related to the measurement and evaluation of human rights advocacy. Copyright 2015 Amon, Wurth, and McLemore. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

  11. Type 2 diabetes, obesity, and sex difference affect the fate of glucose in the human heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Linda R; Herrero, Pilar; Coggan, Andrew R; Kisrieva-Ware, Zulia; Saeed, Ibrahim; Dence, Carmen; Koudelis, Deborah; McGill, Janet B; Lyons, Matthew R; Novak, Eric; Dávila-Román, Víctor G; Waggoner, Alan D; Gropler, Robert J

    2015-06-15

    Type 2 diabetes, obesity, and sex difference affect myocardial glucose uptake and utilization. However, their effect on the intramyocellular fate of glucose in humans has been unknown. How the heart uses glucose is important, because it affects energy production and oxygen efficiency, which in turn affect heart function and adaptability. We hypothesized that type 2 diabetes, sex difference, and obesity affect myocardial glucose oxidation, glycolysis, and glycogen production. In a first-in-human study, we measured intramyocardiocellular glucose metabolism from time-activity curves generated from previously obtained positron emission tomography scans of 110 subjects in 3 groups: nonobese, obese, and diabetes. Group and sex difference interacted in the prediction of all glucose uptake, utilization, and metabolism rates. Group independently predicted fractional glucose uptake and its components: glycolysis, glycogen deposition, and glucose oxidation rates. Sex difference predicted glycolysis rates. However, there were fewer differences in glucose metabolism between diabetic patients and others when plasma glucose levels were included in the modeling. The potentially detrimental effects of obesity and diabetes on myocardial glucose metabolism are more pronounced in men than women. This sex difference dimorphism needs to be taken into account in the design, trials, and application of metabolic modulator therapy. Slightly higher plasma glucose levels improve depressed glucose oxidation and glycogen deposition rates in diabetic patients. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Sex differences in quadrupedal walking gaits of Uner Tan syndrome cases, healthy humans and nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Uner

    2017-03-01

    Uner Tan syndrome (UTS) cases with habitual quadrupedal locomotion (QL), impaired intelligence, and dysarthric or no speech predominantly use lateral sequence (LS) gait like nonprimates rather than the predominantly diagonal sequence (DS) gait of nonhuman primates. However, these studies neglected possible sex-related differences in these gait types. (1) To assess the possible sex-related gait types in UTS cases, healthy infants and adults with requested QL, and the nonhuman primates. (2) To test the hypothesis that sex differences may exist in quadrupedal walking gaits in UTS cases, healthy humans, and nonhuman primates. The UTS cases were filmed, the other study groups were taken from public open 'youtube' videos, which were used to assess the walking gait types as DS and LS. The right and left hind-limb phase values were calculated separately for males and females to allow a possible sex difference in walking gaits to be determined. Females predominantly used DS gait, contrary to males with predominantly LS gait. Consistent with the working hypothesis, the results suggested a biological sex-related trend in preferred walking gaits exists in all of the human and nonhuman primates using QL.

  13. Sex-specific immunization for sexually transmitted infections such as human papillomavirus: insights from mathematical models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes A Bogaards

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sex-specific differences regarding the transmissibility and the course of infection are the rule rather than the exception in the epidemiology of sexually transmitted infections (STIs. Human papillomavirus (HPV provides an example: disease outcomes differ between men and women, as does the potential for transmission to the opposite sex. HPV vaccination of preadolescent girls was recently introduced in many countries, and inclusion of boys in the vaccination programs is being discussed. Here, we address the question of whether vaccinating females only, males only, or both sexes is the most effective strategy to reduce the population prevalence of an STI like HPV. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We use a range of two-sex transmission models with varying detail to identify general criteria for allocating a prophylactic vaccine between both sexes. The most effective reduction in the population prevalence of infection is always achieved by single-sex vaccination; vaccinating the sex with the highest prevaccine prevalence is the preferred strategy in most circumstances. Exceptions arise only when the higher prevaccine prevalence is due to a substantially lower rate of natural immunity, or when natural immunity is lifelong, and a prolonged duration of infectiousness coincides with increased transmissibility. Predictions from simple models were confirmed in simulations based on an elaborate HPV transmission model. Our analysis suggests that relatively inefficient genital transmission from males to females might render male vaccination more effective in reducing overall infection levels. However, most existing HPV vaccination programs have achieved sufficient coverage to continue with female-only vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing vaccine uptake among preadolescent girls is more effective in reducing HPV infection than including boys in existing vaccination programs. As a rule, directing prophylactic immunization at the sex with the highest

  14. Temporal expression pattern of genes during the period of sex differentiation in human embryonic gonads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mamsen, Linn S; Ernst, Emil H; Borup, Rehannah

    2017-01-01

    The precise timing and sequence of changes in expression of key genes and proteins during human sex-differentiation and onset of steroidogenesis was evaluated by whole-genome expression in 67 first trimester human embryonic and fetal ovaries and testis and confirmed by qPCR and immunohistochemistry...... was significantly higher in testis than ovaries. Gene expression was confirmed by IHC for GAGE, SOX9, AMH, CYP17A1, LIN28, WNT2B, ETV5 and GLI1. Gene expression was not associated with the maternal smoking habits. Collectively, a precise temporal determination of changes in expression of key genes involved in human...... sex-differentiation is defined, with identification of new genes of potential importance....

  15. Dressed for sex: red as a female sexual signal in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Andrew J; Pazda, Adam D

    2012-01-01

    In many non-human primate species, a display of red by a female serves as a sexual signal to attract male conspecifics. Red is associated with sex and romance in humans, and women convey their sexual interest to men through a variety of verbal, postural, and behavioral means. In the present research, we investigate whether female red ornamentation in non-human primates has a human analog, whereby women use a behavioral display of red to signal their sexual interest to men. Three studies tested the hypothesis that women use red clothing to communicate sexual interest to men in profile pictures on dating websites. In Study 1, women who imagined being interested in casual sex were more likely to display red (but not other colors) on their anticipated web profile picture. In Study 2, women who indicated interest in casual sex were more likely to prominently display red (but not other colors) on their actual web profile picture. In Study 3, women on a website dedicated to facilitating casual sexual relationships were more likely to prominently exhibit red (but not other colors) than women on a website dedicated to facilitating marital relationships. These results establish a provocative parallel between women and non-human female primates in red signal coloration in the mating game. This research shows, for the first time, a functional use of color in women's sexual self-presentation, and highlights the need to extend research on color beyond physics, physiology, and preference to psychological functioning.

  16. Sex differences in the brain response to affective scenes with or without humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; Adorni, Roberta; Zani, Alberto; Trestianu, Laura

    2009-10-01

    Recent findings have demonstrated that women might be more reactive than men to viewing painful stimuli (vicarious response to pain), and therefore more empathic [Han, S., Fan, Y., & Mao, L. (2008). Gender difference in empathy for pain: An electrophysiological investigation. Brain Research, 1196, 85-93]. We investigated whether the two sexes differed in their cerebral responses to affective pictures portraying humans in different positive or negative contexts compared to natural or urban scenarios. 440 IAPS slides were presented to 24 Italian students (12 women and 12 men). Half the pictures displayed humans while the remaining scenes lacked visible persons. ERPs were recorded from 128 electrodes and swLORETA (standardized weighted Low-Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography) source reconstruction was performed. Occipital P115 was greater in response to persons than to scenes and was affected by the emotional valence of the human pictures. This suggests that processing of biologically relevant stimuli is prioritized. Orbitofrontal N2 was greater in response to positive than negative human pictures in women but not in men, and not to scenes. A late positivity (LP) to suffering humans far exceeded the response to negative scenes in women but not in men. In both sexes, the contrast suffering-minus-happy humans revealed a difference in the activation of the occipito/temporal, right occipital (BA19), bilateral parahippocampal, left dorsal prefrontal cortex (DPFC) and left amygdala. However, increased right amygdala and right frontal area activities were observed only in women. The humans-minus-scenes contrast revealed a difference in the activation of the middle occipital gyrus (MOG) in men, and of the left inferior parietal (BA40), left superior temporal gyrus (STG, BA38) and right cingulate (BA31) in women (270-290 ms). These data indicate a sex-related difference in the brain response to humans, possibly supporting human empathy.

  17. The morphology of human hyoid bone in relation to sex, age and body proportions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanová, P; Hejna, P; Zátopková, L; Šafr, M

    2013-06-01

    Morphological aspects of the human hyoid bone are, like many other skeletal elements in human body, greatly affected by individual's sex, age and body proportions. Still, the known sex-dependent bimodality of a number of body size characteristics overshadows the true within-group patterns. Given the ambiguity of the causal effects of age, sex and body size upon hyoid morphology the present study puts the relationship between shape of human hyoid bone and body proportions (height and weight) under scrutiny of a morphological study. Using 211 hyoid bones and landmark-based methods of geometric morphometrics, it was shown that the size of hyoid bones correlated positively with measured body dimensions but showed no correlation if the individual's sex was controlled for. For shape variables, our results revealed that hyoid morphology is clearly related to body size as expressed in terms of the height and weight. Yet, the hyoid shape was shown to result primarily from the sex-related bimodal distribution of studied body size descriptors which, in the case of the height-dependent model, exhibited opposite trends for males and females. Apart from the global hyoid shape given by spatial arrangements of the greater horns, body size dependency was translated into size and position of the hyoid body. None of the body size characters had any impact on hyoid asymmetry. Ultimately, sexually dimorphic variation was revealed for age-dependent changes in both size and shape of hyoid bones as male hyoids tend to be more susceptible to modifications with age than female bones. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Sex-dependent regulation of hypoxic ventilation in mice and humans is mediated by erythropoietin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soliz, Jorge; Thomsen, Jonas Juhl; Soulage, Christophe

    2009-01-01

    that women cope better than men with reduced oxygen supply (as observed at high altitude), we analyzed the hypoxic ventilatory response in Epo-overexpressing transgenic male and female mice with high Epo levels in brain and plasma (Tg6) or in wild-type animals injected with recombinant human Epo (rh....... Alterations of catecholamines in the brain stem's respiratory centers were also sex dependent. In a proof-of-concept study, human volunteers were intravenously injected with 5,000 units rhEpo and subsequently exposed to 10% oxygen. Compared with men, the hypoxic ventilatory response was significantly...... increased in women. We conclude that Epo exerts a sex-dependent impact on hypoxic ventilation improving the response in female mice and in women that most probably involves sexual hormones. Our data provides an explanation as to why women are less susceptible to hypoxia-associated syndromes than men....

  19. Proteome analysis of male accessory gland secretions in oriental fruit flies reveals juvenile hormone-binding protein, suggesting impact on female reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Dong; Li, Hui-Min; Tian, Chuan-Bei; Smagghe, Guy; Jia, Fu-Xian; Jiang, Hong-Bo; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2015-11-19

    In insects, the accessory gland proteins (Acps) secreted by male accessory glands (MAGs) account for the majority of seminal fluids proteins. Mixed with sperm, they are transferred to the female at mating and so impact reproduction. In this project, we identified 2,927 proteins in the MAG secretions of the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis, an important agricultural pest worldwide, using LC-MS analysis, and all sequences containing open reading frames were analyzed using signalP. In total, 90 Acps were identified. About one third (26) of these 90 Acps had a specific functional description, while the other two thirds (64) had no functional description including dozens of new classes of proteins. Hence, several of these novel Acps were abundant in the MAG secretions, and we confirmed their MAG-specific expression by qPCR. Finally and interestingly, one of these novel proteins was functionally predicted as juvenile hormone-binding protein, suggesting the impact of Acps with reproductive events in the female. Our results will aid in the development of an experimental method to identify Acps in insects, and in turn this information with new Acps in B. dorsalis will pave the way of further exploration their function in reproduction and potential development as new insecticide targets.

  20. Efficacy of Sex Determination from Human Dental Pulp Tissue and its Reliability as a Tool in Forensic Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Kaveri Surya

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sex determination is one of the primary steps in forensics. Barr body can be used as a histological method for identification of sex as it is found to be specific to female somatic cells and rare in male cells. To demarcate human dental pulp as an important identification tool of sex in forensic odontology (FO) and to evaluate the time period till which sex can be determined from pulp tissue using three stains H and E, Feulgen, and acridine - orange under fluorescence so as. Materials and Methods: 90 pulp samples (45 males and 45 females) were subjected to Barr body analysis for determination of sex using light and fluorescent microscopy. Results: Barr body was found to be positive for female samples and negative or rare in the male sample (<3%). Conclusion: Barr body from human dental pulp tissue can be used as a successful determinant of sex identification in FO. PMID:26668474

  1. Can Neglected Tropical Diseases Compromise Human Wellbeing in Sex-, Age-, and Trait-Specific Ways?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Geary

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Traits that facilitate competition for reproductive resources or that influence mate choice have evolved to signal resilience to infectious disease and other stressors. As a result, the dynamics of competition and choice can, in theory, be used to generate predictions about sex-, age-, and trait-specific vulnerabilities for any sexually reproducing species, including humans. These dynamics and associated vulnerabilities are reviewed for nonhuman species, focusing on traits that are compromised by exposure to parasites. Using the same approach, sex-, age-, and trait-specific vulnerabilities to parasitic disease are illustrated for children's and adolescent's physical growth and fitness. Suggestions are then provided for widening the assessment of human vulnerabilities to include age-appropriate measures of behavioral (e.g., children's play and cognitive (e.g., language fluency traits. These are traits that are likely to be compromised by infection in age- and sex-specific ways. Inclusion of these types of measures in studies of neglected tropic diseases has the potential to provide a more nuanced understanding of how these diseases undermine human wellbeing and may provide a useful means to study the efficacy of associated treatments.

  2. Sex-dimorphic behaviour development in the human: prenatal hormone administration and postnatal socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, R

    An interdisciplinary integrative approach must be utilized in the study of psychosexual differentiation. The approach must capitalize on data derived from non-human models, from experiments of nature, and from experiments of nurture. Studies from non-human primates strongly suggest the influence of prenatal sex hormone levels on postnatal sexually dimorphic behaviours. Starting from this basis we have studied sixty young adult men whose mothers received, during pregnancy, diethylstilboestrol, diethylstilboestrol and natural progesterone, natural progesterone, or synthetic progesterone. They have been compared with matched controls not exposed in utero to exogenous hormones. Studies of socialization patterns must document the differential developmental experiences, if any, of children with atypical and typical sex-typed behaviours. To this end, we are studying 60 boys whose behaviour before puberty was decidedly feminine, and their parents, and contrasting them with masculine boys and their parents. We are also studying 50 girls whose behaviour before puberty was 'masculine', and contrasting them with 'feminine' girls. Additionally, we are studying the sexually dimorphic behaviour of children of sexually atypical parents. The parents have either undergone sex-change surgery (male-to-female or female-to-male) or are homosexual. Data from the three studies are presented. A call is made to researchers working with non-human primates to test and extend these findings.

  3. Stigma, sexual health, and human rights among women who have sex with women in Lesotho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, Tonia C; Logie, Carmen H; Adams, Darrin; Mothopeng, Tampose; Lebona, Judith; Letsie, Puleng; Baral, Stefan

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, gender and sexual minorities have become increasingly visible across sub-Saharan Africa, marking both the progression and violation of their human rights. Using data from a study with sexual minorities in Lesotho, this analysis leveraged the social ecological model to examine relationships between stigma, human rights, and sexual health among women who have sex with women in Lesotho. A community-based participatory approach was used for the mixed-method, cross-sectional study. A total of 250 women who have sex with women completed a structured questionnaire, of which 21 participated in a total of three focus group discussions. Stigma was common within and outside the health sector. Stigma and human rights abuses were associated with increased risk for HIV and STIs. Interventions to address stigma at the structural, community, and interpersonal levels are essential to ensuring sexual health and rights for women who have sex with women in Lesotho. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Oral sex and oral cancer in the context of human papillomavirus infection: lay public understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario A. Brondani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV is a risk factor for ano-genital and cervical cancers and has been associated with head and neck malignancies in the context of oral sex for the transmission of the virus. However, the level of knowledge that lay people have in terms of HPV transmission through oral sex and oral cancer development remains unknown. A pilot sample of 150 questionnaires was distributed at specific non-profit health organizations in Vancouver, Canada. Questions included perceived risks for oral sex in terms of HPV infection and oral cancer development, and the frequency with which respondents were asked about oral sexual practices by physicians and dentists. Data were analysed statistically by age group (19– 30, 31–50, 50\\, gender (male, female, and sexual orientation (queer, straight. 110 questionnaires were returned fully completed. For the transmission of HPV, 58% of the participants believed that oral sex is an activity of no or low risk, whereas 72% considered the same activity to be of no risk for the development of oral cancer. There was no statistical difference between gender and sexual orientation. Participants never discussed related health risks in regard to oral sex with their physicians or dentists. In conclusion, although recent attention has been given to the potential links between HPV infection and oral cancer, such links remain mostly unknown by the public. Physicians and dentists could discuss oral sex practices to raise awareness with their patients. This is a small sample size study and the results should be interpreted with caution.

  5. The molecular and cellular basis of gonadal sex reversal in mice and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warr, Nick; Greenfield, Andy

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian gonad is adapted for the production of germ cells and is an endocrine gland that controls sexual maturation and fertility. Gonadal sex reversal, namely, the development of ovaries in an XY individual or testes in an XX, has fascinated biologists for decades. The phenomenon suggests the existence of genetic suppressors of the male and female developmental pathways and molecular genetic studies, particularly in the mouse, have revealed controlled antagonism at the core of mammalian sex determination. Both testis and ovary determination represent design solutions to a number of problems: how to generate cells with the right properties to populate the organ primordium; how to produce distinct organs from an initially bipotential primordium; how to pattern an organ when the expression of key cell fate determinants is initiated only in a discrete region of the primordium and extends to other regions asynchronously; how to coordinate the interaction between distinct cell types in time and space and stabilize the resulting morphology; and how to maintain the differentiated state of the organ throughout the adult period. Some of these, and related problems, are common to organogenesis in general; some are distinctive to gonad development. In this review, we discuss recent studies of the molecular and cellular events underlying testis and ovary development, with an emphasis on the phenomenon of gonadal sex reversal and its causes in mice and humans. Finally, we discuss sex-determining loci and disorders of sex development in humans and the future of research in this important area. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Volumetric Parcellation Methodology of the Human Hypothalamus in Neuroimaging: Normative Data and Sex Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makris, Nikos; Swaab, Dick F.; van der Kouwe, Andre; Abbs, Brandon; Boriel, Denise; Handa, Robert; Tobet, Stuart; Goldstein, Jill M.

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing evidence regarding the importance of the hypothalamus for understanding sex differences in relation to neurological, psychiatric, endocrine and sleep disorders. Although different in histology, physiology, connections and function, multiple hypothalamic nuclei subserve non-voluntary functions and are nodal points for the purpose of maintaining homeostasis of the organism. Thus, given the critical importance of hypothalamic nuclei and their key multiple roles in regulating basic functions, it is important to develop the ability to conduct in vivo human studies of anatomic structure, volume, connectivity, and function of hypothalamic regions represented at the level of its nuclei. The goals of the present study were to develop a novel method of semi-automated volumetric parcellation for the human hypothalamus that could be used to investigate clinical conditions using MRI and to demonstrate its applicability. The proposed new method subdivides the hypothalamus into five parcels based on visible anatomic landmarks associated with specific nuclear groupings and was confirmed using two ex vivo hypothalami that were imaged in a 7 Tesla (7T) scanner and processed histologically. Imaging results were compared with histology from the same brain. Further, the method was applied to 44 healthy adults (26 men; 18 women, comparable on age, handedness, ethnicity, SES) to derive normative volumes and assess sex differences in hypothalamic regions using 1.5 Tesla MRI. Men compared to women had a significantly larger total hypothalamus, relative to cerebrum size, similar for both hemispheres, a difference that was primarily driven by the tuberal region, with the sex effect size being largest in the superior tuberal region and, to a lesser extent, inferior tuberal region. Given the critical role of hypothalamic nuclei in multiple chronic diseases and the importance of sex differences, we argue that the use of the novel methodology presented here will allow for

  7. Exposure to acrylonitrile induced DNA strand breakage and sex chromosome aneuploidy in human spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, De-Xiang; Zhu, Qi-Xing; Zheng, Lu-Kang; Wang, Qu-Nan; Shen, Han-Ming; Deng, Li-Xia; Ong, Choon-Nam

    2003-05-09

    To explore acrylonitrile (ACN)-induced DNA strand breakage and sex chromosome aneuploidy in human spermatozoa, semen parameters were examined among 30 acrylonitrile-exposed workers according to WHO laboratory manual for the examination of human sperm. DNA strand breakage of sperm cells was investigated among 30 ACN-exposed workers using single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE). The frequency of sex chromosome aneuploidy in sperm cells was analyzed among nine ACN-exposed workers using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The geometrical mean of sperm density was 75 x 10(6)ml(-1) in exposure group, significantly lower than 140 x 10(6)ml(-1) in the control. The geometrical mean of sperm number per ejaculum was 205 x 10(6) in exposure group, significantly lower than 280 x 10(6) in the control. The rates of comet sperm nuclei were 28.7% in exposure group, significantly higher than 15.0% in the control. Mean tail length was 9.8 microm in exposure group, longer than 4.3 microm in the control. The frequency of sex chromosome disomy was 0.69% in exposure group, significantly higher than 0.35% in the control. XY-bearing sperm was the most common sex chromosome disomy, with an average rate of 0.37% in exposure group, and 0.20% in the control. XX- and YY-bearing sperm accounted for an additional 0.09 and 0.23% in exposure group, and 0.05 and 0.10% in the control. The results indicate that ACN affect semen quality among ACN-exposed workers. ACN or its metabolites could induce reproductive defects as an in vivo multipotent genotoxic agent by inducing DNA strand breakage and sex chromosome non-disjunction in spermatogenesis.

  8. Enhancing the Ethical Conduct of HIV Research with Migrant Sex Workers: Human Rights, Policy, and Social Contextual Influences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shira M Goldenberg

    Full Text Available Migrant sex workers are often highly marginalized and disproportionately experience health and social inequities, including high prevalence of HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and human rights violations. In recent years, research involving migrant sex workers has increased, yet many knowledge gaps remain regarding how best to protect research participant rights and welfare. Our objective was to identify key challenges and opportunities related to the responsible conduct of HIV research with migrant sex workers.Focus groups and interviews conducted with 33 female sex workers ≥18 years old at the Guatemala-Mexico border from June 2013-February 2014 were analyzed. Participants were recruited through community outreach by a local HIV prevention organization to sex work establishments such as bars, hotels, street corners, and truck stops.Key themes influencing research engagement for migrant sex workers included researcher mistrust and fear related to research participation, rooted in the social isolation frequently faced by recent migrants; intersecting concerns related to immigration status, fear of criminalization, and compliance with sex work regulations; and perceived benefits and risks of HIV/STI testing for migrants (e.g., immigration implications, stigma represent potential barriers and opportunities for the responsible conduct of research involving migrant sex workers.Results highlight the intersection between the human rights vulnerabilities of migrant sex workers and barriers to research participation, including social isolation of migrants and policy/legal barriers related to immigration and sex work. Findings illustrate the need for researchers to develop population-tailored procedures to address fears related to immigration and criminalization, and to reinforce positive and non-stigmatizing relationships with migrant sex workers. Community-led efforts to reduce stigma and foster community organization and supports for migrant

  9. Enhancing the Ethical Conduct of HIV Research with Migrant Sex Workers: Human Rights, Policy, and Social Contextual Influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Shira M; Brouwer, Kimberly C; Jimenez, Teresita Rocha; Miranda, Sonia Morales; Mindt, Monica Rivera

    2016-01-01

    Migrant sex workers are often highly marginalized and disproportionately experience health and social inequities, including high prevalence of HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and human rights violations. In recent years, research involving migrant sex workers has increased, yet many knowledge gaps remain regarding how best to protect research participant rights and welfare. Our objective was to identify key challenges and opportunities related to the responsible conduct of HIV research with migrant sex workers. Focus groups and interviews conducted with 33 female sex workers ≥18 years old at the Guatemala-Mexico border from June 2013-February 2014 were analyzed. Participants were recruited through community outreach by a local HIV prevention organization to sex work establishments such as bars, hotels, street corners, and truck stops. Key themes influencing research engagement for migrant sex workers included researcher mistrust and fear related to research participation, rooted in the social isolation frequently faced by recent migrants; intersecting concerns related to immigration status, fear of criminalization, and compliance with sex work regulations; and perceived benefits and risks of HIV/STI testing for migrants (e.g., immigration implications, stigma) represent potential barriers and opportunities for the responsible conduct of research involving migrant sex workers. Results highlight the intersection between the human rights vulnerabilities of migrant sex workers and barriers to research participation, including social isolation of migrants and policy/legal barriers related to immigration and sex work. Findings illustrate the need for researchers to develop population-tailored procedures to address fears related to immigration and criminalization, and to reinforce positive and non-stigmatizing relationships with migrant sex workers. Community-led efforts to reduce stigma and foster community organization and supports for migrant sex workers are

  10. Thickness of the human cranial diploe in relation to age, sex and general body build

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels; Astrup, Jacob G; Sejrsen, Birgitte

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Earlier studies have addressed the human total cranial vault thickness and generally found no correlation with sex, age or body weight. However, the thickness of the diploe has not been investigated. Our study has determined the diploeic thickness of the human cranial vault using modern...... findings are consistent with previous studies relating the total cranial thickness to the same parameters, in that we found a high correlation between diploeic and total cranial thickness (except at the left euryon for females). Finally, we recommend that future studies try to incorporate CT or MR scan...

  11. Sex difference in cellular retinol- and retinoic acid-binding proteins in human colon adenocarcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palan, P R; Duttagupta, C; Romney, S L

    1980-12-01

    Human colon adenocarcinomas and adjacent non-cancerous, normal colon from the same patient were assayed for the presence and amounts of cellular binding proteins for retinol (CRBP) and retinoic acid (CRABP) by sucrose gradient analysis. In male patients, the mean concentrations of both CRBP and CRABP in the colon cancers were statistically significantly higher than in the adjacent normal colon. By contrast, in female colon cancers, the mean levels for both binding proteins were reduced approximately 2-fold, compared to the concentrations in the adjacent normal colon. These findings reveal an unexpected sex difference in the binding proteins for retinol and retinoic acid in human colon malignancies.

  12. Lip colour affects perceived sex typicality and attractiveness of human faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Ian D; McKeegan, Angela M

    2010-01-01

    The luminance contrast between facial features and facial skin is greater in women than in men, and women's use of make-up enhances this contrast. In black-and-white photographs, increased luminance contrast enhances femininity and attractiveness in women's faces, but reduces masculinity and attractiveness in men's faces. In Caucasians, much of the contrast between the lips and facial skin is in redness. Red lips have been considered attractive in women in geographically and temporally diverse cultures, possibly because they mimic vasodilation associated with sexual arousal. Here, we investigate the effects of lip luminance and colour contrast on the attractiveness and sex typicality (masculinity/femininity) of human faces. In a Caucasian sample, we allowed participants to manipulate the colour of the lips in colour-calibrated face photographs along CIELab L* (light--dark), a* (red--green), and b* (yellow--blue) axes to enhance apparent attractiveness and sex typicality. Participants increased redness contrast to enhance femininity and attractiveness of female faces, but reduced redness contrast to enhance masculinity of men's faces. Lip blueness was reduced more in female than male faces. Increased lightness contrast enhanced the attractiveness of both sexes, and had little effect on perceptions of sex typicality. The association between lip colour contrast and attractiveness in women's faces may be attributable to its association with oxygenated blood perfusion indicating oestrogen levels, sexual arousal, and cardiac and respiratory health.

  13. Dressed for sex: red as a female sexual signal in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Elliot

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In many non-human primate species, a display of red by a female serves as a sexual signal to attract male conspecifics. Red is associated with sex and romance in humans, and women convey their sexual interest to men through a variety of verbal, postural, and behavioral means. In the present research, we investigate whether female red ornamentation in non-human primates has a human analog, whereby women use a behavioral display of red to signal their sexual interest to men. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Three studies tested the hypothesis that women use red clothing to communicate sexual interest to men in profile pictures on dating websites. In Study 1, women who imagined being interested in casual sex were more likely to display red (but not other colors on their anticipated web profile picture. In Study 2, women who indicated interest in casual sex were more likely to prominently display red (but not other colors on their actual web profile picture. In Study 3, women on a website dedicated to facilitating casual sexual relationships were more likely to prominently exhibit red (but not other colors than women on a website dedicated to facilitating marital relationships. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results establish a provocative parallel between women and non-human female primates in red signal coloration in the mating game. This research shows, for the first time, a functional use of color in women's sexual self-presentation, and highlights the need to extend research on color beyond physics, physiology, and preference to psychological functioning.

  14. Genome-wide genetic homogeneity between sexes and populations for human height and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian; Bakshi, Andrew; Zhu, Zhihong; Hemani, Gibran; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A E; Nolte, Ilja M; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Snieder, Harold; Esko, Tonu; Milani, Lili; Mägi, Reedik; Metspalu, Andres; Hamsten, Anders; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Pedersen, Nancy L; Ingelsson, Erik; Visscher, Peter M

    2015-12-20

    Sex-specific genetic effects have been proposed to be an important source of variation for human complex traits. Here we use two distinct genome-wide methods to estimate the autosomal genetic correlation (rg) between men and women for human height and body mass index (BMI), using individual-level (n = ∼44 000) and summary-level (n = ∼133 000) data from genome-wide association studies. Results are consistent and show that the between-sex genetic correlation is not significantly different from unity for both traits. In contrast, we find evidence of genetic heterogeneity between sexes for waist-hip ratio (rg = ∼0.7) and between populations for BMI (rg = ∼0.9 between Europe and the USA) but not for height. The lack of evidence for substantial genetic heterogeneity for body size is consistent with empirical findings across traits and species. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Human sperm sex chromosome disomy and sperm DNA damage assessed by the neutral comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuliffe, M E; Williams, P L; Korrick, S A; Dadd, R; Marchetti, F; Martenies, S E; Perry, M J

    2014-10-10

    Is there an association between human sperm sex chromosome disomy and sperm DNA damage? An increase in human sperm XY disomy was associated with higher comet extent; however, there was no other consistent association of sex chromosome disomies with DNA damage. There is limited published research on the association between sex chromosome disomy and sperm DNA damage and the findings are not consistent across studies. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 190 men (25% ever smoker, 75% never smoker) from subfertile couples presenting at the Massachusetts General Hospital Fertility Clinic from January 2000 to May 2003. Multiprobe fluorescence in situ hybridization for chromosomes X, Y and 18 was used to determine XX, YY, XY and total sex chromosome disomy in sperm nuclei using an automated scoring method. The neutral comet assay was used to measure sperm DNA damage, as reflected by comet extent, percentage DNA in the comet tail, and tail distributed moment. Univariate and multiple linear regression models were constructed with sex chromosome disomy (separate models for each of the four disomic conditions) as the independent variable, and DNA damage parameters (separate models for each measure of DNA damage) as the dependent variable. Men with current or past smoking history had significantly greater comet extent (µm: regression coefficients with 95% CI) [XX18: 15.17 (1.98, 28.36); YY18: 14.68 (1.50, 27.86); XY18: 15.41 (2.37, 28.45); Total Sex Chromosome Disomy: 15.23 (2.09, 28.38)], and tail distributed moment [XX18: 3.01 (0.30, 5.72); YY18: 2.95 (0.24, 5.67); XY18: 3.04 (0.36, 5.72); Total Sex Chromosome Disomy: 3.10 (0.31, 5.71)] than men who had never smoked. In regression models adjusted for age and smoking, there was a positive association between XY disomy and comet extent. For an increase in XY disomy from 0.56 to 1.47% (representing the 25th to 75th percentile), there was a mean increase of 5.08 µm in comet extent. No other statistically significant

  16. Maturation of the human fetal startle response: evidence for sex-specific maturation of the human fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Claudia; Davis, Elysia Poggi; Class, Quetzal A; Gierczak, Matt; Pattillo, Carol; Glynn, Laura M; Sandman, Curt A

    2009-10-01

    Despite the evidence for early fetal experience exerting programming influences on later neurological development and health risk, very few prospective studies of human fetal behavior have been reported. In a prospective longitudinal study, fetal nervous system maturation was serially assessed by monitoring fetal heart rate (FHR) responses to vibroacoustic stimulation (VAS) in 191 maternal/fetal dyads. Responses were not detected at 26 weeks gestational age (GA). Sex-specific, age-characteristic changes in the FHR response to VAS were observed by 31 weeks' GA. Males showed larger responses and continued to exhibit maturational changes until 37 weeks' GA, females however, presented with a mature FHR startle response by 31 weeks' GA. The results indicate that there are different rates of maturation in the male and female fetuses that may have implications for sex-specific programming influences.

  17. Efficacy of Sex Determination from Human Dental Pulp Tissue and its Reliability as a Tool in Forensic Dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    Khanna, Kaveri Surya

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sex determination is one of the primary steps in forensics. Barr body can be used as a histological method for identification of sex as it is found to be specific to female somatic cells and rare in male cells. To demarcate human dental pulp as an important identification tool of sex in forensic odontology (FO) and to evaluate the time period till which sex can be determined from pulp tissue using three stains H and E, Feulgen, and acridine - orange under fluorescence so as. Mater...

  18. Sex differences in rhythmic preferences in the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus: A comparative study with humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Hoeschele

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A variety of parrot species have recently gained attention as members of a small group of non-human animals that are capable of coordinating their movements in time with a rhythmic pulse. This capacity is highly developed in humans, who display unparalleled sensitivity to musical beats and appear to prefer rhythmically organized sounds in their music. Do parrots also exhibit a preference for rhythmic over arrhythmic sounds? Here we presented humans and budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus – a small parrot species that have been shown to be able to align movements with a beat – with rhythmic and arrhythmic sound patterns in an acoustic place preference paradigm. Both species were allowed to explore an environment for 5 minutes. We quantified how much time they spent in proximity to rhythmic vs. arrhythmic stimuli. The results show that humans spent more time with rhythmic stimuli, and also preferred rhythmic stimuli when directly asked in a post-test survey. Budgerigars did not show any such overall preferences. However, further examination of the budgerigar results showed an effect of sex, such that male budgerigars spent more time with arrthymic stimuli, and female budgerigars spent more time with rhythmic stimuli. Our results support the idea that rhythmic information is interesting to budgerigars. We suggest that future investigations into the temporal characteristics of naturalistic social behaviors in budgerigars, such as courtship vocalizations and head-bobbing displays, may help explain the sex difference we observed.

  19. Pheromones in sex and reproduction: Do they have a role in humans?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taymour Mostafa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pheromones are found throughout the living world and are a primal form of communication. These chemical messengers are transported outside the body and have a direct developmental effect on hormone levels and/or behaviour. This review article aims to highlight the role of human pheromones in sex and reproduction. A review of published articles was carried out, using PubMed, medical subject heading (MSH databases and the Scopus engine. Key words used to assess exposure, outcome, and estimates for the concerned associations, were; olfaction; sex; pheromones; libido; behaviour; reproduction; humans; and smell. Although there are studies to support this phenomenon, they are weak because they were not controlled; others have proposed that human olfactory communication is able to perceive certain pheromones that may play a role in behavioural as well as reproductive biology. Unfolding the mysteries of smells and the way they are perceived requires more time and effort as humans are not systems that instinctively fall into a behaviour in response to an odour, they are thinking individuals that exercise judgment and subjected to different motivations.

  20. Impact of a Human Sexuality Program on Sex Related Knowledge, Attitudes, Behavior and Guilt of College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Harold S.; Schwartz, Allan J.

    1977-01-01

    This study attempts to assess whether a human sexuality course, which combines lecture and small group discussion formats, results in changes in sex related knowledge, attitudes, behavior, and three dimensions of guilt. (Author)

  1. Evolutionary ecology of human birth sex ratio under the compound influence of climate change, famine, economic crises and wars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helle, Samuli; Helama, Samuli; Lertola, Kalle

    2009-11-01

    1. Human sex ratio at birth at the population level has been suggested to vary according to exogenous stressors such as wars, ambient temperature, ecological disasters and economic crises, but their relative effects on birth sex ratio have not been investigated. It also remains unclear whether such associations represent environmental forcing or adaptive parental response, as parents may produce the sex that has better survival prospects and fitness in a given environmental challenge. 2. We examined the simultaneous role of wars, famine, ambient temperature, economic development and total mortality rate on the annual variation of offspring birth sex ratio and whether this variation, in turn, was related to sex-specific infant mortality rate in Finland during 1865-2003. 3. Our findings show an increased excess of male births during the World War II and during warm years. Instead, economic development, famine, short-lasting Finnish civil war and total mortality rate were not related to birth sex ratio. Moreover, we found no association between annual birth sex ratio and sex-biased infant mortality rate among the concurrent cohort. 4. Our results propose that some exogenous challenges like ambient temperature and war can skew human birth sex ratio and that these deviations likely represent environmental forcing rather than adaptive parental response to such challenges.

  2. Human behavior. Sex equality can explain the unique social structure of hunter-gatherer bands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyble, M; Salali, G D; Chaudhary, N; Page, A; Smith, D; Thompson, J; Vinicius, L; Mace, R; Migliano, A B

    2015-05-15

    The social organization of mobile hunter-gatherers has several derived features, including low within-camp relatedness and fluid meta-groups. Although these features have been proposed to have provided the selective context for the evolution of human hypercooperation and cumulative culture, how such a distinctive social system may have emerged remains unclear. We present an agent-based model suggesting that, even if all individuals in a community seek to live with as many kin as possible, within-camp relatedness is reduced if men and women have equal influence in selecting camp members. Our model closely approximates observed patterns of co-residence among Agta and Mbendjele BaYaka hunter-gatherers. Our results suggest that pair-bonding and increased sex egalitarianism in human evolutionary history may have had a transformative effect on human social organization. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  3. From sexless to sexy: Why it is time for human genetics to consider and report analyses of sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Matthew S; Smith, Phillip H; McKee, Sherry A; Ehringer, Marissa A

    2017-01-01

    Science has come a long way with regard to the consideration of sex differences in clinical and preclinical research, but one field remains behind the curve: human statistical genetics. The goal of this commentary is to raise awareness and discussion about how to best consider and evaluate possible sex effects in the context of large-scale human genetic studies. Over the course of this commentary, we reinforce the importance of interpreting genetic results in the context of biological sex, establish evidence that sex differences are not being considered in human statistical genetics, and discuss how best to conduct and report such analyses. Our recommendation is to run stratified analyses by sex no matter the sample size or the result and report the findings. Summary statistics from stratified analyses are helpful for meta-analyses, and patterns of sex-dependent associations may be hidden in a combined dataset. In the age of declining sequencing costs, large consortia efforts, and a number of useful control samples, it is now time for the field of human genetics to appropriately include sex in the design, analysis, and reporting of results.

  4. Relationships between sex hormones assessed in amniotic fluid, and maternal and umbilical cord serum: what is the best source of information to investigate the effects of fetal hormonal exposure?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, C.; Thijssen, J.H.; Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.; Goozen, S.H. van

    2004-01-01

    Levels of testosterone (T) (total and free), androstenedione (A4), dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and estradiol (E2) were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) in 156 normal pregnancies (77 male and 79 female fetuses). Samples were obtained from amniotic

  5. Relationships between sex hormones assessed in amniotic fluid, and maternal and umbilical cord serum: What is the best source of information to investigate the effects of fetal hormonal exposure?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Beek, C.; Thijssen, J.H.H.; Kettenis, P.T.; van Goozen, S.H.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2004-01-01

    Levels of testosterone (T) (total and free), androstenedione (A4), dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and estradiol (E2) were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) in 156 normal pregnancies (77 male and 79 female fetuses). Samples were obtained from amniotic

  6. Sex differences in light sensitivity impact on brightness perception, vigilant attention and sleep in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chellappa, Sarah L; Steiner, Roland; Oelhafen, Peter; Cajochen, Christian

    2017-10-27

    Artificial light endows a "round-the-clock", 24-h/7-d society. Chronic exposure to light at night contributes to health hazards for humans, including disorders of sleep. Yet the influence of inter-individual traits, such as sex-differences, on light sensitivity remains to be established. Here we investigated potential sex-differences to evening light exposure of 40 lx at 6500 K (blue-enriched) or at 2500 K (non-blue-enriched), and their impact on brightness perception, vigilant attention and sleep physiology. In contrast to women, men had higher brightness perception and faster reaction times in a sustained attention task during blue-enriched light than non-blue-enriched. After blue-enriched light exposure, men had significantly higher all-night frontal NREM sleep slow-wave activity (SWA: 2-4 Hz), than women, particularly during the beginning of the sleep episode. Furthermore, brightness perception during blue-enriched light significantly predicted men's improved sustained attention performance and increased frontal NREM SWA. Our data indicate that, in contrast to women, men show a stronger response to blue-enriched light in the late evening even at very low light levels (40lux), as indexed by increased vigilant attention and sleep EEG hallmarks. Collectively, the data indicate that sex differences in light sensitivity might play a key role for ensuring the success of individually-targeted light interventions.

  7. The epidemiology of anal human papillomavirus infection among women and men having sex with women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyitray, Alan G

    2012-12-01

    The goal of this review is to summarise epidemiological data that support an understanding of the natural history of anal human papillomavirus (HPV) among women and men having sex with women (MSW). HPV is a common infection of the anal canal among women and MSW. Although there have been a limited number of studies to date, both oncogenic and nononcogenic HPV genotypes commonly occur among these populations even when individuals do not report receptive anal sex. Genotype distribution is quite diverse, with recent studies typically detecting more than two dozen genotypes in the anal canal in samples of women and MSW. Factors most consistently associated with HPV in the anal canal among both women and MSW are lifetime number of sexual partners and detection of HPV at the genitals. The common finding of genotypic concordance between the genitals and anal canal in women and MSW, and the infectious nature of HPV, in addition to a limited number of studies offering empirical evidence of anal-to-genital self-inoculation and evidence of HPV hand carriage, may help explain the detection of HPV in the anal canal outside the context of receptive anal sex. HPV vaccination has been shown to reduce anal HPV infection among women and is also a promising prevention strategy among MSW.

  8. Human and animal research into sex-specific effects of child abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Bradley M; Weathington, Jill M

    2014-04-01

    Child abuse is the most potent experiential risk factor for developing a mood disorder later in life. The effects of child abuse are also more severe in girls and women than in men. In this review, we explore the origins of this epidemiological sex difference. We begin by offering the hypothesis that a sex-specific risk factor that influences how social cues are perceived and remembered makes girls more susceptible to the effects of child abuse. We then discuss the neural systems that mediate emotion and stress, and, how child abuse and/or mood disorders like anxiety and depression affect them. Drawing upon human and animal research, several candidates for such a risk factor are discussed. They include glucocorticoid receptor trafficking and corticotropin releasing factor receptor binding and signaling. Our own research shows that the morphometry of the prepubertal amygdala is sexually dimorphic, and could contribute to a sex difference in stimulus appraisal. We have also found that the brain of juvenile female rats is less selective than males' for threatening social stimuli. Thus, one way that women may be more vulnerable to the effects of child abuse is that they are more likely to perceive objectively benign stimuli as threatening. This bias in perception could compound with the genuinely traumatic memories caused by child abuse; the burden of traumatic memories and the increasingly reactive stress response systems could then dispose more women than men to develop depression and/or anxiety. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Gender-specific gene expression in post-mortem human brain: localization to sex chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vawter, Marquis P; Evans, Simon; Choudary, Prabhakara; Tomita, Hiroaki; Meador-Woodruff, Jim; Molnar, Margherita; Li, Jun; Lopez, Juan F; Myers, Rick; Cox, David; Watson, Stanley J; Akil, Huda; Jones, Edward G; Bunney, William E

    2004-02-01

    Gender differences in brain development and in the prevalence of neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression have been reported. Gender differences in human brain might be related to patterns of gene expression. Microarray technology is one useful method for investigation of gene expression in brain. We investigated gene expression, cell types, and regional expression patterns of differentially expressed sex chromosome genes in brain. We profiled gene expression in male and female dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and cerebellum using the Affymetrix oligonucleotide microarray platform. Differentially expressed genes between males and females on the Y chromosome (DBY, SMCY, UTY, RPS4Y, and USP9Y) and X chromosome (XIST) were confirmed using real-time PCR measurements. In situ hybridization confirmed the differential expression of gender-specific genes and neuronal expression of XIST, RPS4Y, SMCY, and UTY in three brain regions examined. The XIST gene, which silences gene expression on regions of the X chromosome, is expressed in a subset of neurons. Since a subset of neurons express gender-specific genes, neural subpopulations may exhibit a subtle sexual dimorphism at the level of differences in gene regulation and function. The distinctive pattern of neuronal expression of XIST, RPS4Y, SMCY, and UTY and other sex chromosome genes in neuronal subpopulations may possibly contribute to gender differences in prevalence noted for some neuropsychiatric disorders. Studies of the protein expression of these sex-chromosome-linked genes in brain tissue are required to address the functional consequences of the observed gene expression differences.

  10. Do Sex Differences in Respiratory Burst Enzyme Activities Exist in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emokpae, Mathias Abiodun; Mrakpor, Beatrice Aghogho

    2016-11-15

    Studies have shown that human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) disproportionally affects more females than males. Affected individuals are susceptible to infections due to depressed immunity, qualitative defects in phagocytic function and altered phagocytosis as well as lowered oxidative burst capacity. This study seeks to determine whether sex differences exist in serum activities of respiratory burst enzymes in HIV-1-infected female and male subjects. Serum myeloperoxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were assayed in 170 confirmed HIV-1 positive and 50 HIV-1 negative subjects using ELISA. Data were analyzed using Student's t-test and p values of less than 0.05 were considered significant. The measured enzyme activities were significantly higher (p < 0.001) in females than males in HIV-1 negative subjects while no sex differences were observed in HIV-1 positive subjects. The absence of sex differences in the activities of respiratory burst enzymes in HIV-1 infection may be due to immune activation as a result of active phagocytic leukocytes, immune reactivity and inflammation.

  11. Inherited human sex reversal due to impaired nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of SRY defines a male transcriptional threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Shan; Racca, Joseph D; Phillips, Nelson B; Weiss, Michael A

    2013-09-17

    Human testis determination is initiated by SRY (sex determining region on Y chromosome). Mutations in SRY cause gonadal dysgenesis with female somatic phenotype. Two subtle variants (V60L and I90M in the high-mobility group box) define inherited alleles shared by an XY sterile daughter and fertile father. Whereas specific DNA binding and bending are unaffected in a rat embryonic pre-Sertoli cell line, the variants exhibited selective defects in nucleocytoplasmic shuttling due to impaired nuclear import (V60L; mediated by Exportin-4) or export (I90M; mediated by chromosome region maintenance 1). Decreased shuttling limits nuclear accumulation of phosphorylated (activated) SRY, in turn reducing occupancy of DNA sites regulating Sertoli-cell differentiation [the testis-specific SRY-box 9 (Sox9) enhancer]. Despite distinct patterns of biochemical and cell-biological perturbations, V60L and I90M each attenuated Sox9 expression in transient transfection assays by twofold. Such attenuation was also observed in studies of V60A, a clinical variant associated with ovotestes and hence ambiguity between divergent cell fates. This shared twofold threshold is reminiscent of autosomal syndromes of transcription-factor haploinsufficiency, including XY sex reversal associated with mutations in SOX9. Our results demonstrate that nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of SRY is necessary for robust initiation of testicular development. Although also characteristic of ungulate orthologs, such shuttling is not conserved among rodents wherein impaired nuclear export of the high-mobility group box and import-dependent phosphorylation are compensated by a microsatellite-associated transcriptional activation domain. Human sex reversal due to subtle defects in the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of SRY suggests that its transcriptional activity lies near the edge of developmental ambiguity.

  12. The Case for Same-Sex Marriage Before the European Court of Human Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Frances

    2017-09-26

    For proponents of same-sex marriage, this essay sets forward a critical analysis of relevant arguments before the European Court of Human Rights. The privacy aspect of Article 8 European Convention of Human Rights will never be a successful argument with reference to marriage, which involves a public status. The equality argument (Article 14) is useful in addressing this issue with its close connections with citizenship, symbolic value, and proven record internationally. Difficulties remain with the equality argument; its conditional status, the width of the margin of appreciation allocated, and the need for an equality comparator. The equality argument needs reinforcement by use alongside a developing family law argument under Article 8 and a dynamically interpreted Article 12 (right to marry) argument. Ultimately, the success of any argument depends on convincingly influencing the European Court to consider that sufficient consensus has developed among Member States of the Council of Europe.

  13. Sexual imprinting on facial traits of opposite-sex parents in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinkowska, Urszula M; Rantala, Markus J

    2012-09-05

    Positive sexual imprinting is a process by which individuals use the phenotype of their opposite-sex parent as a template for acquiring mates. Recent studies in humans have concluded that an imprinting-like mechanism influences human mate choice in facial traits. However, some of the previous studies have had methodological problems or flaws which might have invalidated or led to an overgeneralization of the original interpretation of their results. In this study, 70 heterosexual adults were used to test if their partners resembled facially their opposite-sex parent as the sexual imprinting hypothesis predicts. Judges assessed the subjective facial similarity between each participant's partner and their parent. We found that there was no perceived facial similarity between women's partners and their fathers. However, men tended to pair more often with women that were perceived as resembling the men's own mothers. In contrast to previous studies, the quality of the relationship between participants and their parents did not predict the level of facial resemblance between the participant's spouse and their parent.

  14. Transcriptional profiling of human liver identifies sex-biased genes associated with polygenic dyslipidemia and coronary artery disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijing Zhang

    Full Text Available Sex-differences in human liver gene expression were characterized on a genome-wide scale using a large liver sample collection, allowing for detection of small expression differences with high statistical power. 1,249 sex-biased genes were identified, 70% showing higher expression in females. Chromosomal bias was apparent, with female-biased genes enriched on chrX and male-biased genes enriched on chrY and chr19, where 11 male-biased zinc-finger KRAB-repressor domain genes are distributed in six clusters. Top biological functions and diseases significantly enriched in sex-biased genes include transcription, chromatin organization and modification, sexual reproduction, lipid metabolism and cardiovascular disease. Notably, sex-biased genes are enriched at loci associated with polygenic dyslipidemia and coronary artery disease in genome-wide association studies. Moreover, of the 8 sex-biased genes at these loci, 4 have been directly linked to monogenic disorders of lipid metabolism and show an expression profile in females (elevated expression of ABCA1, APOA5 and LDLR; reduced expression of LIPC that is consistent with the lower female risk of coronary artery disease. Female-biased expression was also observed for CYP7A1, which is activated by drugs used to treat hypercholesterolemia. Several sex-biased drug-metabolizing enzyme genes were identified, including members of the CYP, UGT, GPX and ALDH families. Half of 879 mouse orthologs, including many genes of lipid metabolism and homeostasis, show growth hormone-regulated sex-biased expression in mouse liver, suggesting growth hormone might play a similar regulatory role in human liver. Finally, the evolutionary rate of protein coding regions for human-mouse orthologs, revealed by dN/dS ratio, is significantly higher for genes showing the same sex-bias in both species than for non-sex-biased genes. These findings establish that human hepatic sex differences are widespread and affect diverse cell

  15. Impact of age and sex on carotid and peripheral arterial wall thickness in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Munckhof, I; Scholten, R; Cable, N T; Hopman, M T E; Green, D J; Thijssen, D H J

    2012-12-01

    Although previous studies have reported age-related wall thickening in carotid arteries, it is not clear whether this is a systemic phenomenon which is also apparent in peripheral conduit arteries or whether conduit wall thickness (WT) changes occur to a similar degree in men and women. To determine whether sex modifies the impact of ageing on WT or wall-to-lumen ratio (W:L) in atherosclerosis-prone (i.e. carotid artery, femoral, superficial femoral, popliteal artery) and atherosclerosis-resistant (i.e. brachial artery) conduit arteries. We included 30 young (23 ± 2 year; 15M : 15F) and 31 older (70 ± 5 year; 18M : 13F) healthy subjects. High-resolution ultrasound was used to measure diameter, WT and wall-to-lumen ratio (W/L) in all arteries. Older subjects had increased WT and W/L in the carotid, femoral, superficial femoral, popliteal and brachial arteries (all P < 0.05). Compared with women, men demonstrated larger diameter and WT (both P < 0.01) across all arteries. Sex did not impact upon age-related changes in WT or W/L (P = 0.39 and 0.43 respectively). Our data suggest that age-related wall thickening, evident in the carotid artery, is also apparent in the arteries of the upper and lower limbs. The impact of age on wall thickening did not differ between men and women. These data support the presence of systemic increases in WT and W/L with age in apparently healthy humans, independent of sex. © 2012 The Authors Acta Physiologica © 2012 Scandinavian Physiological Society.

  16. Oral human papillomavirus in men having sex with men: risk-factors and sampling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim R H Read

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV-associated oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma is becoming more common. We examined prevalence and risk factors for oral HPV among men who have sex with men (MSM and compared sampling and transport methods. METHODS: In 2010, 500 MSM (249 HIV-positive attending Melbourne Sexual Health Centre answered a questionnaire, swabbed their mouth and throat and collected a gargled oral rinse sample. Half the oral rinse was transported absorbed in a tampon (to enable postage. HPV was detected by polymerase chain reaction, and genotyped by Roche Linear Array®. Men with HPV 16 or 18 were retested after six months. RESULTS: Any HPV genotype was detected in 19% (95% confidence intervals (CI 15-25% of HIV-infected men and 7% (95% CI 4-11% of HIV-negative men (p100 partners. Lifetime oral-penile sex partner numbers were significantly associated in a separate model: aOR 2.8(1.2-6.3 for 26-100 partners and 3.2(1.4-7.2 for>100 partners. HPV 16 and 18 persisted in 10 of 12 men after a median six months. Sensitivities of sampling methods compared to all methods combined were: oral rinse 97%, tampon-absorbed oral rinse 69%, swab 32%. CONCLUSIONS: Oral HPV was associated with HIV infection, smoking, recent tooth-brushing, and more lifetime tongue-kissing and oral sex partners. The liquid oral rinse sample was more sensitive than a tampon-absorbed oral rinse or a self-collected swab.

  17. Sex-specific genetic diversity is shaped by cultural factors in Inner Asian human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchi, Nina; Hegay, Tatyana; Mennecier, Philippe; Georges, Myriam; Laurent, Romain; Whitten, Mark; Endicott, Philipp; Aldashev, Almaz; Dorzhu, Choduraa; Nasyrova, Firuza; Chichlo, Boris; Ségurel, Laure; Heyer, Evelyne

    2017-04-01

    Sex-specific genetic structures have been previously documented worldwide in humans, even though causal factors have not always clearly been identified. In this study, we investigated the impact of ethnicity, geography and social organization on the sex-specific genetic structure in Inner Asia. Furthermore, we explored the process of ethnogenesis in multiple ethnic groups. We sampled DNA in Central and Northern Asia from 39 populations of Indo-Iranian and Turkic-Mongolic native speakers. We focused on genetic data of the Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA. First, we compared the frequencies of haplogroups to South European and East Asian populations. Then, we investigated the genetic differentiation for eight Y-STRs and the HVS1 region, and tested for the effect of geography and ethnicity on such patterns. Finally, we reconstructed the male demographic history, inferred split times and effective population sizes of different ethnic groups. Based on the haplogroup data, we observed that the Indo-Iranian- and Turkic-Mongolic-speaking populations have distinct genetic backgrounds. However, each population showed consistent mtDNA and Y chromosome haplogroups patterns. As expected in patrilocal populations, we found that the Y-STRs were more structured than the HVS1. While ethnicity strongly influenced the genetic diversity on the Y chromosome, geography better explained that of the mtDNA. Furthermore, when looking at various ethnic groups, we systematically found a genetic split time older than historical records, suggesting a cultural rather than biological process of ethnogenesis. This study highlights that, in Inner Asia, specific cultural behaviors, especially patrilineality and patrilocality, leave a detectable signature on the sex-specific genetic structure. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Sex, kings and serial killers and other group-selected human traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, J T

    2000-06-01

    (Note: This unorthodox paper contains the first argument for heart disease being a programmed age change and promoted by the dramatic, post age-40 increases in the hormones FSH and hCG seen in some individuals.) A recent issue of Science suggests that the evolutionary purpose of sex is unknown. Surviving to adulthood implies a valuable gene combination which is destroyed by sexual recombination. This should be detrimental to offspring. PROPOSED: Sex is group-selected in prey to allow coalescence of beneficial, and disposal of detrimental, mutations in single individuals enabling rapid adaptation to novel predation. Group selection is a universal force driven by local inter-species (not intra-species) competition. Aging, metabolism, litter size, and fixed body size are directly linked. Sexual recombination and chromosomes destroy gene linkage and exist because mutations are usually detrimental, rarely positive, and occur in linked groups. In unevolving environments, sex is selected against and asexuality emerges. Periodic evolution of novel predators, like man, can explain the 'punctuated equilibria' fossil record. Genes inhibited by methylation or chromatin condensation, expressed at older ages in predation-minimized environments, allow for group selection. Stress increases mutation rates and beneficial mutation likelihood. Females select bigger, brighter, louder, or stronger males that can survive predator attention. Size approximates age and thus predator encounters; male traits represent predation-survival potential. Human male traits include, balding, acne, beard-length, wrinkling, graying, nose/ear growth. Progeria accelerates development of most male traits. Domination of groups by single males allows rapid predation-defense evolution: adolescent males are expelled, brave the wild, and expel another group's male to mate. If expelled and dominant males are culled by predation, males reaching puberty first will reproduce. Hormonal acceleration of puberty

  19. Sex-dependent alterations of Ca2+ cycling in human cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Thomas H; Herting, Jonas; Eiringhaus, Jörg; Pabel, Steffen; Hartmann, Nico H; Ellenberger, David; Friedrich, Martin; Renner, André; Gummert, Jan; Maier, Lars S; Zabel, Markus; Hasenfuss, Gerd; Sossalla, Samuel

    2016-09-01

    Clinical studies have shown differences in the propensity for malignant ventricular arrhythmias between women and men suffering from cardiomyopathies and heart failure (HF). This is clinically relevant as it impacts therapies like prophylactic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator implantation but the pathomechanisms are unknown. As an increased sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) leak is arrhythmogenic, it could represent a cellular basis for this paradox. We evaluated the SR Ca(2+) leak with respect to sex differences in (i) afterload-induced cardiac hypertrophy (Hy) with preserved left ventricular (LV) function and (ii) end-stage HF. Cardiac function did not differ between sexes in both cardiac pathologies. Human cardiomyocytes isolated from female patients with Hy showed a significantly lower Ca(2+) spark frequency (CaSpF, confocal microscopy, Fluo3-AM) compared with men (P cardiac impairment. Since the SR Ca(2+) leak triggers delayed afterdepolarizations, our findings may explain why women are less prone to ventricular arrhythmias and confirm the rationale of therapeutic measures reducing the SR Ca(2+) leak. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Sex differences in healthy human heart rate variability: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Julian; Thayer, Julian F

    2016-05-01

    The present meta-analysis aimed to quantify current evidence on sex differences in the autonomic control of the heart, indexed by measures of heart rate variability (HRV) in healthy human subjects. An extensive search of the literature yielded 2020 titles and abstracts, of which 172 provided sufficient reporting of sex difference in HRV. Data from 63,612 participants (31,970 females) were available for analysis. Meta-analysis yielded a total of 1154 effect size estimates (k) across 50 different measures of HRV in a cumulated total of 296,247 participants. Females showed a significantly lower mean RR interval and standard deviation of RR intervals (SDNN). The power spectral density of HRV in females is characterized by significantly less total power that contains significantly greater high- (HF) and less low-frequency (LF) power. This is further reflected by a lower LF/HF ratio. Meta-regression revealed significant effects of age, respiration control and the length of recording available for analysis. Although women showed greater mean heart rate, they showed greater vagal activity indexed by HF power of HRV. Underlying mechanisms of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Species, sex and inter-individual differences in DNA repair induced by nine sex steroids in primary cultures of rat and human hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, Antonietta; Mattioli, Francesca; Angiola, Marianna; Reimann, Roland; Brambilla, Giovanni

    2003-04-20

    Sex steroids, due to the generally negative responses observed in routinely employed standard genotoxicity assays, are considered epigenetic carcinogens. Some doubts on this conviction are raised by the results of recent studies providing evidence that cyproterone acetate and two structural analogues, chlormadinone acetate and megestrol acetate, are genotoxic in female rats but only for the liver, and in primary human hepatocytes from donors of both genders. The experimental evidence suggests that the metabolic activation of these molecules to reactive species and the consequent formation of DNA adducts occur only in the intact hepatocyte. Since the possibility that other sex steroids cause a liver-specific genotoxic effect cannot be ruled out a priori, we investigated nine drugs of this family for their ability to induce DNA repair synthesis in primary cultures of rat and human hepatocytes. Each steroid was tested in cultures from at least two male and two female donors of each species. Hepatocytes were exposed for 20h to sub-toxic concentrations ranging from 1 to 50 micro M, and DNA repair induction was measured by quantitative autoradiography. In primary rat hepatocytes, induction of DNA repair indicative of a frankly positive response was detected in cultures from: 2/2 males and 3/3 females with drospirenone, 2/2 males and 1/2 females with ethinylestradiol, 1/2 males and 1/2 females with oxymetholone, 1/2 males with norethisterone, 1/4 females with progesterone, and 1/4 males with methyltestosterone. Consistent negative responses were obtained with testosterone and stanozolol. A few inconclusive responses were observed in rat hepatocytes exposed to progesterone, medroxyprogesterone, norethisterone, methyltestosterone and oxymetholone. In contrast, under the same experimental conditions the nine sex steroids provided frankly negative responses in the large majority of cultures of primary hepatocytes from both male and female human donors; the only exceptions

  2. Oral Human Papillomavirus Infection: Differences in Prevalence Between Sexes and Concordance With Genital Human Papillomavirus Infection, NHANES 2011 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonawane, Kalyani; Suk, Ryan; Chiao, Elizabeth Y; Chhatwal, Jagpreet; Qiu, Peihua; Wilkin, Timothy; Nyitray, Alan G; Sikora, Andrew G; Deshmukh, Ashish A

    2017-10-17

    The burden of human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) is disproportionately high among men, yet empirical evidence regarding the difference in prevalence of oral HPV infection between men and women is limited. Concordance of oral and genital HPV infection among men is unknown. To determine the prevalence of oral HPV infection, as well as the concordance of oral and genital HPV infection, among U.S. men and women. Nationally representative survey. Civilian noninstitutionalized population. Adults aged 18 to 69 years from NHANES (National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey, 2011 to 2014). Oral rinse, penile swab, and vaginal swab specimens were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction followed by type-specific hybridization. The overall prevalence of oral HPV infection was 11.5% (95% CI, 9.8% to 13.1%) in men and 3.2% (CI, 2.7% to 3.8%) in women (equating to 11 million men and 3.2 million women nationwide). High-risk oral HPV infection was more prevalent among men (7.3% [CI, 6.0% to 8.6%]) than women (1.4% [CI, 1.0% to 1.8%]). Oral HPV 16 was 6 times more common in men (1.8% [CI, 1.3% to 2.2%]) than women (0.3% [CI, 0.1% to 0.5%]) (1.7 million men vs. 0.27 million women). Among men and women who reported having same-sex partners, the prevalence of high-risk HPV infection was 12.7% (CI, 7.0% to 18.4%) and 3.6% (CI, 1.4% to 5.9%), respectively. Among men who reported having 2 or more same-sex oral sex partners, the prevalence of high-risk HPV infection was 22.2% (CI, 9.6% to 34.8%). Oral HPV prevalence among men with concurrent genital HPV infection was fourfold greater (19.3%) than among those without it (4.4%). Men had 5.4% (CI, 5.1% to 5.8%) greater predicted probability of high-risk oral HPV infection than women. The predicted probability of high-risk oral HPV infection was greatest among black participants, those who smoked more than 20 cigarettes daily, current marijuana users, and those who reported 16 or more

  3. Sex differences in liver toxicity-do female and male human primary hepatocytes react differently to toxicants in vitro?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Mennecozzi

    Full Text Available There is increasing amount of evidence for sex variation in drug efficiency and toxicity profiles. Women are more susceptible than men to acute liver injury from xenobiotics. In general, this is attributed to sex differences at a physiological level as well as differences in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, but neither of these can give a sufficient explanation for the diverse responses to xenobiotics. Existing data are mainly based on animal models and limited data exist on in vitro sex differences relevant to humans. To date, male and female human hepatocytes have not yet been compared in terms of their responses to hepatotoxic drugs. We investigated whether sex-specific differences in acute hepatotoxicity can be observed in vitro by comparing hepatotoxic drug effects in male and female primary human hepatocytes. Significant sex-related differences were found for certain parameters and individual drugs, showing an overall higher sensitivity of female primary hepatocytes to hepatotoxicants. Moreover, our work demonstrated that high content screening is feasible with pooled primary human hepatocytes in suspension.

  4. Global challenges in human immunodeficiency virus and syphilis coinfection among men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Chelsea P; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2016-11-01

    Syphilis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection disproportionately affects men who have sex with men (MSM), and the rate of coinfection has been increasing over the last decade. HIV and syphilis coinfection is particularly challenging because the infections interact synergistically thereby increasing the risk of acquisition and transmission as well as accelerating disease progression. Areas covered: This paper reviews and summarizes the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, clinical management and prevention of HIV and syphilis coinfection among MSM. Expert commentary: Research does not support a different syphilis treatment for coinfected individuals; however, coinfection may warrant a recommendation for antiretroviral therapy. In order to reverse the epidemic of syphilis and HIV coinfection, there needs to be greater awareness, improved cultural sensitivity among health care providers, improved access to preventative services and increased screening for syphilis and HIV.

  5. Same-sex gaze attraction influences mate-choice copying in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorzinski, Jessica L; Platt, Michael L

    2010-02-09

    Mate-choice copying occurs when animals rely on the mating choices of others to inform their own mating decisions. The proximate mechanisms underlying mate-choice copying remain unknown. To address this question, we tracked the gaze of men and women as they viewed a series of photographs in which a potential mate was pictured beside an opposite-sex partner; the participants then indicated their willingness to engage in a long-term relationship with each potential mate. We found that both men and women expressed more interest in engaging in a relationship with a potential mate if that mate was paired with an attractive partner. Men and women's attention to partners varied with partner attractiveness and this gaze attraction influenced their subsequent mate choices. These results highlight the prevalence of non-independent mate choice in humans and implicate social attention and reward circuitry in these decisions.

  6. Sex determination of human mandible using metrical parameters by computed tomography: A prospective radiographic short study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basavaraj N Kallalli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sex determination of unidentified human remains is very important in forensic medicine, medicolegal cases, and forensic anthropology. The mandible is the largest and hardest facial bone that commonly resists postmortem damage and forms an important source of personal identification. Additional studies have demonstrated the applicability of facial reconstruction using three-dimensional computed tomography scan (3D-CT for the purpose of individual identification. Aim: To determine the sex of human mandible using metrical parameters by CT. Materials and Methods: The study included thirty subjects (15 males and 15 females, with age group ranging between 10 and 60 years obtained from the outpatient department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Narsinhbhai Patel Dental College and Hospital. CT scan was performed on all the subjects, and the data obtained were reconstructed for 3D viewing. After obtaining 3D-CT scan, a total of seven mandibular measurements, i.e., gonial angle (G-angle, ramus length (Ramus-L, minimum ramus breadth and gonion-gnathion length (G-G-L, bigonial breadth, bicondylar breadth (BIC-Br, and coronoid length (CO-L were measured; collected data were analyzed using SPSS statistical analysis program by Student's t-test. Results: The result of the study showed that out of seven parameters, G-angle, Ramus-L, G-G-L, BIC-Br, and CO-L showed a significant statistical difference (P < 0.05, with overall accuracy of 86% for males and 82% for females. Conclusion: Personal identification using mandible by conventional methods has already been proved but with variable efficacies. Advanced imaging modalities can aid in personal identification with much higher accuracy than conventional methods.

  7. The human operational sex ratio: effects of marriage, concealed ovulation, and menopause on mate competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Frank W; Berbesque, J Colette

    2012-12-01

    Among mammals, male-male competition for sexual access to females frequently involves fighting. Larger body size gives males an advantage in fighting, which explains why males tend to be larger than females in many species, including anthropoid primates. Mitani et al. derived a formula to measure the operational sex ratio (OSR) to reflect the degree of male-male competition using the number of reproductively available males to females who are cycling and capable of conceiving. The OSR should predict the degree of sexual dimorphism in body mass-at least if male-male competition involves much fighting or threatening. Here, we use hunter-gatherer demographic data and the Mitani et al. formula to calculate the human OSR. We show that humans have a much lower degree of body mass sexual dimorphism than is predicted by our OSR. We suggest this is because human competition rarely involves fighting. In human hunter-gatherer societies, differences in the ages of marriage have an impact on competition in that the age of males at first marriage is younger when there is a lower percentage of married men with two or more wives, and older when there is a higher percentage of married men with two or more wives. We discuss the implications of this for females, along with the effects of two key life history traits that influence the OSR, concealed ovulation and menopause. While menopause decreases the number of reproductively available females to males and thus increases male-male competition, concealed ovulation decreases male-male competition. Finally, we discuss the importance of mostly monogamous mate bonds in human evolution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Adult sex ratios and partner scarcity among hunter-gatherers: implications for dispersal patterns and the evolution of human sociality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Karen L; Schacht, Ryan; Bell, Adrian

    2017-09-19

    Small populations are susceptible to high genetic loads and random fluctuations in birth and death rates. While these selective forces can adversely affect their viability, small populations persist across taxa. Here, we investigate the resilience of small groups to demographic uncertainty, and specifically to fluctuations in adult sex ratio (ASR), partner availability and dispersal patterns. Using 25 years of demographic data for two Savannah Pumé groups of South American hunter-gatherers, we show that in small human populations: (i) ASRs fluctuate substantially from year to year, but do not consistently trend in a sex-biased direction; (ii) the primary driver of local variation in partner availability is stochasticity in the sex ratio at maturity; and (iii) dispersal outside of the group is an important behavioural means to mediate locally constrained mating options. To then simulate conditions under which dispersal outside of the local group may have evolved, we develop two mathematical models. Model results predict that if the ASR is biased, the globally rarer sex should disperse. The model's utility is then evaluated by applying our empirical data to this central prediction. The results are consistent with the observed hunter-gatherer pattern of variation in the sex that disperses. Together, these findings offer an alternative explanation to resource provisioning for the evolution of traits central to human sociality (e.g. flexible dispersal, bilocal post-marital residence and cooperation across local groups). We argue that in small populations, looking outside of one's local group is necessary to find a mate and that, motivated by ASR imbalance, the alliances formed to facilitate the movement of partners are an important foundation for the human-typical pattern of network formation across local groups.This article is part of the themed issue 'Adult sex ratios and reproductive decisions: a critical re-examination of sex differences in human and animal

  9. Genetic considerations in human sex-mate selection: partners share human leukocyte antigen but not short-tandem-repeat identity markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israeli, Moshe; Kristt, Don; Nardi, Yuval; Klein, Tirza

    2014-05-01

    Previous studies support a role for MHC on mating preference, yet it remains unsettled as to whether mating occurs preferentially between individuals sharing human leukocyte antigen (HLA) determinants or not. Investigating sex-mate preferences in the contemporary Israeli population is of further curiosity being a population with distinct genetic characteristics, where multifaceted cultural considerations influence mate selection. Pairs of male-female sex partners were evaluated in three groups. Two groups represented unmarried (n = 1002) or married (n = 308) couples and a control group of fictitious male-female couples. HLA and short-tandem-repeat (STR) genetic identification markers were assessed for the frequency of shared antigens and alleles. Human leukocyte antigen results showed that Class I and/ or Class II single antigen as well as double antigen sharing was more common in sex partners than in control group couples (P sex-mates and controls (P = 0.78). Sex partnerships shared HLA determinants more frequently than randomly constituted male-female pairs. The observed phenomenon does not reflect a syngenetic background between sex-mates as STR markers were not selectively shared. Thus, sex-mate selection in man may contravene the evolutionary pressure for genetic diversity in regard to HLA. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Mapping the human corticotropin releasing hormone binding protein gene (CRHBP) to the long arm of chromosome 5 (5q11.2-q13.3)

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    Vamvakopoulos, N.C. [Univ. of Thessaly School of Medicine, Larisa (Greece); Sioutopoulou, T.O. [Univ. of Athens Medical School (Greece); Durkin, S.A. [American Type Culture Collection, Rockville, MD (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Unexpected stimulation or stress activates the heat shock protein (hsp) system at the cellular level and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis at the level of the whole organism. At the molecular level, these two systems communicate through the functional interaction between hsp90 and glucocorticoid receptor (GR). The corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) system regulates the mammalian stress response by coordinating the activity of the HPA axis. It consists of the 41-amino-acid-long principal hypothalamic secretagogue for pituitary adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), CRH, its receptor (CRHR), and its binding protein (CRHBP). Because of its central role in the coordination of stress response and whole body homeostasis, the CRH system has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neuroendocrine and psychiatric disease. 19 refs., 1 fig.

  11. Dietary intake, glucose metabolism and sex hormones in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) compared with women with non-PCOS-related infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ya-Hui; Wang, Ting-Wen; Wei, Hsiao-Jui; Hsu, Chien-Yeh; Ho, Hsin-Jung; Chen, Wen-Hua; Young, Robert; Liaw, Chian-Mey; Chao, Jane C-J

    2013-06-28

    The present study investigated dietary intake, glucose metabolism and sex hormones in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). A total of forty-five women (aged 25–40 years) with PCOS and 161 control women (aged 25–43 years) with non-PCOS-related infertility were recruited. Anthropometry, glucose tolerance and sex hormones were determined and dietary intake was assessed. Women with PCOS had lower serum sex hormone-binding globulin and increased BMI, waist:hip ratio, luteinising hormone, ratio of luteinising hormone: follicle-stimulating hormone, testosterone and free androgen index (FAI). Postprandial glucose, fasting insulin and insulin resistance were elevated in women with PCOS. Women with PCOS had reduced energy and carbohydrate intake but higher fat intake. Serum sex hormone-binding globulin level was negatively associated with BMI in both groups and negatively correlated with macronutrient intake in the PCOS group with hyperandrogenism. However, FAI was positively correlated with BMI, waist circumference and glucose metabolic parameters in both groups. Therefore, women with PCOS consume lower energy and carbohydrate compared with those with non-PCOS-related infertility and macronutrient intake is only negatively associated with serum sex hormone-binding globulin level in the PCOS group with hyperandrogenism.

  12. Not all about sex: neural and biobehavioral functions of human dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Julia F; Cela-Conde, Camilo José; Gomila, Antoni

    2017-07-01

    This paper provides an integrative review of neuroscientific and biobehavioral evidence about the effects of dance on the individual across cultural differences. Dance moves us, and many derive aesthetic pleasure from it. However, in addition-and beyond aesthetics-we propose that dance has noteworthy, deeper neurobiological effects. We first summarize evidence that illustrates the centrality of dance to human life indirectly from archaeology, comparative psychology, developmental psychology, and cross-cultural psychology. Second, we review empirical evidence for six neural and biobehavioral functions of dance: (1) attentional focus/flow, (2) basic emotional experiences, (3) imagery, (4) communication, (5) self-intimation, and (6) social cohesion. We discuss the reviewed evidence in relation to current debates in the field of empirical enquiry into the functions of human dance, questioning the positions that dance is (1) just for pleasure, (2) all about sex, (3) just for mood management and well-being, and (4) for experts only. Being a young field, evidence is still piecemeal and inconclusive. This review aims to take a step toward a systematization of an emerging avenue of research: a neuro- and biobehavioral science of dance. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  13. Sex differences in social focus across the life cycle in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Kunal; Ghosh, Asim; Monsivais, Daniel; Dunbar, Robin I. M.; Kaski, Kimmo

    2016-04-01

    Age and gender are two important factors that play crucial roles in the way organisms allocate their social effort. In this study, we analyse a large mobile phone dataset to explore the way life history influences human sociality and the way social networks are structured. Our results indicate that these aspects of human behaviour are strongly related to age and gender such that younger individuals have more contacts and, among them, males more than females. However, the rate of decrease in the number of contacts with age differs between males and females, such that there is a reversal in the number of contacts around the late 30s. We suggest that this pattern can be attributed to the difference in reproductive investments that are made by the two sexes. We analyse the inequality in social investment patterns and suggest that the age- and gender-related differences we find reflect the constraints imposed by reproduction in a context where time (a form of social capital) is limited.

  14. Effects of acute alcohol intoxication on growth axis in human adolescents of both sexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frias, J; Torres, J M; Rodriguez, R; Ruiz, E; Ortega, E

    2000-10-20

    We previously reported the deleterious effects of acute alcohol intoxication (AAI) on pituitary-gonadal and pituitary-adrenal axes hormones in human adolescents. In the present paper we studied the effects of AAI on the growth axis hormones, and the possible contribution of the insulin-glucose axis to the alcohol-induced dysfunction of the growth axis in human adolescents. Blood samples were drawn from adolescents that arrived at the emergency department with evident behavioural symptoms of drunkenness (AAI) or with nil consumption of alcohol (controls [C]). AAI produced in the adolescents of both sexes in our series: a decrease in growth hormone (GH) levels, without significant alteration of either insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) or insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP3); an increase in plasma glucose and a decrease in insulin in the female adolescents but not in the males. Males and females undergo a significant period of bone growth during adolescence. Growth axis hormones play an important role in the pubertal spurt. Thus, ethanol consumption during adolescence could have long-lasting deleterious effects on this aspect of development. In industrialised countries, around 35% of alcohol drinkers are under 16 years old, therefore the result of this study should be made known to adolescents and the appropriate authorities.

  15. Measuring the genetic influence on human life span: gene-environment interaction and sex-specific genetic effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Qihua; De Benedictis, G; Yashin, Annatoli

    2001-01-01

    New approaches are needed to explore the different ways in which genes affect the human life span. One needs to assess the genetic effects themselves, as well as gene–environment interactions and sex dependency. In this paper, we present a new model that combines both genotypic and demographicinf......New approaches are needed to explore the different ways in which genes affect the human life span. One needs to assess the genetic effects themselves, as well as gene–environment interactions and sex dependency. In this paper, we present a new model that combines both genotypic...... and demographicinformation in the estimation of the geneticinfluence on life spans. Based on Cox'sproportional hazard assumption, the modelmeasures the risks for each gene as well as forgene–environment and gene–sex interactions,while controlling for confounding factors. Atwo-step MLE is introduced to obtain anon...

  16. Behaviourally-inhibited temperament and female sex, two vulnerability factors for anxiety disorders, facilitate conditioned avoidance (also) in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheynin, Jony; Beck, Kevin D.; Pang, Kevin C.H.; Servatius, Richard J.; Shikari, Saima; Ostovich, Jacqueline; Myers, Catherine E.

    2014-01-01

    Acquisition and maintenance of avoidance behaviour is a key feature of all human anxiety disorders. Animal models have been useful in understanding how anxiety vulnerability could translate into avoidance learning. For example, behaviourally-inhibited temperament and female sex, two vulnerability factors for clinical anxiety, are associated with faster acquisition of avoidance responses in rodents. However, to date, the translation of such empirical data to human populations has been limited since many features of animal avoidance paradigms are not typically captured in human research. Here, using a computer-based task that captures many features of rodent escape-avoidance learning paradigms, we investigated whether avoidance learning would be faster in humans with inhibited temperament and/or female sex and, if so, whether this facilitation would take the same form. Results showed that, as in rats, both vulnerability factors were associated with facilitated acquisition of avoidance behaviour in humans. Specifically, inhibited temperament was specifically associated with higher rate of avoidance responding, while female sex was associated with longer avoidance duration. These findings strengthen the direct link between animal avoidance work and human anxiety vulnerability, further motivating the study of animal models while also providing a simple testbed for a direct human testing. PMID:24412263

  17. Mother-Son Communication About Sex and Routine Human Immunodeficiency Virus Testing Among Younger Men of Color Who Have Sex With Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouris, Alida; Hill, Brandon J; Fisher, Kimberly; Erickson, Greg; Schneider, John A

    2015-11-01

    The purposes of this study were to document the HIV testing behaviors and serostatus of younger men of color who have sex with men (YMSM) and to explore sociodemographic, behavioral, and maternal correlates of HIV testing in the past 6 months. A total of 135 YMSM aged 16-19 years completed a close-ended survey on HIV testing and risk behaviors, mother-son communication, and sociodemographic characteristics. Youth were offered point-of-care HIV testing, with results provided at survey end. Multivariate logistic regression analyzed the sociodemographic, behavioral, and maternal factors associated with routine HIV testing. A total of 90.3% of YMSM had previously tested for HIV, and 70.9% had tested in the past 6 months. In total, 11.7% of youth reported being HIV positive, and 3.3% reported unknown serostatus. When offered an HIV test, 97.8% accepted. Of these, 14.7% had a positive oral test result, and 31.58% of HIV-positive YMSM (n = 6) were seropositive unaware. Logistic regression results indicated that maternal communication about sex with males was positively associated with routine testing (odds ratio = 2.36; 95% confidence interval = 1.13-4.94). Conversely, communication about puberty and general human sexuality was negatively associated (odds ratio = .45; 95% confidence interval = .24-.86). Condomless anal intercourse and positive sexually transmitted infection history were negatively associated with routine testing; however, frequency of alcohol use was positively associated. Despite high rates of testing, we found high rates of HIV infection, with 31.58% of HIV-positive YMSM being seropositive unaware. Mother-son communication about sex needs to address same-sex behavior as this appears to be more important than other topics. YMSM with known risk factors for HIV are not testing at the recommended time intervals. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of age, sex and exercise on brachial and popliteal artery remodelling in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Daniel J; Swart, Anne; Exterkate, Anne; Naylor, Louise H; Black, Mark A; Cable, N Timothy; Thijssen, Dick H J

    2010-06-01

    To examine the impact of age, sex and exercise on wall thickness and remodelling in the popliteal and brachial arteries. We compared wall thickness, lumen diameter and wall:lumen ratios in the brachial and popliteal arteries of 15 young (Y, 25.4+/-0.8 yr; 7M 8W) and 16 older sedentary (OS, 58.8+/-1.1 yr; 8M 8W) subjects, with 12 of the OS group also studied following 12 and 24 weeks exercise training. Wall thickness and lumen diameter were higher in the popliteal than the brachial artery for both groups (P<0.05); wall:lumen ratio was similar between arteries. Comparison of the Y and OS groups revealed no impact on wall thickness, whereas diameter values were higher in OS subjects (P<0.05). Whilst there were no significant differences in wall thickness between men and women in the Y or OS groups, diameter was larger in men than in women for both arteries (P<0.05). After 24 weeks of training the wall thickness of both arteries decreased (P<0.01) and the wall:lumen ratio of the brachial (P<0.01) and the popliteal (P<0.05) decreased. The cross-sectional results suggest that ageing was associated with increased lumen diameter, although wall:lumen ratio remained unchanged. Wall:lumen ratio was higher in women than men, irrespective of subject age or the artery studied. This related primarily to differences in lumen diameter between the sexes, as wall thickness did not significantly differ between men and women. Our longitudinal data strongly suggest that exercise training is associated with beneficial effects on conduit artery wall thickness and wall:lumen ratio in both upper and lower limbs in humans. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The epidemiology of human papillomavirus in HIV-negative and HIV-infected men who have sex with men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, S.H.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis studied the epidemiology and seroepidemiology of human papillomavirus (HPV) among HIV-negative and HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Anal, penile, and oral HPV prevalence and incidence were high, in particular among HIV-infected MSM. Clearance of

  20. Lipid mobilization from human abdominal, subcutaneous adipose tissue is independent of sex during steady-state exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Jens; Gjeraa, Kirsten; Enevoldsen, Lotte Hahn

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to elucidate whether there are sex differences of significant biological importance in the human abdominal, subcutaneous adipose tissue lipid metabolism when studied by Fick's Principle during rest and exercise in steady-state conditions. The net mobilization of fatty acids...

  1. Effect of sex-hormone levels, sex, body mass index and other host factors on human craniofacial bone regeneration with bioactive tricalcium phosphate grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knabe, Christine; Mele, Aynur; Kann, Peter Herbert; Peleska, Barbara; Adel-Khattab, Doaa; Renz, Harald; Reuss, Alexander; Bohner, Marc; Stiller, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Little is known regarding the associations between sex-hormone levels, sex, body mass index (BMI), age, other host factors and biomaterial stimulated bone regeneration in the human craniofacial skeleton. The aim of this study was to elucidate the associations between these factors and bone formation after sinus floor augmentation procedures (SFA) utilizing a bioactive tricalcium phosphate (TCP) bone grafting material. We conducted a prospective study in a human population in which 60 male and 60 female participants underwent SFA and dental implant placement using a staged approach. BMI as well as levels of serum estradiol (E2), total testosterone (TT), and the free androgen index (FAI) were measured by radioimmunoassay and electrochemoluminescent-immunoassay. At implant placement, 6 months after SFA, bone biopsy specimens were harvested for hard tissue histology, the amount of bone formation was evaluated by histomorphometry and immunohistochemical analysis of osteogenic marker expression. The Wilcoxon rank-sum U test, Spearman correlations and linear regression analysis were used to explore the association between bone formation and BMI, hormonal and other host factors. BMI and log E2 were significantly positively associated with bone formation in male individuals (p < 0.05). Histomorphometry revealed trends toward greater bone formation and osteogenic marker expression with non-smokers compared to smokers. In male patients, higher E2 levels and higher BMI enhanced TCP stimulated craniofacial i.e. intramembranous bone repair. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Sex-Specific Biology of the Human Malaria Parasite Revealed from the Proteomes of Mature Male and Female Gametocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Jun; Chen, Zhao; Wang, Zenglei; Shrestha, Sony; Li, Xiaolian; Li, Runze; Cui, Liwang

    2017-04-01

    The gametocytes of the malaria parasites are obligate for perpetuating the parasite's life cycle through mosquitoes, but the sex-specific biology of gametocytes is poorly understood. We generated a transgenic line in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum , which allowed us to accurately separate male and female gametocytes by flow cytometry. In-depth analysis of the proteomes by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry identified 1244 and 1387 proteins in mature male and female gametocytes, respectively. GFP-tagging of nine selected proteins confirmed their sex-partitions to be agreeable with the results from the proteomic analysis. The sex-specific proteomes showed significant differences that are consistent with the divergent functions of the two sexes. Although the male-specific proteome (119 proteins) is enriched in proteins associated with the flagella and genome replication, the female-specific proteome (262 proteins) is more abundant in proteins involved in metabolism, translation and organellar functions. Compared with the Plasmodium berghei sex-specific proteomes, this study revealed both extensive conservation and considerable divergence between these two species, which reflect the disparities between the two species in proteins involved in cytoskeleton, lipid metabolism and protein degradation. Comparison with three sex-specific proteomes allowed us to obtain high-confidence lists of 73 and 89 core male- and female-specific/biased proteins conserved in Plasmodium The identification of sex-specific/biased proteomes in Plasmodium lays a solid foundation for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the unique sex-specific biology in this early-branching eukaryote. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Sex-specific differences in hyperoxic lung injury in mice: Implications for acute and chronic lung disease in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lingappan, Krithika, E-mail: lingappa@bcm.edu [Department of Pediatrics, Section of Neonatology, Texas Children' s Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine, 1102 Bates Avenue, MC: FC530.01, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Jiang, Weiwu; Wang, Lihua; Couroucli, Xanthi I. [Department of Pediatrics, Section of Neonatology, Texas Children' s Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine, 1102 Bates Avenue, MC: FC530.01, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Barrios, Roberto [Department of Pathology and Genomic Medicine, The Methodist Hospital Physician Organization, 6565 Fannin Street, Suite M227, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Moorthy, Bhagavatula [Department of Pediatrics, Section of Neonatology, Texas Children' s Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine, 1102 Bates Avenue, MC: FC530.01, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Sex-specific differences in pulmonary morbidity in humans are well documented. Hyperoxia contributes to lung injury in experimental animals and humans. The mechanisms responsible for sex differences in the susceptibility towards hyperoxic lung injury remain largely unknown. In this investigation, we tested the hypothesis that mice will display sex-specific differences in hyperoxic lung injury. Eight week-old male and female mice (C57BL/6J) were exposed to 72 h of hyperoxia (FiO{sub 2} > 0.95). After exposure to hyperoxia, lung injury, levels of 8-iso-prostaglandin F{sub 2} alpha (8-iso-PGF 2α) (LC–MS/MS), apoptosis (TUNEL) and inflammatory markers (suspension bead array) were determined. Cytochrome P450 (CYP)1A expression in the lung was assessed using immunohistochemistry and western blotting. After exposure to hyperoxia, males showed greater lung injury, neutrophil infiltration and apoptosis, compared to air-breathing controls than females. Pulmonary 8-iso-PGF 2α levels were higher in males than females after hyperoxia exposure. Sexually dimorphic increases in levels of IL-6 (F > M) and VEGF (M > F) in the lungs were also observed. CYP1A1 expression in the lung was higher in female mice compared to males under hyperoxic conditions. Overall, our results support the hypothesis that male mice are more susceptible than females to hyperoxic lung injury and that differences in inflammatory and oxidative stress markers contribute to these sex-specific dimorphic effects. In conclusion, this paper describes the establishment of an animal model that shows sex differences in hyperoxic lung injury in a temporal manner and thus has important implications for lung diseases mediated by hyperoxia in humans. - Highlights: • Male mice were more susceptible to hyperoxic lung injury than females. • Sex differences in inflammatory markers were observed. • CYP1A expression was higher in females after hyperoxia exposure.

  4. Molecular sex identification of dry human teeth specimens from Sokoto, Northwestern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    A D Zagga; H OON Ahmed; Ismail, S.M.; A A Tadros

    2014-01-01

    Background: The advent of molecular techniques has revolutionized the ability of scientists to estimate the sex of individuals. Forensic odontology plays an important role in establishing the sex of victims with bodies mutilated beyond recognition due to major disaster. The genetic difference between males and females is defined by the presence or absence of the Y-chromosome. The use of alphoid-repeat primers in sex estimation was first applied on dried blood. Generally, the X, Y alphoid repe...

  5. Sex differences in human adipose tissues - the biology of pear shape

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karastergiou, Kalypso; Smith, Steven R; Greenberg, Andrew S; Fried, Susan K

    2012-01-01

    .... Available evidence points to possible intrinsic, cell autonomous differences in preadipocytes and adipocytes, as well as modulatory roles for sex steroids, the microenvironment within each adipose...

  6. Numerical simulation of a two-sex human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryani, I.; Adi-Kusumo, F.

    2014-02-01

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is a major cause of cervical cancer, precancerous lesions, cancer and other disease. HPV is the most common sexually transmitted infection. Although HPV virus primarily affects woman but it can also affects man because it cause of cancer of the anus, vulva, vagina, penis and some other cancers. HPV vaccines now used to prevent cervical cancer and genital warts because the vaccine protect against four types of HPV that most commonly cause disease are types 6, 11, 16, and 18. This paper is sequel work of Elbasha (2008). Difference with Elbasha (2008) are give alternative proof global stability, numerical simulation and interpretation. Global stability of the equilibrium on the model of a two-sex HPV vaccination were explored by using Lyapunov. Although we use the same lyapunov function, we use the largest invariant set to proof the global stability. The result show that the global stability of the equilibrium depends on the effective reproduction number (R). If R 1 then endemic equilibrium have globally asymptotically stable properties. Then equilibrium proceed with the interpretation of numerical simulation.

  7. A review of the established and suspected causes of variations in human sex ratio at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, William H; Grech, Victor

    2017-06-01

    The human sex ratio (proportion male) at birth (SRB) varies with many variables. Some of this variation has an established proximate cause. For instance, low SRB (more females) at birth are associated with various forms of stressful events or circumstances during or prior to pregnancy. These low SRB are almost certainly mainly caused by maternal-stress-induced male foetal loss. Other types of SRB variation are thought to be caused by hormonal variation in either or both parents around the time of conception. One or other of these two types of proximate cause seems to be responsible for most of the established variation of SRB. This will be illustrated here in respect of some selected forms of SRB variation. It seems likely that a clarification of the hormonal causes of SRB variation will also help explain the striking (apparent) inconsistencies in the results of reported tests of the influential Trivers-Willard hypothesis. It is further proposed that an appreciation of the evidence that parental hormones influence SRB may enhance understanding of several important pathologies (hepatitis B, toxoplasmosis, testicular cancer, prostate cancer and autism). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Is Associated with HIV Acquisition among South African Female Sex Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertran Auvert

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Mounting evidence suggests an association between human papillomavirus (HPV and HIV acquisition. This study aimed to explore this association among South African female sex workers (FSWs. Methods. We used data from 88 HIV-negative FSWs who participated in a vaginal gel (COL-1492 trial. Cervicovaginal rinse samples, obtained before HIV-seroconversion, were genotyped into high-risk (HR- and low-risk (LR- HPV. HIV-adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated using Cox survival analysis. Results. HR- and LR-HPV prevalences were 70.5% (95% CI : 60.5–79.2 and 60.2% (95% CI : 49.9–70.0, respectively. Twenty-five women HIV seroconverted. Controlling for background characteristics and other sexually transmitted infections, HIV aHR increased by a factor of 1.7 (95% CI : 1.01–2.7, Plinear trend = 0.045 for an increase of one unit of the number of HR-HPV genotypes. Conclusions. HIV seroconversion among FSWs is associated with genital HR-HPV infection. Further investigation is warranted, including testing the possible protective effect of available HPV vaccines on HIV acquisition.

  9. Structural and mechanical properties of the human Achilles tendon: Sex and strength effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Sidney M; Dick, Taylor J M; Wakeling, James M

    2015-09-18

    Tendons are elastic structures that connect muscle to the skeletal system and transmit force relative to the amount of stretch they experience. The mechanical properties of human tendons are difficult to measure non-invasively, so generic values are often assumed in musculoskeletal models to represent all subjects. We aimed to determine the in vivo mechanical properties of the human Achilles tendon by calculating tendon stiffness and resting length in 10 male and 10 female trained cyclists. B-mode ultrasound coupled with motion capture was used to track the tendon lengths for the medial and lateral gastrocnemii concurrently with ankle torque measurements during ramped isometric contractions. Achilles tendon stiffness was calculated as the slope of the linear portion of the force-length curve, and this was extrapolated to zero force to yield the tendon resting length. Average Achilles tendon stiffness was 201.8 ± 5.9 N mm(-1). There was no difference in Achilles tendon stiffness or maximum isometric force between males and females, however tendon stiffness varied between individuals. The resting lengths of the MG and LG tendon were 0.209 ± 0.002 m and 0.222 ± 0.002 m respectively, and regression models determined that shank length was the best predictor of resting tendon length. Our results indicate that Achilles tendon stiffness varies with muscle strength and not sex. The variability in Achilles tendon stiffness between subjects support the need for experimentally measured subject-specific tendon properties as input parameters to improve the accuracy of musculoskeletal models. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Understanding Sex for Sale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book Understanding Sex for Sale: Meanings and Moralities of Sexual Commerce is dedicated to the exploration of the ways in which sex prostitution, sex work or sex for sale are taken for granted by particularly looking at how the relation between sex and money is interpreted and enacted...... and humanities in areas such as sociology, anthropology, criminology, human geography and history as well as migration studies and gender studies....

  11. Sex determination of human crania using Mastoid triangle and Opisthion-Bimastoid triangle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Deepali; Jasuja, O P; Nath, Surinder

    2013-05-01

    In the present study an attempt has been made to establish standards for sex determination from the various direct and indirect measurements of the cranium. A total of 100 cranium (50 of either sex) were measured for nine direct measurements pertaining to Mastoid triangle and Opisthion-Bimastoid triangle. These measurements were used further to calculate four indirect measurements pertaining to the calculation of Opisthion-Bimastoid triangle area and angles. Analysis of data reveals that the male crania exhibit greater values for all the measurements except the angle right Mastoidale-Opisthion-left Mastoidale. The sex difference has been observed to be statistically significant for all the measurements except for the angles of the Opisthion-Bimastoid triangle. Sectioning point was calculated for the diagnosis of sex based on the mean values of these measurements; the accuracy of sex determination varied from measurement to measurement. The highest value for determining sex was obtained for Asterion-Mastoidale length of right side i.e. 80%, followed by Bi-mastoid breadth i.e. 75%. This suggests that these measurements could be used with relatively high degree of accuracy in determining sex of the unknown crania. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  12. Morphological Integration of the Human Pelvis with Respect to Age and Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallard, Angela M; Savell, Kristen R R; Auerbach, Benjamin M

    2017-04-01

    Considerable research has shown that modern human pelvic dimensions, especially of the birth canal, are sexually dimorphic. Studies also suggest that females with younger ages-at-death have narrower canal dimensions than those who die at older ages, possibly due to continued independent growth of the pubis. A recent examination of this pattern argued that it is unlikely that these differences relate to mortality, but the source of the difference in pelvic dimensions with age remains unresolved. We use pelvic dimensions to assess differences in magnitudes of morphological integration between adult females and males across ages-at-death. We first ascertain whether the sexes have different strengths of integration, and then assess if differences in magnitudes of integration are associated with age-at-death. Pelvic dimensions of all groups were moderately integrated. Females and males have similar magnitudes of integration, and there is no change in the strength of integration with age. Examining individual regions of the pelvis indicates that the ilium, pubis, and pelvic inlet and outlet have stronger integration than the overall pelvis. This was particularly true of the pelvic outlet, which demonstrated the strongest integration. Our findings suggest that regions of the pelvis are more strongly integrated internally, and less integrated with each other, which would allow for proportional growth among regions of the pelvis with age that do not affect its overall integration. No single region of the pelvis appears to be motivating the difference in pelvic dimensions between age groups. We further consider the implications of these findings on evolutionary constraints. Anat Rec, 300:666-674, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Sex difference in the heat shock response to high external load resistance training in older humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njemini, Rose; Forti, Louis Nuvagah; Mets, Tony; Van Roie, Evelien; Coudyzer, Walter; Beyer, Ingo; Delecluse, Christophe; Bautmans, Ivan

    2017-07-01

    Literature reports on the effects of resistance training on heat shock protein70 (Hsp70) adaptation in older subjects are scarce. Moreover, the optimum training load required to obtain a beneficial adaptation profile is lacking. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of resistance training at various external loads on extracellular Hsp70 (eHsp70) resting levels in older humans. Fifty-six community-dwelling older (68±5years) volunteers were randomized to 12weeks of resistance training (3×/week) at either high-resistance (HIGH, 8 males, 10 females, 2×10-15 repetitions at 80% 1RM), low resistance (LOW, 9 Males, 10 Females, 1×80-100 repetitions at 20% 1RM), or mixed low resistance (LOW+, 9 Males, 10 Females, 1×60 repetitions at 20% 1RM followed by 1×10-20 repetitions at 40% 1RM). Serum was available from 48 out of the 56 participants at baseline and after 12weeks for determination of eHsp70. Mid-thigh muscle volume (computed tomography), muscle strength (1RM & Biodex dynamometer) and physical functioning (including 6min walk distance [6MWD]) were assessed. There was a sex-related dichotomy in the heat shock response to high external load training. We observed a significant decrease in eHsp70 concentration in the HIGH group for female, but not male, subjects. At baseline, men had a larger muscle volume, leg press and leg extension 1RM compared to women (all ptraining at high external load decreases the resting levels of eHsp70 in older females. Whether this reflects a better health status requires further investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Physical activity according to sex in the argar culture. An approach based on the human remains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez-Brobeil, Silvia A.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A collection of human remains, from the Argaric Culture sites, was studied to broaden knowledge about the physical activity carried out by those populations. Three types of activity markers were analyzed: osteoarthritis, musculoskeletal stress markers and traumatisms. The obtained results coincide with the environment and terrain in which the archaeological sites were found, demonstrating a remarkable difference between sexes. Although it is impossible to determine the profession of the studied individuals, it can be affirmed that the men would perform activities that required muscular strength, walking through rugged and steeped terrain in which they risked suffering further trauma. The women, however, carried out activities centred around the domestic environment.

    Se estudian restos humanos procedentes de yacimientos de la Cultura de El Argar con el objetivo de ampliar el conocimiento sobre la actividad física llevada a cabo por los individuos. Se analizan tres tipos de marcadores: la artrosis, los marcadores de estrés músculo-esquelético y los traumatismos. Los resultados obtenidos son coincidentes con el entorno y los terrenos en los que se ubicaron los asentamientos argáricos y señalan una clara diferencia entre sexos. Aunque es imposible determinar la “profesión” de los individuos, sí se puede afirmar que los varones realizarían actividades que requerían fuerza muscular, caminar por terrenos duros y escarpados y en las que había riesgo de sufrir traumatismos. Las mujeres, sin embargo, llevarían a cabo actividades centradas en el entorno doméstico.

  15. Serum growth hormone-binding protein in obesity: effect of a short-term, very low calorie diet and diet-induced weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, M H; Ho, K K; Kjems, L

    1996-01-01

    +/-SEM)] before and after an average weight loss of 30.3 +/- 4.6 kg and in 18 age- and sex matched normal subjects (BMI, 23.0 +/- 0.4 kg/m2) and studied the effects of a very low calorie diet over 4 days in 5 normal subjects and a subgroup of obese subjects before (n = 6) and after (n = 5) weight loss......GH-binding protein (GHBP) is increased in obesity. It is not known whether the increase in GHBP is reversible with weight loss or modulated by acute changes in nutritional intake. To address these questions, we measured GHBP in 18 obese subjects [body mass index (BMI), 40.9 +/- 1.1 kg/m2 (mean....... GHBP was elevated in the obese subjects compared to levels in age- and sex-matched normal controls (1.48 +/- 0.1 vs. 0.53 +/- 0.1 nmol/L; P

  16. Cultural and Socioeconomical Dimensions of Human Reproduction and Sex Education in the Biology Textbooks of Eight Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Selmaoui, Sabah; Agorram, Boujemaa; Khzami, Salaheddine; Razouki, Abdelaziz; Clément, Pierre; Caravita, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    International audience; This study was carried out within the European research project "Biology, Health and Environmental Education for Better Citizenship". It is a comparative analysis of textbooks from eight Mediterranean countries which differ by their cultures, their socio‐economical levels, and their religions. This work is focused on the sensitive educational topic "Human Reproduction and Sex Education". And 43 biology textbooks are analyzed among eight countries: four are in Europe an...

  17. Recent advances in sex identification of human skeletal remains in South Africa : review article

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gibbon, Victoria E; Strkalj, Goran; Bidmos, Mubarak A

    2010-01-01

    .... Sex estimation based on the morphological characteristics of skeletal elements is population specific and thus the establishment of regional criteria is one of the imperatives for modern forensic anthropology...

  18. Volumetric parcellation methodology of the human hypothalamus in neuroimaging: normative data and sex differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makris, Nikos; Swaab, Dick F.; van der Kouwe, Andre; Abbs, Brandon; Boriel, Denise; Handa, Robert J.; Tobet, Stuart; Goldstein, Jill M.

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing evidence regarding the importance of the hypothalamus for understanding sex differences in relation to neurological, psychiatric, endocrine and sleep disorders. Although different in histology, physiology, connections and function, multiple hypothalamic nuclei subserve

  19. Human Performance: More Psychological and Physiological Sex Differences (A Selected Bibliography),

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 1972, 20, 377-382. 7. Friedman, S. L., & Jacobs , B. S. Sex differences in neonates’ behavioral...in probability learning and decision making with multiple equivalent predictors. Psychonomic Science, 1971, 22, 199-201. 10. Jacobs , M. K...Contents: * . SECTION ONE: SOCIAL VARIATIONS AND CONSTANT THEMES. 1. • "Sex Roles and Social Change, Harriet Holter. 6. Understanding Women

  20. Developing human rights-based strategies to improve health among female sex workers in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binagwaho, Agnès; Agbonyitor, Mawuena; Mwananawe, Aimable; Mugwaneza, Placidie; Irwin, Alec; Karema, Corine

    2010-12-15

    How governments should address sex work is a topic of current debate in Rwanda and other countries. Some constituencies propose harsher punishment of sex workers as the cornerstone of an improved policy. We argue that an adequate policy response to sex work in the Rwandan context must prioritize public health and reflect current knowledge of the social determinants of health. This does not imply intensified repression, but a comprehensive agenda of medical and social support to improve sex workers' access to health care, reduce their social isolation, and expand their economic options. Evidence from social epidemiology converges with rights-based arguments in this approach. Recent field interviews with current and former sex workers strengthen the case, while highlighting the need for further social scientific and epidemiological analysis of sex work in Rwanda. Rwanda has implemented some measures that reflect a rights-based perspective in addressing sex work. For example, recent policies seek to expand access to education for girls and support sex workers in the transition to alternative livelihoods. These policies reinforce the model of solidarity-based public health action for which Rwanda has been recognized. Whether such measures can maintain traction in the face of economic austerity and ideological resistance remains to be seen. Copyright © 2010 Binagwaho, Agbonyitor, Mwananawe, Mugwaneza, Irwin, and Karema. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

  1. The sex ratio distortion in the human head louse is conserved over time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biliński Szczepan M

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background At the turn of the 19th century the first observations of a female-biased sex ratio in broods and populations of the head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis, had been reported. A study by Buxton in 1940 on the sex ratio of lice on prisoners in Ceylon is still today the subject of reanalyses. This sex ratio distortion had been detected in ten different countries. In the last sixty years no new data have been collected, especially on scalp infestations under economically and socially more developed conditions. Results Here we report a female bias of head lice in a survey of 480 school children in Argentina. This bias is independent of the intensity of the pediculosis, which makes local mate competition highly unlikely as the source of the aberrant sex ratio; however, other possible adaptive mechanisms cannot be discounted. These lice as well as lice from pupils in Britain were carrying several strains of the endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia pipientis, one of the most wide spread intracellular sex ratio distorters. Similar Wolbachia strains are also present in the pig louse, Haematopinus suis, suggesting that this endosymbiont might have a marked influence on the biology of the whole order. The presence of a related obligate nutritional bacterium in lice prevents the investigation of a causal link between sex ratio and endosymbionts. Conclusions Regardless of its origin, this sex ratio distortion in head lice that has been reported world wide, is stable over time and is a remarkable deviation from the stability of frequency-dependent selection of Fisher's sex ratio. A female bias first reported in 1898 is still present over a hundred years and a thousand generations later.

  2. Sex-dependent role of glucocorticoids and androgens in the pathophysiology of human obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquali, R; Vicennati, V; Gambineri, A; Pagotto, U

    2008-12-01

    Obesity, particularly its abdominal phenotype, a harbinger of the metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), is becoming one of the most significant public health problems worldwide. Among many other potential factors, derangement of multiple hormone systems have increasingly been considered for their potential importance in the pathophysiology of obesity and the metabolic syndrome, with particular reference to glucocorticoids and sex hormones. These systems have a fundamental and coordinating role in the physiology of intermediate metabolism and cardiovascular function, and in the response to acute and chronic stress challenge. Abdominal obesity is associated with a hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and impaired androgen balance, although these alterations differ according to sex. As there is also increasing evidence that there are many differences between the sexes in the susceptibility and development of obesity, T2D and CVDs, we support the hypothesis that alterations of the HPA axis and androgen balance may have an important function in this context. This is further supported by the fact that there are important differences between males and females in their ability to adapt to both internal and particularly to environmental (external) stressors. In addition, there is also evidence that, in both physiological and pathological conditions, a close cross talk exists between sex hormones and glucocorticoids at both neuroendocrine and peripheral level, again with different specificities according to sex.

  3. Comparisons of Sex Offenders with Non-Offenders on Attitudes Toward Masturbation and Female Fantasy as Related to Participation in Human Sexuality Sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotten-Hustan, Annie L.

    1983-01-01

    Examined the effects of sexuality classes on 23 sex offenders and 28 college students. Results showed that compared to controls, participants had more positive attitudes toward masturbation and a disgust of perverse fantasies about women, suggesting human sexuality education may be useful in preventing sex offenses and rehabilitating offenders.…

  4. A statistical human rib cage geometry model accounting for variations by age, sex, stature and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiangnan; Cao, Libo; Reed, Matthew P; Rupp, Jonathan D; Hoff, Carrie N; Hu, Jingwen

    2014-07-18

    In this study, we developed a statistical rib cage geometry model accounting for variations by age, sex, stature and body mass index (BMI). Thorax CT scans were obtained from 89 subjects approximately evenly distributed among 8 age groups and both sexes. Threshold-based CT image segmentation was performed to extract the rib geometries, and a total of 464 landmarks on the left side of each subject׳s ribcage were collected to describe the size and shape of the rib cage as well as the cross-sectional geometry of each rib. Principal component analysis and multivariate regression analysis were conducted to predict rib cage geometry as a function of age, sex, stature, and BMI, all of which showed strong effects on rib cage geometry. Except for BMI, all parameters also showed significant effects on rib cross-sectional area using a linear mixed model. This statistical rib cage geometry model can serve as a geometric basis for developing a parametric human thorax finite element model for quantifying effects from different human attributes on thoracic injury risks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Accelerated resolution of inflammation underlies sex differences in inflammatory responses in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathod, Krishnaraj S; Kapil, Vikas; Velmurugan, Shanti; Khambata, Rayomand S; Siddique, Umme; Khan, Saima; Van Eijl, Sven; Gee, Lorna C; Bansal, Jascharanpreet; Pitrola, Kavi; Shaw, Christopher; D'Acquisto, Fulvio; Colas, Romain A; Marelli-Berg, Federica; Dalli, Jesmond; Ahluwalia, Amrita

    2017-01-03

    Cardiovascular disease occurs at lower incidence in premenopausal females compared with age-matched males. This variation may be linked to sex differences in inflammation. We prospectively investigated whether inflammation and components of the inflammatory response are altered in females compared with males. We performed 2 clinical studies in healthy volunteers. In 12 men and 12 women, we assessed systemic inflammatory markers and vascular function using brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD). In a further 8 volunteers of each sex, we assessed FMD response to glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) at baseline and at 8 hours and 32 hours after typhoid vaccine. In a separate study in 16 men and 16 women, we measured inflammatory exudate mediators and cellular recruitment in cantharidin-induced skin blisters at 24 and 72 hours. Typhoid vaccine induced mild systemic inflammation at 8 hours, reflected by increased white cell count in both sexes. Although neutrophil numbers at baseline and 8 hours were greater in females, the neutrophils were less activated. Systemic inflammation caused a decrease in FMD in males, but an increase in females, at 8 hours. In contrast, GTN response was not altered in either sex after vaccine. At 24 hours, cantharidin formed blisters of similar volume in both sexes; however, at 72 hours, blisters had only resolved in females. Monocyte and leukocyte counts were reduced, and the activation state of all major leukocytes was lower, in blisters of females. This was associated with enhanced levels of the resolving lipids, particularly D-resolvin. Our findings suggest that female sex protects against systemic inflammation-induced endothelial dysfunction. This effect is likely due to accelerated resolution of inflammation compared with males, specifically via neutrophils, mediated by an elevation of the D-resolvin pathway. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01582321 and NRES: City Road and Hampstead Ethics Committee: 11/LO/2038. The authors were funded by multiple

  6. Safe sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sex; Sexually transmitted - safe sex; GC - safe sex; Gonorrhea - safe sex; Herpes - safe sex; HIV - safe sex; ... contact. STIs include: Chlamydia Genital herpes Genital warts Gonorrhea Hepatitis HIV HPV Syphilis STIs are also called ...

  7. Distribution of human papillomavirus genotypes in anal cytological and histological specimens from HIV-infected men who have sex with men and men who have sex with women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwich, Laila; Videla, Sebastian; Cañadas, Mari-Paz; Piñol, Marta; García-Cuyàs, Francesc; Vela, Sandra; Molina-López, Rafael A; Coll, Josep; Sirera, Guillem; Clotet, Bonaventura

    2013-09-01

    Anal cancer is caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). Moreover, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is an additional risk factor for anal cancer. Therefore, when designing preventive protocols for HIV-infected men, it is important to detect high-risk (HR) oncogenic HPV genotypes present in their anal canals. However, most studies have focused only on men who have sex with men (MSM). To estimate the prevalence of HPV and describe its genotype distribution using anal cytology and histology specimens from HIV-infected populations of MSM and men who have sex with women (MSW). Crosssectional study of the CARH·MEN cohort. Single-center prospective cohort of HIV-infected men attending the Outpatient HIV Clinic of Hospital Germans Trias i Pujol (Spain), where they undergo annual screening for HPV infection of the anus, penis and mouth. Four hundred eighty-three HIV-infected men (341 MSM, 142 MSW) with no current or previous history of anal condylomata. HPV genotypes detected (multiplex-PCR), cytology results (Papanicolaou test) and histology results (biopsy-based). Cytological abnormalities were detected in 40% of MSM (129/321; 95%CI, 35-46) and 20% of MSW (26/131; 95%CI, 13-28) (OR=2.7; 95%CI, 1.7-4.4). All high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) were positive for HR-HPV in both groups. High-resolution anoscopy was performed in 146 patients (120 MSM, 26 MSW) with abnormal cytological diagnoses. Lesions were visualized in 80 MSM (67%) and 14 MSW (54%) (OR=1.7 [95%CI, 0.7-4.0]). Histological diagnosis was anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN)-1 in 51 MSM (64%) and 6 MSW (43%), AIN-2 in 9 MSM (11%) and 3 MSW (21%), AIN-3 in 7 MSM (9%) and 1 MSW (7%), and normal in 13 MSM (16%) and 4 MSW (29%). HPV16 was the most prevalent HR genotype. Study limitations include its crosssectional design. Anal cancer screening should be offered to all HIV-infected men, regardless of their sexual orientation.

  8. Sex work and sex trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditmore, M; Saunders, P

    1998-01-01

    Preventing HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), as well as sexual and physical violence, are major occupational health and safety concerns for prostitutes. Considerable evidence shows that anti-prostitution laws facilitate violence and abuse against prostitutes and may increase their risk of contracting HIV/STDs. For example, police often take advantage of existing laws against prostitution to demand money or sex. In general, the strict enforcement of anti-prostitution laws marginalizes prostitutes from services which could help them avoid abuse and promotes an environment in which prostitutes must take risks to avoid detection and arrest. One strategy to improve prostitutes' lives would therefore be to remove laws which prevent them from working safely and from travelling abroad to work legally. Projects in which prostitutes are actively involved have helped break down stereotypes against prostitutes, while police-sex worker liaison projects in Scotland and Australia have led to higher levels of reporting of crimes against prostitutes. The Network of Sex Work Projects (NSWP), an organization which links sex worker health programs around the world, has found that the incidence of HIV/STDs among prostitutes is lowest when they have control over their work conditions; access to condoms, lubricants, and other safe sex materials; and respect of their basic human and legal rights. People need to understand that consensual involvement in sex work is different from forced sex trafficking.

  9. Cytological studies of human meiosis: sex-specific differences in recombination originate at, or prior to, establishment of double-strand breaks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gruhn, Jennifer R; Rubio, Carmen; Broman, Karl W; Hunt, Patricia A; Hassold, Terry

    2013-01-01

    ... for the male:female differences remains unclear. In the present study, we used cytological methodology to directly compare recombination levels between human males and females, and to examine possible sex-specific differences in upstream events...

  10. Cytological Studies of Human Meiosis: Sex-Specific Differences in Recombination Originate at, or Prior to, Establishment of Double-Strand Breaks: e85075

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jennifer R Gruhn; Carmen Rubio; Karl W Broman; Patricia A Hunt; Terry Hassold

    2013-01-01

    ... for the male:female differences remains unclear. In the present study, we used cytological methodology to directly compare recombination levels between human males and females, and to examine possible sex-specific differences in upstream events...

  11. Human Rights Violations among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Southern Africa: Comparisons between Legal Contexts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Zahn

    Full Text Available In 1994, South Africa approved a constitution providing freedom from discrimination based on sexual orientation. Other Southern African countries, including Botswana, Malawi, and Namibia, criminalize same-sex behavior. Men who have sex with men (MSM have been shown to experience high levels of stigma and discrimination, increasing their vulnerability to negative health and other outcomes. This paper examines the relationship between criminalization of same-sex behavior and experiences of human rights abuses by MSM. It compares the extent to which MSM in peri-urban Cape Town experience human rights abuses with that of MSM in Gaborone, Botswana; Blantyre and Lilongwe, Malawi; and Windhoek, Namibia. In 2008, 737 MSM participated in a cross-sectional study using a structured survey collecting data regarding demographics, human rights, HIV status, and risk behavior. Participants accrued in each site were compared using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. Encouragingly, the results indicate MSM in Cape Town were more likely to disclose their sexual orientation to family or healthcare workers and less likely to be blackmailed or feel afraid in their communities than MSM in Botswana, Malawi, or Namibia. However, South African MSM were not statistically significantly less likely experience a human rights abuse than their peers in cities in other study countries, showing that while legal protections may reduce experiences of certain abuses, legislative changes alone are insufficient for protecting MSM. A comprehensive approach with interventions at multiple levels in multiple sectors is needed to create the legal and social change necessary to address attitudes, discrimination, and violence affecting MSM.

  12. Sex genes for genomic analysis in human brain: internal controls for comparison of probe level data extraction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellis Steven P

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic studies of complex tissues pose unique analytical challenges for assessment of data quality, performance of statistical methods used for data extraction, and detection of differentially expressed genes. Ideally, to assess the accuracy of gene expression analysis methods, one needs a set of genes which are known to be differentially expressed in the samples and which can be used as a "gold standard". We introduce the idea of using sex-chromosome genes as an alternative to spiked-in control genes or simulations for assessment of microarray data and analysis methods. Results Expression of sex-chromosome genes were used as true internal biological controls to compare alternate probe-level data extraction algorithms (Microarray Suite 5.0 [MAS5.0], Model Based Expression Index [MBEI] and Robust Multi-array Average [RMA], to assess microarray data quality and to establish some statistical guidelines for analyzing large-scale gene expression. These approaches were implemented on a large new dataset of human brain samples. RMA-generated gene expression values were markedly less variable and more reliable than MAS5.0 and MBEI-derived values. A statistical technique controlling the false discovery rate was applied to adjust for multiple testing, as an alternative to the Bonferroni method, and showed no evidence of false negative results. Fourteen probesets, representing nine Y- and two X-chromosome linked genes, displayed significant sex differences in brain prefrontal cortex gene expression. Conclusion In this study, we have demonstrated the use of sex genes as true biological internal controls for genomic analysis of complex tissues, and suggested analytical guidelines for testing alternate oligonucleotide microarray data extraction protocols and for adjusting multiple statistical analysis of differentially expressed genes. Our results also provided evidence for sex differences in gene expression in the brain prefrontal cortex

  13. Sex differences in light sensitivity impact on brightness perception, vigilant attention and sleep in humans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sarah L Chellappa; Roland Steiner; Peter Oelhafen; Christian Cajochen

    2017-01-01

    .... Here we investigated potential sex-differences to evening light exposure of 40 lx at 6500 K (blue-enriched) or at 2500 K (non-blue-enriched), and their impact on brightness perception, vigilant attention and sleep physiology...

  14. Baby on board: olfactory cues indicate pregnancy and fetal sex in a non-human primate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Jeremy Chase; Drea, Christine M.

    2015-01-01

    Olfactory cues play an integral, albeit underappreciated, role in mediating vertebrate social and reproductive behaviour. These cues fluctuate with the signaller's hormonal condition, coincident with and informative about relevant aspects of its reproductive state, such as pubertal onset, change in season and, in females, timing of ovulation. Although pregnancy dramatically alters a female's endocrine profiles, which can be further influenced by fetal sex, the relationship between gestation and olfactory cues is poorly understood. We therefore examined the effects of pregnancy and fetal sex on volatile genital secretions in the ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta), a strepsirrhine primate possessing complex olfactory mechanisms of reproductive signalling. While pregnant, dams altered and dampened their expression of volatile chemicals, with compound richness being particularly reduced in dams bearing sons. These changes were comparable in magnitude with other, published chemical differences among lemurs that are salient to conspecifics. Such olfactory ‘signatures’ of pregnancy may help guide social interactions, potentially promoting mother–infant recognition, reducing intragroup conflict or counteracting behavioural mechanisms of paternity confusion; cues that also advertise fetal sex may additionally facilitate differential sex allocation. PMID:25716086

  15. Effect of sex differences on human MEF2 regulation during endurance exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissing, Kristian; McGee, Sean L; Roepstorff, Carsten

    2008-01-01

    Women exhibit an enhanced capability for lipid metabolism during endurance exercise compared with men. The underlying regulatory mechanisms behind this sex-related difference are not well understood but may comprise signaling through a myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) regulatory pathway. The prim...

  16. Regulation of meiotic entry and gonadal sex differentiation in the human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anne; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Meiosis is a unique type of cell division that is performed only by germ cells to form haploid gametes. The switch from mitosis to meiosis exhibits a distinct sex-specific difference in timing, with female germ cells entering meiosis during fetal development and male germ cells at puberty when...

  17. Human Performance: Sex Differences and the Influence of the Menstrual Cycle (A Selected Bibliography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-05-01

    Psychologist, 1972, 27, 1077-1078. 6. Harrison, J. B. A critical evaluation of research on masculinity /femininity and a proposal for an alternative...Masica, D. N., Money, J., Ehrhardt, A. A. & Lewis, V. G. IQ, fetal sex hormones and cognitive patterns: Studies in the testicular feminizing syndrome of

  18. Impact of age, sex and exercise on brachial and popliteal artery remodelling in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Green, D.J.; Swart, A.; Exterkate, A.; Naylor, L.H.; Black, M.A.; Cable, N.T.; Thijssen, D.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of age, sex and exercise on wall thickness and remodelling in the popliteal and brachial arteries. METHODS: We compared wall thickness, lumen diameter and wall:lumen ratios in the brachial and popliteal arteries of 15 young (Y, 25.4+/-0.8 yr; 7M 8W) and 16 older

  19. The variations of human sex ratio at birth during and after wars, and their potential explanations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, William H

    2009-03-07

    Data on wartime sex ratios (proportions male at birth) are reviewed. Two sorts of variation are empirically well supported viz. (a) rises during and just after both World Wars and (b) a fall in Iran during the Iran-Iraq War. Potential explanations are offered here for these rises and fall. The fall seems plausibly explained by psychological stress causing pregnant women disproportionately to abort male fetuses. The rises may be explained by either or both of two different forms of hypothesis viz. (i) Kanazawa's "returning soldier" hypothesis and (ii) variation in coital rates. The coital rate hypothesis potentially accounts, in slightly different ways, for the rises both during, and just after, some wars. The argument that coital rate affects sex ratio just after wars seems to be supported by evidence that in some combatant countries, dizygotic (DZ) twinning rates (which also reportedly vary with coital rate) peaked after the World Wars. The suggestion that war is associated with rises in sex ratio at birth was first made more than two centuries ago. However, I have been unable to locate direct supporting sex ratio data relating to any conflict before World War One. So it would be useful if historical demographers were to search for such data relating to these earlier wars.

  20. Sex differences in early-life programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Robert M; Reynolds, Rebecca M

    2017-11-01

    Increasing evidence supports fetal glucocorticoid exposure with associated altered offspring hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity as a key mechanism linking early life events with later life disease. Alterations in HPA axis activity are linked to a range of cardiometabolic and psychiatric diseases. As many of these diseases manifest sex differences in presentation we review the evidence for programmed sex-differences in the HPA axis. Available literature suggests vulnerability of the female HPA axis to prenatal stressors with female offspring demonstrating increased HPA axis reactivity. This may be due to changes in placental glucocorticoid metabolism leading to increased fetal glucocorticoid exposure. We discuss the potential consequences of increased vulnerability of the female HPA axis for later life health and consider the underlying mechanisms. Further studies are needed to determine whether sex-differences in early-life programming of the HPA axis represent a pathway underpinning the sex-differences in common cardiometabolic and psychiatric diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Moving beyond sex: Assessing the impact of gender identity on human papillomavirus vaccine recommendations and uptake among a national sample of rural-residing LGBT young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Bednarczyk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: While national human papillomavirus (HPV vaccination estimates exist by sex, little is known about HPV vaccination rates by gender identity. Methods: We conducted a self-administered, anonymous online cross-sectional survey, with recruitment through Facebook ads, of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender individuals in rural areas of the US. We compared HPV vaccine recommendation and uptake by self-reported sex assigned at birth and current gender identity. Results: Six hundred sixty respondents were age eligible for HPV vaccination: 84% reported gender identity aligned with their sex assigned at birth, while 10% reported gender identity the differed from their sex assigned at birth; an additional 6% reported non-binary gender identity. Only 14% of male sex assigned at birth and 44% of female sex assigned at birth received HPV vaccine, similar to estimates by current gender identity. Transgender respondents’ HPV vaccination experience mirrored that of cisgender respondents with regard to sex assigned at birth. Conclusions: Providers may base HPV vaccine recommendations on individuals’ sex assigned at birth, which may impact transgender individuals' vaccine coverage. Future HPV vaccine uptake studies should account for gender identity. With sex-specific catch-up HPV vaccination recommendations, the role of gender identity on provider recommendation and reimbursement needs to be addressed. Keywords: Human papillomavirus, Vaccine, Transgender, Gender identity

  2. Human Sex Determination at the Edge of Ambiguity: INHERITED XY SEX REVERSAL DUE TO ENHANCED UBIQUITINATION AND PROTEASOMAL DEGRADATION OF A MASTER TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racca, Joseph D; Chen, Yen-Shan; Yang, Yanwu; Phillips, Nelson B; Weiss, Michael A

    2016-10-14

    A general problem is posed by analysis of transcriptional thresholds governing cell fate decisions in metazoan development. A model is provided by testis determination in therian mammals. Its key step, Sertoli cell differentiation in the embryonic gonadal ridge, is initiated by SRY, a Y-encoded architectural transcription factor. Mutations in human SRY cause gonadal dysgenesis leading to XY female development (Swyer syndrome). Here, we have characterized an inherited mutation compatible with either male or female somatic phenotypes as observed in an XY father and XY daughter, respectively. The mutation (a crevice-forming substitution at a conserved back surface of the SRY high mobility group box) markedly destabilizes the domain but preserves specific DNA affinity and induced DNA bend angle. On transient transfection of diverse human and rodent cell lines, the variant SRY exhibited accelerated proteasomal degradation (relative to wild type) associated with increased ubiquitination; in vitro susceptibility to ubiquitin-independent ("default") cleavage by the 20S core proteasome was unchanged. The variant's gene regulatory activity (as assessed in a cellular model of the rat embryonic XY gonadal ridge) was reduced by 2-fold relative to wild-type SRY at similar levels of mRNA expression. Chemical proteasome inhibition restored native-like SRY expression and transcriptional activity in association with restored occupancy of a sex-specific enhancer element in principal downstream gene Sox9, demonstrating that the variant SRY exhibits essentially native activity on a per molecule basis. Our findings define a novel mechanism of impaired organogenesis, accelerated ubiquitin-directed proteasomal degradation of a master transcription factor leading to a developmental decision poised at the edge of ambiguity. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Age-specific prevalence of and risk factors for anal human papillomavirus (HPV) among men who have sex with women and men who have sex with men: the HPV in men (HIM) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyitray, Alan G; Carvalho da Silva, Roberto J; Baggio, Maria Luiza; Lu, Beibei; Smith, Danélle; Abrahamsen, Martha; Papenfuss, Mary; Villa, Luisa L; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R

    2011-01-01

    An increasing incidence of anal cancer among men suggests a need to better understand anal canal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among human immunodeficiency virus-negative men. Genotyping for HPV was conducted on cells from the anal canal among men who have sex with women (MSW) and men who have sex with men (MSM), aged 18-70 years, from Brazil, Mexico, and the United States. Factors associated with anal HPV infection were assessed using multivariable logistic regression. The prevalence of any HPV type and oncogenic HPV types did not differ by city. Anal canal HPV prevalence was 12.2% among 1305 MSW and 47.2% among 176 MSM. Among MSW, reporting a lifetime number of ≥ 10 female sex partners, a primary sexual relationship anal HPV in multivariable analysis. Among MSM, a younger age, reporting ≥ 2 male anal sex partners in the past 3 months, and never using a condom for anal sex in the past 6 months were independently associated with detection of any anal HPV in multivariable analysis. Number of sex partners was associated with anal HPV infection in both MSW and MSM. Anal HPV infection in men may be mediated by age, duration of sexual relationship, and condom use.

  4. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Status Differentially Associated With Genital and Anal Human Papillomavirus Infection Among Chinese Men Who Have Sex With Men: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Han-Zhu; Hu, Yifei; Carlucci, James G; Yin, Lu; Li, Xiangwei; Giuliano, Anna R; Li, Dongliang; Gao, Lei; Shao, Yiming; Vermund, Sten H

    2017-11-01

    Little is known about human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and genotypes when considering both anatomic site and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status among men who have sex with men (MSM) in low- and middle-income countries. A cross-sectional study was conducted among MSM in Beijing, China. HIV serostatus was determined, and genital and anal HPV genotyping were performed from respective swabs. Of 1155 MSM, 817 (70.7%) had testing for genital (611; 52.9%) and/or anal (671; 58.1%) HPV. Preference for insertive anal sex (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.60; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.42-4.75) and syphilis (aOR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.01-2.23) were associated with genital HPV. Inconsistent condom use during receptive anal sex (aOR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.17-2.84), and HIV seropositivity (aOR, 2.90; 95% CI, 1.91-4.42) were associated with anal HPV. Among 465 (40.3%) MSM with specimens from both anatomic sites, anal HPV (68%) was more common than genital HPV (37.8%). Prevalence of anal HPV was higher among HIV-infected than uninfected MSM (P anal site of HIV-infected MSM (P Anal HPV was more common than genital HPV, and HIV seropositivity was associated with oncogenic HPV types at the anal site.

  5. Serum growth hormone-binding protein in obesity: effect of a short-term, very low calorie diet and diet-induced weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, M H; Ho, K K; Kjems, L

    1996-01-01

    +/-SEM)] before and after an average weight loss of 30.3 +/- 4.6 kg and in 18 age- and sex matched normal subjects (BMI, 23.0 +/- 0.4 kg/m2) and studied the effects of a very low calorie diet over 4 days in 5 normal subjects and a subgroup of obese subjects before (n = 6) and after (n = 5) weight loss...... days of a very low calorie diet, although mean insulin levels fell significantly in the normal subgroup as well as in the obese subgroup studied after weight loss. In summary, GHBP levels are elevated in obesity, are restored to normal by massive weight loss, and are unaffected by short term......GH-binding protein (GHBP) is increased in obesity. It is not known whether the increase in GHBP is reversible with weight loss or modulated by acute changes in nutritional intake. To address these questions, we measured GHBP in 18 obese subjects [body mass index (BMI), 40.9 +/- 1.1 kg/m2 (mean...

  6. Age-specific sex differences in human personality structure : a cross-sectional study in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Tani, Toshiaki; Morikawa, Chizuko; Kakehashi, Masayuki

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigated age-specific sex differences in the reciprocal action of personality factors of personality structure, using a three-factor personality model. The subjects were 280 healthy adolescents (15-17 years) and 337 elderly individuals who were not inpatients (65-98 years). Psychometric properties of BASIC-3 Personality Inventory indicated high homology between adolescents and elderly. A positive association between Sociability and Novelty-Seeking personality was found i...

  7. Synthesis and evaluation of 17alpha-20E-21-(4-substituted phenyl)-19-norpregna-1,3,5(10),20-tetraene-3,17beta-diols as probes for the estrogen receptor alpha hormone binding domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Robert N; Lee, Choon Young; Friel, Carolyn J; Dilis, Robert; Hughes, Alun; DeSombre, Eugene R

    2003-07-03

    As part of our program to develop probes for the hormone binding domain of the estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha), we prepared a series of 4-para-substituted phenylvinyl estradiol derivatives using a combination of solution and solid-phase Pd(0)-catalyzed methods. The compounds 5a-j were evaluated for their binding affinity using the ERalpha hormone binding domain (HDB) isolated from transfected BL21 cells. The results indicated that although the new compounds were somewhat lower in relative binding affinity (RBA at 25 degrees C is 1-60%) than estradiol (100%), most had higher affinity than the unsubstituted parent phenylvinyl estradiol (RBA = 9%). Because the substituents did not generate a structure-activity relationship directly based on physicochemical properties, the series was evaluated using molecular modeling and molecular dynamics to determine key interactions between the ligand, especially the para substituent, and the protein. The results suggest that the observed relative binding affinities are directly related to the calculated binding energies and that amino acids juxtaposed to the para position play a significant but not dominant role in binding. In conclusion, we have identified the 17alpha-E-(4-substituted phenyl)vinyl estradiols as a class of ligands that retain significant affinity for the ERalpha-HBD. In particular, 4-substitution tends to increase receptor affinity compared to the unsubstituted analogue, as exemplified by 5e (4-COCH(3)), which had the highest RBA value (60%) of the series. Palladium(0)-catalyzed coupling reactions on solid support or in solution using suitably substituted iodo arenes and 17alpha-E-tributylstannylvinyl estradiols offer a flexible approach to their preparation. Molecular modeling studies of the receptor suggest that there exists additional ligand accessible regions within the ERalpha-HBD to generate interactions that may enhance receptor affinity or modify efficacy in developing new therapeutic agents. Studies to

  8. Sex differences in the functional lateralization of emotion and decision making in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reber, Justin; Tranel, Daniel

    2017-01-02

    Dating back to the case of Phineas Gage, decades of neuropsychological research have shown that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) is crucial to both real-world social functioning and abstract decision making in the laboratory (see, e.g., Stuss et al., ; Bechara et al., 1994; Damasio et al., ). Previous research has shown that the relationship between the laterality of individuals' vmPFC lesions and neuropsychological performance is moderated by their sex, whereby there are more severe social, emotional, and decision-making impairments in men with right-side vmPFC lesions and in women with left-side vmPFC lesions (Tranel et al., 2005; Sutterer et al., 2015). We conducted a selective review of studies examining the effect of vmPFC lesions on emotion and decision making and found further evidence of sex-related differences in the lateralization of function not only in the vmPFC but also in other neurological structures associated with decision making and emotion. This Mini-Review suggests that both sex and laterality effects warrant more careful consideration in the scientific literature. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Metric Sex Determination of the Human Coxal Bone on a Virtual Sample using Decision Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savall, Frédéric; Faruch-Bilfeld, Marie; Dedouit, Fabrice; Sans, Nicolas; Rousseau, Hervé; Rougé, Daniel; Telmon, Norbert

    2015-11-01

    Decision trees provide an alternative to multivariate discriminant analysis, which is still the most commonly used in anthropometric studies. Our study analyzed the metric characterization of a recent virtual sample of 113 coxal bones using decision trees for sex determination. From 17 osteometric type I landmarks, a dataset was built with five classic distances traditionally reported in the literature and six new distances selected using the two-step ratio method. A ten-fold cross-validation was performed, and a decision tree was established on two subsamples (training and test sets). The decision tree established on the training set included three nodes and its application to the test set correctly classified 92% of individuals. This percentage was similar to the data of the literature. The usefulness of decision trees has been demonstrated in numerous fields. They have been already used in sex determination, body mass prediction, and ancestry estimation. This study shows another use of decision trees enabling simple and accurate sex determination. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  10. Age and sex alone are insufficient to predict human rib structural response to dynamic A-P loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafman, Michelle A; Kang, Yun-Seok; Moorhouse, Kevin; White, Susan E; Bolte, John H; Agnew, Amanda M

    2016-10-03

    Thoracic injuries from motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) are common in children and the elderly and are associated with a high rate of mortality for both groups. Rib fractures, in particular, are linked to high mortality rates which increase with the number of fractures sustained. Anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) and computational models have been developed to improve vehicle safety, however these tools are constructed based on limited physical datasets. To-date, no study has explored variation of rib structural properties across the entire age spectrum with data obtained using the same experimental methodology to allow for comparison. One-hundred eighty-four ribs from 93 post mortem human subjects (PMHS) (70 male, 23 female; ages 4-99) were subjected to dynamic bending tests simulating a frontal impact to the thorax. Structural mechanical properties were calculated and a multi-level statistical model quantified the sample variance as explained by age and sex. Displacement (δ X ), peak force (F peak ), linear structural stiffness (K), energy absorption to fracture (U tot ), and plastic properties including post-yield energy absorption (U Pl ), plastic displacement (δ Pl ), and the ratio of elastic to secant stiffness (K-ratio) all showed negative relationships with age, while only F peak , K, and U tot were dependent on sex. Despite these relationships being statistically significant, only 7-39% of variance is explained by age and only 3-17% of variance is explained by sex. This demonstrates that variability in bone properties is more complex than simply chronological age- and sex-dependence and should be explored in the context of biological mechanisms instead. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The prognostic role of sex, race, and human papillomavirus in oropharyngeal and nonoropharyngeal head and neck squamous cell cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhry, Carole; Westra, William H; Wang, Steven J; van Zante, Annemieke; Zhang, Yuehan; Rettig, Eleni; Yin, Linda X; Ryan, William R; Ha, Patrick K; Wentz, Alicia; Koch, Wayne; Richmon, Jeremy D; Eisele, David W; D'Souza, Gypsyamber

    2017-05-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a well-established prognostic marker for oropharyngeal squamous cell cancer (OPSCC). Because of the limited numbers of women and nonwhites in studies to date, sex and racial/ethnic differences in prognosis have not been well explored. In this study, survival differences were explored by the tumor HPV status among 1) patients with OPSCCs by sex and race and 2) patients with nonoropharyngeal (non-OP) head and neck squamous cell cancers (HNSCCs). This retrospective, multi-institution study included OPSCCs and non-OP HNSCCs of the oral cavity, larynx, and nasopharynx diagnosed from 1995 to 2012. Race/ethnicity was categorized as white non-Hispanic, black non-Hispanic, Asian non-Hispanic, and Hispanic of any race. Tumors were centrally tested for p16 overexpression and the presence of HPV by HPV16 DNA and high-risk HPV E6/E7 messenger RNA in situ hybridization. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate overall survival (OS). The study population included 239 patients with OPSCC and 621 patients with non-OP HNSCC with a median follow-up time of 3.5 years. After adjustments for the tumor HPV status, age, current tobacco use, and stage, the risk of death was lower for women versus men with OPSCC (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.55; P = .04). The results were similar with p16. In contrast, for non-OP HNSCCs, HPV positivity, p16 positivity, and sex were not associated with OS. For OPSCC, there are differences in survival by sex, even after the tumor HPV status has been taken into account. For non-OP HNSCC, the HPV status and the p16 status are not of prognostic significance. Cancer 2017;123:1566-1575. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  12. Moving beyond sex: Assessing the impact of gender identity on human papillomavirus vaccine recommendations and uptake among a national sample of rural-residing LGBT young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarczyk, Robert A; Whitehead, Jennifer L; Stephenson, Rob

    2017-06-01

    While national human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination estimates exist by sex, little is known about HPV vaccination rates by gender identity. We conducted a self-administered, anonymous online cross-sectional survey, with recruitment through Facebook ads, of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender individuals in rural areas of the US. We compared HPV vaccine recommendation and uptake by self-reported sex assigned at birth and current gender identity. Six hundred sixty respondents were age eligible for HPV vaccination: 84% reported gender identity aligned with their sex assigned at birth, while 10% reported gender identity the differed from their sex assigned at birth; an additional 6% reported non-binary gender identity. Only 14% of male sex assigned at birth and 44% of female sex assigned at birth received HPV vaccine, similar to estimates by current gender identity. Transgender respondents' HPV vaccination experience mirrored that of cisgender respondents with regard to sex assigned at birth. Providers may base HPV vaccine recommendations on individuals' sex assigned at birth, which may impact transgender individuals' vaccine coverage. Future HPV vaccine uptake studies should account for gender identity. With sex-specific catch-up HPV vaccination recommendations, the role of gender identity on provider recommendation and reimbursement needs to be addressed. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Sex-related differences in gene expression in human skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Welle

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available There is sexual dimorphism of skeletal muscle, the most obvious feature being the larger muscle mass of men. The molecular basis for this difference has not been clearly defined. To identify genes that might contribute to the relatively greater muscularity of men, we compared skeletal muscle gene expression profiles of 15 normal men and 15 normal women by using comprehensive oligonucleotide microarrays. Although there were sex-related differences in expression of several hundred genes, very few of the differentially expressed genes have functions that are obvious candidates for explaining the larger muscle mass of men. The men tended to have higher expression of genes encoding mitochondrial proteins, ribosomal proteins, and a few translation initiation factors. The women had >2-fold greater expression than the men (P<0.0001 of two genes that encode proteins in growth factor pathways known to be important in regulating muscle mass: growth factor receptor-bound 10 (GRB10 and activin A receptor IIB (ACVR2B. GRB10 encodes a protein that inhibits insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 signaling. ACVR2B encodes a myostatin receptor. Quantitative RT-PCR confirmed higher expression of GRB10 and ACVR2B genes in these women. In an independent microarray study of 10 men and 9 women with facioscapulohumeral dystrophy, women had higher expression of GRB10 (2.7-fold, P<0.001 and ACVR2B (1.7-fold, P<0.03. If these sex-related differences in mRNA expression lead to reduced IGF-1 activity and increased myostatin activity, they could contribute to the sex difference in muscle size.

  14. Shan women and girls and the sex industry in Southeast Asia; political causes and human rights implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyrer, C

    2001-08-01

    The human rights abuses which occur during civil conflicts pose special threats to the health and lives of women. These can include rape, sexual violence, increased vulnerability to trafficking into prostitution, and exposure to HIV infection. The long-standing civil conflict in the Shan States of Burma is investigated as a contributing cause to the trafficking of ethnic Shan women and girls into the Southeast Asian sex industry, and to the subsequent high rates of HIV infection found among these women. The context of chronic human rights abuses in the Shan states is explored, as well as the effects of recent forced population transfers on the part of the Burmese Military Regime. Rights abuses specific to trafficked women may further increase their vulnerability to HIV and other STD. The need for a political resolution to the crisis in Burma is discussed, as are approaches aimed at preventing trafficking, empowering women already in the sex industry, and reducing the risks of HIV and other STD among these women and girls.

  15. Intracellular distribution and biological effects of phytochemicals in a sex steroid- sensitive model of human prostate adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeriglio, Antonella; Trombetta, Domenico; Marcoccia, Daniele; Narciso, Laura; Mantovani, Alberto; Lorenzetti, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Prostate function is critical for male fertility and its well-known oncological biomarker, namely Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA), can be also used to monitor prostate epithelial human cells upon treatment with pharmaceutical drugs or natural bioactive compounds. The LNCaP human prostate cell line was previously set up as a model system to investigate chemicals affecting prostate epithelium functionality by means of a tiered approach integrating two different toxicological endpoints, cell viability (MTS) and PSA secretion assays. Here, the same approach has been used to characterize the biological effects of phytochemicals on prostate epithelium. The antiandrogenic ability of phytochemicals to inhibit DHT-induced PSA secretion has been investigated also characterizing their intracellular distribution, in the presence or absence of sex steroids. Intracellular distribution allows to verify whether and to which extent each phytochemical is able to enter the cell and to reach the nucleus, the latter being the target of the supposed transcriptional modulatory activity upon phytochemicals' binding to sex steroid receptors. Some phytochemicals, supposed to have a role in the functionality of the prostate epithelium, have been tested in a dose-dependent manner in both MTS and PSA secretion assays. In parallel, to establish the "effective concentration", in comparison to the "nominal one", the intracellular amount of each phytochemical has been assessed upon cell fractionation of LNCaP-treated cells and subsequent chromatographic measurements.

  16. Growth hormone binding to specific receptors stimulates growth and function of cloned insulin-producing rat insulinoma RIN-5AH cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Billestrup, Nils; Martin, J M

    1985-01-01

    Binding of 125I-labeled human GH (hGH) to a cloned rat insulin-producing cell line RIN-5AH in monolayer culture was studied along with some physiological effects of the hormone on these cells. Binding was time and temperature dependent, and steady state binding was observed in 60 min at 37 C...... of the insulinotropic effect showed that half-maximal and maximal stimulation were observed in cells cultured in the presence of 10 and 100 ng/ml, respectively. Insulin release to the medium during the 4-day culture period was not affected by hGH. These data suggest that GH, through binding to specific receptors...

  17. Molecular characterization of insulin-like androgenic gland hormone-binding protein gene from the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense and investigation of its transcriptional relationship with the insulin-like androgenic gland hormone gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fajun; Bai, Hongkun; Xiong, Yiwei; Fu, Hongtuo; Jiang, Sufei; Jiang, Fengwei; Jin, Shubo; Sun, Shengming; Qiao, Hui; Zhang, Wenyi

    2015-05-15

    Insulin-like androgenic gland hormone-binding protein (IAGBP) has been investigated in crustaceans in vitro. However, the relationship between IAGBP and its putative binding protein partner insulin-like androgenic gland hormone (IAG) has not been studied at the transcriptional level in vivo. In the current study, we cloned the full-length cDNA of IAGBP from the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense (Mn-IAGBP) and investigated the transcriptional patterns of Mn-IAGBP and the M. nipponense IAG gene (Mn-IAG) at different developmental stages and in different tissues. Mn-IAGBP mRNA was detected in all examined tissues from adult male prawns, with the highest transcriptional levels in the testis. Mn-IAG mRNA was detected in the androgenic gland and hepatopancreas. The genomic sequences of Mn-IAGBP and Mn-IAG were isolated by genome walking and two gene copies were found in both Mn-IAGBP and Mn-IAG. The relationship between Mn-IAGBP and Mn-IAG at the transcriptional level was studied by RNA interference. Injection of Mn-IAGBP double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) significantly reduced the transcription of Mn-IAG, while injection of Mn-IAG dsRNA significantly reduced the transcription of Mn-IAGBP in testis, muscle, androgenic gland, and hepatopancreas. These results demonstrate the involvement of the IAGBP gene in IAG signaling in M. nipponense. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Variation in levels of serum inhibin B, testosterone, estradiol, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and sex hormone-binding globulin in monthly samples from healthy men during a 17-month period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Anna-Maria; Carlsen, Elisabeth; Petersen, Jørgen Holm

    2003-01-01

    To obtain information on the scale of the intraindividual variation in testicular hormone, blood samples for inhibin B determination were collected monthly in 27 healthy male volunteers during a 17-month period. In addition, the traditional reproductive hormones FSH, LH, testosterone, estradiol....... A seasonal variation was observed in LH and testosterone levels, but not in the levels of the other hormones. The seasonal variation in testosterone levels could be explained by the variation in LH levels. The seasonal variation in LH levels seemed to be related to the mean air temperature during the month...... before blood sampling, but not to the length of daylight or the hours of sunshine. In conclusion, our data showed that day to day levels of inhibin B are relatively constant in men and do not seem to be influenced by seasonal factors. In contrast, we found a seasonal variation in LH and testosterone...

  19. Cross-Classification of Human Urinary Lipidome by Sex, Age, and Body Mass Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okemoto, Kazuo; Maekawa, Keiko; Tajima, Yoko; Tohkin, Masahiro; Saito, Yoshiro

    2016-01-01

    Technological advancements in past decades have led to the development of integrative analytical approaches to lipidomics, such as liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS), and information about biogenic lipids is rapidly accumulating. Although several cohort-based studies have been conducted on the composition of urinary lipidome, the data on urinary lipids cross-classified by sex, age, and body mass index (BMI) are insufficient to screen for various abnormalities. To promote the development of urinary lipid metabolome-based diagnostic assay, we analyzed 60 urine samples from healthy white adults (young (c.a., 30 years) and old (c.a., 60 years) men/women) using LC/MS. Women had a higher urinary concentration of omega-3 12-lipoxygenase (LOX)-generated oxylipins with anti-inflammatory activity compared to men. In addition, young women showed increased abundance of poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and cytochrome P450 (P450)-produced oxylipins with anti-hypertensive activity compared with young men, whereas elderly women exhibited higher concentration of 5-LOX-generated anti-inflammatory oxylipins than elderly men. There were no significant differences in urinary oxylipin levels between young and old subjects or between subjects with low and high BMI. Our findings suggest that sex, but neither ages nor BMI could be a confounding factor for measuring the composition of urinary lipid metabolites in the healthy population. The information showed contribute to the development of reliable biomarker findings from urine.

  20. Sex differences in human adipose tissues - the biology of pear shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karastergiou, Kalypso; Smith, Steven R; Greenberg, Andrew S; Fried, Susan K

    2012-05-31

    Women have more body fat than men, but in contrast to the deleterious metabolic consequences of the central obesity typical of men, the pear-shaped body fat distribution of many women is associated with lower cardiometabolic risk. To understand the mechanisms regulating adiposity and adipose tissue distribution in men and women, significant research attention has focused on comparing adipocyte morphological and metabolic properties, as well as the capacity of preadipocytes derived from different depots for proliferation and differentiation. Available evidence points to possible intrinsic, cell autonomous differences in preadipocytes and adipocytes, as well as modulatory roles for sex steroids, the microenvironment within each adipose tissue, and developmental factors. Gluteal-femoral adipose tissues of women may simply provide a safe lipid reservoir for excess energy, or they may directly regulate systemic metabolism via release of metabolic products or adipokines. We provide a brief overview of the relationship of fat distribution to metabolic health in men and women, and then focus on mechanisms underlying sex differences in adipose tissue biology.

  1. Sex differences in human adipose tissues – the biology of pear shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karastergiou Kalypso

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Women have more body fat than men, but in contrast to the deleterious metabolic consequences of the central obesity typical of men, the pear-shaped body fat distribution of many women is associated with lower cardiometabolic risk. To understand the mechanisms regulating adiposity and adipose tissue distribution in men and women, significant research attention has focused on comparing adipocyte morphological and metabolic properties, as well as the capacity of preadipocytes derived from different depots for proliferation and differentiation. Available evidence points to possible intrinsic, cell autonomous differences in preadipocytes and adipocytes, as well as modulatory roles for sex steroids, the microenvironment within each adipose tissue, and developmental factors. Gluteal-femoral adipose tissues of women may simply provide a safe lipid reservoir for excess energy, or they may directly regulate systemic metabolism via release of metabolic products or adipokines. We provide a brief overview of the relationship of fat distribution to metabolic health in men and women, and then focus on mechanisms underlying sex differences in adipose tissue biology.

  2. The human sexual response cycle : Brain imaging evidence linking sex to other pleasures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgiadis, J. R.; Kringelbach, M. L.

    Sexual behavior is critical to species survival, yet comparatively little is known about the neural mechanisms in the human brain. Here we systematically review the existing human brain imaging literature on sexual behavior and show that the functional neuroanatomy of sexual behavior is comparable

  3. Variation in the maternal corticotrophin releasing hormone-binding protein (CRH-BP gene and birth weight in Blacks, Hispanics and Whites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pathik D Wadhwa

    Full Text Available Given the unique role of the corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH system in human fetal development, the aim of our study was to estimate the association of birth weight with DNA sequence variation in three maternal genes involved in regulating CRH production, bioavailability and action: CRH, CRH-Binding Protein (CRH-BP, and CRH type 1 receptor (CRH-R1, respectively, in three racial groups (African-Americans, Hispanics, and non-Hispanic Whites.Our study was carried out on a population-based sample of 575 mother-child dyads. We resequenced the three genes in mouse-human hybrid somatic cell lines and selected SNPs for genotyping.A significant association was observed in each race between birth weight and maternal CRH-BP SNP genotypes. Estimates of linkage disequilibrium and haplotypes established three common haplotypes marked by the rs1053989 SNP in all three races. This SNP predicted significant birth weight variation after adjustment for gestational age, maternal BMI, parity, and smoking. African American and Hispanic mothers carrying the A allele had infants whose birth weight was on average 254 and 302 grams, respectively, less than infants having C/C mothers. Non-Hispanic White mothers homozygous for the A allele had infants who were on average 148 grams less than those infants having A/C and C/C mothers.The magnitudes of the estimates of the birth weight effects are comparable to the combined effects of multiple SNPs reported in a recent meta-analysis of 6 GWAS studies and is quantitatively larger than that associated with maternal cigarette smoking. This effect was persistent across subpopulations that vary with respect to ancestry and environment.

  4. Femoral neck-shaft angle in humans: variation relating to climate, clothing, lifestyle, sex, age and side

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilligan, Ian; Chandraphak, Supichya; Mahakkanukrauh, Pasuk

    2013-01-01

    The femoral neck-shaft angle (NSA) varies among modern humans but measurement problems and sampling limitations have precluded the identification of factors contributing to its variation at the population level. Potential sources of variation include sex, age, side (left or right), regional differences in body shape due to climatic adaptation, and the effects of habitual activity patterns (e.g. mobile and sedentary lifestyles and foraging, agricultural, and urban economies). In this study we addressed these issues, using consistent methods to assemble a global NSA database comprising over 8000 femora representing 100 human groups. Results from the analyses show an average NSA for modern humans of 127° (markedly lower than the accepted value of 135°); there is no sex difference, no age-related change in adults, but possibly a small lateral difference which could be due to right leg dominance. Climatic trends consistent with principles based on Bergmann's rule are evident at the global and continental levels, with the NSA varying in relation to other body shape indices: median NSA, for instance, is higher in warmer regions, notably in the Pacific (130°), whereas lower values (associated with a more stocky body build) are found in regions where ancestral populations were exposed to colder conditions, in Europe (126°) and the Americas (125°). There is a modest trend towards increasing NSA with the economic transitions from forager to agricultural and urban lifestyles and, to a lesser extent, from a mobile to a sedentary existence. However, the main trend associated with these transitions is a progressive narrowing in the range of variation in the NSA, which may be attributable to thermal insulation provided by improved cultural buffering from climate, particularly clothing. PMID:23781912

  5. Expression of adrenomedullin in human ovaries, ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors and cultured granulosa-luteal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianqi; Bützow, Ralf; Hydén-Granskog, Christel; Voutilainen, Raimo

    2009-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterise the expression pattern of the multifunctional vasoactive peptide adrenomedullin (ADM) in human ovarian tumors, and to find hormonal regulators of ADM expression in human ovaries. The expression of ADM messenger RNA (mRNA) was higher in granulosa cell tumors than in fibrothecomas and normal ovaries, as analysed by Northern blots. In normal ovaries, ADM immunoreactivity was localised in both granulosa and thecal cells. Eight of the 90 granulosa cell tumors (9%) showed moderate and 53 (59%) weak ADM immunoreactivity, whereas 27% (11/41) of the fibrothecomas displayed weak ADM staining. FSH, protein kinase A activator (Bu)(2)cAMP, prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), activin A and the broad protein kinase regulator staurosporine decreased ADM mRNA accumulation in cultured granulosa-luteal cells time- and dose-dependently. FSH, (Bu)(2)cAMP and PGE(2) increased progesterone secretion and the accumulation of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein mRNA in these cells. In conclusion, ADM is expressed in normal human ovaries and sex cord-stromal tumors, particularly in those of granulosa cell origin. FSH, PGE(2,) (Bu)(2)cAMP and activin A suppress ADM gene expression in granulosa-luteal cells. Expression of ADM in human ovaries and its hormonal regulation in granulosa cells suggests a paracrine role for ADM in ovarian function.

  6. Sex Steroids Effects on the Molting Process of the Helminth Human Parasite Trichinella spiralis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romel Hernández-Bello

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the in vitro effects of estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone on the molting process, which is the initial and crucial step in the development of the muscular larvae (ML or L1 to adult worm. Testosterone had no significative effect on the molting rate of the parasite, however, progesterone decreased the molting rate about a 50% in a concentration- and time-independent pattern, while estradiol had a slight effect (10%. The gene expression of caveolin-1, a specific gene used as a marker of parasite development, showed that progesterone and estradiol downregulated its expression, while protein expression was unaffected. By using flow citometry, a possible protein that is recognized by a commercial antiprogesterone receptor antibody was detected. These findings may have strong implications in the host-parasite coevolution, in the sex-associated susceptibility to this infection and could point out to possibilities to use antihormones to inhibit parasite development.

  7. Sex, body mass index, and dietary fiber intake influence the human gut microbiome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dominianni, Christine; Sinha, Rashmi; Goedert, James J; Pei, Zhiheng; Yang, Liying; Hayes, Richard B; Ahn, Jiyoung

    2015-01-01

    ...) and dietary fiber intake with the gut microbiome in 82 humans. We sequenced fecal 16S rRNA genes by 454 FLX technology, then clustered and classified the reads to microbial genomes using the QIIME pipeline...

  8. Activity increase after extraction of alkaline phosphatase from human osteoblastic membranes by nonionic detergents: influence of age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourrat, C; Radisson, J; Chavassieux, P; Azzar, G; Roux, B; Meunier, P J

    2000-01-01

    The solubilization of alkaline phosphatase (AP) from osteoblastic cell membranes obtained from human primary bone cell cultures was studied according to the age and sex of the donors (17 females, 11 males; age range: 2-77 years). Cell membranes were treated by non-ionic (n-octyl beta-D-glucopyranoside, OG), ionic or zwitterionic detergents, then centrifuged. When OG was used almost all the AP was solubilized. AP activity in supernatant of solubilization was compared to the activity of the suspension before centrifugation. The activity ratio (AR) increased in function of age for subjects between 65 and 74. Neither total nor specific AP activities were influenced by age or sex. Electrophoresis studies showed that the AP released was a GPI (glycosyl phosphatidylinositol)-anchored protein, amphipathic form, with 140 kDa as apparent molecular mass. The activity change of AP in the presence of OG may result from age-related modifications either in the AP structure or in the constituents of the plasma membranes (proteins or phospholipids).

  9. RevSex duplication-induced and sex-related differences in the SOX9 regulatory region chromatin landscape in human fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lybæk, Helle; de Bruijn, Diederik; den Engelsman-van Dijk, Anke H A; Vanichkina, Darya; Nepal, Chirag; Brendehaug, Atle; Houge, Gunnar

    2014-03-01

    It was recently shown that duplications of the RevSex element, located 0.5 Mb upstream of SOX9, cause XX-disorder of sex development (DSD), and that deletions cause XY-DSD. To explore how a 148 kb RevSex duplication could have turned on gonadal SOX9 expression in the absence of SRY in an XX-male, we examined the chromatin landscape in primary skin fibroblast cultures from the index, his RevSex duplication-carrier father and six controls. The ENCODE project supports the notion that chromatin state maps show overlap between different cell types, i.e., that our study of fibroblasts could be of biological relevance. We examined the SOX9 regulatory region by high-resolution ChIP-on-chip experiments (a kind of "chromatin-CGH") and DNA methylation investigations. The RevSex duplication was associated with chromatin changes predicting better accessibility of the SRY-responsive TESCO enhancer region 14-15 kb upstream of SOX9. Four kb downstream of the TESCO evolutionary conserved region, a peak of the enhancer/promoter-associated H3K4me3 mark was found together with a major dip of the repressive H3K9me3 chromatin mark. Similar differences were also found when three control males were compared with three control females. A marked male/female difference was a more open chromatin signature in males starting ~400 kb upstream of SOX9 and increasing toward the SOX9 promoter. In the RevSex duplication-carrier father, two positions of DNA hypomethylation were also found, one corresponding to the H3K4me3 peak mentioned above. Our results suggest that the RevSex duplication could operate by inducing long-range epigenetic changes. Furthermore, the differences in chromatin state maps between males and females suggest that the Y chromosome or X chromosome dosage may affect chromatin conformation, i.e., that sex-dependent gene regulation may take place by chromatin modification.

  10. RevSex duplication-induced and sex-related differences in the SOX9 regulatory region chromatin landscape in human fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lybæk, Helle; de Bruijn, Diederik; den Engelsman-van Dijk, Anke HA; Vanichkina, Darya; Nepal, Chirag; Brendehaug, Atle; Houge, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    It was recently shown that duplications of the RevSex element, located 0.5 Mb upstream of SOX9, cause XX-disorder of sex development (DSD), and that deletions cause XY-DSD. To explore how a 148 kb RevSex duplication could have turned on gonadal SOX9 expression in the absence of SRY in an XX-male, we examined the chromatin landscape in primary skin fibroblast cultures from the index, his RevSex duplication-carrier father and six controls. The ENCODE project supports the notion that chromatin state maps show overlap between different cell types, i.e., that our study of fibroblasts could be of biological relevance. We examined the SOX9 regulatory region by high-resolution ChIP-on-chip experiments (a kind of “chromatin-CGH”) and DNA methylation investigations. The RevSex duplication was associated with chromatin changes predicting better accessibility of the SRY-responsive TESCO enhancer region 14–15 kb upstream of SOX9. Four kb downstream of the TESCO evolutionary conserved region, a peak of the enhancer/promoter-associated H3K4me3 mark was found together with a major dip of the repressive H3K9me3 chromatin mark. Similar differences were also found when three control males were compared with three control females. A marked male/female difference was a more open chromatin signature in males starting ~400 kb upstream of SOX9 and increasing toward the SOX9 promoter. In the RevSex duplication-carrier father, two positions of DNA hypomethylation were also found, one corresponding to the H3K4me3 peak mentioned above. Our results suggest that the RevSex duplication could operate by inducing long-range epigenetic changes. Furthermore, the differences in chromatin state maps between males and females suggest that the Y chromosome or X chromosome dosage may affect chromatin conformation, i.e., that sex-dependent gene regulation may take place by chromatin modification. PMID:24351654

  11. Assessment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and risk practices among female commercial sex workers in Isla Margarita, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Beau; Pacheco, Maria E; Aponte, Carlos; Michini, Ana; Taibo, Maria E; Pinto, Belkis; Montano, Silvia M; Chauca, Gloria; Negrete, Monica; Russell, Kevin L; Sanchez, Jose L

    2006-01-01

    Sexual transmission represents the principal mode of transmission for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) worldwide. We examined the HIV-1 seroprevalence and risk factors for infection among 613 female commercial sex workers (FCSW) in Isla Margarita, Venezuela. Recruitment was conducted in street venues and working locations. None of the FCSW tested positive for HIV; this correlated with the low self-reported rates of sexually transmitted infections (6%), drug use (80% of time) with clients; however, such practices were found to be very uncommon in nonclient relations (<20% of the time). Understanding the sexual risk behaviors, beliefs, and drug use patterns of FCSW is important for future development of effective public prevention policies and educational campaigns aimed at decreasing the risk of infection with HIV-1 and other sexually transmitted infections among FCSW.

  12. A human rights-focused HIV intervention for sex workers in Metro Manila, Philippines: evaluation of effects in a quantitative pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urada, Lianne A; Simmons, Janie; Wong, Betty; Tsuyuki, Kiyomi; Condino-Enrera, Gerlita; Hernandez, Laufred I; Simbulan, Nymia Pimentel; Raj, Anita

    2016-11-01

    This study evaluated a brief human rights-focused HIV community mobilization intervention for sex workers in the Philippines, a country with one of the fastest rising number of HIV cases worldwide. Five single-session group interventions to reduce sexual risk and increase HIV testing among 86 sex workers in Manila were evaluated with pre-post-test data via Wilcoxon's signed-ranks and Mann-Whitney tests. The 4-h intervention, Kapihan (August-November, 2013), integrated human rights with HIV skill-building. Demographic data, violence/trafficking victimization, human rights knowledge, and intentions to HIV test and treat were collected. Participants were median aged 23; female (69 %); had children (55; 22 % had 3+ children); used drugs (past 3 months: 16 %); sexually/physically abused by clients (66 %); 20 % street sex workers ever took an HIV test. Pre-post-test scores significantly improved in knowledge of HIV (z = -8.895, p human rights (z = -4.391, p rights of research participants (z = -5.081, p human rights into HIV interventions may empower sex workers to address their health and human rights and test for HIV.

  13. [Syphilis and human immunodeficiency virus infection: an endemic infection in men who have sex with men].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Domenech, Carmen M; Antequera Martín-Portugués, Isabel; Clavijo-Frutos, Encarnación; Márquez-Solero, Manuel; Santos-González, Jesús; Palacios-Muñoz, Rosario

    2015-01-01

    to analyse epidemiological, clinical, and analytical features of HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) diagnosed with syphilis in the Infectious Diseases Unit (Hospital Virgen de la Victoria, Málaga, Spain) during 2004-2013. An observational study was conducted on 196 syphilis episodes in 167 MSM infected with HIV (2004-2013). Epidemiological, clinical, and analytical data were collected. Annual syphilis incidence among HIV-MSM is calculated as the number of syphilis episodes among MSM in one year divided by the number of MSM followed up in that year. Incidence ranged from 1.2% (2007) to 7.8% (2012). There were asymptomatic episodes in 42.8% cases, and an HIV-syphilis coincident diagnosis in 28.5%. The annual incidence of syphilis has increased within HIV infected MSM. One third of the syphilis episodes were simultaneous to HIV diagnosis and near half of them were asymptomatic. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  14. Neural bases of human mate choice: multiple value dimensions, sex difference, and self-assessment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funayama, Risa; Sugiura, Motoaki; Sassa, Yuko; Jeong, Hyeonjeong; Wakusawa, Keisuke; Horie, Kaoru; Sato, Shigeru; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2012-01-01

    Mate choice is an example of sophisticated daily decision making supported by multiple componential processes. In mate-choice literature, different characteristics of the value dimensions, including the sex difference in the value dimensions, and the involvement of self-assessment due to the mutual nature of the choice, have been suggested. We examined whether the brain-activation pattern during virtual mate choice would be congruent with these characteristics in terms of stimulus selectivity and activated brain regions. In measuring brain activity, young men and women were shown two pictures of either faces or behaviors, and they indicated which person they would choose either as a spouse or as a friend. Activation selective to spouse choice was observed face-selectively in men's amygdala and behavior-selectively in women's motor system. During both partner-choice conditions, behavior-selective activation was observed in the temporoparietal regions. Taking the available knowledge of these regions into account, these results are congruent with the suggested characteristics of value dimensions for physical attractiveness, parenting resources, and beneficial personality traits for a long-lasting relationship, respectively. The medial prefrontal and posterior cingulate cortices were nonselectively activated during the partner choices, suggesting the involvement of a self-assessment process. The results thus provide neuroscientific support for the multi-component mate-choice mechanism.

  15. Androgen and the Development of Human Sex-Typical Behavior: Rough-and-Tumble Play and Sex of Preferred Playmates in Children with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Melissa; Kaufman, Francine R.

    1994-01-01

    Examined the rough-and-tumble play and gender of preferred playmates in three- to eight-year olds with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH)--hypothesized to masculinize behaviors that show sex differences--and in unaffected three- to eight-year-old relatives. Found that CAH girls did not exhibit increased levels of masculine behavior when compared…

  16. Adult Romantic Relationships as Contexts of Human Development: A Multimethod Comparison of Same-Sex Couples with Opposite-Sex Dating, Engaged, and Married Dyads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roisman, Glenn I.; Clausell, Eric; Holland, Ashley; Fortuna, Keren; Elieff, Chryle

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a multimethod, multi-informant comparison of community samples of committed gay male (n=30) and lesbian (n=30) couples with both committed (n=50 young engaged and n=40 older married) and noncommitted (n=109 exclusively dating) heterosexual pairs. Specifically, in this study the quality of same- and opposite-sex relationships…

  17. Same-sex gaze attraction influences mate-choice copying in humans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yorzinski, Jessica L; Platt, Michael L

    2010-01-01

    .... Men and women's attention to partners varied with partner attractiveness and this gaze attraction influenced their subsequent mate choices. These results highlight the prevalence of non-independent mate choice in humans and implicate social attention and reward circuitry in these decisions.

  18. Same-Sex Gaze Attraction Influences Mate-Choice Copying in Humans: e9115

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jessica L Yorzinski; Michael L Platt

    2010-01-01

    .... Men and women's attention to partners varied with partner attractiveness and this gaze attraction influenced their subsequent mate choices. These results highlight the prevalence of non-independent mate choice in humans and implicate social attention and reward circuitry in these decisions.

  19. Sex differences in conditioned stimulus discrimination during context-dependent fear learning and its retrieval in humans: the role of biological sex, contraceptives and menstrual cycle phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdorf, Tina B; Haaker, Jan; Schümann, Dirk; Sommer, Tobias; Bayer, Janine; Brassen, Stefanie; Bunzeck, Nico; Gamer, Matthias; Kalisch, Raffael

    2015-11-01

    Anxiety disorders are more prevalent in women than in men. Despite this sexual dimorphism, most experimental studies are conducted in male participants and studies focusing on sex differences are sparse. In addition, the role of hormonal contraceptives and menstrual cycle phase in fear conditioning and extinction processes remain largely unknown. We investigated sex differences in context-dependent fear acquisition and extinction (day 1) and their retrieval/expression (day 2). Skin conductance responses (SCRs), fear and unconditioned stimulus expectancy ratings were obtained. We included 377 individuals (261 women) in our study. Robust sex differences were observed in all dependent measures. Women generally displayed higher subjective ratings but smaller SCRs than men and showed reduced excitatory/inhibitory conditioned stimulus (CS+/CS-) discrimination in all dependent measures. Furthermore, women using hormonal contraceptives showed reduced SCR CS discrimination on day 2 than men and free-cycling women, while menstrual cycle phase had no effect. Possible limitations include the simultaneous testing of up to 4 participants in cubicles, which might have introduced a social component, and not assessing postexperimental contingency awareness. The response pattern in women shows striking similarity to previously reported sex differences in patients with anxiety. Our results suggest that pronounced deficits in associative discrimination learning and subjective expression of safety information (CS- responses) might underlie higher prevalence and higher symptom rates seen in women with anxiety disorders. The data call for consideration of biological sex and hormonal contraceptive use in future studies and may suggest that targeting inhibitory learning during therapy might aid precision medicine.

  20. [Men who have sex with men and human immunodeficiency virus testing in dental practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizondo, Jesús Eduardo; Treviño, Ana Cecilia; Violant, Deborah; Rivas-Estilla, Ana María; Álvarez, Mario Moisés

    2017-06-21

    To explore the attitudes of men who have sex with men (MSM) towards the implementation of rapid HIV-1/2 testing in the dental practice, and to evaluate MSM's perceptions of stigma and discrimination related to sexual orientation by dental care professionals. Cross-sectional study using a self-administered, anonymous, structured analytical questionnaire answered by 185 MSM in Mexico. The survey included sociodemographic variables, MSM's perceptions towards public and private dental providers, and dental services, as well as their perception towards rapid HIV-1/2 testing in the dental practice. In addition, the perception of stigma and discrimination associated with their sexual orientation was explored by designing a psychometric Likert-type scale. The statistical analysis included factor analysis and non-hierarchical cluster analysis. 86.5% of the respondents expressed their willingness to take a rapid HIV-1/2 screening test during their dental visit. Nevertheless, 91.9% of them considered it important that dental professionals must be well-trained before administering any rapid HIV-1/2 tests. Factor analysis revealed two factors: experiences of sexual orientation stigma and discrimination in dental settings, and feelings of concern about the attitude of the dentist and dental staff towards their sexual orientation. Based on these factors and cluster analysis, three user profiles were identified: users who have not experienced stigma and discrimination (90.3%); users who have not experienced stigma and discrimination, but feel a slight concern (8.1%), and users who have experienced some form of discrimination and feel concern (1.6%). The dental practice may represent a potential location for rapid HIV-1/2 testing contributing to early HIV infection diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Parathyroid hormone binding to cultured avian osteoclasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teti, A.; Rizzoli, R.; Zambonin Zallone, A. (Univ. of Bari (Italy))

    1991-02-14

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) increases serum calcium concentration via a controversial cellular mechanism. We investigated whether PTH binds avian osteoclasts. Isolated hypocalcaemic hen osteoclasts were incubated with ({sup 125}I)--bovine PTH (1-84). Specific binding of the hormone to the cells, which reached the equilibrium within 60 min, was observed. Half maximal binding was reached by 10 min. Binding was competitively inhibited by increasing doses of unlabeled PTH, and was about 55% displaced by adding, at the equilibrium, 10(-6) M unlabeled PTH. Autoradiography demonstrated specific label on the osteoclast. The cellular mechanism activated by the hormone remains to be elucidated.

  2. Designed modulation of sex steroid signaling inhibits telomerase activity and proliferation of human prostate cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Vikas; Sharma, Vikas; Singh, Vishal [Division of Endocrinology, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226 031 (India); Sharma, Siddharth; Bishnoi, Ajay Kumar [Division of Medicinal and Process Chemistry, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226 031 (India); Chandra, Vishal; Maikhuri, J.P.; Dwivedi, Anila [Division of Endocrinology, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226 031 (India); Kumar, Atul [Division of Medicinal and Process Chemistry, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226 031 (India); Gupta, Gopal, E-mail: g_gupta@cdri.res.in [Division of Endocrinology, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226 031 (India)

    2014-10-15

    The predominant estrogen-receptor (ER)-β signaling in normal prostate is countered by increased ER-α signaling in prostate cancer (CaP), which in association with androgen-receptor (AR) signaling results in pathogenesis of the disease. However CaP treatments mostly target AR signaling which is initially effective but eventually leads to androgen resistance, hence simultaneous targeting of ERs has been proposed. A novel series of molecules were designed with multiple sex-steroid receptor modulating capabilities by coalescing the pharmacophores of known anti-CaP molecules that act via modulation of ER(α/β) and/or AR, viz. 3,3′diindolylmethane (DIM), mifepristone, toremifene, tamoxifen and raloxifene. N,N-diethyl-4-((2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1H-indol-3-yl)methyl) aniline (DIMA) was identified as the most promising structure of this new series. DIMA increased annexin-V labelling, cell-cycle arrest and caspase-3 activity, and decreased expression of AR and prostate specific antigen in LNCaP cells, in vitro. Concurrently, DIMA increased ER-β, p21 and p27 protein levels in LNCaP cells and exhibited ∼ 5 times more selective binding for ER-β than ER-α, in comparison to raloxifene. DIMA exhibited a dose-dependent ER-β agonism and ER-α antagonism in classical gene reporter assay and decreased hTERT (catalytic subunit of telomerase) transcript levels in LNCaP at 3.0 μM (P < 0.05). DIMA also dose-dependently decreased telomerase enzyme activity in prostate cancer cells. It is thus concluded that DIMA acts as a multi-steroid receptor modulator and effectively inhibits proliferation of prostate cancer cells through ER-β mediated telomerase inhibition, by countering actions of ER-α and AR. Its unique molecular design can serve as a lead structure for generation of potent agents against endocrine malignancies like the CaP.

  3. Validation and reliability of the sex estimation of the human os coxae using freely available DSP2 software for bioarchaeology and forensic anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brůžek, Jaroslav; Santos, Frédéric; Dutailly, Bruno; Murail, Pascal; Cunha, Eugenia

    2017-10-01

    A new tool for skeletal sex estimation based on measurements of the human os coxae is presented using skeletons from a metapopulation of identified adult individuals from twelve independent population samples. For reliable sex estimation, a posterior probability greater than 0.95 was considered to be the classification threshold: below this value, estimates are considered indeterminate. By providing free software, we aim to develop an even more disseminated method for sex estimation. Ten metric variables collected from 2,040 ossa coxa of adult subjects of known sex were recorded between 1986 and 2002 (reference sample). To test both the validity and reliability, a target sample consisting of two series of adult ossa coxa of known sex (n = 623) was used. The DSP2 software (Diagnose Sexuelle Probabiliste v2) is based on Linear Discriminant Analysis, and the posterior probabilities are calculated using an R script. For the reference sample, any combination of four dimensions provides a correct sex estimate in at least 99% of cases. The percentage of individuals for whom sex can be estimated depends on the number of dimensions; for all ten variables it is higher than 90%. Those results are confirmed in the target sample. Our posterior probability threshold of 0.95 for sex estimate corresponds to the traditional sectioning point used in osteological studies. DSP2 software is replacing the former version that should not be used anymore. DSP2 is a robust and reliable technique for sexing adult os coxae, and is also user friendly. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Sex steroid hormones in relation to Barrett's esophagus: an analysis of the FINBAR Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, M B; Wood, S; Hyland, P L; Caron, P; Drahos, J; Falk, R T; Pfeiffer, R M; Dawsey, S M; Abnet, C C; Taylor, P R; Guillemette, C; Murray, L J; Anderson, L A

    2017-03-01

    Previously, we observed strong positive associations between circulating concentrations of free testosterone and free dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in relation to Barrett's esophagus in a US male military population. To replicate these findings, we conducted a second study of sex steroid hormones and Barrett's esophagus in the Factors Influencing the Barrett/Adenocarcinoma Relationship (FINBAR) Study based in Northern Ireland and Ireland. We used mass spectrometry to quantitate EDTA plasma concentrations of nine sex steroid hormones and ELISA to quantitate sex hormone-binding globulin in 177 male Barrett's esophagus cases and 185 male general population controls within the FINBAR Study. Free testosterone, free DHT, and free estradiol were estimated using standard formulas. Multivariable logistic regression estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) of associations between exposures and Barrett's esophagus. While plasma hormone and sex hormone-binding globulin concentrations were not associated with all cases of Barrett's esophagus, we did observe positive associations with estrogens in younger men (e.g. estrone + estradiol ORcontinuous per ½IQR  = 2.92, 95%CI:1.08, 7.89), and free androgens in men with higher waist-to-hip ratios (e.g. free testosterone ORcontinuous per ½IQR  = 2.71, 95%CI:1.06, 6.92). Stratification by body mass index, antireflux medications, and geographic location did not materially affect the results. This study found evidence for associations between circulating sex steroid hormones and Barrett's esophagus in younger men and men with higher waist-to-hip ratios. Further studies are necessary to elucidate whether sex steroid hormones are consistently associated with esophageal adenocarcinogenesis. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  5. Efficacy of human immunodeficiency virus prevention interventions among men who have sex with men in China: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lijun; Zheng, Yong

    2012-11-01

    This study aimed to determine the efficacy of HIV prevention interventions among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) knowledge, HIV testing, condom use, sexual risk activity, incidence of sexually transmitted diseases, and HIV incidence were used as outcomes. Meta-analytic techniques were used to compute and aggregate effect sizes for 22 studies, published between 2004 and 2011, which met inclusion criteria. Variables with the potential to moderate intervention efficacy were also tested. The overall mean weighted effect size was d = 0.627 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.460-0.793; Z = 7.38; P women and for number of sexual partners. Interventions for condom use conducted in Southwest China (the region in China with the highest prevalence of HIV) were significantly less efficacious. Interventions for condom use were significantly more efficacious when the respondent-driven sampling recruitment method and popular opinion leader intervention strategy were used. Human immunodeficiency virus prevention interventions were efficacious among MSM in China. Additional efforts are needed to control the growing HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome infection among MSM in China. Future interventions need to use more rigorous intervention methodologies (e.g., respondent-driven sampling method, and popular opinion leader intervention strategy).

  6. The human sex odds at birth after the atmospheric atomic bomb tests, after Chernobyl, and in the vicinity of nuclear facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherb, Hagen; Voigt, Kristina

    2011-06-01

    Ever since the discovery of the mutagenic properties of ionizing radiation, the possibility of birth sex odds shifts in exposed human populations was considered in the scientific community. Positive evidence, however weak, was obtained after the atomic bombing of Japan. We previously investigated trends in the sex odds before and after the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. In a pilot study, combined data from the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Norway, Poland, and Sweden between 1982 and 1992 showed a downward trend in the sex odds and a significant jump in 1987, the year immediately after Chernobyl. Moreover, a significant positive association of the sex odds between 1986 and 1991 with Chernobyl fallout at the district level in Germany was observed. Both of these findings, temporality (effect after exposure) and dose response association, yield evidence of causality. The primary aim of this study was to investigate longer time periods (1950-2007) in all of Europe and in the USA with emphasis on the global atmospheric atomic bomb test fallout and on the Chernobyl accident. To obtain further evidence, we also analyze sex odds data near nuclear facilities in Germany and Switzerland. DATA AND STATISTICAL METHODS: National gender-specific annual live births data for 39 European countries from 1975 to 2007 were compiled using the pertinent internet data bases provided by the World Health Organization, United Nations, Council of Europe, and EUROSTAT. For a synoptic re-analysis of the period 1950 to 1990, published data from the USA and from a predominantly western and less Chernobyl-exposed part of Europe were studied additionally. To assess spatial, temporal, as well as spatial-temporal trends in the sex odds and to investigate possible changes in those trends after the atomic bomb tests, after Chernobyl, and in the vicinity of nuclear facilities, we applied ordinary linear logistic regression. Region-specific and eventually changing spatial

  7. Vitamin D deficiency and low ionized calcium are linked with semen quality and sex steroid levels in infertile men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Blomberg; Lawaetz, Jacob Gerner; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2016-01-01

    ), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD), ionized calcium (Ca(2+)) and karyotype. There were 179 men excluded due to serious comorbidities or anabolic steroid usage, leaving 1248 patients for analyses. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: Men with 25-OHD >75 nmol/l had higher sperm motility and 66 and 111......STUDY QUESTION: Are low vitamin D levels linked with semen quality and sex steroids in infertile men? SUMMARY ANSWER: Infertile men with vitamin D deficiency had lower sperm motility, total numbers of motile sperm, Inhibin B, sex-hormone-binding-globulin (SHBG) and testosterone/estradiol ratio......, but higher levels of free sex steroids, than infertile men with normal vitamin D levels. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Low vitamin D levels have been associated with decreased sperm motility in healthy men, but a relationship between vitamin D and calcium with semen quality and especially sex steroids has not been...

  8. Sex-specific metabolic profiles of androgens and its main binding protein SHBG in a middle aged population without diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piontek, Uwe; Wallaschofski, Henri; Kastenmüller, Gabi

    2017-01-01

    The role of androgens in metabolism with respect to sex-specific disease associations is poorly understood. Therefore, we aimed to provide molecular signatures in plasma and urine of androgen action in a sex-specific manner using state-of-the-art metabolomics techniques. Our study population...... consisted of 430 men and 343 women, aged 20-80 years, who were recruited for the cross-sectional population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-TREND), Germany. We used linear regression models to identify associations between testosterone, androstenedione and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEAS......) as well as sex hormone-binding globulin and plasma or urine metabolites measured by mass spectrometry. The analyses revealed major sex-specific differences in androgen-associated metabolites, particularly for levels of urate, lipids and metabolic surrogates of lifestyle factors, like cotinine or piperine...

  9. The association of urinary cadmium with sex steroid hormone concentrations in a general population sample of US adult men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basaria Shehzad

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies investigating the association of cadmium and sex steroid hormones in men have been inconsistent, but previous studies were relatively small. Methods In a nationally representative sample of 1,262 men participating in the morning examination session of phase I (1998–1991 of the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, creatinine corrected urinary cadmium and serum concentrations of sex steroid hormones were measured following a standardized protocol. Results After adjustment for age and race-ethnicity, higher cadmium levels were associated with higher levels of total testosterone, total estradiol, sex hormone-binding globulin, estimated free testosterone, and estimated free estradiol (each p-trend 0.05. Conclusion Urinary cadmium levels were not associated with sex steroid hormone concentrations in a large nationally representative sample of US men.

  10. [Practices and perception of risk in human immunodeficiency virus infected males who have sex with other males].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández de Mosteyrín, Sol; del Val Acebrón, María; Fernández de Mosteyrín, Teresa; Fernández Guerrero, Manuel L

    2014-04-01

    The incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted diseases increases in males who have sex with males (MSM), despite the knowledge on how to prevent them. To determine the mechanisms that are driving this lack of prevention is important to reverse the trend. An anonymous, voluntary and self-reporting questionnaire was completed by HIV+ MSM patients who were seen in a hospital clinic, with the aim of finding out the sexual risk practices and behaviour, as well as their perceptions and assessment as regards this risk. The questionnaire included 58questions, divided into 10sections, to explore the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour as regards HIV. The questionnaires were also given to the physicians, with the aim of exploring their perceptions, attitudes and opinions as regards the situation of the epidemic, prevention, perception of the diseases and the patient, and values in clinical practice. A total of 495 questionnaires from the patients were analysed. Most of them (87%) said they knew how HIV was acquired, and 97% knew how to prevent it, but 69% knew they were in a risk situation, and 43% had little concern of contracting HIV. Almost two-thirds (65%) had sex with ≥2persons on the same day, 47% met on the Internet and 26% had group sex. The same percentage of those surveyed considered that they acted impulsively. They highlighted a lack of information (33%), bad luck (32%), assumed excessive risk (36%), and lake of concern (25%), as the main reasons for acquiring the infection. When confronted with diagnosis 41% of patients answered «I never thought that it would happen to me», and 32% said «I had bad luck». Of the 121 physicians who completed the questionnaire, 24% considered that infection due to HIV/AIDS was out of control in Spain, and 65% responded that there was an image that HIV/AIDS was a controlled disease and of little concern. A large majority (71%) of those surveyed, considered that the increase in new

  11. Prevalence of cutaneous beta and gamma human papillomaviruses in the anal canal of men who have sex with women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly Smelov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Data regarding anal cutaneous HPV detection among HIV-positive and HIV-negative persons largely relies on studies among men who have sex with men in limited geographical settings. Understanding the distribution, determinants, and potential human health effects of anal cutaneous HPV types among men who have sex with women (MSW is important. Methods: Anal canal swab samples from 415 Russian MSW (384 HIV-negative and 31 HIV-positive were tested for 43 β-HPVs and 29 γ-HPVs, using a multiplex PCR combined with Luminex technology. Results: β-HPV was detected in 24.4% and γ-HPV in 15.9% of anal samples of all Russian MSW. In total, 34 β-HPV and 19 γ-HPV types were detected, with the most commonly detected β-HPV types being 110, 22 and 124 and the most common γ-HPV types being 95, 132 and 50. For both genera, being HIV-positive at the time of testing was a significant determinant of detection (74.2% for β-HPVs and 48.4% for γ-HPVs compared to 20.1% and 12.5% in HIV-negative MSW, respectively. Conclusions: A wide spectrum and moderate prevalence of anal β-HPV and γ-HPV types was found in our MSW study sample, suggesting that routes other than penile-anal intercourse may be important in cutaneous HPV transmission. Keywords: Anal cutaneous HPV, Beta-HPV, Gamma-HPV, HIV-negative MSW, Penile-anal, HPV transmission

  12. Prevalence of high-risk human papilloma virus types and cervical smear abnormalities in female sex workers in Chandigarh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M P Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Cervical cancer is the most common cancer among women in developing nations. Nearly 90% of the cases have been linked to the presence of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV types 16 and 18. The risk of cervical cancer may be high in female sex workers (FSWs due to multiple sexual partners. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of cytological abnormalities and hrHPV types 16 and 18 in FSWs in Chandigarh, North India using the liquid-based cytology (LBC approach. Materials and Methods: The cervical brush samples were collected from 120 FSW and 98 age-matched healthy controls (HCs. These were subjected to pap smear using conventional method, LBC and the detection of hrHPV types 16 and 18 was carried out using polymerase chain reaction. Results: The LBC samples showed better cytological details and also reduced the number of unsatisfactory smears from 11% in Pap to 1.5% in the LBC. A significantly higher number of inflammatory smears were reported in FSWs (51.7% vs. 34.7%, P = 0.01. The hrHPV types 16/18 were detected in 33/120 (27.5% FSW versus 23/98 (23.5% HCs. The risk of acquiring hrHPV was higher in FSWs, who had age at first sex ≤25 years, higher income and the habit of smoking. Conclusion: The high prevalence of hrHPV among FSWs and HCs suggests the need for the implementation of effective National Screening Programme for early detection of hrHPV types to decrease the burden of cervical cancer, especially in high-risk population.

  13. Determinants of human adipose tissue gene expression: impact of diet, sex, metabolic status, and cis genetic regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Viguerie

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Weight control diets favorably affect parameters of the metabolic syndrome and delay the onset of diabetic complications. The adaptations occurring in adipose tissue (AT are likely to have a profound impact on the whole body response as AT is a key target of dietary intervention. Identification of environmental and individual factors controlling AT adaptation is therefore essential. Here, expression of 271 transcripts, selected for regulation according to obesity and weight changes, was determined in 515 individuals before, after 8-week low-calorie diet-induced weight loss, and after 26-week ad libitum weight maintenance diets. For 175 genes, opposite regulation was observed during calorie restriction and weight maintenance phases, independently of variations in body weight. Metabolism and immunity genes showed inverse profiles. During the dietary intervention, network-based analyses revealed strong interconnection between expression of genes involved in de novo lipogenesis and components of the metabolic syndrome. Sex had a marked influence on AT expression of 88 transcripts, which persisted during the entire dietary intervention and after control for fat mass. In women, the influence of body mass index on expression of a subset of genes persisted during the dietary intervention. Twenty-two genes revealed a metabolic syndrome signature common to men and women. Genetic control of AT gene expression by cis signals was observed for 46 genes. Dietary intervention, sex, and cis genetic variants independently controlled AT gene expression. These analyses help understanding the relative importance of environmental and individual factors that control the expression of human AT genes and therefore may foster strategies aimed at improving AT function in metabolic diseases.

  14. Prevalence of cutaneous beta and gamma human papillomaviruses in the anal canal of men who have sex with women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smelov, Vitaly; Hanisch, Rachel; McKay-Chopin, Sandrine; Sokolova, Olga; Eklund, Carina; Komyakov, Boris; Gheit, Tarik; Tommasino, Massimo

    2017-06-01

    Data regarding anal cutaneous HPV detection among HIV-positive and HIV-negative persons largely relies on studies among men who have sex with men in limited geographical settings. Understanding the distribution, determinants, and potential human health effects of anal cutaneous HPV types among men who have sex with women (MSW) is important. Anal canal swab samples from 415 Russian MSW (384 HIV-negative and 31 HIV-positive) were tested for 43 β-HPVs and 29 γ-HPVs, using a multiplex PCR combined with Luminex technology. β-HPV was detected in 24.4% and γ-HPV in 15.9% of anal samples of all Russian MSW. In total, 34 β-HPV and 19 γ-HPV types were detected, with the most commonly detected β-HPV types being 110, 22 and 124 and the most common γ-HPV types being 95, 132 and 50. For both genera, being HIV-positive at the time of testing was a significant determinant of detection (74.2% for β-HPVs and 48.4% for γ-HPVs compared to 20.1% and 12.5% in HIV-negative MSW, respectively). A wide spectrum and moderate prevalence of anal β-HPV and γ-HPV types was found in our MSW study sample, suggesting that routes other than penile-anal intercourse may be important in cutaneous HPV transmission. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Benefits and Potential Harms of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Self-Testing Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in China: An Implementation Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yilu; Tang, Weiming; Nowacki, Amy; Mollan, Katie; Reifeis, Sarah A; Hudgens, Michael G; Wong, Ngai-Sze; Li, Haochu; Tucker, Joseph D; Wei, Chongyi

    2017-04-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus self-testing (HIVST) holds great promise for reaching high-risk key populations who do not access facility-based services. We sought to characterize unsupervised HIVST implementation among men who have sex with men in China. We conducted a nationwide online survey in China. Eligible men were at least 16 years, had anal sex with a man, and had recent condomless sex. We assessed benefits (first-time testing, increased testing frequency, confirmatory testing) and potential harms (coercion, violence, suicidality) of HIVST. Among men who have sex with men who reported ever testing for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), we identified correlates of HIVST as first-time HIV test being a self-test using multivariable logistic regression. Among 1610 men who met the eligibility criteria and started the survey, 1189 (74%) completed it. Three hundred forty-one (29%) of 1189 reported ever self-testing for HIV. Human immunodeficiency virus prevalence was 7% (24/341) among self-testers and 5% (15/306) among non-self-testers. Two hundred (59%) of 341 men who self-tested reported HIVST as a first-time HIV test. Thirty-one (9%) men experienced coercion with HIVST. Thirty-one (78%) of 40 men with positive HIV self-tests sought confirmation. Multivariable analysis revealed that HIVST as first-time HIV test was associated with younger age (odds ratio [OR], 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.92-0.99), not being "out" (OR, 2.28; 95% CI, 1.60-3.28), not using the internet to meet sex partners (OR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.22-0.69), and group sex (OR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.02-2.9). Human immunodeficiency virus self-testing reached high-risk individuals that had never received facility-based testing. Further implementation research is needed to better understand HIVST outside of research programs.

  16. Society, sex, and STIs: human behavior and the evolution of sexually transmitted diseases and their agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahmias, Susa Beckman; Nahmias, Daniella

    2011-08-01

    The last few decades have provided new perspectives on the increasingly complex interrelationships between the evolutionary epidemiology of STDs and their agents, human sexuality, and economic, social, cultural, and technological developments. Rapidly emerging HIV/AIDS, globalization, migration, and information technology are some factors that stress the importance of focusing on how old and new sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are spread, both in and between networks and populations. This review of determinants of STI transmission emphasizes their impact on disease prevalence and transmission, as well as their potential for affecting the agents themselves--directly or indirectly. Interventions aiming to control the spread of STIs and HIV on the different levels of society need to be adapted to the specific environment and need to integrate social structures, such as economic and gender inequality and mobility, as well as the great variability and complexity of sexual behavior. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  17. Correlates of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Sexually Transmitted Infection (HIV/STI) Testing and Disclosure among HIV-Negative Collegiate Men Who Have Sex with Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, J. Michael; Fuchs, Erika L.; Brady, Sonya S.; Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Rosser, B. R. Simon

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the extent to which personal, behavioral, and environmental factors are associated with human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted infection (HIV/STI) testing and disclosure. Participants: Nine hundred thirty HIV-negative collegiate men who have sex with men (MSM) who completed an online survey about alcohol use and…

  18. Sex differences in androgen receptors of the human mamillary bodies are related to endocrine status rather than to sexual orientation or transsexuality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruijver, F. P.; Fernández-Guasti, A.; Fodor, M.; Kraan, E. M.; Swaab, D. F.

    2001-01-01

    In a previous study we found androgen receptor (AR) sex differences in several regions throughout the human hypothalamus. Generally, men had stronger nuclear AR immunoreactivity (AR-ir) than women. The strongest nuclear labeling was found in the caudal hypothalamus in the mamillary body complex

  19. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) concentrations during the late first trimester are associated with fetal growth in a fetal sex-specific manner

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barjaktarovic, M. (Mirjana); T.I.M. Korevaar (Tim); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); Y.B. de Rijke (Yolanda); T.J. Visser (Theo); R.P. Peeters (Robin); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractHuman chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a pregnancy-specific hormone that regulates placental development. hCG concentrations vary widely throughout gestation and differ based on fetal sex. Abnormal hCG concentrations are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes including fetal growth

  20. Incidence and clearance of anal high-risk human papillomavirus in HIV-positive men who have sex with men: estimates and risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geskus, Ronald B.; González, Cristina; Torres, Montserrat; del Romero, Jorge; Viciana, Pompeyo; Masiá, Mar; Blanco, José R.; Iribarren, Mauricio; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Hernández-Novoa, Beatriz; Ortiz, Marta; del Amo, Julia

    2016-01-01

    To estimate incidence and clearance of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV), and their risk factors, in men who have sex with men (MSM) recently infected by HIV in Spain; 2007-2013. Multicenter cohort. HR-HPV infection was determined and genotyped with linear array. Two-state Markov models and

  1. Sexual Transmission of Hepatitis C Virus in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Negative Men Who Have Sex With Men: A Series of Case Reports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Laar, Thijs J. W.; Paxton, William A.; Zorgdrager, Fokla; Cornelissen, Marion; de Vries, Henry J. C.

    2011-01-01

    Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) has recently emerged as sexual transmitted infection among (human immunodeficiency virus) HIV-positive but not HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM). We present 4 case reports showing that HIV-infection is not an absolute prerequisite for sexual HCV transmission in

  2. [Human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted infection, risk behavior and sexual networks among men who have sex with men in Taizhou city, Zhejiang province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei-ming; Lin, Hai-jiang; Zhang, Ya-fu; Qiu, Dan-hong; Feng, Ji-fu; Gao, Mei-yang; He, Na

    2008-10-01

    To study the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), sexually transmitted infection (STI), risk behavior and the sexual networks among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Taizhou city, Zhejiang province. A cross-sectional study was applied with venue-based sampling in 2 MSM gathering sites in Taizhou. 'Informed Consent' principle was applied and MSM were studied through a structured questionnaire. Blood samples were collected from those who accepted free and confidential HIV/STI counseling and then tested for HIV, syphilis, HCV and HSV-2 antibodies with ELISA. HIV positive sera were certified with western blot. 106 MSM were investigated and 97 qualified questionnaires were collected. 25.0% (23/92) of these MSM have ever had 1 female sex partner while 47.8% (44/92) had 2 or more. 14.3% (13/91) of them reported having had 1 male partner who had engaged in anal sex and 80.2% (73/91) had 2 or more. 22.1% (19/86) of them had participated in group sex but 62.5% (55/88) of them did not always use condom when having anal intercourse. 15.1% (14/93) of them had 1 oral sex partner while 75.3% (70/93) having 2 or more. 38.9% (37/95) of them had sex with female sex worker, and 35.5% (33/93) had sex with male-to-male sex worker. 15.3% (13/85) of them had once been male-to-male sex worker themselves. 3.9% (3/77) of them were found HIV positive in blood tests, with 24.7% (18/73) positive of syphilis, 15.1% (11/73) positive of HSV-2 but HCV appeared to be negative. 46 cases reported their egocentric recognition networks, with mean degree of 5.91 (ranging 0 - 10), and mean density of 0.548 (ranging 0.000 - 1.000). 43 sexual networks were identified, with mean degree of 2.70 (ranging 0 - 10), and mean density of 0.246 (ranging 0.000 - 1.000). Risk behaviors, such as multiple sex partners, low proportion of condom use and commercial sex engagement, both with heterosexuals and homosexuals, were extensively existed among MSM in Taizhou, and the prevalence of HIV/STI was

  3. Sex Work as an Emerging Risk Factor for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Seroconversion Among People who Inject Drugs in the SurvUDI Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin, Karine; Leclerc, Pascale; Morissette, Carole; Roy, Élise; Blanchette, Caty; Parent, Raymond; Serhir, Bouchra; Alary, Michel

    2016-10-01

    Recent analyses have shown an emerging positive association between sex work and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) incidence among people who inject drugs (PWIDs) in the SurvUDI network. Participants who had injected in the past 6 months were recruited across the Province of Quebec and in the city of Ottawa, mainly in harm reduction programs. They completed a questionnaire and provided gingival exudate for HIV antibody testing. The associations with HIV seroconversion were tested with a Cox proportional hazard model using time-dependent covariables including the main variable of interest, sexual activity (sex work; no sex work; sexually inactive). The final model included significant variables and confounders of the associations with sexual activity. Seventy-two HIV seroconversions were observed during 5239.2 person-years (py) of follow-up (incidence rates: total = 1.4/100 py; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-1.7; sex work = 2.5/100 py; 95% CI, 1.5-3.6; no sex work = 0.8/100 py; 95% CI, 0.5-1.2; sexually inactive = 1.8/100 py; 95% CI, 1.1-2.5). In the final multivariate model, HIV incidence was significantly associated with sexual activity (sex work: adjusted hazard ratio [AHR], 2.19; 95% CI, 1.13-4.25; sexually inactive: AHR, 1.62; 95% CI, 0.92-2.88), and injection with a needle/syringe used by someone else (AHR, 2.84; 95% CI, 1.73-4.66). Sex work is independently associated with HIV incidence among PWIDs. At the other end of the spectrum of sexual activity, sexually inactive PWIDs have a higher HIV incidence rate, likely due to more profound dependence leading to increased vulnerabilities, which may include mental illness, poverty, and social exclusion. Further studies are needed to understand whether the association between sex work and HIV is related to sexual transmission or other vulnerability factors.

  4. Cytological studies of human meiosis: sex-specific differences in recombination originate at, or prior to, establishment of double-strand breaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer R Gruhn

    Full Text Available Meiotic recombination is sexually dimorphic in most mammalian species, including humans, but the basis for the male:female differences remains unclear. In the present study, we used cytological methodology to directly compare recombination levels between human males and females, and to examine possible sex-specific differences in upstream events of double-strand break (DSB formation and synaptic initiation. Specifically, we utilized the DNA mismatch repair protein MLH1 as a marker of recombination events, the RecA homologue RAD51 as a surrogate for DSBs, and the synaptonemal complex proteins SYCP3 and/or SYCP1 to examine synapsis between homologs. Consistent with linkage studies, genome-wide recombination levels were higher in females than in males, and the placement of exchanges varied between the sexes. Subsequent analyses of DSBs and synaptic initiation sites indicated similar male:female differences, providing strong evidence that sex-specific differences in recombination rates are established at or before the formation of meiotic DSBs. We then asked whether these differences might be linked to variation in the organization of the meiotic axis and/or axis-associated DNA and, indeed, we observed striking male:female differences in synaptonemal complex (SC length and DNA loop size. Taken together, our observations suggest that sex specific differences in recombination in humans may derive from chromatin differences established prior to the onset of the recombination pathway.

  5. The interstitial nuclei of the human anterior hypothalamus: an investigation of variation with sex, sexual orientation, and HIV status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byne, W; Tobet, S; Mattiace, L A; Lasco, M S; Kemether, E; Edgar, M A; Morgello, S; Buchsbaum, M S; Jones, L B

    2001-09-01

    The interstitial nuclei of the human anterior hypothalamus (INAH1-4) have been considered candidates for homology with the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area of the rat. Volumetric sexual dimorphism has been described for three of these nuclei (INAH1-3), and INAH3 has been reported to be smaller in homosexual than heterosexual men. The current study measured the INAH in Nissl-stained coronal sections in autopsy material from 34 presumed heterosexual men (24 HIV- and 10 HIV+), 34 presumed heterosexual women (25 HIV- and 9 HIV+), and 14 HIV+ homosexual men. HIV status significantly influenced the volume of INAH1 (8% larger in HIV+ heterosexual men and women relative to HIV- individuals), but no other INAH. INAH3 contained significantly more neurons and occupied a greater volume in presumed heterosexual males than females. No sex difference in volume was detected for any other INAH. No sexual variation in neuronal size or density was observed in any INAH. Although there was a trend for INAH3 to occupy a smaller volume in homosexual men than in heterosexual men, there was no difference in the number of neurons within the nucleus based on sexual orientation. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  6. Common genetic variation near MC4R has a sex-specific impact on human brain structure and eating behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Horstmann

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with genetic and environmental factors but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS identified obesity- and type 2 diabetes-associated genetic variants located within or near genes that modulate brain activity and development. Among the top hits is rs17782313 near MC4R, encoding for the melanocortin-4-receptor, which is expressed in brain regions that regulate eating. Here, we hypothesized rs17782313-associated changes in human brain regions that regulate eating behavior. Therefore, we examined effects of common variants at rs17782313 near MC4R on brain structure and eating behavior. Only in female homozygous carriers of the risk allele we found significant increases of gray matter volume (GMV in the right amygdala, a region known to influence eating behavior, and the right hippocampus, a structure crucial for memory formation and learning. Further, we found bilateral increases in medial orbitofrontal cortex, a multimodal brain structure encoding the subjective value of reinforcers, and bilateral prefrontal cortex, a higher order regulation area. There was no association between rs17782313 and brain structure in men. Moreover, among female subjects only, we observed a significant increase of 'disinhibition', and, more specifically, on 'emotional eating' scores of the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire in carriers of the variant rs17782313's risk allele. These findings suggest that rs17782313's effect on eating behavior is mediated by central mechanisms and that these effects are sex-specific.

  7. Impact and Cost-effectiveness of Selective Human Papillomavirus Vaccination of Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Allen; Ong, Koh J; Hobbelen, Peter; King, Eleanor; Mesher, David; Edmunds, W John; Sonnenberg, Pam; Gilson, Richard; Bains, Irenjeet; Choi, Yoon H; Tanton, Clare; Soldan, Kate; Jit, Mark

    2017-03-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) have a high lifetime risk of anogenital warts and cancers related to infection with human papillomavirus (HPV). They also benefit less from herd protection than heterosexual males in settings with female-only HPV vaccination. We evaluated the potential health impact and cost-effectiveness of offering vaccination to MSM who visit genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinics. We used a mathematical model of HPV 6/11/16/18 sexual transmission within an MSM population in England, parameterized with sexual behaviour, GUM attendance, HPV prevalence, HIV prevalence, warts, and cancer incidence data. Interventions considered were offering HPV vaccination to either HIV-positive MSM or MSM regardless of HIV status, for age bands 16-25, 16-30, 16-35, and 16-40 years. Substantial declines in anogenital warts and male HPV-related cancer incidence are projected to occur following an offer of vaccination to MSM. MSM not attending GUM clinics will partially benefit from herd protection. Offering vaccination to HIV-positive MSM up to age 40 is likely to be cost-effective if vaccine procurement and administration costs are below £96.50 a dose. At £48 a dose, offering vaccination to all MSM up to age 40 is likely to be cost-effective. Quadrivalent HPV vaccination of MSM via GUM clinics is likely to be an effective and cost-effective way of reducing the burden of HPV-related disease in MSM.

  8. Oral sex and human papilloma virus-related head and neck squamous cell cancer: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ankit; Malik, Akshat; Garg, Apurva; Mair, Manish; Nair, Sudhir; Chaturvedi, Pankaj

    2017-11-01

    Head neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality all around the world. Just like tobacco and alcohol, Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection is now recognized to play a role in the pathogenesis of a subset of HNSCCs. Unprotected sexual behaviours with the HPV carrier plays an important role in transmission of this virus. The global incidence of head and neck cancers is declining, but the incidence of HPV related head and neck cancers is rapidly increasing over the last few decades. However, most institutions do not mandate documentation of sexual history or counselling of patients regarding sexual practices like they do for tobacco and alcohol addictions in HNSCC patients. The aim of this review of literature is to analyse if there is a strong evidence to correlate oral sex with HPV related HNSCC and counsel the patient's regarding sexual behaviours. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Sex reversal in vertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This special topic issue of Sexual Development gives an overview of sex reversal in vertebrates, from fishes naturally changing their sex, to rodents escaping the mammalian SRY-determining system. It offers eight up-to-date reviews on specific subjects in sex reversal, considering fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, marsupials, and placental mammals, including humans. The broad scope of represented animals makes this ideal for students and researchers, especially those interested in the...

  10. Human spermatogenic failure purges deleterious mutation load from the autosomes and both sex chromosomes, including the gene DMRT1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Alexandra M; Aston, Kenneth I; Thompson, Emma; Carvalho, Filipa; Gonçalves, João; Huang, Ni; Matthiesen, Rune; Noordam, Michiel J; Quintela, Inés; Ramu, Avinash; Seabra, Catarina; Wilfert, Amy B; Dai, Juncheng; Downie, Jonathan M; Fernandes, Susana; Guo, Xuejiang; Sha, Jiahao; Amorim, António; Barros, Alberto; Carracedo, Angel; Hu, Zhibin; Hurles, Matthew E; Moskovtsev, Sergey; Ober, Carole; Paduch, Darius A; Schiffman, Joshua D; Schlegel, Peter N; Sousa, Mário; Carrell, Douglas T; Conrad, Donald F

    2013-03-01

    Gonadal failure, along with early pregnancy loss and perinatal death, may be an important filter that limits the propagation of harmful mutations in the human population. We hypothesized that men with spermatogenic impairment, a disease with unknown genetic architecture and a common cause of male infertility, are enriched for rare deleterious mutations compared to men with normal spermatogenesis. After assaying genomewide SNPs and CNVs in 323 Caucasian men with idiopathic spermatogenic impairment and more than 1,100 controls, we estimate that each rare autosomal deletion detected in our study multiplicatively changes a man's risk of disease by 10% (OR 1.10 [1.04-1.16], pautism, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and intellectual disability, we propose that the CNV burden in spermatogenic impairment is distinct from the burden of large, dominant mutations described for neurodevelopmental disorders. We identified two patients with deletions of DMRT1, a gene on chromosome 9p24.3 orthologous to the putative sex determination locus of the avian ZW chromosome system. In an independent sample of Han Chinese men, we identified 3 more DMRT1 deletions in 979 cases of idiopathic azoospermia and none in 1,734 controls, and found none in an additional 4,519 controls from public databases. The combined results indicate that DMRT1 loss-of-function mutations are a risk factor and potential genetic cause of human spermatogenic failure (frequency of 0.38% in 1306 cases and 0% in 7,754 controls, p = 6.2 × 10(-5)). Our study identifies other recurrent CNVs as potential causes of idiopathic azoospermia and generates hypotheses for directing future studies on the genetic basis of male infertility and IVF outcomes.

  11. Oligoadenylate synthetase 1 (OAS1 expression in human breast and prostate cancer cases, and its regulation by sex steroid hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Jorge Maia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Oligoadenylate synthetase 1 (OAS1 is an interferon-induced protein characterised by its capacity to catalyse the synthesis of 2ʹ-5ʹ-linked oligomers of adenosine from adenosine triphosphate (2-5A. The 2-5A binds to a latent Ribonuclease L (RNase L, which subsequently dimerises into its active form and may play an important role in the control of cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis. Previously, our research group identified OAS1 as a differentially-expressed gene in breast and prostate cancer cell lines when compared to normal cells. This study evaluates: i the expression of OAS1 in human breast and prostate cancer specimens; and ii the effect of sex steroid hormones in regulating the expression of OAS1 in breast (MCF-7 and prostate (LNCaP cancer cell lines. The obtained results showed that OAS1 expression was down-regulated in human infiltrative ductal carcinoma of breast, adenocarcinoma of prostate, and benign prostate hyperplasia, both at mRNA and protein level. In addition, OAS1 expression was negatively correlated with the progression of breast and prostate cancer. With regards to the regulation of OAS1 gene, it was demonstrated that 17β-estradiol (E2 down-regulates OAS1 gene in MCF-7 cell lines, an effect that seems to be dependent on the activation of oestrogen receptor (ER. On the other hand, 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT treatment showed no effect on the expression of OAS1 in LNCaP cell lines. The lower levels of OAS1 in breast and prostate cancer cases indicated that the OAS1/RNaseL apoptotic pathway may be compromised in breast and prostate tumours. Moreover, the present findings suggested that this effect may be enhanced by oestrogen in ER-positive breast cancers.

  12. Motherhood and Risk for Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Female Sex Workers in the Mexico-US Border Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servin, Argentina E; Reed, Elizabeth; Brouwer, Kimberly C; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Boyce, Sabrina; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Silverman, Jay G

    2017-08-01

    Globally, female sex workers (FSWs) have been identified as a high-risk group for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). However, as women of reproductive age, FSWs also have children. Few studies have investigated if financial responsibilities associated with motherhood increase women's vulnerability to HIV and STIs among FSWs. From March 2013 to March 2014, 603 FSWs aged ≥18 years were recruited from Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez (Mexico) to participate in a study assessing HIV/STI risk environments. Findings from logistic regression models indicate that FSWs who reported motherhood were more likely to report (in the past 30 days): a higher client volume (>30 clients) (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.91; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.27-2.87) and always using alcohol right before or during sex with clients in the past 30 days (AOR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.19-2.61). In contrast, they were more likely to report consistent condom use for vaginal or anal sex with clients (AOR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.10-2.55), less likely to report using drugs right before or during sex with clients (AOR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.26-0.56) and less likely to have tested positive for STIs at baseline (AOR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.43-0.91). These results provide a glimpse of the complex relationship between motherhood and women who are sex workers. Understanding the convergence of motherhood and sex work and how this can influence a woman's decision when engaging in sex work and affect her health is essential to designing effective programs addressing reduce risk for HIV and STIs among FSWs in this region and elsewhere.

  13. Infantile and early childhood masturbation: Sex hormones and clinical profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajlouni, Heitham K; Daoud, Azhar S; Ajlouni, Saleh F; Ajlouni, Kamel M

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have explored the hormonal triggers for masturbation in infants and young children. Thus, we aimed to study the sex hormones and clinical profiles of masturbating infants and young children. This case-control study involved infants and young children who masturbate and were referred to three pediatric neurology clinics between September 2004 and 2006 (n=13), and a similar control group. All children underwent basic laboratory investigations prior to referral. Other tests included electroencephalography (n=8) and brain neuroimaging (n=9). We measured dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, free testosterone, estradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and androstenedione in all participants. The median age at the first incident was 19.5 months (range, 4-36 months); the median masturbation frequency, 4 times/day; and the median duration of each event, 3.9 min. The subjects masturbated in both prone (n=10) and supine positions (n=3); two subjects used the knee-chest position. All subjects showed facial flushing; 6, friction between the thighs; 5, sweating; 9, sleeping after the event; and 12, disturbance on interruption. EEG was abnormal in one of eight subjects tested, and neuroimages were normal in all of nine subjects examined. The case and control groups had comparable levels of all sex hormones, except estradiol, which showed significantly lower levels in the case group (P=.02). Masturbation in children seems to be associated with reduced estradiol levels, but not with other sex hormones. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings.

  14. Prevalence of and risk factors for anal human papillomavirus infection in men who have sex with women: a cross-national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyitray, Alan G; Smith, Dan'elle; Villa, Luisa; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Abrahamsen, Martha; Papenfuss, Mary; Giuliano, Anna R

    2010-05-15

    Although the primary cause of anal cancer is human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the anal canal, little attention has been paid to the epidemiology of anal HPV infection in men who have sex with women (MSW). Exfoliated cells from the anal canal of 902 MSW in Brazil (São Paulo), Mexico (Cuernavaca), and the United States (Tampa) were tested for HPV DNA. The prevalence of HPV infection in the anal canal (12.0%) was similar among MSW in each city (P=.77), whereas 7.0% had infection with oncogenic types. Men in Tampa had a 4-fold higher prevalence of infection with HPV type 16 (HPV-16) than that among men in São Paulo or Cuernavaca (Psex partner and ever having oral or anal sex with a man was associated with infection with any HPV type and with any oncogenic type, whereas lifetime number of female sex partners was associated with infection with any HPV type. Anal canal HPV infection is commonly found among MSW, and the prevalence of infection with HPV-16 may differ substantially by geography. Men who have a larger lifetime number of female sex partners, who are in a sexual relationship of anal sex with men were most likely to have an anal HPV infection.

  15. Molecular status of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus among transgender commercial sex workers in Surakarta, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, Afiono Agung; Sari, Yulia; Dharmawan, Ruben; Marwoto

    2017-02-01

    Sexual contact and other risk behavior among transgender working as commercial sex workers are important factors for sexual and blood-borne virus (BBV) infections. However, there no data concerning the molecular status of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) circulated among transgender working as commercial sex workers. Blood samples obtained from transgender working as commercial sex workers in Surakarta were examined for HIV antibodies, HBsAg and HCV antibodies, respectively, by immunological assays. All blood samples were also subjected for viral nucleic acid extraction and molecular detection of HIV, HBV and HCV by nested RT-PCR. The PCR products were purified from agarose gels, and the nucleotide sequences were retrieved and molecular analyzed. HIV, HBV and HCV was detected in 26.9% (7/26), 19.2% (5/26) and 46.2% (12/26), respectively. HIV CRF01_AE and B were found to be circulating in the community. HBV genotype B3 predominated, followed by C1. HCV genotype 1a predominated among HCV-infected transgender working as commercial sex workers, followed by 1c, 3a, and 4a. HIV, HBV, and HCV were found circulating in the transgender working as commercial sex workers in Surakarta, Indonesia.

  16. Prevalence of Anal Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Types in the Bangkok Men Who Have Sex With Men Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranston, Ross D; Althouse, Andrew D; van Griensven, Frits; Janocko, Laura; Curlin, Marcel E; Chaikummao, Supaporn; Chonwattana, Wannee; Siegel, Aaron; Holtz, Timothy H; McGowan, Ian

    2015-12-01

    The quadrivalent human papillomavirus (qHPV) and 9 valent (nHPV) vaccine are licensed for males to prevent anal HPV-associated dysplasia and cancer caused by HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18 (qHPV) and additional types 33, 35, 45, 52, and 58 (nHPV), respectively. Both conditions are common in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected men who have sex with men (MSM). It is not well documented which anal HPV vaccine types are most prevalent in Southeast Asia. A convenience sample of 400 anal swabs were obtained from 200 HIV-infected and 200 HIV-uninfected sexually active Bangkok MSM Cohort Study participants. After swab collection in PreservCyt (Cytyc Corp, Marlborough, MA), the media was stored at -80°C until processing. DNA was extracted, amplified by polymerase chain reaction, denatured, and then hybridized to probes for 37 HPV types and β-globin. The mean participant age was 25.6 years (range, 18-55 years); the mean CD4 T-cell count was 410 cells/mm in the HIV-infected participants. Among all swab samples, 386 (192 HIV-positive and 194 HIV-negative) had adequate β-globin for HPV genotype testing. Anal HPV type was detected in 44.3% of participants whose samples underwent genotype testing. Both qHPV and nHPV types were more frequently detected in HIV-infected compared with HIV-uninfected (42.2% vs. 23.2% [P social behaviors (alcohol use, drug use) or sexual behaviors (number of partners, condom usage, sexual positioning) and anal HPV prevalence. The prevalence of anal vaccine HPV types in Thai MSM was similar to that reported in MSM from Western populations and has a similar distribution by HIV status. Targeting young MSM with vaccination could offer protection against HPV vaccine types.

  17. A quantification of regenerated bone tissue in human sinus biopsies: influences of anatomical region, age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Karoline Maria; Huber, Christian Domitian; Heimel, Patrick; Ulm, Christian; Redl, Heinz; Tangl, Stefan

    2016-05-01

    Sinus augmentation is a standard procedure to increase vertical bone supply for dental implants in the atrophic posterior maxilla. Despite the longstanding application of this method, information about some basic factors that could potentially influence bone regeneration after sinus augmentation is rare. The objective of this study was therefore to quantify the impact of the maxillary region (premolar/molar) and patients' age and sex on bone regeneration after sinus grafting. Sinus augmentation procedures were performed in 107 patients (66 female: 52.8 ± 11.0 years, 41 male: 50.6 ± 11.3 years). After 6 ± 1 months, 201 sinus biopsies were harvested and histomorphometrically analysed. Height (oldHt) and bone volume fraction of pristine bone (oldBV/TV), as well as the amount of new bone (newBV/TV) and bone-to-bone substitute contact (BBSC) in the augmentation area, were assessed. In women, newBV/TV in the augmented sinus decreased significantly by 0.22 ± 0.08% per year. In men, no similar trend was observed. There were strong influences of the maxillary region and the dimensions of the host bone. In the premolar region, newBV/TV was 23.1 ± 7.9% and 25.1 ± 10.1%; in the molar region, newBV/TV averaged 20.4 ± 9.4% and 17.8 ± 8.8% for women and men, respectively. The greater the thickness of the wall of the sinus floor (mainly in the former premolar region), the greater was the amount of new bone tissue formed in the spaces in-between bone substitute particles. These empirical results derived from a large human sample, link factors that influence the quality of biomaterial integration to the known clinical risks for the success of dental implants. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Spatial Analysis of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Epidemic among Men Who Have Sex with Men in China, 2006-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Qianqian; Guo, Wei; Tang, Weiming; Mahapatra, Tanmay; Wang, Liyan; Zhang, Nanci; Ding, Zhengwei; Cai, Chang; Cui, Yan; Sun, Jiangping

    2017-04-01

    Studies have shown a recent upsurge in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) burden among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China, especially in urban areas. For intervention planning and resource allocation, spatial analyses of HIV/AIDS case-clusters were required to identify epidemic foci and trends among MSM in China. Information regarding MSM recorded as HIV/AIDS cases during 2006-2015 were extracted from the National Case Reporting System. Demographic trends were determined through Cochran-Armitage trend tests. Distribution of case-clusters was examined using spatial autocorrelation. Spatial-temporal scan was used to detect disease clustering. Spatial correlations between cases and socioenvironmental factors were determined by spatial regression. Between 2006 and 2015, in China, 120 371 HIV/AIDS cases were identified among MSM. Newly identified HIV/AIDS cases among self-reported MSM increased from 487 cases in 2006 to >30 000 cases in 2015. Among those HIV/AIDS cases recorded during 2006-2015, 47.0% were 20-29 years old and 24.9% were aged 30-39 years. Based on clusters of HIV/AIDS cases identified through spatial analysis, the epidemic was concentrated among MSM in large cities. Spatial-temporal clusters contained municipalities, provincial capitals, and main cities such as Beijing, Shanghai, Chongqing, Chengdu, and Guangzhou. Spatial regression analysis showed that sociodemographic indicators such as population density, per capita gross domestic product, and number of county-level medical institutions had statistically significant positive correlations with HIV/AIDS among MSM. Assorted spatial analyses revealed an increasingly concentrated HIV epidemic among young MSM in Chinese cities, calling for targeted health education and intensive interventions at an early age.

  19. Increasing Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Coverage Among Men Who Have Sex With Men-National HIV Behavioral Surveillance, United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Sara E; Hoots, Brooke E; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela; Markowitz, Lauri E; Meites, Elissa

    2017-07-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) can cause oropharyngeal and anogenital cancers among men who have sex with men (MSM). In 2011, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) extended HPV vaccine recommendations to males through age 21 and MSM through age 26. Because of this distinction, vaccination for some MSM might rely on sexual behavior disclosure to health care providers. Receipt of ≥1 HPV vaccination among MSM aged 18-26 in National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS) was 4.9% in 2011. We evaluated HPV vaccine coverage and associated factors among MSM in 2014. Twenty US metropolitan statistical areas in 2014. Coverage was calculated as percentage of MSM self-reporting ≥1 HPV vaccination. Adjusted prevalence ratios were calculated from Poisson regression models to estimate associations of demographic and behavioral characteristics with HPV vaccination. Among 2892 MSM aged 18-26 years, HPV vaccine coverage was 17.2%. Overall, 2326 (80.4%) reported a health care visit within 12 months, and 2095 (72.4%) disclosed MSM attraction or behavior to a health care provider. Factors associated with vaccination included self-reported HIV infection; having a health care visit within 12 months, health insurance, or a usual place of care; and disclosing MSM attraction or behavior to a health care provider. Since the 2011 recommendation for vaccination of males, HPV vaccine coverage among MSM increased, but remains low. Most MSM reported a recent health care visit and disclosed sexual behavior, indicating opportunities for vaccination. Potential strategies for increasing MSM coverage include improving access to recommended care, and offering education for providers and patients.

  20. Human spermatogenic failure purges deleterious mutation load from the autosomes and both sex chromosomes, including the gene DMRT1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra M Lopes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Gonadal failure, along with early pregnancy loss and perinatal death, may be an important filter that limits the propagation of harmful mutations in the human population. We hypothesized that men with spermatogenic impairment, a disease with unknown genetic architecture and a common cause of male infertility, are enriched for rare deleterious mutations compared to men with normal spermatogenesis. After assaying genomewide SNPs and CNVs in 323 Caucasian men with idiopathic spermatogenic impairment and more than 1,100 controls, we estimate that each rare autosomal deletion detected in our study multiplicatively changes a man's risk of disease by 10% (OR 1.10 [1.04-1.16], p<2 × 10(-3, rare X-linked CNVs by 29%, (OR 1.29 [1.11-1.50], p<1 × 10(-3, and rare Y-linked duplications by 88% (OR 1.88 [1.13-3.13], p<0.03. By contrasting the properties of our case-specific CNVs with those of CNV callsets from cases of autism, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and intellectual disability, we propose that the CNV burden in spermatogenic impairment is distinct from the burden of large, dominant mutations described for neurodevelopmental disorders. We identified two patients with deletions of DMRT1, a gene on chromosome 9p24.3 orthologous to the putative sex determination locus of the avian ZW chromosome system. In an independent sample of Han Chinese men, we identified 3 more DMRT1 deletions in 979 cases of idiopathic azoospermia and none in 1,734 controls, and found none in an additional 4,519 controls from public databases. The combined results indicate that DMRT1 loss-of-function mutations are a risk factor and potential genetic cause of human spermatogenic failure (frequency of 0.38% in 1306 cases and 0% in 7,754 controls, p = 6.2 × 10(-5. Our study identifies other recurrent CNVs as potential causes of idiopathic azoospermia and generates hypotheses for directing future studies on the genetic basis of male infertility and IVF outcomes.

  1. Sex determination and sex reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerino, Giovanna; Parma, Pietro; Radi, Orietta; Valentini, Stella

    2006-06-01

    Sex determination in mammals is based on a genetic cascade that controls the fate of the gonads. Gonads will then direct the establishment of phenotypic sex through the production of hormones. Different types of sex reversal are expected to occur if mutations disrupt one of the three steps of gonadal differentiation: formation of the gonadal primordia, sex determination, and testis or ovary development.

  2. Sex Differences in Liver Toxicity—Do Female and Male Human Primary Hepatocytes React Differently to Toxicants In Vitro?

    OpenAIRE

    Milena Mennecozzi; Brigitte Landesmann; Taina Palosaari; Georgina Harris; Maurice Whelan

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing amount of evidence for sex variation in drug efficiency and toxicity profiles. Women are more susceptible than men to acute liver injury from xenobiotics. In general, this is attributed to sex differences at a physiological level as well as differences in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, but neither of these can give a sufficient explanation for the diverse responses to xenobiotics. Existing data are mainly based on animal models and limited data exist on in vitro se...

  3. Prevalence of HIV, human papillomavirus type 16 and herpes simplex virus type 2 among female sex workers in Guinea and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aho, Joséphine; Koushik, Anita; Coutlée, François; Diakité, Soumaïla Laye; Rashed, Sélim

    2014-03-01

    Female sex workers are at high risk for HIV infection. Sexually transmitted infections are known to be co-factors for HIV infection. Our aims were (1) to assess the prevalence of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections in this population; (2) to determine the association between sociodemographic characteristics, behavioural variables, and variables related to HIV prevention and HIV infection. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Conakry, Guinea, among a convenience sample of 223 female sex workers. A questionnaire on sociodemographic characteristics, risk factors, and exposure to prevention was administered. Screening for HIV, herpes simplex virus type 2, human papillomavirus type 16, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Chlamydia trachomatis was performed. Prevalences of HIV, herpes simplex virus type 2, human papillomavirus type 16, N. gonorrhoeae, and C. trachomatis were 35.3%, 84.1%, 12.2%, 9.0%, and 13.6%, respectively. Having a child, lubricant use, and human papillomavirus type 16 infection were associated with HIV infection. Interventions that promote screening and treatment of sexually transmitted infections are needed in order to achieve successful interventions to prevent HIV among female sex workers in resource-limited settings.

  4. How Does Adult Attachment Affect Human Recognition of Love-related and Sex-related Stimuli: An ERP Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Juan; Chen, Xin; Liu, Jinqun; Yao, Fangshu; Huang, Jiani; Ndasauka, Yamikani; Ma, Ru; Zhang, Yuting; Lan, Jing; Liu, Lu; Fang, Xiaoyi

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the relationship among three emotion-motivation systems (adult attachment, romantic love, and sex). We recorded event-related potentials in 37 healthy volunteers who had experienced romantic love while they viewed SEX, LOVE, FRIEND, SPORT, and NEUTRAL images. We also measured adult attachment styles, level of passionate love and sexual attitudes. As expected, results showed that, firstly, response to love-related image-stimuli and sex-related image-stimuli on the electrophysiological data significantly different on N1, N2, and positive slow wave (PSW) components. Secondly, the different adult attachment styles affected individuals’ recognition processing in response to love-related and sex-related images, especially, to sex-related images. Further analysis showed that voltages elicited by fearful attachment style individuals were significantly lower than voltages elicited by secure and dismissing attachment style individuals on sex-related images at frontal sites, on N1 and N2 components. Thirdly, from behavior data, we found that adult attachment styles were not significantly related to any dimension of sexual attitudes but were significantly related to passionate love scale (PLS) total points. Thus, the behavior results were not in line with the electrophysiological results. The present study proved that adult attachment styles might mediate individuals’ lust and attraction systems. PMID:27199830

  5. Sex-specific variation in signaling pathways and gene expression patterns in human leukocytes in response to endotoxin and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Asghar; de Paula Vieira, Rodolfo; Bischof, Felix; Walter, Michael; Movassaghi, Masoud; Berchtold, Nicole C; Niess, Andreas M; Cotman, Carl W; Northoff, Hinnak

    2016-11-10

    While exercise effects on the immune system have received increasing attention in recent years, it remains unclear to what extent gender and fluctuations in sex hormones during menstrual cycle influence immunological responses to exercise. We investigated mRNA changes induced through exhaustive exercise (half-marathon; pre-exercise and post-exercise [30 min, 3 h, 24 h] on whole blood cultures ± lipopolysaccharide [LPS] [1 h]) with a specific focus on sex differences (men vs women in luteal phase) as an extension of our previous study. Inflammation related signaling pathways, TLRs, cytosolic DNA sensing and RIG-I like receptors were differentially activated between sexes in LPS-stimulated cultures. Genes differentially regulated between sexes included TNIP-1, TNIP-3, IL-6, HIVEP1, CXCL3, CCR3, IL-8, and CD69, revealing a bias towards less anti-inflammatory gene regulation in women compared to men. In addition, several genes relevant to brain function (KMO, DDIT4, VEGFA, IGF1R, IGF2R, and FGD4) showed differential activation between sexes. Some of these genes (e.g., KMO in women, DDIT4 in both sexes) potentially constitute neuroprotective mechanisms. These data reveal that the exercise-induced change in gene expression might be gender and menstrual cycle phase dependent.

  6. Incidence, Duration, Persistence, and Factors Associated With High-risk Anal Human Papillomavirus Persistence Among HIV-negative Men Who Have Sex With Men: A Multinational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyitray, Alan G; Carvalho da Silva, Roberto J; Chang, Mihyun; Baggio, Maria Luiza; Ingles, Donna J; Abrahamsen, Martha; Papenfuss, Mary; Lin, Hui-Yi; Salmerón, Jorge; Quiterio, Manuel; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Villa, Luisa L; Giuliano, Anna R

    2016-06-01

    Given high rates of anal disease, we investigated the natural history of high-risk anal human papillomavirus (HPV) among a multinational group of men who have sex with men (MSM) aged 18-64 years. Anal specimens from human immunodeficiency virus-negative men from Brazil, Mexico, and the United States were genotyped. Over 2 years, 406 MSM provided evaluable specimens every 6 months for ≥2 visits. These men were stratified into men who have sex only with men (MSOM, n = 70) and men who have sex with women and men (MSWM, n = 336). Persistence was defined as ≥12 months' type-specific duration and could begin with either a prevalent or incident infection. Prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated by Poisson regression. Median follow-up time was 2.1 years. Retention was 82%. Annual cumulative incidence of 9-valent vaccine types was 19% and 8% among MSOM and MSWM, respectively (log-rank P = .02). Duration of anal HPV did not differ for MSOM and MSWM and was a median of 6.9 months for HPV-16 after combining men from the 2 groups. Among men with prevalent high-risk infection (n = 106), a total of 36.8%, retained the infection for at least 24 months. For those with prevalent HPV-16 (n = 27), 29.6% were persistent for at least 24 months. Persistence of high-risk HPV was associated with number of male anal sex partners and inversely associated with number of female sex partners. MSM with prevalent high-risk HPV infection should be considered at increased risk for nontransient infection. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Incidence, Duration, Persistence, and Factors Associated With High-risk Anal Human Papillomavirus Persistence Among HIV-negative Men Who Have Sex With Men: A Multinational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyitray, Alan G.; Carvalho da Silva, Roberto J.; Chang, Mihyun; Baggio, Maria Luiza; Ingles, Donna J.; Abrahamsen, Martha; Papenfuss, Mary; Lin, Hui-Yi; Salmerón, Jorge; Quiterio, Manuel; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Villa, Luisa L.; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Given high rates of anal disease, we investigated the natural history of high-risk anal human papillomavirus (HPV) among a multinational group of men who have sex with men (MSM) aged 18–64 years. Methods. Anal specimens from human immunodeficiency virus–negative men from Brazil, Mexico, and the United States were genotyped. Over 2 years, 406 MSM provided evaluable specimens every 6 months for ≥2 visits. These men were stratified into men who have sex only with men (MSOM, n = 70) and men who have sex with women and men (MSWM, n = 336). Persistence was defined as ≥12 months’ type-specific duration and could begin with either a prevalent or incident infection. Prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated by Poisson regression. Results. Median follow-up time was 2.1 years. Retention was 82%. Annual cumulative incidence of 9-valent vaccine types was 19% and 8% among MSOM and MSWM, respectively (log-rank P = .02). Duration of anal HPV did not differ for MSOM and MSWM and was a median of 6.9 months for HPV-16 after combining men from the 2 groups. Among men with prevalent high-risk infection (n = 106), a total of 36.8%, retained the infection for at least 24 months. For those with prevalent HPV-16 (n = 27), 29.6% were persistent for at least 24 months. Persistence of high-risk HPV was associated with number of male anal sex partners and inversely associated with number of female sex partners. Conclusions. MSM with prevalent high-risk HPV infection should be considered at increased risk for nontransient infection. PMID:26962079

  8. SEX EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R N Srivastava

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Sex, though not everything in life, is a profoundly important aspect of human existence. It has evolved to serve more than reproductive functions; relational and recreational functions having taken precedence over procrea­tional. Sex has come to play a much wider socio-psychological function.Human sexuality is complex and multidimensional. It is subject to influence by multitude of factors often grouped as biological (e.g. genes, hormones, psychological (e.g. fear, anxiety, mood and socio-cultural (e.g. sex roles, values- religious/moral/ethical, customs. It is the interaction and interrelationship of these factors from the time of conception, through intrauterine life, infancy, childhood and adolescence, till adulthood (even later in life that determine the sexual development expressed as sexual attitudes and behaviour of the people. Learning, both social and cognitive, plays a significantly important role in such development.Sexual dysfunctions in men and women, result from factors often categorised as physical or organic and psychological; more often a combination may be involved. Experience has shown that in majority of men and women in India having sexual problems, ignorance misconceptions and prevailing myths are invariably responsible in the causation of Ihese problems. Sexual problems in individual man (e.g. erectile failure and woman (e.g. vaginismus cause anxiety, feelings of frustration, lowered self esteem and symptoms of depression. The condition may also affect the spouse; he/she, as a reaction to the problem in the partner, may develop sexual and psychosocial problems including distressed marital relationship. This may also have influence on general couple relationship, effecting adversely the quality of family life.Modern therapeutic endevours have made it possible now to offer effective therapy to most people who seek help for their sexual problems, thus preventing the consequences on couple relationship. However, there is also

  9. Alcohol and dietary fibre intakes affect circulating sex hormones among premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskarinec, Gertraud; Morimoto, Yukiko; Takata, Yumie; Murphy, Suzanne P; Stanczyk, Frank Z

    2006-10-01

    The association of alcohol and fibre intake with breast cancer may be mediated by circulating sex hormone levels, which are predictors of breast cancer risk. To evaluate the relationship of alcohol and dietary fibre intake with circulating sex hormone levels among premenopausal women. A total of 205 premenopausal women completed a validated food-frequency questionnaire at baseline and after 2 years; blood samples taken at the same time were analysed for circulating sex hormone concentrations, including oestrone (E1), oestradiol (E2), free E2, progesterone, androstenedione and sex hormone-binding globulin, by radioimmunoassay. We used mixed models to estimate least-square means of sex hormone concentrations for alcohol intake categories and quartiles of dietary intake. After adjustment for covariates, alcohol consumption was moderately associated with higher circulating oestrogen levels; those who consumed more than one drink per day had 20% higher E2 (Ptrend=0.07) levels than non-drinkers. In contrast, higher dietary fibre intake was associated with lower serum levels of androstenedione (-8% between the lowest and highest quartiles of intake, Ptrend=0.06), but not oestrogens. Similarly, consumption of fruits (-12%, Ptrend=0.03), vegetables (-9%, Ptrend=0.15) and whole grains (-7%, Ptrend=0.07) showed inverse associations with androstenedione levels. The consistency of the observed differences in sex hormone levels associated with alcohol and fibre-rich foods indicates that these nutritional factors may affect sex hormone concentrations and play a role in breast cancer aetiology and prevention.

  10. Odontometric sex estimation in humans using measurements on permanent canines. A comparison of an early Neolithic and an early medieval assemblage from Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flohr, Stefan; Kierdorf, Uwe; Kierdorf, Horst

    This study analyzed whether cervical canine dimensions measured at the enamel-cement junction can provide a basis for sex estimation in human skeletal remains and whether discriminant functions developed for one assemblage can be successfully applied also to others. Cervical canine dimensions were recorded for an Early Neolithic (Linear Pottery Culture) and an early medieval skeletal assemblage from Germany. Only individuals in whom sex estimation based on standard diagnostic criteria could be performed with a high degree of certainty were included. Sexual dimorphism in cervical canine dimensions was higher in the early medieval assemblage. Values in females of the Early Neolithic assemblage exceeded those of the early medieval assemblage, while there were no significant differences in males. Discriminant analysis led to a maximum correct classification of sex (cross validation results) of 94.0% in the early medieval and of 79.2% in the Early Neolithic assemblage. Applying the discriminant functions developed on one assemblage to the other led to poor classification results. Cervical canine dimensions are highly correlated with sexually dimorphic skeletal traits and may provide a good basis for sexing archaeological individuals. It is suggested that due to population differences in canine dimensions, either assemblage specific discriminant functions should be developed or the applicability of existing formulae obtained on other assemblages to the assemblage under study should be carefully checked.

  11. Prevalence of pharyngeal infection by Neisseria gonorrhoeae among human immunodeficiency virus-positive men who have sex with men in downtown Madrid, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Esther; Pedrazuela, María García; Pérez, Marta Martínez; de Mosteyrín, Sol Fernández; Arrieta, Juan J; Guerrero, Manuel L Fernández

    2013-11-01

    The prevalence of pharyngeal gonorrhoea in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) is not entirely known. We cultured the pharynx of 264 asymptomatic HIV-positive MSM in downtown Madrid. A questionnaire on sexual and drug use risk behaviours was also administered. Gonococci were isolated in 25 (9.5%). Among the whole study population, 65% had a history of sexual intercourse with two or more partners on a single day and 26% were involved in group sex with other men. Only 29% regularly used condoms in all sexual encounters and 63% used condoms only in insertive anal intercourse. When asked about oral sex, 89% of patients engaged in insertive and/or receptive oral sex and 86% recognized that they did not regularly request the use of condoms when practising "fellatio" on a partner. Cocaine, crystal methamphetamine or alcohol use and a previous history of ≥1 sexually transmitted infection were significantly more common among culture-positive patients. Gonococcal colonization of the pharynx was self-limited in patients that were not treated and re-cultured a mean 18.5 ± 5.2 days after diagnosis. Asymptomatic pharyngeal gonorrhoea is common among HIV-positive MSM and may contribute to the increasing epidemic of gonorrhoea in Madrid.

  12. Sex Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... therapists have graduate degrees and can demonstrate their competence in sex therapy by becoming credentialed by the ... ways to resolve your concerns and improve your communication and intimacy. Talking about sex and intimacy may ...

  13. Site-specific human papillomavirus infection in adolescent men who have sex with men (HYPER): an observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Huachun; Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Grulich, Andrew E; Hocking, Jane S; Bradshaw, Catriona S; Cornall, Alyssa M; Morrow, Andrea; Prestage, Garrett; Law, Matthew G; Garland, Suzanne M; Chen, Marcus Y; Fairley, Christopher K

    2015-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) have an increased risk of anogenital human papilomavirus (HPV) infection, which can lead to HPV-related anogenital lesions such as warts, anal intraepithelial neoplasia, and anal cancer. Some of these HPV types are preventable with vaccines. We aimed to describe the incidence of anal, penile, and oral HPV infection, and to estimate the site-specific transmission probability per partner, for teenage MSM. In our observational cohort study, we enrolled teenage MSM (aged 16-20 years) with low sexual exposure and a low prevalence of HPV in Melbourne (VIC, Australia). At baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months, we took a swab from the anal canal, and participants self-collected a swab from the penis and an oral rinse. Our primary outcome was definite and probable incident HPV infection of the anus, penis, or mouth at any time in the 12 months from baseline, assessed through the presence of HPV DNA. We defined definite incident HPV infection as the same HPV type detected more than once from the same site in men who had a negative HPV test at baseline. We defined probable incident HPV infection as only one positive test. We estimated the probability of HPV transmission per partner using HPV prevalence in MSM with a similar age to partners of men in our cohort. This study is registered at the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry and ClinicalTrials.gov, numbers ACTRN12611000857909 and NCT01422356. We enrolled 200 MSM aged 16-20 years (median 19 years [IRQ 18-20; range 16-20]) between Sept 20, 2010, and Aug 24, 2012. Over the 12 month follow-up period, we detected 48 definite (107 possible) HPV infections in the anus, ten definite (34 possible) HPV infections on the penis, and no definite (six possible) infections in the mouth. Definite incidence rate per 100 person-years for any anal HPV infection was 57 (95% CI 46-68), and for any anal HPV type in the quadrivalent vaccine was 33 (23-44). Definite incidence rate per 100 person-years for any

  14. Frequent detection of human adenovirus from the lower gastrointestinal tract in men who have sex with men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel E Curlin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The association between baseline seropositivity to human adenovirus (HAdV type 5 and increased HIV acquisition in the Step HIV Vaccine Study has raised questions concerning frequency of acquired and/or persistent Adenovirus infections among adults at high risk of HIV-1 infection. METHODOLOGY: To evaluate the frequency and pattern of HAdV shedding from the lower GI tract, we retrospectively tested rectal swabs for HAdVs in a cohort of 20 HSV-2 positive HIV-positive Peruvian men who have sex with men (MSM undergoing rectal swabbing three times/week for 18 consecutive weeks, in a prospective study of HSV-2 suppression in HIV infection. Viral DNA was extracted and amplified using a sensitive multiplex PCR assay that detects all currently recognized HAdV types. Molecular typing of viruses was performed on selected samples by hexon gene sequencing. Baseline neutralizing antibody titers to HAdVs -5, -26, -35 and -48 were also assessed. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 15/20 individuals had HAdV detected during follow up. The median frequency of HAdV detection was 30% of samples (range 2.0% to 64.7%. HAdV shedding typically occurred on consecutive days in clustered episodes lasting a median of 4 days (range 1 to 9 days separated by periods without shedding, suggesting frequent new infections or reactivation of latent infections over time. 8 of the 15 shedders had more than one type detected in follow-up. 20 HAdV types from species B, C, and D were identified, including HAdV-5, -26 and -48, HAdV types under development as potential vaccine candidates. 14/20 subjects were seropositive for HAdV-5; 15/20 for HAdV-26; 3/20 for HAdV-35; and 2/20 for HAdV-48. HAdV shedding did not correlate with CD4 count, plasma HIV-1 viral load, or titers to HAdV-5 or HAdV-35. The sole individual with HAdV-5 shedding was HAdV-5 seropositive. CONCLUSIONS: HAdV shedding was highly prevalent and diverse, including types presently under consideration as HIV vaccine vectors

  15. Sex, age, pubertal development and use of oral contraceptives in relation to serum concentrations of DHEA, DHEAS, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, Δ4-androstenedione, testosterone and their ratios in children, adolescents and young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søeborg, Tue; Frederiksen, Hanne; Mouritsen, Annette

    2014-01-01

    serum samples from healthy children, adolescents and young adults was evaluated. Samples were analyzed by Turboflow-LC-MS/MS. Sex hormone-binding globulin was analyzed by immunoassay. All steroid metabolite concentrations were positively associated with age and pubertal development in both sexes......The influence of sex, age, pubertal development and oral contraceptives on dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), DHEA sulfate (DHEAS), 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), Δ4-androstenedione (Adione), testosterone (T), calculated free testosterone (fT), free androgen index (FAI) and selected ratios in 1798...... to sex, age and pubertal development. Use of oral contraceptives strongly influences adrenal steroidogenesis and should be considered when diagnosing and monitoring treatment of patients with disorders of sex development....

  16. Significance of the Cytological Signs of Human Papillomavirus Infection in Anal Pap Smears of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Japanese Men Who Have Sex with Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okayama, Kaori; Okodo, Mitsuaki; Kitamura, Hiroshi; Itoda, Ichiro

    2017-11-26

    Purpose: The incidence of invasive anal cancer (IAC) has been increasing among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). Although cytological diagnosis is the modality of choice for screening cases of IAC, it is associated with lower sensitivity and specificity. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate new cytological signs of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection that may contribute to improving anal cytology. Methods: Anal cytology and HPV testing were performed using SurePath liquid-based cytology on samples obtained from 37 HIV-positive Japanese MSM. Subsequently, a histological biopsy based on high-resolution anoscopy was performed in MSM with abnormal cytological findings indicative of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) +. Also, anal Papanicolaou (Pap) smears were performed to determine cellularity, presence of dysplastic squamous cells, and other cytological signs of HPV infection. Results: Of the 37 MSM who underwent anal cytology, six tested negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy, three cases exhibited ASC-US, 17 exhibited low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), nine exhibited high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL), and two remained undiagnosed. The anal Pap smears of 28 (96.6%) of the 29 MSM with abnormal cytological findings of ASC-US+ exhibited anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN), as revealed by histological biopsy. The median value (minimum–maximum) of the cellularity of anal Pap smears was 12 (0–70.5) nsc/hpf. In 26 MSM with LSIL and HSIL, the median dysplastic squamous cells count was 14 (2–152) dsc/smear and the cytological sign of HPV infection was 11 (2–71) hpv/smear. Of all anal Pap smears that revealed ASC-US+, 96.6% exhibited cytological signs of HPV infection. Compression-positive binucleated cells were the most prevalent among all cytological signs of HPV infection. Conclusion: For anal cytology, instead of considering a small number of

  17. Sex Headaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseases and Conditions Sex headaches By Mayo Clinic Staff Sex headaches are brought on by sexual activity — especially an orgasm. You may notice ... severe headache just before or during orgasm. Most sex headaches are nothing to worry about. But some ...

  18. Viability of human dental pulp in determination of sex of an individual by identifying srygene through DNA analysis: A single blind pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prachi Ravikant Naik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recognition of importance of human teeth in personal identification has been recognized from time immemorial. In any natural calamity or man-made catastrophe identification of an individual is of paramount importance. Here tooth plays an important role as it is the last one to get affected in a disaster due to its durable nature and good survival rate. This information comes under the aegis of forensic odontology and is of paramount importance from legal and social viewpoints. This analysis uses highly informative genetic markers and can be carried out easily in a typical forensic lab oratory. The SRY gene marker (sex determining region Y is a sex-determining gene on the Y chromosome in the therians (placental mammals and marsupials and this gene marker is considered as a signature gene to differentiate the male from female sex chromosome. The detection of SRY gene in the DNA from a forensic sample can be confirmatory to type the gender as male. This study was taken up to identify the viability of human tooth pulp by identification of SRY gene in gender determination.

  19. Testosterone or 17{beta}-estradiol exposure reveals sex-specific effects on glucose and lipid metabolism in human myotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehzadeh, Firoozeh; Rune, Anna; Osler, Megan; Al-Khalili, Lubna

    2011-08-01

    Changes in sex hormone levels with aging or illness may lead to metabolic disorders. Moreover, the ratio changes in men versus women may have distinct pathological responses. Since little is known about sex hormone action on muscle metabolism, we examined the role of testosterone or 17β-estradiol (E(2)) in metabolism and investigated whether either hormone may mediate a sex-specific effect. Myotubes from postmenopausal women and age-matched male donors were treated with 10 nM testosterone or E(2) for 4 days, and assays were performed to measure metabolic readouts, signal transduction, and mRNA expression. Testosterone and E(2) treatment enhanced insulin-stimulated glucose incorporation into glycogen and AKT phosphorylation in myotubes from female donors, highlighting a sex-specific role of sex hormone in glucose metabolism. Testosterone treatment increased palmitate oxidation in myotubes from both female and male donors, while E(2) enhanced palmitate oxidation in myotubes from male donors only. Testosterone-mediated increase in palmitate oxidation was attenuated at the presence of androgen receptor antagonist, which may indicate a role of nuclear steroid receptor in muscle lipid oxidation. Testosterone treatment increased mRNA expression of the insulin receptor substrate 2 in myotubes from male and female donors, whereas it increased mRNA expression of glycogen synthase 1 only in myotubes from male donors. E(2) treatment increased pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 mRNA expression in myotubes from female donors. Thus, our data suggest that testosterone or E(2) modulates muscle glucose and lipid metabolism and may play a role in metabolism in a sex-dependent manner.

  20. The association between the levels of serum ferritin and sex hormones in a large scale of Chinese male population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenfang Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The ferritin is an important participant of iron-storage but its regulation and related factors were not well defined. The present objective was to explore the potential association between serum ferritin levels and sex hormones. METHODS: 1999 Chinese men in the Fangchenggang Area Male Health and Examination Survey (FAMHES were recruited in this cross-sectional study. Levels of serum ferritin, total testosterone (free testosterone was calculated from the total one, estradiol and sex hormone-binding protein were detected in venous blood samples. The effects of age, BMI, smoking as well as alcohol consumption were analyzed on ferritin levels, respectively, and then the Pearson's correlation analysis was used to evaluate the association between ferritin levels and sex hormones adjusting for the above factors. RESULTS: The age, BMI and alcohol consumption significantly affected serum ferritin levels, but there was no significant difference between smokers and nonsmokers. Ferritin levels were significantly and negatively associated with total testosterone (R = -0.205, P< 0.001, sex hormone-binding protein (R = -0.161, P<0.001 and free testosterone (R = -0.097, P<0.001. After age and alcohol consumption were adjusted, the above associations were still significant (R = -0.200, -0.181 and -0.083, respectively, all P<0.001. However, there was only borderline negative association between ferritin levels and estradiol (adjusted R = -0.039, P = 0.083. CONCLUSION: The large scale of epidemic results showed the significantly negative associations between serum ferritin levels and sex hormones, which may provide more clues to explore the potential regulation and biological mechanism of ferritin.

  1. Insulin-like growth factors, insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 protease, and growth hormone-binding protein in lipodystrophic human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Steen B; Andersen, Ove; Hansen, Birgitte R

    2004-01-01

    -lipodystrophy. These parameters were measured in overnight fasting serum samples from 16 Caucasian males with HIV-lipodystrophy (LIPO) and 15 Caucasian HIV-infected males without lipodystrophy (NONLIPO) matched for age, weight, duration of HIV infection, and antiretroviral therapy. In LIPO, abdominal fat mass and insulin......). In pooled groups, total IGF-I, free IGF-I, total IGF-II, and IGFBP-3, respectively, correlated inversely with age (all P ...(p) = 0.47, P inversely with GHBP in pooled groups (P

  2. Risk-taking by Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in a human-dominated landscape : Effects of sex and reproductive status.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunnefeld, N; Linnell, J.D C; Odden, J; van Duijn, M.A.J.; Andersen, R.A.

    This study aimed to test how the sex and reproductive status of Eurasian lynx influenced their use of 'attractive sinks' - habitats with high prey density and high mortality risks. Locations of 24 Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx were obtained by radio-telemetry in a mixed forest and agricultural habitat in

  3. Sex And People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kenneth L.; And Others

    This textbook for the college student emphasizes human sexuality as a part of the whole human life experience and contains a balance of biological, psychological, and sociological material. In 16 chapters the following topics are covered: (1) sex and society; (2) historical and cultural perspectives; (3) glandular control of sexual physiology; (4)…

  4. Associations between Serum Sex Hormone Concentrations and Whole Blood Gene Expression Profiles in the General Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Haring

    Full Text Available Despite observational evidence from epidemiological and clinical studies associating sex hormones with various cardiometabolic risk factors or diseases, pathophysiological explanations are sparse to date. To reveal putative functional insights, we analyzed associations between sex hormone levels and whole blood gene expression profiles.We used data of 991 individuals from the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-TREND with whole blood gene expression levels determined by array-based transcriptional profiling and serum concentrations of total testosterone (TT, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG, free testosterone (free T, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS, androstenedione (AD, estradiol (E2, and estrone (E1 measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS and immunoassay. Associations between sex hormone concentrations and gene expression profiles were analyzed using sex-specific regression models adjusted for age, body mass index, and technical covariables.In men, positive correlations were detected between AD and DDIT4 mRNA levels, as well as between SHBG and the mRNA levels of RPIA, RIOK3, GYPB, BPGM, and RAB2B. No additional significant associations were observed.Besides the associations between AD and DDIT4 expression and SHBG and the transcript levels of RPIA, RIOK3, GYPB, BPGM, and RAB2B, the present study did not indicate any association between sex hormone concentrations and whole blood gene expression profiles in men and women from the general population.

  5. Human papillomavirus knowledge, vaccine acceptance, and vaccine series completion among female entertainment and sex workers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia: the Young Women's Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhera, Priya; Evans, Jennifer L; Stein, Ellen; Gandhi, Monica; Couture, Marie-Claude; Sansothy, Neth; Sichan, Keo; Maher, Lisa; Kaldor, John; Page, Kimberly; Kien

    2015-10-01

    Human papillomavirus is a common sexually transmitted infection and the causative agent for cervical cancer, a frequently occurring malignant disease among women in developing countries. We assessed human papillomavirus awareness prior to the delivery of a brief information and education intervention, and human papillomavirus vaccine provision to female entertainment and sex workers (N = 220). At baseline, only 23.6% of women had heard of human papillomavirus. Following the educational intervention, 90% answered all the human papillomavirus knowledge questions correctly. Of 192 participants attending the first quarterly cohort visit where vaccine was offered, 149 (78%) were eligible for vaccination; HIV-positive (n = 32) and pregnant (n = 11) women were excluded. Acceptance of vaccine among eligible women was universal, and 79.2% completed the three-dose vaccination series. Women who reported use of amphetamine-type stimulants had significantly and independently lower odds of vaccine completion (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.24; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.08, 0.69). New pregnancies also had an impact on vaccine completion: 5.4% (8/149 5.4%) who started the series had to stop due to new pregnancy. Results demonstrate the effectiveness of a simple education intervention designed to increase human papillomavirus knowledge and the feasibility of successful human papillomavirus vaccine in a population that is often difficult to engage in preventive health care. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Knowledge and exercise of human rights, and barriers and facilitators to claiming rights: a cross-sectional study of female sex workers and high-risk men who have sex with men in Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganju, Deepika; Patel, Sangram Kishor; Prabhakar, Parimi; Adhikary, Rajatashurva

    2016-11-17

    HIV prevention interventions recognize the need to protect the rights of key populations and support them to claim their rights as a vulnerability reduction strategy. This study explores knowledge of human rights, and barriers and facilitators to claiming rights, among female sex workers (FSWs) and high-risk men who have sex with men (HR-MSM) who are beneficiaries of a community mobilization intervention in Andhra Pradesh, India. Data are drawn from a cross-sectional survey (2014) among 2400 FSWs and 1200 HR-MSM. Human rights awareness was assessed by asking respondents if they had heard of human rights (yes/no); those reporting awareness of rights were asked to spontaneously name specific rights from the following five pre-defined categories: right to health; dignity/equality; education; property; and freedom from discrimination. Respondents were classified into two groups: more knowledgeable (could identify two or more rights) and less knowledgeable (could identify one or no right). Univariate and bivariate analyses and chi-square tests were used. Data were analyzed using STATA 11.2. Overall 17% FSWs and 8% HR-MSM were not aware of their rights. Among those aware, 62% and 31% respectively were aware of just one or no right (less knowledgeable); only around half (54% vs 57%) were aware of health rights, and fewer (20% vs 16%) aware of their right to freedom from discrimination. Notably, 27% and 17% respectively had not exercised their rights. Barriers to claiming rights among FSWs and HR-MSM were neighbors (35% vs 37%), lack of knowledge (15% vs 14%), stigma (13% vs 22%) and spouse (19% FSWs). Community organizations (COs) were by far the leading facilitator in claiming rights (57% vs 72%). The study findings show that awareness of human rights is limited among FSWs and HR-MSM, and a large proportion have not claimed their rights, elevating their HIV vulnerability. For a sustained HIV response, community mobilization efforts must focus on building key populations

  7. Sex-specific association of the human PTPN22 1858T-allele with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, C; Hansen, D; Husby, S

    2007-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a common organ-specific autoimmune disease of complex aetiology, involving the interaction of a large number of disease-associated genes. By comparison of a Danish population sample of 253 Caucasian children and adolescents with T1D and a control group consisted of 354...... of the risk allele and its association with age at onset in female T1D children and adolescents indicates that the genetic contribution to disease pathogenesis is more prominent in females in this population of Danish patients Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Sep...... unrelated healthy blood donors, the present study provides evidence of an isolated association of the disease-associated PTPN22 1858T-allele with T1D to the female sex. Furthermore, the present data suggest that PTPN22 genotypes affect the age of onset in a sex-specific manner. The increased frequency...

  8. Similar mechanisms of traumatic rectal injuries in patients who had anal sex with animals to those who were butt-fisted by human sexual partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendler, Damian Jacob

    2017-10-01

    Sexual pleasure comes in various forms of physical play, for many it involves stimulation of the vagina, while the anus for others; some enjoy both. A recent report by Cappelletti et al. 1 shows a meta-analysis of cases describing anal trauma due to sexual fisting in human partners. This clinical article reports four cases of males diagnosed with zoophilia, and who received anal sex from animals, resulting in injuries. Surgical and psychiatric evaluations are summarized. Unusual etiology of sexual activity with animals caused peri-anal trauma in men who engaged in anal sex with dogs and farm animals. Injuries to patients who receive anal sex from animals are mechanistically similar to fisting-induced rectal damage. Among zoophiles, the mode of harm occurs through blood-engorged, interlocked penis that causes tissue lacerations upon retraction from an anus. In people experimenting with fisting, repetitive stretching within anal canal and of external sphincter causes the internal injuries. The mode of physical stimulation explains the extent of injuries in fisters vs. zoophiles: in fisting, the pressure applied by hand is controllable proximally around and within anal sphincter, while penetration by the animal penis is unpredictable and occurs within the proximal anal canal. Forensically, the findings presented in this article describe a significant mechanism of injury in fisters versus passive zoophiles. These descriptions may aid in clinically differentiating pleasurable and pathological rectal stimulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  9. Gonococcal cervicitis is associated with reduced systemic CD8+ T cell responses in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected and exposed, uninfected sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Rupert; Rowland-Jones, Sarah L; Gillespie, Geraldine; Kimani, Joshua; Dong, Tao; Kiama, Peter; Simonsen, J Neil; Bwayo, Job J; McMichael, Andrew J; Plummer, Francis A

    2002-05-15

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae cervicitis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 frequently coinfect core transmitter populations, such as female sex workers. Gonococcal cervicitis is associated with increased viral shedding and plasma viremia in HIV-1-infected women and increased HIV-1 susceptibility in uninfected women. We studied the influence of gonococcal cervicitis on CD8(+) interferon (IFN)-gamma responses to HIV-1 and cytomegalovirus (CMV) epitopes in HIV-1-infected and in highly-exposed, persistently seronegative (HEPS) female sex workers. In HIV-1-infected women, gonococcal cervicitis was associated with reduced IFN-gamma responses in bulk CD8(+) lymphocyte populations, and intracellular cytokine staining, combined with class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-peptide tetramer studies, demonstrated reduced IFN-gamma production by HIV-1 epitope-specific CD8(+) lymphocytes. In HEPS sex workers, cervicitis was associated with the transient loss of systemic HIV-1-specific CD8(+) responses and with reduced function of CMV-specific CD8(+) lymphocytes. Impaired function of virus-specific CD8(+) lymphocytes may partly explain the deleterious effects of gonococcal cervicitis on HIV-1 immune control and susceptibility.

  10. Human T-lymphotropic virus-1/2 detected in drug abused men who have sex with men in Surakarta Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, Afiono Agung; Sari, Yulia

    2017-02-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2 (HTLV-1/2) are retroviruses that probably among the most neglected blood-borne pathogens. The molecular epidemiology data of HTLV-1/2 in Indonesia is very rare. This study evaluated the prevalence of HTLV-1 and 2 in men who have sex with men with drug abused history in Surakarta Indonesia, to track the presentation of HTLV-1/2 in Indonesia. All blood samples collected from men who have sex with men with drug abused history in Surakarta in 2009-2013 were tested using enzyme linked immunosorbent assays and confirmed by RT-PCR nested addressed the part of HTLV-1 LTR and HTLV-2 LTR region, respectively. The specificity of the molecular assays was confirmed by sequencing the amplicons. The anti HTLV-1/2 positive rate was 4.8% (6/126). All positive serological samples were confirmed by nested RT-PCR. Of these, two was HTLV-1 positive and four was HTLV-2 positive. Molecular analysis of positive PCR products revealed that all HTLV-1 isolate had close relationship with HTLV-1 isolated in Japan while all HTLV-2 isolate with that of isolated in USA. HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 were detected in men who have sex with men with drug abused history in Surakarta indicated that these viruses were circulated in Indonesia, especially in the high risk communities

  11. Exercise, sex, menstrual cycle phase, and 17beta-estradiol influence metabolism-related genes in human skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Ming-hua H; Maher, Amy C; Hamadeh, Mazen J; Ye, Changhua; Tarnopolsky, Mark A

    2009-12-30

    Higher fat and lower carbohydrate and amino acid oxidation are observed in women compared with men during endurance exercise. We hypothesized that the observed sex difference is due to estrogen and that menstrual cycle phase or supplementation of men with 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) would coordinately influence the mRNA content of genes involved in lipid and/or carbohydrate metabolism in skeletal muscle. Twelve men and twelve women had muscle biopsies taken before and immediately after 90 min of cycling at 65% peak oxygen consumption (Vo(2peak)). Women were studied in the midfollicular (Fol) and midluteal (Lut) phases, and men were studied after 8 days of E(2) or placebo supplementation. Targeted RT-PCR was used to compare mRNA content for genes involved in transcriptional regulation and lipid, carbohydrate, and amino acid metabolism. Sex was the greatest predictor of substrate metabolism gene content. Sex affected the mRNA content of FATm, FABPc, SREBP-1c, mtGPAT, PPARdelta, PPARalpha, CPTI, TFP-alpha, GLUT4, HKII, PFK, and BCOADK (P Menstrual cycle had a small effect on PPARdelta, GP, and glycogenin mRNA content. Overall, women have greater mRNA content for several genes involved in lipid metabolism, which is partially due to an effect of E(2).

  12. Genetic variations in FSH action affect sex hormone levels and breast tissue size in infant girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Louise Scheutz; Hagen, Casper P; Assens, Maria

    2016-01-01

    , especially FSHR -29G>A and FSHR 2039A>G, affect female hormone profile and glandular breast tissue development already during minipuberty. Thus, genetic variations of FSH signaling appear to determine the individual set point of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis already early in life.......Context: Single nucleotide polymorphisms altering FSH action (FSHB -211G>T, FSHR -29G>A, and FSHR 2039A>G) are associated with peripubertal and adult levels of reproductive hormones and age at pubertal onset in girls. Objective: To investigate whether genetic polymorphisms altering FSH action...... by PCR using Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR genotyping assays; identification of glandular breast tissue by palpation and measurement of the diameter. Serum levels of anti-Müllerian hormone, FSH, LH, estradiol, inhibin B, and sex hormone-binding globulin were assessed by immunoassays. Results: FSHR -29G...

  13. The influence of sex, race, and age on pain assessment and treatment decisions using virtual human technology: a cross-national comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres CA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Calia A Torres,1 Emily J Bartley,1 Laura D Wandner,1 Ashraf F Alqudah,2 Adam T Hirsh,3 Michael E Robinson11Department of Clinical and Health Psychology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA; 2Department of Psychology, The University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan; 3Department of Psychology, Indiana University–Purdue University, Indianapolis, IN, USAPurpose: Studies in the United States have found that patients' sex, race, and age influence the pain assessment and treatment decisions of laypeople and medical professionals. However, there is limited research as to whether people of other nationalities make pain management decisions differently based on demographic characteristics. Therefore, the purpose of the following study was to compare pain assessment and treatment decisions of undergraduate students in Jordan and the United States as a preliminary examination of nationality as a potential proxy for cultural differences in pain decisions.Methods: Virtual human (VH technology was used to examine the influences of patients' sex (male or female, race (light-skinned or dark-skinned, and age (younger or older on students' pain management decisions. Seventy-five American and 104 Jordanian undergraduate students participated in this web-based study.Results: American and Jordanian students rated pain intensity higher in females and older adults and were more likely to recommend medical help to these groups, relative to males and younger adults. Furthermore, Jordanian participants rated pain intensity higher and were more likely to recommend medical help for all patient demographic groups (ie, sex, race, age than American participants.Conclusion: This is the first cross-national study that compares pain decisions between undergraduate students. The results suggest that sex, race, and age cues are used in pain assessment and treatment by both Americans and Jordanians, with Jordanians more likely to rate pain higher and recommend medical help to

  14. Sex differences in early-life programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in humans suggest increased vulnerability in females: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, T; Grecian, S M; Reynolds, R M

    2017-04-01

    Fetal glucocorticoid overexposure is a key mechanism linking early development with later-life disease. In humans, low birth weight associates with increased fasting cortisol, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity, and with cardiovascular risk and cognitive decline. As there are sex differences in these adult diseases, we hypothesized that there may be sex differences in programming of the HPA axis in response to prenatal stressors. We conducted a systematic review following Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis. We searched Embase, MEDLINE and Web of Science from inception to 31 October 2016. We included studies related to sex differences, prenatal exposures and HPA axis. We excluded studies investigating specific disease states. The 23 included studies investigated the consequences of low birth weight, preterm birth and maternal stressors of asthma, psychosocial stress and glucocorticoid medications on HPA axis outcomes of placental glucocorticoid biology and offspring HPA axis function in early life and later life. Female offspring exposed to stressors had increased HPA axis reactivity compared with males. Furthermore, the female placenta increased its permeability to maternal glucocorticoids following maternal stress with changes in the expression of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzymes in response to maternal glucocorticoid exposure or asthma. Among males there was some evidence of altered diurnal cortisol secretion. We conclude that although there is some evidence of male vulnerability leading to altered diurnal cortisol secretion, the female HPA axis is more vulnerable to programming, particularly in terms of its reactivity; this suggests a mechanism underlying sex differences in later-life diseases.

  15. Monitoring for Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Impact Among Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men Who Have Sex With Men-United States, 2012-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meites, Elissa; Gorbach, Pamina M; Gratzer, Beau; Panicker, Gitika; Steinau, Martin; Collins, Tom; Parrish, Adam; Randel, Cody; McGrath, Mark; Carrasco, Steven; Moore, Janell; Zaidi, Akbar; Braxton, Jim; Kerndt, Peter R; Unger, Elizabeth R; Crosby, Richard A; Markowitz, Lauri E

    2016-09-01

    Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk for human papillomavirus (HPV) infection; vaccination is recommended for US males, including MSM through age 26 years. We assessed evidence of HPV among vaccine-eligible MSM and transgender women to monitor vaccine impact. During 2012-2014, MSM aged 18-26 years at select clinics completed a computer-assisted self-interview regarding sexual behavior, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status, and vaccinations. Self-collected anal swab and oral rinse specimens were tested for HPV DNA (37 types) by L1 consensus polymerase chain reaction; serum was tested for HPV antibodies (4 types) by a multiplexed virus-like particle-based immunoglobulin G direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Among 922 vaccine-eligible participants, the mean age was 23 years, and the mean number of lifetime sex partners was 37. Among 834 without HIV infection, any anal HPV was detected in 69.4% and any oral HPV in 8.4%, yet only 8.5% had evidence of exposure to all quadrivalent vaccine types. In multivariate analysis, HPV prevalence varied significantly (P sex partners, but not by race/ethnicity. Most young MSM lacked evidence of current or past infection with all vaccine-type HPV types, suggesting that they could benefit from vaccination. The impact of vaccination among MSM may be assessed by monitoring HPV prevalence, including in self-collected specimens. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  16. Sex Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Susan

    1991-01-01

    This paper on the problem of sex offending among individuals with intellectual disabilities examines the incidence of this problem, characteristics of intellectually disabled sex offenders, determination of whether the behavior is a paraphilia or functional age-related behavior, and treatment options, with emphasis on the situation in New South…

  17. Sex Stereotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Richard G.

    This article uses findings from several previous studies to define the kinds of sex stereotyping present in our society. The author considers sex roles as dealt with in children's literature, public schools, advertising, and vocational counseling. He describes, in particular, the situation at an unnamed state university, and cites the woman's…

  18. BMI, RQ, Diabetes, and Sex Affect the Relationships Between Amino Acids and Clamp Measures of Insulin Action in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalacker-Mercer, Anna E.; Ingram, Katherine H.; Guo, Fangjian; Ilkayeva, Olga; Newgard, Christopher B.; Garvey, W. Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have used indirect measures of insulin sensitivity to link circulating amino acids with insulin resistance and identify potential biomarkers of diabetes risk. Using direct measures (i.e., hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps), we examined the relationships between the metabolomic amino acid profile and insulin action (i.e., glucose disposal rate [GDR]). Relationships between GDR and serum amino acids were determined among insulin-sensitive, insulin-resistant, and type 2 diabetic (T2DM) individuals. In all subjects, glycine (Gly) had the strongest correlation with GDR (positive association), followed by leucine/isoleucine (Leu/Ile) (negative association). These relationships were dramatically influenced by BMI, the resting respiratory quotient (RQ), T2DM, and sex. Gly had a strong positive correlation with GDR regardless of BMI, RQ, or sex but became nonsignificant in T2DM. In contrast, Leu/Ile was negatively associated with GDR in nonobese and T2DM subjects. Increased resting fat metabolism (i.e., low RQ) and obesity were observed to independently promote and negate the association between Leu/Ile and insulin resistance, respectively. Additionally, the relationship between Leu/Ile and GDR was magnified in T2DM males. Future studies are needed to determine whether Gly has a mechanistic role in glucose homeostasis and whether dietary Gly enrichment may be an effective intervention in diseases characterized by insulin resistance. PMID:24130332

  19. [Diagnostics of the human sex from the somatometric features in the cases of large-scale catastrophes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigor'eva, M A; Anushkina, E S

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to develop the models for sex diagnostics based on the results of measurement of the wrist and its separate parts. It was shown that the best results are obtained using the size of the palm and finger III (from 87.9 to 93% of correct results). The measurement of finger III makes it possible to correctly determine the sex in 90% of the cases. At the same time, the incorrect identification of the sequential number of this finger more frequently results in erroneous diagnostics. The measurement of finger V is of the lowest informative value (73.7% of the correct results). Therefore, the use of its measurements is of a tentative value. When the sequential number of fingers II or IV is uncertain, both models can be used on equal terms without an appreciable loss of accuracy of the classification. The verification of the above models by means of comparison of the data obtained with those from the control group has demonstrated the high accuracy of the classification similar with that of the theoretical model.

  20. Safe sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, G; Ghosh, T K

    1994-01-01

    The main objectives of health care for people with AIDS are to help them adjust to changing sexual status and to provide them with information on safe sex. Sections consider the risks of various types of sexual activity and safe sex education. With regard to the risk of transmitting or contracting HIV, sexual activities may be high risk, medium risk, low risk, or no risk. High-risk activities include unprotected anal or vaginal intercourse, oral-anal sexual contact, sharing sex toys, and traumatic sexual activity. Medium-risk activities include anal and vaginal intercourse using a latex condom with or without spermicide, and sex using a vaginal diaphragm or contraceptive vaginal sponge. Oral sex on a woman or oral sex on a man without ejaculation into the mouth are low-risk activities. Mutual masturbation, erotic touching, caressing and massage, kissing and non-genital licking pose no risk of infection. All general practitioners and family physicians should teach about safe sex. Prevention messages may be conveyed through individual and social counseling as well as with printed media and other forms of mass media. Messages should definitely reach prostitutes and brothel owners, as well as pre-pubertal children and older youths.

  1. Sex-dependent genetic markers of CYP3A4 expression and activity in human liver microsomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmer, Markus; Rosenberger, Albert; Klein, Kathrin; Kulle, Bettina; Toliat, Mohammad R; Nürnberg, Peter; Zanger, Ulrich M; Wojnowski, Leszek

    2007-05-01

    To find genetic markers of the individual cytochrome P450 (CYP)3A expression. A large collection of liver samples phenotyped for CYP3A expression and activity was genotyped for CYP3A variants. Data were analyzed for associations between CYP3A phenotypes and genotypes, and for evidence of recent selection. We report associations between the hepatic CYP3A4 protein expression level, as well as its enzymatic activity, measured as verapamil N-dealkylation, and genetic polymorphisms from two regions within the CYP3A gene cluster. One region is defined by several variants, mostly located within CYP3A7, the other by a single nucleotide polymorphism in intron 7 of CYP3A4. The effects of these single nucleotide polymorphisms are sex-dependent. For example, female carriers of T alleles of the single nucleotide polymorphism rs4646437C>T in CYP3A4 intron 7 have, respectively, 5.1-fold and 2.7-fold higher expression and activity compared with male T-carriers, but only 2.2-fold and 1.4-fold higher expression and activity compared with males of genotype CC. A regression analysis indicates that the impact of these single nucleotide polymorphisms in men goes beyond the previously reported sex effect. The rs4646437C undergoes positive selection in Caucasians, as evidenced by its relative extended haplotype homozygosity value located within the uppermost percentile of a genome-wide test set of haplotypes in the same 5% frequency bin. Our findings reconcile the apparent contradiction between the evidence for the influence of the individual genetic makeup on CYP3A4 expression and activity suggested by clinical studies, and the failure to identify the responsible gene variants.

  2. Human Rights Violations among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Southern Africa: Comparisons between Legal Contexts: e0147156

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ryan Zahn; Ashley Grosso; Andrew Scheibe; Linda-Gail Bekker; Sosthenes Ketende; Friedel Dausab; Scholastica Iipinge; Chris Beyrer; Gift Trapance; Stefan Baral

    2016-01-01

    ...; Blantyre and Lilongwe, Malawi; and Windhoek, Namibia. In 2008, 737 MSM participated in a cross-sectional study using a structured survey collecting data regarding demographics, human rights, HIV status, and risk behavior...

  3. Human Rights Violations among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Southern Africa: Comparisons between Legal Contexts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zahn, Ryan; Grosso, Ashley; Scheibe, Andrew; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Ketende, Sosthenes; Dausab, Friedel; Iipinge, Scholastica; Beyrer, Chris; Trapance, Gift; Baral, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    ...; Blantyre and Lilongwe, Malawi; and Windhoek, Namibia. In 2008, 737 MSM participated in a cross-sectional study using a structured survey collecting data regarding demographics, human rights, HIV status, and risk behavior...

  4. Ageratum conyzoides L. inhibits 5-alpha-reductase gene expression in human prostate cells and reduces symptoms of benign prostatic hypertrophy in otherwise healthy men in a double blind randomized placebo controlled clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detering, Matthew; Steels, Elizabeth; Koyyalamudi, Sundar Rao; Allifranchini, Elena; Bocchietto, Elena; Vitetta, Luis

    2017-10-19

    A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial assessed the efficacy and safety of Ageratum conyzoides in treating benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH). In this study, 109 men with medically diagnosed BPH, aged 41-76 years, were administered the investigational product, A. conyzoides extract at a dose of 250 mg/d or placebo, q.d. for 12 weeks. The primary outcome measures were the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), daily urinary frequency and safety evaluations. The secondary outcome measures were testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, oestradiol, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) and cortisol levels, and prostate specific antigen (PSA), lipids, blood glucose, the Aging Male's Symptom (AMS) Score and sexual function assessed by Derogatis Interview for Sexual Functioning-Self Report (DISF-SR). The effect of A. conyzoides L extract on gene expression of 5-alpha-reductase in human prostate cells was also investigated to elucidate a potential mechanism of action. The clinical study, showed a significant reduction in total IPSS score (p prostate epithelial cells. The overall results indicate that A. conyzoides may be an effective treatment for reducing symptoms of BPH in healthy men, in part, through inhibition of 5-alpha-reductase enzyme activity. © 2017 BioFactors, 2017. © 2017 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  5. Sex Headaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Jan. 23, 2015. Sex headaches Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. Advertising revenue supports our not-for-profit mission. Advertising & ...

  6. Unexpectedly high prevalence of Treponema pallidum infection in the oral cavity of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with early syphilis who had engaged in unprotected sex practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C-J; Chang, S-Y; Wu, B-R; Yang, S-P; Liu, W-C; Wu, P-Y; Zhang, J-Y; Luo, Y-Z; Hung, C-C; Chang, S-C

    2015-08-01

    Between 2010 and 2014, we obtained swab specimens to detect Treponema pallidum, with PCR assays, from the oral cavities of 240 patients with 267 episodes of syphilis who reported engaging in unprotected sex practices. The detected treponemal DNA was subjected to genotyping. All of the syphilis cases occurred in men who have sex with men (MSM), and 242 (90.6%) occurred in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. The stages of syphilis included 38 cases (14.2%) of primary syphilis of the genital region, 76 (28.5%) of secondary syphilis, 21 (7.9%) of primary and secondary syphilis, 125 (46.8%) of early latent syphilis, and seven (2.6%) others. Concurrent oral ulcers were identified in 22 cases (8.2%). Treponemal DNA was identified from the swabs of 113 patients (42.2%), including 15 (68.2%) with oral ulcers. The most common genotype of T. pallidum was 14f/f. The presence of oral ulcers was associated with identification of T. pallidum in the swab specimens (15/22 (68.2%) vs. 98/245 (40.0%)) (p = 0.01). In multivariate analysis, secondary syphilis (adjusted OR 6.79; 95% CI 1.97-23.28) and rapid plasma reagin (RPR) titres of ≥1: 32 (adjusted OR 2.23; 95% CI 1.02-4.89) were independently associated with the presence of treponemal DNA in patients without oral ulcers. We conclude that detection of treponemal DNA in the oral cavity with PCR assays is not uncommon in MSM, most of whom reported having unprotected oral sex. Although the presence of oral ulcers is significantly associated with detection of treponemal DNA, treponemal DNA is more likely to be identified in patients without oral ulcers who present with secondary syphilis and RPR titres of ≥1: 32. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) concentrations during the late first trimester are associated with fetal growth in a fetal sex-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barjaktarovic, Mirjana; Korevaar, Tim I M; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; de Rijke, Yolanda B; Visser, Theo J; Peeters, Robin P; Steegers, Eric A P

    2017-02-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a pregnancy-specific hormone that regulates placental development. hCG concentrations vary widely throughout gestation and differ based on fetal sex. Abnormal hCG concentrations are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes including fetal growth restriction. We studied the association of hCG concentrations with fetal growth and birth weight. In addition, we investigated effect modification by gestational age of hCG measurement and fetal sex. Total serum hCG (median 14.4 weeks, 95 % range 10.1-26.2), estimated fetal weight (measured by ultrasound during 18-25th weeks and >25th weeks) and birth weight were measured in 7987 mother-child pairs from the Generation R cohort and used to establish fetal growth. Small for gestational age (SGA) was defined as a standardized birth weight lower than the 10th percentile of the study population. There was a non-linear association of hCG with birth weight (P = 0.009). However, only low hCG concentrations measured during the late first trimester (11th and 12th week) were associated with birth weight and SGA. Low hCG concentrations measured in the late first trimester were also associated with decreased fetal growth (P = 0.0002). This was the case for both male and female fetuses. In contrast, high hCG concentrations during the late first trimester were associated with increased fetal growth amongst female, but not male fetuses. Low hCG in the late first trimester is associated with lower birth weight due to a decrease in fetal growth. Fetal sex differences exist in the association of hCG concentrations with fetal growth.

  8. Why Sex?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus

    2006-01-01

    It is assumed that most organisms have sex because the resulting genetic recombination allows Darwinian selection to work better. It is now shown that in water fleas, recombination does lead to fewer deleterious mutations.......It is assumed that most organisms have sex because the resulting genetic recombination allows Darwinian selection to work better. It is now shown that in water fleas, recombination does lead to fewer deleterious mutations....

  9. Sex, Deportation and Rescue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plambech, Sine

    2017-01-01

    – facilitation, remittances, deportation, and rescue – and suggests that we have to examine multiple sites and relink these in order to more fully understand the complexity of sex work migration. Drawing upon literature within transnational feminist analysis, critical human trafficking studies, and migration...

  10. Sex education in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frade, A; Vilar, D

    1991-05-01

    The article on sex education in Portugal covers background, the educational system, the clashes of the 1960's over sex education, the Committee for the Study of Sexuality and Education (CSSE), the policies, politics and social movements during the period 1974 - 1984, the discussions in Parliament, the 1988 Reform of the Educational System, the Family Planning Association (FPA) and sex education, and the future role of the FPA. It was not until the institution of the multiparity parliamentary system in 1974 that discussing social and political changes was possible, culminating in 1984 with new legislation on abortion, family planning, and sex education. School reform came in 1987/8 with the Ministry of Education primarily responsible for curricula. The 1960's brought with it the influence of the Catholic Church. Change came in the form of progressivism among Catholics who replaced dogma with dialogue and listening. Sex education was considered as preparation for marriage, but masturbation, contraception, and prostitution were also discussed. In addition, the founder of FPA chaired the CSSE in 1971 and opened up debate on sex issues and drafted a bill to establish co-education in Portuguese schools. The revolution of 1974 brought an end to censorship and brought forth a policy of developing family planning. Changed in the Family Code gave women greater equality. UNFPA supported teacher training in non-sexist education. With human reproduction included in the natural sciences, there was still no school sex education policy and contraception was only sometimes represented in the biology curriculum. The focus of FPA was on contraception and abortion. Finally in the 1980's, the first sex education programs were developed for out-of-school youth. Even though in the 1970's there were leftists groups promoting sex education, it took leftist parliamentary power to get legislation on sex education in the schools adopted. The Ministry of Education however was pressured by the

  11. Mothers' intentions to vaccinate their teenaged children against human papillomavirus, as predicted by sex in South Korea: An application of the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Mi; Choi, Jeong Sil

    2017-10-01

    This study was conducted in order to examine the intention of mothers to vaccinate their teenaged children against human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, according to the children's sex. Based on the theory of planned behavior, the study identified the sex-specific predictors of mothers' intention to vaccinate their teenaged children against HPV. This was a descriptive survey study that included, as participants, 200 mothers whose teenaged children were not vaccinated against HPV. The mothers' experience with HPV vaccination was a significant predictor of their childrens' HPV vaccination status. For the mothers of sons, subjective norms, attitudes, and perceived behavioral control were found to be significant predictors of intention of HPV vaccination, with an explanatory power of 69.5%. For those with daughters, only attitudes and subjective norms were significant predictors, with an explanatory power of 79.6%. The application of the theory of planned behavior is an effective method to determine the predictors of children's HPV vaccination status. In order to improve the HPV vaccination rate of teenaged children, strategies for education and effective promotion that involve mothers should be developed. © 2016 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  12. Sex Hormones in Allergic Conjunctivitis: Altered Levels of Circulating Androgens and Estrogens in Children and Adolescents with Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Sacchetti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC is a chronic allergic disease mainly affecting boys in prepubertal age and usually recovering after puberty. To evaluate a possible role of sex hormones in VKC, serum levels of sex hormones in children and adolescents with VKC were assessed. Methods. 12 prepubertal and 7 early pubertal boys with active VKC and 6 male patients with VKC in remission phase at late pubertal age and 48 healthy age and sex-matched subjects were included. Serum concentration of estrone, 17 beta-estradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate, total testosterone and free testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT, cortisol, delta-4-androstenedione, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and sex-hormones binding globuline (SHBG were evaluated. Results. Serum levels of Estrone were significantly increased in all groups of patients with VKC when compared to healthy controls (P<0.001. Prepubertal and early pubertal VKC showed a significant decrease in DHT (P=0.007 and P=0.028, resp. and SHBG (P=0.01 and P=0.002, resp. when compared to controls and serum levels of SHBG were increased in late pubertal VKC in remission phase (P=0.007. Conclusions and Relevance. VKC patients have different circulating sex hormone levels in different phases of the disease and when compared to nonallergic subjects. These findings suggest a role played by sex hormones in the pathogenesis and/or activity of VKC.

  13. Sex hormones in allergic conjunctivitis: altered levels of circulating androgens and estrogens in children and adolescents with vernal keratoconjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchetti, Marta; Lambiase, Alessandro; Moretti, Costanzo; Mantelli, Flavio; Bonini, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) is a chronic allergic disease mainly affecting boys in prepubertal age and usually recovering after puberty. To evaluate a possible role of sex hormones in VKC, serum levels of sex hormones in children and adolescents with VKC were assessed. 12 prepubertal and 7 early pubertal boys with active VKC and 6 male patients with VKC in remission phase at late pubertal age and 48 healthy age and sex-matched subjects were included. Serum concentration of estrone, 17 beta-estradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate, total testosterone and free testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), cortisol, delta-4-androstenedione, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and sex-hormones binding globuline (SHBG) were evaluated. Serum levels of Estrone were significantly increased in all groups of patients with VKC when compared to healthy controls (P < 0.001). Prepubertal and early pubertal VKC showed a significant decrease in DHT (P = 0.007 and P = 0.028, resp.) and SHBG (P = 0.01 and P = 0.002, resp.) when compared to controls and serum levels of SHBG were increased in late pubertal VKC in remission phase (P = 0.007). VKC patients have different circulating sex hormone levels in different phases of the disease and when compared to nonallergic subjects. These findings suggest a role played by sex hormones in the pathogenesis and/or activity of VKC.

  14. Spatial distribution of human neocortical neurons and glial cells according to sex and age measured by the saucer method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stark, Anette Kirstine; Petersen, A O; Gardi, Jonathan Eyal

    2007-01-01

    primary neurons in the human neocortex (divided into frontal-, temporal-, parietal- and occipital cortex) of young and old subjects free of neurological or psychological disease to test if age and gender has any influence on the cell distribution in human neocortex. Plots of the spatial distribution...... of the densities of all cell types did not show any difference between women and men and no difference between brains of young and old subjects. Thus it is concluded that in this small study the spatial distribution of the densities of the different types of cells in brains from individuals free of neurological...... disorders was independent of age and gender....

  15. Effect of oral testosterone treatment on serum concentrations of sex steroids gonadotrophins and prolactin in alcoholic cirrhotic men. Copenhagen Study Group for Liver Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Bennett, Patrick; Svenstrup, Bo

    1988-01-01

    = 8), hormone concentrations at follow-up were not significantly different from those at entry apart from a significant (P less than 0.05) increase in FSH concentrations. Median concentrations of testosterone, oestrone, and oestrone sulphate increased significantly (P less than 0......The aim of this study was to examine the serum concentrations of sex steroids and pituitary hormones in a randomly selected group of alcoholic cirrhotic men participating in a randomized, placebo-controlled study on the efficacy of oral testosterone treatment on the liver. Before treatment......, patients (n = 25) had median serum concentrations of testosterone, oestradiol, non-protein bound oestradiol, non-sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) bound oestradiol and oestrone sulphate which did not differ significantly from those of healthy controls (n = 16), but the patients had significantly (P less...

  16. Captured ‘Realities’ of Human Trafficking: Analysis of photographs illustrating stories on trafficking into the sex industry in Serbian media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Krsmanovic

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Past research has looked at how the media frames human trafficking, but has seldom included analysis of visual representations. To bridge this gap, this paper scrutinises stereotypical representations of persons trafficked into the sex industry in photographs published in Serbian online media from 2011 to 2014. To uncover characteristics of dominant tropes in this sample, a method of semiotic analysis is applied. The analysis argues that images are dominated by portrayals of trafficked persons that fit into one of two frames: powerless victim or unworthy prostitute. Male figures are rarely presented in these photographs, but when present, they are shown to hurt or control the women depicted alongside them. Chains, padlocks, barcodes, whip marks, and other symbols associated with slavery are present to a lesser extent. However, they testify to the tendency to link human trafficking to slavery and to use the moral potential of the anti-slavery rhetoric. Photographs are too easily seen as authentic, factual transcripts of reality. This paper suggests that these images tell us more about societal fear of insecurity, ideas about gender, erotic obsessions and morality than about human trafficking itself. It also argues that the meaning of trafficking is shaped by the deeply embedded codes of patriarchy and hidden misogyny present in Serbian society.

  17. HIV epidemic and human rights among men who have sex with men in sub-Saharan Africa: Implications for HIV prevention, care, and surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abara, Winston E; Garba, Ibrahim

    2017-04-01

    Recent research has presented evidence that men who have sex with men (MSM) bear a disproportionate burden of HIV and are at increased risk for HIV in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). However, many countries in SSA have failed to address the needs of MSM in national HIV/AIDS programmes. Furthermore, many MSM face structural barriers to HIV prevention and care, the most significant of which include laws that criminalise male-to-male sexual contact and facilitate stigma and discrimination. This in turn increases the vulnerability of MSM to acquiring HIV and presents barriers to HIV prevention, care, and surveillance. This relationship illustrates the link between human rights, social justice, and health outcomes and presents considerable challenges to addressing the HIV epidemic among MSM in SSA. The response to the HIV epidemic in SSA requires a non-discriminatory human rights approach to all at-risk groups, including MSM. Existing international human rights treaties, to which many SSA countries are signatories, and a 'health in all policies' approach provides a strong basis to reduce structural barriers to HIV prevention, care, surveillance, and research, and to ensure that all populations in SSA, including MSM, have access to the full range of rights that help ensure equal opportunities for health and wellness.

  18. Human rights and universal access for men who have sex with men and people who inject drugs: a qualitative analysis of the 2010 UNGASS narrative country progress reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Asha; Ellard, Jeanne; Newman, Christy; Holt, Martin; de Wit, John

    2011-08-01

    All UN member states have endorsed a commitment to protect human rights in the global fight against HIV and to ensure universal access to HIV prevention, treatment, care, and support. To assess progress towards fulfilling this commitment, countries submit reports to UNAIDS biennially, known as UNGASS reports. Our quantitative analyses show that core indicators relating to most-at-risk populations, particularly men who have sex with men (MSM) and people who inject drugs (PWID) are limited or absent from many UNGASS reports, particularly those submitted by countries in developing regions. We conducted a qualitative thematic analysis of the narrative part of the 2010 UNGASS country progress reports, an important yet under-explored part of the reporting process, to consider how signatory countries in developing regions address the issue of MSM and PWID in a written form. Our analysis identified a repertoire of narrative approaches to MSM and PWID which revealed fault lines between countries' endorsement of the Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS and programmatic responses to MSM and PWID. Our findings raise questions about the relationship between "universal" human rights and "local" cultures, and about the UNGASS reporting process itself. Through critical engagement with these questions, our article aims to contribute to international dialogues on how to better recognise and respond to shortcomings in the global commitment to human rights and universal access for people vulnerable to HIV. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Analysis of complex patterns of human exposure and immunity to Schistosomiasis mansoni: the influence of age, sex, ethnicity and IgE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Pinot de Moira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Numerous factors may influence Schistosoma infection intensity and prevalence within endemic communities, including exposure-related factors such as local environment and behaviour, and factors relating to susceptibility to infection such as immunology and genetics. While animal studies performed in the laboratory can be tightly controlled, human populations are highly heterogeneous, varying according to demographic characteristics, genetic background and exposure to infection. The heterogeneous nature of human water contact behaviour in particular makes it difficult to distinguish between a lack of cercarial exposure and reduced susceptibility to infection as the cause for low levels of infection in the field.In this study we investigate risk factors for Schistosoma mansoni infection in a rural Ugandan fishing community receiving treatment as part of a multi-disciplinary longitudinal reinfection study. More specifically, we examine the influence that age, sex and ethnic background have on susceptibility to reinfection after anti-helminth drug treatment, but use individual estimates of cercarial exposure and multivariable methods in an attempt to remove noise created by environmental and behavioural heterogeneities. We then investigate whether schistosome-specific IgE immune responses could account for any remaining variations in susceptibility to reinfection. Our findings suggest that observed ethnic- and sex-related variations in S. mansoni reinfection were due to variations in cercarial exposure, as opposed to biological differences in susceptibility to infection. Age-related differences in reinfection were not explained by exposure, however, and appeared linked to the balance of IgE and IgG(4 to the tegumental antigen SmTAL1 (formerly Sm22.6, which itself was significantly related to resistance to reinfection.This study highlights the benefit of taking a multidisciplinary approach in complex field settings; it allows the ecology of a

  20. Sex, human rights and AIDS: an analysis of new technologies for HIV prevention in the Brazilian context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulce Ferraz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTWorldwide, HIV prevention is challenged to change because clinical trials show the protective effect of technologies such as circumcision, preexposure prophylaxis, and the suppression of viral load through antiretroviral treatment. In the face of demands for their implementation on population levels, the fear of stimulating risk compensation processes and of increasing riskier sexual practices has retarded their integration into prevention programs. In this article, following a narrative review of the literature on risk compensation using the PubMed database, we offer a critical reflection on the theme using a constructionist approach of social psychology integrated to the theoretical framework of vulnerability and human rights. The use of biomedical technologies for prevention does not consistently induce its users to the increase of riskier practices, and variations on the specificity of each method need to be carefully considered. Alternatives to the theories of sociocognitive studies, such as social constructionist approaches developed in the social sciences and humanities fields, indicate more comprehensive interpretations, valuing the notions of agency and rights. The critical analysis suggests priority actions to be taken in the implementation process: development of comprehensive programs, monitoring and fostering dialog on sexuality, and technical information. We highlight the need to implement a human rights-based approach and to prioritize dialog, stressing how complementary these technologies can be to meet different population needs. We conclude by stressing the need to prioritize sociopolitical changes to restore participation, dialog about sexuality, and emphasis on human rights such as core elements of the Brazilian AIDS policy.

  1. Sex differences in the neural and behavioral response to intranasal oxytocin and vasopressin during human social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rilling, James K; Demarco, Ashley C; Hackett, Patrick D; Chen, Xu; Gautam, Pritam; Stair, Sabrina; Haroon, Ebrahim; Thompson, Richmond; Ditzen, Beate; Patel, Rajan; Pagnoni, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Both oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) are known to modulate social behavior, and dysfunction in both systems has been postulated as a potential cause of certain psychiatric disorders that involve social behavioral deficits. In particular, there is growing interest in intranasal OT as a potential treatment for certain psychiatric disorders, and preliminary pre-clinical and clinical studies suggest efficacy in alleviating some of the associated symptoms. However, the vast majority of research participants in these studies have been male, and there is evidence for sexually differentiated effects of nonapeptides in both humans and non-human animals. To date, no study has investigated the effect of intranasal OT on brain function in human males and females within the same paradigm. Previously, in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind fMRI study, we reported effects of intranasal OT and AVP on behavior and brain activity of human males as they played an interactive social game known as the Prisoner's Dilemma Game. Here, we present findings from an identical study in human females, and compare these with our findings from males. Overall, we find that both behavioral and neural responses to intranasal OT and AVP are highly sexually differentiated. In women, AVP increased conciliatory behavior, and both OT and AVP caused women to treat computer partners more like humans. In men, AVP increased reciprocation of cooperation from both human and computer partners. However, no specific drug effects on behavior were shared between men and women. During cooperative interactions, both OT and AVP increased brain activity in men within areas rich in OT and AVP receptors and in areas playing a key role in reward, social bonding, arousal and memory (e.g., the striatum, basal forebrain, insula, amygdala and hippocampus), whereas OT and AVP either had no effect or in some cases actually decreased brain activity in these regions in women. OT treatment rendered neural responses

  2. Global Geometric Morphometric Analyses of the Human Pelvis Reveal Substantial Neutral Population History Effects, Even across Sexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betti, Lia; von Cramon-Taubadel, Noreen; Manica, Andrea; Lycett, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    Recent applications of population genetic models to human craniodental traits have revealed a strong neutral component to patterns of global variation. However, little work has been undertaken to determine whether neutral processes might also be influencing the postcranium, perhaps due to substantial evidence for selection and plastic environmental responses in these regions. Recent work has provided evidence for neutral effects in the pelvis, but has been limited in regard to shape data (small numbers of linear measurements) and restricted only to males. Here, we use geometric morphometric methods to examine population variation in the human os coxae (pelvic bone) in both males and females. Neutrality is examined via apportionment of variance patterns and fit to an Out-of-Africa serial founder effect model, which is known to structure neutral genetic patterns. Moreover, we compare males and females directly, and the true versus false pelvis, in order to examine potential obstetrical effects. Our results indicate evidence for substantial neutral population history effects on pelvic shape variation. They also reveal evidence for the effect of obstetrical constraints, but these affect males and females to equivalent extents. Our results do not deny an important role for selection in regard to specific aspects of human pelvic variation, especially in terms of features associated with body size and proportions. However, our analyses demonstrate that at a global level, the shape of the os coxae reveals substantial evidence for neutral variation. Our analyses thus indicate that population variation in the human pelvis might be used to address important questions concerning population history, just as the human cranium has done. PMID:23409086

  3. Sex and life expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifarth, Joshua E; McGowan, Cheri L; Milne, Kevin J

    2012-12-01

    A sexual dimorphism in human life expectancy has existed in almost every country for as long as records have been kept. Although human life expectancy has increased each year, females still live longer, on average, than males. Undoubtedly, the reasons for the sex gap in life expectancy are multifaceted, and it has been discussed from both sociological and biological perspectives. However, even if biological factors make up only a small percentage of the determinants of the sex difference in this phenomenon, parity in average life expectancy should not be anticipated. The aim of this review is to highlight biological mechanisms that may underlie the sexual dimorphism in life expectancy. Using PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Google Scholar, as well as cited and citing reference histories of articles through August 2012, English-language articles were identified, read, and synthesized into categories that could account for biological sex differences in human life expectancy. The examination of biological mechanisms accounting for the female-based advantage in human life expectancy has been an active area of inquiry; however, it is still difficult to prove the relative importance of any 1 factor. Nonetheless, biological differences between the sexes do exist and include differences in genetic and physiological factors such as progressive skewing of X chromosome inactivation, telomere attrition, mitochondrial inheritance, hormonal and cellular responses to stress, immune function, and metabolic substrate handling among others. These factors may account for at least a part of the female advantage in human life expectancy. Despite noted gaps in sex equality, higher body fat percentages and lower physical activity levels globally at all ages, a sex-based gap in life expectancy exists in nearly every country for which data exist. There are several biological mechanisms that may contribute to explaining why females live longer than men on average, but the complexity of the

  4. HIV prevalence, risks for HIV infection, and human rights among men who have sex with men (MSM in Malawi, Namibia, and Botswana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Baral

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the generalized epidemics of HIV in southern Sub-Saharan Africa, men who have sex with men have been largely excluded from HIV surveillance and research. Epidemiologic data for MSM in southern Africa are among the sparsest globally, and HIV risk among these men has yet to be characterized in the majority of countries. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional anonymous probe of 537 men recruited with non-probability sampling among men who reported ever having had sex with another man in Malawi, Namibia, and Botswana using a structured survey instrument and HIV screening with the OraQuick(c rapid test kit. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The HIV prevalence among those between the ages of 18 and 23 was 8.3% (20/241; 20.0% (42/210 among those 24-29; and 35.7% (30/84 among those older than 30 for an overall prevalence of 17.4% (95% CI 14.4-20.8. In multivariate logistic regressions, being older than 25 (aOR 4.0, 95% CI 2.0-8.0, and not always wearing condoms during sex (aOR 2.6, 95% CI 1.3-4.9 were significantly associated with being HIV-positive. Sexual concurrency was common with 16.6% having ongoing concurrent stable relationships with a man and a woman and 53.7% had both male and female sexual partners in proceeding 6 months. Unprotected anal intercourse was common and the use of petroleum-based lubricants was also common when using condoms. Human rights abuses, including blackmail and denial of housing and health care was prevalent with 42.1% (222/527 reporting at least one abuse. CONCLUSIONS: MSM are a high-risk group for HIV infection and human rights abuses in Malawi, Namibia, and Botswana. Concurrency of sexual partnerships with partners of both genders may play important roles in HIV spread in these populations. Further epidemiologic and evaluative research is needed to assess the contribution of MSM to southern Africa's HIV epidemics and how best to mitigate this. These countries should initiate and adequately fund evidence-based and targeted HIV

  5. Sex Differences in Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Jill B.; Hu, Ming

    2008-01-01

    Sex differences are present for all of the phases of drug abuse (initiation, escalation of use, addiction, and relapse following abstinence). While there are some differences among specific classes of abused drugs, the general pattern of sex differences is the same for all drugs of abuse. Females begin regularly self-administering licit and illicit drugs of abuse at lower doses than do males, use escalates more rapidly to addiction, and females are at greater risk for relapse following abstinence. In this review, sex differences in drug abuse are discussed for humans and in animal models. The possible neuroendocrine mechanisms mediating these sex differences are discussed. PMID:17904621

  6. Insulin/IGF and sex hormone axes in human endometrium and associations with endometrial cancer risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Melissa A; Strickler, Howard D; Einstein, Mark H; Yang, Hannah P; Sherman, Mark E; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Brouwer-Visser, Jurriaan; Cossio, Maria Jose; Whitney, Kathleen D; Yu, Herbert; Gunter, Marc J; Huang, Gloria S

    2016-06-01

    Experimental and observational data link insulin, insulin-like growth factor (IGF), and estrogens to endometrial tumorigenesis. However, there are limited data regarding insulin/IGF and sex hormone axes protein and gene expression in normal endometrial tissues, and very few studies have examined the impact of endometrial cancer risk factors on endometrial tissue biology. We evaluated endometrial tissues from 77 premenopausal and 30 postmenopausal women who underwent hysterectomy for benign indications and had provided epidemiological data. Endometrial tissue mRNA and protein levels were measured using quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. In postmenopausal women, we observed higher levels of phosphorylated IGF-I/insulin receptor (pIGF1R/pIR) in diabetic versus non-diabetic women (p value =0.02), while women who reported regular nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use versus no use had higher levels of insulin and progesterone receptors (both p values ≤0.03). We also noted differences in pIGF1R/pIR staining with OC use (postmenopausal women only), and the proportion of estrogen receptor-positive tissues varied by the number of live births and PTEN status (premenopausal only) (p values ≤0.04). Compared to premenopausal proliferative phase women, postmenopausal women exhibited lower mRNA levels of IGF1, but higher IGFBP1 and IGFBP3 expression (all p values ≤0.004), and higher protein levels of the receptors for estrogen, insulin, and IGF-I (all p values ≤0.02). Conversely, pIGF1R/pIR levels were higher in premenopausal proliferative phase versus postmenopausal endometrium (p value =0.01). These results highlight links between endometrial cancer risk factors and mechanistic factors that may contribute to early events in the multistage process of endometrial carcinogenesis.

  7. Modulation of SHBG binding to testosterone and estradiol by sex and morbid obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasa, María Del Mar; Gulfo, José; Camps, Núria; Alcalá, Rosa; Monserrat, Laura; Moreno-Navarrete, José María; Ortega, Francisco José; Esteve, Montserrat; Remesar, Xavier; Fernández-López, José Antonio; Fernández-Real, José Manuel; Alemany, Marià

    2017-04-01

    Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) binds and transports testosterone and estradiol in plasma. The possibility that SHBG is a mixture of transporting proteins has been postulated. We analyzed in parallel the effects of obesity status on the levels and binding capacity of circulating SHBG and their relationship with testosterone and estradiol. Anthropometric measures and plasma were obtained from apparently healthy young (i.e. 35 ± 7 years) premenopausal women (n = 32) and men (n = 30), with normal weight and obesity (BMI >30 kg/m(2)). SHBG protein (Western blot), as well as the plasma levels of testosterone, estradiol, cortisol and insulin (ELISA) were measured. Specific binding of estradiol and testosterone to plasma SHBG was analyzed using tritium-labeled hormones. Significant differences in SHBG were observed within the obesity status and gender, with discordant patterns of change in testosterone and estradiol. In men, testosterone occupied most of the binding sites. Estrogen binding was much lower in all subjects. Lower SHBG of morbidly obese (BMI >40 kg/m(2)) subjects affected testosterone but not estradiol. The ratio of binding sites to SHBG protein levels was constant for testosterone, but not for estradiol. The influence of gender was maximal in morbid obesity, with men showing the highest binding/SHBG ratios. The results reported here are compatible with SHBG being a mixture of at least two functionally different hormone-binding globulins, being affected by obesity and gender and showing different structure, affinities for testosterone and estradiol and also different immunoreactivity. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  8. Blood donor deferral policies across Europe and characteristics of men who have sex with men screened for human immunodeficiency virus in blood establishments: data from the European Men-who-have-sex-with-men Internet Survey (EMIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schink, Susanne B; Offergeld, Ruth; Schmidt, Axel J; Marcus, Ulrich

    2017-03-23

    The predominant mode of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Europe is male-to-male transmission. Men who have sex with men (MSM) are deferred from donating blood in many countries, but nevertheless do donate blood. Based on data from 34 countries, we estimated the proportion of MSM screened for HIV in the context of a blood donation and identified individual factors associated with this HIV screening in order to propose possible public health interventions. In 2010, the first European MSM Internet Survey (EMIS) collected self-reported data on HIV testing from >180,000 MSM in 38 European countries. Using logistic regression, demographic and behavioural factors associated with screening for HIV in blood establishments were identified. Stratified by European sub-region, we analysed the proportion of MSM screening in blood establishments by time elapsed since last negative HIV test. Donor eligibility criteria for MSM vary across Europe with most countries using permanent deferral. The Western region had the lowest (2%) proportion of MSM screened in blood establishments and the Northeastern region had the highest (14%). Being <25 years old, not disclosing sexual attraction to men, never having had anal intercourse with a man, having a female partner, living in a rural area, and certain European sub-regions or countries of residence increased the likelihood of being screened in blood establishments. In spite of deferral policies, MSM are screened for HIV in the context of blood donations. Gay-friendly testing services are rare in rural areas, and young men might be reluctant to disclose their sexual orientation. Recent developments, such as home sampling, might offer new testing possibilities for those not reached by established services yet wishing to know their HIV status. Donor selection procedures should be improved. Both interventions might help to further reduce the risk of transfusion-transmitted infections.

  9. Nudge, nudge, wink, wink: love, sex and gay men with intellectual disabilities - a helping hand or a human right?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, D

    2013-11-01

    How do human rights help us with the experiences of people with intellectual disabilities (ID) who face discrimination and barriers in their sexual lives? Men with ID who are gay face a whole range of rights violations when it comes to exercising their sexual identity. How can such a seemingly marginalised group draw on rights based claims for better and equal treatment? This paper explores how the power of men's own stories may usefully challenge prevailing social norms and in turn strengthen human rights claims in this area. It also reflects on the challenges posed to such an agenda by current economic difficulties and changes in the organisation of adult social care in the UK. The paper draws on empirical research with gay men with ID completed in the UK in 2005 and briefly revisits some key messages from the data. It also considers the wider literature on the power and possibilities of human rights, 'intimate stories' and translating human rights into everyday change. Gay men with ID tell powerful stories of love, longing and exclusion. Such stories have the capacity to transform wider social attitudes and in turn strengthen the rights claims of this marginalised groups. There are question marks about the possibility of such change in a time of austerity and the broader move in the UK's welfare state from the collective to the individual consumer of services. However, the telling of men's 'intimate stories' creates an almost unassailable challenge to current discriminatory practices and norms. © 2012 The Author. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, MENCAP & IASSID.

  10. Explaining human recreational use of 'pesticides': The neurotoxin regulation model of substance use vs. the hijack model and implications for age and sex differences in drug consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward H Hagen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Most globally popular drugs are plant neurotoxins or their close chemical analogs. These compounds evolved to deter, not reward or reinforce, consumption. Moreover, they reliably activate virtually all toxin defense mechanisms, and are thus correctly identified by human neurophysiology as toxins. Acute drug toxicity must therefore play a more central role in drug use theory. We accordingly challenge the popular idea that the rewarding and reinforcing properties of drugs "hijack" the brain, and propose instead that the brain evolved to carefully regulate neurotoxin consumption to minimize fitness costs and maximize fitness benefits. This perspective provides a compelling explanation for the dramatic changes in substance use that occur during the transition from childhood to adulthood, and for pervasive sex differences in substance use: because nicotine and many other plant neurotoxins are teratogenic, children, and to a lesser extent women of childbearing age, evolved to avoid ingesting them. However, during the course of human evolution many adolescents and adults reaped net benefits from regulated intake of plant neurotoxins.

  11. Associations Between Vaginal Infections and Potential High-risk and High-risk Human Papillomavirus Genotypes in Female Sex Workers in Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Sonia; Broeck, Davy Vanden; Rossi, Rodolfo; Ogbe, Emilomo; Harmon, Stacy; Mabeya, Hillary

    2016-12-01

    Infection with and persistence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR HPV) are the strongest risk factors for cervical cancer. Little is known about the prevalence and role of concurrent sexually transmitted infections (STIs) found in HPV-infected female sex workers (FSW) in Africa. This study purports to test our a priori hypotheses that STIs are associated with genotypes pertaining to the α-group species 9. The objectives were to determine the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV), Trichomonas vaginalis, and Candida spp in FSW, the association between these STIs and the prevalence of any potential HR and HR HPV genotypes in FSWs. A cross-sectional study design of 616 FSW from Western Kenya aged between 18 and 61 years during 2009-2015 using a peer recruitment sampling strategy. Inclusion criteria for the study entailed female sex and >18 years of age and having engaged in transactional sex in exchange for money, goods, services, or drugs in the last 3 months. Women were excluded if they were pregnant, potential HR and HR HPV genotype. The 2 most prevalent potential HR and HR genotypes were HPV 16 (16.10%) and HPV 59 (12.20%). BV was the most common infection (48.3%), followed by Trichomonas vaginalis (31.4%) and Candida spp (19.9%). A multivariate regression revealed significant associations with both α-group 9 and 6; BV and HPV 58 (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.3; 95% CI, 1.0-5.2; P = 0.05), Trichomonas vaginalis and HPV 31 and HPV 35 (aOR = 2.0; 95% CI, 1.0-3.8; P = 0.04 and aOR = 1.8; 95% CI, 1.0-3.3, P = 0.05 respectively); and between Candida spp and HPV 53 (aOR = 2.0; 95% CI, 1.1-4.0; P = 0.03) and 16 (aOR = 1.9; 95% CI, 1.1-3.3; P = 0.03). Snowball sampling may have inadvertently excluded FSW less likely to benefit from a social network. Significant associations between BV and HPV 58 and between Candida spp and HPV 16 and 53 suggest the need for sexually transmitted disease management within a cervical cancer prevention program. The probable synergistic

  12. Human papillomavirus DNA in men who have sex with men: type-specific prevalence, risk factors and implications for vaccination strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, E M; Gilson, R; Beddows, S; Soldan, K; Panwar, K; Young, C; Prah, P; Jit, M; Edmunds, W J; Sonnenberg, P

    2015-04-28

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination of girls will have relatively little effect on HPV-related disease in men who have sex with men (MSM). We determined HPV prevalence and risk factors in MSM to inform the potential effectiveness of vaccinating MSM. Cross-sectional study of 522 MSM aged 18-40 attending a London sexual health clinic who completed a computer-assisted self-interview. Urine and two swabs (anal and penile/scrotal/perianal) were collected and tested using an in-house Luminex-based HPV genotyping system. Prevalence of DNA of the vaccine-preventable HPV types in ano-genital specimens of men was 87/511 (17.0%), 166/511 (32.5%) and 232/511 (45.4%) for the bivalent (HPV16/18), quadrivalent (HPV6/11/16/18) and nonavalent (HPV6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58) vaccine types, respectively. A total of 25.1% had one of the quadrivalent types, and 7.4% had 2+ types. Median age at first anal sex was 19 (IQR 17-23) and at first clinic attendance was 24 (IQR 20-27). The increase in the odds of any HPV infection per year of age was 4.7% (95% CI 1.2-8.4). On the basis of the current infection status, most MSM, even among a high-risk population attending a sexual health clinic, are not currently infected with the vaccine-type HPV. A targeted vaccination strategy for MSM in the UK could have substantial benefits.

  13. Age effects and sex differences in human brain white matter of young to middle-aged adults: A DTI, NODDI, and q-space study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodiweera, Chandana; Alexander, Andrew L; Harezlak, Jaroslaw; McAllister, Thomas W; Wu, Yu-Chien

    2016-03-01

    Microstructural changes in human brain white matter of young to middle-aged adults were studied using advanced diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging (dMRI). Multiple shell diffusion-weighted data were acquired using the Hybrid Diffusion Imaging (HYDI). The HYDI method is extremely versatile and data were analyzed using Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI), Neurite Orientation Dispersion and Density Imaging (NODDI), and q-space imaging approaches. Twenty-four females and 23 males between 18 and 55years of age were included in this study. The impact of age and sex on diffusion metrics were tested using least squares linear regressions in 48 white matter regions of interest (ROIs) across the whole brain and adjusted for multiple comparisons across ROIs. In this study, white matter projections to either the hippocampus or the cerebral cortices were the brain regions most sensitive to aging. Specifically, in this young to middle-aged cohort, aging effects were associated with more dispersion of white matter fibers while the tissue restriction and intra-axonal volume fraction remained relatively stable. The fiber dispersion index of NODDI exhibited the most pronounced sensitivity to aging. In addition, changes of the DTI indices in this aging cohort were correlated mostly with the fiber dispersion index rather than the intracellular volume fraction of NODDI or the q-space measurements. While men and women did not differ in the aging rate, men tend to have higher intra-axonal volume fraction than women. This study demonstrates that advanced dMRI using a HYDI acquisition and compartmental modeling of NODDI can elucidate microstructural alterations that are sensitive to age and sex. Finally, this study provides insight into the relationships between DTI diffusion metrics and advanced diffusion metrics of NODDI model and q-space imaging. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Galanin neurons in the intermediate nucleus (InM) of the human hypothalamus in relation to sex, age, and gender identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Falgueras, Alicia; Ligtenberg, Lisette; Kruijver, Frank P M; Swaab, Dick F

    2011-10-15

    The intermediate nucleus (InM) in the preoptic area of the human brain, also known as the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA) and the interstitial nucleus of the anterior hypothalamus-1 (INAH-1) is explored here. We investigated its population of galanin-immunoreactive (Gal-Ir) neurons in relation to sex, age, and gender identity in the postmortem brain of 77 subjects. First we compared the InM volume and number of Gal-Ir neurons of 22 males and 22 females in the course of aging. In a second experiment, we compared for the first time the InM volume and the total and Gal-Ir neuron number in 43 subjects with different gender identities: 14 control males (M), 11 control females (F), 10 male-to-female (MtF) transsexual people, and 5 men who were castrated because of prostate cancer (CAS). In the first experiment we found a sex difference in the younger age group ( 45 years. In the second experiment the MtF transsexual group presented an intermediate value for the total InM neuron number and volume that did not seem different in males and females. Because the CAS group did not have total neuron numbers that were different from the intact males, the change in adult circulating testosterone levels does not seem to explain the intermediate values in the MtF group. Organizational and activational hormone effects on the InM are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Influence of indoor work environments on health, safety, and human rights among migrant sex workers at the Guatemala-Mexico Border: a call for occupational health and safety interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Shira M; Rocha Jiménez, Teresita; Brouwer, Kimberly C; Morales Miranda, Sonia; Silverman, Jay G

    2018-02-02

    Migrant women are over-represented in the sex industry, and migrant sex workers experience disproportionate health inequities, including those related to health access, HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and violence. Despite calls for occupational sex work interventions situated in labour rights frameworks, there remains a paucity of evidence pertaining to migrant sex workers' needs and realities, particularly within Mexico and Central America. This study investigated migrant sex workers' narratives regarding the ways in which structural features of work environments shape vulnerability and agency related to HIV/STI prevention and violence at the Guatemala-Mexico border. Drawing on theoretical perspectives on risk environments and structural determinants of HIV in sex work, we analyzed in-depth interviews, focus groups, and ethnographic fieldwork conducted with 39 migrant sex workers in indoor work environments between 2012 and 2015 in Tecún Umán, Guatemala. Participant narratives revealed the following intersecting themes to be most closely linked to safety and agency to engage in HIV/STI prevention: physical features of indoor work environments (e.g., physical layout of venue, proximity to peers and third parties); social norms and practices for alcohol use within the workplace; the existence and nature of management practices and policies on health and safety practices; and economic influences relating to control over earnings and clients. Across work environments, health and safety were greatly shaped by human rights concerns stemming from workplace interactions with police, immigration authorities, and health authorities. Physical isolation, establishment norms promoting alcohol use, restricted economic agency, and human rights violations related to sex work policies and immigration enforcement were found to exacerbate risks. However, some establishment policies and practices promoted 'enabling environments' for health and safety, supporting

  16. Earlier Detection of Hepatitis C Virus Infection Through Routine Hepatitis C Virus Antibody Screening of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Men Who Have Sex With Men Attending A Sexually Transmitted Infection Outpatient Clinic: A Longitudinal Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooijen, Martijn; Heijman, Titia; de Vrieze, Nynke; Urbanus, Anouk; Speksnijder, Arjen; van Leeuwen, Petra; de Vries, Henry; Prins, Maria

    2016-01-01

    In 2007, routine hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody testing was introduced for men who have sex with men (MSM) with a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive or unknown status attending a Dutch sexually transmitted infection (STI) outpatient clinic. We evaluated whether this screening resulted in

  17. Cues to sex- and stress-hormones in the human male face: functions of glucocorticoids in the immunocompetence handicap hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, F R; Al Dujaili, E A S; Cornwell, R E; Smith, M J Law; Lawson, J F; Sharp, M; Perrett, D I

    2011-08-01

    The stress-linked version of the immunocompetence handicap hypothesis has been proposed to account for inconsistencies in relationships between testosterone and immune response. The model has received some support from studies demonstrating roles of stress hormones in relationships between testosterone, immune function and secondary sexual ornamentation. Such work, however, has relied on artificial elevation of testosterone so may not reflect relationships in natural populations. We created human male facial stimuli on the basis of naturally co-occurring levels of salivary testosterone and the stress hormone cortisol. In Study 1 we tested female preferences for male faces with cues to combinations of the hormones across the menstrual cycle, and in Study 2 we tested perceptions of health and dominance in a novel set of facial stimuli. Females preferred cues to low cortisol, a preference that was strongest during the fertile phase of the menstrual cycle. The effects of cortisol on attractiveness and perceived health and dominance were contingent upon level of testosterone: the effects of the stress hormone were reduced when testosterone was high. We propose explanations for our results, including low cortisol as a cue to a heritable component of health, attractiveness as a predictor of low social-evaluative threat (and, therefore, low baseline cortisol) and testosterone as a proxy of male ability to cope efficiently with stressors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Obesity may influence the relationship between sex hormones and lower urinary tract symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto A. Antunes

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available PurposeThe effects of serum testosterone in the lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH are not well established. The objective of the study is to evaluate the association of sex hormones with LUTS and control the results by patient weight.Materials and MethodsThe study comprised a cross-sectional analysis of 725 men included in a prostate cancer screening program at University of Sao Paulo Medical School. The serum concentrations of total testosterone (TT, free testosterone (FT and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG were measured. Variables analyzed were age, American Urological Association (AUA symptom score, storage symptoms, voiding symptoms, quality of life score, prostate specific antigen levels and prostate volume. Obesity was measured through the calculation of body mass index (BMI. A regression analysis model was performed.ResultsMedian patient age was 65 years (48 to 94. A higher TT level was significantly associated with a severe AUA symptom score only among patients with a BMI ≥ 25. Median TT was 371, 370 and 427ng/dL (p = 0.017 in patients with mild, moderate and severe LUTS respectively. The multivariate regression analysis in patients with BMI ≥ 25 showed that only age, TT and sex score were related to LUTS.ConclusionsA higher TT is associated with a severe AUA score symptom index only in obese patients. Further analysis are necessary to evaluate the mechanisms through which testosterone may influence LUTS in these patients.

  19. Response to W. Kramer: The human sex odds at birth after the atmospheric atomic bomb tests, after Chernobyl, and in the vicinity of nuclear facilities: comment (doi:10.1007/s11356-011-0644-8).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherb, Hagen; Voigt, Kristina

    2012-05-01

    This paper is in response to criticism of our article "The human sex odds at birth after the atmospheric atomic bomb tests, after Chernobyl, and in the vicinity of nuclear facilities" published in Environ Sci Pollut Res 18(5):697-707, 2011. Our findings and methods concerning the disturbed human sex odds at birth have been criticized in this journal for being artifacts of data mining, that the concept of statistical significance was misunderstood, and that confounding factors have not been accounted for. Here, we show that this criticism has no basis. We applied well-established statistical methods to large official data sets, and confounding is less important at the level of secular sex odds trends in aggregated annual figures from countries or continents. Moreover, our results are strengthened by recent findings concerning increased infant death sex odds in Germany and increased Down syndrome prevalence at birth across Europe after Chernobyl. Prompted by our studies, an official investigation in Lower Saxony, Germany, by the "Niedersächsisches Landesgesundheitsamt (NLGA)" confirmed our observation of severely escalated sex odds within 40 km distance from the nuclear storage site in Gorleben, Germany.

  20. Sex differences in androgen receptors of the human mamillary bodies are related to endocrine status rather than to sexual orientation or transsexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruijver, F P; Fernández-Guasti, A; Fodor, M; Kraan, E M; Swaab, D F

    2001-02-01

    In a previous study we found androgen receptor (AR) sex differences in several regions throughout the human hypothalamus. Generally, men had stronger nuclear AR immunoreactivity (AR-ir) than women. The strongest nuclear labeling was found in the caudal hypothalamus in the mamillary body complex (MBC), which is known to be involved in aspects of cognition and sexual behavior. The present study was carried out to investigate whether the sex difference in AR-ir of the MBC is related to sexual orientation or gender identity (i.e. the feeling of being male or female) or to circulating levels of androgens, as nuclear AR-ir is known to be up-regulated by androgens. Therefore, we studied the MBC in postmortem brain material from the following groups: young heterosexual men, young homosexual men, aged heterosexual castrated and noncastrated men, castrated and noncastrated transsexuals, young heterosexual women, and a young virilized woman. Nuclear AR-ir did not differ significantly between heterosexual and homosexual men, but was significantly stronger than that in women. A female-like pattern of AR-ir (i.e. no to weak nuclear staining) was observed in 26- to 53-yr-old castrated male-to-female transsexuals and in old castrated and noncastrated men, 67--87 yr of age. In analogy with animal studies showing strong activational effects of androgens on nuclear AR-ir, the present data suggest that nuclear AR-ir in the human MBC is dependent on the presence or absence of circulating levels of androgen. The group data were, moreover, supported by the fact that a male-like AR-ir (i.e. intense nuclear AR-ir) was found in a 36-yr-old bisexual noncastrated male-to-female transsexual and in a heterosexual virilized woman, 46 yr of age, with high levels of circulating testosterone. In conclusion, the sexually dimorphic AR-ir in the MBC seemed to be clearly related to circulating levels of androgens and not to sexual orientation or gender identity. The functional implications of these

  1. Detection of oral human papillomavirus in HIV-positive men who have sex with men 3 years after baseline: a follow up cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason J Ong

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV is a causative agent in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. The natural history of oral HPV in HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM is unclear.Detection of oral human papillomavirus in 173 HIV-positive MSM using oral rinse samples 3 years apart was investigated. HPV DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction, and genotyped by Roche Linear Array.Of 173 men tested in 2010, 30 had at least one HPV genotype (17%, 95% CI: 12-23, 15 at least one hr-HPV (9%, 95% CI: 5-14 and 8 had HPV 16 (5%, 95% CI: 2-9 detected. In 2013, 33 had at least one HPV genotype (19%, 95% CI: 14-26, 20 had at least one hr-HPV (12%, 95% CI: 7-17 and 7 had HPV 16 (4%, 95% CI: 2-8 detected. Of 30 men at baseline (2010 with any HPV detected, 14 (47%, 95% CI: 28-66 had at least one persistent genotype. Of the 15 men in 2010 with high risk (hr- HPV, 6 men (40%, 95% CI: 16-68 had at least one persistent hr-HPV genotype. The incidence rate of detection of at least one new HPV genotype was 4.8 per 100 person years (95% CI: 3.1-7.0, of at least one hr-HPV genotype was 3.2 per 100 person years (95% CI: 1.8-5.1 and of HPV 16 was 0.8 per 100 person years (95% CI: 0.2-2.0. The clearance rate was 14.9 per 100 person years (95% CI: 8.2-24.2 for any HPV, 18.2 per 100 person years (95% CI: 8.2-32.7 for hr-HPV and 17.4 per 100 person years (95% CI: 5.0-38.8 for HPV-16. Persistent HPV detection was associated with duration of HIV (OR 1.13 (per additional year, 95% CI: 1.00-1.26 and tonsillectomy (OR 8.17, 95% CI: 1.30-51.40.The same oral HPV genotype was detected again after 3 years in nearly half of HIV-positive men who have sex with men.

  2. Sex, sex role identification, and college students' projective drawings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronoff, D N; McCormick, N B

    1990-07-01

    A study of 109 undergraduates found that sex and sex role identification, as assessed by the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI), were related significantly to sex sequence, sexual differences, and quality of drawing on the Draw-A-Person (DAP). Specifically, males and masculine persons tended to draw males first, female and feminine persons tended to draw females first, and androgynous persons were equally likely to draw a male or a female first. The greater the sexual differentiation of the female human figure drawing, the lower the subject's degree of masculinity. The single best predictor for identifying a female subject was the quality of the female figure drawing. Results were consistent with Machover's hypothesis that drawings of the human figure reveal facets of the subject's self-image.

  3. Prevalence of enteric protozoa in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and HIV-negative men who have sex with men from Sydney, Australia.

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    Stark, Damien; Fotedar, Rashmi; van Hal, Sebastian; Beebe, Nigel; Marriott, Deborah; Ellis, John T; Harkness, John

    2007-03-01

    A prospective, comparative study of the prevalence of enteric protozoa was determined among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)- positive and HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM) in Sydney, Australia. A total of 1,868 patients submitted stool specimens; 1,246 were from MSM (628 HIV positive and 618 HIV positive) and 622 from non-MSM were examined over a 36-month period. A total of 651 (52.2%) stool specimens from MSM were positive for protozoa compared with 85 (13%) from non-MSM. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of Blastocystis hominis, Endolimax nana, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar complex, Entamoeba hartmanni, Iodamoeba butschlii, and Enteromonas hominis detected between MSM and non-MSM (P<0.001). The only notable difference between HIV-negative and HIV-positive MSM was that HIV-infected MSM were found to more likely have a Cryptosporidium parvum infection. Entamoeba histolytica was found in 3 patients, E. dispar in 25, and E. moshkovskii in 17, all of whom were MSM. When compared with a control group, MSM were significantly more likely to harbor intestinal protozoa and have multiple parasites present. The results of this study show high rates of enteric parasites persist in MSM and highlight the importance of testing for intestinal parasites in MSM. This is the first report of E. moshkovskii from MSM.

  4. [Comparison of human papilloma virus infection status between men who have sex with men recruited from gay bathhouses and HIV voluntary counseling and testing clinics respectively in Urumqi].

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    Tian, T; Cai, A J; Huang, B X; Abidan, Ainiwaer; Wang, H; Dai, J H

    2017-01-10

    Objective: To understand the human papilloma virus (HPV) infection status in men who have sex with men (MSM) recruited from gay bathhouses and HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) clinics in Urumqi, Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region, and identify the associated risk factors. Methods: A total of 200 MSM aged ≥18 years were recruited by using the " snowballing" sampling method from gay bathhouses and VCT clinics in Urumqi during March-May, 2016. The MSM recruited completed questionnaires after filling in the informed consent form. The information about their demographic characteristics and sexual behaviors were collected, and anal swabs were collected from them for HPV genotyping. Results: The overall HPV infection rate was 54.0%. The HPV infection rate was 66.7%(74/111) in MSM from gay bathhouses and 38.2%(34/89) in MSM from VCT clinics and the high risk type HPV infection rate was 39.6% (44/111) in MSM from gay bathhouses and 14.6% (13/89) in MSM from VCT clinics, the differences were significant (χ(2)=16.112, PHPV infection included activity in gay bathhouse (OR=3.732, 95% CI: 1.950-7.141) and anal sexual behavior (OR=2.555, 95%CI: 1.329-4.912). Conclusion: The prevalence of HPV in MSM from gay bathhouses was higher than that in MSM from VCT clinics, indicating that close attention should be paid to the behavior intervention in MSM.

  5. Health and Economic Impact of a Tender-Based, Sex-Neutral Human Papillomavirus 16/18 Vaccination Program in the Netherlands.

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    Qendri, Venetia; Bogaards, Johannes A; Berkhof, Johannes

    2017-07-15

    Uptake of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine among girls in the Dutch immunization program has plateaued at around 60%. Vaccinating boys may be an appealing complementary strategy for the prevention of HPV-related diseases, especially since tender negotiations and reduced dosing schemes have driven down the cost of vaccination. We expanded a previously published Bayesian synthesis framework to account for all vaccine type-related cancers and herd immunity effects from vaccinating girls and boys. We evaluated the efficiency of vaccinating boys relative to increasing vaccine uptake among girls and assessed the cost-effectiveness of a sex-neutral program. Vaccinating 40% of boys along with 60% of girls yielded the same gain in life-years (LYs) as increasing the uptake in girls from 60% to 80%. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of vaccinating boys was €9134/LY (95% credible interval [CrI], €7323/LY-€11231/LY) under 3% discounting. The ceiling vaccination costs at which the ICER remained below the per capita gross domestic product threshold was €240 (95% CrI, €200-€280) per vaccinated boy. If girls' uptake increased to 90%, the ceiling costs decreased to €70 (95% CrI, €40-€100) per vaccinated boy. Vaccinating boys along with girls is only modestly less efficient than increasing uptake among girls and highly likely to be cost-effective under current vaccine costs and uptake in the Netherlands.

  6. Human papillomavirus genotype attribution and estimation of preventable fraction of anal intraepithelial neoplasia cases among HIV-infected men who have sex with men.

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    Sahasrabuddhe, Vikrant V; Castle, Philip E; Follansbee, Stephen; Borgonovo, Sylvia; Tokugawa, Diane; Schwartz, Lauren M; Lorey, Thomas S; LaMere, Brandon J; Gage, Julia C; Fetterman, Barbara; Boyle, Sean; Sadorra, Mark; Tang, Scott Dahai; Darragh, Teresa M; Wentzensen, Nicolas

    2013-02-01

    The prevention of human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced anal cancer in high-risk populations such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) remains an urgent priority, given rising incidence rates despite widespread antiretroviral therapy use. HPV genotypes and anal disease prevalence, by cytology and histopathologic findings, were evaluated among 363 HIV-infected MSM. We modeled fractions of high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (HGAIN) attributable to individual carcinogenic HPV genotypes and estimated the range of the proportion of HGAIN cases potentially preventable by prophylactic HPV vaccines. HPV16 was the most common genotype overall (26.4% of cases) and among HGAIN cases (55%). Prevalence of multiple (≥ 2) carcinogenic HPV genotypes increased from 30.9% in cases of AIN grade <1 to 76.3% in cases of AIN grade 3 (P(trend) < .001). The fractions of HGAIN cases attributable to carcinogenic HPV16/18 targeted by currently licensed bivalent and quadrivalent HPV vaccines ranged from 12% to 61.5%, and the fractions attributable to carcinogenic HPV16/18/31/33/45/52/58 targeted by an investigational nonavalent HPV vaccine ranged from 39% to 89.4%. Our analytical framework allows estimation of HGAIN cases attributable to individual HPV genotypes in the context of multiple concurrent HPV infections, which are very common among HIV-infected MSM. Our results suggest that licensed and investigational HPV prophylactic vaccines have the potential to prevent a substantial proportion of HGAIN cases in this population.

  7. Early maternal serum ß-human chorionic gonadotropin (ß-hCG) levels and sex-related growth difference of IVF embryos.

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    Esh-Broder, Efrat; Oron, Galia; Son, Weon-Young; Holzer, Hananel; Tulandi, Togas

    2015-10-01

    Maternal serum ß-human chorionic gonadotropin (ß-hCG) represents the trophoblastic cell mass and is an indirect measurement of embryo development at early implantation stage. Studies in animals and human embryos detected sex-related growth differences (SRGD) in favour of male embryos during the pre-implantation period. The purpose of our study was to correlate SRGD and maternal serum ß-hCG at 16 days after embryo transfer. We retrospectively analysed all (fresh and frozen) non-donor, single embryo transfers (SET), elective and not elective, that were performed between December 2008 and December 2013. We included ß-hCG values from day 16 after oocyte collection of pregnancies resulting in live birth. Neonatal gender was retrieved from patient files. Male and female embryos were further grouped to cleavage and blastocyst stage transfers. Regression analysis for confounding variables included maternal age, maternal body mass index (BMI), use of micromanipulation (ICSI), embryo quality (grade), assisted hatching, day of transfer and fresh or frozen embryo transfer. Seven hundred eighty-six non-donor SETs resulted in live birth. After including only day 16 serum ß-hCG results, 525 SETs were analysed. Neonatal gender was available for 522 cases. Mean maternal serum ß-hCG levels were similar, 347 ± 191 IU/L in the male newborn group and 371 ± 200 IU/L in the female group. The difference between ß-hCG levels remained insignificant after adjusting for confounding variables. Early maternal ß-hCG levels after embryo transfers did not represent SRGD in our study.

  8. High human immunodeficiency virus type 1 seroprevalence in men who have sex with men in Buenos Aires, Argentina: risk factors for infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pando, Maria de los Angeles; Maulen, Sergio; Weissenbacher, Mercedes; Marone, Rubén; Duranti, Ricardo; Peralta, Liliana Martínez; Salomón, Horacio; Russell, Kevin; Negrete, Monica; Sosa Estani, Sergio; Montano, Silvia; Sanchez, José L; Avila, Maria Mercedes

    2003-10-01

    To determine human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seroprevalence in a sample of men who have sex with men (MSM) in Buenos Aires City and to identify risk factors associated with HIV type 1 infection. Participants were invited to receive HIV counselling and testing at "NEXO" (a gay non-governmental organization) by means of informative leaflets distributed in gay nightclubs, porno cinemas, gymnasiums, and in the streets. During the encounter, the study was explained by a trained social worker and individuals were invited to volunteer for the study. Diagnosis of HIV was performed using two screening tests and Western Blot assay was used as confirmatory. Human immunodeficiency virus was detected in 96 (13.8%; 95% CI: 11.4-16.7) of 694 MSM. Fourteen (14.6%) of the 96 HIV-positive MSM were already aware of their HIV serostatus. In univariate analysis, HIV-1 infection (odds ratio [OR] >1.5) was found to be associated with older age (30-39 years), being unemployed, a previous sexually transmitted disease (STD) history, and having an HIV-positive partner. Cocaine consumption and irregular use of condoms with occasional partners were also found to be risk factors. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, being unemployed (OR = 3.42; 95% CI: 1.17-9.99) and having an HIV-positive partner (OR = 2.67; 95% CI: 1.09-6.52) remained significant risk factors. The high HIV-1 prevalence observed suggests an urgent need for implementation of effective prevention campaigns. This represents the first cross-sectional epidemiological study of HIV among the high-risk group of MSM in Argentina.

  9. Distribution of Human Papillomavirus Genotype in Anal Condyloma Acuminatum among Japanese Men: the Higher Prevalence of High Risk Human Papillomavirus in Men Who Have Sex with Men with HIV Infection.

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    Furukawa, Satomi; Uota, Shin; Yamana, Tetsuo; Sahara, Rikisaburo; Iihara, Kuniko; Yokomaku, Yoshiyuki; Iwatani, Yasumasa; Sugiura, Wataru

    2017-11-28

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is known to cause anal condyloma acuminatum (CA) and squamous cell carcinoma. Men who have sex with men (MSM) with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are frequently co-infected with HPV, especially high risk HPV (HR-HPV) that causes anal squamous cell carcinoma. However, there are few reports of HPV genotype studies in anal lesion of Japanese men. We tried to estimate the distribution of HPV genotypes in anal CA tissue specimens from the Japanese men in order to elucidate the risk of anal cancer. A total of 62 patients who had anal CA surgically excised were enrolled. They included 27 HIV-positive MSM, 18 HIV-negative MSM, one HIV-positive man who have sex with women (MSW), and 16 HIV-negative MSW. HPV genotypes in anal CA tissue were determined by the polymerase chain reaction technique with reverse line blot hybridization. HR-HPV was detected in 45.2% of the CA tissue specimens and high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) was observed in 15.3%. Moreover, the prevalence of HR-HPV in the HIV-positive MSM (70.4%) was higher than the HIV-negative MSM (33.3%, P=0.0311) or the HIV-negative MSW (18.8%, P=0.0016). The conditional logistic regression analysis suggested HIV positivity as the primary risk factor for the HR-HPV infection in CA. In addition, HSIL was detected in higher frequency in CA tissues from HIV-positive MSM (25.9%) than HIV-negative MSW (0.0%, P=0.0346). HR-HPV and HSIL were frequently detected in anal CA tissues from Japanese MSM patients with HIV infection, suggesting the necessity of surveillance for this population.

  10. When Sex Is Painful

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS FAQ020 When Sex Is Painful • How common is painful sex? • What causes pain during sex? • Where is pain during sex felt? • When should ...

  11. Sex during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney Transplant Vision Facts and Myths Sex During Pregnancy KidsHealth > For Parents > Sex During Pregnancy Print A ... safe sexual relationship during pregnancy. Is Sex During Pregnancy Safe? Sex is considered safe during all stages ...

  12. Associations Between Sex Hormone Levels and Periodontitis in Men: Results From NHANES III.

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    Steffens, Joao Paulo; Wang, Xiaoshan; Starr, Jacqueline R; Spolidorio, Luis Carlos; Van Dyke, Thomas E; Kantarci, Alpdogan

    2015-10-01

    Sex hormones are linked to inflammation and bone turnover. The goal of this study is to explore the association between sex hormone levels and periodontitis in men using data from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Data from 755 men (aged ≥ 30 years), including serum levels of testosterone, estradiol, sex hormone binding globulin, and androstenediol glucuronide, were analyzed. Calculated bioavailable testosterone (CBT) and estradiol-to-testosterone ratio were calculated. Periodontitis was defined using the latest classification of extent and severity of periodontitis for NHANES data (≥ 2 interproximal sites with ≥ 3 mm attachment loss, ≥ 2 interproximal sites with probing depth [PD] ≥ 4 mm not on the same tooth, or one site with PD ≥ 5 mm). Sex hormones were evaluated as categorized and continuous variables. Correlations between the presence and severity of periodontitis and levels of sex hormones were determined and expressed as odds ratios (ORs). When adjusted for confounding factors, high total testosterone (TT) and CBT levels correlated with both the prevalence (OR [95% confidence interval (CI)], 2.1 [1 to 4.5] and 3.9 [1 to 14.8], respectively) and severity (OR [95% CI], 2.1 [1 to 4.3] and 3.4 [1.2 to 9.8]) of periodontitis. When continuous variables were used, the ORs (95% CIs) for presence and severity of periodontitis were 1.4 (0.6 to 3.3) and 1.5 (0.6 to 3.6) for TT and 1.3 (0.9 to 1.9) and 1.3 (0.9 to 1.8) for CBT, respectively. These findings are consistent with the existence of an association of periodontitis with sex hormone levels, especially testosterone, in men.

  13. Human rights protections and HIV prevalence among MSM who sell sex: Cross-country comparisons from a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenburg, Catherine E; Perez-Brumer, Amaya G; Reisner, Sari L; Mayer, Kenneth H; Mimiaga, Matthew J; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Bärnighausen, Till

    2016-03-15

    Laws and policies can affect the HIV risk of key populations through a number of direct and indirect pathways. We investigated the association between HIV prevalence among men who engage in transactional sex and language in the penal code protecting sexual minorities, including men who have sex with men (MSM), and sex workers. HIV prevalence among men who engage in transactional sex was assessed through meta-analysis of published literature and country surveillance reports. Meta-regression was used to determine the association between HIV prevalence and protective laws for sexual minorities and sex workers. Sixty-six reports representing 28 countries and 31,924 individuals were included in the meta-analysis. Controlling for multiple study- and country-level variables, legal protection for sexual minorities was associated with a 10.9% (95% CI: 3.8-18.0%) and sex workers associated with a 7.0% (95% CI: 1.3-12.8%) decrease in country-level HIV prevalence among men who engage in transactional sex. Laws that seek to actively protect sex workers and MSM may be necessary to decrease HIV risk for this key population.

  14. Serum sex steroids and steroidogenesis-related enzyme expression in skeletal muscle during experimental weight gain in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, K; Samocha-Bonet, D; Handelsman, D J; Fujita, S; Wittert, G A; Heilbronn, L K

    2014-12-01

    Low-circulating testosterone is associated with development of type 2 diabetes in obese men. In this study, we examined the effects of experimental overfeeding and weight gain on serum levels of sex hormones and skeletal muscle expression of steroidogenic enzymes in healthy men with (FH+) and without (FH-) a family history of type 2 diabetes. Following a 3-day lead in energy balanced diet, FH+ (n = 9) and FH- men (n = 11) were overfed by 5200 kJ/day (45% fat) for 28 days. Body weight, fasting glucose, insulin, sex steroid, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels, insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp) and body fat (DXA) were assessed in all individuals at baseline and day 28, and sex steroidogenesis-related enzyme expression in vastus lateralis biopsies was examined in a subset (n = 11). Body weight, fat mass and fasting insulin levels were increased by overfeeding (P muscle expression of enzymes involved in the formation of testosterone in skeletal muscle. Men with a family history of T2DM were more susceptible to deleterious outcomes of overfeeding with greater reductions in serum testosterone and DHT and greater increases in markers of insulin resistance, which may contribute to increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Design of the sex hormones and physical exercise (SHAPE study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peeters Petra HM

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity has been associated with a decreased risk for breast cancer. The biological mechanismn(s underlying the association between physical activity and breast cancer is not clear. Most prominent hypothesis is that physical activity may protect against breast cancer through reduced lifetime exposure to endogenous hormones either direct, or indirect by preventing overweight and abdominal adiposity. In order to get more insight in the causal pathway between physical activity and breast cancer risk, we designed the Sex Hormones and Physical Exercise (SHAPE study. Purpose of SHAPE study is to examine the effects of a 1-year moderate-to-vigorous intensity exercise programme on endogenous hormone levels associated with breast cancer among sedentary postmenopausal women and whether the amount of total body fat or abdominal fat mediates the effects. Methods/Design In the SHAPE study, 189 sedentary postmenopausal women, aged 50–69 years, are randomly allocated to an intervention or a control group. The intervention consists of an 1-year moderate-to-vigorous intensity aerobic and strenght training exercise programme. Partcipants allocated to the control group are requested to retain their habitual exercise pattern. Primary study parameters measured at baseline, at four months and at 12 months are: serum concentrations of endogenous estrogens, endogenous androgens, sex hormone binding globuline and insuline. Other study parameters include: amount of total and abdominal fat, weight, BMI, body fat distribution, physical fitness, blood pressure and lifestyle factors. Discussion This study will contribute to the body of evidence relating physical activity and breast cancer risk and will provide insight into possible mechanisms through which physical activity might be associated with reduced risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Trial registration NCT00359060

  16. Whose crazy investment in sex?

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    Mandlis, Lane R

    2011-01-01

    By probing the processes of exclusion of transsexuals from the political sphere, this article offers contributions to social and political theory through an examination of the processes of exclusion from the category "human." This article considers how the erasure of investment in their own embodied sex constructs a platform from which to blame others for sex/gender variance, as well as to justify that blaming. Bringing together Giorgio Agamben, Georges Bataille, Judith Butler, and Nikolas Rose with transphobia, medicalization in psychiatry, law, and ethopolitics, this article questions whose investment in sexed embodiment counts and why that investment might be seen as "crazy."

  17. Prenatal sex hormone effects on child and adult sex-typed behavior: methods and findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Beek, C.; Cohen-Bendahan, C.; Berenbaum, S.

    2005-01-01

    There is now good evidence that human sex-typed behavior is influenced by sex hormones that are present during prenatal development, confirming studies in other mammalian species. Most of the evidence comes from clinical populations, in which prenatal hormone exposure is atypical for a person's sex,

  18. Sequential Acquisition of Anal Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection Following Genital Infection Among Men Who Have Sex With Women: The HPV Infection in Men (HIM) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamnani, Shitaldas J; Nyitray, Alan G; Abrahamsen, Martha; Rollison, Dana E; Villa, Luisa L; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Huang, Yangxin; Borenstein, Amy; Giuliano, Anna R

    2016-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the risk of sequential acquisition of anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection following a type-specific genital HPV infection for the 9-valent vaccine HPV types and investigate factors associated with sequential infection among men who have sex with women (MSW). Genital and anal specimens were available for 1348 MSW participants, and HPV genotypes were detected using the Roche Linear Array assay. Sequential risk of anal HPV infection was assessed using hazard ratios (HRs) among men with prior genital infection, compared with men with no prior genital infection, in individual HPV type and grouped HPV analyses. In individual analyses, men with prior HPV 16 genital infections had a significantly higher risk of subsequent anal HPV 16 infections (HR, 4.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.41-15.23). In grouped analyses, a significantly higher risk of sequential type-specific anal HPV infections was observed for any of the 9 types (adjusted HR, 2.80; 95% CI, 1.32-5.99), high-risk types (adjusted HR, 2.65; 95% CI, 1.26, 5.55), and low-risk types (adjusted HR, 5.89; 95% CI, 1.29, 27.01). MSW with prior genital HPV infections had a higher risk of a subsequent type-specific anal infection. The higher risk was not explained by sexual intercourse with female partners. Autoinoculation is a possible mechanism for the observed association. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Cytological Anal Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions Associated with Anal High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Infections among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Northern Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darin Ruanpeng

    Full Text Available Anal cancer, one of human papillomavirus (HPV related malignancies, has increased in recent decades, particularly among men who have sex with men (MSM and HIV-infected (HIV+ persons. We aimed to explore the prevalence of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASIL using Papanicolau (Pap screening among MSM in northern Thailand and its associated factors.Two hundreds MSM aged ≥18 years reporting receptive anal intercourse in the prior 6 months were recruited from July 2012 through January 2013. Medical history and behavioral data were collected by staff interview and computer-assisted self interview. Anal Pap smear, HPV genotyping, and HIV testing were performed. Two pathologists blinded to HPV and HIV status reported cytologic results by Bethesda classification.Mean age was 27.2 years (range 18-54. Overall, 86 (43.0% had ASIL: 28 (14.2% with atypical cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS, 1 (0.5% with atypical squamous cells-cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (ASC-H, 56 (28.4% with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL, and 1 (0.5% with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL. ASIL was associated by univariate analysis (p ≤0.05 with older age, gender identity other than bisexual (i.e., gay men and transgender women, rectal douching, anal symptoms, genital warts, HIV positivity, and high-risk-HPV infection. However, on multiple logistic regression ASIL was associated only with high-risk HPV type (p = 0.002 and HIV infection (p = 0.01.ASIL is quite common in high-risk MSM in northern Thailand and is associated with high-risk HPV types and HIV infection. Routine anal Pap screening should be considered, given the high frequency of ASIL, particularly in the HIV+. High resolution anoscopy (HRA, not done here, should be to confirm PAP smears whose sensitivity and specificity are quite variable. Timely HPV vaccination should be considered for this population.

  20. Risk factors for anal human papillomavirus infection type 16 among HIV-positive men who have sex with men in San Francisco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Alexandra L.; Efird, Jimmy T.; Holly, Elizabeth A.; Berry, J. Michael; Jay, Naomi; Palefsky, Joel M.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk of anal cancer compared with the general population. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, particularly HPV 16, is causally associated with anal cancer. However, risk factors for anal HPV 16 infection are poorly understood. We determined the prevalence and risk factors for anal HPV 16 infection in a population of HIV-positive MSM, most of whom were being treated with antiretroviral therapy. Design Cross-sectional data from the baseline visit of a 4-year prospective cohort study. Methods 348 HIV-positive MSM were recruited in San Francisco and received a detailed sexual behavior risk-factor questionnaire. An anal swab was used to collect specimens for HPV type-specific DNA testing using L1 HPV DNA PCR. We used log-binomial multivariable models to determine risk factors for anal HPV 16 infection. Results 92% of HIV-positive MSM had at least one anal HPV type, 80% had at least one oncogenic HPV type and 42% had HPV 16. Non-Hispanic white race and higher level of education were associated with a decreased risk of HPV 16 infection. A higher number of total male partners was associated with HPV 16 (RR: 1.6, 95%CI 1.1–2.4, p=0.01) for 201–1000 partners compared with 1–200. Injection drug use (IDU) was independently associated with anal HPV 16 infection (RR: 1.5, 95%CI 1.2–1.9, p=0.003). Conclusions The prevalence of anal HPV infection, including HPV 16, is high in HIV-positive MSM. HIV-positive MSM should be counseled about the risk associated with increased partners and IDU. PMID:23614994

  1. Lack of Awareness of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection: Problems and Solutions With Self-reported HIV Serostatus of Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Travis H; Kelley, Colleen F; Rosenberg, Eli; Luisi, Nicole; O'Hara, Brandon; Lambert, Rodriques; Coleman, Raphael; Frew, Paula; Salazar, Laura F; Tao, Sijia; Clarke, William; Del Rio, Carlos; Sullivan, Patrick S

    2014-09-01

    Lack of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection awareness may be a driver of racial disparities in HIV infection among men who have sex with men (MSM). Lack of awareness is typically measured by comparing HIV test result to self-reported HIV status. This measure may be subject to reporting bias and alternatives are needed. The InvolveMENt study examined HIV disparities between black and white MSM from Atlanta. Among HIV-positive participants who did not report knowing they were positive, we examined other measures of awareness: HIV viral load (VL) HIV case surveillance report. Using self-report only, 32% (62 of 192) of black and 16% (7 of 45) of white MSM were not aware of their HIV infection (P = .03). Using self-report and low VL, 25% (48 of 192) black and 16% (7 of 45) white MSM lacked awareness (P = .18). Using self-report and ARVs, 26% (50 of 192) black and 16% (7 of 45) white MSM lacked awareness (P = .14). Using self-report and surveillance report, 15% (28 of 192) black and 13% (6 of 45) white MSM lacked awareness (P = .83). Self-report only may overestimate true lack of awareness of HIV status for black MSM. If, as our data suggest, black MSM are not less likely to be aware of their HIV infection than are white MSM, then this factor is not a substantial driver of HIV disparity. Future HIV research that depends on accurate measurement of HIV status awareness should consider including additional laboratory and case surveillance data.

  2. Cytological Anal Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions Associated with Anal High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Infections among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruanpeng, Darin; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Kaewpoowat, Quanhathai; Supindham, Taweewat; Settakorn, Jongkolnee; Sukpan, Kornkanok; Utaipat, Utaiwan; Miura, Toshiyuki; Kosashunhanan, Natthapol; Saokhieo, Pongpun; Songsupa, Radchanok; Wongthanee, Antika

    2016-01-01

    Anal cancer, one of human papillomavirus (HPV) related malignancies, has increased in recent decades, particularly among men who have sex with men (MSM) and HIV-infected (HIV+) persons. We aimed to explore the prevalence of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASIL) using Papanicolau (Pap) screening among MSM in northern Thailand and its associated factors. Two hundreds MSM aged ≥18 years reporting receptive anal intercourse in the prior 6 months were recruited from July 2012 through January 2013. Medical history and behavioral data were collected by staff interview and computer-assisted self interview. Anal Pap smear, HPV genotyping, and HIV testing were performed. Two pathologists blinded to HPV and HIV status reported cytologic results by Bethesda classification. Mean age was 27.2 years (range 18-54). Overall, 86 (43.0%) had ASIL: 28 (14.2%) with atypical cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), 1 (0.5%) with atypical squamous cells-cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (ASC-H), 56 (28.4%) with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), and 1 (0.5%) with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL). ASIL was associated by univariate analysis (p ≤0.05) with older age, gender identity other than bisexual (i.e., gay men and transgender women), rectal douching, anal symptoms, genital warts, HIV positivity, and high-risk-HPV infection. However, on multiple logistic regression ASIL was associated only with high-risk HPV type (p = 0.002) and HIV infection (p = 0.01). ASIL is quite common in high-risk MSM in northern Thailand and is associated with high-risk HPV types and HIV infection. Routine anal Pap screening should be considered, given the high frequency of ASIL, particularly in the HIV+. High resolution anoscopy (HRA), not done here, should be to confirm PAP smears whose sensitivity and specificity are quite variable. Timely HPV vaccination should be considered for this population.

  3. Prevalence and risk factors of anal human papillomavirus infection among HIV-negative men who have sex with men in Urumqi city of Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Tian; Mijiti, Peierdun; Bingxue, Huang; Fadong, Zhang; Ainiwaer, Abidan; Guoyao, Sang; Zhanlin, Zhang; Mahan, Yeledan; Xiaoqin, Tuo; Zheng, Gong; Jianghong, Dai

    2017-01-01

    Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection among men who have sex with men (MSM). Study on prevalence and risk factors of anal HPV infection among HIV-negative MSM in Northwestern China was rare. We performed a cross-sectional study of HPV prevalence using anal swab specimens among HIV-negative MSM in Urumqi city of Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China between April 1st and October 30th in 2016. Prevalence of any anal HPV infection, high-risk and low-risk HPV infection was estimated. Risk factors associated with any anal HPV infection was analyzed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression models. Among 538 potential participants, 500(92.9%) were recruited in this study. The genotyping results of anal HPV infection were available for all. Of them, 259 (51.8%), 190 (38.0%) and 141(28.2%) were positive for at least one of the targeted 37 HPV genotypes, high-risk HPV genotypes, and any low-risk HPV genotypes. The most prevalent anal HPV genotype was HPV 6(11.8%), followed by HPV 16(11.2%), HPV 11(10.8%), HPV 51(7.0%) and HPV 18(5.4%).Among those infected with at least one of the targeted 37 anal HPV genotypes, 75(29.0%), 155(59.8%) and 191(73.7%) were infected with 2-valent, quadrivalent and 9-valent HPV vaccine-covered genotypes. Receptive anal intercourse in the past year was the only predictor of any anal HPV infection in multivariate logistic regression model. Prevalence of any anal HPV infection and high-risk HPV infection among HIV-negative MSM in Urumqi city of Xinjiang is high. The majority of genotypes detected in our study were covered by quadrivalent and 9-valent HPV vaccines. Regular anal exams and early HPV vaccination among MSM may be considered in future HPV prevention programs in Xinjiang, China.

  4. Prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus and abnormal pap smears in female sex workers compared to the general population in Antwerp, Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Vorsters

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although female sex workers (FSWs are a well-known high-risk group for Human Papillomavirus (HPV infections, few tailored intervention programmes for HPV have been established worldwide. The lack of reliable data on the prevalence of HPV and related cervical lesions hampers the establishment of evidence-based intervention programmes. The objectives of this study were to describe the prevalence of high-risk Human Papillomavirus (hrHPV infections and abnormal pap smears in FSWs compared to a control group in Antwerp, Belgium. Methods HPV genotyping and cytology data were analysed from routine Pap smear tests that were collected from both FSWs and the general population (1334 samples for each group between June 2006 and June 2010. Within the laboratory database, all FSWs were matched 1:1 for age and testing date to determine the ORs of hrHPV genotypes, DNA and cytology outcome. Results The prevalence of hrHPV DNA in FSWs was 41.7 % compared to 19.8 % in the age-matched controls with an overall OR of 2.8 (95 % CI: 2.3–3.4. Significant differences were observed in all age groups, and the most significant differences were observed in the cohort under 21 years of age (prevalence of 64.4 % in FSWs versus 14.8 % in controls; OR 10.3 (95 % CI: 5.0–21.2. Significantly more cervical lesions were observed in FSWs, particularly in the 17- to 21-year old age group (OR for LSIL or HSIL: 10.3 (95 % CI: 3.2–33.8. In both groups, HPV 16 was the most prevalent at 12.1 and 6.6 % in the FSW and control groups, respectively. HPV 18 was the 8th and 7th most frequent genotype at 5.0 and 2.5 % in the FSW and control groups, respectively. Conclusions FSWs have a significantly higher prevalence of hrHPV and more abnormal Pap smears than does the general population in Antwerp, Belgium. The hrHPV prevalence in FSWs is similar to that reported in the literature. The need for tailored intervention programmes should be investigated further.

  5. Management of precancerous anal intraepithelial lesions in human immunodeficiency virus-positive men who have sex with men: Clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Ashish A; Chiao, Elizabeth Y; Cantor, Scott B; Stier, Elizabeth A; Goldstone, Stephen E; Nyitray, Alan G; Wilkin, Timothy; Wang, Xiaojie; Chhatwal, Jagpreet

    2017-12-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) are at disproportionately high risk for anal cancer. There is no definitive approach to the management of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL), which are precursors of anal cancer, and evidence suggests that posttreatment adjuvant quadrivalent human papillomavirus (qHPV) vaccination improves HSIL treatment effectiveness. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the optimal HSIL management strategy with respect to clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness and to identify the optimal age for initiating HSIL management. A decision analytic model of the natural history of anal carcinoma and HSIL management strategies was constructed for HIV-positive MSM who were 27 years old or older. The model was informed by the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare database and published studies. Outcomes included the lifetime cost, life expectancy, quality-adjusted life expectancy, cumulative risk of cancer and cancer-related deaths, and cost-effectiveness from a societal perspective. Active monitoring was the most effective approach in patients 29 years or younger; thereafter, HSIL treatment plus adjuvant qHPV vaccination became most effective. When cost-effectiveness was considered (ie, an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio [ICER] < $100,000/quality-adjusted life-year), do nothing was cost-effective until the age of 38 years, and HSIL treatment plus adjuvant qHPV vaccination was cost-effective beyond the age of 38 years (95% confidence interval, 34-43 years). The ICER decreased as the age at HSIL management increased. Outcomes were sensitive to the rate of HSIL regression or progression and the cost of high-resolution anoscopy and biopsy. The management of HSIL in HIV-positive MSM who are 38 years old or older with treatment plus adjuvant qHPV vaccination is likely to be cost-effective. The conservative approach of no treatment is likely to be cost-effective in

  6. Associations between cadmium exposure and circulating levels of sex hormones in postmenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Imran; Engström, Annette; Vahter, Marie [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Skerfving, Staffan; Lundh, Thomas [Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Lidfeldt, Jonas [Department of Community Health, Malmö University Hospital, Malmö (Sweden); Samsioe, Göran [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Halldin, Krister [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Åkesson, Agneta, E-mail: agneta.akesson@ki.se [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-10-15

    Recent epidemiological as well as in vivo and in vitro studies collectively suggest that the metalloestrogen cadmium (Cd) could be a potential risk factor for hormone-related cancers in particularly breast cancer. Assessment of the association between Cd exposure and levels of endogenous sex hormones is of pivotal importance, as increased levels of such have been associated with a higher risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. The present study investigated the perceived relationship (multivariable-adjusted linear regression analyses) between Cd exposure [blood Cd (B-Cd) and urinary Cd (U-Cd)], and serum levels of androstenedione, testosterone, estradiol, and sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG), in 438 postmenopausal Swedish women without hormone replacement therapy (HRT). A significant positive association between B-Cd (median 3.4 nmol/L) and serum testosterone levels, as well as a significant inverse association between B-Cd and serum estradiol levels and with the estradiol/testosterone ratio were encountered. However, U-Cd (median 0.69 nmol/mmol creatinine) was inversely associated with serum estradiol levels only. Our data may suggest that Cd interferes with the levels of testosterone and estradiol in postmenopausal women, which might have implications for breast cancer risk. - Highlights: • Low level cadmium exposure may interfere with the levels of steroid hormones. • Cadmium exposure was associated with increased serum testosterone concentrations. • Cadmium exposure was associated with decreased estradiol/testosterone ratio. • Cadmium exposure may have implications for breast-cancer promotion.

  7. Association between Sex Hormone and Blood Uric Acid in Male Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Cao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The association between serum uric acid (SUA level and sexual dysfunction in patients with diabetes is not well characterized. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM causes metabolic disorders, including abnormal serum uric acid (SUA levels. In this study, we enrolled 205 male patients with T2DM and investigated the relationship between sex hormone levels and SUA. Patients were divided into four groups based on SUA quartiles. On the other hand, based on the total testosterone (TT level, patients were divided into three groups; SUA and other laboratory indices were determined. Increase in SUA level was significantly associated with decreased levels of TT, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, sex hormone-binding globulin, and increased levels of dehydroepiandrosterone, age, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, glycated hemoglobin, serum creatinine, and HOMA-IR levels. SUA, waist circumference, BMI, and HOMA-IR showed a negative correlation with TT level, while age showed a positive correlation with TT level. SUA and body mass index were found to be risk factors for gonadal dysfunction. Therefore, we conclude that hypogonadism of male patients with T2DM is related to SUA level.

  8. Circulating sex hormones and breast cancer risk factors in postmenopausal women: reanalysis of 13 studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, T J; Appleby, P N; Reeves, G K; Roddam, A W; Helzlsouer, K J; Alberg, A J; Rollison, D E; Dorgan, J F; Brinton, L A; Overvad, K; Kaaks, R; Trichopoulou, A; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Panico, S; Duell, E J; Peeters, P H M; Rinaldi, S; Fentiman, I S; Dowsett, M; Manjer, J; Lenner, P; Hallmans, G; Baglietto, L; English, D R; Giles, G G; Hopper, J L; Severi, G; Morris, H A; Hankinson, S E; Tworoger, S S; Koenig, K; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, A; Arslan, A A; Toniolo, P; Shore, R E; Krogh, V; Micheli, A; Berrino, F; Barrett-Connor, E; Laughlin, G A; Kabuto, M; Akiba, S; Stevens, R G; Neriishi, K; Land, C E; Cauley, J A; Lui, Li Yung; Cummings, Steven R; Gunter, M J; Rohan, T E; Strickler, H D

    2011-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer risk for postmenopausal women is positively associated with circulating concentrations of oestrogens and androgens, but the determinants of these hormones are not well understood. Methods: Cross-sectional analyses of breast cancer risk factors and circulating hormone concentrations in more than 6000 postmenopausal women controls in 13 prospective studies. Results: Concentrations of all hormones were lower in older than younger women, with the largest difference for dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), whereas sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) was higher in the older women. Androgens were lower in women with bilateral ovariectomy than in naturally postmenopausal women, with the largest difference for free testosterone. All hormones were higher in obese than lean women, with the largest difference for free oestradiol, whereas SHBG was lower in obese women. Smokers of 15+ cigarettes per day had higher levels of all hormones than non-smokers, with the largest difference for testosterone. Drinkers of 20+ g alcohol per day had higher levels of all hormones, but lower SHBG, than non-drinkers, with the largest difference for DHEAS. Hormone concentrations were not strongly related to age at menarche, parity, age at first full-term pregnancy or family history of breast cancer. Conclusion: Sex hormone concentrations were strongly associated with several established or suspected risk factors for breast cancer, and may mediate the effects of these factors on breast cancer risk. PMID:21772329

  9. Prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Hepatitis B Virus, and Hepatitis C Virus Infections Among Transgender Persons Referred to an Italian Center for Total Sex Reassignment Surgery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Luzzati, Roberto; Zatta, Marta; Pavan, Nicola; Serafin, Maurizia; Maurel, Cristina; Trombetta, Carlo; Barbone, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    ... (HCV) infections in transgender population is an underestimated issue. We performed a study to evaluate the prevalence of such infections in transgender persons addressed our center for total sex reassignment surgery (SRS...

  10. Using Human Rights to Hold the US Accountable for its Anti-Sex Trafficking Agenda: The Universal Periodic Review and new directions for US policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Lerum

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the passing of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000, anti-trafficking efforts have grown in funding, political strength, and popular-culture appeal in the United States and globally. Particularly influential in shaping anti-trafficking policy in the United States are anti-prostitution advocates who are primarily concerned with rehabilitating sex workers and eradicating sexual commerce. Simultaneous to the development of prohibitionist anti-trafficking and anti-prostitution efforts in the US, movements for sex worker rights have also grown in strength and visibility, influencing a variety of cultural, academic, and public health arenas. While sex worker activists have widened the dialogue around sex workers’ rights, their

  11. HIV prevalence, risks for HIV infection, and human rights among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Malawi, Namibia, and Botswana

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baral, Stefan; Trapence, Gift; Motimedi, Felistus; Umar, Eric; Iipinge, Scholastika; Dausab, Friedel; Beyrer, Chris

    2009-01-01

    .... A cross-sectional anonymous probe of 537 men recruited with non-probability sampling among men who reported ever having had sex with another man in Malawi, Namibia, and Botswana using a structured...

  12. Sex Differences in Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorge, Robert E; Totsch, Stacie K

    2017-06-01

    Females greatly outnumber males as sufferers of chronic pain. Although social and psychological factors certainly play a role in the differences in prevalence and incidence, biological differences in the functioning of the immune system likely underlie these observed effects. This Review examines the current literature on biological sex differences in the functioning of the innate and adaptive immune systems as they relate to pain experience. With rodent models, we and others have observed that male mice utilize microglia in the spinal cord to mediate pain, whereas females preferentially use T cells in a similar manner. The difference can be traced to differences in cell populations, differences in suppression by hormones, and disparate cellular responses in males and females. These sex differences also translate into human cellular responses and may be the mechanism by which the disproportionate chronic pain experience is based. Recognition of the evidence underlying sex differences in pain will guide development of treatments and provide better options for patients that are tailored to their physiology. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Determinants of premarital sex in Maiduguri, Nigeria: Implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    195. Determinants of premarital sex in Maiduguri, Nigeria: Implications for Human Papilloma Virus vaccination ... human papilloma virus (HPV) which is a precursor of cervical cancer. Aim: To document the determinants of premarital sex with ..... Z, Nyamukapa C, et al. Measuring trends in age at first sex and age at marriage ...

  14. Relation between the changes of oncogene versus tumor suppressor gene interaction and the transition of cancer risk from female dominance through no sex discrimination to male dominance, as investigated by the reciprocal regression analysis of 5 human neoplasias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, M; Murakami, M; Kodama, T

    1998-01-01

    We have been investigating the mathematical nature of intercancer linkage that underlies the mutual regulation of cancer risks between any 2 tumors in their variations in time and space. Applications of both sequential regression test and topological manipulation of age-adjusted incidence rate (AAIR) data set enabled us to prepare the oncogene (Onc) activation profile and the tumor suppressor gene (TSG) inactivation profile for each tumor. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between the changes of 2 cancer gene profiles and the sex discrimination of cancer risk in 7 human neoplasias. Results obtained are as follows: i) The sex discrimination of cancer risk could better be defined by the use of log-transformed AAIR data rather than of untransformed AAIR data. ii) The sex discrimination of cancer risk, as calculated with the AAIR data of 47 population units of the world, is as follows: a) breast cancer (Br), M:F=1:120.2; b) thyroid cancer (Thy), M:F=1:2. 64; c) colon cancer (Co), M:F=1.18:1; d) liver cancer (Li), M:F=2. 63:1; e) lung cancer (Lu), M:F=3.66:1; f) esophageal cancer (Eso), M:F=3.68:1; g) laryngeal cancer (Lar), M:F=7.26:1. iii) Female-dominant cancers were associated with inversion (Br) or defectiveness (Thy) of male oncogene profile, whereas male-dominant cancers were associated with inversion (Lar) or defectiveness (Li, Lu and Eso) of female Onc profiles. Sex-indifferent cancer, Co, was distinguished from other tumors by the emergence of defectiveness in the TSG profiles of both sexes. TSG defectiveness was also detectable in female (Br, Thy) and bisexual (Lu) tumors. iv) The Onc vs TSG interaction, as assessed in terms of r value of the reciprocal regression analysis, was increasing in its positivity rate from the top of the female-dominant family (Br) through the sex-indifferent tumor (Co) to the bottom of the male-dominant family (Lar). In conclusion, the emergence of sex discrimination of cancer risk was positively correlated

  15. Detection of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV in oral mucosa of women with cervical lesions and their relation to oral sex practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinez-Martinez Alejandro

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have either investigated the relationship of HPV with oral cancer or the prevalence of HPV on the oral cavity. The purpose of this investigation was to study the prevalence of HPV in oral cavity of women with oral sex practices and cervical lesions. Methods Forty six (46 non-smokers and non-alcoholic patients attended the "Clínica de Displasias" of "Ciudad Juarez" were sampled. This population had a CIN diagnosis sometime between the previous six months. On previous consent they filled out a questionnaire related to their oral sex practices. Afterwards one swab from cheeks and another from palate/gum were taken; PCR was used to determine generic HPV, HPV16 and HPV18. Results Seventy two percent (72% of the patients stated to have oral sex practices regularly which all of them were positive to HPV either in oral mucus, palate/gum or both. The total of the given results showed that 35% had HPV16; among those distributed in 26% with regular oral sex practices and 9% stated as never practiced oral sex. An association was found between oral HPV16 positivity and progression to cervical CIN advanced lesions. On the other hand HPV18 was not detected. The frequency of HPV16 was higher in buccal mucosa (23% versus palate/gum (16%. Conclusions This study suggests that buccal HPV16 infection is associated with CIN progression.

  16. The influence of sex, race/ethnicity, and educational attainment on human immunodeficiency virus death rates among adults, 1993-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simard, Edgar P; Fransua, Mesfin; Naishadham, Deepa; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2012-11-12

    Overall declines in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) mortality may mask patterns for subgroups, and prior studies of disparities in mortality have used area-level vs individual-level socioeconomic status measures. The aim of this study was to examine temporal trends in HIV mortality by sex, race/ethnicity, and individual level of education (as a proxy for socioeconomic status). We examined HIV deaths among non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic men and women aged 25 to 64 years in 26 states (1993-2007; N=91 307) reported to the National Vital Statistics System. The main outcome measures were age-standardized HIV death rates, rate differences, and rate ratios by educational attainment and between the least- and the most-educated (≤12 vs ≥16 years) individuals. Between 1993-1995 and 2005-2007, mortality declined for most men and women by race/ethnicity and educational levels, with the greatest absolute decreases for nonwhites owing to their higher baseline rates. Among men with the most education, rates per 100 000 population decreased from 117.89 (95% CI, 101.08-134.70) to 15.35 (12.08-18.62) in blacks vs from 26.42 (24.93-27.92) to 1.79 (1.50-2.08) in whites. Rates were unchanged for the least-educated black women (26.76; 95% CI, 24.30-29.23; during 2005-2007) and remained high for similarly educated black men (52.71; 48.96-56.45). Relative declines were greater with increasing levels of education (P educated) increased from 1.04 (95% CI, 0.89-1.21) during 1993-1995 to 3.43 (2.74-4.30) during 2005-2007 for blacks and from 0.98 (0.91-1.05) to 2.82 (2.34-3.40) for whites. Although absolute declines in HIV mortality were greatest for nonwhites, rates remain high among blacks, especially in the lowest educated groups, underscoring the need for additional interventions.

  17. Prevalence and risk factors of anal human papillomavirus infection among HIV-negative men who have sex with men in Urumqi city of Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Tian

    Full Text Available Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV is the most common sexually transmitted infection among men who have sex with men (MSM. Study on prevalence and risk factors of anal HPV infection among HIV-negative MSM in Northwestern China was rare.We performed a cross-sectional study of HPV prevalence using anal swab specimens among HIV-negative MSM in Urumqi city of Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China between April 1st and October 30th in 2016. Prevalence of any anal HPV infection, high-risk and low-risk HPV infection was estimated. Risk factors associated with any anal HPV infection was analyzed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression models.Among 538 potential participants, 500(92.9% were recruited in this study. The genotyping results of anal HPV infection were available for all. Of them, 259 (51.8%, 190 (38.0% and 141(28.2% were positive for at least one of the targeted 37 HPV genotypes, high-risk HPV genotypes, and any low-risk HPV genotypes. The most prevalent anal HPV genotype was HPV 6(11.8%, followed by HPV 16(11.2%, HPV 11(10.8%, HPV 51(7.0% and HPV 18(5.4%.Among those infected with at least one of the targeted 37 anal HPV genotypes, 75(29.0%, 155(59.8% and 191(73.7% were infected with 2-valent, quadrivalent and 9-valent HPV vaccine-covered genotypes. Receptive anal intercourse in the past year was the only predictor of any anal HPV infection in multivariate logistic regression model.Prevalence of any anal HPV infection and high-risk HPV infection among HIV-negative MSM in Urumqi city of Xinjiang is high. The majority of genotypes detected in our study were covered by quadrivalent and 9-valent HPV vaccines. Regular anal exams and early HPV vaccination among MSM may be considered in future HPV prevention programs in Xinjiang, China.

  18. Prevalence of anal human papillomavirus infection and cytologic abnormalities among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected men who have sex with men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Latini

    2014-11-01