WorldWideScience

Sample records for human sera application

  1. Sera radiosterilization: studies and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelin, Severino C.

    2000-01-01

    The application of ionizing radiation for sterilization of animal serum increased rapidly over the last few years, due to the fact that most radiation-resistant living organisms (fungi, bacteria, viruses, etc.) can be readily inactivated without damage to the serum. The quality of sera sterilized by ionizing radiation has been investigated. Radiosterilization was carried out in the frozen state at doses between 25 and 50 kGy. The source of gamma radiation was cobalt 60. To demonstrate that serum proteins did not suffer alterations during the process of irradiation, SDS-PAGE, electrofocusing and non equilibrium pH gradient electrophoresis of the sera were carried out before and after irradiation. The biological efficiency of the irradiated sera was demonstrated by growth curves of several cell lines in cell cultures supplemented with it. The results demonstrated that radiosterilization is a simple and effective method for sera. (author)

  2. BACTERICIDAL ACTIVITY OF HUMAN SERA AGAINST ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    East African Medical Journal Vol. 77 No. 12 December 2000. BACTERICIDAL ACTIVITY OF HUMAN SERA AGAINST SALMONELLA TYPHI AND SALMONELLA PARATYPHI A, B, C. E.O. Igumbor, BSc, MSc, PhD, Department of Medical Microbiology, School of Medicine, University of Zimbabwe P.O. Box Al78, Avondale, ...

  3. 21 CFR 864.2800 - Animal and human sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Animal and human sera. 864.2800 Section 864.2800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Cell And Tissue Culture Products § 864.2800 Animal and...

  4. Characterization of human septic sera induced gene expression modulation in human myocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Hussein, Shaimaa; Michael, Paul; Brabant, Danielle; Omri, Abdelwahab; Narain, Ravin; Passi, Kalpdrum; Ramana, Chilakamarti V.; Parrillo, Joseph E.; Kumar, Anand; Parissenti, Amadeo; Kumar, Aseem

    2009-01-01

    To gain a better understanding of the gene expression changes that occurs during sepsis, we have performed a cDNA microarray study utilizing a tissue culture model that mimics human sepsis. This study utilized an in vitro model of cultured human fetal cardiac myocytes treated with 10% sera from septic patients or 10% sera from healthy volunteers. A 1700 cDNA expression microarray was used to compare the transcription profile from human cardiac myocytes treated with septic sera vs normal sera....

  5. Characterization of human septic sera induced gene expression modulation in human myocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Shaimaa; Michael, Paul; Brabant, Danielle; Omri, Abdelwahab; Narain, Ravin; Passi, Kalpdrum; Ramana, Chilakamarti V.; Parrillo, Joseph E.; Kumar, Anand; Parissenti, Amadeo; Kumar, Aseem

    2009-01-01

    To gain a better understanding of the gene expression changes that occurs during sepsis, we have performed a cDNA microarray study utilizing a tissue culture model that mimics human sepsis. This study utilized an in vitro model of cultured human fetal cardiac myocytes treated with 10% sera from septic patients or 10% sera from healthy volunteers. A 1700 cDNA expression microarray was used to compare the transcription profile from human cardiac myocytes treated with septic sera vs normal sera. Septic sera treatment of myocytes resulted in the down-regulation of 178 genes and the up-regulation of 4 genes. Our data indicate that septic sera induced cell cycle, metabolic, transcription factor and apoptotic gene expression changes in human myocytes. Identification and characterization of gene expression changes that occur during sepsis may lead to the development of novel therapeutics and diagnostics. PMID:19684886

  6. Detection and measurement of antioxidant capacity in human sera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bognar, G.; Koeteles, G.J.; Otos, M.

    1998-01-01

    The total antioxidant capacity of human sera was measured by the Randox TAS assay and an average value of 1.55 mmol/L was found from 87 healthy adult persons. Exogenous antioxidant added to the blood could be measured additively. Upon X-irradiation of whole blood samples, the antioxidant value decreased down to 1 Gy linearly. Further decrease after higher doses, however, could not be detected. Reductions of radiation-induced human lymphocyte micronucleus frequency as a cytogenetic end-point were observed upon increasing the exogenous antioxidant level in serum with a water-soluble form of alpha-tocopherol, or a plant extract from Sylibum marianum L. in vitro. (author)

  7. Antibody reaction of human anti-Toxoplasma gondii positive and negative sera with Neospora caninum antigens

    OpenAIRE

    Nam, Ho-Woo; Kang, Seung-Won; Choi, Won-Young

    1998-01-01

    Anti-Neospora caninum antibody was detected in anti-Toxoplasma gondii positive and negative human sera by ELISA, western blot and immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Twelve cases out of 172 (6.7%) Toxoplasma-positive sera cross-reacted with both T. gondii and N. caninum antigens, and one out of 110 Toxoplasma-negative sera reacted with N. caninum antigen by ELISA. By western blot, all 12 sera reacted with T. gondii antigens with various banding patterns but specifically at 30 kDa (SAG1) and 22 kD...

  8. Identification of Lactobacillus proteins with different recognition patterns between immune rabbit sera and nonimmune mice or human sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górska, Sabina; Buda, Barbara; Brzozowska, Ewa; Schwarzer, Martin; Srutkova, Dagmar; Kozakova, Hana; Gamian, Andrzej

    2016-02-09

    The genus Lactobacillus belongs to a large heterogeneous group of low G + C Gram-positive anaerobic bacteria, which are frequently used as probiotics. The health-beneficial effects, in particular the immunomodulation effect, of probiotics depend on the strain and dose used. Strain variations may be related to diversity of the cell surface architecture of bacteria and the ability to express specific antigens or secrete compounds. The use of Lactobacillus as probiotic requires a comprehensive understanding of its effect on host immune system. To evaluate the potential immunoreactive properties of proteins isolated from four Lactobacillus strains: L. johnsonii 142 and L. johnsonii 151, L. rhamnosus LOCK 0900 and L. casei LOCK 0919, the polyclonal sera obtained from mouse and human have been tested as well as with sera from rabbits immunized with whole lactobacilli cells. The reactivity of isolated proteins detected by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting was heterogeneous and varied between different serum samples. The proteins with the highest immunoreactivity were isolated, purified and sequenced, in particular the fractions were identified as phosphoglycerate kinase (L. johnsonii 142), glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (L. johnosnii 142, L. rhamnosus LOCK 0900), hypothetic protein JDM1_1307 (L. johnsonii 151) and fructose/tagatose-bisphosphate-aldolase (L. casei LOCK 0919). The different prevalence of reactions against tested antigens in rabbit, mouse and human sera may indicate significant differences in immune system and commensal cross-talk in these groups. The identification of immunoreactive lactobacilli proteins opens the possibility to use them as an antigens for development of vaccines.

  9. Sample handling for mass spectrometric proteomic investigations of human sera.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    West-Nielsen, M.; Hogdall, E.V.; Marchiori, E.; Hogdall, C.K.; Schou, C.; Heegaard, N.H.H.

    2005-01-01

    Proteomic investigations of sera are potentially of value for diagnosis, prognosis, choice of therapy, and disease activity assessment by virtue of discovering new biomarkers and biomarker patterns. Much debate focuses on the biological relevance and the need for identification of such biomarkers

  10. 9th International Conference on Software Engineering Research, Management and Applications(SERA 2011)

    CERN Document Server

    Software Engineering Research, Management and Applications 2011

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the 9th International Conference on Software Engineering Research, Management and Applications(SERA 2011) held on August 10-12, 2011 in Baltimore, Maryland was to bring together scientists, engineers, computer users, and students to share their experiences and exchange new ideas and research results about all aspects (theory, applications and tools) of computer and information sciences, and to discuss the practical challenges encountered along the way and the solutions adopted to solve them.   The conference organizers selected 12 outstanding papers from SERA 2011, all of which you will find in this volume of Springer’s Studies in Computational Intelligence.

  11. Antibodies from the sera of HIV-infected patients efficiently hydrolyze all human histones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranova, Svetlana V; Buneva, Valentina N; Nevinsky, Georgy A

    2016-08-01

    Histones and their post-translational modifications have key roles in chromatin remodeling and gene transcription. Besides intranuclear functions, histones act as damage-associated molecular pattern molecules when they are released into the extracellular space. Administration of exogenous histones to animals leads to systemic inflammatory and toxic responses through activating Toll-like receptors and inflammasome pathways. Here, using ELISA it was shown that sera of HIV-infected patients and healthy donors contain autoantibodies against histones. Autoantibodies with enzymic activities (abzymes) are a distinctive feature of autoimmune diseases. It was interesting whether antibodies from sera of HIV-infected patients can hydrolyze human histones. Electrophoretically and immunologically homogeneous IgGs were isolated from sera of HIV-infected patients by chromatography on several affinity sorbents. We present first evidence showing that 100% of IgGs purified from the sera of 32 HIV-infected patients efficiently hydrolyze from one to five human histones. Several rigid criteria have been applied to show that the histone-hydrolyzing activity is an intrinsic property of IgGs of HIV-infected patients. The relative efficiency of hydrolysis of histones (H1, H2a, H2b, H3, and H4) significantly varied for IgGs of different patients. IgGs from the sera of 40% of healthy donors also hydrolyze histones but with an average efficiency approximately 16-fold lower than that of HIV-infected patients. Similar to proteolytic abzymes from the sera of patients with several autoimmune diseases, histone-hydrolyzing IgGs from HIV-infected patients were inhibited by specific inhibitors of serine and of metal-dependent proteases, but an unexpected significant inhibition of the activity by specific inhibitor of thiol-like proteases was also observed. Because IgGs can efficiently hydrolyze histones, a negative role of abzymes in development of acquired immune deficiency syndrome cannot be

  12. Direct assessment of cumulative aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonist activity in sera from experimentally exposed mice and environmentally exposed humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlezinger, Jennifer J; Bernard, Pamela L; Haas, Amelia

    2010-01-01

    (PCB)-exposed Faroe Islanders using an AhR-driven reporter cell line. To validate relationships between serum AhR agonist levels and biological outcomes, AhR agonist activity in mouse sera correlated with toxic end points. AhR agonist activity in unmanipulated ("neat") human sera was compared......, was associated with the frequency of recent pilot whale dinners, but did not correlate with levels of PCBs quantified by GC/MS. Surprisingly, significant "baseline" AhR activity was found in commercial human sera. CONCLUSIONS: An AhR reporter assay revealed cumulative levels of AhR activation potential in neat...

  13. Local production of donkey anti-rabbit's sera for human prolactin radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, Ammar Mohamed Elamin

    2001-11-01

    Pure Rabbit's IgG was used in this study to raise donkey anti rabbit's sera to be used as separating agent in radioimmunoassay. Two healthy donkeys have been immunized. The anti rabbit's sera have been titrated as (i) crude, (ii) purified and dialysed coupled to magnetic particles. Then this antibody was used as separating agent in a radioimmunoassay for measurement of human prolactin (PRL). Coupled Sudanese donkey and rabbit's sera (Sud-DARS) was used as 1/8 titre using chelsea RIA kit for human prolactin while 1/200 of liquid Sud-DARS was found to be the best titre using the Chinese kit. The best condition for estimation of the prolactin were optimized by determining the suitable incubation time and temperature. The assay can be done at room temperature but it should be incubated for 6 hours as recommended by the Chinese kit. Validity tests were done. The regression coefficients were 0.994 and 0.999 for linearity and recovery tests respectively. Measurement of human PRL wa found to be reproducible using Sud-DARS as separating agent since the coefficient of variation (C.V. %) was found to be less than 15% for both within batch and between assays. Comparing Sud D ARS to the Chinese kit, separating agent as reference agent, regression coefficient was found to be 0.977 which indicate that Sud-DARS can be used as separating agent. Prolactin in Sudanese subject was determined using the Chinese kit the Sud-DARS as separating agent. The ranges were 74-398 mIU/L in males and 102-414 mI/L in the preovulatory phase for the females while in the post ovulatory phase it was 114-442 mIU/L. Ovulation was confirmed by measurement of progesterone level 7 days before the next suspected mensuration. (Author)

  14. SERA: Simulation Environment for Radiotherapy Applications - Users Manual Version 1CO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venhuizen, James Robert; Wessol, Daniel Edward; Wemple, Charles Alan; Wheeler, Floyd J; Harkin, G. J.; Frandsen, M. W.; Albright, C. L.; Cohen, M.T.; Rossmeier, M.; Cogliati, J.J.

    2002-06-01

    This document is the user manual for the Simulation Environment for Radiotherapy Applications (SERA) software program developed for boron-neutron capture therapy (BNCT) patient treatment planning by researchers at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and students and faculty at Montana State University (MSU) Computer Science Department. This manual corresponds to the final release of the program, Version 1C0, developed to run under the RedHat Linux Operating System (version 7.2 or newer) or the Solaris™ Operating System (version 2.6 or newer). SERA is a suite of command line or interactively launched software modules, including graphical, geometric reconstruction, and execution interface modules for developing BNCT treatment plans. The program allows the user to develop geometric models of the patient as derived from Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) images, perform dose computation for these geometric models, and display the computed doses on overlays of the original images as three dimensional representations. This manual provides a guide to the practical use of SERA, but is not an exhaustive treatment of each feature of the code.

  15. SERA: Simulation Environment for Radiotherapy Applications - Users Manual Version 1CO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venhuizen, James Robert; Wessol, Daniel Edward; Wemple, Charles Alan; Wheeler, Floyd J; Harkin, G. J.; Frandsen, M. W.; Albright, C. L.; Cohen, M.T.; Rossmeier, M.; Cogliati, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    This document is the user manual for the Simulation Environment for Radiotherapy Applications (SERA) software program developed for boron-neutron capture therapy (BNCT) patient treatment planning by researchers at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and students and faculty at Montana State University (MSU) Computer Science Department. This manual corresponds to the final release of the program, Version 1C0, developed to run under the RedHat Linux Operating System (version 7.2 or newer) or the Solaris Operating System (version 2.6 or newer). SERA is a suite of command line or interactively launched software modules, including graphical, geometric reconstruction, and execution interface modules for developing BNCT treatment plans. The program allows the user to develop geometric models of the patient as derived from Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) images, perform dose computation for these geometric models, and display the computed doses on overlays of the original images as three dimensional representations. This manual provides a guide to the practical use of SERA, but is not an exhaustive treatment of each feature of the code

  16. Deficiency of the Chemotactic Factor Inactivator in Human Sera with α1-Antitrypsin Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Peter A.; Talamo, Richard C.

    1973-01-01

    As revealed by appropriate fractionation procedures, human serum deficient in α1-antitrypsin (α1-AT) is also deficient in the naturally occurring chemotactic factor inactivator. These serum donors had severe pulmonary emphysema. Serum from patients with clinically similar pulmonary disease, but with presence of α1-AT in the serum, showed no such deficiency of the chemotactic factor inactivator. When normal human serum and α1-AT-deficient human sera are chemotactically activated by incubation with immune precipitates, substantially more chemotactic activity is generated in α1-AT-deficient serum. These data indicate that in α1-AT-deficient serum there is an imbalance in the generation and control of chemotactic factors. It is suggested that the theory regarding development of pulmonary emphysema in patients lacking the α1-antitrypsin in their serum should be modified to take into account a deficiency of the chemotactic factor inactivator. PMID:4683887

  17. Detection of antibodies to bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan in human sera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heymer, B.; Schleifer, K.H.; Read, S.; Zabriskie, J.B.; Krause, R.M.

    1976-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay has been developed for the measurement of antibodies to peptidoglycan in human sera including patients with rheumatic feaver and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. The assay is based on the percentage of binding of the hapten 125 I-L-Ala-γ-D-Glu-L-Lys-D-Ala-D-Ala, the major peptide determinant of peptidoglycan. Because of differences in the avidity of the antibodies in different sera, the amount of antibody was expressed as pentapeptide hapten-binding capacity (pentapeptide-HBC in ng/ml of serum). Fourteen out of 105 normal blood donors had a pentapeptide-HBC value greater than or equal to 75 ng/ml serum. Values in healthy children 5 to 18 years of age were less than or equal to 50 ng/ml. Sixty-eight percent of the individuals with rheumatic fever had values greater than or equal to 75 ng/ml, an indication that streptococcal infections can stimulate an immune response to peptidoglycan. Thirty-five percent of the patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis had values greater than or equal to 75 ng/ml. Such a finding points to a possible association between bacterial infections and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis

  18. A paper radioimmunosorbent test (PRIST) for the detection of larva-specific antibodies to Toxocara canis in human sera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.V.; Quinn, R.; Bruce, R.G.; Girdwood, R.W.A.

    1980-01-01

    A paper radioimmunosorbent test (PRIST) was shown to be sensitive and reproducible when used with excretory/secretory antigen of Toxocara canis second stage larvae. Whatman No. 50 filter paper (5 mm discs) gave the most consistent and clear results with antigen at a concentration of 100 μg/ml, and could be stored for up to 3 weeks in vacuo at -70 0 C. Antigen coated discs were incubated with test sera at 1 : 10 dilution for 3 h at room temperature (21 0 C), reacted with [ 125 I]anti-human IgG for 1 h and counts determined in a gamma counter. Sera from patients with fascioliasis, taeniasis, schistosomiasis, oxyuriasis, trichinellosis and ancyclostomiasis gave counts similar to cord serum controls. Sera from patients with ascariasis gave counts of up to twice as great as controls, but sera from patients with toxicariasis produced counts of 7,000-13,000, a 4-6 fold increase. (Auth.)

  19. Differential reactivity of immune sera from human vaccinees with field strains of eastern equine encephalitis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strizki, J M; Repik, P M

    1995-11-01

    Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that can produce a severe and often fatal acute encephalitis in humans, with significant neurologic sequelae in survivors. Due to the serious nature of the disease, an investigational inactivated EEE vaccine (PE-6) is available to individuals at risk for infection. Both serologic and recent molecular analyses of EEE viruses have demonstrated marked differences between the two antigenic varieties of EEE virus, designated North American (NA) and South American (SA). In view of these findings, we have examined the reactivity of sera from three individuals immunized with the EEE vaccine, derived from an NA isolate, with field strains of EEE virus. Anti-EEE serum antibodies from vaccinees reacted strongly in Western blot assays with both of the envelope (E1 and E2) glycoproteins of each NA strain examined, while reactivities with the glycoproteins of SA strains were substantially weaker and variable and dependent upon both the immune response of the vaccinee and the virus isolate assayed. Most striking was the modest to virtual lack of reactivity with the E2 protein of SA strains. Antigenic differences among the glycoproteins of EEE viruses were not as pronounced in immunoprecipitation analysis. Most significantly, although human immune sera displayed high neutralizing titers against each of the NA isolates examined, only negligible neutralizing titers were obtained against SA isolates. These data suggest that immunized individuals would mount an effective antibody response against infection with NA strains of EEE virus, but that further investigation is clearly warranted to fully assess the protective capability of the vaccine against infection with SA strains.

  20. Expression of Recombinant Streptokinase from Streptococcus Pyogenes and its Reaction with Infected Human and Murine Sera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molaee, Neda; Abtahi, Hamid; Mosayebi, Ghasem

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s): Streptokinase (SKa) is an antigenic protein which is secreted by Streptococcus pyogenes. Streptokinase induces inflammation by complement activation, which may play a role in post infectious diseases. In the present study, recombinant streptokinase from S. pyogenes was produced and showed that recombinant SKa protein was recognized by infected human sera using Western blot analysis. Materials and Methods: In this study, the ska gene from S. pyogenes was amplified and cloned into pET32a which is a prokaryotic expression vector. pET32a-ska was transformed to Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) pLysS and gene expression was induced by IPTG. Protein production was improved by modification of composition of the bacterial culture media and altering the induction time by IPTG. The expressed protein was purified by affinity chromatography using the Ni-NTA resin. The integrity of the product was confirmed by Westernblot analysis using infected mice. Serum reactivity of five infected individuals was further analyzed against the recombinant SKa protein. Results: Data indicated that recombinant SKa protein from S. pyogenes can be recognized by patient and mice sera. The concentration of the purified recombinant protein was 3.2 mg/L of initial culture. The highest amount of the expressed protein after addition of IPTG was obtained in a bacterial culture without glucose with the culture optical density of 0.8 (OD600 = 0.8). Conclusion : Present data shows, recombinant SKa protein has same epitopes with natural form of this antigen. Recombinant SKa also seemed to be a promising antigen for the serologic diagnosis of S. pyogenes infections. PMID:24171077

  1. Expression of Recombinant Streptokinase from Streptococcus Pyogenes and Its Reaction with Infected Human and Murine Sera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Molaee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: Streptokinase (SKa is an antigenic protein which is secreted by Streptococcus pyogenes. Streptokinase induces inflammation by complement activation, which may play a role in post infectious diseases. In the present study, recombinant streptokinase from S. pyogenes was produced and showed that recombinant SKa protein was recognized by infected human sera using Western blot analysis.   Materials and Methods: In this study, the ska gene from S. pyogenes was amplified and cloned into pET32a which is a prokaryotic expression vector. pET32a-ska was transformed to Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3 pLysS and gene expression was induced by IPTG. Protein production was improved by modification of composition of the bacterial culture media and altering the induction time by IPTG. The expressed protein was purified by affinity chromatography using the Ni-NTA resin. The integrity of the product was confirmed by Westernblot analysis using infected mice. Serum reactivity of five infected individuals was further analyzed against the recombinant SKa protein. Results: Data indicated that recombinant SKa protein from S. pyogenes can be recognized by patient and mice sera. The concentration of the purified recombinant protein was 3.2 mg/L of initial culture. The highest amount of the expressed protein after addition of IPTG was obtained in a bacterial culture without glucose with the culture optical density of 0.8 (OD600 = 0.8. Conclusion : Present data shows, recombinant SKa protein has same epitopes with natural form of this antigen. Recombinant SKa also seemed to be a promising antigen for the serologic diagnosis of S. pyogenes infections.

  2. LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHIC / MASS SPECTROMETRIC DETERMINATION OF MORPHINE, CODEINE AND COCAINE IN HUMAN SERA USING A NEW INTERNAL SURFACE REVERSED PHASE COLUMN

    OpenAIRE

    Hattori, Hideki; Arinobu, Tetsuya; Iwai, Masae; Suzuki, Osamu; Seno, Hiroshi

    2003-01-01

    A new internal surface reversed phase column (Shim-pack MAYI-ODS) was used for analysis of morphine, codeine and cocaine in human sera by LC/MS/MS. The column enabled direct injection of crude biological samples without pretreatment realizing a rapid analytical procedure. Therecoveries of morphine, codeine and cocaine spiked into human sera were 50-60 %. The regression equations for morphine, codeine and cocaine in sera, using atropine as internal standard, showed good linearity in the ranges...

  3. Immunoreactive proteins of Bifidobacterium longum ssp. longum CCM 7952 and Bifidobacterium longum ssp. longum CCDM 372 identified by gnotobiotic mono-colonized mice sera, immune rabbit sera and nonimmune human sera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Górska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Bifidobacteria show great diversity in the cell surface architecture which may influence the physicochemical properties of the bacterial cell and strain specific properties. The immunomodulatory role of bifidobacteria has been extensively studied, however studies on the immunoreactivity of their protein molecules are very limited. Here, we compared six different methods of protein isolation and purification and we report identification of immunogenic and immunoreactive protein of two human Bifidobacterium longum ssp. longum strains. We evaluated potential immunoreactive properties of proteins employing polyclonal sera obtained from germ free mouse, rabbit and human. The protein yield was isolation method-dependent and the reactivity of proteins detected by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting was heterogeneous and varied between different serum samples. The proteins with the highest immunoreactivity were isolated, purified and have them sequenced. Among the immunoreactive proteins we identified enolase, aspartokinase, pyruvate kinase, DnaK (B. longum ssp. longum CCM 7952 and sugar ABC transporter ATP-binding protein, phosphoglycerate kinase, peptidoglycan synthethase penicillin-binding protein 3, transaldolase, ribosomal proteins and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (B. longum ssp. longum CCDM 372.

  4. Immunoreactive Proteins of Bifidobacterium longum ssp. longum CCM 7952 and Bifidobacterium longum ssp. longum CCDM 372 Identified by Gnotobiotic Mono-Colonized Mice Sera, Immune Rabbit Sera and Non-immune Human Sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górska, Sabina; Dylus, Ewa; Rudawska, Angelika; Brzozowska, Ewa; Srutkova, Dagmar; Schwarzer, Martin; Razim, Agnieszka; Kozakova, Hana; Gamian, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    The Bifidobacteria show great diversity in the cell surface architecture which may influence the physicochemical properties of the bacterial cell and strain specific properties. The immunomodulatory role of bifidobacteria has been extensively studied, however studies on the immunoreactivity of their protein molecules are very limited. Here, we compared six different methods of protein isolation and purification and we report identification of immunogenic and immunoreactive protein of two human Bifidobacterium longum ssp. longum strains. We evaluated potential immunoreactive properties of proteins employing polyclonal sera obtained from germ free mouse, rabbit and human. The protein yield was isolation method-dependent and the reactivity of proteins detected by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting was heterogeneous and varied between different serum samples. The proteins with the highest immunoreactivity were isolated, purified and have them sequenced. Among the immunoreactive proteins we identified enolase, aspartokinase, pyruvate kinase, DnaK ( B. longum ssp. longum CCM 7952) and sugar ABC transporter ATP-binding protein, phosphoglycerate kinase, peptidoglycan synthethase penicillin-binding protein 3, transaldolase, ribosomal proteins and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase ( B. longum ssp. longum CCDM 372).

  5. Biofilm and planktonic pneumococci demonstrate disparate immunoreactivity to human convalescent sera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivshankar Pooja

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus is the leading cause of otitis media, community-acquired pneumonia (CAP, sepsis, and meningitis. It is now evident that S. pneumoniae forms biofilms during nasopharyngeal colonization; the former which facilitates persistence, the latter, a prerequisite for subsequent development of invasive disease. Proteomic evaluation of S. pneumoniae suggests the antigen profile available for host-recognition is altered as a consequence of biofilm growth. This has potentially meaningful implications in regards to adaptive immunity and protection from disseminated disease. We therefore examined the antigen profile of biofilm and planktonic pneumococcal cell lysates, tested their reactivity with human convalescent sera and that generated against biofilm pneumococci, and examined whether immunization with biofilm pneumococci protected mice against infectious challenge. Results Biofilm pneumococci have dramatically altered protein profiles versus their planktonic counterparts. During invasive disease the humoral immune response is skewed towards the planktonic protein profile. Immunization with biofilm bacteria does not elicit a strong-cross-reactive humoral response against planktonic bacteria nor confer resistance against challenge with a virulent isolate from another serotype. We identified numerous proteins, including Pneumococcal serine-rich repeat protein (PsrP, which may serve as a protective antigens against both colonization and invasive disease. Conclusion Differential protein production by planktonic and biofilm pneumococci provides a potential explanation for why individuals remain susceptible to invasive disease despite previous colonization events. These findings also strongly suggest that differential protein production during colonization and disease be considered during the selection of antigens for any future protein vaccine.

  6. Immunodetection of Fasciola gigantica Circulating Antigen in Sera of Infected Individuals for Laboratory Diagnosis of Human Fascioliasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attallah, Abdelfattah M.; Bughdadi, Faisal A.; El-Shazly, Atef M.

    2013-01-01

    Currently, the laboratory diagnosis of human fascioliasis is based on the parasitological examination of parasite eggs in stool specimens and serological detection of specific antibodies in serum samples, which are often unreliable diagnostic approaches. Ideally, a sensitive and specific diagnostic test for Fasciola infection should be based on the detection of circulating Fasciola antigen, which implies active infection. Here, a 27-kDa-molecular-mass antigen was identified in a Fasciola gigantica adult worm antigen preparation, excretory-secretory products, and sera from F. gigantica-infected individuals, and it was not detected in antigenic extracts of other parasites and sera from noninfected individuals. The target antigen was isolated and partially characterized as a protein. Immunoperoxidase staining located the target epitope within teguments and guts of F. gigantica adult worms. The performance characteristics of a newly developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on F. gigantica circulating antigen detection in serum (FgCA-27 ELISA) were investigated using sera of 120 parasitologically diagnosed F. gigantica-infected individuals and 80 noninfected individuals. The area under the receiving operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) for ELISA was significantly high (AUC = 0.961, P 93%), and a significant correlation (r = 0.715, P fascioliasis. PMID:23945158

  7. Immunodetection of Fasciola gigantica circulating antigen in sera of infected individuals for laboratory diagnosis of human fascioliasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attallah, Abdelfattah M; Bughdadi, Faisal A; El-Shazly, Atef M; Ismail, Hisham

    2013-10-01

    Currently, the laboratory diagnosis of human fascioliasis is based on the parasitological examination of parasite eggs in stool specimens and serological detection of specific antibodies in serum samples, which are often unreliable diagnostic approaches. Ideally, a sensitive and specific diagnostic test for Fasciola infection should be based on the detection of circulating Fasciola antigen, which implies active infection. Here, a 27-kDa-molecular-mass antigen was identified in a Fasciola gigantica adult worm antigen preparation, excretory-secretory products, and sera from F. gigantica-infected individuals, and it was not detected in antigenic extracts of other parasites and sera from noninfected individuals. The target antigen was isolated and partially characterized as a protein. Immunoperoxidase staining located the target epitope within teguments and guts of F. gigantica adult worms. The performance characteristics of a newly developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on F. gigantica circulating antigen detection in serum (FgCA-27 ELISA) were investigated using sera of 120 parasitologically diagnosed F. gigantica-infected individuals and 80 noninfected individuals. The area under the receiving operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) for ELISA was significantly high (AUC = 0.961, P 93%), and a significant correlation (r = 0.715, P fascioliasis.

  8. Determination and application of immunodominant regions of SARS coronavirus spike and nucleocapsid proteins recognized by sera from different animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Meng; Stevens, Vicky; Berry, Jody D; Crameri, Gary; McEachern, Jennifer; Tu, Changchun; Shi, Zhengli; Liang, Guodong; Weingartl, Hana; Cardosa, Jane; Eaton, Bryan T; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2008-02-29

    Knowledge of immunodominant regions in major viral antigens is important for rational design of effective vaccines and diagnostic tests. Although there have been many reports of such work done for SARS-CoV, these were mainly focused on the immune responses of humans and mice. In this study, we aim to search for and compare immunodominant regions of the spike (S) and nucleocapsid (N) proteins which are recognized by sera from different animal species, including mouse, rat, rabbit, civet, pig and horse. Twelve overlapping recombinant protein fragments were produced in Escherichia coli, six each for the S and N proteins, which covered the entire coding region of the two proteins. Using a membrane-strip based Western blot approach, the reactivity of each antigen fragment against a panel of animal sera was determined. Immunodominant regions containing linear epitopes, which reacted with sera from all the species tested, were identified for both proteins. The S3 fragment (aa 402-622) and the N4 fragment (aa 220-336) were the most immunodominant among the six S and N fragments, respectively. Antibodies raised against the S3 fragment were able to block the binding of a panel of S-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to SARS-CoV in ELISA, further demonstrating the immunodominance of this region. Based on these findings, one-step competition ELISAs were established which were able to detect SARS-CoV antibodies from human and at least seven different animal species. Considering that a large number of animal species are known to be susceptible to SARS-CoV, these assays will be a useful tool to trace the origin and transmission of SARS-CoV and to minimise the risk of animal-to-human transmission.

  9. Evaluation of an Immunochromatographic Test for Rapid and Reliable Serodiagnosis of Human Tularemia and Detection of Francisella tularensis-Specific Antibodies in Sera from Different Mammalian Species ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splettstoesser, W.; Guglielmo-Viret, V.; Seibold, E.; Thullier, P.

    2010-01-01

    Tularemia is a highly contagious infectious zoonosis caused by the bacterial agent Francisella tularensis. Serology is still considered to be a cornerstone in tularemia diagnosis due to the low sensitivity of bacterial culture and the lack of standardization in PCR methodology for the direct identification of the pathogen. We developed a novel immunochromatographic test (ICT) to efficiently detect F. tularensis-specific antibodies in sera from humans and other mammalian species (nonhuman primate, pig, and rabbit). This new tool requires none or minimal laboratory equipment, and the results are obtained within 15 min. When compared to the method of microagglutination, which was shown to be more specific than the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, the ICT had a sensitivity of 98.3% (58 positive sera were tested) and a specificity of 96.5% (58 negative sera were tested) on human sera. On animal sera, the overall sensitivity was 100% (22 positive sera were tested) and specificity was also 100% (70 negative sera were tested). This rapid test preferentially detects IgG antibodies that may occur early in the course of human tularemia, but further evaluation with human sera is important to prove that the ICT can be a valuable field test to support a presumptive diagnosis of tularemia. The ICT can also be a useful tool to monitor successful vaccination with subunit vaccines or live vaccine strains containing lipopolysaccharide (e.g., LVS) and to detect seropositive individuals or animals in outbreak situations or in the context of epidemiologic surveillance programs in areas of endemicity as recently recommended by the World Health Organization. PMID:20220165

  10. Yellow fever virus envelope protein expressed in insect cells is capable of syncytium formation in lepidopteran cells and could be used for immunodetection of YFV in human sera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagata Tatsuya

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Yellow fever is an haemorrhagic disease caused by a virus that belongs to the genus Flavivirus (Flaviviridae family and is transmitted by mosquitoes. Among the viral proteins, the envelope protein (E is the most studied one, due to its high antigenic potencial. Baculovirus are one of the most popular and efficient eukaryotic expression system. In this study a recombinant baculovirus (vSynYFE containing the envelope gene (env of the 17D vaccine strain of yellow fever virus was constructed and the recombinant protein antigenicity was tested. Results Insect cells infected with vSynYFE showed syncytium formation, which is a cytopathic effect characteristic of flavivirus infection and expressed a polypeptide of around 54 kDa, which corresponds to the expected size of the recombinant E protein. Furthermore, the recombinant E protein expression was also confirmed by fluorescence microscopy of vSynYFE-infected insect cells. Total vSynYFE-infected insect extracts used as antigens detected the presence of antibodies for yellow fever virus in human sera derived from yellow fever-infected patients in an immunoassay and did not cross react with sera from dengue virus-infected patients. Conclusions The E protein expressed by the recombinant baculovirus in insect cells is antigenically similar to the wild protein and it may be useful for different medical applications, from improved diagnosis of the disease to source of antigens for the development of a subunit vaccine.

  11. Effects of sera obtained from electrically charged human body on action potential of giant axon of squid and its relationship to the therapy of the atomic bomb sequela, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirofuji, Michio; Hatashita, Toshiyuki; Takemura, Hideyuki; Oda, Nobuo.

    1984-01-01

    The giant axon of squid was perfused for 20 min with sea water and four kinds of mixture of sera and sea water (1:2), and spike potential of the axon was compared by using a computer. Perfusates used were sea water, sera obtained before electric charge to the human body (pre-sera), sera obtained from the human body electrically charged with -300 volt (negative sera), and sera obtained from the human body electrically charged with +300 volt (positive sera). Negative sera increased action potential of the axon, and positive sera decreased action potential of the axon. These results revealed that negative sera have a greater deal of e - , and positive sera have less quantity of e - than pre-sera, suggesting the involvement of e - in the action potential of the axon. Microtubules in the inner part of the axonal membrane and cell membrane seem to be most greatly related to e - ; however, changes in the other axons, cell membrane and protoplasm should also be taken into account. These experimental results seem to be of great value, particularly providing useful information on the treatment for late effects (cell damage) of atomic bombing or burn. (Namekawa, K.)

  12. Congenital heart block maternal sera autoantibodies target an extracellular epitope on the α1G T-type calcium channel in human fetal hearts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linn S Strandberg

    Full Text Available Congenital heart block (CHB is a transplacentally acquired autoimmune disease associated with anti-Ro/SSA and anti-La/SSB maternal autoantibodies and is characterized primarily by atrioventricular (AV block of the fetal heart. This study aims to investigate whether the T-type calcium channel subunit α1G may be a fetal target of maternal sera autoantibodies in CHB.We demonstrate differential mRNA expression of the T-type calcium channel CACNA1G (α1G gene in the AV junction of human fetal hearts compared to the apex (18-22.6 weeks gestation. Using human fetal hearts (20-22 wks gestation, our immunoprecipitation (IP, Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence (IF staining results, taken together, demonstrate accessibility of the α1G epitope on the surfaces of cardiomyocytes as well as reactivity of maternal serum from CHB affected pregnancies to the α1G protein. By ELISA we demonstrated maternal sera reactivity to α1G was significantly higher in CHB maternal sera compared to controls, and reactivity was epitope mapped to a peptide designated as p305 (corresponding to aa305-319 of the extracellular loop linking transmembrane segments S5-S6 in α1G repeat I. Maternal sera from CHB affected pregnancies also reacted more weakly to the homologous region (7/15 amino acids conserved of the α1H channel. Electrophysiology experiments with single-cell patch-clamp also demonstrated effects of CHB maternal sera on T-type current in mouse sinoatrial node (SAN cells.Taken together, these results indicate that CHB maternal sera antibodies readily target an extracellular epitope of α1G T-type calcium channels in human fetal cardiomyocytes. CHB maternal sera also show reactivity for α1H suggesting that autoantibodies can target multiple fetal targets.

  13. 12th International Conference on Software Engineering, Arti fi cial Intelligence Research, Management and Applications (SERA 2014)

    CERN Document Server

    Software Engineering Research, Management and Applications

    2015-01-01

    This edited book presents scientific results of the 12th International Conference on Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence Research, Management and Applications (SERA 2014) held on August 31 – September 4, 2014 in Kitakyushu, Japan.  The aim of this conference was to bring together researchers and scientists, businessmen and entrepreneurs, teachers, engineers, computer users, and students to discuss the numerous fields of computer science and to share their experiences and exchange new ideas and information in a meaningful way. Research results about all aspects (theory, applications and tools) of computer and information science, and to discuss the practical challenges encountered along the way and the solutions adopted to solve them. This publication captures 17 of the conference’s most promising papers.

  14. Human sera IgE reacts with a Metarhizium anisopliae fungal catalase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Previous studies have demonstrated that Metarhzium anisopliae extract can induce immune responses in a mouse model that are characteristic of human allergic asthma. Objectives: The objective of this study was to identify and characterize the extract proteins t...

  15. Testing UK blood donors for exposure to human parvovirus 4 using a time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay to screen sera and Western blot to confirm reactive samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maple, Peter A C; Beard, Stuart; Parry, Ruth P; Brown, Kevin E

    2013-10-01

    Human parvovirus 4 (ParV4), a newly described member of the family Parvoviridae, like B19V, has been found in pooled plasma preparations. The extent, and significance, of ParV4 exposure in UK blood donors remain to be determined and reliable detection of ParV4 immunoglobulin (Ig)G, using validated methods, is needed. With ParV4 virus-like particles a ParV4 IgG time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay (TRFIA) was developed. There is no gold standard or reference assay for measuring ParV4 IgG and the utility of the TRFIA was first examined using a panel of sera from people who inject drugs (PWIDS)--a high-prevalence population for ParV4 infection. Western blotting was used to confirm the specificity of TRFIA-reactive sera. Two cohorts of UK blood donor sera comprising 452 sera collected in 1999 and 156 sera collected in 2009 were tested for ParV4 IgG. Additional testing for B19V IgG, hepatitis C virus antibodies (anti-HCV), and ParV4 DNA was also undertaken. The rate of ParV4 IgG seroprevalence in PWIDS was 20.7% and ParV4 IgG was positively associated with the presence of anti-HCV with 68.4% ParV4 IgG-positive sera testing anti-HCV-positive versus 17.1% ParV4 IgG-negative sera. Overall seropositivity for ParV4 IgG, in 608 UK blood donors was 4.76%. The ParV4 IgG seropositivity for sera collected in 1999 was 5.08%, compared to 3.84% for sera collected in 2009. No ParV4 IgG-positive blood donor sera had detectable ParV4 DNA. ParV4 IgG has been found in UK blood donors and this finding needs further investigation. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  16. A novel synthetic peptide microarray assay detects Chlamydia species-specific antibodies in animal and human sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachse, Konrad; Rahman, Kh Shamsur; Schnee, Christiane; Müller, Elke; Peisker, Madlen; Schumacher, Thomas; Schubert, Evelyn; Ruettger, Anke; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard; Ehricht, Ralf

    2018-03-16

    Serological analysis of Chlamydia (C.) spp. infections is still mainly based on micro-immunofluorescence and ELISA. To overcome the limitations of conventional serology, we have designed a novel microarray carrying 52 synthetic peptides representing B-cell epitopes from immunodominant proteins of all 11 chlamydial species. The new assay has been validated using monospecific mouse hyperimmune sera. Subsequently, serum samples from cattle, sheep and humans with a known history of chlamydial infection were examined. For instance, the specific humoral response of sheep to treatment with a C. abortus vaccine has been visualized against a background of C. pecorum carriership. In samples from humans, dual infection with C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae could be demonstrated. The experiments revealed that the peptide microarray assay was capable of simultaneously identifying specific antibodies to each Chlamydia spp. The actual assay represents an open platform test that can be complemented through future advances in Chlamydia proteome research. The concept of the highly parallel multi-antigen microarray proven in this study has the potential to enhance our understanding of antibody responses by defining not only a single quantitative response, but also the pattern of this response. The added value of using peptide antigens will consist in unprecedented serodiagnostic specificity.

  17. Autoantibody profiling on human proteome microarray for biomarker discovery in cerebrospinal fluid and sera of neuropsychiatric lupus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaojun Hu

    Full Text Available Autoantibodies in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF from patients with neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE may be potential biomarkers for prediction, diagnosis, or prognosis of NPSLE. We used a human proteome microarray with~17,000 unique full-length human proteins to investigate autoantibodies associated with NPSLE. Twenty-nine CSF specimens from 12 NPSLE, 7 non-NPSLE, and 10 control (non-systemic lupus erythematosuspatients were screened for NPSLE-associated autoantibodies with proteome microarrays. A focused autoantigen microarray of candidate NPSLE autoantigens was applied to profile a larger cohort of CSF with patient-matched sera. We identified 137 autoantigens associated with NPSLE. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that these autoantigens were enriched for functions involved in neurological diseases (score = 43.Anti-proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA was found in the CSF of NPSLE and non-NPSLE patients. The positive rates of 4 autoantibodies in CSF specimens were significantly different between the SLE (i.e., NPSLE and non-NPSLE and control groups: anti-ribosomal protein RPLP0, anti-RPLP1, anti-RPLP2, and anti-TROVE2 (also known as anti-Ro/SS-A. The positive rate for anti-SS-A associated with NPSLE was higher than that for non-NPSLE (31.11% cf. 10.71%; P = 0.045.Further analysis showed that anti-SS-A in CSF specimens was related to neuropsychiatric syndromes of the central nervous system in SLE (P = 0.009. Analysis with Spearman's rank correlation coefficient indicated that the titers of anti-RPLP2 and anti-SS-A in paired CSF and serum specimens significantly correlated. Human proteome microarrays offer a powerful platform to discover novel autoantibodies in CSF samples. Anti-SS-A autoantibodies may be potential CSF markers for NPSLE.

  18. 10th ACIS International Conference on Software Engineering Research, Management and Applications (SERA 2012)

    CERN Document Server

    Software Engineering Research, Management and Applications 2012

    2012-01-01

    The series Studies in Computational Intelligence (SCI) publishes new developments and advances in the various areas of computational intelligence-quickly and with a high quality.  The intent is to cover the theory, applications, and design methods of computational intelligence, as embedded in the fields of engineering, computer science, physics and life science, as well as the methodologies behind them.  The series contains monographs, lecture notes and edited volumes in computational intelligence spanning the areas of neural networks, connectionist systems, genetic algorithms, evolutionary computation, artificial intelligence, cellular automata, self-organizing systems, soft computing, fuzzy systems and hybrid intelligent systems. Critical to both contributors and readers are the short publication time and world-wide distribution-this permits a rapid and broad dissemination of research results.  The purpose of the 10th International Conference on Software Engineering Research, Management and Applications(...

  19. Sera from Preeclampsia Patients Elicit Symptoms of Human Disease in Mice and Provide a Basis for an in Vitro Predictive Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Kalkunte, Satyan; Boij, Roland; Norris, Wendy; Friedman, Jennifer; Lai, Zhongbin; Kurtis, Jonathan; Lim, Kee-Hak; Padbury, James F.; Matthiesen, Leif; Sharma, Surendra

    2010-01-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment of preeclampsia would significantly reduce maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. However, its etiology and prediction have remained elusive. Based on the hypothesis that sera from patients with preeclampsia could function as a “blueprint” of causative factors, we describe a serum-based pregnancy-specific mouse model that closely mirrors the human condition as well as an in vitro predictive assay. We show that a single administration of human preeclampsia se...

  20. Detection of toxoplasma-specific immunoglobulin G in human sera: performance comparison of in house Dot-ELISA with ECLIA and ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teimouri, Aref; Modarressi, Mohammad Hossein; Shojaee, Saeedeh; Mohebali, Mehdi; Zouei, Nima; Rezaian, Mostafa; Keshavarz, Hossein

    2018-05-08

    In the current study, performance of electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA) in detection of anti-toxoplasma IgG in human sera was compared with that of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Furthermore, performance of an in house Dot-ELISA in detection of anti-toxoplasma IgG was compared with that of ECLIA and ELISA. In total, 219 human sera were tested to detect anti-toxoplasma IgG using Dynex DS2® and Roche Cobas® e411 Automated Analyzers. Discordant results rechecked using immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Then, sera were used in an in house Dot-ELISA to assess toxoplasma-specific IgG. Of the 219 samples, two samples were found undetermined using ECLIA but reactive using ELISA. Using IFA, the two sera were reported unreactive. Furthermore, two samples were found reactive using ECLIA and unreactive using ELISA. These samples were reported reactive using IFA. The overall agreement for the two former methods was 98% (rZ0.98.1; P house Dot-ELISA included sensitivity of 79.5, specificity of 78.2, and accuracy of 78.9%, compared to ECLIA and ELISA. Positive and negative predictive values included 82.9 and 74.2%, respectively. A 100% sensitivity was found in in house Dot-ELISA for highly reactive sera in ECLIA and ELISA. ECLIA is appropriate for the first-line serological screening tests and can replace ELISA due to high speed, sensitivity, and specificity, particularly in large laboratories. Dot-ELISA is a rapid, sensitive, specific, cost-effective, user-friendly, and field-portable technique and hence can be used for screening toxoplasmosis, especially in rural fields or less equipped laboratories.

  1. Persistence of atovaquone in human sera following treatment: inhibition of Plasmodium falciparum development in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, Geoff A; Sinden, Robert E

    2003-01-01

    Published pharmacokinetic data indicate that after treatment of patients with therapeutic doses of atovaquone/proguanil hydrochloride (Malarone, GlaxoSmithKline Research Triangle Park, NC), the plasma half-lives of these drugs are 70h and 15h, respectively. However, using two biologic assays (mosquito transmission and in vitro asexual stage development), we demonstrate here that sera from volunteers treated with atovaquone/proguanil retained activity against Plasmodium falciparum up to 6 weeks after such treatment. This activity was due to atovaquone, as administration of this drug alone replicated the data obtained with the combination. Most notably, asexual stage development of an atovaquone-resistant strain (NGATV01) of P. falciparum was not inhibited by sera taken after atovaquone treatment. These data indicate that for atovaquone, biologic assays, though not quantitative, are more sensitive than the usual physicochemical assays. Also, persistence of atovaquone in plasma at low concentrations for long periods may increase the risk of resistant parasites arising.

  2. Sphero-echinocytosis of human red blood cells caused by snake, red-back spider, bee and blue-ringed octopus venoms and its inhibition by snake sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flachsenberger, W; Leigh, C M; Mirtschin, P J

    1995-06-01

    It was found that bee (Apis mellifera) venom, red-back spider (Latrodectus mactans) venom, blue-ringed octopus (Hapalochlaena maculosa) venom, ten different snake venoms, phospholipase A2 and four snake toxins caused sphero-echinocytosis of human red blood cells at 200 ng/ml. Most venoms and toxins lost the ability to deform human red blood cells when their components of less than mol. wt 10,000 were applied. In a number of cases the sphero-echinocytotic effect was also inhibited by blood sera of Notechis scutatus and Pseudonaja textilis.

  3. A three-layer immunoradiometric assay for determination of IgG subclass antibodies in Human Sera (''IgG subclass RAST'')

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djurup, R.; Soendergaard, I.; Weeke, B.; University of Copenhagen, Denmark); Magnusson, C.G.M.

    1984-01-01

    We report the development of a three-layer immunoradiometric assay (TIRA) for measurement of IgG antibodies of all four subclasses in human sera. The first layer consists of diluted human serum, the second layer is monoclonal mouse antibodies to human IgG subclasses, and the third layer is 125 I-labelled rabbit anti-mouse IgG. Monoclonal anti-IgGI, anti-IgG3 and anti-IgG4 reacted only with their complementary IgG subclass, whereas the anti-IgG2 showed slight cross-reactivity to immunoglobins of other subclasses and classes and to light chain proteins. The observed cross-reactivity was found to be without importance, when the TIRA was applied to measurement of IgG subclass antibodies. Equipotency was established by use of appropriate dilutions of the monoclonal antibodies, and the assay was calibrated by use of human reference serum. The TIRA therefore permits reliable inter-individual and intra-individual comparisons of the IgG antibody response in all four subclasses. Non-specific binding obtained with pooled normal human serum was below 0.33%. Inter-assay coefficient of variation was between 18 and 27%. The TIRA was applied to measurement of IgG subclass antibodies to timothy grass pollen in sera from grass pollen allergies undergoing immunotherapy. (author)

  4. Detection of IgE in the sera of rodents: comparison of the applicability of ELISA and RIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiner, G; Zahner, H [Institut fuer Parasitologie der Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen, Germany, F.R.; Haque, A [Institut Pasteur, 59 - Lille (France). Centre d' Immunologie et de Biologie Parasitaire

    1984-04-13

    RIA and ELISA were compared for their ability to detect IgE in different rodent species. With a sheep anti-rat IgE antibody good correlation (P < 0.001) between the 2 assay methods for IgE was found in rats. RIA failed to detect the IgE of Mastomys natalensis while ELISA proved to be a suitable test. However, both tests failed to measure IgE in sera of Nile rats.

  5. Radioimmunoassay of creatine kinase-B isoenzyme in human sera: results in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willerson, J.T.; Stone, M.J.; Ting, R.; Mukherjee, A.; Gomez-Sanchez, C.E.; Lewis, P.; Hersh, L.B.

    1977-01-01

    A radiommunoassay was developed to measure serum levels of the B isoenzyme of creatine kinase (ATP: creatine N-phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.3.2) (CPK) in order to evaluate the time course and frequency of MB isoenzyme elevation in patients with acute myocardial infarction. The method can identify as little as 0.2 ng of the B portion of the CPK-MB isoenzyme, does not significantly crossreact with CPK-MM isoenzyme, and is not affected by storage of serum at -20 0 . CPK isoenzyme containing B subunits was detected in 48 out of 51 sera from normal adults; serum levels in these individuals ranged between 1.2 and 12.5 ng/ml[mean +- SEM was 2.7 +- 0.30 ng/ml]. The mean serum level of CPK-B isoenzyme in a pool of sera obtained from 100 normal subjects was 2.9 +- 0.35 ng/ml; two patients with rhabdomyolysis that were studied had serum CPK-B isoenzyme levels of 2.5 and 3.5 ng/ml, respectively. In contrast, serum levels of the CPK-B isoenzyme were markedly elevated in sera from 18 patients with acute myocardial infarcts when obtained within 12 hr after hospital admission; the mean +- SEM concentration was 56 +- 7.8 ng/ml. We performed serial determinations on 14 patients with acute myocardial infarcts and demonstrated that maximal serum CPK-B levels occurred within the first 12 hr after admission and were lower thereafter. The serum concentration of B-containing CPK isoenzyme in 19 additional patients admitted with chest pain but without acute myocardial infarction was 3.4 +- 0.50 ng/ml. Thus, radioimmunoassay measurement of CPK-B isoenzyme appears to be a useful and sensitive test for the detection of acute myocardial infarcts in patients

  6. Purification of a Fe-SOD excreted by Leishmania braziliensis for specific antibodies detection in Mexican human sera: Cutting-edge the knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Stefania Longoni

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Clinical diagnosis of leishmaniasis is highly complex, presenting a wide range of clinical manifestations, sometimes non-specific, and thus the epidemiological study and diagnostic need specific molecular markers for each Leishmania species. Leishmania spp. posses different Fe-SOD isoforms, one of which is excreted into the external milieu and, presenting immunogenic characteristics, is a very reliable molecular marker. Superoxide dismutases (SODs are antioxidant metal-enzymes responsible for the dismutation of superoxide ion into hydrogen peroxide and molecular oxygen, and it is considered an important virulence factor. In this manuscript we have purified the iron(Fe-SOD excreted by Leishmania braziliensis using ion-exchange and molecular-sieve chromatography and we have studied it as an antigen in serodiagnostic analyses in ELISA and Western blot techniques, testing 213 human sera from Mexico. Indeed, L. braziliensis Fe-SODe has been purified 123.26 times with a specific activity of about 893.66 U/mg of protein. Applying the purified enzymes in serological tests we found 17.84% sera positive. We have demonstrated that the purified enzyme is more sensitive than the non-purified ones and we also demonstrated, for the first time, the presence of antibodies against L. braziliensis, not the main species in the country, in human population from Hidalgo and Nuevo Leon States.

  7. Reactivity of human sera in a sensitive, high-throughput pseudovirus-based papillomavirus neutralization assay for HPV16 and HPV18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastrana, Diana V.; Buck, Christopher B.; Pang, Y.-Y. S.; Thompson, Cynthia D.; Castle, Philip E.; FitzGerald, Peter C.; Krueger Kjaer, Susanne; Lowy, Douglas R.; Schiller, John T.

    2004-01-01

    Sensitive high-throughput neutralization assays, based upon pseudoviruses carrying a secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) reporter gene, were developed and validated for human papillomavirus (HPV)16, HPV18, and bovine papillomavirus 1 (BPV1). SEAP pseudoviruses were produced by transient transfection of codon-modified papillomavirus structural genes into an SV40 T antigen expressing line derived from 293 cells, yielding sufficient pseudovirus from one flask for thousands of titrations. In a 96-well plate format, in this initial characterization, the assay was reproducible and appears to be as sensitive as, but more specific than, a standard papillomavirus-like particle (VLP)-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The neutralization assay detected type-specific HPV16 or HPV18 neutralizing antibodies (titers of 160-10240) in sera of the majority of a group of women infected with the corresponding HPV type, but not in virgin women. Sera from HPV16 VLP vaccinees had high anti-HPV16 neutralizing titers (mean: 45000; range: 5120-163840), but no anti-HPV18 neutralizing activity. The SEAP pseudovirus-based neutralization assay should be a practical method for quantifying potentially protective antibody responses in HPV natural history and prophylactic vaccine studies

  8. Comparison of colorimetry and electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy for the quantification of non-transferrin bound iron in human sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jittangprasert, Piyada; Wilairat, Prapin; Pootrakul, Pensri

    2004-12-01

    This paper describes a comparison of two analytical techniques, one employing bathophenanthrolinedisulfonate (BPT), a most commonly-used reagent for Fe (II) determination, as chromogen and an electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy (ETAAS) for the quantification of non-transferrin bound iron (NTBI) in sera from thalassemic patients. Nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) was employed as the ligand for binding iron from low molecular weight iron complexes present in the serum but without removing iron from the transferrin protein. After ultrafiltration the Fe (III)-NTA complex was then quantified by both methods. Kinetic study of the rate of the Fe (II)-BPT complex formation for various excess amounts of NTA ligand was also carried out. The kinetic data show that a minimum time duration (> 60 minutes) is necessary for complete complex formation when large excess of NTA is used. Calibration curves given by colorimetric and ETAAS methods were linear over the range of 0.15-20 microM iron (III). The colorimetric and ETAAS methods exhibited detection limit (3sigma) of 0.13 and 0.14 microM, respectively. The NTBI concentrations from 55 thalassemic serum samples measured employing BPT as chromogen were statistically compared with the results determined by ETAAS. No significant disagreement at 95% confidence level was observed. It is, therefore, possible to select any one of these two techniques for determination of NTBI in serum samples of thalassemic patients. However, the colorimetric procedure requires a longer analysis time because of a slow rate of exchange of NTA ligand with BPT, leading to the slow rate of formation of the colored complex.

  9. Natural IgG autoantibodies are abundant and ubiquitous in human sera, and their number is influenced by age, gender, and disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric P Nagele

    Full Text Available The presence of self-reactive IgG autoantibodies in human sera is largely thought to represent a breakdown in central tolerance and is typically regarded as a harbinger of autoimmune pathology. In the present study, immune-response profiling of human serum from 166 individuals via human protein microarrays demonstrates that IgG autoantibodies are abundant in all human serum, usually numbering in the thousands. These IgG autoantibodies bind to human antigens from organs and tissues all over the body and their serum diversity is strongly influenced by age, gender, and the presence of specific diseases. We also found that serum IgG autoantibody profiles are unique to an individual and remarkably stable over time. Similar profiles exist in rat and swine, suggesting conservation of this immunological feature among mammals. The number, diversity, and apparent evolutionary conservation of autoantibody profiles suggest that IgG autoantibodies have some important, as yet unrecognized, physiological function. We propose that IgG autoantibodies have evolved as an adaptive mechanism for debris-clearance, a function consistent with their apparent utility as diagnostic indicators of disease as already established for Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.

  10. The quantitation of parasite-specific human IgG and IgE in sera: evaluation of solid-phase RIA and ELISA methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, R.G.; Adkinson, N.F. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The authors have developed a non-competitive solid-phase radioimmunoassay (SPRIA) to quantitate both human IgE and IgG antibodies against soluble adult antigens of Brugia malayi (B.m.), a filarial parasite causing extensive infection throughout the tropics. Previously enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) had been used to detect μg/ml levels of IgG anti-B.m., but IgE antibodies were difficult to detect in this system. Since the SPRIA successfully quantitates both IgG and IgE anti-B.m., they sought to examine the reasons for the SPRIA's apparent superiority in detecting IgE anti-B.m. by extracting specific IgG from sera with high levels of IgE and IgG anti-B.m. antibodies. IgE anti-B.m. was then quantitated in these sera using both the SPRIA and ELISA methods. Results indicate that IgG anti-B.m. does not interfere with detection of specific IgE antibody in the SPRIA but does interfere in the ELISA. While ELISA permits detection of IgE anti-B.m. in the absence of competing IgG anti-B.m., as levels of specific IgG increase, the IgE is no longer detectable. These differences between SPRIA and ELISA can be explained by the SPRIA's antigen excess conditions which assure that there are sufficient antigens both to detect all anti-B.m. antibodies present in the serum and to adequately represent all antigen specificities in the crude B.m. extract. Their findings commend the use of SPRIA methods over ELISA in assessment of B.m.-specific IgE antibody in filariasis and indicate a potential role for SPRIA methods in absolute quantitation of specific serum antibodies. (Auth.)

  11. Quantitation of parasite-specific human IgG and IgE in sera: evaluation of solid-phase RIA and ELISA methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, R G [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (USA). Dept. of Medicine; Hussain, R; Ottesen, E A [National Inst. of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD (USA); Adkinson, Jr, N F [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (USA). School of Medicine

    1981-07-17

    The authors have developed a non-competitive solid-phase radioimmunoassay (SPRIA) to quantitate both human IgE and IgG antibodies against soluble adult antigens of Brugia malayi (B.m.), a filarial parasite causing extensive infection throughout the tropics. Previously enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) had been used to detect ..mu..g/ml levels of IgG anti-B.m., but IgE antibodies were difficult to detect in this system. Since the SPRIA successfully quantitates both IgG and IgE anti-B.m., they sought to examine the reasons for the SPRIA's apparent superiority in detecting IgE anti-B.m. by extracting specific IgG from sera with high levels of IgE and IgG anti-B.m. antibodies. IgE anti-B.m. was then quantitated in these sera using both the SPRIA and ELISA methods. Results indicate that IgG anti-B.m. does not interfere with detection of specific IgE antibody in the SPRIA but does interfere in the ELISA. While ELISA permits detection of IgE anti-B.m. in the absence of competing IgG anti-B.m., as levels of specific IgG increase, the IgE is no longer detectable. These differences between SPRIA and ELISA can be explained by the SPRIA's antigen excess conditions which assure that there are sufficient antigens both to detect all anti-B.m. antibodies present in the serum and to adequately represent all antigen specificities in the crude B.m. extract. Their findings commend the use of SPRIA methods over ELISA in assessment of B.m.-specific IgE antibody in filariasis and indicate a potential role for SPRIA methods in absolute quantitation of specific serum antibodies.

  12. Investigation of immunosuppressive properties of inactivated human immunodeficiency virus and possible neutralization of this effect by some patient sera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, B; Langhoff, E; Lindhardt, B O

    1989-01-01

    suppressive effect has been shown for a lysate of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), strain HTLV-IIIB. Here we determined that detergent-disrupted HTLV-IIIB lystate exerted a strong suppressive effect on PHA-stimulated lymphocytes. Preparations of whole virions, a lysate of a local HIV isolate grown on MP-6...

  13. The in vitro protection of human decay accelerating factor and hDAF/heme oxygenase-1 transgenes in porcine aortic endothelial cells against sera of Formosan macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, C-F; Tai, H-C; Wu, C-P; Ho, L-L; Lin, Y-J; Hwang, C-S; Yang, T-S; Lee, J-M; Tseng, Y-L; Huang, C-C; Weng, C-N; Lee, P-H

    2010-01-01

    To mitigate hyperacute rejection, pigs have been generated with alpha-Gal transferase gene knockout and transgenic expression of human decay accelerating factor (hDAF), MCP, and CD59. Additionally, heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has been suggested to defend endothelial cells. Sera (MS) (0%, 1%, 5%, 10%, and 15%) from Formosan macaques (Macaca cyclopis, MC), an Old World monkey wildly populated in Taiwan, was used to test the protective in vitro, effects of hDAF or hDAF/hHO-1 on porcine aortic endothelial cells (pAEC) derived from hDAF(+), hDAF(+)/hHO-1(+), and hDAF(+)/hHO-1(-) and 1 nontransgenic pAEC. Ten percent human serum (HS) served as a positive control. When MS addition increased to 10% or 15%, all transgenic pAEC exhibited a greater survival than nontransgenic pAEC. Noticeably, 15% MS reduced survived to 40% in nontransgenic and transgenic pAEC, respectively. These results revealed that hDAF exerted protective effects against MC complement activation. However, comparing with 10% MS and HS in pAEC of nontransgenic pigs, the survivability was higher in HS, suggesting that complement activation by MS was more toxic than that by HS. Furthermore, hDAF(+)/hHO-1(+) showed no further protection against effects of MS on transgenic pAEC. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A novel multidimensional protein identification technology approach combining protein size exclusion prefractionation, peptide zwitterion-ion hydrophilic interaction chromatography, and nano-ultraperformance RP chromatography/nESI-MS2 for the in-depth analysis of the serum proteome and phosphoproteome: application to clinical sera derived from humans with benign prostate hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbis, Spiros D; Roumeliotis, Theodoros I; Tyritzis, Stavros I; Zorpas, Kostas M; Pavlakis, Kitty; Constantinides, Constantinos A

    2011-02-01

    The current proof-of-principle study was aimed toward development of a novel multidimensional protein identification technology (MudPIT) approach for the in-depth proteome analysis of human serum derived from patients with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) using rational chromatographic design principles. This study constituted an extension of our published work relating to the identification and relative quantification of potential clinical biomarkers in BPH and prostate cancer (PCa) tissue specimens. The proposed MudPIT approach encompassed the use of three distinct yet complementary liquid chromatographic chemistries. High-pressure size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) was used for the prefractionation of serum proteins followed by their dialysis exchange and solution phase trypsin proteolysis. The tryptic peptides were then subjected to offline zwitterion-ion hydrophilic interaction chromatography (ZIC-HILIC) fractionation followed by their online analysis with reversed-phase nano-ultraperformance chromatography (RP-nUPLC) hyphenated to nanoelectrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry using an ion trap mass analyzer. For the spectral processing, the sequential use of the SpectrumMill, Scaffold, and InsPecT software tools was applied for the tryptic peptide product ion MS(2) spectral processing, false discovery rate (FDR) assessment, validation, and protein identification. This milestone serum analysis study allowed the confident identification of over 1955 proteins (p ≤ 0.05; FDR ≤ 5%) with a broad spectrum of biological and physicochemical properties including secreted, tissue-specific proteins spanning approximately 12 orders of magnitude as they occur in their native abundance levels in the serum matrix. Also encompassed in this proteome was the confident identification of 375 phosphoproteins (p ≤ 0.05; FDR ≤ 5%) with potential importance to cancer biology. To demonstrate the performance characteristics of this novel MudPIT approach, a comparison

  15. Sera from remitting and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis patients disrupt the blood-brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Fumitaka; Tasaki, Ayako; Sano, Yasuteru; Ju, Mihua; Nishihara, Hideaki; Oishi, Mariko; Koga, Michiaki; Kawai, Motoharu; Kanda, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Pathological destruction of blood-brain barrier (BBB) has been thought to be the initial key event in the process of developing multiple sclerosis (MS). The purpose of the present study was to clarify the possible molecular mechanisms responsible for the malfunction of BBB by sera from relapse-remitting MS (RRMS) and secondary progressive MS (SPMS) patients. We evaluated the effects of sera from the patients in the relapse phase of RRMS (RRMS-R), stable phase of RRMS (RRMS-S) and SPMS on the expression of tight junction proteins and vascular cell adhesion protein-1 (VCAM-1), and on the transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) in human brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs). Sera from the RRMS-R or SPMS patients decreased the claudin-5 protein expression and the TEER in BMECs. In RRMS-R, this effect was restored after adding an MMP inhibitor, and the MMP-2/9 secretion by BMECs was significantly increased after the application of patients' sera. In SPMS, the immunoglobulin G (IgG) purified from patients' sera also decreased the claudin-5 protein expression and the TEER in BMECs. The sera and purified IgG from all MS patients increased the VCAM-1 protein expression in BMECs. The up-regulation of autocrine MMP-2/9 by BMECs after exposure to sera from RRMS-R patients or the autoantibodies against BMECs from SPMS patients can compromise the BBB. Both RRMS-S and SPMS sera increased the VCAM-1 expression in the BBB, thus indicating that targeting the VCAM-1 in the BBB could represent a possible therapeutic strategy for even the stable phase of MS and SPMS.

  16. Sera from remitting and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis patients disrupt the blood-brain barrier.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumitaka Shimizu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pathological destruction of blood-brain barrier (BBB has been thought to be the initial key event in the process of developing multiple sclerosis (MS. The purpose of the present study was to clarify the possible molecular mechanisms responsible for the malfunction of BBB by sera from relapse-remitting MS (RRMS and secondary progressive MS (SPMS patients. METHODS: We evaluated the effects of sera from the patients in the relapse phase of RRMS (RRMS-R, stable phase of RRMS (RRMS-S and SPMS on the expression of tight junction proteins and vascular cell adhesion protein-1 (VCAM-1, and on the transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER in human brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs. RESULTS: Sera from the RRMS-R or SPMS patients decreased the claudin-5 protein expression and the TEER in BMECs. In RRMS-R, this effect was restored after adding an MMP inhibitor, and the MMP-2/9 secretion by BMECs was significantly increased after the application of patients' sera. In SPMS, the immunoglobulin G (IgG purified from patients' sera also decreased the claudin-5 protein expression and the TEER in BMECs. The sera and purified IgG from all MS patients increased the VCAM-1 protein expression in BMECs. CONCLUSIONS: The up-regulation of autocrine MMP-2/9 by BMECs after exposure to sera from RRMS-R patients or the autoantibodies against BMECs from SPMS patients can compromise the BBB. Both RRMS-S and SPMS sera increased the VCAM-1 expression in the BBB, thus indicating that targeting the VCAM-1 in the BBB could represent a possible therapeutic strategy for even the stable phase of MS and SPMS.

  17. Standardization and application of the solid phase C1q radioimmunoassay using soluble tetanus toxoid-antitetanus immune complexes in sera of patients with chronic polyarthritis and Lupus erythematodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menzel, E.J.; Steffen, C.; Smolen, J.

    1982-01-01

    Soluble tetanus-antitetanus immune complexes were prepared with affinity-chromatography and gel chromatography. Serial dilutions of these immune complex preparations were tested in a solid phase C1q radioimmunoassay. Soluble immune complexes as well as aggregated human gamma globulin of identical protein concentrations were comparatively investigated. Soluble immune complexes rendered a more sensitive standardization of RIA. According to these observations a relation between μg/ml equivalents of defined tetanus-antitetanus complexes and ng second antibody obtained in C1q-RIA was calculated. Upper limit of mean values and two standard deviations of ng second antibody obtained in investigations of 55 normal sera was designated as 1 unit immune complexes and regarded as border line of negative results. Multiplication of μg/ml immune complex equivalents of 1 unit led to a scale of 1 to 15 units, showing the area of positive results. According to these values a standardization curve was constructed allowing a conversion of ng-second antibody obtained in serum investigations into immune complex units equivalent to defined standard immune complexes. With this curve investigation results of 56 RA sera and 21 SLE sera were expressed in the range of units, making a distinct gradation of positive results and a clear cut separation of positive and negative results possible. SLE sera of patients in acute stage showed highly positive results. (orig.) [de

  18. Standardization and application of the solid phase C1q radioimmunoassay using soluble tetanus toxoid-antitetanus immune complexes in sera of patients with chronic polyarthritis and Lupus erythematodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, E J; Steffen, C; Smolen, J

    1982-11-22

    Soluble tetanus-antitetanus immune complexes were prepared with affinity-chromatography and gel chromatography. Serial dilutions of these immune complex preparations were tested in a solid phase C1q radioimmunoassay. Soluble immune complexes as well as aggregated human gamma globulin of identical protein concentrations were comparatively investigated. Soluble immune complexes rendered a more sensitive standardization of RIA. According to these observations a relation between ..mu..g/ml equivalents of defined tetanus-antitetanus complexes and ng second antibody obtained in C1q-RIA was calculated. Upper limit of mean values and two standard deviations of ng second antibody obtained in investigations of 55 normal sera was designated as 1 unit immune complexes and regarded as border line of negative results. Multiplication of ..mu..g/ml immune complex equivalents of 1 unit led to a scale of 1 to 15 units, showing the area of positive results. According to these values a standardization curve was constructed allowing a conversion of ng-second antibody obtained in serum investigations into immune complex units equivalent to defined standard immune complexes. With this curve investigation results of 56 RA sera and 21 SLE sera were expressed in the range of units, making a distinct gradation of positive results and a clear cut separation of positive and negative results possible. SLE sera of patients in acute stage showed highly positive results.

  19. Application of neutron activation analysis and spectrophotometry for the determination of copper level in sera and cerebrospinal fluids of schizophrenic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipcsey, A.; Fekete, J.; Oerdoegh, M.; Szabo, E.

    1985-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis and spectrophotometry were used for the determination of copper content in sera and cerebrospinal fluids of schizophrenic patients against control persons. Comparison of the results of copper determination by both methods is tabulated. From the data the following conclusions can be drawn: for copper determinations in sera the results of the two methods agree excellently. At small copper concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluids the deviations are rather high. It can also be seen that the copper contents determined from cerebrospinal fluids taken at different times are nearly equal. (author)

  20. Of monkeys and men: immunomic profiling of sera from humans and non-human primates resistant to schistosomiasis reveals novel potential vaccine candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark ePearson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Schistosoma haematobium affects more than 100 million people throughout Africa and is the causative agent of urogenital schistosomiasis. The parasite is strongly associated with urothelial cancer in infected individuals and as such is designated a group I carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Using a protein microarray containing schistosome proteins, we sought to identify antigens that were the targets of protective IgG1 immune responses in S. haematobium-exposed individuals that acquire drug-induced resistance (DIR to schistosomiasis after praziquantel treatment. Numerous antigens with known vaccine potential were identified, including calpain (Smp80, tetraspanins, glutathione-S-transferases and glucose transporters (SGTP1, as well as previously uncharacterized proteins. Reactive IgG1 responses were not elevated in exposed individuals who did not acquire DIR. To complement our human subjects study, we screened for antigen targets of rhesus macaques rendered resistant to Schistosoma japonicum by experimental infection followed by self-cure, and discovered a number of new and known vaccine targets, including major targets recognised by our human subjects. This study has further validated the immunomics-based approach to schistosomiasis vaccine antigen discovery and identified numerous novel potential vaccine antigens.

  1. Of monkeys and men: immunomic profiling of sera from humans and non-human primates resistant to schistosomiasis reveals novel potential vaccine candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Mark S; Becker, Luke; Driguez, Patrick; Young, Neil D; Gaze, Soraya; Mendes, Tiago; Li, Xiao-Hong; Doolan, Denise L; Midzi, Nicholas; Mduluza, Takafira; McManus, Donald P; Wilson, R Alan; Bethony, Jeffrey M; Nausch, Norman; Mutapi, Francisca; Felgner, Philip L; Loukas, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Schistosoma haematobium affects more than 100 million people throughout Africa and is the causative agent of urogenital schistosomiasis. The parasite is strongly associated with urothelial cancer in infected individuals and as such is designated a group I carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Using a protein microarray containing schistosome proteins, we sought to identify antigens that were the targets of protective IgG1 immune responses in S. haematobium-exposed individuals that acquire drug-induced resistance (DIR) to schistosomiasis after praziquantel treatment. Numerous antigens with known vaccine potential were identified, including calpain (Smp80), tetraspanins, glutathione-S-transferases, and glucose transporters (SGTP1), as well as previously uncharacterized proteins. Reactive IgG1 responses were not elevated in exposed individuals who did not acquire DIR. To complement our human subjects study, we screened for antigen targets of rhesus macaques rendered resistant to S. japonicum by experimental infection followed by self-cure, and discovered a number of new and known vaccine targets, including major targets recognized by our human subjects. This study has further validated the immunomics-based approach to schistosomiasis vaccine antigen discovery and identified numerous novel potential vaccine antigens.

  2. Effects of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis sera on cultured cholinergic neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touzeau, G.; Kato, A.C.

    1983-01-01

    Dissociated monolayer cultures of chick ciliary ganglion neurons have been used to study the effects of control and ALS sera. The cultured neurons survive and extend neurites for a minimum of 2 weeks in a standard tissue culture medium that contains 10% heat-inactivated human serum. Three parameters of the neurons have been examined when cultured in control and ALS sera for 8 to 12 days: (1) neuronal survival, (2) activity of the enzyme choline acetyltransferase, and (3) synthesis of 3 H-acetylcholine using 3 H-choline as precursor. ALS sera cause a small decrease in these three parameters, but this difference is not significant

  3. Common antigenic determinants of haemoglobin as basis of immunological cross-reactivity between chironomid species (Diptera, Chironomidae): studies with human and animal sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, X; Dewair, M; Haegele, K; Prelicz, H; Scholl, A; Tichy, H

    1983-01-01

    Chironomids, of which approximately 10,000 species exist, are reported to cause severe immediate type allergic diseases in man. In the present study, immunological cross-reactivity between 14 chironomid species from different continents was proven by RAST inhibition, double immunodiffusion and a new allergoprint technique, based upon PAGE separation of insect crude extracts. Using isolated chironomid haemoglobins and sera of sensitized persons, as well as rabbit antibodies against larval crude extract or against the haemoglobin fraction of Chironomus thummi, it could be proven that cross-reactivity derives at least predominantly from haemoglobin components with common antigenic determinants in the different species. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:6197219

  4. Effect of animal sera on Bacillus anthracis Sterne spore germination and vegetative cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensman, M D; Mackie, R S; Minter, Z A; Gutting, B W

    2012-08-01

     The aims of this work were to investigate the effects of sera on B. anthracis Sterne germination and growth. Sera examined included human, monkey and rabbit sera, as well as sera from eight other species.  Standard dilution plate assay (with and without heat kill) was used as a measure of germination, and spectroscopy was used to measure growth. In addition, a Coulter Counter particle counter was used to monitor germination and growth based on bacterial size. Spores germinated best in foetal bovine and monkey sera, moderately with human sera and showed limited germination in the presence of rabbit or rat sera. Vegetative bacteria grew best in foetal bovine sera and moderately in rabbit sera. Human and monkey sera supported little growth of vegetative bacteria.  The data suggested sera can have a significant impact on germination and growth of Sterne bacteria.  These data should be considered when conducting in vitro cell culture studies and may aid in interpreting in vivo infection studies. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Sandwich immunoassay for alpha-fetoprotein in human sera using gold nanoparticle and magnetic bead labels along with resonance Rayleigh scattering readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Yao; Huang, Xiangyi; Ren, Jicun

    2013-01-01

    We describe a sensitive sandwich immunoassay for alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). It is making use of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and magnetic beads (MBs) as labels, and of resonance Rayleigh scattering for detection. Two antibodies were labeled with GNPs and MBs, respectively, and MB-antigen-GNP complexes were formed in the presence of antigens. The MB labels also serve as solid phase carriers that can be used to magnetically separate the immuno complex. The GNP labels are used as optical probes, and Rayleigh scattering was used to determine the concentration of free GNPs-antibody after separation of the MB-antigen-GNP complexes. The concentration of AFP is related to the intensity of light scattered by free GNPs in the 13.6 pM to 436 pM concentration range, and the limit of detection is 13.6 pM. The method was applied to the determination of AFP in sera of cancer patients, and the results agree well with those obtained by conventional ELISA. (author)

  6. Pesquisa de aglutininas anti Brucella canis em soros humanos na cidade de São Paulo, Brasil Research on agglutinins for Brucella canis in human sera in the city of S. Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Matiko Akao Larsson

    1980-09-01

    Full Text Available De 330 soros humanos examinados pela prova de soroaglutinação lenta em tubos, 4(1,21% apresentaram aglutininas anti Brucella canis em diluição 1:100 (1 reagente com título 100, 2 reagentes com título 200 e 1 reagente com título 400.Of the 330 human sera tested by tube agglutination test, 4 (1.21% were positive for Brucella canis antibodies with tilers 1:100 or higher (1 reagent with titer of 1:100, 2 reagents with titer of 1:200, and 1 reagent with tiler of 1:400.

  7. Comparison of human IgE-binding soya bean allergenic protein Gly m I with the antigenicity profiles of calf anti-soya protein sera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessing, M.; Bleeker, H.; Tsuji, H.; Ogawa, T.; Vlooswijk, R.A.A.

    1996-01-01

    In the food, particularly the feed, industry, large quantities of soya bean protein products are used for the formulation of end-products destined for human or animal consumption. These basic ingredients and the final end products often have to fulfill specific requirements regarding the presence of

  8. Comparison of the antibacterial activity and synergistic activity towards antibiotics of different mammalian sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglioli, P A; Pea, F; Mazzo, M; Berti, T

    1993-02-01

    The antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli ATCC 10798 and Staphylococcus aureus Mag 90 of normal sera from nine species of mammals was investigated by Avantage (Abbott). Human and rat sera showed the highest antibacterial activity against E. coli ATCC 10798, while all investigated sera did not exhibit, till the maximum concentration tested (20%), spontaneous antibacterial activity against S. aureus Mag 90. Heat inactivated sera (56 degrees C for 30 min) of all investigated species lost their antibacterial activity, but maintained their synergistic effect with sub-MICs of some antibacterial drugs, principally against E. coli ATCC 10798.

  9. Functional convergence of Akt protein with VEGFR-1 in human endothelial progenitor cells exposed to sera from patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanpour, Mehdi; Rezabakhsh, Aysa; Rahbarghazi, Reza; Nourazarian, Alireza; Nouri, Mohammad; Avci, Çığır Biray; Ghaderi, Shahrooz; Alidadyani, Neda; Bagca, Bakiye Goker; Bagheri, Hesam Saghaei

    2017-11-01

    Diabetes mellitus type 2 predisposes patients to various microvascular complications. In the current experiment, the potent role of diabetes mellitus was investigated on the content of VEGFR-1, -2, Tie-1 and -2, and Akt in human endothelial progenitor cells. The gene expression profile of mTOR and Hedgehog signaling pathways were measured by PCR array. The possible crosstalk between RTKs, mTOR and Hedgehog signaling was also studied by bioinformatic analysis. Endothelial progenitor cells were incubated with serum from normal and diabetic for 7days. Compared to non-treated cells, diabetic serum-induced cell apoptosis (~2-fold) and prohibited cell migration toward bFGF (p1). ELISA analysis showed that diabetes exposed cells had increased abundance of Tie-1, -2 and VEGFR-2 and reduced amount of VEGFR-1 (p1) in diabetic cells. Western blotting showed a marked reduction in the protein level of Akt after cells exposure to serum from diabetic subjects (p1). PCR array revealed a significant stimulation of both mTOR and Hedgehog signaling pathways in diabetic cells (p1, -2 and Tie-2, but not Tie-1, are master regulators of angiogenesis. There is a crosstalk between RTKs and mTOR signaling by involving P62, GABARAPL1, and HTT genes. It seems that physical interaction and co-expression of Akt decreased the level of VEGFR-1 in diabetic cells. Regarding data from the present experiment, diabetic serum contributed to uncontrolled induction of both mTOR and Hedgehog signaling in endothelial progenitor cells. Diabetes mellitus induces mTOR pathway by involving receptor tyrosine kinases while Hedgehog stimulation is independent of these receptors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Targeting Human Serum Fucome by an Integrated Liquid-phase Multi Column Platform Operating in “Cascade” to Facilitate Comparative Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Disease-Free and Breast Cancer Sera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaraju, Subhashini; Rassi, Ziad El

    2013-01-01

    A fully integrated platform was developed for capturing/fractionating human fucome from disease-free and breast cancer sera. It comprised multicolumn operated by HPLC pumps and switching valves for the simultaneous depletion of high abundance proteins via affinity-based subtraction and the capturing of fucosylated glycoproteins via lectin affinity chromatography followed by the fractionation of the captured glycoproteins by reversed phase chromatography (RPC). Two lectin columns specific to fucose, namely Aleuria aurantia lectin (AAL) and Lotus tetragonolobus agglutinin (LTA) were utilized. The platform allowed the “cascading” of the serum sample from column-to-column in the liquid phase with no sample manipulation between the various steps. This guaranteed no sample loss and no propagation of experimental biases between the various columns. Finally, the fucome was fractionated by RPC yielding desalted fractions in volatile acetonitrile-rich mobile phase, which after vacuum evaporation were subjected to trypsinolysis for LC-MS/MS analysis. This permitted the identification of the differentially expressed proteins (DEP) in breast cancer serum yielding a broad panel of 35 DEP from the combined LTA and AAL captured proteins and a narrower panel of 8 DEP that were commonly differentially expressed in both LTA and AAL fractions, which are considered as more representative of cancer altered fucome. PMID:23533108

  11. Human mobility: Models and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Hugo; Barthelemy, Marc; Ghoshal, Gourab; James, Charlotte R.; Lenormand, Maxime; Louail, Thomas; Menezes, Ronaldo; Ramasco, José J.; Simini, Filippo; Tomasini, Marcello

    2018-03-01

    Recent years have witnessed an explosion of extensive geolocated datasets related to human movement, enabling scientists to quantitatively study individual and collective mobility patterns, and to generate models that can capture and reproduce the spatiotemporal structures and regularities in human trajectories. The study of human mobility is especially important for applications such as estimating migratory flows, traffic forecasting, urban planning, and epidemic modeling. In this survey, we review the approaches developed to reproduce various mobility patterns, with the main focus on recent developments. This review can be used both as an introduction to the fundamental modeling principles of human mobility, and as a collection of technical methods applicable to specific mobility-related problems. The review organizes the subject by differentiating between individual and population mobility and also between short-range and long-range mobility. Throughout the text the description of the theory is intertwined with real-world applications.

  12. Analysis of hyperimmune sera by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baptista, T.S.; Zamboni, C.B.; Marcelino, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Nowadays, Butantan Institute (Sao Paulo city, Brazil) take care a demand of hyperimmune sera production that supplies 80% of the Brazilian market. The hyperimmune sera are immunological products that contain antibodies used for the treatment of victims of poisonous animals and patients with diseases caused by toxins of infectious agents. For hyperimmune sera production several steps are involved: first, horses are immunized with toxins or anatoxins from one or several species (mainly snakes and spiders); in the end of each cycle of immunization the horses are submitted to a bleeding for plasma extraction. The next step is the plasma treatment: it must be treated and purified in order to diminish the possibility of adverse reactions in patients who will receive the hyperimmune sera. Considering that only chlorine, sodium and sulfur can be present the final product, in this study Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) have been applied to check concentrations of these elements in the final of sera purification. These results must be inside of the limits established for the Word Health Organization (WHO) together with the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia (Pharmaceutical Code Official of the Country) for its certification and commercialization. These data are an important support for quality control of hyperimmune sera production. (author)

  13. Analysis of hyperimmune sera by NAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, T.S.; Zamboni, C.B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Marcelino, J.R. [Instituto Butantan, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Full text: Nowadays, Butantan Institute (Sao Paulo city, Brazil) take care a demand of hyperimmune sera production that supplies 80% of the Brazilian market. The hyperimmune sera are immunological products that contain antibodies used for the treatment of victims of poisonous animals and patients with diseases caused by toxins of infectious agents. For hyperimmune sera production several steps are involved: first, horses are immunized with toxins or anatoxins from one or several species (mainly snakes and spiders); in the end of each cycle of immunization the horses are submitted to a bleeding for plasma extraction. The next step is the plasma treatment: it must be treated and purified in order to diminish the possibility of adverse reactions in patients who will receive the hyperimmune sera. Considering that only chlorine, sodium and sulfur can be present the final product, in this study Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) have been applied to check concentrations of these elements in the final of sera purification. These results must be inside of the limits established for the Word Health Organization (WHO) together with the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia (Pharmaceutical Code Official of the Country) for its certification and commercialization. These data are an important support for quality control of hyperimmune sera production. (author)

  14. Humanized mouse models: Application to human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Ryoji; Takahashi, Takeshi; Ito, Mamoru

    2018-05-01

    Humanized mice are superior to rodents for preclinical evaluation of the efficacy and safety of drug candidates using human cells or tissues. During the past decade, humanized mouse technology has been greatly advanced by the establishment of novel platforms of genetically modified immunodeficient mice. Several human diseases can be recapitulated using humanized mice due to the improved engraftment and differentiation capacity of human cells or tissues. In this review, we discuss current advanced humanized mouse models that recapitulate human diseases including cancer, allergy, and graft-versus-host disease. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Detection of anti-aquaporin-4 autoantibodies in the sera of Chinese neuromyelitis optica patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miao Li; Weiheng Su; Jie Wang; Francesco Pisani; Antonio Frigeri; Tonghui Ma

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we recruited 10 neuromyelitis optica patients, two multiple sclerosis patients and two myelitis patients. Chinese hamster lung fibroblast (V79) cells transfected with a human aquaporin-4-mCherry fusion protein gene were used to detect anti-aquaporin-4 antibody in neuromyelitis optica patient sera by immunofluorescence. Anti-aquaporin-4 autoantibody was stably detected by immunofluorescence in neuromyelitis optica patient sera exclusively. The sensitivity of the assay for neuromyelitis optica was 90% and the specificity for neuromyelitis optica was 100%. The anti-aquaporin-4 antibody titers in sera were tested with serial dilutions until the signal disappeared. A positive correlation was detected between Expanded Disability Status Scale scores and serum anti-aquaporin-4 antibody titers. The anti-aquaporin-4 antibody assay is highly sensitive and specific in the sera of Chinese neuromyelitis optica patients. Detection of aquaporin-4 autoantibody is important for the diagnosis and treatment of neuromyelitis optica.

  16. Detection of anti-aquaporin-4 autoantibodies in the sera of Chinese neuromyelitis optica patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Miao; Su, Weiheng; Wang, Jie; Pisani, Francesco; Frigeri, Antonio; Ma, Tonghui

    2013-03-15

    In this study, we recruited 10 neuromyelitis optica patients, two multiple sclerosis patients and two myelitis patients. Chinese hamster lung fibroblast (V79) cells transfected with a human aquaporin-4-mCherry fusion protein gene were used to detect anti-aquaporin-4 antibody in neuromyelitis optica patient sera by immunofluorescence. Anti-aquaporin-4 autoantibody was stably detected by immunofluorescence in neuromyelitis optica patient sera exclusively. The sensitivity of the assay for neuromyelitis optica was 90% and the specificity for neuromyelitis optica was 100%. The anti-aquaporin-4 antibody titers in sera were tested with serial dilutions until the signal disappeared. A positive correlation was detected between Expanded Disability Status Scale scores and serum anti-aquaporin-4 antibody titers. The anti-aquaporin-4 antibody assay is highly sensitive and specific in the sera of Chinese neuromyelitis optica patients. Detection of aquaporin-4 autoantibody is important for the diagnosis and treatment of neuromyelitis optica.

  17. Detection of anti-aquaporin-4 autoantibodies in the sera of Chinese neuromyelitis optica patients★

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Miao; Su, Weiheng; Wang, Jie; Pisani, Francesco; Frigeri, Antonio; Ma, Tonghui

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we recruited 10 neuromyelitis optica patients, two multiple sclerosis patients and two myelitis patients. Chinese hamster lung fibroblast (V79) cells transfected with a human aquaporin-4-mCherry fusion protein gene were used to detect anti-aquaporin-4 antibody in neuromyelitis optica patient sera by immunofluorescence. Anti-aquaporin-4 autoantibody was stably detected by immunofluorescence in neuromyelitis optica patient sera exclusively. The sensitivity of the assay for neuromyelitis optica was 90% and the specificity for neuromyelitis optica was 100%. The anti-aquaporin-4 antibody titers in sera were tested with serial dilutions until the signal disappeared. A positive correlation was detected between Expanded Disability Status Scale scores and serum anti-aquaporin-4 antibody titers. The anti-aquaporin-4 antibody assay is highly sensitive and specific in the sera of Chinese neuromyelitis optica patients. Detection of aquaporin-4 autoantibody is important for the diagnosis and treatment of neuromyelitis optica. PMID:25206717

  18. Reactions of chicken sera to recombinant Campylobacter jejuni flagellar proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Hung-Yueh; Hiett, Kelli L; Line, John E

    2015-03-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a Gram-negative spiral rod bacterium and is the leading but underreported bacterial food-borne pathogen that causes human campylobacteriosis worldwide. Raw or undercooked poultry products are regarded as a major source for human infection. C. jejuni flagella have been implicated in colonization and adhesion to the mucosal surface of chicken gastrointestinal tracts. Therefore, flagellar proteins would be the excellent targets for further investigation. In this report, we used the recombinant technology to generate a battery of C. jejuni flagellar proteins, which were purified by His tag affinity chromatography and determined antigenic profiles of these recombinant flagellar proteins using sera from chickens older than 6 weeks of age. The immunoblot results demonstrate that each chicken serum reacted to various numbers of recombinant flagellar proteins. Among these recombinant proteins, chicken sera reacted predominantly to the FlgE1, FlgK, FlhF, FliG and FliY proteins. These antibody screening results provide a rationale for further evaluation of these recombinant flagellar proteins as potential vaccines for chickens to improve food safety as well as investigation of host immune response to C. jejuni.

  19. IgG autoantibodies against interleukin 1 alpha in sera of normal individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenson, M; Poulsen, L K; Fomsgaard, A

    1989-01-01

    A pool of human sera from healthy blood donors was found to interfere competitively with the binding of 125I-labelled human recombinant interleukin 1 alpha (rIL-1 alpha) to the murine T-cell line EL4. The interference was reversible at the cellular level, and direct binding of the ligand to serum...

  20. Identification of streptococcal proteins reacting with sera from Behçet's disease and rheumatic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sung Bin; Lee, Ju Hee; Ahn, Keun Jae; Cho, Suhyun; Park, Yong-Beom; Lee, Soo-Kon; Bang, Dongsik; Lee, Kwang Hoon

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the reactivity of sera from Behçet's disease (BD), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), dermatomyositis (DM), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and Takayasu's arteritis (TA) patients against human α-enolase and streptococcal α-enolase, and identified additional streptococcal antigens. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblotting were performed using sera from patients with BD, SLE, DM, RA, and TA and healthy volunteers (control) against human α-enolase and streptococcal α-enolase. Immunoblot analysis and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time-of-flight mass spectrometry were used to identify and recombine other streptococcal antigens. Specific positive signals against recombinant human α-enolase were detected by IgM ELISA of serum samples from 50% of BD, 14.3% of SLE, 57.1% of DM, 42.9% of RA, and 57.1% of TA patients. Specific positive signals against streptococcal α-enolase were detected from 42.9% of BD, 14.3% of DM, and 14.3% of TA patients. No SLE and RA sera reacted against streptococcal α-enolase antigen. Streptococcal proteins reacting with sera were identified as hypothetical protein (HP) for SLE and DM patients, acid phosphatase (AP) for RA patients, and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) for TA patients. We observed that RA patients did not present serum reactivity against either HP or GAPDH though BD, SLE, DM, and TA patients did. Also, AP reacted with sera from BD, SLE, DM, RA, and TA patients.

  1. Protein array profiling of tic patient sera reveals a broad range and enhanced immune response against Group A Streptococcus antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Bombaci

    Full Text Available The human pathogen Group A Streptococcus (Streptococcus pyogenes, GAS is widely recognized as a major cause of common pharyngitis as well as of severe invasive diseases and non-suppurative sequelae associated with the existence of GAS antigens eliciting host autoantibodies. It has been proposed that a subset of paediatric disorders characterized by tics and obsessive-compulsive symptoms would exacerbate in association with relapses of GAS-associated pharyngitis. This hypothesis is however still controversial. In the attempt to shed light on the contribution of GAS infections to the onset of neuropsychiatric or behavioral disorders affecting as many as 3% of children and adolescents, we tested the antibody response of tic patient sera to a representative panel of GAS antigens. In particular, 102 recombinant proteins were spotted on nitrocellulose-coated glass slides and probed against 61 sera collected from young patients with typical tic neuropsychiatric symptoms but with no overt GAS infection. Sera from 35 children with neither tic disorder nor overt GAS infection were also analyzed. The protein recognition patterns of these two sera groups were compared with those obtained using 239 sera from children with GAS-associated pharyngitis. This comparative analysis identified 25 antigens recognized by sera of the three patient groups and 21 antigens recognized by tic and pharyngitis sera, but poorly or not recognized by sera from children without tic. Interestingly, these antigens appeared to be, in quantitative terms, more immunogenic in tic than in pharyngitis patients. Additionally, a third group of antigens appeared to be preferentially and specifically recognized by tic sera. These findings provide the first evidence that tic patient sera exhibit immunological profiles typical of individuals who elicited a broad, specific and strong immune response against GAS. This may be relevant in the context of one of the hypothesis proposing that GAS

  2. Long-term sera storage does not significantly modify the interpretation of toxoplasmosis serologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dard, C; Bailly, S; Drouet, T; Fricker-Hidalgo, H; Brenier-Pinchart, M P; Pelloux, H

    2017-03-01

    Serological investigation of Toxoplasma gondii can answer many questions about toxoplasmosis in human pathology. Along these lines, studies on serum storage in biobanks need to be performed especially in terms of determining the impact of storage on relevance of sera analysis after freezing. This study assessed the impact of long-term sera storage on the stability of anti-Toxoplasma immunoglobulins. The stability of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM was studied in 244 and 242 sera respectively, stored at -20°C from one month to ten years. ELISA-immunoassay (Vidas®, bioMérieux) was used for initial and post-storage analyses. Linear models for repeated measures and subgroup analyses were performed to assess the effect of storage duration and sample characteristics on immunoglobulins stability. Until ten years, the variability attributed to storage (maximum 8.07% for IgG, 13.17% for IgM) was below the variations inherent to the serological technique and allowed by quality assurance systems (15%). Subgroup analysis reported no variation attributed to sera storage. Serological interpretation was modified for 3 sera (1.2%) tested for IgM, all stored more than seven years. Anti-Toxoplasma immunoglobulins can reliably be measured for at least up to six years of storage with no modification of interpretation of toxoplasmosis serologies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Validation of high throughput screening of human sera for detection of anti-PA IgG by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) as an emergency response to an anthrax incident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenova, Vera A.; Steward-Clark, Evelene; Maniatis, Panagiotis; Epperson, Monica; Sabnis, Amit; Schiffer, Jarad

    2017-01-01

    To improve surge testing capability for a response to a release of Bacillus anthracis, the CDC anti-Protective Antigen (PA) IgG Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) was re-designed into a high throughput screening format. The following assay performance parameters were evaluated: goodness of fit (measured as the mean reference standard r2), accuracy (measured as percent error), precision (measured as coefficient of variance (CV)), lower limit of detection (LLOD), lower limit of quantification (LLOQ), dilutional linearity, diagnostic sensitivity (DSN) and diagnostic specificity (DSP). The paired sets of data for each sample were evaluated by Concordance Correlation Coefficient (CCC) analysis. The goodness of fit was 0.999; percent error between the expected and observed concentration for each sample ranged from −4.6% to 14.4%. The coefficient of variance ranged from 9.0% to 21.2%. The assay LLOQ was 2.6 μg/mL. The regression analysis results for dilutional linearity data were r2 = 0.952, slope = 1.02 and intercept = −0.03. CCC between assays was 0.974 for the median concentration of serum samples. The accuracy and precision components of CCC were 0.997 and 0.977, respectively. This high throughput screening assay is precise, accurate, sensitive and specific. Anti-PA IgG concentrations determined using two different assays proved high levels of agreement. The method will improve surge testing capability 18-fold from 4 to 72 sera per assay plate. PMID:27814939

  4. Validation of high throughput screening of human sera for detection of anti-PA IgG by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) as an emergency response to an anthrax incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenova, Vera A; Steward-Clark, Evelene; Maniatis, Panagiotis; Epperson, Monica; Sabnis, Amit; Schiffer, Jarad

    2017-01-01

    To improve surge testing capability for a response to a release of Bacillus anthracis, the CDC anti-Protective Antigen (PA) IgG Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) was re-designed into a high throughput screening format. The following assay performance parameters were evaluated: goodness of fit (measured as the mean reference standard r 2 ), accuracy (measured as percent error), precision (measured as coefficient of variance (CV)), lower limit of detection (LLOD), lower limit of quantification (LLOQ), dilutional linearity, diagnostic sensitivity (DSN) and diagnostic specificity (DSP). The paired sets of data for each sample were evaluated by Concordance Correlation Coefficient (CCC) analysis. The goodness of fit was 0.999; percent error between the expected and observed concentration for each sample ranged from -4.6% to 14.4%. The coefficient of variance ranged from 9.0% to 21.2%. The assay LLOQ was 2.6 μg/mL. The regression analysis results for dilutional linearity data were r 2  = 0.952, slope = 1.02 and intercept = -0.03. CCC between assays was 0.974 for the median concentration of serum samples. The accuracy and precision components of CCC were 0.997 and 0.977, respectively. This high throughput screening assay is precise, accurate, sensitive and specific. Anti-PA IgG concentrations determined using two different assays proved high levels of agreement. The method will improve surge testing capability 18-fold from 4 to 72 sera per assay plate. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Detection of immune complexes in sera of dogs with rheumatic and neoplastic diseases by 125I-Clq binding test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terman, D.S.; Moore, D.; Collins, J.; Johnston, B.; Person, D.; Templeton, J.; Poser, R.; Quinby, F.

    1979-01-01

    Some canine rheumatic and neoplastic diseases bear a striking clinical and serological resemblance to their counterparts in man. In the present study, human 125 I-Clq was employed in a radioimmunoassay for detection of immune complexes in sera of normal dogs and those with rheumatic and neoplastic diseases. Human 125 I-Clq showed binding of 16.7 +- 5.73% in a group of normal dog sera with binding of 32.5 +- 17.3% and 43.0 +- 16.0% in sera of dogs with rheumatic and neoplastic diseases. respectively. Human 125 I-Clq bound similar quantities of heat-aggregated canine and human gamma-globulin over a broad range of concentrations and human 125 I-Clq binding in canine sera was effectively inhibited by similar quantities of heat aggregated canine and human gamma-globulin. Seven of 12 dogs with elevated levels of Clq binding had active clinical and serological rheumatic disease (SLE or rheumatoid arthritis), while none of 7 dogs with values within the normal range had active clinical disease. All 5 dogs with widespread osteogenic sarcoma and all 4 dogs with high grade adenocarcinoma of the mammary gland had elevated Clq binding values while 2 animals with low grade malignancies without evident metastases did not. Thus, it appears that human 125 I-Clq may be employed to assay immune complexes in canine sera and may be a valuable technique for the study of dogs with various rheumatic and neoplastic diseases. (author)

  6. Trypanosoma brucei gambiense adaptation to different mammalian sera is associated with VSG expression site plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordon-Obras, Carlos; Cano, Jorge; González-Pacanowska, Dolores; Benito, Agustin; Navarro, Miguel; Bart, Jean-Mathieu

    2013-01-01

    Trypanosoma brucei gambiense infection is widely considered an anthroponosis, although it has also been found in wild and domestic animals. Thus, fauna could act as reservoir, constraining the elimination of the parasite in hypo-endemic foci. To better understand the possible maintenance of T. b. gambiense in local fauna and investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying adaptation, we generated adapted cells lines (ACLs) by in vitro culture of the parasites in different mammalian sera. Using specific antibodies against the Variant Surface Glycoproteins (VSGs) we found that serum ACLs exhibited different VSG variants when maintained in pig, goat or human sera. Although newly detected VSGs were independent of the sera used, the consistent appearance of different VSGs suggested remodelling of the co-transcribed genes at the telomeric Expression Site (VSG-ES). Thus, Expression Site Associated Genes (ESAGs) sequences were analysed to investigate possible polymorphism selection. ESAGs 6 and 7 genotypes, encoding the transferrin receptor (TfR), expressed in different ACLs were characterised. In addition, we quantified the ESAG6/7 mRNA levels and analysed transferrin (Tf) uptake. Interestingly, the best growth occurred in pig and human serum ACLs, which consistently exhibited a predominant ESAG7 genotype and higher Tf uptake than those obtained in calf and goat sera. We also detected an apparent selection of specific ESAG3 genotypes in the pig and human serum ACLs, suggesting that other ESAGs could be involved in the host adaptation processes. Altogether, these results suggest a model whereby VSG-ES remodelling allows the parasite to express a specific set of ESAGs to provide selective advantages in different hosts. Finally, pig serum ACLs display phenotypic adaptation parameters closely related to human serum ACLs but distinct to parasites grown in calf and goat sera. These results suggest a better suitability of swine to maintain T. b. gambiense infection supporting

  7. Preliminary antigenic characterisation of an adult worm vomit preparation of Fasciola hepatica by infected human sera Caracterização antigênica preliminar de preparação de vômito de verme adulto de Fasciola hepatica por soros humanos infectados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Alejandra De Almeida

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Fascioliasis is an emerging/re-emerging vector-borne disease with the widest known distribution. Approximately 17 million people are infected around the world, being the Andean region the most affected area. There is an important necessity to develop sensitive and specific diagnostic tools to treat patients early and to avoid complications. In this paper we evaluated the immune response of infected humans against two antigenic preparations: the total soluble extract (FhTSE and the adult worm vomit (FhAWV in order to identify antigenic fractions specific for Fasciola hepatica. Both preparations were processed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot with human sera with fascioliasis (F, other parasitosis and healthy individuals. In the immunoblot of FhTSE, sera F recognised 16 bands with MW between eight and 110 kDa, from which those of 8, 9, 10, 38, 45 and 57 kDa were specific. In the preparation FhAWV, sera F recognised nine bands with MW from eight to 85 kDa, from which those of 8, 12, 15 and 24 kDa were specific. Some bands of cross-reaction were evident with sera from patients with other parasitoses, more frequent with the FhTSE. Bands within the MW mentioned, particularly that of eight kDa, have been shown to be specific by others, and deserve additional characterisation for their potential use in immunodiagnosis.Fasciolíase é uma doença emergente/re-emergente transmitida por vetores com a distribuição sabidamente mais ampla. Existem aproximadamente 17 milhões de pessoas infectadas em todo mundo, sendo a região andina a área mais afetada. Há uma necessidade importante para desenvolver ferramentas diagnósticas sensíveis e específicas para tratar cedo os pacientes e para evitar complicações. Neste trabalho avaliamos a resposta imune de seres humanos infectados comparando a duas preparações antigênicas: o extrato solúvel total (FhTSE e o vômito (FhAWV do verme adulto a fim de identificar as frações antigênicas específicas para

  8. Characterization of anti-liver-kidney microsome antibody (anti-LKM1) from hepatitis C virus-positive and -negative sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, A M; Cresteil, D; Homberg, J C; Alvarez, F

    1993-06-01

    Hepatitis C virus-related antibodies were found in sera positive for antibodies to liver/kidney microsome antibody, usually considered a marker of autoimmune hepatitis. The aim of this study was to analyze the specificity of this autoantibody in sera from patients with and without hepatitis C virus infection. Fifteen anti-hepatitis C virus- and anti-liver kidney microsome-positive sera were compared with 11 sera from patients with autoimmune hepatitis, for reactivity against rat and human liver microsomal proteins, P450IID6 recombinant proteins, and various synthetic peptides spanning the 241-429 amino acids sequence of the P450IID6. Ten of 11 sera from patients with autoimmune hepatitis bound to recombinant proteins spanning the P450IID6 region between amino acids 72 and 458. These sera bound to the 254-271 peptide, and some also recognized the 321-351, 373-389 and 410-429 peptides. Four of 15 antihepatitis C virus recognized the fusion protein coded by the full-length P450IID6 complementary DNA; 3 of them also reacted with the P450IID6 region between amino acids 72-456. Only 1 sera recognized the 321-351 peptide. P450IID6 antigenic sites recognized by anti-hepatitis C virus-positive sera were different from those recognized by sera from patients with autoimmune hepatitis.

  9. Detection of auto-anti-idiotypic antibodies to Lol p I (rye I) IgE antibodies in human sera by the use of murine idiotypes: levels in atopic and non-atopic subjects and effects of immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert, J; Bernier, D; Mourad, W

    1990-06-01

    Anti-idiotypic antibodies (anti-Id Abs) are involved in the regulation of a number of immune responses including the IgE antibody production. In atopic patients, the increased synthesis of IgE antibodies could be related to a defective production of regulatory anti-Id Abs. In the present study, we first developed a sensitive assay for measuring the levels of anti-Id Abs directed against antibodies specific for Lol p I, the major allergenic determinant of Lolium perenne (rye grass). In this assay, we used previously described murine monoclonal anti-Lol p I antibodies that were shown to share epitopic specificities with human anti-Lol p I IgE and IgG antibodies, thus short-cutting the need for purification of F(ab')2 fragments of human IgG Abs and insuring optimal specificity and sensitivity. Levels of anti-Id Abs against two anti-Lol p I monoclonal antibodies (290A-167, 348A-6) were higher in normal volunteers than in untreated atopic patients. Specific immunotherapy increased the levels of anti-Id Abs to those of normal volunteers. These observations suggest a role for the Id-anti-Id network in the regulation of IgE antibody production.

  10. SYNTHESIS OF 25-HYDROXYVITAMIN D3 CONJUGATE WITH KEYHOLE LIMPET HEMOCYANIN AND OBTAINING OF IMMUNE SERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. O. Mazanova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed at obtaining polyclonal antibodies that recognize 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3, for their further specifications and applications in immunochemical test systems of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3, determination in blood serum. We used the methods of chemical synthesis of immunoconjugates (modified carbodiimide method using N´-ethyl carbodiimide, thin layer chromatography, gel filtration and indirect immunoenzyme analysis ELISA. The work describes the stages of the synthesis of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3, immunoconjugate with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH, which was used for receiving immune sera. As a result of mouse and rabbit immunization antisera were obtained and antibody titers against 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3, were tested by immunoenzyme assay. It was demonstrated that the titer of specific antibodies was higher in rabbits compared with mice. The resulting polyclonal antibodies can be used for the development of immunochemical test systems for screening studies of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3, content in human blood serum as a marker of vitamin D3 availability.

  11. Sera of children with hepatitis C infection and anti-liver-kidney microsome-1 antibodies recognize different CYP2D6 epitopes than adults with LKM+/HCV+ sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, D; Yamamoto, A M; Jara, P; Maggiore, G; Sarles, J; Alvarez, F

    1999-11-01

    Liver-kidney microsome type 1 (LKM1) antibodies are specific markers of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) type 2. Antibodies to LKM1 have been found in 2% to 3% of adults infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) without AIH. Thirty percent of these antibodies are directed against linear sequences of CYP2D6 protein. LKM1 antibodies in HCV+/LKM1+ sera and in sera of AIH patients do not recognize the same CYP2D6 epitopes. The current study was conducted to determine whether LKM1 antibodies in HCV+/LKM1+ children's sera are the result of the same immune response as the antibodies described in AIH type 2 and in HCV+/LKM1+ adult patients. Sera from 10 HCV+/LKM1+ children were tested against human liver microsomal and cytosolic proteins by Western blot analysis and against synthetic peptides of the CYP2D6 sequence between amino acids 200 and 429 by dot blot. The same sera were tested against radiolabeled CYP2D6 by immunoprecipitation. Four of 10 sera tested by Western blot analysis showed immunoglobulin (Ig) G-type antibodies against CYP2D6, and 2 had antibodies against proteins of 58, 66, and 84 kDa. One of the sera also contained IgM-type anti-66-kDa and 84-kDa proteins. The radioligand test detected anti-CYP2D6 antibodies in 9 of 10 patients. Five of the anti-CYP2D6-positive sera recognized a peptide between amino acids 200 and 429 including amino acids 254-271. Most HCV+/LKM1+ sera from children recognize conformational epitopes of the CYP2D6 antigen, and half recognize linear epitopes. Some HCV+/LKM1+ sera demonstrated antibodies against the AIH type 2 main antigenic site of the CYP2D6. Screening of HCV RNA should be performed before starting treatment of presumed autoimmune hepatitis associated with LKM1.

  12. Antinuclear antibodies in the sera of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takimoto, T.; Ishikawa, S.; Masuda, K.; Tanaka, S.; Yoshizaki, T.; Umeda, R. (Kanazawa Univ. (Japan))

    1989-11-01

    We studied the production of heterophile antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) in the sera of 50 patients, 20 with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and 30 with other head and neck cancers (laryngeal cancer and maxillary cancer), before and after radiation therapy. A higher incidence of ANAs was found in the sera of patients with NPC and ANA production in these patients was higher after radiation therapy. We therefore performed in vitro experiments to explore the mechanisms of ANA production in the serum of postirradiated NPC patients. X-ray-irradiated NPC-derived cells (NPC-KT) produced a large amount of Epstein-Barr virus (NPC EBV) compared with non-irradiated NPC-KT cells. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma EBV-infected lymphocytes produced high levels of ANAs. These data suggest that lymphocytes infected by EBV from NPC cells may produce ANAs in the sera of NPC patients.

  13. Sterilization of sera and vaccines by cobalt gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidolin, R.; Morais, J.F.; Higashi, H.G.; Correa, A.; Cicarelli, R.M.B.; Previde, E.

    1988-01-01

    Diphtheria, tetanus, anti-snake venom sera and Diphtheria-Pertussis-Tetanus vaccine were submitted to different intensities of gamma radiation, in order to: verify the resistance of their specific activities to the action of gamma rays; evaluate the possibility of using this type of energy to sterilize some heterogeneous hyper immune sera and vaccines commonly utilized in Public Health. The results, according to the range employed, show the possibility of sterilizing the products tested, without any alteration to specific biological and chemical properties. (author)

  14. Analysis of Cl and Na in Hyperimmune Sera by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baptista, T. S.; Zamboni, C. B.; Marcelino, J. R.

    2011-01-01

    The Cl and Na concentration values in four types of hyperimmune sera (anti-Bothrops, anti-Diphtheria, anti-Rabies and anti-Tetanus) used for immunological therapy were determined using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). These data were compatible with the specifications established by the Word Health Organization (WHO-OMS) and with the Brazilian Official Pharmacopea (Pharmaceutical Code Official of the Country). These data are an important support for quality control of hyperimmune sera production at Butantan Institute (Sao Paulo city, Brazil), responsible for supplying the Brazilian market.

  15. Neutron activation analysis of Cl, K and Na content in whole blood of horses used in hyperimmune sera production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baptista, T.S.; Zamboni, C.B.; Medeiros, J.A.G.; Freitas, M.G.; Higashi, H.G.; Marcelino, J.R.

    2009-01-01

    Using neutron activation analysis technique Cl, K and Na concentration were obtained in whole blood of equines used for antivenom production at Butantan Institute (Sao Paulo, Brazil). These data were compared with the human whole blood estimation. No significant difference was observed suggesting that this model animal is adequate sera production. (author)

  16. The application of human engineering in control room of HFETR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Shuchun; Shan Songlin

    2003-01-01

    The human-machine system for improving the working environment in the control room of HFETR is described. The reliability of the equipment, instruments and operation by human engineering is increased. The relations between human engineering and lowering human failure in HFETR are also discussed. It is concluded that the further application of human engineering can increase interaction of the human and machine in the control room and provide assurances for the safe and reliable operation of reactor. (authors)

  17. The application of human engineering in control room of HFETR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuchun, Yang; Songlin, Shan [Nuclear Power Inst. of China, Chengdu (China)

    2003-07-01

    The human-machine system for improving the working environment in the control room of HFETR is described. The reliability of the equipment, instruments and operation by human engineering is increased. The relations between human engineering and lowering human failure in HFETR are also discussed. It is concluded that the further application of human engineering can increase interaction of the human and machine in the control room and provide assurances for the safe and reliable operation of reactor. (authors)

  18. A monoclonal antibody to pestviruses in bovine and ovine sera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mweene, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA) has been developed to defeat antibodies to pestviruses in bovine and ovine sera. Single sera from 211 cattle and 22 sheep from 7 different farms were tested using ELISA and Serum Neutralisation Test (SNT). 17 Monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) directed against P80, gp48 and gp53 were tested for ability to coat ELISA plates and capture the bovine viral diarrhea antigen. 5 mabs(WB 103, WB, 105, WB 112 against P80 kDa protein, WB 210 and WB 214 directed against gp48 and gp 53 kDa protein. Specific antibody to BVDV was detected by rabbit anti-bovine and anti-ovine IgG antisera. The quantitative correlation between two tests was good

  19. 14C-Metampicillin stability in several physiological sera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimeno de Osso, F.; Casas Medica, F.; Carriazo Tovar, D.

    1981-01-01

    Degradation of 14 C -metampicillin incorporated to several physiological sera for medical uses has been studied. Influence of environmental conditions as well as possible interaction with the solvent have been specially analyzed. Degradation level of the labelled multiplication has been determined and its degradation products have been separated by using chromatographic and radiochemical methods. Likewise, the 14 C -metam picill synthesis has been described. Finally, the results obtained have been discussed and evaluated. (Author) 9 refs

  20. Trace elements in sera of patients with hepatitis B: Determination and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saod, Wahran M.; Darwish, Nadiya T.; Zaidan, Tahseen A.; Alfalujie, Abdul Wahab A.

    2018-04-01

    Chronic Hepatitis B (HBV) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide with about 248 million people having HBV infection. Trace elements e.g. copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), selenium (Se) and iron (Fe) are constituent components of many metal proteins and metalloenzymes in human sera. Therefore, the ratios of these trace elements in human sera are often stated to be a good marker for diagnosing various diseases including HBV. The aims of this study are: to compare the level of trace elements in sera of patients infected with HBV and healthy participants, and to evaluate the efficiency of analytical techniques (e.g. Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (hydride generation) (AAS) and Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (GFAAS) that are currently used to detect Fe and Se elements in Patients' human sera. The findings of this study show that the concentration range of copper element between (132.80±28.64 µg/dl) to (105.66±23.20 µg/dl) was significantly higher in HBV infected patients as compared to those in healthy controls (91.27±9.20 µg/dl). Iron concentration range between (206.64±61.60 µg/l) to (170.00±36.71 µg/l) was significantly higher in HBV infected patients as compared to those in healthy controls (158.00±15.13 µg/l). However, patients with HBV had significantly lower serum concentrations of zinc with a concentration range between (111.64±20.90 µg/dl) to (99.25±24.06 µg/dl) as compared to those in healthy controls (113.44±16.38 µg/dl). While selenium concentration range between (64.39±7.39 µg/l) to (51.10±4.96 µg/l) was significantly lower in HBV infected patients as compared to those in healthy controls (67.68±7.60) (μg/l). Moreover, the results of this study suggest that (AAS) technique was the most accurate method to measure the concentration of selenium element, while (UV and ICP-MS) analytical techniques have the same efficiency in measuring the iron concentration.

  1. APPLICATION OF MODERN HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Frederick Iraki

    strategic perspective and constantly monitor and encourage the development of new skills and ... Human. Resource Management practices affect organizations productivity, corporate and financial ..... Exploring Human Resource. Management ...

  2. Identification of Lactobacillus proteins with different recognition patterns between immune rabbit sera and nonimmune mice or human sera

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Górska, S.; Buda, B.; Brzozowska, E.; Schwarzer, Martin; Šrůtková, Dagmar; Kozáková, Hana; Gamian, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 16, FEB 2016 (2016), s. 17 ISSN 1471-2180 Grant - others:Evropský fond pro regionální rozvoj(XE) CZ.3.22/2.1.00/09.01574; Evropský fond pro regionální rozvoj(XE) CZ.3.22/2.1.00/13.03892 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Lactobacillus * Probiotics * Surface proteins Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.644, year: 2016

  3. Sera of patients with recurrent miscarriages containing anti-trophoblast antibodies (ATAB) reduce hCG and progesterone production in trophoblast cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Schönfeldt, Viktoria; Rogenhofer, Nina; Ruf, Katharina; Thaler, Christian J; Jeschke, Udo

    2016-09-01

    Reproductive failure including RM has been suggested to correlate with antibodies that cross react with HLA-negative syncytiotrophoblasts and we have reported that 17% of women with 2 or more miscarriages and 34% of women with 3 or more miscarriages express anti-trophoblast antibodies (ATAB). Until now, the mechanism, how ATAB interfere with pregnancy success is not known. HCG and progesterone both play fundamental roles in supporting human pregnancy. Therefore we investigated the effects of sera of RM patients containing ATAB on the hCG and progesterone production of cells of the choriocarcinoma cell line JEG-3. In vitro study to investigate effects of patient sera with and without ATAB on hCG and progesterone secretion of JEG-3 cells. The presence of ATAB was detected as described earlier. Effects of sera from ATAB positive and ATAB negative RM patients on hCG and progesterone secretion by JEG-3 cells were analysed 12 and 24h after plating. Sera of women without pregnancy pathologies served as controls. Sera of ATAB-positive RM patients significantly inhibit hCG secretion of JEG-3 cells for 12h after plating compared to sera of healthy controls (p=0.019) and significantly reduce progesterone production for 12h (p=0.046) and 24h (p=0.027) of co-culture. Sera of ATAB-negative RM patient show no significant effect on progesterone secretion. Inhibition of hCG and progesterone production might point to a mechanism, how ATAB interfere with early pregnancies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Changes in adipose tissue stromal-vascular cells in primary culture due to porcine sera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jewell, D.E.; Hausman, G.J.

    1986-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the response of rat stromal-vascular cells to pig sea. Sera were collected from unselected contemporary (lean) and high backfat thickness selected (obese) pigs. Sera from obese pigs were collected either by exsanguination or cannulation. sera from lean pigs during the growing phase (45 kg) and the fattening phase (100-110 kg) were collected. Stromal-vascular cells derived rom rat inguinal tissue were cultured on either 25 cm 2 flasks, collagen-coated coverslips or petri dishes. Cell proliferation was measured by [ 3 H]-thymidine incorporation during the fourth day of culture. Coverslip cultures were used for histochemical analysis. Petri dish cultures were used for analysis of Sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity. All cells were plated for 24 hours in media containing 10 fetal bovine sera. Test media contained 2.5, 5.0, 10.0% sera. Sera from obese pigs increased GPDH activity and fat cell production when compared to the lean controls. The increased concentration of sera increased esterase activity and lipid as measured with oil red O. The sera from obese pigs collected at slaughter stimulated more fat cell production than obese sera collected by cannulation. These studies show there are adipogenic factors in obese pigs sera which promote fat cell development in primary cell culture

  5. Development and application of Human Genome Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingwen

    2017-12-01

    Epidemiology is a science that studies distribution of diseases and health in population and its influencing factors, it also studies how to prevent and cure disease and promote health strategies and measures. Epidemiology has developed rapidly in recent years and it is an intercross subject with various other disciplines to form a series of branch disciplines such as Genetic epidemiology, molecular epidemiology, drug epidemiology and tumor epidemiology. With the implementation and completion of Human Genome Project (HGP), Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) has emerged at this historic moment. In this review, the development of Human Genome Epidemiology, research content, the construction and structure of relevant network, research standards, as well as the existing results and problems are briefly outlined.

  6. Annotated bibliography of human factors applications literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCafferty, D.B.

    1984-09-30

    This bibliography was prepared as part of the Human Factors Technology Project, FY 1984, sponsored by the Office of Nuclear Safety, US Department of Energy. The project was conducted by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, with Essex Corporation as a subcontractor. The material presented here is a revision and expansion of the bibliographic material developed in FY 1982 as part of a previous Human Factors Technology Project. The previous bibliography was published September 30, 1982, as Attachment 1 to the FY 1982 Project Status Report.

  7. Annotated bibliography of human factors applications literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCafferty, D.B.

    1984-01-01

    This bibliography was prepared as part of the Human Factors Technology Project, FY 1984, sponsored by the Office of Nuclear Safety, US Department of Energy. The project was conducted by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, with Essex Corporation as a subcontractor. The material presented here is a revision and expansion of the bibliographic material developed in FY 1982 as part of a previous Human Factors Technology Project. The previous bibliography was published September 30, 1982, as Attachment 1 to the FY 1982 Project Status Report

  8. SERA -- An advanced treatment planning system for neutron therapy and BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigg, D.W.; Wemple, C.A.; Wessol, D.E.; Wheeler, F.J.; Albright, C.; Cohen, M.; Frandsen, M.; Harkin, G.; Rossmeier, M.

    1999-01-01

    Detailed treatment planning calculations on a patient-specific basis are required for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Two integrated treatment planning systems developed specifically for BNCT have been in clinical use in the United States over the past few years. The MacNCTPLAN BNCT treatment planning system is used in the clinical BNCT trials that are underway at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. A second system, BNCT rtpe (BNCT radiation therapy planning environment), developed independently by the Idaho national Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) in collaboration with Montana State University (MSU), is used for treatment planning in the current series of BNCT clinical trials for glioblastoma at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). This latter system is also licensed for use at several other BNCT research facilities worldwide. Although the currently available BNCT planning systems have served their purpose well, they suffer from somewhat long computation times (2 to 3 CPU-hours or more per field) relative to standard photon therapy planning software. This is largely due to the need for explicit three-dimensional solutions to the relevant transport equations. The simplifying approximations that work well for photon transport computations are not generally applicable to neutron transport computations. Greater computational speeds for BNCT treatment planning must therefore generally be achieved through the application of improved numerical techniques rather than by simplification of the governing equations. Recent efforts at INEEL and MSU have been directed toward this goal. This has resulted in a new paradigm for this type of calculation and the subsequent creation of the new simulation environment for radiotherapy applications (SERA) treatment planning system for BNCT. SERA is currently in initial clinical testing in connection with the trials at BNL, and it is expected to replace the present BNCT rtpe system upon general release

  9. In Vitro Endothelial Cell Proliferation Assay Reveals Distinct Levels of Proangiogenic Cytokines Characterizing Sera of Healthy Subjects and of Patients with Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Voltan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although myocardial angiogenesis is thought to play an important role in heart failure (HF, the involvement of circulating proinflammatory and proangiogenic cytokines in the pathogenesis and/or prognosis of HF has not been deeply investigated. By using a highly standardized proliferation assay with human endothelial cells, we first demonstrated that sera from older (mean age 52±7.6 years; n=46 healthy donors promoted endothelial cell proliferation to a significantly higher extent compared to sera obtained from younger healthy donors (mean age 29±8.6 years; n=20. The promotion of endothelial cell proliferation was accompanied by high serum levels of several proangiogenic cytokines. When we assessed endothelial cell proliferation in response to HF patients’ sera, we observed that a subset of sera (n=11 promoted cell proliferation to a significantly lesser extent compared to the majority of sera (n=18. Also, in this case, the difference between the patient groups in the ability to induce endothelial cell proliferation correlated to significant (P<0.05 differences in serum proangiogenic cytokine levels. Unexpectedly, HF patients associated to the highest endothelial proliferation index showed the worst prognosis as evaluated in terms of subsequent cardiovascular events in the follow-up, suggesting that high levels of circulating proangiogenic cytokines might be related to a worse prognosis.

  10. Solubilization of immune complexes in complement factor deficient sera and the influence of temperature, ionic strength and divalent cations on the solubilization reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baatrup, Gunnar; Petersen, Ivan; Svehag, Svend-Erik

    1984-01-01

    The complement-mediated solubilization (CMS) of immune complexes (IC) and the initial kinetics (IKS) of this reaction in human sera depleted of or deficient in C2, C3, C8, factors B, P and I were investigated. Sera depleted of B or P and those lacking native C3 or factor I showed virtually no CMS......M. Chelation of Ca2+ in serum by Mg2+-ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid reduced the CMS capacity by up to 50% and the IKS was markedly retarded. Varying the Zn2+ or Mn2+ ion concentrations in serum influenced neither the IKS nor the CMS capacity....

  11. Isolation, purification and partial characterization of early pregnancy factor (EPF) from sera of pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, A; Mothi, B A; Al-Hussein, K; Al-Tufail, M; Hollanders, J; Jaroudi, K; Al-Waili, N; Shabani, M

    2001-05-29

    Early pregnancy factor (EPF) is a pregnancy protein, which is secreted into the maternal serum 12-16 hours after fertilization. It is thought to be an immunosuppressive molecule. EPF is detected in pregnant woman's serum by the rosette inhibition assay (RIA). In this study, EPF was purified from the pregnant woman's sera by using ion exchange chromatography and analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The proteins which showed a positive result with the RIA, were found to be 35 kDa and 17 kDa molecular weights. The biological activities of these proteins were stable upon heat treatment at 56 degrees C for 30 min. Proteins isolated and purified in this study might be of great significance to the field of human reproduction with particular reference to pregnancy and recurrent abortion.

  12. Application of DFM in human reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Shaojie; Zhao Jun; Tong Jiejuan

    2011-01-01

    Combining with ATHEANA, the possible to identify EFCs and UAs using DFM is studied; and then Steam Generator Tube Rupture (SGTR) accident is modeled and solved. Through inductive analysis, 26 Prime Implicants (PIs) are obtained and the meaning of results is interpreted; and one of PIs is similar to the accident scenario of human failure event in one nuclear power plant. Finally, this paper discusses the methods of quantifying PIs, analysis of Error of commission (EOC) and so on. (authors)

  13. Biology and applications of human minisatellite loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, J A; Jeffreys, A J

    1992-12-01

    Highly repetitive minisatellites' include the most variable human loci described to date. They have proved invaluable in a wide variety of genetic analyses, and despite some controversies surrounding their practical implementation, have been extensively adopted in civil and forensic casework. Molecular analysis of internal allelic structure has provided detailed insights into the repeat-unit turnover mechanisms operating in germline mutations, which are ultimately responsible for the extreme variability seen at these loci.

  14. Process error rates in general research applications to the Human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To examine process error rates in applications for ethics clearance of health research. Methods. Minutes of 586 general research applications made to a human health research ethics committee (HREC) from April 2008 to March 2009 were examined. Rates of approval were calculated and reasons for requiring ...

  15. Increased Expression of Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte-Associated Protein 4 by T Cells, Induced by B7 in Sera, Reduces Adaptive Immunity in Patients With Acute Liver Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khamri, Wafa; Abeles, Robin D; Hou, Tie Zheng

    2017-01-01

    , hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells, and biliary epithelial cells from healthy or diseased liver tissues. We also measured levels of soluble B7 serum samples from patients and controls, and mice with acetaminophen-induced liver injury using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. RESULTS: Peripheral blood...... were found to have increased concentrations of soluble B7 compared to sera from controls. Necrotic human primary hepatocytes exposed to acetaminophen, but not hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells and biliary epithelial cells from patients with ALF, secreted high levels of soluble B7. Sera from mice...... with acetaminophen-induced liver injury contained high levels of soluble B7 compared to sera from mice without liver injury. Plasma exchange reduced circulating levels of soluble B7 in patients with ALF and expression of CTLA4 on T cells. CONCLUSIONS: Peripheral CD4+T cells from patients with ALF have increased...

  16. Human-computer interface incorporating personal and application domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Thomas G [Albuquerque, NM

    2011-03-29

    The present invention provides a human-computer interface. The interface includes provision of an application domain, for example corresponding to a three-dimensional application. The user is allowed to navigate and interact with the application domain. The interface also includes a personal domain, offering the user controls and interaction distinct from the application domain. The separation into two domains allows the most suitable interface methods in each: for example, three-dimensional navigation in the application domain, and two- or three-dimensional controls in the personal domain. Transitions between the application domain and the personal domain are under control of the user, and the transition method is substantially independent of the navigation in the application domain. For example, the user can fly through a three-dimensional application domain, and always move to the personal domain by moving a cursor near one extreme of the display.

  17. A sample application of nuclear power human resources model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurgen, A.; Ergun, S.

    2016-01-01

    One of the most important issues for a new comer country initializing the nuclear power plant projects is to have both quantitative and qualitative models for the human resources development. For the quantitative model of human resources development for Turkey, “Nuclear Power Human Resources (NPHR) Model” developed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory was used to determine the number of people that will be required from different professional or occupational fields in the planning of human resources for Akkuyu, Sinop and the third nuclear power plant projects. The number of people required for different professions for the Nuclear Energy Project Implementation Department, the regulatory authority, project companies, construction, nuclear power plants and the academy were calculated. In this study, a sample application of the human resources model is presented. The results of the first tries to calculate the human resources needs of Turkey were obtained. Keywords: Human Resources Development, New Comer Country, NPHR Model

  18. Camera systems in human motion analysis for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Lim Chee; Basah, Shafriza Nisha; Yaacob, Sazali; Juan, Yeap Ewe; Kadir, Aida Khairunnisaa Ab.

    2015-05-01

    Human Motion Analysis (HMA) system has been one of the major interests among researchers in the field of computer vision, artificial intelligence and biomedical engineering and sciences. This is due to its wide and promising biomedical applications, namely, bio-instrumentation for human computer interfacing and surveillance system for monitoring human behaviour as well as analysis of biomedical signal and image processing for diagnosis and rehabilitation applications. This paper provides an extensive review of the camera system of HMA, its taxonomy, including camera types, camera calibration and camera configuration. The review focused on evaluating the camera system consideration of the HMA system specifically for biomedical applications. This review is important as it provides guidelines and recommendation for researchers and practitioners in selecting a camera system of the HMA system for biomedical applications.

  19. Profile of NF-κBp(65/NFκBp50) among prostate specific antigen sera levels in prostatic pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouraoui, Y; Ben Jemaa, A; Rodriguez, G; Ben Rais, N; Fraile, B; Paniagua, R; Sellemi, S; Royuela, M; Oueslati, R

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this work was to characterise the immunoexpression of NF-κB (p50/p65) in human prostatic pathologies and to study its profiles of activation among sera prostate specific antigen antigen (PSA) according the three groups: 0-4ng/mL, 4-20ng/mL and >20ng/mL. Twenty-four men with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH); 19 men with prostate cancer (PC) and five men with normal prostates (NP). Immunohistochemical and western blot analysis was performed. Serum levels of PSA were assayed by immulite autoanalyser. In BPH and PC samples, immunoexpressions were observed for NF-κBp65 and NF-κBp50; while in NP samples, only were detected NF-κBp50. PC samples showed immunoreactions to NF-κBp65 and NF-κBp50 more intense (respectively 24.18±0.67 and 28.23±2.01) than that observed in BPH samples (respectively18.46±2.04 and 18.66±1.59) with special localisation in the nucleus. Different profiles of NF-κBp65 immunoexpressions were observed and BPH patients with sera PSA levels between 0-4ng/mL presented a significant weak percentage compared to BPH patients with sera PSA levels between 4-20ng/mL and >20ng/mL. No immunoreactions to NF-κBp65 were observed in PC patients with sera PSA levels between 4-20ng/mL. The sensibility of both NF-κB and PSA to inflammation allowed confirming the relationship between these two molecules and its involvement in prostatic diseases progression (inflammatory and neoplasic). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. A macroecological analysis of SERA derived forest heights and implications for forest volume remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brolly, Matthew; Woodhouse, Iain H; Niklas, Karl J; Hammond, Sean T

    2012-01-01

    Individual trees have been shown to exhibit strong relationships between DBH, height and volume. Often such studies are cited as justification for forest volume or standing biomass estimation through remote sensing. With resolution of common satellite remote sensing systems generally too low to resolve individuals, and a need for larger coverage, these systems rely on descriptive heights, which account for tree collections in forests. For remote sensing and allometric applications, this height is not entirely understood in terms of its location. Here, a forest growth model (SERA) analyzes forest canopy height relationships with forest wood volume. Maximum height, mean, H₁₀₀, and Lorey's height are examined for variability under plant number density, resource and species. Our findings, shown to be allometrically consistent with empirical measurements for forested communities world-wide, are analyzed for implications to forest remote sensing techniques such as LiDAR and RADAR. Traditional forestry measures of maximum height, and to a lesser extent H₁₀₀ and Lorey's, exhibit little consistent correlation with forest volume across modeled conditions. The implication is that using forest height to infer volume or biomass from remote sensing requires species and community behavioral information to infer accurate estimates using height alone. SERA predicts mean height to provide the most consistent relationship with volume of the height classifications studied and overall across forest variations. This prediction agrees with empirical data collected from conifer and angiosperm forests with plant densities ranging between 10²-10⁶ plants/hectare and heights 6-49 m. Height classifications investigated are potentially linked to radar scattering centers with implications for allometry. These findings may be used to advance forest biomass estimation accuracy through remote sensing. Furthermore, Lorey's height with its specific relationship to remote sensing

  1. Application of postured human model for SAR measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuchkovikj, M.; Munteanu, I.; Weiland, T.

    2013-07-01

    In the last two decades, the increasing number of electronic devices used in day-to-day life led to a growing interest in the study of the electromagnetic field interaction with biological tissues. The design of medical devices and wireless communication devices such as mobile phones benefits a lot from the bio-electromagnetic simulations in which digital human models are used. The digital human models currently available have an upright position which limits the research activities in realistic scenarios, where postured human bodies must be considered. For this reason, a software application called "BodyFlex for CST STUDIO SUITE" was developed. In its current version, this application can deform the voxel-based human model named HUGO (Dipp GmbH, 2010) to allow the generation of common postures that people use in normal life, ensuring the continuity of tissues and conserving the mass to an acceptable level. This paper describes the enhancement of the "BodyFlex" application, which is related to the movements of the forearm and the wrist of a digital human model. One of the electromagnetic applications in which the forearm and the wrist movement of a voxel based human model has a significant meaning is the measurement of the specific absorption rate (SAR) when a model is exposed to a radio frequency electromagnetic field produced by a mobile phone. Current SAR measurements of the exposure from mobile phones are performed with the SAM (Specific Anthropomorphic Mannequin) phantom which is filled with a dispersive but homogeneous material. We are interested what happens with the SAR values if a realistic inhomogeneous human model is used. To this aim, two human models, a homogeneous and an inhomogeneous one, in two simulation scenarios are used, in order to examine and observe the differences in the results for the SAR values.

  2. Prebiotics from marine macroalgae for human and animal health applications.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, Laurie

    2010-01-01

    The marine environment is an untapped source of bioactive compounds. Specifically, marine macroalgae (seaweeds) are rich in polysaccharides that could potentially be exploited as prebiotic functional ingredients for both human and animal health applications. Prebiotics are non-digestible, selectively fermented compounds that stimulate the growth and\\/or activity of beneficial gut microbiota which, in turn, confer health benefits on the host. This review will introduce the concept and potential applications of prebiotics, followed by an outline of the chemistry of seaweed polysaccharides. Their potential for use as prebiotics for both humans and animals will be highlighted by reviewing data from both in vitro and in vivo studies conducted to date.

  3. Correlation between chemical components of billary calculi and bile & sera and bile of gallstone patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Prasheeda; Garg, Pradeep; Pundir, Chandra S

    2005-07-01

    Total cholesterol, total bilirubin, calcium, oxalate, inorganic phosphate, magnesium, iron, copper, sodium and potassium were analyzed quantitatively in gallstones, bile of gall bladder and sera of 200 patients of cholelithiasis (52 cholesterol, 76 mixed and 72 pigment stone patients) and their contents were correlated between calculi and bile and sera and bile in these three type of stone patients. A significant positive correlation was observed between total cholesterol, total bilirubin of calculi and bile, copper of bile and sera of cholesterol stone patients, copper of calculi and bile, total bilirubin, oxalate, magnesium, potassium of sera and bile of pigment stone patients and oxalate and iron of stone and bile, total bilirubin, oxalate, sodium of sera and bile of mixed stone patients. A significant negative correlation was found between magnesium of serum and bile of cholesterol stone patients, oxalate of calculi and bile of pigment stone patients and magnesium of serum and bile of mixed stone patients.

  4. Prediction of Human Pharmacokinetic Profile After Transdermal Drug Application Using Excised Human Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Syunsuke; Karashima, Masatoshi; Arai, Yuta; Tohyama, Kimio; Amano, Nobuyuki

    2017-09-01

    Although several mathematical models have been reported for the estimation of human plasma concentration profiles of drug substances after dermal application, the successful cases that can predict human pharmacokinetic profiles are limited. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the prediction of human plasma concentrations after dermal application using in vitro permeation parameters obtained from excised human skin. The in vitro skin permeability of 7 marketed drug products was evaluated. The plasma concentration-time profiles of the drug substances in humans after their dermal application were simulated using compartment models and the clinical pharmacokinetic parameters. The transdermal process was simulated using the in vitro skin permeation rate and lag time assuming a zero-order absorption. These simulated plasma concentration profiles were compared with the clinical data. The result revealed that the steady-state plasma concentration of diclofenac and the maximum concentrations of nicotine, bisoprolol, rivastigmine, and lidocaine after topical application were within 2-fold of the clinical data. Furthermore, the simulated concentration profiles of bisoprolol, nicotine, and rivastigmine reproduced the decrease in absorption due to drug depletion from the formulation. In conclusion, this simple compartment model using in vitro human skin permeation parameters as zero-order absorption predicted the human plasma concentrations accurately. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Enzymatic modification of phospholipids forfunctional applications and human nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Zheng; Vikbjerg, Anders / Falk; Xu, Xuebing

    2005-01-01

    analogs based on the latest understanding of pivotal role of phospholipids in manifold biological processes, exploration of remarkable application potentials of phospholipids in meliorating human health, as well as development of new chemical and biotechnological approaches applied to the modification...... design. This will of course provide fundamental bases also for the development of enzymatic technology to produce structured or modified phospholipids....

  6. Human walking in virtual environments perception, technology, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Visell, Yon; Campos, Jennifer; Lécuyer, Anatole

    2013-01-01

    This book presents a survey of past and recent developments on human walking in virtual environments with an emphasis on human self-motion perception, the multisensory nature of experiences of walking, conceptual design approaches, current technologies, and applications. The use of virtual reality and movement simulation systems is becoming increasingly popular and more accessible to a wide variety of research fields and applications. While, in the past, simulation technologies have focused on developing realistic, interactive visual environments, it is becoming increasingly obvious that our everyday interactions are highly multisensory. Therefore, investigators are beginning to understand the critical importance of developing and validating locomotor interfaces that can allow for realistic, natural behaviours. The book aims to present an overview of what is currently understood about human perception and performance when moving in virtual environments and to situate it relative to the broader scientific and ...

  7. Human applications of the INEL patient treatment planning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, F.; Wessol, D.; Atkinson, C.; Nigg, D.

    1995-01-01

    During the past few years, murine and large animal research, as well as human studies have provided data to the point where human clinical trials have been initiated at the BMRR using BPA-F for gliomas and at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Reactor (MITR) using BPA for melanomas of the extremeties. It is expected that glioma trials using BSH will proceed soon at the Petten High Flux Reactor (HFR) in the Netherlands. The first human glioma epithermal boron neutron capture therapy application was performed at the BMRR in the fall of 1994. This was a collaborative effort by BNL, Beth Israel Manhattan hospital, and INEL. The INEL planning system was chosen to perform dose predictions for this application

  8. Application of human reliability analysis methodology of second generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz S, T. de J.; Nelson E, P. F.

    2009-10-01

    The human reliability analysis (HRA) is a very important part of probabilistic safety analysis. The main contribution of HRA in nuclear power plants is the identification and characterization of the issues that are brought together for an error occurring in the human tasks that occur under normal operation conditions and those made after abnormal event. Additionally, the analysis of various accidents in history, it was found that the human component has been a contributing factor in the cause. Because of need to understand the forms and probability of human error in the 60 decade begins with the collection of generic data that result in the development of the first generation of HRA methodologies. Subsequently develop methods to include in their models additional performance shaping factors and the interaction between them. So by the 90 mid, comes what is considered the second generation methodologies. Among these is the methodology A Technique for Human Event Analysis (ATHEANA). The application of this method in a generic human failure event, it is interesting because it includes in its modeling commission error, the additional deviations quantification to nominal scenario considered in the accident sequence of probabilistic safety analysis and, for this event the dependency actions evaluation. That is, the generic human failure event was required first independent evaluation of the two related human failure events . So the gathering of the new human error probabilities involves the nominal scenario quantification and cases of significant deviations considered by the potential impact on analyzed human failure events. Like probabilistic safety analysis, with the analysis of the sequences were extracted factors more specific with the highest contribution in the human error probabilities. (Author)

  9. Immunoproteome of Aspergillus fumigatus Using Sera of Patients with Invasive Aspergillosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emylli D. Virginio

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Invasive aspergillosis is a life-threatening lung or systemic infection caused by the opportunistic mold Aspergillus fumigatus. The disease affects mainly immunocompromised hosts, and patients with hematological malignances or who have been submitted to stem cell transplantation are at high risk. Despite the current use of Platelia™ Aspergillus as a diagnostic test, the early diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis remains a major challenge in improving the prognosis of the disease. In this study, we used an immunoproteomic approach to identify proteins that could be putative candidates for the early diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis. Antigenic proteins expressed in the first steps of A. fumigatus germination occurring in a human host were revealed using 2-D Western immunoblots with the serum of patients who had previously been classified as probable and proven for invasive aspergillosis. Forty antigenic proteins were identified using mass spectrometry (MS/MS. A BLAST analysis revealed that two of these proteins showed low homology with proteins of either the human host or etiological agents of other invasive fungal infections. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing specific antigenic proteins of A. fumigatus germlings that are recognized by sera of patients with confirmed invasive aspergillosis who were from two separate hospital units.

  10. Sensitive and specific detection of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus (CCHFV)—Specific IgM and IgG antibodies in human sera using recombinant CCHFV nucleoprotein as antigen in μ-capture and IgG immune complex (IC) ELISA tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerich, Petra; Mika, Angela; von Possel, Ronald; Rackow, Anne; Liu, Yang; Schmitz, Herbert; Sherifi, Kurtesh; Halili, Barie; Jakupi, Xhevat; Berisha, Lindita; Ahmeti, Salih

    2018-01-01

    As the most widespread tick-borne arbovirus causing infections in numerous countries in Asia, Africa and Europe, Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus (CCHFV, family Nairoviridae) was included in the WHO priority list of emerging pathogens needing urgent Research & Development attention. To ensure preparedness for potential future outbreak scenarios, reliable diagnostic tools for identification of acute cases as well as for performance of seroprevalence studies are necessary. Here, the CCHFV ortholog of the major bunyavirus antigen, the nucleoprotein (NP), was recombinantly expressed in E.coli, purified and directly labeled with horseradish peroxidase (HRP). Employing this antigen, two serological tests, a μ-capture ELISA for the detection of CCHFV-specific IgM antibodies (BLACKBOX CCHFV IgM) and an IgG immune complex (IC) ELISA for the detection of CCHFV-specific IgG antibodies (BLACKBOX CCHFV IgG), were developed. Test performance was evaluated and compared with both in-house gold standard testing by IgM/IgG indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) and commercially available ELISA tests (VectoCrimean-CHF-IgM/IgG, Vector-Best, Russia) using a serum panel comprising paired samples collected in Kosovo during the years 2013–2016 from 15 patients with an acute, RT-PCR-confirmed CCHFV infection, and 12 follow-up sera of the same patients collected approximately one year after having overcome the infection. Reliably detecting IgM antibodies in all acute phase sera collected later than day 4 after onset of symptoms, both IgM ELISAs displayed excellent diagnostic and analytical sensitivity (100%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 85.2%–100.0%). While both IgG ELISAs readily detected the high IgG titers present in convalescent patients approximately one year after having overcome the infection (sensitivity 100%, 95% CI: 73.5%–100.0%), the newly developed BLACKBOX CCHFV IgG ELISA was superior to the commercial IgG ELISA in detecting the rising IgG titers during the acute phase

  11. Application of indirect immunofluorescent test with an improved HEp-2 substrate tranfected with human Ro60/SSA autoantigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Liangjing; Chen Shunle; Gu Yueying; Shen Nan; Bao Chunde; Wang Yuan; Xue Feng; Ye Peng; Yu Chongzhao

    2006-01-01

    To develop an improved substrate for indirect immunofluorescent test (IIF) to detect anti-Ro/SSA autoantibodies, the human 60-kDa Ro/SSA autoantigens (Ro60) cDNAs were obtained from placental cDNA library using PCR and were cloned into the mammalian expression vectorpEGFP-C1. Then the recombinant plasmids were transfected into HEp-2 cells. We con- firmed the overexpression, localization and antigenicity of fusion proteins in transfected cells by means of fluorescence microscopy, immunoblotting and IIF. HEp-2 and HEp-Ro60 was analyzed by IIF using a panel of 10 precipitinpositive anti-Ro human sera simultaneously. Stable expression of Ro60-GFP (green fluorescent protein) fusion proteins maintained ten more generations. And Ro60-GFP kept the antigenicity of Ro and had its own characteristic immunofluorescent pattern in HEp-Ro60 cells. The transfectants dramatically increased the sensitivity of IIF testing (a mean increase of 6.7-fold in endpoint titer, P<0.01). Eight (8/10) positive an- ti-Ro sera showed characteristic immunofluorescent pattern on HEp-Ro60, including two sera which were antinuclear antibodies (ANA) negative on untransfected HEp-2. IIF-ANA in all healthy sera were negative on HEp-Ro60. As a kind of new substrate of IIF, the Ro60 transfectants can be used to detect anti-Ro antibodies. In addition, transfected HEp-2 cells kept the immunofluorescent property of HEp-2 cells in IIF-ANA tests and could be employed as substrate for the routine IIF-ANA detection. The method improved the sensitivity of IIF-ANA. (authors)

  12. Prebiotics from Marine Macroalgae for Human and Animal Health Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Sullivan, Laurie; Murphy, Brian; McLoughlin, Peter; Duggan, Patrick; Lawlor, Peadar G.; Hughes, Helen; Gardiner, Gillian E.

    2010-01-01

    The marine environment is an untapped source of bioactive compounds. Specifically, marine macroalgae (seaweeds) are rich in polysaccharides that could potentially be exploited as prebiotic functional ingredients for both human and animal health applications. Prebiotics are non-digestible, selectively fermented compounds that stimulate the growth and/or activity of beneficial gut microbiota which, in turn, confer health benefits on the host. This review will introduce the concept and potential applications of prebiotics, followed by an outline of the chemistry of seaweed polysaccharides. Their potential for use as prebiotics for both humans and animals will be highlighted by reviewing data from both in vitro and in vivo studies conducted to date. PMID:20714423

  13. Comprehensive Identification of Immunodominant Proteins of Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis Using Antibodies in the Sera from Naturally Infected Hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal Wareth

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a debilitating zoonotic disease that affects humans and animals. The diagnosis of brucellosis is challenging, as accurate species level identification is not possible with any of the currently available serology-based diagnostic methods. The present study aimed at identifying Brucella (B. species-specific proteins from the closely related species B. abortus and B. melitensis using sera collected from naturally infected host species. Unlike earlier reported investigations with either laboratory-grown species or vaccine strains, in the present study, field strains were utilized for analysis. The label-free quantitative proteomic analysis of the naturally isolated strains of these two closely related species revealed 402 differentially expressed proteins, among which 63 and 103 proteins were found exclusively in the whole cell extracts of B. abortus and B. melitensis field strains, respectively. The sera from four different naturally infected host species, i.e., cattle, buffalo, sheep, and goat were applied to identify the immune-binding protein spots present in the whole protein extracts from the isolated B. abortus and B. melitensis field strains and resolved on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Comprehensive analysis revealed that 25 proteins of B. abortus and 20 proteins of B. melitensis were distinctly immunoreactive. Dihydrodipicolinate synthase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and lactate/malate dehydrogenase from B. abortus, amino acid ABC transporter substrate-binding protein from B. melitensis and fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase from both species were reactive with the sera of all the tested naturally infected host species. The identified proteins could be used for the design of serological assays capable of detecting pan-Brucella, B. abortus- and B. melitensis-specific antibodies.

  14. Comprehensive Identification of Immunodominant Proteins of Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis Using Antibodies in the Sera from Naturally Infected Hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wareth, Gamal; Eravci, Murat; Weise, Christoph; Roesler, Uwe; Melzer, Falk; Sprague, Lisa D; Neubauer, Heinrich; Murugaiyan, Jayaseelan

    2016-04-30

    Brucellosis is a debilitating zoonotic disease that affects humans and animals. The diagnosis of brucellosis is challenging, as accurate species level identification is not possible with any of the currently available serology-based diagnostic methods. The present study aimed at identifying Brucella (B.) species-specific proteins from the closely related species B. abortus and B. melitensis using sera collected from naturally infected host species. Unlike earlier reported investigations with either laboratory-grown species or vaccine strains, in the present study, field strains were utilized for analysis. The label-free quantitative proteomic analysis of the naturally isolated strains of these two closely related species revealed 402 differentially expressed proteins, among which 63 and 103 proteins were found exclusively in the whole cell extracts of B. abortus and B. melitensis field strains, respectively. The sera from four different naturally infected host species, i.e., cattle, buffalo, sheep, and goat were applied to identify the immune-binding protein spots present in the whole protein extracts from the isolated B. abortus and B. melitensis field strains and resolved on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Comprehensive analysis revealed that 25 proteins of B. abortus and 20 proteins of B. melitensis were distinctly immunoreactive. Dihydrodipicolinate synthase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and lactate/malate dehydrogenase from B. abortus, amino acid ABC transporter substrate-binding protein from B. melitensis and fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase from both species were reactive with the sera of all the tested naturally infected host species. The identified proteins could be used for the design of serological assays capable of detecting pan-Brucella, B. abortus- and B. melitensis-specific antibodies.

  15. Testing for myositis specific autoantibodies: Comparison between line blot and immunoprecipitation assays in 57 myositis sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavazzana, Ilaria; Fredi, Micaela; Ceribelli, Angela; Mordenti, Cristina; Ferrari, Fabio; Carabellese, Nice; Tincani, Angela; Satoh, Minoru; Franceschini, Franco

    2016-06-01

    To analyze the performance of a line blot assay for the identification of autoantibodies in sera of patients affected by myositis, compared with immunoprecipitation (IP) as gold standard. 66 sera of patients with myositis (23 polymyositis, 8 anti-synthetase syndromes, 29 dermatomyositis and 6 overlap syndromes) were tested by commercial LB (Euroimmun, Lubeck, Germany); 57 sera were analyzed also by IP of K562 cell extract radiolabeled with (35)S-methionine. Inter-rater agreement was calculated with Cohen's k coefficient. Myositis-specific antibodies (MSA) were detected in 36/57 sera (63%) by IP and in 39/66 sera (59%) by LB. The most frequent MSA found by LB were anti-Jo1 and anti-Mi2 found in 15% (10/66) of sera, followed by anti-NXP2 and anti-SRP detected in 106% (7/66) of sera. Anti-TIF1gamma and anti-MDA5 were found in 6 (9%) and 5 sera (7.6%), respectively. A good agreement between methods was found only for anti-TIF1γ, anti-MDA5 and anti-NXP-2 antibodies, while a moderate agreement was estimated for anti-Mi2 and anti-EJ. By contrast, a high discordance rate for the detection of anti-Jo1 antibodies was evident (k: 0.3). Multiple positivity for MSA were found in 11/66 (17%) by LB and 0/57 by IP (p: 0001). Comparing the clinical features of these 11 sera, we found total discrepancies between assays in 3 sera (27.3%), a relative discrepancy due to the occurrence of one discordant autoantibody (not confirmed by IP) in 5 cases (45.5%) and a total discrepancy between LB and IP results, but with a relative concordance with clinical features were found in other 3 sera (27.3%). The semiquantitative results do not support the interpretation of the data. The use of LB assay allowed the detection of new MSA, such as anti-MDA5, anti-MJ and anti-TIF1gamma antibodies, previously not found with routine methods. However, the high prevalence of multiple positivities and the high discondant rate of anti-Jo1 antibodies could create some misinterpretation of the results from the

  16. Correlation between chemical components of billary calculi and bile & sera and bile of gallstone patients

    OpenAIRE

    Chandran, Prasheeda; Garg, Pradeep; Pundir, Chandra S.

    2005-01-01

    Total cholesterol, total bilirubin, calcium, oxalate, inorganic phosphate, magnesium, iron, copper, sodium and potassium were analyzed quantitatively in gallstones, bile of gall bladder and sera of 200 patients of cholelithiasis (52 cholesterol, 76 mixed and 72 pigment stone patients) and their contents were correlated between calculi and bile and sera and bile in these three type of stone patients. A significant positive correlation was observed between total cholesterol, total bilirubin of ...

  17. Interlaboratory testing of porcine sera for antibodies to porcine circovirus type 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McNair, I.; Marshall, M.; McNeilly, F.

    2004-01-01

    A panel of 20 porcine sera was distributed to 5 laboratories across Europe and Canada. Each center was requested to test the sera for the presence of porcine circovirus type 2 antibodies using the routine assays, indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and indirect immunoperoxidase monolayer assa...... than did IFA, and paraformaldehyde gave higher titers than did acetone or ethyl alcohol. This report highlights the need for standardized procedures and biologicals for this virus....

  18. MICROCYSTIN ANALYSIS IN HUMAN SERA AND LIVER FROM HUMAN FATALITIES IN CARUARU, BRAZIL 1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    The detection of cyanotoxins, especially hepatotoxic microcystins in tissue, is of growing interest to scientists, clinicians, and public health officials because cyanotoxins can contaminate surface waters that are used for drinking and recreational purposes. Documentation of hum...

  19. Raman spectroscopy based screening of IgG positive and negative sera for dengue virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, M.; Saleem, M.; Bial, Maria; Khan, Saranjam; Ullah, Rahat; Ali, Hina; Ahmed, M.; Ikram, Masroor

    2017-11-01

    A quantitative analysis for the screening of immunoglobulin-G (IgG) positive human sera samples is presented for the dengue virus infection. The regression model was developed using 79 samples while 20 samples were used to test the performance of the model. The R-square (r 2) value of 0.91 was found through a leave-one-sample-out cross validation method, which shows the validity of this model. This model incorporates the molecular changes associated with IgG. Molecular analysis based on regression coefficients revealed that myristic acid, coenzyme-A, alanine, arabinose, arginine, vitamin C, carotene, fumarate, galactosamine, glutamate, lactic acid, stearic acid, tryptophan and vaccenic acid are positively correlated with IgG; while amide III, collagen, proteins, fatty acids, phospholipids and fucose are negatively correlated. For blindly tested samples, an excellent agreement has been found between the model predicted, and the clinical values of IgG. The parameters, which include sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve, are found to be 100%, 83.3%, 95% and 0.99, respectively, which confirms the high quality of the model.

  20. Effects of proposed adipogenic factors in fetal swine sera upon preadipocyte development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsay, T.G.; Hausman, G.J.; Martin, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    Genetic obesity has been detected in fetal pigs which suggests primary factors that cause the obesity develop prenatally. Growth hormone and thyroid hormones have been implicated as regulatory factors in fetal serum for preadipocyte differentiation. This experiment examined effects of growth hormone (GH) and thyroxine (T4) addition upon preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation when supplemented to deficient fetal pig sea. Hormones were added to decapitated fetal pig (Decap) sera to concentrations present in intact littermate (Reference) sera. Primary stromal-vascular cell cultures were prepared from rat inguinal adipose tissue. Cells were incubated with 5% decap or reference sera and hormones in media 199 during: days 1 to 5 for a 3 H-thymidine incorporation assay; days 1 to 15 for assay of α-glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase; days 5 to 14 for a complete differentiation assay. Decap sera promoted less proliferation and enzyme differentiation than reference sera with no effect of GH addition. GH reduced detection of lipid accumulating cells on percol density gradients by 81%. T4 addition stimulated preadipocyte multiplication and produced a 30% increase in completely differentiated preadipocytes. These results indicate thyroid hormones are important components of fetal sera for regulation of preadipocyte development, whereas GH may only affect cellular metabolism

  1. Marine Enzymes: Production and Applications for Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, T Eswara; Imchen, M; Kumavath, R

    Marine microbial enzymes have wide applications in bioindustries. Selection of microorganisms for enzyme production at the industrial level requires good yield and high production rate. A number of enzymes such as amylase, caseinase, lipase, gelatinase, and DNases have been discovered from microbes isolated from extreme marine environments. Such enzymes are thermostable, tolerant to a varied range of pH and other harsh conditions required in industrial applications. Novelty in their structure and characteristics has shown promising scope to the researchers in academia and industry. In this chapter, we present a bird's eye view on recent research works in the field of enzyme production from marine origin as well as their potential biological applications relevant to human health. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Applications of human error analysis to aviation and space operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, W.R.

    1998-01-01

    For the past several years at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) we have been working to apply methods of human error analysis to the design of complex systems. We have focused on adapting human reliability analysis (HRA) methods that were developed for Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) for application to system design. We are developing methods so that human errors can be systematically identified during system design, the potential consequences of each error can be assessed, and potential corrective actions (e.g. changes to system design or procedures) can be identified. These applications lead to different requirements when compared with HR.As performed as part of a PSA. For example, because the analysis will begin early during the design stage, the methods must be usable when only partial design information is available. In addition, the ability to perform numerous ''what if'' analyses to identify and compare multiple design alternatives is essential. Finally, since the goals of such human error analyses focus on proactive design changes rather than the estimate of failure probabilities for PRA, there is more emphasis on qualitative evaluations of error relationships and causal factors than on quantitative estimates of error frequency. The primary vehicle we have used to develop and apply these methods has been a series of prqjects sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to apply human error analysis to aviation operations. The first NASA-sponsored project had the goal to evaluate human errors caused by advanced cockpit automation. Our next aviation project focused on the development of methods and tools to apply human error analysis to the design of commercial aircraft. This project was performed by a consortium comprised of INEEL, NASA, and Boeing Commercial Airplane Group. The focus of the project was aircraft design and procedures that could lead to human errors during airplane maintenance

  3. Human dental pulp stem cells: Applications in future regenerative medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potdar, Pravin D; Jethmalani, Yogita D

    2015-01-01

    Stem cells are pluripotent cells, having a property of differentiating into various types of cells of human body. Several studies have developed mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from various human tissues, peripheral blood and body fluids. These cells are then characterized by cellular and molecular markers to understand their specific phenotypes. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are having a MSCs phenotype and they are differentiated into neuron, cardiomyocytes, chondrocytes, osteoblasts, liver cells and β cells of islet of pancreas. Thus, DPSCs have shown great potentiality to use in regenerative medicine for treatment of various human diseases including dental related problems. These cells can also be developed into induced pluripotent stem cells by incorporation of pluripotency markers and use for regenerative therapies of various diseases. The DPSCs are derived from various dental tissues such as human exfoliated deciduous teeth, apical papilla, periodontal ligament and dental follicle tissue. This review will overview the information about isolation, cellular and molecular characterization and differentiation of DPSCs into various types of human cells and thus these cells have important applications in regenerative therapies for various diseases. This review will be most useful for postgraduate dental students as well as scientists working in the field of oral pathology and oral medicine. PMID:26131314

  4. Thyroglobulin recovery test of sera containing elevated levels of anti-thyroglobulin antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hervas, I.; Gonzalez-Cabezas, P.; Flores, D.; Perez-Pastor, J.L.; Bello, P.; Rivas, A.; Alonso, J.; Olivas, C.; Mateo, A.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Thyroglobulin (Tg) is a macro-molecule synthesized exclusively in the thyroid gland for the synthesis of thyroid hormones. In differentiated thyroid carcinoma, after radical thyroidectomy, the discovering of measurable quantities of Tg can be indicator of relapse y/or spread of disease but Thyroglobulin antibodies can alter the determination of Tg. The aim of this study is to assess and measure the interference of Tg antibodies on the Tg determination. Methods: We have selected 50 consecutive serum whose Tg-antibodies levels were higher than the normality values (0-100 UI/mL). Tg-antibodies were measured using a 'sandwich' radioimmunometric assay on solid phase. We have performed a recovery test on these sera. This test consists on adding a known quantity (50 UI) of Tg on that sera and then measure the Tg values to find out the percentage of Tg that is recuperated. Tg was measured using a radioimmunometric assay on solid phase. Results: Sera were divided in two groups: A.- 15 sera with Tg-antibodies levels between 100-250 UI/mL: 85% of them presented a Tg recovery percentage higher than 90% (Tg-antibodies did not interfere on Tg values due to Tg was recovered almost in its totality). B.- 53 sera with Tg-antibodies levels higher than 250 UI/mL: Only 10% of them presented a Tg recovery percentage higher than >90% . (90% of sera interfered on Tg values). 70% of that sera presented percentages under 50%. The Pearson's correlation coefficient between Tg-antibodies and Tg recovery percentage was -0.34. Conclusions: The majority (90%)of sera with Tg-antibodies higher than 250 UI/mL presented an high interference on Tg determination. However the majority of sera with Tg-antibodies between 100-250 did not show any interference on Tg determination. There are not linear correlation between highest values and lowest percentages of Tg recovered. We recommend the realization of Tg recovery test on sera with elevated Tg antibodies specially when are higher than 250 UI/mL

  5. Cross-reactive anti-PfCLAG9 antibodies in the sera of asymptomatic parasite carriers of Plasmodium vivax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Joana D'Arc Neves; Zanchi, Fernando Berton; Rodrigues, Francisco Lurdevanhe da Silva; Honda, Eduardo Rezende; Katsuragawa, Tony Hiroschi; Pereira, Dhélio Batista; Taborda, Roger Lafontaine Mesquita; Tada, Mauro Shugiro; Ferreira, Ricardo de Godoi Mattos; Pereira-da-Silva, Luiz Hildebrando

    2013-01-01

    The PfCLAG9 has been extensively studied because their immunogenicity. Thereby, the gene product is important for therapeutics interventions and a potential vaccine candidate. Antibodies against synthetic peptides corresponding to selected sequences of the Plasmodium falciparum antigen PfCLAG9 were found in sera of falciparum malaria patients from Rondônia, in the Brazilian Amazon. Much higher antibody titres were found in semi-immune and immune asymptomatic parasite carriers than in subjects suffering clinical infections, corroborating original findings in Papua Guinea. However, sera of Plasmodium vivax patients from the same Amazon area, in particular from asymptomatic vivax parasite carriers, reacted strongly with the same peptides. Bioinformatic analyses revealed regions of similarity between P. falciparum Pfclag9 and the P. vivax ortholog Pvclag7. Indirect fluorescent microscopy analysis showed that antibodies against PfCLAG9 peptides elicited in BALB/c mice react with human red blood cells (RBCs) infected with both P. falciparum and P. vivax parasites. The patterns of reactivity on the surface of the parasitised RBCs are very similar. The present observations support previous findings that PfCLAG9 may be a target of protective immune responses and raises the possibility that the cross reactive antibodies to PvCLAG7 in mixed infections play a role in regulate the fate of Plasmodium mixed infections. PMID:23440122

  6. Biotechnological Patents Applications of the Deuterium Oxide in Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da S Mariano, Reysla M; Bila, Wendell C; Trindade, Maria Jaciara F; Lamounier, Joel A; Galdino, Alexsandro S

    2017-01-01

    Deuterium oxide is a molecule that has been used for decades in several studies related to human health. Currently, studies on D2O have mobilized a "Race for Patenting" worldwide. Several patents have been registered from biomedical and technological studies of D2O showing the potential of this stable isotope in industry and health care ecosystems. Most of the patents related to the applications of the deuterium oxide in human health have been summarized in this review. The following patents databases were consulted: European Patent Office (Espacenet), the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), the United States Latin America Patents (LATIPAT), Patent scope -Search International and National Patent Collections (WIPO), Google Patents and Free Patents Online. With this review, the information was collected on recent publications including 22 patents related to deuterium oxide and its applications in different areas. This review showed that deuterium oxide is a promising component in different areas, including biotechnology, chemistry and medicine. In addition, the knowledge of this compound was covered, reinforcing its importance in the field of biotechnology and human health. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. Sera of patients with celiac disease and neurologic disorders evoke a mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervio, Elisabetta; Volta, Umberto; Verri, Manuela; Boschi, Federica; Pastoris, Ornella; Granito, Alessandro; Barbara, Giovanni; Parisi, Claudia; Felicani, Cristina; Tonini, Marcello; De Giorgio, Roberto

    2007-07-01

    The mechanisms underlying neurologic impairment in celiac disease remain unknown. We tested whether antineuronal antibody-positive sera of patients with celiac disease evoke neurodegeneration via apoptosis in vitro. SH-Sy5Y cells were exposed to crude sera, isolated immunoglobulin (Ig) G and IgG-depleted sera of patients with and without celiac disease with and without neurologic disorders, and antineuronal antibodies. Adsorption studies with gliadin and tissue transglutaminase (tTG) were performed in celiac disease sera. Apoptosis activated caspase-3, apaf-1, Bax, cytochrome c, cleaved caspase-8 and caspase-9 and mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes were evaluated with different methods. SH-Sy5Y cells exposed to antineuronal antibody-positive sera and isolated IgG from the same sera exhibited a greater percentage of TUNEL-positive nuclei than that of antineuronal antibody-negative sera. Neuroblasts exposed to antineuronal antibody-negative celiac disease sera also showed greater TUNEL positivity and apaf-1 immunolabeled cells than controls. Antigliadin- and anti-tTG-depleted celiac disease sera had an apoptotic effect similar to controls. Anti-caspase-3 immunostained cells were greater than controls when exposed to positive sera. The mitochondrial respiratory chain complex was reduced by positive sera. Western blot demonstrated only caspase-9 cleavage in positive sera. Cytochrome c and Bax showed reciprocal translocation (from mitochondria to cytoplasm and vice versa) after treatment with positive sera. Antineuronal antibodies and, to a lower extent, combined antigliadin and anti-tTG antibodies in celiac disease sera contribute to neurologic impairment via apoptosis. Apaf-1 activation with Bax and cytochrome c translocation suggest a mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis.

  8. The Plasmodium falciparum pseudoprotease SERA5 regulates the kinetics and efficiency of malaria parasite egress from host erythrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine R Collins

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Egress of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum from its host red blood cell is a rapid, highly regulated event that is essential for maintenance and completion of the parasite life cycle. Egress is protease-dependent and is temporally associated with extensive proteolytic modification of parasite proteins, including a family of papain-like proteins called SERA that are expressed in the parasite parasitophorous vacuole. Previous work has shown that the most abundant SERA, SERA5, plays an important but non-enzymatic role in asexual blood stages. SERA5 is extensively proteolytically processed by a parasite serine protease called SUB1 as well as an unidentified cysteine protease just prior to egress. However, neither the function of SERA5 nor the role of its processing is known. Here we show that conditional disruption of the SERA5 gene, or of both the SERA5 and related SERA4 genes simultaneously, results in a dramatic egress and replication defect characterised by premature host cell rupture and the failure of daughter merozoites to efficiently disseminate, instead being transiently retained within residual bounding membranes. SERA5 is not required for poration (permeabilization or vesiculation of the host cell membrane at egress, but the premature rupture phenotype requires the activity of a parasite or host cell cysteine protease. Complementation of SERA5 null parasites by ectopic expression of wild-type SERA5 reversed the egress defect, whereas expression of a SERA5 mutant refractory to processing failed to rescue the phenotype. Our findings implicate SERA5 as an important regulator of the kinetics and efficiency of egress and suggest that proteolytic modification is required for SERA5 function. In addition, our study reveals that efficient egress requires tight control of the timing of membrane rupture.

  9. Complement-mediated killing of Borrelia burgdorferi by nonimmune sera from sika deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, D R; Rooney, S; Miller, N J; Mather, T N

    2000-12-01

    Various species of cervid deer are the preferred hosts for adult, black-legged ticks (Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes pacificus) in the United States. Although frequently exposed to the agent of Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi), these animals, for the most part, are incompetent as transmission reservoirs. We examined the borreliacidal activity of normal and B. burgdorferi-immune sera from sika deer (Cervus nippon) maintained in a laboratory setting and compared it to that of similar sera from reservoir-competent mice and rabbits. All normal deer sera (NDS) tested killed > 90% of B. burgdorferi cells. In contrast, normal mouse and rabbit sera killed feeding exhibited IFA titers of 1:256, whereas sera from mice and rabbits similarly exposed had titers of > 1:1,024. Heat treatment (56 C, 30 min) of NDS reduced borreliacidal activity, with complement-mediated killing. The chelators EGTA and EDTA were used to block the classical or both the classical and alternative complement pathways, respectively. Addition of 10 mM EGTA to NDS had a negligible effect on borreliacidal activity, with > 90% of the cells killed. Addition of 10 mM EDTA reduced the killing to approximately 30%, whereas the addition of Mg2+ (10 mM) restored borreliacidal activity to NDS. The addition of zymosan A, an activator of the alternative pathway, increased the survival of B. burgdorferi cells to approximately 80% in NDS. These data suggest that the alternative complement activation pathway plays a major role in the borreliacidal activity of NDS. Additionally, 10 mM EGTA had almost no effect on the killing activity of B. burgdorferi-exposed deer sera, suggesting that the classical pathway is not involved in Borrelia killing, even in sera from B. burgdorferi-exposed deer.

  10. Applicability of non-invasively collected matrices for human biomonitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nickmilder Marc

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With its inclusion under Action 3 in the Environment and Health Action Plan 2004–2010 of the European Commission, human biomonitoring is currently receiving an increasing amount of attention from the scientific community as a tool to better quantify human exposure to, and health effects of, environmental stressors. Despite the policy support, however, there are still several issues that restrict the routine application of human biomonitoring data in environmental health impact assessment. One of the main issues is the obvious need to routinely collect human samples for large-scale surveys. Particularly the collection of invasive samples from susceptible populations may suffer from ethical and practical limitations. Children, pregnant women, elderly, or chronically-ill people are among those that would benefit the most from non-invasive, repeated or routine sampling. Therefore, the use of non-invasively collected matrices for human biomonitoring should be promoted as an ethically appropriate, cost-efficient and toxicologically relevant alternative for many biomarkers that are currently determined in invasively collected matrices. This review illustrates that several non-invasively collected matrices are widely used that can be an valuable addition to, or alternative for, invasively collected matrices such as peripheral blood sampling. Moreover, a well-informed choice of matrix can provide an added value for human biomonitoring, as different non-invasively collected matrices can offer opportunities to study additional aspects of exposure to and effects from environmental contaminants, such as repeated sampling, historical overview of exposure, mother-child transfer of substances, or monitoring of substances with short biological half-lives.

  11. Current applications of human pluripotent stem cells: possibilities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Pai-Jiun; Yen, Men-Luh; Yet, Shaw-Fang; Yen, B Linju

    2012-01-01

    Stem cells are self-renewable cells with the differentiation capacity to develop into somatic cells with biological functions. This ability to sustain a renewable source of multi- and/or pluripotential differentiation has brought new hope to the field of regenerative medicine in terms of cell therapy and tissue engineering. Moreover, stem cells are invaluable tools as in vitro models for studying diverse fields, from basic scientific questions such as developmental processes and lineage commitment, to practical application including drug screening and testing. The stem cells with widest differentiation potential are pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), which are rare cells with the ability to generate somatic cells from all three germ layers. PSCs are considered the most optimal choice for therapeutic potential of stem cells, bringing new impetus to the field of regenerative medicine. In this article, we discuss the therapeutic potential of human PSCs (hPSCs) including human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), reviewing the current preclinical and clinical data using these stem cells. We describe the classification of different sources of hPSCs, ongoing research, and currently encountered clinical obstacles of these novel and versatile human stem cells.

  12. Human hair follicle organ culture: theory, application and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langan, Ewan A; Philpott, Michael P; Kloepper, Jennifer E; Paus, Ralf

    2015-12-01

    For almost a quarter of a century, ex vivo studies of human scalp hair follicles (HFs) have permitted major advances in hair research, spanning diverse fields such as chronobiology, endocrinology, immunology, metabolism, mitochondrial biology, neurobiology, pharmacology, pigmentation and stem cell biology. Despite this, a comprehensive methodological guide to serum-free human HF organ culture (HFOC) that facilitates the selection and analysis of standard HF biological parameters and points out both research opportunities and pitfalls to newcomers to the field is still lacking. The current methods review aims to close an important gap in the literature and attempts to promote standardisation of human HFOC. We provide basic information outlining the establishment of HFOC through to detailed descriptions of the analysis of standard read-out parameters alongside practical examples. The guide closes by pointing out how serum-free HFOC can be utilised optimally to obtain previously inaccessible insights into human HF biology and pathology that are of interest to experimental dermatologists, geneticists, developmental biologists and (neuro-) endocrinologists alike and by highlighting novel applications of the model, including gene silencing and gene expression profiling of defined, laser capture-microdissected HF compartments. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Reflectance diffuse optical tomography. Its application to human brain mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Yukio; Yamanaka, Takeshi; Yamashita, Daisuke; Suzuki, Toshihiko; Ohmae, Etsuko; Oda, Motoki; Yamashita, Yutaka

    2005-01-01

    We report the successful application of reflectance diffuse optical tomography (DOT) using near-infrared light with the new reconstruction algorithm that we developed to the observation of regional hemodynamic changes in the brain under specific mental tasks. Our results reveal the heterogeneous distribution of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin in the brain, showing complementary images of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin changes in certain regions. We conclude that our reflectance DOT has practical potential for human brain mapping, as well as in the diagnostic imaging of brain diseases. (author)

  14. A review on the applications of crowdsourcing in human pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshanak Alialy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The advent of the digital pathology has introduced new avenues of diagnostic medicine. Among them, crowdsourcing has attracted researchers' attention in the recent years, allowing them to engage thousands of untrained individuals in research and diagnosis. While there exist several articles in this regard, prior works have not collectively documented them. We, therefore, aim to review the applications of crowdsourcing in human pathology in a semi-systematic manner. We first, introduce a novel method to do a systematic search of the literature. Utilizing this method, we, then, collect hundreds of articles and screen them against a predefined set of criteria. Furthermore, we crowdsource part of the screening process, to examine another potential application of crowdsourcing. Finally, we review the selected articles and characterize the prior uses of crowdsourcing in pathology.

  15. A Review on the Applications of Crowdsourcing in Human Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alialy, Roshanak; Tavakkol, Sasan; Tavakkol, Elham; Ghorbani-Aghbologhi, Amir; Ghaffarieh, Alireza; Kim, Seon Ho; Shahabi, Cyrus

    2018-01-01

    The advent of the digital pathology has introduced new avenues of diagnostic medicine. Among them, crowdsourcing has attracted researchers’ attention in the recent years, allowing them to engage thousands of untrained individuals in research and diagnosis. While there exist several articles in this regard, prior works have not collectively documented them. We, therefore, aim to review the applications of crowdsourcing in human pathology in a semi-systematic manner. We first, introduce a novel method to do a systematic search of the literature. Utilizing this method, we, then, collect hundreds of articles and screen them against a predefined set of criteria. Furthermore, we crowdsource part of the screening process, to examine another potential application of crowdsourcing. Finally, we review the selected articles and characterize the prior uses of crowdsourcing in pathology. PMID:29531847

  16. Experiences in the application of human factors engineering to human-system interface modernization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trueba Alonso, Pedro; Illobre, Luis Fernandez; Ortega Pascual, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Almost all the existing Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) include plans to modernize their existing Instrumentation and Control (I and C) systems and associated Human System Interfaces (HSIs), due to obsolescence problems. Tecnatom, S.A. has been participating in modernization programs in NPPs to help them to plan, specify, design and implement the modernization of control rooms and associated I and C and HSIs. The application of Human Factors Engineering (HFE) in modernization programs is nowadays unavoidable. This is because is becoming a regulatory requirement, and also because it is needed to ensure that any plant modification, involving the modernization of I and C and HSI, is well designed to improve overall plant operations, reliability, and safety. This paper shows some experiences obtained during the application of HFE to the modernization of these HSIs. The experience applying HFE in modernizations and design modifications show a positive effect, improving the associated HSIs, with the acceptability of the final user. (authors)

  17. Challenges for coexistence of machine to machine and human to human applications in mobile network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanyal, R.; Cianca, E.; Prasad, Ramjee

    2012-01-01

    A key factor for the evolution of the mobile networks towards 4G is to bring to fruition high bandwidth per mobile node. Eventually, due to the advent of a new class of applications, namely, Machine-to-Machine, we foresee new challenges where bandwidth per user is no more the primal driver...... be evolved to address various nuances of the mobile devices used by man and machines. The bigger question is as follows. Is the state-of-the-art mobile network designed optimally to cater both the Human-to-Human and Machine-to-Machine applications? This paper presents the primary challenges....... As an immediate impact of the high penetration of M2M devices, we envisage a surge in the signaling messages for mobility and location management. The cell size will shrivel due to high tele-density resulting in even more signaling messages related to handoff and location updates. The mobile network should...

  18. Experiences in the application of human factors engineering to human-system interface modernization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trueba Alonso, Pedro; Fernandez Illobre, Luis; Ortega Pascual, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Almost all the existing Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) include plans to modernize their existing Instrumentation and Control (I and C) systems and associated Human System Interfaces (HSIs), due to obsolescence problems. Tecnatom, S.A. has been participating in modernization programs in NPPs to help them to plan, specify, design and implement the modernization of control rooms and associated I and C and HSIs. The application of Human Factors Engineering (HFE) in modernization programs is nowadays unavoidable. This is because is becoming a regulatory requirement, and also because it is needed to ensure that any plant modification, involving the modernization of I and C and HSI, is well designed to improve overall plant operations, reliability, and safety. This paper shows some experiences obtained during the application of HFE to the modernization of these HSIs. The experience applying HFE in modernizations and design modifications show a positive effect, improving the associated HSIs, with the acceptability of the final user.

  19. Experiences in the application of human factors engineering to human-system interface modernization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trueba Alonso, Pedro; Fernandez Illobre, Luis; Ortega Pascual, Fernando [Tecnatom S.A., San Sebastian de los Reyes (Spain). Simulation and Control Rooms Div.

    2015-07-15

    Almost all the existing Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) include plans to modernize their existing Instrumentation and Control (I and C) systems and associated Human System Interfaces (HSIs), due to obsolescence problems. Tecnatom, S.A. has been participating in modernization programs in NPPs to help them to plan, specify, design and implement the modernization of control rooms and associated I and C and HSIs. The application of Human Factors Engineering (HFE) in modernization programs is nowadays unavoidable. This is because is becoming a regulatory requirement, and also because it is needed to ensure that any plant modification, involving the modernization of I and C and HSI, is well designed to improve overall plant operations, reliability, and safety. This paper shows some experiences obtained during the application of HFE to the modernization of these HSIs. The experience applying HFE in modernizations and design modifications show a positive effect, improving the associated HSIs, with the acceptability of the final user.

  20. Blood biochemistry evaluation in horses hyperimmune sera production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, Tatyana S. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Instituto Butantan, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); E-mail: proplasma@butantan.gov.br; Zamboni, Cibele [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares IPEN/CNEN-SP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); E-mail: czamboni@ipen.br; Marcelino, Jose R.; Freitas, Monica G. [Instituto Butantan, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); E-mail: marcelino@butantan.gov.br; mfreitas@uol.com

    2007-07-01

    In the present study the biochemical values for Cl, K and Na in whole blood from health equine used for immunization process were determined using nuclear methodology. The results were compared with human being whole blood estimation permitting a discussion about the similarities between the medium values and the reference intervals taken {+-} 1 and {+-} 2 SD (Standard Deviation). We intend to use these data as interval value for Cl, K and Na in whole blood of equines to perform clinical practical. (author)

  1. [Evaluation of angiogenic activity in sera from patients with interstitial lung diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielonka, T M; Demkow, U; Kowalski, J; Kuś, J; Krychniak-Soszka, A; Radzikowska, E; Skopińska-Rózewska, E; Rowińska-Zakrzewska, E

    1997-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a process of new blood vessels' formation occurring in many physiological and pathological conditions. Neovascularisation is the principal vascular response in chronic inflammation and concomitant fibrotic process. Microvascular changes in various organ sites in sarcoidosis (BBS) and some of the symptoms of the disease may be related to microangiopathy. Moreover, vascular alterations were also observed in lung specimens from idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and avian fanciers lung (AFL) patients. The present study was aimed at testing the effects of serum from 43 patients with ILD (24 BBS, 8 AFL, 8 IPF, 3 DIPF--drug induced pulmonary fibrosis) and 11 healthy controls on angiogenic capability of normal blood peripheral mononuclear cells (PBMC) in the murine intradermal angiogenesis assay (according to Sidky and Auerbach). The data demonstrated that sera from ILD patients significantly enhanced angiogenic capacity of normal PBMC as compared to control sera (p < 0.001). The effect was more pronounced for AFL patients than for BBS and IPF ones (p < 0.05). Sera from DIPF did not stimulate angiogenesis compared to control sera. The data showed that sera from ILD patients constitute sources of mediators participating in angiogenesis. This phenomenon may play role in pathogenesis of chronic immunological processes in lung.

  2. Cassava leaves in combination with sera onggok and rice bran as supplements in buffaloes ration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendratno, C.; Sofian, L.A.; Abidin, Z.; Bahaudin, R.; Suharyono.

    1988-01-01

    Two experiments have been undertaken to evaluate the utilization of cassava leaves in combination with sera onggok or rice bran as supplements in buffalo ration under traditional village condition. In experiment 1, 16 buffaloes were divided in four groups, each receiving a different ration ranging from mixed forage alone to mixed forage supplemented with a combination of cassava leaves and sera onggok or rice bran. Changes in dry metter consumption, daily weight gain, feed convertion ratio and incom over feed cost were assesed. Experiments 2 covered an in vitro study on the changes in rumen fermentation as affected by different rations. The results of experiment 1 indicated the lack of differences in dry matter consumption. However, the daily weight gain, feed convertion ratio and income over feed cost (IOFC) higher in animal receiving mixed forage suplement with cassava leaves in combination with either sera onggok or rice bran as compared to those of animal receiving mixed forage or mixed forage supplemented with cassava leaves. Experiment 2 revealed that amonia concentration and volatile fatty acid production were able to support a higher microbil activity supplemented with cassava leaves in combination with either sera onggok or rice bran as compared to those receiving the other two rations. In conclusion it is obvious that cassava leaves in combination with either sera onggok or rice bran used as supplements could promote a better production in animal in the villages. (author). 7 refs, 1 fig, 5 tabs

  3. Trace elements in sera from patients with visceral leishmaniasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyay, R.; Bhattacharya, A. [Department of Zoology, Calcutta University, Calcutta (India); Chakraborty, A.; Sudarshan, M.; Jal, P.K.; Chintalapudi, S.N. [Inter University Consortium for DAE Facilities, Calcutta Centre 3/LB-8, Bidhan Nagar, Calcutta (India); Dutta, R.K. [Schonland Research Centre for Nuclear Sciences, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa)

    2000-07-01

    Trace elements are known to have pivotal role in human health and disease. Present investigation employed PIXE analysis to probe into the elemental profile of patients suffering from visceral Leishmaniasis. Remarkable alternations were observed in concentration of elements like Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn. The pattern of enhancement of elemental concentration corresponds to the progression of the disease. Additionally, our present data reflect probable correlation between alteration in trace elemental status and other pathological syndromes associated with Leishmaniasis. The possibility of considering trace elements as a diagnostic marker for a better understanding of the disease is discussed. (author)

  4. Trace elements in sera from patients with visceral leishmaniasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhopadhyay, R.; Bhattacharya, A.; Chakraborty, A.; Sudarshan, M.; Jal, P.K.; Chintalapudi, S.N.; Dutta, R.K.

    2000-01-01

    Trace elements are known to have pivotal role in human health and disease. Present investigation employed PIXE analysis to probe into the elemental profile of patients suffering from visceral Leishmaniasis. Remarkable alternations were observed in concentration of elements like Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn. The pattern of enhancement of elemental concentration corresponds to the progression of the disease. Additionally, our present data reflect probable correlation between alteration in trace elemental status and other pathological syndromes associated with Leishmaniasis. The possibility of considering trace elements as a diagnostic marker for a better understanding of the disease is discussed. (author)

  5. Application of human volunteer studies in setting exposure limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    Human volunteer studies can provide many of the quantitative data on human radionuclide biokinetics needed to relate organ doses to intakes. They are best suited to characterising parameters that apply to a wide range of compounds, e.g. particle deposition in the respiratory tract, and the retention and excretion of elements after injection into the blood. Their application to quantifying particle clearance from the respiratory tract is discussed, with particular reference to recent findings and the NRPB's programme of volunteer investigations. Evidence to support the view that particle clearance rates are similar for different materials is summarised. Rates of particle clearance from the human lung to the GI tract are calculated from the results of two recent studies. The fraction of the remaining lung content cleared per day is estimated to decrease from ∼ 3 x 10 -3 d -1 at 25 days to ∼ 5 x 10 -4 d -1 at 350 days. There is a large degree of inter-subject variation, with most results conforming to a log-normal distribution with σ g of 1.6. There remains considerable uncertainty about subsequent clearance, and about sites of long-term lung retention. (author)

  6. Isolation of human foetal myoblasts and its application for microencapsulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Anna Aihua; Bourgeois, Jacqueline; Potter, Murray; Chang, Patricia L

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Foetal cells secrete more growth factors, generate less immune response, grow and proliferate better than adult cells. These characteristics make them desirable for recombinant modification and use in microencapsulated cellular gene therapeutics. We have established a system in vitro to obtain a pure population of primary human foetal myoblasts under several rounds of selection with non-collagen coated plates and identified by desmin staining. These primary myoblasts presented good proliferation ability and better differentiation characteristics in monolayer and after microencapsulation compared to murine myoblast C2C12 cells based on creatine phosphokinase (CPK), major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and multi-nucleated myotubule determination. The lifespan of primary myoblasts was 70 population doublings before entering into senescent state, with a population time of 18–24 hrs. Hence, we have developed a protocol for isolating human foetal primary myoblasts with excellent differentiation potential and robust growth and longevity. They should be useful for cell-based therapy in human clinical applications with microencapsulation technology. PMID:18366454

  7. Radio sterilized human ligaments and their clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna Z, D.; Reyes F, M. L.; Diaz M, I.; Hernandez R, G.

    2009-10-01

    The ligaments are human tissues that are used in the transplantation area. A ligament is an anatomical structure in band form, composed by resistant fibers that connect the tissues that unite the bones with the articulations. In an articulation, the ligaments allow and facilitate the movement inside the natural anatomical directions, while it restricts those movements that are anatomically abnormal, impeding lesions that could arise of this type of movements. The kneecap ligament is a very important tissue in the knee mobility and of walking in the human beings. This ligament can injure it because of automobile accidents, for sport lesions or illnesses, and in many cases the only form of recovering the knee movement is carried out a transplant with the purpose of replacing the damage ligament by allo gen kneecap ligament processed in specialized Tissue Banks where the tissue is sterilized with gamma radiation of 60 Co at very low temperatures, obtaining high quality ligaments for clinical application in injured patients. The kneecap ligaments are processed in the Tissue Banks with a segment of kneecap bone, a segment of tibial bone, the contained ligament between both bones and in some cases a fraction of the quadriceps tendon. In this work is given a description of the selection method of the tissue that includes the donor's serologic control, the kneecap ligament processing in the Radio Sterilized Tissues Bank, its sterilization with gamma radiation of 60 Co, also it is indicated like the clinical application of the allo gen ligament was realized in a hasty patient and whose previous crossed ligament was injured. Finally the results are presented from the tissue obtaining until the clinical application of it is, and in this case is observed a favorable initial evolution of the transplantation patient. (Author)

  8. Effects Of Amitryptilin Administration on Rat Sera and Brain Beta-endorphins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radivoj Jadrić

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to establish the influence of antidepressive drugs on serum and brain beta-endorphins in experimental animals. Experiment was performed on albino Wistar rats. Antidepressant amitryptiline was used, and for quantification of sera and brain beta-endorphins RIA technique. Our results showed difference between sera and brain beta-endorphins concentration in amitryptiline pretreated animals, vs. those in serum and brain of control group treated with 0.95% NaCl. This study shows that use of psychoactive drugs have influence on sera and brain beta-endorphins concentration. Beta-endorphins could be of great importance, used as markers for evaluation of antidepressant drug effects.

  9. Human CRISP-3 binds serum alpha(1)B-glycoprotein across species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Udby, Lene; Johnsen, Anders H; Borregaard, Niels

    2010-01-01

    CRISP-3 was previously shown to be bound to alpha(1)B-glycoprotein (A1BG) in human serum/plasma. All mammalian sera are supposed to contain A1BG, although its presence in rodent sera is not well-documented. Since animal sera are often used to supplement buffers in experiments, in particular...

  10. Big Data and Intelligence: Applications, Human Capital, and Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Landon-Murray

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The potential for big data to contribute to the US intelligence mission goes beyond bulk collection, social media and counterterrorism. Applications will speak to a range of issues of major concern to intelligence agencies, from military operations to climate change to cyber security. There are challenges too: procurement lags, data stovepiping, separating signal from noise, sources and methods, a range of normative issues, and central to managing these challenges, human capital. These potential applications and challenges are discussed and a closer look at what data scientists do in the Intelligence Community (IC is offered. Effectively filling the ranks of the IC’s data science workforce will depend on the provision of well-trained data scientists from the higher education system. Program offerings at America’s top fifty universities will thus be surveyed (just a few years ago there were reportedly no degrees in data science. One Master’s program that has melded data science with intelligence is examined as well as a university big data research center focused on security and intelligence. This discussion goes a long way to clarify the prospective uses of data science in intelligence while probing perhaps the key challenge to optimal application of big data in the IC.

  11. eCD4-Ig promotes ADCC activity of sera from HIV-1-infected patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith E Davis-Gardner

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxity (ADCC can eliminate HIV-1 infected cells, and may help reduce the reservoir of latent virus in infected patients. Sera of HIV-1 positive individuals include a number of antibodies that recognize epitopes usually occluded on HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env trimers. We have recently described eCD4-Ig, a potent and exceptionally broad inhibitor of HIV-1 entry that can be used to protect rhesus macaques from multiple high-dose challenges with simian-human immunodeficiency virus AD8 (SHIV-AD8. Here we show that eCD4-Ig bearing an IgG1 Fc domain (eCD4-IgG1 can mediate efficient ADCC activity against HIV-1 isolates with differing tropisms, and that it does so at least 10-fold more efficiently than CD4-Ig, even when more CD4-Ig molecules bound cell surface-expressed Env. An ADCC-inactive IgG2 form of eCD4-Ig (eCD4-IgG2 exposes V3-loop and CD4-induced epitopes on cell-expressed trimers, and renders HIV-1-infected cells susceptible to ADCC mediated by antibodies of these classes. Moreover, eCD4-IgG2, but not IgG2 forms of the broadly neutralizing antibodies VRC01 and 10-1074, enhances the ADCC activities of serum antibodies from patients by 100-fold, and significantly enhanced killing of two latently infected T-cell lines reactivated by vorinostat or TNFα. Thus eCD4-Ig is qualitatively different from CD4-Ig or neutralizing antibodies in its ability to mediate ADCC, and it may be uniquely useful in treating HIV-1 infection or reducing the reservoir of latently infected cells.

  12. Raman spectroscopy and imaging: applications in human breast cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozek-Pluska, Beata; Musial, Jacek; Kordek, Radzislaw; Bailo, Elena; Dieing, Thomas; Abramczyk, Halina

    2012-08-21

    The applications of spectroscopic methods in cancer detection open new possibilities in early stage diagnostics. Raman spectroscopy and Raman imaging represent novel and rapidly developing tools in cancer diagnosis. In the study described in this paper Raman spectroscopy has been employed to examine noncancerous and cancerous human breast tissues of the same patient. The most significant differences between noncancerous and cancerous tissues were found in regions characteristic for the vibrations of carotenoids, lipids and proteins. Particular attention was paid to the role played by unsaturated fatty acids in the differentiation between the noncancerous and the cancerous tissues. Comparison of Raman spectra of the noncancerous and the cancerous tissues with the spectra of oleic, linoleic, α-linolenic, γ-linolenic, docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids has been presented. The role of sample preparation in the determination of cancer markers is also discussed in this study.

  13. Contribution to diagnostics/prognostics of tuberculosis in children. I. New methods of assaying zinc and simultaneously copper and zinc in diluted sera by flame atomic-absorption spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luterotti Svjetlana

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to provide a reliable status of metal ions in children, new methods of analysis of children’s sera are proposed. New flame atomic-absorption spectrometric (FAAS methods are simple, cost- and time-effective and, above all, labor-, reagent- and sample-saving. Two methods were suggested: method A for simultaneous determination of Cu and Zn from 5-fold diluted sera, and method B, for assaying zinc alone in 10-fold diluted samples. Both methods are based on a single-step sample pretreatment (deproteinization with 3 mol dm–3 HCl. Method A uses a single-step calibration with a mixed standard. The main advantage of method B is an additional reduction in sample consumption. Both methods were fully validated against reference methods. Accuracy, sensitivity and precision have proven them to be comparable to the reference methods in terms of analytical performance, and applicable to analyses of children’s sera.

  14. APPLICABILITY OF A HUMAN LACTOFERRIN IN PEDIATRIC PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. E. Borovik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern data on efficiency and safety of a recombinant human lactoferrin (hLf and prospects of its use in pediatric practice are presented in the review of literary data. The unique anti-infectious properties of biologically active protein of the hLf, its high antimicrobic, antiviral, antifungal and anti-parasitic activity are noted. Ability to stimulate natural immunity, to interact with other antimicrobic peptides, in particular, with lysozyme and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor is analysed. In this regard it is indicated prospects of application of the hLf in treatment of prematurely born and hypotrophic children, patients with chronic nutritional deficiency for the purpose of prevention of infectious diseases and correction of inflammatory changes in the organism of a child, includingacute respiratory virus and enteric infections in children. It is expedient to apply hLf in surgical practice for reduction of a degree of manifestation of the acute pro-inflammatory response, and also for prevention of infectious complications, especially after abdominal operations, in complex treatment of children with a severe generalized infection and multi-organ failure, for prevention of intrahospital nosocomial infections in children hospitals.Key words: children, prematurely born, nutritional deficiency, infections, lactoferrin, recombinant human lactoferrin.

  15. Development and clinical application of human gastrin radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginabreda, M.G.P.; Borghi, V.C.; Bettarello, A.

    1988-08-01

    The determination of human gastrin levels in the blood is very important for diagnosis of gastrointestinal disorders. This work describes the radioimmunoassay of gastrin developed according to Russell et al. and its clinical application measuring fasting levels of this hormone in normal subjects, gastrectomized, chagasics, patients with chronic renal failure (CRF), pernicious anemia (PA) and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES). Synthetic human gastrin was used for radioiodination and as standard, while the specific antibody was raised in rabbits. Gastrin was radioiodinated by a modification of the chloramine T technique and purified by anion exchange chromatography in QAE-Sephadex A-25 to a specific activity around 200 uCi/ug. The assays were performed by incubation of 125 I-gastrin, standard gastrin (zero to 500 pmol/l) or unknown samples with the antiserum for 4 days at 4 0 C. The antibody bound and free 125 I-gastrin was separated by adsorption of the latter to the charcoal. The basal gastrin values of normal subjects ranged from 2 to 74 pmol/l, being these levels higher in the chagasics (from 6 to 261 pmol/l). Higher levels of gastrin were determined in patients with CRF (from 12 to 350 pmol/l), PA (from 160 to 680 pmol/l) and with ZES(1010 pmol/l), while very low levels were confirmed in gastrectomized (from 1 to 8 pmol/l). (author) [pt

  16. Serial Analysis of Gene Expression: Applications in Human Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuteja Renu

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE is a powerful tool, which provides quantitative and comprehensive expression profile of genes in a given cell population. It works by isolating short fragments of genetic information from the expressed genes that are present in the cell being studied. These short sequences, called SAGE tags, are linked together for efficient sequencing. The frequency of each SAGE tag in the cloned multimers directly reflects the transcript abundance. Therefore, SAGE results in an accurate picture of gene expression at both the qualitative and the quantitative levels. It does not require a hybridization probe for each transcript and allows new genes to be discovered. This technique has been applied widely in human studies and various SAGE tags/SAGE libraries have been generated from different cells/tissues such as dendritic cells, lung fibroblast cells, oocytes, thyroid tissue, B-cell lymphoma, cultured keratinocytes, muscles, brain tissues, sciatic nerve, cultured Schwann cells, cord blood-derived mast cells, retina, macula, retinal pigment epithelial cells, skin cells, and so forth. In this review we present the updated information on the applications of SAGE technology mainly to human studies.

  17. The Human Thioredoxin System: Modifications and Clinical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Isaac Hashemy

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The thioredoxin system, comprising thioredoxin (Trx, thioredoxin reductase (TrxR and NADPH, is one of the major cellular antioxidant systems, implicated in a large and growing number of biological functions. Trx acts as an oxidoreductase via a highly conserved dithiol/disulfide motif located in the active site (-Trp-Cys-Gly-Pro-Cys-Lys-. Different factors are involved in the regulation of Trx activity, including its expression level, localization, protein-protein interactions, post-translational modifications and some chemical inhibitors. Mammalian TrxRs are selenoproteins which have a –Cys-Val-Asn-Val-Gly-Cys- N-terminal active site, as well as a C-terminal selenium-containing active site. Besides two Cys-residues in the redox-regulatory domain of cytosolic Trx (Trx1, human Trx1 has three additional Cys-residues. Post-translational modifications of human Trx1 which are involved in the regulation of its activity can happen via modification of Cys-residues including thiol oxidation, glutathionylation and S-nitrosylation or via modification of other amino acid residues such as nitration of Tyr-49. Because of the numerous functions of the thioredoxin system, its inhibition (mainly happens via the targeting TrxR can result in major cellular consequences, which are potentially pro-oxidant in nature, leading to cell death via necrosis or apoptosis if overexpression of Trx and other antioxidative enzymes can not recuperate cell response. Considering this feature, several anticancer drugs have been used which can inhibit TrxR. Elevated levels of Trx and/or TrxR have been reported in many different human malignancies, positively correlated with aggressive tumor growth and poor prognosis. Moreover, anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic effects of Trx are reasons to study its clinical application as a drug.

  18. Plants as Factories for Human Pharmaceuticals: Applications and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jian; Weng, Yunqi; Dickey, Alexia; Wang, Kevin Yueju

    2015-12-02

    Plant molecular farming (PMF), defined as the practice of using plants to produce human therapeutic proteins, has received worldwide interest. PMF has grown and advanced considerably over the past two decades. A number of therapeutic proteins have been produced in plants, some of which have been through pre-clinical or clinical trials and are close to commercialization. Plants have the potential to mass-produce pharmaceutical products with less cost than traditional methods. Tobacco-derived antibodies have been tested and used to combat the Ebola outbreak in Africa. Genetically engineered immunoadhesin (DPP4-Fc) produced in green plants has been shown to be able to bind to MERS-CoV (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome), preventing the virus from infecting lung cells. Biosafety concerns (such as pollen contamination and immunogenicity of plant-specific glycans) and costly downstream extraction and purification requirements, however, have hampered PMF production from moving from the laboratory to industrial application. In this review, the challenges and opportunities of PMF are discussed. Topics addressed include; transformation and expression systems, plant bioreactors, safety concerns, and various opportunities to produce topical applications and health supplements.

  19. Smart sensor systems for human health breath monitoring applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, G W; Xu, J C; Biaggi-Labiosa, A M; Laskowski, D; Dutta, P K; Mondal, S P; Ward, B J; Makel, D B; Liu, C C; Chang, C W; Dweik, R A

    2011-09-01

    Breath analysis techniques offer a potential revolution in health care diagnostics, especially if these techniques can be brought into standard use in the clinic and at home. The advent of microsensors combined with smart sensor system technology enables a new generation of sensor systems with significantly enhanced capabilities and minimal size, weight and power consumption. This paper discusses the microsensor/smart sensor system approach and provides a summary of efforts to migrate this technology into human health breath monitoring applications. First, the basic capability of this approach to measure exhaled breath associated with exercise physiology is demonstrated. Building from this foundation, the development of a system for a portable asthma home health care system is described. A solid-state nitric oxide (NO) sensor for asthma monitoring has been identified, and efforts are underway to miniaturize this NO sensor technology and integrate it into a smart sensor system. It is concluded that base platform microsensor technology combined with smart sensor systems can address the needs of a range of breath monitoring applications and enable new capabilities for healthcare.

  20. Plants as Factories for Human Pharmaceuticals: Applications and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Yao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant molecular farming (PMF, defined as the practice of using plants to produce human therapeutic proteins, has received worldwide interest. PMF has grown and advanced considerably over the past two decades. A number of therapeutic proteins have been produced in plants, some of which have been through pre-clinical or clinical trials and are close to commercialization. Plants have the potential to mass-produce pharmaceutical products with less cost than traditional methods. Tobacco-derived antibodies have been tested and used to combat the Ebola outbreak in Africa. Genetically engineered immunoadhesin (DPP4-Fc produced in green plants has been shown to be able to bind to MERS-CoV (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, preventing the virus from infecting lung cells. Biosafety concerns (such as pollen contamination and immunogenicity of plant-specific glycans and costly downstream extraction and purification requirements, however, have hampered PMF production from moving from the laboratory to industrial application. In this review, the challenges and opportunities of PMF are discussed. Topics addressed include; transformation and expression systems, plant bioreactors, safety concerns, and various opportunities to produce topical applications and health supplements.

  1. Allergen analysis of sea urchin roe using sera from five patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kenichi; Kondo, Yasuto; Inuo, Chisato; Nakajima, Yoichi; Tsuge, Ikuya; Doi, Satoru; Yanagihara, Shigeto; Yoshikawa, Tetsushi; Urisu, Atsuo

    2014-01-01

    Sea urchin roe can cause anaphylactic reactions the first time they are consumed; therefore, careful clinical attention should be paid to their effects. However, no previous study has examined the allergens in sea urchin roe using sera from more than one patient. We attempted to identify sea urchin allergens using sera from 5 patients with sea urchin allergies. We enrolled 5 patients with relevant medical histories, positive results on a skin prick test and/or a food challenge test, and high levels of sea urchin-specific IgE in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We performed SDS-PAGE, immunoblotting, immunoblot inhibition, and N-terminal amino acid sequence detection. Ten protein bands ranging from 18 to 170 kDa were detected in more than 2 patients' sera. In immunoblotting, the protein band for the 170-kDa major yolk protein was recognized by 4 of the 5 sera. Furthermore, the reaction between IgE and the protein band for egg cortical vesicle protein (18 kDa) was inhibited by the addition of salmon roe extract. Major yolk protein was confirmed to be one of the main allergens in sea urchin roe. In addition, egg cortical vesicle protein (18 kDa) was demonstrated to be an important protein for cross-reactivity with salmon roe. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Electrophoretic pattern of sera from lambs and kids vaccinated with irradiated Amphistome metacercariae (Cercariae indicae XXVI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafeez, Md.; Rao, B.V.

    1986-01-01

    Preliminary work has been done to study certain responses induced by irradiated amphistome metacercariae used as a vaccine to immunise lambs, kids and calves. The electrophoretic pattern of the sera collected from lambs and kids vaccinated with gamma irradiated amphistome matacercariae (C.I. XXVI) has been reported in this study. (author). 10 refs., 1 table

  3. Total pepsin activity and gastrin in sera as markers of eradication of Helicobacter pylori

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khoshkholgh, M.; Saberi-Firoozi, M.; Fattahi, M.; Siavoshi, F.; Khatibian, M.; Vahedi, H.; Mikaeli, J.; Ansari, R.; Alizadeh, B.; Malekzadeh, R.; Massarrat, S.

    1994-01-01

    The measurement of total pepsin activity by colorimetry, and gastrin by radioimmunoassay method was performed on the sera of 100 patients (80 with duodenal ulcer and 20 with non-ulcer dyspepsia) before and 4 weeks after the end of antibacterial treatment for eradication of Helicobacter pylori. While

  4. Characterization of sequence diversity in Plasmodium falciparum SERA5 from Indian isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul C.N

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To characterize the sequence diversity of blood-stage Plasmodium falciparum serine repeat antigen-5 (PfSERA5 which is lacking in a malaria-endemic country like India. Methods: In this study, parasitic DNA was obtained from field isolates collected from various geographic regions. Subsequently, PfSERA5 gene sequence was PCR amplified and DNA sequenced. Results: We reported the existence of unique repeat polymorphisms and novel haplotypes for both the octamer repeat (OR and serine repeat (SR regions of the N-terminal fragment of PfSERA5 from Indian isolates. Several isolates from India were identical to low-frequency African haplotypes. Unique finding of our study was an Indian isolate showing deletion in a perfectly conserved 14 mer sequence within octamer repeat. Indian haplotypes reported in this study were found to be distributed into the three earlier classified allelic clusters of FCR3, K1 and Honduras showcasing broad diversity as compared to worldwide haplotypes. Conclusions: This study is the first report on genetic diversity of PfSERA5 antigen from India. Further evaluation of these haplotypes by serotyping would provide useful information for investigating variant-specific immunity and aid in malaria vaccine research.

  5. Exosomes isolated from cancer patients' sera transfer malignant traits and confer the same phenotype of primary tumors to oncosuppressor-mutated cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdouh, Mohamed; Hamam, Dana; Gao, Zu-Hua; Arena, Vincenzo; Arena, Manuel; Arena, Goffredo Orazio

    2017-08-30

    Horizontal transfer of malignant traits from the primary tumor to distant organs, through blood circulating factors, has recently become a thoroughly studied metastatic pathway to explain cancer dissemination. Recently, we reported that oncosuppressor gene-mutated human cells undergo malignant transformation when exposed to cancer patients' sera. We also observed that oncosuppressor mutated cells would show an increased uptake of cancer-derived exosomes and we suggested that oncosuppressor genes might protect the integrity of the cell genome by blocking integration of cancer-derived exosomes. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that cancer patients' sera-derived exosomes might be responsible for the malignant transformation of target cells and that oncosuppressor mutation would promote their increased uptake. We also sought to unveil the mechanisms behind the hypothesized phenomena. We used human BRCA1 knockout (BRCA1-KO) fibroblasts as target cells. Cells were treated in vitro with cancer patients' sera or cancer patients' sera-derived exosomes. Treated cells were injected into NOD-SCID mice. Immunohistochemical analyses were performed to determine the differentiation state of the xenotransplants. Mass spectrometry analyses of proteins from cancer exosomes and the BRCA1-KO fibroblasts' membrane were performed to investigate possible de novo expression of molecules involved in vesicles uptake. Blocking of the identified molecules in vitro was performed and in vivo experiments were conducted to confirm the role of these molecules in the malignant transformation carried out by cancer-derived exosomes. Cells treated with exosomes isolated from cancer patients' sera underwent malignant transformation and formed tumors when transplanted into immunodeficient mice. Histological analyses showed that the tumors were carcinomas that differentiated into the same lineage of the primary tumors of blood donors. Oncosuppressor mutation promoted the de novo expression

  6. Applications of human factors engineering in the digital HMI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Bingjian

    2014-01-01

    In order to prevent and minimize human errors in the digital main control room, the principles of human factors engineering must be complied strictly in the design process of digital human-machine interface. This paper briefly describes the basic human factors engineering principles of designing main control room, introduces the main steps to implement the human factors engineering verification and validation of main control room, including HSI task support verification, human factors engineering design verification and integrated system validation. Meanwhile, according to the new digital human-machine interface characteristics, the development models of human error are analyzed. (author)

  7. Detection of a novel specificity (CTLA-4) in ATG/TMG globulins and sera from ATG-treated leukemic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistillo, Maria Pia; Tazzari, Pier Luigi; Bonifazi, Francesca; Bandini, Giuseppe; Kato, Tomohiro; Matsui, Toshihiro; Nishioka, Kusuki; Conte, Roberto; Ferrara, Giovanni Battista

    2002-04-27

    T-cell costimulation has been shown to provide positive signals for T-cell activation and generation of effector activity. In this study, we analyzed the presence of antibodies (Abs) against the T-lymphocyte costimulatory molecules CD28, CTLA-4, CD80, and CD86 in anti-T-lymphocyte (ATG) and antithymocyte (TMG) globulin preparations to address their mechanism of action. We focused our attention on the role of CTLA-4-specific Abs in the immunosuppressive effect of ATG/TMG, because anti-CTLA-4 agonistic Abs may suppress T-cell proliferation and nonagonistic Abs may lead to T-cell depletion through an Ab-dependent cell cytotoxicity mechanism. ATG/TMG and patients' sera were tested for binding to recombinant human costimulatory molecules by ELISA techniques. CTLA-4 specificity was also analyzed by cytoplasmic immunofluorescence staining of a CTLA-4 transfectant by competitive inhibition immunofluorescence and by cell proliferation assay in allogeneic mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR). Either ATG or TMG predominantly contained anti-CTLA-4 Abs, with higher reactivity in ATG followed by anti-CD86 and -CD28 Abs, whereas anti-CD80 Abs were found only in ATG. Anti-CTLA-4 Abs present in ATG/TMG recognized the native form of CTLA-4 molecule, and their removal reduced the effect of ATG in an allogeneic MLR. Kinetic studies indicated that such Abs were present in the sera of 12 ATG-treated leukemic patients up to 21 days after ATG administration. These data suggest that the novel anti-CTLA-4 Abs found in ATG may greatly contribute to its immunosuppressive effect, thus accounting for the absence of rejection and exceptionally low incidence of graft-versus-host disease in the group of patients analyzed.

  8. Catalase activity of IgG antibodies from the sera of healthy donors and patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermakov, Evgeny A; Smirnova, Ludmila P; Bokhan, Nikolay A; Semke, Arkadiy V; Ivanova, Svetlana A; Buneva, Valentina N; Nevinsky, Georgy A

    2017-01-01

    We present first evidence showing that some electrophoretically homogeneous IgGs from the sera of patients with schizophrenia (36.4%) and their Fab and F(ab)2 fragments as well as from healthy donors (33.3%) possess catalase activity. The relative catalase activity of IgGs from the sera of individual schizophrenia patients (and healthy donors) significantly varied from patient to patient, but the activity of IgGs from healthy donors is on average 15.8-fold lower than that for schizophrenia patients. After extensive dialysis of purified IgGs against EDTA chelating metal ions, the relative catalase activity of IgGs decreases on average approximately 2.5-3.7-fold; all IgGs possess metal-dependent and independent catalase activity. The addition of external Me2+ ions to dialyzed and non-dialyzed IgGs leads to a significant increase in their activity. The best activator of dialyzed and non-dialyzed IgGs is Co2+, the activation by Cu2+, Mn2+, and Ni2+ ions were rare and always lower than by Co2+. Every IgG preparation demonstrates several individual sets of very well expressed pH optima in the pH range from 4.0 to 9.5. These data speak for the individual repertoire of catalase IgGs in every person and an extreme diversity of abzymes in their pH optima and activation by different metal ions. It is known that antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutases, catalases, and glutathione peroxidases represent critical defense mechanisms preventing oxidative modifications of DNA, proteins, and lipids. Catalase activity of human IgGs could probably also play a major role in the protection of organisms from oxidative stress and toxic compounds.

  9. The human heart: application of the golden ratio and angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henein, Michael Y; Zhao, Ying; Nicoll, Rachel; Sun, Lin; Khir, Ashraf W; Franklin, Karl; Lindqvist, Per

    2011-08-04

    The golden ratio, or golden mean, of 1.618 is a proportion known since antiquity to be the most aesthetically pleasing and has been used repeatedly in art and architecture. Both the golden ratio and the allied golden angle of 137.5° have been found within the proportions and angles of the human body and plants. In the human heart we found many applications of the golden ratio and angle, in addition to those previously described. In healthy hearts, vertical and transverse dimensions accord with the golden ratio, irrespective of different absolute dimensions due to ethnicity. In mild heart failure, the ratio of 1.618 was maintained but in end-stage heart failure the ratio significantly reduced. Similarly, in healthy ventricles mitral annulus dimensions accorded with the golden ratio, while in dilated cardiomyopathy and mitral regurgitation patients the ratio had significantly reduced. In healthy patients, both the angles between the mid-luminal axes of the pulmonary trunk and the ascending aorta continuation and between the outflow tract axis and continuation of the inflow tract axis of the right ventricle approximate to the golden angle, although in severe pulmonary hypertension, the angle is significantly increased. Hence the overall cardiac and ventricular dimensions in a normal heart are consistent with the golden ratio and angle, representing optimum pump structure and function efficiency, whereas there is significant deviation in the disease state. These findings could have anatomical, functional and prognostic value as markers of early deviation from normality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Human Locomotion in Hypogravity: From Basic Research to Clinical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Lacquaniti

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We have considerable knowledge about the mechanisms underlying compensation of Earth gravity during locomotion, a knowledge obtained from physiological, biomechanical, modeling, developmental, comparative, and paleoanthropological studies. By contrast, we know much less about locomotion and movement in general under sustained hypogravity. This lack of information poses a serious problem for human space exploration. In a near future humans will walk again on the Moon and for the first time on Mars. It would be important to predict how they will move around, since we know that locomotion and mobility in general may be jeopardized in hypogravity, especially when landing after a prolonged weightlessness of the space flight. The combination of muscle weakness, of wearing a cumbersome spacesuit, and of maladaptive patterns of locomotion in hypogravity significantly increase the risk of falls and injuries. Much of what we currently know about locomotion in hypogravity derives from the video archives of the Apollo missions on the Moon, the experiments performed with parabolic flight or with body weight support on Earth, and the theoretical models. These are the topics of our review, along with the issue of the application of simulated hypogravity in rehabilitation to help patients with deambulation problems. We consider several issues that are common to the field of space science and clinical rehabilitation: the general principles governing locomotion in hypogravity, the methods used to reduce gravity effects on locomotion, the extent to which the resulting behavior is comparable across different methods, the important non-linearities of several locomotor parameters as a function of the gravity reduction, the need to use multiple methods to obtain reliable results, and the need to tailor the methods individually based on the physiology and medical history of each person.

  11. Human Locomotion in Hypogravity: From Basic Research to Clinical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacquaniti, Francesco; Ivanenko, Yury P; Sylos-Labini, Francesca; La Scaleia, Valentina; La Scaleia, Barbara; Willems, Patrick A; Zago, Myrka

    2017-01-01

    We have considerable knowledge about the mechanisms underlying compensation of Earth gravity during locomotion, a knowledge obtained from physiological, biomechanical, modeling, developmental, comparative, and paleoanthropological studies. By contrast, we know much less about locomotion and movement in general under sustained hypogravity. This lack of information poses a serious problem for human space exploration. In a near future humans will walk again on the Moon and for the first time on Mars. It would be important to predict how they will move around, since we know that locomotion and mobility in general may be jeopardized in hypogravity, especially when landing after a prolonged weightlessness of the space flight. The combination of muscle weakness, of wearing a cumbersome spacesuit, and of maladaptive patterns of locomotion in hypogravity significantly increase the risk of falls and injuries. Much of what we currently know about locomotion in hypogravity derives from the video archives of the Apollo missions on the Moon, the experiments performed with parabolic flight or with body weight support on Earth, and the theoretical models. These are the topics of our review, along with the issue of the application of simulated hypogravity in rehabilitation to help patients with deambulation problems. We consider several issues that are common to the field of space science and clinical rehabilitation: the general principles governing locomotion in hypogravity, the methods used to reduce gravity effects on locomotion, the extent to which the resulting behavior is comparable across different methods, the important non-linearities of several locomotor parameters as a function of the gravity reduction, the need to use multiple methods to obtain reliable results, and the need to tailor the methods individually based on the physiology and medical history of each person.

  12. Reactivity of some mammalian sera with the bovine leukaemia virus env gene polypeptide expressed in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavikova, K.; Zajac, V.

    1989-01-01

    Sera from bovine leukaemia virus (BLV)-infected cattle and sheep were tested by radioimmunoassay and Western blot for their reactivity with 60,000 protein coded by the env gene of BLV and expressed in Escherichia coli. This protein, antigenically similar to BLV protein, reacted with antibodies against BLV antigens in the sera tested. (author). 3 figs., 1 tab., 13 refs

  13. SERA Scenarios of Early Market Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Introductions: Modeling Framework, Regional Markets, and Station Clustering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Melaina, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Penev, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Daniel, W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This report describes the development and analysis of detailed temporal and spatial scenarios for early market hydrogen fueling infrastructure clustering and fuel cell electric vehicle rollout using the Scenario Evaluation, Regionalization and Analysis (SERA) model. The report provides an overview of the SERA scenario development framework and discusses the approach used to develop the nationwidescenario.

  14. Experimental evaluation of multimodal human computer interface for tactical audio applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obrenovic, Z.; Starcevic, D.; Jovanov, E.; Oy, S.

    2002-01-01

    Mission critical and information overwhelming applications require careful design of the human computer interface. Typical applications include night vision or low visibility mission navigation, guidance through a hostile territory, and flight navigation and orientation. Additional channels of

  15. Application of social domain of human mind in water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piirimäe, Kristjan

    2010-05-01

    , and NGOs. These people were randomly divided to two working groups and asked to criticize the proposed plan. One group was encouraged to detect cheating behind the plan. Later, a group of independent experts evaluated the criticism of both groups and each individual person. The resulting assignements rated the group of cheater detectors as significantly more adequate decision-supporters. The results confirmed that simulation of the 'cheater detection module' of human mind might improve the performance of an EDSS. The study calls for the development of special methodologies for the stimulation and application of social domain in water management. References Buchner, A., Bell, R., Mehl, B., & Musch, J., (2009). No enhanced recognition memory, but better source memory for faces of cheaters. Evolution and Human Behaviour, 30(3), 212 - 224. Byrne, R., Bates, L. (2009). Sociality, evolution and cognition. Current Biology, 17(16), R714 - R723. Cosmides, L. (1989). The logic of social exchange: Has natural selection shaped how humans reason? Studies with the Wason selection task. Cognition, 31(3), 187-276. Fiddick, L. (2004). Domains of deontic reasoning: Resolving the discrepancy between the cognitive and moral reasoning literatures. The Quartlerly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 57A(3), 447 - 474.

  16. Hibernation Control Mechanism and Possible Applications to Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, N.

    Mammalian hibernation, characterized by the ability to survive temporarily at low body temperatures close to 0oC, has been reported to increase resistance to various lethal events such as low body temperature, severe ischemia, bacterial infection and irradiation, and to prolong the life span. The application of this physiological phenomenon to space life has been dreamed of. However, realization of this dream has been prevented by a poor understanding of the control mechanisms of hibernation. Recent findings of a novel and unique protein complex (HP) in the blood of chipmunks, a rodent hibernator, which is controlled by the endogenous circannual rhythm of hibernation, allowed new developments in understanding the molecular mechanism of hibernation and its physiological significance. From these studies, two hormones regulated by the brain were identified as promising candidate molecules controlling HP production in the liver, assuming that hibernation is controlled via the neuroendocrine system and regulated by the endogenous circannual rhythm in the brain. A circannual HP rhythm was observed in chipmunks maintaining euthermia under conditions of constant warmth, suggesting that the physiological control of hibernation progresses without a lowering of body temperature. Furthermore, the study of HP rhythm on longevity revealed that a circannual rhythm plays an essential role in the much longer life span of hibernators. The present progress in hibernation research may open a new pathway for manipulating a circannual rhythm controlling hibernation in humans. In the future, this will make it feasible to take advantage of hibernation in space life.

  17. The application of exergy to human-designed systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, P.

    2012-12-01

    Exergy is the portion of the total energy of a system that is available for conversion to useful work. Exergy takes into account both the quantity and quality of energy. Heat is the inevitable product of using any form of high-quality energy such as electricity. Modern commercial buildings and industrial facilities use large amounts of electricity and so produce huge amounts of heat. This heat energy typically is treated as a waste product and discharged to the environment and then high-quality energy sources are consumed to satisfy low-quality energy heating and cooling needs. Tens of thousands of buildings and even whole communities could meet much of their heating and cooling needs through the capture and reuse of heat energy. Yet the application of exergy principles often faces resistance because it challenges conventions about how we design, construct and operate human-engineered systems. This session will review several exergy case studies and conclude with an audience discussion of how exergy principles may be both applied and highlighted in formal and informal education settings.

  18. An improvement of the applicability of human factors guidelines for coping with human factors issues in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y. H.; Lee, J. Y.

    2003-01-01

    Human factors have been well known as one of the key factors to the system effectiveness as well as the efficiency and safety of nuclear power plants(NPPs). Human factors engineering(HFE) are included in periodic safety review(PSR) on the existing NPPs and the formal safety assessment for the new ones. However, HFE for NPPs is still neither popular in practice nor concrete in methodology. Especially, the human factors guidelines, which are the most frequent form of human factors engineering in practice, reveal the limitations in their applications. We discuss the limitations and their casual factors found in human factors guidelines in order to lesson the workload of HFE practitioners and to improve the applicability of human factors guidelines. According to the purposes and the phases of HFE for NPPs, more selective items and specified criteria should be prepared carefully in the human factors guidelines for the each HFE applications in practice. These finding on the human factors guidelines can be transferred to the other HFE application field, such as military, aviation, telecommunication, HCI, and product safety

  19. Effects of Different Sera Conditions on Olfactory Ensheathing Cells in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Lu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Transplantation of olfactory ensheathing cells (OEC is a promising therapy in spinal cord injury (SCI treatment. However, the therapeutic efficacy of this method is unstable due to unknown reasons. Considering the alterations in the culture environment that occur during OEC preparation for transplantation, we hypothesize that these changes may cause variations in the curative effects of this method. In this study, we compared OEC cultured in medium containing different types and concentrations of serum. After purification and passage, the OEC were cultured for 7 days in different media containing 5%, 10%, 15% or 20% fetal bovine serum (FBS or rat serum (RS, or the cells were cultured in FBS-containing medium first, followed by medium containing RS. In another group, the OEC were first cultured in 10% FBS for 3 days and then cultured with rat spinal cord explants with 10% RS for another 4 days. An MTT assay and P75 neurotrophin receptor immunofluorescence staining were used to examine cell viability and OEC numbers, respectively. The concentration of neurotrophin-3 (NT-3, which is secreted by OEC into the culture supernatant, was detected using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. RT-PCR was applied to investigate the NT-3 gene expression in OEC according to different groups. Compared with FBS, RS reduced OEC proliferation in relation to OEC counts (χ2 = 166.279, df = 1, p < 0.01, the optical density (OD value in the MTT assay (χ2 = 34.730, df = 1, p < 0.01, and NT-3 concentration in the supernatant (χ2 = 242.997, df = 1, p < 0.01. OEC cultured with spinal cord explants secreted less NT-3 than OEC cultured alone (F = 9.611, df = 5.139, p < 0.01. Meanwhile, the order of application of different sera was not influential. There was statistically significant difference in NT-3 gene expression among different groups when the serum concentration was 15% (χ2 = 64.347, df = 1, p < 0.01. In conclusion, different serum conditions may be

  20. Detection of toxoplasma gondii antigens in sera from experimentally infected mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shojaee, S.; Keshavarz, H.; Rezaian, M.; Mohebali, M.

    2007-01-01

    Detection of Toxoplasma antigen in serum of mice by Immunoblotting. strain. IgG isolated from rabbits that were immunized with T. gondii Immunoblotting was performed to detect T. gondii antigens in sera of mice. Serum samples from mice experimentally infected with T. gondii RH strain. The value of Immunoblotting in diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in acute stage of infection. The antigen bands detected in serum sample of mice were experimentally infected with T. gondii tachyzoite in immunoblotting. Six bands demonstrated on seventh post infection day six bands were identified. Similarly on sixth day four bands, on day five three bands and on fourth post infection day two bands were identified. No band was detected in control group sera. Immunoblotting is a sensitive method for diagnosis of acute stage of toxoplasmosis. (author)

  1. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii DNA in sera samples of mice experimentally infected

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Langoni

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Detection of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii DNA in blood can help to diagnose the disease in its acute phase; however, it must be considered that hemoglobin, present in blood, can inhibit polymerase activity, making impracticable the detection of DNA in samples. Mice were experimentally infected via oral route with ME49 and BTU2 strains cysts and RH strain tachyzoites; polymerase chain reaction was used to detect T. gondii DNA in mice sera 18, 24, 48, 96, and 192 hours post infection (PI. Toxoplama gondii DNA was detected in only one animal infected with BTU2 strain, genotype III (isolated from a dog with neurological signs 18 hours PI. The agent's DNA was not detected in any sample of the other experimental groups. New studies must be carried out to verify the technique sensitivity in researches on this agent's genetic material using sera samples of acute-phase toxoplasmosis patients, especially in cases of immunosuppression.

  2. Multi-level human motion analysis for surveillance applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lao, W.; Han, Jungong; With, de P.H.N.; Rabbani, M.; Stevenson, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we study a flexible framework for semantic analysis of human motion from a monocular surveillance video. Successful trajectory estimation and human-body modeling facilitate the semantic analysis of human activities in video sequences. As a first contribution, we propose a flexible

  3. Nanotechnology & human stem cells: Applications in cardiogenesis and neurogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomov, Martin L.

    Human stem cell research holds an unprecedented promise to revolutionize the way we approach medicine and healthcare in general, moving us from a position of mostly addressing the symptoms to a state where treatments can focus on removing the underlying causes of a condition. Stem cell research can shed light into normal developmental pathways, as we are beginning to replicate them in a petri dish and can also be used to model diseases and abnormal conditions. Direct applications can range from finding cures for single or multigene diseases to demonstrating that we can replace these genes with a normal copy. We can even begin to model lifelong conditions such as aging by iPSC technology by relying on fetal, young, adult, and centenarian populations to provide insights into the process. We have also begun to understand the microenvironment in which specific cell populations reside. Being able to replicate the chemical, physical mechanical, and spatial needs of those cells, research groups are successfully generating full organs using cadaver scaffolds of heart and kidney, and there is promising research to reach the same success with other organs, such as the liver, and pancreas. Advances in those areas open an enormous potential to study organs, organoids, organ valves, tubes or other functional elements such as beating cardiomyocytes in vitro. There is also the need to evaluate the whole genome of induced and differentiated cells, with its myriad of interacting pathways. Bioinformatics can help our understanding of embryogenesis, organ differentiation and function. It can also help optimize our stem cell and bio-scaffold tools to advance closer to functional organs and tissues. Such a combination approach will also include pluripotency evaluation and multi-lineage differentiation, as well as platforms that may assist in cell therapies: 3D structures, micro-ribbons, directed patterning to name a few. There is now a clearer path forward with stem cell research than

  4. The clinical application of fluorescent-enzyme immunoassay to detect human thyroid peroxidase autoantibody quantitatively

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Jinyan; Fang Peihua; Li Ning; Zhang Yanli

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To establish a fluorescent-enzyme immunoassay (FEIA) with recombinant human thyroid peroxidase (hTPO) as the antigen. Methods: Sera of 326 healthy people, 119 cases of Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), 116 cases of Graves disease (untreated), 28 cases of nodular goiter, 10 ca-ses of subacute thyroiditis and 6 cases of simple goiter were measured by the FEIA with recombinant hTPO as the antigen. Rrank sum test and χ 2 -test were used in inter-groups. Results: (1) Concentration above 4000 U/L was considered to be positive. (2) The intra-assay coefficient of variation (CV) and the inter-as-say CV were 4.59% ∼ 6.52% and 17.37% ∼ 17.45%. (3) The values measured by the FEIA were positively correlated with the values measured by hTPO antibody (hTPOAb) commercial kit (r=0.80, P 2 = 53.45, 39.30, 15.41 and 21.74, all P < 0.01). Conclusions: The method can be applied in the serum measurement of thyroid disease. HT presented the highest positive rate, therefore, the FEIA was an effective method in diagnosing HT. (authors)

  5. [Comparative study of immunoglobulins and specific antibodies in the sera of chronic brucellosis patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kichieva, B N; Chernysheva, M I; Zheludkov, M M; Musaeva, N B

    1982-04-01

    The data on the IgA, IgM and IgG levels in the sera of 89 patients with chronic brucellosis lasting for 1-10 years and longer are presented. The chronic form of brucellosis is characterized by the normal or low level of immunoglobulins. No correlation between the levels of IgG, IgM and the titer of specific antibodies has been established.

  6. Fingolimod prevents blood-brain barrier disruption induced by the sera from patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideaki Nishihara

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Effect of fingolimod in multiple sclerosis (MS is thought to involve the prevention of lymphocyte egress from lymphoid tissues, thereby reducing autoaggressive lymphocyte infiltration into the central nervous system across blood-brain barrier (BBB. However, brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs represent a possible additional target for fingolimod in MS patients by directly repairing the function of BBB, as S1P receptors are also expressed by BMECs. In this study, we evaluated the effects of fingolimod on BMECs and clarified whether fingolimod-phosphate restores the BBB function after exposure to MS sera. METHODS: Changes in tight junction proteins, adhesion molecules and transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER in BMECs were evaluated following incubation in conditioned medium with or without fingolimod/fingolimod-phosphate. In addition, the effects of sera derived from MS patients, including those in the relapse phase of relapse-remitting (RR MS, stable phase of RRMS and secondary progressive MS (SPMS, on the function of BBB in the presence of fingolimod-phosphate were assessed. RESULTS: Incubation with fingolimod-phosphate increased the claudin-5 protein levels and TEER values in BMECs, although it did not change the amount of occludin, ICAM-1 or MelCAM proteins. Pretreatment with fingolimod-phosphate restored the changes in the claudin-5 and VCAM-1 protein/mRNA levels and TEER values in BMECs after exposure to MS sera. CONCLUSIONS: Pretreatment with fingolimod-phosphate prevents BBB disruption caused by both RRMS and SPMS sera via the upregulation of claudin-5 and downregulation of VCAM-1 in BMECs, suggesting that fingolimod-phosphate is capable of directly modifying the BBB. BMECs represent a possible therapeutic target for fingolimod in MS patients.

  7. Maternal phenylketonuria: Embryotoxicity in vitro of PKU-related metabolites and of human PKU-sera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma AH; Verhoef A; Hamers AM; van den Ham WA; Jansen EHJM

    1993-01-01

    Mothers with untreated phenylketonuria (PKU) have an increased risk of bearing children with congenital malformations. PKU causes accumulation of phenylalanine (PHE) and its metabolites in urine and blood, and this condition may contribute to the developmental problems. In the present study we

  8. Development and Validation of Protein Microarray Technology for Simultaneous Inflammatory Mediator Detection in Human Sera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthooran Selvarajah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomarkers, including cytokines, can help in the diagnosis, prognosis, and prediction of treatment response across a wide range of disease settings. Consequently, the recent emergence of protein microarray technology, which is able to quantify a range of inflammatory mediators in a large number of samples simultaneously, has become highly desirable. However, the cost of commercial systems remains somewhat prohibitive. Here we show the development, validation, and implementation of an in-house microarray platform which enables the simultaneous quantitative analysis of multiple protein biomarkers. The accuracy and precision of the in-house microarray system were investigated according to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA guidelines for pharmacokinetic assay validation. The assay fell within these limits for all but the very low-abundant cytokines, such as interleukin- (IL- 10. Additionally, there were no significant differences between cytokine detection using our microarray system and the “gold standard” ELISA format. Crucially, future biomarker detection need not be limited to the 16 cytokines shown here but could be expanded as required. In conclusion, we detail a bespoke protein microarray system, utilizing well-validated ELISA reagents, that allows accurate, precise, and reproducible multiplexed biomarker quantification, comparable with commercial ELISA, and allowing customization beyond that of similar commercial microarrays.

  9. Evaluating Models of Human Performance: Safety-Critical Systems Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feary, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation is part of panel discussion on Evaluating Models of Human Performance. The purpose of this panel is to discuss the increasing use of models in the world today and specifically focus on how to describe and evaluate models of human performance. My presentation will focus on discussions of generating distributions of performance, and the evaluation of different strategies for humans performing tasks with mixed initiative (Human-Automation) systems. I will also discuss issues with how to provide Human Performance modeling data to support decisions on acceptability and tradeoffs in the design of safety critical systems. I will conclude with challenges for the future.

  10. Controlled Human Malaria Infection: Applications, Advances, and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanisic, Danielle I; McCarthy, James S; Good, Michael F

    2018-01-01

    Controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) entails deliberate infection with malaria parasites either by mosquito bite or by direct injection of sporozoites or parasitized erythrocytes. When required, the resulting blood-stage infection is curtailed by the administration of antimalarial drugs. Inducing a malaria infection via inoculation with infected blood was first used as a treatment (malariotherapy) for neurosyphilis in Europe and the United States in the early 1900s. More recently, CHMI has been applied to the fields of malaria vaccine and drug development, where it is used to evaluate products in well-controlled early-phase proof-of-concept clinical studies, thus facilitating progression of only the most promising candidates for further evaluation in areas where malaria is endemic. Controlled infections have also been used to immunize against malaria infection. Historically, CHMI studies have been restricted by the need for access to insectaries housing infected mosquitoes or suitable malaria-infected individuals. Evaluation of vaccine and drug candidates has been constrained in these studies by the availability of a limited number of Plasmodium falciparum isolates. Recent advances have included cryopreservation of sporozoites, the manufacture of well-characterized and genetically distinct cultured malaria cell banks for blood-stage infection, and the availability of Plasmodium vivax -specific reagents. These advances will help to accelerate malaria vaccine and drug development by making the reagents for CHMI more widely accessible and also enabling a more rigorous evaluation with multiple parasite strains and species. Here we discuss the different applications of CHMI, recent advances in the use of CHMI, and ongoing challenges for consideration. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  11. Mathematical human phantoms and their application to radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro

    1998-01-01

    This review described the characteristics of mathematical phantoms, their history over 30 years and their application. Mathematical phantoms are classified into two models of formula and voxel types. In the former, human body and organs are described by 2- and/or 3-D mathematical formula and can be seen as a combination of solid bodies like spheres, cubes and ovals. The phantom is composed from three tissue components (bone, lung and soft tissue) and made on data on Reference Man in ICRP Publ. 23. The latter voxel (volume pixel) phantom consists from a number of small cubes based on CT and MRI images of a certain man. For instance, the phantom CHILD, 1.54 x 1.54 x 8.00 mm 3 in size, is based on a 7-year old child, which consisting from about one million voxels. The mathematical phantom was first made in Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the middle of the nineteen-sixties, which have undergone various improvements to reach MIRD-5 phantom. Thereafter, many similitude phantoms have been made as a variation of MIRD-5, depending on age and sex (e.g., ADAM and EVA). Voxel phantom was made in the middle of nineteen-eighties and have undergone improvements which are continued even currently in Japan, U.S. etc. The mathematical phantoms are used for calculation of radiation transport program by Monte Carlo method in the field of radiation protection. Also in the field of medicine, the phantom is used for calculation of internal and external exposure doses, of correction constants of externally measuring instruments, of doses for neutron capture therapy and of A-bomb exposure doses in Hiroshima and Nagasaki for reevaluation. Recently, the development of phantom is in the current from formula phantom to voxel one due to the purpose of precision and standardization. (K.H.)

  12. A large portion of meningococcal antigen typing system-negative meningococcal strains from spain is killed by sera from adolescents and infants immunized with 4CMenB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, R; Biolchi, A; Moschioni, M; Giuliani, M M; Pizza, M; Vázquez, J A

    2015-04-01

    A new vaccine (the 4CMenB 4-component protein vaccine [Bexsero], which includes PorA, factor H-binding protein [fHbp], neisserial heparin-binding antigen [NHBA], and Neisseria adhesin A [NadA]) against serogroup B meningococci has recently been approved for use in people older than age 2 months in Europe, Australia, and Canada. Preapproval clinical efficacy studies are not feasible for invasive meningococcal disease because its incidence is low/very low, and the serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) titer (or the human SBA [hSBA] titer when human complement is used in the assay) has been used as a surrogate marker of protection. However, the hSBA assay cannot be used on a large scale, and therefore, a meningococcal antigen typing system (MATS) was developed. MATS combines conventional PorA genotyping with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that quantifies both the expression and the cross-reactivity of antigenic variants. The assay has been used to evaluate the potential of the 4CMenB meningococcal group B vaccine to cover group B strains in several countries. Some recent data suggest that MATS is a conservative predictor of strain coverage. We used pooled sera from adolescents and infants to test by the hSBA assay 10 meningococcal group B strains isolated in Spain that were negative for the 3 antigens (n = 9) or that had very low levels of the 3 antigens (n = 1) by MATS. We found that all strains were killed by sera from adolescents and that 5 of the 10 strains were also killed, although at a low titer, by sera from infants. Our data confirm that MATS underestimates vaccine coverage. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Immunoreactive Proteins of Bifidobacterium longum ssp longum CCM 7952 and Bifidobacterium longum ssp longum CCDM 372 Identified by Gnotobiotic Mono-Colonized Mice Sera, Immune Rabbit Sera and Non-immune Human Sera

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Górska, S.; Dylus, E.; Rudawska, A.; Brzozowska, E.; Šrůtková, Dagmar; Schwarzer, Martin; Razim, A.; Kozáková, Hana; Gamian, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, SEP 29 (2016), s. 1537 ISSN 1664-302X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB16PL006 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Bifidobacterium * probiotics * moonlighting proteins Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.076, year: 2016

  14. Application of epigenetic data in human health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cote, Ila L; McCullough, Shaun D; Hines, Ronald N; Vandenberg, John J

    2017-11-06

    Despite the many recent advances in the field of epigenetics, application of this knowledge in environmental health risk assessment has been limited. In this paper, we identify opportunities for application of epigenetic data to support health risk assessment. We consider current applications and present a vision for the future.

  15. Techniques and applications for binaural sound manipulation in human-machine interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begault, Durand R.; Wenzel, Elizabeth M.

    1992-01-01

    The implementation of binaural sound to speech and auditory sound cues (auditory icons) is addressed from both an applications and technical standpoint. Techniques overviewed include processing by means of filtering with head-related transfer functions. Application to advanced cockpit human interface systems is discussed, although the techniques are extendable to any human-machine interface. Research issues pertaining to three-dimensional sound displays under investigation at the Aerospace Human Factors Division at NASA Ames Research Center are described.

  16. 34 CFR 97.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects (Basic ED Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects) § 97.118 Applications and proposals lacking definite plans..., or contracts are submitted to departments or agencies with the knowledge that subjects may be...

  17. Autoantibodies in breast cancer sera are not epiphenomena and may participate in carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández Madrid, Félix; Maroun, Marie-Claire; Olivero, Ofelia A; Long, Michael; Stark, Azadeh; Grossman, Lawrence I; Binder, Walter; Dong, Jingsheng; Burke, Matthew; Nathanson, S David; Zarbo, Richard; Chitale, Dhananjay; Zeballos-Chávez, Rocío; Peebles, Carol

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to demonstrate that autoantibodies in breast cancer sera are not epiphenomena, and exhibit unique immunologic features resembling the rheumatic autoimmune diseases. We performed a comprehensive study of autoantibodies on a collection of sera from women with breast cancer or benign breast disease, undergoing annual screening mammography. All women in this study had suspicious mammography assessment and underwent a breast biopsy. We used indirect immunofluorescence, the crithidia assay for anti-dsDNA antibodies, and multiple ELISAs for extractable nuclear antigens. Autoantibodies were detected in virtually all patients with breast cancer, predominantly of the IgG1 and IgG3 isotypes. The profile detected in breast cancer sera showed distinctive features, such as antibodies targeting mitochondria, centrosomes, centromeres, nucleoli, cytoskeleton, and multiple nuclear dots. The majority of sera showing anti-mitochondrial antibodies did not react with the M2 component of pyruvate dehydrogenase, characteristic of primary biliary cirrhosis. Anti-centromere antibodies were mainly anti-CENP-B. ELISAs for extractable nuclear antigens and the assays for dsDNA were negative. The distinctive autoantibody profile detected in BC sera is the expression of tumor immunogenicity. Although some of these features resemble those in the rheumatic autoimmune diseases and primary biliary cirrhosis, the data suggest the involvement of an entirely different set of epithelial antigens in breast cancer. High titer autoantibodies targeting centrosomes, centromeres, and mitochondria were detected in a small group of healthy women with suspicious mammography assessment and no cancer by biopsy; this suggests that the process triggering autoantibody formation starts in the pre-malignant phase and that future studies using validated autoantibody panels may allow detection of breast cancer risk in asymptomatic women. Autoantibodies developing in breast cancer are not

  18. The need for a sufficient number of low level sera in comparisons of different serum vitamin B12 assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gijzen, A.H.J.; Kock, H.W. de; Meulendijk, P.N.; Schmidt, N.A.; Schopman, W.; Tertoolen, J.F.W.; Voogd, C.E.

    1983-01-01

    Eight radiochemical methods for the assay of vitamin B 12 in serum were compared with the microbiological assay with Lactobacillus leichmannii ATCC 7830 using 198 individual sera of patients. There was a good agreement between the results of most samples with some kits and the microbiological assay. However, especially in the sera of vitamin B 12 -deficient patients large discrepancies between the results could occur. These variations were due to both the kits used and the performance of the assays in different laboratories. A sufficient number of non-pooled sera of vitamin B 12 -deficient patients should be included in investigations to validate radiochemical methods. (Auth.)

  19. Applications of artificial intelligence in safe human-robot interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najmaei, Nima; Kermani, Mehrdad R

    2011-04-01

    The integration of industrial robots into the human workspace presents a set of unique challenges. This paper introduces a new sensory system for modeling, tracking, and predicting human motions within a robot workspace. A reactive control scheme to modify a robot's operations for accommodating the presence of the human within the robot workspace is also presented. To this end, a special class of artificial neural networks, namely, self-organizing maps (SOMs), is employed for obtaining a superquadric-based model of the human. The SOM network receives information of the human's footprints from the sensory system and infers necessary data for rendering the human model. The model is then used in order to assess the danger of the robot operations based on the measured as well as predicted human motions. This is followed by the introduction of a new reactive control scheme that results in the least interferences between the human and robot operations. The approach enables the robot to foresee an upcoming danger and take preventive actions before the danger becomes imminent. Simulation and experimental results are presented in order to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  20. Multiple antibody targets on herpes B glycoproteins B and D identified by screening sera of infected rhesus macaques with peptide microarrays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven-Kevin Hotop

    Full Text Available Herpes B virus (or Herpesvirus simiae or Macacine herpesvirus 1 is endemic in many populations of macaques, both in the wild and in captivity. The virus elicits only mild clinical symptoms (if any in monkeys, but can be transmitted by various routes, most commonly via bites, to humans where it causes viral encephalitis with a high mortality rate. Hence, herpes B constitutes a considerable occupational hazard for animal caretakers, veterinarians and laboratory personnel. Efforts are therefore being made to reduce the risk of zoonotic infection and to improve prognosis after accidental exposure. Among the measures envisaged are serological surveillance of monkey colonies and specific diagnosis of herpes B zoonosis against a background of antibodies recognizing the closely related human herpes simplex virus (HSV. 422 pentadecapeptides covering, in an overlapping fashion, the entire amino acid sequences of herpes B proteins gB and gD were synthesized and immobilized on glass slides. Antibodies present in monkey sera that bind to subsets of the peptide collection were detected by microserological techniques. With 42 different rhesus macaque sera, 114 individual responses to 18 different antibody target regions (ATRs were recorded, 17 of which had not been described earlier. This finding may pave the way for a peptide-based, herpes B specific serological diagnostic test.

  1. Immunochemical characterization of Mycobacterium leprae antigens by the SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis immunoperoxidase technique (SGIP) using patients' sera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klatser, P. R.; van Rens, M. M.; Eggelte, T. A.

    1984-01-01

    In this study the SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis immunoperoxidase (SGIP) assay was used for characterizing the antigenic components of Mycobacterium leprae using patients' sera. This technique involved the separation of mycobacterial sonicates on SDS-polyacrylamide gels, longitudinal

  2. Modeling cognition dynamics and its application to human reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosleh, A.; Smidts, C.; Shen, S.H.

    1996-01-01

    For the past two decades, a number of approaches have been proposed for the identification and estimation of the likelihood of human errors, particularly for use in the risk and reliability studies of nuclear power plants. Despite the wide-spread use of the most popular among these methods, their fundamental weaknesses are widely recognized, and the treatment of human reliability has been considered as one of the soft spots of risk studies of large technological systems. To alleviate the situation, new efforts have focused on the development of human reliability models based on a more fundamental understanding of operator response and its cognitive aspects

  3. Anti-leptospirose agglutinins in equine sera, from São Paulo, Goias, and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, 1996-2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Langoni

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Equine leptospirosis can present a non-symptomatic form, an acute clinical form, or even develop chronically, causing reproductive alterations, such as abortion and recurrent uveitis. Since the prevalence of leptospirosis in several countries and regions is widely reported, the objective of this study was to verify the prevailing equine leptospirosis in different regions of Brazil. Sera from 1402 blood samples from horses of different age, sex, breed, and purpose were examined. These samples came from southeastern and central west states of Brazil. The method utilized was the Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT, with 12 different Leptospira serovars. From the sera tested, 754 (54% were positive for one (385 or more (372 serovars. These results were higher when compared to national and international levels. The most commonly found serovars were icterohaemorrhagiae (37.01%, suggesting exposure to rodents, castellonis (16.97%, and djasiman (15.19%. There were significant differences of reagents between sexes, and a tendency toward higher positivity with age. Distribution of sera-reagents related to aptitude showed a markedly higher value for work animals than for sporting ones. Higher rates were found for animals with undefined breed. There were no significant differences related to regional origin. As an indication of multiple exposure, significant associations were observed between the following serovars: castellonis and djasiman; castellonis and grippotyphosa; castellonis and copenhageni; castellonis and icterohaemorrhagiae; castellonis and pomona; canicola and pomona; canicola and djasiman; djasiman and copenhageni; icterohaemorrhagiae and djasiman; icterohaemorrhagiae and pyrogenes; copenhageni and pomona. These results showed the necessity of further studies on the epidemiology of this disease in equines and its relationship to human illness.

  4. Synthetic Biology and Human Health: Potential Applications for Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karouia, Fathi; Carr, Christopher; Cai, Yizhi; Chen, Y.; Grenon, Marlene; Larios-Sanz, Maia; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Santos, Orlando

    2011-01-01

    Human space travelers experience a unique environment that affects homeostasis and physiologic adaptation. Spaceflight-related changes have been reported in the musculo-skeletal, cardiovascular, neurovestibular, endocrine, and immune systems. The spacecraft environment further subjects the traveler to noise and gravitational forces, as well as airborne chemical, microbiological contaminants, and radiation exposure. As humans prepare for longer duration missions effective countermeasures must be developed, verified, and implemented to ensure mission success. Over the past ten years, synthetic biology has opened new avenues for research and development in areas such as biological control, biomaterials, sustainable energy production, bioremediation, and biomedical therapies. The latter in particular is of great interest to the implementation of long-duration human spaceflight capabilities. This article discusses the effects of spaceflight on humans, and reviews current capabilities and potential needs associated with the health of the astronauts where synthetic biology could play an important role in the pursuit of space exploration.

  5. Human Factors Science: Brief History and Applications to Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Sarah Henrickson

    2015-12-01

    This section will define the science of human factors, its origins, its impact on safety in other domains, and its impact and potential for impact on patient safety. Copyright © 2015 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Anti-xanthine oxidase antibodies in sera and synovial fluid of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and other joint inflammations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrar, L.; Hanachi, N.; Rouba, K.; Charef, N.; Khennouf, S.; Baghiani, A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to study anti-bovine milk xanthine oxidoreductase XOPR antibody levels in synovial fluid as well as in serum of patients suffering from rheumatoid affections to assess a possible correlation between antibody titres and severity of disease. Sera and synovial fluids were collected from volunteer donors at Setif University Hospital, Setif, Algeria from 2001-2007 with the consent of patients. Human IgG and IgM levels of free and bound anti-bovine milk XOR antibodies were determined using bovine XOR as antigen, with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ELISA. Serum IgG anti-bovine milk XOR titres in 30 healthy normal subjects 2.74+-2.31 microgram/mL are in agreement with that reported in the literature. Immunoglobulin G and IgM anti-bovine milk XOR antibody titres were found to be significantly higher in serum from patients with rheumatoid arthritis RA and latex positives subjects. Synovial IgM antibody titres to bovine XOR were found to be significantly higher in rheumatoid arthritis patients compared to patients with other joint inflammations. In rheumatoid arthritis patients, high concentrations of antibodies against XOR were noticed. These antibodies may play a major role in RA by inhibiting both xanthine and NADH oxidase activities of XOR. They may also play a key role in eliminating XOR from serum and synovial fluid positive role but unfortunately, immune complex formation could also activate complement and participate in self maintenance of inflammation. (author)

  7. Contemporary Animal Models For Human Gene Therapy Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, Chitra; Nathar, Trupti Job; Ghosh, Arkasubhra; Hickstein, Dennis Durand; Nelson, Everette Jacob Remington

    2015-01-01

    Over the past three decades, gene therapy has been making considerable progress as an alternative strategy in the treatment of many diseases. Since 2009, several studies have been reported in humans on the successful treatment of various diseases. Animal models mimicking human disease conditions are very essential at the preclinical stage before embarking on a clinical trial. In gene therapy, for instance, they are useful in the assessment of variables related to the use of viral vectors such as safety, efficacy, dosage and localization of transgene expression. However, choosing a suitable disease-specific model is of paramount importance for successful clinical translation. This review focuses on the animal models that are most commonly used in gene therapy studies, such as murine, canine, non-human primates, rabbits, porcine, and a more recently developed humanized mice. Though small and large animals both have their own pros and cons as disease-specific models, the choice is made largely based on the type and length of study performed. While small animals with a shorter life span could be well-suited for degenerative/aging studies, large animals with longer life span could suit longitudinal studies and also help with dosage adjustments to maximize therapeutic benefit. Recently, humanized mice or mouse-human chimaeras have gained interest in the study of human tissues or cells, thereby providing a more reliable understanding of therapeutic interventions. Thus, animal models are of great importance with regard to testing new vector technologies in vivo for assessing safety and efficacy prior to a gene therapy clinical trial.

  8. Study and application of human reliability analysis for digital human-system interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Ming; Liu Yanzi; Zhang Jianbo

    2014-01-01

    The knowledge of human-orientated abilities and limitations could be used to digital human-system interface (HSI) design by human reliability analysis (HRA) technology. Further, control room system design could achieve the perfect match of man-machine-environment. This research was conducted to establish an integrated HRA method. This method identified HSI potential design flaws which may affect human performance and cause human error. Then a systematic approach was adopted to optimize HSI. It turns out that this method is practical and objective, and effectively improves the safety, reliability and economy of nuclear power plant. This method was applied to CRP1000 projects under construction successfully with great potential. (authors)

  9. Food allergy: a clinician's criteria for including sera in a serum bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballmer-Weber, B K; Fernández-Rivas, M

    2008-10-01

    Safety assessment for genetically-engineered crop plants includes assessment for allergic responses. To facilitate this assessment, serum banks should contain well-characterised sera from patients with confirmed food allergies. A serum is defined as well-characterised if it is taken from a patient who has a convincing history of allergic responses to a known allergen or an allergen-containing food, a positive skin prick test (or elevated IgE response), and a positive response in a clinical food challenge.

  10. Application of RNA interference in treating human diseases

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ference than either strand individually. After injection into ... antisense strand to messenger RNAs (mRNAs) that bear ... processing of longer dsRNA and stem loop precursors (Nov- ... RNAi has several applications in biomedical research,.

  11. Human factors guidelines for nuclear power plant applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketchel, J.

    1993-01-01

    In 1989, Waters et al. reported to the Human Factors Society on developing human factors criteria for a new reactor plant. They correctly indicated that much of the guidance documentation in human factors engineering has derived from MIL-STD-1472 and its antecedents. Guidelines for human-computer interface have sprung primarily from the Smith and Mosier compendium and its source documents. NUREG-0700, which is currently being updated, was developed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as a general evaluation guide for inspecting control rooms. In addition, the Electric Power Research Institute, Institute of Nuclear Power Operations, US Department of Energy, the NRC, and others have published a number of specialized documents on a range of subjects. The number of guidelines and standards has grown in the past few years to an impressive number, including those published by international organizations and professional societies. This paper provides an update on current efforts to provide appropriate guidance for the power industry and, perhaps more importantly, offers a perspective on how users should think about using the available materials and what else is needed. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) continues to be one of the principal participants in providing guidance to the utilities. Human factors guidelines is indeed a timely topic, currently of great interest to EPRI's constituents and to designers of new and upgraded nuclear power plants (NPMs) in the Advanced Light Water Reactor and the Instrumentation and Control Upgrade Initiative programs

  12. Application of chimeric mice with humanized liver for study of human-specific drug metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Thomas J; Reddy, Vijay G B; Kakuni, Masakazu; Morikawa, Yoshio; Kumar, Sanjeev

    2014-06-01

    Human-specific or disproportionately abundant human metabolites of drug candidates that are not adequately formed and qualified in preclinical safety assessment species pose an important drug development challenge. Furthermore, the overall metabolic profile of drug candidates in humans is an important determinant of their drug-drug interaction susceptibility. These risks can be effectively assessed and/or mitigated if human metabolic profile of the drug candidate could reliably be determined in early development. However, currently available in vitro human models (e.g., liver microsomes, hepatocytes) are often inadequate in this regard. Furthermore, the conduct of definitive radiolabeled human ADME studies is an expensive and time-consuming endeavor that is more suited for later in development when the risk of failure has been reduced. We evaluated a recently developed chimeric mouse model with humanized liver on uPA/SCID background for its ability to predict human disposition of four model drugs (lamotrigine, diclofenac, MRK-A, and propafenone) that are known to exhibit human-specific metabolism. The results from these studies demonstrate that chimeric mice were able to reproduce the human-specific metabolite profile for lamotrigine, diclofenac, and MRK-A. In the case of propafenone, however, the human-specific metabolism was not detected as a predominant pathway, and the metabolite profiles in native and humanized mice were similar; this was attributed to the presence of residual highly active propafenone-metabolizing mouse enzymes in chimeric mice. Overall, the data indicate that the chimeric mice with humanized liver have the potential to be a useful tool for the prediction of human-specific metabolism of xenobiotics and warrant further investigation.

  13. Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy to detect anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in blood sera of domestic cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Janaina; Pacheco, Marcos T. T.; Silveira, Landulfo, Jr.; Machado, Rosangela Z.; Martins, Rodrigo A. L.; Zangaro, Renato A.; Villaverde, Antonio G. J. B.

    2001-05-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) Raman spectroscopy has been studied for the last years for many biomedical applications. It is a powerful tool for biological materials analysis. Toxoplasmosis is an important zoonosis in public health, cats being the principal responsible for the transmission of the disease in Brazil. The objective of this work is to investigate a new method of diagnosis of this disease. NIR Raman spectroscopy was used to detect anti Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in blood sera from domestic cats, without sample preparation. In all, six blood serum samples were used for this study. A previous serological test was done by the Indirect Immunoenzymatic Assay (ELISA) to permit a comparative study between both techniques and it showed that three serum samples were positive and the other three were negative to toxoplasmosis. Raman spectra were taken for all the samples and analyzed by using the principal components analysis (PCA). A diagnosis parameter was defined from the analysis of the second and third principal components of the Raman spectra. It was found that this parameter can detect the infection level of the animal. The results have indicated that NIR Raman spectroscopy, associated to the PCA can be a promising technique for serological analysis, such as toxoplasmosis, allowing a fast and sensitive method of diagnosis.

  14. Future Cyborgs: Human-Machine Interface for Virtual Reality Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    heavy for the human head to bear without external support.17 Most current HMDs still use two visual displays placed directly in front of the user’s...displays. Current generations of HMDs are being designed to operate within the form factor of a pair of eyeglasses .18 These systems are

  15. Application of expert elicitation techniques in human reliability, assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanyasi Rao, V.V.S.; Saraf, R.K.; Ghosh, A.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.

    2006-01-01

    Expert elicitation techniques are being used, in the area of technological forecasting, in estimating data needed for analysis when it is either difficult to arrive at the data by experimental means or when it is quite involved to plan and conduct the experiment. In this study, expert elicitation techniques are applied to the evaluation of the frequencies of the various accident sequences that can result from the initiating event (IE) 'High Pressure Process Water (HPPW) system failure' in typical Indian Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor (IPHWR) of the older generation. The Operating Procedure under Emergency Conditions (OPEC) for this IE involves human actions according to a pre-defined procedure. The Human Error Probabilities for all these human actions are obtained using expert elicitation techniques. These techniques aim at eliciting the opinion of the experts in the area of interest with regard to the issue in question. The uncertainty is analysed by employing the measure of dissonance and the most probable range of human error probabilities are arrived at by maximizing this measure. These values are combined using the same procedures mentioned above to yield a distribution representing the uncertainty associated with the predictions. (author)

  16. A paradoxical fact: Radioactivity and its application in human medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguirre, B.

    1996-01-01

    A brief description upon Immunoassay Laboratory activities as well as main radioimmunoassay methods in human medicine have been summarized in the present article. Many hormones can be dosified, some of them are:thyroids hormones, detection of neonatal hypothyroidism, bone destruction markers, reproduction hormones, adrenal hormones, pituitary hormones, tumor marker, etc

  17. Human mesenchymal stromal cells : biological characterization and clinical application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernardo, Maria Ester

    2010-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the characterization of the biological and functional properties of human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), isolated from different tissue sources. The differentiation capacity of MSCs from fetal and adult tissues has been tested and compared. Umbilical cord blood (UCB) has

  18. Human Factors Engineering: Current and Emerging Dual-Use Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandlee, G. O.; Goldsberry, B. S.

    1994-01-01

    Human Factors Engineering is a multidisciplinary endeavor in which information pertaining to human characteristics is used in the development of systems and machines. Six representatives considered to be experts from the public and private sectors were surveyed in an effort to identify the potential dual-use of human factors technology. Each individual was asked to provide a rating as to the dual-use of 85 identified NASA technologies. Results of the survey were as follows: nearly 75 percent of the technologies were identified at least once as high dual-use by one of the six survey respondents, and nearly 25 percent of the identified NASA technologies were identified as high dual-use technologies by a majority of the respondents. The perceived level of dual-use appeared to be independent of the technology category. Successful identification of dual-use technology requires expanded input from industry. As an adjunct, cost-benefit analysis should be conducted to identify the feasibility of the dual-use technology. Concurrent with this effort should be an examination of precedents established by other technologies in other industrial settings. Advances in human factors and systems engineering are critical to reduce risk in any workplace and to enhance industrial competitiveness.

  19. Flexible Human Behavior Analysis Framework for Video Surveillance Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weilun Lao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a flexible framework for semantic analysis of human motion from surveillance video. Successful trajectory estimation and human-body modeling facilitate the semantic analysis of human activities in video sequences. Although human motion is widely investigated, we have extended such research in three aspects. By adding a second camera, not only more reliable behavior analysis is possible, but it also enables to map the ongoing scene events onto a 3D setting to facilitate further semantic analysis. The second contribution is the introduction of a 3D reconstruction scheme for scene understanding. Thirdly, we perform a fast scheme to detect different body parts and generate a fitting skeleton model, without using the explicit assumption of upright body posture. The extension of multiple-view fusion improves the event-based semantic analysis by 15%–30%. Our proposed framework proves its effectiveness as it achieves a near real-time performance (13–15 frames/second and 6–8 frames/second for monocular and two-view video sequences.

  20. Applications of Human Performance Reliability Evaluation Concepts and Demonstration Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-03-15

    ship stops dead in the water and the AN/SQS-26 operator recommends a new heading (000°). At T + 14 minutes, the target ship begins a hard turn to...Various Simulated Conditions 82 9 Hunan Reliability for Each Simulated Operator (Baseline Run) 83 10 Human and Equipment Availabilit / under

  1. Human factors engineering checklists for application in the SAR process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overlin, T.K.; Romero, H.A.; Ryan, T.G.

    1995-03-01

    This technical report was produced to assist the preparers and reviewers of the human factors portions of the SAR in completing their assigned tasks regarding analysis and/or review of completed analyses. The checklists, which are the main body of the report, and the subsequent tables, were developed to assist analysts in generating the needed analysis data to complete the human engineering analysis for the SAR. The technical report provides a series of 19 human factors engineering (HFE) checklists which support the safety analyses of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) reactor and nonreactor facilities and activities. The results generated using these checklists and in the preparation of the concluding analyses provide the technical basis for preparing the human factors chapter, and subsequent inputs to other chapters, required by DOE as a part of the safety analysis reports (SARs). This document is divided into four main sections. The first part explains the origin of the checklists, the sources utilized, and other information pertaining to the purpose and scope of the report. The second part, subdivided into 19 sections, is the checklists themselves. The third section is the glossary which defines terms that could either be unfamiliar or have specific meanings within the context of these checklists. The final section is the subject index in which the glossary terms are referenced back to the specific checklist and page the term is encountered.

  2. Human factors engineering checklists for application in the SAR process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overlin, T.K.; Romero, H.A.; Ryan, T.G.

    1995-03-01

    This technical report was produced to assist the preparers and reviewers of the human factors portions of the SAR in completing their assigned tasks regarding analysis and/or review of completed analyses. The checklists, which are the main body of the report, and the subsequent tables, were developed to assist analysts in generating the needed analysis data to complete the human engineering analysis for the SAR. The technical report provides a series of 19 human factors engineering (HFE) checklists which support the safety analyses of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) reactor and nonreactor facilities and activities. The results generated using these checklists and in the preparation of the concluding analyses provide the technical basis for preparing the human factors chapter, and subsequent inputs to other chapters, required by DOE as a part of the safety analysis reports (SARs). This document is divided into four main sections. The first part explains the origin of the checklists, the sources utilized, and other information pertaining to the purpose and scope of the report. The second part, subdivided into 19 sections, is the checklists themselves. The third section is the glossary which defines terms that could either be unfamiliar or have specific meanings within the context of these checklists. The final section is the subject index in which the glossary terms are referenced back to the specific checklist and page the term is encountered

  3. Human eye modelling for ophthalmic simulators project for clinic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Andrea; Santos, Adimir dos; Yoriyaz, Helio

    2002-01-01

    Most of eye tumors are treated by surgical means, which involves the enucleation of affected eyes. In terms of treatment and control of diseases, there is brachytherapy, which often utilizes small applicator of Co-60, I-125, Ru-106, Ir-192, etc. These methods are shown to be very efficient but highly cost. The objective of this work is propose a detailed simulator modelling for eye characterization. Additionally, this study can contribute to design and build a new applicator in order to reduce the cost and to allow more patients to be treated

  4. Plant metabolomics and its potential application for human nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hall, R.D.; Brouwer, I.D.; Fitzgerald, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    With the growing interest in the use of metabolomic technologies for a wide range of biological targets, food applications related to nutrition and quality are rapidly emerging. Metabolomics offers us the opportunity to gain deeper insights into, and have better control of, the fundamental

  5. Algorithmic Puzzles: History, Taxonomies, and Applications in Human Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitin, Anany

    2017-01-01

    The paper concerns an important but underappreciated genre of algorithmic puzzles, explaining what these puzzles are, reviewing milestones in their long history, and giving two different ways to classify them. Also covered are major applications of algorithmic puzzles in cognitive science research, with an emphasis on insight problem solving, and…

  6. Maslow's Theory of Human Motivation and its Deep Roots in Individualism: Interrogating Maslow's Applicability in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Mawere, Munyaradzi; Mubaya, Tapuwa R.; van Reisen, Mirjam; Stam, van, Gertjan; Mawere, Munyaradzi; Nhemachena, Artwell

    2016-01-01

    Since the postulation of Abraham Maslow's theory of human motivation, the theory has been celebrated as the determining factor to account for and explain human wants and needs. While the theory has its genealogy from an individualistic society, the United States of America, where it was crafted and propelled to take a stand as a universal theory determining human wants and needs across the world, little has been done to critically examine its seemingly perceived universality and applicability...

  7. Porphyrin metabolisms in human skin commensal Propionibacterium acnes bacteria: potential application to monitor human radiation risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, M; Kuo, S; Wang, Y; Jiang, Y; Liu, Y-T; Gallo, R L; Huang, C-M

    2013-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), a Gram-positive anaerobic bacterium, is a commensal organism in human skin. Like human cells, the bacteria produce porphyrins, which exhibit fluorescence properties and make bacteria visible with a Wood's lamp. In this review, we compare the porphyrin biosynthesis in humans and P. acnes. Also, since P. acnes living on the surface of skin receive the same radiation exposure as humans, we envision that the changes in porphyrin profiles (the absorption spectra and/or metabolism) of P. acnes by radiation may mirror the response of human cells to radiation. The porphyrin profiles of P. acnes may be a more accurate reflection of radiation risk to the patient than other biodosimeters/biomarkers such as gene up-/down-regulation, which may be non-specific due to patient related factors such as autoimmune diseases. Lastly, we discuss the challenges and possible solutions for using the P. acnes response to predict the radiation risk.

  8. Trial application of a technique for human error analysis (ATHEANA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bley, D.C.; Cooper, S.E.; Parry, G.W.

    1996-01-01

    The new method for HRA, ATHEANA, has been developed based on a study of the operating history of serious accidents and an understanding of the reasons why people make errors. Previous publications associated with the project have dealt with the theoretical framework under which errors occur and the retrospective analysis of operational events. This is the first attempt to use ATHEANA in a prospective way, to select and evaluate human errors within the PSA context

  9. Human-computer systems interaction backgrounds and applications 3

    CERN Document Server

    Kulikowski, Juliusz; Mroczek, Teresa; Wtorek, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    This book contains an interesting and state-of the art collection of papers on the recent progress in Human-Computer System Interaction (H-CSI). It contributes the profound description of the actual status of the H-CSI field and also provides a solid base for further development and research in the discussed area. The contents of the book are divided into the following parts: I. General human-system interaction problems; II. Health monitoring and disabled people helping systems; and III. Various information processing systems. This book is intended for a wide audience of readers who are not necessarily experts in computer science, machine learning or knowledge engineering, but are interested in Human-Computer Systems Interaction. The level of particular papers and specific spreading-out into particular parts is a reason why this volume makes fascinating reading. This gives the reader a much deeper insight than he/she might glean from research papers or talks at conferences. It touches on all deep issues that ...

  10. The application of human error prevention tool in Tianwan nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao Zhiguo

    2013-01-01

    This paper mainly discusses the application and popularization of human error prevention tool in Tianwan nuclear power station, including the study on project implementation background, main contents and innovation, performance management, innovation practice and development, and performance of innovation application. (authors)

  11. Wetting and spreading of human blood: Recent advances and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Smith , F.R. ,; Brutin , David

    2018-01-01

    International audience; Investigation of the physical phenomena involved in blood interactions with real surfaces present new exciting challenges. The fluid mechanical properties of such a fluid is singular due its non-Newtonian and complex behaviour, depending on the surrounding ambient conditions and the donor/victim's blood biological properties. The fundamental research on the topic remains fairly recent; although it finds applications in fields such as forensic science, with bloodstain p...

  12. Visualisation of Massive Military Datasets: Human Factors, Applications, and Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-01

    we have been confronted with data of new kinds at a rate faster than our human brains can manage to turn into information. “Visualisation” means the...because variation of these kinds do not have the qaulities of textons. Figure 2.5 A trivial Icon Map in which there is a data attribute, shown as...information management is to ensure that the right information is available to the right person, at the right time, and shown in such a way that the person

  13. Successful application of large microneedle patches by human volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Ripolin, Anastasia; Quinn, James; Larrañeta, Eneko; Vicente-Perez, Eva Maria; Barry, Johanne; Donnelly, Ryan F.

    2017-01-01

    We describe, for the first time, the design, production and evaluation of large microneedle patches. Such systems, based on 16 individual microneedle arrays (needle height 600??m), were prepared from aqueous blends of 15% w/w Gantrez? S97 and 7.5% w/w poly(ethyleneglycol) 10,000?Da. Ester-based crosslinking was confirmed by FTIR and mechanical strength was good. Insertion depths in a validated skin model were approximately 500??m. Ten human volunteers successfully self-inserted the microneedl...

  14. Estimating mobility using sparse data: Application to human genetic variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loog, Liisa; Mirazón Lahr, Marta; Kovacevic, Mirna; Manica, Andrea; Eriksson, Anders; Thomas, Mark G

    2017-11-14

    Mobility is one of the most important processes shaping spatiotemporal patterns of variation in genetic, morphological, and cultural traits. However, current approaches for inferring past migration episodes in the fields of archaeology and population genetics lack either temporal resolution or formal quantification of the underlying mobility, are poorly suited to spatially and temporally sparsely sampled data, and permit only limited systematic comparison between different time periods or geographic regions. Here we present an estimator of past mobility that addresses these issues by explicitly linking trait differentiation in space and time. We demonstrate the efficacy of this estimator using spatiotemporally explicit simulations and apply it to a large set of ancient genomic data from Western Eurasia. We identify a sequence of changes in human mobility from the Late Pleistocene to the Iron Age. We find that mobility among European Holocene farmers was significantly higher than among European hunter-gatherers both pre- and postdating the Last Glacial Maximum. We also infer that this Holocene rise in mobility occurred in at least three distinct stages: the first centering on the well-known population expansion at the beginning of the Neolithic, and the second and third centering on the beginning of the Bronze Age and the late Iron Age, respectively. These findings suggest a strong link between technological change and human mobility in Holocene Western Eurasia and demonstrate the utility of this framework for exploring changes in mobility through space and time. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  15. Cytolytic tests with hyperimmune patient sera is a good prognostic tool in racotumomab immunotherapy in advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necdet Uskent

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aberrant accumulation of a specific sialic acid has been shown to exist in many human malignant cell membranes termed as N-glycolyl neuraminic acid (NeuGc. This particular ganglioside do not normally exist in normal human cells, due to the lack of an enzyme (cytidine monophospho-N-acetyl-neuraminic acid which is responsible for the synthesis of N—glycolyl neurominic acid. The aberrant expression of NeuGcGM3 ganglioside in the cell surface of certain human tumors, made this molecule an attractive target for immunotherapy. By using 14 F7 monoclonal antibody directed to identify NeuGcGM3 in the tumor tissue, it is possible to select patients for anti-NeuGcGM3 immunotherapy. Racotumomab is an anti-idiotype vaccine, being a mirror image of NeuGcGm3 mimics this ganglioside and triggers an immune response. Antibodies reactive to NeuGcGM3 ganglioside in the vaccinated patient’s sera have cytotoxic anti-tumor properties which can be assessed in L1210 cell line, expressing this ganglioside.In this study, we monitored 12 patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC who are on racotumomab vaccine maintenance following chemotherapy. Cytotoxic tests with vaccinated patients’ sera were performed using L1210 cell lines at the 3rd, 6th, 9th, and 12th months of vaccination and the results were compared with clinical outcomes. Serum antibodies to NeuGcGm3 ganglioside were also checked before initiation and thereafter with the same intervals. The aim of the study was to investigate the value of antibodies and cytotoxic test as biomarkers for treatment outcome. Our observation confirmed that consistently higher cytotoxicity rates in the cell culture correlated with better progression free survivals of the patients who are on racotumomab maintenance.

  16. Human factors consideration in clinical applications of virtual reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, C H; Griffin, M J

    1997-01-01

    Virtual reality environments have many potential applications in medicine, including surgical training, tele-operated robotic surgery, assessment and rehabilitation of behavioural and neurological disorders and diagnosis, therapy and rehabilitation of physical disabilities. Although there is much potential for the use of immersive virtual reality environments in clinical applications, there are problems which could limit their ultimate usability. Some users have experienced side-effects during and after exposure to virtual reality environments. The symptoms include ocular problems, disorientation and balance disturbances, and nausea. Susceptibility to side-effects can be affected by age, ethnicity, experience, gender and physical fitness, as well as the characteristics of the display, the virtual environment and the tasks. The characteristics of the virtual reality system have also been shown to affect the ability of users to perform tasks in a virtual environment. Many of these effects can be attributed to delays between the sampling of head and limb positions and the presentation of an appropriate image on the display. The introduction of patients to virtual reality environments, for assessment, therapy or rehabilitation, raises particular safety and ethical issues. Patients exposed to virtual reality environments for assessment and rehabilitation may have disabilities which increase their susceptibility to certain side-effects. Special precautions therefore need to be taken to ensure the safety and effectiveness of such virtual reality applications. These precautions include minimisation of possible side-effects at the design stage. Factors are identified which are likely to affect the incidence of side-effects during and after exposures, and which need to be understood in order to minimise undesirable consequences. There is also a need for the establishment of protocols for monitoring and controlling exposures of patients to virtual reality environments. Issues

  17. Applicability of simplified human reliability analysis methods for severe accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boring, R.; St Germain, S. [Idaho National Lab., Idaho Falls, Idaho (United States); Banaseanu, G.; Chatri, H.; Akl, Y. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-03-15

    Most contemporary human reliability analysis (HRA) methods were created to analyse design-basis accidents at nuclear power plants. As part of a comprehensive expansion of risk assessments at many plants internationally, HRAs will begin considering severe accident scenarios. Severe accidents, while extremely rare, constitute high consequence events that significantly challenge successful operations and recovery. Challenges during severe accidents include degraded and hazardous operating conditions at the plant, the shift in control from the main control room to the technical support center, the unavailability of plant instrumentation, and the need to use different types of operating procedures. Such shifts in operations may also test key assumptions in existing HRA methods. This paper discusses key differences between design basis and severe accidents, reviews efforts to date to create customized HRA methods suitable for severe accidents, and recommends practices for adapting existing HRA methods that are already being used for HRAs at the plants. (author)

  18. Correlation analysis of trace elemental data obtained from blood sera of ovarian cancer patients using PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naidu, B.G.; Sarita, P.; Naga Raju, G.J.

    2017-01-01

    Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique is used for analysis of trace elements present in the blood sera of ovarian cancer patients and healthy controls. This work is also intended to establish the role played by trace elements in carcinogenic process. It is observed that the concentrations of elements Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Rb and Sr are lower and the concentration of Cu is higher in the cancer patients when compared to controls. However, no change in concentration is found in the elements Co, Zn, As, Se and Br. Correlation analysis of the data using SPSS 16.0 has revealed a strong positive correlation between Ti-V, Ni-Co, Cu-Fe, As-Ti, Br-Ti, Br-V and Sr-Fe while strong negative correlations are observed for Cu-Ti, As-Cu and Br-Cu. Changes in trace elemental content are probably associated with ovarian carcinogenesis. (author)

  19. Comparative 1H NMR-based metabonomic analysis of HIV-1 sera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippeos, C.; Steffens, F. E.; Meyer, D.

    2009-01-01

    1 H NMR spectroscopy of sera from HIV-1 infected and uninfected individuals was performed on 300 and 600 MHz instruments. The resultant spectra were automatically data reduced to 90 and 180 integral segments of equal length. Analysis of variance identified significant differences between the sample groups, especially for the samples analyzed on 600 MHz and reduced to fewer segments. Linear discriminant analysis correctly classified 100% of the samples analyzed on the 300 MHz NMR (reduced to 180 segments); an increase in instrument sensitivity resulted in lower percentages of correctly classified samples. Multinomial logistic regression (MLR) resulted in 100% correct classification of all samples from both instruments. Thus 1 H-NMR metabonomics on either instrument distinguishes HIV-positive individuals using or not using anti retroviral therapy, but the sensitivity of the instrument impacts on data reduction. Furthermore, MLR is a novel multivariate statistical technique for improved classification of biological data analyzed in NMR

  20. Comparative {sup 1}H NMR-based metabonomic analysis of HIV-1 sera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philippeos, C. [University of Johannesburg, Department of Biochemistry (South Africa); Steffens, F. E. [University of Pretoria, Department of Statistics (South Africa); Meyer, D. [University of Pretoria, Department of Biochemistry (South Africa)], E-mail: debra.meyer@up.ac.za

    2009-07-15

    {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy of sera from HIV-1 infected and uninfected individuals was performed on 300 and 600 MHz instruments. The resultant spectra were automatically data reduced to 90 and 180 integral segments of equal length. Analysis of variance identified significant differences between the sample groups, especially for the samples analyzed on 600 MHz and reduced to fewer segments. Linear discriminant analysis correctly classified 100% of the samples analyzed on the 300 MHz NMR (reduced to 180 segments); an increase in instrument sensitivity resulted in lower percentages of correctly classified samples. Multinomial logistic regression (MLR) resulted in 100% correct classification of all samples from both instruments. Thus {sup 1}H-NMR metabonomics on either instrument distinguishes HIV-positive individuals using or not using anti retroviral therapy, but the sensitivity of the instrument impacts on data reduction. Furthermore, MLR is a novel multivariate statistical technique for improved classification of biological data analyzed in NMR.

  1. Low maternal vitamin D as a risk factor for schizophrenia: a pilot study using banked sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, John; Eyles, Darryl; Mowry, Bryan; Yolken, Robert; Buka, Stephen

    2003-09-01

    Evidence from epidemiology suggests that low maternal vitamin D may be a risk factor for schizophrenia. Based on sera taken during the third trimester, we compared the level of 25 hydroxyvitamin D3 in mothers of individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders versus mothers of unaffected controls. For each case, we selected two controls matched on race, gender and date of birth of the offspring. There was no significant difference in third trimester maternal vitamin D in the entire sample (cases = 26, controls = 51). Within the subgroup of black individuals (n = 21), there was a trend level difference in the predicted direction. Maternal vitamin D does not operate as a continuous graded risk factor for schizophrenia, however, the results in the black subgroup raise the possibility that below a certain critical threshold, low levels of maternal vitamin D may be associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia.

  2. Coronative antibody tires in sera of healthy adults and experimentally infected volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradburne, A F; Somerset, B A

    1972-06-01

    Six coronaviruses isolated in the U.S.A. have been inoculated into volunteers and all produced colds. Between 10 and 20% of infected volunteers developed heterologous antibody responses after these and other experimental infections with coronaviruses. The haemagglutination-inhibition test with the OC43 virus strain was found to detect antibody rises after infection with a variety of strains.Studies on normal adult sera taken between 1965 and 1970 revealed a high frequency of neutralizing antibody to one strain (229 E) and a frequency of HI antibody to strain OC43 which fluctuated from year to year. Complement-fixing antibodies to these two viruses were also found, revealing an apparent increase in the activity of coronaviruses in the general population of the U.K., during the winter of 1968-9.

  3. Circadian rhythms of cysteine proteinases and cystatins, potential tumour markers, in normal sera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cimerman, N.; Krasovec, M.; Mesko-Brguljan, P.; Suskovic, S.; Kos, J.

    2002-01-01

    Circadian day/night variations have been evidenced in all major groups of organisms and at all levels of organisation of the organism. Circadian intra-individual variations are known for a number of analyses in serum including tumour-associated markers. It was suggested that the serum levels of cysteine proteinases and their inhibitors may be of clinical importance for prognosis and diagnosis in cancer. Since known circadian rhythms are important for choosing the best sampling time, interpretation of the results of a diagnostic test, patient monitoring, and timing of a therapy, our objective was to establish 24-h variations of cysteine proteinases, cathepsins B, H, L, and their low molecular weight inhibitors, stefin A, stefin B, and cystatin C, in sera from healthy subjects. (author)

  4. Libérer le double, la beauté sera convulsive…

    OpenAIRE

    Beauvoir-Dominique, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    Rachel Beauvoir-Dominique, Libérer le double, la beauté sera convulsive... À propos d’une collection d’art vodou. — De 1980 à ce jour, grâce au dévouement de Madame Marianne Lehmann, une collection unique de trésors du répertoire plastique vodou et « Makaya » a été rassemblée. Dotée de plusieurs milliers d’objets de culte, cette impressionnante collection n’a pas encore été exposée publiquement de manière permanente ; elle a cependant déjà attiré l’attention de nombreuses institutions nationa...

  5. The biological effects of quadripolar radiofrequency sequential application: a human experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoletti, Giovanni; Cornaglia, Antonia Icaro; Faga, Angela; Scevola, Silvia

    2014-10-01

    An experimental study was conducted to assess the effectiveness and safety of an innovative quadripolar variable electrode configuration radiofrequency device with objective measurements in an ex vivo and in vivo human experimental model. Nonablative radiofrequency applications are well-established anti-ageing procedures for cosmetic skin tightening. The study was performed in two steps: ex vivo and in vivo assessments. In the ex vivo assessments the radiofrequency applications were performed on human full-thickness skin and subcutaneous tissue specimens harvested during surgery for body contouring. In the in vivo assessments the applications were performed on two volunteer patients scheduled for body contouring surgery at the end of the study. The assessment methods were: clinical examination and medical photography, temperature measurement with thermal imaging scan, and light microscopy histological examination. The ex vivo assessments allowed for identification of the effective safety range for human application. The in vivo assessments allowed for demonstration of the biological effects of sequential radiofrequency applications. After a course of radiofrequency applications, the collagen fibers underwent an immediate heat-induced rearrangement and were partially denaturated and progressively metabolized by the macrophages. An overall thickening and spatial rearrangement was appreciated both in the collagen and elastic fibers, the latter displaying a juvenile reticular pattern. A late onset in the macrophage activation after sequential radiofrequency applications was appreciated. Our data confirm the effectiveness of sequential radiofrequency applications in obtaining attenuation of the skin wrinkles by an overall skin tightening.

  6. Safety Characteristics in System Application Software for Human Rated Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango, E. J.

    2016-01-01

    NASA and its industry and international partners are embarking on a bold and inspiring development effort to design and build an exploration class space system. The space system is made up of the Orion system, the Space Launch System (SLS) and the Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) system. All are highly coupled together and dependent on each other for the combined safety of the space system. A key area of system safety focus needs to be in the ground and flight application software system (GFAS). In the development, certification and operations of GFAS, there are a series of safety characteristics that define the approach to ensure mission success. This paper will explore and examine the safety characteristics of the GFAS development.

  7. Application of the Human Activity Assistive Technology model for occupational therapy research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesbrecht, Ed

    2013-08-01

    Theoretical models provide a framework for describing practice and integrating evidence into systematic research. There are few models that relate specifically to the provision of assistive technology in occupational therapy practice. The Human Activity Assistive Technology model is an enduring example that has continued to develop by integrating a social model of disability, concepts from occupational therapy theory and principles of assistive technology adoption and abandonment. This study first describes the core concepts of the Human Activity Assistive Technology model and reviews its development over three successive published versions. A review of the research literature reflects application of the model to clinical practice, study design, outcome measure selection and interpretation of results, particularly among occupational therapists. An evaluative framework is used to critique the adequacy of the Human Activity Assistive Technology model for practice and research, exploring attributes of clarity, simplicity, generality, accessibility and importance. Finally, recommendations are proposed for continued development of the model and research applications. Most of the existing research literature employs the Human Activity Assistive Technology model for background and study design; there is emerging evidence to support the core concepts as predictive factors. Although the concepts are generally simple, clear and applicable to occupational therapy practice and research, evolving terminology and outcomes become more complex with the conflation of integrated theories. The development of the Human Activity Assistive Technology model offers enhanced access and application for occupational therapists, but poses challenges to clarity among concepts. Suggestions are made for further development and applications of the model. © 2013 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  8. Hardware Development Process for Human Research Facility Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Liz

    2000-01-01

    The simple goal of the Human Research Facility (HRF) is to conduct human research experiments on the International Space Station (ISS) astronauts during long-duration missions. This is accomplished by providing integration and operation of the necessary hardware and software capabilities. A typical hardware development flow consists of five stages: functional inputs and requirements definition, market research, design life cycle through hardware delivery, crew training, and mission support. The purpose of this presentation is to guide the audience through the early hardware development process: requirement definition through selecting a development path. Specific HRF equipment is used to illustrate the hardware development paths. The source of hardware requirements is the science community and HRF program. The HRF Science Working Group, consisting of SCientists from various medical disciplines, defined a basic set of equipment with functional requirements. This established the performance requirements of the hardware. HRF program requirements focus on making the hardware safe and operational in a space environment. This includes structural, thermal, human factors, and material requirements. Science and HRF program requirements are defined in a hardware requirements document which includes verification methods. Once the hardware is fabricated, requirements are verified by inspection, test, analysis, or demonstration. All data is compiled and reviewed to certify the hardware for flight. Obviously, the basis for all hardware development activities is requirement definition. Full and complete requirement definition is ideal prior to initiating the hardware development. However, this is generally not the case, but the hardware team typically has functional inputs as a guide. The first step is for engineers to conduct market research based on the functional inputs provided by scientists. CommerCially available products are evaluated against the science requirements as

  9. Clinical application of antibody monoclonal humanized anti-EGFrnimotuzumab labeled

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perera Pintado, Alejandro; Peña Quián, Yamilé; Batista Cuéllar, Juan F.; Prats Capote, Anaís; Torres Aroche, Leonel A.; Casacó Santana, Caridad; Sánchez Mendosa, Elvia L.; Sánchez González, Yolaine; Romero Collado, Susana; Quesada Pozo, Rodobaldo; Valladares Oviedo, Lourdes; Masquida García, Elsa M.; Leyva Montaña, René; Casacó, Angel; Ramos Suzarte, Mayra; Crombet, Tania

    2016-01-01

    Most malignant tumors are of epithelial origin. These are characterized by overexpression of the receptor of epidermal growth factor (EGFR), which the neoplastic cells escape the regulatory mechanisms are allowed, so its high concentration of membrane is generally associated with a poor prognosis . By binding an antibody specifically to this receptor, preventing binding of EGF latter and activation mechanism tyrosine kinase inhibiting cell mitosis and apoptosis causing tumor cell. For this reason, the EGFr has been considered as an attractive target for anti-tumor therapy. The humanized monoclonal antibody anti-EGFr nimotuzumab was developed by the Center of Molecular Immunology (Havana, Cuba). Numerous clinical trials have been developed in the Department of Clinical Research Center Isotopes (Cuba), in which it has been applied this antibody, both labeled with 99mTc for immuno gammagraphic detection of tumors, as labeled with 188 Re for radioimmunotherapy of gliomas high degree of malignancy. The aim of this paper is to show the experience of the Department of Clinical Research of CENTIS in various clinical trials with marking for both immuno gammagraphics detection of tumors, such as for radioimmunotherapy nimotuzumab. (author)

  10. Successful application of large microneedle patches by human volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripolin, Anastasia; Quinn, James; Larrañeta, Eneko; Vicente-Perez, Eva Maria; Barry, Johanne; Donnelly, Ryan F

    2017-04-15

    We describe, for the first time, the design, production and evaluation of large microneedle patches. Such systems, based on 16 individual microneedle arrays (needle height 600μm), were prepared from aqueous blends of 15% w/w Gantrez ® S97 and 7.5% w/w poly(ethyleneglycol) 10,000Da. Ester-based crosslinking was confirmed by FTIR and mechanical strength was good. Insertion depths in a validated skin model were approximately 500μm. Ten human volunteers successfully self-inserted the microneedles of these larger patches in their skin, following appropriate instruction, as confirmed by transepidermal water loss measurements. The mean insertion depth ranged between 300 and 450μm over the area of the large patches. That this was not significantly different to a single unit MN patch self-applied by the same volunteers is encouraging. Microneedle patch sizes much larger than the 1-2cm 2 will be required if this technology is to be successfully translated to clinic for delivery of drug substances. The work described here suggests that use of such larger patches by patients can be successful, potentially opening up the possibility for a significant expansion of the size of the market for transdermal drug delivery. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Application of Human Augmentics: A Persuasive Asthma Inhaler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Brent; Conner, Steve; Mosnaim, Giselle; Albers, Joshua; Leigh, Jason; Jones, Steve; Kenyon, Robert

    2017-03-01

    This article describes a tailored health intervention delivered on a mobile phone platform, integrating low-literacy design strategies and basic principles of behavior change, to promote increased adherence and asthma control among underserved minority adolescents. We based the intervention and design principles on theories of Human Augmentics and the Elaboration Likelihood Model. We tested the efficacy of using electronic monitoring devices that incorporate informative and persuasive elements to improve adherence to a prescribed daily medication regimen intended to reduce use of asthma rescue medications. We describe the theoretical framework, hardware and software systems, and results of user testing for design purposes and a clinical pilot study incorporating use of the device and software by the targeted population. The results of the clinical pilot study showed an 83% completion rate for the treatment as well as improved adherence. Of note, 8% and 58% of participants achieved clinically significant adherence targets at baseline and last week of the study, respectively. Rescue asthma medication use decreased from a median of 3 puffs per week at baseline to 0 puffs per week during the last week of the study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. EFFECTUAL HUMAN AUTHENTICATION FOR CRITICAL SECURITY APPLICATIONS USING RETINAL IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Latha

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A robust method of human authentication based on the retinal blood vessel pattern is presented in this paper. This method entails a segmentation process to identify retinal blood vessel pattern, template generation consisting of the bifurcation points in the retina and matching of the intersection points in the template patterns. The number of matched blood vessel intersection points between the two patterns compared is used as a measure of similarity. As Liveness detection is a highly desirable anti-spoofing measure in biometric authentication, it is ensured while acquiring retinal images in realtime. The validity of our approach is verified with experimental results obtained from 603 comparisons made using 303 retinal images from three different publicly available databases, namely DRIVE, VARIA and STARE. We found that the proposed retinal recognition method gives 100%, 96.3% and 91.1% recognition rates respectively for the above databases. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that uses a large number of retinal images from different retinal databases for the authentication purpose.

  13. An assessment of radioimmunoassay procedures for determination of anti-acetylcholine receptor antibodies in the sera of patients with myasthenia gravis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, B.; Harrison, R.; Lunt, G.G.; Morris, H.; Savage-Marengo, T.; Stephenson, F.A.

    1981-01-01

    A reproducible radioimmunoassay procedure for the determination of anti-acetylcholine receptor antibodies in the sera of patients with myasthenia gravis is described and examined in detail. The assay combines features of a number of methods previously outlined and allows repeat determinations of antibody titre in a given myasthenic serum sample with coefficient of variation 6%. The mean +- standard deviation for normal human serum anti-acetylcholine receptor antibodies was found by this procedure to be 0.024 +- 0.033 nmol/l α-bungarotoxin binding sites whereas the range for myasthenic patients was 0-139.14 nmol/l with a mean value of 7.55 nmol/l α-bungarotoxin binding sites. (author)

  14. Radioimmunoassay of antidiuretic hormone in human urine. Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zebidi, Abdelkrim.

    1977-10-01

    This work is devoted mainly to the development of a radioimmunological system of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) determination in the urine and its physiological and pathological applications. The radioimmunological method thus replaces the biological measurement of antidiuretic hormone in the urine. This new technique was not possible until specific arginine vasopressin antibodies were obtained and a labelled hormone was prepared according to the criteria set for a radioimmunoassay. The labelled hormone is lysine vasopressin (greater stability). Although 125 I-LVP has lost most of its biological activity the molecule keeps all its immunological properties, behaving in the same way as non-iodinated synthetic LVP towards anti-LVP antibodies. Once specific antivasopressin antibodies and immunologically competent labelled hormone were available, conditions were defined for the radioimmunological ADH test in the urine. This technique, relatively easy to use, allows twenty samples to be measured simultaneously. With this sensitive, specific and reproducible method, it is thus possible to estimate the urinary ADH excretion rates from a 20 ml volume of urine after previous extraction on amberlite CG 50. This extraction method is aimed at both concentrating the hormone and eliminating non-specific interferences. The hormone extraction yield is about 92%+-8 [fr

  15. Functional MRI in human motor control studies and clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toma, Keiichiro

    2002-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been a useful tool for the noninvasive mapping of brain function associated with various motor and cognitive tasks. Because fMRI is based on the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) effect, it does not directly record neural activity. With the fMRI technique, distinguishing BOLD signals creased by cortical projection neurons from those created by intracortical neurons appears to be difficult. Two major experimental designs are used in fMRI studies: block designs and event-related designs. Block-designed fMRI presupposes the steady state of regional cerebral blood flow and has been applied to examinations of brain activation caused by tasks requiring sustained or repetitive movements. By contrast, the more recently developed event-related fMRI with time resolution of a few seconds allows the mapping of brain activation associated with a single movement according to the transient aspects of the hemodynamic response. Increasing evidence suggests that multiple motor areas are engaged in a networked manner to execute various motor acts. In order to understand functional brain maps, it is important that one understands sequential and parallel organizations of anatomical connections between multiple motor areas. In fMRI studies of complex motor tasks, elementary parameters such as movement length, force, velocity, acceleration and frequency should be controlled, because inconsistency in those parameters may alter the extent and intensity of motor cortical activation, confounding interpretation of the findings obtained. In addition to initiation of movements, termination of movements plays an important role in the successful achievement of complex movements. Brain areas exclusively related to the termination of movements have been, for the first time, uncovered with an event-related fMRI technique. We propose the application of fMRI to the elucidation of the pathophysiology of movement disorders, particularly dystonia

  16. Functional MRI in human motor control studies and clinical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toma, Keiichiro [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine; Nakai, Toshiharu [Inst. of Biomedical Research and Innovation, Kobe (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been a useful tool for the noninvasive mapping of brain function associated with various motor and cognitive tasks. Because fMRI is based on the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) effect, it does not directly record neural activity. With the fMRI technique, distinguishing BOLD signals creased by cortical projection neurons from those created by intracortical neurons appears to be difficult. Two major experimental designs are used in fMRI studies: block designs and event-related designs. Block-designed fMRI presupposes the steady state of regional cerebral blood flow and has been applied to examinations of brain activation caused by tasks requiring sustained or repetitive movements. By contrast, the more recently developed event-related fMRI with time resolution of a few seconds allows the mapping of brain activation associated with a single movement according to the transient aspects of the hemodynamic response. Increasing evidence suggests that multiple motor areas are engaged in a networked manner to execute various motor acts. In order to understand functional brain maps, it is important that one understands sequential and parallel organizations of anatomical connections between multiple motor areas. In fMRI studies of complex motor tasks, elementary parameters such as movement length, force, velocity, acceleration and frequency should be controlled, because inconsistency in those parameters may alter the extent and intensity of motor cortical activation, confounding interpretation of the findings obtained. In addition to initiation of movements, termination of movements plays an important role in the successful achievement of complex movements. Brain areas exclusively related to the termination of movements have been, for the first time, uncovered with an event-related fMRI technique. We propose the application of fMRI to the elucidation of the pathophysiology of movement disorders, particularly dystonia

  17. Applications of human factors engineering to LNG release prevention and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shikiar, R.; Rankin, W.L.; Rideout, T.B.

    1982-06-01

    The results of an investigation of human factors engineering and human reliability applications to LNG release prevention and control are reported. The report includes a discussion of possible human error contributions to previous LNG accidents and incidents, and a discussion of generic HF considerations for peakshaving plants. More specific recommendations for improving HF practices at peakshaving plants are offered based on visits to six facilities. The HF aspects of the recently promulgated DOT regulations are reviewed, and recommendations are made concerning how these regulations can be implemented utilizing standard HF practices. Finally, the integration of HF considerations into overall system safety is illustrated by a presentation of human error probabilities applicable to LNG operations and by an expanded fault tree analysis which explicitly recognizes man-machine interfaces.

  18. Techniques and applications of the human reliability analysis in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, Fausto C.

    1995-01-01

    The analysis and prediction of the man-machine interaction are the objectives of human reliability analysis. In this work is presented in a manner that could be used by experts in the field of Probabilistic Safety Assessment, considering primarily the aspects of human errors. The Technique of Human Error Rate Prediction (THERP) is used in large scale to obtain data on human error. Applications of this technique are presented, as well as aspects of the state-of-art and of research and development of this particular field of work, where the construction of a reliable data bank is considered essential. In this work is also developed an application of the THERP for the TRIGA Mark 1 IPR R-1 Reactor of the Centro de Desenvolvimento de Tecnologia Nuclear, Brazilian research institute of nuclear technology. The results indicate that some changes must be made in the emergency procedures of the reactor, in order to achieve a higher level of safety

  19. Victims of ‘private’ crimes and application of human rights in interpersonal relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiter Axelle

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available International human rights law has been challenged because of its alleged inability to safeguard the rights of the most vulnerable victims of violence. Whereas in real life they are often marginalized and effectively left without adequate protection, this is not to be attributed to the absence of an appropriate normative framework but rather to the contempt, lack of enforcement and systemic neglect of their claims. This paper proposes to find a ‘cure’ inside international human rights law, by strengthening the mechanisms that permit a horizontal application of human rights standards in private relations. The paper is divided in four sections. The first section describes the problematic at hand, focusing in particular on violence against women and children. The three subsequent sections then analyze the avenues open to victims in order to claim a ‘third-party’ application of human rights treaties against non-state actors who have violated their fundamental rights.

  20. Preliminary clinical applications of DTI in human cervical spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Ting; Mai Weiwen; Liang Biling; Shen Jun; Huang Suiqiao; Hu Chunhong

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To condcut preliminary study of the value of DTI(diffusion tensor imaging) in human cervical spinal cord. Methods: Twenty-one patients suffering from cervical spondylotic myelopathy and twenty volunteers without any clinical symptoms underwent routine MRI and DTI examination. DTI was performed in six non-collinear directions with single-shot fast spin echo echo, planar imaging sequence(b value = 400 s·mm -2 ). ADC(apparent diffusion coefficient) and FA(fractional anisotropy)values were measured by ROIs(regions of interest) in 4 different level segment spinal cord (C 2/3 , C 3/4 , C 4/5 , C 5/6 ) in normal volunteers, in lesions and normal segmental spinal cord in clinical cases respectively. DTI original images were automatically processed by using IDL (Version 5.6) soft- ware to produce color tensor images. SPSS11.0 software for windows was used for t-test and one-way ANOVA analysis. The difference was considered statistically significant if P 2/3 , C 3/4 , C 4/5 , C 5/6 , were analyzed and it was found that FA value between them had a significant difference by ANOVA, F=159.24, P 2/3 level. However, ADC value between 4 segments had no significant difference(F=2.191, P>0.05). (2)In patients of cervical spondylotic myelopathy, routine MRI T2WI showed abnormal signal in 9 cases, and showed no abnormal signal in 12 dases. In sixteen cases it was found that abnormal patchy green signal on colorized tensor maps appeared on the normal blue spinal cord. Also, in patients of cervical spondylotic myelopathy, there was significant difference in ADC and FA value between lesions and normal spinal cord (paired t test, for ADC, t=2.88, P 2/3 level segment spinal cord in normal volunteers (0.85 ± 0.03) is the highest among other segments. FA value decreases gradually along cervical spinal cord towards the caudal direction. However, the difference of ADC values amongst 4 segments is not significant. DTI colorized tensor maps can show more lesions than routine MRI

  1. The Plasmodium serine-type SERA proteases display distinct expression patterns and non-essential in vivo roles during life cycle progression of the malaria parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putrianti, Elyzana D; Schmidt-Christensen, Anja; Arnold, Iris; Heussler, Volker T; Matuschewski, Kai; Silvie, Olivier

    2010-06-01

    Parasite proteases play key roles in several fundamental steps of the Plasmodium life cycle, including haemoglobin degradation, host cell invasion and parasite egress. Plasmodium exit from infected host cells appears to be mediated by a class of papain-like cysteine proteases called 'serine repeat antigens' (SERAs). A SERA subfamily, represented by Plasmodium falciparum SERA5, contains an atypical active site serine residue instead of a catalytic cysteine. Members of this SERAser subfamily are abundantly expressed in asexual blood stages, rendering them attractive drug and vaccine targets. In this study, we show by antibody localization and in vivo fluorescent tagging with the red fluorescent protein mCherry that the two P. berghei serine-type family members, PbSERA1 and PbSERA2, display differential expression towards the final stages of merozoite formation. Via targeted gene replacement, we generated single and double gene knockouts of the P. berghei SERAser genes. These loss-of-function lines progressed normally through the parasite life cycle, suggesting a specialized, non-vital role for serine-type SERAs in vivo. Parasites lacking PbSERAser showed increased expression of the cysteine-type PbSERA3. Compensatory mechanisms between distinct SERA subfamilies may thus explain the absence of phenotypical defect in SERAser disruptants, and challenge the suitability to develop potent antimalarial drugs based on specific inhibitors of Plasmodium serine-type SERAs.

  2. Application of fuzzy synthetic assessment to assess human factors design level on reactor control panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Xuecheng

    1999-01-01

    Reactor control panel design level on human factors must be considered by designer. The author evaluated the human factor design level of arrangement and combinations including the switch buttons, meter dials and indication lamps on Minjiang Reactor and High-Flux Engineer Test Reactor (HFETR) critical device by application of fuzzy synthetic assessment method in mathematics. From the assessment results, the advantages and shortcomings are fount, and some modification suggestions have also been proposed

  3. Application of monoclonal antibodies for diagnosis and treatment of human digestive cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuji, Eigo

    2007-01-01

    Radioimmunoscintigraphic applications of monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) for noninvasive detection and visualization of target tumors have grown immensely, and it suggests that Mabs can reach specifically to the targeted tumors in the human body. Radionuclides, cytotoxic drugs and anti-cancer drugs can be coupled to these specific MAbs to detect the extent of disease and/or to treat the tumors. Many of such immunoconjugates were studied for targeting therapy for cancer in animal experiments and some of them have applied to human. In this paper, we described the existing status of application of Mabs for diagnosis and immunotargeting therapy of digestive cancers. (author)

  4. Psychological scaling of expert estimates of human error probabilities: application to nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comer, K.; Gaddy, C.D.; Seaver, D.A.; Stillwell, W.G.

    1985-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Sandia National Laboratories sponsored a project to evaluate psychological scaling techniques for use in generating estimates of human error probabilities. The project evaluated two techniques: direct numerical estimation and paired comparisons. Expert estimates were found to be consistent across and within judges. Convergent validity was good, in comparison to estimates in a handbook of human reliability. Predictive validity could not be established because of the lack of actual relative frequencies of error (which will be a difficulty inherent in validation of any procedure used to estimate HEPs). Application of expert estimates in probabilistic risk assessment and in human factors is discussed

  5. Metabolomics in plants and humans: applications in the prevention and diagnosis of diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Casati, Diego F; Zanor, Maria I; Busi, María V

    2013-01-01

    In the recent years, there has been an increase in the number of metabolomic approaches used, in parallel with proteomic and functional genomic studies. The wide variety of chemical types of metabolites available has also accelerated the use of different techniques in the investigation of the metabolome. At present, metabolomics is applied to investigate several human diseases, to improve their diagnosis and prevention, and to design better therapeutic strategies. In addition, metabolomic studies are also being carried out in areas such as toxicology and pharmacology, crop breeding, and plant biotechnology. In this review, we emphasize the use and application of metabolomics in human diseases and plant research to improve human health.

  6. A human error taxonomy and its application to an automatic method accident analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, R.H.; Winter, P.W.

    1983-01-01

    Commentary is provided on the quantification aspects of human factors analysis in risk assessment. Methods for quantifying human error in a plant environment are discussed and their application to system quantification explored. Such a programme entails consideration of the data base and a taxonomy of factors contributing to human error. A multi-levelled approach to system quantification is proposed, each level being treated differently drawing on the advantages of different techniques within the fault/event tree framework. Management, as controller of organization, planning and procedure, is assigned a dominant role. (author)

  7. Humoral response of paracoccidioidomycosis sera in hamsters with different Venezuelan isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian M Spencer

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Humoral response of paracoccidioidomycosis sera in hamsters with different Venezuelan isolates. Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM is a progressive systemic mycosis caused by the fungus Paraccocidioides brasiliensis (Pb, endemic to Venezuela and Latin America. In this study, eight different Venezuelan isolates obtained from patients with PCM, were inoculated intraperitoneally in Syrian hamsters (Cricetus auratus and studied by immune-serum. Each strain was collected by gently scraping the surface of the culture medium (Sabouraud Dextrose Agar and suspended in 3ml of 0.15 M phosphate-buffered saline. The antigen obtained was called Paraccocidioides brasiliensis Crude Antigen (CAP. Immunoblotting results showed that the immune-sera from hamsters recognized at least 3 bands: one over 200 kDa, and two of 80 and 15-20 kDa. This study suggests that IgG anti-CAP can reveal a significant variability in the eight Venezuelan isolates. Sera from 88 infected hamsters were evaluated by ELISA with eight different CAPs and Western blot with CAP 37383. ELISA results showed that, the antigen of the virulent isolate 37383 had the highest percentage (38% of positivity, while the non-virulent isolate 1458 had the lowest one (13.6%. Furthermore, scanning densitometry revealed that the isolate 37383 had less bands than the non-virulent isolates. These results suggest that the ELISA test with CAP 37383 can detect circulating antibodies, and that this virulent isolate may be useful for the diagnosis of PCM, and to monitor disease responses to treatments. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (3: 505-513. Epub 2009 September 30.La Paracoccidioidomicosis (PCM, es una micosis sistémica causada por el hongo Paraccocidioides brasiliensis (Pb, endémica en Venezuela y Latino América. En este estudio ocho diferentes aislados venezolanos, obtenidos de pacientes con PCM, fueron inoculados intraperitonealmente en hámsteres y fueron estudiados por ELISA e inmunoblotting. Los antígenos obtenidos de P

  8. The application of cognitive models to the evaluation and prediction of human reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embrey, D.E.; Reason, J.T.

    1986-01-01

    The first section of the paper provides a brief overview of a number of important principles relevant to human reliability modeling that have emerged from cognitive models, and presents a synthesis of these approaches in the form of a Generic Error Modeling System (GEMS). The next section illustrates the application of GEMS to some well known nuclear power plant (NPP) incidents in which human error was a major contributor. The way in which design recommendations can emerge from analyses of this type is illustrated. The third section describes the use of cognitive models in the classification of human errors for prediction and data collection purposes. The final section addresses the predictive modeling of human error as part of human reliability assessment in Probabilistic Risk Assessment

  9. Sera from Children with Autism Induce Autistic Features Which Can Be Rescued with a CNTF Small Peptide Mimetic in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazim, Syed Faraz; Cardenas-Aguayo, Maria del Carmen; Arif, Mohammad; Blanchard, Julie; Fayyaz, Fatima; Grundke-Iqbal, Inge; Iqbal, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized clinically by impairments in social interaction and verbal and non-verbal communication skills as well as restricted interests and repetitive behavior. It has been hypothesized that altered brain environment including an imbalance in neurotrophic support during early development contributes to the pathophysiology of autism. Here we report that sera from children with autism which exhibited abnormal levels of various neurotrophic factors induced cell death and oxidative stress in mouse primary cultured cortical neurons. The effects of sera from autistic children were rescued by pre-treatment with a ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) small peptide mimetic, Peptide 6 (P6), which was previously shown to exert its neuroprotective effect by modulating CNTF/JAK/STAT pathway and LIF signaling and by enhancing brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression. Similar neurotoxic effects and neuroinflammation were observed in young Wistar rats injected intracerebroventricularly with autism sera within hours after birth. The autism sera injected rats demonstrated developmental delay and deficits in social communication, interaction, and novelty. Both the neurobiological changes and the behavioral autistic phenotype were ameliorated by P6 treatment. These findings implicate the involvement of neurotrophic imbalance during early brain development in the pathophysiology of autism and a proof of principle of P6 as a potential therapeutic strategy for autism. PMID:25769033

  10. Sera from children with autism induce autistic features which can be rescued with a CNTF small peptide mimetic in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazim, Syed Faraz; Cardenas-Aguayo, Maria Del Carmen; Arif, Mohammad; Blanchard, Julie; Fayyaz, Fatima; Grundke-Iqbal, Inge; Iqbal, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized clinically by impairments in social interaction and verbal and non-verbal communication skills as well as restricted interests and repetitive behavior. It has been hypothesized that altered brain environment including an imbalance in neurotrophic support during early development contributes to the pathophysiology of autism. Here we report that sera from children with autism which exhibited abnormal levels of various neurotrophic factors induced cell death and oxidative stress in mouse primary cultured cortical neurons. The effects of sera from autistic children were rescued by pre-treatment with a ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) small peptide mimetic, Peptide 6 (P6), which was previously shown to exert its neuroprotective effect by modulating CNTF/JAK/STAT pathway and LIF signaling and by enhancing brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression. Similar neurotoxic effects and neuroinflammation were observed in young Wistar rats injected intracerebroventricularly with autism sera within hours after birth. The autism sera injected rats demonstrated developmental delay and deficits in social communication, interaction, and novelty. Both the neurobiological changes and the behavioral autistic phenotype were ameliorated by P6 treatment. These findings implicate the involvement of neurotrophic imbalance during early brain development in the pathophysiology of autism and a proof of principle of P6 as a potential therapeutic strategy for autism.

  11. Demonstration of carbohydrate-specific immunoglobulin G4 antibodies in sera of patients receiving grass pollen immunotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ree, R.; Aalberse, R. C.

    1995-01-01

    From a group of 92 patients receiving grass pollen immunotherapy, and selected on grounds of high IgG4 titers against Lol p I, sera were tested for IgG4 antibodies against the glycosylated grass pollen allergen Lol p XI. In 72 of 92 cases IgG4 antibodies were demonstrated. The N-glycan of Lol p XI

  12. Preparation of anti-CEA and anti-goat γ-globulin sera for radioimmunologic assay of carcinoembryonic antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusnierczyk-Glazman, H.; Breborowicz, J.

    1977-01-01

    Goats were immunized with purified carcinoembryonic antigen, and the suitability of the antisera for clinical assays of carcinoembryonic antigen was characterized. Reactivity of equine sera to goat γ-globulin as a precipitating factor in the radioimmunologic double antibody technique was also evaluated. (author)

  13. Autoantibodies to IL-1 alpha in sera from umbilical cords, children, and adults, and from patients with juvenile chronic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, K; Hansen, M B; Zak, M

    1996-01-01

    umbilical cords (n = 11), children (n = 45), and adults (n = 20), as well as in 51 patients with juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA) of pauciarticular (n = 34), polyarticular (n = 8), or systemic onset type (n = 9). RESULTS. The frequency of positive sera was significantly lower in children than in cord blood...

  14. Levels of inhibitors of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1beta in urine and sera of patients with urosepsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olszyna, D. P.; Prins, J. M.; Buis, B.; van Deventer, S. J.; Speelman, P.; van der Poll, T.

    1998-01-01

    The antiinflammatory cytokine response during urosepsis was determined by measurement of concentrations of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor (sTNFR) types I and II, interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), soluble IL-1 receptor type II (sIL-1RII), and interleukin 10 in sera and urine of 30

  15. SIMULATED HUMAN ERROR PROBABILITY AND ITS APPLICATION TO DYNAMIC HUMAN FAILURE EVENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herberger, Sarah M.; Boring, Ronald L.

    2016-10-01

    Abstract Objectives: Human reliability analysis (HRA) methods typically analyze human failure events (HFEs) at the overall task level. For dynamic HRA, it is important to model human activities at the subtask level. There exists a disconnect between dynamic subtask level and static task level that presents issues when modeling dynamic scenarios. For example, the SPAR-H method is typically used to calculate the human error probability (HEP) at the task level. As demonstrated in this paper, quantification in SPAR-H does not translate to the subtask level. Methods: Two different discrete distributions were generated for each SPAR-H Performance Shaping Factor (PSF) to define the frequency of PSF levels. The first distribution was a uniform, or uninformed distribution that assumed the frequency of each PSF level was equally likely. The second non-continuous distribution took the frequency of PSF level as identified from an assessment of the HERA database. These two different approaches were created to identify the resulting distribution of the HEP. The resulting HEP that appears closer to the known distribution, a log-normal centered on 1E-3, is the more desirable. Each approach then has median, average and maximum HFE calculations applied. To calculate these three values, three events, A, B and C are generated from the PSF level frequencies comprised of subtasks. The median HFE selects the median PSF level from each PSF and calculates HEP. The average HFE takes the mean PSF level, and the maximum takes the maximum PSF level. The same data set of subtask HEPs yields starkly different HEPs when aggregated to the HFE level in SPAR-H. Results: Assuming that each PSF level in each HFE is equally likely creates an unrealistic distribution of the HEP that is centered at 1. Next the observed frequency of PSF levels was applied with the resulting HEP behaving log-normally with a majority of the values under 2.5% HEP. The median, average and maximum HFE calculations did yield

  16. Assessing the clinical utility of measuring Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Proteins in tissues and sera of melanoma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buckley Michael T

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Different Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Proteins (IGFBPs have been investigated as potential biomarkers in several types of tumors. In this study, we examined both IGFBP-3 and -4 levels in tissues and sera of melanoma patients representing different stages of melanoma progression. Methods The study cohort consisted of 132 melanoma patients (primary, n = 72; metastatic, n = 60; 64 Male, 68 Female; Median Age = 56 prospectively enrolled in the New York University School of Medicine Interdisciplinary Melanoma Cooperative Group (NYU IMCG between August 2002 and December 2006. We assessed tumor-expression and circulating sera levels of IGFBP-3 and -4 using immunohistochemistry and ELISA assays. Correlations with clinicopathologic parameters were examined using Wilcoxon rank-sum tests and Spearman-rank correlation coefficients. Results Median IGFBP-4 tumor expression was significantly greater in primary versus metastatic patients (70% versus 10%, p = 0.01 A trend for greater median IGFBP-3 sera concentration was observed in metastatic versus primary patients (4.9 μg/ml vs. 3.4 μg/ml, respectively, p = 0.09. However, sera levels fell within a normal range for IGFBP-3. Neither IGFBP-3 nor -4 correlated with survival in this subset of patients. Conclusion Decreased IGFBP-4 tumor expression might be a step in the progression from primary to metastatic melanoma. Our data lend support to a recently-described novel tumor suppressor role of secreting IGFBPs in melanoma. However, data do not support the clinical utility of measuring levels of IGFBP-3 and -4 in sera of melanoma patients.

  17. High levels of inactive thymidine kinase 1 polypeptide detected in sera from dogs with solid tumours by immunoaffinity methods: implications for in vitro diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran Kumar, J; Sharif, H; Westberg, S; von Euler, H; Eriksson, S

    2013-09-01

    Determination of serum thymidine kinase 1 (STK1) activity has been used as a proliferation marker for neoplastic diseases in both human and veterinary medicine. The purpose of this study was to determine STK1 activity and enzyme levels in different dog tumours. Serum samples from three dogs with leukaemia, five with lymphoma, 21 with solid tumours and 18 healthy dogs were analyzed for STK1 activity, using an optimized [(3)H]-deoxythymidine (dThd) phosphorylation assay, and for STK1 protein levels using an immunoaffinity/western blot assay. STK1 activity in dogs with haematological tumours was significantly higher than in the solid tumour and healthy dog groups (mean ± standard deviation [SD] = 65 ± 79, 1.1 ± 0.5, and 1.0 ± 0.4 pmol/min/mL, respectively). Serum samples were analyzed after immunoaffinity isolation by western blot and the TK1 26 kDa band intensities quantified revealing that concentrations were significantly higher in dogs with haematological tumours and solid tumours compared to healthy dogs (mean ± SD=33 ± 12, 30 ± 13, and 10 ± 5 ng/mL, respectively). Pre-incubation with the reducing agent dithioerythritol (DTE) showed a decrease in STK1 activity and protein levels in most samples, but an increase of about 20% in sera from healthy dogs and from those with haematological malignancies. Compared to animals with solid tumours, the specific STK1 activity (nmol [(3)H]-deoxythymidine monophosphate (dTMP)/min/mg of TK1 protein of 26 kDa) was 30-fold higher in haematological malignancies and 2.5-fold higher in healthy dogs, respectively. The results demonstrate that there is a large fraction of inactive TK1 protein, particularly in sera from dogs with solid tumours. The findings are important in the use of STK1 as a biomarker. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cracking the Code of Human Diseases Using Next-Generation Sequencing: Applications, Challenges, and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenza Precone

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Next-generation sequencing (NGS technologies have greatly impacted on every field of molecular research mainly because they reduce costs and increase throughput of DNA sequencing. These features, together with the technology’s flexibility, have opened the way to a variety of applications including the study of the molecular basis of human diseases. Several analytical approaches have been developed to selectively enrich regions of interest from the whole genome in order to identify germinal and/or somatic sequence variants and to study DNA methylation. These approaches are now widely used in research, and they are already being used in routine molecular diagnostics. However, some issues are still controversial, namely, standardization of methods, data analysis and storage, and ethical aspects. Besides providing an overview of the NGS-based approaches most frequently used to study the molecular basis of human diseases at DNA level, we discuss the principal challenges and applications of NGS in the field of human genomics.

  19. Influence of Vitamins on Secondary Reactive Oxygen Species Production in Sera of Patients with Resectable NSCLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Patrice

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Singlet oxygen (1O2 oxidizes targets through the production of secondary reactive oxygen species (SOS. Cancers induce oxidative stress changing with progression, the resulting antioxidant status differing from one patient to the other. The aim of this study was to determine the oxidative status of patients with resectable Non-Small cell lung cancers (NSCLC and the potential influence of antioxidants, compared to sera from healthy donors. Materials and Methods: Serum samples from 10 women and 28 men, 19 adenocarcinomas (ADK, 15 patients N1 or M1 were submitted to a photoreaction producing 1O2. Then, samples were supplemented with vitamins (Vit C, Vit E, or glutathione (GSH. Results: Squamous cell carcinomas (SCC and metastatic SCCs induced a lower SOS rate. While Vit C increased SOS in controls as in patients with metastases, Vit E or the combination of Vit E and C strongly reduced SOS. GSH alone lightly decreased SOS in controls but had no effect in patients either alone or combined with Vit C. Conclusion: In “early” lung cancers, SOS are comparable or lower than for healthy persons. The role of Vitamins varies with gender, cancer type, and metastases. This suggests that an eventual supplementation should be performed on a per-patient basis to evidence any effect.

  20. Detection of IgG against Toxocara in Sera of Employees of Meat Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Ramos-Nevárez, Agar; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Guido-Arreola, Carlos Alberto; Saenz-Soto, Leandro

    2015-01-01

    Contact with raw meat could represent a risk for Toxocara infection. We assessed the association of Toxocara infection with an occupation of meat worker though a case-control seroprevalence study of 124 meat workers and 248 subjects without this occupation. Sera of participants was analyzed for the presence of anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies. One (0.8%) of the 124 meat workers, and 5 (2.0%) of the 248 controls were positive for anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies (OR=0.39; 95% CI: 0.04-3.41; P=0.66). The seropositive meat worker was a male aged 28 years old, without vision impairment. None of the work characteristics i.e. frequency of contact with raw meat, use of safety practices, history of splashes at face with blood or raw meat, and injuries with sharp material at work was associated with Toxocara exposure. Seroprevalence of Toxocara infection was significantly higher (P=0.04) in meat workers with consumption of boar meat (1/6: 16.7%) than in those without this consumption (0/117: 0%). We conclude that meat workers do not have a higher risk for Toxocara infection than subjects without this occupation do. The 2% seroprevalence of Toxocara infection found in control subjects might suggest a low seroprevalence of this infection among people with other occupations in Durango City. However, additional case-control studies with larger sample sizes to confirm our results are needed. PMID:26508909

  1. Colostral whey concentrate supplement increases complement activity in the sera of neonatal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokka, S; Korhonen, B H; Nousiainen, J; Marnila, P

    2001-08-01

    We evaluated the effect of a commercial bovine colostral whey on the complement-mediated immune responses of calves. Two groups of neonatal calves were fed, in addition to whole milk (WM) and pooled colostrum (PC), different amounts of a commercial immunoglobulin concentrate made from pooled colostral whey (Ig-C) for the first two feedings post natum. The control group was fed WM and PC only. Serum samples were obtained at the ages of 2, 7, 14 and 30 d. Bacteriolytic activity against complement-sensitive Escherichia coli JM103 and opsonic activity against complement-lysis-resistant E. coli IH3080 strains were studied, as well as the levels of C3 complement component and E. coli JM103 specific antibodies in the sera. Groups fed Ig-C had 2-3 times higher bacteriolytic activity than the control group of both the classic (P complement activities of serum can be increased substantially by feeding colostral whey concentrate to calves during their first days of life.

  2. On the applicability of brain reading for predictive human-machine interfaces in robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Elsa Andrea; Kim, Su Kyoung; Straube, Sirko; Seeland, Anett; Wöhrle, Hendrik; Krell, Mario Michael; Tabie, Marc; Fahle, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    The ability of today's robots to autonomously support humans in their daily activities is still limited. To improve this, predictive human-machine interfaces (HMIs) can be applied to better support future interaction between human and machine. To infer upcoming context-based behavior relevant brain states of the human have to be detected. This is achieved by brain reading (BR), a passive approach for single trial EEG analysis that makes use of supervised machine learning (ML) methods. In this work we propose that BR is able to detect concrete states of the interacting human. To support this, we show that BR detects patterns in the electroencephalogram (EEG) that can be related to event-related activity in the EEG like the P300, which are indicators of concrete states or brain processes like target recognition processes. Further, we improve the robustness and applicability of BR in application-oriented scenarios by identifying and combining most relevant training data for single trial classification and by applying classifier transfer. We show that training and testing, i.e., application of the classifier, can be carried out on different classes, if the samples of both classes miss a relevant pattern. Classifier transfer is important for the usage of BR in application scenarios, where only small amounts of training examples are available. Finally, we demonstrate a dual BR application in an experimental setup that requires similar behavior as performed during the teleoperation of a robotic arm. Here, target recognition processes and movement preparation processes are detected simultaneously. In summary, our findings contribute to the development of robust and stable predictive HMIs that enable the simultaneous support of different interaction behaviors.

  3. On the applicability of brain reading for predictive human-machine interfaces in robotics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Andrea Kirchner

    Full Text Available The ability of today's robots to autonomously support humans in their daily activities is still limited. To improve this, predictive human-machine interfaces (HMIs can be applied to better support future interaction between human and machine. To infer upcoming context-based behavior relevant brain states of the human have to be detected. This is achieved by brain reading (BR, a passive approach for single trial EEG analysis that makes use of supervised machine learning (ML methods. In this work we propose that BR is able to detect concrete states of the interacting human. To support this, we show that BR detects patterns in the electroencephalogram (EEG that can be related to event-related activity in the EEG like the P300, which are indicators of concrete states or brain processes like target recognition processes. Further, we improve the robustness and applicability of BR in application-oriented scenarios by identifying and combining most relevant training data for single trial classification and by applying classifier transfer. We show that training and testing, i.e., application of the classifier, can be carried out on different classes, if the samples of both classes miss a relevant pattern. Classifier transfer is important for the usage of BR in application scenarios, where only small amounts of training examples are available. Finally, we demonstrate a dual BR application in an experimental setup that requires similar behavior as performed during the teleoperation of a robotic arm. Here, target recognition processes and movement preparation processes are detected simultaneously. In summary, our findings contribute to the development of robust and stable predictive HMIs that enable the simultaneous support of different interaction behaviors.

  4. Development and evaluation of a competitive ELISA using a monoclonal antibody for antibody detection after goose parvovirus virus-like particles (VLPs) and vaccine immunization in goose sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Ju, Huanyu; Li, Yanwei; Jing, Zhiqiang; Guo, Lu; Zhao, Yu; Ma, Bo; Gao, Mingchun; Zhang, Wenlong; Wang, Junwei

    2014-12-01

    An assay protocol based on a monoclonal antibody-based competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAb-based C-ELISA) for detecting antibodies against goose parvovirus (GPV) and its virus-like particles (VLPs) is described. The assay was developed using baculovirus-expressed recombinant VP2 virus-like particles (rVP2-VLPs) as antigens and a monoclonal antibody against GPV as the competitive antibody. Of the four anti-GPV MAbs that were screened, MAb 1G3 was selected as it was blocked by the GPV positive serum. Based on the distribution of percent inhibition (PI) of the known negative sera (n=225), a cut-off value was set at 36% inhibition. Using this cut-off value, the sensitivity of the assay was 93.3% and the specificity was 95.8%, as compared with the gold standard (virus neutralization assay). The rVP2-VLPs did not react with anti-sera to other goose pathogens, indicating that it is specific for the recognization of goose parvovirus antibodies. The assay was then validated with serum samples from goslings vaccinated with several VLPs (rVP1-VLPs, rVP2-VLPs, rVP3-VLPs, and rCGV-VLPs) and other vaccines (inactivated and attenuated). The C-ELISA described in this study is a sensitive and specific diagnostic test and should have wide applications for the sero-diagnosis and immunologic surveillance of GPV. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Carcinogen biomonitoring in human exposures and laboratory research: validation and application to human occupational exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaska, Glenn; Maier, Andrew; Henn, Scott; Booth-Jones, Angela; Tsuneoka, Yutaka; Vermeulen, Roel; Schumann, Brenda L

    2002-08-05

    A multiple biomarker approach is required to integrate for metabolism, temporal response and exposure-response kinetics, biological relevance, and positive predictive value. Carcinogen DNA adduct analysis can be used in animal and in vitro studies to detect absorption permutations caused by mixture interactions, and to control metabolic variation when specific CYP450 genes (1A1 or 1A2) are knocked out. These enzymes are not critical to the metabolic activation of model Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds (PAC) and aromatic amines, respectively, as suggested by in vitro analysis. Several human studies have been carried out where multiple biomarkers have been measured. In a study of benzidine workers, the similarities in elimination kinetics between urinary metabolites and mutagenicity is likely responsible for a better correlation between these markers than to BZ-DNA adducts in exfoliated cells. In a study of rubber workers, the relationship between specific departments, urinary 1 HP and DNA adducts in exfoliated cells coincided with the historical urinary bladder cancer risk in these departments; the same relationship did not hold for urinary mutagenicity. In a study of automotive mechanics, biomarkers were used to monitor the effectiveness of exposure interventions. These data reinforce the notion that carcinogen biomarkers are useful to monitor exposure, but that a complementary approaches involving effect and perhaps susceptibility biomarkers is necessary to obtain the necessary information.

  6. The German VR Simulation Realism Scale--psychometric construction for virtual reality applications with virtual humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeschl, Sandra; Doering, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    Virtual training applications with high levels of immersion or fidelity (for example for social phobia treatment) produce high levels of presence and therefore belong to the most successful Virtual Reality developments. Whereas display and interaction fidelity (as sub-dimensions of immersion) and their influence on presence are well researched, realism of the displayed simulation depends on the specific application and is therefore difficult to measure. We propose to measure simulation realism by using a self-report questionnaire. The German VR Simulation Realism Scale for VR training applications was developed based on a translation of scene realism items from the Witmer-Singer-Presence Questionnaire. Items for realism of virtual humans (for example for social phobia training applications) were supplemented. A sample of N = 151 students rated simulation realism of a Fear of Public Speaking application. Four factors were derived by item- and principle component analysis (Varimax rotation), representing Scene Realism, Audience Behavior, Audience Appearance and Sound Realism. The scale developed can be used as a starting point for future research and measurement of simulation realism for applications including virtual humans.

  7. Using recruitment source timing and diagnosticity to enhance applicants' occupation-specific human capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campion, Michael C; Ployhart, Robert E; Campion, Michael A

    2017-05-01

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 102(5) of Journal of Applied Psychology (see record 2017-14296-001). In the article, the following headings were inadvertently set at the wrong level: Method, Participants and Procedure, Measures, Occupation specific human capital, Symbolic jobs, Relevant majors, Occupation-specific capital hotspots, Source timing, Source diagnosticity, Results, and Discussion. All versions of this article have been corrected.] This study proposes that reaching applicants through more diagnostic recruitment sources earlier in their educational development (e.g., in high school) can lead them to invest more in their occupation-specific human capital (OSHC), thereby making them higher quality candidates. Using a sample of 78,157 applicants applying for jobs within a desirable professional occupation in the public sector, results indicate that applicants who report hearing about the occupation earlier, and applicants who report hearing about the occupation through more diagnostic sources, have higher levels of OSHC upon application. Additionally, source timing and diagnosticity affect the likelihood of candidates applying for jobs symbolic of the occupation, selecting relevant majors, and attending educational institutions with top programs related to the occupation. These findings suggest a firm's recruiting efforts may influence applicants' OSHC investment strategies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Improving a Complement-fixation Test for Equine Herpesvirus Type-1 by Pretreating Sera with Potassium Periodate to Reduce Non-specific Hemolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    BANNAI, Hiroshi; NEMOTO, Manabu; TSUJIMURA, Koji; YAMANAKA, Takashi; KONDO, Takashi; MATSUMURA, Tomio

    2013-01-01

    Non-specific hemolysis has often been observed during complement-fixation (CF) tests for equine herpesvirus type-1 (EHV-1), even when the sera have virus-specific CF antibodies. This phenomenon has also been reported in CF tests for various infectious diseases of swine. We found that the sera from 22 of 85 field horses (25.9%) showed non-specific hemolysis during conventional CF testing for EHV-1. Because pretreatment of swine sera with potassium periodate (KIO4) improves the CF test for swine influenza, we applied this method to horse sera. As we expected, horse sera treated with KIO4 did not show non-specific hemolysis in the EHV-1 CF test, and precise determination of titers was achieved. PMID:24834005

  9. Application of human engineering to design of central control room and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tani, Mamoru

    1986-01-01

    The central control room of a nuclear power station is the center of the operation control, monitoring and management of the plant, therefore, the design by the application of human engineering has been performed on the basis of the experience and achievement in thermal power stations and other industries. In this report, the application of human engineering to the development of the new control boards for PWRs and the evaluation are described. In a nuclear power station, the number of the machinery and equipment composing it is large, and the interrelation among them is complex, accordingly, in the information processing system for operation monitoring and control, the man-machine interface works with high density. The concept of multiple protection design requires to show numerous plant parameters on a central control board, and this also complicates the man-machine interface. The introduction of human engineering was seriously studied after the TMI accident. In order to increase the safety and reliability of a plant, the new central control and monitoring system aims at facilitating operation and monitoring, and lightening burden and preventing mistakes in handling and judgement. The operational sequence diagram and mock-up varification, the application of human engineering and the evaluation, the synthetic real-time verification at the time of abnormality and accident, and the evaluation of the reliability improvement of men are reported. (Kako, I.)

  10. Application of Sequence-based Methods in Human MicrobialEcology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weng, Li; Rubin, Edward M.; Bristow, James

    2005-08-29

    Ecologists studying microbial life in the environment have recognized the enormous complexity of microbial diversity for many years, and the development of a variety of culture-independent methods, many of them coupled with high-throughput DNA sequencing, has allowed this diversity to be explored in ever greater detail. Despite the widespread application of these new techniques to the characterization of uncultivated microbes and microbial communities in the environment, their application to human health and disease has lagged behind. Because DNA based-techniques for defining uncultured microbes allow not only cataloging of microbial diversity, but also insight into microbial functions, investigators are beginning to apply these tools to the microbial communities that abound on and within us, in what has aptly been called the second Human Genome Project. In this review we discuss the sequence-based methods for microbial analysis that are currently available and their application to identify novel human pathogens, improve diagnosis of known infectious diseases, and to advance understanding of our relationship with microbial communities that normally reside in and on the human body.

  11. Applications and safety considerations of Lactobacillus salivarius as a probiotic in animal and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, B D; Brashears, M M; Nightingale, K K

    2017-03-03

    The goals of this review are to summarize the current knowledge on the application of Lactobacillus salivarius as a probiotic in animals and humans, and to address safety concerns with its use on live hosts. Overall, several strains of L. salivarius are well established probiotics with multiple applications in animal health, particularly to reduce colonization by gastrointestinal pathogens, and to a lesser extent, as a production and quality aid. In humans, L. salivarius has been used to prevent and treat a variety of chronic diseases, including asthma, cancer, atopic dermatitis and halitosis, and to a much limited extent, to prevent or treat infections. Based on the results from primary research evidence, it seems that L. salivarius does not pose a health risk to animals or humans in the doses currently used for a variety of applications; however, there is a systematic lack of studies assuring the safety of many of the strains intended for clinical use. This review provides researchers in the field with up-to-date information regarding applications and safety of L. salivarius. Furthermore, it helps researchers identify knowledge gaps and potential opportunities for microbiological and clinical research. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Exploring the current application of professional competencies in human resource management in the South African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Schutte

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Human research (HR practitioners have an important role to play in the sustainability and competitiveness of organisations. Yet their strategic contribution and the value they add remain unrecognised. Research purpose: The main objective of this research was to explore the extent to which HR practitioners are currently allowed to display HR competencies in the workplace, and whether any significant differences exist between perceived HR competencies, based on the respondents’ demographic characteristics. Motivation for the study: Limited empirical research exists on the extent to which HR practitioners are allowed to display key competencies in the South African workplace. Research approach, design, and method: A quantitative research approach was followed. A Human Resource Management Professional Competence Questionnaire was administered to HR practitioners and managers (N = 481. Main findings: The results showed that HR competencies are poorly applied in selected South African workplaces. The competencies that were indicated as having the poorest application were talent management, HR metrics, HR business knowledge, and innovation. The white ethic group experienced a poorer application of all human research management (HRM competencies compared to the black African ethnic group. Practical/managerial implications: The findings of the research highlighted the need for management to evaluate the current application of HR practices in the workplace and also the extent to which HR professionals are involved as strategic business partners. Contribution/value-add: This research highlights the need for the current application of HR competencies in South African workplaces to be improved.

  13. Human-computer interaction handbook fundamentals, evolving technologies and emerging applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sears, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    This second edition of The Human-Computer Interaction Handbook provides an updated, comprehensive overview of the most important research in the field, including insights that are directly applicable throughout the process of developing effective interactive information technologies. It features cutting-edge advances to the scientific knowledge base, as well as visionary perspectives and developments that fundamentally transform the way in which researchers and practitioners view the discipline. As the seminal volume of HCI research and practice, The Human-Computer Interaction Handbook feature

  14. Tumor Necrosis Factors, Interferons and Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 in Sera of Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Malak, C.A.; Karawya, E.M.; Hammouda, G.A.; Zakhary, N.I.

    2003-01-01

    In the present study, the serum levels of some cytokines and the matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) were studied in an attempt to find suitable markers for early diagnosis of non- Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and to assess their role in differentiating between disseminated and non disseminated cases. The present study was conducted on 60 patients with non disseminated NHL, 14 patients with disseminated NHL, in addition to 10 healthy controls. Their sera were used to determine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF--α), tumor necrosis factor--β (TNF-β), interferon---α), (IFN--α), interferon-γ (IFN--γ) and Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) using the ELISA technique. The results showed that the serum level of TNF---α), and IFN---α), can be used to differentiate between the control group and the group of NHL patients. However, they could not differentiate between non disseminated NHL (nd- NHL) and disseminated NHL (d- NHL). On the other hand, the serum level of TNF-β) can be used to differentiate between nd- NHL and d- NHL, but not between the control group and nd-NHL. Each of [FN--γ and MMP-9 were not useful in discrimination between the control group and the diseased ones. Our data revealed no correlation between serum level of the parameters investigated and the gender of the patients. The present results revealed that TNF-α) and INF-α), can be used as diagnostic tools for NHL. On the other hand, TNF-β) is useful in the differentiation between nd-NHL and d-NHL

  15. Antibodies to elastin peptides in sera of Belgian Draught horses with chronic progressive lymphoedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Brantegem, L; de Cock, H E V; Affolter, V K; Duchateau, L; Hoogewijs, M K; Govaere, J; Ferraro, G L; Ducatelle, R

    2007-09-01

    Chronic progressive lymphoedema (CPL) is a recently recognised disease of the lymphatic system characterised by lesions in the skin of the lower legs in several draught horse breeds, including the Belgian Draught hourse. Clinical signs slowly progress and result in severe disfigurement of the limbs. Ideally, supportive treatment should be started early in the disease process. However early diagnosis and monitoring progression of CPL is still a challenge. Elastin changes, characterised by morphological alterations as well as increased desmosine levels, in the skin of the distal limbs of horses affected with CPL are probably associated with a marked release of elastin degradation products, which elicit production of circulating anti-elastin antibodies (AEAbs) in the serum. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of serum AEAbs may document elastin breakdown. An ELISA technique was used to evaluate levels of AEAbs in sera of 97 affected Belgian Draught horses that were clinically healthy except for possible skin lesions, associated with CPL in their distal limbs. The horses were divided into 5 groups according to the severity of these skin lesions: normal horses (Group 1, n = 36), horses with mild lesions (Group 2, n = 43), horses with moderate lesions (Group 3, n = 8), horses with severe lesions (Group 4, n = 10) and, as a control, healthy Warmblood horses, unaffected by the disease (Group 5, n = 83). Horses with clinical signs of CPL had significantly higher AEAb levels compared to clinically normal Belgian Draught horses and to healthy Warmblood horses. These levels correlated with severity of lesions. CPL in draught horses is associated with an increase of serum AEAbs. Evaluation of serum levels of AEAbs by ELISA might be a useful diagnostic aid for CPL. Pathological degradation of elastic fibres, resulting in deficient support of the distal lymphatics, is proposed as a contributing factor for CPL in Belgian Draught horses.

  16. Human behavior understanding in networked sensing theory and applications of networks of sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Spagnolo, Paolo; Distante, Cosimo

    2014-01-01

    This unique text/reference provides a broad overview of both the technical challenges in sensor network development, and the real-world applications of distributed sensing. Important aspects of distributed computing in large-scale networked sensor systems are analyzed in the context of human behavior understanding, including such topics as systems design tools and techniques, in-network signals, and information processing. Additionally, the book examines a varied range of application scenarios, covering surveillance, indexing and retrieval, patient care, industrial safety, social and ambient

  17. Immunoreactivity of protein tyrosine phosphatase A (PtpA) in sera from sheep infected with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurung, Ratna B; Begg, Douglas J; Purdie, Auriol C; Bach, Horacio; Whittington, Richard J

    2014-07-15

    Evasion of host defense mechanisms and survival inside infected host macrophages are features of pathogenic mycobacteria including Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, the causative agent of Johne's disease in ruminants. Protein tyrosine phosphatase A (PtpA) has been identified as a secreted protein critical for survival of mycobacteria within infected macrophages. The host may mount an immune response to such secreted proteins. In this study, the humoral immune response to purified recombinant M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis PtpA was investigated using sera from a cohort of sheep infected with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and compared with uninfected healthy controls. A significantly higher level of reactivity to PtpA was observed in sera collected from M. avium subspecies paratuberculosis infected sheep when compared to those from uninfected healthy controls. PtpA could be a potential candidate antigen for detection of humoral immune responses in sheep infected with M. avium subspecies paratuberculosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Detection of Potentially Diagnostic Leishmania Antigens with Western Blot Analysis of Sera from Patients with Cutaneous and Visceral Leishmaniases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Javad SEYYEDTABAEI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL and cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL are important public health problems in Iran. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic potential of Western blot (WB compared with indirect immunofluorescence test (IFAT to serodiagnosis of leishmaniasis.Methods: This study was performed from 2010-2014 and participants were different parts of Iran. Serum samples were obtained from 43 patients with proven CL, 33 patients with proven VL, 39 patients with other parasitic diseases and 23 healthy individuals. Results: WB sensitivity for CL and VL was 100% and 91%, compared to IFA 4.6% and 87.8%, respectively. Sera from patients with CL and VL recognized numerous antigens with molecular weights ranging from 14 to 68 kDa and 12 to 94 kDa, respectively. The most sensitive antigens were 14 and 16 kDa for CL recognized by 100% of the sera from patients with proven CL and 12, 14 and 16 kDa for VL, recognized by 63.6%, 100% and 63.6% of the sera from patients with proven VL respectively. WB analysis is more sensitive than IFAT for the diagnosis of leishmaniasis particularly in cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis. The 12, 14 and 16 kDa can be valuable diagnostic molecules for serodiagnosis of leishmaniasis because at least two immunogenic molecules were simultaneously detected by all patient sera, as well as produced antibodies against these antigens have no cross-reactivity with other control groups.Conclusion: WB could be useful for screening and serodiagnosis of CL and VL in epidemiologic studies in endemic areas.

  19. Logarithmic Adaptive Neighborhood Image Processing (LANIP): Introduction, Connections to Human Brightness Perception, and Application Issues

    OpenAIRE

    J. Debayle; J.-C. Pinoli

    2007-01-01

    A new framework for image representation, processing, and analysis is introduced and exposed through practical applications. The proposed approach is called logarithmic adaptive neighborhood image processing (LANIP) since it is based on the logarithmic image processing (LIP) and on the general adaptive neighborhood image processing (GANIP) approaches, that allow several intensity and spatial properties of the human brightness perception to be mathematically modeled and operationalized, and c...

  20. The Biological Effects of Quadripolar Radiofrequency Sequential Application: A Human Experimental Study

    OpenAIRE

    Nicoletti, Giovanni; Cornaglia, Antonia Icaro; Faga, Angela; Scevola, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Objective: An experimental study was conducted to assess the effectiveness and safety of an innovative quadripolar variable electrode configuration radiofrequency device with objective measurements in an ex vivo and in vivo human experimental model. Background data: Nonablative radiofrequency applications are well-established anti-ageing procedures for cosmetic skin tightening. Methods: The study was performed in two steps: ex vivo and in vivo assessments. In the ex vivo assessments the radio...

  1. Application of fluorescent and vibration spectroscopy for septic serum human albumin structure deformation during pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyubin, A.; Konstantinova, E.; Slezhkin, V.; Matveeva, K.; Samusev, I.; Bryukhanov, V.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper we perform results of conformational analysis of septic human serum albumin (HSA) carried out by Raman spectroscopy (RS), infrared (IR) spectroscopy and fluorescent spectroscopy. The main vibrational groups were identified and analyzed for septic HSA and its health control. Comparison between Raman and IR results were done. Fluorescent spectral changes of Trp-214 group were analyzed. Application of Raman, IR spectroscopy, fluorescent spectroscopy for conformational changes study of HSA during pathology were shown.

  2. Application of high-throughput sequencing in understanding human oral microbiome related with health and disease

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Hui; Jiang, Wen

    2014-01-01

    The oral microbiome is one of most diversity habitat in the human body and they are closely related with oral health and disease. As the technique developing,, high throughput sequencing has become a popular approach applied for oral microbial analysis. Oral bacterial profiles have been studied to explore the relationship between microbial diversity and oral diseases such as caries and periodontal disease. This review describes the application of high-throughput sequencing for characterizati...

  3. Study on the determination of human placental lactogen (HPL) using an enzyme-immunoassay. Comparison with a commercial radio-immunoassay in the course of normal pregnancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, B.

    1982-01-01

    A novel enzyme-immunoassay (EIA) for determining human placental lactogen (HPL) was studied for its practicability and quality. The precision of the system in series was tested by using a serum taken each in the 19th, 29th and 40th pregnancy week. A normal range graph between the 10th and the 40th pregnancy week (10 sera per pregnancy week) was established from 310 sera of normal-course pregnancies. The graph practically agreed with the known RIA-established graphs. When comparing with a radio-immunoassay for HPL of routine application and known quality criteria, r=0.93 indicated a close correlation of the values found. (orig./MG) [de

  4. The influence of antisperm Ig G and Ig A antibodies from cows sera and cervical mucus on bull sperm motility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Miodrag

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of antisperm Ig G and Ig A antibodies (ASA from the sera and cervical mucus of cows on bulls sperm motility. A total of 64 cows was included in the study and samples of sera and cervical mucus were collected on the day of artificial insemination. Cows were of Busha breed or mix breed with Simmental. The presence of antisperm Ig G and Ig A antibodies was determined by indirect immunofluorescence method and according to these results, cows were divided in groups as follows: cows with high or low ASA titer in their sera and cows with high or low ASA titer in the cervical mucus. Influence of antisperm antibodies on sperm motility was further estimated by Computer Assisted Semen Analysis (CASA. Results demonstrated a significant difference in the influence of antisperm antibodies depending on their origin and titer. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46002: Molecular genetic and ecophysiological researches on the protection of autochthonous animal resources, sustaining domestic animals’ welfare, health and reproduction, and safe food production

  5. Microbial transglutaminase treatment in pasta-production does not affect the immunoreactivity of gliadin with celiac disease patients' sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruh, Tobias; Ohsam, Jürgen; Pasternack, Ralf; Yokoyama, Keiichi; Kumazawa, Yoshiyuki; Hils, Martin

    2014-07-30

    The effect of microbial transglutaminase (MTG)-treatment of pasta-dough on the immunoreactivity with celiac disease patient's sera has been investigated. Modification by MTG has been proven by determination of the MTG reaction product ε-(γ-glutamyl)lysine (3.63 μmol/g protein), which was not detectable in non-MTG-treated pasta. Antigenicity has been analyzed by immunoblotting and ELISA using gliadin-extracts from pasta and MTG-treated pasta. Immunoblotting showed that the antibody-population (antigliadin antibodies and antideamidated gliadin antibodies) of the sera is specific for every individual patient. Immunoblotting and ELISA showed that there is no difference in immunoreactivity of gliadin extracted from pasta and MTG-pasta. Recognition pattern and intensity in Western blot as well as antibody titer has also been identical even for sera with a high antideamidated gliadin antibody titer. These results indicate no difference between pasta-gliadin and MTG-pasta-gliadin and especially no increased deamidation in pasta-gliadin by MTG-treatment.

  6. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and neutralizing activity in sera of HIV-1-infected mothers and their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broliden, K; Sievers, E; Tovo, P A; Moschese, V; Scarlatti, G; Broliden, P A; Fundaro, C; Rossi, P

    1993-01-01

    The prognostic and protective role of antibodies mediating cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and neutralization was evaluated in sera of HIV-1-infected mothers and their consecutively followed children. The presence and titres of ADCC mediating and/or neutralizing antibodies in maternal sera did not predict HIV-1 infection in their respective children. No significant difference in the sera from the children was seen when comparing the presence of neutralizing antibodies between the uninfected and infected children. Stratification of the infected group according to clinical status revealed differences. Only one of 24 AIDS patients had a high neutralizing titre against IIIB. Four patients had a very low titre and the remaining had no detectable neutralizing antibodies at all. In contrast, 10/17 infected non-AIDS children had neutralizing antibodies. Similarly, no significant difference was seen when comparing the presence of ADCC-mediating antibodies between the uninfected and the infected group of children. However, a significantly higher frequency of ADCC was seen in the seropositive non-AIDS children compared with the AIDS children. This study clearly shows that the presence of antibodies mediating ADCC and neutralization in infected children, 0-2 years old, is associated with a better clinical status and delayed disease progression. PMID:8324904

  7. Human iPSC for Therapeutic Approaches to the Nervous System: Present and Future Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Giuseppina Cefalo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many central nervous system (CNS diseases including stroke, spinal cord injury (SCI, and brain tumors are a significant cause of worldwide morbidity/mortality and yet do not have satisfying treatments. Cell-based therapy to restore lost function or to carry new therapeutic genes is a promising new therapeutic approach, particularly after human iPSCs became available. However, efficient generation of footprint-free and xeno-free human iPSC is a prerequisite for their clinical use. In this paper, we will first summarize the current methodology to obtain footprint- and xeno-free human iPSC. We will then review the current iPSC applications in therapeutic approaches for CNS regeneration and their use as vectors to carry proapoptotic genes for brain tumors and review their applications for modelling of neurological diseases and formulating new therapeutic approaches. Available results will be summarized and compared. Finally, we will discuss current limitations precluding iPSC from being used on large scale for clinical applications and provide an overview of future areas of improvement. In conclusion, significant progress has occurred in deriving iPSC suitable for clinical use in the field of neurological diseases. Current efforts to overcome technical challenges, including reducing labour and cost, will hopefully expedite the integration of this technology in the clinical setting.

  8. Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Basic Research to Potential Clinical Applications in Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa de Souza Fernandez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs are derived from a direct reprogramming of human somatic cells to a pluripotent stage through ectopic expression of specific transcription factors. These cells have two important properties, which are the self-renewal capacity and the ability to differentiate into any cell type of the human body. So, the discovery of hiPSCs opens new opportunities in biomedical sciences, since these cells may be useful for understanding the mechanisms of diseases in the production of new diseases models, in drug development/drug toxicity tests, gene therapies, and cell replacement therapies. However, the hiPSCs technology has limitations including the potential for the development of genetic and epigenetic abnormalities leading to tumorigenicity. Nowadays, basic research in the hiPSCs field has made progress in the application of new strategies with the aim to enable an efficient production of high-quality of hiPSCs for safety and efficacy, necessary to the future application for clinical practice. In this review, we show the recent advances in hiPSCs’ basic research and some potential clinical applications focusing on cancer. We also present the importance of the use of statistical methods to evaluate the possible validation for the hiPSCs for future therapeutic use toward personalized cell therapies.

  9. Potential Applications for Radioisotope Power Systems in Support of Human Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Robert L.; Colozza, Anthony J.; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2013-01-01

    Radioisotope power systems (RPS) for space applications have powered over 27 U.S. space systems, starting with Transit 4A and 4B in 1961, and more recently with the successful landing of the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity in August 2012. RPS enable missions with destinations far from the Sun with faint solar flux, on planetary surfaces with dense or dusty atmospheres, and at places with long eclipse periods where solar array sizes and energy storage mass become impractical. RPS could also provide an enabling capability in support of human exploration activities. It is envisioned that with the higher power needs of most human mission concepts, a high efficiency thermal-to-electric technology would be required such as the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope generator (ASRG). The ASRG should be capable of a four-fold improvement in efficiency over traditional thermoelectric RPS. While it may be impractical to use RPS as a main power source, many other applications could be considered, such as crewed pressurized rovers, in-situ resource production of propellants, back-up habitat power, drilling, any mobile or remote activity from the main base habitat, etc. This paper will identify potential applications and provide concepts that could be a practical extension of the current ASRG design in providing for robust and flexible use of RPS on human exploration missions.

  10. Diversity of halophilic archaea in fermented foods and human intestines and their application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Han-Seung

    2013-12-01

    Archaea are prokaryotic organisms distinct from bacteria in the structural and molecular biological sense, and these microorganisms are known to thrive mostly at extreme environments. In particular, most studies on halophilic archaea have been focused on environmental and ecological researches. However, new species of halophilic archaea are being isolated and identified from high salt-fermented foods consumed by humans, and it has been found that various types of halophilic archaea exist in food products by culture-independent molecular biological methods. In addition, even if the numbers are not quite high, DNAs of various halophilic archaea are being detected in human intestines and much interest is given to their possible roles. This review aims to summarize the types and characteristics of halophilic archaea reported to be present in foods and human intestines and to discuss their application as well.

  11. Human resource development progress to sustain nuclear science and technology applications in Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simo, A.; Nyobe, J.B.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Cameroon as a Member of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has made full use of the Agency's Technical Co-operation Programme in his effort to promote peaceful applications of nuclear science and technology at national level. This paper presents the progress made in the development of reliable human resources. Results obtained have been achieved through national and regional technical co-operation projects. Over the past twenty years, the development of human resources in nuclear science and technology has focused on the training of national scientists and engineers in various fields such as crop and animal production, human and animal nutrition, human health applications, medical physics, non-destructive testing in industry, groundwater management, maintenance of medical and scientific equipment, radiation protection and radioactive waste management. Efforts made also involve the development of graduate teaching in nuclear sciences at the national universities. However, the lack of adequate training facilities remains a major concern. The development of new training/learning methods is being considered at national level through network linking of national training centres with existing international training institutions, and the use of Information Communication Technologies (ICT) which offer great flexibility with regard to the number of trainees and the actual needs. (author)

  12. Rethinking Data Sharing and Human Participant Protection in Social Science Research: Applications from the Qualitative Realm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dessi Kirilova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available While data sharing is becoming increasingly common in quantitative social inquiry, qualitative data are rarely shared. One factor inhibiting data sharing is a concern about human participant protections and privacy. Protecting the confidentiality and safety of research participants is a concern for both quantitative and qualitative researchers, but it raises specific concerns within the epistemic context of qualitative research. Thus, the applicability of emerging protection models from the quantitative realm must be carefully evaluated for application to the qualitative realm. At the same time, qualitative scholars already employ a variety of strategies for human-participant protection implicitly or informally during the research process. In this practice paper, we assess available strategies for protecting human participants and how they can be deployed. We describe a spectrum of possible data management options, such as de-identification and applying access controls, including some already employed by the Qualitative Data Repository (QDR in tandem with its pilot depositors. Throughout the discussion, we consider the tension between modifying data or restricting access to them, and retaining their analytic value. We argue that developing explicit guidelines for sharing qualitative data generated through interaction with humans will allow scholars to address privacy concerns and increase the secondary use of their data.

  13. Human resource development progress to sustain nuclear science and technology applications in Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simo, A.; Nyobe, J.B.

    2004-01-01

    Cameroon as a Member of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has made full use of the Agency's Technical Co-operation Programme in his effort to promote peaceful applications of nuclear science and technology at national level. This paper presents the progress made in the development of reliable human resources. Results obtained have been achieved through national and regional technical co-operation projects. Over the past twenty years, the development of human resources in nuclear science and technology has focussed on the training of national scientists and engineers in various fields such as crop and animal production, human and animal nutrition, human health applications, medical physics, non destructive testing in industry, groundwater management, maintenance of medical and scientific equipment, radiation protection and radioactive waste management. Efforts made also involve the development of graduate teaching in nuclear sciences at the national universities. However, the lack of adequate training facilities remains a major concern. The development of new training/learning methods is being considered at national level through network linking of national training centres with existing international training institutions, and the use of Information Communication Technologies (ICT) which offer great flexibility with regard to the number of trainees and the actual needs. (author)

  14. Review on present state of human model researches in nuclear engineering and the prospect for their industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Furuta, Kazuo; Nakagawa, Tsuneo; Yoshimura, Seiichi; Yoshida, Kazuo; Naito, Norio

    1999-01-01

    Reviews have been made on the researches and developments for human models in the field of nuclear engineering. Until now, the related works have been made mainly for the modeling of plant operator and operator crew in the control room, but also there arise new tendencies of extending the modeling works for maintenance field as well as for personnel training purposes. The whole range of human model research is divided into the five areas of (a) modeling for machine system, (b) measurement and analysis of human information behavior, (c) modeling of human internal information process, (d) modeling of human interaction with machine system, and (e) that of between human themselves. The real examples of the human model developments as well as their methods, applications, and the model validations are described, and then, the further subjects and efforts are pointed out which would be needed for the broader industrial application of the human modeling. (author)

  15. Application of activity theory to analysis of human-related accidents: Method and case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Young Sik; Ham, Dong-Han; Yoon, Wan Chul

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes a new approach to human-related accident analysis based on activity theory. Most of the existing methods seem to be insufficient for comprehensive analysis of human activity-related contextual aspects of accidents when investigating the causes of human errors. Additionally, they identify causal factors and their interrelationships with a weak theoretical basis. We argue that activity theory offers useful concepts and insights to supplement existing methods. The proposed approach gives holistic contextual backgrounds for understanding and diagnosing human-related accidents. It also helps identify and organise causal factors in a consistent, systematic way. Two case studies in Korean nuclear power plants are presented to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method. Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) was also applied to the case studies. The results of using HFACS were then compared with those of using the proposed method. These case studies showed that the proposed approach could produce a meaningful set of human activity-related contextual factors, which cannot easily be obtained by using existing methods. It can be especially effective when analysts think it is important to diagnose accident situations with human activity-related contextual factors derived from a theoretically sound model and to identify accident-related contextual factors systematically. - Highlights: • This study proposes a new method for analysing human-related accidents. • The method was developed based on activity theory. • The concept of activity system model and contradiction was used in the method. • Two case studies in nuclear power plants are presented. • The method is helpful to consider causal factors systematically and comprehensively.

  16. Precision wildlife medicine: applications of the human-centred precision medicine revolution to species conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whilde, Jenny; Martindale, Mark Q; Duffy, David J

    2017-05-01

    The current species extinction crisis is being exacerbated by an increased rate of emergence of epizootic disease. Human-induced factors including habitat degradation, loss of biodiversity and wildlife population reductions resulting in reduced genetic variation are accelerating disease emergence. Novel, efficient and effective approaches are required to combat these epizootic events. Here, we present the case for the application of human precision medicine approaches to wildlife medicine in order to enhance species conservation efforts. We consider how the precision medicine revolution, coupled with the advances made in genomics, may provide a powerful and feasible approach to identifying and treating wildlife diseases in a targeted, effective and streamlined manner. A number of case studies of threatened species are presented which demonstrate the applicability of precision medicine to wildlife conservation, including sea turtles, amphibians and Tasmanian devils. These examples show how species conservation could be improved by using precision medicine techniques to determine novel treatments and management strategies for the specific medical conditions hampering efforts to restore population levels. Additionally, a precision medicine approach to wildlife health has in turn the potential to provide deeper insights into human health and the possibility of stemming and alleviating the impacts of zoonotic diseases. The integration of the currently emerging Precision Medicine Initiative with the concepts of EcoHealth (aiming for sustainable health of people, animals and ecosystems through transdisciplinary action research) and One Health (recognizing the intimate connection of humans, animal and ecosystem health and addressing a wide range of risks at the animal-human-ecosystem interface through a coordinated, collaborative, interdisciplinary approach) has great potential to deliver a deeper and broader interdisciplinary-based understanding of both wildlife and human

  17. Generation and characterization of recombinant human antibodies specific for native laminin epitopes. Potential application in cancer therapy. Cancer Immunol. Immunother

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanz, Laura; Kristensen, Peter; Russell, Stephen J.

    2001-01-01

    of human-derived antibody fragments able to modulate laminin-regulated biological functions would allow the development of new strategies to improve treatment of cancer patients. In this report, we explore the use of phage display technology to isolate human anti-laminin antibody fragments. A library...... to mouse, rat and human laminin. and show strong immunohistochemical reactivity with basement membranes in human and murine tissue sections. Their properties make them ideal candidates for in vivo applications....

  18. Human Reliability Analysis. Applicability of the HRA-concept in maintenance shutdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obenius, Aino

    2007-08-01

    work tasks. Errors and mistakes during this plant operating state may have severe consequences, both on the immediate work, as well as on the future power production. The human influence on the technical system is of great importance when analysing the LPSD condition. This should also affect the basis and performance of the analysis, to make as a realistic analysis as possible. When analysing human operation during LPSD, a holistic perspective should be used. A way to take the human abilities and performance variability into consideration is important. The study of performed analysis of human reliability for the LPSD condition shows, that the normative and/or descriptive approach and the linear cause-effect model are used. The main objective of HRAs performed within SPSAs is the quantification of human interaction and error frequency. Modelling of human behaviour in complex, sociotechnical systems differs in theory and practice. A reason may be that models as the one for functional resonance, not yet are applicable for practising analysts, due to a lack of well tried methods and the fact that analysis of the LPSD condition is performed in the PSA concept, which defines the type of results sought from the HRA, i.e. probabilities for human error. LPSD analysis methods need to be further evaluated, validated and developed. The basis for the analysis should, instead of PSA, be a holistic analysis according to how Man, Technology and Organization affect the system and plant safety. To achieve this, further activities could be to perform an in-depth study of existing analysis of the LPSD condition, to develop specifications of requirement for LPSD analysis, to further validate the HRA work process as well as to further develop practically applicable methods for human performance and variability analysis in sociotechnical systems

  19. Urinary excretion of phthalates and paraben after repeated whole-body topical application in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janjua, Nadeem Rezaq; Frederiksen, Hanne; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2008-01-01

    Diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and butyl paraben (BP) are man-made chemicals used in personal care products, such as lotions and creams. Exposure to these chemicals causes a variety of adverse reproductive outcomes in animal studies. Humans can be exposed to these chemicals...... through dermal absorption, but there are no published data on absorption, metabolism, and excretion after dermal application. This study investigates urinary concentrations of BP and metabolites of DEP and DBP after topical application. In a 2-week single-blinded study, 26 healthy Caucasian male subjects.......1%, respectively. Absorption of DEP, DBP and BP through skin could potentially contribute to adverse health effects. The three chemicals are systemically absorbed, metabolized and excreted in urine following application on the skin in a cream preparation. More DEP than DBP was absorbed, presumably because...

  20. AGAPE-ET for human error analysis of emergency tasks and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. H.; Jeong, W. D.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents a proceduralised human reliability analysis (HRA) methodology, AGAPE-ET (A Guidance And Procedure for Human Error Analysis for Emergency Tasks), covering both qualitative error analysis and quantification of human error probability (HEP) of emergency tasks in nuclear power plants. The AGAPE-ET method is based on the simplified cognitive model. By each cognitive function, error causes or error-likely situations have been identified considering the characteristics of the performance of each cognitive function and influencing mechanism of the performance influencing factors (PIFs) on the cognitive function. Then, error analysis items have been determined from the identified error causes or error-likely situations and a human error analysis procedure based on the error analysis items is organised to help the analysts cue or guide overall human error analysis. The basic scheme for the quantification of HEP consists in the multiplication of the BHEP assigned by the error analysis item and the weight from the influencing factors decision tree (IFDT) constituted by cognitive function. The method can be characterised by the structured identification of the weak points of the task required to perform and the efficient analysis process that the analysts have only to carry out with the necessary cognitive functions. The paper also presents the application of AGAPE-ET to 31 nuclear emergency tasks and its results

  1. Metagenomic analyses of bacteria on human hairs: a qualitative assessment for applications in forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tridico, Silvana R; Murray, Dáithí C; Addison, Jayne; Kirkbride, Kenneth P; Bunce, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian hairs are one of the most ubiquitous types of trace evidence collected in the course of forensic investigations. However, hairs that are naturally shed or that lack roots are problematic substrates for DNA profiling; these hair types often contain insufficient nuclear DNA to yield short tandem repeat (STR) profiles. Whilst there have been a number of initial investigations evaluating the value of metagenomics analyses for forensic applications (e.g. examination of computer keyboards), there have been no metagenomic evaluations of human hairs-a substrate commonly encountered during forensic practice. This present study attempts to address this forensic capability gap, by conducting a qualitative assessment into the applicability of metagenomic analyses of human scalp and pubic hair. Forty-two DNA extracts obtained from human scalp and pubic hairs generated a total of 79,766 reads, yielding 39,814 reads post control and abundance filtering. The results revealed the presence of unique combinations of microbial taxa that can enable discrimination between individuals and signature taxa indigenous to female pubic hairs. Microbial data from a single co-habiting couple added an extra dimension to the study by suggesting that metagenomic analyses might be of evidentiary value in sexual assault cases when other associative evidence is not present. Of all the data generated in this study, the next-generation sequencing (NGS) data generated from pubic hair held the most potential for forensic applications. Metagenomic analyses of human hairs may provide independent data to augment other forensic results and possibly provide association between victims of sexual assault and offender when other associative evidence is absent. Based on results garnered in the present study, we believe that with further development, bacterial profiling of hair will become a valuable addition to the forensic toolkit.

  2. Application of murine monoclonal antibodies to the serodiagnosis of tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanyl, J.; Coates, A.R.M.; Krambovitis, E.

    1982-01-01

    The immune response during infectious diseases leads to a rise in antibody titre to the various different antigenic determinants of the causative organism. The response is further complicated by the fact that it is relatively unusual for one individual to respond to all antigenic components of an organism. Demonstration of the specific immune response of an infected host by serological tests is often hampered by the broad cross-reactivity between several bacterial antigens. The authors report on a serodiagnostic application of murine monoclonal antibodies (MAB), specific for a human pathogen, M. tuberculosis by a technique which is applicable in principle to the serodiagnosis of many other infectious diseases. The serum diagnostic test is based on the competitive inhibition by human sera of the binding of 125 I-labelled murine monoclonal antibodies to M. tuberculosis-coated polyvinyl plates. Five monoclonal antibodies binding to distinct antigenic determinants of the organism were used as structural probes which conferred their stringent combining site specificities to the polyclonal mixture of antibodies from patients' sera. When compared with healthy controls, increased titres of inhibitory antibodies were found in about 70% of patients with active tuberculosis. The diagnostic value of the individual monoclonal antibodies as well as the benefit from the use of multiple specificity probes has been qualified

  3. Application of human induced pluripotent stem cells to model fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barruet, Emilie; Hsiao, Edward C

    2018-04-01

    Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is a genetic condition characterized by massive heterotopic ossification. FOP patients have mutations in the Activin A type I receptor (ACVR1), a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptor. FOP is a progressive and debilitating disease characterized by bone formation flares that often occur after trauma. Since it is often difficult or impossible to obtain large amounts of tissue from human donors due to the risks of inciting more heterotopic bone formation, human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) provide an attractive source for establishing in vitro disease models and for applications in drug screening. hiPSCs have the ability to self-renew, allowing researchers to obtain large amounts of starting material. hiPSCs also have the potential to differentiate into any cell type in the body. In this review, we discuss how the application of hiPSC technology to studying FOP has changed our perspectives on FOP disease pathogenesis. We also consider ongoing challenges and emerging opportunities for the use of human iPSCs in drug discovery and regenerative medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. In-Space Assembly Capability Assessment for Potential Human Exploration and Science Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, Sharon A.; Jones, Christopher A.; Arney, Dale C.; Stillwagen, Frederic H.; Chai, Patrick R.; Hutchinson, Craig D.; Stafford, Matthew A.; Moses, Robert W.; Dempsey, James A.; Rodgers, Erica M.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Human missions to Mars present several major challenges that must be overcome, including delivering multiple large mass and volume elements, keeping the crew safe and productive, meeting cost constraints, and ensuring a sustainable campaign. Traditional methods for executing human Mars missions minimize or eliminate in-space assembly, which provides a narrow range of options for addressing these challenges and limits the types of missions that can be performed. This paper discusses recent work to evaluate how the inclusion of in-space assembly in space mission architectural concepts could provide novel solutions to address these challenges by increasing operational flexibility, robustness, risk reduction, crew health and safety, and sustainability. A hierarchical framework is presented to characterize assembly strategies, assembly tasks, and the required capabilities to assemble mission systems in space. The framework is used to identify general mission system design considerations and assembly system characteristics by assembly strategy. These general approaches are then applied to identify potential in-space assembly applications to address each challenge. Through this process, several focus areas were identified where applications of in-space assembly could affect multiple challenges. Each focus area was developed to identify functions, potential assembly solutions and operations, key architectural trades, and potential considerations and implications of implementation. This paper helps to identify key areas to investigate were potentially significant gains in addressing the challenges with human missions to Mars may be realized, and creates a foundation on which to further develop and analyze in-space assembly concepts and assembly-based architectures.

  5. [Application of a modified culturing method for lymphocytes in cytogenetic research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chaoxian; Hui, Changye; Zhang, Wen; Guo, Yan; Li, Limei; Chen, Yuting; Zhang, Liuzhuo; Yang, Xinyue; Huang, Xianqing

    2016-08-01

    To establish a modified method for microculturing whole human blood for cytogenetic analysis. A novel tube rack was designed to overcome the drawbacks of directly culturing the cells within centrifuge tubes. The fractions of human plasma, human serum and two commercial fetal bovine sera were analyzed with 15% sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The influence of adding 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30% autologous plasma to the culture on lymphocyte transformation rate and mitotic index (MI) was examined. The SDS-PAGE analysis showed a significant difference between commercial fetal bovine sera, and that the components of human plasma were similar to those of fetal bovine serum. The value of MI in lymphocyte was evidently increased along with addition of autologous plasma. However, this has exerted no significant effect on the transformation rate. With the addition of 10% autologous plasma, the MI value has become much higher than the conventional method. A modified method was established by application of a novel tube inclined rack and optimization of whole blood inoculation. This method is easier and cheaper, and is suitable for application in clinical practice.

  6. Application of bacteriophages in post-harvest control of human pathogenic and food spoiling bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Pulido, Rubén; Grande Burgos, Maria José; Gálvez, Antonio; Lucas López, Rosario

    2016-10-01

    Bacteriophages have attracted great attention for application in food biopreservation. Lytic bacteriophages specific for human pathogenic bacteria can be isolated from natural sources such as animal feces or industrial wastes where the target bacteria inhabit. Lytic bacteriophages have been tested in different food systems for inactivation of main food-borne pathogens including Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, Shigella spp., Campylobacter jejuni and Cronobacter sakazkii, and also for control of spoilage bacteria. Application of lytic bacteriophages could selectively control host populations of concern without interfering with the remaining food microbiota. Bacteriophages could also be applied for inactivation of bacteria attached to food contact surfaces or grown as biofilms. Bacteriophages may receive a generally recognized as safe status based on their lack of toxicity and other detrimental effects to human health. Phage preparations specific for L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7 and S. enterica serotypes have been commercialized and approved for application in foods or as part of surface decontamination protocols. Phage endolysins have a broader host specificity compared to lytic bacteriophages. Cloned endolysins could be used as natural preservatives, singly or in combination with other antimicrobials such as bacteriocins.

  7. In-gel detection of esterase-like albumin activity: Characterization of esterase-free sera albumin and its putative role as non-invasive biomarker of hepatic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Areeba Ahmad

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Albumin is a globular and un-glycosylated multifunctional plasma protein and thus correlated with several human diseases. Owing to esterase contamination, albumin levels are usually misleading. In this study, we propose methodical accuracy for albumin estimation taking healthy and fibrotic rats. Liver fibrosis in rats was generated by N′-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA (10 mg/kg body weight within three weeks followed by its confirmation through H&E and immunohistochemical staining for α-SMA expression. Animal sera were screened by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (native-PAGE (7.5%. In-gel esterase-like albumin activity was detected using α- and β-naphthyl acetate (5.58 × 10−3 mM; pH 7.5 as substrate. Sera albumin was purified from unstained PA gel-slices through electroelution. Subsequent to conformation of albumin purity by its molecular weight determination using SDS–PAGE (10% and peptide mass fingerprinting by MALDI-TOF-MS, samples were treated with different concentrations of urea. Urea-treated albumins were screened for esterase activity, conformational change and, albumin levels by immunoblotting. Our results demonstrate that esterase-like albumin activity in rat sera albumin is located in domain-III. The esterase-like activity remains detectable up to 4 M urea, which diminishes with increasing urea concentrations. Further, immunoblotting of urea-treated albumin samples displays a significant decline in purified protein bands, indicating hypoalbuminemia during hepatic fibrosis in rats. In conclusion, the present approach of albumin separation and estimation is of potential interest and may be recommended for diagnostic purposes.

  8. A study on the application of voice interaction in automotive human machine interface experience design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhaohui; Huang, Xiemin

    2018-04-01

    This paper, firstly, introduces the application trend of the integration of multi-channel interactions in automotive HMI ((Human Machine Interface) from complex information models faced by existing automotive HMI and describes various interaction modes. By comparing voice interaction and touch screen, gestures and other interaction modes, the potential and feasibility of voice interaction in automotive HMI experience design are concluded. Then, the related theories of voice interaction, identification technologies, human beings' cognitive models of voices and voice design methods are further explored. And the research priority of this paper is proposed, i.e. how to design voice interaction to create more humane task-oriented dialogue scenarios to enhance interactive experiences of automotive HMI. The specific scenarios in driving behaviors suitable for the use of voice interaction are studied and classified, and the usability principles and key elements for automotive HMI voice design are proposed according to the scenario features. Then, through the user participatory usability testing experiment, the dialogue processes of voice interaction in automotive HMI are defined. The logics and grammars in voice interaction are classified according to the experimental results, and the mental models in the interaction processes are analyzed. At last, the voice interaction design method to create the humane task-oriented dialogue scenarios in the driving environment is proposed.

  9. Rhythmic dynamics and synchronization via dimensionality reduction: application to human gait.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhang

    Full Text Available Reliable characterization of locomotor dynamics of human walking is vital to understanding the neuromuscular control of human locomotion and disease diagnosis. However, the inherent oscillation and ubiquity of noise in such non-strictly periodic signals pose great challenges to current methodologies. To this end, we exploit the state-of-the-art technology in pattern recognition and, specifically, dimensionality reduction techniques, and propose to reconstruct and characterize the dynamics accurately on the cycle scale of the signal. This is achieved by deriving a low-dimensional representation of the cycles through global optimization, which effectively preserves the topology of the cycles that are embedded in a high-dimensional Euclidian space. Our approach demonstrates a clear advantage in capturing the intrinsic dynamics and probing the subtle synchronization patterns from uni/bivariate oscillatory signals over traditional methods. Application to human gait data for healthy subjects and diabetics reveals a significant difference in the dynamics of ankle movements and ankle-knee coordination, but not in knee movements. These results indicate that the impaired sensory feedback from the feet due to diabetes does not influence the knee movement in general, and that normal human walking is not critically dependent on the feedback from the peripheral nervous system.

  10. Expandable and Rapidly Differentiating Human Induced Neural Stem Cell Lines for Multiple Tissue Engineering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana M. Cairns

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Limited availability of human neurons poses a significant barrier to progress in biological and preclinical studies of the human nervous system. Current stem cell-based approaches of neuron generation are still hindered by prolonged culture requirements, protocol complexity, and variability in neuronal differentiation. Here we establish stable human induced neural stem cell (hiNSC lines through the direct reprogramming of neonatal fibroblasts and adult adipose-derived stem cells. These hiNSCs can be passaged indefinitely and cryopreserved as colonies. Independently of media composition, hiNSCs robustly differentiate into TUJ1-positive neurons within 4 days, making them ideal for innervated co-cultures. In vivo, hiNSCs migrate, engraft, and contribute to both central and peripheral nervous systems. Lastly, we demonstrate utility of hiNSCs in a 3D human brain model. This method provides a valuable interdisciplinary tool that could be used to develop drug screening applications as well as patient-specific disease models related to disorders of innervation and the brain.

  11. Genetic recombination pathways and their application for genome modification of human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, Mikko; Tuuri, Timo; Savilahti, Harri

    2010-10-01

    Human embryonic stem cells are pluripotent cells derived from early human embryo and retain a potential to differentiate into all adult cell types. They provide vast opportunities in cell replacement therapies and are expected to become significant tools in drug discovery as well as in the studies of cellular and developmental functions of human genes. The progress in applying different types of DNA recombination reactions for genome modification in a variety of eukaryotic cell types has provided means to utilize recombination-based strategies also in human embryonic stem cells. Homologous recombination-based methods, particularly those utilizing extended homologous regions and those employing zinc finger nucleases to boost genomic integration, have shown their usefulness in efficient genome modification. Site-specific recombination systems are potent genome modifiers, and they can be used to integrate DNA into loci that contain an appropriate recombination signal sequence, either naturally occurring or suitably pre-engineered. Non-homologous recombination can be used to generate random integrations in genomes relatively effortlessly, albeit with a moderate efficiency and precision. DNA transposition-based strategies offer substantially more efficient random strategies and provide means to generate single-copy insertions, thus potentiating the generation of genome-wide insertion libraries applicable in genetic screens. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. High purity of human oligodendrocyte progenitor cells obtained from neural stem cells: suitable for clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Caiying; Luan, Zuo; Yang, Yinxiang; Wang, Zhaoyan; Wang, Qian; Lu, Yabin; Du, Qingan

    2015-01-30

    Recent studies have suggested that the transplantation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) may be a promising potential therapeutic strategy for a broad range of diseases affecting myelin, such as multiple sclerosis, periventricular leukomalacia, and spinal cord injury. Clinical interest arose from the potential of human stem cells to be directed to OPCs for the clinical application of treating these diseases since large quantities of high quality OPCs are needed. However, to date, there have been precious few studies about OPC induction from human neural stem cells (NSCs). Here we successfully directed human fetal NSCs into highly pure OPCs using a cocktail of basic fibroblast growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, and neurotrophic factor-3. These cells had typical morphology of OPCs, and 80-90% of them expressed specific OPC markers such as A2B5, O4, Sox10 and PDGF-αR. When exposed to differentiation medium, 90% of the cells differentiated into oligodendrocytes. The OPCs could be amplified in our culture medium and passaged at least 10 times. Compared to a recent published method, this protocol had much higher stability and repeatability, and OPCs could be obtained from NSCs from passage 5 to 38. It also obtained more highly pure OPCs (80-90%) via simpler and more convenient manipulation. This study provided an easy and efficient method to obtain large quantities of high-quality human OPCs to meet clinical demand. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Inverse Modeling of Human Knee Joint Based on Geometry and Vision Systems for Exoskeleton Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Piña-Martínez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Current trends in Robotics aim to close the gap that separates technology and humans, bringing novel robotic devices in order to improve human performance. Although robotic exoskeletons represent a breakthrough in mobility enhancement, there are design challenges related to the forces exerted to the users’ joints that result in severe injuries. This occurs due to the fact that most of the current developments consider the joints as noninvariant rotational axes. This paper proposes the use of commercial vision systems in order to perform biomimetic joint design for robotic exoskeletons. This work proposes a kinematic model based on irregular shaped cams as the joint mechanism that emulates the bone-to-bone joints in the human body. The paper follows a geometric approach for determining the location of the instantaneous center of rotation in order to design the cam contours. Furthermore, the use of a commercial vision system is proposed as the main measurement tool due to its noninvasive feature and for allowing subjects under measurement to move freely. The application of this method resulted in relevant information about the displacements of the instantaneous center of rotation at the human knee joint.

  14. The Human Behavioral Ecology of Contemporary World Issues : Applications to Public Policy and International Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Bram; Rende Taylor, Lisa

    2007-09-01

    Human behavioral ecology (HBE) began as an attempt to explain human economic, reproductive, and social behavior using neodarwinian theory in concert with theory from ecology and economics, and ethnographic methods. HBE has addressed subsistence decision-making, cooperation, life history trade-offs, parental investment, mate choice, and marriage strategies among hunter-gatherers, herders, peasants, and wage earners in rural and urban settings throughout the world. Despite our rich insights into human behavior, HBE has very rarely been used as a tool to help the people with whom we work. This article introduces a special issue of Human Nature which explores the application of HBE to significant world issues through the design and critique of public policy and international development projects. The articles by Tucker, Shenk, Leonetti et al., and Neil were presented at the 104th annual meeting of the American Anthropological Association (AAA) in Washington, D.C., in December 2005, in the first organized session of the nascent Evolutionary Anthropology Section (EAS). We conclude this introduction by summarizing some theoretical challenges to applying HBE, and ways in which evolutionary anthropologists can contribute to solving tough world issues.

  15. Human – Computer Systems Interaction Backgrounds and Applications 2 Part 1

    CERN Document Server

    Kulikowski, Juliusz; Mroczek, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    The main contemporary human-system interaction (H-SI) problems consist in design and/or improvement of the tools for effective exchange of information between individual humans or human groups and technical systems created for humans aiding in reaching their vital goals. This book is a second issue in a series devoted to the novel in H-SI results and contributions reached for the last years by many research groups in European and extra-European countries. The preliminary (usually shortened) versions of the chapters  were presented as conference papers at the 3rd International Conference on H-SI held in Rzeszow, Poland, in 2010. A  large number of valuable papers  selected for publication caused a necessity to publish the book in two volumes. The given, 1st Volume  consists of sections devoted to: I. Decision Supporting Systems, II. Distributed Knowledge Bases and WEB Systems and III. Impaired Persons  Aiding Systems. The decision supporting systems concern various application areas, like enterprises mana...

  16. Applications Geiger-Muller detectors monitor the level of radioactivity in the human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunarwan Prayitno

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear technology is the technology high risk, because of an application and implementation have to support by human skill. The support facility has to complete and up to date, or modern. It means if the accident occurs in mistake have to do or delayed something, they can solved that problem. So the probability the risk of accident can be minimized. The specific problem is in the implementation nuclear technology on the human safety which is works in the radiation field or in the environment where they are working. The pointer that the problems have to design the tools monitor to monitoring the value radiation maximum was allowed. The tools monitor design is giving the information signal, if the radiation level maximum have over limit. Whereas the high and low level radiation can be just depend on the needed. (author)

  17. Physicologically Based Toxicokinetic Models of Tebuconazole and Application in Human Risk Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsdottir, Svava Osk; Reffstrup, Trine Klein; Petersen, Annette

    2016-01-01

    (ADME) of tebuconazole. The developed models were validated on in vivo half-life data for rabbit with good results, and on plasma and tissue concentration-time course data of tebuconazole after i.v. administration in rabbit. In most cases, the predicted concentration levels were seen to be within......A series of physiologically based toxicokinetic (PBTK) models for tebuconazole were developed in four species, rat, rabbit, rhesus monkey, and human. The developed models were analyzed with respect to the application of the models in higher tier human risk assessment, and the prospect of using...... such models in risk assessment of cumulative and aggregate exposure is discussed. Relatively simple and biologically sound models were developed using available experimental data as parameters for describing the physiology of the species, as well as the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination...

  18. Promoting positive human development and social justice: Integrating theory, research and application in contemporary developmental science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Richard M

    2015-06-01

    The bold claim that developmental science can contribute to both enhancing positive development among diverse individuals across the life span and promoting social justice in their communities, nations and regions is supported by decades of theoretical, methodological and research contributions. To explain the basis of this claim, I describe the relational developmental systems (RDS) metamodel that frames contemporary developmental science, and I present an example of a programme of research within the adolescent portion of the life span that is associated with this metamodel and is pertinent to promoting positive human development. I then discuss methodological issues associated with using RDS-based models as frames for research and application. Finally, I explain how the theoretical and methodological ideas associated with RDS thinking may provide the scholarly tools needed by developmental scientists seeking to contribute to human thriving and to advance social justice in the Global South. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  19. Current Applications of Chromatographic Methods in the Study of Human Body Fluids for Diagnosing Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jóźwik, Jagoda; Kałużna-Czaplińska, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Currently, analysis of various human body fluids is one of the most essential and promising approaches to enable the discovery of biomarkers or pathophysiological mechanisms for disorders and diseases. Analysis of these fluids is challenging due to their complex composition and unique characteristics. Development of new analytical methods in this field has made it possible to analyze body fluids with higher selectivity, sensitivity, and precision. The composition and concentration of analytes in body fluids are most often determined by chromatography-based techniques. There is no doubt that proper use of knowledge that comes from a better understanding of the role of body fluids requires the cooperation of scientists of diverse specializations, including analytical chemists, biologists, and physicians. This article summarizes current knowledge about the application of different chromatographic methods in analyses of a wide range of compounds in human body fluids in order to diagnose certain diseases and disorders.

  20. Growth of human T lymphocyte colonies from whole blood: culture requirements and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, S.J.; Wilson, F.D.; Greenberg, B.R.; Shifrine, M.

    1982-01-01

    Growth of human lymphocyte colonies from whole blood following stimulation with PHA, Con A, or PPD is described. Individual colony cells were identified as T lymphocytes on the basis of surface marker and enzyme cytochemical characterizations. Colony formation increased as a power function over a wide range of cell concentrations above a critical minimal concentration. The whole blood culture system eliminates possible selective effects of lymphocyte colony techniques utilizing gradient-enriched lymphocyte fractions and more closely approximates the in vivo milieu. The whole blood colony method is more sensitive for the detection of low-level radiation effects on lymphocytes than widely used tests that measure 3 H-thymidine incorporation. In preliminary studies, researchers used the whole blood method to determine the relative radiosensitivity of lymphocytes from humans with various hematopoietic disorders, and observed abnormalities in mitogen responsiveness and colony formation in some of the patient groups. This method has wide application for studies in cellular and clinical immunology

  1. The Applicability of Maria da Penha Law From a Feminist Reading and Criticism of Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cesar Correa Borges

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to reflect on the face of domestic and family violence in Brazil from the Maria da Penha Law or Law 11.340 / 2006 and its application in a context dominated structurally and symbolically by patriarchy . Despite the existence of common laws that recognize the human rights of women exists the impediment produced by androcentrism in law and social institutions. Therefore, it is necessary to go beyond the production standards and achieve the desired socio- cultural awareness on gender and human rights , in all areas of social,so that the law to combat domestic offenses has effectiveness in the daily lives of all women Brazilian. The construction of an egalitarian and horizontal social body exceeds the strictly formal barriers and reach the popular struggles and feminist movements that demand a culture of freedom, autonomy and dignity for all men and women alike.

  2. Apoptosis induction in Jurkat cells and sCD95 levels in women's sera are related with the risk of developing cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar-Lemarroy, Adriana; Jave-Suarez, Luis F; Romero-Ramos, Jose E; Olimon-Andalon, Vicente; Hernandez-Flores, Georgina; Lerma-Diaz, Jose M; Ortiz-Lazareno, Pablo C; Morgan-Villela, Gilberto; Toro-Arreola, Susana del; Bravo-Cuellar, Alejandro

    2008-01-01

    Currently, there is clear evidence that apoptosis plays an important role in the development and progression of tumors. One of the best characterized apoptosis triggering systems is the CD95/Fas/APO-1 pathway; previous reports have demonstrated high levels of soluble CD95 (sCD95) in serum of patients with some types of cancer. Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women worldwide. As a first step in an attempt to design a minimally invasive test to predict the risk of developing cervical cancer in patients with precancerous lesions, we used a simple assay based on the capacity of human serum to induce apoptosis in Jurkat cells. We evaluated the relationship between sCD95 levels and the ability to induce apoptosis in Jurkat cells in cervical cancer patients and controls. Jurkat cells were exposed to serum from 63 women (20 healthy volunteers, 21 with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade I [CIN 1] and 22 with cervical-uterine carcinoma). The apoptotic rate was measured by flow cytometry using Annexin-V-Fluos and Propidium Iodide as markers. Serum levels of sCD95 and soluble CD95 ligand (sCD95L) were measured by ELISA kits. We found that serum from almost all healthy women induced apoptosis in Jurkat cells, while only fifty percent of the sera from women with CIN 1 induced cell death in Jurkat cells. Interestingly, only one serum sample from a patient with cervical-uterine cancer was able to induce apoptosis, the rest of the sera protected Jurkat cells from this killing. We were able to demonstrate that elimination of Jurkat cells was mediated by the CD95/Fas/Apo-1 apoptotic pathway. Furthermore, the serum levels of sCD95 measured by ELISA were significantly higher in women with cervical cancer. Our results demonstrate that there is a strong correlation between low levels of sCD95 in serum of normal women and higher apoptosis induction in Jurkat cells. We suggest that an analysis of the apoptotic rate induced by serum in Jurkat cells and the

  3. Apoptosis induction in Jurkat cells and sCD95 levels in women's sera are related with the risk of developing cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bravo-Cuellar Alejandro

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently, there is clear evidence that apoptosis plays an important role in the development and progression of tumors. One of the best characterized apoptosis triggering systems is the CD95/Fas/APO-1 pathway; previous reports have demonstrated high levels of soluble CD95 (sCD95 in serum of patients with some types of cancer. Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women worldwide. As a first step in an attempt to design a minimally invasive test to predict the risk of developing cervical cancer in patients with precancerous lesions, we used a simple assay based on the capacity of human serum to induce apoptosis in Jurkat cells. We evaluated the relationship between sCD95 levels and the ability to induce apoptosis in Jurkat cells in cervical cancer patients and controls. Methods Jurkat cells were exposed to serum from 63 women (20 healthy volunteers, 21 with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade I [CIN 1] and 22 with cervical-uterine carcinoma. The apoptotic rate was measured by flow cytometry using Annexin-V-Fluos and Propidium Iodide as markers. Serum levels of sCD95 and soluble CD95 ligand (sCD95L were measured by ELISA kits. Results We found that serum from almost all healthy women induced apoptosis in Jurkat cells, while only fifty percent of the sera from women with CIN 1 induced cell death in Jurkat cells. Interestingly, only one serum sample from a patient with cervical-uterine cancer was able to induce apoptosis, the rest of the sera protected Jurkat cells from this killing. We were able to demonstrate that elimination of Jurkat cells was mediated by the CD95/Fas/Apo-1 apoptotic pathway. Furthermore, the serum levels of sCD95 measured by ELISA were significantly higher in women with cervical cancer. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that there is a strong correlation between low levels of sCD95 in serum of normal women and higher apoptosis induction in Jurkat cells. We suggest that an analysis of

  4. Computational Modeling of Human Metabolism and Its Application to Systems Biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurich, Maike K; Thiele, Ines

    2016-01-01

    Modern high-throughput techniques offer immense opportunities to investigate whole-systems behavior, such as those underlying human diseases. However, the complexity of the data presents challenges in interpretation, and new avenues are needed to address the complexity of both diseases and data. Constraint-based modeling is one formalism applied in systems biology. It relies on a genome-scale reconstruction that captures extensive biochemical knowledge regarding an organism. The human genome-scale metabolic reconstruction is increasingly used to understand normal cellular and disease states because metabolism is an important factor in many human diseases. The application of human genome-scale reconstruction ranges from mere querying of the model as a knowledge base to studies that take advantage of the model's topology and, most notably, to functional predictions based on cell- and condition-specific metabolic models built based on omics data.An increasing number and diversity of biomedical questions are being addressed using constraint-based modeling and metabolic models. One of the most successful biomedical applications to date is cancer metabolism, but constraint-based modeling also holds great potential for inborn errors of metabolism or obesity. In addition, it offers great prospects for individualized approaches to diagnostics and the design of disease prevention and intervention strategies. Metabolic models support this endeavor by providing easy access to complex high-throughput datasets. Personalized metabolic models have been introduced. Finally, constraint-based modeling can be used to model whole-body metabolism, which will enable the elucidation of metabolic interactions between organs and disturbances of these interactions as either causes or consequence of metabolic diseases. This chapter introduces constraint-based modeling and describes some of its contributions to systems biomedicine.

  5. Human-Computer Interaction Handbook Fundamentals, Evolving Technologies, and Emerging Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Jacko, Julie A

    2012-01-01

    The third edition of a groundbreaking reference, The Human--Computer Interaction Handbook: Fundamentals, Evolving Technologies, and Emerging Applications raises the bar for handbooks in this field. It is the largest, most complete compilation of HCI theories, principles, advances, case studies, and more that exist within a single volume. The book captures the current and emerging sub-disciplines within HCI related to research, development, and practice that continue to advance at an astonishing rate. It features cutting-edge advances to the scientific knowledge base as well as visionary perspe

  6. Urinary excretion of phthalates and paraben after repeated whole-body topical application in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janjua, Nadeem Rezaq; Frederiksen, Hanne; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2008-01-01

    Diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and butyl paraben (BP) are man-made chemicals used in personal care products, such as lotions and creams. Exposure to these chemicals causes a variety of adverse reproductive outcomes in animal studies. Humans can be exposed to these chemicals...... were given a whole body topical application of basic cream 2 mg/cm(2) (control week) and then a cream containing 2% (w/w) of DEP, DBP and BP each (treatment week) daily. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected. Urinary total, and unconjugated BP, monoethyl phthalate (MEP) and monobutyl phthalate...

  7. On the dynamics of chain systems. [applications in manipulator and human body models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, R. L.; Passerello, C. E.

    1974-01-01

    A computer-oriented method for obtaining dynamical equations of motion for chain systems is presented. A chain system is defined as an arbitrarily assembled set of rigid bodies such that adjoining bodies have at least one common point and such that closed loops are not formed. The equations of motion are developed through the use of Lagrange's form of d'Alembert's principle. The method and procedure is illustrated with an elementary study of a tripod space manipulator. The method is designed for application with systems such as human body models, chains and cables, and dynamic finite-segment models.

  8. Immune escape mutants of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 selected using polyclonal sera: identification of key amino acids in the HA protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Sitaras

    Full Text Available Evolution of Avian Influenza (AI viruses--especially of the Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI H5N1 subtype--is a major issue for the poultry industry. HPAI H5N1 epidemics are associated with huge economic losses and are sometimes connected to human morbidity and mortality. Vaccination (either as a preventive measure or as a means to control outbreaks is an approach that splits the scientific community, due to the risk of it being a potential driving force in HPAI evolution through the selection of mutants able to escape vaccination-induced immunity. It is therefore essential to study how mutations are selected due to immune pressure. To this effect, we performed an in vitro selection of mutants from HPAI A/turkey/Turkey/1/05 (H5N1, using immune pressure from homologous polyclonal sera. After 42 rounds of selection, we identified 5 amino acid substitutions in the Haemagglutinin (HA protein, most of which were located in areas of antigenic importance and suspected to be prone to selection pressure. We report that most of the mutations took place early in the selection process. Finally, our antigenic cartography studies showed that the antigenic distance between the selected isolates and their parent strain increased with passage number.

  9. Antimicrobial Activity of Lactoferrin-Related Peptides and Applications in Human and Veterinary Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natascia Bruni

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs represent a vast array of molecules produced by virtually all living organisms as natural barriers against infection. Among AMP sources, an interesting class regards the food-derived bioactive agents. The whey protein lactoferrin (Lf is an iron-binding glycoprotein that plays a significant role in the innate immune system, and is considered as an important host defense molecule. In search for novel antimicrobial agents, Lf offers a new source with potential pharmaceutical applications. The Lf-derived peptides Lf(1–11, lactoferricin (Lfcin and lactoferrampin exhibit interesting and more potent antimicrobial actions than intact protein. Particularly, Lfcin has demonstrated strong antibacterial, anti-fungal and antiparasitic activity with promising applications both in human and veterinary diseases (from ocular infections to osteo-articular, gastrointestinal and dermatological diseases.

  10. Adapting Human Reliability Analysis from Nuclear Power to Oil and Gas Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boring, Ronald Laurids [Idaho National Laboratory

    2015-09-01

    ABSTRACT: Human reliability analysis (HRA), as currently used in risk assessments, largely derives its methods and guidance from application in the nuclear energy domain. While there are many similarities be-tween nuclear energy and other safety critical domains such as oil and gas, there remain clear differences. This paper provides an overview of HRA state of the practice in nuclear energy and then describes areas where refinements to the methods may be necessary to capture the operational context of oil and gas. Many key distinctions important to nuclear energy HRA such as Level 1 vs. Level 2 analysis may prove insignifi-cant for oil and gas applications. On the other hand, existing HRA methods may not be sensitive enough to factors like the extensive use of digital controls in oil and gas. This paper provides an overview of these con-siderations to assist in the adaptation of existing nuclear-centered HRA methods to the petroleum sector.

  11. Practical application of the new ICRP Human Respiratory Tract Model (invited paper)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, M.R.; Guilmette, R.A.; Jarvis, N.S.; Roy, M

    1998-07-01

    The ICRP Publication 66 Human Respiratory Tract Model (HRTM) has been applied to calculate general-purpose dose coefficients using default values of parameters relating to the material and the subjects. The ICRP Task Group on Internal Dosimetry is developing a 'Technical Document' giving guidance on application of the HRTM in situations where using specific information can improve dose assessment. It will include an analysis of the sensitivity of doses and bioassay quantities, lung retention and excretion rates, to relevant parameter values. Guidance will be given on characterising and sampling radioactive aerosols and on determining absorption rates. Examples will be given illustrating application of the HRTM in a wide range of situations. This paper provides a selective summary of the document at its current stage of development, with emphasis on determining absorption rates. (author)

  12. Diagnostic potential of Western blot analysis of sera from dogs with leishmaniasis in endemic areas and significance of the pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisa, M J; Castillejo, S; Gallego, M; Fisa, R; Riera, M C; de Colmenares, M; Torras, S; Roura, X; Sentis, J; Portus, M

    1998-02-01

    Serum samples collected from 237 dogs in Catalonia (northeastern Spain) were screened by Western blot analysis to detect the presence of antibodies specific to different Leishmania infantum polypeptide fractions. Leishmaniasis was confirmed in 72 of these dogs by direct examination and/or culture. Another 165 animals from the Priorat region were studied periodically for 2-8 years between 1987 and 1995, giving a total of 565 determinations. A control group of 93 dogs from nonendemic areas was also studied. Sera from dogs with leishmaniasis recognized antigens with molecular weights ranging from 12 to 85 kD. The most sensitive antigens were those of 70, 65, 46, 30, 28, 14, and 12 kD, which were recognized by 75%, 75%, 78%, 75%, 81%, 79%, and 75%, respectively, of the sera from dogs with positive parasitologic examination results. Antigens of 70 and 65 kD were also recognized by two dogs from nonendemic areas. Antigens of 14 and 12 kD were the first to be recognized by sera of asymptomatic dogs with titers less than the cut-off value of the dot-ELISA that increased during the longitudinal study, and the presence of antibodies specific for these fractions was observed for up to six years before seroconversion observed by dot-ELISA. These antibodies were also the first to disappear in dogs in which the disease was self-limited. The study corroborates the high sensitivity and specificity of Western blots in the diagnosis of canine leishmaniasis when the bands of low molecular weight (less than 46 kD) are considered, and indicates that fractions of 14 and 12 kD are useful in detecting early forms of the disease.

  13. An interactive web application for the dissemination of human systems immunology data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speake, Cate; Presnell, Scott; Domico, Kelly; Zeitner, Brad; Bjork, Anna; Anderson, David; Mason, Michael J; Whalen, Elizabeth; Vargas, Olivia; Popov, Dimitry; Rinchai, Darawan; Jourde-Chiche, Noemie; Chiche, Laurent; Quinn, Charlie; Chaussabel, Damien

    2015-06-19

    Systems immunology approaches have proven invaluable in translational research settings. The current rate at which large-scale datasets are generated presents unique challenges and opportunities. Mining aggregates of these datasets could accelerate the pace of discovery, but new solutions are needed to integrate the heterogeneous data types with the contextual information that is necessary for interpretation. In addition, enabling tools and technologies facilitating investigators' interaction with large-scale datasets must be developed in order to promote insight and foster knowledge discovery. State of the art application programming was employed to develop an interactive web application for browsing and visualizing large and complex datasets. A collection of human immune transcriptome datasets were loaded alongside contextual information about the samples. We provide a resource enabling interactive query and navigation of transcriptome datasets relevant to human immunology research. Detailed information about studies and samples are displayed dynamically; if desired the associated data can be downloaded. Custom interactive visualizations of the data can be shared via email or social media. This application can be used to browse context-rich systems-scale data within and across systems immunology studies. This resource is publicly available online at [Gene Expression Browser Landing Page ( https://gxb.benaroyaresearch.org/dm3/landing.gsp )]. The source code is also available openly [Gene Expression Browser Source Code ( https://github.com/BenaroyaResearch/gxbrowser )]. We have developed a data browsing and visualization application capable of navigating increasingly large and complex datasets generated in the context of immunological studies. This intuitive tool ensures that, whether taken individually or as a whole, such datasets generated at great effort and expense remain interpretable and a ready source of insight for years to come.

  14. Applications for Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) and Electrical Properties of the Human Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lymperopoulos, Georgios; Lymperopoulos, Panagiotis; Alikari, Victoria; Dafogianni, Chrisoula; Zyga, Sofia; Margari, Nikoletta

    2017-01-01

    Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) is a promising application that displays changes in conductivity within a body. The basic principle of the method is the repeated measurement of surface voltages of a body, which are a result of rolling injection of known and small-volume sinusoidal AC current to the body through the electrodes attached to its surface. This method finds application in biomedicine, biology and geology. The objective of this paper is to present the applications of Electrical Impedance Tomography, along with the method's capabilities and limitations due to the electrical properties of the human body. For this purpose, investigation of existing literature has been conducted, using electronic databases, PubMed, Google Scholar and IEEE Xplore. In addition, there was a secondary research phase, using paper citations found during the first research phase. It should be noted that Electrical Impedance Tomography finds use in a plethora of medical applications, as the different tissues of the body have different conductivities and dielectric constants. Main applications of EIT include imaging of lung function, diagnosis of pulmonary embolism, detection of tumors in the chest area and diagnosis and distinction of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. EIT advantages include portability, low cost and safety, which the method provide, since it is a noninvasive imaging method that does not cause damage to the body. The main disadvantage of the method, which blocks its wider spread, appears in the image composition from the voltage measurements, which are conducted by electrodes placed on the periphery of the body, because the injected currents are affected nonlinearly by the general distribution of the electrical properties of the body. Furthermore, the complex impedance of the skin-electrode interface can be modelled by using a capacitor and two resistor, as a result of skin properties. In conclusion, Electrical Impedance Tomography is a promising method for the

  15. Alpha subunit of glycoprotein hormones in the sera of acromegalic patients and its mRNA in the tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machiavelli, G A; Artese, R; Benencia, H; Bruno, O; Guerra, L; Basso, A; Burdman, J A

    1999-04-01

    Within a population of 16 pituitary adenomas we found high levels of glycoprotein alpha subunits in the sera of patients with somatotrophic tumors. This finding was correlated with the presence of mRNA alpha subunit in these tumors indicating the adenomas themselves as the origin of the circulating alpha-subunit. Synthesis of these two hormones, which are chemically very different, by the same tumor cells indicates a high degree of differentiation of these cells. We are unable at this time to conclusively correlate differentiation of these tumors aggressively.

  16. A human monoclonal antibody drug and target discovery platform for B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia based on allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and phage display

    OpenAIRE

    Baskar, Sivasubramanian; Suschak, Jessica M.; Samija, Ivan; Srinivasan, Ramaprasad; Childs, Richard W.; Pavletic, Steven Z.; Bishop, Michael R.; Rader, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT) is the only potentially curative treatment available for patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL). Here, we show that post-alloHSCT antibody repertoires can be mined for the discovery of fully human monoclonal antibodies to B-CLL cell-surface antigens. Sera collected from B-CLL patients at defined times after alloHSCT showed selective binding to primary B-CLL cells. Pre-alloHSCT sera, donor sera, and control sera w...

  17. Immunological reactions to Salmonella FlgK and FliD flagellar proteins by broiler sera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Salmonella is the leading foodborne pathogen that causes human acute bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Chickens are considered as one of major reservoirs of this bacterium. Because the bacterial flagellum is involved in motility, adhesion, quorum sensing and other virulence activit...

  18. 21 CFR 876.5885 - Tissue culture media for human ex vivo tissue and cell culture processing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tissue culture media for human ex vivo tissue and cell culture processing applications. 876.5885 Section 876.5885 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5885 Tissue culture media for human ex vivo tissue and cell culture...

  19. Statistical Shape Analysis of the Human Ear Canal with Application to In-the-Ear Hearing Aid Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold

    2004-01-01

    This thesis is about the statistical shape analysis of the human ear canal with application to the mechanical design of in-the-ear hearing aids. Initially, it is described how a statistical shape model of the human ear canal is built based on a training set of laser-scanned ear impressions. A thin...

  20. Immunological diagnosis of human hydatid cyst using Western immunoblotting technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboubeh Hadipour

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Echinococcosis is a parasitic disease with worldwide distribution which is caused by the tapeworms Echinococcus granulosus. Diagnosis of the disease relies on imaging techniques, but the techniques are not able to differentiate the cyst from benign or malignant tumors; hence, appropriate serologic methods are required for the differential diagnosis of the infection. Materials and Methods: In this investigation, different sheep hydatid cyst antigens probed with thirty sera of patients with hydatid cyst and also thirty human normal sera using Western immunoblotting technique. Considering results of surgery as gold standard, sensitivity and specificity of Western blotting was estimated. Results: Sera of 29, 26, and 16 patients with hydatid cyst reacted with specific bands of hydatid cyst fluid (HCF, protoscolex crude antigen, and cyst wall crude antigen, respectively. However, none of the normal human sera reacted with those specific bands. Conclusion: A 20 kDa band of sheep HCF is an appropriate antigen for serodiagnosis of hydatid cyst infection.

  1. Increased levels of soluble CD226 in sera accompanied by decreased membrane CD226 expression on peripheral blood mononuclear cells from cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Zhuwei

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a cellular membrane triggering receptor, CD226 is involved in the NK cell- or CTL-mediated lysis of tumor cells of different origin, including freshly isolated tumor cells and tumor cell lines. Here, we evaluated soluble CD226 (sCD226 levels in sera, and membrane CD226 (mCD226 expression on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC from cancer patients as well as normal subjects, and demonstrated the possible function and origin of the altered sCD226, which may provide useful information for understanding the mechanisms of tumor escape and for immunodiagnosis and immunotherapy. Results Soluble CD226 levels in serum samples from cancer patients were significantly higher than those in healthy individuals (P P Conclusion These findings suggest that sCD226 might be shed from cell membranes by certain proteases, and, further, sCD226 may be used as a predictor for monitoring cancer, and more important, a possible immunotherapy target, which may be useful in clinical application.

  2. Defined Engineered Human Myocardium with Advanced Maturation for Applications in Heart Failure Modelling and Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiburcy, Malte; Hudson, James E.; Balfanz, Paul; Schlick, Susanne; Meyer, Tim; Liao, Mei-Ling Chang; Levent, Elif; Raad, Farah; Zeidler, Sebastian; Wingender, Edgar; Riegler, Johannes; Wang, Mouer; Gold, Joseph D.; Kehat, Izhak; Wettwer, Erich; Ravens, Ursula; Dierickx, Pieterjan; van Laake, Linda W.; Goumans, Marie Jose; Khadjeh, Sara; Toischer, Karl; Hasenfuss, Gerd; Couture, Larry A.; Unger, Andreas; Linke, Wolfgang A.; Araki, Toshiyuki; Neel, Benjamin; Keller, Gordon; Gepstein, Lior; Wu, Joseph C.; Zimmermann, Wolfram-Hubertus

    2017-01-01

    Background Advancing structural and functional maturation of stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes remains a key challenge for applications in disease modelling, drug screening, and heart repair. Here, we sought to advance cardiomyocyte maturation in engineered human myocardium (EHM) towards an adult phenotype under defined conditions. Methods We systematically investigated cell composition, matrix and media conditions to generate EHM from embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts with organotypic functionality under serum-free conditions. We employed morphological, functional, and transcriptome analyses to benchmark maturation of EHM. Results EHM demonstrated important structural and functional properties of postnatal myocardium, including: (1) rod-shaped cardiomyocytes with M-bands assembled as a functional syncytium; (2) systolic twitch forces at a similar level as observed in bona fide postnatal myocardium; (3) a positive force-frequency-response; (4) inotropic responses to β-adrenergic stimulation mediated via canonical β1- and β2-adrenoceptor signaling pathways; and (5) evidence for advanced molecular maturation by transcriptome profiling. EHM responded to chronic catecholamine toxicity with contractile dysfunction, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, cardiomyocyte death, and NT-proBNP release; all are classical hallmarks of heart failure. Additionally, we demonstrate scalability of EHM according to anticipated clinical demands for cardiac repair. Conclusions We provide proof-of-concept for a universally applicable technology for the engineering of macro-scale human myocardium for disease modelling and heart repair from embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes under defined, serum-free conditions. PMID:28167635

  3. Defined Engineered Human Myocardium With Advanced Maturation for Applications in Heart Failure Modeling and Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiburcy, Malte; Hudson, James E; Balfanz, Paul; Schlick, Susanne; Meyer, Tim; Chang Liao, Mei-Ling; Levent, Elif; Raad, Farah; Zeidler, Sebastian; Wingender, Edgar; Riegler, Johannes; Wang, Mouer; Gold, Joseph D; Kehat, Izhak; Wettwer, Erich; Ravens, Ursula; Dierickx, Pieterjan; van Laake, Linda W; Goumans, Marie Jose; Khadjeh, Sara; Toischer, Karl; Hasenfuss, Gerd; Couture, Larry A; Unger, Andreas; Linke, Wolfgang A; Araki, Toshiyuki; Neel, Benjamin; Keller, Gordon; Gepstein, Lior; Wu, Joseph C; Zimmermann, Wolfram-Hubertus

    2017-05-09

    Advancing structural and functional maturation of stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes remains a key challenge for applications in disease modeling, drug screening, and heart repair. Here, we sought to advance cardiomyocyte maturation in engineered human myocardium (EHM) toward an adult phenotype under defined conditions. We systematically investigated cell composition, matrix, and media conditions to generate EHM from embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts with organotypic functionality under serum-free conditions. We used morphological, functional, and transcriptome analyses to benchmark maturation of EHM. EHM demonstrated important structural and functional properties of postnatal myocardium, including: (1) rod-shaped cardiomyocytes with M bands assembled as a functional syncytium; (2) systolic twitch forces at a similar level as observed in bona fide postnatal myocardium; (3) a positive force-frequency response; (4) inotropic responses to β-adrenergic stimulation mediated via canonical β 1 - and β 2 -adrenoceptor signaling pathways; and (5) evidence for advanced molecular maturation by transcriptome profiling. EHM responded to chronic catecholamine toxicity with contractile dysfunction, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, cardiomyocyte death, and N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide release; all are classical hallmarks of heart failure. In addition, we demonstrate the scalability of EHM according to anticipated clinical demands for cardiac repair. We provide proof-of-concept for a universally applicable technology for the engineering of macroscale human myocardium for disease modeling and heart repair from embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes under defined, serum-free conditions. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Application of the mathematical modelling and human phantoms for calculation of the organ doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kluson, J.; Cechak, T.

    2005-01-01

    Increasing power of the computers hardware and new versions of the software for the radiation transport simulation and modelling of the complex experimental setups and geometrical arrangement enable to dramatically improve calculation of organ or target volume doses ( dose distributions) in the wide field of medical physics and radiation protection applications. Increase of computers memory and new software features makes it possible to use not only analytical (mathematical) phantoms but also allow constructing the voxel models of human or phantoms with voxels fine enough (e.g. 1·1·1 mm) to represent all required details. CT data can be used for the description of such voxel model geometry .Advanced scoring methods are available in the new software versions. Contribution gives the overview of such new possibilities in the modelling and doses calculations, discusses the simulation/approximation of the dosimetric quantities ( especially dose ) and calculated data interpretation. Some examples of application and demonstrations will be shown, compared and discussed. Present computational tools enables to calculate organ or target volumes doses with new quality of large voxel models/phantoms (including CT based patient specific model ), approximating the human body with high precision. Due to these features has more and more importance and use in the fields of medical and radiological physics, radiation protection, etc. (authors)

  5. Application of a hierarchical enzyme classification method reveals the role of gut microbiome in human metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Akram; Guda, Chittibabu

    2015-01-01

    vitamins. The ECemble method is able to hierarchically assign high quality enzyme annotations to genomic and metagenomic data. This study demonstrated the real application of ECemble to understand the indispensable role played by microbe-encoded enzymes in the healthy functioning of human metabolic systems.

  6. Application of a hierarchical enzyme classification method reveals the role of gut microbiome in human metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    , cofactors and vitamins. Conclusions The ECemble method is able to hierarchically assign high quality enzyme annotations to genomic and metagenomic data. This study demonstrated the real application of ECemble to understand the indispensable role played by microbe-encoded enzymes in the healthy functioning of human metabolic systems. PMID:26099921

  7. Human body heat for powering wearable devices: From thermal energy to application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thielen, Moritz; Sigrist, Lukas; Magno, Michele; Hierold, Christofer; Benini, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A complete system optimization for wearable thermal harvesting from body heat to the application is proposed. • State-of-the-art thermal harvesters and DC-DC converters are compared and classified. • Extensive simulation and experiments are carried out to characterize the harvesting performance. • A case study demonstrates the feasibility to supply a multi-sensor wearables only from body heat. - Abstract: Energy harvesting is the key technology to enable self-sustained wearable devices for the Internet of Things and medical applications. Among various types of harvesting sources such as light, vibration and radio frequency, thermoelectric generators (TEG) are a promising option due to their independence of light conditions or the activity of the wearer. This work investigates scavenging of human body heat and the optimization of the power conversion efficiency from body core to the application. We focus on the critical interaction between thermal harvester and power conditioning circuitry and compare two approaches: (1) a high output voltage, low thermal resistance μTEG combined with a high efficiency actively controlled single inductor DC-DC converter, and (2) a high thermal resistance, low electric resistance mTEG in combination with a low-input voltage coupled inductors based DC-DC converter. The mTEG approach delivers up to 65% higher output power per area in a lab setup and 1–15% in a real-world experiment on the human body depending on physical activity and environmental conditions. Using off-the-shelf and low-cost components, we achieve an average power of 260 μW (μTEG) to 280 μW (mTEG) and power densities of 13 μW cm"−"2 (μTEG) to 14 μW cm"−"2 (mTEG) for systems worn on the human wrist. With the small and lightweight harvesters optimized for wearability, 16% (mTEG) to 24% (μTEG) of the theoretical maximum efficiency is achieved in a worst-case scenario. This efficiency highly depends on the application specific conditions

  8. Human performance improvement in organizations: Potential application for the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-11-01

    This publication is primarily intended for managers and specialists in nuclear facility operating organizations working in the area of human performance improvement. It is intended to provide them with practical information they can use to improve human performance in their organizations. While some of the information provided in this publication is based upon the experience of nuclear facility operating organizations, most of it comes from human performance improvement initiatives in non-nuclear organizations and industries. The nuclear industry has a long tradition of sharing good management practices in order to foster continuous improvement. However, it is not always realized that many of the practices that are now well established initially came from non-nuclear industries and were subsequently adapted for application to nuclear power plant operating organizations. There is, therefore, good reason to periodically review non-nuclear industry practices for ideas that might have direct or indirect application to the nuclear industry in order to potentially gain benefits such as the following: new approaches to certain problem areas, insights into new or impending challenges, improvements in existing practices, benchmarking of opportunities, development of learning organizations and avoidance of collective blind spots. The preparation of this report was an activity of the project on Effective Training to Achieve Excellence in the Performance of NPP Personnel. The objective of this project is to enhance the capability of Member States to utilize proven practices developed and transferred by the IAEA for improving personnel performance. The expected outcome from this project is the increased use by organizations in Members States of proven engineering and management practices and methodologies developed and transferred by the IAEA to improve personnel performance

  9. Application of human amniotic mesenchymal cells as an allogeneic transplantation cell source in bone regenerative therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuno, Hiroaki; Yoshida, Toshiko; Nogami, Makiko; Koike, Chika; Okabe, Motonori; Noto, Zenko; Arai, Naoya; Noguchi, Makoto; Nikaido, Toshio

    2012-01-01

    Autogenous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have therapeutic applications in bone regenerative therapy due to their pluripotency. However, the ability of MSCs to proliferate and differentiate varies between donors. Furthermore, alternative sources of MSCs are required for patients with contraindications to autogenous cell therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of mesenchymal cells from the human amniotic membrane (HAM) as a source of cells for allogeneic transplantation in bone regenerative therapy. Cells that retained a proliferative capacity of more than 50 population doubling level were distinguished from other HAM cells as HAMα cells and induced to osteogenic status—their in vivo osteogenesis was subsequently investigated in rats. It was found that HAMα cells were spindle shaped and were positive for MSC markers and negative for hematopoietic stem cell markers. Alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium deposition increased with osteogenic status of HAMα cells. The expression of osteocalcin mRNA was increased in HAMα cells cultured on calcium phosphate scaffolds. Moreover, xenografted HAMα cells remained viable and produced extracellular matrix for several weeks. Thus, this study suggests that human amniotic mesenchymal cells possess osteogenic differentiation potential and could be applied to allogeneic transplantation in bone regenerative therapy. - Highlights: ► Human amniotic mesenchymal cells include cells (HAMα cells) that have the properties of MSCs. ► HAMα cells have excellent osteogenic differentiation potential. ► Osteogenic differentiation ability of HAMα was amplified by calcium phosphate scaffolds. ► HAMα cells can be applicable to allogeneic cell transplantation in bone regenerative therapy.

  10. Application of human amniotic mesenchymal cells as an allogeneic transplantation cell source in bone regenerative therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuno, Hiroaki [Department of Regenerative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Yoshida, Toshiko [Department of Regenerative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Nogami, Makiko [Department of Regenerative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Koike, Chika; Okabe, Motonori [Department of Regenerative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Noto, Zenko [Department of Regenerative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Arai, Naoya; Noguchi, Makoto [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Nikaido, Toshio, E-mail: tnikaido@med.u-toyama.ac.jp [Department of Regenerative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan)

    2012-12-01

    Autogenous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have therapeutic applications in bone regenerative therapy due to their pluripotency. However, the ability of MSCs to proliferate and differentiate varies between donors. Furthermore, alternative sources of MSCs are required for patients with contraindications to autogenous cell therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of mesenchymal cells from the human amniotic membrane (HAM) as a source of cells for allogeneic transplantation in bone regenerative therapy. Cells that retained a proliferative capacity of more than 50 population doubling level were distinguished from other HAM cells as HAM{alpha} cells and induced to osteogenic status-their in vivo osteogenesis was subsequently investigated in rats. It was found that HAM{alpha} cells were spindle shaped and were positive for MSC markers and negative for hematopoietic stem cell markers. Alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium deposition increased with osteogenic status of HAM{alpha} cells. The expression of osteocalcin mRNA was increased in HAM{alpha} cells cultured on calcium phosphate scaffolds. Moreover, xenografted HAM{alpha} cells remained viable and produced extracellular matrix for several weeks. Thus, this study suggests that human amniotic mesenchymal cells possess osteogenic differentiation potential and could be applied to allogeneic transplantation in bone regenerative therapy. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Human amniotic mesenchymal cells include cells (HAM{alpha} cells) that have the properties of MSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HAM{alpha} cells have excellent osteogenic differentiation potential. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Osteogenic differentiation ability of HAM{alpha} was amplified by calcium phosphate scaffolds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HAM{alpha} cells can be applicable to allogeneic cell transplantation in bone regenerative therapy.

  11. In-plant application of industry experience to enhance human reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannaman, G.W.; Singh, A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the way that modern data-base computer tools can enhance the ability to collect, organize, evaluate, and use industry experience. By combining the computer tools with knowledge from human reliability assessment tools, data, and frameworks, the data base can become a tool for collecting and assessing the lessons learned from past events. By integrating the data-base system with plant risk models, engineers can focus on those activities that can enhance over-all system reliability. The evaluation helps identify technology and tools to reduce human errors during operations and maintenance. Learning from both in-plant and industry experience can help enhance safety and reduce the cost of plant operations. Utility engineers currently assess events that occur in nuclear plants throughout the world for in-plant applicability. Established computer information networks, documents, bulletins, and other information sources provide a large number of event descriptions to help individual plants benefit from this industry experience. The activities for coordinating reviews of event descriptions from other plants for in-plant applications require substantial engineering time to collect, organize, evaluate, and apply. Data-base tools can help engineers efficiently handle and sort the data so that they can concentrate on understanding the importance of the event, developing cost-effective interventions, and communicating implementation plans for plant improvement. An Electric Power Research Institute human reliability project has developed a classification system with modern data-base software to help engineers efficiently process, assess, and apply information contained in the events to enhance plant operation. Plant-specific classification of industry experience provides a practical method for efficiently taking into account industry when planning maintenance activities and reviewing plant safety

  12. Two-site sandwich immunoradiometric assay of human lymphotoxin with monoclonal antibodies and its applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meager, A; Parti, S; Leung, H; Woolley, J; Peil, E; Sidhu, S; Roberts, T

    1987-11-23

    Three monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs L49-15, L81-11 and L238-14) were raised against recombinant human lymphotoxin (rLT) derived from E. coli containing the cDNA sequence specifying LT. These MoAbs were ideal reagents for immunoassay of LT and a very sensitive, highly specific immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) was developed. This assay was rapid to perform and was capable of detecting as little as 10 pg/ml of LT. Application of the LT IRMA in combination with previously developed human gamma-interferon (IFN-..gamma..) and human tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-specific IRMA permitted independent estimations of these three substances to be carried out in parallel. By these means, it was found that RPMI 1788 lymphoblastoid cell line produced both LT and TNF, but not IFN-..gamma... Extensive analyses on cytokine (monokine and lymphokine) preparations derived from a variety of activated lymphocytes are also reported. Co-production of LT, TNF, and IFN-..gamma.. was a common finding, even occurring in alloantigen-specific T helper cell clones. 45 refs.; 3 figs.; 4 tabs.

  13. Fluorescence properties of human teeth and dental calculus for clinical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong-Keun

    2015-04-01

    Fluorescent emission of human teeth and dental calculus is important for the esthetic rehabilitation of teeth, diagnosis of dental caries, and detection of dental calculus. The purposes of this review were to summarize the fluorescence and phosphorescence of human teeth by ambient ultraviolet (UV) light, to investigate the clinically relevant fluorescence measurement methods in dentistry, and to review the fluorescence of teeth and dental calculus by specific wavelength light. Dentine was three times more phosphorescent than enamel. When exposed to light sources containing UV components, the fluorescence of human teeth gives them the quality of vitality, and fluorescent emission with a peak of 440 nm is observed. Esthetic restorative materials should have fluorescence properties similar to those of natural teeth. Based on the fluorescence of teeth and restorative materials as determined with a spectrophotometer, a fluorescence parameter was defined. As to the fluorescence spectra by a specific wavelength, varied wavelengths were investigated for clinical applications, and several methods for the diagnosis of dental caries and the detection of dental calculus were developed. Since fluorescent properties of dental hard tissues have been used and would be expanded in diverse fields of clinical practice, these properties should be investigated further, embracing newly developed optical techniques.

  14. Accuracy of human motion capture systems for sport applications; state-of-the-art review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kruk, Eline; Reijne, Marco M

    2018-05-09

    Sport research often requires human motion capture of an athlete. It can, however, be labour-intensive and difficult to select the right system, while manufacturers report on specifications which are determined in set-ups that largely differ from sport research in terms of volume, environment and motion. The aim of this review is to assist researchers in the selection of a suitable motion capture system for their experimental set-up for sport applications. An open online platform is initiated, to support (sport)researchers in the selection of a system and to enable them to contribute and update the overview. systematic review; Method: Electronic searches in Scopus, Web of Science and Google Scholar were performed, and the reference lists of the screened articles were scrutinised to determine human motion capture systems used in academically published studies on sport analysis. An overview of 17 human motion capture systems is provided, reporting the general specifications given by the manufacturer (weight and size of the sensors, maximum capture volume, environmental feasibilities), and calibration specifications as determined in peer-reviewed studies. The accuracy of each system is plotted against the measurement range. The overview and chart can assist researchers in the selection of a suitable measurement system. To increase the robustness of the database and to keep up with technological developments, we encourage researchers to perform an accuracy test prior to their experiment and to add to the chart and the system overview (online, open access).

  15. A novel assay for discovery and characterization of pro-apoptotic drugs and for monitoring apoptosis in patient sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bivén, K; Erdal, H; Hägg, M; Ueno, T; Zhou, R; Lynch, M; Rowley, B; Wood, J; Zhang, C; Toi, M; Shoshan, M C; Linder, S

    2003-06-01

    We have developed an apoptosis assay based on measurement of a neoepitope of cytokeratin-18 (CK18-Asp396) exposed after caspase-cleavage and detected by the monoclonal antibody M30. The total amount of caspase-cleaved CK18 which has accumulated in cells and tissue culture media during apoptosis is measured by ELISA. The sensitivity is sufficient for use in the 96-well format to allow high-through-put screening of drug libraries. We here describe strategies allowing classification of pro-apoptotic compounds according to their profiles of induction of apoptosis in the presence of pharmacological inhibitors. The time course of induction of CK18 cleavage can furthermore be used to distinguish structurally similar compounds. We propose that compounds that induce rapid CK18 cleavage have mechanisms of actions distinct from conventional genotoxic and microtubuli-targeting agents, and we present one example of an agent that induces almost immediate mitochondrial depolarization and cytochrome c release. Finally, CK18-Asp396 cleavage products are released from cells in tissue culture, and presumably from tumor cells in vivo. These products can be measured in sera from cancer patients. We present evidence suggesting that it will be possible to use the M30-ELISA assay for measuring chemotherapy-induced apoptosis in patient sera, opening possibilities for monitoring therapy.

  16. Applicability of three anti-PrP peptide sera including staining of tonsils and brainstem of sheep with scrapie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garssen, G.J.; Keulen, van L.J.M.; Farquhar, C.F.; Smits, M.A.; Jacobs, J.G.; Bossers, A.; Meloen, R.H.; Langeveld, J.P.M.

    2000-01-01

    Three rabbit antibodies (R521, R505, R524) were produced, and raised to synthetic peptides corresponding to residues 94-105, 100-111, and 223-234, respectively, of the sheep prion protein (PrP). Epitope mapping analysis revealed the monospecific character of antisera R505 and R524. In addition to

  17. Radio sterilized human ligaments and their clinical application;Ligamentos humanos radioesterilizados y su aplicacion clinica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luna Z, D.; Reyes F, M. L. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Diaz M, I.; Hernandez R, G., E-mail: daniel.luna@inin.gob.m [Centro Estatal de Trasplantes del Estado de Mexico, Pablo Sidar No. 602, Col. Universidad, 50130 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2009-10-15

    The ligaments are human tissues that are used in the transplantation area. A ligament is an anatomical structure in band form, composed by resistant fibers that connect the tissues that unite the bones with the articulations. In an articulation, the ligaments allow and facilitate the movement inside the natural anatomical directions, while it restricts those movements that are anatomically abnormal, impeding lesions that could arise of this type of movements. The kneecap ligament is a very important tissue in the knee mobility and of walking in the human beings. This ligament can injure it because of automobile accidents, for sport lesions or illnesses, and in many cases the only form of recovering the knee movement is carried out a transplant with the purpose of replacing the damage ligament by allo gen kneecap ligament processed in specialized Tissue Banks where the tissue is sterilized with gamma radiation of {sup 60}Co at very low temperatures, obtaining high quality ligaments for clinical application in injured patients. The kneecap ligaments are processed in the Tissue Banks with a segment of kneecap bone, a segment of tibial bone, the contained ligament between both bones and in some cases a fraction of the quadriceps tendon. In this work is given a description of the selection method of the tissue that includes the donor's serologic control, the kneecap ligament processing in the Radio Sterilized Tissues Bank, its sterilization with gamma radiation of {sup 60}Co, also it is indicated like the clinical application of the allo gen ligament was realized in a hasty patient and whose previous crossed ligament was injured. Finally the results are presented from the tissue obtaining until the clinical application of it is, and in this case is observed a favorable initial evolution of the transplantation patient. (Author)

  18. Bayesian belief networks for human reliability analysis: A review of applications and gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mkrtchyan, L.; Podofillini, L.; Dang, V.N.

    2015-01-01

    The use of Bayesian Belief Networks (BBNs) in risk analysis (and in particular Human Reliability Analysis, HRA) is fostered by a number of features, attractive in fields with shortage of data and consequent reliance on subjective judgments: the intuitive graphical representation, the possibility of combining diverse sources of information, the use the probabilistic framework to characterize uncertainties. In HRA, BBN applications are steadily increasing, each emphasizing a different BBN feature or a different HRA aspect to improve. This paper aims at a critical review of these features as well as at suggesting research needs. Five groups of BBN applications are analysed: modelling of organizational factors, analysis of the relationships among failure influencing factors, BBN-based extensions of existing HRA methods, dependency assessment among human failure events, assessment of situation awareness. Further, the paper analyses the process for building BBNs and in particular how expert judgment is used in the assessment of the BBN conditional probability distributions. The gaps identified in the review suggest the need for establishing more systematic frameworks to integrate the different sources of information relevant for HRA (cognitive models, empirical data, and expert judgment) and to investigate algorithms to avoid elicitation of many relationships via expert judgment. - Highlights: • We analyze BBN uses for HRA applications; but some conclusions can be generalized. • Special review focus on BBN building approaches, key for model acceptance. • Gaps relate to the transparency of the BBN building and quantification phases. • Need for more systematic framework to integrate different sources of information. • Need of ways to avoid elicitation of many relationships via expert judgment

  19. Development of a Compact Wireless Laplacian Electrode Module for Electromyograms and Its Human Interface Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Ichikawa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we developed a compact wireless Laplacian electrode module for electromyograms (EMGs. One of the advantages of the Laplacian electrode configuration is that EMGs obtained with it are expected to be sensitive to the firing of the muscle directly beneath the measurement site. The performance of the developed electrode module was investigated in two human interface applications: character-input interface and detection of finger movement during finger Braille typing. In the former application, the electrode module was combined with an EMG-mouse click converter circuit. In the latter, four electrode modules were used for detection of finger movements during finger Braille typing. Investigation on the character-input interface indicated that characters could be input stably by contraction of (a the masseter, (b trapezius, (c anterior tibialis and (d flexor carpi ulnaris muscles. This wide applicability is desirable when the interface is applied to persons with physical disabilities because the disability differs one to another. The investigation also demonstrated that the electrode module can work properly without any skin preparation. Finger movement detection experiments showed that each finger movement was more clearly detectable when comparing to EMGs recorded with conventional electrodes, suggesting that the Laplacian electrode module is more suitable for detecting the timing of finger movement during typing. This could be because the Laplacian configuration enables us to record EMGs just beneath the electrode. These results demonstrate the advantages of the Laplacian electrode module.

  20. Design engineer perceptions and attitudes regarding human factors application to nuclear power plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, R.; Jones, J. M.

    2006-01-01

    With the renewed interest in nuclear power and the possibility of constructing new reactors within the next decade in the U.S., there are several challenges for the regulators, designers, and vendors. One challenge is to ensure that Human Factors Engineering (HFE) is involved, and correctly applied in the life-cycle design of the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). As an important part of the effort, people would ask: 'is the system-design engineer effectively incorporating HFE in the NPPs design?' The present study examines the sagacity of Instrumentation and Control design engineers on issues relating to awareness, attitude, and application of HFE in NPP design. A questionnaire was developed and distributed, focusing on the perceptions and attitudes of the design engineers. The responses revealed that, while the participants had a relatively high positive attitude about HFE, their awareness and application of HFE were moderate. The results also showed that senior engineers applied HFE more frequently in their design work than young engineers. This study provides some preliminary results and implications for improved HFE education and application in NPP design. (authors)

  1. Sunscreens in human plasma and urine after repeated whole-body topical application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janjua, N.R.; Kongshoj, B.; Andersson, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    . For all three compounds, only sporadic measurements of percutaneous absorption and excretion after topical application in humans have been described. Methods In this study, 32 healthy volunteers, 15 young males and 17 postmenopausal females, were exposed to daily whole-body topical application of 2 mg...... the first application, all three sunscreens were detectable in plasma. The maximum median plasma concentrations were 187 ng/mL BP-3, 16 ng/mL 4-MBC and 7 ng/mL OMC for females and 238 ng/mL BP-3, 18 ng/mL 4-MBC and 16 ng/mL OMC for men. In the females, urine levels of 44 ng/mL BP-3 and 4 ng/mL of 4-MBC...... and 6 ng/mL OMC were found, and in the males, urine levels of 81 ng/mL BP-3, 4 ng/mL of 4-MBC and OMC were found. In plasma, the 96-h median concentrations were higher compared with the 24-h concentrations for 4-MBC and OMC in men and for BP-3 and 4-MBC in females Udgivelsesdato: 2008/4...

  2. Antibodies to Anthrax Toxin in Humans and Guinea Pigs and Their Relevance to Protective Immunity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Turnbull, P

    1988-01-01

    ... stimulation of more than just production of antibody to PA. Titers to the three components in sera of individuals with histories of clinically diagnosed anthrax as well as from human vaccinees are included in the report.

  3. Results of a nuclear power plant Application of a new technique for human error analysis (ATHEANA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forester, J.A.; Whitehead, D.W.; Kolaczkowski, A.M.; Thompson, C.M.

    1997-01-01

    A new method to analyze human errors has been demonstrated at a pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant. This was the first application of the new method referred to as A Technique for Human Error Analysis (ATHEANA). The main goals of the demonstration were to test the ATHEANA process as described in the frame-of-reference manual and the implementation guideline, test a training package developed for the method, test the hypothesis that plant operators and trainers have significant insight into the error-forcing-contexts (EFCs) that can make unsafe actions (UAs) more likely, and to identify ways to improve the method and its documentation. A set of criteria to evaluate the open-quotes successclose quotes of the ATHEANA method as used in the demonstration was identified. A human reliability analysis (HRA) team was formed that consisted of an expert in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) with some background in HRA (not ATHEANA) and four personnel from the nuclear power plant. Personnel from the plant included two individuals from their PRA staff and two individuals from their training staff. Both individuals from training are currently licensed operators and one of them was a senior reactor operator open-quotes on shiftclose quotes until a few months before the demonstration. The demonstration was conducted over a 5 month period and was observed by members of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's ATHEANA development team, who also served as consultants to the HRA team when necessary. Example results of the demonstration to date, including identified human failure events (HFEs), UAs, and EFCs are discussed. Also addressed is how simulator exercises are used in the ATHEANA demonstration project

  4. Radiolabelled soman binding to sera from Rats, Guinea Pigs and Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, David E; Cerasoli, Douglas; Maxwell, Donald M

    2018-02-01

    Soman is a highly toxic organophosphorus chemical warfare compound that binds rapidly and irreversibility to a variety of serine active enzymes, i.e., butyryl- and acetyl-cholinesterases and carboxylesterase. The in vivo toxicity of soman has been reported to vary significantly in different animal species, such as rats and guinea pigs or non-human primates. This species variation makes it difficult to identify appropriate animal models for therapeutic drug development under the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Animal Rule. Since species variation in soman toxicity has been correlated with species variation in serum carboxylesterase, we undertook to determine if serum from guinea pigs, rats and non-human primates bound different levels of soman in vitro in the presence of equimolar concentrations of soman. Our results demonstrated that the amount of soman bound in the serum of rats was 4 uM, but essentially null in guinea pigs or non-human primates. The results strongly correlate with the presence or absence of carboxylesterase in the serum of animals and the difference in the toxic dose of soman in various species. Our results support prior suggestions that guinea pigs and non-human primates may be better animal models for the development of antidotes under the FDA Animal Rule. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. A novel system for transcutaneous application of carbon dioxide causing an "artificial Bohr effect" in the human body.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshitada Sakai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Carbon dioxide (CO(2 therapy refers to the transcutaneous administration of CO(2 for therapeutic purposes. This effect has been explained by an increase in the pressure of O(2 in tissues known as the Bohr effect. However, there have been no reports investigating the oxygen dissociation of haemoglobin (Hb during transcutaneous application of CO(2in vivo. In this study, we investigate whether the Bohr effect is caused by transcutaneous application of CO2 in human living body. METHODS: We used a novel system for transcutaneous application of CO(2 using pure CO(2 gas, hydrogel, and a plastic adaptor. The validity of the CO(2 hydrogel was confirmed in vitro using a measuring device for transcutaneous CO(2 absorption using rat skin. Next, we measured the pH change in the human triceps surae muscle during transcutaneous application of CO(2 using phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31P-MRS in vivo. In addition, oxy- and deoxy-Hb concentrations were measured with near-infrared spectroscopy in the human arm with occulted blood flow to investigate O2 dissociation from Hb caused by transcutaneous application of CO(2. RESULTS: The rat skin experiment showed that CO(2 hydrogel enhanced CO(2 gas permeation through the rat skin. The intracellular pH of the triceps surae muscle decreased significantly 10 min. after transcutaneous application of CO(2. The NIRS data show the oxy-Hb concentration decreased significantly 4 min. after CO(2 application, and deoxy-Hb concentration increased significantly 2 min. after CO(2 application in the CO(2-applied group compared to the control group. Oxy-Hb concentration significantly decreased while deoxy-Hb concentration significantly increased after transcutaneous CO(2 application. CONCLUSIONS: Our novel transcutaneous CO(2 application facilitated an O(2 dissociation from Hb in the human body, thus providing evidence of the Bohr effect in vivo.

  6. Protein crystallization with microseed matrix screening: application to human germline antibody Fabs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obmolova, Galina; Malia, Thomas J.; Teplyakov, Alexey; Sweet, Raymond W.; Gilliland, Gary L.

    2014-01-01

    The power of microseed matrix screening is demonstrated in the crystallization of a panel of antibody Fab fragments. The crystallization of 16 human antibody Fab fragments constructed from all pairs of four different heavy chains and four different light chains was enabled by employing microseed matrix screening (MMS). In initial screening, diffraction-quality crystals were obtained for only three Fabs, while many Fabs produced hits that required optimization. Application of MMS, using the initial screens and/or refinement screens, resulted in diffraction-quality crystals of these Fabs. Five Fabs that failed to give hits in the initial screen were crystallized by cross-seeding MMS followed by MMS optimization. The crystallization protocols and strategies that resulted in structure determination of all 16 Fabs are presented. These results illustrate the power of MMS and provide a basis for developing future strategies for macromolecular crystallization

  7. Improved method and its clinical application of a radioimmunoassay of arginine vasopressin in human serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, H.; Maier, V.; Franz, H.W.; Ulm Univ.; Ulm Univ.

    1977-01-01

    A sensitive and specific double-antibody radioimmunoassay for measuring circulating levels of arginine vasopressin in human serum is described. It is possible to detect arginine vasopressin levels of 1 μU/ml serum without extraction procedure. Normal subjects were found to have 5.7 +- 4.4 μU/ml after a dehydration period of 12 hours. Water loading diminished arginine vasopressin concentrations while dehydration incrased it. Application of furosemide over a period of 14 days brought forth constant but not significant decreases. Subjects suffering from psychogenic polydipsia showed normal levels in spite of drinking 8-12 liters of water per day. Patients suffering from liver cirrhosis with ascites showed significantly higher arginine vasopressin levels, approaching normal values when ascites was under control. (orig.) [de

  8. Possibility of semiconductor counters application for internal contamination measurement of whole human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunic, O.; Orlic, M.; Bek-Uzarov, Dj.; Pavlovic, S.; Pavlovic, R.

    1997-01-01

    The possibility of high resolution semiconductor counters application in 'Vinca' Whole Body Counter for direct beta-gamma internal contamination measurement are discussed, assuming the following relevant characteristics: efficiency, resolution and counter price. A comparison with appropriate characteristics of NaI(Tl) crystal used in 'Vinca' WBC is treated. It is evident that the scintillation counters have the higher detection efficiency, but HPGe counters having much better resolution and recently lowest prices are also acceptable to join the existing NaI(Tl) counters with the HPGe counters in the same time, allow better spectral analyses of the human body activity and additionally more precise estimation of the equivalent doses rate which is generally a essential problem in WBC measurements. (author)

  9. Transcriptional responses of human aortic endothelial cells to nanoconstructs used in biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Philip J; Honeggar, Matthew; Malugin, Alexander; Herd, Heather; Thiagarajan, Giridhar; Ghandehari, Hamidreza

    2013-08-05

    Understanding the potential toxicities of manufactured nanoconstructs used for drug delivery and biomedical applications may help improve their safety. We sought to determine if surface-modified silica nanoparticles and poly(amido amine) dendrimers elicit genotoxic responses on vascular endothelial cells. The nanoconstructs utilized in this study had a distinct geometry (spheres vs worms) and surface charge, which were used to evaluate the contributions of these parameters to any potential adverse effects of these materials. Time-dependent cytotoxicity was found for surfaced-functionalized but geometrically distinct silica materials, while amine-terminated dendrimers displayed time-independent cytotoxicity and carboxylated dendrimers were nontoxic in our assays. Transcriptomic evaluation of human aortic endothelial cell (HAEC) responses indicated time-dependent gene induction following silica exposure, consisting of cell cycle gene repression and pro-inflammatory gene induction. However, the dendrimers did not induce genomic toxicity, despite displaying general cytotoxicity.

  10. X-spectrographic method for plutonium detection. Application to contamination measurements in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel Trouble

    1967-01-01

    After reviewing the radio-toxicology of plutonium 239 and conventional detection methods using its α-radiation, the author considers the measurement of the X emission spectrum of plutonium 239 using a proportional counter filled with argon under pressure. This preliminary work leads to the third part of this research involving the detailed study of the possibilities of applying thin alkali halide crystal scintillators to the detection of soft plutonium X-rays; there follows a systematic study of all the parameters liable to render the detection as sensitive as possible: movement due to the photomultiplier itself and its accessory electronic equipment, nature and size of the crystal scintillator as well as its mode of preparation, shielding against external parasitic radiation. Examples of some applications to the measurement of contamination in humans give an idea of the sensitivity of this method. (author) [fr

  11. Improved method and its clinical application of a radioimmunoassay of arginine vasopressin in human serum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, H; Maier, V; Franz, H W [Ulm Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Abt. Endokrinologie und Stoffwechsel; Ulm Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Zentrum fuer Innere Medizin und Kinderheilkunde; Ulm Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Sektion Nephrologie)

    1977-05-01

    A sensitive and specific double-antibody radioimmunoassay for measuring circulating levels of arginine vasopressin in human serum is described. It is possible to detect arginine vasopressin levels of 1 ..mu..U/ml serum without extraction procedure. Normal subjects were found to have 5.7 +- 4.4 ..mu..U/ml after a dehydration period of 12 hours. Water loading diminished arginine vasopressin concentrations while dehydration incrased it. Application of furosemide over a period of 14 days brought forth constant but not significant decreases. Subjects suffering from psychogenic polydipsia showed normal levels in spite of drinking 8-12 liters of water per day. Patients suffering from liver cirrhosis with ascites showed significantly higher arginine vasopressin levels, approaching normal values when ascites was under control.

  12. A research on applications of qualitative reasoning techniques in Human Acts Simulation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Far, B.H.

    1992-04-01

    Human Acts Simulation Program (HASP) is a ten-year research project of the Computing and Information Systems Center of JAERI. In HASP the goal is developing programs for an advanced intelligent robot to accomplish multiple instructions (for instance, related to surveillance, inspection and maintenance) in nuclear power plants. Some recent artificial intelligence techniques can contribute to this project. This report introduces some original contributions concerning application of Qualitative Reasoning (QR) techniques in HASP. The focus is on the knowledge-intensive tasks, including model-based reasoning, analytic learning, fault diagnosis and functional reasoning. The multi-level extended qualitative modeling for the Skill-Rule-Knowledge (S-R-K) based reasoning, that included the coordination and timing of events, Qualitative Sensitivity analysis (Q S A), Subjective Qualitative Fault Diagnosis (S Q F D) and Qualitative Function Formation (Q F F ) techniques are introduced. (author) 123 refs

  13. Parvovirus B19 infections in state of Rio de Janeiro, Brasil: 526 sera analyzed by IgM-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MCL Mendonça

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study were analyzed 526 sera; the patients aged from two days to 65 years old presenting exanthema, which was the most frequent symptom observed, besides fever, adenomegaly, and arthralgia. These sera were negative by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IgM-ELISA for either rubella (495, toxoplasma (41, cytomegalovirus (12, measles (40, dengue (56, and they were submitted to nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR for B19 DNA and commercial IgM-ELISA for B19. In 39 abortion cases, IgM or DNA were not detected, therefore they were not took into account for analysis. Specific DNA and IgM were detected respectively in 71 (14.5% and IgM in 62 (12.7% sera from 487 sera analyzed. IgM and DNA were simultaneously detected in 43 (8.8%, while agreement among the results by PCR and IgM-ELISA was observed in 440 (90.4%. The sera were collected from January 1999 to December 2000, most of them in 1999 (325, during winter and spring. The major number of clinical cases was observed in the age group from one to ten years old. IgM or DNA were detected in 23 from 51 municipal districts of the state of Rio de Janeiro, where the samples were collected.

  14. Human reliability analysis—Taxonomy and praxes of human entropy boundary conditions for marine and offshore applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Ladan, S.B.; Turan, O.

    2012-01-01

    This is the first stage towards the development of a human reliability model called human entropy (HENT). The paper presents qualitative and quantitative taxonomies and praxes of performance shaping factors (PSF) for Marine and Offshore operations. Three structured and guided expert elicitation methods were used in this study. The experts interrogated accident reports and databases from which the generic root causes of failures/accidents in operations are determined. The elicitations led to the development of 9 qualitative and quantitative human influencing factors, which are called Human Entropy Boundary Conditions (HEBC). Further explications of the 9 HEBC gave birth to 137 quantifiable explanatory variables, which are called hypothetical constructs (HyC). The HyCs are used to identify potential risks due to shrinkages in safety standards. Human entropy is a detour from traditional human error and was used as a result of tripartite human failure modes; error, local rationality and extraneous acts, all of which signify disorderliness and are seemingly inevitable in maritime operations. The praxes and scaling of HEBC was developed as guidance towards a practical oriented HRA and provide inputs for measuring human disorderliness in maritime operations.

  15. Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Technology and Cardiomyocyte Generation: Progress and Clinical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Di Baldassarre

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs are reprogrammed cells that have hallmarks similar to embryonic stem cells including the capacity of self-renewal and differentiation into cardiac myocytes. The improvements in reprogramming and differentiating methods achieved in the past 10 years widened the use of hiPSCs, especially in cardiac research. hiPSC-derived cardiac myocytes (CMs recapitulate phenotypic differences caused by genetic variations, making them attractive human disease models and useful tools for drug discovery and toxicology testing. In addition, hiPSCs can be used as sources of cells for cardiac regeneration in animal models. Here, we review the advances in the genetic and epigenetic control of cardiomyogenesis that underlies the significant improvement of the induced reprogramming of somatic cells to CMs; the methods used to improve scalability of throughput assays for functional screening and drug testing in vitro; the phenotypic characteristics of hiPSCs-derived CMs and their ability to rescue injured CMs through paracrine effects; we also cover the novel approaches in tissue engineering for hiPSC-derived cardiac tissue generation, and finally, their immunological features and the potential use in biomedical applications.

  16. Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Technology and Cardiomyocyte Generation: Progress and Clinical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Baldassarre, Angela; Cimetta, Elisa; Bollini, Sveva; Gaggi, Giulia; Ghinassi, Barbara

    2018-05-25

    Human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are reprogrammed cells that have hallmarks similar to embryonic stem cells including the capacity of self-renewal and differentiation into cardiac myocytes. The improvements in reprogramming and differentiating methods achieved in the past 10 years widened the use of hiPSCs, especially in cardiac research. hiPSC-derived cardiac myocytes (CMs) recapitulate phenotypic differences caused by genetic variations, making them attractive human disease models and useful tools for drug discovery and toxicology testing. In addition, hiPSCs can be used as sources of cells for cardiac regeneration in animal models. Here, we review the advances in the genetic and epigenetic control of cardiomyogenesis that underlies the significant improvement of the induced reprogramming of somatic cells to CMs; the methods used to improve scalability of throughput assays for functional screening and drug testing in vitro; the phenotypic characteristics of hiPSCs-derived CMs and their ability to rescue injured CMs through paracrine effects; we also cover the novel approaches in tissue engineering for hiPSC-derived cardiac tissue generation, and finally, their immunological features and the potential use in biomedical applications.

  17. Modification of the surface of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles to enable their safe application in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strehl, Cindy; Maurizi, Lionel; Gaber, Timo; Hoff, Paula; Broschard, Thomas; Poole, A Robin; Hofmann, Heinrich; Buttgereit, Frank

    Combined individually tailored methods for diagnosis and therapy (theragnostics) could be beneficial in destructive diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis. Nanoparticles are promising candidates for theragnostics due to their excellent biocompatibility. Nanoparticle modifications, such as improved surface coating, are in development to meet various requirements, although safety concerns mean that modified nanoparticles require further review before their use in medical applications is permitted. We have previously demonstrated that iron oxide nanoparticles with amino-polyvinyl alcohol (a-PVA) adsorbed on their surfaces have the unwanted effect of increasing human immune cell cytokine secretion. We hypothesized that this immune response was caused by free-floating PVA. The aim of the present study was to prevent unwanted immune reactions by further surface modification of the a-PVA nanoparticles. After cross-linking of PVA to nanoparticles to produce PVA-grafted nanoparticles, and reduction of their zeta potential, the effects on cell viability and cytokine secretion were analyzed. PVA-grafted nanoparticles still stimulated elevated cytokine secretion from human immune cells; however, this was inhibited after reduction of the zeta potential. In conclusion, covalent cross-linking of PVA to nanoparticles and adjustment of the surface charge rendered them nontoxic to immune cells, nonimmunogenic, and potentially suitable for use as theragnostic agents.

  18. Application of Recombinant Proteins for Serodiagnosis of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Humans and Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahmand, Mahin; Nahrevanian, Hossein

    2016-07-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a zoonotic disease caused by leishmania species. Dogs are considered to be the main reservoir of VL. A number of methods and antigen-based assays are used for the diagnosis of leishmaniasis. However, currently available methods are mainly based on direct examination of tissues for the presence of parasites, which is highly invasive. A variety of serological tests are commonly applied for VL diagnosis, including indirect fluorescence antibody test, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), dot-ELISA, direct agglutination test, Western-blotting, and immunochromatographic test. However, when soluble antigens are used, serological tests are less specific due to cross-reactivity with other parasitic diseases. Several studies have attempted to replace soluble antigens with recombinant proteins to improve the sensitivity and the specificity of the immunodiagnostic tests. Major technological advances in recombinant antigens as reagents for the serological diagnosis of VL have led to high sensitivity and specificity of these serological tests. A great number of recombinant proteins have been shown to be effective for the diagnosis of leishmania infection in dogs, the major reservoir of L. infantum. Although few recombinant proteins with high efficacy provide reasonable results for the diagnosis of human and canine VL, more optimization is still needed for the appropriate antigens to provide high-throughput performance. This review aims to explore the application of different recombinant proteins for the serodiagnosis of VL in humans and dogs.

  19. An efficient spectrofluorimetric method adopts doxazosin, terazosin and alfuzosin coupling with orthophthalaldehyde: Application in human plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Mahmoud A.; Mohamed, Abdel-Maaboud I.; Derayea, Sayed M.; Hammad, Mohamed A.; Mohamed, Abobakr A.

    2018-04-01

    A new, selective and sensitive spectrofluorimetric method was designed for the quantitation of doxazosin (DOX), terazosin (TER) and alfuzosin (ALF) in their dosage forms and human plasma. The method adopts efficient derivatization of the studied drugs with ortho-phthalaldehyde (OPA), in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol in borate buffer (pH 9.7) to generate a highly fluorescent isoindole derivatives, which can strongly enhance the fluorescence intensities of the studied drugs, allowing their sensitive determination at 430 nm after excitation at 337 nm. The fluorescence-concentration plots were rectilinear over the ranges (10.0-400.0) ng/mL. Detection and quantification limits were found to be (0.52-3.88) and (1.59-11.76) ng/mL, respectively. The proposed method was validated according to ICH guidelines, and successfully applied for the determination of pharmaceutical preparations of the studied drugs. Moreover, the high sensitivity of the proposed method permits its successful application to the analysis of the studied drugs in spiked human plasma with % recovery (96.12 ± 1.34-100.66 ± 0.57, n = 3). A proposal for the reaction mechanism was presented.

  20. Light ions radiobiological effects on human tumoral cells: measurements modelling and application to hadron-therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalade, P.

    2005-11-01

    In classical radiotherapy, the characteristics of photons interactions undergo limits for the treatment of radioresistant and not well located tumours. Pioneering treatments of patients at the Lawrence Laboratory at Berkeley has demonstrated two advantages of hadrons beams: the Relative Biologic Effect (the RBE) and the ballistic of the beams. Since 1994, the clinical centre at Chiba, has demonstrated successfully the applicability of the method. A physics group, managed by G. Kraft, at Darmstadt in Germany, has underlined the advantages of carbon beams. An European pool, called ENGIGHT (European Network for LIGHt ion Therapy) has been created in which the French ETOILE project appeared. The purpose of the thesis concerns measurements and models of 'in vitro' human cells survival. In the first part, the nowadays situation in particles interactions, tracks and cells structures and radiobiology is presented here. The second is devoted to the models based on the beam tracks and localization of the physical dose. Discussion of sensitivity to various parameters of the model has been realized with the help of numerical simulations. Finally the predictions of the improved model has been compared to experimental irradiations of human cells with argon and carbon beams of the GANIL machine. Conclusion of such study shows the performance and limits of a local model for predicting the radiobiological efficiency of light ions in hadron-therapy. (author)

  1. Human-centred design in global health: A scoping review of applications and contexts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra N Bazzano

    Full Text Available Health and wellbeing are determined by a number of complex, interrelated factors. The application of design thinking to questions around health may prove valuable and complement existing approaches. A number of public health projects utilizing human centered design (HCD, or design thinking, have recently emerged, but no synthesis of the literature around these exists. The results of a scoping review of current research on human centered design for health outcomes are presented. The review aimed to understand why and how HCD can be valuable in the contexts of health related research. Results identified pertinent literature as well as gaps in information on the use of HCD for public health research, design, implementation and evaluation. A variety of contexts were identified in which design has been used for health. Global health and design thinking have different underlying conceptual models and terminology, creating some inherent tensions, which could be overcome through clear communication and documentation in collaborative projects. The review concludes with lessons learned from the review on how future projects can better integrate design thinking with global health research.

  2. Human factors perspective on the reliability of NDT in nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertovic, Marija; Mueller, Christina; Fahlbruch, Babette

    2013-01-01

    A series of research studies have been conducted over the course of five years venturing into the fields of in-service inspections (ISI) in nuclear power plants (NPPs) and inspection of manufactured components to be used for permanent nuclear waste disposal. This paper will provide an overview of four research studies, present selected experimental results and suggest ways for optimization of the NDT process, procedures, and training. The experimental results have shown that time pressure and mental workload negatively influence the quality of the manual inspection performance. Noticeable were influences of the organization of the working schedule, communication, procedures, supervision, and demonstration task. Customized Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) was used to identify potential human risks, arising during acquisition and evaluation of NDT data. Several preventive measures were suggested and furthermore discussed, with respect to problems that could arise from their application. Experimental results show that implementing human redundancy in critical tasks, such as defect identification, as well as using an automated aid (software) to help operators in decision making about the existence and size of defects, could lead to other kinds of problems, namely social loafing and automation bias that might affect the reliability of NDT in an undesired manner. Shifting focus from the operator, as the main source of errors, to the organization, as the underlying source, is a recommended approach to ensure safety. (orig.) [de

  3. Quantification of human motion: gait analysis-benefits and limitations to its application to clinical problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Sheldon R

    2004-12-01

    The technology supporting the analysis of human motion has advanced dramatically. Past decades of locomotion research have provided us with significant knowledge about the accuracy of tests performed, the understanding of the process of human locomotion, and how clinical testing can be used to evaluate medical disorders and affect their treatment. Gait analysis is now recognized as clinically useful and financially reimbursable for some medical conditions. Yet, the routine clinical use of gait analysis has seen very limited growth. The issue of its clinical value is related to many factors, including the applicability of existing technology to addressing clinical problems; the limited use of such tests to address a wide variety of medical disorders; the manner in which gait laboratories are organized, tests are performed, and reports generated; and the clinical understanding and expectations of laboratory results. Clinical use is most hampered by the length of time and costs required for performing a study and interpreting it. A "gait" report is lengthy, its data are not well understood, and it includes a clinical interpretation, all of which do not occur with other clinical tests. Current biotechnology research is seeking to address these problems by creating techniques to capture data rapidly, accurately, and efficiently, and to interpret such data by an assortment of modeling, statistical, wave interpretation, and artificial intelligence methodologies. The success of such efforts rests on both our technical abilities and communication between engineers and clinicians.

  4. Dynamic Simulation of Human Thermoregulation and Heat Transfer for Spaceflight Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Thomas R.; Nelson, David A.; Bue, Grant; Kuznetz, Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    Models of human thermoregulation and heat transfer date from the early 1970s and have been developed for applications ranging from evaluating thermal comfort in spacecraft and aircraft cabin environments to predicting heat stress during EVAs. Most lumped or compartment models represent the body as an assemblage cylindrical and spherical elements which may be subdivided into layers to describe tissue heterogeneity. Many existing models are of limited usefulness in asymmetric thermal environments, such as may be encountered during an EVA. Conventional whole-body clothing models also limit the ability to describe local surface thermal and evaporation effects in sufficient detail. A further limitation is that models based on a standard man model are not readily scalable to represent large or small subjects. This work describes development of a new human thermal model derived from the 41-node man model. Each segment is divided into four concentric, constant thickness cylinders made up of a central core surrounded by muscle, fat, and skin, respectively. These cylinders are connected by the flow of blood from a central blood pool to each part. The central blood pool is updated at each time step, based on a whole-body energy balance. Results show the model simulates core and surface temperature histories, sweat evaporation and metabolic rates which generally are consistent with controlled exposures of human subjects. Scaling rules are developed to enable simulation of small and large subjects (5th percentile and 95th percentile). Future refinements will include a clothing model that addresses local surface insulation and permeation effects and developing control equations to describe thermoregulatory effects such as may occur with prolonged weightlessness or with aging.

  5. A biokinetic model of inhaled Cm compounds in dogs: Application to human exposure data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilmette, R.A.; Mewhinney, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Curium isotopes are major by-products in irradiated nuclear reactor fuel and comprise a significant fraction of the alpha-emitting radionuclide inventory. Although little use is currently being made of purified Cm sources, such usage is possible if reprocessing of spent fuel becomes feasible. Because little information is available on the biokinetics and dosimetry of inhaled Cm compounds, a study was conducted in which adult beagle dogs received a single inhalation exposure to either a monodisperse aerosol of 244Cm2O3 (1.4 micron activity median aerodynamic diameter [AMAD]; sigma g = 1.16) or a polydisperse aerosol of 244Cm (NO3)3 (1.1 micron AMAD; sigma g = 1.74). At times ranging from 4 h to 2 y after exposure, animals were sacrificed and their tissues analyzed for Cm content. The data describing the uptake and retention of 244Cm in the different organs and tissues and the measured rates of excretion of these dogs formed the basis on which a biokinetic model of Cm metabolism was constructed. This Cm model was based on a previously published model of the biokinetics of 241Am that was shown to be applicable to data from human cases of inhalation exposure to 241Am aerosols. This Cm model was found to be adequate to describe the biological distribution of Cm in dogs and was also applied to the sparse data from humans. Reasonable agreement was found between the model predictions for lung retention of Cm and for urinary excretion patterns in humans

  6. Design and Applications of Biodegradable Polyester Tissue Scaffolds Based on Endogenous Monomers Found in Human Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devin G. Barrett

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic polyesters have deeply impacted various biomedical and engineering fields, such as tissue scaffolding and therapeutic delivery. Currently, many applications involving polyesters are being explored with polymers derived from monomers that are endogenous to the human metabolism. Examples of these monomers include glycerol, xylitol, sorbitol, and lactic, sebacic, citric, succinic, α-ketoglutaric, and fumaric acids. In terms of mechanical versatility, crystallinity, hydrophobicity, and biocompatibility, polyesters synthesized partially or completely from these monomers can display a wide range of properties. The flexibility in these macromolecular properties allows for materials to be tailored according to the needs of a particular application. Along with the presence of natural monomers that allows for a high probability of biocompatibility, there is also an added benefit that this class of polyesters is more environmentally friendly than many other materials used in biomedical engineering. While the selection of monomers may be limited by nature, these polymers have produced or have the potential to produce an enormous number of successes in vitro and in vivo.

  7. On-site preparation of technetium-99m labeled human serum albumin for clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuhfeng; Chuang Meihua; Cham Thauming; Chung Meiing; Chiu Jainnshiun

    2007-01-01

    Technetium-99m labeled human serum albumin (Tc-99m HSA) is an important radiopharmaceutical for clinical applications, such as cardiac function tests or protein-losing gastroenteropathy assessment. However, because of transfusion-induced infectious diseases, the safety of serum products is a serious concern. In this context, serum products acquired from patients themselves are the most ideal tracer. However, the development of rapid separation and easy clinical labeling methods is not yet well established. Under such situation, products from the same ethnic group or country are now recommended by the World Health Organization as an alternative preparation. This article describes the on-site preparation of Tc-99m HSA from locally supplied serum products. Different formulations were prepared and the labeling efficiency and stability were examined. Radio-labeling efficiencies were more than 90% in all preparation protocols, except for one that omitted the stannous solution. The most cost-effective protocol contained HSA 0.1 mg, treated with stannous fluoride 0.2 mg, and mixed with Tc-99m pertechnetate 30 mCi. A biodistribution study was performed in rats using a gamma camera immediately after intravenous administration of radiolabeled HSA. Tissue/organ uptake was obtained by measuring the radioactivity in organs after sacrificing the rats at timed intervals. The biologic half-life was about 32 min, determined from sequential venous blood collections. These data indicate that our preparation of Tc-99m HSA is useful and potentially applicable clinically. In addition, this on-site preparation provides the possibility of labeling a patient's own serum for subsequent clinical application. (author)

  8. Hybrid sequencing approach applied to human fecal metagenomic clone libraries revealed clones with potential biotechnological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Džunková, Mária; D'Auria, Giuseppe; Pérez-Villarroya, David; Moya, Andrés

    2012-01-01

    Natural environments represent an incredible source of microbial genetic diversity. Discovery of novel biomolecules involves biotechnological methods that often require the design and implementation of biochemical assays to screen clone libraries. However, when an assay is applied to thousands of clones, one may eventually end up with very few positive clones which, in most of the cases, have to be "domesticated" for downstream characterization and application, and this makes screening both laborious and expensive. The negative clones, which are not considered by the selected assay, may also have biotechnological potential; however, unfortunately they would remain unexplored. Knowledge of the clone sequences provides important clues about potential biotechnological application of the clones in the library; however, the sequencing of clones one-by-one would be very time-consuming and expensive. In this study, we characterized the first metagenomic clone library from the feces of a healthy human volunteer, using a method based on 454 pyrosequencing coupled with a clone-by-clone Sanger end-sequencing. Instead of whole individual clone sequencing, we sequenced 358 clones in a pool. The medium-large insert (7-15 kb) cloning strategy allowed us to assemble these clones correctly, and to assign the clone ends to maintain the link between the position of a living clone in the library and the annotated contig from the 454 assembly. Finally, we found several open reading frames (ORFs) with previously described potential medical application. The proposed approach allows planning ad-hoc biochemical assays for the clones of interest, and the appropriate sub-cloning strategy for gene expression in suitable vectors/hosts.

  9. Hybrid sequencing approach applied to human fecal metagenomic clone libraries revealed clones with potential biotechnological applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Džunková

    Full Text Available Natural environments represent an incredible source of microbial genetic diversity. Discovery of novel biomolecules involves biotechnological methods that often require the design and implementation of biochemical assays to screen clone libraries. However, when an assay is applied to thousands of clones, one may eventually end up with very few positive clones which, in most of the cases, have to be "domesticated" for downstream characterization and application, and this makes screening both laborious and expensive. The negative clones, which are not considered by the selected assay, may also have biotechnological potential; however, unfortunately they would remain unexplored. Knowledge of the clone sequences provides important clues about potential biotechnological application of the clones in the library; however, the sequencing of clones one-by-one would be very time-consuming and expensive. In this study, we characterized the first metagenomic clone library from the feces of a healthy human volunteer, using a method based on 454 pyrosequencing coupled with a clone-by-clone Sanger end-sequencing. Instead of whole individual clone sequencing, we sequenced 358 clones in a pool. The medium-large insert (7-15 kb cloning strategy allowed us to assemble these clones correctly, and to assign the clone ends to maintain the link between the position of a living clone in the library and the annotated contig from the 454 assembly. Finally, we found several open reading frames (ORFs with previously described potential medical application. The proposed approach allows planning ad-hoc biochemical assays for the clones of interest, and the appropriate sub-cloning strategy for gene expression in suitable vectors/hosts.

  10. Reproductive physiology of a humanized GnRH receptor mouse model: application in evaluation of human-specific analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tello, Javier A; Kohout, Trudy; Pineda, Rafael; Maki, Richard A; Scott Struthers, R; Millar, Robert P

    2013-07-01

    The human GnRH receptor (GNRHR1) has a specific set of properties with physiological and pharmacological influences not appropriately modeled in laboratory animals or cell-based systems. To address this deficiency, we have generated human GNRHR1 knock-in mice and described their reproductive phenotype. Measurement of pituitary GNRHR1 transcripts from homozygous human GNRHR1 knock-in (ki/ki) mice revealed a severe reduction (7- to 8-fold) compared with the mouse Gnrhr1 in wild-type mice. ¹²⁵I-GnRH binding assays on pituitary membrane fractions corroborated reduced human GNRHR1 protein expression in ki/ki mice, as occurs with transfection of human GNRHR1 in cell lines. Female homozygous knock-in mice displayed normal pubertal onset, indicating that a large reduction in GNRHR1 expression is sufficient for this process. However, ki/ki females exhibited periods of prolonged estrous and/or metestrous and reduced fertility. No impairment was found in reproductive maturity or adult fertility in male ki/ki mice. Interestingly, the serum LH response to GnRH challenge was reduced in both knock-in males and females, indicating a reduced GNRHR1 signaling capacity. Small molecules targeting human GPCRs usually have poor activities at homologous rodent receptors, thus limiting their use in preclinical development. Therefore, we tested a human-specific GnRH1 antagonist, NBI-42902, in our mouse model and demonstrated abrogation of a GnRH1-induced serum LH rise in ki/ki mice and an absence of effect in littermates expressing the wild-type murine receptor. This novel model provides the opportunity to study the human receptor in vivo and for screening the activity of human-specific GnRH analogs.

  11. Human skin gene expression: Natural (trans) resveratrol versus five resveratrol analogs for dermal applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lephart, Edwin D; Andrus, Merritt B

    2017-09-01

    Resveratrol (RV) is a polyphenolic compound naturally produced by plants. Polyphenolic compounds incorporated into medicinal products are beneficial but, RV is rapidly metabolized with an associated decline in biological activity. This study tested RV as the standard and compared five structurally modified RV analogs: butyrate, isobutyrate, palmitoate, acetate, and diacetate (to improve functionality) at 1% concentration(s) for 24 h in epiderm full thickness cultures by gene array/qPCR mRNA analysis. When silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1, extracellular elements (collagen1A1, 3A1, 4A1; elastin, tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase 1, fibrillin 1 laminin beta1 and matrix metalloproteinase 9), anti-aging and aging genes, inflammatory biomarkers (interleukin-1A [IL1A], IL1R2, IL-6 and IL-8), nerve growth factor, and the antioxidants (proliferating cell nuclear antigen, catalase, superoxide dismutase and metallothionein 1H/2H) were evaluated, ranking each from highest-to-lowest for gene expression: butyrate > isobutyrate > diacetate > acetate > palmitoate. This study showed that the butyrate and isobutyrate analogs are more biologically active compared to resveratrol and have potential use in topical applications to improve dermal and other health applications. Impact statement Resveratrol has been reported to have a wide variety of health benefits but its rapid metabolism especially after oral ingestion results in very low bioavailability. Notably, the first human skin gene expression study of resveratrol was not published until 2014. The purpose of this study was to determine if increased stability and biological activity could be obtained by modifying the chemical structure of natural (trans) resveratrol and quantifying human gene expression by qPCR of skin biomarkers that enhance dermal health. Five resveratrol analogs were synthesized that increased their lipophilic index to enhance tissue penetration and augment

  12. Human reliability analysis of errors of commission: a review of methods and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reer, B

    2007-06-15

    Illustrated by specific examples relevant to contemporary probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), this report presents a review of human reliability analysis (HRA) addressing post initiator errors of commission (EOCs), i.e. inappropriate actions under abnormal operating conditions. The review addressed both methods and applications. Emerging HRA methods providing advanced features and explicit guidance suitable for PSA are: A Technique for Human Event Analysis (ATHEANA, key publications in 1998/2000), Methode d'Evaluation de la Realisation des Missions Operateur pour la Surete (MERMOS, 1998/2000), the EOC HRA method developed by the Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS, 2003), the Misdiagnosis Tree Analysis (MDTA) method (2005/2006), the Cognitive Reliability and Error Analysis Method (CREAM, 1998), and the Commission Errors Search and Assessment (CESA) method (2002/2004). As a result of a thorough investigation of various PSA/HRA applications, this paper furthermore presents an overview of EOCs (termination of safety injection, shutdown of secondary cooling, etc.) referred to in predictive studies and a qualitative review of cases of EOC quantification. The main conclusions of the review of both the methods and the EOC HRA cases are: (1) The CESA search scheme, which proceeds from possible operator actions to the affected systems to scenarios, may be preferable because this scheme provides a formalized way for identifying relatively important scenarios with EOC opportunities; (2) an EOC identification guidance like CESA, which is strongly based on the procedural guidance and important measures of systems or components affected by inappropriate actions, however should pay some attention to EOCs associated with familiar but non-procedural actions and EOCs leading to failures of manually initiated safety functions. (3) Orientations of advanced EOC quantification comprise a) modeling of multiple contexts for a given scenario, b) accounting for

  13. Human reliability analysis of errors of commission: a review of methods and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reer, B.

    2007-06-01

    Illustrated by specific examples relevant to contemporary probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), this report presents a review of human reliability analysis (HRA) addressing post initiator errors of commission (EOCs), i.e. inappropriate actions under abnormal operating conditions. The review addressed both methods and applications. Emerging HRA methods providing advanced features and explicit guidance suitable for PSA are: A Technique for Human Event Analysis (ATHEANA, key publications in 1998/2000), Methode d'Evaluation de la Realisation des Missions Operateur pour la Surete (MERMOS, 1998/2000), the EOC HRA method developed by the Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS, 2003), the Misdiagnosis Tree Analysis (MDTA) method (2005/2006), the Cognitive Reliability and Error Analysis Method (CREAM, 1998), and the Commission Errors Search and Assessment (CESA) method (2002/2004). As a result of a thorough investigation of various PSA/HRA applications, this paper furthermore presents an overview of EOCs (termination of safety injection, shutdown of secondary cooling, etc.) referred to in predictive studies and a qualitative review of cases of EOC quantification. The main conclusions of the review of both the methods and the EOC HRA cases are: (1) The CESA search scheme, which proceeds from possible operator actions to the affected systems to scenarios, may be preferable because this scheme provides a formalized way for identifying relatively important scenarios with EOC opportunities; (2) an EOC identification guidance like CESA, which is strongly based on the procedural guidance and important measures of systems or components affected by inappropriate actions, however should pay some attention to EOCs associated with familiar but non-procedural actions and EOCs leading to failures of manually initiated safety functions. (3) Orientations of advanced EOC quantification comprise a) modeling of multiple contexts for a given scenario, b) accounting for

  14. Steroids induce acetylcholine receptors on cultured human muscle: Implications for myasthenia gravis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, I.; Blakely, B.T.; Pavlath, G.K.; Travis, M.; Blau, H.M.

    1990-01-01

    Antibodies to the acetylcholine receptor (AChR), which are diagnostic of the human autoimmune disease myasthenia gravis, block AChR function and increase the rate of AChR degradation leading to impaired neuromuscular transmission. Steroids are frequently used to alleviate symptoms of muscle fatigue and weakness in patients with myasthenia gravis because of their well-documented immunosuppressive effects. The authors show here that the steroid dexamethasone significantly increases total surface AChRs on cultured human muscle exposed to myasthenia gravis sera. The results suggest that the clinical improvement observed in myasthenic patients treated with steroids is due not only to an effect on the immune system but also a direct effect on muscle. They propose that the identification and development of pharmacologic agents that augment receptors and other proteins that are reduced by human genetic or autoimmune disease will have broad therapeutic applications

  15. Steroids induce acetylcholine receptors on cultured human muscle: Implications for myasthenia gravis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, I.; Blakely, B.T.; Pavlath, G.K.; Travis, M.; Blau, H.M. (Stanford Univ. School of Medicine, CA (USA))

    1990-10-01

    Antibodies to the acetylcholine receptor (AChR), which are diagnostic of the human autoimmune disease myasthenia gravis, block AChR function and increase the rate of AChR degradation leading to impaired neuromuscular transmission. Steroids are frequently used to alleviate symptoms of muscle fatigue and weakness in patients with myasthenia gravis because of their well-documented immunosuppressive effects. The authors show here that the steroid dexamethasone significantly increases total surface AChRs on cultured human muscle exposed to myasthenia gravis sera. The results suggest that the clinical improvement observed in myasthenic patients treated with steroids is due not only to an effect on the immune system but also a direct effect on muscle. They propose that the identification and development of pharmacologic agents that augment receptors and other proteins that are reduced by human genetic or autoimmune disease will have broad therapeutic applications.

  16. Recombinant major outer membrane protein (MOMP) of Chlamydophila abortus, Chlamydophila pecorum, and Chlamydia suis as antigens to distinguish chlamydial species-specific antibodies in animal sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelzle, Ludwig E; Hoelzle, Katharina; Wittenbrink, Max M

    2004-10-05

    Recombinant major outer membrane proteins (rMOMP) of Chlamydophila (Ch.) abortus, Ch. pecorum, and Chlamydia (C.) suis were used as antigens to distinguish chlamydial species-specific antibodies in (i) immune sera from six rabbits and three pigs raised against native purified elementary bodies, (ii) serum samples from 25 sows vaccinated with Ch. abortus, and (iii) 40 serum samples from four heifers experimentally infected with Ch. abortus. All post-exposition sera contained chlamydial antibodies as confirmed by strong ELISA seroreactivities against the chlamydial LPS. For the rMOMP ELISA mean IgG antibody levels were at least 5.8-fold higher with the particular rMOMP homologous to the chlamydial species used for immunisation or infection than with heterologous rMOMPs (P <0.001). Preferential rMOMP ELISA reactivities of sera were confirmed by Western blotting. The results suggest that the entire chlamydial rMOMP could provide a species-specific serodiagnostic antigen.

  17. Simultaneous determination of dihydrotestosterone and its metabolites in mouse sera by LC-MS/MS with chemical derivatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorityala, Shashank; Yang, Shuming; Montano, Monica M; Xu, Yan

    2018-07-15

    Androgens play a vital role in prostate cancer development, and their elimination and blockade are essential in the disease management. DHT is the key ligand for androgen receptor (AR) in the prostate. It is locally synthesized from testosterone. In the prostate, DHT is predominantly metabolized to α-diol and β-diol. Recent studies indicate that impaired DHT catabolism is associated with prostate cancer, signifying the necessity of a sensitive quantitative method for the determination of DHT and its metabolites. In this work, an LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous quantification of DHT and its metabolites was developed and validated. Steroid-free sera were prepared and used for the preparation of sera calibrators and quality controls (QCs). DHT and its metabolites along with their respective stable heavy isotope labeled analytes representing internal standards were first extracted with methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) and derivatized with picolinic acid (PA). The derivatized analytes were then extracted again with MTBE, dried under nitrogen and reconstituted in the mobile phase (80% methanol and 0.2% formic acid in water). Baseline chromatographic separation of the derivatized analytes was achieved isocratically on XTerra C18 column (2.1 × 100 mm) using the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.25 mL/min. Quantitation was performed using multiple-reaction-monitoring mode with positive electrospray ionization. The method has calibration ranges from 0.0500 ng/mL to 50.0 ng/mL for DHT and its two metabolites with acceptable assay precision, accuracy, recovery, and matrix factor. It was applied to the determination of DHT and its metabolites in an animal study. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Immunoreactivity of the AAA+ chaperone ClpB from Leptospira interrogans with sera from Leptospira-infected animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajewska, Joanna; Arent, Zbigniew; Więckowski, Daniel; Zolkiewski, Michal; Kędzierska-Mieszkowska, Sabina

    2016-07-16

    Leptospira interrogans is a spirochaete responsible for leptospirosis in mammals. The molecular mechanisms of the Leptospira virulence remain mostly unknown. Recently, it has been demonstrated that L. interrogans ClpB (ClpBLi) is essential for bacterial survival under stressful conditions and also during infection. The aim of this study was to provide further insight into the role of ClpB in L. interrogans and answer the question whether ClpBLi as a potential virulence factor may be a target of the humoral immune response during leptospiral infections in mammals. ClpBLi consists of 860 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass of 96.3 kDa and shows multi-domain organization similar to that of the well-characterized ClpB from Escherichia coli. The amino acid sequence identity between ClpBLi and E. coli ClpB is 52 %. The coding sequence of the clpB Li gene was cloned and expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3) strain. Immunoreactivity of the recombinant ClpBLi protein was assessed with the sera collected from Leptospira-infected animals and uninfected healthy controls. Western blotting and ELISA analysis demonstrated that ClpBLi activates the host immune system, as evidenced by an increased level of antibodies against ClpBLi in the sera from infected animals, as compared to the control group. Additionally, ClpBLi was found in kidney tissues of Leptospira-infected hamsters. ClpBLi is both synthesized and immunogenic during the infectious process, further supporting its involvement in the pathogenicity of Leptospira. In addition, the immunological properties of ClpBLi point to its potential value as a diagnostic antigen for the detection of leptospirosis.

  19. Radioimmunoassay of thyrotropin releasing hormone in human serum and its clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Zhiying; Liu Shizhen

    1995-01-01

    The study was aimed at investigating the relationship between the TRH level in peripheral blood and the physiological, pathophysiological variation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, especially at studying the relationship between TRH level and various thyroid function states as well as its clinical significance. A highly sensitive, specific radioimmunoassay of the thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) has been developed in the laboratory using 125 I labeled anti-TRH antibodies. Blood samples were collected in tubes containing a mixture of 8-hydroxyquinoline sulfur, Tween 20 and EDTA-2NA(E). The sensitivity was 8.3% pmol/L, and the intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were 2.5%∼4.9% and 8.9%∼10.0% respectively. The recovery rate ranged from 92%∼105%. The TRH levels in sera of 80 normals and 324 patients with pituitary thyroid diseases were measured with this assay. The results show a significant decrease of TRH levels in hyperthyroid patients and increase in hypothyroid subjects. The TRH levels in patients with nodular goiter and cold nodules, pituitary dwarfism and pituitary tumours were not significantly different from those of the normal group. The results demonstrated that measurement of TRH level in peripheral blood is useful in investigating the physiological and pathophysiological status of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis function and the change in TRH levels has close relations with the thyroid function

  20. Primary structure of the human M2 mitochondrial autoantigen of primary biliary cirrhosis: Dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppel, R.L.; McNeilage, L.J.; Surh, C.D.; Van De Water, J.; Spithill, T.W.; Whittingham, S.; Gershwin, M.E.

    1988-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis is a chronic, destructive autoimmune liver disease of humans. Patient sera are characterized by a high frequency of autoantibodies to a M r 70,000 mitochondrial antigen a component of the M2 antigen complex. The authors have identified a human cDNA clone encoding the complete amino acid sequence of this autoantigen. The predicted structure has significant similarity with the dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase of the Escherichia coli pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex. The human sequence preserves the Glu-Thr-Asp-Lys-Ala motif of the lipoyl-binding site and has two potential binding sites. Expressed fragments of the cDNA react strongly with sera from patients with primary biliary cirrhosis but not with sera from patients with autoimmune chronic active hepatitis or sera from healthy subjects

  1. Nasal application of HSV encoding human preproenkephalin blocks craniofacial pain in a rat model of traumatic brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Christian Hedemann; Meidahl, Anders Christian Nørgaard; Tzabazis

    2017-01-01

    pain using nasal application of a herpes simplex virus (HSV)-based vector expressing human proenkephalin (SHPE) to target the trigeminal ganglia. Mild TBI was induced in rats by the use of a modified fluid percussion model. Two days after mild TBI, following the development of facial mechanical...... lasting at least 45 days. On the other hand, nasal SHPE application 2 days post-TBI attenuated facial allodynia, reaching significance by day 4–7 and maintaining this effect throughout the duration of the experiment. Immunohistochemical examination revealed strong expression of human proenkephalin...

  2. Broadly Neutralizing Activity of Zika Virus-Immune Sera Identifies a Single Viral Serotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly A. Dowd

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent epidemics of Zika virus (ZIKV have been associated with congenital malformation during pregnancy and Guillain-Barré syndrome. There are two ZIKV lineages (African and Asian that share >95% amino acid identity. Little is known regarding the ability of neutralizing antibodies elicited against one lineage to protect against the other. We investigated the breadth of the neutralizing antibody response following ZIKV infection by measuring the sensitivity of six ZIKV strains to neutralization by ZIKV-confirmed convalescent human serum or plasma samples. Contemporary Asian and early African ZIKV strains were similarly sensitive to neutralization regardless of the cellular source of virus. Furthermore, mouse immune serum generated after infection with African or Asian ZIKV strains was capable of neutralizing homologous and heterologous ZIKV strains equivalently. Because our study only defines a single ZIKV serotype, vaccine candidates eliciting robust neutralizing antibody responses should inhibit infection of both ZIKV lineages, including strains circulating in the Americas.

  3. On the application of motivation theory to human factors/ergonomics: motivational design principles for human-technology interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalma, James L

    2014-12-01

    Motivation is a driving force in human-technology interaction. This paper represents an effort to (a) describe a theoretical model of motivation in human technology interaction, (b) provide design principles and guidelines based on this theory, and (c) describe a sequence of steps for the. evaluation of motivational factors in human-technology interaction. Motivation theory has been relatively neglected in human factors/ergonomics (HF/E). In both research and practice, the (implicit) assumption has been that the operator is already motivated or that motivation is an organizational concern and beyond the purview of HF/E. However, technology can induce task-related boredom (e.g., automation) that can be stressful and also increase system vulnerability to performance failures. A theoretical model of motivation in human-technology interaction is proposed, based on extension of the self-determination theory of motivation to HF/E. This model provides the basis for both future research and for development of practical recommendations for design. General principles and guidelines for motivational design are described as well as a sequence of steps for the design process. Human motivation is an important concern for HF/E research and practice. Procedures in the design of both simple and complex technologies can, and should, include the evaluation of motivational characteristics of the task, interface, or system. In addition, researchers should investigate these factors in specific human-technology domains. The theory, principles, and guidelines described here can be incorporated into existing techniques for task analysis and for interface and system design.

  4. New methods for field collection of human skin volatiles and perspectives for their application in the chemical ecology of human-pathogen-vector interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormont, Laurent; Bessière, Jean-Marie; McKey, Doyle; Cohuet, Anna

    2013-08-01

    Odours emitted by human skin are of great interest to biologists in many fields, with practical applications in forensics, health diagnostic tools and the ecology of blood-sucking insect vectors of human disease. Convenient methods are required for sampling human skin volatiles under field conditions. We experimentally compared four modern methods for sampling skin odours: solvent extraction, headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME), and two new techniques not previously used for the study of mammal volatiles, contact SPME and dynamic headspace with a chromatoprobe design. These methods were tested and compared both on European subjects under laboratory conditions and on young African subjects under field conditions. All four methods permitted effective trapping of skin odours, including the major known human skin volatile compounds. In both laboratory and field experiments, contact SPME, in which the time of collection was restricted to 3 min, provided results very similar to those obtained with classical headspace SPME, a method that requires 45 min of collection. Chromatoprobe sampling also proved to be very sensitive, rapid and convenient for the collection of human-produced volatiles in natural settings. Both contact SPME and chromatoprobe design may considerably facilitate the study of human skin volatiles under field conditions, opening new possibilities for examining the olfactory cues mediating the host-seeking behaviour of mosquito vectors implicated in the transmission of major diseases.

  5. Evaluation of a smartphone human activity recognition application with able-bodied and stroke participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capela, N A; Lemaire, E D; Baddour, N; Rudolf, M; Goljar, N; Burger, H

    2016-01-20

    Mobile health monitoring using wearable sensors is a growing area of interest. As the world's population ages and locomotor capabilities decrease, the ability to report on a person's mobility activities outside a hospital setting becomes a valuable tool for clinical decision-making and evaluating healthcare interventions. Smartphones are omnipresent in society and offer convenient and suitable sensors for mobility monitoring applications. To enhance our understanding of human activity recognition (HAR) system performance for able-bodied and populations with gait deviations, this research evaluated a custom smartphone-based HAR classifier on fifteen able-bodied participants and fifteen participants who suffered a stroke. Participants performed a consecutive series of mobility tasks and daily living activities while wearing a BlackBerry Z10 smartphone on their waist to collect accelerometer and gyroscope data. Five features were derived from the sensor data and used to classify participant activities (decision tree). Sensitivity, specificity and F-scores were calculated to evaluate HAR classifier performance. The classifier performed well for both populations when differentiating mobile from immobile states (F-score > 94 %). As activity recognition complexity increased, HAR system sensitivity and specificity decreased for the stroke population, particularly when using information derived from participant posture to make classification decisions. Human activity recognition using a smartphone based system can be accomplished for both able-bodied and stroke populations; however, an increase in activity classification complexity leads to a decrease in HAR performance with a stroke population. The study results can be used to guide smartphone HAR system development for populations with differing movement characteristics.

  6. Applications of human hepatitis B virus preS domain in bio- and nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toita, Riki; Kawano, Takahito; Kang, Jeong-Hun; Murata, Masaharu

    2015-06-28

    Human hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a member of the family Hepadnaviridae, and causes acute and chronic infections of the liver. The hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) contains the large (L), middle (M), and small (S) surface proteins. The L protein consists of the S protein, preS1, and preS2. In HBsAg, the preS domain (preS1 + preS2) plays a key role in the infection of hepatocytic cells by HBV and has several immunogenic epitopes. Based on these characteristics of preS, several preS-based diagnostic and therapeutic materials and systems have been developed. PreS1-specific monoclonal antibodies (e.g., MA18/7 and KR127) can be used to inhibit HBV infection. A myristoylated preS1 peptide (amino acids 2-48) also inhibits the attachment of HBV to HepaRG cells, primary human hepatocytes, and primary tupaia hepatocytes. Antibodies and antigens related to the components of HBsAg, preS (preS1 + preS2), or preS1 can be available as diagnostic markers of acute and chronic HBV infections. Hepatocyte-targeting delivery systems for therapeutic molecules (drugs, genes, or proteins) are very important for increasing the clinical efficacy of these molecules and in reducing their adverse effects on other organs. The selective delivery of diagnostic molecules to target hepatocytic cells can also improve the efficiency of diagnosis. In addition to the full-length HBV vector, preS (preS1 + preS2), preS1, and preS1-derived fragments can be useful in hepatocyte-specific targeting. In this review, we discuss the literature concerning the applications of the HBV preS domain in bio- and nanotechnology.

  7. Mechanistic understanding of human-wildlife conflict through a novel application of dynamic occupancy models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Varun R; Medhi, Kamal; Nichols, James D; Oli, Madan K

    2015-08-01

    Crop and livestock depredation by wildlife is a primary driver of human-wildlife conflict, a problem that threatens the coexistence of people and wildlife globally. Understanding mechanisms that underlie depredation patterns holds the key to mitigating conflicts across time and space. However, most studies do not consider imperfect detection and reporting of conflicts, which may lead to incorrect inference regarding its spatiotemporal drivers. We applied dynamic occupancy models to elephant crop depredation data from India between 2005 and 2011 to estimate crop depredation occurrence and model its underlying dynamics as a function of spatiotemporal covariates while accounting for imperfect detection of conflicts. The probability of detecting conflicts was consistently year). The probability of crop depredation occurrence ranged from 0.29 (SE 0.09) to 0.96 (SE 0.04). The probability that sites raided by elephants in primary period t would not be raided in primary period t + 1 varied with elevation gradient in different seasons and was influenced negatively by mean rainfall and village density and positively by distance to forests. Negative effects of rainfall variation and distance to forests best explained variation in the probability that sites not raided by elephants in primary period t would be raided in primary period t + 1. With our novel application of occupancy models, we teased apart the spatiotemporal drivers of conflicts from factors that influence how they are observed, thereby allowing more reliable inference on mechanisms underlying observed conflict patterns. We found that factors associated with increased crop accessibility and availability (e.g., distance to forests and rainfall patterns) were key drivers of elephant crop depredation dynamics. Such an understanding is essential for rigorous prediction of future conflicts, a critical requirement for effective conflict management in the context of increasing human-wildlife interactions. © 2015

  8. New Applications of the Human Whole Blood Pyrogen Assay (PyroCheck).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennrich; Wendel; Hartung

    1999-01-01

    The absence of pyrogens in injectable drugs is an indispensable safety control because contaminants causing fever pose a life-threatening risk to the patient resulting in the worst case in death by shock. When fever- inducing agents, i.e.pyrogens, come into contact with the immunocompetent cells in blood, these cells release mediators which transmit the fever signal to the thermoregulatory centre of the brain. The Phamocopoeia lists currently two test systems for pyrogenicity: 1. The in vivo rabbit pyrogen test which measures the fever reaction following injection of the sample to the animals. 2. The in vitro Limulus Amebocyte Lysate assay (LAL) which measures the coagulation in a lysate prepared from the blood of the horseshoe crab specifically initiated by endotoxins, i.e. cell wall components from Gram-negative bacteria. The new test presented here (PyroCheck) exploits the reaction of monocytes/macrophages for the detection of pyrogens: human whole blood taken from healthy volunteers is incubated in the presence of the test sample in any form, be it a solution, a powder or even solid material. Pyrogenic contaminations initiate the release of the "endogenous pyrogen" Interleukin-1beta determined by ELISA after a fixed incubation time. The technology presently listed in the Pharmacopoeia is limited to parenteralia (rabbit test: biologicals and pharmaceuticals, LAL: predominantly pharmaceuticals). In the EU Medical Devices Directive from 1995 the rabbit pyrogen test for medical products is in some cases requested. (in some cases LAL of an eluate from the device). However, pyrogen-testing needs to cover also innovative high-tech products such as medical devices (implants, medical plastic materials, dialysis machines), cellular therapies and species-specific agents (e.g. recombinant proteins). Here we report that the human blood test PyroCheck is suitable for testing filters in air quality control as well as for assessing medical devices and biocompatibility

  9. Extracellular matrix production by human osteoblasts cultured on biodegradable polymers applicable for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Amin, S F; Lu, H H; Khan, Y; Burems, J; Mitchell, J; Tuan, R S; Laurencin, C T

    2003-03-01

    The nature of the extracellular matrix (ECM) is crucial in regulating cell functions via cell-matrix interactions, cytoskeletal organization, and integrin-mediated signaling. In bone, the ECM is composed of proteins such as collagen (CO), fibronectin (FN), laminin (LM), vitronectin (VN), osteopontin (OP) and osteonectin (ON). For bone tissue engineering, the ECM should also be considered in terms of its function in mediating cell adhesion to biomaterials. This study examined ECM production, cytoskeletal organization, and adhesion of primary human osteoblastic cells on biodegradable matrices applicable for tissue engineering, namely polylactic-co-glycolic acid 50:50 (PLAGA) and polylactic acid (PLA). We hypothesized that the osteocompatible, biodegradable polymer surfaces promote the production of bone-specific ECM proteins in a manner dependent on polymer composition. We first examined whether the PLAGA and PLA matrices could support human osteoblastic cell growth by measuring cell adhesion at 3, 6 and 12h post-plating. Adhesion on PLAGA was consistently higher than on PLA throughout the duration of the experiment, and comparable to tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS). ECM components, including CO, FN, LM, ON, OP and VN, produced on the surface of the polymers were quantified by ELISA and localized by immunofluorescence staining. All of these proteins were present at significantly higher levels on PLAGA compared to PLA or TCPS surfaces. On PLAGA, OP and ON were the most abundant ECM components, followed by CO, FN, VN and LN. Immunofluorescence revealed an extracellular distribution for CO and FN, whereas OP and ON were found both intracellularly as well as extracellularly on the polymer. In addition, the actin cytoskeletal network was more extensive in osteoblasts cultured on PLAGA than on PLA or TCPS. In summary, we found that osteoblasts plated on PLAGA adhered better to the substrate, produced higher levels of ECM molecules, and showed greater cytoskeletal

  10. [Application study of human sperm motility bioassay in IVF laboratory quality control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xia; Pomeroy, Kimball O; Mattox, John H

    2006-07-01

    To investigate the sensitivity of human sperm survival bioassay to using known concentrations of potential toxin of formalin and to elevate the application value of human sperm motility assay as a quality control method in detecting the components used in IVF program. Fresh semen was obtained from healthy males at andrology laboratory by masturbation. Sperm was processed on a gradient column of isolate medium and PBS medium. In experiment 1, the medium with 0.25%, 0.75% concentration of formalin and control medium were added to the Falcon culture tubes containing HTF medium with or without 0.3% bovine albumin serum and with or without light mineral oil. In experiment 2, in 3 types of culture tubes containing HTF medium with or without 0.3% bovine albumin serum and with or without light mineral oil, the sperm was exposed to each culture tube and cultured for 24 and 48 hrs at room temperature, and the motile sperms were counted under the microscope. The average sperm motility index in the HTF medium with 0.25% formalin at 24 hrs was 0.594 +/- 0.331, significantly higher than in the HTF medium with 0.75% formalin (0.450 +/- 0.284) (P average sperm survival indexes were 0.683 +/- 0.334 and 0.527 +/- 0.345, respectively, higher than without bovine albumin serum and light mineral oil (0.394 +/- 0.311 and 0.424 +/- 0.311). The average sperm index of 7 ml tissue culture tube made in Denmark was 0.677 +/- 0.335, higher than the other two types of culture tubes made in the USA (0.551 +/- 0.317 and 0.596 +/- 0.327) (P sperm cultured in the medium with 0.3% bovine albumin serum and light mineral oil, the average sperm survival indexes were 0.821 +/- 0.259 and 0.645 +/- 0.335, respectively, higher than without bovine albumin serum or light mineral oil (0.571 +/- 0.321 and 0.395 +/- 0.245) (P sperm survival bioassay is a sensitivity quality control method to detect the components in the IVF laboratory. The 7 ml tissue culture tube made in Denmark is most suitable for culturing

  11. Pituitary Antibodies in Women with Hashimoto's Thyroiditis: Prevalence in Diagnostic and Prediagnostic Sera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guaraldi, Federica; Landek-Salgado, Melissa A.; Hutfless, Susan; Samoni, Francesca; Talor, Monica V.; Matos, Peter G.; Salvatori, Roberto; Rose, Noel R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Pituitary antibodies have been reported with greater frequency in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis than in healthy controls, although there is significant variability in the strength of the association and the methodologies used. Methods We designed a nested case–control study to characterize the prevalence of pituitary antibodies at the time of the clinical diagnosis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis, as well as at 2, 5, and 7 years before diagnosis. Active component female service member cases (n=87) and matched female controls (n=107) were selected using the Defense Medical Surveillance System database (DMSSD) between January 1998 and December 2007. Pituitary antibodies were measured by immunofluorescence using human pituitary glands collected at autopsy as the substrate. Results At diagnosis, pituitary antibodies were present in 9% of cases with Hashimoto's (8 of 87) and 3% of controls (3 of 107). When the data were analyzed using a conditional logistic regression model, which takes into account the matching on age and work status, pituitary antibodies increased the odds of having Hashimoto's thyroiditis by sevenfold (95% confidence interval from 1.3 to 40.1, p=0.028), after adjusting for components of the DMSSD-category-termed race and for thyroperoxidase antibodies. Before diagnosis, pituitary antibodies were positive in 3 of the 11 subjects (2 cases and 1 control) at the −2-year time point, and negative in all 11 subjects at the −5- and −7-year time points. Conclusions In summary, using a nested case–control design, we confirm that pituitary antibodies are more common in Hashimoto's thyroiditis and suggest that they appear late during its natural history. PMID:22468943

  12. Identification of fipronil metabolites in rodents by time-of-flight mass spectrometry for application in a human exposure study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fipronil is a phenylpyrazole insecticide commonly used in residential and agricultural applications. To understand more about the potential risks associated with fipronil, dosed Long Evans rats were evaluated for metabolites to develop a set of biomarkers for use in human exposur...

  13. Recent applications of UHF-MRI in the study of human brain function and structure : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Zwaag, W.; Schäfer, Andreas; Marques, José P; Turner, R.; Trampel, Robert

    The increased availability of ultra-high-field (UHF) MRI has led to its application in a wide range of neuroimaging studies, which are showing promise in transforming fundamental approaches to human neuroscience. This review presents recent work on structural and functional brain imaging, at 7 T and

  14. Neural Differentiation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells for Nontherapeutic Applications: Toxicology, Pharmacology, and In Vitro Disease Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May Shin Yap

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs derived from either blastocyst stage embryos (hESCs or reprogrammed somatic cells (iPSCs can provide an abundant source of human neuronal lineages that were previously sourced from human cadavers, abortuses, and discarded surgical waste. In addition to the well-known potential therapeutic application of these cells in regenerative medicine, these are also various promising nontherapeutic applications in toxicological and pharmacological screening of neuroactive compounds, as well as for in vitro modeling of neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental disorders. Compared to alternative research models based on laboratory animals and immortalized cancer-derived human neural cell lines, neuronal cells differentiated from hPSCs possess the advantages of species specificity together with genetic and physiological normality, which could more closely recapitulate in vivo conditions within the human central nervous system. This review critically examines the various potential nontherapeutic applications of hPSC-derived neuronal lineages and gives a brief overview of differentiation protocols utilized to generate these cells from hESCs and iPSCs.

  15. Preliminary Data on the Safety of Phytoene- and Phytofluene-Rich Products for Human Use including Topical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Havas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The colorless carotenoids phytoene and phytofluene are comparatively understudied compounds found in common foods (e.g., tomatoes and in human plasma, internal tissues, and skin. Being naturally present in common foods, their intake at dietary levels is not expected to present a safety concern. However, since the interest in these compounds in the context of many applications is expanding, it is important to conduct studies aimed at assessing their safety. We present here results of in vitro cytotoxicity and genotoxicity studies, revealing no significant cytotoxic or genotoxic potential and of short- and long-term human in vivo skin compatibility studies with phytoene- and phytofluene-rich tomato and Dunaliella salina alga extracts, showing a lack of irritancy or sensitization reactions. These results support the safe use of phytoene- and phytofluene-rich products in human topical applications.

  16. Integrated multimodal human-computer interface and augmented reality for interactive display applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassiliou, Marius S.; Sundareswaran, Venkataraman; Chen, S.; Behringer, Reinhold; Tam, Clement K.; Chan, M.; Bangayan, Phil T.; McGee, Joshua H.

    2000-08-01

    We describe new systems for improved integrated multimodal human-computer interaction and augmented reality for a diverse array of applications, including future advanced cockpits, tactical operations centers, and others. We have developed an integrated display system featuring: speech recognition of multiple concurrent users equipped with both standard air- coupled microphones and novel throat-coupled sensors (developed at Army Research Labs for increased noise immunity); lip reading for improving speech recognition accuracy in noisy environments, three-dimensional spatialized audio for improved display of warnings, alerts, and other information; wireless, coordinated handheld-PC control of a large display; real-time display of data and inferences from wireless integrated networked sensors with on-board signal processing and discrimination; gesture control with disambiguated point-and-speak capability; head- and eye- tracking coupled with speech recognition for 'look-and-speak' interaction; and integrated tetherless augmented reality on a wearable computer. The various interaction modalities (speech recognition, 3D audio, eyetracking, etc.) are implemented a 'modality servers' in an Internet-based client-server architecture. Each modality server encapsulates and exposes commercial and research software packages, presenting a socket network interface that is abstracted to a high-level interface, minimizing both vendor dependencies and required changes on the client side as the server's technology improves.

  17. Neutron activation analysis of single human hairs and possible applications for forensic purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dybczynski, R.; Boboli, K.

    1975-01-01

    A new analytical procedure that enables to determine more than 10 trace elements in single, 3 cm human hair segments by neutron activation analysis (NAA) was elaborated. Application of a special washing procedure of hair (before irradiation) made possible to lower sodium content by two orders of magnitude without affecting trace element content. After irradiation in the thermal neutron flux of about 10 14 n.cm -2 .sec -1 the activity of hair was measured with 70 cm 3 Ge(Li) detector coupled to 4000 channel pulse height analyser. As an alternative method, a destructive version of NAA with ion exchange group separation of radionuclides was applied. It was found that sometimes high gradients of element concentration along the hair length exist and that there is without any doubt a distinct influence of environmental factor on the content of some trace elements in hair. The criminalistic aspects of hair analysis were also studied using new statistical criterion for elimination (identification). Both possibilities and limitations of the method are discussed. (author)

  18. CRISPR/Cas9 system and its applications in human hematopoietic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaotang

    2016-11-01

    Since 2012, the CRISPR-Cas9 system has been quickly and successfully tested in a broad range of organisms and cells including hematopoietic cells. The application of CRISPR-Cas9 in human hematopoietic cells mainly involves the genes responsible for HIV infection, β-thalassemia and sickle cell disease (SCD). The successful disruption of CCR5 and CXCR4 genes in T cells by CRISPR-Cas9 promotes the prospect of the technology in the functional cure of HIV. More recently, eliminating CCR5 and CXCR4 in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from patients and targeting the HIV genome have been successfully carried out in several laboratories. The outcome from these approaches bring us closer to the goal of eradicating HIV infection. For hemoglobinopathies the ability to produce iPSC-derived from patients with the correction of hemoglobin (HBB) mutations by CRISPR-Cas9 has been tested in a number of laboratories. These corrected iPSCs also show the potential to differentiate into mature erythrocytes expressing high-level and normal HBB. In light of the initial success of CRESPR-Cas9 in target mutated gene(s) in the iPSCs, a combination of genomic editing and autogenetic stem cell transplantation would be the best strategy for root treatment of the diseases, which could replace traditional allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Experiments for Evaluating Application of Bayesian Inference to Situation Awareness of Human Operators in NPPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Seong Keun; Seong, Poong Hyun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    Bayesian methodology has been used widely used in various research fields. It is method of inference using Bayes' rule to update the estimation of probability for the certain hypothesis when additional evidences are acquired. According to the current researches, malfunction of nuclear power plant can be detected by using this Bayesian inference which consistently piles up the newly incoming data and updates its estimation. However, those researches are based on the assumption that people are doing like computer perfectly, which can be criticized and may cause a problem in real world application. Studies in cognitive psychology indicates that when the amount of information becomes larger, people can't save the whole data because people have limited memory capacity which is well known as working memory, and also they have attention problem. The purpose of this paper is to consider the psychological factors and confirm how much this working memory and attention will affect the resulted estimation based on the Bayesian inference. To confirm this, experiment on human is needed, and the tool of experiment is Compact Nuclear Simulator (CNS)

  20. Equality Hypocrisy, Inconsistency, and Prejudice: The Unequal Application of the Universal Human Right to Equality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    In Western culture, there appears to be widespread endorsement of Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (which stresses equality and freedom). But do people really apply their equality values equally, or are their principles and application systematically discrepant, resulting in equality hypocrisy? The present study, conducted with a representative national sample of adults in the United Kingdom (N = 2,895), provides the first societal test of whether people apply their value of “equality for all” similarly across multiple types of status minority (women, disabled people, people aged over 70, Blacks, Muslims, and gay people). Drawing on theories of intergroup relations and stereotyping we examined, relation to each of these groups, respondents’ judgments of how important it is to satisfy their particular wishes, whether there should be greater or reduced equality of employment opportunities, and feelings of social distance. The data revealed a clear gap between general equality values and responses to these specific measures. Respondents prioritized equality more for “paternalized” groups (targets of benevolent prejudice: women, disabled, over 70) than others (Black people, Muslims, and homosexual people), demonstrating significant inconsistency. Respondents who valued equality more, or who expressed higher internal or external motivation to control prejudice, showed greater consistency in applying equality. However, even respondents who valued equality highly showed significant divergence in their responses to paternalized versus nonpaternalized groups, revealing a degree of hypocrisy. Implications for strategies to promote equality and challenge prejudice are discussed. PMID:25914516

  1. Development of human biotransformation QSARs and application for PBT assessment refinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Ester; Sangion, Alessandro; Arnot, Jon A; Gramatica, Paola

    2018-02-01

    Toxicokinetics heavily influence chemical toxicity as the result of Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism (Biotransformation) and Elimination (ADME) processes. Biotransformation (metabolism) reactions can lead to detoxification or, in some cases, bioactivation of parent compounds to more toxic chemicals. Moreover, biotransformation has been recognized as a key process determining chemical half-life in an organism and is thus a key determinant for bioaccumulation assessment for many chemicals. This study addresses the development of QSAR models for the prediction of in vivo whole body human biotransformation (metabolism) half-lives measured or empirically-derived for over 1000 chemicals, mainly represented by pharmaceuticals. Models presented in this study meet regulatory standards for fitting, validation and applicability domain. These QSARs were used, in combination with literature models for the prediction of biotransformation half-lives in fish, to refine the screening of the potential PBT behaviour of over 1300 Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPs). The refinement of the PBT screening allowed, among others, for the identification of PPCPs, which were predicted as PBTs on the basis of their chemical structure, but may be easily biotransformed. These compounds are of lower concern in comparison to potential PBTs characterized by large predicted biotransformation half-lives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The application of force-sensing resistor sensors for measuring forces developed by the human hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikonovas, A; Harrison, A J L; Hoult, S; Sammut, D

    2004-01-01

    Most attempts to measure forces developed by the human hand have been implemented by placing force sensors on the object of interaction. Other researchers have placed sensors just on the subject's fingertips. In this paper, a system is described that measures forces over the entire hand using thin-film sensors and associated electronics. This system was developed by the authors and is able to obtain force readings from up to 60 thin-film sensors at rates of up to 400 samples/s per sensor. The sensors can be placed anywhere on the palm and/or fingers of the hand. The sensor readings, together with a video stream containing information about hand posture, are logged into a portable computer using a multiplexer, analogue-to-digital converter and software developed for the purpose. The system has been successfully used to measure forces involved in a range of everyday tasks such as driving a vehicle, lifting saucepans and hitting a golf ball. In the latter case, results are compared with those from an instrumented golf club. Future applications include the assessment of hand strength following disease, trauma or surgery, and to enable quantitative ergonomic investigations.

  3. Experiments for Evaluating Application of Bayesian Inference to Situation Awareness of Human Operators in NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Seong Keun; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Bayesian methodology has been used widely used in various research fields. It is method of inference using Bayes' rule to update the estimation of probability for the certain hypothesis when additional evidences are acquired. According to the current researches, malfunction of nuclear power plant can be detected by using this Bayesian inference which consistently piles up the newly incoming data and updates its estimation. However, those researches are based on the assumption that people are doing like computer perfectly, which can be criticized and may cause a problem in real world application. Studies in cognitive psychology indicates that when the amount of information becomes larger, people can't save the whole data because people have limited memory capacity which is well known as working memory, and also they have attention problem. The purpose of this paper is to consider the psychological factors and confirm how much this working memory and attention will affect the resulted estimation based on the Bayesian inference. To confirm this, experiment on human is needed, and the tool of experiment is Compact Nuclear Simulator (CNS)

  4. Application of duckweed for human urine treatment in Bioregenerative Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manukovsky, Nickolay; Kovalev, Vladimir

    The object of the study was the common duckweed Lemna minor L. Thanks to the ability to assimilate mineral and organic substances, duckweed is used to purify water in sewage lagoons. In addition, duckweed biomass is known to be a potential high-protein feed resource for domestic animals and fish. The aim of the study was to estimate an application of duckweed in a two-stage treatment of human urine in Bioregenerative Life Support System (BLSS). At the first stage, the urine’s organic matter is oxidized by hydrogen peroxide. Diluted solution of oxidized urine is used for cultivation of duckweed. The appointment of duckweed is the assimilation of mineralized substances of urine. Part of the duckweed biomass yield directly or after composting could be embedded in the soil-like substrate as organic fertilizer to compensate the carry-over in consequence of plant growing. The rest duckweed biomass could be used as a feed for animals in BLSS. Then, the residual culture liquid is concentrated and used as a source of dietary salt. It takes 10-15 m2 of duckweed culture per crewmember to treat oxidized urine. The BLSS configuration including two-component subsystem of urine treatment is presented.

  5. [Nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics - application of „omics” technologies in optimization of human nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panczyk, Mariusz

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics are perceived as one of the most important research areas ensuring better understanding of an impact of nutrition on human health. Since such researches are interdisciplinary in type, there is a problem with their widespread acceptance and practical clinical application of obtained results. Understanding the new ideas and hypotheses published in researches on nutrigenetics/nutrigenomics requires some knowledge of genetics, biochemistry, molecular biology, and capabilities and limitations that are associated with the use of statistical and bioinformatic analysis, and above all „omics” research technologies (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics). Highly efficient genome and proteome analysis techniques allow to obtain data necessary for profiling of an individual patient. The main problem is still our insufficient knowledge of cell physiology and biochemistry. The vast amount of information is obtained with the use of „omics” technologies what makes it difficult to interpret and infer. An unquestionable advantage of this type of research is the possibility to utilize system analysis (system biology) which is important in the context of a holistic interpretation of biological phenomena. This review is an attempt to present the main hypotheses and objectives which are carried out by researchers in nutrigenetics/nutrigenomics. This article describes the most important directions of research and anticipated results that are related to the practical use of nutritional genomics as well as the critical assessment of the possible impact of future developments on public health.

  6. Generation and analyses of human synthetic antibody libraries and their application for protein microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Säll, Anna; Walle, Maria; Wingren, Christer; Müller, Susanne; Nyman, Tomas; Vala, Andrea; Ohlin, Mats; Borrebaeck, Carl A K; Persson, Helena

    2016-10-01

    Antibody-based proteomics offers distinct advantages in the analysis of complex samples for discovery and validation of biomarkers associated with disease. However, its large-scale implementation requires tools and technologies that allow development of suitable antibody or antibody fragments in a high-throughput manner. To address this we designed and constructed two human synthetic antibody fragment (scFv) libraries denoted HelL-11 and HelL-13. By the use of phage display technology, in total 466 unique scFv antibodies specific for 114 different antigens were generated. The specificities of these antibodies were analyzed in a variety of immunochemical assays and a subset was further evaluated for functionality in protein microarray applications. This high-throughput approach demonstrates the ability to rapidly generate a wealth of reagents not only for proteome research, but potentially also for diagnostics and therapeutics. In addition, this work provides a great example on how a synthetic approach can be used to optimize library designs. By having precise control of the diversity introduced into the antigen-binding sites, synthetic libraries offer increased understanding of how different diversity contributes to antibody binding reactivity and stability, thereby providing the key to future library optimization. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Co-ordinated research programme on applications of stable isotope tracers in human nutrition research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) was formally established by the Agency in October 1988, and has since then expanded to encompass 13 participants in 13 countries. Its general objective is to help establish competence in the use of stable isotope techniques, particularly in developing countries, and particularly with reference to applications of 2 H, 13 C, 15 N, and 18 O. This report summarizes the discussions that took place during the first Research Co-ordination Meeting (RCM). Working papers (progress reports) presented by the participants are included as annexes together with a preliminary report on the results of a series of intercomparison exercises involving enriched stable isotope reference materials containing 2 H, 13 C, 15 N and 18 O. For the future it was agreed that more work needs to be done to harmonize the analytical techniques being used, and to obtain support for new CRPs relating to human energy expenditure studies in pregnancy, lactation, growth and other conditions, and to studies of nitrogen turnover in relation to malnutrition and liver function. Refs, figs and tabs

  8. Equality Hypocrisy, Inconsistency, and Prejudice: The Unequal Application of the Universal Human Right to Equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Dominic; Houston, Diane M; Van de Vyver, Julie; Vasiljevic, Milica

    2015-02-01

    In Western culture, there appears to be widespread endorsement of Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (which stresses equality and freedom). But do people really apply their equality values equally, or are their principles and application systematically discrepant, resulting in equality hypocrisy? The present study, conducted with a representative national sample of adults in the United Kingdom ( N = 2,895), provides the first societal test of whether people apply their value of "equality for all" similarly across multiple types of status minority (women, disabled people, people aged over 70, Blacks, Muslims, and gay people). Drawing on theories of intergroup relations and stereotyping we examined, relation to each of these groups, respondents' judgments of how important it is to satisfy their particular wishes, whether there should be greater or reduced equality of employment opportunities, and feelings of social distance. The data revealed a clear gap between general equality values and responses to these specific measures. Respondents prioritized equality more for "paternalized" groups (targets of benevolent prejudice: women, disabled, over 70) than others (Black people, Muslims, and homosexual people), demonstrating significant inconsistency. Respondents who valued equality more, or who expressed higher internal or external motivation to control prejudice, showed greater consistency in applying equality. However, even respondents who valued equality highly showed significant divergence in their responses to paternalized versus nonpaternalized groups, revealing a degree of hypocrisy. Implications for strategies to promote equality and challenge prejudice are discussed.

  9. Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Mechanobiology: Manipulating the Biophysical Microenvironment for Regenerative Medicine and Tissue Engineering Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Ronald G; Simmons, Craig A

    2015-11-01

    A stem cell in its microenvironment is subjected to a myriad of soluble chemical cues and mechanical forces that act in concert to orchestrate cell fate. Intuitively, many of these soluble and biophysical factors have been the focus of intense study to successfully influence and direct cell differentiation in vitro. Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have been of considerable interest in these studies due to their great promise for regenerative medicine. Culturing and directing differentiation of hPSCs, however, is currently extremely labor-intensive and lacks the efficiency required to generate large populations of clinical-grade cells. Improved efficiency may come from efforts to understand how the cell biophysical signals can complement biochemical signals to regulate cell pluripotency and direct differentiation. In this concise review, we explore hPSC mechanobiology and how the hPSC biophysical microenvironment can be manipulated to maintain and differentiate hPSCs into functional cell types for regenerative medicine and tissue engineering applications. © 2015 AlphaMed Press.

  10. Design and Generation of Humanized Single-chain Fv Derived from Mouse Hybridoma for Potential Targeting Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khantasup, Kannika; Chantima, Warangkana; Sangma, Chak; Poomputsa, Kanokwan; Dharakul, Tararaj

    2015-12-01

    Single-chain variable antibody fragments (scFvs) are attractive candidates for targeted immunotherapy in several human diseases. In this study, a concise humanization strategy combined with an optimized production method for humanizing scFvs was successfully employed. Two antibody clones, one directed against the hemagglutinin of H5N1 influenza virus, the other against EpCAM, a cancer biomarker, were used to demonstrate the validity of the method. Heavy chain (VH) and light chain (VL) variable regions of immunoglobulin genes from mouse hybridoma cells were sequenced and subjected to the construction of mouse scFv 3-D structure. Based on in silico modeling, the humanized version of the scFv was designed via complementarity-determining region (CDR) grafting with the retention of mouse framework region (FR) residues identified by primary sequence analysis. Root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) value between mouse and humanized scFv structures was calculated to evaluate the preservation of CDR conformation. Mouse and humanized scFv genes were then constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli. Using this method, we successfully generated humanized scFvs that retained the targeting activity of their respective mouse scFv counterparts. In addition, the humanized scFvs were engineered with a C-terminal cysteine residue (hscFv-C) for site-directed conjugation for use in future targeting applications. The hscFv-C expression was extensively optimized to improve protein production yield. The protocol yielded a 20-fold increase in production of hscFv-Cs in E. coli periplasm. The strategy described in this study may be applicable in the humanization of other antibodies derived from mouse hybridoma.

  11. The role of human error in risk analysis: Application to pre- and post-maintenance procedures of process facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noroozi, Alireza; Khakzad, Nima; Khan, Faisal; MacKinnon, Scott; Abbassi, Rouzbeh

    2013-01-01

    Human factors play an important role in the safe operation of a facility. Human factors include the systematic application of information about human characteristics and behavior to increase the safety of a process system. A significant proportion of human errors occur during the maintenance phase. However, the quantification of human error probabilities in the maintenance phase has not been given the amount of attention it deserves. This paper focuses on a human factors analysis in pre-and post- pump maintenance operations. The procedures for removing process equipment from service (pre-maintenance) and returning the equipment to service (post-maintenance) are considered for possible failure scenarios. For each scenario, human error probability is calculated for each activity using the Success Likelihood Index Method (SLIM). Consequences are also assessed in this methodology. The risk assessment is conducted for each component and the overall risk is estimated by adding individual risks. The present study is aimed at highlighting the importance of considering human error in quantitative risk analyses. The developed methodology has been applied to a case study of an offshore process facility

  12. Immunological reactive rate to Zika virus in canine sera: A report from a tropical area and concern on pet, zoonosis and reservoir host

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Beuy Joob; Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2017-01-01

    This letter to editor discusses and describes Zika virus IgG seropositivity rate in canine sera from endemic area. This is the first world report and it raises an urgent concern on pet, zoonosis and reservoir host regarding Zika virus.

  13. The effect of parenteral alimentation fluid, undiluted with saline or fresh sera, on the growth of Candida albicans in vitro at 37 degrees C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, T; Rippon, J; Baldwin, S; Pachman, L M

    1975-02-28

    Parenteral alimentation is often complicated by Candida albicans infection which may be fatal. This study investigated the effect of alimentation fluid (Aminosol) on C. albicans' growth in vitro. It was found that concentrated Aminosol (1400 millisomoles) maintained C. albicans in a viable state but inhibited replication. Dilution of alimentation fluid to physiological concentrations (300 milliosmoles) with either saline or aged pooled normal sera promoted in vitro growth of C. albicans which was equivalent to that obtained in BHI broth and was slightly less than that obtained in Sabouraud's broth. The effects of fresh sera with full complement activity were also investigated. In fresh sera appropriately diluted with physiological saline, some clumping of the yeasts was observed and all formed germ tubes. Growth as defined by budding or the formation of hyphae was inhibited. When Aminosol was diluted to 300 milliosomoles with fresh sera, all yeasts were noted to be in clumps with germ tubes as well as continually growing hyphae. Growth was approximately equal to that seen in Aminosol similarly diluted with saline.

  14. SERA Scenarios of Early Market Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Introductions: Modeling Framework, Regional Markets, and Station Clustering; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, M.

    2015-03-23

    This presentation provides an overview of the Scenario Evaluation and Regionalization Analysis (SERA) model, describes the methodology for developing scenarios for hydrogen infrastructure development, outlines an example "Hydrogen Success" scenario, and discusses detailed scenario metrics for a particular case study region, the Northeast Corridor.

  15. Study of the titers of Anti-Epstein-Barr virus antibodies in the sera of atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Mitoshi; Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Ozaki, Kyoko; Mizuno, Shoichi; Cologne, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    Antibody titers to Epstein-Barr virus antigens were determined in the sera of 372 atomic bomb survivors to evaluate the effect of the previous radiation exposure on immune competence against the latent infection of the virus. The proportion of persons with high titers (≥ 1:40) of IgG antibodies to the early antigen was significantly elevated in the exposed survivors. Furthermore, the distribution of IgM titers against the viral capsid antigen was significantly affected by radiation dose with an increased occurrence of titers of 1:5 and 1:10 in the exposed persons, although the dose effect was only marginally suggestive when persons with rheumatoid factor were eliminated from the analysis. These results suggest that reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus in the latent stage occurs more frequently in the survivors, even though this might not be affected by the radiation dose. Otherwise, there was neither an increased trend in the prevalence of high titers (≥ 1:640) of IgG antibodies to the viral capsid antigen among the exposed people nor a correlation between the radiation exposure and distributions of titers of IgA antibodies to the viral capsid antigen or antibodies to the anti-Epstein-Barr virus-associated nuclear antigen. (author)

  16. Study of the titers of Anti-Epstein-Barr virus antibodies in the sera of atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiyama, Mitoshi; Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Ozaki, Kyoko; Mizuno, Shoichi; Cologne, J.B.

    1993-12-31

    Antibody titers to Epstein-Barr virus antigens were determined in the sera of 372 atomic bomb survivors to evaluate the effect of the previous radiation exposure on immune competence against the latent infection of the virus. The proportion of persons with high titers ({>=} 1:40) of IgG antibodies to the early antigen was significantly elevated in the exposed survivors. Furthermore, the distribution of IgM titers against the viral capsid antigen was significantly affected by radiation dose with an increased occurrence of titers of 1:5 and 1:10 in the exposed persons, although the dose effect was only marginally suggestive when persons with rheumatoid factor were eliminated from the analysis. These results suggest that reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus in the latent stage occurs more frequently in the survivors, even though this might not be affected by the radiation dose. Otherwise, there was neither an increased trend in the prevalence of high titers ({>=} 1:640) of IgG antibodies to the viral capsid antigen among the exposed people nor a correlation between the radiation exposure and distributions of titers of IgA antibodies to the viral capsid antigen or antibodies to the anti-Epstein-Barr virus-associated nuclear antigen. (author).

  17. Differential recognition of terminal extracellular Plasmodium falciparum VAR2CSA domains by sera from multigravid, malaria-exposed Malian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travassos, Mark A; Coulibaly, Drissa; Bailey, Jason A; Niangaly, Amadou; Adams, Matthew; Nyunt, Myaing M; Ouattara, Amed; Lyke, Kirsten E; Laurens, Matthew B; Pablo, Jozelyn; Jasinskas, Algis; Nakajima, Rie; Berry, Andrea A; Takala-Harrison, Shannon; Kone, Abdoulaye K; Kouriba, Bourema; Rowe, J Alexandra; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Thera, Mahamadou A; Laufer, Miriam K; Felgner, Philip L; Plowe, Christopher V

    2015-06-01

    The Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) family mediates parasite sequestration in small capillaries through tissue-specific cytoadherence. The best characterized of these proteins is VAR2CSA, which is expressed on the surface of infected erythrocytes that bind to chondroitin sulfate in the placental matrix. Antibodies to VAR2CSA prevent placental cytoadherence and protect against placental malaria. The size and complexity of the VAR2CSA protein pose challenges for vaccine development, but smaller constitutive domains may be suitable for subunit vaccine development. A protein microarray was printed to include five overlapping fragments of the 3D7 VAR2CSA extracellular region. Malian women with a history of at least one pregnancy had antibody recognition of four of these fragments and had stronger reactivity against the two distal fragments than did nulliparous women, children, and men from Mali, suggesting that the C-terminal extracellular VAR2CSA domains are a potential focus of protective immunity. With carefully chosen sera from longitudinal studies of pregnant women, this approach has the potential to identify seroreactive VAR2CSA domains associated with protective immunity against pregnancy-associated malaria. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  18. Phospholipids in sera of horses with summer eczema: lipid analysis of the autoserum preparation used in therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallamaa, R E; Batchu, K C; Tallberg, T

    2014-05-01

    Equine summer eczema, also known as insect bite hypersensitivity, affects horses recurrently during summer months. The treatment of this allergic pruritus is difficult and therefore there is a need for efficacious treatments. Autoserum therapy, based on the use of autogenous serum that is specifically prepared for oral administration and given when the animal shows clinical signs has been introduced recently. Lipids are thought to be responsible for the effect of this therapy. The main aim of this study was to analyse the phospholipid content of autogenous serum preparations and to further assess whether these preparations have different lipid profiles depending on the clinical status of the horse. The hypothesis is that the major serum phospholipids typical of the horse are present in the autoserum preparation. Descriptive controlled clinical study. Sera were collected from 10 affected and 6 healthy horses, prepared in a similar fashion and the lipids contained in the resulting autoserum preparations were analysed by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry. The major phospholipid classes detected were phosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin, phosphatidic acid and traces of lysophosphatidylcholine. Horses with summer eczema had significantly abundant concentrations of phosphatidylcholine (P = 0.042) and sphingomyelin (P = 0.0017) in comparison with healthy horses, while the concentration of phosphatidic acid was significantly higher in healthy horses (P = 0.0075). The autoserum preparation contains minute amounts of the main serum phospholipids in differing concentrations in healthy horses and horses with an allergic skin disease. © 2013 EVJ Ltd.

  19. Determine Multiple Elements Simultaneously in the Sera of Umbilical Cord Blood Samples-a Very Simple Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chunmei; Li, Zhijuan; Xia, Xun; Wang, Qunan; Tao, Ruiwen; Tao, Yiran; Xiang, Haiyun; Tong, Shilu; Tao, Fangbiao

    2017-05-01

    Analyzing the concentrations of heavy metals in the sera of umbilical cord blood samples can provide useful information about prenatal exposure to environmental agents. An analytical method based on ICP-MS to simultaneously determine multiple elements in umbilical cord blood samples was developed for assessing the in utero exposure to metallic and metalloid elements. The method only required as little as 100 μL of serum diluted 1:25 for direct analysis. Matrix-matched protocol was used to eliminate mass matrix interference and kinetic energy discrimination mode was used to eliminate the polyatomic ion interference. The assay was completed on average within 4 min with the detection limits ranging from 0.0002 to 44.4 μg/L for all the targeted elements. The detection rates for most of elements were 100 % other than cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg). The testing results of the certified reference materials were ideal. The method is simple and sensitive, so it is suitable for the monitoring of large quantities of samples.

  20. A putative serine protease, SpSsp1, from Saprolegnia parasitica is recognised by sera of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Kirsty L.; Anderson, Victoria L.; Davis, Katie S.; Van Den Berg, Albert H.; Christie, James S.; Löbach, Lars; Faruk, Ali Reza; Wawra, Stephan; Secombes, Chris J.; Van West, Pieter

    2014-01-01

    Saprolegniosis, the disease caused by Saprolegnia sp., results in considerable economic losses in aquaculture. Current control methods are inadequate, as they are either largely ineffective or present environmental and fish health concerns. Vaccination of fish presents an attractive alternative to these control methods. Therefore we set out to identify suitable antigens that could help generate a fish vaccine against Saprolegnia parasitica. Unexpectedly, antibodies against S. parasitica were found in serum from healthy rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. The antibodies detected a single band in secreted proteins that were run on a one-dimensional SDS-polyacrylamide gel, which corresponded to two protein spots on a two-dimensional gel. The proteins were analysed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Mascot and bioinformatic analysis resulted in the identification of a single secreted protein, SpSsp1, of 481 amino acid residues, containing a subtilisin domain. Expression analysis demonstrated that SpSsp1 is highly expressed in all tested mycelial stages of S. parasitica. Investigation of other non-infected trout from several fish farms in the United Kingdom showed similar activity in their sera towards SpSsp1. Several fish that had no visible saprolegniosis showed an antibody response towards SpSsp1 suggesting that SpSsp1 might be a useful candidate for future vaccination trial experiments. PMID:25088077

  1. Cloning of a cDNA encoding a surface antigen of Schistosoma mansoni schistosomula recognized by sera of vassinated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalton, J.P.; Tom, T.D.; Strand, M.

    1987-01-01

    Spleen cells of mice vaccinated with radiation-attenuated Schistosoma mansoni cercariae were used to produce monoclonal antibodies directed against newly transformed schistosomular surface antigens. One of these monoclonal antibodies recognized a polypeptide of 18 kDa. Binding was measured by radioimmunoassay. This glycoprotein was purified by monoclonal antibody immunoaffinity chromatography and a polyclonal antiserum was prepared against it. Immunofluorescence assays showed that the polyclonal antiserum bound to the surface of newly transformed schistosomula and lung-stage organisms but not to the surface of liver-stage and adult worms. Using this polyclonal antiserum we isolated recombinant clones from an adult worm cDNA expression library constructed in λgt11. Clone 654.2 contained an insert of 0.52 kilobase and hybridized to a 1.2-kilobase mRNA species from adult worms. Most importantly, clone 654.2 produced a fusion protein of 125 kDa that was reactive with sera of vaccinated mice that are capable of transferring resistance. This result encourages future vaccination trials with the fusion protein

  2. A perspective on Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) and studies on the application of HRA to Indian Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramaniam, K.; Saraf, R.K.; Sanyasi Rao, V.V.S.; Venkat Raj, V.; Venkatraman, R.

    2000-05-01

    Probabilistic studies of risks show that the human factor contributes significantly to overall risk. The potential for and mechanisms of human error to affect plant risk and safety is evaluated by Human Reliability Analysis (HRA). HRA has quantitative and qualitative aspects, both of which are useful for Human Factors Engineering (HFE) which aims at designing operator interfaces that will minimise operator error and provide for error detection and recovery capability. HRA has therefore to be conducted as an integrated activity in support of PSA and HFE design. The objectives of HRA therefore, are to assure that potential effects on plant safety and reliability are analysed and that human actions that are important to plant risk are identified so that they can be addressed in both PSA and plant design. This report is in two parts. The first part presents a comprehensive overview of HRA. It attempts to provide an understanding of how human failures are incorporated into PSA models and how HRA is performed. The focus is on the HRA process, frameworks, techniques and models. The second part begins with a discussion on the application of HRA to IPHWRs and then continues with the presentation of three specific HRA case studies. This work was carried out by the working group on HRA constituted by AERB. Part of the work was done under the aegis of the IAEA Coordinated Research Programme (CRP) on collection and classification of human reliability data and use in PSA - Research contract No. 8239/RB. (author)

  3. Human failure event analysis and precautionary methods and their application to reactor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Li; Huang Shudong; Wang Yiqun; Gao Wenyu; Zhang Jin

    2003-01-01

    Making use of human factor engineering, control science and safety science and adopting the method of systemically collection and doing research work factually, the authors analyze the problem and tendency of human factor science, the classification system, the formation, the quantitative appraisal, data collection and data bank, the effect and influence of organization management, the root cause analysis technology, and human error failure mode and effect and criticality analysis, the method and strategy of defense-in-depth for preventing human-initiated accident. The human factor accidents theory and mechanism are constructed. All of the above was successfully applied to Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station and Lingao Nuclear Power Station. (authors)

  4. Measuring higher order optical aberrations of the human eye: techniques and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Alberto V. Carvalho

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper we discuss the development of "wave-front", an instrument for determining the lower and higher optical aberrations of the human eye. We also discuss the advantages that such instrumentation and techniques might bring to the ophthalmology professional of the 21st century. By shining a small light spot on the retina of subjects and observing the light that is reflected back from within the eye, we are able to quantitatively determine the amount of lower order aberrations (astigmatism, myopia, hyperopia and higher order aberrations (coma, spherical aberration, etc.. We have measured artificial eyes with calibrated ametropia ranging from +5 to -5 D, with and without 2 D astigmatism with axis at 45º and 90º. We used a device known as the Hartmann-Shack (HS sensor, originally developed for measuring the optical aberrations of optical instruments and general refracting surfaces in astronomical telescopes. The HS sensor sends information to a computer software for decomposition of wave-front aberrations into a set of Zernike polynomials. These polynomials have special mathematical properties and are more suitable in this case than the traditional Seidel polynomials. We have demonstrated that this technique is more precise than conventional autorefraction, with a root mean square error (RMSE of less than 0.1 µm for a 4-mm diameter pupil. In terms of dioptric power this represents an RMSE error of less than 0.04 D and 5º for the axis. This precision is sufficient for customized corneal ablations, among other applications.

  5. Alkylation of human hair keratin for tunable hydrogel erosion and drug delivery in tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sangheon; Ham, Trevor R; Haque, Salma; Sparks, Jessica L; Saul, Justin M

    2015-09-01

    Polymeric biomaterials that provide a matrix for cell attachment and proliferation while achieving delivery of therapeutic agents are an important component of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine strategies. Keratins are a class of proteins that have received attention for numerous tissue engineering applications because, like other natural polymers, they promote favorable cell interactions and have non-toxic degradation products. Keratins can be extracted from various sources including human hair, and they are characterized by a high percentage of cysteine residues. Thiol groups on reductively extracted keratin (kerateine) form disulfide bonds, providing a more stable cross-linked hydrogel network than oxidatively extracted keratin (keratose) that cannot form disulfide crosslinks. We hypothesized that an iodoacetamide alkylation (or "capping") of cysteine thiol groups on the kerateine form of keratin could be used as a simple method to modulate the levels of disulfide crosslinking in keratin hydrogels, providing tunable rates of gel erosion and therapeutic agent release. After alkylation, the alkylated kerateines still formed hydrogels and the alkylation led to changes in the mechanical and visco-elastic properties of the materials consistent with loss of disulfide crosslinking. The alkylated kerateines did not lead to toxicity in MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts. These cells adhered to keratin at levels comparable to fibronectin and greater than collagen. Alkylated kerateine gels eroded more rapidly than non-alkylated kerateine and this control over erosion led to tunable rates of delivery of rhBMP-2, rhIGF-1, and ciprofloxacin. These results demonstrate that alkylation of kerateine cysteine residues provides a cell-compatible approach to tune rates of hydrogel erosion and therapeutic agent release within the context of a naturally-derived polymeric system. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. TOPICAL REVIEW: Modelling the interaction of electromagnetic fields (10 MHz 10 GHz) with the human body: methods and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, J. W.

    2008-08-01

    Numerical modelling of the interaction between electromagnetic fields (EMFs) and the dielectrically inhomogeneous human body provides a unique way of assessing the resulting spatial distributions of internal electric fields, currents and rate of energy deposition. Knowledge of these parameters is of importance in understanding such interactions and is a prerequisite when assessing EMF exposure or when assessing or optimizing therapeutic or diagnostic medical applications that employ EMFs. In this review, computational methods that provide this information through full time-dependent solutions of Maxwell's equations are summarized briefly. This is followed by an overview of safety- and medical-related applications where modelling has contributed significantly to development and understanding of the techniques involved. In particular, applications in the areas of mobile communications, magnetic resonance imaging, hyperthermal therapy and microwave radiometry are highlighted. Finally, examples of modelling the potentially new medical applications of recent technologies such as ultra-wideband microwaves are discussed.

  7. Human epidermal growth factor: molecular forms and application of radioimmunoassay and radioreceptor assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Y.; Orth, D.N.

    1981-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF), a 53 amino acid polypeptide, was first isolated by Cohen. EGF's growth-promoting activity is not limited to epidermal cells, but is expressed on a wide variety of tissues derived from a number of different species. Human EGF (hEGF) was isolated and subsequently purified from human urine. Unexpectedly, a close structural relationship was recognized between mEGF and human β-urogastrone. The authors recently developed both an homologous hEGF radioimmunoassay (RIA) and a radioreceptor assay (RRA) using a human placental membrane fraction. Using these assays, the molecular size of hEGF in human body fluids and tissues was evaluated, and partial characterization of a high molecular weight form of hEGF isolated from human urine was carried out. The concentrations of immunoreactive hEGF were also determined in human tissues and plasma after extraction either with cationic exchange chromatography or with immunoaffinity chromatography. (Auth.)

  8. Application of satellite imagery to monitoring human rights abuse of vulnerable communities, with minimal risk to relief staff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavers, C; Bishop, C; Hawkins, O; Grealey, E; Cox, C; Thomas, D; Trimel, S, E-mail: brnc-radarcomms1@nrta.mod.u [Sensors Team, Plymouth University at Britannia Royal Naval College, Dartmouth (United Kingdom); DMC International Imaging, Tycho House, Surrey Research Park, Guildford (United Kingdom); Qinetiq, Cody Technology Park, Cody Building, Ively Road, Farnborough (United Kingdom); Humanitarian Aid Relief Trust (HART), 3 Arnellan House, Kingsbury, London (United Kingdom); Amnesty International USA, 5 Penn Plaza, New York (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Space imagery offers remote surveillance of ethnic people groups at risk of human rights abuse. We highlight work in alleged violations in Burma and Sudan, using satellite imagery for verification with Amnesty International. We consider how imaging may effectively support small to medium-sized Non Governmental Organisations and charities, e.g. HART, working in dangerous zones on the ground. Satellite based sensing applications are now at a sufficiently mature stage for moderate Governmental funding levels to help prevent human rights abuse, rather than the greater cost of rebuilding communities and healing sectarian divisions after abuse has taken place.

  9. Application of satellite imagery to monitoring human rights abuse of vulnerable communities, with minimal risk to relief staff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavers, C; Bishop, C; Hawkins, O; Grealey, E; Cox, C; Thomas, D; Trimel, S

    2009-01-01

    Space imagery offers remote surveillance of ethnic people groups at risk of human rights abuse. We highlight work in alleged violations in Burma and Sudan, using satellite imagery for verification with Amnesty International. We consider how imaging may effectively support small to medium-sized Non Governmental Organisations and charities, e.g. HART, working in dangerous zones on the ground. Satellite based sensing applications are now at a sufficiently mature stage for moderate Governmental funding levels to help prevent human rights abuse, rather than the greater cost of rebuilding communities and healing sectarian divisions after abuse has taken place.

  10. Proposal of abolition of the skin sensitivity test before equine rabies immune globulin application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CUPO Palmira

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available An epizootic outbreak of rabies occurred in 1995 in Ribeirão Preto, SP, with 58 cases of animal rabies (54 dogs, 3 cats and 1 bat confirmed by the Pasteur Institute of São Paulo, and one human death. The need to provide care to a large number of people for the application of equine rabies immune globulin (ERIG prevented the execution of the skin sensitivity test (SST and often also the execution of desensitization, procedures routinely used up to that time at the Emergency Unit of the University Hospital of the Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo (EU-UHFMRP-USP, a reference hospital for the application of heterologous sera. In view of our positive experience of several years with the abolition of SST and of the use of premedication before the application of antivenom sera, we used a similar schedule for ERIG application. Of the 1489 victims of animal bites, 1054 (71% received ERIG; no patient was submitted to SST and all received intravenously anti-histamines (anti-H1 + anti-H2 and corticosteroids before the procedure. The patients were kept under observation for 60 to 180 minutes and no adverse reaction was observed. On the basis of these results, since December 1995 ERIG application has been decentralized in Ribeirão Preto and has become the responsibility of the Emergency Unit of the University Hospital and the Central Basic Health Unit, where the same routine is used. Since then, 4216 patients have received ERIG (1818 at the Basic Health Unit and 2398 at the EU-UHFMRP, with no problems. The ideal would be the routine use of human rabies immune globulin (HRIG in public health programs, but this is problematic, because of their high cost. However, while this does not occur, the use of SST is no longer justified at the time of application of ERIG, in view of the clinical evidence of low predictive value and low sensitivity of SST involving the application of heterologous sera. It is very important to point out

  11. Chimeric mice with humanized liver: Application in drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics studies for drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naritomi, Yoichi; Sanoh, Seigo; Ohta, Shigeru

    2018-02-01

    Predicting human drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics (PK) is key to drug discovery. In particular, it is important to predict human PK, metabolite profiles and drug-drug interactions (DDIs). Various methods have been used for such predictions, including in vitro metabolic studies using human biological samples, such as hepatic microsomes and hepatocytes, and in vivo studies using experimental animals. However, prediction studies using these methods are often inconclusive due to discrepancies between in vitro and in vivo results, and interspecies differences in drug metabolism. Further, the prediction methods have changed from qualitative to quantitative to solve these issues. Chimeric mice with humanized liver have been developed, in which mouse liver cells are mostly replaced with human hepatocytes. Since human drug metabolizing enzymes are expressed in the liver of these mice, they are regarded as suitable models for mimicking the drug metabolism and PK observed in humans; therefore, these mice are useful for predicting human drug metabolism and PK. In this review, we discuss the current state, issues, and future directions of predicting human drug metabolism and PK using chimeric mice with humanized liver in drug discovery. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Society for the Study of Xenobiotics. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A Human-Centered Approach to Enhance Urban Resilience, Implications and Application to Improve Outdoor Comfort in Dense Urban Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ata Chokhachian

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of resilience in urban design and decision-making is principally focused on change instead of resistance over an adaptive process. For cities, this concept in a broader scale means how to withstand unforeseen events that will fundamentally amend the city’s wellbeing, rather than being stabilized and protected. The same concept is applicable for outdoor comfort as an adaptive approach to compensate extreme heat waves and health risk conditions. This chapter presents methods, tools, and applications to enhance urban resilience at a micro scale looking for correlations between environmental factors and human behavior in terms of outdoor comfort.

  13. Review of the state of the art of human biomonitoring for chemical substances and its application to human exposure assessment for food safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Judy; Mørck, Thit Aarøe; Polcher, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Human biomonitoring (HBM) measures the levels of substances in body fluids and tissues. Many countries have conducted HBM studies, yet little is known about its application towards chemical risk assessment, particularly in relation to food safety. Therefore a literature search was performed...... in several databases and conference proceedings for 2002 – 2014. Definitions of HBM and biomarkers, HBM techniques and requirements, and the possible application to the different steps of risk assessment were described. The usefulness of HBM for exposure assessment of chemical substances from food source...... safety areas (namely exposure assessment), and for the implementation of a systematic PMM approach. But further work needs to be done to improve usability. Major deficits are the lack of HBM guidance values on a considerable number of substance groups, for which health based guidance values (HBGVs) have...

  14. Application of grey incidence analysis to connection between human errors and root cause

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Yinxiang; Yu Ren; Zhou Gang; Chen Dengke

    2008-01-01

    By introducing grey incidence analysis, the relatively important impact of root cause upon human errors was researched in the paper. On the basis of WANO statistic data and grey incidence analysis, lack of alternate examine, bad basic operation, short of theoretical knowledge, relaxation of organization and management and deficiency of regulations are the important influence of root cause on human err ors. Finally, the question to reduce human errors was discussed. (authors)

  15. The SCID-hu mouse and its application to human radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyoizumi, Seishi; Akiyama, Mitoshi; McCune, J.M.; Namikawa, Reiko.

    1993-01-01

    The radiobiological study of humans has been hampered by a lack of suitable in vivo experimental models. Of course, acute and chronic radiation effects in humans have been documented in the studies of atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors and patients irradiated either by therapeutic intent or by accident. However, the information gained from these studies has been limited by the difficulties in estimating precise radiation doses and in obtaining biological samples for directly analyzing the processes of radiation-induced pathogenesis. With these issues in mind, we propose that the severe combined immunodeficient mouse-human chimera ca