WorldWideScience

Sample records for human research requirements

  1. Technology and Research Requirements for Combating Human Trafficking: Enhancing Communication, Analysis, Reporting, and Information Sharing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreyling, Sean J.; West, Curtis L.; Olson, Jarrod

    2011-03-17

    DHS’ Science & Technology Directorate directed PNNL to conduct an exploratory study on the domain of human trafficking in the Pacific Northwest in order to examine and identify technology and research requirements for enhancing communication, analysis, reporting, and information sharing – activities that directly support efforts to track, identify, deter, and prosecute human trafficking – including identification of potential national threats from smuggling and trafficking networks. This effort was conducted under the Knowledge Management Technologies Portfolio as part of the Integrated Federal, State, and Local/Regional Information Sharing (RISC) and Collaboration Program.

  2. The Human Rights Context for Ethical Requirements for Involving People with Intellectual Disability in Medical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacono, T.; Carling-Jenkins, R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The history of ethical guidelines addresses protection of human rights in the face of violations. Examples of such violations in research involving people with intellectual disabilities (ID) abound. We explore this history in an effort to understand the apparently stringent criteria for the inclusion of people with ID in research, and…

  3. Do people with intellectual disability require special human subjects research protections? The interplay of history, ethics, and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feudtner, Chris; Brosco, Jeffrey P

    2011-01-01

    People with intellectual disability (ID) have a long history of discrimination and stigmatization, and a more recent history of pride and self-advocacy. The early history suggests that people with ID are a vulnerable population and deserve special research protections as do some other groups; the disability rights movement of the late 20th century aligns people with ID more closely with the principle of autonomy that has guided clinical and research ethics for the last 40 years. In examining the history of people with ID and the prevailing framework of human subjects research protections in the United States, we conclude that people with ID do not require special protection in human subjects research. The protections that have already been put in place for all individuals, if conscientiously and effectively implemented, achieve the right balance between safeguarding the interest of human research subjects and empowering individuals who choose to do so to participate in research. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Functional requirements for the man-vehicle systems research facility. [identifying and correcting human errors during flight simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, W. F.; Allen, R. W.; Heffley, R. K.; Jewell, W. F.; Jex, H. R.; Mcruer, D. T.; Schulman, T. M.; Stapleford, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    The NASA Ames Research Center proposed a man-vehicle systems research facility to support flight simulation studies which are needed for identifying and correcting the sources of human error associated with current and future air carrier operations. The organization of research facility is reviewed and functional requirements and related priorities for the facility are recommended based on a review of potentially critical operational scenarios. Requirements are included for the experimenter's simulation control and data acquisition functions, as well as for the visual field, motion, sound, computation, crew station, and intercommunications subsystems. The related issues of functional fidelity and level of simulation are addressed, and specific criteria for quantitative assessment of various aspects of fidelity are offered. Recommendations for facility integration, checkout, and staffing are included.

  5. Compliance with National Ethics Requirements for Human-Subject Research in Non-biomedical Sciences in Brazil: A Changing Culture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Albuquerque Rocha, Karina; Vasconcelos, Sonia M R

    2018-02-06

    Ethics regulation for human-subject research (HSR) has been established for about 20 years in Brazil. However, compliance with this regulation is controversial for non-biomedical sciences, particularly for human and social sciences (HSS), the source of a recent debate at the National Commission for Research Ethics. We hypothesized that for these fields, formal requirements for compliance with HSR regulation in graduate programs, responsible for the greatest share of Brazilian science, would be small in number. We analyzed institutional documents (collected from June 2014 to May 2015) from 171 graduate programs at six prestigious Brazilian universities in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, the states that fund most of the science conducted in Brazil. Among these programs, 149 were in HSS. The results suggest that non-compliance with standard regulation seems to be the rule in most of these programs. The data may reflect not only a resistance from scientists in these fields to comply with standard regulations for ethics in HSR but also a disciplinary tradition that seems prevalent when it comes to research ethics in HSR. However, recent encounters between Brazilian biomedical and non-biomedical scientists for debates over ethics in HSR point to a changing culture in the approach to research ethics in the country.

  6. Designing requirements engineering research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Roelf J.; Heerkens, Johannes M.G.

    2007-01-01

    Engineering sciences study different topics than natural sciences, and utility is an essential factor in choosing engineering research problems. But despite these differences, research methods for the engineering sciences are no different than research methods for any other kind of science. At most

  7. Human subjects research handbook: Protecting human research subjects. Second edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-30

    This handbook serves as a guide to understanding and implementing the Federal regulations and US DOE Orders established to protect human research subjects. Material in this handbook is directed towards new and continuing institutional review board (IRB) members, researchers, institutional administrators, DOE officials, and others who may be involved or interested in human subjects research. It offers comprehensive overview of the various requirements, procedures, and issues relating to human subject research today.

  8. Human Systems Integration Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    52 Stratofortress, C/ KC -135 Stratotanker, E-3 Sentry and contractor logistics support aircraft; as well as a substantial jet engine inventory...www.hqda.army.mil/ teo /Sutability%20Terms%20MOA%20Oct%2005.pdf q. ISO 9241-11, Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual display terminals (VDTs

  9. Prescription drugs for human use generally recognized as safe and effective and not misbranded: drugs used in research: radioactive drugs for certain research uses; amended reporting requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    This amendment revises the reporting requirements for research studies in which radioactive drugs are used. It deletes the requirement for detailed measurements and calculations for each subject in the study; instead, it permits submission of data on a representative subject. The effect will be to decrease the burden in reporting required of the Radioactive Drug Research Committee, but still provide the agency with data to evaluate the risk attributable to radioactive drugs

  10. Human Research Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Strategically, the HRP conducts research and technology development that: 1) enables the development or modification of Agency-level human health and performance...

  11. Do People with Intellectual Disability Require Special Human Subjects Research Protections? The Interplay of History, Ethics, and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feudtner, Chris; Brosco, Jeffrey P.

    2011-01-01

    People with intellectual disability (ID) have a long history of discrimination and stigmatization, and a more recent history of pride and self-advocacy. The early history suggests that people with ID are a vulnerable population and deserve special research protections as do some other groups; the disability rights movement of the late 20th century…

  12. Companies' human capital required for collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albats, Ekaterina; Bogers, Marcel; Podmetina, Daria

    building, relationship building, IPR management and negotiation for the context of collaboration with universities. Our research has revealed an importance of expectation management skills for university-industry collaboration (UIC) context. We found that human capital for UIC is to be continuously......Universities are widely acknowledged as an important source of knowledge for corporate innovation, and collaboration with universities plays an important role in companies’ open innovation strategy. However, little is known about the human capital components required for collaboration...... with universities. Analysing the results of the survey among over 500 company managers we define the universal employees’ skills required for company’ successful collaborations with external stakeholders. Then through analysing qualitative interviews data we distinguish between these skills and capabilities...

  13. Research strategies for human performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Knowledge about factors that influence Human Performance is essential for the safety of nuclear power plant operation. Through a number of tasks, workshops and projects, experience is shared among OECD countries. At its December 1996 meeting, the CSNI endorsed the SESAR/CAF report on 'Nuclear Safety Research in OECD Countries: Capabilities and Facilities' and requested that the Principal Working Groups (PWGs) review existing co-operative programmes and develop specifications for programmes which address the identified needs. Following discussions between the chairmen of these PWGs and the NEA Secretariat, it was concluded that, for this technical area, the development of programme specifications must be preceded by the development of a strategic document that further elaborates the conclusions of the SESAR/CAF report and set out the general orientation of the research over the medium and long term. Accordingly, a group of senior experts met in August 1997 to discuss possible strategies in the area of Human Performance. The objectives of this meeting were: - To exchange information on existing plans and strategies by different Member countries; - To determine relevant issues and realistic medium/long-term targets and expectations for their resolution, and - To determine, in general sense, possible research programmes, their priority and their likelihood for success. This document is the result of this meeting. Its objective is to present to the CSNI proposals for future work on Human Performance research. The proposals are built upon the work performed to date by PWG1 and PWG5. Carrying out these proposals will continue to require close coordination on joint activities between these two PWGs. Reinforced systematic networking activities are needed particularly in management and organisational performance research to initiate and manage comparison and benchmarking activities. Synchronising the availability of funding is a specific problem in many cases. Since most

  14. Human Performance Research Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Biochemistry:Improvements in energy metabolism, muscular strength and endurance capacity have a basis in biochemical and molecular adaptations within the human body....

  15. Human Research Program Integrated Research Plan. Revision A January 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The Integrated Research Plan (IRP) describes the portfolio of Human Research Program (HRP) research and technology tasks. The IRP is the HRP strategic and tactical plan for research necessary to meet HRP requirements. The need to produce an IRP is established in HRP-47052, Human Research Program - Program Plan, and is under configuration management control of the Human Research Program Control Board (HRPCB). Crew health and performance is critical to successful human exploration beyond low Earth orbit. The Human Research Program (HRP) is essential to enabling extended periods of space exploration because it provides knowledge and tools to mitigate risks to human health and performance. Risks include physiological and behavioral effects from radiation and hypogravity environments, as well as unique challenges in medical support, human factors, and behavioral or psychological factors. The Human Research Program (HRP) delivers human health and performance countermeasures, knowledge, technologies and tools to enable safe, reliable, and productive human space exploration. Without HRP results, NASA will face unknown and unacceptable risks for mission success and post-mission crew health. This Integrated Research Plan (IRP) describes HRP s approach and research activities that are intended to address the needs of human space exploration and serve HRP customers and how they are integrated to provide a risk mitigation tool. The scope of the IRP is limited to the activities that can be conducted with the resources available to the HRP; it does not contain activities that would be performed if additional resources were available. The timescale of human space exploration is envisioned to take many decades. The IRP illustrates the program s research plan through the timescale of early lunar missions of extended duration.

  16. Safety of Research Reactors. Safety Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this Safety Requirements publication is to provide a basis for safety and a basis for safety assessment for all stages in the lifetime of a research reactor. Another objective is to establish requirements on aspects relating to regulatory control, the management of safety, site evaluation, design, operation and decommissioning. Technical and administrative requirements for the safety of research reactors are established in accordance with these objectives. This Safety Requirements publication is intended for use by organizations engaged in the site evaluation, design, manufacturing, construction, operation and decommissioning of research reactors as well as by regulatory bodies

  17. The progress of Requirements Engineering research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Terstine

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is describes the path through the process of Requirements Engineering research and some lines are identified that can meet the needs of the emerging software and the complexity of today's problems. First is done a reviews to the state of the art of research in this area, with regard to technologies developed to address requirements specific tasks, such as elicitation, modeling and analysis. This review identified areas for further research. Subsequently, several strategies are described to implement and extend the results, in order to help shape the scope of future research. Finally, some topics for future research are proposed in order to address the Requirements Engineering needed to respond to emerging systems and the complexity of the same.

  18. National Human Genome Research Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care Genomic Medicine Working Group New Horizons and Research Patient Management Policy and Ethics Issues Quick Links for Patient Care Education All About the Human Genome Project Fact Sheets Genetic Education Resources for ...

  19. Human Genome Research: Decoding DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    dropdown arrow Site Map A-Z Index Menu Synopsis Human Genome Research: Decoding DNA Resources with of the DNA double helix during April 2003. James D. Watson, Francis Crick, and Maurice Wilkins were company Celera announced the completion of a "working draft" reference DNA sequence of the human

  20. Functional requirements for a central research imaging data repository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Thomas; Gruetz, Romanus; Dickmann, Frank

    2013-01-01

    The current situation at many university medical centers regarding the management of biomedical research imaging data leaves much to be desired. In contrast to the recommendations of the German Research Foundation (DFG) and the German Council of Sciences and Humanities regarding the professional management of research data, there are commonly many individual data pools for research data in each institute and the management remains the responsibility of the researcher. A possible solution for this situation would be to install local central repositories for biomedical research imaging data. In this paper, we developed a scenario based on abstracted use-cases for institutional research undertakings as well as collaborative biomedical research projects and analyzed the functional requirements that a local repository would have to fulfill. We determined eight generic categories of functional requirements, which can be viewed as a basic guideline for the minimum functionality of a central repository for biomedical research imaging data.

  1. Identifying Requirements for Effective Human-Automation Teamwork

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey C. Joe; John O' Hara; Heather D. Medema; Johanna H. Oxstrand

    2014-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that poorly designed human-automation collaboration, such as poorly designed communication protocols, often leads to problems for the human operators, such as: lack of vigilance, complacency, and loss of skills. These problems often lead to suboptimal system performance. To address this situation, a considerable amount of research has been conducted to improve human-automation collaboration and to make automation function better as a “team player.” Much of this research is based on an understanding of what it means to be a good team player from the perspective of a human team. However, the research is often based on a simplified view of human teams and teamwork. In this study, we sought to better understand the capabilities and limitations of automation from the standpoint of human teams. We first examined human teams to identify the principles for effective teamwork. We next reviewed the research on integrating automation agents and human agents into mixed agent teams to identify the limitations of automation agents to conform to teamwork principles. This research resulted in insights that can lead to more effective human-automation collaboration by enabling a more realistic set of requirements to be developed based on the strengths and limitations of all agents.

  2. Research strategies for human performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, Lennart

    1998-01-01

    This document reflects basic proposals derived from the discussions and results by the expert group on human performance within the frame of an OECD study on nuclear safety research. Different topics have identified which are herein briefly presented: cognitive models and errors of commission, organizational practices, validation of existing techniques for human reliability analysis, control room design and man-machine interactions, use of simulators, improvement of methods for evaluation of operating experience, safety culture, operator aids, shutdown, decommissioning

  3. Human research ethics committees in technical universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepsell, David; Brinkman, Willem-Paul; Pont, Sylvia

    2014-07-01

    Human research ethics has developed in both theory and practice mostly from experiences in medical research. Human participants, however, are used in a much broader range of research than ethics committees oversee, including both basic and applied research at technical universities. Although mandated in the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, and Australia, non-medical research involving humans need not receive ethics review in much of Europe, Asia, Latin America, and Africa. Our survey of the top 50 technical universities in the world shows that, where not specifically mandated by law, most technical universities do not employ ethics committees to review human studies. As the domains of basic and applied sciences expand, ethics committees are increasingly needed to guide and oversee all such research regardless of legal requirements. We offer as examples, from our experience as an ethics committee in a major European technical university, ways in which such a committee provides needed services and can help ensure more ethical studies involving humans outside the standard medical context. We provide some arguments for creating such committees, and in our supplemental article, we provide specific examples of cases and concerns that may confront technical, engineering, and design research, as well as outline the general framework we have used in creating our committee. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Laboratory and cyclotron requirements for PET research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlyer, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    The requirements for carrying out PET research can vary widely depending on the type of basic research being carried out and the extent of a clinical program at a particular center. The type of accelerator and laboratory facilities will, of course, depend on the exact mix. These centers have been divided into four categories. 1. Clinical PET with no radionuclide production facilities, 2. clinical PET with some radionuclide production facilities, 3. clinical PET with research support, and 4. a PET research facility developing new tracers and exploring clinical applications. Guidelines for the choice of an accelerator based on these categories and the practical yields of the common nuclear reactions for production of PET isotopes have been developed and are detailed. Guidelines as to the size and physical layout of the laboratory space necessary for the synthesis of various radiopharmaceuticals have also been developed and are presented. Important utility and air flow considerations are explored

  5. Researcher liability for negligence in human subject research: informed consent and researcher malpractice actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Roger L

    2003-02-01

    Two sets of federal regulations, the "Common Rule" and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations, govern human subject research that is either federally-funded or involves FDA regulated products. These regulations require, inter alia, that: (1) researchers obtain informed consent from human subjects, and (2) that an Institutional Review Board (IRB) independently review and approve the research protocol. Although the federal regulations do not provide an express cause of action against researchers, research subjects should be able to bring informed consent and malpractice actions against researchers by establishing a duty of care and standard of care. Researchers owe human subjects a duty of care analogous to the special relationship between physicians and patients. The federal regulations should provide the minimum standard of care for informed consent in human subject research, and complying with them should be a partial defense. In contrast, expert testimony should establish the standard of care for researcher malpractice, and IRB approval should be a partial defense.

  6. Research on disaster prevention by human factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bok Youn; Kang, Chang Hee; Kang, Sun Duck; Jo, Young Do [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Mining, by its very nature, requires workers and technology to function in an unpredictable environment that can not easily be engineered to accommodate human factors. Miners' physical and cognitive capabilities are sometimes stretched to the point that 'human error' in performance result. Mine safety researchers estimate that 50-85% of all mining injuries are due, in large part, to human error. Further research suggests that the primary causes of these errors in performance lie outside the individual and can be minimized by improvements in equipment design, work environments, work procedures and training. The human factors research is providing the science needed to determine which aspects of the mining environment can be made more worker-friendly and how miners can work more safely in environments that can not be improved. Underground mines have long been recognized as an innately hazardous and physically demanding work environment. Recently, mining is becoming a more complicated process as more sophisticated technologies are introduced. The more complicated or difficult the tasks to be performed, the more critical it is to have a systematic understanding of the humans, the technology, the environments, and how they interact. Human factors is a key component in solving most of today's mine safety and health problems. Human factors research primarily centered around solving problems in the following four areas: 1) How mining methods and equipment affect safety, 2) Evaluating the fit between miner's physical capabilities and the demands of their job, 3) Improving miner's ability to perceive and react to hazards, 4) Understanding how organizational and managerial variables influence safety. Human factor research was begun during the World war II. National Coal Board (British Coal) of Great Britain commenced ergonomics in 1969, and Bureau of Mine of United States started human factor researches in same year. Japan has very short history

  7. Working group 4B - human intrusion: Design/performance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Channell, J.

    1993-01-01

    There is no summary of the progress made by working group 4B (Human Intrusion: Design/performance Requirements) during the Electric Power Research Institute's EPRI Workshop on the technical basis of EPA HLW Disposal Criteria, March 1993. This group was to discuss the waste disposal standard, 40 CFR Part 191, in terms of the design and performance requirements of human intrusion. Instead, because there were so few members, they combined with working group 4A and studied the three-tier approach to evaluating postclosure performance

  8. Biological and Environmental Research Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balaji, V. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Earth Science Grid Federation (ESGF); Boden, Tom [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cowley, Dave [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dart, Eli [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). ESNet; Dattoria, Vince [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). ESNet; Desai, Narayan [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Egan, Rob [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Foster, Ian [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Goldstone, Robin [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gregurick, Susan [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Biological Systems Science Division; Houghton, John [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Biological and Environmental Research (BER) Program; Izaurralde, Cesar [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnston, Bill [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). ESNet; Joseph, Renu [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Climate and Environmental Sciences Division; Kleese-van Dam, Kerstin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lipton, Mary [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Monga, Inder [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). ESNet; Pritchard, Matt [British Atmospheric Data Centre (BADC), Oxon (United Kingdom); Rotman, Lauren [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). ESNet; Strand, Gary [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Boulder, CO (United States); Stuart, Cory [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tatusova, Tatiana [National Inst. of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD (United States); Tierney, Brian [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). ESNet; Thomas, Brian [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Williams, Dean N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zurawski, Jason [Internet2, Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of SC programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 25 years. In November 2012, ESnet and the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) of the DOE SC organized a review to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by the BER program office. Several key findings resulted from the review. Among them: 1) The scale of data sets available to science collaborations continues to increase exponentially. This has broad impact, both on the network and on the computational and storage systems connected to the network. 2) Many science collaborations require assistance to cope with the systems and network engineering challenges inherent in managing the rapid growth in data scale. 3) Several science domains operate distributed facilities that rely on high-performance networking for success. Key examples illustrated in this report include the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) and the Systems Biology Knowledgebase (KBase). This report expands on these points, and addresses others as well. The report contains a findings section as well as the text of the case studies discussed at the review.

  9. Visual soil evaluation - future research requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmet-Booth, Jeremy; Forristal, Dermot; Fenton, Owen; Ball, Bruce; Holden, Nick

    2017-04-01

    A review of Visual Soil Evaluation (VSE) techniques (Emmet-Booth et al., 2016) highlighted their established utility for soil quality assessment, though some limitations were identified; (1) The examination of aggregate size, visible intra-porosity and shape forms a key assessment criterion in almost all methods, thus limiting evaluation to structural form. The addition of criteria that holistically examine structure may be desirable. For example, structural stability can be indicated using dispersion tests or examining soil surface crusting, while the assessment of soil colour may indirectly indicate soil organic matter content, a contributor to stability. Organic matter assessment may also indicate structural resilience, along with rooting, earthworm numbers or shrinkage cracking. (2) Soil texture may influence results or impeded method deployment. Modification of procedures to account for extreme texture variation is desirable. For example, evidence of compaction in sandy or single grain soils greatly differs to that in clayey soils. Some procedures incorporate separate classification systems or adjust deployment based on texture. (3) Research into impacts of soil moisture content on VSE evaluation criteria is required. Criteria such as rupture resistance and shape may be affected by moisture content. It is generally recommended that methods are deployed on moist soils and quantification of influences of moisture variation on results is necessary. (4) Robust sampling strategies for method deployment are required. Dealing with spatial variation differs between methods, but where methods can be deployed over large areas, clear instruction on sampling is required. Additionally, as emphasis has been placed on the agricultural production of soil, so the ability of VSE for exploring structural quality in terms of carbon storage, water purification and biodiversity support also requires research. References Emmet-Booth, J.P., Forristal. P.D., Fenton, O., Ball, B

  10. Usability: Human Research Program - Space Human Factors and Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandor, Aniko; Holden, Kritina L.

    2009-01-01

    The Usability project addresses the need for research in the area of metrics and methodologies used in hardware and software usability testing in order to define quantifiable and verifiable usability requirements. A usability test is a human-in-the-loop evaluation where a participant works through a realistic set of representative tasks using the hardware/software under investigation. The purpose of this research is to define metrics and methodologies for measuring and verifying usability in the aerospace domain in accordance with FY09 focus on errors, consistency, and mobility/maneuverability. Usability metrics must be predictive of success with the interfaces, must be easy to obtain and/or calculate, and must meet the intent of current Human Systems Integration Requirements (HSIR). Methodologies must work within the constraints of the aerospace domain, be cost and time efficient, and be able to be applied without extensive specialized training.

  11. Research opportunities in human behavior and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, J. M. (Editor); Talbot, J. M. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    Extant information on the subject of psychological aspects of manned space flight are reviewed; NASA's psychology research program is examined; significant gaps in knowledge are identified; and suggestions are offered for future research program planning. Issues of human behavior and performance related to the United States space station, to the space shuttle program, and to both near and long term problems of a generic nature in applicable disciplines of psychology are considered. Topics covered include: (1) human performance requirements for a 90 day mission; (2) human perceptual, cognitive, and motor capabilities and limitations in space; (3) crew composition, individual competencies, crew competencies, selection criteria, and special training; (4) environmental factors influencing behavior; (5) psychosocial aspects of multiperson space crews in long term missions; (6) career determinants in NASA; (7) investigational methodology and equipment; and (8) psychological support.

  12. Retrospective research: What are the ethical and legal requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junod, V; Elger, B

    2010-07-25

    Retrospective research is conducted on already available data and/or biologic material. Whether such research requires that patients specifically consent to the use of "their" data continues to stir controversy. From a legal and ethical point of view, it depends on several factors. The main criteria to be considered are whether the data or the sample is anonymous, whether the researcher is the one who collected it and whether the patient was told of the possible research use. In Switzerland, several laws delineate the procedure to be followed. The definition of "anonymous" is open to some interpretation. In addition, it is debatable whether consent waivers that are legally admissible for data extend to research involving human biological samples. In a few years, a new Swiss federal law on human research could clarify the regulatory landscape. Meanwhile, hospital-internal guidelines may impose stricter conditions than required by federal or cantonal law. Conversely, Swiss and European ethical texts may suggest greater flexibility and call for a looser interpretation of existing laws. The present article provides an overview of the issues for physicians, scientists, ethics committee members and policy makers involved in retrospective research in Switzerland. It aims at provoking more open discussions of the regulatory problems and possible future legal and ethical solutions.

  13. Air humidity requirements for human comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Fanger, Povl Ole

    1999-01-01

    level near 100% rh. For respiratory comfort are the requirements much more stringent and results in lower permissible indoor air humidities. Compared with the upper humidity limit specified in existing thermal comfort standards, e.g. ASHRAE Addendum 55a, the humidity limit based on skin humidity......Upper humidity limits for the comfort zone determined from two recently presented models for predicting discomfort due to skin humidity and insufficient respiratory cooling are proposed. The proposed limits are compared with the maximum permissible humidity level prescribed in existing standards...... for the thermal indoor environment. The skin humidity model predicts discomfort as a function of the relative humidity of the skin, which is determined by existing models for human heat and moisture transfer based on environmental parameters, clothing characteristics and activity level. The respiratory model...

  14. Nutrition Research: Basis for Station Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Helen W.; Rice, Barbara; Smith, Scott M.

    2011-01-01

    Prior to the Shuttle program, all understanding of nutritional needs in space came from Skylab metabolic research. Because Shuttle flights were short, most less than 14 days, research focused on major nutritional issues: energy (calories), protein and amino acids, water and electrotypes, with some more general physiology studies that related to iron and calcium. Using stable isotope tracer studies and diet intake records, we found that astronauts typically did not consume adequate calories to meet energy expenditure. To monitor energy and nutrient intake status and provide feedback to the flight surgeon and the astronauts, the International Space Station (ISS) program implemented a weekly food frequency questionnaire and routine body mass measurements. Other Shuttle investigations found that protein turnover was higher during flight, suggesting there was increased protein degradation and probably concurrent increase in protein synthesis, and this occurred even in cases of adequate protein and caloric intake. These results may partially explain some of the loss of leg muscle mass. Fluid and electrolyte flight studies demonstrated that water intake, like energy intake, was lower than required. However, sodium intakes were elevated during flight and likely related to other concerns such as calcium turnover and other health-related issues. NASA is making efforts to have tasty foods with much lower salt levels to reduce sodium intake and to promote fluid intake on orbit. Red blood cell studies conducted on the Shuttle found decreased erythrogenesis and increased serum ferritin levels. Given that the diet is high in iron there may be iron storage health concerns, especially related to the role of iron in oxidative damage, complicated by the stress and radiation. The Shuttle nutrition research lead to new monitoring and research on ISS. These data will be valuable for future NASA and commercial crewed missions.

  15. 48 CFR 207.172 - Human research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Human research. 207.172... OF DEFENSE ACQUISITION PLANNING ACQUISITION PLANNING Acquisition Plans 207.172 Human research. Any DoD component sponsoring research involving human subjects— (a) Is responsible for oversight of...

  16. 34 CFR 75.681 - Protection of human research subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Other Requirements for Certain Projects § 75.681 Protection of human research subjects. If a grantee uses a human subject in a research project, the grantee shall protect the person from physical, psychological, or social injury resulting from the project. (Authority: 20 U.S.C...

  17. Radwaste requirements at a biomedical research facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brannegan, D.P.; Wolter, W.; Merenda, J.M.; Figdor, S.K.

    1993-01-01

    The low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) federal legislation that was passed during the 1980s was intended to provide an orderly system of LLRW disposal as the country's three waste sites proceeded toward excluding out-of-state generators. The system was based on a regional interstate compact system. As originally envisioned, several contiguous states were to form an association (compact) with one state receiving radwaste from the compact. Everyone is aware of the difficulties that followed as attempts were made to implement these laws and to meet the prescribed milestones to avoid financial penalties. Although the states (compacts) have labored for over 12 yr along this rocky road, no compact has developed and licensed a new disposal site prior to the January 1, 1993 deadline. A recent report by the Center for the Study of American Business at Washington University in St. Louis states that open-quotes The current regional interstate compact system for disposal of low-level radioactive waste is fatally flawed on both technical and practical political grounds.close quotes Thus, the system has broken down and the three original LLRW sites closed their gates (with the possible exception of Barnwell) as planned on January 1, 1993. It would appear that the fate of LLRW will be the same as that of high-level waste (HLW); it will be stored at the site of the generator until a solution to the problem is found. For the nonutility generator, storage is an entirely new problem. It must be appreciated that almost all nonutility generators are in the business of research or medical treatment and not in the business of storing LLRW. Thus, storage represents a new turn of events and a new aspect of doing business. It also means the diversion of limited resources to a problem that should not exist. Lastly, on-site LLRW storage for the nonutility generator will also require additional regulatory approval for the handling, storage, and ongoing monitoring of this waste

  18. Understanding the Information Requirements of Arts and Humanities Scholarship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agiatis Benardou

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on research of scholarly research practices and requirements conducted in the context of the Preparing DARIAH European e-Infrastructures project, with a view to ensuring current and future fitness for purpose of the planned digital infrastructure, services and tools. It summarises the findings of earlier research, primarily from the field of human information behaviour as applied in scholarly work, it presents a conceptual perspective informed by cultural-historical activity theory, it introduces briefly a formal conceptual model for scholarly research activity compliant with CIDOC CRM, it describes the plan of work and methodology of an empirical research project based on open-questionnaire interviews with arts and humanities researchers, and presents illustrative examples of segmentation, tagging and initial conceptual analysis of the empirical evidence. Finally, it presents plans for future work, consisting, firstly, of a comprehensive re-analysis of interview segments within the framework of the scholarly research activity model, and, secondly, of the integration of this analysis with the extended digital curation process model we presented in earlier work.

  19. Research reactors: design, safety requirements and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, Abobaker Mohammed Rahmtalla

    2014-09-01

    There are two types of reactors: research reactors or power reactors. The difference between the research reactor and energy reactor is that the research reactor has working temperature and fuel less than the power reactor. The research reactors cooling uses light or heavy water and also research reactors need reflector of graphite or beryllium to reduce the loss of neutrons from the reactor core. Research reactors are used for research training as well as testing of materials and the production of radioisotopes for medical uses and for industrial application. The difference is also that the research reactor smaller in terms of capacity than that of power plant. Research reactors produce radioactive isotopes are not used for energy production, the power plant generates electrical energy. In the world there are more than 284 reactor research in 56 countries, operates as source of neutron for scientific research. Among the incidents related to nuclear reactors leak radiation partial reactor which took place in three mile island nuclear near pennsylvania in 1979, due to result of the loss of control of the fission reaction, which led to the explosion emitting hug amounts of radiation. However, there was control of radiation inside the building, and so no occurred then, another accident that lead to radiation leakage similar in nuclear power plant Chernobyl in Russia in 1986, has led to deaths of 4000 people and exposing hundreds of thousands to radiation, and can continue to be effect of harmful radiation to affect future generations. (author)

  20. Human Research Ethics Committees in Technical Universities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koepsell, D.R.; Brinkman, W.P.; Pont, S.C.

    2014-01-01

    Human research ethics has developed in both theory and practice mostly from experiences in medical research. Human participants, however, are used in a much broader range of research than ethics committees oversee, including both basic and applied research at technical universities. Although

  1. Ethics, Ethical Human Research and Human Research Ethics Committees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindorff, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Non-medical research involves the same issues of justice, beneficence, and respect for persons that apply to non-medical research. It also may involve risk of harm to participants, and conflicts of interest for researchers. It is therefore not possible to argue that such research should be exempt from ethical review. This paper argues that…

  2. Literature for flight simulator (motion) requirements research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    This is the yearly snapshot of the literature examined in the framework of the Federal Aviation Administration/Volpe Center Flight Simulator Human Factors Program and entered in an EndNote database. It describes 1131 documents, 118 more than last y...

  3. Process error rates in general research applications to the Human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To examine process error rates in applications for ethics clearance of health research. Methods. Minutes of 586 general research applications made to a human health research ethics committee (HREC) from April 2008 to March 2009 were examined. Rates of approval were calculated and reasons for requiring ...

  4. Organisational aspects, research required, educational aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rueterjans, H.

    1987-01-01

    In addition to the clinical testing of NMR imaging, there were activities for studying the basic principles of NMR spectroscopy, also for routine applications in university clinics and larger hospitals. Equipment is available now at different places; research projects should be coordinated in order to ensure direct access to the equipment for a sufficient, task-specific period of time. There is demand for research in this field in the Federal Republic of Germany. Education and further training should be organised taking into account physical and medical aspects. (TRV) [de

  5. Leak testing requirements at a research facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conner, J.B.

    1979-01-01

    Since September, 1952, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory has conducted pioneering research in applied science. A vital part of this activity has been the development of a variety of high vacuum and ultrahigh vacuum systems. Leaks occur in everything, including vacuum systems. The mass spectrometer leak detection equipment is described

  6. Chocolate Bars Based on Human Nutritional Requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Robson , Anthony ,

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Key Points * The nutritional value of chocolate bars should be based on the nutritional value of the low energy dense late Paleolithic human diet to help reduce mental ill health, obesity, and other postprandial insults. * Current chocolate bars have a high energy density (>2 kcal/g). * Cocoa can be sweetened by the addition of calorie-free Purefruit™ (Tate & Lyle) monk fruit ( Siraitia grosvenorii ) extract. PUREFRUIT™ is approximately 200 times sweeter than sugar and...

  7. Human Systems Integration: Requirements and Functional Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berson, Barry; Gershzohn, Gary; Boltz, Laura; Wolf, Russ; Schultz, Mike

    2005-01-01

    This deliverable was intended as an input to the Access 5 Policy and Simulation Integrated Product Teams. This document contains high-level pilot functionality for operations in the National Airspace System above FL430. Based on the derived pilot functions the associated pilot information and control requirements are given.

  8. Research requirements for alternative reactor development strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to estimate and compare resource requirements and other fuel cycle quantities for alternative reactor deployment strategies. The paper examines from global and national perspectives the interaction of various fuel cycle alternatives described in the previous U.S. submissions to Working Groups 4, 5, 8 and Subgroup 1A/2A. Nuclear energy forecasts of Subgroup 1A/2A are used in the calculation of uranium demand for each strategy. These uranium demands are then compared to U.S. estimates of annual uranium producibility. Annual rather than cumulative producibility was selected because it does not assume preplanned stockpiling, and is therefore more conservative. The strategies attempt to span a range of nuclear power mixes which could evolve if appropriate commercial and governmental climates develop

  9. Guidelines for human embryonic stem cell research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Guidelines for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research, National Research Council

    2005-01-01

    Since 1998, the volume of research being conducted using human embryonic stem (hES) cells has expanded primarily using private funds because of restrictions on the use of federal funds for such research...

  10. Humanities Research Methods in a Liberal Arts and Science Programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andeweg, A.; Slob, Daphne

    2017-01-01

    The humanities research methods course at University College Utrecht is one of the graduation requirements for students who major in a humanities discipline, in law, or in politics. There are several challenges to the design of such a course in a Liberal Arts and Sciences (LA&S) context. In our

  11. Mapping Frontier Research in the Humanities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knowledge production in academia today is burgeoning and increasingly interdisciplinary in nature. Research within the humanities is no exception: it is distributed across a variety of methodic styles of research and increasingly involves interactions with fields outside the narrow confines of th...... and for the organisation of the humanities and higher education?...... of the university. As a result, the notion of liberal arts and humanities within Western universities is undergoing profound transformations. In Mapping Frontier Research in the Humanities, the contributors explore this transformative process. What are the implications, both for the modes of research......Knowledge production in academia today is burgeoning and increasingly interdisciplinary in nature. Research within the humanities is no exception: it is distributed across a variety of methodic styles of research and increasingly involves interactions with fields outside the narrow confines...

  12. 45 CFR 96.128 - Requirements regarding human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements regarding human immunodeficiency virus. 96.128 Section 96.128 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... human immunodeficiency virus. (a) In the case of a designated State as described in paragraph (b) of...

  13. Basic Science Research and the Protection of Human Research Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiseman, Elisa

    2001-03-01

    Technological advances in basic biological research have been instrumental in recent biomedical discoveries, such as in the understanding and treatment of cancer, HIV/AIDS, and heart disease. However, many of these advances also raise several new ethical challenges. For example, genetic research may pose no physical risk beyond that of obtaining the initial blood sample, yet it can pose significant psychological and economic risks to research participants, such as stigmatization, discrimination in insurance and employment, invasion of privacy, or breach of confidentiality. These harms may occur even when investigators do not directly interact with the person whose DNA they are studying. Moreover, this type of basic research also raises broader questions, such as what is the definition of a human subject, and what kinds of expertise do Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) need to review the increasingly diverse types of research made possible by these advances in technology. The National Bioethics Advisory Commission (NBAC), a presidentially appointed federal advisory committee, has addressed these and other ethical, scientific and policy issues that arise in basic science research involving human participants. Two of its six reports, in particular, have proposed recommendations in this regard. "Research Involving Human Biological Materials: Ethical and Policy Guidance" addresses the basic research use of human tissues, cells and DNA and the protection of human participants in this type of research. In "Ethical and Policy Issues in the Oversight of Human Research" NBAC proposes a definition of research involving human participants that would apply to all scientific disciplines, including physical, biological, and social sciences, as well as the humanities and related professions, such as business and law. Both of these reports make it clear that the protection of research participants is key to conducting ethically sound research. By ensuring that all participants in

  14. Cognition and procedure representational requirements for predictive human performance models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corker, K.

    1992-01-01

    Models and modeling environments for human performance are becoming significant contributors to early system design and analysis procedures. Issues of levels of automation, physical environment, informational environment, and manning requirements are being addressed by such man/machine analysis systems. The research reported here investigates the close interaction between models of human cognition and models that described procedural performance. We describe a methodology for the decomposition of aircrew procedures that supports interaction with models of cognition on the basis of procedures observed; that serves to identify cockpit/avionics information sources and crew information requirements; and that provides the structure to support methods for function allocation among crew and aiding systems. Our approach is to develop an object-oriented, modular, executable software representation of the aircrew, the aircraft, and the procedures necessary to satisfy flight-phase goals. We then encode in a time-based language, taxonomies of the conceptual, relational, and procedural constraints among the cockpit avionics and control system and the aircrew. We have designed and implemented a goals/procedures hierarchic representation sufficient to describe procedural flow in the cockpit. We then execute the procedural representation in simulation software and calculate the values of the flight instruments, aircraft state variables and crew resources using the constraints available from the relationship taxonomies. The system provides a flexible, extensible, manipulative and executable representation of aircrew and procedures that is generally applicable to crew/procedure task-analysis. The representation supports developed methods of intent inference, and is extensible to include issues of information requirements and functional allocation. We are attempting to link the procedural representation to models of cognitive functions to establish several intent inference methods

  15. Human Resources Training Requirement on NPP Operation and Maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurlaila; Yuliastuti

    2009-01-01

    This paper discussed the human resources requirement on Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) operation and maintenance (O&M) phase related with the training required for O&M personnel. In addition, this paper also briefly discussed the availability of training facilities domestically include with some suggestion to develop the training facilities intended for the near future time in Indonesia. This paper was developed under the assumptions that Indonesia will build twin unit of NPP with capacity 1000 MWe for each using the turnkey contract method. The total of NPP O&M personnel were predicted about 692 peoples which consists of 42 personnel located in the head quarter and the rest 650 people work at NPP site. Up until now, Indonesia had the experience on operating and maintaining the nonnuclear power plant and several research reactors namely Kartini Reactor Yogyakarta, Triga Mark II Reactor Bandung, and GA Siwabessy Reactor Serpong. Beside that, experience on operating and maintaining the NPP in other countries would act as one of the reference to Indonesia in formulating an appropriate strategy to develop NPP human resources particularly in O&M phases. Education and training development program could be done trough the cooperation with vendor candidates. (author)

  16. Safety Requirements and Modern Technical Requirements in Human Information Systems in Amman Hotels

    OpenAIRE

    Farouq Ahmad Alazzam; Sattam Rakan Allahawiah; Mohammad Nayef Alsarayreh; Kafa Hmoud Abdallah al Nawaiseh

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to demonstrate the availability of Safety requirements and modern technical requirements in human information systems in Amman hotels. an the most important results of this study is the availability of security and safety requirements in human information systems In Amman hotels and The adequacy of the information that it provided .and show that all departments are not connected by appropriate and effective communication networks in adequate form . Also sophisticated operatin...

  17. Justice in human research ethics. A conceptual and practical guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, Ian; Thomson, Colin J H

    2013-03-01

    One of the core values to be applied by a body reviewing the ethics of human research is justice. The inclusion of justice as a requirement in the ethical review of human research is relatively recent and its utility had been largely unexamined until debates arose about the conduct of international biomedical research in the late 1990s. The subsequent amendment of authoritative documents in ways that appeared to shift the meaning of conceptions of justice generated a great deal of controversy. Another difficulty has been that both the theory and the substance of justice that are applied by researchers or reviewers can be frequently seen to be subjective. Both the concept of justice--hether distributive or commutative--and what counts as a just distribution or exchange--are given different weight and meanings by different people. In this paper, the origins and more recent debates about the requirement to consider justice as a criterion in the ethical review of human research are traced, relevant conceptions of justice are distinguished, and the manner in which they can be applied meaningfully in the ethical review of all human research is identified. We also explain the way that these concepts are articulated in, and the intent and function of, specific paragraphs of the National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Human Research (2007). The National Statement identifies a number of issues that should be considered when a human research ethics committee is reviewing the justice aspects of an application. We provide guidance to researchers as to how they can show that there is a fair distribution of burdens and benefits in the participant experience and the research outcomes. We also provide practical guidance to researches on how to think through issues of justice so that they can demonstrate that the design of their research projects meets this ethical requirement.

  18. Resident Research Fundamentals Course Human Research Curves in the Road

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-27

    MDW/SGVU SUBJECT: Professional Presentation Approval 27 JULY 2017 Your paper, entitled Resident Research Fundamentals Course - "Human Research ...Curves in the Road" (27 Sep 2017) presented at/published to Resident Research Fundamentals Course - JBSA Lackland, San Antonio, TX - 27 Sep 2017 in...are a Graduate Health Sciences Education student and your department has told you they cannot fund your publication, the 59th Clinical Research

  19. Safety research needs for Russian-designed reactors. Requirements situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R. Allan; Holmstrom, Heikki; Reocreux, Michel; Schulz, Helmut; Liesch, Klaus; Santarossa, Giampiero; Hayamizu, Yoshitaka; Asmolov, Vladimir; Bolshov, Leonid; Strizhov, Valerii; Bougaenko, Sergei; Nikitin, Yuri N.; Proklov, Vladimir; Potapov, Alexandre; Kinnersly, Stephen R.; Voronin, Leonid M.; Honekamp, John R.; Frescura, Gianni M.; Maki, Nobuo; Reig, Javier; ); Bekjord, Eric S.; Rosinger, Herbert E.

    1998-01-01

    In June 1995, an OECD Support Group was set up to perform a broad study of the safety research needs of Russian-designed reactors. The emphasis of the study is on the VVER-type reactors in part because of the larger base of knowledge within the NEA Member countries related to LWRs. For the RBMKs, the study does not make the judgement that such reactors can be brought to acceptable levels of safety but focuses on near term efforts that can contribute to reducing the risk to the public. The need for the safety research must be evaluated in context of the lifetime of the reactors. The principal outcome of the work of the Support Group is the identification of a number of research topics which the members believe should receive priority attention over the next several years if risk levels are to be reduced and public safety enhanced. These appear in the Conclusions and Recommendations section of the report, and are the following: - The most important near-term need for VVER and RBMK safety research is to establish a sound technical basis for the emergency operating procedures used by the plant staff to prevent or halt the progression of accidents (i.e., Accident Management) and for plant safety improvements. - Co-operation of Western and Eastern experts should help to avoid East-West know-how gaps in the future, as safety technology continues to improve. - Safety research in Eastern countries will make an important contribution to public safety as it has in OECD countries. - RBMK safety research, including verification of codes, starts from a smaller base of experience than VVER, and is at an earlier stage of development. Technical Conclusions: - Research to improve human performance and operational safety of VVER and RBMK plants is extremely important. - VVER thermal-hydraulic and reactor physics research should focus on full validation of codes to VVER-specific features, and on extension of experimental data base. - Methods of assessing VVER pressure boundary

  20. Editorial Is the HPCSA requirement for a research dissertation for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    theoretical knowledge is demonstrated; a research protocol is compiled according to required norms; and a progress report on the research project is given on a regular basis";. "Research results should be reported in a format of a dissertation according to acceptable scientific norms”;“The research study, which will be ...

  1. De-Mystifying the Data Management Requirements of Research Funders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Dianne; Adamus, Trisha; Miner, Alison; Steinhart, Gail

    2012-01-01

    Research libraries have sought to apply their information management expertise to the management of digital research data. This focus has been spurred in part by the policies of two major funding agencies in the United States, which require grant recipients make research outputs, including publications and research data, openly available. As many…

  2. Research Award: Ecosystems and Human Health (Ecohealth ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Jean-Claude Dumais

    2012-09-12

    Sep 12, 2012 ... Research Award: Ecosystems and Human Health (Ecohealth) ... Your proposal should demonstrate an understanding of the ... demonstrated ability to work independently, and strong written and oral communications skills are ...

  3. Safety of Research Reactors. Specific Safety Requirements (French Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This Safety Requirements publication establishes requirements for all main areas of safety for research reactors, with particular emphasis on requirements for design and operation. It explains the safety objectives and concepts that form the basis for safety and safety assessment for all stages in the lifetime of a research reactor. Technical and administrative requirements for the safety of new research reactors are established in accordance with these objectives and concepts, and they are to be applied to the extent practicable for existing research reactors. The safety requirements established in this publication for the management of safety and regulatory supervision apply to site evaluation, design, manufacturing, construction, commissioning, operation (including utilization and modification), and planning for decommissioning of research reactors (including critical assemblies and subcritical assemblies). The publication is intended for use by regulatory bodies and other organizations with responsibilities in these areas and in safety analysis, verification and review, and the provision of technical support.

  4. System Requirements Analysis for a Computer-based Procedure in a Research Reactor Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jaek Wan; Jang, Gwi Sook; Seo, Sang Moon; Shin, Sung Ki [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    This can address many of the routine problems related to human error in the use of conventional, hard-copy operating procedures. An operating supporting system is also required in a research reactor. A well-made CBP can address the staffing issues of a research reactor and reduce the human errors by minimizing the operator's routine tasks. A CBP for a research reactor has not been proposed yet. Also, CBPs developed for nuclear power plants have powerful and various technical functions to cover complicated plant operation situations. However, many of the functions may not be required for a research reactor. Thus, it is not reasonable to apply the CBP to a research reactor directly. Also, customizing of the CBP is not cost-effective. Therefore, a compact CBP should be developed for a research reactor. This paper introduces high level requirements derived by the system requirements analysis activity as the first stage of system implementation. Operation support tools are under consideration for application to research reactors. In particular, as a full digitalization of the main control room, application of a computer-based procedure system has been required as a part of man-machine interface system because it makes an impact on the operating staffing and human errors of a research reactor. To establish computer-based system requirements for a research reactor, this paper addressed international standards and previous practices on nuclear plants.

  5. Pathology as the enabler of human research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, James M; Tykocinski, Mark L

    2005-09-01

    Academic Pathology is a key player in human molecular science and in the powerful initiatives of the National Institutes of Health. Pathologists generate data crucial to virtually every molecular study of human tissue, and have the necessary skills and authority to oversee processing of human tissues for research analysis. We advocate that Academic Pathology is optimally positioned to drive the molecular revolution in study of human disease, through human tissue collection, analysis, and databasing. This can be achieved through playing a major role in human tissue procurement and management; establishing high-quality 'Pathology Resource Laboratories'; providing the scientific expertise for pathology data sharing; and recruiting and training physician scientists. Pathology should position itself to be the local institutional driver of technology implementation and development, by operating the resource laboratories, providing the expertise for technical and conceptual design of research projects, maintaining the databases that link molecular and morphological information on human tissues with the requisite clinical databases, providing education and mentorship of technology users, and nurturing new research through the development of preliminary data. We also consider that outstanding pathology journals are available for the publication of research emanating from such studies, to the benefit of the pathology profession as an academic enterprise. It is our earnest hope that Academic Pathology can play a leading role in the remarkable advances to be made as the 21st century unfolds.

  6. Overview of the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neigut, J.

    2015-01-01

    In 2013, the Human Research Program at NASA began developing a new confinement analog specifically for conducting research to investigate the effects of confinement on the human system. The HERA (Human Exploration Research Analog) habitat has been used for both 7 and 14 day missions to date to examine and mitigate exploration risks to enable safe, reliable and productive human space exploration. This presentation will describe how the Flight Analogs Project developed the HERA facility and the infrastructure to suit investigator requirements for confinement research and in the process developed a new approach to analog utilization and a new state of the art analog facility. Details regarding HERA operations will be discussed including specifics on the mission simulation utilized for the current 14-day campaign, the specifics of the facility (total volume, overall size, hardware), and the capabilities available to researchers. The overall operational philosophy, mission fidelity including timeline, schedule pressures and cadence, and development and implementation of mission stressors will be presented. Research conducted to date in the HERA has addressed risks associated with behavioral health and performance, human physiology, as well as human factors. This presentation will conclude with a discussion of future research plans for the HERA, including infrastructure improvements and additional research capabilities planned for the upcoming 30-day missions in 2016.

  7. Mapping frontier research in the humanities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    -academic fields and supplemented by new transdisciplinary methods focusing on solving grand societal challenges, such as globalisation, multiculturalism, equality, democracy, security and health. Given the nature of these challenges and the ways in which university leadership has been organised, the very notion...... of impact and styles of reasoning, both in classical and interdisciplinary fields of the humanities. From this perspective, a more composite picture of human culture, language and history can emerge from humanities research. It goes beyond the picture of rational agents, and situates human interaction...... in more complex landscapes of collective identities, networks, and constraints that open for new forms of intellectual leadership in the 21st century. Link: http://www.bloomsbury.com/uk/mapping-frontier-research-in-the-humanities-9781472597687/...

  8. Mapping Frontier Research in the Humanities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    -academic fields and supplemented by new transdisciplinary methods focusing on solving grand societal challenges, such as globalisation, multiculturalism, equality, democracy, security and health. Given the nature of these challenges and the ways in which university leadership has been organised, the very notion...... of impact and styles of reasoning, both in classical and interdisciplinary fields of the humanities. From this perspective, a more composite picture of human culture, language and history can emerge from humanities research. It goes beyond the picture of rational agents, and situates human interaction...... in more complex landscapes of collective identities, networks, and constraints that open for new forms of intellectual leadership in the 21st century. Link: http://www.bloomsbury.com/uk/mapping-frontier-research-in-the-humanities-9781472597687/...

  9. Fruit Flies Help Human Sleep Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... like us, without enough sleep, flies feel the effects of sleep deprivation. Cirelli has shown that they are a good model for researching human sleep. She has found fruit fly genes that seem to have a powerful effect on sleep. In time, her research could lead ...

  10. Uterine transplantation: Review in human research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favre-Inhofer, A; Rafii, A; Carbonnel, M; Revaux, A; Ayoubi, J M

    2018-06-01

    Uterine transplantation is the solution to treat absolute uterine fertility. In this review, we present the historical, medical, technical, psychological and ethical perspectives in human uterine transplantation research. We reviewed the PubMed database following PRISMA guidelines and added data presented by several research teams during the first international congress on uterine transplantation. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  11. Research trend on human error reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyaoka, Sadaoki

    1990-01-01

    Human error has been the problem in all industries. In 1988, the Bureau of Mines, Department of the Interior, USA, carried out the worldwide survey on the human error in all industries in relation to the fatal accidents in mines. There was difference in the results according to the methods of collecting data, but the proportion that human error took in the total accidents distributed in the wide range of 20∼85%, and was 35% on the average. The rate of occurrence of accidents and troubles in Japanese nuclear power stations is shown, and the rate of occurrence of human error is 0∼0.5 cases/reactor-year, which did not much vary. Therefore, the proportion that human error took in the total tended to increase, and it has become important to reduce human error for lowering the rate of occurrence of accidents and troubles hereafter. After the TMI accident in 1979 in USA, the research on man-machine interface became active, and after the Chernobyl accident in 1986 in USSR, the problem of organization and management has been studied. In Japan, 'Safety 21' was drawn up by the Advisory Committee for Energy, and also the annual reports on nuclear safety pointed out the importance of human factors. The state of the research on human factors in Japan and abroad and three targets to reduce human error are reported. (K.I.)

  12. Recent technology products from Space Human Factors research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, James P.

    1991-01-01

    The goals of the NASA Space Human Factors program and the research carried out concerning human factors are discussed with emphasis given to the development of human performance models, data, and tools. The major products from this program are described, which include the Laser Anthropometric Mapping System; a model of the human body for evaluating the kinematics and dynamics of human motion and strength in microgravity environment; an operational experience data base for verifying and validating the data repository of manned space flights; the Operational Experience Database Taxonomy; and a human-computer interaction laboratory whose products are the display softaware and requirements and the guideline documents and standards for applications on human-computer interaction. Special attention is given to the 'Convoltron', a prototype version of a signal processor for synthesizing the head-related transfer functions.

  13. Current and Future Research Directions in Requirements Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Betty H. C.; Atlee, Joanne M.

    In this paper, we review current requirements engineering (RE) research and identify future research directions suggested by emerging software needs. First, we overview the state of the art in RE research. The research is considered with respect to technologies developed to address specific requirements tasks, such as elicitation, modeling, and analysis. Such a review enables us to identify mature areas of research, as well as areas that warrant further investigation. Next, we review several strategies for performing and extending RE research results, to help delineate the scope of future research directions. Finally, we highlight what we consider to be the “hot” current and future research topics, which aim to address RE needs for emerging systems of the future.

  14. Applying Equity Theory to Students' Perceptions of Research Participation Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Shannon R.; Cromer, Lisa DeMarni; Narayan, Anupama

    2015-01-01

    Human subject pools have been a valuable resource to universities conducting research with student participants. However, the costs and benefits to student participants must be carefully weighed by students, researchers, and institutional review board administrators in order to avoid coercion. Participant perceptions are pivotal in deciding…

  15. Human tissue models in cancer research: looking beyond the mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel J. Jackson

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Mouse models, including patient-derived xenograft mice, are widely used to address questions in cancer research. However, there are documented flaws in these models that can result in the misrepresentation of human tumour biology and limit the suitability of the model for translational research. A coordinated effort to promote the more widespread development and use of ‘non-animal human tissue’ models could provide a clinically relevant platform for many cancer studies, maximising the opportunities presented by human tissue resources such as biobanks. A number of key factors limit the wide adoption of non-animal human tissue models in cancer research, including deficiencies in the infrastructure and the technical tools required to collect, transport, store and maintain human tissue for lab use. Another obstacle is the long-standing cultural reliance on animal models, which can make researchers resistant to change, often because of concerns about historical data compatibility and losing ground in a competitive environment while new approaches are embedded in lab practice. There are a wide range of initiatives that aim to address these issues by facilitating data sharing and promoting collaborations between organisations and researchers who work with human tissue. The importance of coordinating biobanks and introducing quality standards is gaining momentum. There is an exciting opportunity to transform cancer drug discovery by optimising the use of human tissue and reducing the reliance on potentially less predictive animal models.

  16. Human tissue models in cancer research: looking beyond the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Samuel J; Thomas, Gareth J

    2017-08-01

    Mouse models, including patient-derived xenograft mice, are widely used to address questions in cancer research. However, there are documented flaws in these models that can result in the misrepresentation of human tumour biology and limit the suitability of the model for translational research. A coordinated effort to promote the more widespread development and use of 'non-animal human tissue' models could provide a clinically relevant platform for many cancer studies, maximising the opportunities presented by human tissue resources such as biobanks. A number of key factors limit the wide adoption of non-animal human tissue models in cancer research, including deficiencies in the infrastructure and the technical tools required to collect, transport, store and maintain human tissue for lab use. Another obstacle is the long-standing cultural reliance on animal models, which can make researchers resistant to change, often because of concerns about historical data compatibility and losing ground in a competitive environment while new approaches are embedded in lab practice. There are a wide range of initiatives that aim to address these issues by facilitating data sharing and promoting collaborations between organisations and researchers who work with human tissue. The importance of coordinating biobanks and introducing quality standards is gaining momentum. There is an exciting opportunity to transform cancer drug discovery by optimising the use of human tissue and reducing the reliance on potentially less predictive animal models. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Japan. Human cloning ban allows some research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normile, D

    2000-12-08

    TOKYO--Japanese legislators last week approved a ban on human cloning that leaves room for the use of certain techniques in basic research. The action comes at the same time officials in two other countries--China and France--aired similar proposals that would prohibit so-called reproductive cloning while recognizing the possible importance of the technology in combating disease and improving human health.

  18. Collaborative Research in the Digital Humanities

    CERN Document Server

    Deegan, Marilyn

    2012-01-01

    Collaboration within digital humanities is both a pertinent and a pressing topic as the traditional mode of the humanist, working alone in his or her study, is supplemented by explicitly co-operative, interdependent and collaborative research. This is particularly true where computational methods are employed in large-scale digital humanities projects. This book, which celebrates the contributions of Harold Short to this field, presents fourteen essays by leading authors in the digital humanities. It addresses several issues of collaboration, from the multiple perspectives of institutions, pro

  19. 75 FR 45130 - Guidance for Industry and Researchers on the Radioactive Drug Research Committee: Human Research...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    ... and Research, Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire Ave., Bldg. 51, rm. 2201, Silver... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2009-D-0125] Guidance for Industry and Researchers on the Radioactive Drug Research Committee: Human Research Without an...

  20. Human Research Program: Space Human Factors and Habitability Element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Dane M.

    2007-01-01

    The three project areas of the Space Human Factors and Habitability Element work together to achieve a working and living environment that will keep crews healthy, safe, and productive throughout all missions -- from Earth orbit to Mars expeditions. The Advanced Environmental Health (AEH) Project develops and evaluates advanced habitability systems and establishes requirements and health standards for exploration missions. The Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE) Project s goal is to ensure a safe and productive environment for humans in space. With missions using new technologies at an ever-increasing rate, it is imperative that these advances enhance crew performance without increasing stress or risk. The ultimate goal of Advanced Food Technology (AFT) Project is to develop and deliver technologies for human centered spacecraft that will support crews on missions to the moon, Mars, and beyond.

  1. Administration of ionizing radiation to human subjects in medical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Any administration of ionizing radiation to human subjects for the purposes of diagnostic or therapeutic research involving either irradiation or the administration of radionuclides, should be undertaken only after approval by an institutional ethics committee. The ethics committee should obtain advice from a person experienced in radiation protection before granting approval. The research proposal must conform to regulatory requirements relating to the use of ionizing radiation

  2. Requirements for an evaluation infrastructure for reliable pervasive healthcare research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Stefan Rahr; Toftegaard, Thomas Skjødeberg; Bertelsen, Olav W.

    2012-01-01

    The need for a non-intrusive evaluation infrastructure platform to support research on reliable pervasive healthcare in the unsupervised setting is analyzed and challenges and possibilities are identified. A list of requirements is presented and a solution is suggested that would allow researchers...

  3. Research report on human media; Human media no chosa kenkyu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The human multimedia technology corresponding to users` subjective characteristics was researched to realize information environment producing a sense of unity with human. The human media technology realizes a human sensitive information processing model and a common database easily acceptable sensitively by various users. This technology also should be able to fairly accept and transmit individual`s information and knowledge as multimedia information, and in addition it is required to supply a virtual space with presence. In fiscal 1995, the research committee studied the concrete developmental issue for integrating these advanced fundamental technologies, and as practical images planned the prototype systems such as human media interactive plant operation, supply of environment supporting personal intelligent activities, and virtual medical center. The research committee also discussed development of space mobile media to secure energy-saving and safety of automobiles, and an environment simulation system with participation of many people. 34 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Development of Human Factor Management Requirements and Human Error Classification for the Prevention of Railway Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Sang Log; Park, Chan Woo; Shin, Seung Ryoung

    2008-08-01

    Railway accident analysis results show that accidents cased by human factors are not decreasing, whereas H/W related accidents are steadily decreasing. For the efficient management of human factors, many expertise on design, conditions, safety culture and staffing are required. But current safety management activities on safety critical works are focused on training, due to the limited resource and information. In order to improve railway safety, human factors management requirements for safety critical worker and human error classification is proposed in this report. For this accident analysis, status of safety measure on human factor, safety management system on safety critical worker, current safety planning is analysis

  5. Integrating spaceflight human system risk research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindock, Jennifer; Lumpkins, Sarah; Anton, Wilma; Havenhill, Maria; Shelhamer, Mark; Canga, Michael

    2017-10-01

    NASA is working to increase the likelihood of exploration mission success and to maintain crew health, both during exploration missions and long term after return to Earth. To manage the risks in achieving these goals, a system modelled after a Continuous Risk Management framework is in place. ;Human System Risks; (Risks) have been identified, and 32 are currently being actively addressed by NASA's Human Research Program (HRP). Research plans for each of HRP's Risks have been developed and are being executed. Inter-disciplinary ties between the research efforts supporting each Risk have been identified; however, efforts to identify and benefit from these connections have been mostly ad hoc. There is growing recognition that solutions developed to address the full set of Risks covering medical, physiological, behavioural, vehicle, and organizational aspects of exploration missions must be integrated across Risks and disciplines. This paper discusses how a framework of factors influencing human health and performance in space is being applied as the backbone for bringing together sometimes disparate information relevant to the individual Risks. The resulting interrelated information enables identification and visualization of connections between Risks and research efforts in a systematic and standardized manner. This paper also discusses the applications of the visualizations and insights into research planning, solicitation, and decision-making processes.

  6. Human-Robot Interaction Directed Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochlis, Jennifer; Ezer, Neta; Sandor, Aniko

    2011-01-01

    Human-robot interaction (HRI) is about understanding and shaping the interactions between humans and robots (Goodrich & Schultz, 2007). It is important to evaluate how the design of interfaces and command modalities affect the human s ability to perform tasks accurately, efficiently, and effectively (Crandall, Goodrich, Olsen Jr., & Nielsen, 2005) It is also critical to evaluate the effects of human-robot interfaces and command modalities on operator mental workload (Sheridan, 1992) and situation awareness (Endsley, Bolt , & Jones, 2003). By understanding the effects of interface design on human performance, workload, and situation awareness, interfaces can be developed that support the human in performing tasks with minimal errors and with appropriate interaction time and effort. Thus, the results of research on human-robot interfaces have direct implications for design. Because the factors associated with interfaces and command modalities in HRI are too numerous to address in 3 years of research, the proposed research concentrates on three manageable areas applicable to National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) robot systems. These topic areas emerged from the Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 work that included extensive literature reviews and observations of NASA systems. The three topic areas are: 1) video overlays, 2) camera views, and 3) command modalities. Each area is described in detail below, along with relevance to existing NASA human-robot systems. In addition to studies in these three topic areas, a workshop is proposed for FY12. The workshop will bring together experts in human-robot interaction and robotics to discuss the state of the practice as applicable to research in space robotics. Studies proposed in the area of video overlays consider two factors in the implementation of augmented reality (AR) for operator displays during teleoperation. The first of these factors is the type of navigational guidance provided by AR symbology. In the proposed

  7. In Defense of a Social Value Requirement for Clinical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendler, David; Rid, Annette

    2017-02-01

    Many guidelines and commentators endorse the view that clinical research is ethically acceptable only when it has social value, in the sense of collecting data which might be used to improve health. A version of this social value requirement is included in the Declaration of Helsinki and the Nuremberg Code, and is codified in many national research regulations. At the same time, there have been no systematic analyses of why social value is an ethical requirement for clinical research. Recognizing this gap in the literature, recent articles by Alan Wertheimer and David Resnik argue that the extant justifications for the social value requirement are unpersuasive. Both authors conclude, contrary to almost all current guidelines and regulations, that it can be acceptable across a broad range of cases to conduct clinical research which is known prospectively to have no social value. The present article assesses this conclusion by critically evaluating the ethical and policy considerations relevant to the claim that clinical research must have social value. This analysis supports the standard view that social value is an ethical requirement for the vast majority of clinical research studies and should be mandated by applicable guidelines and policies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Closing the translation gap for justice requirements in international research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Bridget; Zion, Deborah; Lwin, Khin Maung; Cheah, Phaik Yeong; Nosten, Francois; Loff, Bebe

    2012-09-01

    Bioethicists have long debated the content of sponsors and researchers' obligations of justice in international clinical research. However, there has been little empirical investigation as to whether and how obligations of responsiveness, ancillary care, post-trial benefits and research capacity strengthening are upheld in low- and middle-income country settings. In this paper, the authors argue that research ethics guidelines need to be more informed by international research practice. Practical guidance on how to fulfil these obligations is needed if research groups and other actors are to successfully translate them into practice because doing so is often a complicated, context-specific process. Case study research methods offer one avenue for collecting data to develop this guidance. The authors describe how such methods have been used in relation to the Shoklo Malaria Research Unit's vivax malaria treatment (VHX) trial (NCT01074905). Relying on the VHX trial example, the paper shows how information can be gathered from not only international clinical researchers but also trial participants, community advisory board members and research funder representatives in order to: (1) measure evidence of responsiveness, provision of ancillary care, access to post-trial benefits and research capacity strengthening in international clinical research; and (2) identify the contextual factors and roles and responsibilities that were instrumental in the fulfilment of these ethical obligations. Such empirical work is necessary to inform the articulation of obligations of justice in international research and to develop guidance on how to fulfil them in order to facilitate better adherence to guidelines' requirements.

  9. Research requirements related to radioactivity in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, F.A.; Hill, M.D.; Wilkins, B.; Cooper, J.R.

    1988-05-01

    A set of papers identifying perceived national research requirements to 1989 had been prepared by various organisations for the Radioactivity, Research and Environmental Monitoring Committee. The Committee had also received a set of papers describing the research to be carried out or commissioned by Government Departments, advisory bodies and the nuclear industry in 1987-9. The purpose of the present report in the general area of radioactivity in the environment is to consider those papers and identify any gaps or overlaps in the national research effort to 1989. Five gaps are identified and their significance is commented upon. (author)

  10. Human Health Countermeasures (HHC) Element Management Plan: Human Research Program. Revision B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norsk, Peter; Baumann, David

    2012-01-01

    NASA s Human Research Program (HRP) is an applied research and technology program within the Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) that addresses human health and performance risk mitigation strategies in support of exploration missions. The HRP research and technology development is focused on the highest priority risks to crew health and safety with the goal of ensuring mission success and maintaining long-term crew health. Crew health and performance standards, defined by the NASA Chief Health and Medical Officer (CHMO), set the acceptable risk level for exploration missions. The HRP conducts research to inform these standards as well as provide deliverables, such as countermeasures, that ensure standards can be met to maximize human performance and mission success. The Human Health Countermeasures (HHC) Element was formed as part of the HRP to develop a scientifically-based, integrated approach to understanding and mitigating the health risks associated with human spaceflight. These health risks have been organized into four research portfolios that group similar or related risks. A fifth portfolio exists for managing technology developments and infrastructure projects. The HHC Element portfolios consist of: a) Vision and Cardiovascular; b) Exercise and Performance; c) Multisystem; d) Bone; and e) Technology and Infrastructure. The HHC identifies gaps associated with the health risks and plans human physiology research that will result in knowledge required to more fully understand risks and will result in validated countermeasures to mitigate risks.

  11. RESEARCH ON HUMAN RESOURCES MOTIVATION AND SATISFACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan-Bela FARKAS

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Many research studies on the human resources performance of the educational system have proved that pupils/students’ educational success depends, to a high degree, on the level of human resource motivation, as well as on their degree of professional satisfaction. Teachers’ who show a high level of motivation, both intrinsic and extrinsic, invest more into their activity, are more creative and more efficient in problem solving. The paper debates the results of an empirical study regarding the influence of pre-university teachers’ motivation and satisfaction regarding the general work conditions on their work performance by measuring the present motivation and satisfaction level. Furthermore, the determinant factors of their satisfaction with the work place are determined and analyzed. Finally, based on the statistical data process we will conclude and debate on the research hypothesis validation and the empirical model related to motivation – satisfaction – performance interdependences.

  12. Open access monographs: a humanities research perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Jim Cheshire

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the thoughts of a humanities researcher in relation to open access (OA publishing. Digital media have dramatically improved access to historic texts but library e-books are frustrating due to software and loan arrangements. Authors of illustrated books risk losing control of book design, although new media offer opportunities to improve image quality and access. Alfred Tennyson's career shows that authors have been sensitive about the physical form of their work since the Victorian period and ignoring the material significance of the book could make us overlook the fundamental changes that the e-book represents. Monographs retain value as a way of evaluating substantive research projects and those published through the OA process will have great advantages over the commercial e-book. ‘Green’ OA publishing is impractical for humanities scholars and funded ‘gold’ OA publishing is likely to involve a labour-intensive application process.

  13. Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere (CIRA) Requirements Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zurawski, Jason, W; Mace, Kathryn, P

    2016-08-11

    In August 2016 The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) and Colorado State University (CSU) organized a review to characterize the networking requirements of the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere (CIRA) located on the campus of Colorado State University. Several key findings highlighting the results from the review were discovered, with benefits to improve the overall scientific process for CIRA and CSU.

  14. 3 CFR - Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of July 30, 2009 Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research..., scientifically worthy human stem cell research, including human embryonic stem cell research, to the extent...

  15. Light transport and general aviation aircraft icing research requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeze, R. K.; Clark, G. M.

    1981-01-01

    A short term and a long term icing research and technology program plan was drafted for NASA LeRC based on 33 separate research items. The specific items listed resulted from a comprehensive literature search, organized and assisted by a computer management file and an industry/Government agency survey. Assessment of the current facilities and icing technology was accomplished by presenting summaries of ice sensitive components and protection methods; and assessments of penalty evaluation, the experimental data base, ice accretion prediction methods, research facilities, new protection methods, ice protection requirements, and icing instrumentation. The intent of the research plan was to determine what icing research NASA LeRC must do or sponsor to ultimately provide for increased utilization and safety of light transport and general aviation aircraft.

  16. Why should ethics approval be required prior to publication of health promotion research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newson, Ainsley J; Lipworth, Wendy

    2015-12-01

    Most academic journals that publish studies involving human participants require evidence that the research has been approved by a human research ethics committee (HREC). Yet journals continue to receive submissions from authors who have failed to obtain such approval. In this paper, we provide an ethical justification of why journals should not, in general, publish articles describing research that has no ethics approval, with particular attention to the health promotion context. Using theoretical bioethical reasoning and drawing on a case study, we first rebut some potential criticisms of the need for research ethics approval. We then outline four positive claims to justify a presumption that research should, in most instances, be published only if it has been undertaken with HREC approval. We present four justifications for requiring ethics approval before publication: (1) HREC approval adds legitimacy to the research; (2) the process of obtaining HREC approval can improve the quality of an intervention being investigated; (3) obtaining HREC approval can help mitigate harm; and (4) obtaining HREC approval demonstrates respect for persons. This paper provides a systematic and comprehensive assessment of why research ethics approval should generally be obtained before publishing in the health promotion context. So what? Journals such as the Health Promotion Journal of Australia have recently begun to require research ethics approval for publishing research. Health promotion researchers will be interested in learning the ethical justification for this change.

  17. Supporting robotics technology requirements through research in intelligent machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, R.C.

    1995-02-01

    {open_quotes}Safer, better, cheaper{close_quotes} are recurring themes in many robot development efforts. Significant improvements are being accomplished with existing technology, but basic research sets the foundations for future improvements and breakthrough discoveries. Advanced robots represent systems that integrate the three basic functions of sensing, reasoning, and acting (locomotion and manipulation) into one functional unit. Depending on the application requirements, some of these functions are implemented at a more or less advanced level than others. For example, some navigation tasks can be accomplished with purely reactive control and do not require sophisticated reasoning and planning methodologies. Robotics work at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) spans the spectrum from basic research to application-specific development and rapid prototyping of systems. This presentation summarizes recent highlights of the robotics research activities at ORNL.

  18. The Pluralistic Water Research Concept: A New Human-Water System Research Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariele Evers

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The use and management of water systems is influenced by a number of factors, such as economic growth, global change (e.g., urbanization, hydrological-climatic changes, politics, history and culture. Despite noteworthy efforts to develop integrative approaches to analyze water-related problems, human-water research remains a major challenge for scholars and decision makers due to the increasing complexity of human and water systems interactions. Although existing concepts try to integrate the social and water dimensions, they usually have a disciplinary starting point and perspective, which can represent an obstacle to true integration in human-water research. Hence, a pluralistic approach is required to better understand the interactions between human and water systems. This paper discusses prominent human-water concepts (Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM, socio-hydrology, and political ecology/hydrosocial approach and presents a newly developed concept termed pluralistic water research (PWR. This is not only a pluralistic but also an integrative and interdisciplinary approach which aims to coherently and comprehensively integrate human-water dimensions. The different concepts are illustrated in a synopsis, and diverse framing of research questions are exemplified. The PWR concept integrates physical and social sciences, which enables a comprehensive analysis of human-water interactions and relations. This can lead to a better understanding of water-related issues and potentially sustainable trajectories.

  19. A Path to Planetary Protection Requirements for Human Exploration: A Literature Review and Systems Engineering Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James E.; Conley, Cassie; Siegel, Bette

    2015-01-01

    As systems, technologies, and plans for the human exploration of Mars and other destinations beyond low Earth orbit begin to coalesce, it is imperative that frequent and early consideration is given to how planetary protection practices and policy will be upheld. While the development of formal planetary protection requirements for future human space systems and operations may still be a few years from fruition, guidance to appropriately influence mission and system design will be needed soon to avoid costly design and operational changes. The path to constructing such requirements is a journey that espouses key systems engineering practices of understanding shared goals, objectives and concerns, identifying key stakeholders, and iterating a draft requirement set to gain community consensus. This paper traces through each of these practices, beginning with a literature review of nearly three decades of publications addressing planetary protection concerns with respect to human exploration. Key goals, objectives and concerns, particularly with respect to notional requirements, required studies and research, and technology development needs have been compiled and categorized to provide a current 'state of knowledge'. This information, combined with the identification of key stakeholders in upholding planetary protection concerns for human missions, has yielded a draft requirement set that might feed future iteration among space system designers, exploration scientists, and the mission operations community. Combining the information collected with a proposed forward path will hopefully yield a mutually agreeable set of timely, verifiable, and practical requirements for human space exploration that will uphold international commitment to planetary protection.

  20. Operations other than war: Requirements for analysis tools research report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, D.S. III

    1996-12-01

    This report documents the research effort to determine the requirements for new or improved analysis tools to support decisions at the strategic and operational levels for military Operations Other than War (OOTW). The work was performed for the Commander in Chief, U.S. Pacific Command (USCINCPAC). The data collection was based on workshops attended by experts in OOTWs: analysis personnel from each of the Combatant Commands, the Services, the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD), the Joint Staff, and other knowledgeable personnel. Further data were gathered from other workshops and conferences and from the literature. The results of this research begin with the creation of a taxonomy of OOTWs: categories of operations, attributes of operations, and tasks requiring analytical support. The tasks are connected to the Joint Staff`s Universal Joint Task List (UJTL). Historical OOTWs are analyzed to produce frequency distributions by category and responsible CINC. The analysis products are synthesized into a list of requirements for analytical tools and definitions of the requirements. The report concludes with a timeline or roadmap for satisfying the requirements.

  1. Advanced Scientific Computing Research Network Requirements: ASCR Network Requirements Review Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacon, Charles [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bell, Greg [ESnet, Berkeley, CA (United States); Canon, Shane [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dart, Eli [ESnet, Berkeley, CA (United States); Dattoria, Vince [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Science. Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR); Goodwin, Dave [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Science. Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR); Lee, Jason [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hicks, Susan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Holohan, Ed [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Klasky, Scott [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lauzon, Carolyn [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Science. Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR); Rogers, Jim [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shipman, Galen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Skinner, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Tierney, Brian [ESnet, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-03-08

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of SC programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 25 years. In October 2012, ESnet and the Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) of the DOE SC organized a review to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by the ASCR program office. The requirements identified at the review are summarized in the Findings section, and are described in more detail in the body of the report.

  2. Human factors research in Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry creation of safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horie, Yasuo

    2002-01-01

    To prevent accident of nuclear power plant, Human Factors Center was built in the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry in July 1987. It developed an evaluation method of human error cases and an application method of human factors information. Now it continues analysis and application of human factors information, development of training/work support tools and research/experiment of human behavior. Japan-Human Performance Evaluation System (J-HPES) was developed as an analytical system for analysis and evaluation of human factors related to the trouble and for using the result as the common property by storage the analytical results. J-HPES has a standard procedure consisted of collecting and analyzing data and proposing the countermeasures. The analytical results are arranged by 4 kinds of charts by putting into the form of a diagram. Moreover, it tries to find the causes with indirect and potential causes. Two kinds of materials, Caution Report and Human Factors Precept by means of Illustrations, are published. People can gain access to HFC database by URL http://criepi.denken.or.jp/CRIEPI/HFC/DB. To prevent these accidents, creation of human factors culture has been required. Five kinds of teaching materials and the training method are developed. (S.Y.)

  3. Preliminary thoughts on research in medical humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Xiaojing; Guo, Jiawei; Qian, Haihong

    2017-05-23

    Medical humanities (MH) is an interdisciplinary field of medicine which includes the humanities (literature, philosophy, ethics, history, and religion), social sciences (anthropology, cultural studies, psychology, sociology, and health geography), and the arts (literature, theater, film, and visual arts) and their application to medical education and practice. Studies of MH should not be limited to theoretical discussions. Research results must be translated into use of methodologies to formulate medical policies, guide clinical practices, and help resolve physical or mental problems. MH has a critical role in addressing medicine-related issues, such as human cloning legislation and the treatment of Ebola virus infection. Recently, MH has also been included in the "Healthy China 2030" project, indicating that MH has garnered more attention in China. Medical colleges, research institutes, and non-profit organizations are focusing on MH studies. Over the past few years, financial support for MH studies has also increased. Although the development of MH currently lags behind medicine and health sciences, MH has promise.

  4. Research requirements for improved design of reinforced concrete containment structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, A.K.; Holley, M.J. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Reinforced concrete is a competitive material for the construction of nuclear power plant containment structures. However, the designer is constrained by limited data on the behavior of certain construction details which require him to use what may be excessive rebar quantities and lead to difficult and costly construction. This paper discusses several design situations where research is recommended to increase the designer's options, to facilitate construction, and to extend the applicability of reinforced concrete to such changing containment requirements as may be imposed by an evolving nuclear technology. (Auth.)

  5. Human Resources Requirements for New Nuclear Power Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodnight, Charles T.

    2014-01-01

    Summary: Planning to Meet HR Requirements for New Nuclear Power Programs Must Begin Early. Many years of preparation are required before the “Right Number of the Right People” … will be … “In the Right Place at the Right Time”. • Seven key steps which must be taken include: 1) Identify detailed Human Resources requirements, based on the selected site and reactor design; 2) Conduct an assessment of national capacity to develop and/or provide those resources; 3) Conduct a Gap Analysis to determine what additional steps will be needed to fill any capacity shortfalls; 4) Develop initial and recurring recruiting and training plans; 5) Begin recruiting and training; 6) Review and adjust as personnel move and/or leave; 7) Ensure adequate relationships are in place for sources of future recruiting

  6. ER-16 regulation. Requirements for granting the permit exceptional use of medical devices in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this regulation is to establish requirements for applying for a permit exceptional use of medical equipment in Human Beings, the procedures for the evaluation process and bestowal. This regulation is aimed at researchers and designers of medical equipment, related to or associated with National Health Service's priority programs of interest to health.

  7. Fuels from microalgae: Technology status, potential, and research requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neenan, B.; Feinberg, D.; Hill, A.; McIntosh, R.; Terry, K.

    1986-08-01

    Although numerous options for the production of fuels from microalgae have been proposed, our analysis indicates that only two qualify for extensive development - gasoline and ester fuel. In developing the comparisons that support this conclusion, we have identified the major areas of microalgae production and processing that require extensive development. Technology success requires developing and testing processes that fully utilize the polar and nonpolar lipids produced by microalgae. Process designs used in these analyses were derived from fragmented, preliminary laboratory data. These results must be substantiated and integrated processes proposed, tested, and refined to be able to evaluate the commercial feasibility from microalgae. The production of algal feedstocks for processing to gasoline or ester fuel requires algae of high productivity and high lipid content that efficiently utilize saline waters. Species screening and development suggest that algae can achieve required standards taken individually, but algae that can meet the integrated requirements still elude researchers. Effective development of fuels from microalgae technology requires that R and D be directed toward meeting the integrated standards set out in the analysis. As technology analysts, it is inappropriate for us to dictate how the R and D effort should proceed to meet these standards. We end our role by noting that alternative approaches to meeting the feasibility targets have been identified, and it is now the task of program managers and scientists to choose the appropriate approach to assure the greatest likelihood of realizing a commercially viable technology. 70 refs., 39 figs., 35 tabs.

  8. Life sciences research in space: The requirement for animal models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, C. A.; Philips, R. W.; Ballard, R. W.

    1987-01-01

    Use of animals in NASA space programs is reviewed. Animals are needed because life science experimentation frequently requires long-term controlled exposure to environments, statistical validation, invasive instrumentation or biological tissue sampling, tissue destruction, exposure to dangerous or unknown agents, or sacrifice of the subject. The availability and use of human subjects inflight is complicated by the multiple needs and demands upon crew time. Because only living organisms can sense, integrate and respond to the environment around them, the sole use of tissue culture and computer models is insufficient for understanding the influence of the space environment on intact organisms. Equipment for spaceborne experiments with animals is described.

  9. Design requirement for electrical system of an advanced research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hoan Sung; Kim, H. K.; Kim, Y. K.; Wu, J. S.; Ryu, J. S.

    2004-12-01

    An advanced research reactor is being designed since 2002 and the conceptual design has been completed this year for the several types of core. Also the fuel was designed for the potential cores. But the process system, the I and C system, and the electrical system design are under pre-conceptual stage. The conceptual design for those systems will be developed in the next year. Design requirements for the electrical system set up to develop conceptual design. The same goals as reactor design - enhance safety, reliability, economy, were applied for the development of the requirements. Also the experience of HANARO design and operation was based on. The design requirements for the power distribution, standby power supply, and raceway system will be used for the conceptual design of electrical system

  10. Design requirement for electrical system of an advanced research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hoan Sung; Kim, H. K.; Kim, Y. K.; Wu, J. S.; Ryu, J. S

    2004-12-01

    An advanced research reactor is being designed since 2002 and the conceptual design has been completed this year for the several types of core. Also the fuel was designed for the potential cores. But the process system, the I and C system, and the electrical system design are under pre-conceptual stage. The conceptual design for those systems will be developed in the next year. Design requirements for the electrical system set up to develop conceptual design. The same goals as reactor design - enhance safety, reliability, economy, were applied for the development of the requirements. Also the experience of HANARO design and operation was based on. The design requirements for the power distribution, standby power supply, and raceway system will be used for the conceptual design of electrical system.

  11. Research in Humans: Current Perspectives in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Alcantara Cunha Lima

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This work addressed the norms of ethics for human experimentation in Brazil, operationalized by the National Research Ethics Commission (CONEP of the National Health Council (CNS. It analyzed international principles of bioethics as a theoretical framework for the Brazilian regulation. National and international publications were reviewed, by Capes periodicals, relating to historical ethical infractions, such as reflection to the current day. It analyzed the law (PL 200/2015 of the Senate, which proposes flexibilities in Brazilian legislation and concluded that the requested changes should be discussed in depth by bioethicists, scientists and Brazilian lawyers with extended discussion to society.

  12. Needs and Requirements for Future Research Reactors (ORNL Perspectives)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilas, Germina; Bryan, Chris; Gehin, Jess C.

    2016-01-01

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) is a vital national and international resource for neutron science research, production of radioisotopes, and materials irradiation. While HFIR is expected to continue operation for the foreseeable future, interest is growing in understanding future research reactors features, needs, and requirements. To clarify, discuss, and compile these needs from the perspective of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) research and development (R&D) missions, a workshop, titled ''Needs and Requirements for Future Research Reactors'', was held at ORNL on May 12, 2015. The workshop engaged ORNL staff that is directly involved in research using HFIR to collect valuable input on the reactor's current and future missions. The workshop provided an interactive forum for a fruitful exchange of opinions, and included a mix of short presentations and open discussions. ORNL staff members made 15 technical presentations based on their experience and areas of expertise, and discussed those capabilities of the HFIR and future research reactors that are essential for their current and future R&D needs. The workshop was attended by approximately 60 participants from three ORNL directorates. The agenda is included in Appendix A. This document summarizes the feedback provided by workshop contributors and participants. It also includes information and insights addressing key points that originated from the dialogue started at the workshop. A general overview is provided on the design features and capabilities of high performance research reactors currently in use or under construction worldwide. Recent and ongoing design efforts in the US and internationally are briefly summarized, followed by conclusions and recommendations.

  13. Needs and Requirements for Future Research Reactors (ORNL Perspectives)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilas, Germina [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bryan, Chris [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gehin, Jess C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-02-10

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) is a vital national and international resource for neutron science research, production of radioisotopes, and materials irradiation. While HFIR is expected to continue operation for the foreseeable future, interest is growing in understanding future research reactors features, needs, and requirements. To clarify, discuss, and compile these needs from the perspective of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) research and development (R&D) missions, a workshop, titled “Needs and Requirements for Future Research Reactors”, was held at ORNL on May 12, 2015. The workshop engaged ORNL staff that is directly involved in research using HFIR to collect valuable input on the reactor’s current and future missions. The workshop provided an interactive forum for a fruitful exchange of opinions, and included a mix of short presentations and open discussions. ORNL staff members made 15 technical presentations based on their experience and areas of expertise, and discussed those capabilities of the HFIR and future research reactors that are essential for their current and future R&D needs. The workshop was attended by approximately 60 participants from three ORNL directorates. The agenda is included in Appendix A. This document summarizes the feedback provided by workshop contributors and participants. It also includes information and insights addressing key points that originated from the dialogue started at the workshop. A general overview is provided on the design features and capabilities of high performance research reactors currently in use or under construction worldwide. Recent and ongoing design efforts in the US and internationally are briefly summarized, followed by conclusions and recommendations.

  14. Challenges of Research and Human Capital Development in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikwe, Christian K.; Ogidi, Reuben C.; Nwachukwu, K.

    2015-01-01

    The paper discussed the challenges of research and human capital development in Nigeria. Research and human capital development are critical to the development of any nation. Research facilitates human capital development. A high rating in human capital development indices places a country among the leading countries of the world. The paper…

  15. Meeting Human Reliability Requirements through Human Factors Design, Testing, and Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. L. Boring

    2007-06-01

    In the design of novel systems, it is important for the human factors engineer to work in parallel with the human reliability analyst to arrive at the safest achievable design that meets design team safety goals and certification or regulatory requirements. This paper introduces the System Development Safety Triptych, a checklist of considerations for the interplay of human factors and human reliability through design, testing, and modeling in product development. This paper also explores three phases of safe system development, corresponding to the conception, design, and implementation of a system.

  16. Space Station Centrifuge: A Requirement for Life Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Arthur H.; Fuller, Charles A.; Johnson, Catherine C.; Winget, Charles M.

    1992-01-01

    A centrifuge with the largest diameter that can be accommodated on Space Station Freedom is required to conduct life science research in the microgravity environment of space. (This was one of the findings of a group of life scientists convened at the University of California, Davis, by Ames Research Center.) The centrifuge will be used as a research tool to understand how gravity affects biological processes; to provide an on-orbit one-g control; and to assess the efficacy of using artificial gravity to counteract the deleterious biological effect of space flight. The rationale for the recommendation and examples of using ground-based centrifugation for animal and plant acceleration studies are presented. Included are four appendixes and an extensive bibliography of hypergravity studies.

  17. Models and data requirements for human reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-03-01

    It has been widely recognised for many years that the safety of the nuclear power generation depends heavily on the human factors related to plant operation. This has been confirmed by the accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl. Both these cases revealed how human actions can defeat engineered safeguards and the need for special operator training to cover the possibility of unexpected plant conditions. The importance of the human factor also stands out in the analysis of abnormal events and insights from probabilistic safety assessments (PSA's), which reveal a large proportion of cases having their origin in faulty operator performance. A consultants' meeting, organized jointly by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) was held at IIASA in Laxenburg, Austria, December 7-11, 1987, with the aim of reviewing existing models used in Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) for Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) and of identifying the data required. The report collects both the contributions offered by the members of the Expert Task Force and the findings of the extensive discussions that took place during the meeting. Refs, figs and tabs

  18. Nuclear safety requirements for operation licensing of Egyptian research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, E.E.M.; Rahman, F.A.

    2000-01-01

    From the view of responsibility for health and nuclear safety, this work creates a framework for the application of nuclear regulatory rules to ensure safe operation for the sake of obtaining or maintaining operation licensing for nuclear research reactors. It has been performed according to the recommendations of the IAEA for research reactor safety regulations which clearly states that the scope of the application should include all research reactors being designed, constructed, commissioned, operated, modified or decommissioned. From that concept, the present work establishes a model structure and a computer logic program for a regulatory licensing system (RLS code). It applies both the regulatory inspection and enforcement regulatory rules on the different licensing process stages. The present established RLS code is then applied to the Egyptian Research Reactors, namely; the first ET-RR-1, which was constructed and still operating since 1961, and the second MPR research reactor (ET-RR-2) which is now in the preliminary operation stage. The results showed that for the ET-RR-1 reactor, all operational activities, including maintenance, in-service inspection, renewal, modification and experiments should meet the appropriate regulatory compliance action program. Also, the results showed that for the new MPR research reactor (ET-RR-2), all commissioning and operational stages should also meet the regulatory inspection and enforcement action program of the operational licensing safety requirements. (author)

  19. Modelling human resource requirements for the nuclear industry in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roelofs, Ferry [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG) (Netherlands); Flore, Massimo; Estorff, Ulrik von [Joint Research Center (JRC) (Netherlands)

    2017-11-15

    The European Human Resource Observatory for Nuclear (EHRO-N) provides the European Commission with essential data related to supply and demand for nuclear experts in the EU-28 and the enlargement and integration countries based on bottom-up information from the nuclear industry. The objective is to assess how the supply of experts for the nuclear industry responds to the needs for the same experts for present and future nuclear projects in the region. Complementary to the bottom-up approach taken by the EHRO-N team at JRC, a top-down modelling approach has been taken in a collaboration with NRG in the Netherlands. This top-down modelling approach focuses on the human resource requirements for operation, construction, decommissioning, and efforts for long term operation of nuclear power plants. This paper describes the top-down methodology, the model input, the main assumptions, and the results of the analyses.

  20. Modelling human resource requirements for the nuclear industry in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roelofs, Ferry; Flore, Massimo; Estorff, Ulrik von

    2017-01-01

    The European Human Resource Observatory for Nuclear (EHRO-N) provides the European Commission with essential data related to supply and demand for nuclear experts in the EU-28 and the enlargement and integration countries based on bottom-up information from the nuclear industry. The objective is to assess how the supply of experts for the nuclear industry responds to the needs for the same experts for present and future nuclear projects in the region. Complementary to the bottom-up approach taken by the EHRO-N team at JRC, a top-down modelling approach has been taken in a collaboration with NRG in the Netherlands. This top-down modelling approach focuses on the human resource requirements for operation, construction, decommissioning, and efforts for long term operation of nuclear power plants. This paper describes the top-down methodology, the model input, the main assumptions, and the results of the analyses.

  1. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Nuclear Physics Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Richard A.; Wasserman, Harvey J.

    2012-03-02

    IThe National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the primary computing center for the DOE Office of Science, serving approximately 4,000 users and hosting some 550 projects that involve nearly 700 codes for a wide variety of scientific disciplines. In addition to large-scale computing resources NERSC provides critical staff support and expertise to help scientists make the most efficient use of these resources to advance the scientific mission of the Office of Science. In May 2011, NERSC, DOE’s Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) and DOE’s Office of Nuclear Physics (NP) held a workshop to characterize HPC requirements for NP research over the next three to five years. The effort is part of NERSC’s continuing involvement in anticipating future user needs and deploying necessary resources to meet these demands. The workshop revealed several key requirements, in addition to achieving its goal of characterizing NP computing. The key requirements include: 1. Larger allocations of computational resources at NERSC; 2. Visualization and analytics support; and 3. Support at NERSC for the unique needs of experimental nuclear physicists. This report expands upon these key points and adds others. The results are based upon representative samples, called “case studies,” of the needs of science teams within NP. The case studies were prepared by NP workshop participants and contain a summary of science goals, methods of solution, current and future computing requirements, and special software and support needs. Participants were also asked to describe their strategy for computing in the highly parallel, “multi-core” environment that is expected to dominate HPC architectures over the next few years. The report also includes a section with NERSC responses to the workshop findings. NERSC has many initiatives already underway that address key workshop findings and all of the action items are aligned with NERSC strategic plans.

  2. Gamifying quantum research: harnessing human intuition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherson, Jacob

    In the emerging field of citizen science ordinary citizens have already contributed to research in as diverse fields as astronomy, protein and RNA folding, and neuron mapping by playing online games. In the www.scienceathome.org project, we have extended this democratized research to the realm of quantum physics by gamifying a class of challenges related to optimization of gate operations in a quantum computer. The games have been played by more than 150,000 players and perhaps surprisingly we observe that a large fraction of the players outperform state-of-the-art optimization algorithms. With a palette of additional games within cognitive science, behavioral economics, and corporate innovation we investigate the general features of individual and collaborative problem solving to shed additional light on the process of human intuition and innovation and potentially develop novel models of artificial intelligence. We have also developed and tested in classrooms educational games within classical and quantum physics and mathematics at high-school and university level. The games provide individualized learning and enhance motivation for the core curriculum by actively creating links to modern research challenges, see eg. Finally, we have recently launched our new democratic lab: an easily accessible remote interface for our ultra-cold atoms experiment allowing amateur scientists, students, and research institutions world-wide to perform state-of-the-art quantum experimentation. In first tests, nearly a thousand players helped optimize the production of our BEC and discovered novel efficient strategies.

  3. Leptin in humans: lessons from translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blüher, Susann; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2009-03-01

    Leptin has emerged over the past decade as a key hormone in not only the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure but also in the regulation of neuroendocrine and immune function as well as the modulation of glucose and fat metabolism as shown by numerous observational and interventional studies in humans with (complete) congenital or relative leptin deficiency. These results have led to proof-of-concept studies that have investigated the effect of leptin administration in subjects with complete (congenital) leptin deficiency caused by mutations in the leptin gene as well as in humans with relative leptin deficiency, including states of lipoatrophy or negative energy balance and neuroendocrine dysfunction, as for instance seen with hypothalamic amenorrhea in states of exercise-induced weight loss. In those conditions, most neuroendocrine, metabolic, or immune disturbances can be restored by leptin administration. Leptin replacement therapy is thus a promising approach in several disease states, including congenital complete leptin deficiency, states of energy deprivation, including anorexia nervosa or milder forms of hypothalamic amenorrhea, as well as syndromes of insulin resistance seen in conditions such as congenital or acquired lipodystrophy. In contrast, states of energy excess such as garden-variety obesity are associated with hyperleptinemia that reflects either leptin tolerance or leptin resistance. For those conditions, development of leptin sensitizers is currently a focus of pharmaceutical research. This article summarizes our current understanding of leptin's role in human physiology and its potential role as a novel therapeutic option in human disease states associated with a new hormone deficiency, ie, leptin deficiency.

  4. Model-based human reliability analysis: prospects and requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosleh, A.; Chang, Y.H.

    2004-01-01

    Major limitations of the conventional methods for human reliability analysis (HRA), particularly those developed for operator response analysis in probabilistic safety assessments (PSA) of nuclear power plants, are summarized as a motivation for the need and a basis for developing requirements for the next generation HRA methods. It is argued that a model-based approach that provides explicit cognitive causal links between operator behaviors and directly or indirectly measurable causal factors should be at the core of the advanced methods. An example of such causal model is briefly reviewed, where due to the model complexity and input requirements can only be currently implemented in a dynamic PSA environment. The computer simulation code developed for this purpose is also described briefly, together with current limitations in the models, data, and the computer implementation

  5. Hardware Development Process for Human Research Facility Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Liz

    2000-01-01

    The simple goal of the Human Research Facility (HRF) is to conduct human research experiments on the International Space Station (ISS) astronauts during long-duration missions. This is accomplished by providing integration and operation of the necessary hardware and software capabilities. A typical hardware development flow consists of five stages: functional inputs and requirements definition, market research, design life cycle through hardware delivery, crew training, and mission support. The purpose of this presentation is to guide the audience through the early hardware development process: requirement definition through selecting a development path. Specific HRF equipment is used to illustrate the hardware development paths. The source of hardware requirements is the science community and HRF program. The HRF Science Working Group, consisting of SCientists from various medical disciplines, defined a basic set of equipment with functional requirements. This established the performance requirements of the hardware. HRF program requirements focus on making the hardware safe and operational in a space environment. This includes structural, thermal, human factors, and material requirements. Science and HRF program requirements are defined in a hardware requirements document which includes verification methods. Once the hardware is fabricated, requirements are verified by inspection, test, analysis, or demonstration. All data is compiled and reviewed to certify the hardware for flight. Obviously, the basis for all hardware development activities is requirement definition. Full and complete requirement definition is ideal prior to initiating the hardware development. However, this is generally not the case, but the hardware team typically has functional inputs as a guide. The first step is for engineers to conduct market research based on the functional inputs provided by scientists. CommerCially available products are evaluated against the science requirements as

  6. Models of Human Information Requirements: "When Reasonable Aiding Systems Disagree"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corker, Kevin; Pisanich, Gregory; Shafto, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Aircraft flight management and Air Traffic Control (ATC) automation are under development to maximize the economy of flight and to increase the capacity of the terminal area airspace while maintaining levels of flight safety equal to or better than current system performance. These goals are being realized by the introduction of flight management automation aiding and operations support systems on the flight deck and by new developments of ATC aiding systems that seek to optimize scheduling of aircraft while potentially reducing required separation and accounting for weather and wake vortex turbulence. Aiding systems on both the flight deck and the ground operate through algorithmic functions on models of the aircraft and of the airspace. These models may differ from each other as a result of variations in their models of the immediate environment. The resultant flight operations or ATC commands may differ in their response requirements (e.g. different preferred descent speeds or descent initiation points). The human operators in the system must then interact with the automation to reconcile differences and resolve conflicts. We have developed a model of human performance including cognitive functions (decision-making, rule-based reasoning, procedural interruption recovery and forgetting) that supports analysis of the information requirements for resolution of flight aiding and ATC conflicts. The model represents multiple individuals in the flight crew and in ATC. The model is supported in simulation on a Silicon Graphics' workstation using Allegro Lisp. Design guidelines for aviation automation aiding systems have been developed using the model's specification of information and team procedural requirements. Empirical data on flight deck operations from full-mission flight simulation are provided to support the model's predictions. The paper describes the model, its development and implementation, the simulation test of the model predictions, and the empirical

  7. Human-Robot Interaction Directed Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandor, Aniko; Cross, Ernest V., II; Chang, Mai Lee

    2014-01-01

    Human-robot interaction (HRI) is a discipline investigating the factors affecting the interactions between humans and robots. It is important to evaluate how the design of interfaces and command modalities affect the human's ability to perform tasks accurately, efficiently, and effectively when working with a robot. By understanding the effects of interface design on human performance, workload, and situation awareness, interfaces can be developed to appropriately support the human in performing tasks with minimal errors and with appropriate interaction time and effort. Thus, the results of research on human-robot interfaces have direct implications for the design of robotic systems. This DRP concentrates on three areas associated with interfaces and command modalities in HRI which are applicable to NASA robot systems: 1) Video Overlays, 2) Camera Views, and 3) Command Modalities. The first study focused on video overlays that investigated how Augmented Reality (AR) symbology can be added to the human-robot interface to improve teleoperation performance. Three types of AR symbology were explored in this study, command guidance (CG), situation guidance (SG), and both (SCG). CG symbology gives operators explicit instructions on what commands to input, whereas SG symbology gives operators implicit cues so that operators can infer the input commands. The combination of CG and SG provided operators with explicit and implicit cues allowing the operator to choose which symbology to utilize. The objective of the study was to understand how AR symbology affects the human operator's ability to align a robot arm to a target using a flight stick and the ability to allocate attention between the symbology and external views of the world. The study evaluated the effects type of symbology (CG and SG) has on operator tasks performance and attention allocation during teleoperation of a robot arm. The second study expanded on the first study by evaluating the effects of the type of

  8. The Evolution of Design Requirements in the Trajectory of Artificiality: A Research Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reymen, Isabelle; Romme, Georges

    Managing design requirements of complex socio-technical designs in heterogeneous and rapidly-changing environments demands new approaches. In this chapter we use the framework described by Krippendorff [1] to describe the evolution of requirements thinking and subsequently develop a research agenda. Krippendorff’s trajectory of artificiality shows an increasing dematerialization and human-centeredness of artifacts. He distinguishes six kinds of artifacts, namely material products; goods, services, and identities; interfaces; multi-user systems and networks; projects; and finally, discourses. Based on a review of the design literature, involving two major design journals, we find that the design of socio-technical systems currently tends to be situated on the level of multi-user systems and networks. Projects and discourses hardly get any attention in requirements thinking. We therefore develop an agenda for future research directed toward advancing requirements thinking at the level of projects and discourses as artifacts of design.

  9. Clinical Trials: A Crucial Key to Human Health Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Past Issues Clinical Trials: A Crucial Key to Human Health Research Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of Contents ... Javascript on. Photo: PhotoDisc At the forefront of human health research today are clinical trials—studies that use ...

  10. Cooperative research for human factors review of advanced control rooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Park, Jae Chang; Lee, Yong Hee; Oh, In Seok; Lee, Hyun Chul

    2000-12-01

    This project has been performed as cooperative research between KAERI and USNRC. Human factors issues related to soft controls, which is one of key features of advanced HSI, are identified in this project. The issues are analyzed for the evaluation approaches in either experimental or analytical ways. Also, issues requiring additional researches for the evaluation of advanced HSI are identified in the areas of advanced information systems design, computer-based procedure systems, soft controls, human systems interface and plant modernization process, and maintainability of digital systems. The issues are analyzed to discriminate the urgency of researches on it to high, medium, and low levels in consideration of advanced HSI development status in Korea, and some of the issues that can be handled by experimental researches are identified. Additionally, an experimental study is performed to compare operator's performance on human error detection in advanced control rooms vs. in conventional control rooms. It is found that advanced control rooms have several design characteristics hindering operator's error detection performance compared to conventional control rooms.

  11. Cooperative research for human factors review of advanced control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Park, Jae Chang; Lee, Yong Hee; Oh, In Seok; Lee, Hyun Chul

    2000-12-01

    This project has been performed as cooperative research between KAERI and USNRC. Human factors issues related to soft controls, which is one of key features of advanced HSI, are identified in this project. The issues are analyzed for the evaluation approaches in either experimental or analytical ways. Also, issues requiring additional researches for the evaluation of advanced HSI are identified in the areas of advanced information systems design, computer-based procedure systems, soft controls, human systems interface and plant modernization process, and maintainability of digital systems. The issues are analyzed to discriminate the urgency of researches on it to high, medium, and low levels in consideration of advanced HSI development status in Korea, and some of the issues that can be handled by experimental researches are identified. Additionally, an experimental study is performed to compare operator's performance on human error detection in advanced control rooms vs. in conventional control rooms. It is found that advanced control rooms have several design characteristics hindering operator's error detection performance compared to conventional control rooms

  12. Basic Requirements for Systems Software Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuszmaul, Chris; Nitzberg, Bill

    1996-01-01

    Our success over the past ten years evaluating and developing advanced computing technologies has been due to a simple research and development (R/D) model. Our model has three phases: (a) evaluating the state-of-the-art, (b) identifying problems and creating innovations, and (c) developing solutions, improving the state- of-the-art. This cycle has four basic requirements: a large production testbed with real users, a diverse collection of state-of-the-art hardware, facilities for evalua- tion of emerging technologies and development of innovations, and control over system management on these testbeds. Future research will be irrelevant and future products will not work if any of these requirements is eliminated. In order to retain our effectiveness, the numerical aerospace simulator (NAS) must replace out-of-date production testbeds in as timely a fashion as possible, and cannot afford to ignore innovative designs such as new distributed shared memory machines, clustered commodity-based computers, and multi-threaded architectures.

  13. [Ethics and laws related to human subject research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Hui-Ju; Lee, Ya-Ling; Chang, Su-Fen

    2011-10-01

    Advances in medical technology rely on human subject research to test the effects on real patients of unproven new drugs, equipment and techniques. Illegal human subject research happens occasionally and has led to subject injury and medical disputes. Familiarity with the laws and established ethics related to human subject research can minimize both injury and disputes. History is a mirror that permits reflection today on past experience. Discussing the Nuremberg Code, the Declaration of Helsinki and Belmont Report, this article describes the laws, ethics, history and news related to human subject research as well as the current definition and characteristics of human subject research. Increasing numbers of nurses serve as research nurses and participate in human subject research. The authors hope this article can increase research nurse knowledge regarding laws and ethics in order to protect human research subjects adequately.

  14. Heterogeneity of Human Research Ethics Committees and Research Governance Offices across Australia: An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smit, Elisabeth; Kearns, Lisa S; Clarke, Linda; Dick, Jonathan; Hill, Catherine L; Hewitt, Alex W

    2016-01-01

    Conducting ethically grounded research is a fundamental facet of all investigations. Nevertheless, the administrative burdens of current ethics review are substantial, and calls have been made for a reduction in research waste. To describe the heterogeneity in administration and documentation required by Human Research Ethics Committees (HRECs) and Research Governance Offices (RGOs) across Australia. In establishing a nationwide study to investigate the molecular aetiology of Giant Cell Arteritis (GCA), for which archived pathological specimens from around Australia are being recruited, we identified variation across separate HREC and RGO requirements. Submission paperwork and correspondence from each collaborating site and its representative office for research were reviewed. This data was interrogated to evaluate differences in current guidelines. Twenty-five pathology departments across seven Australian States collaborated in this study. All states, except Victoria, employed a single ethics review model. There was discrepancy amongst HRECs as to which application process applied to our study: seven requested completion of a "National Ethics Application Form" and three a "Low Negligible Risk" form. Noticeable differences in guidelines included whether electronic submission was sufficient. There was variability in the total number of documents submitted (range five to 22) and panel review turnaround time (range nine to 136 days). We demonstrate the challenges and illustrate the heavy workload involved in receiving widespread ethics and governance approval across Australia. We highlight the need to simplify, homogenise, and nationalise human ethics for non-clinical trial studies. Reducing unnecessary administration will enable investigators to achieve research aims more efficiently.

  15. Research and Development for Health and Environmental Hazard Assessment. Task Order 1. Development of Data Base Requirements for Human Health Based Water Quality Criteria for Military Recycle/Reuse Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    laundries,4,5,6, coin operated laundromats " aircraft and vehicle wash racks, plating shops, cooling tower blowdowns, 3 etc. Table 2 gives an example of...and M. Chilson, "Treatment of Laundromat Wastes," Final report to EPA, Office of Research and Monitoring, PB227- 369, September, 1971. 8. See G.G., K.K

  16. Human rights and the requirement for international medical aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolchin, Benjamin

    2008-08-01

    Every year approximately 18 million people die prematurely from treatable medical conditions including infectious diseases and nutritional deficiencies. The deaths occur primarily amongst the poorest citizens of poor developing nations. Various groups and individuals have advanced plans for major international medical aid to avert many of these unnecessary deaths. For example, the World Health Organization's Commission on Macroeconomics and Health estimated that eight million premature deaths could be prevented annually by interventions costing roughly US$57 bn per year. This essay advances an argument that human rights require high-income nations to provide such aid. The essay briefly examines John Rawls' obligations of justice and the reasons that their applicability to cases of international medical aid remains controversial. Regardless, the essay argues that purely humanitarian obligations bind the governments and citizens of high-income liberal democracies at a minimum to provide major medical aid to avert premature deaths in poor nations. In refusing to undertake such medical relief efforts, developed nations fail to adequately protect a fundamental human right to life.

  17. Establishment of human papillomavirus infection requires cell cycle progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dohun Pyeon

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomaviruses (HPVs are DNA viruses associated with major human cancers. As such there is a strong interest in developing new means, such as vaccines and microbicides, to prevent HPV infections. Developing the latter requires a better understanding of the infectious life cycle of HPVs. The HPV infectious life cycle is closely linked to the differentiation state of the stratified epithelium it infects, with progeny virus only made in the terminally differentiating suprabasal compartment. It has long been recognized that HPV must first establish its infection within the basal layer of stratified epithelium, but why this is the case has not been understood. In part this restriction might reflect specificity of expression of entry receptors. However, this hypothesis could not fully explain the differentiation restriction of HPV infection, since many cell types can be infected with HPVs in monolayer cell culture. Here, we used chemical biology approaches to reveal that cell cycle progression through mitosis is critical for HPV infection. Using infectious HPV16 particles containing the intact viral genome, G1-synchronized human keratinocytes as hosts, and early viral gene expression as a readout for infection, we learned that the recipient cell must enter M phase (mitosis for HPV infection to take place. Late M phase inhibitors had no effect on infection, whereas G1, S, G2, and early M phase cell cycle inhibitors efficiently prevented infection. We conclude that host cells need to pass through early prophase for successful onset of transcription of the HPV encapsidated genes. These findings provide one reason why HPVs initially establish infections in the basal compartment of stratified epithelia. Only this compartment of the epithelium contains cells progressing through the cell cycle, and therefore it is only in these cells that HPVs can establish their infection. By defining a major condition for cell susceptibility to HPV infection, these

  18. Deriving human resource requirements for new nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodnight, Ch.T.

    2007-01-01

    For those contemplating the deployment of a new nuclear plant, critical issues include the development of the operational staff and its organization. This paper will discuss the key elements of deriving an appropriate staff plan for steady state operations. There are five areas that must be analyzed, and each area has unique requirements. These key areas are 1) Operations, 2) Engineering, 3) Maintenance, 4) Regulatory/Oversight, and 5) Site Support. After the analysis for each area is complete, and the human resource requirements are identified, an organizational structure must be developed to support the necessary management, potential centralization, and appropriate functional alignments for effective and safe plant operation. Four organizational design principals have been defined. The first design principal relates to the organizational structure: no more than 7 layers of management between an individual contributor and the senior nuclear manager in the NPP. The second design principal relates to the grouping of activities in order to ensure appropriate management of related or supporting activities. The third design principal relates to out-sourcing support activities when these activities comply with particular conditions for instance when they are not mission critical to day-to day plant operations. The fourth design principal relates to the centralization of some activities when there is more than one NPP operated by the same parent company

  19. Life Science Research Facility materials management requirements and concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Catherine C.

    1986-01-01

    The Advanced Programs Office at NASA Ames Research Center has defined hypothetical experiments for a 90-day mission on Space Station to allow analysis of the materials necessary to conduct the experiments and to assess the impact on waste processing of recyclable materials and storage requirements of samples to be returned to earth for analysis as well as of nonrecyclable materials. The materials include the specimens themselves, the food, water, and gases necessary to maintain them, the expendables necessary to conduct the experiments, and the metabolic products of the specimens. This study defines the volumes, flow rates, and states of these materials. Process concepts for materials handling will include a cage cleaner, trash compactor, biological stabilizer, and various recycling devices.

  20. The Department of Defense's Civilian Human Capital Strategic Plan Does Not Meet Most Statutory Requirements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Farrell, Brenda S

    2008-01-01

    To examine the extent to which DOD's civilian human capital strategic plan addresses congressional reporting requirements, we obtained and analyzed the "Department of Defense Civilian Human Capital...

  1. The research trends of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A bibliometric method was used to analyse the trends and challenges of Humanities and Social Sciences research by using research data reflecting on ongoing and completed Arts, Humanities and Social Science research publications submitted by staff and students from 1994 – 2008 to the university's Research Office.

  2. Empirical Requirements Analysis for Mars Surface Operations Using the Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancey, William J.; Lee, Pascal; Sierhuis, Maarten; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Living and working on Mars will require model-based computer systems for maintaining and controlling complex life support, communication, transportation, and power systems. This technology must work properly on the first three-year mission, augmenting human autonomy, without adding-yet more complexity to be diagnosed and repaired. One design method is to work with scientists in analog (mars-like) setting to understand how they prefer to work, what constrains will be imposed by the Mars environment, and how to ameliorate difficulties. We describe how we are using empirical requirements analysis to prototype model-based tools at a research station in the High Canadian Arctic.

  3. The Nuremberg Code subverts human health and safety by requiring animal modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greek Ray

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The requirement that animals be used in research and testing in order to protect humans was formalized in the Nuremberg Code and subsequent national and international laws, codes, and declarations. Discussion We review the history of these requirements and contrast what was known via science about animal models then with what is known now. We further analyze the predictive value of animal models when used as test subjects for human response to drugs and disease. We explore the use of animals for models in toxicity testing as an example of the problem with using animal models. Summary We conclude that the requirements for animal testing found in the Nuremberg Code were based on scientifically outdated principles, compromised by people with a vested interest in animal experimentation, serve no useful function, increase the cost of drug development, and prevent otherwise safe and efficacious drugs and therapies from being implemented.

  4. Information Presentation: Human Research Program - Space Human Factors and Habitability, Space Human Factors Engineering Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Kristina L.; Sandor, Aniko; Thompson, Shelby G.; Kaiser, Mary K.; McCann, Robert S.; Begault, D. R.; Adelstein, B. D.; Beutter, B. R.; Wenzel, E. M.; Godfroy, M.; hide

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the Information Presentation Directed Research Project (DRP) is to address design questions related to the presentation of information to the crew. The major areas of work, or subtasks, within this DRP are: 1) Displays, 2) Controls, 3) Electronic Procedures and Fault Management, and 4) Human Performance Modeling. This DRP is a collaborative effort between researchers atJohnson Space Center and Ames Research Center. T

  5. Advancing vector biology research: a community survey for future directions, research applications and infrastructure requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Alain; Pondeville, Emilie; Schnettler, Esther; Crisanti, Andrea; Supparo, Clelia; Christophides, George K.; Kersey, Paul J.; Maslen, Gareth L.; Takken, Willem; Koenraadt, Constantianus J. M.; Oliva, Clelia F.; Busquets, Núria; Abad, F. Xavier; Failloux, Anna-Bella; Levashina, Elena A.; Wilson, Anthony J.; Veronesi, Eva; Pichard, Maëlle; Arnaud Marsh, Sarah; Simard, Frédéric; Vernick, Kenneth D.

    2016-01-01

    Vector-borne pathogens impact public health, animal production, and animal welfare. Research on arthropod vectors such as mosquitoes, ticks, sandflies, and midges which transmit pathogens to humans and economically important animals is crucial for development of new control measures that target transmission by the vector. While insecticides are an important part of this arsenal, appearance of resistance mechanisms is increasingly common. Novel tools for genetic manipulation of vectors, use of Wolbachia endosymbiotic bacteria, and other biological control mechanisms to prevent pathogen transmission have led to promising new intervention strategies, adding to strong interest in vector biology and genetics as well as vector–pathogen interactions. Vector research is therefore at a crucial juncture, and strategic decisions on future research directions and research infrastructure investment should be informed by the research community. A survey initiated by the European Horizon 2020 INFRAVEC-2 consortium set out to canvass priorities in the vector biology research community and to determine key activities that are needed for researchers to efficiently study vectors, vector-pathogen interactions, as well as access the structures and services that allow such activities to be carried out. We summarize the most important findings of the survey which in particular reflect the priorities of researchers in European countries, and which will be of use to stakeholders that include researchers, government, and research organizations. PMID:27677378

  6. Human Resources for Health Research in Africa | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Human Resources for Health Research in Africa ... the management of research systems for optimal use of results;; packaging research for policymakers; ... Call for new OWSD Fellowships for Early Career Women Scientists now open.

  7. 28 CFR 512.11 - Requirements for research projects and researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Incentives may not be offered to help persuade inmate subjects to participate. However, soft drinks and... not be stored in, or introduced into, an electronic retrieval system. (13) If the researcher is... be required to revise study procedures in accordance with the new methodology. (b) Requests from...

  8. An evaluation of human factors research for ultrasonic inservice inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pond, D.J.; Donohoo, D.T.; Harris, R.V. Jr.

    1998-03-01

    This work was undertaken to determine if human factors research has yielded information applicable to upgrading requirements in ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section XI, improving methods and techniques in Section V, and/or suggesting relevant research. A preference was established for information and recommendations which have become accepted and standard practice. Manual Ultrasonic Testing/Inservice Inspection (UT/ISI) is a complex task subject to influence by dozens of variables. This review frequently revealed equivocal findings regarding effects of environmental variables as well as repeated indications that inspection performance may be more, and more reliably, influenced by the workers' social environment, including managerial practices, than by other situational variables. Also of significance are each inspector's relevant knowledge, skills, and abilities, and determination of these is seen as a necessary first step in upgrading requirements, methods, and techniques as well as in focusing research in support of such programs, While understanding the effects and mediating mechanisms of the variables impacting inspection performance is a worthwhile pursuit for researchers, initial improvements in industrial UTASI performance may be achieved by implementing practices already known to mitigate the effects of potentially adverse conditions. 52 refs., 2 tabs

  9. An evaluation of human factors research for ultrasonic inservice inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pond, D.J.; Donohoo, D.T.; Harris, R.V. Jr.

    1998-03-01

    This work was undertaken to determine if human factors research has yielded information applicable to upgrading requirements in ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section XI, improving methods and techniques in Section V, and/or suggesting relevant research. A preference was established for information and recommendations which have become accepted and standard practice. Manual Ultrasonic Testing/Inservice Inspection (UT/ISI) is a complex task subject to influence by dozens of variables. This review frequently revealed equivocal findings regarding effects of environmental variables as well as repeated indications that inspection performance may be more, and more reliably, influenced by the workers` social environment, including managerial practices, than by other situational variables. Also of significance are each inspector`s relevant knowledge, skills, and abilities, and determination of these is seen as a necessary first step in upgrading requirements, methods, and techniques as well as in focusing research in support of such programs, While understanding the effects and mediating mechanisms of the variables impacting inspection performance is a worthwhile pursuit for researchers, initial improvements in industrial UTASI performance may be achieved by implementing practices already known to mitigate the effects of potentially adverse conditions. 52 refs., 2 tabs.

  10. Research review and development trends of human reliability analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Pengcheng; Chen Guohua; Zhang Li; Dai Licao

    2011-01-01

    Human reliability analysis (HRA) methods are reviewed. The theoretical basis of human reliability analysis, human error mechanism, the key elements of HRA methods as well as the existing HRA methods are respectively introduced and assessed. Their shortcomings,the current research hotspot and difficult problems are identified. Finally, it takes a close look at the trends of human reliability analysis methods. (authors)

  11. Future for nuclear data research. Human resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Mamoru

    2006-01-01

    A comment is given on the problem of human resources to support the future nuclear data activity which will be indispensable for advanced utilization of nuclear energy and radiations. Emphasis is put in the importance of the functional organization among the nuclear data center (JAEA), industries and universities for provision of human resources. (author)

  12. Human rights, politics, and reviews of research ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyrer, Chris; Kass, Nancy E

    2002-07-20

    Although the human rights movement and the sphere of research ethics have overlapping principles and goals, there has been little attempt to incorporate external political and human rights contexts into research ethics codes or ethics reviews. Every element of a research ethics review--the balance of risks and benefits, the assurance of rights for individual participants, and the fair selection of research populations--can be affected by the political and human rights background in which a study is done. Research that at first seems to be low in risk may become high in risk if implemented in a country where the government might breach the confidentiality of study results or where results might be used to deport a refugee group. Researchers should determine whether research could or should be done by consulting human rights organisations and, when possible, a trusted colleague, to learn the background political context and human rights conditions of the settings in which they propose to do research.

  13. Human-Computer Interaction and Information Management Research Needs

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — In a visionary future, Human-Computer Interaction HCI and Information Management IM have the potential to enable humans to better manage their lives through the use...

  14. Human Research Program Advanced Exercise Concepts (AEC) Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perusek, Gail; Lewandowski, Beth; Nall, Marsha; Norsk, Peter; Linnehan, Rick; Baumann, David

    2015-01-01

    Exercise countermeasures provide benefits that are crucial for successful human spaceflight, to mitigate the spaceflight physiological deconditioning which occurs during exposure to microgravity. The NASA Human Research Program (HRP) within the Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) is managing next generation Advanced Exercise Concepts (AEC) requirements development and candidate technology maturation to Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 7 (ground prototyping and flight demonstration) for all exploration mission profiles from Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Exploration Missions (up to 21 day duration) to Mars Transit (up to 1000 day duration) missions. These validated and optimized exercise countermeasures systems will be provided to the ISS Program and MPCV Program for subsequent flight development and operations. The International Space Station (ISS) currently has three major pieces of operational exercise countermeasures hardware: the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED), the second-generation (T2) treadmill, and the cycle ergometer with vibration isolation system (CEVIS). This suite of exercise countermeasures hardware serves as a benchmark and is a vast improvement over previous generations of countermeasures hardware, providing both aerobic and resistive exercise for the crew. However, vehicle and resource constraints for future exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit will require that the exercise countermeasures hardware mass, volume, and power be minimized, while preserving the current ISS capabilities or even enhancing these exercise capabilities directed at mission specific physiological functional performance and medical standards requirements. Further, mission-specific considerations such as preservation of sensorimotor function, autonomous and adaptable operation, integration with medical data systems, rehabilitation, and in-flight monitoring and feedback are being developed for integration with the exercise

  15. Human subject research for engineers a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    de Winter, Joost C F

    2017-01-01

    This Brief introduces engineers to the main principles in ethics, research design, statistics, and publishing of human subject research. In recent years, engineering has become strongly connected to disciplines such as biology, medicine, and psychology. Often, engineers (and engineering students) are expected to perform human subject research. Typical human subject research topics conducted by engineers include human-computer interaction (e.g., evaluating the usability of software), exoskeletons, virtual reality, teleoperation, modelling of human behaviour and decision making (often within the framework of ‘big data’ research), product evaluation, biometrics, behavioural tracking (e.g., of work and travel patterns, or mobile phone use), transport and planning (e.g., an analysis of flows or safety issues), etc. Thus, it can be said that knowledge on how to do human subject research is indispensable for a substantial portion of engineers. Engineers are generally well trained in calculus and mechanics, but m...

  16. Overview of EPRI's human factors research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, J.F.; Parris, H.L.

    1981-01-01

    The human factors engineering program in the Nuclear Power Division, EPRI is dedicated to the resolution of man-machine interface problems specific to the nuclear power industry. Particularly emphasis is placed on the capabilities and limitations of the people who operate and maintain the system, the tasks they must perform, and what they need to accomplish those tasks. Six human factors R and D projects are being conducted at the present time. In addition, technical consultation is being furnished to a study area, operator aids, being funded by another program area outside the human factors program area. All of these activities are summarized

  17. Guidelines for human embryonic stem cell research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Guidelines for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research; National Research Council; Board on Health Sciences Policy; Institute of Medicine; Division on Earth and Life Studies; National Research Council

    2005-01-01

    .... Given limited federal involvement, privately funded hES cell research has thus far been carried out under a patchwork of existing regulations, many of which were not designed with this research specifically in mind...

  18. Human Germline: A New Research Frontier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Azim Surani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We recently elucidated the mechanism of human primordial germ cell (hPGC specification and resetting of the epigenome for totipotency. The regulators of hPGC specification also initiate resetting of the epigenome, leading to a comprehensive erasure of DNA methylation, erasure of imprints and X reactivation in early hPGCs in vivo. These studies reveal differences with the mouse model, which are probably due to differences in the regulation of human pluripotency, and in postimplantation development at gastrulation, which indicates the importance of non-rodent models for investigations. Within the extreme hypomethylated environment of the early human germline are loci that are resistant to DNA demethylation, with subsequent predominant expression in neural cells. These loci provide a model for studies on the mechanism of transgenerational epigenetic inheritance, and their response to environmental factors. Such epigenetic mechanism of inheritance could potentially provide greater phenotypic plasticity, with significant consequences for human development and disease.

  19. The Development of a Human Systems Simulation Laboratory at Idaho National Laoboratory: Progress, Requirements and Lessons Learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gertman, David I.; LeBlanc, Katya L.; Phoenix, William; Mecham, Alan R.

    2010-01-01

    Next generation nuclear power plants and digital upgrades to the existing nuclear fleet introduce potential human performance issues in the control room. Safe application of new technologies calls for a thorough understanding of how those technologies affect human performance and in turn, plant safety. In support of advancing human factors for small modular reactors and light water reactor sustainability, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has developed a reconfigurable simulation laboratory capable of testing human performance in multiple nuclear power plant (NPP) control room simulations. This paper discusses the laboratory infrastructure and capabilities, the laboratory's staffing requirements, lessons learned, and the researcher's approach to measuring human performance in the simulation lab.

  20. Heterogeneity of Human Research Ethics Committees and Research Governance Offices across Australia: An observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth De Smit

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Conducting ethically grounded research is a fundamental facet of all investigations. Nevertheless, the administrative burdens of current ethics review are substantial, and calls have been made for a reduction in research waste. Aims To describe the heterogeneity in administration and documentation required by Human Research Ethics Committees (HRECs and Research Governance Offices (RGOs across Australia. Methods In establishing a nationwide study to investigate the molecular aetiology of Giant Cell Arteritis (GCA, for which archived pathological specimens from around Australia are being recruited, we identified variation across separate HREC and RGO requirements. Submission paperwork and correspondence from each collaborating site and its representative office for research were reviewed. This data was interrogated to evaluate differences in current guidelines. Results Twenty-five pathology departments across seven Australian States collaborated in this study. All states, except Victoria, employed a single ethics review model. There was discrepancy amongst HRECs as to which application process applied to our study: seven requested completion of a “National Ethics Application Form” and three a “Low Negligible Risk” form. Noticeable differences in guidelines included whether electronic submission was sufficient. There was variability in the total number of documents submitted (range five to 22 and panel review turnaround time (range nine to 136 days. Conclusion We demonstrate the challenges and illustrate the heavy workload involved in receiving widespread ethics and governance approval across Australia. We highlight the need to simplify, homogenise, and nationalise human ethics for non-clinical trial studies. Reducing unnecessary administration will enable investigators to achieve research aims more efficiently

  1. Human Research Program Science Management: Overview of Research and Development Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, John B.

    2007-01-01

    An overview of research and development activities of NASA's Human Research Science Management Program is presented. The topics include: 1) Human Research Program Goals; 2) Elements and Projects within HRP; 3) Development and Maintenance of Priorities; 4) Acquisition and Evaluation of Research and Technology Proposals; and 5) Annual Reviews

  2. Management and research priorities of NASA 'Human Research Program'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Weijun; Diao Tianxi; Li Lijuan; Li Zulan

    2013-01-01

    Research on humans has been the focus of the United States space biomedical research, while 'Human Research Program', as an important project initiated by NASA, aims to reduce the risks to the health and performance of astronauts. This paper analyzed this project in terms of organization and management, funding investment and research directions. (authors)

  3. Computer science security research and human subjects: emerging considerations for research ethics boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Elizabeth; Aycock, John; Dexter, Scott; Dittrich, David; Hvizdak, Erin

    2011-06-01

    This paper explores the growing concerns with computer science research, and in particular, computer security research and its relationship with the committees that review human subjects research. It offers cases that review boards are likely to confront, and provides a context for appropriate consideration of such research, as issues of bots, clouds, and worms enter the discourse of human subjects review.

  4. MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF HUMAN SPERMATOZOA: POTENTIAL FOR INFERTILITY RESEARCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon Research Conference: Mammalian Gametogenesis and Embryogenesis New London, CT, July 1-6, 2000Molecular Analysis of Human Spermatozoa: Potential for Infertility ResearchDavid Miller 1, David Dix2, Robert Reid 3, Stephen A Krawetz 3 1Reproductive ...

  5. NAS Human Factors Safety Research Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory conducts an integrated program of research on the relationship of factors concerning individuals, work groups, and organizations as employees perform...

  6. Human Nutrition Research Conducted at State Agricultural Experiment Stations and 1890/Tuskegee Agricultural Research Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driskell, Judy A.; Myers, John R.

    1989-01-01

    Cooperative State Research Service-administered and state-appropriated State Agriculture Experiment Station funds for human nutrition research increased about two-fold from FY70-FY86, while the percentage of budget expended for this research decreased. (JOW)

  7. Human papilloma virus DNAs immortalize normal human mammary epithelial cells and reduce their growth factor requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Band, V.; Zajchowski, D.; Kulesa, V.; Sager, R.

    1990-01-01

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) types 16 and 18 are most commonly associated with cervical carcinoma in patients and induce immortalization of human keratinocytes in culture. HPV has not been associated with breast cancer. This report describes the immortalization of normal human mammary epithelial cells (76N) by plasmid pHPV18 or pHPV16, each containing the linearized viral genome. Transfectants were grown continuously for more than 60 passages, whereas 76N cells senesce after 18-20 passages. The transfectants also differ from 76N cells in cloning in a completely defined medium called D2 and growing a minimally supplemented defined medium (D3) containing epidermal growth factor. All transfectant tested contain integrated HPV DNA, express HPV RNA, and produce HPV E7 protein. HPV transfectants do not form tumors in a nude mouse assay. It is concluded that products of the HPV genome induce immortalization of human breast epithelial cells and reduce their growth factor requirements. This result raises the possibility that HPV might be involved in breast cancer. Furthermore, other tissue-specific primary epithelial cells that are presently difficult to grown and investigate may also be immortalized by HPV

  8. Research Award: Ecosystems and Human Health (Ecohealth)

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Corey Piccioni

    2013-08-07

    Aug 7, 2013 ... IDRC is one of the world's leaders in generang new knowledge to meet global challenges. We offer a number of research awards providing a unique opportunity to enhance research skills and gain a fresh perspecve on crucial development issues. These one‐year, paid, in‐house programs of training and ...

  9. Medical students as human subjects in educational research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina L. Kalet

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Special concerns often arise when medical students are themselves the subjects of education research. A recently completed large, multi-center randomized controlled trial of computer-assisted learning modules for surgical clerks provided the opportunity to explore the perceived level of risk of studies where medical students serve as human subjects by reporting on: 1 the response of Institutional Review Boards (IRBs at seven institutions to the same study protocol; and 2 the thoughts and feelings of students across study sites about being research subjects. Methods: From July 2009 to August 2010, all third-year medical students at seven collaborating institutions were eligible to participate. Patterns of IRB review of the same protocol were compared. Participation burden was calculated in terms of the time spent interacting with the modules. Focus groups were conducted with medical students at each site. Transcripts were coded by three independent reviewers and analyzed using Atlas.ti. Results: The IRBs at the seven participating institutions granted full (n=1, expedited (n=4, or exempt (n=2 review of the WISE Trial protocol. 995 (73% of those eligible consented to participate, and 207 (20% of these students completed all outcome measures. The average time to complete the computer modules and associated measures was 175 min. Common themes in focus groups with participant students included the desire to contribute to medical education research, the absence of coercion to consent, and the low-risk nature of the research. Discussion: Our findings demonstrate that risk assessment and the extent of review utilized for medical education research vary among IRBs. Despite variability in the perception of risk implied by differing IRB requirements, students themselves felt education research was low risk and did not consider themselves to be vulnerable. The vast majority of eligible medical students were willing to participate as research

  10. Research Professorship on International Human Rights | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Toward a Regional Security Architecture for the Horn of Africa - Phase II. The Horn of Africa region has endured decades of destruction and human suffering due to long and interrelated wars. View moreToward a Regional Security Architecture for the Horn of Africa - Phase II ...

  11. Research Article (Human Resources for Health) Postoperative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-06-14

    Jun 14, 2007 ... ... of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. 4. ... six year Emergency Human Resource Programme aimed ... therefore to elucidate the extent of major surgical work ... back for review seven days after discharge. ... and 24 hour maternal condition, post-operative fever, wound.

  12. Risk Mitigation during Human Electromuscular Incapacitation Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-30

    Research Unit-San Antonio NIJ National Institute of Justice O2 Oxygen pCO2 Partial pressure of carbon dioxide PEA Pulseless electrical...Research Findings Muscle injury can occur before symptoms appear. Blood levels of the proteins , creatine kinase (CK) and myoglobin, are used to...Rhabdomyolysis occurs when the protein myoglobin is released from damaged muscle cells. Myoglobin is injurious to the kidneys. CK is another protein

  13. Human Factors Regulatory Research Program Plan, FY 1989--FY 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffman, F.; Persensky, J.; Ryan, T.; Ramey-Smith, A.; Goodman, C.; Serig, D.; Trager, E; Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC; Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC; Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC

    1989-10-01

    This report describes the currently ongoing (FY 1989) and planned (FY 1989-1992) Human Factors Regulatory Research Program in the NRC Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES). Examples of the influence of human factors on nuclear safety are presented, and the role of personnel is discussed. Current regulatory issues associated with human factors in the nuclear system and the purpose of the research plan are provided. The report describes the research process applied to the human factors research issues and the program activities: Personnel Performance Measurement, Personnel Subsystem, Human-System Interface. Organization and Management, and Reliability Assessment. The research being conducted within each activity is summarized along with the objectives, background information, and expected regulatory products. Budget and personnel forecasts are provided along with a summary of contractors performing some of the ongoing research. Appendices contain a chronology of human factors research at NRC, a description of the research approach, an update on human factors programs and initiatives in RES and other NRC offices, and the integration among these programs. 46 refs., 5 tabs

  14. Research on Normal Human Plantar Pressure Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xi Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available FSR400 pressure sensor, nRF905 wireless transceiver and MSP40 SCM are used to design the insole pressure collection system, LabVIEW is used to make HMI of data acquisition, collecting a certain amount of normal human foot pressure data, statistical analysis of pressure distribution relations about five stages of swing phase during walking, using the grid closeness degree to identify plantar pressure distribution pattern recognition, and the algorithm simulation, experimental results demonstrated this method feasible.

  15. Research for genetic instability of human genome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hori, T.; Takahashi, E.; Tsuji, H.; Yamauchi, M. (National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)); Murata, M.

    1992-01-01

    In the present review paper, the potential relevance of chromosomal fragile sites to carcinogenesis and mutagenesis is discussed based on our own and other's studies. Recent evidence indicate that fragile sites may act as predisposition factors involved in chromosomal instability of the human genome and that the sites may be preferential targets for various DNA damaging agents including ionizing radiation. It is also demonstrated that some critical genomic rearrangements at the fragile sites may contribute towards oncogenesis and that individuals carrying heritable form of fragile site may be at the risk. Although clinical significance of autosomal fragile sites has been a matter of discussion, a fragile site of the X chromosome is known to be associated with an X-linked genetic diseases, called fragile X syndrome. Molecular events leading to the fragile X syndrome have recently been elucidated. The fragile X genotype can be characterized by an increased amount of p(CCG)n repeat DNA sequence in the FMR-1 gene and the repeated sequences are shown to be unstable in both meiosis and mitosis. These repeats might exhibit higher mutation rate than is generally seen in the human genome. Further studies on the fragile sites in molecular biology and radiation biology will yield relevant data to the molecular mechanisms of genetic instability of the human genome as well as to better assessment of genetic effect of ionizing radiation. (author).

  16. Research for genetic instability of human genome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, T.; Takahashi, E.; Tsuji, H.; Yamauchi, M.; Murata, M.

    1992-01-01

    In the present review paper, the potential relevance of chromosomal fragile sites to carcinogenesis and mutagenesis is discussed based on our own and other's studies. Recent evidence indicate that fragile sites may act as predisposition factors involved in chromosomal instability of the human genome and that the sites may be preferential targets for various DNA damaging agents including ionizing radiation. It is also demonstrated that some critical genomic rearrangements at the fragile sites may contribute towards oncogenesis and that individuals carrying heritable form of fragile site may be at the risk. Although clinical significance of autosomal fragile sites has been a matter of discussion, a fragile site of the X chromosome is known to be associated with an X-linked genetic diseases, called fragile X syndrome. Molecular events leading to the fragile X syndrome have recently been elucidated. The fragile X genotype can be characterized by an increased amount of p(CCG)n repeat DNA sequence in the FMR-1 gene and the repeated sequences are shown to be unstable in both meiosis and mitosis. These repeats might exhibit higher mutation rate than is generally seen in the human genome. Further studies on the fragile sites in molecular biology and radiation biology will yield relevant data to the molecular mechanisms of genetic instability of the human genome as well as to better assessment of genetic effect of ionizing radiation. (author)

  17. Exoskeleton Power and Torque Requirements Based on Human Biomechanics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crowell, Harrison

    2002-01-01

    .... In providing design guidance, the authors had two goals. The first goal was to provide estimates of the angles, torques, and powers for the ankles, knees, and hips of an exoskeleton based on data collected from humans...

  18. Reaping the benefits of biomedical research: partnerships required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portilla, Lili M; Alving, Barbara

    2010-06-09

    Reaping the benefits of investments in biomedical research can be achieved most efficiently through active collaboration among industry, academia, government, and nonprofit organizations. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) are exploring multiple ways in which to increase the efficiency of the translational process. Investigators involved in the NIH-funded Clinical and Translational Science Awards are developing public-private partnerships, addressing the barriers to collaboration, training the next generation of interdisciplinary team-oriented researchers, and producing open-source tools for collaboration. NIH is engaging with industry through the Foundation for the NIH and the Small Business Innovation Research Awards.

  19. Protecting human research subjects: the past defines the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breault, Joseph L

    2006-01-01

    The creation of Institutional Review Boards to assure the protection of research subjects came out of terrible research abuses that resulted in the Belmont Report and federal regulations establishing rules for federally funded research and its independent review. The Common Rule became widely accepted as the way to oversee human research that is funded by federal agencies, or used in FDA submissions. The Office of Human Research Protections, now under the Secretary of DHHS, created Federalwide Assurances with groups that receive federal funding and others, the vast majority of which have agreed to apply the same ethical rules to all research regardless of funding source. There are controversies over the best methods to protect human research subjects, confusion about how to handle some of the gray areas, increased regulatory burdens, and debates about the adequacy of the IRB system. New exciting directions have evolved and overall, research subjects appear better protected than ever.

  20. Envisioning a Future Decision Support System for Requirements Engineering : A Holistic and Human-centred Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Alenljung, Beatrice

    2008-01-01

    Complex decision-making is a prominent aspect of requirements engineering (RE) and the need for improved decision support for RE decision-makers has been identified by a number of authors in the research literature. The fundamental viewpoint that permeates this thesis is that RE decision-making can be substantially improved by RE decision support systems (REDSS) based on the actual needs of RE decision-makers as well as the actual generic human decision-making activities that take place in th...

  1. Deriving future oriented research and competence requirements based on scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Anne-Mette; Harmsen, Hanne; Jensen, Birger Boutrup

    overnight. Consequently companies need to try to be foresighted with regards to what is required to operate successfully not only today but also tomorrow and in five and ten years. Hence, companies are faced with trying to assess how to best prepare themselves for a tomorrow that they can only guess about......The key to a company's survival lies in its ability to adapt itself to an ever changing world. A company's knowledge and competencies must be fitted to the requirements of the environment in which it operates. However, the kind of competencies that ensures a company's survival are not acquired...

  2. Animal Models and Bone Histomorphometry: Translational Research for the Human Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, Jean D.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of animal models to research and inform bone morphology, in particular relating to human research in bone loss as a result of low gravity environments. Reasons for use of animal models as tools for human research programs include: time-efficient, cost-effective, invasive measures, and predictability as some model are predictive for drug effects.

  3. Research Perspectives for Material Requirements Planning Systems. Paper No. 434.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, W. L.; Whybark, D. Clay

    Material requirements planning (MRP) systems are described as management tools for planning and controlling production operations. A wide variety of industries and production organizations are credited as reporting significant operating improvements in such areas as inventory control, production scheduling, delivery performance, and production…

  4. Medical and technology requirements for human solar system exploration missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicogossian, Arnauld; Harris, Leonard; Couch, Lana; Sulzman, Frank; Gaiser, Karen

    1989-01-01

    Measures that need to be taken to cope with the health problems posed by zero gravity and radiation in manned solar system exploration missions are discussed. The particular systems that will be used aboard Space Station Freedom are addressed, and relevant human factors problems are examined. The development of a controlled ecological life support system is addressed.

  5. The ethics of cloning and human embryo research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saran, Madeleine

    2002-01-01

    The successful cloning experiments that led to Dolly in 1997 have raised many ethical and policy questions. This paper will focus on cloning research in human embryonic cells. The possible gains of the research will be judged against the moral issues of doing research on a person. This paper concludes that while the embryo has some moral status, its moral status is outweighed by the multitude of benefits that embryonic stem cell research will bring to humanity. Policy suggestions are given for dealing with this new and developing field of stem cell research.

  6. Human genome and genetic sequencing research and informed consent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwakawa, Mayumi

    2003-01-01

    On March 29, 2001, the Ethical Guidelines for Human Genome and Genetic Sequencing Research were established. They have intended to serve as ethical guidelines for all human genome and genetic sequencing research practice, for the purpose of upholding respect for human dignity and rights and enforcing use of proper methods in the pursuit of human genome and genetic sequencing research, with the understanding and cooperation of the public. The RadGenomics Project has prepared a research protocol and informed consent document that follow these ethical guidelines. We have endeavored to protect the privacy of individual information, and have established a procedure for examination of research practices by an ethics committee. Here we report our procedure in order to offer this concept to the patients. (authors)

  7. Automated work packages architecture: An initial set of human factors and instrumentation and controls requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Vivek [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Oxstrand, Johanna H. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Le Blanc, Katya L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The work management process in current fleets of national nuclear power plants is so highly dependent on large technical staffs and quality of work instruction, i.e., paper-based, that this puts nuclear energy at somewhat of a long-term economic disadvantage and increase the possibility of human errors. Technologies like mobile portable devices and computer-based procedures can play a key role in improving the plant work management process, thereby increasing productivity and decreasing cost. Automated work packages are a fundamentally an enabling technology for improving worker productivity and human performance in nuclear power plants work activities because virtually every plant work activity is accomplished using some form of a work package. As part of this year’s research effort, automated work packages architecture is identified and an initial set of requirements identified, that are essential and necessary for implementation of automated work packages in nuclear power plants.

  8. [Experience of a research Ethics Committee and the challenges of the new Chilean legislation on research in human beings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyarzún G, Manuel; Pinto C, María Eugenia; Raineri B, Gina G; Amigo, Hugo; Cifuentes O, Lucía; González, María Julieta; Horwitz, Nina; Marshall F, Claudia; Orellana V, Gricel

    2014-07-01

    The welfare of research participants must be guaranteed by international ethical standards. This article communicates the procedures of the Research Ethics Committee of the School of Medicine, University of Chile (CEISH). The new Chilean legislation on research in human beings is also discussed. Law 20.120: "On scientific research in human beings, its genome and forbidding human cloning" establishes the ethical principles that must be accomplished in every research involving human beings. Article 28 of the Law 20.584 "Regulation of the rights and duties of health care users", forbids the participation of handicapped people who cannot express their will in scientific research. Article 13 states that people not related directly with patient care cannot have access to his clinical records (with the exception of people with notarial authorization by the patient). CEISH proposes that, in case of people with intellectual deficiency, the decision to approve a scientific research should be analyzed on an individual basis. If the person is capable of expressing his or her will or has stated his or her consent beforehand, the research can be authorized. If the person cannot express his or her will, the scientific research cannot take place. In prospective studies, a consent from the patient and an authorization of the health authority should be required to access clinical records. In retrospective studies, consent should be obtained from the patient when personal information is going to be used. If the information is nameless, the consent can be disregarded.

  9. Research and test facilities required in nuclear science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Experimental facilities are essential research tools both for the development of nuclear science and technology and for testing systems and materials which are currently being used or will be used in the future. As a result of economic pressures and the closure of older facilities, there are concerns that the ability to undertake the research necessary to maintain and to develop nuclear science and technology may be in jeopardy. An NEA expert group with representation from ten member countries, the International Atomic Energy Agency and the European Commission has reviewed the status of those research and test facilities of interest to the NEA Nuclear Science Committee. They include facilities relating to nuclear data measurement, reactor development, neutron scattering, neutron radiography, accelerator-driven systems, transmutation, nuclear fuel, materials, safety, radiochemistry, partitioning and nuclear process heat for hydrogen production. This report contains the expert group's detailed assessment of the current status of these nuclear research facilities and makes recommendations on how future developments in the field can be secured through the provision of high-quality, modern facilities. It also describes the online database which has been established by the expert group which includes more than 700 facilities. (authors)

  10. Human genome program report. Part 2, 1996 research abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This report contains Part 2 of a two-part report to reflect research and progress in the US Department of Energy Human Genome Program from 1994 through 1996, with specified updates made just before publication. Part 2 consists of 1996 research abstracts. Attention is focused on the following: sequencing; mapping; informatics; ethical, legal, and social issues; infrastructure; and small business innovation research.

  11. Ethical Issues in the Use of Humans for Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashaw, W. L.

    The APA Ethical Principles, the University of Georgia policy, standard research texts, and research literature on specific methodologies, all in relation to ethical issues in human research, are discussed. The 10 APA principles state, in essence, that the investigator is responsible for what happens, that confidentiality and the protection of the…

  12. What's Wrong with Human/Nonhuman Chimera Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Insoo

    2016-08-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is poised to lift its funding moratorium on research involving chimeric human/nonhuman embryos, pending further consideration by an NIH steering committee. The kinds of ethical concerns that seem to underlie this research and chimera research more generally can be adequately addressed.

  13. Social justice and research using human biological material: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Social justice and research using human biological material: A response to Mahomed, Nöthling-Slabbert and Pepper. ... South African Medical Journal ... In a recent article, Mahomed, Nöthling-Slabbert and Pepper proposed that research participants should be entitled to share in the profits emanating from such research ...

  14. What's Wrong with Human/Nonhuman Chimera Research?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Insoo Hyun

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The National Institutes of Health (NIH is poised to lift its funding moratorium on research involving chimeric human/nonhuman embryos, pending further consideration by an NIH steering committee. The kinds of ethical concerns that seem to underlie this research and chimera research more generally can be adequately addressed.

  15. Computational fluid dynamics research at the United Technologies Research Center requiring supercomputers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgrebe, Anton J.

    1987-01-01

    An overview of research activities at the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) in the area of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is presented. The requirement and use of various levels of computers, including supercomputers, for the CFD activities is described. Examples of CFD directed toward applications to helicopters, turbomachinery, heat exchangers, and the National Aerospace Plane are included. Helicopter rotor codes for the prediction of rotor and fuselage flow fields and airloads were developed with emphasis on rotor wake modeling. Airflow and airload predictions and comparisons with experimental data are presented. Examples are presented of recent parabolized Navier-Stokes and full Navier-Stokes solutions for hypersonic shock-wave/boundary layer interaction, and hydrogen/air supersonic combustion. In addition, other examples of CFD efforts in turbomachinery Navier-Stokes methodology and separated flow modeling are presented. A brief discussion of the 3-tier scientific computing environment is also presented, in which the researcher has access to workstations, mid-size computers, and supercomputers.

  16. Human Research Program Space Radiation Standing Review Panel (SRP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woloschak, Gayle; Steinberg-Wright, S.; Coleman, Norman; Grdina, David; Hill, Colin; Iliakis, George; Metting, Noelle; Meyers, Christina

    2010-01-01

    The Space Radiation Standing Review Panel (SRP) met at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) on December 9-11, 2009 to discuss the areas of current and future research targeted by the Space Radiation Program Element (SRPE) of the Human Research Program (HRP). Using evidence-based knowledge as a background for identified risks to astronaut health and performance, NASA had identified gaps in knowledge to address those risks. Ongoing and proposed tasks were presented to address the gaps. The charge to the Space Radiation SRP was to review the gaps, evaluate whether the tasks addressed these gaps and to make recommendations to NASA s HRP Science Management Office regarding the SRP's review. The SRP was requested to evaluate the practicality of the proposed efforts in light of the demands placed on the HRP. Several presentations were made to the SRP during the site visit and the SRP spent sufficient time to address the SRP charge. The SRP made a final debriefing to the HRP Program Scientist, Dr. John B. Charles, on December 11, 2009. The SRP noted that current SRPE strategy is properly science-based and views this as the best assurance of the likelihood that answers to the questions posed as gaps in knowledge can be found, that the uncertainty in risk estimates can be reduced, and that a solid, cost-effective approach to risk reduction solutions is being developed. The current approach of the SRPE, based on the use of carefully focused research solicitations, requiring thorough peer-review and approaches demonstrated to be on the path to answering the NASA strategic questions, addressed to a broad extramural community of qualified scientists, optimally positioned to take advantage of serendipitous discoveries and to leverage scientific advances made elsewhere, is sound and appropriate. The SRP viewed with concern statements by HRP implying that the only science legitimately deserving support should be "applied" or, in some instances that the very term "research" might be

  17. Potential human factors research relating to modern technology in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketchel, J.; Fink, R.; Hanes, L.; Williges, R.; Williges, B.

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses proposed human factors research to address advanced human-machine interface technology in nuclear power plants. It relates to a current EPRI project to identify a prioritized list of specific research issues that could be assessed to improve control room and other user interface areas. The project seeks to bridge the gap between the functional requirements of advanced design initiatives and the human factors research needed to support them. It seeks to identify potential benefits to be expected, as well as potential problems that might be introduced by advanced technology. It provides an organized approach to identifying human factors research needs, information already available, and measures of performance and effectiveness that might be used to assess the value of potential improvements. Those parts of the proposed plan that are subsequently approved by EPRI management and by the utility advisory committee will provide a basis for recommending research priorities

  18. Human performance analysis in the frame of probabilistic safety assessment of research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farcasiu, Mita; Nitoi, Mirela; Apostol, Minodora; Turcu, I.; Florescu, Gh.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The analysis of operating experience has identified the importance of human performance in reliability and safety of research reactors. In Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) of nuclear facilities, human performance analysis (HPA) is used in order to estimate human error contribution to the failure of system components or functions. HPA is a qualitative and quantitative analysis of human actions identified for error-likely situations or accident-prone situations. Qualitative analysis is used to identify all man-machine interfaces that can lead to an accident, types of human interactions which may mitigate or exacerbate the accident, types of human errors and performance shaping factors. Quantitative analysis is used to develop estimates of human error probability as effects of human performance in reliability and safety. The goal of this paper is to accomplish a HPA in the PSA frame for research reactors. Human error probabilities estimated as results of human actions analysis could be included in system event tree and/or system fault tree. The achieved sensitivity analyses determine human performance sensibility at systematically variations both for dependencies level between human actions and for operator stress level. The necessary information was obtained from operating experience of research reactor TRIGA from INR Pitesti. The required data were obtained from generic data bases. (authors)

  19. ESNET requirements for physics research at the SSCL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cormell, L.; Johnson, T.

    1993-06-01

    High energy physics (HEP) research at the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL) is a highly collaborative affair. Scientists participating in SSC research come from a worldwide distribution of institutions. The Solenoid Detector Collaboration (SDC) currently has more than 1100 members from 20 countries. Likewise, the Gamma, Electron, Muon (GEM) collaboration members number more than 1000 from 17 countries. Roughly half of the collaborators on these experiments are from outside the US Communications, in general, and data transmission, in particular, are crucial to the success of the collaborations and to the ultimate success of the SSC. The bulk of data transmission to and from the Laboratory is over the Energy Science NETwork (ESNET). The purpose of this document is to describe the anticipated network capacity needed to provide adequate communication among these widespread collaborations

  20. The human genome: Some assembly required. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The Human Genome Project promises to be one of the most rewarding endeavors in modern biology. The cost and the ethical and social implications, however, have made this project the source of considerable debate both in the scientific community and in the public at large. The 1994 Graduate Student Symposium addresses the scientific merits of the project, the technical issues involved in accomplishing the task, as well as the medical and social issues which stem from the wealth of knowledge which the Human Genome Project will help create. To this end, speakers were brought together who represent the diverse areas of expertise characteristic of this multidisciplinary project. The keynote speaker addresses the project`s motivations and goals in the larger context of biological and medical sciences. The first two sessions address relevant technical issues, data collection with a focus on high-throughput sequencing methods and data analysis with an emphasis on identification of coding sequences. The third session explores recent advances in the understanding of genetic diseases and possible routes to treatment. Finally, the last session addresses some of the ethical, social and legal issues which will undoubtedly arise from having a detailed knowledge of the human genome.

  1. Research of Human Postural Balance Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Griškevičius

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In present article postural balance between subjects with stroke and healthy subjects, is being investigated with eyes opened and eyes closed. In the research participated 30 healthy subjects and 15 subjects with stroke. At the same time two experimental measurements were performed – postural balance was measured using balance platform and oscillations of the centre of mass were observed using two-axial accelerometer. It was noted, that amplitudes of subjects with stroke were larger almost two times than control group’s of healthy subjects. It was find out, that ratios of pressure distribution on both left and right legs are in range from 1 to 0.9 for healthy subjects, and ratios below 0.9 are common for subjects with stroke. When subjects were standing with eyes closed, sway amplitudes were higher and the ratios of load distribution on left and right legs were lower.Article in Lithuanian

  2. Constellation Program Human-System Integration Requirements. Revision E, Nov. 19, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dory, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    The Human-Systems Integration Requirements (HSIR) in this document drive the design of space vehicles, their systems, and equipment with which humans interface in the Constellation Program (CxP). These requirements ensure that the design of Constellation (Cx) systems is centered on the needs, capabilities, and limitations of the human. The HSIR provides requirements to ensure proper integration of human-to-system interfaces. These requirements apply to all mission phases, including pre-launch, ascent, Earth orbit, trans-lunar flight, lunar orbit, lunar landing, lunar ascent, Earth return, Earth entry, Earth landing, post-landing, and recovery. The Constellation Program must meet NASA's Agency-level human rating requirements, which are intended to ensure crew survival without permanent disability. The HSIR provides a key mechanism for achieving human rating of Constellation systems.

  3. Original Research Human papillomavirus in head and neck ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017 The College of Medicine and the Medical Association of Malawi. This work is ... Original Research. Human ... simultaneous evaluation of other risk factors including HIV ..... increased HNSCC compared to HIV-negative people.18,19.

  4. FAA airborne data link human factors research plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-07-01

    This report contains a five-year plan to perform research of human factors issues and topics : related to Data Link implementations in general aviation and transport category aircraft. : Elements such as resource allocation and management and coordin...

  5. Issues in protection of human subjects in internet research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Eun-Ok; Chee, Wonshik

    2002-01-01

    Despite the increasing use of the Internet among nurses, the use of the Internet in nursing research has been rarely discussed and critiqued in terms of issues in protection of human subjects. In this article, issues in protection of human subjects in Internet research are explored by analyzing an Internet study to propose directions for human protection in Internet research. Issues raised through the study include those related to (a) anonymity and confidentiality, (b) security, (c) self-determination and authenticity, (d) full disclosure, and (e) fair treatment. Based on discussion of the five issues, development of standardized guidelines, investigator triangulation, and information sharing are proposed as directions for protection of human subjects in Internet research.

  6. Research on human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research on human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells transfected with pIRES2-EGFP-VEGF165 using liposome. ... African Journal of Biotechnology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue ...

  7. Research on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Malawi: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Malawi: the Johns Hopkins University- Ministry of Health (JHU-MOH) project. TE Taha, JK Canner, AM Wangel, JD Chiphangwi, NG Liomba, PG Miotti, GA Dallabetta, AJ Saah ...

  8. Social justice and research using human biological material: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    generated from research to which they contributed; therefore, in effect ... Mahomed et al. employ the terms 'human tissue' and 'tissue donors'. ... in favour of shifting away from altruism; secondly, I caution against framing the debate in terms of ...

  9. Is Innovation a Useful Concept for Arts and Humanities Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulbrandsen, Magnus; Aanstad, Siri

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that innovation may constitute a useful perspective on the link between society and arts and humanities research. Innovation is here seen as "something new put into practical use", and there are two reasons why it can be relevant for humanities. First, there has been an expansion of what innovation refers to; it is…

  10. Does Every Research Library Need a Digital Humanities Center?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffner, Jennifer; Erway, Ricky

    2014-01-01

    The digital humanities (DH) are attracting considerable attention and funding at the same time that this nascent field is striving for an identity. Some research libraries are making significant investments by creating digital humanities centers. However, questions about whether such investments are warranted persist across the cultural heritage…

  11. TOXICOLOGICAL RESEARCH INVOLVING HUMANS: ETHICAL AND REGULATORY CONSIDERATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper discusses the need for the Society of Toxicology (SOT) to develop a policy for ethical research in humans, and a review for publication of these studies. Observations on human beings have been the foundation upon which toxicologic knowledge has been built since the in...

  12. Status of human factors research program in Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabetani, Tetsuji

    1989-01-01

    The Human Factors Research Center was established within CRIEPI on July 1, 1987 as its research efforts to reduce human error during operation and maintenance at Japanese nuclear power plants. The Research Program has seven subjects, composed of the original subjects that include the human behavior monitoring method, and the subjects requested by the Federation of Electric Power Companies that include the establishment of techniques of analysing and evaluating information on human error. Some results of the activity are applied in nuclear power plants. We plan to obtain good results to apply to plants, and to improve the results already obtained. (author)

  13. 76 FR 54408 - Human Subjects Research Protections: Enhancing Protections for Research Subjects and Reducing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 50 and 56 Human Subjects Research Protections: Enhancing Protections for Research Subjects and Reducing Burden, Delay, and Ambiguity for Investigators; Extension of... Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) in coordination with the Office of Science...

  14. 23 CFR 420.107 - What is the minimum required expenditure of State planning and research funds for research...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... RESEARCH PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION Administration of FHWA Planning and Research Funds § 420.107 What is the... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is the minimum required expenditure of State planning and research funds for research development and technology transfer? 420.107 Section 420.107...

  15. Basic research on human reliability in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Li; Deng Zhiliang

    1996-10-01

    Human reliability in nuclear power plants is one of key factors in nuclear safety and economic operation. According to cognitive science, behaviour theory and ergonomic and on the bases of human cognitive behaviour characteristics, performance shaping factors, human error mechanisms and organization management, the project systematically studied the human reliability in nuclear power plant systems, established the basic theory and methods for analyzing human factor accidents and suggested feasible approaches and countermeasures for precaution against human factor accidents and improving human reliability. The achievement has been applied in operation departments, management departments and scientific research institutions of nuclear power, and has produced guiding significance and practical value to design, operation and management in nuclear power plants. (11 refs.)

  16. Research progress of non-human species radiological impact and assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Xiaoping; Zhu Hao; Mao Yawei; Zheng Wei; Du Hongyan

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, with the development of radiological protection conception and the improvement of requirement about non-human species protection, much more attention has been paid gradually to biota radiation impact. Research and development of non-human species protection impact and its assessment at home and abroad are introduced, then RESRAD-BIOTA and ERICA which are comparatively mature codes in the world are compared and analyzed, at last some suggestions about research and assessment work of non-human species radiological impact in the future in China are provided. (authors)

  17. Human memory research: Current hypotheses and new perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Jaeger

    Full Text Available Abstract Research on human memory has increased significantly in the last few decades. Inconsistencies and controversies inherent to such research, however, are rarely articulated on published reports. The goal of the present article is to present and discuss a series of open questions related to major topics on human memory research that can be addressed by future research. The topics covered here are visual working memory, recognition memory, emotion and memory interaction, and methodological issues of false memories studies. Overall, the present work reveals a series of open questions and alternative analysis which could be useful for the process of hypothesis generation, and consequently for the design and implementation of future research on human memory.

  18. Committees for Ethics in Research involving human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossne, William Saad; Vieira, Sonia; De Freitas, Corina Bontempo Duca

    2008-01-01

    In Brazil since October 1996 there have been guidelines for research involving human subjects. Now human subjects know when their treatment is part of research. Deceit is no longer tolerated. But is not enough to say we offer an explanation to the potential subject and we offer a choice before he or she is confronted with an informed consent form. As in all professional activity, scientific investigation needs social controls. In Brazil, the ultimate responsibility of an investigation lies on the investigator, but in every institution where research is carried out there is a Committee for Ethics in Research. All Committees are subordinated to the National Commission of Ethics in Research, which is submitted to the Brazilian Institute of Health. During 2005 around 17,000 protocols involving 700,000 human subjects were revised by 475 Committees distributed all over the country. Approximately 7,000 people are now working in these Committees.

  19. A LARGE HUMAN CENTRIFUGE FOR EXPLORATION AND EXPLOITATION RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack J.W.A. van Loon

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses concepts regarding the development of an Altered Gravity Platform (AGP that will serve as a research platform for human space exploration. Space flight causes a multitude of physiological problems, many of which are due to gravity level transitions. Going from Earth's gravity to microgravity generates fluid shifts, space motion sickness, cardiovascular deconditioning among other changes, and returning to a gravity environment again puts the astronauts under similar stressors. A prolonged stay in microgravity provokes additional deleterious changes such as bone loss, muscle atrophy and loss of coordination or specific psychological stresses. To prepare for future manned space exploration missions, a ground-based research test bed for validating countermeasures against the deleterious effects of g-level transitions is needed. The proposed AGP is a large rotating facility (diameter > 150 m, where gravity levels ranging from 1.1 to 1.5g are generated, covering short episodes or during prolonged stays of weeks or even months. On this platform, facilities are built where a crew of 6 to 8 humans can live autonomously. Adaptation from 1 g to higher g levels can be studied extensively and monitored continuously. Similarly, re-adaptation back to 1 g, after a prolonged period of altered g can also be investigated. Study of the physiological and psychological adaptation to changing g-levels will provide instrumental and predictive knowledge to better define the ultimate countermeasures that are needed for future successful manned space exploration missions to the Moon, Mars and elsewhere. The AGP initiative will allow scientific top experts in Europe and worldwide to investigate the necessary scientific, operational, and engineering inputs required for such space missions. Because so many different physiological systems are involved in adaptation to gravity levels, a multidisciplinary approach is crucial. One of the final and crucial

  20. DNA repair synthesis in human fibroblasts requires DNA polymerase delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, C.; Reinhard, P.; Linn, S.

    1988-01-01

    When UV-irradiated cultured diploid human fibroblasts were permeabilized with Brij-58 then separated from soluble material by centrifugation, conservative DNA repair synthesis could be restored by a soluble factor obtained from the supernatant of similarly treated HeLa cells. Extensive purification of this factor yielded a 10.2 S, 220,000-dalton polypeptide with the DNA polymerase and 3'- to 5'-exonuclease activities reported for DNA polymerase delta II. Monoclonal antibody to KB cell DNA polymerase alpha, while binding to HeLa DNA polymerase alpha, did not bind to the HeLa DNA polymerase delta. Moreover, at micromolar concentrations N2-(p-n-butylphenyl)-2'-deoxyguanosine 5'-triphosphate (BuPdGTP) and 2-(p-n-butylanilino)-2'-deoxyadenosine 5'-triphosphate (BuAdATP) were potent inhibitors of DNA polymerase alpha, but did not inhibit the DNA polymerase delta. Neither purified DNA polymerase alpha nor beta could promote repair DNA synthesis in the permeabilized cells. Furthermore, under conditions which inhibited purified DNA polymerase alpha by greater than 90%, neither monoclonal antibodies to DNA polymerase alpha, BuPdGTP, nor BuAdATP was able to inhibit significantly the DNA repair synthesis mediated by the DNA polymerase delta. Thus, it appears that a major portion of DNA repair synthesis induced by UV irradiation might be catalyzed by DNA polymerase delta. When xeroderma pigmentosum human diploid fibroblasts were utilized, DNA repair synthesis dependent upon ultraviolet light could be restored by addition of both T4 endonuclease V and DNA polymerase delta, but not by addition of either one alone

  1. Ethical issues in neonatal research involving human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischman, Alan R

    2016-06-01

    Research involving critically ill neonates creates many ethical challenges. Neonatal clinical research has always been hard to perform, is very expensive, and may generate some unique ethical concerns. This article describes some examples of historical and modern controversies in neonatal research, discusses the justification for research involving such vulnerable and fragile patients, clarifies current federal regulations that govern research involving neonates, and suggests ways that clinical investigators can develop and implement ethically grounded human subjects research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Researching Human Experience: video intervention/prevention assessment (VIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Patashnick

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Human experience is a critical subject for research. By discussing Video Intervention/Prevention Assessment (VIA, a patient-centered health research method where patients teach their clinicians about living with a chronic condition through the creation of visual illness narratives, this paper examines the value of qualitative inquiry and why human experience rarely is investigated directly. An analysis of a sample VIA data is presented to demonstrate how, by utilizing grounded theory and qualitative analysis, one can derive rich and unique information from human experience.

  3. Scientific Merit Review of Directed Research Tasks Within the NASA Human Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, John B.

    2010-01-01

    The Human Research Program is instrumental in developing and delivering research findings, health countermeasures, and human systems technologies for spacecraft. :HRP is subdivided into 6 research entities, or Elements. Each Element is charged with providing the Program with knowledge and capabilities to conduct research to address the human health and performance risks as well as advance the readiness levels of technology and countermeasures. Project: An Element may be further subdivided into Projects, which are defined as an integrated set of tasks undertaken to deliver a product or set of products

  4. Conflicts of interest in research involving human beings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Dirceu; Diniz, Nilza Maria

    2008-01-01

    national system was established in 1996 providing guidance to all research involving human beings and currently there are approximately 500 local research ethical committees certified by CONEP in all States of Brazil. However, there is intense international pressure mainly from the pharmaceutical industry especially to the ethical requirements emanated from the Declaration of Helsinki (DH), aiming to lower the level of ethical requirements in research to be carried out with volunteers from developing countries. Fallacious reasoning includes that the equity stated at the DH, especially the access to the best proven medical care and to the developed products to all volunteers independently of where the trial is being held, would inflate the costs of research and drive the sponsors away from the developing countries. In this line of thought, if the volunteers have not the same rights that would constitute an unacceptable double standard, or in other words, the best for the volunteers from developed countries and whatever is possible for those in developing countries. This manuscript will focus on the various levels where conflict of interest issues are more prone to happen, such as in the actions of pharmaceutical industries, their relation to health professionals, the participation of universities and research institutes, the ethical research committees and their members, including the possible pressures exerted on them by researchers, sponsors and even their institutions. Emphasis will be given to the interrelation between conflicts of interest and vulnerability, and also the causes and possible solutions to lower the risks of exploitation of volunteers in research. It will also emphasize the need to guarantee access to products that are proven efficacious to all individuals who may need them. Possible ways of empowering these volunteers will be evaluated, so that they become aware of their rights and demand for them. It will discuss the need of separating economic

  5. Indicators for Research Performance in the Humanities? The Scholars’ View on Research Quality and Indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochsner, M.; Hug, S.E.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we present indicators for research quality in the humanities collected in our previous work (Ochsner, Hug, & Daniel, 2012). We focus on how these indicators are accepted by humanities scholars. We also investigate differences between different subgroups of the humanities scholars we surveyed with regard to their preferences for such indicators. We address the theme of the conference (‘peripheries frontiers and beyond’) regarding two notions of (scientometric) periphery: First, we investigate indicators for research quality in the humanities, a field where there is a lack on knowledge on how to assess or even measure research quality, in fact, there is a quite broad consensus that (evaluative) bibliometrics cannot be readily applied in the humanities (Hicks, 2004; Nederhof, 2006). Second, we fully cover three humanities disciplines at Swiss universities and member universities of the League of European Research Universities (LERU). Scholars are a neglected stakeholder when it comes to the design of research assessment procedures or the selection of research indicators. However, they are directly affected, they know best what research quality in their field is and what impact the use of certain indicators could have on their research practices. The paper is structured as follows: first, we present the background for selecting indicators for research quality. This is followed by a description of our analysis methods and the presentation of the results. We finally discuss the results with regard to their use in research evaluation. (Author)

  6. Managing incidental findings in human subjects research: analysis and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Susan M; Lawrenz, Frances P; Nelson, Charles A; Kahn, Jeffrey P; Cho, Mildred K; Clayton, Ellen Wright; Fletcher, Joel G; Georgieff, Michael K; Hammerschmidt, Dale; Hudson, Kathy; Illes, Judy; Kapur, Vivek; Keane, Moira A; Koenig, Barbara A; Leroy, Bonnie S; McFarland, Elizabeth G; Paradise, Jordan; Parker, Lisa S; Terry, Sharon F; Van Ness, Brian; Wilfond, Benjamin S

    2008-01-01

    No consensus yet exists on how to handle incidental findings (IFs) in human subjects research. Yet empirical studies document IFs in a wide range of research studies, where IFs are findings beyond the aims of the study that are of potential health or reproductive importance to the individual research participant. This paper reports recommendations of a two-year project group funded by NIH to study how to manage IFs in genetic and genomic research, as well as imaging research. We conclude that researchers have an obligation to address the possibility of discovering IFs in their protocol and communications with the IRB, and in their consent forms and communications with research participants. Researchers should establish a pathway for handling IFs and communicate that to the IRB and research participants. We recommend a pathway and categorize IFs into those that must be disclosed to research participants, those that may be disclosed, and those that should not be disclosed.

  7. Cost of quality assurance in radiotherapy: human and material requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caudrelier, V.; Garcia, R.; Chauvet, B.; Bourhis, J.

    2005-01-01

    In 2004, three new important laws were passed concerning radiotherapy services. The first two concerns the internal and external quality control of linear accelerators and the last concerns the role of the medical physicist, whose presence was made mandatory during the whole length of the treatments. These laws, which aim to improve the quality and the security of treatments, represent an increase in price that we have calculated, and which prevents them being implemented, as a joint study realised by the SFRO and the SFPM has shown. The cost of quality in radiotherapy requires investment in material and manpower and improvement in availability of the accelerators which entails a complete reorganization of the services. Cost analysis is included. The difficulties in implementing these laws have also been evaluated and this evaluation already enables us to propose certain elements enabling us to go forward to globally improve the quality and security in radiotherapy. (author)

  8. Developing a Collaborative Agenda for Humanities and Social Scientific Research on Laboratory Animal Science and Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Gail F; Greenhough, Beth J; Hobson-West, Pru; Kirk, Robert G W; Applebee, Ken; Bellingan, Laura C; Berdoy, Manuel; Buller, Henry; Cassaday, Helen J; Davies, Keith; Diefenbacher, Daniela; Druglitrø, Tone; Escobar, Maria Paula; Friese, Carrie; Herrmann, Kathrin; Hinterberger, Amy; Jarrett, Wendy J; Jayne, Kimberley; Johnson, Adam M; Johnson, Elizabeth R; Konold, Timm; Leach, Matthew C; Leonelli, Sabina; Lewis, David I; Lilley, Elliot J; Longridge, Emma R; McLeod, Carmen M; Miele, Mara; Nelson, Nicole C; Ormandy, Elisabeth H; Pallett, Helen; Poort, Lonneke; Pound, Pandora; Ramsden, Edmund; Roe, Emma; Scalway, Helen; Schrader, Astrid; Scotton, Chris J; Scudamore, Cheryl L; Smith, Jane A; Whitfield, Lucy; Wolfensohn, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Improving laboratory animal science and welfare requires both new scientific research and insights from research in the humanities and social sciences. Whilst scientific research provides evidence to replace, reduce and refine procedures involving laboratory animals (the '3Rs'), work in the humanities and social sciences can help understand the social, economic and cultural processes that enhance or impede humane ways of knowing and working with laboratory animals. However, communication across these disciplinary perspectives is currently limited, and they design research programmes, generate results, engage users, and seek to influence policy in different ways. To facilitate dialogue and future research at this interface, we convened an interdisciplinary group of 45 life scientists, social scientists, humanities scholars, non-governmental organisations and policy-makers to generate a collaborative research agenda. This drew on methods employed by other agenda-setting exercises in science policy, using a collaborative and deliberative approach for the identification of research priorities. Participants were recruited from across the community, invited to submit research questions and vote on their priorities. They then met at an interactive workshop in the UK, discussed all 136 questions submitted, and collectively defined the 30 most important issues for the group. The output is a collaborative future agenda for research in the humanities and social sciences on laboratory animal science and welfare. The questions indicate a demand for new research in the humanities and social sciences to inform emerging discussions and priorities on the governance and practice of laboratory animal research, including on issues around: international harmonisation, openness and public engagement, 'cultures of care', harm-benefit analysis and the future of the 3Rs. The process outlined below underlines the value of interdisciplinary exchange for improving communication across

  9. Developing a Collaborative Agenda for Humanities and Social Scientific Research on Laboratory Animal Science and Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Gail F.; Greenhough, Beth J; Hobson-West, Pru; Kirk, Robert G. W.; Applebee, Ken; Bellingan, Laura C.; Berdoy, Manuel; Buller, Henry; Cassaday, Helen J.; Davies, Keith; Diefenbacher, Daniela; Druglitrø, Tone; Escobar, Maria Paula; Friese, Carrie; Herrmann, Kathrin; Hinterberger, Amy; Jarrett, Wendy J.; Jayne, Kimberley; Johnson, Adam M.; Johnson, Elizabeth R.; Konold, Timm; Leach, Matthew C.; Leonelli, Sabina; Lewis, David I.; Lilley, Elliot J.; Longridge, Emma R.; McLeod, Carmen M.; Miele, Mara; Nelson, Nicole C.; Ormandy, Elisabeth H.; Pallett, Helen; Poort, Lonneke; Pound, Pandora; Ramsden, Edmund; Roe, Emma; Scalway, Helen; Schrader, Astrid; Scotton, Chris J.; Scudamore, Cheryl L.; Smith, Jane A.; Whitfield, Lucy; Wolfensohn, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Improving laboratory animal science and welfare requires both new scientific research and insights from research in the humanities and social sciences. Whilst scientific research provides evidence to replace, reduce and refine procedures involving laboratory animals (the ‘3Rs’), work in the humanities and social sciences can help understand the social, economic and cultural processes that enhance or impede humane ways of knowing and working with laboratory animals. However, communication across these disciplinary perspectives is currently limited, and they design research programmes, generate results, engage users, and seek to influence policy in different ways. To facilitate dialogue and future research at this interface, we convened an interdisciplinary group of 45 life scientists, social scientists, humanities scholars, non-governmental organisations and policy-makers to generate a collaborative research agenda. This drew on methods employed by other agenda-setting exercises in science policy, using a collaborative and deliberative approach for the identification of research priorities. Participants were recruited from across the community, invited to submit research questions and vote on their priorities. They then met at an interactive workshop in the UK, discussed all 136 questions submitted, and collectively defined the 30 most important issues for the group. The output is a collaborative future agenda for research in the humanities and social sciences on laboratory animal science and welfare. The questions indicate a demand for new research in the humanities and social sciences to inform emerging discussions and priorities on the governance and practice of laboratory animal research, including on issues around: international harmonisation, openness and public engagement, ‘cultures of care’, harm-benefit analysis and the future of the 3Rs. The process outlined below underlines the value of interdisciplinary exchange for improving communication across

  10. Developing a Collaborative Agenda for Humanities and Social Scientific Research on Laboratory Animal Science and Welfare.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail F Davies

    Full Text Available Improving laboratory animal science and welfare requires both new scientific research and insights from research in the humanities and social sciences. Whilst scientific research provides evidence to replace, reduce and refine procedures involving laboratory animals (the '3Rs', work in the humanities and social sciences can help understand the social, economic and cultural processes that enhance or impede humane ways of knowing and working with laboratory animals. However, communication across these disciplinary perspectives is currently limited, and they design research programmes, generate results, engage users, and seek to influence policy in different ways. To facilitate dialogue and future research at this interface, we convened an interdisciplinary group of 45 life scientists, social scientists, humanities scholars, non-governmental organisations and policy-makers to generate a collaborative research agenda. This drew on methods employed by other agenda-setting exercises in science policy, using a collaborative and deliberative approach for the identification of research priorities. Participants were recruited from across the community, invited to submit research questions and vote on their priorities. They then met at an interactive workshop in the UK, discussed all 136 questions submitted, and collectively defined the 30 most important issues for the group. The output is a collaborative future agenda for research in the humanities and social sciences on laboratory animal science and welfare. The questions indicate a demand for new research in the humanities and social sciences to inform emerging discussions and priorities on the governance and practice of laboratory animal research, including on issues around: international harmonisation, openness and public engagement, 'cultures of care', harm-benefit analysis and the future of the 3Rs. The process outlined below underlines the value of interdisciplinary exchange for improving

  11. Overview of NRC's human factors regulatory research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffman, F.D. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The human factors research program is divided into distinct and interrelated program activities: (1) Personnel Performance measurement, (2) Personnel Subsystem, (3) Human-System Interface, (4) Organization and Management, and (5) a group of Reliability Assessment activities. The purpose of the Personnel Performance Measurement activity is to improve the Agency's understanding of the factors influencing personnel performance and the effects on the safety of nuclear operations and maintenance by developing improvements to methods for collecting and managing personnel performance data. Personnel Subsystem research will broaden the understanding of such factors as staffing, qualifications, and training that influence human performance in the nuclear system and will develop the technical basis for regulatory guidance to reduce any adverse impact of these influences on nuclear safety. Research in the Human-System Interface activity will provide the technical basis for ensuring that the interface between the system and the human user supports safe operations and maintenance. Organization and Management research will result in the development of tools for evaluating organization and management issues within the nuclear industry. And finally, the Reliability Assessment group of activities includes multidisciplinary research that will integrate human and hardware considerations for evaluating reliability and risk in NRC licensing, inspection, and regulatory decisions

  12. Protection of the human research participant: A structured review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    related or social-science research involves a human participant. This ... quantitative studies, as well as review articles, were included, to enhance ... In the study by Gremillion et al.,[7] comparison was made between .... research stakeholders, who took part in interviews and focus- .... Contact persons ... Face to face.

  13. Crowds for Clouds : Recent Trends in Humanities Research Infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kristel, Conny; Blanke, Tobias; Romary, Laurent; Benardou, Agiati; Champion, Erik; Dallas, Costis; Hughes, Lorna

    2017-01-01

    Humanities have convincingly argued that they need transnational research opportunities and through the digital transformation of their disciplines also have the means to proceed with it on an up to now unknown scale. The digital transformation of research and its resources means that many of the

  14. Operational safety related human engineering research in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haapanen, P.; Wahlstroem, B.

    1984-01-01

    Human errors contribute considerably to the total risk of the nuclear power plants as was clearly demonstrated at the TMI-accident in 1979. This fact was recognized early in Finland and a comprehensive research program was established in the second half of the 1970s. This paper gives a short description of some research projects in this program. (author)

  15. Teaching and Learning Children's Human Rights: A Research Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantefors, Lotta; Quennerstedt, Ann

    2016-01-01

    The study presented in this paper is a research synthesis examining how issues relating to the teaching and learning of children's human rights have been approached in educational research. Drawing theoretically on the European Didaktik tradition, the purpose of the paper is to map and synthesise the educational interest in children's rights…

  16. The Impact and Future of Arts and Humanities Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benneworth, Paul Stephen; Gulbrandsen, Magnus; Hazelkorn, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on original international research by a cross-European social science team, this book makes an important contribution to the discussion about the future of arts and humanities research. It explores the responses of these fields to the growing range of questions being asked about the value,

  17. 34 CFR 350.30 - What requirements must a Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center meet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What requirements must a Rehabilitation Engineering... DISABILITY AND REHABILITATION RESEARCH PROJECTS AND CENTERS PROGRAM What Rehabilitation Engineering Research Centers Does the Secretary Assist? § 350.30 What requirements must a Rehabilitation Engineering Research...

  18. 75 FR 34277 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; FAR Case 2008-007, Additional Requirements for Market Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... executive agencies. Specifically, the head of the agency must conduct market research before issuing an... million for the procurement of items other than commercial items is required to conduct market research... 10 U.S.C. 2377(c), ``Preliminary Market Research'', to require the head of an agency to conduct...

  19. The recovery factors analysis of the human errors for research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farcasiu, M.; Nitoi, M.; Apostol, M.; Turcu, I.; Florescu, Ghe.

    2006-01-01

    The results of many Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) studies show a very significant contribution of human errors to systems unavailability of the nuclear installations. The treatment of human interactions is considered one of the major limitations in the context of PSA. To identify those human actions that can have an effect on system reliability or availability applying the Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) is necessary. The recovery factors analysis of the human action is an important step in HRA. This paper presents how can be reduced the human errors probabilities (HEP) using those elements that have the capacity to recovery human error. The recovery factors modeling is marked to identify error likelihood situations or situations that conduct at development of the accident. This analysis is realized by THERP method. The necessary information was obtained from the operating experience of the research reactor TRIGA of the INR Pitesti. The required data were obtained from generic databases. (authors)

  20. Governing the postmortem procurement of human body material for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Assche, Kristof; Capitaine, Laura; Pennings, Guido; Sterckx, Sigrid

    2015-03-01

    Human body material removed post mortem is a particularly valuable resource for research. Considering the efforts that are currently being made to study the biochemical processes and possible genetic causes that underlie cancer and cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, it is likely that this type of research will continue to gain in importance. However, post mortem procurement of human body material for research raises specific ethical concerns, more in particular with regard to the consent of the research participant. In this paper, we attempt to determine which consent regime should govern the post mortem procurement of body material for research. In order to do so, we assess the various arguments that could be put forward in support of a duty to make body material available for research purposes after death. We argue that this duty does in practice not support conscription but is sufficiently strong to defend a policy of presumed rather than explicit consent.

  1. Trust in health research relationships: accounts of human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Michael; Townsend, Anne; Cox, Susan M; Paterson, Natasha Damiano; Lafrenière, Darquise

    2008-12-01

    TRUST IS FUNDAMENTAL in health research, yet there is little empirical evidence that explores the meaning of trust from the perspective of human subjects. The analysis presented here focuses on how human subjects talked about trust in the in-depth interviews. It emerged from the accounts that trust could not be assumed in the research setting, rather it was portrayed as a dynamic concept, built and easily broken, characterized by reciprocity and negotiation. Human subjects were ambivalent about who, when, what, and how much to trust in the research endeavor. This paper adds a fresh perspective to the literature on trust, and so offers a currently neglected, and little understood dimension to the discourse around health research ethics.

  2. Virtual reality technology as a tool for human factors requirements evaluation in design of the nuclear reactors control desks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grecco, Claudio H.S.; Santos, Isaac J.A.L.; Mol, Antonio C.A.; Carvalho, Paulo V.R.; Silva, Antonio C.F.; Ferreira, Francisco J.O.; Dutra, Marco A.M.

    2007-01-01

    The Virtual Reality (VR) is an advanced computer interface technology that allows the user to internet or to explore a three-dimensional environment through the computer, as was part of the virtual world. This technology presents great applicability in the most diverse areas of the human knowledge. This paper presents a study on the use of the VR as tool for human factors requirements evaluation in design of the nuclear reactors control desks. Moreover, this paper presents a case study: a virtual model of the control desk, developed using virtual reality technology to be used in the human factors requirements evaluation. This case study was developed in the Virtual Reality Laboratory at IEN, and understands the stereo visualization of the Argonauta research nuclear reactor control desk for a static ergonomic evaluation using check-lists, in accordance to the standards and human factors nuclear international guides (IEC 1771, NUREG-0700). (author)

  3. Virtual reality technology as a tool for human factors requirements evaluation in design of the nuclear reactors control desks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grecco, Claudio H.S.; Santos, Isaac J.A.L.; Mol, Antonio C.A.; Carvalho, Paulo V.R.; Silva, Antonio C.F.; Ferreira, Francisco J.O.; Dutra, Marco A.M. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: grecco@ien.gov.br; luquetti@ien.gov.br; mol@ien.gov.br; paulov@ien.gov.br; tonico@ien.gov.br; fferreira@ien.gov.br; dutra@ien.gov.br

    2007-07-01

    The Virtual Reality (VR) is an advanced computer interface technology that allows the user to internet or to explore a three-dimensional environment through the computer, as was part of the virtual world. This technology presents great applicability in the most diverse areas of the human knowledge. This paper presents a study on the use of the VR as tool for human factors requirements evaluation in design of the nuclear reactors control desks. Moreover, this paper presents a case study: a virtual model of the control desk, developed using virtual reality technology to be used in the human factors requirements evaluation. This case study was developed in the Virtual Reality Laboratory at IEN, and understands the stereo visualization of the Argonauta research nuclear reactor control desk for a static ergonomic evaluation using check-lists, in accordance to the standards and human factors nuclear international guides (IEC 1771, NUREG-0700). (author)

  4. Storytelling as a way for humanizing research methods

    OpenAIRE

    Grenness, Tor

    2016-01-01

    This is an Open Access journal. The article is aslo available from www.idrcentre.org This article examines how the use of storytelling can serve as a pedagogical strategy in the teaching of research methods. Research methods and statistics anxiety is fairly widespread among students in higher education. Introducing storytelling has been found to decrease this anxiety. The term “humanizing research methods” implies a focus on students’ needs that goes beyond transferring knowledge of the co...

  5. Commercially-driven human interplanetary propulsion systems: Rationale, concept, technology, and performance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, C.H.; Borowski, S.K.

    1996-01-01

    Previous studies of human interplanetary missions are largely characterized by long trip times, limited performance capabilities, and enormous costs. Until these missions become dramatically more open-quote open-quote commercial-friendly close-quote close-quote, their funding source and rationale will be restricted to national governments and their political/scientific interests respectively. A rationale is discussed for human interplanetary space exploration predicated on the private sector. Space propulsion system requirements are identified for interplanetary transfer times of no more than a few weeks/months to and between the major outer planets. Nuclear fusion is identified as the minimum requisite space propulsion technology. A conceptual design is described and evolutionary catalyzed-DD to DHe 3 fuel cycles are proposed. Magnetic nozzles for direct thrust generation and quantifying the operational aspects of the energy exchange mechanisms between high energy reaction products and neutral propellants are identified as two of the many key supporting technologies essential to satisfying system performance requirements. Government support of focused, breakthrough technologies is recommended at funding levels appropriate to other ongoing federal research. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  6. Challenging research on human subjects: justice and uncompensated harms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napier, Stephen

    2013-02-01

    Ethical challenges to certain aspects of research on human subjects are not uncommon; examples include challenges to first-in-human trials (Chapman in J Clin Res Bioethics 2(4):1-8, 2011), certain placebo controlled trials (Anderson in J Med Philos 31:65-81, 2006; Anderson and Kimmelman in Kennedy Inst Ethics J 20(1):75-98, 2010) and "sham" surgery (Macklin in N Engl J Med 341:992-996, 1999). To date, however, there are few challenges to research when the subjects are competent and the research is more than minimal risk with no promise of direct benefit. The principal reason given for allowing research that is more than minimal risk without benefit is that we should respect the autonomy of competent subjects. I argue that though the moral intuitions informing respect for autonomy are sound, there is another set of intuitions regarding what we take to be just treatment of another when one agent knowingly causes or allows suffering on another agent. I argue that concerns generated by commutative justice serve as limitations on permissible research. I highlight our intuitions informing this notion of justice by appealing to work done on theodicy; what counts as a morally sufficient reason for God to allow suffering in humans is applicable also to the researcher-subject relationship. I conclude that all human subjects who are exposed to more than minimal risk research should enjoy the same actual protections (e.g., subpart D) as those given subjects who cannot consent.

  7. Conducting requirements analyses for research using routinely collected health data: a model driven approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lusignan, Simon; Cashman, Josephine; Poh, Norman; Michalakidis, Georgios; Mason, Aaron; Desombre, Terry; Krause, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Medical research increasingly requires the linkage of data from different sources. Conducting a requirements analysis for a new application is an established part of software engineering, but rarely reported in the biomedical literature; and no generic approaches have been published as to how to link heterogeneous health data. Literature review, followed by a consensus process to define how requirements for research, using, multiple data sources might be modeled. We have developed a requirements analysis: i-ScheDULEs - The first components of the modeling process are indexing and create a rich picture of the research study. Secondly, we developed a series of reference models of progressive complexity: Data flow diagrams (DFD) to define data requirements; unified modeling language (UML) use case diagrams to capture study specific and governance requirements; and finally, business process models, using business process modeling notation (BPMN). These requirements and their associated models should become part of research study protocols.

  8. Requirements for data integration platforms in biomedical research networks: a reference model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganzinger, Matthias; Knaup, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical research networks need to integrate research data among their members and with external partners. To support such data sharing activities, an adequate information technology infrastructure is necessary. To facilitate the establishment of such an infrastructure, we developed a reference model for the requirements. The reference model consists of five reference goals and 15 reference requirements. Using the Unified Modeling Language, the goals and requirements are set into relation to each other. In addition, all goals and requirements are described textually in tables. This reference model can be used by research networks as a basis for a resource efficient acquisition of their project specific requirements. Furthermore, a concrete instance of the reference model is described for a research network on liver cancer. The reference model is transferred into a requirements model of the specific network. Based on this concrete requirements model, a service-oriented information technology architecture is derived and also described in this paper.

  9. Requirements Engineering as Creative Problem Solving: A Research Agenda for Idea Finding

    OpenAIRE

    Maiden, N.; Jones, S.; Karlsen, I. K.; Neill, R.; Zachos, K.; Milne, A.

    2010-01-01

    This vision paper frames requirements engineering as a creative problem solving process. Its purpose is to enable requirements researchers and practitioners to recruit relevant theories, models, techniques and tools from creative problem solving to understand and support requirements processes more effectively. It uses 4 drivers to motivate the case for requirements engineering as a creative problem solving process. It then maps established requirements activities onto one of the longest-esta...

  10. Human dimensions of global change: Toward a research agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, I.

    1991-01-01

    The Earth's environment is being transformed by human activity. Human activity, in turn, is being affected by these transformations. This interaction is being studied under the aegis of global change in the geosphere-biosphere. The purpose here is to explore the basis for and the substance of a proposed research program focused on the human dimensions of global change. Global warming due to the greenhouse effect, CO2 reduction, environment impacts, land use management, and the removal of greenhouse gases from the atmosphere are among the topics covered

  11. Human Research Program: 2012 Fiscal Year Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effenhauser, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Crew health and performance are critical to successful human exploration beyond low Earth orbit. Risks to health and performance include physiologic effects from radiation, hypogravity, and planetary environments, as well as unique challenges in medical treatment, human factors, and support of behavioral health. The scientists and engineers of the Human Research Program (HRP) investigate and reduce the greatest risks to human health and performance, and provide essential countermeasures and technologies for human space exploration. In its seventh year of operation, the HRP continued to refine its management architecture of evidence, risks, gaps, tasks, and deliverables. Experiments continued on the International Space Station (ISS), on the ground in analog environments that have features similar to those of spaceflight, and in laboratory environments. Data from these experiments furthered the understanding of how the space environment affects the human system. These research results contributed to scientific knowledge and technology developments that address the human health and performance risks. As shown in this report, HRP has made significant progress toward developing medical care and countermeasure systems for space exploration missions which will ultimately reduce risks to crew health and performance.

  12. Research and development studies on human factors: new trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llory, M.; Larchier-Boulanger, J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper is aimed at describing where the research work on human factors undertaken at EDF stands in relation to this European trend and to define the problematics of cognitive phenomena in relation to all (non cognitive) human phenomena, on the one hand, and to individual aspects as compared to collective and organizational aspects, on the other. Some important trends in the research and development studies will thus be examined one lay one: - analysis of operators' activity; - analysis of the activity cognitive aspects; - problem of the impact of non-cognitive aspects

  13. The contribution of human/non-human animal chimeras to stem cell research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonya Levine

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Chimeric animals are made up of cells from two separate zygotes. Human/non-human animal chimeras have been used for a number of research purposes, including human disease modeling. Pluripotent stem cell (PSC research has relied upon the chimera approach to examine the developmental potential of stem cells, to determine the efficacy of cell replacement therapies, and to establish a means of producing human organs. Based on ethical issues, this work has faced pushback from various sources including funding agencies. We discuss here the essential role these studies have played, from gaining a better understanding of human biology to providing a stepping stone to human disease treatments. We also consider the major ethical issues, as well as the current status of support for this work in the United States.

  14. The contribution of human/non-human animal chimeras to stem cell research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Sonya; Grabel, Laura

    2017-10-01

    Chimeric animals are made up of cells from two separate zygotes. Human/non-human animal chimeras have been used for a number of research purposes, including human disease modeling. Pluripotent stem cell (PSC) research has relied upon the chimera approach to examine the developmental potential of stem cells, to determine the efficacy of cell replacement therapies, and to establish a means of producing human organs. Based on ethical issues, this work has faced pushback from various sources including funding agencies. We discuss here the essential role these studies have played, from gaining a better understanding of human biology to providing a stepping stone to human disease treatments. We also consider the major ethical issues, as well as the current status of support for this work in the United States. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. 75 FR 8374 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special... Officer, Scientific Review Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health...

  16. 77 FR 5035 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research... Officer, Scientific Review Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health...

  17. 78 FR 64222 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research... Review, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, 301...

  18. 77 FR 20646 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research.... Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: National Human Genome Research Institute, 5635...

  19. 77 FR 58402 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research...: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: National Human Genome Research Institute, 5635...

  20. 78 FR 55752 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research.... Pozzatti, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, Scientific Review Branch, National Human Genome Research...

  1. 78 FR 56905 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research....m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: National Human Genome Research...

  2. 76 FR 28056 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... Counselors, National Human Genome Research Institute. The meeting will be closed to the public as indicated... National Human Genome Research Institute, including consideration of personnel qualifications and...

  3. 76 FR 17930 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special... Review Officer, Scientific Review Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, 5635 Fishers Lane...

  4. 77 FR 59933 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research....D., Scientific Review Officer, Scientific Review Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute...

  5. 78 FR 107 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... evaluate grant applications. Place: National Human Genome Research Institute, 3rd Floor Conference Room....D., Scientific Review Officer, Scientific Review Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute...

  6. 76 FR 58023 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Initial..., Scientific Review Officer, Office of Scientific Review, National Human Genome Research Institute, National...

  7. 77 FR 28888 - National Human Genome Research Institute Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Initial...: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: National Human Genome Research Institute, 3635...

  8. 78 FR 70063 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... Counselors, National Human Genome Research Institute. The meeting will be closed to the public as indicated... NATIONAL HUMAN GENOME RESEARCH INSTITUTE, including consideration of personnel qualifications and...

  9. 78 FR 9707 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research... Officer, Scientific Review Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 4076...

  10. 77 FR 71604 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special..., Scientific Review Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, 5635...

  11. 76 FR 5390 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Place: National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis... Officer, Scientific Review Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 4076...

  12. 75 FR 13558 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... Counselors, National Human Genome Research Institute. The meeting will be closed to the public as indicated... National Human Genome Research Institute, including consideration of personnel qualifications and...

  13. 76 FR 29772 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research... of Scientific Review, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health...

  14. 76 FR 44512 - Human Subjects Research Protections: Enhancing Protections for Research Subjects and Reducing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... regulatory requirements that can apply to a single research study have been criticized as complex... research studies, as follows: 1. The highest level of review, applied to most studies involving more than... long-range effects of applying knowledge gained in the research (for example, the possible effects of...

  15. Ethical fundamentals in human subjects research : On equipoise and human dignity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Graaf - Verhave, R.

    2010-01-01

    In her PhD thesis Rieke van der Graaf has studied how we can ethically justify human subjects research. In particular she has studied two ethical fundamentals that play a key role in the justification process, that of equipoise and human dignity. Equipoise is often taken to mean that

  16. Human behavior research and the design of sustainable transport systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, James J.

    2011-09-01

    Transport currently represents approximately 19% of the global energy demand and accounts for about 23% of the global carbon dioxide emissions (IEA 2009). As the demand for mobility is expected to continue to increase in the coming decades, the stabilization of atmospheric carbon dioxide levels will require the evolution of transport, along with power generation, building design and manufacturing. The continued development of these sectors will need to include changes in energy sources, energy delivery, materials, infrastructure and human behavior. Pathways to reducing carbon from the transport sector have unique challenges and opportunities that are inherent to the human choices and behavioral patterns that mold the transportation systems and the associated energy needs. Technology, government investment, and regulatory policies have a significant impact on the formulation of transportation infrastructure; however, the role of human behavior and public acceptance on the efficiency and effectiveness of transport systems should not be underestimated. Although developed, rapidly developing, and underdeveloped nations face different challenges in the establishment of transport infrastructure that can meet transport needs while achieving sustainable carbon dioxide emissions, the constraints that establish the domain of possibilities are closely related for all nations. These constraints include capital investment, fuel supplies, power systems, and human behavior. Throughout the world, there are considerable efforts directed at advancing and optimizing the financing of sustainable infrastructures, the production of low carbon fuels, and the production of advanced power systems, but the foundational work on methods to understand human preferences and behavior within the context of transport and the valuation of reductions in carbon dioxide emissions is greatly lagging behind. These methods and the associated understanding of human behavior and the willingness to pay for

  17. Are sciences essential and humanities elective? Disentangling competing claims for humanities research public value

    OpenAIRE

    Olmos-Peñuela, Julia; Benneworth, Paul; Castro-Martínez, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Recent policy discourse suggests that arts and humanities research is seen as being less useful to society than other disciplines, notably in science, technology, engineering and mathematics. The paper explores how this assumption s construction has been built and whether it is based upon an unfair prejudice: we argue for a prima facie case to answer in assuming that arts and humanities research s lower societal value. We identify a set of claims circulating in policy circles regarding scienc...

  18. Protection of human research participants: accreditation of programmes in the Indian context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhosale, Neelambari; Nigar, Shagoofa; Das, Soma; Divate, Uma; Divate, Pathik

    2014-01-01

    The recent negative media reports on the status of participants in clinical trials in India, together with the concerns expressed by the regulatory bodies, have raised questions regarding India's credibility in the conduct of clinical research. Even though the regulations require the registration of trials with the Clinical Trial Registry-India and despite the recently mandated registration of ethics committees (ECs) with the Drugs Controller General of India, the lack of governmental audit and accreditation procedures and bodies has resulted in inadequate protection of human participants in clinical research. Institutions and research sites would benefit by implementing a human research protection programme, which would safeguard the rights, safety and wellbeing of participants in clinical trials, in addition to improving the processes and procedures for the conduct of the trial. The Jehangir Clinical Development Centre, Pune has received accreditation from the Association for the Accreditation of Human Research Protection Programme (AAHRPP). A unique feature of the AAHRPP is the integrative nature of the programme, wherein the sponsors of the trial, investigators, EC members and institution work towards the common goal of protecting research participants. Here, we discuss the improvement needed in the quality standards of institutions for them to be able to meet the requirements of the AAHRPP. We also suggest the need for a governmental accreditation body, which will be required for the future promotion of and improvement in the standards for clinical practice in India.

  19. Stable isotope utilization for research on human nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desjeux, J.F.

    1994-01-01

    In the framework of nutritional molecule metabolism research, this paper presents the various stable isotopes used as labels for biological molecules, the reasons for their application in human nutritional study (mainly because of their non toxicity) and the various analysis methods (isotope ratio mass spectrometry, coupled gaseous chromatography and mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance). Several application examples in nutrition research are then discussed: metabolic conversion measurement for a molecule into its different metabolites, energetic losses. 23 refs

  20. Structural Design Requirements and Factors of Safety for Spaceflight Hardware: For Human Spaceflight. Revision A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Karen S.; Kujala, Rod; Fogt, Vince; Romine, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This document establishes the structural requirements for human-rated spaceflight hardware including launch vehicles, spacecraft and payloads. These requirements are applicable to Government Furnished Equipment activities as well as all related contractor, subcontractor and commercial efforts. These requirements are not imposed on systems other than human-rated spacecraft, such as ground test articles, but may be tailored for use in specific cases where it is prudent to do so such as for personnel safety or when assets are at risk. The requirements in this document are focused on design rather than verification. Implementation of the requirements is expected to be described in a Structural Verification Plan (SVP), which should describe the verification of each structural item for the applicable requirements. The SVP may also document unique verifications that meet or exceed these requirements with NASA Technical Authority approval.

  1. Accreditation of human research protection program: An Indian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K L Bairy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing number of clinical trials being placed in India, it is the collective responsibility of the Investigator sites, Government, Ethics Committees, and Sponsors to ensure that the trial subjects are protected from risks these studies can have, that subjects are duly compensated, and credible data generated. Most importantly, each institution/hospital should have a strong Human Research Protection Program to safe guard the trial subjects. In order to look at research with a comprehensive objective approach, there is a need for a formal auditing and review system by a recognized body. As of now, only the sponsors are monitoring/auditing their respective trials; however, there is an increasing need to perform a more detailed review and assessment of processes of the institution and the Ethics Committee. This challenge can be addressed by going for accreditation by a reputed association that encompasses-the institutions, the ethics committees, and researcher/research staff. Starting their journey for the accreditation process in late 2010, Kasturba Medical College and Hospital [KMC], Manipal, and Manipal Hospital Bangalore [MHB] received full Association for the Accreditation of Human Research Protection Programs (AAHRPP accreditation in Dec 2011-a first in India. This article delves into the steps involved in applying for AAHRPP accreditation from an Indian Perspective, the challenges, advantages, and testimonials from the two hospitals on the application experience and how the accreditation has improved the Human Research Protection Program at these hospitals.

  2. Human research ethics committees: examining their roles and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemin, Marilys; Gillam, Lynn; Rosenthal, Doreen; Bolitho, Annie

    2012-07-01

    Considerable time and resources are invested in the ethics review process. We present qualitative data on how human research ethics committee members and health researchers perceive the role and function of the committee. The findings are based on interviews with 34 Australian ethics committee members and 54 health researchers. Although all participants agreed that the primary role of the ethics committee was to protect participants, there was disagreement regarding the additional roles undertaken by committees. Of particular concern were the perceptions from some ethics committee members and researchers that ethics committees were working to protect the institution's interests, as well as being overprotective toward research participants. This has the potential to lead to poor relations and mistrust between ethics committees and researchers.

  3. Emotional Intelligence Research within Human Resource Development Scholarship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnia, Forouzan; Nafukho, Fredrick Muyia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to review and synthesize pertinent emotional intelligence (EI) research within the human resource development (HRD) scholarship. Design/methodology/approach: An integrative review of literature was conducted and multiple electronic databases were searched to find the relevant resources. Using the content…

  4. 77 FR 58383 - Secretary's Advisory Committee on Human Research Protections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ... the public who wish to have printed materials distributed to SACHRP members for this scheduled meeting should submit materials to the Executive Director, SACHRP, prior to the close of business October 1, 2012... human subjects research adopted by various agencies or offices within HHS would benefit from...

  5. Applying Organizational Commitment and Human Capital Theories to Emigration Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkhohlyad, Olga; McLean, Gary N.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to bring some additional insight into the issue of emigration by establishing a relationship between emigration and psychic return of citizens to their human capital investment in the country. Design/methodology/approach: The article adopts a quantitative research strategy. It applies organizational commitment and human…

  6. Human cloning, stem cell research. An Islamic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Aqeel, Aida I

    2009-12-01

    The rapidly changing technologies that involve human subjects raise complex ethical, legal, social, and religious issues. Recent advances in the field of cloning and stem cell research have introduced new hopes for the treatment of serious diseases. But this promise has raised many complex questions. This field causes debate and challenge, not only among scientists but also among ethicists, religious scholars, governments, and politicians. There is no consensus on the morality of human cloning, even within specific religious traditions. In countries in which religion has a strong influence on political decision making, the moral status of the human embryo is at the center of the debate. Because of the inevitable consequences of reproductive cloning, it is prohibited in Islam. However, stem cell research for therapeutic purposes is permissible with full consideration, and all possible precautions in the pre-ensoulment stages of early fetus development, if the source is legitimate.

  7. Human machine interface for research reactor instrumentation and control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Sabri Minhat; Mohd Idris Taib; Izhar Abu Hussin; Zareen Khan Abdul Jalil Khan; Nurfarhana Ayuni Joha

    2010-01-01

    Most present design of Human Machine Interface for Research Reactor Instrumentation and Control System is modular-based, comprise of several cabinets such as Reactor Protection System, Control Console, Information Console as well as Communication Console. The safety, engineering and human factor will be concerned for the design. Redundancy and separation of signal and power supply are the main factor for safety consideration. The design of Operator Interface absolutely takes consideration of human and environmental factors. Physical parameters, experiences, trainability and long-established habit patterns are very important for user interface, instead of the Aesthetic and Operator-Interface Geometry. Physical design for New Instrumentation and Control System of RTP are proposed base on the state-of- the-art Human Machine Interface design. (author)

  8. Focus on CSIR research in water resources: water and human health research in CSIR

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Genthe, Bettina

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The Water and Human Health team researches water related science to address the CSIR’s mandate, national priorities and to improve quality of life for all. The overall aim of the research is to achieve a sustainable balance between the use of water...

  9. Intervention Research and Its Influence on Nonintervention Research in Human Resource Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunyoung; Chae, Chungil

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify how intervention research weighed in nonintervention research in the field of human resource development (HRD) by examining the number, citation frequency and use of experimental studies in HRD academic journals. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 2,700 articles published between 1990 and 2014…

  10. Development, implementation and critique of a bioethics framework for pharmaceutical sponsors of human biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Campen, Luann E; Therasse, Donald G; Klopfenstein, Mitchell; Levine, Robert J

    2015-11-01

    Pharmaceutical human biomedical research is a multi-dimensional endeavor that requires collaboration among many parties, including those who sponsor, conduct, participate in, or stand to benefit from the research. Human subjects' protections have been promulgated to ensure that the benefits of such research are accomplished with respect for and minimal risk to individual research participants, and with an overall sense of fairness. Although these protections are foundational to clinical research, most ethics guidance primarily highlights the responsibilities of investigators and ethics review boards. Currently, there is no published resource that comprehensively addresses bioethical responsibilities of industry sponsors; including their responsibilities to parties who are not research participants, but are, nevertheless key stakeholders in the endeavor. To fill this void, in 2010 Eli Lilly and Company instituted a Bioethics Framework for Human Biomedical Research. This paper describes how the framework was developed and implemented and provides a critique based on four years of experience. A companion article provides the actual document used by Eli Lilly and Company to guide ethical decisions regarding all phases of human clinical trials. While many of the concepts presented in this framework are not novel, compiling them in a manner that articulates the ethical responsibilities of a sponsor is novel. By utilizing this type of bioethics framework, we have been able to develop bioethics positions on various topics, provide research ethics consultations, and integrate bioethics into the daily operations of our human biomedical research. We hope that by sharing these companion papers we will stimulate discussion within and outside the biopharmaceutical industry for the benefit of the multiple parties involved in pharmaceutical human biomedical research.

  11. Human resources requirements for diabetic patients healthcare in primary care clinics of the Mexican Institute of Social Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V Doubova

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To estimate the requirements of human resources (HR of two models of care for diabetes patients: conventional and specific, also called DiabetIMSS, which are provided in primary care clinics of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS. Materials and methods. An evaluative research was conducted. An expert group identified the HR activities and time required to provide healthcare consistent with the best clinical practices for diabetic patients. HR were estimated by using the evidence-based adjusted service target approach for health workforce planning; then, comparisons between existing and estimated HRs were made. Results. To provide healthcare in accordance with the patients’ metabolic control, the conventional model required increasing the number of family doctors (1.2 times nutritionists (4.2 times and social workers (4.1 times. The DiabetIMSS model requires greater increase than the conventional model. Conclusions. Increasing HR is required to provide evidence-based healthcare to diabetes patients.

  12. Using non-human primates to benefit humans: research and organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, David; Dondorp, Wybo; de Wert, Guido

    2014-11-01

    Emerging biotechnology may soon allow the creation of genetically human organs inside animals, with non-human primates (henceforth simply "primates") and pigs being the best candidate species. This prospect raises the question of whether creating organs in primates in order to then transplant them into humans would be more (or less) acceptable than using them for research. In this paper, we examine the validity of the purported moral distinction between primates and other animals, and analyze the ethical acceptability of using primates to create organs for human use.

  13. Measurement of testosterone in human sexuality research: methodological considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Anders, Sari M; Goldey, Katherine L; Bell, Sarah N

    2014-02-01

    Testosterone (T) and other androgens are incorporated into an increasingly wide array of human sexuality research, but there are a number of issues that can affect or confound research outcomes. This review addresses various methodological issues relevant to research design in human studies with T; unaddressed, these issues may introduce unwanted noise, error, or conceptual barriers to interpreting results. Topics covered are (1) social and demographic factors (gender and sex; sexual orientations and sexual diversity; social/familial connections and processes; social location variables), (2) biological rhythms (diurnal variation; seasonality; menstrual cycles; aging and menopause), (3) sample collection, handling, and storage (saliva vs. blood; sialogogues, saliva, and tubes; sampling frequency, timing, and context; shipping samples), (4) health, medical issues, and the body (hormonal contraceptives; medications and nicotine; health conditions and stress; body composition, weight, and exercise), and (5) incorporating multiple hormones. Detailing a comprehensive set of important issues and relevant empirical evidence, this review provides a starting point for best practices in human sexuality research with T and other androgens that may be especially useful for those new to hormone research.

  14. Effectiveness of Human Research Protection Program Performance Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsan, Min-Fu; Nguyen, Yen

    2017-10-01

    We analyzed human research protection program performance metric data of all Department of Veterans Affairs research facilities obtained from 2010 to 2016. Among a total of 25 performance metrics, 21 (84%) showed improvement, four (16%) remained unchanged, and none deteriorated during the study period. The overall improvement from these 21 performance metrics was 81.1% ± 18.7% (mean ± SD), with a range of 30% to 100%. The four performance metrics that did not show improvement all had initial noncompliance/incidence rates of performance metrics that showed improvement ranged from 0.05% to 60%. However, of the 21 performance metrics that showed improvement, 10 had initial noncompliance/incidence rates of performance measurement is an effective tool in improving the performance of human research protection programs.

  15. Investigational new drug safety reporting requirements for human drug and biological products and safety reporting requirements for bioavailability and bioequivalence studies in humans. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending its regulations governing safety reporting requirements for human drug and biological products subject to an investigational new drug application (IND). The final rule codifies the agency's expectations for timely review, evaluation, and submission of relevant and useful safety information and implements internationally harmonized definitions and reporting standards. The revisions will improve the utility of IND safety reports, reduce the number of reports that do not contribute in a meaningful way to the developing safety profile of the drug, expedite FDA's review of critical safety information, better protect human subjects enrolled in clinical trials, subject bioavailability and bioequivalence studies to safety reporting requirements, promote a consistent approach to safety reporting internationally, and enable the agency to better protect and promote public health.

  16. The use of human cells in biomedical research and testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combes, Robert D

    2004-06-01

    The ability to use human cells in biomedical research and testing has the obvious advantage over the use of laboratory animals that the need for species extrapolation is obviated, due to the presence of more-relevant morphological, physiological and biochemical properties, including receptors. Moreover, human cells exhibit the same advantages as animal cells in culture in that different cell types can be used, from different tissues, with a wide range of techniques, to investigate a wide variety of biological phenomena in tissue culture. Human cells can also be grown as organotypic cultures to facilitate the extrapolation from cells to whole organisms. Human cell lines have been available for many years on an ad hoc basis from individual researchers, and also from recognised sources, such as the European Collection of Animal Cell Cultures (ECACC) and, in the USA, the Human Cell Culture Centre (HCCC). Such cells have usually been derived from tumours and this has restricted the variety of types of cells available. This problem has been addressed by using primary human cells that can be obtained from a variety of sources, such as cadavers, diseased tissue, skin strips, peripheral blood, buccal cavity smears, hair follicles and surgical waste from biopsy material that is unsuitable for transplantation purposes. However, primary human cells need to be obtained, processed, distributed and handled in a safe and ethical manner. They also have to be made available at the correct time to researchers very shortly after they become available. It is only comparatively recently that the safe and controlled acquisition of surgical waste and non-transplantable human tissues has become feasible with the establishment of several human tissue banks. Recently, the formation of a UK and European centralised network for human tissue supply has been initiated. The problems of short longevity and loss of specialisation in culture are being approached by: a) cell immortalisation to

  17. 34 CFR 350.33 - What cooperation requirements must a Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center meet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center meet? A Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center— (a) Shall... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What cooperation requirements must a Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center meet? 350.33 Section 350.33 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department...

  18. Comparative Study on Research Reactor Operation Requirements of IAEA and Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yune, Young Gill; Chang, Woo Joon; Lee, Jinho

    2014-01-01

    The IAEA safety requirements represent a consensus view of the IAEA's member states and encompass the recommendations of international experts for the safety of the research reactor. The IAEA safety standards are acknowledged as a global standard by most countries in the world. Therefore, it is desirable to harmonize domestic safety requirements with those of the IAEA. Also, since the IAEA safety requirements include international endeavors to strengthen nuclear safety and to apply the latest nuclear safety technologies to nuclear facilities, a comparative analysis of the safety requirements of the IAEA and Korea for the research reactor will be beneficial to obtaining the insights to improve regulations of the research reactor in Korea. For the reason, a comparative study has been conducted for the research reactor operation safety requirements of the IAEA and Korea in this paper. This paper briefly introduced operation safety requirements in the NS-R-4, analysis methods of this study, and the analysis results. A comparative study has been performed on research reactor operation safety requirements of the IAEA and Korea. This study has identified some gaps in operation safety requirements for the NPP of Korea, comparing with those for the research reactor of the IAEA in the following areas: periodic safety assessment, utilization and modification of the reactor, extended shutdown, inspection/testing/maintenance, operating organization, emergency planning, and commissioning

  19. Nature Contact and Human Health: A Research Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frumkin, Howard; Bratman, Gregory N; Breslow, Sara Jo; Cochran, Bobby; Kahn, Peter H; Lawler, Joshua J; Levin, Phillip S; Tandon, Pooja S; Varanasi, Usha; Wolf, Kathleen L; Wood, Spencer A

    2017-07-31

    At a time of increasing disconnectedness from nature, scientific interest in the potential health benefits of nature contact has grown. Research in recent decades has yielded substantial evidence, but large gaps remain in our understanding. We propose a research agenda on nature contact and health, identifying principal domains of research and key questions that, if answered, would provide the basis for evidence-based public health interventions. We identify research questions in seven domains: a ) mechanistic biomedical studies; b ) exposure science; c ) epidemiology of health benefits; d ) diversity and equity considerations; e ) technological nature; f ) economic and policy studies; and g ) implementation science. Nature contact may offer a range of human health benefits. Although much evidence is already available, much remains unknown. A robust research effort, guided by a focus on key unanswered questions, has the potential to yield high-impact, consequential public health insights. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1663.

  20. A Research Roadmap for Computation-Based Human Reliability Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boring, Ronald [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mandelli, Diego [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Joe, Jeffrey [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smith, Curtis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Groth, Katrina [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring research through the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program to extend the life of the currently operating fleet of commercial nuclear power plants. The Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) research pathway within LWRS looks at ways to maintain and improve the safety margins of these plants. The RISMC pathway includes significant developments in the area of thermalhydraulics code modeling and the development of tools to facilitate dynamic probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). PRA is primarily concerned with the risk of hardware systems at the plant; yet, hardware reliability is often secondary in overall risk significance to human errors that can trigger or compound undesirable events at the plant. This report highlights ongoing efforts to develop a computation-based approach to human reliability analysis (HRA). This computation-based approach differs from existing static and dynamic HRA approaches in that it: (i) interfaces with a dynamic computation engine that includes a full scope plant model, and (ii) interfaces with a PRA software toolset. The computation-based HRA approach presented in this report is called the Human Unimodels for Nuclear Technology to Enhance Reliability (HUNTER) and incorporates in a hybrid fashion elements of existing HRA methods to interface with new computational tools developed under the RISMC pathway. The goal of this research effort is to model human performance more accurately than existing approaches, thereby minimizing modeling uncertainty found in current plant risk models.

  1. How informative is the mouse for human gut microbiota research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi Loan Anh; Vieira-Silva, Sara; Liston, Adrian; Raes, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    The microbiota of the human gut is gaining broad attention owing to its association with a wide range of diseases, ranging from metabolic disorders (e.g. obesity and type 2 diabetes) to autoimmune diseases (such as inflammatory bowel disease and type 1 diabetes), cancer and even neurodevelopmental disorders (e.g. autism). Having been increasingly used in biomedical research, mice have become the model of choice for most studies in this emerging field. Mouse models allow perturbations in gut microbiota to be studied in a controlled experimental setup, and thus help in assessing causality of the complex host-microbiota interactions and in developing mechanistic hypotheses. However, pitfalls should be considered when translating gut microbiome research results from mouse models to humans. In this Special Article, we discuss the intrinsic similarities and differences that exist between the two systems, and compare the human and murine core gut microbiota based on a meta-analysis of currently available datasets. Finally, we discuss the external factors that influence the capability of mouse models to recapitulate the gut microbiota shifts associated with human diseases, and investigate which alternative model systems exist for gut microbiota research. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. A Research Roadmap for Computation-Based Human Reliability Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boring, Ronald; Mandelli, Diego; Joe, Jeffrey; Smith, Curtis; Groth, Katrina

    2015-01-01

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring research through the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program to extend the life of the currently operating fleet of commercial nuclear power plants. The Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) research pathway within LWRS looks at ways to maintain and improve the safety margins of these plants. The RISMC pathway includes significant developments in the area of thermalhydraulics code modeling and the development of tools to facilitate dynamic probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). PRA is primarily concerned with the risk of hardware systems at the plant; yet, hardware reliability is often secondary in overall risk significance to human errors that can trigger or compound undesirable events at the plant. This report highlights ongoing efforts to develop a computation-based approach to human reliability analysis (HRA). This computation-based approach differs from existing static and dynamic HRA approaches in that it: (i) interfaces with a dynamic computation engine that includes a full scope plant model, and (ii) interfaces with a PRA software toolset. The computation-based HRA approach presented in this report is called the Human Unimodels for Nuclear Technology to Enhance Reliability (HUNTER) and incorporates in a hybrid fashion elements of existing HRA methods to interface with new computational tools developed under the RISMC pathway. The goal of this research effort is to model human performance more accurately than existing approaches, thereby minimizing modeling uncertainty found in current plant risk models.

  3. Human CD4+ T cells require exogenous cystine for glutathione and DNA synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levring, Trine B; Kongsbak-Wismann, Martin; Rode, Anna Kathrine Obelitz

    2015-01-01

    . The aim of this study was to elucidate why activated human T cells require exogenous Cys2 in order to proliferate. We activated purified naïve human CD4+ T cells and found that glutathione (GSH) levels and DNA synthesis were dependent on Cys2 and increased in parallel with increasing concentrations of Cys......Adaptive immune responses require activation and expansion of antigen-specific T cells. Whereas early T cell activation is independent of exogenous cystine (Cys2), T cell proliferation is dependent of Cys2. However, the exact roles of Cys2 in T cell proliferation still need to be determined...... for the activity of ribonucleotide reductase (RNR), the enzyme responsible for generation of the deoxyribonucleotide DNA building blocks. In conclusion, we show that activated human T cells require exogenous Cys2 to proliferate and that this is partly explained by the fact that Cys2 is required for production...

  4. Comparative Study on Research Reactor Design Requirements between IAEA and Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Won Joon; Yune, Young Gill; Song, Myung Ho; Cho, Seung Ho

    2013-01-01

    This study has identified the gaps in the safety requirements for design of research reactors of Korea comparing with those of the IAEA. The review results showed that the gaps have arisen mainly from the following aspects: - The differences in the characteristics of design and operation between power reactor and research reactor - Enhancement of the level of safety of nuclear reactor facility - Consideration of advanced safety technologies. The review results will be utilized to reflect the IAEA safety requirements for design of research reactors into those of Korea, which will contribute to enhancing the level of safety and improving the technical standards of research reactors of Korea. The IAEA safety standards encompass international consensus to strengthen the nuclear safety and to reflect the latest advancement of nuclear safety technologies. Also, they provide reliable means to ensure the effective fulfillment of obligations under the various international safety conventions. Many countries have adopted the IAEA safety standards as their national standards in nuclear regulations. Since Korea has exported research reactor technologies abroad these days and will continue to export them in the future, it is desirable to harmonize domestic safety requirements for research reactor with those of the IAEA. The KINS (Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety) has performed a review of the IAEA safety requirements for design of research reactors comparing with those of Korea. The purpose of this comparative study is to harmonize the safety requirements for the design of research reactors of Korea with those of the IAEA as a member state of the IAEA, and to encompass global efforts to enhance the nuclear safety and to reflect the latest advancement of nuclear safety technologies into the safety requirements for the design of research reactors of Korea. Design requirements for structures, systems, and components of research reactors important to safety, which are required to

  5. THE STRATEGIC DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN RESOURCES-IMPERATIVE REQUIREMENT OF THE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION REFORM

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina MANOLE

    2011-01-01

    Together with the global economic crisis, the impact of organizational crises on human capital and its performances has become increasingly obvious. From this perspective, the strategic role of human resources’ development is crucial. This development can help the organizational management to improve their operational abilities, that allow a better management of the existing crises and also preventing future one. Most researchers agree that the strategic development of human resources implies...

  6. Research priorities for Chagas disease, human African trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    This report provides a review and analysis of the research landscape for three diseases - Chagas disease, human African trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis - that disproportionately afflict poor and remote populations with limited access to health services. It represents the work of the disease reference group on Chagas Disease, Human African Trypanosomiasis and Leishmaniasis (DRG3) which was established to identify key research priorities through review of research evidence and input from stakeholders' consultations. The diseases, which are caused by related protozoan parasites, are described in terms of their epidemiology and diseases burden, clinical forms and pathogenesis, HIV coinfection, diagnosis, drugs and drug resistance, vaccines, vector control, and health-care interventions. Priority areas for research are identified based on criteria such as public health relevance, benefit and impact on poor populations and equity, and feasibility. The priorities are found in the areas of diagnostics, drugs, vector control, asymptomatic infection, economic analysis of treatment and vector control methods, and in some specific issues such as surveillance methods or transmission-blocking vaccines for particular diseases. This report will be useful to researchers, policy and decision-makers, funding bodies, implementation organizations, and civil society. This is one of ten disease and thematic reference group reports that have come out of the TDR Think Tank, all of which have contributed to the development of the Global Report for Research on Infectious Diseases of Poverty, available at: www.who.int/tdr/stewardship/global_report/en/index.html.

  7. [Research progress on free radicals in human body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q B; Xu, F P; Wei, C X; Peng, J; Dong, X D

    2016-08-10

    Free radicals are the intermediates of metabolism, widely exist in the human bodies. Under normal circumstances, the free radicals play an important role in the metabolic process on human body, cell signal pathway, gene regulation, induction of cell proliferation and apoptosis, so as to maintain the normal growth and development of human body and to inhibit the growth of bacteria, virus and cancer. However, when organic lesion occurs affected by external factors or when equilibrium of the free radicals is tipped in the human body, the free radicals will respond integratedly with lipids, protein or nucleic acid which may jeopardize the health of human bodies. This paper summarizes the research progress of the free radicals conducted in recent years, in relations to the perspective of the types, origins, test methods of the free radicals and their relationship with human's health. In addition, the possible mechanisms of environmental pollutants (such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) mediating oxidative stress and free radicals scavenging in the body were also summarized.

  8. Bringing humanity into view: action research with Qatar's ambulance service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Gill; Wiggins, Liz

    2017-08-21

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to argue for the widening of attention in healthcare improvement efforts, to include an awareness of the humanity of people who work in the sector and an appreciation of the part human connection plays in engagement around good quality work. Theoretical frameworks and research approaches which draw on action-based, interpretive and systemic thinking are proposed, as a complement to current practices. Design/methodology/approach The paper describes the early stages of an action research (AR) project, which used the appreciative inquiry "4D" framework to conduct participative inquiry in Hamad Medical Corporation's ambulance service in Qatar, in which staff became co-researchers. Findings The co-researchers were highly motivated to work with improvement goals as a result of their participation in the AR. They, and their managers, saw each other and the work in new ways and discovered that they had much to offer. Research limitations/implications This was a small-scale pilot project, from which findings must be considered tentative. The challenges of establishing good collaboration across language, culture and organisational divides are considerable. Practical implications Appreciative and action-oriented inquiry methods can serve not only to find things out, but also to highlight and give value to aspects of humanity in the workplace that are routinely left invisible in formal processes. This, in turn, can help with quality improvement. Originality/value This paper is a challenge to the orthodox way of viewing healthcare organisations, and improvement processes within them, as reliant on control rather than empowerment. An alternative is to actively include the agency, sense-making capacity and humanity of those involved.

  9. Human dimensions in cyber operations research and development priorities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsythe, James Chris; Silva, Austin Ray; Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie; Bradshaw, Jeffrey [Institute for Human and Machine Cognition

    2012-11-01

    Within cyber security, the human element represents one of the greatest untapped opportunities for increasing the effectiveness of network defenses. However, there has been little research to understand the human dimension in cyber operations. To better understand the needs and priorities for research and development to address these issues, a workshop was conducted August 28-29, 2012 in Washington DC. A synthesis was developed that captured the key issues and associated research questions. Research and development needs were identified that fell into three parallel paths: (1) human factors analysis and scientific studies to establish foundational knowledge concerning factors underlying the performance of cyber defenders; (2) development of models that capture key processes that mediate interactions between defenders, users, adversaries and the public; and (3) development of a multi-purpose test environment for conducting controlled experiments that enables systems and human performance measurement. These research and development investments would transform cyber operations from an art to a science, enabling systems solutions to be engineered to address a range of situations. Organizations would be able to move beyond the current state where key decisions (e.g. personnel assignment) are made on a largely ad hoc basis to a state in which there exist institutionalized processes for assuring the right people are doing the right jobs in the right way. These developments lay the groundwork for emergence of a professional class of cyber defenders with defined roles and career progressions, with higher levels of personnel commitment and retention. Finally, the operational impact would be evident in improved performance, accompanied by a shift to a more proactive response in which defenders have the capacity to exert greater control over the cyber battlespace.

  10. Requirement analysis for an electronic laboratory notebook for sustainable data management in biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Julia; Weil, Philipp; Bittihn, Philip; Hornung, Daniel; Mathieu, Nadine; Demiroglu, Sara Y

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable data management in biomedical research requires documentation of metadata for all experiments and results. Scientists usually document research data and metadata in laboratory paper notebooks. An electronic laboratory notebook (ELN) can keep metadata linked to research data resulting in a better understanding of the research results, meaning a scientific benefit [1]. Besides other challenges [2], the biggest hurdles for introducing an ELN seem to be usability, file formats, and data entry mechanisms [3] and that many ELNs are assigned to specific research fields such as biology, chemistry, or physics [4]. We aimed to identify requirements for the introduction of ELN software in a biomedical collaborative research center [5] consisting of different scientific fields and to find software fulfilling most of these requirements.

  11. Evaluation of the Humanity Research Paradigms based on Analysis of Human – Environment Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Sameh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available As claimed by many behavioral scientists, designing should be based on the knowledge of interaction between human and environment. Environmental quality is also created in the context in which humans interact with their environment. To achieve such quality, designers should develop appropriate models for explaining this relationship, and this requires an understanding of human nature and the environment. Criticisms on the Modern Movement have shown that architects have often used incomplete and simplistic models in this regard, while most of design ideas are based on the definitions of human and environment and the interaction between them. However, the most important question that is raised is that how understanding of human nature and the environment and their interaction, which depends on foundations of different views, can affect the pursuit of quality in designing? Therefore, the present paper, in addition to introduction and comparison of common paradigms in humanities as the and methodological foundation of human sciences, aims to deal with the relationship of human and the environment from the perspective of objectivist, relativist, and critical paradigms in order to identify the characteristics and differences in their views on the analysis of the quality of this interaction. This is the most important step that paves the way for understanding the qualitative foundations of the environment and human life quality and also the quality of interaction between them.

  12. Proceeding of human exoskeleton technology and discussions on future research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiqiang; Xie, Hanxing; Li, Weilin; Yao, Zheng

    2014-05-01

    After more than half a century of intense efforts, the development of exoskeleton has seen major advances, and several remarkable achievements have been made. Reviews of developing history of exoskeleton are presented, both in active and passive categories. Major models are introduced, and typical technologies are commented on. Difficulties in control algorithm, driver system, power source, and man-machine interface are discussed. Current researching routes and major developing methods are mapped and critically analyzed, and in the process, some key problems are revealed. First, the exoskeleton is totally different from biped robot, and relative studies based on the robot technologies are considerably incorrect. Second, biomechanical studies are only used to track the motion of the human body, the interaction between human and machines are seldom studied. Third, the traditional developing ways which focused on servo-controlling have inborn deficiency from making portable systems. Research attention should be shifted to the human side of the coupling system, and the human ability to learn and adapt should play a more significant role in the control algorithms. Having summarized the major difficulties, possible future works are discussed. It is argued that, since a distinct boundary cannot be drawn in such strong-coupling human-exoskeleton system, the more complex the control system gets, the more difficult it is for the user to learn to use. It is suggested that the exoskeleton should be treated as a simple wearable tool, and downgrading its automatic level may be a change toward a brighter research outlook. This effort at simplification is definitely not easy, as it necessitates theoretical supports from fields such as biomechanics, ergonomics, and bionics.

  13. International human cooperation in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiba, Koreyuki; Kaieda, Keisuke; Makuuchi, Keizo; Takada, Kazuo; Nomura, Masayuki

    1997-01-01

    Rearing of talented persons in the area of nuclear energy is one of the important works in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. In this report, the present situations and future schedules of international human cooperation in this area wsere summarized. First, the recent activities of International Nuclear Technology Center were outlined in respect of international human cooperation. A study and training course which was started in cooperation with JICA and IAEA from the middle of eighties and the international nuclear safety seminar aiming at advancing the nuclear safety level of the world are now being put into practice. In addition, a study and training for rearing talented persons was started from 1996 to improve the nuclear safety level of the neighbouring countries. The activities of the nuclear research interchange system by Science and Technology Agency established in 1985 and Bilateral Co-operation Agreement from 1984 were explained and also various difficulties in the international cooperation were pointed out. (M.N.)

  14. Regional research exploitation of the LHC a case-study of the required computing resources

    CERN Document Server

    Almehed, S; Eerola, Paule Anna Mari; Mjörnmark, U; Smirnova, O G; Zacharatou-Jarlskog, C; Åkesson, T

    2002-01-01

    A simulation study to evaluate the required computing resources for a research exploitation of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has been performed. The evaluation was done as a case study, assuming existence of a Nordic regional centre and using the requirements for performing a specific physics analysis as a yard-stick. Other imput parameters were: assumption for the distribution of researchers at the institutions involved, an analysis model, and two different functional structures of the computing resources.

  15. Regulating hematology/oncology research involving human participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapp, Marshall B

    2002-12-01

    The conduct of hematology/oncology research, particularly clinical trials involving human participants, is an extensively regulated enterprise. Professionals in the specialty of hematology/oncology have important stakes in the success of biomedical research endeavors. Knowledge about and compliance strategies regarding the pertinent regulatory parameters are essential for avoiding negative legal repercussions for involved professionals. At the same time, there is a need to be aware of and actively resist the danger that strong [legal] protectionism might inadvertently result in undermining physician investigators' sense of personal moral responsibility in the conduct of human experiments. For all the limitations of that virtue in the protection of human subjects, it is surely not one that we would want medical scientists to be without [47]. Members of the potential participant pool, financial sponsors, and the general public must be convinced that everyone involved in the research enterprise is committed to operating within acceptable legal and ethical boundaries if the atmosphere of confidence and trust that is indispensable to the continued process and progress of investigation aimed at extending and improving quality of life for all of us in the future is to continue and flourish [48].

  16. Challenges of metabolomics in human gut microbiota research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Kirill S; Maier, Tanja V; Walker, Alesia; Heinzmann, Silke S; Forcisi, Sara; Martinez, Inés; Walter, Jens; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2016-08-01

    The review highlights the role of metabolomics in studying human gut microbial metabolism. Microbial communities in our gut exert a multitude of functions with huge impact on human health and disease. Within the meta-omics discipline, gut microbiome is studied by (meta)genomics, (meta)transcriptomics, (meta)proteomics and metabolomics. The goal of metabolomics research applied to fecal samples is to perform their metabolic profiling, to quantify compounds and classes of interest, to characterize small molecules produced by gut microbes. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry are main technologies that are applied in fecal metabolomics. Metabolomics studies have been increasingly used in gut microbiota related research regarding health and disease with main focus on understanding inflammatory bowel diseases. The elucidated metabolites in this field are summarized in this review. We also addressed the main challenges of metabolomics in current and future gut microbiota research. The first challenge reflects the need of adequate analytical tools and pipelines, including sample handling, selection of appropriate equipment, and statistical evaluation to enable meaningful biological interpretation. The second challenge is related to the choice of the right animal model for studies on gut microbiota. We exemplified this using NMR spectroscopy for the investigation of cross-species comparison of fecal metabolite profiles. Finally, we present the problem of variability of human gut microbiota and metabolome that has important consequences on the concepts of personalized nutrition and medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Courts, legislators and human embryo research: lessons from Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binchy, William

    2011-01-01

    When it comes to the matter of human embryo research law plays a crucial role in its development by helping to set the boundaries of what may be done, the sanctions for acting outside those boundaries and the rights and responsibilities of key parties. Nevertheless, the philosophical challenges raised by human embryo research, even with the best will of all concerned, may prove too great for satisfactory resolution through the legal process. Taking as its focus the position of Ireland, this paper explores the distinctive constitutional approach taken on this issue and addresses the difficulty of translating sound philosophy into judicial decrees and the difficulty of establishing expert commissions to make law reform proposals on matters of profound normative controversy. It concludes that the Irish experience does have useful lessons for those in other countries who are concerned with the legal approach to research on human embryos and points to the desirability of a diversity of normative positions in order to enrich the quality of the analysis so as to encourage more informed debate in society.

  18. Step 1: Human System Interface (HSI) Functional Requirements Document (FRD). Version 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This Functional Requirements Document (FRD) establishes a minimum set of Human System Interface (HSI) functional requirements to achieve the Access 5 Vision of "operating High Altitude, Long Endurance (HALE) Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) routinely, safely, and reliably in the National Airspace System (NAS)". Basically, it provides what functions are necessary to fly UAS in the NAS. The framework used to identify the appropriate functions was the "Aviate, Navigate, Communicate, and Avoid Hazards" structure identified in the Access 5 FRD. As a result, fifteen high-level functional requirements were developed. In addition, several of them have been decomposed into low-level functional requirements to provide more detail.

  19. Human Participants in Engineering Research: Notes from a Fledgling Ethics Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepsell, David; Brinkman, Willem-Paul; Pont, Sylvia

    2015-08-01

    years ago we launched a pilot ethics committee at our technical university and began soliciting our colleagues to submit their studies for review. In the past year, we have become officially recognized as a human subjects ethics committee for our university and we are beginning the process of requiring all studies using human subjects to apply for our approval. In this article, we consider some of the special problems relating to protecting human participants in a technology context, and discuss some of our experiences and insights about reviewing human subjects research at a technical university, concluding: that not less than in medical studies, human participants used in technology research benefit from ethical committees' reviews, practical requirements for publications, grants, and avoiding legal liability are also served by such committees, and ethics committees in such contexts have many similarities to, but certain other special foci than medical ethics committees. We believe that this experience, and these observations, are helpful for those seeking to establish such committees in technology research contexts, and for framing the particular issues that may arise in such contexts for the benefit of researchers, and nascent committees seeking to establish their own procedures.

  20. Eli Lilly and Company's bioethics framework for human biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Campen, Luann E; Therasse, Donald G; Klopfenstein, Mitchell; Levine, Robert J

    2015-11-01

    Current ethics and good clinical practice guidelines address various aspects of pharmaceutical research and development, but do not comprehensively address the bioethical responsibilities of sponsors. To fill this void, in 2010 Eli Lilly and Company developed and implemented a Bioethics Framework for Human Biomedical Research to guide ethical decisions. (See our companion article that describes how the framework was developed and implemented and provides a critique of its usefulness and limitations.) This paper presents the actual framework that serves as a company resource for employee education and bioethics deliberations. The framework consists of four basic ethical principles and 13 essential elements for ethical human biomedical research and resides within the context of our company's mission, vision and values. For each component of the framework, we provide a high-level overview followed by a detailed description with cross-references to relevant well regarded guidance documents. The principles and guidance described should be familiar to those acquainted with research ethics. Therefore the novelty of the framework lies not in the foundational concepts presented as much as the attempt to specify and compile a sponsor's bioethical responsibilities to multiple stakeholders into one resource. When such a framework is employed, it can serve as a bioethical foundation to inform decisions and actions throughout clinical planning, trial design, study implementation and closeout, as well as to inform company positions on bioethical issues. The framework is, therefore, a useful tool for translating ethical aspirations into action - to help ensure pharmaceutical human biomedical research is conducted in a manner that aligns with consensus ethics principles, as well as a sponsor's core values.

  1. Step 1: Human System Integration Pilot-Technology Interface Requirements for Weather Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This document involves definition of technology interface requirements for Hazardous Weather Avoidance. Technology concepts in use by the Access 5 Weather Management Work Package were considered. Beginning with the Human System Integration (HIS) high-level functional requirement for Hazardous Weather Avoidance, and Hazardous Weather Avoidance technology elements, HSI requirements for the interface to the pilot were identified. Results of the analysis describe (1) the information required by the pilot to have knowledge of hazardous weather, and (2) the control capability needed by the pilot to obtain hazardous weather information. Fundamentally, these requirements provide the candidate Hazardous Weather Avoidance technology concepts with the necessary human-related elements to make them compatible with human capabilities and limitations. The results of the analysis describe how Hazardous Weather Avoidance operations and functions should interface with the pilot to provide the necessary Weather Management functionality to the UA-pilot system. Requirements and guidelines for Hazardous Weather Avoidance are partitioned into four categories: (1) Planning En Route (2) Encountering Hazardous Weather En Route, (3) Planning to Destination, and (4) Diversion Planning Alternate Airport. Each requirement is stated and is supported with a rationale and associated reference(s).

  2. Paternalism and utilitarianism in research with human participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B

    2015-03-01

    In this article I defend a rule utilitarian approach to paternalistic policies in research with human participants. Some rules that restrict individual autonomy can be justified on the grounds that they help to maximize the overall balance of benefits over risks in research. The consequences that should be considered when formulating policy include not only likely impacts on research participants, but also impacts on investigators, institutions, sponsors, and the scientific community. The public reaction to adverse events in research (such as significant injury to participants or death) is a crucial concern that must be taken into account when assessing the consequences of different policy options, because public backlash can lead to outcomes that have a negative impact on science, such as cuts in funding, overly restrictive regulation and oversight, and reduced willingness of individuals to participate in research. I argue that concern about the public reaction to adverse events justifies some restrictions on the risks that competent, adult volunteers can face in research that offers them no significant benefits. The paternalism defended here is not pure, because it involves restrictions on the rights of investigators in order to protect participants. It also has a mixed rationale, because individual autonomy may be restricted not only to protect participants from harm but also to protect other stakeholders. Utility is not the sole justification for paternalistic research policies, since other considerations, such as justice and respect for individual rights/autonomy, must also be taken into account.

  3. Discarded human fetal tissue and cell cultures for transplantation research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, R.J.; Phillips, T.; Thompson, A.; Vilner, L.; Cleland, M.; Tchaw-ren Chen; Zabrenetzky, V.

    1999-01-01

    A feasibility study has been performed to explore the utility of various tissues from discarded human abortuses for transplantation and related research. Specifically, aborted fetuses plus parental blood samples and all relevant clinical data were obtained through a local hospital complex. Whenever possible, pancreas, skin and skeletal muscle, heart, liver, kidney, cartilage and lung tissues were removed, dissociated and subfractionated for cryopreservation, characterization and cultivation trials in vitro. Existing protocols for these manipulations were compared and improved upon as required. Clonal culture, cell aggregate maintenance techniques and use of feeder cell populations have been utilized where appropriate to develop quantitative comparative data. Histological and biochemical assays were applied both to evaluate separation/cultivation methods and to identify optimal culture conditions for maintaining functional cells. Immunochemical and molecular biological procedures were applied to study expression of Major Histocompatibility Vomplex (MHC) class 1 and 11 molecules on cell lines derived. Tissue and cell culture populations were examined for infections with bacteria, ftingi, mycoplasma, HIV, CMV, hepatitis B and other viruses. Only 1% of the abortuses tested were virally infected. Cytogenetic analyses confin-ned the normal diploid status in the vast majority (>98%) of lines tested. A total of over 250 abortuses have been obtained and processed. Only 25 were found to be contaminated with bacteria or fungi and unsuitable for further cultivation trials. A total of over 200 cell populations were isolated, characterized and cryopreserved for further study. Included were kidney, lung, liver and epidermal epithelia: cartilage-derived cells from the spine and epiphyses plus myogenic myoblasts. Selected lines have been immortalized using HPV I 6E6/E7 sequences. Epithelia from the liver and pancreas and cardiac myocytes were the most problematic in that initial

  4. An evolving research agenda for human-coastal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Eli D.; Ellis, Michael A.; Brad Murray, A.; Hall, Damon M.

    2016-03-01

    Within the broad discourses of environmental change, sustainability science, and anthropogenic Earth-surface systems, a focused body of work involves the coupled economic and physical dynamics of developed shorelines. Rapid rates of change in coastal environments, from wetlands and deltas to inlets and dune systems, help researchers recognize, observe, and investigate coupling in natural (non-human) morphodynamics and biomorphodynamics. This same intrinsic quality of fast-paced change also makes developed coastal zones exemplars of observable coupling between physical processes and human activities. In many coastal communities, beach erosion is a natural hazard with economic costs that coastal management counters through a variety of mitigation strategies, including beach replenishment, groynes, revetments, and seawalls. As cycles of erosion and mitigation iterate, coastline change and economically driven interventions become mutually linked. Emergent dynamics of two-way economic-physical coupling is a recent research discovery. Having established a strong theoretical basis, research into coupled human-coastal systems has passed its early proof-of-concept phase. This paper frames three major challenges that need resolving in order to advance theoretical and empirical treatments of human-coastal systems: (1) codifying salient individual and social behaviors of decision-making in ways that capture societal actions across a range of scales (thus engaging economics, social science, and policy disciplines); (2) quantifying anthropogenic effects on alongshore and cross-shore sediment pathways and long-term landscape evolution in coastal zones through time, including direct measurement of cumulative changes to sediment cells resulting from coastal development and management practices (e.g., construction of buildings and artificial dunes, bulldozer removal of overwash after major storms); and (3) reciprocal knowledge and data exchange between researchers in coastal

  5. Requirements for growth and IL-10 expression of highly purified human T regulatory cells

    OpenAIRE

    Bonacci, Benedetta; Edwards, Brandon; Jia, Shuang; Williams, Calvin; Hessner, Martin J.; Gauld, Stephen; Verbsky, James

    2012-01-01

    Human regulatory T cells (TR) cells have potential for the treatment of a variety of immune mediated diseases but the anergic phenotype of these cells makes them difficult to expand in vitro. We have examined the requirements for growth and cytokine expression from highly purified human TR cells, and correlated these findings with the signal transduction events of these cells. We demonstrate that these cells do not proliferate or secrete IL-10 even in the presence of high doses of IL-2. Stimu...

  6. 76 FR 65204 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... constitute a clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome... Review Officer, Scientific Review Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, 5635 Fishers Lane...

  7. 77 FR 12604 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. >Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research... review and evaluate contract proposals. Place: National Human Genome Reseach Institute, 5635 Fishers Lane...

  8. Lack of school requirements and clinician recommendations for human papillomavirus vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda M. Niccolai

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: A strong recommendation from a clinician is one of the best predictors of human papillomavirus (HPV vaccination among adolescents, yet many clinicians do not provide effective recommendations. The objective of this study was to understand how the lack of school entry requirements for HPV vaccination influences clinicians’ recommendations. Design and Methods: Semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of 32 clinicians were conducted in 2015 in Connecticut USA. Data were analysed using an iterative thematic approach in 2016-2017. Results: Many clinicians described presenting HPV vaccination as optional or non-urgent because it is not required for school entry. This was noted to be different from how other required vaccines were discussed. Even strong recommendations were often qualified by statements about the lack of requirements. Furthermore, lack of requirements was often raised initially by clinicians and not by parents. Many clinicians agreed that requirements would simplify the recommendation, but that parents may not agree with requirements. Personal opinions about school entry requirements were mixed. Conclusions: The current lack of school entry requirements for HPV vaccination is an important influence on clinicians’ recommendations that are often framed as optional or non-urgent. Efforts are needed to strengthen the quality of clinicians’ recommendations in a way that remains strong and focused on disease prevention yet uncoupled from the lack of requirements that may encourage delays. Additionally, greater support for requirements among clinicians may be needed to successfully enact requirements in the future.

  9. Human therapeutic cloning (NTSC): applying research from mammalian reproductive cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Andrew J; Wood, Samuel H; Trounson, Alan O

    2006-01-01

    Human therapeutic cloning or nuclear transfer stem cells (NTSC) to produce patient-specific stem cells, holds considerable promise in the field of regenerative medicine. The recent withdrawal of the only scientific publications claiming the successful generation of NTSC lines afford an opportunity to review the available research in mammalian reproductive somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) with the goal of progressing human NTSC. The process of SCNT is prone to epigenetic abnormalities that contribute to very low success rates. Although there are high mortality rates in some species of cloned animals, most surviving clones have been shown to have normal phenotypic and physiological characteristics and to produce healthy offspring. This technology has been applied to an increasing number of mammals for utility in research, agriculture, conservation, and biomedicine. In contrast, attempts at SCNT to produce human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have been disappointing. Only one group has published reliable evidence of success in deriving a cloned human blastocyst, using an undifferentiated hESC donor cell, and it failed to develop into a hESC line. When optimal conditions are present, it appears that in vitro development of cloned and parthenogenetic embryos, both of which may be utilized to produce hESCs, may be similar to in vitro fertilized embryos. The derivation of ESC lines from cloned embryos is substantially more efficient than the production of viable offspring. This review summarizes developments in mammalian reproductive cloning, cell-to-cell fusion alternatives, and strategies for oocyte procurement that may provide important clues facilitating progress in human therapeutic cloning leading to the successful application of cell-based therapies utilizing autologous hESC lines.

  10. 76 FR 14562 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Additional Requirements for Market Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... and small disadvantaged business, should be exempt from market research requirements because the... subcontracting opportunities for small- business concerns. Careful attention to market-research strategies is an effective method for creating contract opportunities for small- business concerns. It provides them with an...

  11. 34 CFR 350.10 - What are the general requirements for Disability and Rehabilitation Research Projects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... more of the following types of activities, as specified in §§ 350.13-350.19: (1) Research. (2... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the general requirements for Disability and Rehabilitation Research Projects? 350.10 Section 350.10 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of...

  12. Development of a low cost solar simulator for human thermophysiological research

    OpenAIRE

    Long, Geoff M.

    2015-01-01

    Technical innovations and solutions are often required to facilitate thermophysiological research and this thesis describes such a system; a solar radiant heat source, designed, developed and fabricated in-house at the Extreme Environments Laboratory (EEL) in the University of Portsmouth. The system delivers electromagnetic radiation of a similar spectrum to natural sunlight onto an adult human, at intensities up to the highest that are experienced on earth, simulating both the heating eff...

  13. Human Rights Education and the Research Process: Action Research as a Tool for Reflection and Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Celma

    2016-01-01

    Human rights education (HRE) aims to achieve a change of mindsets and social attitudes that entails the construction of a culture of respect towards those values it teaches. Although HRE is a recent field of study, its consolidation in Latin America is a fact. During the latest decades several authors have carried out research related to HRE that…

  14. How consumer physical activity monitors could transform human physiology research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall Brown, Tyish S.; Collier, Scott R.; Sandberg, Kathryn

    2017-01-01

    A sedentary lifestyle and lack of physical activity are well-established risk factors for chronic disease and adverse health outcomes. Thus, there is enormous interest in measuring physical activity in biomedical research. Many consumer physical activity monitors, including Basis Health Tracker, BodyMedia Fit, DirectLife, Fitbit Flex, Fitbit One, Fitbit Zip, Garmin Vivofit, Jawbone UP, MisFit Shine, Nike FuelBand, Polar Loop, Withings Pulse O2, and others have accuracies similar to that of research-grade physical activity monitors for measuring steps. This review focuses on the unprecedented opportunities that consumer physical activity monitors offer for human physiology and pathophysiology research because of their ability to measure activity continuously under real-life conditions and because they are already widely used by consumers. We examine current and potential uses of consumer physical activity monitors as a measuring or monitoring device, or as an intervention in strategies to change behavior and predict health outcomes. The accuracy, reliability, reproducibility, and validity of consumer physical activity monitors are reviewed, as are limitations and challenges associated with using these devices in research. Other topics covered include how smartphone apps and platforms, such as the Apple ResearchKit, can be used in conjunction with consumer physical activity monitors for research. Lastly, the future of consumer physical activity monitors and related technology is considered: pattern recognition, integration of sleep monitors, and other biosensors in combination with new forms of information processing. PMID:28052867

  15. How consumer physical activity monitors could transform human physiology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Stephen P; Hall Brown, Tyish S; Collier, Scott R; Sandberg, Kathryn

    2017-03-01

    A sedentary lifestyle and lack of physical activity are well-established risk factors for chronic disease and adverse health outcomes. Thus, there is enormous interest in measuring physical activity in biomedical research. Many consumer physical activity monitors, including Basis Health Tracker, BodyMedia Fit, DirectLife, Fitbit Flex, Fitbit One, Fitbit Zip, Garmin Vivofit, Jawbone UP, MisFit Shine, Nike FuelBand, Polar Loop, Withings Pulse O 2 , and others have accuracies similar to that of research-grade physical activity monitors for measuring steps. This review focuses on the unprecedented opportunities that consumer physical activity monitors offer for human physiology and pathophysiology research because of their ability to measure activity continuously under real-life conditions and because they are already widely used by consumers. We examine current and potential uses of consumer physical activity monitors as a measuring or monitoring device, or as an intervention in strategies to change behavior and predict health outcomes. The accuracy, reliability, reproducibility, and validity of consumer physical activity monitors are reviewed, as are limitations and challenges associated with using these devices in research. Other topics covered include how smartphone apps and platforms, such as the Apple ResearchKit, can be used in conjunction with consumer physical activity monitors for research. Lastly, the future of consumer physical activity monitors and related technology is considered: pattern recognition, integration of sleep monitors, and other biosensors in combination with new forms of information processing. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Plucked Human Hair Shafts and Biomolecular Medical Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Schembri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hair follicle is a skin integument at the boundary between an organism and its immediate environment. The biological role of the human hair follicle has lost some of its ancestral importance. However, an indepth investigation of this miniorgan reveals hidden complexity with huge research potential. An essential consideration when dealing with human research is the awareness of potential harm and thus the absolute need not to harm—a rule aptly qualified by the Latin term “primum non nocere” (first do no harm. The plucked hair shaft offers such advantages. The use of stem cells found in hair follicles cells is gaining momentum in the field of regenerative medicine. Furthermore, current diagnostic and clinical applications of plucked hair follicles include their use as autologous and/or three-dimensional epidermal equivalents, together with their utilization as surrogate tissue in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics studies. Consequently, the use of noninvasive diagnostic procedures on hair follicle shafts, posing as a surrogate molecular model for internal organs in the individual patient for a spectrum of human disease conditions, can possibly become a reality in the near future.

  17. Step 1: Human System Integration (HSI) FY05 Pilot-Technology Interface Requirements for Contingency Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This document involves definition of technology interface requirements for Contingency Management. This was performed through a review of Contingency Management-related, HSI requirements documents, standards, and recommended practices. Technology concepts in use by the Contingency Management Work Package were considered. Beginning with HSI high-level functional requirements for Contingency Management, and Contingency Management technology elements, HSI requirements for the interface to the pilot were identified. Results of the analysis describe (1) the information required by the pilot to have knowledge of system failures and associated contingency procedures, and (2) the control capability needed by the pilot to obtain system status and procedure information. Fundamentally, these requirements provide the candidate Contingency Management technology concepts with the necessary human-related elements to make them compatible with human capabilities and limitations. The results of the analysis describe how Contingency Management operations and functions should interface with the pilot to provide the necessary Contingency Management functionality to the UA-pilot system. Requirements and guidelines for Contingency Management are partitioned into four categories: (1) Health and Status and (2) Contingency Management. Each requirement is stated and is supported with a rationale and associated reference(s).

  18. Human Pathogens on Plants: Designing a Multidisciplinary Strategy for Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jacqueline; Leach, Jan E; Eversole, Kellye; Tauxe, Robert

    2014-10-15

    Recent efforts to address concerns about microbial contamination of food plants and resulting foodborne illness have prompted new collaboration and interactions between the scientific communities of plant pathology and food safety. This article provides perspectives from scientists of both disciplines and presents selected research results and concepts that highlight existing and possible future synergisms for audiences of both disciplines. Plant pathology is a complex discipline that encompasses studies of the dissemination, colonization, and infection of plants by microbes such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and oomycetes. Plant pathologists study plant diseases as well as host plant defense responses and disease management strategies with the goal of minimizing disease occurrences and impacts. Repeated outbreaks of human illness attributed to the contamination of fresh produce, nuts and seeds, and other plant-derived foods by human enteric pathogens such as Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. have led some plant pathologists to broaden the application of their science in the past two decades, to address problems of human pathogens on plants (HPOPs). Food microbiology, which began with the study of microbes that spoil foods and those that are critical to produce food, now also focuses study on how foods become contaminated with pathogens and how this can be controlled or prevented. Thus, at the same time, public health researchers and food microbiologists have become more concerned about plant-microbe interactions before and after harvest. New collaborations are forming between members of the plant pathology and food safety communities, leading to enhanced research capacity and greater understanding of the issues for which research is needed. The two communities use somewhat different vocabularies and conceptual models. For example, traditional plant pathology concepts such as the disease triangle and the disease cycle can help to define

  19. Human pathogens on plants: designing a multidisciplinary strategy for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jacqueline; Leach, Jan E; Eversole, Kellye; Tauxe, Robert

    2013-04-01

    Recent efforts to address concerns about microbial contamination of food plants and resulting foodborne illness have prompted new collaboration and interactions between the scientific communities of plant pathology and food safety. This article provides perspectives from scientists of both disciplines and presents selected research results and concepts that highlight existing and possible future synergisms for audiences of both disciplines. Plant pathology is a complex discipline that encompasses studies of the dissemination, colonization, and infection of plants by microbes such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and oomycetes. Plant pathologists study plant diseases as well as host plant defense responses and disease management strategies with the goal of minimizing disease occurrences and impacts. Repeated outbreaks of human illness attributed to the contamination of fresh produce, nuts and seeds, and other plant-derived foods by human enteric pathogens such as Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. have led some plant pathologists to broaden the application of their science in the past two decades, to address problems of human pathogens on plants (HPOPs). Food microbiology, which began with the study of microbes that spoil foods and those that are critical to produce food, now also focuses study on how foods become contaminated with pathogens and how this can be controlled or prevented. Thus, at the same time, public health researchers and food microbiologists have become more concerned about plant-microbe interactions before and after harvest. New collaborations are forming between members of the plant pathology and food safety communities, leading to enhanced research capacity and greater understanding of the issues for which research is needed. The two communities use somewhat different vocabularies and conceptual models. For example, traditional plant pathology concepts such as the disease triangle and the disease cycle can help to define

  20. Trends in research involving human beings in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Eccard da Silva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Developing countries have experienced a dramatic increase in the number of clinical studies in the last decades. The aim of this study was to describe 1 the number of clinical trials submitted to the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency (Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária, Anvisa from 2007 to 2012 and the number of human-subject research projects approved by research ethics committees (RECs and the National Research Ethics Committee (Comissão Nacional de Ética em Pesquisa, CONEP in Brazil from 2007 to 2011 and 2 the diseases most frequently studied in Brazilian states in clinical trials approved in the country from 2009 to 2012, based on information from an Anvisa databank. Two databases were used: 1 the National Information System on Research Ethics Involving Human Beings (Sistema Nacional de Informação Sobre Ética em Pesquisa envolvendo Seres Humanos, SISNEP and 2 Anvisa's Clinical Research Control System (Sistema de Controle de Pesquisa Clínica, SCPC. Data from the SCPC indicated an increase of 32.7% in the number of clinical trials submitted to Anvisa, and data from the SISNEP showed an increase of 69.9% in those approved by RECs and CONEP (from 18 160 in 2007 to 30 860 in 2011. Type 2 diabetes (26.0% and breast cancer (20.5%-related to the main causes of mortality in Brazil-were the two most frequently studied diseases. The so-called “neglected diseases,” such as dengue fever, were among the least studied diseases in approved clinical trials, despite their significant impact on social, economic, and health indicators in Brazil. Overall, the data indicated 1 a clear trend toward more research involving human beings in Brazil, 2 good correspondence between diseases most studied in clinical trials approved by Anvisa and the main causes of death in Brazil, and 3 a low level of attention to neglected diseases, an issue that should be considered in setting future research priorities, given their socioeconomic and health effects.

  1. Are Sciences Essential and Humanities Elective? Disentangling Competing Claims for Humanities' Research Public Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmos-Peñuela, Julia; Benneworth, Paul; Castro-Martínez, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Recent policy discourse suggests that arts and humanities research is seen as being less useful to society than other disciplines, notably in science, technology, engineering and mathematics. The paper explores how this assumption's construction has been built and whether it is based upon an unfair prejudice: we argue for a prima facie case…

  2. Introduction of Human Factors Engineering Program Plan of a Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Tong Il; Lee, Hyun Chul

    2011-01-01

    KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) has a contract with Jordan to export a research and training reactor. KAERI is performing the project as an SD (System Design) and the design work has been performing by 8 design teams which include an Instrumentation and Control (I and C). A design of the MCR (Main Control Room) and the SCR (Supplementary Control Room) is being developed by the HFE design team which is a part of the I and C team. For the control room design considering the human factors principles, the HFE design team developed an HFEPP (Human Factors Engineering Program Plan) which should be established to meet regulatory requirements. In this study, the HFEPP for the JRTR (Jordan Research and Training Reactor) is introduced and the details are described

  3. Social Media Research, Human Behavior, and Sustainable Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A bibliometric analysis was conducted to review social media research from different perspectives during the period of 2008–2014 based on the Science Citation Index and Social Science Citation Index database. Using a collection of 10,042 articles related to social media, the bibliometric analysis revealed some interesting patterns and trend of the scientific outputs, major journals, subject categories, spatial distribution, international collaboration, and temporal evolution in keywords usage in social media studies. The research on social media has been characterized by rapid growth and dynamic collaboration, with a rising number of publications and citation. Communication, Sociology, Public, Environment & Occupational Health, Business, and Multidisciplinary Psychology were the five most common categories. Computers in Human Behavior was the journal with the most social media publications, and Computers & Education ranked first according to the average citations. The two most productive countries were the U.S. and UK, delivering about half of the publications. The proportion of China’s internationally collaborative publications was the highest. The University of Wisconsin, the University of Michigan, and Harvard University were three most productive institutions. Several keywords, such as “Facebook”, “Twitter”, “communication”, “Social Networking Sites”, “China”, “climate change”, “big data” and “social support” increasingly gained the popularity during the study period, indicating the research trends on human behavior and sustainability.

  4. Functional Mobility Testing: A Novel Method to Establish Human System Interface Design Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Scott A.; Benson, Elizabeth A.; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2008-01-01

    Across all fields of human-system interface design it is vital to posses a sound methodology dictating the constraints on the system based on the capabilities of the human user. These limitations may be based on strength, mobility, dexterity, cognitive ability, etc. and combinations thereof. Data collected in an isolated environment to determine, for example, maximal strength or maximal range of motion would indeed be adequate for establishing not-to-exceed type design limitations, however these restraints on the system may be excessive over what is basally needed. Resources may potentially be saved by having a technique to determine the minimum measurements a system must accommodate. This paper specifically deals with the creation of a novel methodology for establishing mobility requirements for a new generation of space suit design concepts. Historically, the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station vehicle and space hardware design requirements documents such as the Man-Systems Integration Standards and International Space Station Flight Crew Integration Standard explicitly stated that the designers should strive to provide the maximum joint range of motion capabilities exhibited by a minimally clothed human subject. In the course of developing the Human-Systems Integration Requirements (HSIR) for the new space exploration initiative (Constellation), an effort was made to redefine the mobility requirements in the interest of safety and cost. Systems designed for manned space exploration can receive compounded gains from simplified designs that are both initially less expensive to produce and lighter, thereby, cheaper to launch.

  5. Relating the Capabilities of the Handicapped to the Human Attribute Requirements of Jobs: Appendixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    Twenty-five appendixes from a study attempting to match capabilities of the handicapped to the human attribute requirements of three jobs (general secretary, automotive mechanic, and business data programmer) are presented. Appendixes include information on such topics as data analysis for identification of key tasks; job descriptions for the…

  6. Data governance requirements for distributed clinical research networks: triangulating perspectives of diverse stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Katherine K; Browe, Dennis K; Logan, Holly C; Holm, Roberta; Hack, Lori; Ohno-Machado, Lucila

    2014-01-01

    There is currently limited information on best practices for the development of governance requirements for distributed research networks (DRNs), an emerging model that promotes clinical data reuse and improves timeliness of comparative effectiveness research. Much of the existing information is based on a single type of stakeholder such as researchers or administrators. This paper reports on a triangulated approach to developing DRN data governance requirements based on a combination of policy analysis with experts, interviews with institutional leaders, and patient focus groups. This approach is illustrated with an example from the Scalable National Network for Effectiveness Research, which resulted in 91 requirements. These requirements were analyzed against the Fair Information Practice Principles (FIPPs) and Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) protected versus non-protected health information. The requirements addressed all FIPPs, showing how a DRN's technical infrastructure is able to fulfill HIPAA regulations, protect privacy, and provide a trustworthy platform for research. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. African Americans' opinions about human-genetics research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achter, Paul; Parrott, Roxanne; Silk, Kami

    2004-03-01

    Research on attitudes toward genetics and medicine registers skepticism among minority communities, but the reasons for this skepticism are not well known. In the past, studies linked mistrust of the medical system to historical ethics violations involving minority groups and to suspicions about ideological premise and political intent. To assess public knowledge, attitudes, and behavior regarding human-genetics research, we surveyed 858 Americans onsite in four community settings or online in a geographically nonspecific manner. Compared to participants as a whole, African Americans were significantly more likely to believe that clinical trials might be dangerous and that the federal government knowingly conducted unethical research, including studies in which risky vaccines were administered to prison populations. However, African Americans were also significantly more likely to believe that the federal government worked to prevent environmental exposure to toxicants harmful to people with genetic vulnerabilities. Our data suggest that most Americans trust government to act ethically in sponsoring and conducting research, including genetics research, but that African Americans are particularly likely to see government as powerfully protective in some settings yet selectively disingenuous in others.

  8. Building research capacity with members of underserved American Indian/Alaskan Native communities: training in research ethics and the protection of human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetter, Karen M; Yarborough, Mark; Cassady, Diana L; Styne, Dennis M

    2015-05-01

    To develop a research ethics training course for American Indian/Alaskan Native health clinic staff and community researchers who would be conducting human subjects research. Community-based participatory research methods were used in facilitated discussions of research ethics centered around topics included in the Collaborative Institutional Training Initiative research ethics course. The community-based participatory research approach allowed all partners to jointly develop a research ethics training program that was relevant for American Indian/Alaskan Native communities. All community and clinic partners were able to pass the Collaborative Institutional Training Initiative course they were required to pass so that they could be certified to conduct research with human subjects on federally funded projects. In addition, the training sessions provided a foundation for increased community oversight of research. By using a collaborative process to engage community partners in research ethics discussions, rather than either an asynchronous online or a lecture/presentation format, resulted in significant mutual learning about research ethics and community concerns about research. This approach requires university researchers to invest time in learning about the communities in which they will be working prior to the training. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  9. 40 CFR 26.1303 - Submission of information pertaining to ethical conduct of completed human research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ethical conduct of completed human research. 26.1303 Section 26.1303 Protection of Environment... on the Ethical Conduct of Completed Human Research § 26.1303 Submission of information pertaining to ethical conduct of completed human research. Any person who submits to EPA data derived from human...

  10. 77 FR 2735 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory Council for Human Genome Research. Date: February 13... Extramural Research National Human Genome Research Institute, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 4076, MSC 9305...

  11. 75 FR 2147 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... Council for Human Genome Research. The meetings will be open to the public as indicated below, with... Extramural Research, National Human Genome Research Institute, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 4076, MSC 9305...

  12. 75 FR 51828 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory Council for Human Genome Research. Date: February 7... Research, National Human Genome Research Institute, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 4076, MSC 9305, Bethesda, MD...

  13. One Health approach to identify research needs in bovine and human babesioses: workshop report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McElwain Terry F

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Babesia are emerging health threats to humans and animals in the United States. A collaborative effort of multiple disciplines to attain optimal health for people, animals and our environment, otherwise known as the One Health concept, was taken during a research workshop held in April 2009 to identify gaps in scientific knowledge regarding babesioses. The impetus for this analysis was the increased risk for outbreaks of bovine babesiosis, also known as Texas cattle fever, associated with the re-infestation of the U.S. by cattle fever ticks. Results The involvement of wildlife in the ecology of cattle fever ticks jeopardizes the ability of state and federal agencies to keep the national herd free of Texas cattle fever. Similarly, there has been a progressive increase in the number of cases of human babesiosis over the past 25 years due to an increase in the white-tailed deer population. Human babesiosis due to cattle-associated Babesia divergens and Babesia divergens-like organisms have begun to appear in residents of the United States. Research needs for human and bovine babesioses were identified and are presented herein. Conclusions The translation of this research is expected to provide veterinary and public health systems with the tools to mitigate the impact of bovine and human babesioses. However, economic, political, and social commitments are urgently required, including increased national funding for animal and human Babesia research, to prevent the re-establishment of cattle fever ticks and the increasing problem of human babesiosis in the United States.

  14. Health, human rights, and the conduct of clinical research within oppressed populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mills Edward J

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical trials evaluating interventions for infectious diseases require enrolling participants that are vulnerable to infection. As clinical trials are conducted in increasingly vulnerable populations, issues of protection of these populations become challenging. In settings where populations are forseeably oppressed, the conduct of research requires considerations that go beyond common ethical concerns and into issues of international human rights law. Discussion Using examples of HIV prevention trials in Thailand, hepatitis-E prevention trials in Nepal and malaria therapeutic trials in Burma (Myanmar, we address the inadequacies of current ethical guidelines when conducting research within oppressed populations. We review existing legislature in the United States and United Kingdom that may be used against foreign investigators if trial hardships exist. We conclude by making considerations for research conducted within oppressed populations.

  15. The irradiation of human volunteer subjects in research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, R.

    1980-01-01

    In medical research radiation is sometimes used to obtain data from healthy individuals. These subjects gain no specific benefit from the research. To safeguard their welfare, constraints are imposed on the dose to be received, on the selection of volunteer subjects, on ensuring their understanding of the procedures and risks, and on obtaining their free consent to participate. The research proposals are assessed by peer review prior to being approved by the host institution. The first example presented describes the use of diagnostic radiography to obtain in vivo data on the femur bone. Conservative dosimetry indicates an expected dose-equivalent per film of 0.5 mSv in bone and 0.18 mSv in bone marrow and gonad tissue. The critical organ total dose-equivalent is estimated to be 7% of the dose-equivalent limit for a volunteer. The second example involves the internal administration of radioactive tracers. Dosimetric calculations indicate an expected whole-body dose-equivalent of 0.5 mSv in the case of C-14 and 0.37 mSv in the case of H-3, these values bejng 10% and 7% of the relevant dose-equivalent limit. Both proposals were given conditional approval. In the generalized research use of volunteer human subjects the rights of the subject, the investigator and the institution need to be protected. At the University of New South Wales procedures have been introduced to govern all experjmental procedures involving human subjects. Some interesting problems which have arisen are discussed. (author)

  16. The value of respect in human research ethics: a conceptual analysis and a practical guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, I J; Thomson, C J H

    2014-01-01

    In order to continue to maintain public trust and confidence in human research, participants must be treated with respect. Researchers and Human Research Ethics Committee members need to be aware that modern considerations of this value include: the need for a valid consenting process, the protection of participants who have their capacity for consent compromised; the promotion of dignity for participants; and the effects that human research may have on cultures and communities. This paper explains the prominence of respect as a value when considering the ethics of human research and provides practical advice for both researchers and Human Research Ethics Committee members in developing respectful research practices.

  17. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Basic Energy Sciences Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Richard; Wasserman, Harvey

    2011-03-31

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the leading scientific computing facility supporting research within the Department of Energy's Office of Science. NERSC provides high-performance computing (HPC) resources to approximately 4,000 researchers working on about 400 projects. In addition to hosting large-scale computing facilities, NERSC provides the support and expertise scientists need to effectively and efficiently use HPC systems. In February 2010, NERSC, DOE's Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) and DOE's Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) held a workshop to characterize HPC requirements for BES research through 2013. The workshop was part of NERSC's legacy of anticipating users future needs and deploying the necessary resources to meet these demands. Workshop participants reached a consensus on several key findings, in addition to achieving the workshop's goal of collecting and characterizing computing requirements. The key requirements for scientists conducting research in BES are: (1) Larger allocations of computational resources; (2) Continued support for standard application software packages; (3) Adequate job turnaround time and throughput; and (4) Guidance and support for using future computer architectures. This report expands upon these key points and presents others. Several 'case studies' are included as significant representative samples of the needs of science teams within BES. Research teams scientific goals, computational methods of solution, current and 2013 computing requirements, and special software and support needs are summarized in these case studies. Also included are researchers strategies for computing in the highly parallel, 'multi-core' environment that is expected to dominate HPC architectures over the next few years. NERSC has strategic plans and initiatives already underway that address key workshop findings. This report includes a

  18. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Biological and Environmental Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE Office of Science, Biological and Environmental Research Program Office (BER),

    2009-09-30

    In May 2009, NERSC, DOE's Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR), and DOE's Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) held a workshop to characterize HPC requirements for BER-funded research over the subsequent three to five years. The workshop revealed several key points, in addition to achieving its goal of collecting and characterizing computing requirements. Chief among them: scientific progress in BER-funded research is limited by current allocations of computational resources. Additionally, growth in mission-critical computing -- combined with new requirements for collaborative data manipulation and analysis -- will demand ever increasing computing, storage, network, visualization, reliability and service richness from NERSC. This report expands upon these key points and adds others. It also presents a number of"case studies" as significant representative samples of the needs of science teams within BER. Workshop participants were asked to codify their requirements in this"case study" format, summarizing their science goals, methods of solution, current and 3-5 year computing requirements, and special software and support needs. Participants were also asked to describe their strategy for computing in the highly parallel,"multi-core" environment that is expected to dominate HPC architectures over the next few years.

  19. The NASA Human Research Wiki - An Online Collaboration Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Yael; Rasbury, Jack; Johnson, Jordan; Barstend, Kristina; Saile, Lynn; Watkins, Sharmi

    2012-01-01

    The Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) element is one of six elements of the Human Research Program (HRP). ExMC is charged with decreasing the risk of: "Inability to adequately recognize or treat an ill or injured crew member" for exploration-class missions In preparation for exploration-class missions, ExMC has compiled a large evidence base, previously available only to persons within the NASA community. ExMC has developed the "NASA Human Research Wiki" in an effort to make the ExMC information available to the general public and increase collaboration within and outside of NASA. The ExMC evidence base is comprised of several types of data, including: (1)Information on more than 80 medical conditions which could occur during space flight (a)Derived from several sources (b)Including data on incidence and potential outcomes, as captured in the Integrated Medical Model s (IMM) Clinical Finding Forms (CliFFs). (2)Approximately 25 gap reports (a)Identify any "gaps" in knowledge and/or technology that would need to be addressed in order to provide adequate medical support for these novel missions.

  20. Naturalistic Cognition: A Research Paradigm for Human-Centered Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Storkerson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Naturalistic thinking and knowing, the tacit, experiential, and intuitive reasoning of everyday interaction, have long been regarded as inferior to formal reason and labeled primitive, fallible, subjective, superstitious, and in some cases ineffable. But, naturalistic thinking is more rational and definable than it appears. It is also relevant to design. Inquiry into the mechanisms of naturalistic thinking and knowledge can bring its resources into focus and enable designers to create better, human-centered designs for use in real-world settings. This article makes a case for the explicit, formal study of implicit, naturalistic thinking within the fields of design. It develops a framework for defining and studying naturalistic thinking and knowledge, for integrating them into design research and practice, and for developing a more integrated, consistent theory of knowledge in design. It will (a outline historical definitions of knowledge, attitudes toward formal and naturalistic thinking, and the difficulties presented by the co-presence of formal and naturalistic thinking in design, (b define and contrast formal and naturalistic thinking as two distinct human cognitive systems, (c demonstrate the importance of naturalistic cognition in formal thinking and real-world judgment, (d demonstrate methods for researching naturalistic thinking that can be of use in design, and (e briefly discuss the impact on design theory of admitting naturalistic thinking as valid, systematic, and knowable.

  1. 75 FR 62738 - Revisions to EPA's Rule on Protections for Subjects in Human Research Involving Pesticides...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... addressed in EPA science and ethics reviews of proposed and completed human research for pesticides, based... Revisions to EPA's Rule on Protections for Subjects in Human Research Involving Pesticides; Notification to... protection of human subjects of research that apply to third parties who conduct or support research for...

  2. Weather conditions: a neglected factor in human salivary cortisol research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milas, Goran; Šupe-Domić, Daniela; Drmić-Hofman, Irena; Rumora, Lada; Klarić, Irena Martinović

    2018-02-01

    There is ample evidence that environmental stressors such as extreme weather conditions affect animal behavior and that this process is in part mediated through the elevated activity of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis which results in an increase in cortisol secretion. This relationship has not been extensively researched in humans, and weather conditions have not been analyzed as a potential confounder in human studies of stress. Consequently, the goal of this paper was to assess the relationship between salivary cortisol and weather conditions in the course of everyday life and to test a possible moderating effect of two weather-related variables, the climate region and timing of exposure to outdoors conditions. The sample consisted of 903 secondary school students aged 18 to 21 years from Mediterranean and Continental regions. Cortisol from saliva was sampled in naturalistic settings at three time points over the course of a single day. We found that weather conditions are related to salivary cortisol concentration and that this relationship may be moderated by both the specific climate and the anticipation of immediate exposure to outdoors conditions. Unpleasant weather conditions are predictive for the level of salivary cortisol, but only among individuals who anticipate being exposed to it in the immediate future (e.g., in students attending school in the morning shift). We also demonstrated that isolated weather conditions or their patterns may be relevant in one climate area (e.g., Continental) while less relevant in the other (e.g., Mediterranean). Results of this study draw attention to the importance of controlling weather conditions in human salivary cortisol research.

  3. 23 CFR 420.207 - What are the requirements for research, development, and technology transfer work programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the requirements for research, development, and..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH PLANNING AND RESEARCH PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION Research, Development and Technology Transfer Program Management § 420.207 What are the requirements for research...

  4. Development of Regulatory Technical Requirements for the Advanced Integral Type Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Jong Chull; Yune, Young Gill; Kim, Woong Sik; Kim, Hho Jung

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the current status of the study on the development of regulatory technical requirements for the licensing review of an advanced integral type research reactor of which the license application is expected in a few years. According to the Atomic Energy Act of Korea, both research and education reactors are subject to the technical requirements for power reactors in the licensing review. But, some of the requirements may not be applicable or insufficient for the licensing reviews of reactors with unique design features. Thus it is necessary to identify which review topics or areas can not be addressed by the existing requirements and to develop the required ones newly or supplement appropriately. Through the study performed so far, it has been identified that the following requirements need to be developed newly for the licensing review of SMART-P: the use of proven technology, the interfacial facility, the non-safety systems, and the metallic fuels. The approach and basis for the development of each of the requirements are discussed. (authors)

  5. Landscape requirements of a primate population in a human-dominated environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffman Tali S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction As urban and rural land development become widespread features of the global landscape so an understanding of the landscape requirements of displaced and isolated wildlife species becomes increasingly important for conservation planning. In the Cape Peninsula, South Africa, rapid human population growth, and the associated urban and rural land transformation, threatens the sustainability of the local chacma baboon population. Here we analyse spatial data collected from nine of the 12 extant troops to determine their population-level landscape requirements. We use hurdle models to ascertain the key landscape features influencing baboon occurrence and abundance patterns on two hierarchical spatial scales. Results Both spatial scales produced similar results that were ecologically reliable and interpretable. The models indicated that baboons were more likely to occur, and be more abundant, at low altitudes, on steep slopes and in human-modified habitats. The combination of these landscape variables provides baboons with access to the best quality natural and anthropogenic food sources in close proximity to one another and suitable sleeping sites. Surface water did not emerge as an influential landscape feature presumably as the area is not water stressed. Conclusions The model results indicate that land development in the Cape Peninsula has pushed baboons into increasingly marginal natural habitat while simultaneously providing them with predictable and easily accessible food sources in human-modified habitats. The resultant spatial competition between humans and baboons explains the high levels of human-baboon conflict and further erosion of the remaining land fragments is predicted to exacerbate competition. This study demonstrates how the quantification of animal landscape requirements can provide a mechanism for identifying priority conservation areas at the human-wildlife interface.

  6. Research trends in the South African Journal of Human Resource Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Pietersen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: A comprehensive framework for research in human resource management (HRM in terms of fundamental knowledge orientations was found lacking. Research purpose: The aim was to perform a typological review of research trends in the field of HRM, specifically of publications in the South African Journal of Human Resource Management (SAJHRM. Motivation for the study: No previous research in the field of HRM in South Africa adopted a fundamental theory of knowledge. Research design, approach and method: A qualitative design was followed, consisting of a documentary analysis of articles that were published in the SAJHRM for the period from 2003 to 2015. A detailed content analysis of published articles was performed in terms of a number of criteria, namely knowledge type, race, gender, authorship, author contribution and representation according to author institution and country of origin. Main findings: An analysis of a final selection of 289 articles indicated that research in the SAJHRM was mostly on the following lines: research was mostly of the hypothesis-testing (Type II knowledge type; involved multiple authorship; and was conducted by mostly white, male researchers, based at a relatively few South African academic institutions. Practical and managerial implications: The SAJHRM should, in partnership with the HRM profession, promote and publish research that more prominently addresses the gap between academic HRM and HRM practice, especially in terms of the participatory or action research (Type IV mode of knowledge generation. Contribution: The present analysis of research trends in the SAJHRM provides a broader and more nuanced perspective on forms of research required for the HRM field in South Africa.

  7. Ethics and methods for biological rhythm research on animals and human beings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portaluppi, Francesco; Smolensky, Michael H; Touitou, Yvan

    2010-10-01

    This article updates the ethical standards and methods for the conduct of high-quality animal and human biological rhythm research, which should be especially useful for new investigators of the rhythms of life. The editors of Chronobiology International adhere to and endorse the Code of Conduct and Best Practice Guidelines of the Committee On Publication Ethics (COPE), which encourages communication of such updates at regular intervals in the journal. The journal accepts papers representing original work, no part of which was previously submitted for publication elsewhere, except as brief abstracts, as well as in-depth reviews. The majority of research papers published in Chronobiology International entails animal and human investigations. The editors and readers of the journal expect authors of submitted manuscripts to have made an important contribution to the research of biological rhythms and related phenomena using ethical methods/procedures and unbiased, accurate, and honest reporting of findings. Authors of scientific papers are required to declare all potential conflicts of interest. The journal and its editors endorse compliance of investigators to the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research of the National Research Council, relating to the conduct of ethical research on laboratory and other animals, and the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki of the World Medical Association, relating to the conduct of ethical research on human beings. The peer review of manuscripts by Chronobiology International thus includes judgment as to whether or not the protocols and methods conform to ethical standards. Authors are expected to show mastery of the basic methods and procedures of biological rhythm research and proper statistical assessment of data, including the appropriate application of time series data analyses, as briefly reviewed in this article. The journal editors strive to consistently achieve

  8. Zebrafish models in translational research: tipping the scales toward advancements in human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer B. Phillips

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Advances in genomics and next-generation sequencing have provided clinical researchers with unprecedented opportunities to understand the molecular basis of human genetic disorders. This abundance of information places new requirements on traditional disease models, which have the potential to be used to confirm newly identified pathogenic mutations and test the efficacy of emerging therapies. The unique attributes of zebrafish are being increasingly leveraged to create functional disease models, facilitate drug discovery, and provide critical scientific bases for the development of new clinical tools for the diagnosis and treatment of human disease. In this short review and the accompanying poster, we highlight a few illustrative examples of the applications of the zebrafish model to the study of human health and disease.

  9. Incorporating BDI Agents into Human-Agent Decision Making Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphorst, Bart; van Wissen, Arlette; Dignum, Virginia

    Artificial agents, people, institutes and societies all have the ability to make decisions. Decision making as a research area therefore involves a broad spectrum of sciences, ranging from Artificial Intelligence to economics to psychology. The Colored Trails (CT) framework is designed to aid researchers in all fields in examining decision making processes. It is developed both to study interaction between multiple actors (humans or software agents) in a dynamic environment, and to study and model the decision making of these actors. However, agents in the current implementation of CT lack the explanatory power to help understand the reasoning processes involved in decision making. The BDI paradigm that has been proposed in the agent research area to describe rational agents, enables the specification of agents that reason in abstract concepts such as beliefs, goals, plans and events. In this paper, we present CTAPL: an extension to CT that allows BDI software agents that are written in the practical agent programming language 2APL to reason about and interact with a CT environment.

  10. Human rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines for rhabdomyosarcoma research: Utility and pitfalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley R.P. Hinson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS is the most common soft tissue sarcoma of childhood and adolescence. Despite intergroup clinical trials conducted in Europe and North America, outcomes for high risk patients with this disease have not significantly improved in the last several decades, and survival of metastatic or relapsed disease remains extremely poor. Accrual into new clinical trials is slow and difficult, so in vitro cell line research and in vivo xenograft models present an attractive alternative for preclinical research for this cancer type. Currently, 30 commonly used human RMS cell lines exist, with differing origins, karyotypes, histologies, and methods of validation. Selecting an appropriate cell line for RMS research has important implications for outcomes. There are also potential pitfalls in using certain cell lines including contamination with murine stromal cells, cross-contamination between cell lines, discordance between the cell line and its associated original tumor, imposter cell lines, and nomenclature errors that result in the circulation of two or more presumed unique cell lines that are actually from the same origin. These pitfalls can be avoided by testing for species-specific isoenzymes, microarray analysis, assays for subtype-specific fusion products, and short tandem repeat analysis.

  11. Human Rhabdomyosarcoma Cell Lines for Rhabdomyosarcoma Research: Utility and Pitfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, Ashley R. P.; Jones, Rosanne; Crose, Lisa E. S.; Belyea, Brian C.; Barr, Frederic G.; Linardic, Corinne M.

    2013-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common soft tissue sarcoma of childhood and adolescence. Despite intergroup clinical trials conducted in Europe and North America, outcomes for high risk patients with this disease have not significantly improved in the last several decades, and survival of metastatic or relapsed disease remains extremely poor. Accrual into new clinical trials is slow and difficult, so in vitro cell-line research and in vivo xenograft models present an attractive alternative for preclinical research for this cancer type. Currently, 30 commonly used human RMS cell lines exist, with differing origins, karyotypes, histologies, and methods of validation. Selecting an appropriate cell line for RMS research has important implications for outcomes. There are also potential pitfalls in using certain cell lines including contamination with murine stromal cells, cross-contamination between cell lines, discordance between the cell line and its associated original tumor, imposter cell lines, and nomenclature errors that result in the circulation of two or more presumed unique cell lines that are actually from the same origin. These pitfalls can be avoided by testing for species-specific isoenzymes, microarray analysis, assays for subtype-specific fusion products, and short tandem repeat analysis. PMID:23882450

  12. Safety Design Requirements for The Interior Architecture of Scientific Research Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElDib, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    The paper discusses one of the primary objectives of interior architecture design of research laboratories (specially those using radioactive materials) where it should provide a safe, accessible environment for laboratory personnel to conduct their work. A secondary objective is to allow for maximum flexibility for safe research. Therefore, health and safety hazards must be anticipated and carefully evaluated so that protective measures can be incorporated into the interior architectural design of these facilities wherever possible. The interior architecture requirements discussed in this paper illustrate some of the basic health and safety design features required for new and remodeled laboratories.The paper discusses one of the primary objectives of interior architecture design of research laboratories (specially those using radioactive materials) where it should provide a safe, accessible environment for laboratory personnel to conduct their work. A secondary objective is to allow for maximum flexibility for safe research. Therefore, health and safety hazards must be anticipated and carefully evaluated so that protective measures can be incorporated into the interior architectural design of these facilities wherever possible. The interior architecture requirements discussed in this paper illustrate some of the basic health and safety design features required for new and remodeled laboratories.

  13. The tritium monitoring requirements of fusion and the status of research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickerson, S.B.; Gerdingh, R.F.; Penfold, K.

    1982-10-01

    This report is a summary of an investigation into the tritium monitoring requirements of tritium laboratories, D-T burning ignition experiments, and fusion reactors. There is also a summary of the status of research into tritium monitoring and a survey of commercially available tritium monitors

  14. Evaluation of the Executive Information Requirements for the Market Research Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanser, Michael A.

    A study examined the marketing research information required by those executives of Lakeshore Technical College (Wisconsin) whose decisions affect the college's direction. Data were gathered from the following sources: literature review; development of a data dictionary framework; analysis of the college's current information system through…

  15. Stable nuclide tracer studies and human amino acid requirements. A summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, V.R.

    1994-01-01

    The nutritional requirements for proteins have been estimated for various age groups. The current status of knowledge concerning the quantitative needs for specific indispensable amino acids was reviewed and it was concluded that, except for infants, current values for pre-school children, school age children and healthy adults are based on limited experimental data and/or on results from nitrogen balance determinations which are open to serious question regarding their nutritional significance. A review of 13 C-labelled tracer studies carried out in MIT laboratories was undertaken to demonstrate the applicability of stable nuclide tracer studies for purposes of determining the amino acid requirements of humans. 5 refs

  16. Climate Change, Human Health, and Biomedical Research: Analysis of the National Institutes of Health Research Portfolio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbus, John M.; Christian, Carole; Haque, Ehsanul; Howe, Sally E.; Newton, Sheila A.; Reid, Britt C.; Roberts, Luci; Wilhelm, Erin; Rosenthal, Joshua P.

    2013-01-01

    Background: According to a wide variety of analyses and projections, the potential effects of global climate change on human health are large and diverse. The U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), through its basic, clinical, and population research portfolio of grants, has been increasing efforts to understand how the complex interrelationships among humans, ecosystems, climate, climate variability, and climate change affect domestic and global health. Objectives: In this commentary we present a systematic review and categorization of the fiscal year (FY) 2008 NIH climate and health research portfolio. Methods: A list of candidate climate and health projects funded from FY 2008 budget appropriations were identified and characterized based on their relevance to climate change and health and based on climate pathway, health impact, study type, and objective. Results: This analysis identified seven FY 2008 projects focused on climate change, 85 climate-related projects, and 706 projects that focused on disease areas associated with climate change but did not study those associations. Of the nearly 53,000 awards that NIH made in 2008, approximately 0.17% focused on or were related to climate. Conclusions: Given the nature and scale of the potential effects of climate change on human health and the degree of uncertainty that we have about these effects, we think that it is helpful for the NIH to engage in open discussions with science and policy communities about government-wide needs and opportunities in climate and health, and about how NIH’s strengths in human health research can contribute to understanding the health implications of global climate change. This internal review has been used to inform more recent initiatives by the NIH in climate and health. PMID:23552460

  17. Climate change, human health, and biomedical research: analysis of the National Institutes of Health research portfolio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessup, Christine M; Balbus, John M; Christian, Carole; Haque, Ehsanul; Howe, Sally E; Newton, Sheila A; Reid, Britt C; Roberts, Luci; Wilhelm, Erin; Rosenthal, Joshua P

    2013-04-01

    According to a wide variety of analyses and projections, the potential effects of global climate change on human health are large and diverse. The U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), through its basic, clinical, and population research portfolio of grants, has been increasing efforts to understand how the complex interrelationships among humans, ecosystems, climate, climate variability, and climate change affect domestic and global health. In this commentary we present a systematic review and categorization of the fiscal year (FY) 2008 NIH climate and health research portfolio. A list of candidate climate and health projects funded from FY 2008 budget appropriations were identified and characterized based on their relevance to climate change and health and based on climate pathway, health impact, study type, and objective. This analysis identified seven FY 2008 projects focused on climate change, 85 climate-related projects, and 706 projects that focused on disease areas associated with climate change but did not study those associations. Of the nearly 53,000 awards that NIH made in 2008, approximately 0.17% focused on or were related to climate. Given the nature and scale of the potential effects of climate change on human health and the degree of uncertainty that we have about these effects, we think that it is helpful for the NIH to engage in open discussions with science and policy communities about government-wide needs and opportunities in climate and health, and about how NIH's strengths in human health research can contribute to understanding the health implications of global climate change. This internal review has been used to inform more recent initiatives by the NIH in climate and health.

  18. 78 FR 68856 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... Nakamura, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, Scientific Review Branch, National Human Genome Research...-402-0838. [[Page 68857

  19. Cross-Cultural Competence: Leader Requirements for Intercultural Effectiveness in the Human Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    patience with me along the way. I also need to thank the Combined Arms Research Library staff for their assistance in many different ways, and the staff...and low levels of ethnocentrism required in jobs with complex international and multicultural responsibilities, as found in the empirical study by... multicultural perspective taking skills. Technical Report, U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences, Fort Belvoir, VA

  20. Reauthorization of NCLB: Time to Reconsider the Scientifically Based Research Requirement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Franco

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The federal initiative, NCLB, includes guidelines about educational research methodology as well as school practices ("No Child Left Behind Act," p. 532. The law states that reforms and school practices should be based on scientifically based research (SBR. SBR is mentioned over 100 times in NCLB (A. Smith, 2003, p. 126. Next to the strong emphasis on dis-aggregation of test scores, NCLB’s reference to SBR has spawned the next most frequent number of responses in the literature (Viadero, 2004. Educational researchers spend time “fighting these designs when they are inappropriate or irrelevant, which is often the case” (Eisenhart, 2005, p. 246. In response to the NCLB SBR mandate, the National Research Council (2002 published a report, Scientific Research in Education (SRE, addressing the question of the meaning of SBR. On the NCLB website, the U.S. Department of Education explains that “scientifically based research means there is reliable evidence that the program or practice works ” (n.d.. The explanation includes a reference to experimental study involving an experiment/control group. The report states that requiring SBR “moves the testing of educational practices toward the medical model used by scientists to assess the effectiveness of medications, therapies and the like” (A. Smith, 2003, p. 126. The strong emphasis on SBR leads one to the conclusion that forms of research that do not conform to SBR are invalid (Mayer, 2006, Winter, p. 8. Having the federal government legislate SBR is unusual and can be interpreted to have political overtones. Howe (2005 explains that research methodology is “unavoidably political by virtue of adopting certain aims, employing certain kinds of vocabularies and theories, and providing certain people the opportunity to be (or not to be heard (p. 321.” It has been suggested that SBR was mandated to improve the credibility of educational research and thus to increase the likelihood of continued

  1. Aligning research assessment in the Humanities to the national Standard Evaluation Protocol Challenges and developments in the Dutch research landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prins, A.; Spaapen, J.; Van Vree, F

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this session is a debate about innovation in comprehensive methods for the assessment of humanities research. Input will come from preliminary outcomes of an ongoing project in the Netherlands to find adequate indicators for humanities research that will fit in the national Standard Evaluation Protocol. The project includes processes of ‘bottom up’ data collection (that is, with input coming from the research community) and discussion with Humanities researchers, investigating the specific characteristics of publication and communication cultures in the Humanities, and the prospects for the use of quantitative and qualitative indicators. (Author)

  2. Edwin Grant Dexter: an early researcher in human behavioral biometeorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Alan E.

    2015-06-01

    Edwin Grant Dexter (1868-1938) was one of the first researchers to study empirically the effects of specific weather conditions on human behavior. Dexter (1904) published his findings in a book, Weather influences. The author's purposes in this article were to (1) describe briefly Dexter's professional life and examine the historical contexts and motivations that led Dexter to conduct some of the first empirical behavioral biometeorological studies of the time, (2) describe the methods Dexter used to examine weather-behavior relationships and briefly characterize the results that he reported in Weather influences, and (3) provide a historical analysis of Dexter's work and assess its significance for human behavioral biometeorology. Dexter's Weather influences, while demonstrating an exemplary approach to weather, health, and behavior relationships, came at the end of a long era of such studies, as health, social, and meteorological sciences were turning to different paradigms to advance their fields. For these reasons, Dexter's approach and contributions may not have been fully recognized at the time and are, consequently, worthy of consideration by contemporary biometeorologists.

  3. Hans Jonas' thought on the ethics of research on human subjects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hans Jonas' thought on the ethics of research on human subjects and its implications for contemporary medical research in Nigeria was examined. The thinking and teachings of Hans Jonas was on the need for medical research to advance beyond the use animals for research and experimentations to research on human ...

  4. 77 FR 60706 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special.... Nakamura, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, Scientific Review Branch, National Human Genome Research...

  5. 76 FR 19780 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... E. Day, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, CIDR, National Human Genome Research Institute, National... . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program No. 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes of...

  6. 76 FR 3917 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special... Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 4076, MSC 9306, Rockville, MD...

  7. 75 FR 56115 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special... Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS...

  8. 76 FR 3643 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Initial... . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes of...

  9. 78 FR 24223 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Initial...: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: National Human Genome Research Institute, 3rd floor...

  10. 77 FR 2304 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome....S.C. 281(d)(4)), notice is hereby given that the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI... meeting of the National Advisory Council for Human Genome Research. Background materials on the proposed...

  11. 78 FR 21382 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... applications. Place: National Human Genome Research Institute, Suite 4076, 5635 Fisher's Lane, Bethesda, MD..., National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 4075...

  12. 78 FR 20933 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special... review and evaluate grant applications. Place: National Human Genome Research Institute, Room 3055, 5635...

  13. 76 FR 22112 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special....nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research...

  14. 78 FR 31953 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special... review and evaluate grant applications. Place: National Human Genome Research Institute, 3rd Floor...

  15. 75 FR 10488 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research...- 4280, [email protected]gov . Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special...

  16. 76 FR 35224 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome...). Contact Person: Camilla E. Day, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, CIR, National Human Genome Research..., [email protected] . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research...

  17. 75 FR 8373 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute [email protected] . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research...

  18. 77 FR 22332 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special.... Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: National Human Genome Research Institute, 5635...

  19. 76 FR 22407 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special.... (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes of...

  20. 77 FR 8268 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... applications. Place: National Human Genome Research Institute, 5635 Fisher's Lane, Room 4076, Rockville, MD..., CIDR, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite...

  1. 75 FR 48977 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome.... Contact Person: Camilla E. Day, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, CIDR, National Human Genome Research..., [email protected] . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research...

  2. 77 FR 74676 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 4075, Bethesda.... 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: December 11, 2012. David...

  3. 75 FR 19984 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome..., National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 4075... Nakamura, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, Scientific Review Branch, National Human Genome Research...

  4. 75 FR 26762 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Initial... . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes of...

  5. 75 FR 44800 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... for Human Genome Research. The meeting will be closed to the public in accordance with the provisions... Committee: National Advisory Council for Human Genome Research. Date: August 18, 2010. Time: 1 p.m. to 3 p.m...

  6. 75 FR 35821 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... Person: Camilla E. Day, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, CIDR, National Human Genome Research [email protected] . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research...

  7. 76 FR 3642 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research....nih.gov . Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel eMERGE...

  8. 78 FR 47715 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... Person: Camilla E. Day, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, CIDR, National Human Genome Research [email protected] . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research...

  9. 77 FR 31863 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special..., Human Genome Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: May 22, 2012. Jennifer S. Spaeth...

  10. 75 FR 52537 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Initial....nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research...

  11. 76 FR 79199 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome.... Contact Person: Camilla E. Day, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, CIDR, National Human Genome Research..., [email protected] . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research...

  12. 75 FR 2148 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Initial....nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research...

  13. 76 FR 66731 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special... Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: October 21, 2011...

  14. 76 FR 10909 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome..., National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 4076, MSC..., Human Genome Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS). Dated: February 18, 2011. Jennifer S. Spaeth...

  15. 76 FR 36930 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special..., Human Genome Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: June 17, 2011. Jennifer S. Spaeth...

  16. 77 FR 35991 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 4075, Bethesda.... 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: June 8, 2012. Jennifer S...

  17. 77 FR 61770 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special... Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) [[Page 61771...

  18. 76 FR 63932 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special... Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: October 7...

  19. 75 FR 8977 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome..., National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 4076, MSC..., Human Genome Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: February 18, 2010. Jennifer Spaeth...

  20. 78 FR 66752 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel, October 15, 2013, 01:00 p.m. to October 15, 2013, 02:30 p.m., National Human Genome Research Institute, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 3055, Rockville...

  1. 75 FR 32957 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special... funding cycle. (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research...

  2. 78 FR 14806 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special... p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: National Human Genome Research...

  3. 75 FR 53703 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome..., Scientific Review Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, 5635.... (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes of...

  4. 75 FR 67380 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... Review Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane.... (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes of...

  5. Genomic research with human samples. Points of view from scientists and research subjects about disclosure of results and risks of genomic research. Ethical and empirical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle Mansilla, José Ignacio

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical researchers often now ask subjects to donate samples to be deposited in biobanks. This is not only of interest to researchers, patients and society as a whole can benefit from the improvements in diagnosis, treatment, and prevention that the advent of genomic medicine portends. However, there is a growing debate regarding the social and ethical implications of creating biobanks and using stored human tissue samples for genomic research. Our aim was to identify factors related to both scientists and patients' preferences regarding the sort of information to convey to subjects about the results of the study and the risks related to genomic research. The method used was a survey addressed to 204 scientists and 279 donors from the U.S. and Spain. In this sample, researchers had already published genomic epidemiology studies; and research subjects had actually volunteered to donate a human sample for genomic research. Concerning the results, patients supported more frequently than scientists their right to know individual results from future genomic research. These differences were statistically significant after adjusting by the opportunity to receive genetic research results from the research they had previously participated and their perception of risks regarding genetic information compared to other clinical data. A slight majority of researchers supported informing participants about individual genomic results only if the reliability and clinical validity of the information had been established. Men were more likely than women to believe that patients should be informed of research results even if these conditions were not met. Also among patients, almost half of them would always prefer to be informed about individual results from future genomic research. The three main factors associated to a higher support of a non-limited access to individual results were: being from the US, having previously been offered individual information and considering

  6. Identification and Characterization of Key Human Performance Issues and Research in the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Paul U.; Sheridan, Tom; Poage, james L.; Martin, Lynne Hazel; Jobe, Kimberly K.

    2010-01-01

    This report identifies key human-performance-related issues associated with Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) research in the NASA NextGen-Airspace Project. Four Research Focus Areas (RFAs) in the NextGen-Airspace Project - namely Separation Assurance (SA), Airspace Super Density Operations (ASDO), Traffic Flow Management (TFM), and Dynamic Airspace Configuration (DAC) - were examined closely. In the course of the research, it was determined that the identified human performance issues needed to be analyzed in the context of NextGen operations rather than through basic human factors research. The main gaps in human factors research in NextGen were found in the need for accurate identification of key human-systems related issues within the context of specific NextGen concepts and better design of the operational requirements for those concepts. By focusing on human-system related issues for individual concepts, key human performance issues for the four RFAs were identified and described in this report. In addition, mixed equipage airspace with components of two RFAs were characterized to illustrate potential human performance issues that arise from the integration of multiple concepts.

  7. Vitamin D Is Required for IFN-γ–Mediated Antimicrobial Activity of Human Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabri, Mario; Stenger, Steffen; Shin, Dong-Min; Yuk, Jae-Min; Liu, Philip T.; Realegeno, Susan; Lee, Hye-Mi; Krutzik, Stephan R.; Schenk, Mirjam; Sieling, Peter A.; Teles, Rosane; Montoya, Dennis; Iyer, Shankar S.; Bruns, Heiko; Lewinsohn, David M.; Hollis, Bruce W.; Hewison, Martin; Adams, John S.; Steinmeyer, Andreas; Zügel, Ulrich; Cheng, Genhong; Jo, Eun-Kyeong; Bloom, Barry R.; Modlin, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Control of tuberculosis worldwide depends on our understanding of human immune mechanisms, which combat the infection. Acquired T cell responses are critical for host defense against microbial pathogens, yet the mechanisms by which they act in humans remain unclear. We report that T cells, by the release of interferon-γ (IFN-γ), induce autophagy, phagosomal maturation, the production of antimicrobial peptides such as cathelicidin, and antimicrobial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in human macrophages via a vitamin D–dependent pathway. IFN-γ induced the antimicrobial pathway in human macrophages cultured in vitamin D–sufficient sera, but not in sera from African-Americans that have lower amounts of vitamin D and who are more susceptible to tuberculosis. In vitro supplementation of vitamin D–deficient serum with 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 restored IFN-γ–induced antimicrobial peptide expression, autophagy, phagosome-lysosome fusion, and antimicrobial activity. These results suggest a mechanism in which vitamin D is required for acquired immunity to overcome the ability of intracellular pathogens to evade macrophage-mediated antimicrobial responses. The present findings underscore the importance of adequate amounts of vitamin D in all human populations for sustaining both innate and acquired immunity against infection. PMID:21998409

  8. Human Research Program 2010 Chair Standing Review Panel Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Susan

    2011-01-01

    The 13 Human Research Program (HRP) Standing Review Panel (SRP) Chairs, and in some cases one or two additional panel members (see section XIV, roster) referred to as the Chair (+1) SRP throughout this document, met at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) on December 7, 2010 to allow the HRP Elements and Projects to report on their progress over the past year, their current status, and their plans for the upcoming year based on NASA's current goals and objectives for human space exploration. A large focus of the meeting was also used to discuss integration across the HRP scientific disciplines based on a recommendation from the 2009 HRP SRP review. During the one-day meeting, each of the HRP Elements and Projects presented the changes they made to the HRP Integrated Research Plan (IRP Rev. B) over the last year, and what their top three areas of integration are between other HRP Elements/Projects. The Chair (+1) SRP spent sufficient time addressing the panel charge, either as a group or in a separate closed session, and the Chair (+1) SRP and the HRP presenters and observers, in most cases, had sufficient time to discuss during and after the presentations. The SRP made a final debriefing to the HRP Program Scientist, Dr. John B. Charles, prior to the close of the meeting on December 7, 2010. Overall, the Chair (+1) SRP concluded that most of the HRP Elements/Projects did a commendable job during the past year in addressing integration across the HRP scientific disciplines with the available resources. The Chair (+1) SRP agreed that the idea of integration between HRP Elements/Projects is noble, but believes all parties involved should have the same definition of integration, in order to be successful. The Chair (+1) SRP also believes that a key to successful integration is communication among the HRP Elements/Projects which may present a challenge. The Chair (+1) SRP recommends that the HRP have a workshop on program integration (with HRP Element

  9. Vasodilator-Stimulated Phosphoprotein Activity Is Required for Coxiella burnetii Growth in Human Macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punsiri M Colonne

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Coxiella burnetii is an intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes human Q fever, an acute flu-like illness that can progress to chronic endocarditis and liver and bone infections. Humans are typically infected by aerosol-mediated transmission, and C. burnetii initially targets alveolar macrophages wherein the pathogen replicates in a phagolysosome-like niche known as the parasitophorous vacuole (PV. C. burnetii manipulates host cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA signaling to promote PV formation, cell survival, and bacterial replication. In this study, we identified the actin regulatory protein vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP as a PKA substrate that is increasingly phosphorylated at S157 and S239 during C. burnetii infection. Avirulent and virulent C. burnetii triggered increased levels of phosphorylated VASP in macrophage-like THP-1 cells and primary human alveolar macrophages, and this event required the Cα subunit of PKA. VASP phosphorylation also required bacterial protein synthesis and secretion of effector proteins via a type IV secretion system, indicating the pathogen actively triggers prolonged VASP phosphorylation. Optimal PV formation and intracellular bacterial replication required VASP activity, as siRNA-mediated depletion of VASP reduced PV size and bacterial growth. Interestingly, ectopic expression of a phospho-mimetic VASP (S239E mutant protein prevented optimal PV formation, whereas VASP (S157E mutant expression had no effect. VASP (S239E expression also prevented trafficking of bead-containing phagosomes to the PV, indicating proper VASP activity is critical for heterotypic fusion events that control PV expansion in macrophages. Finally, expression of dominant negative VASP (S157A in C. burnetii-infected cells impaired PV formation, confirming importance of the protein for proper infection. This study provides the first evidence of VASP manipulation by an intravacuolar bacterial pathogen via activation of PKA

  10. Human Research Program Human Health Countermeasures Element Nutrition Risk Standing Review Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bistrian, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    The Nutrition Risk Standing Review Panel (SRP) reviewed and discussed the specific gaps and tasks for the Human Health Countermeasures (HHC) Element related to nutrition identified in the Human Research Program (HRP) Integrated Research Plan. There was general consensus that the described gaps and proposed tasks were critical to future NASA mission success. The SRP acknowledged the high scientific quality of the work currently being undertaken by the Nutritional Biochemistry group under the direction of Dr. Scott Smith. In review of the entire HRP, four new gaps were identified that complement the Element's existing research activities. Given the limitations of ground-based analogs for many of the unique physiological and metabolic alterations in space, future studies are needed to quantify nutritional factors that change during actual space flight. In addition, future tasks should seek to better evaluate the time course of physiological and metabolic alterations during flight to better predict alterations during longer duration missions. Finally, given the recent data suggesting a potential role for increased inflammatory responses during space flight, the role of inflammation needs to be explored in detail, including the development of potential countermeasures and new ground based analogs, if this possibility is confirmed.

  11. A burn center paradigm to fulfill deferred consent public disclosure and community consultation requirements for emergency care research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackford, Martha G; Falletta, Lynn; Andrews, David A; Reed, Michael D

    2012-09-01

    To fulfill Food and Drug Administration and Department of Health and Human Services emergency care research informed consent requirements, our burn center planned and executed a deferred consent strategy gaining Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval to proceed with the clinical study. These federal regulations dictate public disclosure and community consultation unique to acute care research. Our regional burn center developed and implemented a deferred consent public notification and community consultation paradigm appropriate for a burn study. Published accounts of deferred consent strategies focus on acute care resuscitation practices. We adapted those strategies to design and conduct a comprehensive public notification/community consultation plan to satisfy deferred consent requirements for burn center research. To implement a robust media campaign we engaged the hospital's public relations department, distributed media materials, recruited hospital staff for speaking engagements, enlisted community volunteers, and developed initiatives to inform "hard-to-reach" populations. The hospital's IRB determined we fulfilled our obligation to notify the defined community. Our communication strategy should provide a paradigm other burn centers may appropriate and adapt when planning and executing a deferred consent initiative. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  12. Interior Architectural Requirements for Electronic Circuits and its Applications Research Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElDib, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the pivotal role of the Interior Architecture As one of the scientific disciplines minute to complete the Architectural Sciences, which relied upon the achievement and development of facilities containing scientific research laboratories, in terms of planning and design, particularly those containing biological laboratories using radioactive materials, adding to that, the application of the materials or raw materials commensurate with each discipline of laboratory and its work nature, and by the discussion the processing of design techniques and requirements of interior architecture dealing with Research Laboratory for electronic circuits and their applications with the making of its prototypes

  13. Can methodological requirements be fulfilled when studying concealed or unethical research objects? The case of astroturfing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie BOULAY

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Scientific soundness is key in the development of research designs. Methodological choices bear the responsibility to demonstrate its obtainment. However, it is challenging to abide by these standards while dealing with hidden, masked or unethical objects. In this article, we share the various strategies employed to aim at a sound scientific process in spite of astroturfing’s characteristics and of the methodological orientations it dictates. Facing the dilemma between the importance of scientific value and the richness of inductive and exploratory approaches, we question the influence of positivist research standards in communication studies. We fear these requirements may limit their development.

  14. Human Research Program Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE) Standing Review Panel (SRP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichansky, Anna; Badler, Norman; Butler, Keith; Cummings, Mary; DeLucia, Patricia; Endsley, Mica; Scholtz, Jean

    2009-01-01

    The Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE) Standing Review Panel (SRP) evaluated 22 gaps and 39 tasks in the three risk areas assigned to the SHFE Project. The area where tasks were best designed to close the gaps and the fewest gaps were left out was the Risk of Reduced Safety and Efficiency dire to Inadequate Design of Vehicle, Environment, Tools or Equipment. The areas where there were more issues with gaps and tasks, including poor or inadequate fit of tasks to gaps and missing gaps, were Risk of Errors due to Poor Task Design and Risk of Error due to Inadequate Information. One risk, the Risk of Errors due to Inappropriate Levels of Trust in Automation, should be added. If astronauts trust automation too much in areas where it should not be trusted, but rather tempered with human judgment and decision making, they will incur errors. Conversely, if they do not trust automation when it should be trusted, as in cases where it can sense aspects of the environment such as radiation levels or distances in space, they will also incur errors. This will be a larger risk when astronauts are less able to rely on human mission control experts and are out of touch, far away, and on their own. The SRP also identified 11 new gaps and five new tasks. Although the SRP had an extremely large quantity of reading material prior to and during the meeting, we still did not feel we had an overview of the activities and tasks the astronauts would be performing in exploration missions. Without a detailed task analysis and taxonomy of activities the humans would be engaged in, we felt it was impossible to know whether the gaps and tasks were really sufficient to insure human safety, performance, and comfort in the exploration missions. The SRP had difficulty evaluating many of the gaps and tasks that were not as quantitative as those related to concrete physical danger such as excessive noise and vibration. Often the research tasks for cognitive risks that accompany poor task or

  15. Unintended consequences of human research ethics committees: au revoir workplace studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamber, Greg J; Sappey, Jennifer

    2007-07-01

    To protect the welfare and rights of participants in research and to facilitate research that will be of benefit, as well as protect them against litigation, universities and research-funding agencies in Australia adopted the National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Research Involving Humans (NHMRC 1999). In many other countries there are similar statements. However, the ways in which such statements are often implemented by Human Research Ethics Committees (HRECs) are in conflict with an important stream of industrial sociological research. This stream seeks to deconstruct workplaces and de-layer management rhetoric to understand the realities and complexities of the social relations of production. There is a pluralist basis for much industrial sociology that challenges the unitarist view of the workplace as essentially harmonious. While views of workplaces as being conflictual and exploitative have to be tempered with an understanding of the accommodative and cooperative nature of workplace relations, there is nevertheless a general recognition of acts of resistance, as well as those of cooperation. The way in which the National Statement is typically implemented in Australia means that many HRECs require written, informed consent, which in the first instance will usually be that of management. An unintended consequence is a research focus on consensus, which is at best one-sided and at worst seriously misleading. It is unlikely that managerial consent will be granted unless there is a 'good news story' guaranteed. This article explores the ways in which HRECs may influence workplace research. The publication of the revised National Statement provides a valuable opportunity not to be missed by HRECs to implement more effective and efficient practices which would not have the unintended consequences of the earlier version. This would deserve the support of researchers in industrial sociology and other branches of the social sciences.

  16. Human Research Program Human Health Countermeasures Element: Evidence Report - Artificial Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    The most serious risks of long-duration flight involve radiation, behavioral stresses, and physiological deconditioning. Artificial gravity (AG), by substituting for the missing gravitational cues and loading in space, has the potential to mitigate the last of these risks by preventing the adaptive responses from occurring. The rotation of a Mars-bound spacecraft or an embarked human centrifuge offers significant promise as an effective, efficient multi-system countermeasure against the physiological deconditioning associated with prolonged weightlessness. Virtually all of the identified risks associated with bone loss, muscle weakening, cardiovascular deconditioning, and sensorimotor disturbances might be alleviated by the appropriate application of AG. However, experience with AG in space has been limited and a human-rated centrifuge is currently not available on board the ISS. A complete R&D program aimed at determining the requirements for gravity level, gravity gradient, rotation rate, frequency, and duration of AG exposure is warranted before making a decision for implementing AG in a human spacecraft.

  17. Technology requirements to be addressed by the NASA Lewis Research Center Cryogenic Fluid Management Facility program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydelott, J. C.; Rudland, R. S.

    1985-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center is responsible for the planning and execution of a scientific program which will provide advance in space cryogenic fluid management technology. A number of future space missions were identified that require or could benefit from this technology. These fluid management technology needs were prioritized and a shuttle attached reuseable test bed, the cryogenic fluid management facility (CFMF), is being designed to provide the experimental data necessary for the technology development effort.

  18. Review of regulatory requirements relevant to calibration of monitoring instruments in research reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomaa, Hassan; Khedr, Ahmed; El-Din Talha, Kamal [Egyptian Nuclear and Radiological Regulatory Authority, Cairo (Egypt). Nuclear Safety Engineering Dept.

    2015-05-15

    The objective of this work is to demonstrate the regulatory requirements pertaining to calibration of monitoring instruments in research reactors. The regulatory statements concerning this subject in IAEA safety standards and the implementation of such regulations in twelve countries with different levels of nuclear programs are surveyed: Australia, Bulgaria, Canada, Egypt, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Slovenia, South Korea, Spain, United Kingdom of England and United States of America. In addition, the requirements of ISO/IEC17025 and NUPIC (Nuclear Utilities Procurement Issues Committee) are compared. Seven technical and administrate aspects are suggested as the comparison criteria and the explicit expression of the statements, the level of document (i.e.: act, requirement or guide) are the considered resources. The main differences and similarities between the different approaches are identified in order to provide an input for future development of the national regulations.

  19. Using the Human Systems Simulation Laboratory at Idaho National Laboratory for Safety Focused Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joe, Jeffrey .C; Boring, Ronald L.

    2016-07-01

    Under the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program, researchers at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) have been using the Human Systems Simulation Laboratory (HSSL) to conduct critical safety focused Human Factors research and development (R&D) for the nuclear industry. The LWRS program has the overall objective to develop the scientific basis to extend existing nuclear power plant (NPP) operating life beyond the current 60-year licensing period and to ensure their long-term reliability, productivity, safety, and security. One focus area for LWRS is the NPP main control room (MCR), because many of the instrumentation and control (I&C) system technologies installed in the MCR, while highly reliable and safe, are now difficult to replace and are therefore limiting the operating life of the NPP. This paper describes how INL researchers use the HSSL to conduct Human Factors R&D on modernizing or upgrading these I&C systems in a step-wise manner, and how the HSSL has addressed a significant gap in how to upgrade systems and technologies that are built to last, and therefore require careful integration of analog and new advanced digital technologies.

  20. [Clinical research XXIV. From clinical judgment to ethics in research on humans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Rodríguez, Marcela; Palacios-Cruz, Lino; Rivas-Ruiz, Rodolfo; Talavera, Juan O

    2014-01-01

    Bioethics in research is an essential part of the structured review process of an article and it is based on three fundamental principles: respect for persons, beneficence and justice. In addition to not providing valid knowledge, a research with inadequate design, execution and statistical analysis is not ethical either, since these methodological deficiencies will produce information that will not be useful and, therefore, the risks that the participants were exposed to will have been in vain. Beyond scientific validity, there are other aspects that outline if an investigation is ethical, such as the clinical and social value of a study, a fair selection of participants, favorable risk-benefit balance, an independent review, the informed consent and respect for participants and potential participants. Throughout the article here presented, the documents that profile the behavior of investigators to protect the participants, such as the Declaration of Helsinki, the national regulations that rule us and the differences between research without risk, with minimal risk and with greater than minimal risk are discussed. That like in daily life, behavior in research involving human participants must be self-regulated, ie, people with knowledge of the existence of the law discover that the man is outside the realm of nature where work is done under the necessity of natural causality, and falls within the scope of the will; only if the man is free to decide their actions may be a law regulating their action.

  1. Human Performance Optimization Metrics: Consensus Findings, Gaps, and Recommendations for Future Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nindl, Bradley C; Jaffin, Dianna P; Dretsch, Michael N; Cheuvront, Samuel N; Wesensten, Nancy J; Kent, Michael L; Grunberg, Neil E; Pierce, Joseph R; Barry, Erin S; Scott, Jonathan M; Young, Andrew J; OʼConnor, Francis G; Deuster, Patricia A

    2015-11-01

    Human performance optimization (HPO) is defined as "the process of applying knowledge, skills and emerging technologies to improve and preserve the capabilities of military members, and organizations to execute essential tasks." The lack of consensus for operationally relevant and standardized metrics that meet joint military requirements has been identified as the single most important gap for research and application of HPO. In 2013, the Consortium for Health and Military Performance hosted a meeting to develop a toolkit of standardized HPO metrics for use in military and civilian research, and potentially for field applications by commanders, units, and organizations. Performance was considered from a holistic perspective as being influenced by various behaviors and barriers. To accomplish the goal of developing a standardized toolkit, key metrics were identified and evaluated across a spectrum of domains that contribute to HPO: physical performance, nutritional status, psychological status, cognitive performance, environmental challenges, sleep, and pain. These domains were chosen based on relevant data with regard to performance enhancers and degraders. The specific objectives at this meeting were to (a) identify and evaluate current metrics for assessing human performance within selected domains; (b) prioritize metrics within each domain to establish a human performance assessment toolkit; and (c) identify scientific gaps and the needed research to more effectively assess human performance across domains. This article provides of a summary of 150 total HPO metrics across multiple domains that can be used as a starting point-the beginning of an HPO toolkit: physical fitness (29 metrics), nutrition (24 metrics), psychological status (36 metrics), cognitive performance (35 metrics), environment (12 metrics), sleep (9 metrics), and pain (5 metrics). These metrics can be particularly valuable as the military emphasizes a renewed interest in Human Dimension efforts

  2. Research on operation and maintenance support system adaptive to human recognition and understanding in human-centered plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numano, Masayoshi; Matsuoka, Takeshi; Mitomo, N.

    2004-01-01

    As a human-centered plant, advanced nuclear power plant needs appropriate role sharing between human and mobile intelligent agents. Human-machine cooperation for plant operation and maintenance activities is also required with an advanced interface. Plant's maintenance is programmed using mobile robots working under the radiation environments instead of human beings. Operation and maintenance support system adaptive to human recognition and understanding should be developed to establish adequate human and machine interface so as to induce human capabilities to the full and enable human to take responsibility for plan's operation. Plant's operation and maintenance can be cooperative activities between human and intelligent automonous agents having surveillance and control functions. Infrastructure of multi-agent simulation system for the support system has been investigated and developed based on work plans derived from the scheduler. (T. Tanaka)

  3. Evolution of Attitudes in the Field of Human Research Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Escobar-Melo

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The state of evolution of attitudes in a sample of 142 Medical Students at the Pontificia Universidad Javeriana in Bogota (at the beginning, middle and ending of their studies in the field of Human Research Ethics (HRE is analytically described. A complex scale of attitudes was used, with three components: affective, beliefs-related and behavioral, further divided into three theoretical categories taken from Bioethics: Subject-End/means- Dignity, Benefit and Justice. The relationship between the current medical education process and the attitudes regarding HRE in the sample are analyzed.A small trend towards progress in all categories and in all components of attitudes throughout medical education is described; neither the Benefit nor the Subject-End/means/Dignity categories evolve in a significant way; some significant differences were observed in the Justice category (beliefs and behavioral and in the Subject-End/means-Dignity category (beliefs component. The results allow for asking about the role of formation and evolution of those attitudes throughout the academic process. In conclusion, attitudes seem to be progressing relatively, without a decisive evolution.

  4. A review of over three decades of research on cat-human and human-cat interactions and relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Dennis C

    2017-08-01

    This review article covers research conducted over the last three decades on cat-human and human-cat interactions and relationships, especially from an ethological point of view. It includes findings on cat-cat and cat-human communication, cat personalities and cat-owner personalities, the effects of cats on humans, and problems caused by cats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Ethical acceptability of research on human-animal chimeric embryos: summary of opinions by the Japanese Expert Panel on Bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Hiroshi; Akutsu, Hidenori; Kato, Kazuto

    2015-01-01

    Human-animal chimeric embryos are embryos obtained by introducing human cells into a non-human animal embryo. It is envisaged that the application of human-animal chimeric embryos may make possible many useful research projects including producing three-dimensional human organs in animals and verification of the pluripotency of human ES cells or iPS cells in vivo. The use of human-animal chimeric embryos, however, raises several ethical and moral concerns. The most fundamental one is that human-animal chimeric embryos possess the potential to develop into organisms containing human-derived tissue, which may lead to infringing upon the identity of the human species, and thus impairing human dignity. The Japanese Expert Panel on Bioethics in the Cabinet Office carefully considered the scientific significance and ethical acceptability of the issue and released its "Opinions regarding the handling of research using human-animal chimeric embryos". The Panel proposed a framework of case-by-case review, and suggested that the following points must be carefully reviewed from the perspective of ethical acceptability: (a) Types of animal embryos and types of animals receiving embryo transfers, particularly in dealing with non-human primates; (b) Types of human cells and organs intended for production, particularly in dealing with human nerve or germ cells; and (c) Extent of the period required for post-transfer studies. The scientific knowledge that can be gained from transfer into an animal uterus and from the production of an individual must be clarified to avoid unnecessary generation of chimeric animals. The time is ripe for the scientific community and governments to start discussing the ethical issues for establishing a global consensus.

  6. USING RESEARCH METHODS IN HUMAN COMPUTER INTERACTION TO DESIGN TECHNOLOGY FOR RESILIENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Arminda Guerra

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Research in human computer interaction (HCI) covers both technological and human behavioural concerns. As a consequence, the contributions made in HCI research tend to be aware to either engineering or the social sciences. In HCI the purpose of practical research contributions is to reveal unknown insights about human behaviour and its relationship to technology. Practical research methods normally used in HCI include formal experiments, field experiments, field studies, interviews, ...

  7. A Human Factors Perspective on Alarm System Research and Development 2000 to 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curt Braun; John Grimes; Eric Shaver; Ronald Boring (Principal Investigator)

    2011-09-01

    By definition, alarms serve to notify human operators of out-of-parameter conditions that could threaten equipment, the environment, product quality and, of course, human life. Given the complexities of industrial systems, human machine interfaces, and the human operator, the understanding of how alarms and humans can best work together to prevent disaster is continually developing. This review examines advances in alarm research and development from 2000 to 2010 and includes the writings of trade professionals, engineering and human factors researchers, and standards organizations with the goal of documenting advances in alarms system design, research, and implementation.

  8. Decision Support System Requirements Definition for Human Extravehicular Activity Based on Cognitive Work Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew James; McGuire, Kerry M; Feigh, Karen M

    2017-06-01

    The design and adoption of decision support systems within complex work domains is a challenge for cognitive systems engineering (CSE) practitioners, particularly at the onset of project development. This article presents an example of applying CSE techniques to derive design requirements compatible with traditional systems engineering to guide decision support system development. Specifically, it demonstrates the requirements derivation process based on cognitive work analysis for a subset of human spaceflight operations known as extravehicular activity . The results are presented in two phases. First, a work domain analysis revealed a comprehensive set of work functions and constraints that exist in the extravehicular activity work domain. Second, a control task analysis was performed on a subset of the work functions identified by the work domain analysis to articulate the translation of subject matter states of knowledge to high-level decision support system requirements. This work emphasizes an incremental requirements specification process as a critical component of CSE analyses to better situate CSE perspectives within the early phases of traditional systems engineering design.

  9. 75 FR 8085 - National Institutes of Health Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... Health Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research SUMMARY: The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is requesting public comment on a revision to the definition of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in the ``National Institutes of Health Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research'' (Guidelines). On July 7, 2009, NIH...

  10. 75 FR 13137 - National Institutes of Health Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... Health Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research SUMMARY: The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is extending the public comment period on a revision to the definition of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in the ``National Institutes of Health Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research'' (Guidelines). Due to a...

  11. 76 FR 5735 - Revisions to EPA's Rule on Protections for Subjects in Human Research Involving Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... addressed in EPA science and ethics reviews of proposed and completed human research with pesticides, drawn..., which suggest ethical considerations relevant to evaluation of human studies. Third, Petitioners argued... Revisions to EPA's Rule on Protections for Subjects in Human Research Involving Pesticides AGENCY...

  12. 77 FR 67385 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel, October 29, 2012, 8:00 a.m. to October 30...

  13. 78 FR 65342 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel, October 17, 2013, 08:00 a.m. to October 17...

  14. 76 FR 65738 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel, November 29, 2011, 8 a.m. to November 29...

  15. 77 FR 55853 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Advisory Council for Human Genome Research, September 10, 2012, 8:30 a.m. to September 11, 2012, 5...

  16. 77 FR 27471 - National Human Genome Research Institute Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Advisory Council for Human Genome Research, May 21, 2012, 8:30 a.m. to May 22, 2012, 5:00 p.m...

  17. 76 FR 71581 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel, November 22, 2011, 12 p.m. to November 22...

  18. Preparation of the requirements for the safety regulation related to human and organizational factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    The outline of the project in the current fiscal year is to investigate and analyze issues associated with Human and Organizational Factors involved in incidents of nuclear facilities, and to study and develop evaluation methods of these countermeasures. The guideline to evaluate licensee's safety culture and root cause analysis (RCA) had been developed for further improving safety on nuclear power plants at 2007. These guidelines have been used at regulatory inspection since that time. Based on experience of using these existing guidelines, some activities for improving guidelines are now under investigation; these are selecting candidate quantitative indicators for safety culture evaluation and researching good practices for RCA issues. JNES implemented human factor analysis about 18 domestic events including the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident. (author)

  19. Growth of human T lymphocyte colonies from whole blood: culture requirements and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, S.J.; Wilson, F.D.; Greenberg, B.R.; Shifrine, M.

    1982-01-01

    Growth of human lymphocyte colonies from whole blood following stimulation with PHA, Con A, or PPD is described. Individual colony cells were identified as T lymphocytes on the basis of surface marker and enzyme cytochemical characterizations. Colony formation increased as a power function over a wide range of cell concentrations above a critical minimal concentration. The whole blood culture system eliminates possible selective effects of lymphocyte colony techniques utilizing gradient-enriched lymphocyte fractions and more closely approximates the in vivo milieu. The whole blood colony method is more sensitive for the detection of low-level radiation effects on lymphocytes than widely used tests that measure 3 H-thymidine incorporation. In preliminary studies, researchers used the whole blood method to determine the relative radiosensitivity of lymphocytes from humans with various hematopoietic disorders, and observed abnormalities in mitogen responsiveness and colony formation in some of the patient groups. This method has wide application for studies in cellular and clinical immunology

  20. Research on the NPP human factors engineering operating experience review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Xiangchen; Miao Hongxing; Ning Zhonghe

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the importance of the human factors engineering (HFE) for the design of nuclear power plant (NPP), especially for the design of human-machine interface in the NPP. It also summarizes the scope and content of the NPP HFE. The function, scope, content and process of the NPP human factors engineering operating experience review (OER) are mainly focused on, and significantly discussed. Finally, it briefly introduces the situation of the studies on the OER in China. (authors)

  1. Teaching Qualitative Research for Human Services Students: A Three-Phase Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goussinsky, Ruhama; Reshef, Arie; Yanay-Ventura, Galit; Yassour-Borochowitz, Dalit

    2011-01-01

    Qualitative research is an inherent part of the human services profession, since it emphasizes the great and multifaceted complexity characterizing human experience and the sociocultural context in which humans act. In the department of human services at Emek Yezreel College, Israel, we have developed a three-phase model to ensure a relatively…

  2. 76 FR 66076 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... Call). Contact Person: Camilla E. Day, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, CIDR, National Human Genome... Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: October 19...

  3. 77 FR 64816 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome..., National Human Genome Research Institute. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below, with... invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: Board of Scientific Counselors, National Human Genome...

  4. 76 FR 65204 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome..., National Human Genome Research Institute. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below, with... invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: Board of Scientific Counselors, National Human Genome...

  5. 77 FR 50140 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome..., Human Genome Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: August 13, 2012. Anna Snouffer, Deputy..., Bethesda, MD 20892. Contact Person: Camilla E. Day, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, CIDR, National Human...

  6. 77 FR 64816 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome..., Human Genome Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: October 16, 2012. David Clary, Program... Conference Call). Contact Person: Camilla E. Day, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, CIDR, National Human...

  7. 78 FR 11898 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome....172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: February 13, 2013. David Clary... Conference Call). Contact Person: Camilla E. Day, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer CIDR, National Human...

  8. 78 FR 77477 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome..., Human Genome Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS). Dated: December 17, 2013. David Clary... Conference Call). Contact Person: Camilla E. Day, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, CIDR, National Human...

  9. 78 FR 61851 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special... a.m. to 4:00 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: National Human Genome...

  10. 75 FR 80509 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... Call). Contact Person: Camilla E. Day, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, CIDR, National Human Genome... Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: December 16...

  11. 76 FR 28056 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research... D. Nakamura, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, Office of Scientific Review, National Human Genome...

  12. 75 FR 52538 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special... Person: Ken D. Nakamura, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, Scientific Review Branch, National Human Genome...

  13. 76 FR 35223 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special... Person: Rudy O. Pozzatti, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, Scientific Review Branch, National Human Genome...

  14. 75 FR 60467 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome..., National Human Genome Research Institute. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below, with... invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: Board of Scientific Counselors, National Human Genome...

  15. Proceedings of the meeting for coordinating precision machining of optics research and requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, T.T.

    1975-12-01

    The meeting for ''Coordinating Precision Machining of Optics Research and Requirements'' on September 18, 1975, was sponsored by the Air Force Weapons Laboratory at Kirtland AFB, NM. These proceedings contain an introduction to the meeting including a brief description of the participants and the objectives. The developments and capabilities of Union Carbide Y-12 plant are described in detail. A short summary of the new Moore no. 5 machine at Bendix, Kansas City, Mo. is included as well as a description of using light scattering for roughness characterization at Rockwell International, Rocky Flats, Colorado. The executive summary of the meeting mentions some of the discussions that also followed. Important conclusions of the meeting were that a 5 y lead time is required to obtain a machine and acquire the necessary skills for precision machining, and that demands for diamond turning optics will be increasing

  16. New perspectives in human stem cell therapeutic research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trounson Alan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human stem cells are in evaluation in clinical stem cell trials, primarily as autologous bone marrow studies, autologous and allogenic mesenchymal stem cell trials, and some allogenic neural stem cell transplantation projects. Safety and efficacy are being addressed for a number of disease state applications. There is considerable data supporting safety of bone marrow and mesenchymal stem cell transplants but the efficacy data are variable and of mixed benefit. Mechanisms of action of many of these cells are unknown and this raises the concern of unpredictable results in the future. Nevertheless there is considerable optimism that immune suppression and anti-inflammatory properties of mesenchymal stem cells will be of benefit for many conditions such as graft versus host disease, solid organ transplants and pulmonary fibrosis. Where bone marrow and mesenchymal stem cells are being studied for heart disease, stroke and other neurodegenerative disorders, again progress is mixed and mostly without significant benefit. However, correction of multiple sclerosis, at least in the short term is encouraging. Clinical trials on the use of embryonic stem cell derivatives for spinal injury and macular degeneration are beginning and a raft of other clinical trials can be expected soon, for example, the use of neural stem cells for killing inoperable glioma and embryonic stem cells for regenerating β islet cells for diabetes. The change in attitude to embryonic stem cell research with the incoming Obama administration heralds a new co-operative environment for study and evaluation of stem cell therapies. The Californian stem cell initiative (California Institute for Regenerative Medicine has engendered global collaboration for this new medicine that will now also be supported by the US Federal Government. The active participation of governments, academia, biotechnology, pharmaceutical companies, and private investment is a powerful consortium for

  17. A research agenda for helminth diseases of humans: social ecology, environmental determinants, and health systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Gazzinelli

    Full Text Available In this paper, the Disease Reference Group on Helminth Infections (DRG4, established in 2009 by the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR, with the mandate to review helminthiases research and identify research priorities and gaps, focuses on the environmental, social, behavioural, and political determinants of human helminth infections and outlines a research and development agenda for the socioeconomic and health systems research required for the development of sustainable control programmes. Using Stockols' social-ecological approach, we describe the role of various social (poverty, policy, stigma, culture, and migration and environmental determinants (the home environment, water resources development, and climate change in the perpetuation of helminthic diseases, as well as their impact as contextual factors on health promotion interventions through both the regular and community-based health systems. We examine these interactions in regard to community participation, intersectoral collaboration, gender, and possibilities for upscaling helminthic disease control and elimination programmes within the context of integrated and interdisciplinary approaches. The research agenda summarises major gaps that need to be addressed.

  18. When does quality improvement count as research? Human subject protection and theories of knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, J

    2004-02-01

    The publication of insights from a quality improvement project recently precipitated a ruling by the lead federal regulatory agency that regulations providing protection for human subjects of research should apply. The required research review process did not match the rapid changes, small samples, limited documentation, clinician management, and type of information commonly used in quality improvement. Yet quality improvement can risk harm to patients, so some review might be in order. The boundaries and processes are not clear. Efforts have been made to determine what constitutes "research", but this has proved difficult and often yields irrational guidance with regard to protection of patients. Society needs a workable way to separate activities that will improve care, on the one hand, and those that constitute research, on the other. Practitioners who lead both quality improvement and research projects claim that those which rapidly give feedback to the care system that generated the data, aiming to change practices within that system, are "quality improvement" no matter whether the findings are published, whether the project is grant funded, and whether contemporaneous controls do not have the intervention. This criterion has not previously been proposed as a possible demarcation. The quandaries of which projects to put through research review and how to ensure ethical implementation of quality improvement need to be resolved.

  19. Requirements for growth and IL-10 expression of highly purified human T regulatory cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonacci, Benedetta; Edwards, Brandon; Jia, Shuang; Williams, Calvin; Hessner, Martin J.; Gauld, Stephen; Verbsky, James

    2013-01-01

    Human regulatory T cells (TR) cells have potential for the treatment of a variety of immune mediated diseases but the anergic phenotype of these cells makes them difficult to expand in vitro. We have examined the requirements for growth and cytokine expression from highly purified human TR cells, and correlated these findings with the signal transduction events of these cells. We demonstrate that these cells do not proliferate or secrete IL-10 even in the presence of high doses of IL-2. Stimulation with a superagonistic anti-CD28 antibody (clone 9D4) and IL-2 partially reversed the proliferative defect, and this correlated with reversal of the defective calcium mobilization in these cells. Dendritic cells were effective at promoting TR cell proliferation, and under these conditions the proliferative capacity of TR cells was comparable to conventional CD4 lymphocytes. Blocking TGF-β activity abrogated IL-10 expression from these cells, while addition of TGF-β resulted in IL-10 production. These data demonstrate that highly purified populations of TR cells are anergic even in the presence of high doses of IL-2. Furthermore, antigen presenting cells provide proper co-stimulation to overcome the anergic phenotype of TR cells, and under these conditions they are highly sensitive to IL-2. In addition, these data demonstrate for the first time that TGF-β is critical to enable human TR cells to express IL-10. PMID:22562448

  20. [Regulatory requirements regarding cell-based medicinal products for human and veterinary use - a comparison].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann-Gottke, Johanna; Duchow, Karin

    2015-11-01

    At present, there is no separate regulatory framework for cell-based medicinal products (CBMP) for veterinary use at the European or German level. Current European and national regulations exclusively apply to the corresponding medicinal products for human use. An increasing number of requests for the regulatory classification of CBMP for veterinary use, such as allogeneic stem cell preparations and dendritic cell-based autologous tumour vaccines, and a rise in scientific advice for companies developing these products, illustrate the need for adequate legislation. Currently, advice is given and decisions are made on a case-by-case basis regarding the regulatory classification and authorisation requirements.Since some of the CBMP - in particular in the area of stem-cell products - are developed in parallel for human and veterinary use, there is an urgent need to create specific legal definitions, regulations, and guidelines for these complex innovative products in the veterinary sector as well. Otherwise, there is a risk that that the current legal grey area regarding veterinary medicinal products will impede therapeutic innovations in the long run. A harmonised EU-wide approach is desirable. Currently the European legislation on veterinary medicinal products is under revision. In this context, veterinary therapeutics based on allogeneic cells and tissues will be defined and regulated. Certainly, the legal framework does not have to be as comprehensive as for human CBMP; a leaner solution is conceivable, similar to the special provisions for advanced-therapy medicinal products laid down in the German Medicines Act.

  1. Compatibility of the Space Station Freedom life sciences research centrifuge with microgravity requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasha, Martin D.

    1990-01-01

    NASA is developing a Life Sciences Centrifuge Facility for Space Station Freedom. In includes a 2.5-meter artificial gravity Bioresearch Centrifuge (BC), which is perhaps the most critical single element in the life sciences space research program. It rotates continuously at precise selectable rates, and utilizes advanced reliable technologies to reduce vibrations. Three disturbance types are analyzed using a current Space Station Freedom dynamic model in the 0.0 to 5.0 Hz range: sinusoidal, random, and transient. Results show that with proper selection of proven design techniques, BC vibrations are compatible with requirements.

  2. 75 FR 75936 - Required Warnings for Cigarette Packages and Advertisements; Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing that it has added a document to the docket for the proposed rulemaking concerning required textual warnings and accompanying graphics to be displayed on cigarette packages and in cigarette advertisements. The document is a report entitled ``Report: Experimental Study of Graphic Cigarette Warning Labels'' (Experimental Study Report) and it describes the results from a research study that quantitatively evaluated the relative impact of certain color graphics on consumer attitudes, beliefs, perceptions, and intended behaviors related to cigarette smoking. The purpose of this notice is to provide the public an opportunity to review and comment on the Experimental Study Report.

  3. High Performance Computing and Storage Requirements for Biological and Environmental Research Target 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Richard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC); Wasserman, Harvey [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC)

    2013-05-01

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the primary computing center for the DOE Office of Science, serving approximately 4,500 users working on some 650 projects that involve nearly 600 codes in a wide variety of scientific disciplines. In addition to large-­scale computing and storage resources NERSC provides support and expertise that help scientists make efficient use of its systems. The latest review revealed several key requirements, in addition to achieving its goal of characterizing BER computing and storage needs.

  4. DNA and Protein Requirements for Substrate Conformational Changes Necessary for Human Flap Endonuclease-1-catalyzed Reaction*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algasaier, Sana I.; Exell, Jack C.; Bennet, Ian A.; Thompson, Mark J.; Gotham, Victoria J. B.; Shaw, Steven J.; Craggs, Timothy D.; Finger, L. David; Grasby, Jane A.

    2016-01-01

    Human flap endonuclease-1 (hFEN1) catalyzes the essential removal of single-stranded flaps arising at DNA junctions during replication and repair processes. hFEN1 biological function must be precisely controlled, and consequently, the protein relies on a combination of protein and substrate conformational changes as a prerequisite for reaction. These include substrate bending at the duplex-duplex junction and transfer of unpaired reacting duplex end into the active site. When present, 5′-flaps are thought to thread under the helical cap, limiting reaction to flaps with free 5′-termini in vivo. Here we monitored DNA bending by FRET and DNA unpairing using 2-aminopurine exciton pair CD to determine the DNA and protein requirements for these substrate conformational changes. Binding of DNA to hFEN1 in a bent conformation occurred independently of 5′-flap accommodation and did not require active site metal ions or the presence of conserved active site residues. More stringent requirements exist for transfer of the substrate to the active site. Placement of the scissile phosphate diester in the active site required the presence of divalent metal ions, a free 5′-flap (if present), a Watson-Crick base pair at the terminus of the reacting duplex, and the intact secondary structure of the enzyme helical cap. Optimal positioning of the scissile phosphate additionally required active site conserved residues Tyr40, Asp181, and Arg100 and a reacting duplex 5′-phosphate. These studies suggest a FEN1 reaction mechanism where junctions are bound and 5′-flaps are threaded (when present), and finally the substrate is transferred onto active site metals initiating cleavage. PMID:26884332

  5. Research requirements for a unified approach to modelling chemical effects associated with radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krol, A.A.; Read, D.

    1986-09-01

    This report contains the results of a review of the current modelling, laboratory experiments and field experiments being conducted in the United Kingdom to aid understanding and improve prediction of the effects of chemistry on the disposal of radioactive wastes. The aim has been to summarise present work and derive a structure for future research effort that would support the use of probabilistic risk assessment (pra) methods for the disposal of radioactive wastes. The review was conducted by a combination of letter and personal visits, and preliminary results were reported to a plenary meeting of participants held in April, 1986. Following this meeting, copies of the report were circulated to participants at draft stage, so that the finalised report should be taken to provide as far as possible a consensus of opinion of research requirements. (author)

  6. An automated calibration laboratory for flight research instrumentation: Requirements and a proposed design approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oneill-Rood, Nora; Glover, Richard D.

    1990-01-01

    NASA's Dryden Flight Research Facility (Ames-Dryden), operates a diverse fleet of research aircraft which are heavily instrumented to provide both real time data for in-flight monitoring and recorded data for postflight analysis. Ames-Dryden's existing automated calibration (AUTOCAL) laboratory is a computerized facility which tests aircraft sensors to certify accuracy for anticipated harsh flight environments. Recently, a major AUTOCAL lab upgrade was initiated; the goal of this modernization is to enhance productivity and improve configuration management for both software and test data. The new system will have multiple testing stations employing distributed processing linked by a local area network to a centralized database. The baseline requirements for the new AUTOCAL lab and the design approach being taken for its mechanization are described.

  7. Where's the emotion? How sport psychology can inform research on emotion in human factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccles, David W; Ward, Paul; Woodman, Tim; Janelle, Christopher M; Le Scanff, Christine; Ehrlinger, Joyce; Castanier, Carole; Coombes, Stephen A

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate how research on emotion in sport psychology might inform the field of human factors. Human factors historically has paid little attention to the role of emotion within the research on human-system relations. The theories, methods, and practices related to research on emotion within sport psychology might be informative for human factors because fundamentally, sport psychology and human factors are applied fields concerned with enhancing performance in complex, real-world domains. Reviews of three areas of theory and research on emotion in sport psychology are presented, and the relevancy of each area for human factors is proposed: (a) emotional preparation and regulation for performance, (b) an emotional trait explanation for risk taking in sport, and (c) the link between emotion and motor behavior. Finally, there are suggestions for how to continue cross-talk between human factors and sport psychology about research on emotion and related topics in the future. The relevance of theory and research on emotion in sport psychology for human factors is demonstrated. The human factors field and, in particular, research on human-system relations may benefit from a consideration of theory and research on emotion in sport psychology. Theories, methods, and practices from sport psychology might be applied usefully to human factors.

  8. Research of human factor in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nopp, I.

    1983-01-01

    The question is discussed of the study of the human factor with regard to the reliability of nuclear power plant operation. The reliability of the human factor is the result of the functional fitness, motivation, working conditions and working regime of personnel. (J.B.)

  9. Human Research Program Human Health Countermeasures Element Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Risk Standing Review Panel (SRP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norfleet, William; Harris, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    The Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Risk Standing Review Panel (SRP) was favorably impressed by the operational risk management approach taken by the Human Research Program (HRP) Integrated Research Plan (IRP) to address the stated life sciences issues. The life sciences community at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) seems to be focused on operational risk management. This approach is more likely to provide risk managers with the information they need at the time they need it. Concerning the information provided to the SRP by the EVA Physiology, Systems, and Performance Project (EPSP), it is obvious that a great deal of productive activity is under way. Evaluation of this information was hampered by the fact that it often was not organized in a fashion that reflects the "Gaps and Tasks" approach of the overall Human Health Countermeasures (HHC) effort, and that a substantial proportion of the briefing concerned subjects that, while interesting, are not part of the HHC Element (e.g., the pressurized rover presentation). Additionally, no information was provided on several of the tasks or how they related to work underway or already accomplished. This situation left the SRP having to guess at the efforts and relationship to other elements, and made it hard to easily map the EVA Project efforts currently underway, and the data collected thus far, to the gaps and tasks in the IRP. It seems that integration of the EPSP project into the HHC Element could be improved. Along these lines, we were concerned that our SRP was split off from the other participating SRPs at an early stage in the overall agenda for the meeting. In reality, the concerns of EPSP and other projects share much common ground. For example, the commonality of the concerns of the EVA and exercise physiology groups is obvious, both in terms of what reduced exercise capacity can do to EVA capability, and how the exercise performed during an EVA could contribute to an overall exercise countermeasure prescription.

  10. Handbook of Research on E-Transformation and Human Resources Management Technologies: Organizational Outcomes and Challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bondarouk, Tatiana; Ruel, Hubertus Johannes Maria; Guiderdoni-Jourdain, Karine; Oiry, Ewan

    2009-01-01

    Digital advancements and discoveries are now challenging traditional human resource management services within businesses. The Handbook of Research on E-Transformation and Human Resources Management Technologies: Organizational Outcomes and Challenges provides practical, situated, and unique

  11. Functional characterization of human COQ4, a gene required for Coenzyme Q10 biosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casarin, Alberto; Jimenez-Ortega, Jose Carlos; Trevisson, Eva; Pertegato, Vanessa; Doimo, Mara; Ferrero-Gomez, Maria Lara; Abbadi, Sara; Artuch, Rafael; Quinzii, Catarina; Hirano, Michio; Basso, Giuseppe; Ocana, Carlos Santos; Navas, Placido; Salviati, Leonardo

    2008-01-01

    Defects in genes involved in coenzyme Q (CoQ) biosynthesis cause primary CoQ deficiency, a severe multisystem disorders presenting as progressive encephalomyopathy and nephropathy. The COQ4 gene encodes an essential factor for biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have identified and cloned its human ortholog, COQ4, which is located on chromosome 9q34.13, and is transcribed into a 795 base-pair open reading frame, encoding a 265 amino acid (aa) protein (Isoform 1) with a predicted N-terminal mitochondrial targeting sequence. It shares 39% identity and 55% similarity with the yeast protein. Coq4 protein has no known enzymatic function, but may be a core component of multisubunit complex required for CoQ biosynthesis. The human transcript is detected in Northern blots as a ∼1.4 kb single band and is expressed ubiquitously, but at high levels in liver, lung, and pancreas. Transcription initiates at multiple sites, located 333-23 nucleotides upstream of the ATG. A second group of transcripts originating inside intron 1 of the gene encodes a 241 aa protein, which lacks the mitochondrial targeting sequence (isoform 2). Expression of GFP-fusion proteins in HeLa cells confirmed that only isoform 1 is targeted to mitochondria. The functional significance of the second isoform is unknown. Human COQ4 isoform 1, expressed from a multicopy plasmid, efficiently restores both growth in glycerol, and CoQ content in COQ4 null yeast strains. Human COQ4 is an interesting candidate gene for patients with isolated CoQ 10 deficiency

  12. miRNA signature and Dicer requirement during human endometrial stromal decidualization in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Estella

    Full Text Available Decidualization is a morphological and biochemical transformation of endometrial stromal fibroblast into differentiated decidual cells, which is critical for embryo implantation and pregnancy establishment. The complex regulatory networks have been elucidated at both the transcriptome and the proteome levels, however very little is known about the post-transcriptional regulation of this process. miRNAs regulate multiple physiological pathways and their de-regulation is associated with human disorders including gynaecological conditions such as endometriosis and preeclampsia. In this study we profile the miRNAs expression throughout human endometrial stromal (hESCs decidualization and analyze the requirement of the miRNA biogenesis enzyme Dicer during this process. A total of 26 miRNAs were upregulated and 17 miRNAs downregulated in decidualized hESCs compared to non-decidualized hESCs. Three miRNAs families, miR-181, miR-183 and miR-200, are down-regulated during the decidualization process. Using miRNAs target prediction algorithms we have identified the potential targets and pathways regulated by these miRNAs. The knockdown of Dicer has a minor effect on hESCs during in vitro decidualization. We have analyzed a battery of decidualization markers such as cell morphology, Prolactin, IGFBP-1, MPIF-1 and TIMP-3 secretion as well as HOXA10, COX2, SP1, C/EBPß and FOXO1 expression in decidualized hESCs with decreased Dicer function. We found decreased levels of HOXA10 and altered intracellular organization of actin filaments in Dicer knockdown decidualized hESCs compared to control. Our results provide the miRNA signature of hESC during the decidualization process in vitro. We also provide the first functional characterization of Dicer during human endometrial decidualization although surprisingly we found that Dicer plays a minor role regulating this process suggesting that alternative biogenesis miRNAs pathways must be involved in human

  13. Science Based Human Reliability Analysis: Using Digital Nuclear Power Plant Simulators for Human Reliability Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Rachel Elizabeth

    Nuclear power plant (NPP) simulators are proliferating in academic research institutions and national laboratories in response to the availability of affordable, digital simulator platforms. Accompanying the new research facilities is a renewed interest in using data collected in NPP simulators for Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) research. An experiment conducted in The Ohio State University (OSU) NPP Simulator Facility develops data collection methods and analytical tools to improve use of simulator data in HRA. In the pilot experiment, student operators respond to design basis accidents in the OSU NPP Simulator Facility. Thirty-three undergraduate and graduate engineering students participated in the research. Following each accident scenario, student operators completed a survey about perceived simulator biases and watched a video of the scenario. During the video, they periodically recorded their perceived strength of significant Performance Shaping Factors (PSFs) such as Stress. This dissertation reviews three aspects of simulator-based research using the data collected in the OSU NPP Simulator Facility: First, a qualitative comparison of student operator performance to computer simulations of expected operator performance generated by the Information Decision Action Crew (IDAC) HRA method. Areas of comparison include procedure steps, timing of operator actions, and PSFs. Second, development of a quantitative model of the simulator bias introduced by the simulator environment. Two types of bias are defined: Environmental Bias and Motivational Bias. This research examines Motivational Bias--that is, the effect of the simulator environment on an operator's motivations, goals, and priorities. A bias causal map is introduced to model motivational bias interactions in the OSU experiment. Data collected in the OSU NPP Simulator Facility are analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Data include crew characteristics, operator surveys, and time to recognize

  14. Assessing the Impact of Arts and Humanities Research at the University of Cambridge. Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Ruth; Celia, Claire; Diepeveen, Stephanie; Chonaill, Siobhan Ni; Rabinovich, Lila; Tiessen, Jan

    2010-01-01

    This project for the University of Cambridge and the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC) assesses the impacts of arts and humanities research at the University of Cambridge. Evidence from interviews, a survey of research staff and detailed case studies indicates that these disciplines already have a broad range of impacts. Many of these…

  15. [Ethics and methodology: the importance of promoting, evaluating and implementing education and humanities research in health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consejo-Y Chapela, Carolina; González-Martínez, José Francisco

    2017-01-01

    In this editorial we initially expose the agreements that have set the mechanisms to guarantee safety and fair treatment to human subjects in research. Later on, we offer alternatives from translational and multidisciplinary research to promote education and humanities research in health.

  16. The Impact of the Protection of Human Subjects on Research. Working Paper No. 70.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Andrew S.

    The author discusses the experimenter's responsibility for the protection of human subjects (such as the handicapped) in research and the impact of this responsibility on methods of doing research. Considered are the types of human rights that are most frequently in need of protection within a research setting (such as the right to privacy); the…

  17. Co-ordinated research programme on applications of stable isotope tracers in human nutrition research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) was formally established by the Agency in October 1988, and has since then expanded to encompass 13 participants in 13 countries. Its general objective is to help establish competence in the use of stable isotope techniques, particularly in developing countries, and particularly with reference to applications of 2 H, 13 C, 15 N, and 18 O. This report summarizes the discussions that took place during the first Research Co-ordination Meeting (RCM). Working papers (progress reports) presented by the participants are included as annexes together with a preliminary report on the results of a series of intercomparison exercises involving enriched stable isotope reference materials containing 2 H, 13 C, 15 N and 18 O. For the future it was agreed that more work needs to be done to harmonize the analytical techniques being used, and to obtain support for new CRPs relating to human energy expenditure studies in pregnancy, lactation, growth and other conditions, and to studies of nitrogen turnover in relation to malnutrition and liver function. Refs, figs and tabs

  18. A human tissue and data resource: an overview of opportunities, challenges, and development of a provider/researcher partnership model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kort, Eric J; Campbell, Bryon; Resau, James H

    2003-02-01

    As we continue to strive to apply the findings of in vitro and animal studies to human disease and transition from genomics to proteomics, we will experience an ever-increasing need for human tissues. A web based system that provides access to tissues repositories and associated data will best facilitate the access to these vital resources and the application of research information to human disease treatment. There are organizational and design requirements that must be addressed in the implementation of the infrastructures that are needed to implement such a system, with special attention paid to the protection of patient anonymity. This report describes the implementation of a prototype human tissue network in the hope of encouraging implementation of similar systems among other consortia of providers and researchers.

  19. A research review on clinical needs, technical requirements, and normativity in the design of surgical robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Carlos Eduardo; Fernández, Roemi; Armada, Manuel; García, Felipe

    2017-12-01

    Nowadays robots play an important role in society, mainly due to the significant benefits they provide when utilized for assisting human beings in the execution of dangerous or repetitive tasks. Medicine is one of the fields in which robots are gaining greater use and development, especially those employed in minimally invasive surgery (MIS). However, due to the particular conditions of the human body where robots have to act, the design of these systems is complex, not only from a technical point of view, but also because the clinical needs and the normativity aspects are important considerations that have to be taken into account in order to achieve better performances and more secure systems for patients and surgeons. Thus, this paper explores the clinical needs and the technical requirements that will trace the roadmap for the next scientific and technological advances in the field of robotic surgery, the metrics that should be defined for safe technology development and the standards that are being elaborated for boosting the industry and facilitating systems integration. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Structural requirements of research tissue banks derived from standardized project surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herpel, E; Koleganova, N; Schreiber, B; Walter, B; Kalle, C V; Schirmacher, P

    2012-07-01

    Tissue banks constitute decisive and rate-limiting resource and technology platforms for basic and translational biomedical research, notably in the area of cancer. Thus, it is essential to plan and structure tissue banking and allocate resources according to research needs, but essential requirements are still incompletely defined. The tissue bank of the National Center of Tumor Diseases Heidelberg (NCT) was founded with the intention to provide tissues of optimal quality and to prioritize the realization of research projects. We analysed its structure and prospective project management registration as well as tracking records for all projects of the NCT tissue bank as of its start in 2005 in order to obtain information that may be relevant for tissue bank planning. All project proposals submitted to the NCT tissue bank (n = 681) were included in the study. For a detailed evaluation of provided services, only projects that were completed until July 2011 (n = 605) were analysed. For these 605 projects, NCT tissue bank provided 769 specific services. In all projects/services, we recorded project leader, type and amount of material provided, type of research (basic/translational), work load of project and project completion. Furthermore, all completed projects were tracked after 90 days according to a standard protocol to determine principal investigators' (PI) satisfaction and quality of the provided material. Until July 2011, 605 projects had been successfully completed as documented by material transfer agreement. Of the projects, 72.7 % addressed basic research, 22.3 % were translational research projects and 3 % concerned epidemiological research; 91 % (n = 546) concerned a single PI and the NTC tissue bank. For these projects, 769 specific services were provided. Of these services, 288 concerned providing formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue (extracts, full size sections), 126 providing fresh frozen materials (including fresh frozen