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Sample records for human repair gene

  1. Isolating human DNA repair genes using rodent-cell mutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, L.H.; Weber, C.A.; Brookman, K.W.; Salazar, E.P.; Stewart, S.A.; Mitchell, D.L.

    1987-03-23

    The DNA repair systems of rodent and human cells appear to be at least as complex genetically as those in lower eukaryotes and bacteria. The use of mutant lines of rodent cells as a means of identifying human repair genes by functional complementation offers a new approach toward studying the role of repair in mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. In each of six cases examined using hybrid cells, specific human chromosomes have been identified that correct CHO cell mutations affecting repair of damage from uv or ionizing radiations. This finding suggests that both the repair genes and proteins may be virtually interchangeable between rodent and human cells. Using cosmid vectors, human repair genes that map to chromosome 19 have cloned as functional sequences: ERCC2 and XRCC1. ERCC1 was found to have homology with the yeast excision repair gene RAD10. Transformants of repair-deficient cell lines carrying the corresponding human gene show efficient correction of repair capacity by all criteria examined. 39 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  2. Molecular cloning of the human excision repair gene ERCC-6.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Troelstra (Christine); H. Odijk (Hanny); J. de Wit (Jan); A. Westerveld (Andries); L.H. Thompson; D. Bootsma (Dirk); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractThe UV-sensitive, nucleotide excision repair-deficient Chinese hamster mutant cell line UV61 was used to identify and clone a correcting human gene, ERCC-6. UV61, belonging to rodent complementation group 6, is only moderately UV sensitive in comparison with mutant lines in groups 1 to

  3. Induction of a mutant phenotype in human repair proficient cells after overexpression of a mutated human DNA repair gene.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.B.G.M. Belt; M.F. van Oostenrijk; H. Odijk (Hanny); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); C.M.P. Backendorf (Claude)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractAntisense and mutated cDNA of the human excision repair gene ERCC-1 were overexpressed in repair efficient HeLa cells by means of an Epstein-Barr-virus derived CDNA expression vector. Whereas antisense RNA did not influence the survival of the transfected cells, a mutated cDNA generating

  4. Polymorphisms in human DNA repair genes and head and neck ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Genetic polymorphisms in some DNA repair proteins are associated with a number of malignant transformations like head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Xeroderma pigmentosum group D (XPD) and X-ray repair cross-complementing proteins 1 (XRCC1) and 3 (XRCC3) genes are involved in DNA repair ...

  5. Polymorphisms in human DNA repair genes and head and neck ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sci. USA 97, 9886–9891. Viswanathan H. and Wilson J. A. 2004 Alcohol—the neglected factor in head and neck cancer. Clin. Otolaryngol. 29, 295–300. Vogel U., Hedayati M., Dybdahl M., Grossman L. and Nexo B. A.. 2001 Polymorphisms of the DNA repair gene XPD, correlations with risk of basal cell carcinoma revisited.

  6. Cloning and characterization of the human DNA-excision repair gene ERCC-1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Duin (Michel)

    1988-01-01

    textabstractIt is the aim of the work described in this thesis to isolate and characterize human genes involved DNA excision repair. This will facilitate the understanding of the mechanism of this repair process whereas it also provides an important step to better understand the relationship

  7. Molecular characterization of the human excision repair gene ERCC-1: cDNA cloning and aminoacid homology with the yeast DNA repair gene RAD10.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Duin (Mark); J. de Wit (Jan); H. Odijk (Hanny); A. Westerveld (Andries); A. Yasui (Akira); M.H.M. Koken (Marcel); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); D. Bootsma (Dirk)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractThe human excision repair gene ERCC-7 was cloned after DNA mediated gene transfer to the CHO mutant 43-38, which is sensitive to ultraviolet light and mitomycin-C. We describe the cloning and sequence analysis of the ERCC-7 cDNA and partial characterization of the gene. ERCC.1 has a size

  8. Structure and expression of the excision repair gene ERCC6, involved in the human disorder Cockayne's syndrome group B.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Troelstra (Christine); W. Hesen; D. Bootsma (Dirk); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractThe human repair gene ERCC6--a presumed DNA (or RNA) helicase--has recently been found to function specifically in preferential nucleotide excision repair (NER). This NER subpathway is primarily directed towards repair of (the transcribed strand of) active genes. Mutations in the ERCC6

  9. A human repair gene ERCC5 is involved in group G xeroderma pigmentosum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiomi, Tadahiro [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1994-03-01

    In E. coli, ultraviolet-induced DNA damage is removed by the coordinated action of UVR A, B, C, and D proteins (1). In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, more than ten genes have been reported to be involved in excision repair (2). The nucleotide excision repair pathway has been extensively studied in these organisms. To facilitate studying nucleotide excision repair in mammalian cells. Ultraviolet-sensitive rodent cell mutants have been isolated and classified into 11 complementation groups (9,10). The human nucleotide excision repair genes which complement the defects of the mutants have been designated as the ERCC (excision repair cross-complementing) genes; a number is added to refer to the particular rodent complementation group that is corrected by the gene. Recently, several human DNA repair genes have been cloned using rodent cell lines sensitive to ultraviolet. These include ERCC2 (3), ERCC3 (4), and ERCC6 (5), which correspond to the defective genes in the ultraviolet-sensitive human disorders xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) group D (6) and group B (4), and Cockayne`s syndrome (CS) group B (7), respectively. The human excision repair gene ERCC5 was cloned after DNA-mediated gene transfer of human HeLa cell genomic DNA into the ultraviolet-sensitive mouse mutant XL216, a member of rodent complementation group 5 (11,12) and the gene was mapped on human chromosome 13q32.3-q33.1 by the replication R-banding fluorescence in situ hybridization method (13). The ERCC5 cDNA encodes a predicted 133 kDa nuclear protein that shares some homology with product of the yeast DNA repair gene RAD 2. Transfection with mouse ERCC5 cDNA restored normal levels of ultraviolet-resistance to XL216 cells. Microinjection of ERCC5 cDNA specifically restored the defect of XP group G cells (XP-G) as measured by unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS), and XP-G cells stably transformed with ERCC5 cDNA showed nearly normal ultraviolet resistance. (J.P.N.).

  10. Chromosomal localization of three repair genes: the xeroderma pigmentosum group C gene and two human homologs of yeast RAD23.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. van der Spek (Peter); E.M.E. Smit (Elisabeth); H.B. Beverloo (Berna); K. Sugasawa (Kaoru); C. Matsutani; F. Hanaoka (Fumio); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); A. Hagemeier

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThe nucleotide excision repair (NER) disorder xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is characterized by sun (UV) sensitivity, predisposition to skin cancer, and extensive genetic heterogeneity. Recently, we reported the cloning and analysis of three human NER genes, XPC, HHR23A, and HHR23B. The

  11. DNA damage and gene therapy of xeroderma pigmentosum, a human DNA repair-deficient disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupuy, Aurélie [Laboratory of Genetic Instability and Oncogenesis UMR8200CNRS, Institut Gustave Roussy and University Paris-Sud, Villejuif (France); Sarasin, Alain, E-mail: alain.sarasin@gustaveroussy.fr [Laboratory of Genetic Instability and Oncogenesis UMR8200CNRS, Institut Gustave Roussy and University Paris-Sud, Villejuif (France); Service de Génétique, Institut Gustave Roussy (France)

    2015-06-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Full correction of mutation in the XPC gene by engineered nucleases. • Meganucleases and TALENs are inhibited by 5-MeC for inducing double strand breaks. • Gene therapy of XP cells is possible using homologous recombination for DSB repair. - Abstract: Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a genetic disease characterized by hypersensitivity to ultra-violet and a very high risk of skin cancer induction on exposed body sites. This syndrome is caused by germinal mutations on nucleotide excision repair genes. No cure is available for these patients except a complete protection from all types of UV radiations. We reviewed the various techniques to complement or to correct the genetic defect in XP cells. We, particularly, developed the correction of XP-C skin cells using the fidelity of the homologous recombination pathway during repair of double-strand break (DSB) in the presence of XPC wild type sequences. We used engineered nucleases (meganuclease or TALE nuclease) to induce a DSB located at 90 bp of the mutation to be corrected. Expression of specific TALE nuclease in the presence of a repair matrix containing a long stretch of homologous wild type XPC sequences allowed us a successful gene correction of the original TG deletion found in numerous North African XP patients. Some engineered nucleases are sensitive to epigenetic modifications, such as cytosine methylation. In case of methylated sequences to be corrected, modified nucleases or demethylation of the whole genome should be envisaged. Overall, we showed that specifically-designed TALE-nuclease allowed us to correct a 2 bp deletion in the XPC gene leading to patient's cells proficient for DNA repair and showing normal UV-sensitivity. The corrected gene is still in the same position in the human genome and under the regulation of its physiological promoter. This result is a first step toward gene therapy in XP patients.

  12. Transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of nucleotide excision repair genes in human cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefkofsky, Hailey B. [Translational Oncology Program, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Veloso, Artur [Translational Oncology Program, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Bioinformatics Program, Department of Computational Medicine and Bioinformatics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Ljungman, Mats, E-mail: ljungman@umich.edu [Translational Oncology Program, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) removes DNA helix-distorting lesions induced by UV light and various chemotherapeutic agents such as cisplatin. These lesions efficiently block the elongation of transcription and need to be rapidly removed by transcription-coupled NER (TC-NER) to avoid the induction of apoptosis. Twenty-nine genes have been classified to code for proteins participating in nucleotide excision repair (NER) in human cells. Here we explored the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of these NER genes across 13 human cell lines using Bru-seq and BruChase-seq, respectively. Many NER genes are relatively large in size and therefore will be easily inactivated by UV-induced transcription-blocking lesions. Furthermore, many of these genes produce transcripts that are rather unstable. Thus, these genes are expected to rapidly lose expression leading to a diminished function of NER. One such gene is ERCC6 that codes for the CSB protein critical for TC-NER. Due to its large gene size and high RNA turnover rate, the ERCC6 gene may act as dosimeter of DNA damage so that at high levels of damage, ERCC6 RNA levels would be diminished leading to the loss of CSB expression, inhibition of TC-NER and the promotion of cell death.

  13. Localization of the nucleotide excision repair gene ERCC-6 to human chromosome 10q11-q21.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Troelstra (Christine); R.M. Landsvater; J. Wiegant; M. van der Ploeg; G. Viel; C.H.C.M. Buys; J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractWe have cloned the human DNA excision repair gene ERCC6 by virtue of its ability to correct the uv sensitivity of Chinese hamster overy cell mutant UV61. This mutant is a member of complementation group 6 of the nucleotide excision repair-deficient rodent mutants. By means of in situ

  14. Immunohistochemical and DNA sequencing analysis on human mismatch repair gene MLH1 in cervical squamous cell carcinoma with LOH of this gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, X.; Guo, Z.; Pang, T.; Li, Q.; Afink, G.; Pontén, J.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The human MLH1 gene (hMLH1) is one of the DNA mismatch repair genes. Defects in these genes are believed to be the underlying cause of microsatellite instability (MSI). MSI has been demonstrated in many human cancers such as colon cancer and some female-specific tumors. The hMLH1 gene

  15. Molecular cloning of the human nucleotide-excision-repair gene ERCC4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, L.H.; Brookman, K.W.; Weber, C.A.; Salazar, E.P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Reardon, J.T.; Sancar, A. [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Deng, Z.; Siciliano, M.J. [Univ. of Texas Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    1994-07-19

    ERCC4 was previously identified in somatic cell hybrids as a human gene that corrects the nucleotide-excision-repair deficiency in mutant hamster cells. The cloning strategy for ERCC4 involved transfection of the repair-deficient hamster cell line UV41 with a human sCos-1 cosmid library derived from chromosome 16. Enhanced UV resistance was seen with one cosmid-library transformant and two secondary transformants of UV41. Cosmid clones carrying a functional ERCC4 gene were isolated from a library of a second transformant by selecting in Escherichia coli for expression of a linked neomycin-resistance gene that was present in the sCos-1 vector. The cosmids mapped to 16p13.13-p13.2, the location assigned to ERCC4 by using somatic cell hybrids. Upon transfection into UV41, six cosmid clones gave partial correction ranging from 30% to 64%, although all appeared to contain the complete gene. The capacity for in vitro excision of thymine dimers from a plasmid by transformant cell extracts correlated qualitatively with enhanced UV resistance.

  16. Cytogenetic Response to Ionizing Radiation Exposure in Human Fibroblasts with Suppressed Expression of Non-DSB Repair Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ye; Rohde, Larry H.; Emami, Kamal; Hammond, Dianne; Mehta, Satish K.; Jeevarajan, Antony S.; Pierson, Duane L.; Wu, Honglu

    2009-01-01

    Changes of gene expression profile are one of the most important biological responses in living cells after ionizing radiation (IR) exposure. Although some studies have shown that genes up-regulated by IR may play important roles in DNA damage repair, the relationship between the regulation of gene expression by IR, particularly genes not known for their roles in double-strand break (DSB) repair, and its impact on cytogenetic responses has not been well studied. The purpose of this study is to identify new roles of IR inducible genes in radiation-induced chromosome aberrations and micronuclei formation. In the study, the expression of 25 genes selected on the basis of their transcriptional changes in response to IR was individually knocked down by small interfering RNA in human fibroblast cells. Frequencies of micronuclei (MN) formation and chromosome aberrations were measured to determine the efficiency of cytogenetic repair, and the fraction of bi-nucleated cells in the MN analysis was used as a marker for cell cycle progression. In response to gamma radiation, the formation of MN was significantly increased by suppressed expression of five genes: Ku70 (DSB repair pathway), XPA (nucleotide excision repair pathway), RPA1 (mismatch repair pathway), RAD17 and RBBP8 (cell cycle control). Knocked-down expression of four genes (MRE11A, RAD51 in the DSB pathway, SESN1, and SUMO1) significantly inhibited cell cycle progression, possibly because of severe impairment of DNA damage repair. Moreover, decreased XPA, p21, or MLH1 expression resulted in both significantly enhanced cell cycle progression and increased yields of chromosome aberrations, indicating that these gene products modulate both cell cycle control and DNA damage repair. Nine of these eleven genes, whose knock-down expression affected cytogenetic repair, were up-regulated in cells exposed to gamma radiation, suggesting that genes transcriptionally modulated by IR were critical to regulate IR

  17. Human DNA repair genes possess potential G-quadruplex sequences in their promoters and 5`-untranslated regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Aaron M; Zhu, Judy; Ding, Yun; Visser, Joshua A; Zhu, Julia; Burrows, Cynthia J

    2018-01-10

    The cellular response to oxidative stress includes transcriptional changes, particularly for genes involved in DNA repair. Recently, our laboratory demonstrated that oxidation of 2`-deoxyguanosine (G) to 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2`-deoxyguanosine (OG) in G-rich potential G-quadruplex sequences (PQSs) in gene promoters impacts the level of gene expression up or down depending on the position of the PQS in the promoter. In the present report, bioinformatic analysis found that the 390 human DNA repair genes in the genome ontology initiative harbor 2,936 PQSs in their promoters and 5`-untranslated regions (5`-UTRs). The average density of PQSs in human DNA repair genes was found to be nearly twofold greater than the average density of PQSs in all coding and non-coding human genes (7.5 vs. 4.3 per gene). The distribution of the PQSs in the DNA repair genes on the non-transcribed (coding) vs. transcribed strands reflects that of PQSs in all human genes. Next, literature data were interrogated to select 30 PQSs to catalog their ability to adopt G-quadruplex (G4) folds in vitro using five different experimental tests. The G4 characterization experiments concluded that 26 of the 30 sequences could adopt G4 topologies in solution. Last, four PQSs were synthesized into the promoter of a luciferase plasmid and co-transfected with the G4-specific ligands pyridostatin, Phen-DC3, or BRACO-19 in human cells to determine whether the PQSs could adopt G4 folds. The cell studies identified changes in luciferase expression when the G4 ligands were present, and the magnitude of the expression changes dependent on the PQS and the coding vs. template strand on which the sequence resided. Our studies demonstrate PQSs exist at a high density in human DNA repair gene promoters and a subset of the identified sequences fold in vitro and in vivo.

  18. DNA repair in human cells: from genetic complementation to isolation of genes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Bootsma (Dirk); A. Westerveld (Andries); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan)

    1988-01-01

    textabstractThe genetic disease xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) demonstrates the association between defective repair of DNA lesions and cancer. Complementation analysis performed on XP cell strains and on repair deficient rodent cell lines has revealed that at least nine and possibly more than 13 genes

  19. A presumed DNA helicase, encoded by the excision repair gene ERCC-3 is involved in the human repair disorders xeroderma pigmentosum and Cockayne's syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Weeda (Geert); R.C.A. van Ham; W. Vermeulen (Wim); D. Bootsma (Dirk); A.J. van der Eb; J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractThe human gene ERCC-3 specifically corrects the defect in an early step of the DNA excision repair pathway of UV-sensitive rodent mutants of complementation group 3. The predicted 782 animo acid ERCC-3 protein harbors putative nucleotide, chromatin, and helix-turn-helix DNA binding

  20. Mutational analysis of the human nucleotide excision repair gene ERCC1.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Sijbers (Anneke); P.J. van der Spek (Peter); H. Odijk (Hanny); J.H. van den Berg (Jan); M. van Duin (Mark); A. Westerveld (Andries); N.G.J. Jaspers (Nicolaas); D. Bootsma (Dirk); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThe human DNA repair protein ERCC1 resides in a complex together with the ERCC4, ERCC11 and XP-F correcting activities, thought to perform the 5' strand incision during nucleotide excision repair (NER). Its yeast counterpart, RAD1-RAD10, has an additional engagement in a mitotic

  1. Sequence conservation of the rad21 Schizosaccharomyces pombe DNA double-strand break repair gene in human and mouse.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. McKay (Michael); C. Troelstra (Christine); P.J. van der Spek (Peter); R. Kanaar (Roland); B. Smit (Bep); A. Hagemeijer (Anne); D. Bootsma (Dirk); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThe rad21 gene of Schizosaccharomyces pombe is involved in the repair of ionizing radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks. The isolation of mouse and human putative homologs of rad21 is reported here. Alignment of the predicted amino acid sequence of Rad21 with the mammalian proteins

  2. Analysis of gene repair tracts from Cas9/gRNA double-stranded breaks in the human CFTR gene

    OpenAIRE

    Hollywood, Jennifer A.; Lee, Ciaran M.; Scallan, Martina F.; Harrison, Patrick T.

    2016-01-01

    To maximise the efficiency of template-dependent gene editing, most studies describe programmable and/or RNA-guided endonucleases that make a double-stranded break at, or close to, the target sequence to be modified. The rationale for this design strategy is that most gene repair tracts will be very short. Here, we describe a CRISPR Cas9/gRNA selection-free strategy which uses deep sequencing to characterise repair tracts from a donor plasmid containing seven nucleotide differences across a 2...

  3. Cloning of human and mouse genes homologous to RAD52, a yeast gene involved in DNA repair and recombination.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.F.R. Muris; O.Y. Bezzubova (Olga); J-M. Buerstedde; K. Vreeken; A.S. Balajee; C.J. Osgood; C. Troelstra (Christine); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); K. Ostermann; H. Schmidt (Henning); A.T. Natarajan; J.C.J. Eeken; P.H.M. Lohmann (Paul); A. Pastink (Albert)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThe RAD52 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is required for recombinational repair of double-strand breaks. Using degenerate oligonucleotides based on conserved amino acid sequences of RAD52 and rad22, its counterpart from Schizosaccharomyces pombe, RAD52 homologs from man and mouse were

  4. Traditional Chinese Medicine Curcumin Sensitizes Human Colon Cancer to Radiation by Altering the Expression of DNA Repair-related Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guangen; Qiu, Jianming; Wang, Dong; Tao, Yong; Song, Yihuan; Wang, Hongtao; Tang, Juping; Wang, Xing; Sun, Y U; Yang, Zhijian; Hoffman, Robert M

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the radio-sensitizing efficacy of curcumin, a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) on colon cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Human colon cancer HT-29 cells were treated with curcumin (2.5 μM), irradiation (10 Gy) and the combination of irradiation and curcumin. Cell proliferation was assessed using the MTT assay. Apoptotic cells were detected by Annexin V-PE/7-AAD analysis. PCR was performed to determine differential-expression profiling of 95 DNA-repair genes in irradiated cells and cells treated with both irradiation and curcumin. Differentially-expressed genes were confirmed by Western blotting. In vivo radio-sensitizing efficacy of curcumin was assessed in a xenograft mouse model of HT-29 colon cancer. Curcumin was administrated daily by intraperitoneal injection at 20 mg/kg/dose. Mice received irradiation (10 Gy) twice weekly. Apoptosis of the cancer cells following treatment was determined by TUNEL staining. Irradiation induced proliferation inhibition and apoptosis of HT-29 cells in vitro. Concurrent curcumin treatment sensitized the HT-29 tumor to irradiation (p<0.01). DNA repair-related genes CCNH and XRCC5 were upregulated and LIG4 and PNKP downregulated by the combination of curcumin and irradiation compared with irradiation alone (p<0.05). Combined treatment of curcumin and irradiation resulted in a significantly greater tumor-growth inhibition and apoptosis compared to irradiation treatment alone (p<0.01). Curcumin sensitizes human colon cancer in vitro and in vivo to radiation. Downregulation of LIG4 and PNKP and upregulation of XRCC5 and CCNH DNA-repair-related genes were involved in the radio-sensitizing efficacy of curcumin in colon cancer. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  5. Erythrosine B and quinoline yellow dyes regulate DNA repair gene expression in human HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chequer, Farah Md; Venancio, Vinicius P; Almeida, Mara R; Aissa, Alexandre F; Bianchi, Maria Lourdes P; Antunes, Lusânia Mg

    2017-10-01

    Erythrosine B (ErB) is a cherry pink food colorant and is widely used in foods, drugs, and cosmetics. Quinoline yellow (QY) is a chinophthalon derivative used in cosmetic compositions for application to the skin, lips, and/or body surface. Previously, ErB and QY synthetic dyes were found to induce DNA damage in HepG2 cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular basis underlying the genotoxicity attributed to ErB and QY using the RT2 Profiler polymerase chain reaction array and by analyzing the expression profile of 84 genes involved in cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and DNA repair in HepG2 cells. ErB (70 mg/L) significantly decreased the expression of two genes ( FEN1 and REV1) related to DNA base repair. One gene ( LIG1) was downregulated and 20 genes related to ATR/ATM signaling ( ATR, RBBP8, RAD1, CHEK1, CHEK2, TOPB1), nucleotide excision repair ( ERCC1, XPA), base excision repair ( FEN1, MBD4), mismatch repair ( MLH1, MSH3, TP73), double strand break repair ( BLM), other DNA repair genes ( BRIP1, FANCA, GADD45A, REV1), and apoptosis ( BAX, PPP1R15A) were significantly increased after treatment with QY (20 mg/L). In conclusion, our data suggest that the genotoxic mechanism of ErB and QY dyes involves the modulation of genes related to the DNA repair system and cell cycle.

  6. Recent developments with the human repair genes ERCC2, ERCC4, and XRCC1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, L.H.; Caldecott, K.W.; Brookman, K.W.; Weber, C.A.; Salazar, E.S.; Takayama, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Fornace, A.J. [National Cancer Inst., Bethesda, MD (United States). Lab. of Molecular Pharmacology

    1992-11-06

    ERCC2 was first identified as a gene on human chromosome 19 that complemented the UV sensitivity of CHO UV5 cells in somatic cell hybrids. Subsequent studies localized ERCC2 to the same chromosomal region (19q13.2--13.3) as the ERCC1 gene and showed that the two genes were less than 250 kb apart. Cloning of ERCC2 was accomplished by transfection of genomic DNA into UV5 cells and rescue of the gene from a secondary transformant. Recovery of the gene was aided by the presence of repetitive sequences that were detected on Southern blots with a probe for Alu-family repeats. ERCC2, which is 19 kb in size, quantitatively corrected the UV sensitivity and incision defect in UV5 cells upon transfection. An ERCC2 CDNA clone was recovered from the pcD2 expression library. Although this clone was truncated at the 5 in. end, it conferred transient, but not stable, correction to UV5 cells upon transfection. Based on genomic sequence, this clone was extended by oligonucleotide addition to obtain minigene constructs in which the complete open reading frame (ORF) was present. Translation of the ERCC2 ORF gives an amino acid sequence that has 72% similarity with the S. cerevisiae RAD3 protein, which encodes a DNA helicase.

  7. Many amino acid substitution variants identified in DNA repair genes during human population screenings are predicted to impact protein function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi, T; Jones, I M; Mohrenweiser, H W

    2003-11-03

    Over 520 different amino acid substitution variants have been previously identified in the systematic screening of 91 human DNA repair genes for sequence variation. Two algorithms were employed to predict the impact of these amino acid substitutions on protein activity. Sorting Intolerant From Tolerant (SIFT) classified 226 of 508 variants (44%) as ''Intolerant''. Polymorphism Phenotyping (PolyPhen) classed 165 of 489 amino acid substitutions (34%) as ''Probably or Possibly Damaging''. Another 9-15% of the variants were classed as ''Potentially Intolerant or Damaging''. The results from the two algorithms are highly associated, with concordance in predicted impact observed for {approx}62% of the variants. Twenty one to thirty one percent of the variant proteins are predicted to exhibit reduced activity by both algorithms. These variants occur at slightly lower individual allele frequency than do the variants classified as ''Tolerant'' or ''Benign''. Both algorithms correctly predicted the impact of 26 functionally characterized amino acid substitutions in the APE1 protein on biochemical activity, with one exception. It is concluded that a substantial fraction of the missense variants observed in the general human population are functionally relevant. These variants are expected to be the molecular genetic and biochemical basis for the associations of reduced DNA repair capacity phenotypes with elevated cancer risk.

  8. Radioprotective effects of Bmi-1 involve epigenetic silencing of oxidase genes and enhanced DNA repair in normal human keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qinghua; Oh, Ju-Eun; Chen, Wei; Kim, Roy; Kim, Reuben H; Shin, Ki-Hyuk; McBride, William H; Park, No-Hee; Kang, Mo K

    2011-06-01

    Normal human keratinocytes (NHKs) undergo premature senescence following exposure to ionizing radiation (IR). This study investigates the effect of Bmi-1, a polycomb group protein, on radiation-induced senescence response. When exposed to IR, NHK transduced with Bmi-1 (NHK/Bmi-1) showed reduced senescent phenotype and enhanced proliferation compared with control cells (NHK/B0). To investigate the underlying mechanism, we determined the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), expression of ROS-generating enzymes, and DNA repair activities in cells. ROS level was increased upon irradiation but notably reduced by Bmi-1 transduction. Irradiation led to strong induction of oxidase genes, e.g., Lpo (lactoperoxidase), p22-phox, p47-phox, and Gp91, in NHK/B0 but their expression was almost completely silenced in NHK/Bmi-1. Induction of oxidase genes upon irradiation was linked with loss of trimethylated histone 3 at lysine 27 (H3K27Me3), but NHK/Bmi-1 expressed a higher level of H3K27Me3 compared with NHK/B0. Bmi-1 transduction suppressed IR-associated induction of jumanji domain containing 3 while enhancing the expression of EZH2, thereby preventing the loss of H3K27Me3 in the irradiated cells. Furthermore, NHK/Bmi-1 demonstrated increased repair of IR-induced DNA damage compared with NHK/B0. These results indicate that Bmi-1 elicits radioprotective effects on NHK by mitigating the genotoxicity of IR through epigenetic mechanisms.

  9. Impaired Cytogenetic Damage Repair and Cell Cycle Regulation in Response to Ionizing Radiation in Human Fibroblast Cells with Individual Knock-down of 25 Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ye; Rohde, Larry; Emami, Kamal; Hammond, Dianne; Casey, Rachael; Mehta, Satish; Jeevarajan, Antony; Pierson, Duane; Wu, Honglu

    2008-01-01

    Changes of gene expression profile are one of the most important biological responses in living cells after ionizing radiation (IR) exposure. Although some studies have demonstrated that genes with upregulated expression induced by IR may play important roles in DNA damage sensing, cell cycle checkpoint and chromosomal repair, the relationship between the regulation of gene expression by IR and its impact on cytogenetic responses to ionizing radiation has not been systematically studied. In our present study, the expression of 25 genes selected based on their transcriptional changes in response to IR or from their known DNA repair roles were individually knocked down by siRNA transfection in human fibroblast cells. Chromosome aberrations (CA) and micronuclei (MN) formation were measured as the cytogenetic endpoints. Our results showed that the yield of MN and/or CA formation were significantly increased by suppressed expression of 5 genes that included Ku70 in the DSB repair pathway; XPA in the NER pathway; RPA1 in the MMR pathway; RAD17 and RBBP8 in cell cycle control. Knocked-down expression of 4 genes including MRE11A, RAD51 in the DSB pathway, and SESN1 and SUMO1 showed significant inhibition of cell cycle progression, possibly because of severe impairment of DNA damage repair. Furthermore, loss of XPA, p21 and MLH1 expression resulted in both enhanced cell cycle progression and significantly higher yield of cytogenetic damage, indicating the involvement of these gene products in both cell cycle control and DNA damage repair. Of these 11 genes that affected the cytogenetic response, 9 were up-regulated in the cells exposed to gamma radiation, suggesting that genes transcriptionally modulated by IR were critical to regulating the biological consequences after IR. Failure to express these IR-responsive genes, such as by gene mutation, could seriously change the outcome of the post IR scenario and lead to carcinogenesis.

  10. Gene Therapy for Fracture Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    forma - tion and finally remodeling [8]. Fracture callus formation eventually results in the bridging of the fracture and the restoration of skeletal...analysis was performed using ImaGene software (BioDiscovery, El Segundo, CA), that used an internal statistical analysis of the signal intensity of...expression during the normal repair of a simple femur fracture with the elimination of scar tissue from the healing bone. This model does not address

  11. Transient expression of a plasmid gene, a tool to study DNA repair in human cells: defect of DNA repair in Cockayne syndrome; one thymine cyclobutane dimer is sufficient to block transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klocker, H; Schneider, R; Burtscher, H J; Auer, B; Hirsch-Kauffmann, M; Schweiger, M

    1986-01-01

    Transfected recombinant DNA with regulatory elements such as eukaryotic promoter and termination sites is transiently expressed in human fibroblast cells. Utilizing an expression vector containing the simian virus 40 (SV 40) early control region followed by the E. coli chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene, we investigated the ability of normal, Xeroderma pigmentosum and Cockayne Syndrome cells to repair UV lesions in transfected DNA. Fibroblasts from Xeroderma pigmentosum patients which cannot excise pyrimidine cyclobutane dimers were unable to restore expression of UV irradiated CAT gene. An UV dose inducing one thymine cyclobutane dimer in the transcribed strand of the CAT gene blocked its transcription in these repair deficient cells. Normal cell were able to repair the lesions in transfected DNA during an incubation period of about 40 h and in this way could overcome the UV block. In several fibroblast cell lines from patients suffering from Cockayne Syndrome expression of UV damaged CAT gene was restored significantly less than in normal fibroblasts, indicating that Cockayne Syndrome is associated with a UV repair defect.

  12. Rapid assessment of repair of ultraviolet DNA damage with a modified host-cell reactivation assay using a luciferase reporter gene and correlation with polymorphisms of DNA repair genes in normal human lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiao Yawei; Spitz, Margaret R.; Guo Zhaozheng; Hadeyati, Mohammad; Grossman, Lawrence; Kraemer, Kenneth H.; Wei Qingyi

    2002-11-30

    As DNA repair plays an important role in genetic susceptibility to cancer, assessment of the DNA repair phenotype is critical for molecular epidemiological studies of cancer. In this report, we compared use of the luciferase (luc) reporter gene in a host-cell reactivation (HCR) (LUC) assay of repair of ultraviolet (UV) damage to DNA to use of the chloramphenicol (cat) gene-based HCR (CAT) assay we used previously for case-control studies. We performed both the assays on cryopreserved lymphocytes from 102 healthy non-Hispanic white subjects. There was a close correlation between DNA repair capacity (DRC) as measured by the LUC and CAT assays. Although these two assays had similar variation, the LUC assay was faster and more sensitive. We also analyzed the relationship between DRC and the subjects' previously determined genotypes for four polymorphisms of two nucleotide-excision repair (NER) genes (in intron 9 of xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) C and exons 6, 10 and 23 of XPD) and one polymorphism of a base-excision repair gene in exon 10 of X-ray complementing group 1 (XRCC1). The DRC was significantly lower in subjects homozygous for one or more polymorphisms of the two NER genes than in subjects with other genotypes (P=0.010). In contrast, the polymorphic XRCC1 allele had no significant effect on DRC. These results suggest that the post-UV LUC assay measures NER phenotype and that polymorphisms of XPC and XPD genes modulate DRC. For population studies of the DNA repair phenotype, many samples need to be evaluated, and so the LUC assay has several advantages over the CAT assay: the LUC assay was more sensitive, had less variation, was not radioactive, was easier to perform, and required fewer cryopreserved cells. These features make the LUC-based HCR assay suitable for molecular epidemiological studies.

  13. DNA repair in human fibroblasts, as reflected by host-cell reactivation of a transfected UV-irradiated luciferase gene, is not related to donor age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkle, Thomas J.; O' Brien, Katherine; Brooks, Philip J.; Tarone, Robert E.; Robbins, Jay H

    2004-10-04

    The effect of donor age on the ability of mammalian cells to repair ultraviolet (UV)-induced DNA damage has been studied using several approaches, most recently via assays that measure the host-cell reactivation (HCR) of UV-irradiated reporter gene-containing plasmid vectors following their transfection into cells. Plasmid HCR assays indirectly quantify a cell line's ability to perform nucleotide excision repair (NER) by measuring the enzyme activity of the repaired reporter gene, e.g., chloramphenical acetyltransferase (cat) or luciferase (luc), and are useful in studies investigating whether increasing age may be a risk factor for the deficient repair of potentially cancer-causing, sunlight-induced, DNA lesions in skin cells. In our study, we quantified the DNA repair ability of cultured, nontransformed, human skin fibroblast lines through their HCR of a transfected UV-C-irradiated plasmid containing luc. HCR was measured at various times after transfection in five lines from normal donors of ages 21-96 years, and from one donor who had xeroderma pigmentosum (XP). The normal lines displayed increasing HCR at successive post-transfection time points and showed no significant correlation between HCR and donor age. The XP-A line, known to be markedly deficient in NER of UV-induced DNA damage, showed minimal evidence of HCR compared to the normal lines. To further assess potential variation in HCR with donor age, fibroblast lines from five old donors, ages 84-94 years, were compared with lines from five young donors, ages 17-26 years. While significant differences in HCR were found between some lines, no significant difference was found between the young and old age groups (P=0.44). Our study provides no indication that the higher incidence of skin cancer observed with increasing age is due to an age-related decrease in the ability to repair UV-induced DNA damage.

  14. Mismatch repair defects in human carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshleman, J R; Markowitz, S D

    1996-01-01

    Mismatch repair defects are carcinogenic. This conclusion comes some 80 years after the original description of a type of familial colorectal cancer in which mismatch repair defects are involved, and from decades of dedicated basic science research into fundamental mechanisms cells use to repair their DNA. Mismatch repair (MMR) was described first in bacteria, later in yeast and finally in higher eukaryotes. In bacteria, one of its roles is the rapid repair of replicative errors thereby providing the genome with a 100-1000-fold level of protection against mutation. It also guards the genome by preventing recombination between non-homologous regions of DNA. The information gained from bacteria suddenly became relevant to human neoplasia in 1993 when the RER phenotype of microsatellite instability was discovered in human cancers and was rapidly shown to be due to defects in mismatch repair. Evidence supporting the role of MMR defects in carcinogenesis comes from a variety of independent sources including: (i) theoretical considerations of the requirement for a mutator phenotype as a step in multistage carcinogenesis; (ii) discovering that MMR defects cause a 'mutator phenotype' destabilizing endogenous expressed genes including those integral to carcinogenesis; (iii) finding MMR defects in the germline of HNPCC kindred members; (iv) finding that such defects behave as classic tumor suppressor genes in both familial and sporadic colorectal cancers; (v) discovering that MMR 'knockout' mice have an increased incidence of tumors; and (vi) discovering that genetic complementation of MMR defective cells stabilizes the MMR deficiency-associated microsatellite instability. Models of carcinogenesis now must integrate the concepts of a MMR defect induced mutator phenotype (Loeb) with the concepts of multistep colon carcinogenesis (Fearon and Vogelstein) and clonal heterogeneity/selection (Nowell).

  15. Preferential repair of ionizing radiation-induced damage in the transcribed strand of an active human gene is defective in Cockayne syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leadon, S.A. (Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)); Copper, P.K. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))

    1993-11-15

    Cells from patients with Cockayne syndrome (CS), which are sensitive to killing by UV although overall damage removal appears normal, are specifically defective in repair of UV damage in actively transcribe genes. Because several CS strains display cross-sensitivity to killing by ionizing radiation, the authors examined whether ionizing radiation-induced damage in active genes is preferentially repaired by normal cells and whether the radiosensitivity of CS cells can be explained by a defect in this process. They found that ionizing radiation-induced damage was repaired more rapidly in the transcriptionally active metallothionein IIA (MTIIA) gene than in the inactive MTIIB gene or in the genome overall in normal cells as a result of faster repair on the transcribed strand of MTIIA. Cells of the radiosensitive CS strain CS1AN are completely defective in this strand-selective repair of ionizing radiation-induced damage, although their overall repair rate appears normal. CS3BE cells, which are intermediate in radiosensitivity, do exhibit more rapid repair of the transcribed strand but at a reduced rate compared to normal cells. Xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A cells, which are hypersensitive to UV light because of a defect in the nucleotide excision repair pathway but do not show increased sensitivity to ionizing radiation, preferentially repair ionizing radiation-induced damage on the transcribed strand of MTIIA. Thus, the ability to rapidly repair ionizing radiation-induced damage in actively transcribing genes correlates with cell survival. The results extend the generality of preferential repair in active genes to include damage other than bulky lesions.

  16. Preferential repair of ionizing radiation-induced damage in the transcribed strand of an active human gene is defective in Cockayne syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadon, S A; Cooper, P K

    1993-11-15

    Cells from patients with Cockayne syndrome (CS), which are sensitive to killing by UV although overall damage removal appears normal, are specifically defective in repair of UV damage in actively transcribed genes. Because several CS strains display cross-sensitivity to killing by ionizing radiation, we examined whether ionizing radiation-induced damage in active genes is preferentially repaired by normal cells and whether the radiosensitivity of CS cells can be explained by a defect in this process. We found that ionizing radiation-induced damage was repaired more rapidly in the transcriptionally active metallothionein IIA (MTIIA) gene than in the inactive MTIIB gene or in the genome overall in normal cells as a result of faster repair on the transcribed strand of MTIIA. Cells of the radiosensitive CS strain CS1AN are completely defective in this strand-selective repair of ionizing radiation-induced damage, although their overall repair rate appears normal. CS3BE cells, which are intermediate in radiosensitivity, do exhibit more rapid repair of the transcribed strand but at a reduced rate compared to normal cells. Xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A cells, which are hypersensitive to UV light because of a defect in the nucleotide excision repair pathway but do not show increased sensitivity to ionizing radiation, preferentially repair ionizing radiation-induced damage on the transcribed strand of MTIIA. Thus, the ability to rapidly repair ionizing radiation-induced damage in actively transcribing genes correlates with cell survival. Our results extend the generality of preferential repair in active genes to include damage other than bulky lesions.

  17. DNA damage repair genes controlling human papillomavirus (HPV episome levels under conditions of stability and extreme instability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terri G Edwards

    Full Text Available DNA damage response (DDR genes and pathways controlling the stability of HPV episomal DNA are reported here. We set out to understand the mechanism by which a DNA-binding, N-methylpyrrole-imidazole hairpin polyamide (PA25 acts to cause the dramatic loss of HPV DNA from cells. Southern blots revealed that PA25 alters HPV episomes within 5 hours of treatment. Gene expression arrays identified numerous DDR genes that were specifically altered in HPV16 episome-containing cells (W12E by PA25, but not in HPV-negative (C33A cells or in cells with integrated HPV16 (SiHa. A siRNA screen of 240 DDR genes was then conducted to identify enhancers and repressors of PA25 activity. Serendipitously, the screen also identified many novel genes, such as TDP1 and TDP2, regulating normal HPV episome stability. MRN and 9-1-1 complexes emerged as important for PA25-mediated episome destruction and were selected for follow-up studies. Mre11, along with other homologous recombination and dsDNA break repair genes, was among the highly significant PA25 repressors. The Mre11 inhibitor Mirin was found to sensitize HPV episomes to PA25 resulting in a ∼5-fold reduction of the PA25 IC50. A novel assay that couples end-labeling of DNA to Q-PCR showed that PA25 causes strand breaks within HPV DNA, and that Mirin greatly enhances this activity. The 9-1-1 complex member Rad9, a representative PA25 enhancer, was transiently phosphorylated in response to PA25 treatment suggesting that it has a role in detecting and signaling episome damage by PA25 to the cell. These results establish that DNA-targeted compounds enter cells and specifically target the HPV episome. This action leads to the activation of numerous DDR pathways and the massive elimination of episomal DNA from cells. Our findings demonstrate that viral episomes can be targeted for elimination from cells by minor groove binding agents, and implicate DDR pathways as important mediators of this process.

  18. DNA damage repair genes controlling human papillomavirus (HPV) episome levels under conditions of stability and extreme instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Terri G; Vidmar, Thomas J; Koeller, Kevin; Bashkin, James K; Fisher, Chris

    2013-01-01

    DNA damage response (DDR) genes and pathways controlling the stability of HPV episomal DNA are reported here. We set out to understand the mechanism by which a DNA-binding, N-methylpyrrole-imidazole hairpin polyamide (PA25) acts to cause the dramatic loss of HPV DNA from cells. Southern blots revealed that PA25 alters HPV episomes within 5 hours of treatment. Gene expression arrays identified numerous DDR genes that were specifically altered in HPV16 episome-containing cells (W12E) by PA25, but not in HPV-negative (C33A) cells or in cells with integrated HPV16 (SiHa). A siRNA screen of 240 DDR genes was then conducted to identify enhancers and repressors of PA25 activity. Serendipitously, the screen also identified many novel genes, such as TDP1 and TDP2, regulating normal HPV episome stability. MRN and 9-1-1 complexes emerged as important for PA25-mediated episome destruction and were selected for follow-up studies. Mre11, along with other homologous recombination and dsDNA break repair genes, was among the highly significant PA25 repressors. The Mre11 inhibitor Mirin was found to sensitize HPV episomes to PA25 resulting in a ∼5-fold reduction of the PA25 IC50. A novel assay that couples end-labeling of DNA to Q-PCR showed that PA25 causes strand breaks within HPV DNA, and that Mirin greatly enhances this activity. The 9-1-1 complex member Rad9, a representative PA25 enhancer, was transiently phosphorylated in response to PA25 treatment suggesting that it has a role in detecting and signaling episome damage by PA25 to the cell. These results establish that DNA-targeted compounds enter cells and specifically target the HPV episome. This action leads to the activation of numerous DDR pathways and the massive elimination of episomal DNA from cells. Our findings demonstrate that viral episomes can be targeted for elimination from cells by minor groove binding agents, and implicate DDR pathways as important mediators of this process.

  19. Cloning of a human homolog of the yeast nucleotide excision repair gene MMS19 and interaction with transcription repair factor TFIIH via the XPB and XPD helicases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Seroz; G.S. Winkler (Sebastiaan); J. Auriol; R.A. Verhage; W. Vermeulen (Wim); B. Smit (Bep); J. Brouwer (Jaap); G. Weeda (Geert); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); A.P.M. Eker (André); J-M. Egly (Jean-Marc)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractNucleotide excision repair (NER) removes UV-induced photoproducts and numerous other DNA lesions in a highly conserved 'cut-and-paste' reaction that involves approximately 25 core components. In addition, several other proteins have been identified which are dispensable for NER in vitro

  20. Human longevity and variation in DNA damage response and repair: Study of the contribution of sub-processes using competitive gene-set analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debrabant, Birgit; Sørensen, Mette; Flachsbart, Friederike

    2014-01-01

    others. Data were applied on 592 SNPs from 77 genes involved in nine sub-processes: DNA-damage response, base excision repair (BER), nucleotide excision repair, mismatch repair, non-homologous end-joining, homologous recombinational repair (HRR), RecQ helicase activities (RECQ), telomere functioning...... and mitochondrial DNA processes. The study population was 1089 long-lived and 736 middle-aged Danes. A self-contained set-based test of all SNPs displayed association with longevity (P-value=9.9 × 10-5), supporting that the overall pathway could affect longevity. Investigation of the nine sub-processes using...

  1. Identification of a deletion in the mismatch repair gene, MSH2, using mouse-human cell hybrids monosomal for chromosome 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyatt, R E; Nakagawa, H; Hampel, H; Sedra, M; Fuchik, M B; Comeras, I; de la Chapelle, A; Prior, T W

    2003-03-01

    Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer is characterized by mutations in one of the DNA mismatch repair genes, primarily MLH1, MSH2, or MSH6. We report here the identification of a genomic deletion of approximately 11.4 kb encompassing the first two exons of the MSH2 gene in two generations of an Ohio family. By Southern blot analysis, using a cDNA probe spanning the first seven exons of MSH2, an alteration in each of three different enzyme digests (including a unique 13-kb band on HindIII digests) was observed, which suggested the presence of a large alteration in the 5' region of this gene. Mouse-human cell hybrids from a mutation carrier were then generated which contained a single copy each of human chromosome 2 on which the MSH2 gene resides. Southern blots on DNA from the cell hybrids demonstrated the same, unique 13-kb band from one MSH2 allele, as seen in the diploid DNA. DNA from this same monosomal cell hybrid failed to amplify in polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) using primers to exons 1 and 2, demonstrating the deletion of these sequences in one MSH2 allele, and the breakpoints involving Alu repeats were identified by PCR amplification and sequence analysis. Copyright Blackwell Munksgaard, 2003

  2. Mismatch repair genes in Lynch syndrome: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,Felipe Cavalcanti Carneiro da; Valentin, Mev Dominguez; Ferreira, Fábio de Oliveira; Carraro, Dirce Maria; Rossi, Benedito Mauro

    2009-01-01

    Lynch syndrome represents 1-7% of all cases of colorectal cancer and is an autosomal-dominant inherited cancer predisposition syndrome caused by germline mutations in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) mismatch repair genes. Since the discovery of the major human genes with DNA mismatch repair function, mutations in five of them have been correlated with susceptibility to Lynch syndrome: mutS homolog 2 (MSH2); mutL homolog 1 (MLH1); mutS homolog 6 (MSH6); postmeiotic segregation increased 2 (PMS2); ...

  3. Non-DBS DNA Repair Genes Regulate Radiation-induced Cytogenetic Damage Repair and Cell Cycle Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ye; Rohde, Larry H.; Emami, Kamal; Casey, Rachael; Wu, Honglu

    2008-01-01

    Changes of gene expression profile are one of the most important biological responses in living cells after ionizing radiation (IR) exposure. Although some studies have shown that genes up-regulated by IR may play important roles in DNA damage repair, the relationship between the regulation of gene expression by IR, particularly genes not known for their roles in DSB repair, and its impact on cytogenetic responses has not been systematically studied. In the present study, the expression of 25 genes selected on the basis of their transcriptional changes in response to IR was individually knocked down by transfection with small interfering RNA in human fibroblast cells. The purpose of this study is to identify new roles of these selected genes on regulating DSB repair and cell cycle progression , as measured in the micronuclei formation and chromosome aberration. In response to IR, the formation of MN was significantly increased by suppressed expression of 5 genes: Ku70 in the DSB repair pathway, XPA in the NER pathway, RPA1 in the MMR pathway, and RAD17 and RBBP8 in cell cycle control. Knocked-down expression of 4 genes (MRE11A, RAD51 in the DSB pathway, SESN1, and SUMO1) significantly inhibited cell cycle progression, possibly because of severe impairment of DNA damage repair. Furthermore, loss of XPA, P21, or MLH1 expression resulted in both significantly enhanced cell cycle progression and increased yields of chromosome aberrations, indicating that these gene products modulate both cell cycle control and DNA damage repair. Most of the 11 genes that affected cytogenetic responses are not known to have clear roles influencing DBS repair. Nine of these 11 genes were up-regulated in cells exposed to gamma radiation, suggesting that genes transcriptionally modulated by IR were critical to regulate the biological consequences after IR.

  4. Efficient Generation of Gene-Modified Pigs Harboring Precise Orthologous Human Mutation via CRISPR/Cas9-Induced Homology-Directed Repair in Zygotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoyang; Wang, Lulu; Du, Yinan; Xie, Fei; Li, Liang; Liu, Yu; Liu, Chuanhong; Wang, Shiqiang; Zhang, Shibing; Huang, Xingxu; Wang, Yong; Wei, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Precise genetic mutation of model animals is highly valuable for functional investigation of human mutations. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated 9 (Cas9)-induced homology-directed repair (HDR) is usually used for precise genetic mutation, being limited by the relatively low efficiency compared with that of non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). Although inhibition of NHEJ was shown to enhance HDR-derived mutation, in this work, without inhibition of NHEJ, we first generated gene-modified pigs harboring precise orthologous human mutation (Sox10 c.A325>T) via CRISPR/Cas9-induced HDR in zygotes using single-strand oligo DNA (ssODN) as template with an efficiency as high as 80%, indicating that pig zygotes exhibited high activities of HDR relative to NHEJ and were highly amendable to genetic mutation via CIRSPR/Cas9-induced HDR. Besides, we found a higher concentration of ssODN remarkably reduced HDR-derived mutation in pig zygotes, suggesting a possible balance for optimal HDR-derived mutation in zygotes between the excessive accessibility to HDR templates and the activities of HDR relative to NHEJ which appeared to be negatively correlated to ssODN concentration. In addition, the HDR-derived mutation, as well as those from NHEJ, extensively integrated into various tissues including gonad of founder pig without detected off-targeting, suggesting CRISPR/Cas9-induced HDR in zygotes is a reliable approach for precise genetic mutation in pigs. © 2015 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  5. SELECTIVE-INHIBITION OF REPAIR OF ACTIVE GENES BY HYPERTHERMIA IS DUE TO INHIBITION OF GLOBAL AND TRANSCRIPTION COUPLED REPAIR PATHWAYS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SAKKERS, RJ; FILON, AR; BRUNSTING, JF; KAMPINGA, HH; KONINGS, AWT; MULLENDERS, LHF

    Hyperthermia specifically inhibits the repair of UV-induced DNA photolesions in transcriptionally active genes, To define more precisely which mechanisms underlie the heat-induced inhibition of repair of active genes, removal of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) was studied in human fibroblasts

  6. Gene therapy and peripheral nerve repair: a perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan A. Hoyng

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Clinical phase I/II studies have demonstrated the safety of gene therapy for a variety of central nervous system disorders, including Canavan’s, Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease, retinal diseases and pain. The majority of gene therapy studies in the CNS have used adeno-associated viral vectors (AAV and the first AAV-based therapeutic, a vector encoding lipoprotein lipase, is now marketed in Europe under the name Glybera. These remarkable advances may become relevant to translational research on gene therapy to promote peripheral nervous system (PNS repair. This short review first summarizes the results of gene therapy in animal models for peripheral nerve repair. Secondly, we identify key areas of future research in the domain of PNS-gene therapy. Finally, a perspective is provided on the path to clinical translation of PNS gene therapy for traumatic nerve injuries. In the latter section we discuss the route and mode of delivery of the vector to human patients, the efficacy and safety of the vector, and the choice of the patient population for a first possible proof-of-concept clinical study.

  7. Approaches to diagnose DNA mismatch repair gene defects in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Diaz, Javier; Rasmussen, Lene Juel

    2016-02-01

    The DNA repair pathway mismatch repair (MMR) is responsible for the recognition and correction of DNA biosynthetic errors caused by inaccurate nucleotide incorporation during replication. Faulty MMR leads to failure to address the mispairs or insertion deletion loops (IDLs) left behind by the replicative polymerases and results in increased mutation load at the genome. The realization that defective MMR leads to a hypermutation phenotype and increased risk of tumorigenesis highlights the relevance of this pathway for human disease. The association of MMR defects with increased risk of cancer development was first observed in colorectal cancer patients that carried inactivating germline mutations in MMR genes and the disease was named as hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). Currently, a growing list of cancers is found to be MMR defective and HNPCC has been renamed Lynch syndrome (LS) partly to include the associated risk of developing extra-colonic cancers. In addition, a number of non-hereditary, mostly epigenetic, alterations of MMR genes have been described in sporadic tumors. Besides conferring a strong cancer predisposition, genetic or epigenetic inactivation of MMR genes also renders cells resistant to some chemotherapeutic agents. Therefore, diagnosis of MMR deficiency has important implications for the management of the patients, the surveillance of their relatives in the case of LS and for the choice of treatment. Some of the alterations found in MMR genes have already been well defined and their pathogenicity assessed. Despite this substantial wealth of knowledge, the effects of a large number of alterations remain uncharacterized (variants of uncertain significance, VUSs). The advent of personalized genomics is likely to increase the list of VUSs found in MMR genes and anticipates the need of diagnostic tools for rapid assessment of their pathogenicity. This review describes current tools and future strategies for addressing the relevance

  8. Adaptive response to ionizing radiation in normal human skin fibroblasts. Enhancement of DNA repair rate and modulation of gene expression. Reponse adaptative au rayonnement ionisant des fibroblastes de peau humaine. Augmentation de la vitesse de reparation de l'ADN et variation de l'expression des genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toledo, S.M. de; Mitchel, R.E.J. (Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada). Chalk River Nuclear Labs.); Azzam, E. (Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada). Chalk River Nuclear Labs. Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology); Raaphorst, G.P. (Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology)

    Low doses and dose rates of ionizing radiation enhance the rate of DNA repair in human fibroblasts and protect the cells against radiation-induced micronucleus formation. Chronic exposures reduce the mRNA levels of the genes topoisomerase II and FACC-1 (Fanconi's anemia, group C). (authors). 11 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  9. Recombinational DNA repair and human disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Larry H.; Schild, David

    2002-11-30

    We review the genes and proteins related to the homologous recombinational repair (HRR) pathway that are implicated in cancer through either genetic disorders that predispose to cancer through chromosome instability or the occurrence of somatic mutations that contribute to carcinogenesis. Ataxia telangiectasia (AT), Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS), and an ataxia-like disorder (ATLD), are chromosome instability disorders that are defective in the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), NBS, and Mre11 genes, respectively. These genes are critical in maintaining cellular resistance to ionizing radiation (IR), which kills largely by the production of double-strand breaks (DSBs). Bloom syndrome involves a defect in the BLM helicase, which seems to play a role in restarting DNA replication forks that are blocked at lesions, thereby promoting chromosome stability. The Werner syndrome gene (WRN) helicase, another member of the RecQ family like BLM, has very recently been found to help mediate homologous recombination. Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genetically complex chromosomal instability disorder involving seven or more genes, one of which is BRCA2. FA may be at least partially caused by the aberrant production of reactive oxidative species. The breast cancer-associated BRCA1 and BRCA2 proteins are strongly implicated in HRR; BRCA2 associates with Rad51 and appears to regulate its activity. We discuss in detail the phenotypes of the various mutant cell lines and the signaling pathways mediated by the ATM kinase. ATM's phosphorylation targets can be grouped into oxidative stress-mediated transcriptional changes, cell cycle checkpoints, and recombinational repair. We present the DNA damage response pathways by using the DSB as the prototype lesion, whose incorrect repair can initiate and augment karyotypic abnormalities.

  10. DNA Repair in Drosophila: Mutagens, Models, and Missing Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekelsky, Jeff

    2017-02-01

    The numerous processes that damage DNA are counterbalanced by a complex network of repair pathways that, collectively, can mend diverse types of damage. Insights into these pathways have come from studies in many different organisms, including Drosophila melanogaster Indeed, the first ideas about chromosome and gene repair grew out of Drosophila research on the properties of mutations produced by ionizing radiation and mustard gas. Numerous methods have been developed to take advantage of Drosophila genetic tools to elucidate repair processes in whole animals, organs, tissues, and cells. These studies have led to the discovery of key DNA repair pathways, including synthesis-dependent strand annealing, and DNA polymerase theta-mediated end joining. Drosophila appear to utilize other major repair pathways as well, such as base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair, mismatch repair, and interstrand crosslink repair. In a surprising number of cases, however, DNA repair genes whose products play important roles in these pathways in other organisms are missing from the Drosophila genome, raising interesting questions for continued investigations. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  11. Pathological assessment of mismatch repair gene variants in Lynch syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lene Juel; Heinen, Christopher D; Royer-Pokora, Brigitte

    2012-01-01

    Lynch syndrome (LS) is caused by germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes and is the most prevalent hereditary colorectal cancer syndrome. A significant proportion of variants identified in MMR and other common cancer susceptibility genes are missense or noncoding changes whose conse...

  12. Hypomorphic PCNA mutation underlies a human DNA repair disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baple, Emma L; Chambers, Helen; Cross, Harold E; Fawcett, Heather; Nakazawa, Yuka; Chioza, Barry A; Harlalka, Gaurav V; Mansour, Sahar; Sreekantan-Nair, Ajith; Patton, Michael A; Muggenthaler, Martina; Rich, Phillip; Wagner, Karin; Coblentz, Roselyn; Stein, Constance K; Last, James I; Taylor, A Malcolm R; Jackson, Andrew P; Ogi, Tomoo; Lehmann, Alan R; Green, Catherine M; Crosby, Andrew H

    2014-07-01

    Numerous human disorders, including Cockayne syndrome, UV-sensitive syndrome, xeroderma pigmentosum, and trichothiodystrophy, result from the mutation of genes encoding molecules important for nucleotide excision repair. Here, we describe a syndrome in which the cardinal clinical features include short stature, hearing loss, premature aging, telangiectasia, neurodegeneration, and photosensitivity, resulting from a homozygous missense (p.Ser228Ile) sequence alteration of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). PCNA is a highly conserved sliding clamp protein essential for DNA replication and repair. Due to this fundamental role, mutations in PCNA that profoundly impair protein function would be incompatible with life. Interestingly, while the p.Ser228Ile alteration appeared to have no effect on protein levels or DNA replication, patient cells exhibited marked abnormalities in response to UV irradiation, displaying substantial reductions in both UV survival and RNA synthesis recovery. The p.Ser228Ile change also profoundly altered PCNA's interaction with Flap endonuclease 1 and DNA Ligase 1, DNA metabolism enzymes. Together, our findings detail a mutation of PCNA in humans associated with a neurodegenerative phenotype, displaying clinical and molecular features common to other DNA repair disorders, which we showed to be attributable to a hypomorphic amino acid alteration.

  13. DNA mismatch repair preferentially protects genes from mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfield, Eric J; Ding, Zhong Jie; Jamieson, Fiona J C; Visscher, Anne M; Zheng, Shao Jian; Mithani, Aziz; Harberd, Nicholas P

    2017-12-12

    Mutation is the source of genetic variation and fuels biological evolution. Many mutations first arise as DNA replication errors. These errors subsequently evade correction by cellular DNA repair, for example, by the well-known DNA mismatch repair (MMR) mechanism. Here, we determine the genome-wide effects of MMR on mutation. We first identify almost 9000 mutations accumulated over five generations in eight MMR-deficient mutation accumulation (MA) lines of the model plant species, Arabidopsis thaliana We then show that MMR deficiency greatly increases the frequency of both smaller-scale insertions and deletions (indels) and of single-nucleotide variant (SNV) mutations. Most indels involve A or T nucleotides and occur preferentially in homopolymeric (poly A or poly T) genomic stretches. In addition, we find that the likelihood of occurrence of indels in homopolymeric stretches is strongly related to stretch length, and that this relationship causes ultrahigh localized mutation rates in specific homopolymeric stretch regions. For SNVs, we show that MMR deficiency both increases their frequency and changes their molecular mutational spectrum, causing further enhancement of the GC to AT bias characteristic of organisms with normal MMR function. Our final genome-wide analyses show that MMR deficiency disproportionately increases the numbers of SNVs in genes, rather than in nongenic regions of the genome. This latter observation indicates that MMR preferentially protects genes from mutation and has important consequences for understanding the evolution of genomes during both natural selection and human tumor growth. © 2018 Belfield et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  14. DNA repair gene XRCC7 G6721T variant and susceptibility to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mostafa Saadat

    2016-02-20

    Feb 20, 2016 ... Abstract Background: The human XRCC7 (MIM: 600899) is a DNA double-strand break repair gene, involved in non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). Polymorphism G6721T (rs7003908) is located in the intron 8 of the XRCC7. This polymorphism may regulate splicing and cause mRNA instability. Aim: The ...

  15. DNA repair gene XRCC7 G6721T variant and susceptibility to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The human XRCC7 (MIM: 600899) is a DNA double-strand break repair gene, involved in non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). Polymorphism G6721T (rs7003908) is located in the intron 8 of the XRCC7. This polymorphism may regulate splicing and cause mRNA instability. Aim: The aim of the present study ...

  16. Genetic variants of the DNA repair genes from Exome Aggregation Consortium (EXAC) database: significance in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Raima; Ghosh, Sankar Kumar

    2017-04-01

    DNA repair pathway is a primary defense system that eliminates wide varieties of DNA damage. Any deficiencies in them are likely to cause the chromosomal instability that leads to cell malfunctioning and tumorigenesis. Genetic polymorphisms in DNA repair genes have demonstrated a significant association with cancer risk. Our study attempts to give a glimpse of the overall scenario of the germline polymorphisms in the DNA repair genes by taking into account of the Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC) database as well as the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD) for evaluating the disease link, particularly in cancer. It has been found that ExAC DNA repair dataset (which consists of 228 DNA repair genes) comprises 30.4% missense, 12.5% dbSNP reported and 3.2% ClinVar significant variants. 27% of all the missense variants has the deleterious SIFT score of 0.00 and 6% variants carrying the most damaging Polyphen-2 score of 1.00, thus affecting the protein structure and function. However, as per HGMD, only a fraction (1.2%) of ExAC DNA repair variants was found to be cancer-related, indicating remaining variants reported in both the databases to be further analyzed. This, in turn, may provide an increased spectrum of the reported cancer linked variants in the DNA repair genes present in ExAC database. Moreover, further in silico functional assay of the identified vital cancer-associated variants, which is essential to get their actual biological significance, may shed some lights in the field of targeted drug development in near future. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. RAD25(SSL2), a yeast homolog of the human xeroderma pigmentosum group B DNA repair gene, is essential for viability.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Park (Robert); S.N. Guzder; M.H.M. Koken (Marcel); I. Jaspers-Dekker (Iris); G. Weeda (Geert); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); S. Prakash; L. Prakash

    1992-01-01

    textabstractXeroderma pigmentosum (XP) patients are extremely sensitive to ultraviolet (UV) light and suffer from a high incidence of skin cancers, due to a defect in nucleotide excision repair. The disease is genetically heterogeneous, and seven complementation groups, A-G, have been identified.

  18. Dynamic regulation of cerebral DNA repair genes by psychological stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsberg, Kristin; Aalling, Nadia; Wörtwein, Gitta

    2015-01-01

    was seen in HC, but with overall smaller effects and without the induction after acute stress. Nuclear DNA damage from oxidation as measured by the comet assay was unaffected by stress in both regions. We conclude that psychological stress have a dynamic influence on brain DNA repair gene expression...

  19. Review: Clinical aspects of hereditary DNA Mismatch repair gene mutations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijmons, Rolf H.; Hofstra, Robert M. W.

    Inherited mutations of the DNA Mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2 can result in two hereditary tumor syndromes: the adult-onset autosomal dominant Lynch syndrome, previously referred to as Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC) and the childhood-onset autosomal recessive

  20. Nucleotide excision repair and human syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. de Boer (Jan); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractDNA damage is implicated in cancer and aging, and several DNA repair mechanisms exist that safeguard the genome from these deleterious consequences. Nucleotide excision repair (NER) removes a wide diversity of lesions, the main of which include UV-induced lesions, bulky chemical adducts

  1. Human longevity and variation in GH/IGF-1/insulin signaling, DNA damage signaling and repair and pro/antioxidant pathway genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soerensen, Mette; Dato, Serena; Tan, Qihua

    2012-01-01

    oldest-old (age 92-93) and 736 middle-aged Danes we found 1 pro/antioxidant SNP (rs1002149 (GSR)), 5 GH/IGF-1/INS SNPs (rs1207362 (KL), rs2267723 (GHRHR), rs3842755 (INS), rs572169 (GHSR), rs9456497 (IGF2R)) and 5 DNA repair SNPs (rs11571461 (RAD52), rs13251813 (WRN), rs1805329 (RAD23B), rs2953983 (POLB...

  2. An update on targeted gene repair in mammalian cells: methods and mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolund Lars

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Transfer of full-length genes including regulatory elements has been the preferred gene therapy strategy for clinical applications. However, with significant drawbacks emerging, targeted gene alteration (TGA has recently become a promising alternative to this method. By means of TGA, endogenous DNA repair pathways of the cell are activated leading to specific genetic correction of single-base mutations in the genome. This strategy can be implemented using single-stranded oligodeoxyribonucleotides (ssODNs, small DNA fragments (SDFs, triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs, adeno-associated virus vectors (AAVs and zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs. Despite difficulties in the use of TGA, including lack of knowledge on the repair mechanisms stimulated by the individual methods, the field holds great promise for the future. The objective of this review is to summarize and evaluate the different methods that exist within this particular area of human gene therapy research.

  3. A data mining approach for classifying DNA repair genes into ageing-related or non-ageing-related.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Alex A; Vasieva, Olga; de Magalhães, João Pedro

    2011-01-12

    The ageing of the worldwide population means there is a growing need for research on the biology of ageing. DNA damage is likely a key contributor to the ageing process and elucidating the role of different DNA repair systems in ageing is of great interest. In this paper we propose a data mining approach, based on classification methods (decision trees and Naive Bayes), for analysing data about human DNA repair genes. The goal is to build classification models that allow us to discriminate between ageing-related and non-ageing-related DNA repair genes, in order to better understand their different properties. The main patterns discovered by the classification methods are as follows: (a) the number of protein-protein interactions was a predictor of DNA repair proteins being ageing-related; (b) the use of predictor attributes based on protein-protein interactions considerably increased predictive accuracy of attributes based on Gene Ontology (GO) annotations; (c) GO terms related to "response to stimulus" seem reasonably good predictors of ageing-relatedness for DNA repair genes; (d) interaction with the XRCC5 (Ku80) protein is a strong predictor of ageing-relatedness for DNA repair genes; and (e) DNA repair genes with a high expression in T lymphocytes are more likely to be ageing-related. The above patterns are broadly integrated in an analysis discussing relations between Ku, the non-homologous end joining DNA repair pathway, ageing and lymphocyte development. These patterns and their analysis support non-homologous end joining double strand break repair as central to the ageing-relatedness of DNA repair genes. Our work also showcases the use of protein interaction partners to improve accuracy in data mining methods and our approach could be applied to other ageing-related pathways.

  4. A data mining approach for classifying DNA repair genes into ageing-related or non-ageing-related

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasieva Olga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ageing of the worldwide population means there is a growing need for research on the biology of ageing. DNA damage is likely a key contributor to the ageing process and elucidating the role of different DNA repair systems in ageing is of great interest. In this paper we propose a data mining approach, based on classification methods (decision trees and Naive Bayes, for analysing data about human DNA repair genes. The goal is to build classification models that allow us to discriminate between ageing-related and non-ageing-related DNA repair genes, in order to better understand their different properties. Results The main patterns discovered by the classification methods are as follows: (a the number of protein-protein interactions was a predictor of DNA repair proteins being ageing-related; (b the use of predictor attributes based on protein-protein interactions considerably increased predictive accuracy of attributes based on Gene Ontology (GO annotations; (c GO terms related to "response to stimulus" seem reasonably good predictors of ageing-relatedness for DNA repair genes; (d interaction with the XRCC5 (Ku80 protein is a strong predictor of ageing-relatedness for DNA repair genes; and (e DNA repair genes with a high expression in T lymphocytes are more likely to be ageing-related. Conclusions The above patterns are broadly integrated in an analysis discussing relations between Ku, the non-homologous end joining DNA repair pathway, ageing and lymphocyte development. These patterns and their analysis support non-homologous end joining double strand break repair as central to the ageing-relatedness of DNA repair genes. Our work also showcases the use of protein interaction partners to improve accuracy in data mining methods and our approach could be applied to other ageing-related pathways.

  5. Human embryonic stem cells have enhanced repair of multiple forms of DNA damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maynard, Scott; Swistowska, Anna Maria; Lee, Jae Wan

    2008-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells need to maintain genomic integrity so that they can retain the ability to differentiate into multiple cell types without propagating DNA errors. Previous studies have suggested that mechanisms of genome surveillance, including DNA repair, are superior in mouse embryonic stem...... cells compared with various differentiated murine cells. Using single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay) we found that human embryonic stem cells (BG01, I6) have more efficient repair of different types of DNA damage (generated from H2O2, UV-C, ionizing radiation, or psoralen) than human primary...... fibroblasts (WI-38, hs27) and, with the exception of UV-C damage, HeLa cells. Microarray gene expression analysis showed that mRNA levels of several DNA repair genes are elevated in human embryonic stem cells compared with their differentiated forms (embryoid bodies). These data suggest that genomic...

  6. Germline Mutations in DNA Repair Genes in Lung Adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Erin M; Gable, Dustin L; Stanley, Susan E; Khalil, Sara E; Antonescu, Valentin; Florea, Liliana; Armanios, Mary

    2017-11-01

    Although lung cancer is generally thought to be environmentally provoked, anecdotal familial clustering has been reported, suggesting that there may be genetic susceptibility factors. We systematically tested whether germline mutations in eight candidate genes may be risk factors for lung adenocarcinoma. We studied lung adenocarcinoma cases for which germline sequence data had been generated as part of The Cancer Genome Atlas project but had not been previously analyzed. We selected eight genes, ATM serine/threonine kinase gene (ATM), BRCA2, DNA repair associated gene (BRCA2), checkpoint kinase 2 gene (CHEK2), EGFR, parkin RBR E3 ubiquitin protein ligase gene (PARK2), telomerase reverse transcriptase gene (TERT), tumor protein p53 gene (TP53), and Yes associated protein 1 gene (YAP1), on the basis of prior anecdotal association with lung cancer or genome-wide association studies. Among 555 lung adenocarcinoma cases, we detected 14 pathogenic mutations in five genes; they occurred at a frequency of 2.5% and represented an OR of 66 (95% confidence interval: 33-125, p mutations fell most commonly in ATM (50%), followed by TP53, BRCA2, EGFR, and PARK2. Most (86%) of these variants had been reported in other familial cancer syndromes. Another 12 cases (2%) carried ultrarare variants that were predicted to be deleterious by three protein prediction programs; these most frequently involved ATM and BRCA2. A subset of patients with lung adenocarcinoma, at least 2.5% to 4.5%, carry germline variants that have been linked to cancer risk in Mendelian syndromes. The genes fall most frequently in DNA repair pathways. Our data indicate that patients with lung adenocarcinoma, similar to other solid tumors, include a subset of patients with inherited susceptibility. Copyright © 2017 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Allele and Genotype Distributions of DNA Repair Gene Polymorphisms in South Indian Healthy Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katiboina Srinivasa Rao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Various DNA repair pathways protect the structural and chemical integrity of the human genome from environmental and endogenous threats. Polymorphisms of genes encoding the proteins involved in DNA repair have been found to be associated with cancer risk and chemotherapeutic response. In this study, we aim to establish the normative frequencies of DNA repair genes in South Indian healthy population and compare with HapMap populations. Genotyping was done on 128 healthy volunteers from South India, and the allele and genotype distributions were established. The minor allele frequency of Xeroderma pigmentosum group A ( XPA G23A, Excision repair cross-complementing 2 ( ERCC2 /Xeroderma pigmentosum group D ( XPD Lys751Gln, Xeroderma pigmentosum group G ( XPG His46His, XPG Asp1104His, and X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 ( XRCC1 Arg399Gln polymorphisms were 49.2%, 36.3%, 48.0%, 23.0%, and 34.0% respectively. Ethnic variations were observed in the frequency distribution of these polymorphisms between the South Indians and other HapMap populations. The present work forms the groundwork for cancer association studies and biomarker identification for treatment response and prognosis.

  8. Germline stem cell gene PIWIL2 mediates DNA repair through relaxation of chromatin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Tao Yin

    Full Text Available DNA damage response (DDR is an intrinsic barrier of cell to tumorigenesis initiated by genotoxic agents. However, the mechanisms underlying the DDR are not completely understood despite of extensive investigation. Recently, we have reported that ectopic expression of germline stem cell gene PIWIL2 is associated with tumor stem cell development, although the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Here we show that PIWIL2 is required for the repair of DNA-damage induced by various types of genotoxic agents. Upon ultraviolet (UV irradiation, silenced PIWIL2 gene in normal human fibroblasts was transiently activated after treatment with UV light. This activation was associated with DNA repair, because Piwil2-deficienct mouse embryonic fibroblasts (mili(-/- MEFs were defective in cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD repair after UV treatment. As a result, the UV-treated mili(-/- MEFs were more susceptible to apoptosis, as characterized by increased levels of DNA damage-associated apoptotic proteins, such as active caspase-3, cleaved Poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP and Bik. The impaired DNA repair in the mili(-/- MEFs was associated with the reductions of histone H3 acetylation and chromatin relaxation, although the DDR pathway downstream chromatin relaxation appeared not to be directly affected by Piwil2. Moreover, guanine-guanine (Pt-[GG] and double strand break (DSB repair were also defective in the mili(-/- MEFs treated by genotoxic chemicals Cisplatin and ionizing radiation (IR, respectively. The results indicate that Piwil2 can mediate DNA repair through an axis of Piwil2 → histone acetylation → chromatin relaxation upstream DDR pathways. The findings reveal a new role for Piwil2 in DNA repair and suggest that Piwil2 may act as a gatekeeper against DNA damage-mediated tumorigenesis.

  9. A genome-scale DNA repair RNAi screen identifies SPG48 as a novel gene associated with hereditary spastic paraplegia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikołaj Słabicki

    Full Text Available DNA repair is essential to maintain genome integrity, and genes with roles in DNA repair are frequently mutated in a variety of human diseases. Repair via homologous recombination typically restores the original DNA sequence without introducing mutations, and a number of genes that are required for homologous recombination DNA double-strand break repair (HR-DSBR have been identified. However, a systematic analysis of this important DNA repair pathway in mammalian cells has not been reported. Here, we describe a genome-scale endoribonuclease-prepared short interfering RNA (esiRNA screen for genes involved in DNA double strand break repair. We report 61 genes that influenced the frequency of HR-DSBR and characterize in detail one of the genes that decreased the frequency of HR-DSBR. We show that the gene KIAA0415 encodes a putative helicase that interacts with SPG11 and SPG15, two proteins mutated in hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP. We identify mutations in HSP patients, discovering KIAA0415/SPG48 as a novel HSP-associated gene, and show that a KIAA0415/SPG48 mutant cell line is more sensitive to DNA damaging drugs. We present the first genome-scale survey of HR-DSBR in mammalian cells providing a dataset that should accelerate the discovery of novel genes with roles in DNA repair and associated medical conditions. The discovery that proteins forming a novel protein complex are required for efficient HR-DSBR and are mutated in patients suffering from HSP suggests a link between HSP and DNA repair.

  10. Microsatellite Instability Use in Mismatch Repair Gene Sequence Variant Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryony A. Thompson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Inherited mutations in the DNA mismatch repair genes (MMR can cause MMR deficiency and increased susceptibility to colorectal and endometrial cancer. Microsatellite instability (MSI is the defining molecular signature of MMR deficiency. The clinical classification of identified MMR gene sequence variants has a direct impact on the management of patients and their families. For a significant proportion of cases sequence variants of uncertain clinical significance (also known as unclassified variants are identified, constituting a challenge for genetic counselling and clinical management of families. The effect on protein function of these variants is difficult to interpret. The presence or absence of MSI in tumours can aid in determining the pathogenicity of associated unclassified MMR gene variants. However, there are some considerations that need to be taken into account when using MSI for variant interpretation. The use of MSI and other tumour characteristics in MMR gene sequence variant classification will be explored in this review.

  11. D-ribose inhibits DNA repair synthesis in human lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zunica, G.; Marini, M.; Brunelli, M.A.; Chiricolo, M.; Franceschi, C.

    1986-07-31

    D-ribose is cytotoxic for quiescent human lymphocytes and severely inhibits their PHA-induced proliferation at concentrations (25-50 mM) at which other simple sugars are ineffective. In order to explain these effects, DNA repair synthesis was evaluated in PHA-stimulated human lymphocytes treated with hydroxyurea and irradiated. D-ribose, in contrast to other reducing sugars, did not induce repair synthesis and therefore did not apparently damage DNA in a direct way, although it markedly inhibited gamma ray-induced repair. Taking into account that lymphocytes must rejoin physiologically-formed DNA strand breaks in order to enter the cell cycle, we suggest that D-ribose exerts its cytotoxic activity by interfering with metabolic pathways critical for the repair of DNA breaks.

  12. [Polymorphism of genes encoding proteins of DNA repair vs. occupational and environmental exposure to lead, arsenic and pesticides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Karol; Woźniak, Katarzyna

    2017-10-12

    Genetic polymorphism is associated with the occurrence of at least 2 different alleles in the locus with a frequency higher than 1% in the population. Among polymorphisms we can find single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and polymorphism of variable number of tandem repeats. The presence of certain polymorphisms in genes encoding DNA repair enzymes is associated with the speed and efficiency of DNA repair and can protect or expose humans to the effects provoked by xenobiotics. Chemicals, such as lead, arsenic pesticides are considered to exhibit strong toxicity. There are many different polymorphisms in genes encoding DNA repair enzymes, which determine the speed and efficiency of DNA damage repair induced by these xenobiotics. In the case of lead, the influence of various polymorphisms, such as APE1 (apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1) (rs1130409), hOGG1 (human 8-oxoguanine glycosylase) (rs1052133), XRCC1 (X-ray repair cross-complementing protein group 1) (rs25487), XRCC1 (rs1799782) and XRCC3 (X-ray repair cross-complementing protein group 3) (rs861539) were described. For arsenic polymorphisms, such as ERCC2 (excision repair cross-complementing) (rs13181), XRCC3 (rs861539), APE1 (rs1130409) and hOGG1 (rs1052133) were examined. As to pesticides, separate and combined effects of polymorphisms in genes encoding DNA repair enzymes, such as XRCC1 (rs1799782), hOGG1 (rs1052133), XRCC4 (X-ray repair cross-complementing protein group 4) (rs28360135) and the gene encoding the detoxification enzyme PON1 paraoxonase (rs662) were reported. Med Pr 2018;69(1). This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  13. A difference in the pattern of repair in a large genomic region in UV-irradiated normal human and Cockayne syndrome cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanower, G A; Kantor, G J

    1997-11-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum group C cells repair DNA damaged by ultraviolet radiation in an unusual pattern throughout the genome. They remove cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers only from the DNA of transcriptionally active chromatin regions and only from the strand that contains the transcribed strand. The repair proceeds in a manner that creates damage-free islands which are in some cases much larger than the active gene associated with them. For example, the small transcriptionally active beta-actin gene (3.5 kb) is repaired as part of a 50 kb single-stranded region. The repair responsible for creating these islands requires active transcription, suggesting that the two activities are coupled. A preferential repair pathway in normal human cells promotes repair of actively transcribed DNA strands and is coupled to transcription. It is not known if similar large islands, referred to as repair domains, are preferentially created as a result of the coupling. Data are presented showing that in normal cells, preferential repair in the beta-actin region is associated with the creation of a large, completely repaired region in the partially repaired genome. Repair at other genomic locations which contain inactive genes (insulin, 754) does not create similar large regions as quickly. In contrast, repair in Cockayne syndrome cells, which are defective in the preferential repair pathway but not in genome-overall repair, proceeds in the beta-actin region by a mechanism which does not create preferentially a large repaired region. Thus a correlation between the activity required to preferentially repair active genes and that required to create repaired domains is detected. We propose an involvement of the transcription-repair coupling factor in a coordinated repair pathway for removing DNA damage from entire transcription units.

  14. Approaches to diagnose DNA mismatch repair gene defects in cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peña-Diaz, Javier; Rasmussen, Lene Juel

    2016-01-01

    genes also renders cells resistant to some chemotherapeutic agents. Therefore, diagnosis of MMR deficiency has important implications for the management of the patients, the surveillance of their relatives in the case of LS and for the choice of treatment. Some of the alterations found in MMR genes have...... genes and anticipates the need of diagnostic tools for rapid assessment of their pathogenicity. This review describes current tools and future strategies for addressing the relevance of MMR gene alterations in human disease....

  15. Altered Gene Expressions and Cytogenetic Repair Efficiency in Cells with Suppressed Expression of XPA after Proton Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ye; Rohde, Larry H.; Gridley, Daila S.; Mehta, Satish K.; Pierson, Duane L.; Wu, Honglu

    2009-01-01

    Cellular responses to damages from ionizing radiation (IR) exposure are influenced not only by the genes involved in DNA double strand break (DSB) repair, but also by non- DSB repair genes. We demonstrated previously that suppressed expression of several non-DSB repair genes, such as XPA, elevated IR-induced cytogenetic damages. In the present study, we exposed human fibroblasts that were treated with control or XPA targeting siRNA to 250 MeV protons (0 to 4 Gy), and analyzed chromosome aberrations and expressions of genes involved in DNA repair. As expected, after proton irradiation, cells with suppressed expression of XPA showed a significantly elevated frequency of chromosome aberrations compared with control siRNA treated (CS) cells. Protons caused more severe DNA damages in XPA knock-down cells, as 36% cells contained multiple aberrations compared to 25% in CS cells after 4Gy proton irradiation. Comparison of gene expressions using the real-time PCR array technique revealed that expressions of p53 and its regulated genes in irradiated XPA suppressed cells were altered similarly as in CS cells, suggesting that the impairment of IR induced DNA repair in XPA suppressed cells is p53-independent. Except for XPA, which was more than 2 fold down regulated in XPA suppressed cells, several other DNA damage sensing and repair genes (GTSE1, RBBP8, RAD51, UNG and XRCC2) were shown a more than 1.5 fold difference between XPA knock-down cells and CS cells after proton exposure. The possible involvement of these genes in the impairment of DNA repair in XPA suppressed cells will be further investigated.

  16. Polymorphism of the DNA Base Excision Repair Genes in Keratoconus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcik, Katarzyna A.; Synowiec, Ewelina; Sobierajczyk, Katarzyna; Izdebska, Justyna; Blasiak, Janusz; Szaflik, Jerzy; Szaflik, Jacek P.

    2014-01-01

    Keratoconus (KC) is a degenerative corneal disorder for which the exact pathogenesis is not yet known. Oxidative stress is reported to be associated with this disease. The stress may damage corneal biomolecules, including DNA, and such damage is primarily removed by base excision repair (BER). Variation in genes encoding BER components may influence the effectiveness of corneal cells to cope with oxidative stress. In the present work we genotyped 5 polymorphisms of 4 BER genes in 284 patients and 353 controls. The A/A genotype of the c.–1370T>A polymorphism of the DNA polymerase γ (POLG) gene was associated with increased occurrence of KC, while the A/T genotype was associated with decreased occurrence of KC. The A/G genotype and the A allele of the c.1196A>G polymorphism of the X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) were associated with increased, and the G/G genotype and the G allele, with decreased KC occurrence. Also, the C/T and T as well as C/C genotypes and alleles of the c.580C>T polymorphism of the same gene displayed relationship with KC occurrence. Neither the g.46438521G>C polymorphism of the Nei endonuclease VIII-like 1 (NEIL1) nor the c.2285T>C polymorphism of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) was associated with KC. In conclusion, the variability of the XRCC1 and POLG genes may play a role in KC pathogenesis and determine the risk of this disease. PMID:25356504

  17. Polymorphism of the DNA Base Excision Repair Genes in Keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna A. Wojcik

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Keratoconus (KC is a degenerative corneal disorder for which the exact pathogenesis is not yet known. Oxidative stress is reported to be associated with this disease. The stress may damage corneal biomolecules, including DNA, and such damage is primarily removed by base excision repair (BER. Variation in genes encoding BER components may influence the effectiveness of corneal cells to cope with oxidative stress. In the present work we genotyped 5 polymorphisms of 4 BER genes in 284 patients and 353 controls. The A/A genotype of the c.–1370T>A polymorphism of the DNA polymerase γ (POLG gene was associated with increased occurrence of KC, while the A/T genotype was associated with decreased occurrence of KC. The A/G genotype and the A allele of the c.1196A>G polymorphism of the X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1 were associated with increased, and the G/G genotype and the G allele, with decreased KC occurrence. Also, the C/T and T as well as C/C genotypes and alleles of the c.580C>T polymorphism of the same gene displayed relationship with KC occurrence. Neither the g.46438521G>C polymorphism of the Nei endonuclease VIII-like 1 (NEIL1 nor the c.2285T>C polymorphism of the poly(ADP-ribose polymerase-1 (PARP-1 was associated with KC. In conclusion, the variability of the XRCC1 and POLG genes may play a role in KC pathogenesis and determine the risk of this disease.

  18. Human in vitro skin organ culture as a model system for evaluating DNA repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hannah; Tuchinda, Papapit; Fishelevich, Rita; Harberts, Erin; Gaspari, Anthony A

    2014-06-01

    UV-exposures result in accumulation of genetic lesions that facilitate the development of skin cancer. Numerous pharmacologic agents are currently under development to both inhibit formation of DNA lesions and enhance repair. Drugs must be evaluated in vitro, currently performed in cell culture systems, before being tested on humans. Current systems do not account for the architecture and diverse cellularity of intact human skin. To establish a novel, functionally viable, and reproducible in vitro skin organ culture system for studying the effects of various pharmacologic agents on DNA repair. Human skin was obtained from neonatal foreskins. Intact skin punches derived from foreskins were cultured in vitro prior to exposure to UV-irradiation, and evaluated for DNA-damage using a DNA dot blot. Serial skin biopsies were obtained from patients with actinic keratoses treated with topical imiquimod. Expression of immune-stimulating and DNA repair genes was evaluated in ex vivo and in vitro samples. DNA dot blots revealed active repair of UV induced lesions in our in vitro skin organ culture. The photo-protective effect of sunscreen was detected, while imiquimod treatment did not enhance DNA repair in vitro. The DNA repair molecules XPA and XPF were up-regulated in the skin of imiquimod treated patients with actinic keratoses and imiquimod treated bone marrow-derived cell lines, but not keratinocytes. Our in vitro human skin organ culture model detected repair of UV-induced DNA lesions, and may be easily adapted to investigate various photo-protective drugs intended to prevent or treat skin cancer. Copyright © 2014 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Geneticists Repair Mutation in Human Embryo

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... broke the mutated gene using a technology called CRISPR-Cas9. Essentially, the process uses genetic techniques to target ... like a pair of molecular scissors. Until now, CRISPR-Cas9 has been used as a lab tool to ...

  20. Gene specific damage and repair after treatment of cells with UV and chemotherapeutical agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohr, V.A. (Division of Cancer Treatment, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1991-01-01

    The authors have previously demonstrated preferential DNA repair of active genes in mammalian cells. The methodology involves the use of a specific endonuclease or other more direct approaches to create nicks at sites of damage followed by quantitative Southern analysis and probing for specific genes. Initially, they used pyrimidine dimer specific endonuclease to detect pyrimidine dimers after UV irradiation. They now also use the bacterial enzyme ABC excinuclease to examine the DNA damage and repair of a number of adducts other than pyrimidine dimers in specific genes. They can detect gene specific alkylation damage by creating nicks via depurination and alkaline hydrolysis. In our assay for preferential repair, they compare the efficiency of repair in the DHFR gene to that in the 3{prime} flanking, non-coding region to the gene. In CHO cells, UV induced pyrimidine dimers are efficiently repaired from the active DHFR gene, but not from the inactive region. They have demonstrated that the 6-4 photoproducts are also preferentially repaired and that they are removed faster from the regions studied than pyrimidine dimers. Using similar approaches, they find that DNA adducts and crosslinks caused by cisplatinum are preferentially repaired in the active gene compared to the inactive regions and to the inactive c-fos oncogene. Also, nitrogen mustard and methylnitrosurea damage is preferentially repaired whereas dimethylsulphate damage is not. NAAAF adducts do not appear to be preferentially repaired in this system. 32 refs.

  1. Cloning, comparative mapping, and RNA expression of the mouse homologues of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae nucleotide excision repair gene RAD23.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. van der Spek (Peter); C.E. Visser (Cécile); F. Hanaoka (Fumio); B. Smit (Bep); A. Hagemeijer (Anne); D. Bootsma (Dirk); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThe Saccharomyces cerevisiae RAD23 gene is involved in nucleotide excision repair (NER). Two human homologs of RAD23, HHR23A and HHR23B (HGMW-approved symbols RAD23A and RAD23B), were previously isolated. The HHR23B protein is complexed with the protein defective in the cancer-prone

  2. Human Gene Therapy: Genes without Frontiers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Eric J.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the latest advancements and setbacks in human gene therapy to provide reference material for biology teachers to use in their science classes. Focuses on basic concepts such as recombinant DNA technology, and provides examples of human gene therapy such as severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome, familial hypercholesterolemia, and…

  3. Mechanisms in E. coli and Human Mismatch Repair (Nobel Lecture).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modrich, Paul

    2016-07-18

    DNA molecules are not completely stable, they are subject to chemical or photochemical damage and errors that occur during DNA replication resulting in mismatched base pairs. Through mechanistic studies Paul Modrich showed how replication errors are corrected by strand-directed mismatch repair in Escherichia coli and human cells. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. The green microalga Tetraselmis suecica reduces oxidative stress and induces repairing mechanisms in human cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Clementina; Galasso, Christian; Orefice, Ida; Nuzzo, Genoveffa; Luongo, Elvira; Cutignano, Adele; Romano, Giovanna; Brunet, Christophe; Fontana, Angelo; Esposito, Francesco; Ianora, Adrianna

    2017-01-01

    Green microalgae contain many active pigments such as carotenoids having antioxidant and protective activity on human cells. Here we investigate the biological activity of an ethanol/water extract of the marine green microalga Tetraselmis suecica containing high levels of carotenoids such as the xanthophylls lutein, violaxanthin, neoxanthin, antheraxanthin and loroxanthin esters. This extract has a strong antioxidant and repairing activity in the human lung cancer cell line (A549) as shown by the increased expression of dehydrocholesterol reductase-24 (DHCR24) and prostaglandin reductase 1 (PTGR1) genes and proteins. The extract also reduces prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels in cells damaged by H2O2 and has tissue repairing effects on reconstructed human epidermal tissue cells (EpiDermTM) indicating a potential cosmeceutical activity of this microalgal species. PMID:28117410

  5. Possible Muscle Repair in the Human Cardiovascular System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommese, Linda; Zullo, Alberto; Schiano, Concetta; Mancini, Francesco P; Napoli, Claudio

    2017-04-01

    The regenerative potential of tissues and organs could promote survival, extended lifespan and healthy life in multicellular organisms. Niches of adult stemness are widely distributed and lead to the anatomical and functional regeneration of the damaged organ. Conversely, muscular regeneration in mammals, and humans in particular, is very limited and not a single piece of muscle can fully regrow after a severe injury. Therefore, muscle repair after myocardial infarction is still a chimera. Recently, it has been recognized that epigenetics could play a role in tissue regrowth since it guarantees the maintenance of cellular identity in differentiated cells and, therefore, the stability of organs and tissues. The removal of these locks can shift a specific cell identity back to the stem-like one. Given the gradual loss of tissue renewal potential in the course of evolution, in the last few years many different attempts to retrieve such potential by means of cell therapy approaches have been performed in experimental models. Here we review pathways and mechanisms involved in the in vivo repair of cardiovascular muscle tissues in humans. Moreover, we address the ongoing research on mammalian cardiac muscle repair based on adult stem cell transplantation and pro-regenerative factor delivery. This latter issue, involving genetic manipulations of adult cells, paves the way for developing possible therapeutic strategies in the field of cardiovascular muscle repair.

  6. Injury, inflammation and the emergence of human specific genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-12

    BIOMEDICAL HYPOTHESIS Injury, inflammation and the emergence of human-specific genes Andrew Baird, PhD; Todd Costantini, MD; Raul Coimbra, MD, PhD...medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes. ABSTRACT In light of the central role of inflammation in...the biology of injury, namely infection, inflammation , and tissue repair and regene- ration. These genes include well-known anti-infection and human

  7. UV damage and repair in the domain of the human c-myc oncogene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, N.O.; Bianchi, M.S.; Alitalo, K.; De La Chapelle, A. (IMBICE, La Plata (Argentina))

    1991-03-01

    We have used a modification of the Southern hybridization method to analyze the removal of UV-induced pyrimidine cyclobutane dimers from the domain of the c-myc oncogene. The study was performed in human COLO320HSR cells, which exhibit a 30- to 40-fold amplification of c-myc that is maintained in a marker chromosome as a homogeneously staining region. Intron 2 and the region upstream from the gene showed better dimer removal than intron 1 or the region downstream from the c-myc gene. Regions showing less repair coincide with regions that are hotspots for mutations and chromosome translocations. Therefore, it is proposed that the inefficiency of DNA repair may play an important role in the origin of c-myc rearrangements.

  8. Polymorphisms of Selected DNA Repair Genes and Lung Cancer in Chromium Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halasova, E; Matakova, T; Skerenova, M; Krutakova, M; Slovakova, P; Dzian, A; Javorkova, S; Pec, M; Kypusova, K; Hamzik, J

    2016-01-01

    Chromium is a well-known mutagen and carcinogen involved in lung cancer development. DNA repair genes play an important role in the elimination of genetic changes caused by chromium exposure. In the present study, we investigated the polymorphisms of the following DNA repair genes: XRCC3, participating in the homologous recombination repair, and hMLH1 and hMSH2, functioning in the mismatch repair. We focused on the risk the polymorphisms present in the development of lung cancer regarding the exposure to chromium. We analyzed 106 individuals; 45 patients exposed to chromium with diagnosed lung cancer and 61 healthy controls. Genotypes were determined by a PCR-RFLP method. We unravelled a potential for increased risk of lung cancer development in the hMLH1 (rs1800734) AA genotype in the recessive model. In conclusion, gene polymorphisms in the DNA repair genes underscores the risk of lung cancer development in chromium exposed individuals.

  9. Gene expression of the mismatch repair gene MSH2 in primary colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Henrik; Kuramochi, Hidekazu; Crüger, Dorthe Gylling

    2011-01-01

    Microsatellite instability (MSI) is caused by defective mismatch repair (MMR) and is one of the very few molecular markers with proven clinical importance in colorectal cancer with respect to heredity, prognosis, and treatment effect. The gene expression of the MMR gene MSH2 may be a quantitative...... marker for the level of MMR and a potential molecular marker with clinical relevance. The aim was to investigate the gene expression of MSH2 in primary operable colorectal cancer in correlation with MSI, protein expression, and promoter hypermethylation. In a cohort of 210 patients, the primary tumor...... and lymphnode metastases were analyzed with immunohistochemistry, methylation and MSI analyses, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The median gene expression of MSH2 was 1.00 (range 0.16-11.2, quartiles 0.70-1.51) and there was good agreement between the gene expression in primary tumor and lymph...

  10. Influence of Morinda citrifolia (Noni) on Expression of DNA Repair Genes in Cervical Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rakesh Kumar; Bajpai, Deepti; Singh, Neeta

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that Morinda citrifolia (Noni) has potential to reduce cancer risk. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Noni, cisplatin, and their combination on DNA repair genes in the SiHa cervical cancer cell line. SiHa cells were cultured and treated with 10% Noni, 10 μg/dl cisplatin or their combination for 24 hours. Post culturing, the cells were pelleted, RNA extracted, and processed for investigating DNA repair genes by real time PCR. The expression of nucleotide excision repair genes ERCC1, ERCC2, and ERCC4 and base excision repair gene XRCC1 was increased 4 fold, 8.9 fold, 4 fold, and 5.5 fold, respectively, on treatment with Noni as compared to untreated controls (p<0.05). In contrast, expression was found to be decreased 22 fold, 13 fold, 16 fold, and 23 fold on treatment with cisplatin (p<0.05). However, the combination of Noni and cisplatin led to an increase of 2 fold, 1.6 fold, 3 fold, 1.2 fold, respectively (p<0.05). Noni enhanced the expression of DNA repair genes by itself and in combination with cisplatin. However, high expression of DNA repair genes at mRNA level only signifies efficient DNA transcription of the above mentioned genes; further investigations are needed to evaluate the DNA repair protein expression.

  11. Bridging Plant and Human Radiation Response and DNA Repair through an In Silico Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zacharenia Nikitaki

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of response to radiation exposure are conserved in plants and animals. The DNA damage response (DDR pathways are the predominant molecular pathways activated upon exposure to radiation, both in plants and animals. The conserved features of DDR in plants and animals might facilitate interdisciplinary studies that cross traditional boundaries between animal and plant biology in order to expand the collection of biomarkers currently used for radiation exposure monitoring (REM in environmental and biomedical settings. Genes implicated in trans-kingdom conserved DDR networks often triggered by ionizing radiation (IR and UV light are deposited into biological databases. In this study, we have applied an innovative approach utilizing data pertinent to plant and human genes from publicly available databases towards the design of a ‘plant radiation biodosimeter’, that is, a plant and DDR gene-based platform that could serve as a REM reliable biomarker for assessing environmental radiation exposure and associated risk. From our analysis, in addition to REM biomarkers, a significant number of genes, both in human and Arabidopsis thaliana, not yet characterized as DDR, are suggested as possible DNA repair players. Last but not least, we provide an example on the applicability of an Arabidopsis thaliana—based plant system monitoring the role of cancer-related DNA repair genes BRCA1, BARD1 and PARP1 in processing DNA lesions.

  12. Repair of DNA lesions induced by ultraviolet irradiation and aromatic amines in normal and repair-deficient human lymphoblastoid cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevnsner, Tinna; Frandsen, Henrik; Autrup, Herman

    1995-01-01

    belonging to complementation group B of Cockayne's syndrome (CS-B) showed reduced host cell reactivation. Fibroblasts from CS-B patients have reduced gene-specific DNA repair, but normal total genomic DNA repair, thus our data suggest that the HCR assay measures the capacity for gene-specific DNA repair...

  13. Repair of some active genes in Cockayne syndrome cells is at the genome overall rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantor, G J; Bastin, S A

    1995-05-01

    Repair of UV (254 nm)-induced DNA damage in cells from patients with the genetic disease Cockayne syndrome (CS; CS3BE, CS2BE) has been examined in several different genomic regions. These regions include those that contain the actively transcribed beta-actin and adenosine deaminase (ADA) genes and the inactive insulin and 754 loci. The beta-actin, ADA and insulin regions are repaired at about the same rate, one which is equal to the genome overall repair rate. The 754 locus is repaired considerably more slowly. The insulin region is repaired at the same rate in both CS and normal cells as is the 754 locus. The only difference from normal is that the active genes, while repaired well, are not preferentially repaired relative to the genome overall. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that the repair defect in CS is due to an inactive transcription-repair coupling factor (TRCF). However, the results also indicate that factors other than TRCF and active transcription must also promote repair of some regions relative to others in both normal and CS cells.

  14. Triple Negative Breast Cancers Have a Reduced Expression of DNA Repair Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreis, Daniele; Bertoni, Ramona; Giardini, Roberto; Fox, Stephen B.; Broggini, Massimo; Bottini, Alberto; Zanoni, Vanessa; Bazzola, Letizia; Foroni, Chiara; Generali, Daniele; Damia, Giovanna

    2013-01-01

    DNA repair is a key determinant in the cellular response to therapy and tumor repair status could play an important role in tailoring patient therapy. Our goal was to evaluate the mRNA of 13 genes involved in different DNA repair pathways (base excision, nucleotide excision, homologous recombination, and Fanconi anemia) in paraffin embedded samples of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) compared to luminal A breast cancer (LABC). Most of the genes involved in nucleotide excision repair and Fanconi Anemia pathways, and CHK1 gene were significantly less expressed in TNBC than in LABC. PARP1 levels were higher in TNBC than in LABC. In univariate analysis high level of FANCA correlated with an increased overall survival and event free survival in TNBC; however multivariate analyses using Cox regression did not confirm FANCA as independent prognostic factor. These data support the evidence that TNBCs compared to LABCs harbour DNA repair defects. PMID:23825533

  15. Repair of Avascular Meniscus Tears with Electrospun Collagen Scaffolds Seeded with Human Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Jihye; Sovani, Sujata; Glembotski, Nicholas E.; Du, Jiang; Jin, Sungho; Grogan, Shawn P.

    2016-01-01

    The self-healing capacity of an injured meniscus is limited to the vascularized regions and is especially challenging in the inner avascular regions. As such, we investigated the use of human meniscus cell-seeded electrospun (ES) collagen type I scaffolds to produce meniscal tissue and explored whether these cell-seeded scaffolds can be implanted to repair defects created in meniscal avascular tissue explants. Human meniscal cells (derived from vascular and avascular meniscal tissue) were seeded on ES scaffolds and cultured. Constructs were evaluated for cell viability, gene expression, and mechanical properties. To determine potential for repair of meniscal defects, human meniscus avascular cells were seeded and cultured on aligned ES collagen scaffolds for 4 weeks before implantation. Surgical defects resembling “longitudinal tears” were created in the avascular zone of bovine meniscus and implanted with cell-seeded collagen scaffolds and cultured for 3 weeks. Tissue regeneration and integration were evaluated by histology, immunohistochemistry, mechanical testing, and magentic resonance imaging. Ex vivo implantation with cell-seeded collagen scaffolds resulted in neotissue that was significantly better integrated with the native tissue than acellular collagen scaffolds or untreated defects. Human meniscal cell-seeded ES collagen scaffolds may therefore be useful in facilitating meniscal repair of avascular meniscus tears. PMID:26842062

  16. Polymorphisms in DNA Repair Gene and Susceptibility to Glioma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Based on 33 Studies with 15 SNPs in 9 Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kun; Jiang, Yugang

    2017-03-01

    At present, many publications have evaluated the correlation between the DNA repair gene polymorphisms and glioma susceptibility. However, the results remain inconclusive. The aim of this research is to exhaustively assess the association of genetic polymorphisms in DNA repair genes with glioma risk in human. Meta-analysis method was conducted, and 33 studies with 15 SNPs in 9 genes were included (12553 glioma cases and 17178 controls). Correlation strength was evaluated by odds ratio with a 95 % confidence interval. Rs1799782 T allele and rs25487A allele might bring about higher risk of glioma in Asian population. Rs1805377 G allele was an increased risk genetic factor of glioma. Asian carried with rs3212986 A allele was more likely to have glioma. Rs1800067 G allele was a risk factor of developing glioma. Carriers with rs12917 CC genotype in MGMT gene had higher risk of glioma in Caucasian than other non-CC genotype carriers. Carriers with rs1136410 T allele in PARP1 gene could more likely to develop glioma in Caucasian. This meta-analysis suggests that glioma susceptibility is associated with rs1799782 and rs25487 of X-ray repair complementing defective repair in Chinese hamster cells 1 (XRCC1), rs1805377 of XRCC4, rs1800067 of excision repair cross-complementing rodent repair deficiency complementation group 4 (ERCC4) and rs3212986 of ERCC1 in Asian population, and rs12917 of O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) and rs1136410 of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) in Caucasian population.

  17. DNA-repair gene variants are associated with glioblastoma survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wibom, Carl; Sjöström, Sara; Henriksson, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Patient outcome from glioma may be influenced by germline variation. Considering the importance of DNA repair in cancer biology as well as in response to treatment, we studied the relationship between 1458 SNPs, which captured the majority of the common genetic variation in 136 DNA repair...

  18. [Interaction of the HSM3 gene with genes initiating homologous recombination repair in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernenkov, A Iu; Fedorov, D V; Gracheva, L M; Evstukhina, T A; Koval'tsova, S V; Peshekhonov, V T; Fedorova, I V; Korolev, V G

    2012-03-01

    It was assumed previously that the mutator phenotype of the hms3 mutant was determined by processes taking place in the D-loop. As a next step, genetic analysis was performed to study the interactions between the hsm3 mutation and mutations of the genes that control the initial steps of the D-loop formation. The mutations of the MMS4 and XRS2 genes, which initiate the double-strand break formation and subsequent repair, were shown to completely block HSM3-dependent UV-induced mutagenesis. Mutations of the RAD51, RAD52, and RAD54 genes, which are also involved in the D-loop formation, only slightly decreased the level of UV-induced mutagenesis in the hsm3 mutant. Similar results were observed for the interaction of hsm3 with the mph1 mutation, which stabilizes the D-loop. In contrast, the shu1 mutation, which destabilizes the D-loop structure, led to an extremely high level of UV-induced mutagenesis and displayed epistatic interactions with the hsm3 mutation. The results made it possible to assume that the hsm3 mutation destabilizes the D-loop, which is a key substrate of both Rad5- and Rad52-dependent postreplicative repair pathways.

  19. The involvement of human RECQL4 in DNA double-strand break repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Dharmendra Kumar; Karmakar, Parimal; Aamann, Maria Diget

    2010-01-01

    Rothmund-Thomson syndrome (RTS) is an autosomal recessive hereditary disorder associated with mutation in RECQL4 gene, a member of the human RecQ helicases. The disease is characterized by genomic instability, skeletal abnormalities and predisposition to malignant tumors, especially osteosarcomas....... The precise role of RECQL4 in cellular pathways is largely unknown; however, recent evidence suggests its involvement in multiple DNA metabolic pathways. This study investigates the roles of RECQL4 in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. The results show that RECQL4-deficient fibroblasts are moderately......-induced DSBs and remains for a shorter duration than WRN and BLM, indicating its distinct role in repair of DSBs. Endogenous RECQL4 also colocalizes with gammaH2AX at the site of DSBs. The RECQL4 domain responsible for its DNA damage localization has been mapped to the unique N-terminus domain between amino...

  20. DNA Repair Gene Polymorphisms in Hereditary and Sporadic Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ricks-Santi, Luisel

    2006-01-01

    .... There is variable penetrance for breast cancer among women in families with known BRCA1 mutations, and we hypothesize that this might be due to genetic variants in wild-type BRCA1 or other DNA repair...

  1. Genomic survey and expression analysis of DNA repair genes in the genus Leptospira.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins-Pinheiro, Marinalva; Schons-Fonseca, Luciane; da Silva, Josefa B; Domingos, Renan H; Momo, Leonardo Hiroyuki Santos; Simões, Ana Carolina Quirino; Ho, Paulo Lee; da Costa, Renata M A

    2016-04-01

    Leptospirosis is an emerging zoonosis with important economic and public health consequences and is caused by pathogenic leptospires. The genus Leptospira belongs to the order Spirochaetales and comprises saprophytic (L. biflexa), pathogenic (L. interrogans) and host-dependent (L. borgpetersenii) members. Here, we present an in silico search for DNA repair pathways in Leptospira spp. The relevance of such DNA repair pathways was assessed through the identification of mRNA levels of some genes during infection in animal model and after exposition to spleen cells. The search was performed by comparison of available Leptospira spp. genomes in public databases with known DNA repair-related genes. Leptospires exhibit some distinct and unexpected characteristics, for instance the existence of a redundant mechanism for repairing a chemically diverse spectrum of alkylated nucleobases, a new mutS-like gene and a new shorter version of uvrD. Leptospira spp. shares some characteristics from Gram-positive, as the presence of PcrA, two RecQ paralogs and two SSB proteins; the latter is considered a feature shared by naturally competent bacteria. We did not find a significant reduction in the number of DNA repair-related genes in both pathogenic and host-dependent species. Pathogenic leptospires were enriched for genes dedicated to base excision repair and non-homologous end joining. Their evolutionary history reveals a remarkable importance of lateral gene transfer events for the evolution of the genus. Up-regulation of specific DNA repair genes, including components of SOS regulon, during infection in animal model validates the critical role of DNA repair mechanisms for the complex interplay between host/pathogen.

  2. Transcript RNA supports precise repair of its own DNA gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Havva; Meers, Chance; Storici, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    The transfer of genetic information from RNA to DNA is considered an extraordinary process in molecular biology. Despite the fact that cells transcribe abundant amount of RNA with a wide range of functions, it has been difficult to uncover whether RNA can serve as a template for DNA repair and recombination. An increasing number of experimental evidences suggest a direct role of RNA in DNA modification. Recently, we demonstrated that endogenous transcript RNA can serve as a template to repair a DNA double-strand break (DSB), the most harmful DNA lesion, not only indirectly via formation of a DNA copy (cDNA) intermediate, but also directly in a homology driven mechanism in budding yeast. These results point out that the transfer of genetic information from RNA to DNA is more general than previously thought. We found that transcript RNA is more efficient in repairing a DSB in its own DNA (in cis) than in a homologous but ectopic locus (in trans). Here, we summarize current knowledge about the process of RNA-driven DNA repair and recombination, and provide further data in support of our model of DSB repair by transcript RNA in cis. We show that a DSB is precisely repaired predominately by transcript RNA and not by residual cDNA in conditions in which formation of cDNA by reverse transcription is inhibited. Additionally, we demonstrate that defects in ribonuclease (RNase) H stimulate precise DSB repair by homologous RNA or cDNA sequence, and not by homologous DNA sequence carried on a plasmid. These results highlight an antagonistic role of RNase H in RNA-DNA recombination. Ultimately, we discuss several questions that should be addressed to better understand mechanisms and implications of RNA-templated DNA repair and recombination.

  3. ABCB5 is a limbal stem cell gene required for corneal development and repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksander, Bruce R.; Kolovou, Paraskevi E.; Wilson, Brian J.; Saab, Karim R.; Guo, Qin; Ma, Jie; McGuire, Sean P.; Gregory, Meredith S.; Vincent, William J. B.; Perez, Victor L.; Cruz-Guilloty, Fernando; Kao, Winston W. Y.; Call, Mindy K.; Tucker, Budd A.; Zhan, Qian; Murphy, George F.; Lathrop, Kira L.; Alt, Clemens; Mortensen, Luke J.; Lin, Charles P.; Zieske, James D.; Frank, Markus H.; Frank, Natasha Y.

    2014-01-01

    Corneal epithelial homeostasis and regeneration are sustained by limbal stem cells (LSCs)1–3, and LSC deficiency is a major cause of blindness worldwide4. Transplantation is often the only therapeutic option available to patients with LSC deficiency. However, while transplant success depends foremost on LSC frequency within grafts5, a gene allowing for prospective LSC enrichment has not been identified so far5. Here we show that ATP-binding cassette, sub-family B, member 5 (ABCB5)6,7 marks LSCs and is required for LSC maintenance, corneal development and repair. Furthermore, we demonstrate that prospectively isolated human or murine ABCB5-positive LSCs possess the exclusive capacity to fully restore the cornea upon grafting to LSC-deficient mice in xenogeneic or syngeneic transplantation models. ABCB5 is preferentially expressed on label-retaining LSCs2 in mice and p63α-positive LSCs8 in humans. Consistent with these findings, ABCB5-positive LSC frequency is reduced in LSC-deficient patients. Abcb5 loss of function in Abcb5 knockout mice causes depletion of quiescent LSCs due to enhanced proliferation and apoptosis, and results in defective corneal differentiation and wound healing. Our results from gene knockout studies, LSC tracing and transplantation models, as well as phenotypic and functional analyses of human biopsy specimens, provide converging lines of evidence that ABCB5 identifies mammalian LSCs. Identification and prospective isolation of molecularly defined LSCs with essential functions in corneal development and repair has important implications for the treatment of corneal disease, particularly corneal blindness due to LSC deficiency. PMID:25030174

  4. Clinical heterogeneity within xeroderma pigmentosum associated with mutations in the DNA repair and transcription gene ERCC3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeulen, W.; Kleijer, W.J.; Bootsma, D.; Hoeijmakers, J.H.J.; Weeda, G. (Erasmus Univ., Rotterdam (Netherlands)); Scott, R.J.; Rodgers, S.; Mueller, H.J. (Univ. Hospital, Basel (Switzerland)); Cole, J.; Arlett, C.F. (Univ. of Sussex, Brighton (United Kingdom))

    1994-02-01

    The human DNA excision repair gene ERCC3 specifically corrects the nucleotide excision repair (NER) defect of xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) complementation group B. In addition to its function in NER, the ERCC3 DNA helicase was recently identified as one of the components of the human BTF2/TFIIH transcription factor complex, which is required for initiation of transcription of class II genes. To date, a single patient (XP11BE) has been assigned to this XP group B (XP-B), with the remarkable conjunction of two autosomal recessive DNA repair deficiency disorders: XP and Cockayne syndrome (CS). The intriguing involvement of the ERCC3 protein in the vital process of transcription may provide an explanation for the rarity, severity, and wide spectrum of clinical features in this complementation group. Here the authors report the identification of two new XP-B patients: XPCS1BA and XPCS2BA (siblings), by microneedle injection of the cloned ERCC3 repair gene as well as by cell hybridization. Molecular analysis of the ERCC3 gene in both patients revealed a single base substitution causing a missense mutation in a region that is completely conserved in yeast, Drosophila, mouse, and human ERCC3. As in patient XP11BE, the expression of only one allele (paternal) is detected. The mutation causes a virtually complete inactivation of the NER function of the protein. Despite this severe NER defect, both patients display a late onset of neurologic impairment, mild cutaneous symptoms, and a striking absence of skin tumors even at an age of >40 years. Analysis of the frequency of hprt[sup [minus

  5. Genome analysis of DNA repair genes in the alpha proteobacterium Caulobacter crescentus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menck Carlos FM

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The integrity of DNA molecules is fundamental for maintaining life. The DNA repair proteins protect organisms against genetic damage, by removal of DNA lesions or helping to tolerate them. DNA repair genes are best known from the gamma-proteobacterium Escherichia coli, which is the most understood bacterial model. However, genome sequencing raises questions regarding uniformity and ubiquity of these DNA repair genes and pathways, reinforcing the need for identifying genes and proteins, which may respond to DNA damage in other bacteria. Results In this study, we employed a bioinformatic approach, to analyse and describe the open reading frames potentially related to DNA repair from the genome of the alpha-proteobacterium Caulobacter crescentus. This was performed by comparison with known DNA repair related genes found in public databases. As expected, although C. crescentus and E. coli bacteria belong to separate phylogenetic groups, many of their DNA repair genes are very similar. However, some important DNA repair genes are absent in the C. crescentus genome and other interesting functionally related gene duplications are present, which do not occur in E. coli. These include DNA ligases, exonuclease III (xthA, endonuclease III (nth, O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (ada gene, photolyase-like genes, and uracil-DNA-glycosylases. On the other hand, the genes imuA and imuB, which are involved in DNA damage induced mutagenesis, have recently been described in C. crescentus, but are absent in E. coli. Particularly interesting are the potential atypical phylogeny of one of the photolyase genes in alpha-proteobacteria, indicating an origin by horizontal transfer, and the duplication of the Ada orthologs, which have diverse structural configurations, including one that is still unique for C. crescentus. Conclusion The absence and the presence of certain genes are discussed and predictions are made considering the particular

  6. Two modes of microsatellite instability in human cancer: differential connection of defective DNA mismatch repair to dinucleotide repeat instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Shinya; Maehara, Yoshihiko; Ikeda, Yoichi; Oki, Eiji; Egashira, Akinori; Okamura, Yoshikazu; Takahashi, Ikuo; Kakeji, Yoshihiro; Sumiyoshi, Yasushi; Miyashita, Kaname; Yamada, Yu; Zhao, Yan; Hattori, Hiroyoshi; Taguchi, Ken-ichi; Ikeuchi, Tatsuro; Tsuzuki, Teruhisa; Sekiguchi, Mutsuo; Karran, Peter; Yoshida, Mitsuaki A.

    2005-01-01

    Microsatellite instability (MSI) is associated with defective DNA mismatch repair in various human malignancies. Using a unique fluorescent technique, we have observed two distinct modes of dinucleotide microsatellite alterations in human colorectal cancer. Type A alterations are defined as length changes of ≤6 bp. Type B changes are more drastic and involve modifications of ≥8 bp. We show here that defective mismatch repair is necessary and sufficient for Type A changes. These changes were observed in cell lines and in tumours from mismatch repair gene-knockout mice. No Type B instability was seen in these cells or tumours. In a panel of human colorectal tumours, both Type A MSI and Type B instability were observed. Both types of MSI were associated with hMSH2 or hMLH1 mismatch repair gene alterations. Intriguingly, p53 mutations, which are generally regarded as uncommon in human tumours of the MSI+ phenotype, were frequently associated with Type A instability, whereas none was found in tumours with Type B instability, reflecting the prevailing viewpoint. Inspection of published data reveals that the microsatellite instability that has been observed in various malignancies, including those associated with Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC), is predominantly Type B. Our findings indicate that Type B instability is not a simple reflection of a repair defect. We suggest that there are at least two qualitatively distinct modes of dinucleotide MSI in human colorectal cancer, and that different molecular mechanisms may underlie these modes of MSI. The relationship between MSI and defective mismatch repair may be more complex than hitherto suspected. PMID:15778432

  7. Germline mutations in DNA repair genes may predict neoadjuvant therapy response in triple negative breast patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spugnesi, Laura; Gabriele, Michele; Scarpitta, Rosa; Tancredi, Mariella; Maresca, Luisa; Gambino, Gaetana; Collavoli, Anita; Aretini, Paolo; Bertolini, Ilaria; Salvadori, Barbara; Landucci, Elisabetta; Fontana, Andrea; Rossetti, Elena; Roncella, Manuela; Naccarato, Giuseppe Antonio; Caligo, Maria Adelaide

    2016-12-01

    Triple negative breast cancers (TNBCs) represent about 15-20% of all breast cancer cases and are characterized by a complex molecular heterogeneity. Some TNBCs exhibit clinical and pathological properties similar to BRCA-mutated tumors, without actually bearing a mutation in BRCA genes. This "BRCAness" phenotype may be explained by germline mutations in other genes involved in DNA repair. Although respond to chemotherapy with alkylating agents, they have a high risk of recurrence and progression. Some studies have shown the efficacy of neoadjuvant therapy in TNBC patients with DNA repair defects, but proper biomarkers of DNA repair deficiency are still needed. Here, we investigated if mutations in DNA repair genes may be correlated with anthracyclines/taxanes neoadjuvant therapy response. DNA from 19 TNBC patients undergoing neoadjuvant therapy were subjected to next generation sequencing of a panel of 24 genes in DNA repair and breast cancer predisposition. In this study, 5 of 19 patients (26%) carried a pathogenic mutation in BRCA1, PALB2, RAD51C and two patients carried a probable pathogenic missense variant. Moreover, VUS (Variants of Unknown Significance) in other genes, predicted to be deleterious by in silico tools, were detected in five patients. Germline mutations in DNA repair genes were found to be associated with the group of TNBC patients who responded to therapy. We conclude that a subgroup of TNBC patients have defects in DNA repair genes, other than BRCA1, and such patients respond favourably to neoadjuvant anthracyclines/taxanes therapy. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Assignment of ten DNA repair genes from Schizosaccharomyces pombe to chromosomal NotI restriction fragments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.C. Broughton; N.C. Barbet; J. Murray (Johanne); F.Z. Watts (Felicity); M.H.M. Koken (Marcel); A.R. Lehmann (Alan); A.M. Carr (Anthony)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractTen DNA repair (rad) genes from the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe were mapped to the 17 NotI fragments of the three chromosomes. Nine of the genes map to chromosome I, but there is no evidence for significant clustering.

  9. Human Lacrimal Gland Gene Expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Kumar Aakalu

    Full Text Available The study of human lacrimal gland biology and development is limited. Lacrimal gland tissue is damaged or poorly functional in a number of disease states including dry eye disease. Development of cell based therapies for lacrimal gland diseases requires a better understanding of the gene expression and signaling pathways in lacrimal gland. Differential gene expression analysis between lacrimal gland and other embryologically similar tissues may be helpful in furthering our understanding of lacrimal gland development.We performed global gene expression analysis of human lacrimal gland tissue using Affymetrix ® gene expression arrays. Primary data from our laboratory was compared with datasets available in the NLM GEO database for other surface ectodermal tissues including salivary gland, skin, conjunctiva and corneal epithelium.The analysis revealed statistically significant difference in the gene expression of lacrimal gland tissue compared to other ectodermal tissues. The lacrimal gland specific, cell surface secretory protein encoding genes and critical signaling pathways which distinguish lacrimal gland from other ectodermal tissues are described.Differential gene expression in human lacrimal gland compared with other ectodermal tissue types revealed interesting patterns which may serve as the basis for future studies in directed differentiation among other areas.

  10. Gene losses during human origins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxia Wang

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Pseudogenization is a widespread phenomenon in genome evolution, and it has been proposed to serve as an engine of evolutionary change, especially during human origins (the "less-is-more" hypothesis. However, there has been no comprehensive analysis of human-specific pseudogenes. Furthermore, it is unclear whether pseudogenization itself can be selectively favored and thus play an active role in human evolution. Here we conduct a comparative genomic analysis and a literature survey to identify 80 nonprocessed pseudogenes that were inactivated in the human lineage after its separation from the chimpanzee lineage. Many functions are involved among these genes, with chemoreception and immune response being outstandingly overrepresented, suggesting potential species-specific features in these aspects of human physiology. To explore the possibility of adaptive pseudogenization, we focus on CASPASE12, a cysteinyl aspartate proteinase participating in inflammatory and innate immune response to endotoxins. We provide population genetic evidence that the nearly complete fixation of a null allele at CASPASE12 has been driven by positive selection, probably because the null allele confers protection from severe sepsis. We estimate that the selective advantage of the null allele is about 0.9% and the pseudogenization started shortly before the out-of-Africa migration of modern humans. Interestingly, two other genes related to sepsis were also pseudogenized in humans, possibly by selection. These adaptive gene losses might have occurred because of changes in our environment or genetic background that altered the threat from or response to sepsis. The identification and analysis of human-specific pseudogenes open the door for understanding the roles of gene losses in human origins, and the demonstration that gene loss itself can be adaptive supports and extends the "less-is-more" hypothesis.

  11. Association of DNA repair gene XRCC1 and lung cancer susceptibility among nonsmoking Chinese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, J.; Vogel, Ulla Birgitte; Ma, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Nonsmokers who develop lung cancer provide a good model for investigating the effect of genetic polymorphisms. XRCC1 is one of the major DNA repair proteins involved in the base-excision repair pathway. XRCC1 gene variations may lead to lower DNA repair capacity and thus confer inherited predispo......Nonsmokers who develop lung cancer provide a good model for investigating the effect of genetic polymorphisms. XRCC1 is one of the major DNA repair proteins involved in the base-excision repair pathway. XRCC1 gene variations may lead to lower DNA repair capacity and thus confer inherited...... predisposition to cancer risk. To address this question in more detail, we conducted a hospital-based case-control study consisting of 55 lung cancer cases and 74 cancer-free controls matched on age and ethnicity among nonsmoking Chinese women. We analyzed five coding single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the XRCC1...... gene: Agr194Trp, Arg280His, Arg399Gln, Pro206Pro, and Gln632Gln. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism was used for genotyping. Carriers of the variant T-allele of Arg194Trp had a lower lung cancer risk than carriers of CC genotypes [odds ratio (OR)=0.46, 95% confidence...

  12. Expression signatures of DNA repair genes correlate with survival prognosis of astrocytoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Juliana Ferreira; Torrieri, Raul; Serafim, Rodolfo Bortolozo; Di Cristofaro, Luis Fernando Macedo; Escanfella, Fábio Dalbon; Ribeiro, Rodrigo; Zanette, Dalila Lucíola; Paçó-Larson, Maria Luisa; da Silva, Wilson Araujo; Tirapelli, Daniela Pretti da Cunha; Neder, Luciano; Carlotti, Carlos Gilberto; Valente, Valeria

    2017-04-01

    Astrocytomas are the most common primary brain tumors. They are very resistant to therapies and usually progress rapidly to high-grade lesions. Here, we investigated the potential role of DNA repair genes in astrocytoma progression and resistance. To this aim, we performed a polymerase chain reaction array-based analysis focused on DNA repair genes and searched for correlations between expression patters and survival prognoses. We found 19 genes significantly altered. Combining these genes in all possible arrangements, we found 421 expression signatures strongly associated with poor survival. Importantly, five genes (DDB2, EXO1, NEIL3, BRCA2, and BRIP1) were independently correlated with worse prognoses, revealing single-gene signatures. Moreover, silencing of EXO1, which is remarkably overexpressed, promoted faster restoration of double-strand breaks, while NEIL3 knockdown, also highly overexpressed, caused an increment in DNA damage and cell death after irradiation of glioblastoma cells. These results disclose the importance of DNA repair pathways for the maintenance of genomic stability of high-grade astrocytomas and suggest that EXO1 and NEIL3 overexpression confers more efficiency for double-strand break repair and resistance to reactive oxygen species, respectively. Thereby, we highlight these two genes as potentially related with tumor aggressiveness and promising candidates as novel therapeutic targets.

  13. Pan-cancer analysis of bi-allelic alterations in homologous recombination DNA repair genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Nadeem; Blecua, Pedro; Lim, Raymond S; Shen, Ronglai; Higginson, Daniel S; Weinhold, Nils; Norton, Larry; Weigelt, Britta; Powell, Simon N; Reis-Filho, Jorge S

    2017-10-11

    BRCA1 and BRCA2 are involved in homologous recombination (HR) DNA repair and are germ-line cancer pre-disposition genes that result in a syndrome of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC). Whether germ-line or somatic alterations in these genes or other members of the HR pathway and if mono- or bi-allelic alterations of HR-related genes have a phenotypic impact on other cancers remains to be fully elucidated. Here, we perform a pan-cancer analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data set and observe that bi-allelic pathogenic alterations in homologous recombination (HR) DNA repair-related genes are prevalent across many malignancies. These bi-allelic alterations often associate with genomic features of HR deficiency. Further, in ovarian, breast and prostate cancers, bi-allelic alterations are mutually exclusive of each other. The combination of these two properties facilitates reclassification of variants of unknown significance affecting DNA repair genes, and may help personalize HR directed therapies in the clinic.Germline mutations in homologous recombination (HR) DNA repair genes are linked to breast and ovarian cancer. Here, the authors show that mutually exclusive bi-allelic inactivation of HR genes are present in other cancer types and associated with genomic features of HR deficiency, expanding the potential use of HR-directed therapies.

  14. Evaluation of cell proliferation, apoptosis, and DNA-repair genes as potential biomarkers for ethanol-induced CNS alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Steven D; Lewis, Lambert; Ritchie, Julie; Burke, Patrick; Abdul-Malak, Ynesse; Adackapara, Nyssa; Canfield, Kelly; Shwarts, Erik; Gentile, Karen; Meszaros, Zsuzsa Szombathyne; Middleton, Frank A

    2012-10-25

    Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) lead to alterations in central nervous system (CNS) architecture along with impaired learning and memory. Previous work from our group and that of others suggests that one mechanism underlying these changes is alteration of cell proliferation, apoptosis, and DNA-repair in neural stem cells (NSCs) produced as a consequence of ethanol-induced effects on the expression of genes related to p53-signaling. This study tests the hypothesis that changes in the expression of p53-signaling genes represent biomarkers of ethanol abuse which can be identified in the peripheral blood of rat drinking models and human AUD subjects and posits that specific changes may be correlated with differences in neuropsychological measures and CNS structure. Remarkably, microarray analysis of 350 genes related to p53-signaling in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) of binge-drinking rats revealed 190 genes that were significantly altered after correcting for multiple testing. Moreover, 40 of these genes overlapped with those that we had previously observed to be changed in ethanol-exposed mouse NSCs. Expression changes in nine of these genes were tested for independent confirmation by a custom QuantiGene Plex (QGP) assay for a subset of p53-signaling genes, where a consistent trend for decreased expression of mitosis-related genes was observed. One mitosis-related gene (Pttg1) was also changed in human lymphoblasts cultured with ethanol. In PBLs of human AUD subjects seven p53-signaling genes were changed compared with non-drinking controls. Correlation and principal components analysis were then used to identify significant relationships between the expression of these seven genes and a set of medical, demographic, neuropsychological and neuroimaging measures that distinguished AUD and control subjects. Two genes (Ercc1 and Mcm5) showed a highly significant correlation with AUD-induced decreases in the volume of the left parietal supramarginal gyrus and

  15. Evaluation of cell proliferation, apoptosis, and dna-repair genes as potential biomarkers for ethanol-induced cns alterations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hicks Steven D

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol use disorders (AUDs lead to alterations in central nervous system (CNS architecture along with impaired learning and memory. Previous work from our group and that of others suggests that one mechanism underlying these changes is alteration of cell proliferation, apoptosis, and DNA-repair in neural stem cells (NSCs produced as a consequence of ethanol-induced effects on the expression of genes related to p53-signaling. This study tests the hypothesis that changes in the expression of p53-signaling genes represent biomarkers of ethanol abuse which can be identified in the peripheral blood of rat drinking models and human AUD subjects and posits that specific changes may be correlated with differences in neuropsychological measures and CNS structure. Results Remarkably, microarray analysis of 350 genes related to p53-signaling in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs of binge-drinking rats revealed 190 genes that were significantly altered after correcting for multiple testing. Moreover, 40 of these genes overlapped with those that we had previously observed to be changed in ethanol-exposed mouse NSCs. Expression changes in nine of these genes were tested for independent confirmation by a custom QuantiGene Plex (QGP assay for a subset of p53-signaling genes, where a consistent trend for decreased expression of mitosis-related genes was observed. One mitosis-related gene (Pttg1 was also changed in human lymphoblasts cultured with ethanol. In PBLs of human AUD subjects seven p53-signaling genes were changed compared with non-drinking controls. Correlation and principal components analysis were then used to identify significant relationships between the expression of these seven genes and a set of medical, demographic, neuropsychological and neuroimaging measures that distinguished AUD and control subjects. Two genes (Ercc1 and Mcm5 showed a highly significant correlation with AUD-induced decreases in the volume of the left

  16. Nucleotide excision repair is not induced in human embryonic lung fibroblasts treated with environmental pollutants.

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    Pavel Rossner

    Full Text Available The cellular response to genotoxic treatment depends on the cell line used. Although tumor cell lines are widely used for genotoxicity tests, the interpretation of the results may be potentially hampered by changes in cellular processes caused by malignant transformation. In our study we used normal human embryonic lung fibroblasts (HEL12469 cells and tested their response to treatment with benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P and extractable organic matter (EOM from ambient air particles <2.5 µm (PM2.5 collected in two Czech cities differing in levels and sources of air pollution. We analyzed multiple endpoints associated with exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs including the levels of bulky DNA adducts and the nucleotide excision repair (NER response [expression of XPE, XPC and XPA genes on the level of mRNA and proteins, unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS]. EOMs were collected in the winter and summer of 2011 in two Czech cities with different levels and sources of air pollution. The effects of the studied compounds were analyzed in the presence (+S9 and absence (-S9 of the rat liver microsomal S9 fraction. The levels of bulky DNA adducts were highest after treatment with B[a]P, followed by winter EOMs; their induction by summer EOMs was weak. The induction of both mRNA and protein expression was observed, with the most pronounced effects after treatment with B[a]P (-S9; the response induced by EOMs from both cities and seasons was substantially weaker. The expression of DNA repair genes was not accompanied by the induction of UDS activity. In summary, our results indicate that the tested compounds induced low levels of DNA damage and affected the expression of NER genes; however, nucleotide excision repair was not induced.

  17. The Mutyh base excision repair gene influences the inflammatory response in a mouse model of ulcerative colitis.

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    Ida Casorelli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Mutyh DNA glycosylase is involved in the repair of oxidized DNA bases. Mutations in the human MUTYH gene are responsible for colorectal cancer in familial adenomatous polyposis. Since defective DNA repair genes might contribute to the increased cancer risk associated with inflammatory bowel diseases, we compared the inflammatory response of wild-type and Mutyh(-/- mice to oxidative stress. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The severity of colitis, changes in expression of genes involved in DNA repair and inflammation, DNA 8-oxoguanine levels and microsatellite instability were analysed in colon of mice treated with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS. The Mutyh(-/- phenotype was associated with a significant accumulation of 8-oxoguanine in colon DNA of treated mice. A single DSS cycle induced severe acute ulcerative colitis in wild-type mice, whereas lesions were modest in Mutyh(-/- mice, and this was associated with moderate variations in the expression of several cytokines. Eight DSS cycles caused chronic colitis in both wild-type and Mutyh(-/- mice. Lymphoid hyperplasia and a significant reduction in Foxp3(+ regulatory T cells were observed only in Mutyh(-/- mice. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicate that, in this model of ulcerative colitis, Mutyh plays a major role in maintaining intestinal integrity by affecting the inflammatory response.

  18. Transplantation of erythropoietin gene-modified neural stem cells improves the repair of injured spinal cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-fei Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The protective effects of erythropoietin on spinal cord injury have not been well described. Here, the eukaryotic expression plasmid pcDNA3.1 human erythropoietin was transfected into rat neural stem cells cultured in vitro. A rat model of spinal cord injury was established using a free falling object. In the human erythropoietin-neural stem cells group, transfected neural stem cells were injected into the rat subarachnoid cavity, while the neural stem cells group was injected with non-transfected neural stem cells. Dulbecco′s modified Eagle′s medium/F12 medium was injected into the rats in the spinal cord injury group as a control. At 1-4 weeks post injury, the motor function in the rat lower limbs was best in the human erythropoietin-neural stem cells group, followed by the neural stem cells group, and lastly the spinal cord injury group. At 72 hours, compared with the spinal cord injury group, the apoptotic index and Caspase-3 gene and protein expressions were apparently decreased, and the bcl-2 gene and protein expressions were noticeably increased, in the tissues surrounding the injured region in the human erythropoietin-neural stem cells group. At 4 weeks, the cavities were clearly smaller and the motor and somatosensory evoked potential latencies were remarkably shorter in the human erythropoietin-neural stem cells group and neural stem cells group than those in the spinal cord injury group. These differences were particularly obvious in the human erythropoietin-neural stem cells group. More CM-Dil-positive cells and horseradish peroxidase-positive nerve fibers and larger amplitude motor and somatosensory evoked potentials were found in the human erythropoietin-neural stem cells group and neural stem cells group than in the spinal cord injury group. Again, these differences were particularly obvious in the human erythropoietin-neural stem cells group. These data indicate that transplantation of erythropoietin gene-modified neural stem

  19. Transplantation of erythropoietin gene-modified neural stem cells improves the repair of injured spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Min-Fei; Zhang, Shu-Quan; Gu, Rui; Liu, Jia-Bei; Li, Ye; Zhu, Qing-San

    2015-09-01

    The protective effects of erythropoietin on spinal cord injury have not been well described. Here, the eukaryotic expression plasmid pcDNA3.1 human erythropoietin was transfected into rat neural stem cells cultured in vitro. A rat model of spinal cord injury was established using a free falling object. In the human erythropoietin-neural stem cells group, transfected neural stem cells were injected into the rat subarachnoid cavity, while the neural stem cells group was injected with non-transfected neural stem cells. Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium/F12 medium was injected into the rats in the spinal cord injury group as a control. At 1-4 weeks post injury, the motor function in the rat lower limbs was best in the human erythropoietin-neural stem cells group, followed by the neural stem cells group, and lastly the spinal cord injury group. At 72 hours, compared with the spinal cord injury group, the apoptotic index and Caspase-3 gene and protein expressions were apparently decreased, and the bcl-2 gene and protein expressions were noticeably increased, in the tissues surrounding the injured region in the human erythropoietin-neural stem cells group. At 4 weeks, the cavities were clearly smaller and the motor and somatosensory evoked potential latencies were remarkably shorter in the human erythropoietin-neural stem cells group and neural stem cells group than those in the spinal cord injury group. These differences were particularly obvious in the human erythropoietin-neural stem cells group. More CM-Dil-positive cells and horseradish peroxidase-positive nerve fibers and larger amplitude motor and somatosensory evoked potentials were found in the human erythropoietin-neural stem cells group and neural stem cells group than in the spinal cord injury group. Again, these differences were particularly obvious in the human erythropoietin-neural stem cells group. These data indicate that transplantation of erythropoietin gene-modified neural stem cells into the

  20. DNA Repair in Human Cells Exposed to Combinations of Carcinogenic Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setlow, R. B.; Ahmed, F. E.

    1980-01-01

    Normal human and XP2 fibroblasts were treated with UV plus UV-mimetic chemicals. The UV dose used was sufficient to saturate the UV excision repair system. Excision repair after combined treatments was estimated by unscheduled DNA synthesis, BrdUrd photolysis, and the loss of sites sensitive to a UV specific endonuclease. Since the repair of damage from UV and its mimetics is coordinately controlled we expected that there would be similar rate-limiting steps in the repair of UV and chemical damage and that after a combined treatment the total amount of repair would be the same as from UV or the chemicals separately. The expectation was not fulfilled. In normal cells repair after a combined treatment was additive whereas in XP cells repair after a combined treatment was usually less than after either agent separately. The chemicals tested were AAAF, DMBA-epoxide, 4NQO, and ICR-170.

  1. Cloning, comparative mapping, and RNA expression of the mouse homologues of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae nucleotide excision repair gene RAD23

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spek, P.J. van der; Visser, C.E.; Bootsma, D. [Erasmus Univ., Rotterdam (Netherlands)] [and others

    1996-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae RAD23 gene is involved in nucleotide excision repair (NER). Two human homologs of RAD23, HHR23A and HHR23B (HGMW-approved symbols RAD23A and RAD23B), were previously isolated. The HHR23B protein is complexed with the protein defective in the cancer-prone repair syndrome xeroderma pigmentosum, complementation group C, and is specifically involved in the global genome NER subpathway. The cloning of both mouse homologs (designated MHR23A and MHR23B) and detailed sequence comparison permitted the deduction of the following overall structure for all RAD23 homologs: an ubiquitin-like N-terminus followed by a strongly conserved 50-amino-acid domain that is repeated at the C-terminus. We also found this domain as a specific C-terminal extension of one of the ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes, providing a second link with the ubiquitin pathway. By means of in situ hybridization, MHR23A was assigned to mouse chromosome 8C3 and MHR23B to 4B3. Because of the close chromosomal proximity of human XPC and HHR23B, the mouse XPC chromosomal location was determined (6D). Physical disconnection of the genes in mouse argues against a functional significance of the colocalization of these genes in human. Northern blot analysis revealed constitutive expression of both MHR23 genes in all tissues examined. Elevated RNA expression of both MHR23 genes was observed in testis. Although the RAD23 equivalents are well conserved during evolution, the mammalian genes did not express the UV-inducible phenotype of their yeast counterpart. This may point to a fundamental difference between the UV responses of yeast and human. No stage-specific mRNA expression during the cell cycle was observed for the mammalian RAD23 homologs. 38 refs., 5 figs.

  2. Depletion of the bloom syndrome helicase stimulates homology-dependent repair at double-strand breaks in human chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yibin; Smith, Krissy; Waldman, Barbara Criscuolo; Waldman, Alan S

    2011-04-03

    Mutation of BLM helicase causes Blooms syndrome, a disorder associated with genome instability, high levels of sister chromatid exchanges, and cancer predisposition. To study the influence of BLM on double-strand break (DSB) repair in human chromosomes, we stably transfected a normal human cell line with a DNA substrate that contained a thymidine kinase (tk)-neo fusion gene disrupted by the recognition site for endonuclease I-SceI. The substrate also contained a closely linked functional tk gene to serve as a recombination partner for the tk-neo fusion gene. We derived two cell lines each containing a single integrated copy of the DNA substrate. In these cell lines, a DSB was introduced within the tk-neo fusion gene by expression of I-SceI. DSB repair events that occurred via homologous recombination (HR) or nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) were recovered by selection for G418-resistant clones. DSB repair was examined under conditions of either normal BLM expression or reduced BLM expression brought about by RNA interference. We report that BLM knockdown in both cell lines specifically increased the frequency of HR events that produced deletions by crossovers or single-strand annealing while leaving the frequency of gene conversions unchanged or reduced. We observed no change in the accuracy of individual HR events and no substantial alteration of the nature of individual NHEJ events when BLM expression was reduced. Our work provides the first direct evidence that BLM influences DSB repair pathway choice in human chromosomes and suggests that BLM deficiency can engender genomic instability by provoking an increased frequency of HR events of a potentially deleterious nature. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Prevalence and prognostic role of mismatch repair gene defect in endometrial cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangjitgamol, Siriwan; Kittisiam, Thannaporn; Tanvanich, Sujitra

    2017-09-01

    The study was to evaluate the prevalence of mismatch repair gene defect among Thai patients with endometrial cancer and its association with clinico-pathological features and survivals. The formalin fixed paraffin-embedded blocks of EMC tissue from hysterectomy specimens of patients having surgery in our institution between 1 Jan 1995 and 31 December 2016 were assessed for the immunohistochemical expression of 4 mismatch repair proteins (MLH1, PMS, MSH2, MSH 6). Mismatch repair gene defect was determined by a negative expression of at least 1 protein. Among 385 EMC patients included in the study, mean age was 57.3 ± 10.8 years with 62.3% aged ⩽ 60 years. The most frequent mismatch repair gene defect was MSH6 (38.7%), followed by PMS2 (34.3%), MLH1 (33.2%), and MSH2 (16.4%). Overall, 55.1% showed negative expression of at least one protein. We found significantly higher mismatch repair gene defect in patients aged ⩽ 60 years, with early stage disease, and negative lymph node status than the other comparative groups: 59.2% vs 48.3% for age (p = 0.037), 58.2% vs 45.2% (p = 0.027) for stage, and 58.1% vs 44.6% (p = 0.048) for nodal status. The 5-year progression-free survival, overall survival, and endometrial cancer-specific survival of patients with mismatch repair gene defect was higher than those without gene defect. The differences were statistically significant for only progression-free survival and endometrial cancer-specific survival: 87.7% (95% confidence interval = 83.0%-92.4%) vs 81.5% (95% confidence interval = 75.4%-87.6%) (p = 0.049) for progression-free survival and 91.0% (95% confidence interval = 86.9%-95.1%) vs 85.5% (95% confidence interval = 80.0%-91.0%) (p = 0.044) for endometrial cancer-specific survival, respectively. In conclusion, more than half of Thai endometrial cancer patients had mismatch repair gene defect. The patients with mismatch repair gene defect had significantly younger age (⩽ 60 years) and better prognosis in terms of

  4. The Association of Low-Penetrance Variants in DNA Repair Genes with Colorectal Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Aggarwal, Nikhil; Donald, Neil D; Malik, Salim; Selvendran, Subothini S; McPhail, Mark JW.; Monahan, Kevin J

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Approximately 35% of colorectal cancer (CRC) risk is attributable to heritable factors known hereditary syndromes, accounting for 6%. The remainder may be due to lower penetrance polymorphisms particularly of DNA repair genes. DNA repair pathways, including base excision repair (BER), nucleotide excision repair (NER), mismatch repair (MMR), direct reversal repair (DRR), and double-strand break repair are complex, evolutionarily conserved, and critical in carcinogenesis. Germline m...

  5. Repair of DNA damage in light sensitive human skin diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horkay, I.; Varga, L.; Tam' asi P., Gundy, S.

    1978-12-01

    Repair of uv-light induced DNA damage and changes in the semiconservative DNA synthesis were studied by in vitro autoradiography in the skin of patients with lightdermatoses (polymorphous light eruption, porphyria cutanea tarda, erythropoietic protoporphyria) and xeroderma pigmentosum as well as in that of healthy controls. In polymorphous light eruption the semiconservative DNA replication rate was more intensive in the area of the skin lesions and in the repeated phototest site, the excision repair synthesis appeared to be unaltered. In cutaneous prophyrias a decreased rate of the repair incorporation could be detected. Xeroderma pigmentosum was characterized by a strongly reduced repair synthesis.

  6. Sequence analysis of the ERCC2 gene regions in human, mouse, and hamster reveals three linked genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamerdin, J.E.; Stilwagen, S.A.; Ramirez, M.H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-06-15

    The ERCC2 (excision repair cross-complementing rodent repair group 2) gene product is involved in transcription-coupled repair as an integral member of the basal transcription factor BTF2/TFIIH complex. Defects in this gene can result in three distinct human disorders, namely the cancer-prone syndrome xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group D, trichothiodystrophy, and Cockayne syndrome. We report the comparative analysis of 91.6 kb of new sequence including 54.3 kb encompassing the human ERCC2 locus, the syntenic region in the mouse (32.6 kb), and a further 4.7 kb of sequence 3{prime} of the previously reported ERCC2 region in the hamster. In addition to ERCC2, our analysis revealed the presence of two previously undescribed genes in all three species. The first is centromeric (in the human) to ERCC2 and is most similar to the kinesin light chain gene in sea urchin. The second gene is telomeric (in the human) to ERCC2 and contains a motif found in ankyrins, some cell proteins, and transcription factors. Multiple EST matches to this putative new gene indicate that it is expressed in several human tissues, including breast. The identification and description of two new genes provides potential candidate genes for disorders mapping to this region of 19q13.2. 42 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. The human crystallin gene families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wistow Graeme

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Crystallins are the abundant, long-lived proteins of the eye lens. The major human crystallins belong to two different superfamilies: the small heat-shock proteins (α-crystallins and the βγ-crystallins. During evolution, other proteins have sometimes been recruited as crystallins to modify the properties of the lens. In the developing human lens, the enzyme betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase serves such a role. Evolutionary modification has also resulted in loss of expression of some human crystallin genes or of specific splice forms. Crystallin organization is essential for lens transparency and mutations; even minor changes to surface residues can cause cataract and loss of vision.

  8. Mechanisms of interstrand DNA crosslink repair and human disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Satoru; Anai, Hirofumi; Hanada, Katsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Interstrand DNA crosslinks (ICLs) are the link between Watson-Crick strands of DNAs with the covalent bond and prevent separation of DNA strands. Since the ICL lesion affects both strands of the DNA, the ICL repair is not simple. So far, nucleotide excision repair (NER), structure-specific endonucleases, translesion DNA synthesis (TLS), homologous recombination (HR), and factors responsible for Fanconi anemia (FA) are identified to be involved in ICL repair. Since the presence of ICL lesions causes severe defects in transcription and DNA replication, mutations in these DNA repair pathways give rise to a various hereditary disorders. NER plays an important role for the ICL recognition and removal in quiescent cells, and defects of NER causes congential progeria syndrome, such as xeroderma pigmentosum, Cockayne syndrome, and trichothiodystrophy. On the other hand, the ICL repair in S phase requires more complicated orchestration of multiple factors, including structure-specific endonucleases, and TLS, and HR. Disturbed this ICL repair orchestration in S phase causes genome instability resulting a cancer prone disease, Fanconi anemia. So far more than 30 factors in ICL repair have already identified. Recently, a new factor, UHRF1, was discovered as a sensor of ICLs. In addition to this, numbers of nucleases that are involved in the first incision, also called unhooking, of ICL lesions have also been identified. Here we summarize the recent studies of ICL associated disorders and repair mechanism, with emphasis in the first incision of ICLs.

  9. Gene therapy and peripheral nerve repair : a perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoyng, Stefan A; de Winter, Fred; Tannemaat, Martijn R; Blits, Bas; Malessy, Martijn J A; Verhaagen, J.

    2015-01-01

    Clinical phase I/II studies have demonstrated the safety of gene therapy for a variety of central nervous system disorders, including Canavan's, Parkinson's (PD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD), retinal diseases and pain. The majority of gene therapy studies in the CNS have used adeno-associated viral

  10. Dynamic control of strand excision during human DNA mismatch repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Yongmoon; Kim, Daehyung; Martín-López, Juana V; Lee, Ryanggeun; Oh, Jungsic; Hanne, Jeungphill; Fishel, Richard; Lee, Jong-Bong

    2016-03-22

    Mismatch repair (MMR) is activated by evolutionarily conserved MutS homologs (MSH) and MutL homologs (MLH/PMS). MSH recognizes mismatched nucleotides and form extremely stable sliding clamps that may be bound by MLH/PMS to ultimately authorize strand-specific excision starting at a distant 3'- or 5'-DNA scission. The mechanical processes associated with a complete MMR reaction remain enigmatic. The purified human (Homo sapien or Hs) 5'-MMR excision reaction requires the HsMSH2-HsMSH6 heterodimer, the 5' → 3' exonuclease HsEXOI, and the single-stranded binding heterotrimer HsRPA. The HsMLH1-HsPMS2 heterodimer substantially influences 5'-MMR excision in cell extracts but is not required in the purified system. Using real-time single-molecule imaging, we show that HsRPA or Escherichia coli EcSSB restricts HsEXOI excision activity on nicked or gapped DNA. HsMSH2-HsMSH6 activates HsEXOI by overcoming HsRPA/EcSSB inhibition and exploits multiple dynamic sliding clamps to increase tract length. Conversely, HsMLH1-HsPMS2 regulates tract length by controlling the number of excision complexes, providing a link to 5' MMR.

  11. Inactivation of RAD52 and HDF1 DNA repair genes leads to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 42; Issue 2. Inactivation of RAD52 and HDF1 DNA repair genes leads to premature chronological aging and cellular instability. SILVIA MERCADO-SÁENZ BEATRIZ LÓPEZ-DÍAZ FRANCISCO SENDRA-PORTERO MANUEL MARTÍNEZ-MORILLO MIGUEL J RUIZ-GÓMEZ.

  12. DHR6, a Drosophila homolog of the yeast DNA repair gene RAD6.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H.M. Koken (Marcel); P. Reynolds (Paul); D. Bootsma (Dirk); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); S. Prakash; L. Prakash

    1991-01-01

    textabstractThe RAD6 gene of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is required for DNA repair, for DNA damage-induced mutagenesis, and for sporulation, and it encodes a ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. We have cloned the RAD6 homolog from Drosophila melanogaster and find that its encoded protein displays

  13. Selecting patients with young-onset colorectal cancer for mismatch repair gene analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walker, M; O'Sullivan, B; Perakath, B

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Young patients with colorectal cancer are at increased risk of carrying a germline mutation in mismatch repair (MMR) genes. This study investigated the role of clinical criteria and immunohistochemistry for MMR proteins in selecting young patients for mutation testing. METHODS: A cohort...

  14. Patients with systemic sclerosis present increased DNA damage differentially associated with DNA repair gene polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomino, Gustavo Martelli; Bassi, Carmen L; Wastowski, Isabela J; Xavier, Danilo J; Lucisano-Valim, Yara M; Crispim, Janaina C O; Rassi, Diane M; Marques-Neto, Joao F; Sakamoto-Hojo, Elza T; Moreau, Philippe; Sampaio-Barros, Percival D; Donadi, Eduardo A

    2014-03-01

    Patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) exhibit increased toxicity when exposed to genotoxic agents. In our study, we evaluated DNA damage and polymorphic sites in 2 DNA repair genes (XRCC1 Arg399Gln and XRCC4 Ile401Thr) in patients with SSc. A total of 177 patients were studied for DNA repair gene polymorphisms. Fifty-six of them were also evaluated for DNA damage in peripheral blood cells using the comet assay. Compared to controls, the patients as a whole or stratified into major clinical variants (limited or diffuse skin involvement), irrespective of the underlying treatment schedule, exhibited increased DNA damage. XRCC1 (rs: 25487) and XRCC4 (rs: 28360135) allele and genotype frequencies observed in patients with SSc were not significantly different from those observed in controls; however, the XRCC1 Arg399Gln allele was associated with increased DNA damage only in healthy controls and the XRCC4 Ile401Thr allele was associated with increased DNA damage in both patients and controls. Further, the XRCC1 Arg399Gln allele was associated with the presence of antinuclear antibody and anticentromere antibody. No association was observed between these DNA repair gene polymorphic sites and clinical features of patients with SSc. These results corroborate the presence of genomic instability in SSc peripheral blood cells, as evaluated by increased DNA damage, and show that polymorphic sites of the XRCC1 and XRCC4 DNA repair genes may differentially influence DNA damage and the development of autoantibodies.

  15. Analysis of DNA repair gene polymorphisms and survival in low-grade and anaplastic gliomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsson, Shala Ghaderi; Wibom, Carl; Sjöström, Sara

    2011-01-01

    different DNA repair genes (ATM, NEIL1, NEIL2, ERCC6 and RPA4) which were associated with survival. Finally, these eight genetic variants were adjusted for treatment, malignancy grade, patient age and gender, leaving one variant, rs4253079, mapped to ERCC6, with a significant association to survival (OR 0...

  16. Deficiency in nucleotide excision repair family gene activity, especially ERCC3, is associated with non-pigmented hair fiber growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Yu

    Full Text Available We conducted a microarray study to discover gene expression patterns associated with a lack of melanogenesis in non-pigmented hair follicles (HF by microarray. Pigmented and non-pigmented HFs were collected and micro-dissected into the hair bulb (HB and the upper hair sheaths (HS including the bulge region. In comparison to pigmented HS and HBs, nucleotide excision repair (NER family genes ERCC1, ERCC2, ERCC3, ERCC4, ERCC5, ERCC6, XPA, NTPBP, HCNP, DDB2 and POLH exhibited statistically significantly lower expression in non- pigmented HS and HBs. Quantitative PCR verified microarray data and identified ERCC3 as highly differentially expressed. Immunohistochemistry confirmed ERCC3 expression in HF melanocytes. A reduction in ERCC3 by siRNA interference in human melanocytes in vitro reduced their tyrosinase production ability. Our results suggest that loss of NER gene function is associated with a loss of melanin production capacity. This may be due to reduced gene transcription and/or reduced DNA repair in melanocytes which may eventually lead to cell death. These results provide novel information with regard to melanogenesis and its regulation.

  17. Multigene panel analysis identified germline mutations of DNA repair genes in breast and ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirotsu, Yosuke; Nakagomi, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Ikuko; Amemiya, Kenji; Oyama, Toshio; Mochizuki, Hitoshi; Omata, Masao

    2015-09-01

    Approximately 5-10% of all breast and/or ovarian cancer cases are considered as inherited. BRCA1 and BRCA2 tumor suppressor genes account for a high penetrance of hereditary cases, but familial cases without mutations in these genes can also occur. Despite their low penetrance, other hereditary cancer-related genes are known to be associated with breast and ovarian cancer risk. However, the extent to which these genes prevail in breast and ovarian cancer remains to be elucidated. To estimate the frequency of mutations in these predisposition genes, we analyzed the germline mutations of 25 hereditary cancer-related genes in 155 patients using targeted next-generation sequencing. These subjects included 11 BRCA1/2 mutation-positive cases and 144 negative cases. Of these, three patients (1.9%) had pathogenic mutations in ATM, MRE11A, or MSH6, all of which have a central role in DNA repair and the mismatch repair pathway. The MSH6 splice-site mutation (IVS6+1G>T) was predicted to be pathogenic, as demonstrated by in vitro and immunohistochemical analyses. These results suggested deficiencies in cellular DNA repair functions result in the development of breast and ovarian cancer.

  18. Polymorphisms in DNA Repair Genes and MDR1 and the Risk for Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Nam Kim

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The damage caused by oxidative stress and exposure to cigarette smoke and alcohol necessitate DNA damage repair and transport by multidrug resistance-1 (MDR1. To explore the association between polymorphisms in these genes and non-Hodgkin lymphoma risk, we analyzed 15 polymorphisms of 12 genes in a population-based study in Korea (694 cases and 1700 controls. Four genotypes of DNA repair pathway genes (XRCC1 399 GA, OGG1 326 GG, BRCA1 871 TT, and WRN 787 TT were associated with a decreased risk for NHL [odds ratio (ORXRCC1 GA = 0.80, p = 0.02; OROGG1 GG = 0.70, p = 0.008; ORBRCA1 TT = 0.71, p = 0.048; ORWRN TT = 0.68, p = 0.01]. Conversely, the MGMT 115 CT genotype was associated with an increased risk for NHL (OR = 1.25, p = 0.04. In the MDR1 gene, the 1236 CC genotype was associated with a decreased risk for NHL (OR = 0.74, p = 0.04, and the 3435 CT and TT genotypes were associated with an increased risk (OR3435CT = 1.50, p < 0.0001; OR3435TT = 1.43, p = 0.02. These results suggest that polymorphisms in the DNA repair genes XRCC1, OGG1, BRCA1, WRN1, and MGMT and in the MDR1 gene may affect the risk for NHL in Korean patients.

  19. Loss of transcription factor early growth response gene 1 results in impaired endochondral bone repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reumann, Marie K; Strachna, Olga; Yagerman, Sarah; Torrecilla, Daniel; Kim, Jihye; Doty, Stephen B; Lukashova, Lyudmila; Boskey, Adele L; Mayer-Kuckuk, Philipp

    2011-10-01

    Transcription factors that play a role in ossification during development are expected to participate in postnatal fracture repair since the endochondral bone formation that occurs in embryos is recapitulated during fracture repair. However, inherent differences exist between bone development and fracture repair, including a sudden disruption of tissue integrity followed by an inflammatory response. This raises the possibility that repair-specific transcription factors participate in bone healing. Here, we assessed the consequence of loss of early growth response gene 1 (EGR-1) on endochondral bone healing because this transcription factor has been shown to modulate repair in vascularized tissues. Model fractures were created in ribs of wild type (wt) and EGR-1(-/-) mice. Differences in tissue morphology and composition between these two animal groups were followed over 28 post fracture days (PFDs). In wt mice, bone healing occurred in healing phases characteristic of endochondral bone repair. A similar healing sequence was observed in EGR-1(-/-) mice but was impaired by alterations. A persistent accumulation of fibrin between the disconnected bones was observed on PFD7 and remained pronounced in the callus on PFD14. Additionally, the PFD14 callus was abnormally enlarged and showed increased deposition of mineralized tissue. Cartilage ossification in the callus was associated with hyper-vascularity and -proliferation. Moreover, cell deposits located in proximity to the callus within skeletal muscle were detected on PFD14. Despite these impairments, repair in EGR-1(-/-) callus advanced on PFD28, suggesting EGR-1 is not essential for healing. Together, this study provides genetic evidence that EGR-1 is a pleiotropic regulator of endochondral fracture repair. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Nucleotide fluctuation of RecA repair gene in Siberian permafrost Psychrobacter cryohalolentis K5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremberger, George, Jr.; Holden, T.; Cheung, E.; Subramaniam, R.; Sullivan, R.; Schneider, P.; Flamholz, A.; Marchese, P.; Lieberman, D.; Cheung, T.

    2008-08-01

    A nucleotide sequence can be expressed as a numerical sequence when each nucleotide is assigned its proton number. A resulting gene numerical sequence can be investigated for its fractal dimension in terms of evolution and chemical properties for comparative studies. We have investigated such nucleotide fluctuation in the RecA repair gene of Psychrobacter cryohalolentis K5, Psychrobacter arcticus 273-4, and Psychrobacter sp. PRwf-1. The fractal dimension was found to correlate with the gene's operating temperature with the highest fractal dimension associated with P. cryohalolentis K5 living at the low temperatures found in Siberian permafrost. The CpG dinucleotide content was found to be about 5% for the three species of Psychrobacters, which is substantially lower than that of Deinococcus radiodurans at about 12%. The average nucleotide pair-wise free energy was found to be lowest for Psychrobacter sp. PRwf-1, the species with the lowest fractal dimension of the three, consistent with the recent finding that Psychrobacter sp. PRw-f1 has a temperature growth maximum of 15-20°C higher than P. arcticus 273-4 and P. cryohaloentis K5. The results suggest that microbial vitality in extreme environments is associated with fractal dimension as well as high CpG dinucleotide content, while the average nucleotide pair-wise free energy is related to the operating environment. Evidence that extreme temperature operation would impose constraints measurable by Shannon entropy is also discussed. A quantitative estimate of an entropy-based measure having the characteristics of a mechanical pressure shows that the Psychrobacter RecA sequence experiences lower pressure than that of the human HAR1 sequence.

  1. Determining the functional significance of mismatch repair gene missense variants using biochemical and cellular assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinen, Christopher D; Juel Rasmussen, Lene

    2012-01-01

    provided an important experimental tool for studying the functional consequences of VUS. However, beyond this repair assay, a number of other experimental methods have been developed that allow us to test the effect of a VUS on discrete biochemical steps or other aspects of MMR function. Here, we describe......ABSTRACT: With the discovery that the hereditary cancer susceptibility disease Lynch syndrome (LS) is caused by deleterious germline mutations in the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes nearly 20 years ago, genetic testing can now be used to diagnose this disorder in patients. A definitive diagnosis...

  2. Comprehensive analysis of DNA repair gene variants and risk of meningioma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bethke, L.; Murray, A.; Webb, E.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Meningiomas account for up to 37% of all primary brain tumors. Genetic susceptibility to meningioma is well established, with the risk among relatives of meningioma patients being approximately threefold higher than that in the general population. A relationship between risk...... of meningioma and exposure to ionizing radiation is also well known and led us to examine whether variants in DNA repair genes contribute to disease susceptibility. METHODS: We analyzed 1127 tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that were selected to capture most of the common variation in 136 DNA...... repair genes in five case-control series (631 case patients and 637 control subjects) from four countries in Europe. We also analyzed 388 putative functional SNPs in these genes for their association with meningioma. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: The SNP rs4968451, which maps to intron 4...

  3. Mismatch repair gene mutation spectrum in the Swedish Lynch syndrome population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagerstedt-Robinson, Kristina; Rohlin, Anna; Aravidis, Christos

    2016-01-01

    Lynch syndrome caused by constitutional mismatch‑repair defects is one of the most common hereditary cancer syndromes with a high risk for colorectal, endometrial, ovarian and urothelial cancer. Lynch syndrome is caused by mutations in the mismatch repair (MMR) genes i.e., MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2....... After 20 years of genetic counseling and genetic testing for Lynch syndrome, we have compiled the mutation spectrum in Sweden with the aim to provide a population-based perspective on the contribution from the different MMR genes, the various types of mutations and the influence from founder mutations....... Mutation data were collected on a national basis from all laboratories involved in genetic testing. Mutation analyses were performed using mainly Sanger sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. A total of 201 unique disease-predisposing MMR gene mutations were identified in 369...

  4. Potential of human dental stem cells in repairing the complete transection of rat spinal cord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Li, Xinghan; Sun, Liang; Guo, Weihua; Tian, Weidong

    2017-04-01

    Objective. The adult spinal cord of mammals contains a certain amount of neural precursor cells, but these endogenous cells have a limited capacity for replacement of lost cells after spinal cord injury. The exogenous stem cells transplantation has become a therapeutic strategy for spinal cord repairing because of their immunomodulatory and differentiation capacity. In addition, dental stem cells originating from the cranial neural crest might be candidate cell sources for neural engineering. Approach. Human dental follicle stem cells (DFSCs), stem cells from apical papilla (SCAPs) and dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) were isolated and identified in vitro, then green GFP-labeled stem cells with pellets were transplanted into completely transected spinal cord. The functional recovery of rats and multiple neuro-regenerative mechanisms were explored. Main results. The dental stem cells, especially DFSCs, demonstrated the potential in repairing the completely transected spinal cord and promote functional recovery after injury. The major involved mechanisms were speculated below: First, dental stem cells inhibited the expression of interleukin-1β to reduce the inflammatory response; second, they inhibited the expression of ras homolog gene family member A (RhoA) to promote neurite regeneration; third, they inhibited the sulfonylurea receptor1 (SUR-1) expression to reduce progressive hemorrhagic necrosis; lastly, parts of the transplanted cells survived and differentiated into mature neurons and oligodendrocytes but not astrocyte, which is beneficial for promoting axons growth. Significance. Dental stem cells presented remarkable tissue regenerative capability after spinal cord injury through immunomodulatory, differentiation and protection capacity.

  5. Repair of DNA damaged by ionizing radiation and other oxidative agents in yeast and human

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louisek Prakash

    2000-01-15

    OAK B202 Treatment of cells with oxidative DNA damaging agents such as ionizing radiation and hydrogen peroxide produces .OH radicals which attack DNA, producing single strand breaks and double strand breaks that have a 3'-blocked terminus with a phosphoglycolate or a phosphate group attached to the 3'-terminus. While DNA strand breaks with 3'-blocked termini are the hallmark of oxidative DNA damage, the mechanisms by which such blocked 3'-termini are removed in eukaryotes remain poorly understood. The goals of this project were to identify the various genes that function in cleaning the blocked 3'ends from DNA strand breaks generated by treatments with ionizing radiation and hydrogen peroxide, to purify the proteins encoded by these genes and to characterize their biochemical activities, and to determine the biological consequences when such damage is not repaired. Because of the high degree of conservation of DNA repair proteins between yeast and humans, and because of the ease of genetic manipulations, initial studies were to be carried out in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The homologous genes and proteins would then be studied in humans. One aspect of our proposed research was to purify the Apn2 protein from yeast cells and to examine its AP endonuclease and 3'-phosphodiesterase activities. Apn2-like proteins have been identified in eukaryotes other than yeast, including humans, and these proteins form a distinct subfamily within the ExoIII/Ape1/Apn2 family of proteins. We purified the Apn2 protein from yeast and showed that it is a class II AP endonuclease. (Class II AP endonucleases cleave the phosphodiester backbone on the 5'-side of the AP site and produce a 3'-OH group and a 5'-baseless deoxyribose 5'-phosphate residue). Yeast Apn2 and its orthologs in higher eukaryotes differ from E. coli ExoIII and human Ape1 in possessing a C terminus that is absent from the ExoIII/Ape1 subfamily. We found that deletion of

  6. Repair of DNA damaged by ionizing radiation and other oxidative agents in yeast and human

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louise Prakash

    2000-01-15

    Treatment of cells with oxidative DNA damaging agents such as ionizing radiation and hydrogen peroxide produces .OH radicals which attack DNA, producing single strand breaks and double strand breaks that have a 3'-blocked terminus with a phosphoglycolate or a phosphate group attached to the 3'-terminus. While DNA strand breaks with 3'-blocked termini are the hallmark of oxidative DNA damage, the mechanisms by which such blocked 3'-termini are removed in eukaryotes remain poorly understood. The goals of this project were to identify the various genes that function in cleaning the blocked 3'-ends from DNA strand breaks generated by treatments with ionizing radiation and hydrogen peroxide, to purify the proteins encoded by these genes and to characterize their biochemical activities, and to determine the biological consequences when such damage is not repaired. Because of the high degree of conservation of DNA repair proteins between yeast and humans, and because of the ease of genetic manipulations, initial studies were to be carried out in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The homologous genes and proteins would then be studied in humans. One aspect of our proposed research was to purify the Apn2 protein from yeast cells and to examine its AP endonuclease and 3'-phosphodiesterase activities. Apn2-like proteins have been identified in eukaryotes other than yeast, including humans, and these proteins form a distinct subfamily within the ExoIII/Ape1/Apn2 family of proteins. We purified the Apn2 protein from yeast and showed that it is a class II AP endonuclease. (Class II AP endonucleases cleave the phosphodiester backbone on the 5'-side of the AP site and produce a 3'-OH group and a 5'-baseless deoxyribose 5'-phosphate residue). Yeast Apn2 and its orthologs in higher eukaryotes differ from E. coli ExoIII and human Ape1 in possessing a C terminus that is absent from the ExoIII/Ape1 subfamily. We found that deletion of the

  7. Crystal Structure of the Human Hsmar1-Derived Transposase Domain in the DNA Repair Enzyme Metnase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodwin, Kristie D.; He, Hongzhen; Imasaki, Tsuyoshi; Lee, Suk-Hee; Georgiadis, Millie M. (Indiana-Med)

    2010-08-12

    Although the human genome is littered with sequences derived from the Hsmar1 transposon, the only intact Hsmar1 transposase gene exists within a chimeric SET-transposase fusion protein referred to as Metnase or SETMAR. Metnase retains many of the transposase activities including terminal inverted repeat (TIR) specific DNA-binding activity, DNA cleavage activity, albeit uncoupled from TIR-specific binding, and the ability to form a synaptic complex. However, Metnase has evolved as a DNA repair protein that is specifically involved in nonhomologous end joining. Here, we present two crystal structures of the transposase catalytic domain of Metnase revealing a dimeric enzyme with unusual active site plasticity that may be involved in modulating metal binding. We show through characterization of a dimerization mutant, F460K, that the dimeric form of the enzyme is required for its DNA cleavage, DNA-binding, and nonhomologous end joining activities. Of significance is the conservation of F460 along with residues that we propose may be involved in the modulation of metal binding in both the predicted ancestral Hsmar1 transposase sequence as well as in the modern enzyme. The Metnase transposase has been remarkably conserved through evolution; however, there is a clustering of substitutions located in alpha helices 4 and 5 within the putative DNA-binding site, consistent with loss of transposition specific DNA cleavage activity and acquisition of DNA repair specific cleavage activity.

  8. DNA mismatch repair complex MutSβ promotes GAA·TTC repeat expansion in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halabi, Anasheh; Ditch, Scott; Wang, Jeffrey; Grabczyk, Ed

    2012-08-24

    While DNA repair has been implicated in CAG·CTG repeat expansion, its role in the GAA·TTC expansion of Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is less clear. We have developed a human cellular model that recapitulates the DNA repeat expansion found in FRDA patient tissues. In this model, GAA·TTC repeats expand incrementally and continuously. We have previously shown that the expansion rate is linked to transcription within the repeats. Our working hypothesis is that structures formed within the GAA·TTC repeat during transcription attract DNA repair enzymes that then facilitate the expansion process. MutSβ, a heterodimer of MSH2 and MSH3, is known to have a role in CAG·CTG repeat expansion. We now show that shRNA knockdown of either MSH2 or MSH3 slowed GAA·TTC expansion in our system. We further characterized the role of MutSβ in GAA·TTC expansion using a functional assay in primary FRDA patient-derived fibroblasts. These fibroblasts have no known propensity for instability in their native state. Ectopic expression of MSH2 and MSH3 induced GAA·TTC repeat expansion in the native FXN gene. MSH2 is central to mismatch repair and its absence or reduction causes a predisposition to cancer. Thus, despite its essential role in GAA·TTC expansion, MSH2 is not an attractive therapeutic target. The absence or reduction of MSH3 is not strongly associated with cancer predisposition. Accordingly, MSH3 has been suggested as a therapeutic target for CAG·CTG repeat expansion disorders. Our results suggest that MSH3 may also serve as a therapeutic target to slow the expansion of GAA·TTC repeats in the future.

  9. DNA Mismatch Repair Complex MutSβ Promotes GAA·TTC Repeat Expansion in Human Cells*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halabi, Anasheh; Ditch, Scott; Wang, Jeffrey; Grabczyk, Ed

    2012-01-01

    While DNA repair has been implicated in CAG·CTG repeat expansion, its role in the GAA·TTC expansion of Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is less clear. We have developed a human cellular model that recapitulates the DNA repeat expansion found in FRDA patient tissues. In this model, GAA·TTC repeats expand incrementally and continuously. We have previously shown that the expansion rate is linked to transcription within the repeats. Our working hypothesis is that structures formed within the GAA·TTC repeat during transcription attract DNA repair enzymes that then facilitate the expansion process. MutSβ, a heterodimer of MSH2 and MSH3, is known to have a role in CAG·CTG repeat expansion. We now show that shRNA knockdown of either MSH2 or MSH3 slowed GAA·TTC expansion in our system. We further characterized the role of MutSβ in GAA·TTC expansion using a functional assay in primary FRDA patient-derived fibroblasts. These fibroblasts have no known propensity for instability in their native state. Ectopic expression of MSH2 and MSH3 induced GAA·TTC repeat expansion in the native FXN gene. MSH2 is central to mismatch repair and its absence or reduction causes a predisposition to cancer. Thus, despite its essential role in GAA·TTC expansion, MSH2 is not an attractive therapeutic target. The absence or reduction of MSH3 is not strongly associated with cancer predisposition. Accordingly, MSH3 has been suggested as a therapeutic target for CAG·CTG repeat expansion disorders. Our results suggest that MSH3 may also serve as a therapeutic target to slow the expansion of GAA·TTC repeats in the future. PMID:22787155

  10. Effect of Amalaki rasayana on DNA damage and repair in randomized aged human individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwanatha, Udupi; Guruprasad, Kanive P; Gopinath, Puthiya M; Acharya, Raviraj V; Prasanna, Bokkasa V; Nayak, Jayakrishna; Ganesh, Rajeshwari; Rao, Jayalaxmi; Shree, Rashmi; Anchan, Suchitra; Raghu, Kothanahalli S; Joshi, Manjunath B; Paladhi, Puspendu; Varier, Panniampilly M; Muraleedharan, Kollath; Muraleedharan, Thrikovil S; Satyamoorthy, Kapaettu

    2016-09-15

    Preparations from Phyllanthus emblica called Amalaki rasayana is used in the Indian traditional medicinal system of Ayurveda for healthy living in elderly. The biological effects and its mechanisms are not fully understood. Since the diminishing DNA repair is the hallmark of ageing, we tested the influence of Amalaki rasayana on recognized DNA repair activities in healthy aged individuals. Amalaki rasayana was prepared fresh and healthy aged randomized human volunteers were administrated with either rasayana or placebo for 45 days strictly as per the traditional text. The DNA repair was analyzed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells before and after rasayana administration and after 45 days post-rasayana treatment regimen. UVC-induced DNA strand break repair (DSBR) based on extent of DNA unwinding by fluorometric analysis, nucleotide excision repair (NER) by flow cytometry and constitutive base excision repair (BER) by gap filling method were analyzed. Amalaki rasayana administration stably maintained/enhanced the DSBR in aged individuals. There were no adverse side effects. Further, subjects with different body mass index showed differential DNA strand break repair capacity. No change in unscheduled DNA synthesis during NER and BER was observed between the groups. Intake of Amalaki rasayana by aged individuals showed stable maintenance of DNA strand break repair without toxic effects. However, there was no change in nucleotide and base excision repair activities. Results warrant further studies on the effects of Amalaki rasayana on DSBR activities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Treating Duchenne Cardiomyopathy in the Mouse Model by Gene Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Lipid nanoparticles and liposomes have been used to deliver exon-skipping AONs for DMD gene therapy. In the former, cationic lipids are used to coat ...the delivery tool. AAV is a bio- nanoparticle . We published a review article on the current state-of-art on nanotherapy (both viral and noviral) for...bearing binding domains for various materials including gold nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes for testing (at the LaBean lab) the assembly of

  12. Beryllium chloride-induced oxidative DNA damage and alteration in the expression patterns of DNA repair-related genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Sabry M; Harisa, Gamaleldin I; Hassan, Memy H; Bakheet, Saleh A

    2013-09-01

    Beryllium metal has physical properties that make its use essential for very specific applications, such as medical diagnostics, nuclear/fusion reactors and aerospace applications. Because of the widespread human exposure to beryllium metals and the discrepancy of the genotoxic results in the reported literature, detail assessments of the genetic damage of beryllium are warranted. Mice exposed to beryllium chloride at an oral dose of 23mg/kg for seven consecutive days exhibited a significant increase in the level of DNA-strand breaking and micronuclei formation as detected by a bone marrow standard comet assay and micronucleus test. Whereas slight beryllium chloride-induced oxidative DNA damage was detected following formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase digestion, digestion with endonuclease III resulted in considerable increases in oxidative DNA damage after the 11.5 and 23mg/kg/day treatment as detected by enzyme-modified comet assays. Increased 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine was also directly correlated with increased bone marrow micronuclei formation and DNA strand breaks, which further confirm the involvement of oxidative stress in the induction of bone marrow genetic damage after exposure to beryllium chloride. Gene expression analysis on the bone marrow cells from beryllium chloride-exposed mice showed significant alterations in genes associated with DNA damage repair. Therefore, beryllium chloride may cause genetic damage to bone marrow cells due to the oxidative stress and the induced unrepaired DNA damage is probably due to the down-regulation in the expression of DNA repair genes, which may lead to genotoxicity and eventually cause carcinogenicity.

  13. Zebrafish with mutations in mismatch repair genes develop neurofibromas and other tumors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feitsma, H.; Kuiper, R.V.; Korving, J.; Nijman, I.J.; Cuppen, E.

    2008-01-01

    Defective mismatch repair (MMR) in humans causes hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer. This genetic predisposition to colon cancer is linked to heterozygous familial mutations, and loss-of-heterozygosity is necessary for tumor development. In contrast, the rare cases with biallelic MMR

  14. Energy and Technology Review: Unlocking the mysteries of DNA repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quirk, W.A.

    1993-04-01

    DNA, the genetic blueprint, has the remarkable property of encoding its own repair following diverse types of structural damage induced by external agents or normal metabolism. We are studying the interplay of DNA damaging agents, repair genes, and their protein products to decipher the complex biochemical pathways that mediate such repair. Our research focuses on repair processes that correct DNA damage produced by chemical mutagens and radiation, both ionizing and ultraviolet. The most important type of DNA repair in human cells is called excision repair. This multistep process removes damaged or inappropriate pieces of DNA -- often as a string of 29 nucleotides containing the damage -- and replaces them with intact ones. We have isolated, cloned, and mapped several human repair genes associated with the nucleotide excision repair pathway and involved in the repair of DNA damage after exposure to ultraviolet light or mutagens in cooked food. We have shown that a defect in one of these repair genes, ERCC2, is responsible for the repair deficiency in one of the groups of patients with the recessive genetic disorder xeroderma pigmentosum (XP group D). We are exploring ways to purify sufficient quantities (milligrams) of the protein products of these and other repair genes so that we can understand their functions. Our long-term goals are to link defective repair proteins to human DNA repair disorders that predispose to cancer, and to produce DNA-repair-deficient mice that can serve as models for the human disorders.

  15. Germline mutations in DNA repair genes predispose asbestos-exposed patients to malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betti, Marta; Casalone, Elisabetta; Ferrante, Daniela; Aspesi, Anna; Morleo, Giulia; Biasi, Alessandra; Sculco, Marika; Mancuso, Giuseppe; Guarrera, Simonetta; Righi, Luisella; Grosso, Federica; Libener, Roberta; Pavesi, Mansueto; Mariani, Narciso; Casadio, Caterina; Boldorini, Renzo; Mirabelli, Dario; Pasini, Barbara; Magnani, Corrado; Matullo, Giuseppe; Dianzani, Irma

    2017-10-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare, aggressive cancer caused by asbestos exposure. An inherited predisposition has been suggested to explain multiple cases in the same family and the observation that not all individuals highly exposed to asbestos develop the tumor. Germline mutations in BAP1 are responsible for a rare cancer predisposition syndrome that includes predisposition to mesothelioma. We hypothesized that other genes involved in hereditary cancer syndromes could be responsible for the inherited mesothelioma predisposition. We investigated the prevalence of germline variants in 94 cancer-predisposing genes in 93 MPM patients with a quantified asbestos exposure. Ten pathogenic truncating variants (PTVs) were identified in PALB2, BRCA1, FANCI, ATM, SLX4, BRCA2, FANCC, FANCF, PMS1 and XPC. All these genes are involved in DNA repair pathways, mostly in homologous recombination repair. Patients carrying PTVs represented 9.7% of the panel and showed lower asbestos exposure than did all the other patients (p = 0.0015). This suggests that they did not efficiently repair the DNA damage induced by asbestos and leading to carcinogenesis. This study shows that germline variants in several genes may increase MPM susceptibility in the presence of asbestos exposure and may be important for specific treatment. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. DNA Repair Gene Polymorphisms in Relation to Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliang Su

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the DNA repair genes are suspected to be related to the survival of lung cancer patients due to their possible influence on DNA repair capacity (DRC. However, the study results are inconsistent. Methods: A follow-up study of 610 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients was conducted to investigate genetic polymorphisms associated with the DNA repair genes in relation to NSCLC survival; 6 SNPs were genotyped, including XRCC1 (rs25487 G>A, hOGG1 (rs1052133 C>G, MUTYH (rs3219489 G>C, XPA (rs1800975 G>A, ERCC2 (rs1799793 G>A and XRCC3 (rs861539 C>T. Kaplan-Meier survival curve and Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were performed. SNP-SNP interaction was also examined using the survival tree analysis. Results: Advanced disease stage and older age at diagnosis were associated with poor prognosis of NSCLC. Patients with the variant ‘G' allele of hOGG1 rs1052133 had poor overall survival compared with those with the homozygous wild ‘CC' genotype, especially in female patients, adenocarcinoma histology, early stage, light smokers and without family history of cancer. For never smoking female lung cancer patients, individuals carrying homozygous variant ‘AA' genotype of XPA had shorter survival time compared to those with wild ‘G' alleles. Furthermore, females carrying homozygous variant XPA and hOGG1 genotypes simultaneously had 2.78-fold increased risk for death. Among all 6 polymorphisms, the homozygous variant ‘AA' of XPA carriers had poor prognosis compared to the carriers of wild ‘G' alleles of XPA together with other base excision repair (BER polymorphisms. Conclusions: Besides disease stage and age, the study found DNA repair gene polymorphisms were associated with lung cancer survival.

  17. Glial kon/NG2 gene network for central nervous system repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Losada-Perez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The glial regenerative response to central nervous system (CNS injury, although limited, can be harnessed to promote regeneration and repair. Injury provokes the proliferation of ensheathing glial cells, which can differentiate to remyelinate axons, and partially restore function. This response is evolutionarily conserved, strongly implying an underlying genetic mechanism. In mammals, it is elicited by NG2 glia, but most often newly generated cells fail to differentiate. Thus an important goal had been to find out how to promote glial differentiation following the proliferative response. A gene network involving Notch and prospero (pros controls the balance between glial proliferation and differentiation in flies and mice, and promotes CNS repair at least in fruit-flies. A key missing link had been how to relate the function of NG2 to this gene network. Recent findings by Losada-Perez et al., published in JCB, demonstrated that the Drosophila NG2 homologue kon-tiki (kon is functionally linked to Notch and pros in glia. By engaging in two feedback loops with Notch and Pros, in response to injury, Kon can regulate both glial cell number and glial shape homeostasis, essential for repair. Drosophila offers powerful genetics to unravel the control of stem and progenitor cells for regeneration and repair.

  18. Genes encoding longevity: from model organisms to humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuningas, Maris; Mooijaart, Simon P; van Heemst, Diana; Zwaan, Bas J; Slagboom, P Eline; Westendorp, Rudi G J

    2008-03-01

    Ample evidence from model organisms has indicated that subtle variation in genes can dramatically influence lifespan. The key genes and molecular pathways that have been identified so far encode for metabolism, maintenance and repair mechanisms that minimize age-related accumulation of permanent damage. Here, we describe the evolutionary conserved genes that are involved in lifespan regulation of model organisms and humans, and explore the reasons of discrepancies that exist between the results found in the various species. In general, the accumulated data have revealed that when moving up the evolutionary ladder, together with an increase of genome complexity, the impact of candidate genes on lifespan becomes smaller. The presence of genetic networks makes it more likely to expect impact of variation in several interacting genes to affect lifespan in humans. Extrapolation of findings from experimental models to humans is further complicated as phenotypes are critically dependent on the setting in which genes are expressed, while laboratory conditions and modern environments are markedly dissimilar. Finally, currently used methodologies may have only little power and validity to reveal genetic variation in the population. In conclusion, although the study of model organisms has revealed potential candidate genetic mechanisms determining aging and lifespan, to what extent they explain variation in human populations is still uncertain.

  19. Genetics of human gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stranger, Barbara E; Raj, Towfique

    2013-12-01

    A steadily growing number of studies have identified and characterized expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) in human cell-lines, primary cells, and tissues. This class of variation has been shown to play a role in complex traits, including disease. Here, we discuss how eQTLs have the potential to accelerate discovery of disease genes and functional mechanisms underlying complex traits. We discuss how context-specificity of eQTLs is being characterized at an unprecedented scale and breadth, and how this both informs on the intricacy of human genome function, and has important ramifications for elucidating function of genetic variants of interest, particularly for those contributing to disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. DNA Repair in Human Pluripotent Stem Cells Is Distinct from That in Non-Pluripotent Human Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Li Z.; Park, Sang-Won; Bates, Steven E.; Zeng, Xianmin; Iverson, Linda E.; O'Connor, Timothy R.

    2012-01-01

    The potential for human disease treatment using human pluripotent stem cells, including embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), also carries the risk of added genomic instability. Genomic instability is most often linked to DNA repair deficiencies, which indicates that screening/characterization of possible repair deficiencies in pluripotent human stem cells should be a necessary step prior to their clinical and research use. In this study, a comparison of DNA repair pathways in pluripotent cells, as compared to those in non-pluripotent cells, demonstrated that DNA repair capacities of pluripotent cell lines were more heterogeneous than those of differentiated lines examined and were generally greater. Although pluripotent cells had high DNA repair capacities for nucleotide excision repair, we show that ultraviolet radiation at low fluxes induced an apoptotic response in these cells, while differentiated cells lacked response to this stimulus, and note that pluripotent cells had a similar apoptotic response to alkylating agent damage. This sensitivity of pluripotent cells to damage is notable since viable pluripotent cells exhibit less ultraviolet light-induced DNA damage than do differentiated cells that receive the same flux. In addition, the importance of screening pluripotent cells for DNA repair defects was highlighted by an iPSC line that demonstrated a normal spectral karyotype, but showed both microsatellite instability and reduced DNA repair capacities in three out of four DNA repair pathways examined. Together, these results demonstrate a need to evaluate DNA repair capacities in pluripotent cell lines, in order to characterize their genomic stability, prior to their pre-clinical and clinical use. PMID:22412831

  1. Granulocytes affect double-strand break repair assays in primary human lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacoste, Sandrine; Bhatia, Ravi; Bhatia, Smita; O'Connor, Timothy R

    2014-01-01

    Patients who develop therapy-related myelodysplasia/acute myeloid leukemia after autologous-hematopoietic stem cell (aHCT) transplant show lower expression levels of DNA repair genes in their pre-aHCT CD34+ cells. To investigate whether this leads to functional differences in DNA repair abilities measurable in patients, we adapted two plasmid-based host-cell reactivation assays for use in primary lymphocytes. Prior to applying these assays to patients who underwent aHCT, we wanted first to verify whether sample preparation affected repair measurements, as patient samples were simply depleted of erythrocytes (with hetastarch) prior to freezing, which is not the classical way to prepare lymphocytes prior to DNA repair experiments (with a density gradient). We show here that lymphocytes from healthy donors freshly prepared with hetastarch show systematically a higher level of double-strand break repair as compared to when prepared with a density gradient, but that most of this difference disappears after samples were frozen. Several observations points to granulocytes as the source for this effect of sample preparation on repair: 1) removal of granulocytes makes the effect disappear, 2) DSB repair measurements for the same individual correlate to the percentage of granulocytes in the sample and 3) nucleofection in presence of granulocytes increases the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in neighboring lymphocytes in a dose-dependent manner (R2 of 0.95). These results indicate that co-purified granulocytes, possibly through the release of ROS at time of transfection, can lead to an enhanced repair in lymphocytes that obfuscates any evaluation of inter individual differences in repair as measured by host-cell reactivation. As a result, hetastarch-prepared samples are likely unsuitable for the assessment of DSB repair in primary cells with that type of assay. Granulocyte contamination that exists after a density gradient preparation, although much more limited, could

  2. Genetic variations in DNA repair genes, radiosensitivity to cancer and susceptibility to acute tissue reactions in radiotherapy-treated cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chistiakov, Dimitry A. (Dept. of Pathology, Univ. of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh (US)); Voronova, Natalia V. (Dept. of Molecular Diagnostics, National Research Center GosNIIgenetika, Moscow (RU)); Chistiakov, Pavel A. (Dept. of Radiology, Cancer Research Center, Moscow (RU))

    2008-06-15

    Ionizing radiation is a well established carcinogen for human cells. At low doses, radiation exposure mainly results in generation of double strand breaks (DSBs). Radiation-related DSBs could be directly linked to the formation of chromosomal rearrangements as has been proven for radiation-induced thyroid tumors. Repair of DSBs presumably involves two main pathways, non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR). A number of known inherited syndromes, such as ataxia telangiectasia, ataxia-telangiectasia like-disorder, radiosensitive severe combined immunodeficiency, Nijmegen breakage syndrome, and LIG4 deficiency are associated with increased radiosensitivity and/or cancer risk. Many of them are caused by mutations in DNA repair genes. Recent studies also suggest that variations in the DNA repair capacity in the general population may influence cancer susceptibility. In this paper, we summarize the current status of DNA repair proteins as potential targets for radiation-induced cancer risk. We will focus on genetic alterations in genes involved in HR- and NHEJ-mediated repair of DSBs, which could influence predisposition to radiation-related cancer and thereby explain interindividual differences in radiosensitivity or radioresistance in a general population

  3. DNA repair gene ERCC2 polymorphisms and associations with breast and ovarian cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard-Gallon, Dominique; Bosviel, Rémy; Delort, Laetitia; Fontana, Luc; Chamoux, Alain; Rabiau, Nadège; Kwiatkowski, Fabrice; Chalabi, Nasséra; Satih, Samir; Bignon, Yves-Jean

    2008-05-02

    Breast and ovarian cancers increased in the last decades. Except rare cases with a genetic predisposition and high penetrance, these pathologies are viewed as a polygenic disease. In this concept, association studies look for genetic variations such as polymorphisms in low penetrance genes, i.e. genes in interaction with environmental factors. DNA repair systems that protect the genome from deleterious endogenous and exogenous damages have been shown to have significantly reduced. In particular, enzymes of the nucleotide excision repair pathway are suspected to be implicated in cancer. In this study, 2 functional polymorphisms in a DNA repair gene ERCC2 were analyzed. The population included 911 breast cancer cases, 51 ovarian cancer cases and 1000 controls. The genotyping of 2 SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) was carried out on the population with the MGB (Minor Groove Binder) probe technique which consists of the use of the allelic discrimination with the Taqman method. This study enabled us to show an increase in risk of breast cancer with no oral contraceptive users and with women exhibiting a waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) > 0.85 for Asn homozygous for ERCC2 312.

  4. DNA repair gene ERCC2 polymorphisms and associations with breast and ovarian cancer risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabiau Nadège

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Breast and ovarian cancers increased in the last decades. Except rare cases with a genetic predisposition and high penetrance, these pathologies are viewed as a polygenic disease. In this concept, association studies look for genetic variations such as polymorphisms in low penetrance genes, i.e. genes in interaction with environmental factors. DNA repair systems that protect the genome from deleterious endogenous and exogenous damages have been shown to have significantly reduced. In particular, enzymes of the nucleotide excision repair pathway are suspected to be implicated in cancer. In this study, 2 functional polymorphisms in a DNA repair gene ERCC2 were analyzed. The population included 911 breast cancer cases, 51 ovarian cancer cases and 1000 controls. The genotyping of 2 SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism was carried out on the population with the MGB (Minor Groove Binder probe technique which consists of the use of the allelic discrimination with the Taqman® method. This study enabled us to show an increase in risk of breast cancer with no oral contraceptive users and with women exhibiting a waist-to-hip ratio (WHR > 0.85 for Asn homozygous for ERCC2 312.

  5. The BER necessities: the repair of DNA damage in human-adapted bacterial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Veen, Stijn; Tang, Christoph M

    2015-02-01

    During colonization and disease, bacterial pathogens must survive the onslaught of the host immune system. A key component of the innate immune response is the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species by phagocytic cells, which target and disrupt pathogen molecules, particularly DNA, and the base excision repair (BER) pathway is the most important mechanism for the repair of such oxidative DNA damage. In this Review, we discuss how the human-specific pathogens Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Helicobacter pylori and Neisseria meningitidis have evolved specialized mechanisms of DNA repair, particularly their BER pathways, compared with model organisms such as Escherichia coli. This specialization in DNA repair is likely to reflect the distinct niches occupied by these important human pathogens in the host.

  6. DREMECELS: A Curated Database for Base Excision and Mismatch Repair Mechanisms Associated Human Malignancies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita Shukla

    Full Text Available DNA repair mechanisms act as a warrior combating various damaging processes that ensue critical malignancies. DREMECELS was designed considering the malignancies with frequent alterations in DNA repair pathways, that is, colorectal and endometrial cancers, associated with Lynch syndrome (also known as HNPCC. Since lynch syndrome carries high risk (~40-60% for both cancers, therefore we decided to cover all three diseases in this portal. Although a large population is presently affected by these malignancies, many resources are available for various cancer types but no database archives information on the genes specifically for only these cancers and disorders. The database contains 156 genes and two repair mechanisms, base excision repair (BER and mismatch repair (MMR. Other parameters include some of the regulatory processes that have roles in these disease progressions due to incompetent repair mechanisms, specifically BER and MMR. However, our unique database mainly provides qualitative and quantitative information on these cancer types along with methylation, drug sensitivity, miRNAs, copy number variation (CNV and somatic mutations data. This database would serve the scientific community by providing integrated information on these disease types, thus sustaining diagnostic and therapeutic processes. This repository would serve as an excellent accompaniment for researchers and biomedical professionals and facilitate in understanding such critical diseases. DREMECELS is publicly available at http://www.bioinfoindia.org/dremecels.

  7. Aptamer-guided gene targeting in yeast and human cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, Patrick; Koh, Kyung Duk; Keskin, Havva; Pai, Rekha B.; Storici, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Gene targeting is a genetic technique to modify an endogenous DNA sequence in its genomic location via homologous recombination (HR) and is useful both for functional analysis and gene therapy applications. HR is inefficient in most organisms and cell types, including mammalian cells, often limiting the effectiveness of gene targeting. Therefore, increasing HR efficiency remains a major challenge to DNA editing. Here, we present a new concept for gene correction based on the development of DNA aptamers capable of binding to a site-specific DNA binding protein to facilitate the exchange of homologous genetic information between a donor molecule and the desired target locus (aptamer-guided gene targeting). We selected DNA aptamers to the I-SceI endonuclease. Bifunctional oligonucleotides containing an I-SceI aptamer sequence were designed as part of a longer single-stranded DNA molecule that contained a region with homology to repair an I-SceI generated double-strand break and correct a disrupted gene. The I-SceI aptamer-containing oligonucleotides stimulated gene targeting up to 32-fold in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and up to 16-fold in human cells. This work provides a novel concept and research direction to increase gene targeting efficiency and lays the groundwork for future studies using aptamers for gene targeting. PMID:24500205

  8. Effect of exposure to 2.45 GHz microwave on DNA repair genes transcription in cultured cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrin, A.; Bachelet, C. [Molecular and Cellular Biophysics Unit of the Health Service Research Center for Defense (CRSSA), 38 - Grenoble (France); Fournier, C.; Peinnequin, A. [Radiobiology and Inflamation Unit of the Health Service Research Center for Defense (CRSSA), 38 - Grenoble (France); Leveque, P.; Collin, A. [Research Institut on Microwave and Optical Communications (IRCOM), CNRS UMR 6615, 87 - Limoges (France)

    2006-07-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate, in vitro, the effect of 2.45 GHz continuous (C.W.) and pulsed (P.W.) electromagnetic field exposure combined with a known mutagen on the induction of enzymes implicated in the DNA repair pathway. Microwaves do not create bonds breaks within molecules and there is no clear hypothesis for a possible mechanism supporting a biological action. Nevertheless, an indirect influence of microwaves during an intermediary step of the complex sequence of events involved in mutagenesis cannot yet be excluded. Highly sensitive real-time R.T.q.P.C.R. was used to monitor transcriptional variations of DNA repair genes. The experiments were carried out using the monocyte human cell line T.H.P.1 with the genotoxic compound 4- nitro-quinoline-N-oxide (4-N.Q.O.). The carrier frequency was 2.45 GHz C.W. and P.W. (1 khz repetition time, 10 % duty cycle) with the same power density corresponding to an average specific absorption rate (S.A.R.) value of 0.19 W/kg in the biological samples. Non exposed (sham) and exposed (P.W. and C.W.) cell culture plates were incubated simultaneously in three identical incubators in the presence of 4-N.Q.O., under shaking, at 37 Celsius degrees. Specially designed incubators were integrated in three identical anechoic chambers equipped with waveguide antennas. Care was taken to increase the reproducibility of the experiments and to avoid false positive or misinterpretation of the results. The presence or the absence of the electromagnetic field was the only difference between the sham and exposed assays. The different exposure conditions were applied alternatively in the three anechoic chambers in order to avoid cage effects. The temperature inside the cell plates was measured with an optic fiber probe (Luxtron). Numerical dosimetry was calculated using the Finite Difference Time Domain method. A time-scaled form of the heat transfer equation allowed to calculate the temperature distribution inside the petri dishes

  9. Incomplete complementation of the DNA repair defect in cockayne syndrome cells by the denV gene from bacteriophage T4 suggests a deficiency in base excision repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, M A; Bagga, P S; Athwal, R S; Rainbow, A J

    1997-10-01

    Endonuclease V (denV) from bacteriophage T4 has been examined for its ability to complement the repair defect in Cockayne syndrome (CS) cells of complementation groups A and B. CS is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by hypersensitivity to UV light and a defect in the preferential repair of UV-induced lesions in transcriptionally active DNA by the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway. The denV gene was introduced into non-transformed normal and CS fibroblasts transiently via a recombinant adenovirus (Ad) vector and into SV40-transformed normal and CS cells via a retroviral vector. Expression of denV in CS-A cells resulted in partial correction of the UV-sensitive phenotype in assays of gene-specific repair and cell viability, while correction of CS-B cells by expression of denV in the same assays was minimal or non-existent. In contrast, denV expression led to enhanced host cell reactivation (HCR) of viral DNA synthesis in both CS complementation groups to near normal levels. DenV is a glycosylase which is specific for cyclobutane-pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) but does not recognize other UV-induced lesions. Previous work has indicated that CS cells can efficiently repair all non-CPD UV-induced transcription blocking lesions (S.F. Barrett et al.. Mutation Res. 255 (1991) 281-291 [1]) and that denV incised lesions are believed to be processed via the base excision repair (BER) pathway. The inability of denV to complement the NER defect in CS cells to normal levels implies an impaired ability to process denV incised lesions by the BER pathway, and suggests a role for the CS genes, particularly the CS-B gene, in BER.

  10. A comparison of synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides, DNA fragments and AAV-1 for targeted episomal and chromosomal gene repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leclerc Xavier

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current strategies for gene therapy of inherited diseases consist in adding functional copies of the gene that is defective. An attractive alternative to these approaches would be to correct the endogenous mutated gene in the affected individual. This study presents a quantitative comparison of the repair efficiency using different forms of donor nucleic acids, including synthetic DNA oligonucleotides, double stranded DNA fragments with sizes ranging from 200 to 2200 bp and sequences carried by a recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV-1. Evaluation of each gene repair strategy was carried out using two different reporter systems, a mutated eGFP gene or a dual construct with a functional eGFP and an inactive luciferase gene, in several different cell systems. Gene targeting events were scored either following transient co-transfection of reporter plasmids and donor DNAs, or in a system where a reporter construct was stably integrated into the chromosome. Results In both episomal and chromosomal assays, DNA fragments were more efficient at gene repair than oligonucleotides or rAAV-1. Furthermore, the gene targeting frequency could be significantly increased by using DNA repair stimulating drugs such as doxorubicin and phleomycin. Conclusion Our results show that it is possible to obtain repair frequencies of 1% of the transfected cell population under optimized transfection protocols when cells were pretreated with phleomycin using rAAV-1 and dsDNA fragments.

  11. Global transcriptome profile reveals abundance of DNA damage response and repair genes in individuals from high level natural radiation areas of Kerala coast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Jain

    Full Text Available The high level natural radiation areas (HLNRA of Kerala coast in south west India is unique for its wide variation in the background radiation dose (15.0 mGy/year] to find out differentially expressed genes and their biological significance in response to chronic low dose radiation exposure. Our results revealed a dose dependent increase in the number of differentially expressed genes with respect to different background dose levels. Gene ontology analysis revealed majority of these differentially expressed genes are involved in DNA damage response (DDR signaling, DNA repair, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, histone/chromatin modification and immune response. In the present study, 64 background dose responsive genes have been identified as possible chronic low dose radiation signatures. Validation of 30 differentially expressed genes was carried out using fluorescent based universal probe library. Abundance of DDR and DNA repair genes along with pathways such as MAPK, p53 and JNK in higher background dose groups (> 5.0mGy/year indicated a possible threshold dose for DDR signaling and are plausible reason of observing in vivo radio-adaptive response and non-carcinogenesis in HLNRA population. To our knowledge, this is the first study on molecular effect of chronic low dose radiation exposure on human population from high background radiation areas at transcriptome level using high throughput approach. These findings have tremendous implications in understanding low dose radiation biology especially, the effect of low dose radiation exposure in humans.

  12. The ING tumor suppressor genes: status in human tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérillon, Claire; Bigot, Nicolas; Pedeux, Rémy

    2014-04-01

    ING genes (ING1-5) were identified has tumor suppressor genes. ING proteins are characterized as Type II TSGs since they are involved in the control of cell proliferation, apoptosis and senescence. They may also function as Type I TSGs since they are also involved in DNA replication and repair. Most studies have reported that they are frequently lost in human tumors and epigenetic mechanisms or misregulation of their transcription may be involved. Recently, studies have described that this loss may be caused by microRNA inhibition. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on ING functions, their involvement in tumor suppression and, in order to give a full assessment of the current knowledge, we review all the studies that have examined ING status in human cancers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Methylation profile analysis of DNA repair genes in hepatocellular carcinoma with MS-MLPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Ozge; Bilezikci, Banu; Aktas, Sema; Sahin, Feride I

    2013-12-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the rare tumors with well-defined risk factors. The multifactorial etiology of HCC can be explained by its complex molecular pathogenesis. In the current study, the methylation status of 7 genes involved in DNA repair mechanisms, namely MLH1, PMS2, MSH6, MSH2, MGMT, MSH3, and MLH3, was investigated in tumor samples from HCC patients, using the methylation-specific-multiplex ligated probe amplification method and the results were correlated with available clinical findings. The most common etiological factor in these cases was the presence of hepatitis B alone (47.2%). Among the 56 cases that were studied, promoter methylation was detected in at least one of the genes in 27 (48.2%) cases, only in 1 gene in 13 (23.2%) cases, and in >1 gene in 14 (25%) cases. Of the 7 genes investigated, methylation was most frequently observed in MSH3, in 14 (25%) cases. Methylation of at least 1 gene was significantly more frequent in patients with single tumors than multifocal tumors. There were significant differences regarding hepatitis B status, Child Class, tumor number, grade, and TNM stage in cases where PMS2 methylation was detected. Our results suggest that methylation of genes involved in mismatch repair may be responsible in the pathogenesis of HCC, and evaluating changes in multiple genes in these pathways simultaneously would be more informative. Despite being a robust and relatively inexpensive method, the methylation-specific-multiplex ligated probe amplification assay could be more extensively applied with improvements in the currently intricate data analysis component.

  14. DISTRIBUTION OF DNA DAMAGE REPAIR GENE POLYMORPHISM hOGG1, XRCC1 and p53 AMONG SICKLE CELL DISEASE PATIENTS IN INDIA

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    Sudhansu Sekhar Nishank

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background– Defect in DNA damage repair genes due to oxidative stress predispose the humans to malignancies. There are many cases of association of malignancies with sickle cell disease patients (SCD throughout the world, the molecular cause of which has never been investigated. DNA damage repair genes such as  hOGG1, XRCC1 and p53 play significant role in repair of DNA damage during oxidative stress but the distribution and clinical effect of these genes are not known till date in SCD patients who are associated with oxidative stress related clinical complications.         Objective – The aim of the study was to characterize the distribution and clinical effect of DNA damage gene polymorphisms p53 (codon 72 Arg> Pro, hOGG1 (codon 326 Ser>Cyst and XRCC1 (codons 194 Arg>Trp, codon 280 Arg> His, codon 399 Arg> Gln among SCD patients of  central India.  Methods- A case control study of  250 SCD patients and 250 normal individuals were investigated by PCR-RFLP techniques.      Result- The prevalence of mutant alleles of hOGG1 gene, XRCC1 codon 280 Arg>His  were found to be significantly high among SCD patients as compared to controls. However, SCD patients did not show clinical association with any of these DNA repair gene polymorphisms.   Conclusion- This indicates that hOGG1, p53  and XRCC1 gene polymorphisms  may not have any clinical impact among SCD patients in India.

  15. Mechanisms of skeletal muscle injury and repair revealed by gene expression studies in mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Gordon L; Summan, Mukesh; Gao, Xin; Chapman, Rebecca; Hulderman, Tracy; Simeonova, Petia P

    2007-07-15

    Common acute injuries to skeletal muscle can lead to significant pain and disability. The current therapeutic approaches for treating muscle injuries are dependent on the clinical severity but not on the type of injury. In the present studies, the pathophysiology and molecular pathways associated with two different types of skeletal muscle injury, one induced by direct destruction of muscle tissue (i.e. FI) and the other induced by a contractile overload (more specifically high-force eccentric contractions, i.e. CI) were compared side by side. Histopathological evaluation and measurements of muscle strength were accompanied by analyses of expression for 12 488 known genes at four time points ranging from 6 h to 7 days after injury. Real-time RT-PCR was used to confirm some of the injury type differences in the temporal profiles of gene expression. Our data revealed several pools of genes, including early induction of transcription, myogenic and stress-responsive factors, common for both types of injury as well as pools of genes expressed specifically with one of the injury types. Only CI activated a set of genes associated with the repair of impaired proteins and structures including genes related to apoptosis, whereas FI uniquely activated gene sets involved in extensive inflammatory responses, tissue remodelling, angiogenesis and myofibre/extracellular matrix synthesis. In conclusion, knowledge of the sets of genes associated specifically with the nature of the injury may have application for development of new strategies for acceleration of the recovery process in injured skeletal muscle.

  16. EZH2 suppresses the nucleotide excision repair in nasopharyngeal carcinoma by silencing XPA gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuxiang; Wang, Xuanyi; Niu, Xiaoshuang; Wang, Xiaoshen; Jiang, Rui; Xu, Tingting; Liu, Yong; Liang, Liping; Ou, Xiaomin; Xing, Xing; Li, Weiwei; Hu, Chaosu

    2017-02-01

    The enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) is involved in a number of fundamental pathological processes of cancer. However, its role in DNA repair pathway is still unclear. Here, we have identified XPA as a novel target gene of EZH2 via a DNA repair pathway PCR array. XPA plays a pivot role in nucleotide excision repair (NER). The expression of XPA was significantly increased by EZH2 specific inhibitor GSK126 or lentiviral shEZH2 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) CNE and 8F cell lines. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that EZH2 catalyzes H3K27 trimethylation at the XPA promoters. Furthermore, we validated the negative correlation of EZH2 and XPA in a NPC tissue microarray by immunohistochemistry staining. We also found that high expression of EZH2 was positively correlated with advanced T, N, and AJCC stage of NPC; and low expression of XPA was positively correlated with advanced T and N stage. In NPC cell lines, increased XPA expression by EZH2 inhibition resulted in a more rapid removal of UVC induced 6-4PP- and CPD-DNA adducts, as well as enhanced efficiency of DNA repair after UVC irradiation as detected by the Comet assay and immunofluorescence staining of γH2Ax. Consistently, increased cell clonogenic survival, decreased apoptosis, and necrosis after UVC irradiation, and increased resistance to DNA damaging agent cisplatin was also observed in EZH2 inhibited cells. These results illustrate that EZH2 may promote carcinogenesis and cancer development of NPC by transcriptional repression of XPA gene and inactivation of NER pathway. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Genetics of human longevity with emphasis on the relevance of HSP70 as candidate genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Ripudaman; Kølvrå, Steen; Rattan, Suresh I S

    2007-01-01

    of an appropriate study design and methodology. Since aging is characterized by a progressive accumulation of molecular damage and an attenuation of the cellular defense mechanisms, the focus of studies on human longevity association with genes has now shifted to the pathways of cellular maintenance and repair...

  18. Structure-function analysis of human enzymes initiating nucleobase repair in DNA and RNA

    OpenAIRE

    Sundheim, Ottar

    2008-01-01

    In humans, there are four known glycosylases that initiate repair of uracils in DNA. These are UNG, TDG, SMUG1, and MBD4. It was proposed that the replication independent SMUG1 was the main enzyme initiating removal of deaminated cytosine, whereas UNG2 was responsible for replication associated repair of mis-incorporated dUTP (Nilsen et al., 2001). We aimed at elucidating the specific function of the two main human uracil-DNA glycosylases in vitro and in vivo to further clarify their distinct...

  19. Expression of DNA repair genes in burned skin exposed to low-level red laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trajano, Eduardo Tavares Lima; Mencalha, Andre Luiz; Monte-Alto-Costa, Andréa; Pôrto, Luís Cristóvão; de Souza da Fonseca, Adenilson

    2014-11-01

    Although red laser lights lie in the region of non-ionizing radiations in the electromagnetic spectrum, there are doubts whether absorption of these radiations causes lesions in the DNA molecule. Our aim was to investigate the expression of the genes involved with base excision and nucleotide excision repair pathways in skin tissue submitted to burn injury and exposed to low-level red laser. Wistar rats were divided as follows: control group-rats burned and not irradiated, laser group-rats burned and irradiated 1 day after injury for five consecutive days, and later laser group-rats injured and treated 4 days after injury for five consecutive days. Irradiation was performed according to a clinical protocol (20 J/cm(2), 100 mW, continuous wave emission mode). The animals were sacrificed on day 10, and scarred tissue samples were withdrawn for total RNA extraction, complementary DNA (cDNA) synthesis, and evaluation of gene expression by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Low-level red laser exposure (1) reduces the expression of APE1 messenger (mRNA), (2) increases the expression of OGG1 mRNA, (3) reduces the expression of XPC mRNA, and (4) increases the expression of XPA mRNA both in laser and later laser groups. Red laser exposure at therapeutic fluences alters the expression of genes related to base excision and nucleotide excision pathways of DNA repair during wound healing of burned skin.

  20. The democratization of gene editing: Insights from site-specific cleavage and double-strand break repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasin, Maria; Haber, James E

    2016-08-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are dangerous lesions that if not properly repaired can lead to genomic change or cell death. Organisms have developed several pathways and have many factors devoted to repairing DSBs, which broadly occurs by homologous recombination, which relies on an identical or homologous sequence to template repair, or nonhomologous end-joining. Much of our understanding of these repair mechanisms has come from the study of induced DNA cleavage by site-specific endonucleases. In addition to their biological role, these cellular pathways can be co-opted for gene editing to study gene function or for gene therapy or other applications. While the first gene editing experiments were done more than 20 years ago, the recent discovery of RNA-guided endonucleases has simplified approaches developed over the years to make gene editing an approach that is available to the entire biomedical research community. Here, we review DSB repair mechanisms and site-specific cleavage systems that have provided insight into these mechanisms and led to the current gene editing revolution. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. The Democratization of Gene Editing: Insights from site-specific cleavage and double-strand break repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasin, Maria; Haber, James E.

    2017-01-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are dangerous lesions that if not properly repaired can lead to genomic change or cell death. Organisms have developed several pathways and have many factors devoted to repairing DSBs, which broadly occur by homologous recombination that relies on an identical or homologous sequence to template repair, or nonhomologous end-joining. Much of our understanding of these repair mechanisms has come from the study of induced DNA cleavage by site-specific endonucleases. In addition to their biological role, these cellular pathways can be co-opted for gene editing to study gene function or for gene therapy or other applications. While the first gene editing experiments were done more than 20 years ago, the recent discovery of RNA-guided endonucleases has simplified approaches developed over the years to make gene editing an approach that is available to the entire biomedical research community. Here, we review DSB repair mechanisms and site-specific cleavage systems that have provided insight into these mechanisms and led to the current gene editing revolution. PMID:27261202

  2. Human DNA Glycosylase NEIL1’s Interactions with Downstream Repair Proteins Is Critical for Efficient Repair of Oxidized DNA Base Damage and Enhanced Cell Survival

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    Istvan Boldogh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available NEIL1 is unique among the oxidatively damaged base repair-initiating DNA glycosylases in the human genome due to its S phase-specific activation and ability to excise substrate base lesions from single-stranded DNA. We recently characterized NEIL1’s specific binding to downstream canonical repair and non-canonical accessory proteins, all of which involve NEIL1’s disordered C-terminal segment as the common interaction domain (CID. This domain is dispensable for NEIL1’s base excision and abasic (AP lyase activities, but is required for its interactions with other repair proteins. Here, we show that truncated NEIL1 lacking the CID is markedly deficient in initiating in vitro repair of 5-hydroxyuracil (an oxidative deamination product of C in a plasmid substrate compared to the wild-type NEIL1, thus suggesting a critical role of CID in the coordination of overall repair. Furthermore, while NEIL1 downregulation significantly sensitized human embryonic kidney (HEK 293 cells to reactive oxygen species (ROS, ectopic wild-type NEIL1, but not the truncated mutant, restored resistance to ROS. These results demonstrate that cell survival and NEIL1-dependent repair of oxidative DNA base damage require interactions among repair proteins, which could be explored as a cancer therapeutic target in order to increase the efficiency of chemo/radiation treatment.

  3. Nucleotide Excision Repair in Cellular Chromatin: Studies with Yeast from Nucleotide to Gene to Genome

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    Simon Reed

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Here we review our development of, and results with, high resolution studies on global genome nucleotide excision repair (GGNER in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have focused on how GGNER relates to histone acetylation for its functioning and we have identified the histone acetyl tranferase Gcn5 and acetylation at lysines 9/14 of histone H3 as a major factor in enabling efficient repair. We consider results employing primarily MFA2 as a model gene, but also those with URA3 located at subtelomeric sequences. In the latter case we also see a role for acetylation at histone H4. We then go on to outline the development of a high resolution genome-wide approach that enables one to examine correlations between histone modifications and the nucleotide excision repair (NER of UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers throughout entire genomes. This is an approach that will enable rapid advances in understanding the complexities of how compacted chromatin in chromosomes is processed to access DNA damage and then returned to its pre-damaged status to maintain epigenetic codes.

  4. Effect of acellular human dermis buttress on laparoscopic hiatal hernia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Kyle C; Costello, Kevin P; Baalman, Sara; Pierce, Richard A; Deeken, Corey R; Frisella, Margaret M; Michael Brunt, L; Matthews, Brent D

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of acellular human dermis reinforcement during laparoscopic hiatal hernia repair. A prospective non-randomized, single institution study enrolled patients undergoing laparoscopic hiatal hernia repair. Acellular human dermis, FlexHD (Musculoskeletal Transplant Foundation, Edison, NJ) or AlloDerm (LifeCell Inc., Branchburg, NJ) were used to buttress the repair after primary closure. A protocol barium swallow (BAS) was performed at 6 months and then as needed due to clinical indications. Primary outcome measure was recurrence. Patients completed preoperative and postoperative GERD symptom questionnaires and quality of life surveys (SF-36). Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA, Student's t test, Fisher's exact test, or Wilcoxon signed-rank test were utilized as appropriate (p hiatal hernia repair using Flex HD (n = 37) or AlloDerm (n = 17). Both groups were similar with respect to gender, age, hiatus size, hernia type [sliding/Type I (n = 14) or paraesophageal/Type III/IV (n = 40)], esophageal motor function (manometry), preoperative SF-36 quality of life surveys, and GERD symptom questionnaires. Forty-seven patients (87 %) completed the BAS at 6 months; each group had two recurrences (p = 0.597). At median follow-up of 33 months, there were 3 recurrences (18 %) in the AlloDerm group and 5 recurrences (14 %) in the Flex HD group (p = 0.365). Minimal differences in GERD symptoms or SF-36 scores were detected between groups. However, anti-reflux medication usage, GERD symptoms, and quality of life significantly improved for both groups after laparoscopic hiatal hernia repair. Laparoscopic hiatal hernia repair with acellular human dermis reinforcement results in improvement of GERD-related symptoms and quality of life without mesh-associated complications. The type of acellular human dermis did not influence recurrence rate.

  5. Human DNA repair disorders in dermatology: A historical perspective, current concepts and new insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriwaki, Shinichi

    2016-02-01

    Products of DNA damage, such as cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and pyrimidine (6-4) pyrimidone photoproducts (6-4 PPs), are continually formed in genomes after exposure to UV radiation. When these DNA damages remain unrepaired in essential DNA sites for prolonged periods, DNA replication and transcription are hampered or mutation is induced, which may cause cell death, cellular senescence, and carcinogenesis of the skin. To protect against such UV-induced DNA damage, living organisms nicely retain "DNA repair systems", which can efficiently repair "harmful" DNA damage through precise mechanisms by the integrated functions of many proteins. In humans, the failure of DNA repair systems causes a variety of disorders. Dermatological conditions such as hereditary photodermatoses, xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) and Cockayne syndrome (CS) are caused by congenital functional defects in the nucleotide excision repair (NER) system or the translesion synthesis (TLS) system. In this review, we describe the historical progress, recent findings, and future prospects of studies of human diseases associated with DNA-repair defects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Insertional Mutagenesis by CRISPR/Cas9 Ribonucleoprotein Gene Editing in Cells Targeted for Point Mutation Repair Directed by Short Single-Stranded DNA Oligonucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Torres, Natalia; Banas, Kelly; Bialk, Pawel; Bloh, Kevin M; Kmiec, Eric B

    2017-01-01

    CRISPR/Cas9 and single-stranded DNA oligonucleotides (ssODNs) have been used to direct the repair of a single base mutation in human genes. Here, we examine a method designed to increase the precision of RNA guided genome editing in human cells by utilizing a CRISPR/Cas9 ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex to initiate DNA cleavage. The RNP is assembled in vitro and induces a double stranded break at a specific site surrounding the mutant base designated for correction by the ssODN. We use an integrated mutant eGFP gene, bearing a single base change rendering the expressed protein nonfunctional, as a single copy target in HCT 116 cells. We observe significant gene correction activity of the mutant base, promoted by the RNP and single-stranded DNA oligonucleotide with validation through genotypic and phenotypic readout. We demonstrate that all individual components must be present to obtain successful gene editing. Importantly, we examine the genotype of individually sorted corrected and uncorrected clonally expanded cell populations for the mutagenic footprint left by the action of these gene editing tools. While the DNA sequence of the corrected population is exact with no adjacent sequence modification, the uncorrected population exhibits heterogeneous mutagenicity with a wide variety of deletions and insertions surrounding the target site. We designate this type of DNA aberration as on-site mutagenicity. Analyses of two clonal populations bearing specific DNA insertions surrounding the target site, indicate that point mutation repair has occurred at the level of the gene. The phenotype, however, is not rescued because a section of the single-stranded oligonucleotide has been inserted altering the reading frame and generating truncated proteins. These data illustrate the importance of analysing mutagenicity in uncorrected cells. Our results also form the basis of a simple model for point mutation repair directed by a short single-stranded DNA oligonucleotides and

  7. DNA repair gene expression level in peripheral blood and tumour tissue from non-small cell lung cancer and head and neck squamous cell cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schena, Marina; Guarrera, Simonetta; Buffoni, Lucio; Salvadori, Angelica; Voglino, Floriana; Allione, Alessandra; Pecorari, Giancarlo; Ruffini, Enrico; Garzino-Demo, Paolo; Bustreo, Sara; Consito, Lorena; Bironzo, Paolo; Matullo, Giuseppe

    2012-04-01

    The nucleotide excision repair pathway is crucial for cellular DNA integrity and the ERCC1 helicase is also potentially involved in resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy, and high levels of ERCC1 mRNA in tumours have been associated with cisplatin resistance in different human cancers. The aim of this work was to investigate the correlation between DNA repair gene expression levels in tumour tissue, normal tissue and peripheral blood samples from patients with two common human cancers, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC), to test if blood gene expression could be a proxy for tumour tissue gene expression to predict response to platinum-based chemotherapy. Using RT-qPCR we determined ERCC1, ERCC2, ERCC4, XPA, XPC, XRCC1, XRCC3, APEX, OGG1, MGMT mRNA levels in fresh NSCLC, normal lung and HNSCC tissue, as well as blood, from NSCLC and HNSCC patients who were treated surgically. Target gene expression in NSCLC and HNSCC tissue was higher than in blood. A statistically significant correlation (pAPEX, ERCC1, ERCC2, ERCC4, XRCC1 and XRCC3 in HNSCC. The existence of a significant correlation between blood and tumour tissue expression of some genes of clinical interest, such as ERCC1 in NSCLC and HNSCC, could allow the introduction in clinical practice of a simple test that would measure mRNA levels of DNA repair genes in peripheral blood samples instead of tissue samples to determine prognostic and predictive factors in NSCLC and HNSCC patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Nuclear localization of human DNA mismatch repair protein exonuclease 1 (hEXO1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Nina Østergaard; Nielsen, Finn Cilius; Vinther, Lena

    2007-01-01

    Human exonuclease 1 (hEXO1) is implicated in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) and mutations in hEXO1 may be associated with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). Since the subcellular localization of MMR proteins is essential for proper MMR function, we characterized possible nuclear locali...

  9. Angiogenic Mechanisms of Human CD34+ Stem Cell Exosomes in the Repair of Ischemic Hindlimb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiyalagan, Prabhu; Liang, Yaxuan; Kim, David; Misener, Sol; Thorne, Tina; Kamide, Christine E; Klyachko, Ekaterina; Losordo, Douglas W; Hajjar, Roger J; Sahoo, Susmita

    2017-04-28

    Paracrine secretions seem to mediate therapeutic effects of human CD34+ stem cells locally transplanted in patients with myocardial and critical limb ischemia and in animal models. Earlier, we had discovered that paracrine secretion from human CD34+ cells contains proangiogenic, membrane-bound nanovesicles called exosomes (CD34Exo). Here, we investigated the mechanisms of CD34Exo-mediated ischemic tissue repair and therapeutic angiogenesis by studying their miRNA content and uptake. When injected into mouse ischemic hindlimb tissue, CD34Exo, but not the CD34Exo-depleted conditioned media, mimicked the beneficial activity of their parent cells by improving ischemic limb perfusion, capillary density, motor function, and their amputation. CD34Exo were found to be enriched with proangiogenic miRNAs such as miR-126-3p. Knocking down miR-126-3p from CD34Exo abolished their angiogenic activity and beneficial function both in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, injection of CD34Exo increased miR-126-3p levels in mouse ischemic limb but did not affect the endogenous synthesis of miR-126-3p, suggesting a direct transfer of stable and functional exosomal miR-126-3p. miR-126-3p enhanced angiogenesis by suppressing the expression of its known target, SPRED1, simultaneously modulating the expression of genes involved in angiogenic pathways such as VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor), ANG1 (angiopoietin 1), ANG2 (angiopoietin 2), MMP9 (matrix metallopeptidase 9), TSP1 (thrombospondin 1), etc. Interestingly, CD34Exo, when treated to ischemic hindlimbs, were most efficiently internalized by endothelial cells relative to smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts, demonstrating a direct role of stem cell-derived exosomes on mouse endothelium at the cellular level. Collectively, our results have demonstrated a novel mechanism by which cell-free CD34Exo mediates ischemic tissue repair via beneficial angiogenesis. Exosome-shuttled proangiogenic miRNAs may signify amplification of stem

  10. Haplotype analyses of DNA repair gene polymorphisms and their role in ulcerative colitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash Bardia

    Full Text Available Ulcerative colitis (UC is a major clinical form of inflammatory bowel disease. UC is characterized by mucosal inflammation limited to the colon, always involving the rectum and a variable extent of the more proximal colon in a continuous manner. Genetic variations in DNA repair genes may influence the extent of repair functions, DNA damage, and thus the manifestations of UC. This study thus evaluated the role of polymorphisms of the genes involved in DNA repair mechanisms. A total of 171 patients and 213 controls were included. Genotyping was carried out by ARMS PCR and PCR-RFLP analyses for RAD51, XRCC3 and hMSH2 gene polymorphisms. Allelic and genotypic frequencies were computed in both control & patient groups and data was analyzed using appropriate statistical tests. The frequency of 'A' allele of hMSH2 in the UC group caused statistically significant increased risk for UC compared to controls (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.16-2.31, p = 0.004. Similarly, the CT genotype of XRCC3 gene was predominant in the UC group and increased the risk for UC by 1.75 fold compared to controls (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.15-2.67, p = 0.03, further confirming the risk of 'T' allele in UC. The GC genotype frequency of RAD51 gene was significantly increased (p = 0.02 in the UC group (50.3% compared to controls (38%. The GC genotype significantly increased the risk for UC compared to GG genotype by 1.73 fold (OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.14-2.62, p = 0.02 confirming the strong association of 'C' allele with UC. Among the controls, the SNP loci combination of hMSH2:XRCC3 were in perfect linkage. The GTC and ACC haplotypes were found to be predominant in UC than controls with a 2.28 and 2.93 fold significant increase risk of UC.

  11. Role of APC and DNA mismatch repair genes in the development of colorectal cancers

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    Roy Deodutta

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Colorectal cancer is the third most common cause of cancer-related death in both men and women in the western hemisphere. According to the American Cancer Society, an estimated 105,500 new cases of colon cancer with 57,100 deaths will occur in the U.S. in 2003, accounting for about 10% of cancer deaths. Among the colon cancer patients, hereditary risk contributes approximately 20%. The main inherited colorectal cancers are the familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP and the hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancers (HNPCC. The FAP and HNPCC are caused due to mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC and DNA mismatch repair (MMR genes. The focus of this review is to summarize the functions of APC and MMR gene products in the development of colorectal cancers.

  12. Interactions involving the human RNA polymerase II transcription/nucleotide excision repair complex TFIIH, the nucleotide excision repair protein XPG, and Cockayne syndrome group B (CSB) protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, N; Reagan, M S; Wu, K J; Canagarajah, B; Friedberg, E C

    1996-02-20

    The human basal transcription factor TFIIH plays a central role in two distinct processes. TFIIH is an obligatory component of the RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) transcription initiation complex. Additionally, it is believed to be the core structure around which some if not all the components of the nucleotide excision repair (NER) machinery assemble to constitute a nucleotide excision repairosome. At least two of the subunits of TFIIH (XPB and XPD proteins) are implicated in the disease xeroderma pigmentosum (XP). We have exploited the availability of the cloned XPB, XPD, p62, p44, and p34 genes (all of which encode polypeptide subunits of TFIIH) to examine interactions between in vitro-translated polypeptides by co-immunoprecipitation. Additionally we have examined interactions between TFIIH components, the human NER protein XPG, and the CSB protein which is implicated in Cockayne syndrome (CS). Our analyses demonstrate that the XPB, XPD, p44, and p62 proteins interact with each other. XPG protein interacts with multiple subunits of TFIIH and with CSB protein.

  13. BRD4 Promotes DNA Repair and Mediates the Formation of TMPRSS2-ERG Gene Rearrangements in Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyi Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BRD4 belongs to the bromodomain and extraterminal (BET family of chromatin reader proteins that bind acetylated histones and regulate gene expression. Pharmacological inhibition of BRD4 by BET inhibitors (BETi has indicated antitumor activity against multiple cancer types. We show that BRD4 is essential for the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs and mediates the formation of oncogenic gene rearrangements by engaging the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ pathway. Mechanistically, genome-wide DNA breaks are associated with enhanced acetylation of histone H4, leading to BRD4 recruitment, and stable establishment of the DNA repair complex. In support of this, we also show that, in clinical tumor samples, BRD4 protein levels are negatively associated with outcome after prostate cancer (PCa radiation therapy. Thus, in addition to regulating gene expression, BRD4 is also a central player in the repair of DNA DSBs, with significant implications for cancer therapy.

  14. Human versus non-cross-linked porcine acellular dermal matrix used for ventral hernia repair: comparison of in vivo fibrovascular remodeling and mechanical repair strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Kristin Turza; Burns, Nadja K; Rios, Carmen N; Mathur, Anshu B; Butler, Charles E

    2011-06-01

    Human acellular dermal matrix (HADM) and non-cross-linked porcine acellular dermal matrix (ncl-PADM) are clinically useful for complex ventral hernia repair. Direct comparisons between the two in vivo are lacking, however. This study compared clinically relevant early outcomes with these bioprosthetic materials when used for ventral hernia repair. Seventy-two guinea pigs underwent inlay repair of surgically created hernias with HADM (n = 37) or ncl-PADM (n = 35). Repair sites were harvested at 1, 2, or 4 weeks postoperatively. Adhesions were graded and quantified. Mechanical testing and histologic and immunohistologic (factor VIII) analyses of cellular and vascular infiltration were performed. No infections or recurrent hernias occurred. No difference was observed in mean adhesion surface area or tenacity between groups. Mean cellular infiltration (p hernia and/or bulge incidence.

  15. Toll pathway is required for wound-induced expression of barrier repair genes in the Drosophila epidermis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capilla, Amalia; Karachentsev, Dmitry; Patterson, Rachel A.; Hermann, Anita; Juarez, Michelle T.; McGinnis, William

    2017-01-01

    The epidermis serves as a protective barrier in animals. After epidermal injury, barrier repair requires activation of many wound response genes in epidermal cells surrounding wound sites. Two such genes in Drosophila encode the enzymes dopa decarboxylase (Ddc) and tyrosine hydroxylase (ple). In this paper we explore the involvement of the Toll/NF-κB pathway in the localized activation of wound repair genes around epidermal breaks. Robust activation of wound-induced transcription from ple and Ddc requires Toll pathway components ranging from the extracellular ligand Spätzle to the Dif transcription factor. Epistasis experiments indicate a requirement for Spätzle ligand downstream of hydrogen peroxide and protease function, both of which are known activators of wound-induced transcription. The localized activation of Toll a few cell diameters from wound edges is reminiscent of local activation of Toll in early embryonic ventral hypoderm, consistent with the hypothesis that the dorsal–ventral patterning function of Toll arose from the evolutionary cooption of a morphogen-responsive function in wound repair. Furthermore, the combinatorial activity of Toll and other signaling pathways in activating epidermal barrier repair genes can help explain why developmental activation of the Toll, ERK, or JNK pathways alone fail to activate wound repair loci. PMID:28289197

  16. Cystic fibrosis gene repair: correction of ΔF508 using ZFN and CRISPR/Cas9 guide RNA gene editing tools

    OpenAIRE

    Hollywood, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive monogenic disorder caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene with the ΔF508 mutation accounting for approximately 70% of all CF cases worldwide. This thesis investigates whether existing zinc finger nucleases designed in this lab and CRISPR/gRNAs designed in this thesis can mediate efficient homology-directed repair (HDR) with appropriate donor repair plasmids to correct CF-causing mutations in a C...

  17. DNA excision repair and double-strand break repair gene polymorphisms and the level of chromosome aberration in children with long-term exposure to radon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larionov, Aleksey V; Sinitsky, Maxim Y; Druzhinin, Vladimir G; Volobaev, Valentin P; Minina, Varvara I; Asanov, Maxim A; Meyer, Alina V; Tolochko, Tatiana A; Kalyuzhnaya, Ekaterina E

    2016-08-01

    To study polymorphic variants of repair genes in people affected by long-term exposure to radon. The chromosome aberration frequency in peripheral blood lymphocytes was used as the biological marker of genotoxicity. Genotyping of 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms in DNA repair genes (APE, XRCC1, OGG1, ADPRT, XpC, XpD, XpG, Lig4 and NBS1) was performed in children with long-term resident exposure to radon. Quantification of the aberrations was performed using light microscopy. The total frequency of aberrations was increased in carriers of the G/G genotype for the XpD gene (rs13181) polymorphism in recessive model confirmed by the results of ROC-analysis ('satisfactory predictor', AUC = 0.609). Single chromosome fragments frequency was increased in carriers of the G/G genotype in comparison with the T/T genotype. In respect to the total frequency of aberrations, the G/G genotype for the XpG gene (rs17655) polymorphism was also identified as a 'satisfactory predictor' (AUC = 0.605). Carriers of the T/C genotype for the ADPRT gene (rs1136410) polymorphism were characterized by an increased level of single fragments relative to the T/T genotype. The relationships with several types of cytogenetic damage suggest these three SNP (rs13181, rs17655 and rs1136410) may be considered radiosensitivity markers.

  18. Cockayne Syndrome exhibits dysregulation of p21 and other gene products that may be independent of transcription coupled repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleaver, J.E.; Hefner, E.; Laposa, R.R.; Karentz, D.

    2007-01-01

    Cockayne syndrome (CS) is a progressive childhood neurodegenerative disorder associated with a DNA repair defect caused by mutations in either of two genes, CSA and CSB. These genes are involved in nucleotide excision repair (NER) of DNA damage from ultraviolet (UV) light, other bulky chemical adducts and reactive oxygen in transcriptionally active genes (transcription coupled repair, TCR). For a long period it has been assumed that the symptoms of CS patients are all due to reduced TCR of endogenous DNA damage in the brain, together with unexplained unique sensitivity of specific neural cells in the cerebellum. Not all the symptoms of CS patients are however easily related to repair deficiencies, so we hypothesize that there are additional pathways relevant to the disease, particularly those that are downstream consequences of a common defect in the E3 ubiquitin ligase associated with the CSA and CSB gene products. We have found that the CSB defect results in altered expression of anti-angiogenic and cell cycle genes and proteins at the level of both gene expression and protein lifetime. We find an over-abundance of p21 due to reduced protein turnover, possibly due to the loss of activity of the CSA/CSB E3 ubiquitylation pathway. Increased levels of p21 can result in growth inhibition, reduced repair from the p21-PCNA interaction, and increased generation of reactive oxygen. Consistent with increased reactive ozygen levels we find that CS-A and -B cells grown under ambient oxygen show increased DNA breakage, as compared to xeroderma pigmentosum cells. Thus the complex symptoms of CS may be due to multiple, independent downstream targets of the E3 ubiquitylation system that results in increased DNA damage, reduced transcription coupled repair, and inhibition of cell cycle progression and growth. PMID:17055654

  19. Horizontal gene transfer regulation in bacteria as a "spandrel" of DNA repair mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saliou Fall

    Full Text Available Horizontal gene transfer (HGT is recognized as the major force for bacterial genome evolution. Yet, numerous questions remain about the transferred genes, their function, quantity and frequency. The extent to which genetic transformation by exogenous DNA has occurred over evolutionary time was initially addressed by an in silico approach using the complete genome sequence of the Ralstonia solanacearum GMI1000 strain. Methods based on phylogenetic reconstruction of prokaryote homologous genes families detected 151 genes (13.3% of foreign origin in the R. solanacearum genome and tentatively identified their bacterial origin. These putative transfers were analyzed in comparison to experimental transformation tests involving 18 different genomic DNA positions in the genome as sites for homologous or homeologous recombination. Significant transformation frequency differences were observed among these positions tested regardless of the overall genomic divergence of the R. solanacearum strains tested as recipients. The genomic positions containing the putative exogenous DNA were not systematically transformed at the highest frequencies. The two genomic "hot spots", which contain recA and mutS genes, exhibited transformation frequencies from 2 to more than 4 orders of magnitude higher than positions associated with other genes depending on the recipient strain. These results support the notion that the bacterial cell is equipped with active mechanisms to modulate acquisition of new DNA in different genomic positions. Bio-informatics study correlated recombination "hot-spots" to the presence of Chi-like signature sequences with which recombination might be preferentially initiated. The fundamental role of HGT is certainly not limited to the critical impact that the very rare foreign genes acquired mainly by chance can have on the bacterial adaptation potential. The frequency to which HGT with homologous and homeologous DNA happens in the environment

  20. Genetic polymorphisms in DNA base excision repair gene XRCC1 and the risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietruszewska Wioletta

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genes of base excision repair (BER pathway have been extensively studied in the association with various human cancers. We performed a case-control study to test the association between two common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of XRCC1 gene with human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC. Methods The genotype analysis of Arg194Trp and Arg399Gln gene polymorphisms for 92 HNSCC patients and 124 controls of cancer free subjects, in Polish population were performed using the PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP with endonuclease MspI. Results No altered risk has been found individually for these SNPs, however haplotypes analysis showed high association with head and neck cancer. The highest frequency, according to wild-type of Arg194Arg and Arg399Arg genotypes, was identified for Arg194Trp-Arg399Arg haplotype (OR, 2.96; 95% CI, 1.01–8.80. Conclusion Finally, we identified the combined Arg194Trp-Arg399Arg genotype of base excision repair gene XRCC1 that was associated with HNSCC and may have an impact on identification of a high-risk cancer population.

  1. Yeast DNA-repair gene RAD14 encodes a zinc metalloprotein with affinity for ultraviolet-damaged DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Guzder, S N; Sung, P; Prakash, L; Prakash, S

    1993-01-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) patients suffer from a high incidence of skin cancers due to a defect in excision repair of UV light-damaged DNA. Of the seven XP complementation groups, A-G, group A represents a severe and frequent form of the disease. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae RAD14 gene is a homolog of the XP-A correcting (XPAC) gene. Like XP-A cells, rad14-null mutants are defective in the incision step of excision repair of UV-damaged DNA. We have purified RAD14 protein to homogeneity from ...

  2. Human embryonic stem cell transplantation to repair the infarcted myocardium

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leor, Jonathan; Gerecht, Sharon; Cohen, Smadar; Miller, Liron; Holbova, Radka; Ziskind, Anna; Shachar, Michal; Feinberg, Micha S; Guetta, Esther; Itskovitz-Eldor, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) can be guided to form new myocardium by transplantation into the normal or infarcted heart, and to assess the influence of hESC-derived cardiomyocytes (hESCMs...

  3. Gene losses during human origins.

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoxia Wang; Grus, Wendy E; Jianzhi Zhang

    2006-01-01

    Pseudogenization is a widespread phenomenon in genome evolution, and it has been proposed to serve as an engine of evolutionary change, especially during human origins (the ?less-is-more? hypothesis). However, there has been no comprehensive analysis of human-specific pseudogenes. Furthermore, it is unclear whether pseudogenization itself can be selectively favored and thus play an active role in human evolution. Here we conduct a comparative genomic analysis and a literature survey to identi...

  4. Evidence of perturbations of cell cycle and DNA repair pathways as a consequence of human and murine NF1-haploinsufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart Douglas R

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1 is a common monogenic tumor-predisposition disorder that arises secondary to mutations in the tumor suppressor gene NF1. Haploinsufficiency of NF1 fosters a permissive tumorigenic environment through changes in signalling between cells, however the intracellular mechanisms for this tumor-promoting effect are less clear. Most primary human NF1+/- cells are a challenge to obtain, however lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs have been collected from large NF1 kindreds. We hypothesized that the genetic effects of NF1-haploinsufficiency may be discerned by comparison of genome-wide transcriptional profiling in somatic, non-tumor cells (LCLs from NF1-affected and -unaffected individuals. As a cross-species filter for heterogeneity, we compared the results from two human kindreds to whole-genome transcriptional profiling in spleen-derived B lymphocytes from age- and gender-matched Nf1+/- and wild-type mice, and used gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA, Onto-Express, Pathway-Express and MetaCore tools to identify genes perturbed in NF1-haploinsufficiency. Results We observed moderate expression of NF1 in human LCLs and of Nf1 in CD19+ mouse B lymphocytes. Using the t test to evaluate individual transcripts, we observed modest expression differences in the transcriptome in NF1-haploinsufficient LCLs and Nf1-haploinsuffiicient mouse B lymphocytes. However, GSEA, Onto-Express, Pathway-Express and MetaCore analyses identified genes that control cell cycle, DNA replication and repair, transcription and translation, and immune response as the most perturbed in NF1-haploinsufficient conditions in both human and mouse. Conclusions Haploinsufficiency arises when loss of one allele of a gene is sufficient to give rise to disease. Haploinsufficiency has traditionally been viewed as a passive state. Our observations of perturbed, up-regulated cell cycle and DNA repair pathways may functionally contribute to NF1

  5. Enzymatic repair of selected cross-linked homoduplex molecules enhances nuclear gene rescue from Pompeii and Herculaneum remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bernardo, Giovanni; Del Gaudio, Stefania; Cammarota, Marcella; Galderisi, Umberto; Cascino, Antonino; Cipollaro, Marilena

    2002-02-15

    Ancient DNA (aDNA) samples extracted from the bone remains of six equids buried by the Vesuvius eruption in 79 AD were investigated to test pre-amplification and enzymatic repair procedures designed to enhance the rescue of nuclear genes. The extracts, which proved all positive for Equidae mtDNA amplification, proved positive only four times out of 18 when tested for single-copy Equidae nuclear genes (epsilon globin, p53 and gamma interferon). Pre-amplification did not change the number of retrieved aDNA sequences but 10 times out of 14 enzymatic repair restored the amplifiability of the genes analysed, proving that repair increases the rate of successful rescue from 22 to alpha(lambda)mu(omicron)sigma(tau) 80%. These findings support the hypothesis that some of these cross-linked aDNA molecules, which are not completely separated when DNA is extracted under denaturing conditions, become homoduplex substrates for Pol I and/or T4 ligase action upon renaturation. aDNA authenticity is proved by the homology of the nucleotide sequences of loci tested to the corresponding modern Equidae sequences. Data also indicate that cross-linked homoduplex molecules selected by denaturation of the extract are repaired without any chimera formation. The general features of aDNA amplification with and without denaturation and enzymatic repair are discussed.

  6. Transcription pattern of p53-targeted DNA repair genes in the hypoxia-tolerant subterranean mole rat Spalax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Imad; Malik, Assaf; Manov, Irena; Joel, Alma; Band, Mark; Avivi, Aaron

    2013-04-12

    The tumor suppressor gene p53 induces growth arrest and/or apoptosis in response to DNA damage/hypoxia. Inactivation of p53 confers a selective advantage to tumor cells under a hypoxic microenvironment during tumor progression. The subterranean blind mole rat, Spalax, spends its life underground at low-oxygen tensions, hence developing a wide range of respiratory/molecular adaptations to hypoxic stress, including critical changes in p53 structure and signaling pathway. The highly conserved p53 Arg(R)-172 is substituted by lysine (K) in Spalax, identical with a tumor-associated mutation. Functionality assays revealed that Spalax p53 is unable to activate apoptotic target genes but is still capable of activating cell cycle arrest genes. Furthermore, we have shown that the transcription patterns of representative p53-induced genes (Apaf1 and Mdm2) in Spalax are influenced by hypoxia. Cell cycle arrest allows the cells to repair DNA damage via different DNA repair genes. We tested the transcription pattern of three p53-related DNA repair genes (p53R2, Mlh1, and Msh2) under normoxia and short-acute hypoxia in Spalax, C57BL/6 wild-type mice, and two strains of mutant C57BL/6 mice, each carrying a different mutation at the R172 position. Our results show that while wild-type/mutant mice exhibit strong hypoxia-induced reductions of repair gene transcript levels, no such inhibition is found in Spalax under hypoxia. Moreover, unlike mouse p53R2, Spalax p53R2 transcript levels are strongly elevated under hypoxia. These results suggest that critical repair functions, which are known to be inhibited under hypoxia in mice, remain active in Spalax, as part of its unique hypoxia tolerance mechanisms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Clustered Mutation Signatures Reveal that Error-Prone DNA Repair Targets Mutations to Active Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supek, Fran; Lehner, Ben

    2017-07-27

    Many processes can cause the same nucleotide change in a genome, making the identification of the mechanisms causing mutations a difficult challenge. Here, we show that clustered mutations provide a more precise fingerprint of mutagenic processes. Of nine clustered mutation signatures identified from >1,000 tumor genomes, three relate to variable APOBEC activity and three are associated with tobacco smoking. An additional signature matches the spectrum of translesion DNA polymerase eta (POLH). In lymphoid cells, these mutations target promoters, consistent with AID-initiated somatic hypermutation. In solid tumors, however, they are associated with UV exposure and alcohol consumption and target the H3K36me3 chromatin of active genes in a mismatch repair (MMR)-dependent manner. These regions normally have a low mutation rate because error-free MMR also targets H3K36me3 chromatin. Carcinogens and error-prone repair therefore redistribute mutations to the more important regions of the genome, contributing a substantial mutation load in many tumors, including driver mutations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Bi-directional routing of DNA mismatch repair protein human exonuclease 1 to replication foci and DNA double strand breaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liberti, Sascha E; Andersen, Sofie Dabros; Wang, Jing

    2011-01-01

    Human exonuclease 1 (hEXO1) is implicated in DNA metabolism, including replication, recombination and repair, substantiated by its interactions with PCNA, DNA helicases BLM and WRN, and several DNA mismatch repair (MMR) proteins. We investigated the sub-nuclear localization of hEXO1 during S-phas...

  9. Human papillomavirus gene sequences in washed human sperm deoxyribonucleic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, P J; Su, B C; Kalugdan, T; Seraj, I M; Tredway, D R; King, A

    1994-05-01

    The present study demonstrated the presence of HPV gene sequences in Percoll-washed sperm cells using polymerase chain reaction primers targeting smaller gene regions. Up to 64% of the sperm specimens were shown to contain gene sequences indicative of the presence of HPV. Human papillomavirus type 16 was detected about twice as often as HPV type 18. The results suggest the possible role of sperm as a vector for HPV.

  10. Cytogenetic responses to ionizing radiation exposure of human fibroblasts with knocked-down expressions of various DNA damage signaling genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ye; Rohde, Larry; Wu, Honglu

    Changes of gene expression profile are one of the most important biological responses in living cells after ionizing radiation (IR) exposure. Although some studies have demonstrated that genes with up-regulated expression induced by IR may play important roles in DNA damage sensing, cell cycle checkpoint and chromosomal repair, the relationship between the regulation of gene expression by IR and its impact on cytogenetic responses to ionizing radiation has not been systematically studied. Here, the expression of 25 genes selected based on their transcriptional changes in response to IR or from their known DNA repair roles were individually knocked down by siRNA transfection in human fibroblast cells. Chromosome aberrations (CA) and micronuclei (MN) formation were measured as the cytogenetic endpoints. Our results showed that the yields of MN and/or CA formation were significantly increased by suppressed expression of some of the selected genes in DSB and other DNA repair pathways. Knocked-down expression of other genes showed significant impact on cell cycle progression, possibly because of severe impairment of DNA damage repair. Of these 11 genes that affected the cytogenetic response, 9 were up-regulated in the cells exposed to gamma radiation, suggesting that genes transcriptionally modulated by IR were critical to regulating the biological consequences after IR. Failure to express these IR-responsive genes, such as by gene mutation, could seriously change the outcome of the post IR scenario and lead to carcinogenesis.

  11. [Lentiviral vector-mediated RNA interfere gene Nogo receptor to repair spinal cord injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Bi-tao; Yuan, Wen; Xu, Sheng-ming

    2010-10-15

    To evaluate the effects of lentiviral vector-mediated RNA interfere gene Nogo receptor (NgR) of rat cortical neurons in repairing spinal cord injury. The recombinant-lentiviral vector with small inferring RNA siNgR199 which had been constructed was transfected into rat cortical neuron cells in vitro in 3 multiplicity of infection (MOI). The infection rate was determined with fluorescent microscope, and the target gene was detected by PCR analysis. Then, the recombinant was injected into the cortical motor area of the rats with severe spinal cord injury, and the saline was also injected into other rats with severe spinal cord injury as a match control. The functional recovery of the rats' hindlimb was assessed using BBB score and the nerve fiber of the injured region was observed by nerve tracing. The rate of recombinant infecting rat cortical neuron in vitro exceeded 99%. PCR analysis confirmed that the effect of lentiviral vector-mediated RNA interfering gene NgR of rat cortical neurons in vitro was 61%. Although all rats with spinal cord injury were observed to have the hindlimb functional recovery, these rats injected with recombinant had better hindlimb functional recovery than others showing by more BBB score (P vector with siNgR199 which had been constructed is able to promote the growth of nerve fiber and the functional recovery of the rats' hindlimb.

  12. Allelic variants of XRCC1 and XRCC3 repair genes and susceptibility of oral cancer in Brazilian patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dos Reis, Mariana Bisarro; Losi-Guembarovski, Roberta; de Souza Fonseca Ribeiro, Enilze Maria

    2013-01-01

    genes have been found to be associated with oral cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the presence of allelic variants Arg194Trp (rs:1799782) and Arg399Gln (rs: 25487) of XRCC1 gene and Thr241Met (rs: 861539) of XRCC3 gene and susceptibility to oral cancer. We also...... variants of the XRCC1 gene within codon 194 (OR 0.82, 95% CI: 0.44-1.51) and codon 399 (OR 0.94, 95% CI: 0.59-1.50) and within the XRCC3 gene (OR 0.72; 95% CI: 0.45-1.16) were not associated with an increased risk of oral cancer. A combinational analysis of SNPs in both genes indicated no association......BACKGROUND: The capacity for DNA repair is essential in maintaining cellular functions and homeostasis; however, this capacity can be altered based on DNA sequence variations in DNA repair genes, which may contribute to the onset of cancer. Many single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in repair...

  13. Human telomeres are hypersensitive to UV-induced DNA Damage and refractory to repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J Rochette

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Telomeric repeats preserve genome integrity by stabilizing chromosomes, a function that appears to be important for both cancer and aging. In view of this critical role in genomic integrity, the telomere's own integrity should be of paramount importance to the cell. Ultraviolet light (UV, the preeminent risk factor in skin cancer development, induces mainly cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD which are both mutagenic and lethal. The human telomeric repeat unit (5'TTAGGG/CCCTAA3' is nearly optimal for acquiring UV-induced CPD, which form at dipyrimidine sites. We developed a ChIP-based technique, immunoprecipitation of DNA damage (IPoD, to simultaneously study DNA damage and repair in the telomere and in the coding regions of p53, 28S rDNA, and mitochondrial DNA. We find that human telomeres in vivo are 7-fold hypersensitive to UV-induced DNA damage. In double-stranded oligonucleotides, this hypersensitivity is a property of both telomeric and non-telomeric repeats; in a series of telomeric repeat oligonucleotides, a phase change conferring UV-sensitivity occurs above 4 repeats. Furthermore, CPD removal in the telomere is almost absent, matching the rate in mitochondria known to lack nucleotide excision repair. Cells containing persistent high levels of telomeric CPDs nevertheless proliferate, and chronic UV irradiation of cells does not accelerate telomere shortening. Telomeres are therefore unique in at least three respects: their biophysical UV sensitivity, their prevention of excision repair, and their tolerance of unrepaired lesions. Utilizing a lesion-tolerance strategy rather than repair would prevent double-strand breaks at closely-opposed excision repair sites on opposite strands of a damage-hypersensitive repeat.

  14. Steroids Regulate CXCL4 in the Human Endometrium During Menstruation to Enable Efficient Endometrial Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maybin, Jacqueline A; Thiruchelvam, Uma; Madhra, Mayank; Saunders, Philippa T K; Critchley, Hilary O D

    2017-06-01

    Repair of the endometrial surface at menstruation must be efficient to minimize blood loss and optimize reproductive function. The mechanism and regulation of endometrial repair remain undefined. To determine the presence/regulation of CXCL4 in the human endometrium as a putative repair factor at menses. Endometrial tissue was collected throughout the menstrual cycle from healthy women attending the gynecology department. Menstrual blood loss was objectively measured in a subset, and heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) was defined as >80 mL per cycle. Monocytes were isolated from peripheral blood. CXCL4 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein were identified by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. The function/regulation of endometrial CXCL4 was explored by in vitro cell culture. CXCL4 mRNA concentrations were significantly increased during menstruation. Intense staining for CXCL4 was detected in late secretory and menstrual tissue, localized to stromal, epithelial and endothelial cells. Colocalization identified positive staining in CD68+ macrophages. Treatment of human endometrial stromal and endothelial cells (hESCs and HEECs, respectively) with steroids revealed differential regulation of CXCL4. Progesterone withdrawal resulted in significant increases in CXCL4 mRNA and protein in hESCs, whereas cortisol significantly increased CXCL4 in HEECs. In women with HMB, CXCL4 was reduced in endothelial cells during the menstrual phase compared with women with normal menstrual bleeding. Cortisol-exposed macrophages displayed increased chemotaxis toward CXCL4 compared with macrophages incubated with estrogen or progesterone. These data implicate CXCL4 in endometrial repair after menses. Reduced cortisol at the time of menses may contribute to delayed endometrial repair and HMB, in part by mechanisms involving aberrant expression of CXCL4.

  15. Biallelic germline mutations of mismatch-repair genes: a possible cause for multiple pediatric malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poley, Jan-Werner; Wagner, Anja; Hoogmans, Monique M C P; Menko, Fred H; Tops, Carli; Kros, Johan M; Reddingius, Roel E; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Kuipers, Ernst J; Dinjens, Winand N M

    2007-06-01

    Heterozygous defects in mismatch-repair (MMR) genes cause hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). In this syndrome, tumors typically arise from age 25 years onward. Case reports have shown that homozygosity or compound heterozygosity for MMR gene mutations can cause multiple tumors in childhood, sometimes combined with neurofibromatosis type I (NF1)-like features. Therefore, the authors studied the role of homozygosity or compound heterozygosity (CZ) for MMR gene defects in children with multiple primary tumors. A database that contained all pediatric oncology patients who were seen between 1982 and 2003 at the author's institution was queried to identify patients aged Saccharomyces cerevisiae 2 [PMS2] expression) and a Wilms tumor (high MSI; no MLH1 or PMS2 expression). Apart from >6 cafe-au-lait spots, he had no other signs of NF1. The patient had CZ identified for a pathogenic MLH1 mutation (593delAG frameshift) and an unclassified MLH1 variant (Met35Asn). There was strong evidence that this unclassified variant was a pathogenic mutation. The second patient was diagnosed with a non-Hodgkin lymphoma (no tissue available) and an anaplastic oligodendroglioma (low MSI; no MSH6 expression) at age 4 years and 6 years, respectively. His brother had died of a medulloblastoma at age 6 years (low MSI, no MSH6 expression). Both boys had cafe-au-lait spots. Further genetic testing was not possible. Carriage of biallelic MMR gene defects can be associated with multiple malignancies in childhood that may differ from the standard spectrum of HNPCC tumor types. In 15 pediatric patients with multiple malignancies, the authors identified 1 clear case and 1 possible case of biallelic MMR gene defect. Recognition of the inherited nature of the tumors in these patients is important for counseling these patients and their families. (c) 2007 American Cancer Society.

  16. Genetic variations in the homologous recombination repair pathway genes modify risk of glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haishi; Liu, Yanhong; Zhou, Keke; Zhou, Chengcheng; Zhou, Renke; Cheng, Chunxia; Wei, Qingyi; Lu, Daru; Zhou, Liangfu

    2016-01-01

    Accumulative epidemiological evidence suggests that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes involved in homologous recombination (HR) DNA repair pathway play an important role in glioma susceptibility. However, the effects of such SNPs on glioma risk remain unclear. We used a used a candidate pathway-based approach to elucidate the relationship between glioma risk and 12 putative functional SNPs in genes involved in the HR pathway. Genotyping was conducted on 771 histologically-confirmed glioma patients and 752 cancer-free controls from the Chinese Han population. Odds ratios (OR) were calculated both for each SNP individually and for grouped analyses, examining the effects of the numbers of adverse alleles on glioma risk, and evaluated their potential gene-gene interactions using the multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR). In the single-locus analysis, two variants, the NBS1 rs1805794 (OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.15-1.76, P = 0.001), and RAD54L rs1048771 (OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.17-2.22, P = 0.002) were significantly associated with glioma risk. When we examined the joint effects of the risk-conferring alleles of these three SNPs, we found a significant trend indicating that the risk increases as the number of adverse alleles increase (P = 0.005). Moreover, the MDR analysis suggested a significant three-locus interaction model involving NBS1 rs1805794, MRE11 rs10831234, and ATM rs227062. These results suggested that these variants of the genes involved in the HR pathway may contribute to glioma susceptibility.

  17. First human use of hybrid synthetic/biologic mesh in ventral hernia repair: a multicenter trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, James G; El-Hayek, Kevin; Strong, Andrew T; LaPinska, Melissa Phillips; Yoo, Jin S; Pauli, Eric M; Kroh, Matthew

    2018-03-01

    Mesh options for reinforcement of ventral/incisional hernia (VIH) repair include synthetic or biologic materials. While each material has known advantages and disadvantages, little is understood about outcomes when these materials are used in combination. This multicenter study reports on the first human use of a novel synthetic/biologic hybrid mesh (Zenapro ® Hybrid Hernia Repair Device) for VIH repair. This prospective, multicenter post-market clinical trial enrolled consecutive adults who underwent elective VIH repair with hybrid mesh placed in the intraperitoneal or retromuscular/preperitoneal position. Patients were classified as Ventral Hernia Working Group (VHWG) grades 1-3 and had clean or clean-contaminated wounds. Outcomes of ventral and incisional hernia were compared using appropriate parametric tests. In all, 63 patients underwent VIH repair with hybrid mesh. Most were females (54.0%), had a mean age of 54.8 ± 10.9 years and mean body mass index of 34.5 ± 7.8 kg/m 2 , and classified as VHWG grade 2 (87.3%). Most defects were midline (92.1%) with a mean area of 106 ± 155 cm 2 . Cases were commonly classified as clean (92.1%) and were performed laparoscopically (60.3%). Primary fascial closure was achieved in 82.5% with 28.2% requiring component separation. Mesh location was frequently intraperitoneal (69.8%). Overall, 39% of patients available for follow-up at 12 months suffered surgical site events, which were generally more frequent after incisional hernia repair. Of these, seroma (23.7%) was most common, but few (8.5%) required procedural intervention. Other surgical site events that required procedural intervention included hematoma (1.7%), wound dehiscence (1.7%), and surgical site infection (3.4%). Recurrence rate was 6.8% (95% CI 2.2-16.6%) at 12-months postoperatively. Zenapro ® Hybrid Hernia Repair Device is safe and effective in VHWG grade 1-2 patients with clean wounds out to 12 months. Short-term outcomes and recurrence rate

  18. Value of recombinant human epidermal growth factor in corneal wound repair after corneal foreign body elimination

    OpenAIRE

    Hong-Jie Han

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the repair efficacy of recombinant human epidermal growth factor on corneal epithelium after corneal foreign body eliminating operation. METHODS: There were 102 patients with corneal foreign body(188 affected eyes)chosen for the study. All patients were divided into treatment group and control group according to the random number table. Both groups received corneal foreign body elimination by slit lamp. Postoperatively, the treatment group was given eye drops containing ep...

  19. Polymorphisms in nucleotide excision repair genes, smoking and intake of fruit and vegetables in relation to lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Sørensen, Mette; Overvad, Kim

    2007-01-01

    in the XPC, XPA and XPD genes involved in the nucleotide excision DNA repair pathway and analysed possible interactions with smoking and dietary intake of fruit and vegetables in relation to risk for lung cancer. We found that intake of fruit was associated with lower risk for lung cancer only among carriers...

  20. Differential contributory roles of nucleotide excision and homologous recombination repair for enhancing cisplatin sensitivity in human ovarian cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wani Gulzar

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While platinum-based chemotherapeutic agents are widely used to treat various solid tumors, the acquired platinum resistance is a major impediment in their successful treatment. Since enhanced DNA repair capacity is a major factor in conferring cisplatin resistance, targeting of DNA repair pathways is an effective stratagem for overcoming cisplatin resistance. This study was designed to delineate the role of nucleotide excision repair (NER, the principal mechanism for the removal of cisplatin-induced DNA intrastrand crosslinks, in cisplatin resistance and reveal the impact of DNA repair interference on cisplatin sensitivity in human ovarian cancer cells. Results We assessed the inherent NER efficiency of multiple matched pairs of cisplatin-sensitive and -resistant ovarian cancer cell lines and their expression of NER-related factors at mRNA and protein levels. Our results showed that only the cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cell line PEO4 possessed an increased NER capacity compared to its inherently NER-inefficient parental line PEO1. Several other cisplatin-resistant cell lines, including CP70, CDDP and 2008C13, exhibited a normal and parental cell-comparable NER capacity for removing cisplatin-induced DNA intrastrand cross-links (Pt-GG. Concomitant gene expression analysis revealed discordance in mRNA and protein levels of NER factors in various ovarian cancer cell lines and NER proteins level were unrelated to the cisplatin sensitivity of these cell lines. Although knockdown of NER factors was able to compromise the NER efficiency, it only caused a minimal effect on cisplatin sensitivity. On the contrary, downregulation of BRCA2, a critical protein for homologous recombination repair (HRR, significantly enhanced the efficacy of cisplatin in killing ovarian cancer cell line PEO4. Conclusion Our studies indicate that the level of NER factors in ovarian cancer cell lines is neither a determinant of their NER capacity nor

  1. [The correlations between aging of the human body, oxidative stress and reduced efficiency of repair systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak, Aleksandra; Krzeszowiak, Jakub; Markiewicz-Górka, Iwona

    2014-12-15

    The article presents an current knowledge overview about the importance of oxidative stress and reduced efficiency of repair processes during the aging process of the human body. Oxidative damage to cellular macromolecules (proteins, lipids, nucleic acids), are formed under the influence of reactive oxygen species (ROS). They are the part of important mechanism which is responsible for the process of aging and the development of many diseases. The most important effects result from DNA damage, due to the mutations formation, which can lead to the development of tumors. However, a well-functioning repair systems (i.a. homologous recombination) remove the damage and prevent harmful changes in the cells. Lipid peroxidation products also cause oxidative modification of nucleic acids (and proteins). Proteins and fats also have repair systems, but much simpler than those responsible for the repair of nucleic acids. Unfortunately, with increasing age, they are more weakened, which contributes to increase numbers of cell damage, and consequently development of diseases specific to old age: cancer, neurodegenerative diseases or atherosclerosis.

  2. Effects on DNA repair in human lymphocytes exposed to the food dye tartrazine yellow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Bruno Moreira; Araújo, Taíssa Maíra Thomaz; Ramos, Jorge Amando Batista; Pinto, Laine Celestino; Khayat, Bruna Meireles; De Oliveira Bahia, Marcelo; Montenegro, Raquel Carvalho; Burbano, Rommel Mario Rodríguez; Khayat, André Salim

    2015-03-01

    Tartrazine is a food additive that belongs to a class of artificial dyes and contains an azo group. Studies about its genotoxic, cytotoxic and mutagenic effects are controversial and, in some cases, unsatisfactory. This work evaluated the potential in vitro cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and effects on DNA repair of human lymphocytes exposed to the dye. We assessed the cytotoxicity of tartrazine by 3-(4,5-Dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide test and the response of DNA repair through comet assay (alkaline version). We used different concentrations of the dye, ranging from 0.25-64.0 mM. The results demonstrated that tartrazine has no cytotoxic effects. However, this dye had a significant genotoxic effect at all concentrations tested. Although most of the damage was amenable to repair, some damage remained higher than positive control after 24 h of repair. These data demonstrate that tartrazine may be harmful to health and its prolonged use could trigger carcinogenesis. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  3. Duplicability of self-interacting human genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makino Takashi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing interest in the evolution of protein-protein interactions because this should ultimately be informative of the patterns of evolution of new protein functions within the cell. One model proposes that the evolution of new protein-protein interactions and protein complexes proceeds through the duplication of self-interacting genes. This model is supported by data from yeast. We examined the relationship between gene duplication and self-interaction in the human genome. Results We investigated the patterns of self-interaction and duplication among 34808 interactions encoded by 8881 human genes, and show that self-interacting proteins are encoded by genes with higher duplicability than genes whose proteins lack this type of interaction. We show that this result is robust against the system used to define duplicate genes. Finally we compared the presence of self-interactions amongst proteins whose genes have duplicated either through whole-genome duplication (WGD or small-scale duplication (SSD, and show that the former tend to have more interactions in general. After controlling for age differences between the two sets of duplicates this result can be explained by the time since the gene duplication. Conclusions Genes encoding self-interacting proteins tend to have higher duplicability than proteins lacking self-interactions. Moreover these duplicate genes have more often arisen through whole-genome rather than small-scale duplication. Finally, self-interacting WGD genes tend to have more interaction partners in general in the PIN, which can be explained by their overall greater age. This work adds to our growing knowledge of the importance of contextual factors in gene duplicability.

  4. Duplicability of self-interacting human genes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Pérez-Bercoff, Asa

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is increasing interest in the evolution of protein-protein interactions because this should ultimately be informative of the patterns of evolution of new protein functions within the cell. One model proposes that the evolution of new protein-protein interactions and protein complexes proceeds through the duplication of self-interacting genes. This model is supported by data from yeast. We examined the relationship between gene duplication and self-interaction in the human genome. RESULTS: We investigated the patterns of self-interaction and duplication among 34808 interactions encoded by 8881 human genes, and show that self-interacting proteins are encoded by genes with higher duplicability than genes whose proteins lack this type of interaction. We show that this result is robust against the system used to define duplicate genes. Finally we compared the presence of self-interactions amongst proteins whose genes have duplicated either through whole-genome duplication (WGD) or small-scale duplication (SSD), and show that the former tend to have more interactions in general. After controlling for age differences between the two sets of duplicates this result can be explained by the time since the gene duplication. CONCLUSIONS: Genes encoding self-interacting proteins tend to have higher duplicability than proteins lacking self-interactions. Moreover these duplicate genes have more often arisen through whole-genome rather than small-scale duplication. Finally, self-interacting WGD genes tend to have more interaction partners in general in the PIN, which can be explained by their overall greater age. This work adds to our growing knowledge of the importance of contextual factors in gene duplicability.

  5. Patenting Human Genes in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minssen, Timo

    2017-01-01

    In accordance with the concept of the book and the assigned scope of the contribution, this chapter describes the European law with respect to the patent-eligibility of isolated DNA sequences. This chapter will further include a brief comparison with recent developments from the US and Australia....... It will, however, not focus on the important debates regarding the patent-eligibility of other biological material, diagnostic methods patents (as data aggregators) or abstract ideas which will be addressed by other contributions. Moreover, the analysis will merely concentrate on patent-eligibility. Other...... patentability requirement will only be briefly touched upon in the discussion part. The paper starts out in section 1.5.2 by discussing the patent-eligibility of isolated human DNA sequences on the European national level and under the Biotechnology Directive. Then the patent-eligibility of isolated human DNA...

  6. Interlocus gene conversion events introduce deleterious mutations into at least 1% of human genes associated with inherited disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casola, Claudio; Zekonyte, Ugne; Phillips, Andrew D; Cooper, David N; Hahn, Matthew W

    2012-03-01

    Establishing the molecular basis of DNA mutations that cause inherited disease is of fundamental importance to understanding the origin, nature, and clinical sequelae of genetic disorders in humans. The majority of disease-associated mutations constitute single-base substitutions and short deletions and/or insertions resulting from DNA replication errors and the repair of damaged bases. However, pathological mutations can also be introduced by nonreciprocal recombination events between paralogous sequences, a phenomenon known as interlocus gene conversion (IGC). IGC events have thus far been linked to pathology in more than 20 human genes. However, the large number of duplicated gene sequences in the human genome implies that many more disease-associated mutations could originate via IGC. Here, we have used a genome-wide computational approach to identify disease-associated mutations derived from IGC events. Our approach revealed hundreds of known pathological mutations that could have been caused by IGC. Further, we identified several dozen high-confidence cases of inherited disease mutations resulting from IGC in ∼1% of all genes analyzed. About half of the donor sequences associated with such mutations are functional paralogous genes, suggesting that epistatic interactions or differential expression patterns will determine the impact upon fitness of specific substitutions between duplicated genes. In addition, we identified thousands of hitherto undescribed and potentially deleterious mutations that could arise via IGC. Our findings reveal the extent of the impact of interlocus gene conversion upon the spectrum of human inherited disease.

  7. Extracellular Matrix Dynamics in Scar-Free Endometrial Repair: Perspectives from Mouse In Vivo and Human In Vitro Studies1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jemma Evans; Tu'uhevaha Kaitu'u-Lino; Lois A. Salamonsen

    2011-01-01

    .... Utilizing an in vivo mouse model of postmenstrual repair and an in vitro model of human endometrial re-epithelialization, we determined the dynamic changes in expression of ECM and related factors...

  8. Modulation of radiation-induced base excision repair pathway gene expression by melatonin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Rezapoor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Approximately 70% of all cancer patients receive radiotherapy. Although radiotherapy is effective in killing cancer cells, it has adverse effects on normal cells as well. Melatonin (MLT as a potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent has been proposed to stimulate DNA repair capacity. We investigated the capability of MLT in the modification of radiation-induced DNA damage in rat peripheral blood cells. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, male rats (n = 162 were divided into 27 groups (n = 6 in each group including: irradiation only, vehicle only, vehicle with irradiation, 100 mg/kg MLT alone, 100 mg/kg MLT plus irradiation in 3 different time points, and control. Subsequently, they were irradiated with a single whole-body X-ray radiation dose of 2 and 8 Gy at a dose rate of 200 MU/min. Rats were given an intraperitoneal injection of MLT or the same volume of vehicle alone 1 h prior to irradiation. Blood samples were also taken 8, 24, and 48 h postirradiation, in order to measure the 8-oxoguanine glycosylase1 (Ogg1, Apex1, and Xrcc1 expression using quantitative real-time-polymerase chain reaction. Results: Exposing to the ionizing radiation resulted in downregulation of Ogg1, Apex1, and Xrcc1 gene expression. The most obvious suppression was observed in 8 h after exposure. Pretreatments with MLT were able to upregulate these genes when compared to the irradiation-only and vehicle plus irradiation groups (P < 0.05 in all time points. Conclusion: Our results suggested that MLT in mentioned dose may result in modulation of Ogg1, Apex1, and Xrcc1 gene expression in peripheral blood cells to reduce X-ray irradiation-induced DNA damage. Therefore, administration of MLT may increase the normal tissue tolerance to radiation through enhancing the cell DNA repair capacity. We believed that MLT could play a radiation toxicity reduction role in patients who have undergone radiation treatment as a part of cancer radiotherapy.

  9. Low-Dose Formaldehyde Delays DNA Damage Recognition and DNA Excision Repair in Human Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luch, Andreas; Frey, Flurina C. Clement; Meier, Regula; Fei, Jia; Naegeli, Hanspeter

    2014-01-01

    Objective Formaldehyde is still widely employed as a universal crosslinking agent, preservative and disinfectant, despite its proven carcinogenicity in occupationally exposed workers. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to understand the possible impact of low-dose formaldehyde exposures in the general population. Due to the concomitant occurrence of multiple indoor and outdoor toxicants, we tested how formaldehyde, at micromolar concentrations, interferes with general DNA damage recognition and excision processes that remove some of the most frequently inflicted DNA lesions. Methodology/Principal Findings The overall mobility of the DNA damage sensors UV-DDB (ultraviolet-damaged DNA-binding) and XPC (xeroderma pigmentosum group C) was analyzed by assessing real-time protein dynamics in the nucleus of cultured human cells exposed to non-cytotoxic (formaldehyde concentrations. The DNA lesion-specific recruitment of these damage sensors was tested by monitoring their accumulation at local irradiation spots. DNA repair activity was determined in host-cell reactivation assays and, more directly, by measuring the excision of DNA lesions from chromosomes. Taken together, these assays demonstrated that formaldehyde obstructs the rapid nuclear trafficking of DNA damage sensors and, consequently, slows down their relocation to DNA damage sites thus delaying the excision repair of target lesions. A concentration-dependent effect relationship established a threshold concentration of as low as 25 micromolar for the inhibition of DNA excision repair. Conclusions/Significance A main implication of the retarded repair activity is that low-dose formaldehyde may exert an adjuvant role in carcinogenesis by impeding the excision of multiple mutagenic base lesions. In view of this generally disruptive effect on DNA repair, we propose that formaldehyde exposures in the general population should be further decreased to help reducing cancer risks. PMID:24722772

  10. Advances in gene technology: Human genetic disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, W.A.; Ahmad, F.; Black, S.; Schultz, J.; Whelan, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses the papers presented at the conference on the subject of ''advances in Gene technology: Human genetic disorders''. Molecular biology of various carcinomas and inheritance of metabolic diseases is discussed and technology advancement in diagnosis of hereditary diseases is described. Some of the titles discussed are-Immunoglobulin genes translocation and diagnosis; hemophilia; oncogenes; oncogenic transformations; experimental data on mice, hamsters, birds carcinomas and sarcomas.

  11. Risk of colorectal cancer for people with a mutation in both a MUTYH and a DNA mismatch repair gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Win, Aung Ko; Reece, Jeanette C.; Buchanan, Daniel D.; Clendenning, Mark; Young, Joanne P.; Cleary, Sean P.; Kim, Hyeja; Cotterchio, Michelle; Dowty, James G.; MacInnis, Robert J.; Tucker, Katherine M.; Winship, Ingrid M.; Macrae, Finlay A.; Burnett, Terrilea; Le Marchand, Loïc; Casey, Graham; Haile, Robert W.; Newcomb, Polly A.; Thibodeau, Stephen N.; Lindor, Noralane M.; Hopper, John L.; Gallinger, Steven; Jenkins, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    The base excision repair protein, MUTYH, functionally interacts with the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) system. As genetic testing moves from testing one gene at a time, to gene panel and whole exome next generation sequencing approaches, understanding the risk associated with co-existence of germline mutations in these genes will be important for clinical interpretation and management. From the Colon Cancer Family Registry, we identified 10 carriers who had both a MUTYH mutation (6 with c.1187G>A p.(Gly396Asp), 3 with c.821G>A p.(Arg274Gln), and 1 with c.536A>G p.(Tyr179Cys)) and a MMR gene mutation (3 in MLH1, 6 in MSH2, and 1 in PMS2), 375 carriers of a single (monoallelic) MUTYH mutation alone, and 469 carriers of a MMR gene mutation alone. Of the 10 carriers of both gene mutations, 8 were diagnosed with colorectal cancer. Using a weighted cohort analysis, we estimated that risk of colorectal cancer for carriers of both a MUTYH and a MMR gene mutation was substantially higher than that for carriers of a MUTYH mutation alone [hazard ratio (HR) 21.5, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 9.19–50.1; p colorectal cancer for carriers of a MMR gene mutation alone. Our finding suggests MUTYH mutation testing in MMR gene mutation carriers is not clinically informative. PMID:26202870

  12. Spectrum of mismatch repair gene mutations and clinical presentation of Hispanic individuals with Lynch syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunga, Annette Y; Ricker, Charité; Espenschied, Carin R; Castillo, Danielle; Melas, Marilena; Herzog, Josef; Bannon, Sarah; Cruz-Correa, Marcia; Lynch, Patrick; Solomon, Ilana; Gruber, Stephen B; Weitzel, Jeffrey N

    2017-04-01

    Lynch syndrome (LS), the most common hereditary colorectal cancer syndrome, is caused by mismatch repair (MMR) gene mutations. However, data about MMR mutations in Hispanics are limited. This study aims to describe the spectrum of MMR mutations in Hispanics with LS and explore ancestral origins. This case series involved an IRB-approved retrospective chart review of self-identified Hispanic patients (n = 397) seen for genetic cancer risk assessment at four collaborating academic institutions in California, Texas, and Puerto Rico who were evaluated by MMR genotyping and/or tumor analysis. A literature review was conducted for all mutations identified. Of those who underwent clinical genetic testing (n = 176), 71 had MMR gene mutations. Nine mutations were observed more than once. One third (3/9) of recurrent mutations and two additional mutations (seen only once) were previously reported in Spain, confirming the influence of Spanish ancestry on MMR mutations in Hispanic populations. The recurrent mutations identified (n = 9) included both previously reported mutations as well as unique mutations not in the literature. This is the largest report of Hispanic MMR mutations in North America; however, a larger sample and haplotype analyses are needed to better understand recurrent MMR mutations in Hispanic populations. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Assessment of Human Acellular Dermis Graft in Porcine Models for Ventral Hernia Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Sambit; Baker, Andrew R; Haskins, Ivy N; Krpata, David M; Rosen, Michael J; Derwin, Kathleen A

    2017-08-03

    Preclinical evaluation of hernia meshes is commonly performed in porcine models. We recently developed two surgically induced porcine hernia models-an incisional and an excisional model-that formed persistent hernias in the absence of graft repair. Herein, we investigate if these models will continue to form a hernia after graft repair. Ten pigs were used to create two hernia models-a 10-cm partial-thickness incisional defect (n = 5) and an 8 × 8-cm full-thickness excisional defect (n = 5). The defects were repaired using a 12 × 12-cm human acellular dermis graft placed in a preperitoneal/retrorectus sublay position and fixed using transfascial sutures. Postoperative management included the use of suction drainage for 1 week and an abdominal binder for 4 weeks in the more severe excisional model. Hernia development was assessed clinically, and hernia defect size and volume were measured using postoperative computed tomography (CT) imaging over 12 weeks. Radiographic inflation testing (2 L inflation), biaxial mechanical testing, and histological evaluation were also performed at 12 weeks. All pigs with the excisional model, but none with the incisional model, developed a clinically relevant hernia. At the end of 12 weeks, the excisional model had a significantly greater hernia defect size (259 ± 51 cm(2) vs. 47 ± 16 cm(2)) and repair volume (865 ± 414 cm(3) vs. 85 ± 52 cm(3)) compared with the incisional model. The excisional model also showed an order of magnitude greater increase in repair volume (280 cm(3) vs. 47 cm(3)) compared with the incisional model upon 2 L inflation. Furthermore, the excisional model showed a trend of having higher dilatational strain at average biaxial load of 250 N and lower stiffness compared with the incisional model. The excisional model had a thin, hypercellular hernia sac spanning the defect, whereas the incisional model had a thick densely fibrotic scar bridging the defect

  14. DNA excision repair in cell extracts from human cell lines exhibiting hypersensitivity to DNA-damaging agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansson, J.; Keyse, S.M.; Lindahl, T.; Wood, R.D. (Imperial Cancer Research Fund, South Mimms, (United Kingdom))

    1991-07-01

    Whole cell extracts from human lymphoid cell lines can perform in vitro DNA repair synthesis in plasmids damaged by agents including UV or cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (cis-DDP). Extracts from xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) cells are defective in repair synthesis. We have now studied in vitro DNA repair synthesis using extracts from lymphoblastoid cell lines representing four human hereditary syndromes with increased sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents. Extracts of cell lines from individuals with the sunlight-sensitive disorders dysplastic nevus syndrome or Cockayne's syndrome (complementation groups A and B) showed normal DNA repair synthesis in plasmids with UV photoproducts. This is consistent with in vivo measurements of the overall DNA repair capacity in such cell lines. A number of extracts were prepared from two cell lines representing the variant form of XP (XP-V). Half of the extracts prepared showed normal levels of in vitro DNA repair synthesis in plasmids containing UV lesions, but the remainder of the extracts from the same cell lines showed deficient repair synthesis, suggesting the possibility of an unusually labile excision repair protein in XP-V. Fanconi's anemia (FA) cells show cellular hypersensitivity to cross-linking agents including cis-DDP. Extracts from cell lines belonging to two different complementation groups of FA showed normal DNA repair synthesis in plasmids containing cis-DDP or UV adducts. Thus, there does not appear to be an overall excision repair defect in FA, but the data do not exclude a defect in the repair of interstrand DNA cross-links.

  15. Horizontal gene transfer in human pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhas, Mario

    2015-02-01

    Horizontal gene transfer has a tremendous impact on the genome plasticity, adaptation and evolution of bacteria. Horizontally transferred mobile genetic elements are involved in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance and virulence genes, thus contributing to the emergence of novel "superbugs". This review provides update on various mechanisms of horizontal gene transfer and examines how horizontal gene transfer contributes to the evolution of pathogenic bacteria. Special focus is paid to the role horizontal gene transfer plays in pathogenicity of the emerging human pathogens: hypervirulent Clostridium difficile and Escherichia coli (including the most recent haemolytic uraemic syndrome outbreak strain) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), which have been associated with largest outbreaks of infection recently.

  16. Defined Engineered Human Myocardium With Advanced Maturation for Applications in Heart Failure Modeling and Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiburcy, Malte; Hudson, James E; Balfanz, Paul; Schlick, Susanne; Meyer, Tim; Chang Liao, Mei-Ling; Levent, Elif; Raad, Farah; Zeidler, Sebastian; Wingender, Edgar; Riegler, Johannes; Wang, Mouer; Gold, Joseph D; Kehat, Izhak; Wettwer, Erich; Ravens, Ursula; Dierickx, Pieterjan; van Laake, Linda W; Goumans, Marie Jose; Khadjeh, Sara; Toischer, Karl; Hasenfuss, Gerd; Couture, Larry A; Unger, Andreas; Linke, Wolfgang A; Araki, Toshiyuki; Neel, Benjamin; Keller, Gordon; Gepstein, Lior; Wu, Joseph C; Zimmermann, Wolfram-Hubertus

    2017-05-09

    Advancing structural and functional maturation of stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes remains a key challenge for applications in disease modeling, drug screening, and heart repair. Here, we sought to advance cardiomyocyte maturation in engineered human myocardium (EHM) toward an adult phenotype under defined conditions. We systematically investigated cell composition, matrix, and media conditions to generate EHM from embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts with organotypic functionality under serum-free conditions. We used morphological, functional, and transcriptome analyses to benchmark maturation of EHM. EHM demonstrated important structural and functional properties of postnatal myocardium, including: (1) rod-shaped cardiomyocytes with M bands assembled as a functional syncytium; (2) systolic twitch forces at a similar level as observed in bona fide postnatal myocardium; (3) a positive force-frequency response; (4) inotropic responses to β-adrenergic stimulation mediated via canonical β1- and β2-adrenoceptor signaling pathways; and (5) evidence for advanced molecular maturation by transcriptome profiling. EHM responded to chronic catecholamine toxicity with contractile dysfunction, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, cardiomyocyte death, and N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide release; all are classical hallmarks of heart failure. In addition, we demonstrate the scalability of EHM according to anticipated clinical demands for cardiac repair. We provide proof-of-concept for a universally applicable technology for the engineering of macroscale human myocardium for disease modeling and heart repair from embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes under defined, serum-free conditions. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Population genomics of human gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stranger, Barbara E.; Nica, Alexandra C.; Forrest, Matthew S.; Dimas, Antigone; Bird, Christine P.; Beazley, Claude; Ingle, Catherine E.; Dunning, Mark; Flicek, Paul; Koller, Daphne; Montgomery, Stephen; Tavaré, Simon; Deloukas, Panagiotis; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T.

    2009-01-01

    Genetic variation influences gene expression, and this can be efficiently mapped to specific genomic regions and variants. We used gene expression profiling of EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines of all 270 individuals of the HapMap consortium to elucidate the detailed features of genetic variation underlying gene expression variation. We find gene expression levels to be heritable and differentiation between populations in agreement with earlier small-scale studies. A detailed association analysis of over 2.2 million common SNPs per population (5% frequency HapMap) with gene expression identified at least 1348 genes with association signals in cis and at least 180 in trans. Replication in at least one independent population was achieved for 37% of cis- signals and 15% of trans- signals, respectively. Our results strongly support an abundance of cis- regulatory variation in the human genome. Detection of trans- effects is limited but suggests that regulatory variation may be the key primary effect contributing to phenotypic variation in humans. Finally, we explore a variety of methodologies that improve the current state of analysis of gene expression variation. PMID:17873874

  18. Cancer genetics and genomics of human FOX family genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Masuko; Igarashi, Maki; Fukuda, Hirokazu; Nakagama, Hitoshi; Katoh, Masaru

    2013-01-28

    Forkhead-box (FOX) family proteins, involved in cell growth and differentiation as well as embryogenesis and longevity, are DNA-binding proteins regulating transcription and DNA repair. The focus of this review is on the mechanisms of FOX-related human carcinogenesis. FOXA1 is overexpressed as a result of gene amplification in lung cancer, esophageal cancer, ER-positive breast cancer and anaplastic thyroid cancer and is point-mutated in prostate cancer. FOXA1 overexpression in breast cancer and prostate cancer is associated with good or poor prognosis, respectively. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) within the 5'-UTR of the FOXE1 (TTF2) gene is associated with thyroid cancer risk. FOXF1 overexpression in breast cancer is associated with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). FOXM1 is overexpressed owing to gene amplification in basal-type breast cancer and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), and it is transcriptionally upregulated owing to Hedgehog-GLI, hypoxia-HIF1α or YAP-TEAD signaling activation. FOXM1 overexpression leads to malignant phenotypes by directly upregulating CCNB1, AURKB, MYC and SKP2 and indirectly upregulating ZEB1 and ZEB2 via miR-200b downregulation. Tumor suppressor functions of FOXO transcription factors are lost in cancer cells as a result of chromosomal translocation, deletion, miRNA-mediated repression, AKT-mediated cytoplasmic sequestration or ubiquitination-mediated proteasomal degradation. FOXP1 is upregulated as a result of gene fusion or amplification in DLBCL and MALT lymphoma and also repression of miRNAs, such as miR-1, miR-34a and miR-504. FOXP1 overexpression is associated with poor prognosis in DLBCL, gastric MALT lymphoma and hepatocellular carcinoma but with good prognosis in breast cancer. In neuroblastoma, the entire coding region of the FOXR1 (FOXN5) gene is fused to the MLL or the PAFAH1B gene owing to interstitial deletions. FOXR1 fusion genes function as oncogenes that repress transcription of FOXO target

  19. Chronic renal ischemia in humans: can cell therapy repair the kidney in occlusive renovascular disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Ahmed; Herrmann, Sandra M; Textor, Stephen C

    2015-05-01

    Occlusive renovascular disease caused by atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS) elicits complex biological responses that eventually lead to loss of kidney function. Recent studies indicate a complex interplay of oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, and activation of fibrogenic and inflammatory cytokines as a result of atherosclerosis, hypoxia, and renal hypoperfusion in this disorder. Human studies emphasize the limits of the kidney adaptation to reduced blood flow, eventually leading to renal hypoxia with activation of inflammatory and fibrogenic pathways. Several randomized prospective clinical trials show that stent revascularization alone in patients with atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis provides little additional benefit to medical therapy once these processes have developed and solidified. Experimental data now support developing adjunctive cell-based measures to support angiogenesis and anti-inflammatory renal repair mechanisms. These data encourage the study of endothelial progenitor cells and/or mesenchymal stem/stromal cells for the repair of damaged kidney tissue. ©2015 Int. Union Physiol. Sci./Am. Physiol. Soc.

  20. Assessment of single nucleotide polymorphisms in screening 52 DNA repair and cell cycle control genes in Fanconi anemia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fanconi anemia (FA is a rare genetically heterogeneous disorder associated with bone marrow failure, birth defects and cancer susceptibility. Apart from the disease- causing mutations in FANC genes, the identification of specific DNA variations, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, in other candidate genes may lead to a better clinical description of this condition enabling individualized treatment with improvement of the prognosis. In this study, we have assessed 95 SNPs located in 52 key genes involved in base excision repair (BER, nucleotide excision repair (NER, mismatch repair (MMR, double strand break (DSB repair and cell cycle control using a DNA repair chip (Asper Biotech, Estonia which includes most of the common variants for the candidate genes. The SNP genotyping was performed in five FA-D2 patients and in one FA-A patient. The polymorphisms studied were synonymous (n=10, nonsynonymous (missense (n=52 and in non-coding regions of the genome (introns and 5 ‘and 3’ untranslated regions (UTR (n=33. Polymorphisms found at the homozygous state are selected for further analysis. Our results have shown a significant inter-individual variability among patients in the type and the frequency of SNPs and also elucidate the need for further studies of polymorphisms located in ATM, APEX APE 1, XRCC1, ERCC2, MSH3, PARP4, NBS1, BARD1, CDKN1B, TP53 and TP53BP1 which may be of great importance for better clinical description of FA. In addition, the present report recommends the use of SNPs as predictive and prognostic genetic markers to individualize therapy of FA patients. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173046

  1. Islet expression of the DNA repair enzyme 8-oxoguanosine DNA glycosylase (Ogg1 in human type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Kun-Ho

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has become increasingly clear that β-cell failure plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Free-radical mediated β-cell damage has been intensively studied in type 1 diabetes, but not in human type 2 diabetes. Therefore, we studied the protein expression of the DNA repair enzyme Ogg1 in pancreases from type 2 diabetics. Ogg1 was studied because it is the major enzyme involved in repairing 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanosine DNA adducts, a lesion previously observed in a rat model of type 2 diabetes. Moreover, in a gene expression screen, Ogg1 was over-expressed in islets from a human type 2 diabetic. Methods Immunofluorescent staining of Ogg1 was performed on pancreatic specimens from healthy controls and patients with diabetes for 2–23 years. The intensity and islet area stained for Ogg1 was evaluated by semi-quantitative scoring. Results Both the intensity and the area of islet Ogg1 staining were significantly increased in islets from the type 2 diabetic subjects compared to the healthy controls. A correlation between increased Ogg1 fluorescent staining intensity and duration of diabetes was also found. Most of the staining observed was cytoplasmic, suggesting that mitochondrial Ogg1 accounts primarily for the increased Ogg1 expression. Conclusion We conclude that oxidative stress related DNA damage may be a novel important factor in the pathogenesis of human type 2 diabetes. An increase of Ogg1 in islet cell mitochondria is consistent with a model in which hyperglycemia and consequent increased β-cell oxidative metabolism lead to DNA damage and the induction of Ogg1 expression.

  2. Exposure of Human Lung Cells to Tobacco Smoke Condensate Inhibits the Nucleotide Excision Repair Pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel Holcomb

    Full Text Available Exposure to tobacco smoke is the number one risk factor for lung cancer. Although the DNA damaging properties of tobacco smoke have been well documented, relatively few studies have examined its effect on DNA repair pathways. This is especially true for the nucleotide excision repair (NER pathway which recognizes and removes many structurally diverse DNA lesions, including those introduced by chemical carcinogens present in tobacco smoke. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of tobacco smoke on NER in human lung cells. We studied the effect of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC, a surrogate for tobacco smoke, on the NER pathway in two different human lung cell lines; IMR-90 lung fibroblasts and BEAS-2B bronchial epithelial cells. To measure NER, we employed a slot-blot assay to quantify the introduction and removal of UV light-induced 6-4 photoproducts and cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers. We find a dose-dependent inhibition of 6-4 photoproduct repair in both cell lines treated with CSC. Additionally, the impact of CSC on the abundance of various NER proteins and their respective RNAs was investigated. The abundance of XPC protein, which is required for functional NER, is significantly reduced by treatment with CSC while the abundance of XPA protein, also required for NER, is unaffected. Both XPC and XPA RNA levels are modestly reduced by CSC treatment. Finally, treatment of cells with MG-132 abrogates the reduction in the abundance of XPC protein produced by treatment with CSC, suggesting that CSC enhances proteasome-dependent turnover of the protein that is mediated by ubiquitination. Together, these findings indicate that tobacco smoke can inhibit the same DNA repair pathway that is also essential for the removal of some of the carcinogenic DNA damage introduced by smoke itself, increasing the DNA damage burden of cells exposed to tobacco smoke.

  3. DNA Base-Excision Repair Genes OGG1 and NTH1 in Brazilian Lung Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Patricia G; Bastos-Rodrigues, Luciana; Carneiro, Juliana G; Guieiro, Fernanda; Bicalho, Maria Aparecida; Leidenz, Franciele B; Bicalho, Ana J; Friedman, Eitan; De Marco, Luiz

    2015-12-01

    Lung cancer is the leading global cause of cancer-related mortality and is associated with poor prognosis. To improve survival rates of lung cancer patients, better understanding of tumorigenic mechanisms is necessary, which may lead to development of new therapeutic strategies. The hOGG1 and NTH1 genes act in the DNA BER repair pathway and their involvement in lung cancer pathogenesis has been analyzed in several populations. We analyzed targeted regions of the hOGG1 and NTH1 genes in 96 Brazilian patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and 89 cancer-free, ethnically matched controls. The NTH1 c.98G>T polymorphism rs2302172 (p = 0.02 and p = 0.02 for allele and genotype frequency between cases and controls, respectively) and the 140-17C> T variant (rs2233518) (p = 0.02 and p = 0.02 for allele and genotype frequency between cases and controls, respectively) were detected in four lung cancer cases (4 %) while the NTH1 Q131K (C391A) polymorphism was found in seven lung cancer cases (7 %) (p = 0.001 and p = 0.008, for allele and genotype frequency between cases and controls, respectively). None of these sequence variants were detected in controls. The Ser326Cys (C1245G, rs1052133) polymorphism in the OGG1 gene was detected in 42 % of analyzed NSCLC patients and in 34 % of the controls (p = 0.11 and p = 0.25 for allele and genotype frequency between cases and controls, respectively). Our study provides preliminary evidence that polymorphisms in OGG1 do not contribute to development of NSCLC in Brazilian patients and that NTH1 polymorphisms may be associated with NSCLC pathogenesis.

  4. Single Cell Analysis of Human RAD18-Dependent DNA Post-Replication Repair by Alkaline Bromodeoxyuridine Comet Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mórocz, Mónika; Gali, Himabindu; Raskó, István; Downes, C. Stephen; Haracska, Lajos

    2013-01-01

    Damage to DNA can block replication progression resulting in gaps in the newly synthesized DNA. Cells utilize a number of post-replication repair (PRR) mechanisms such as the RAD18 controlled translesion synthesis or template switching to overcome the discontinuities formed opposite the DNA lesions and to complete DNA replication. Gaining more insights into the role of PRR genes promotes better understanding of DNA damage tolerance and of how their malfunction can lead to increased genome instability and cancer. However, a simple and efficient method to characterise gene specific PRR deficiencies at a single cell level has not been developed. Here we describe the so named BrdU comet PRR assay to test the contribution of human RAD18 to PRR at a single cell level, by which we kinetically characterized the consequences of the deletion of human RAD18 on the replication of UV-damaged DNA. Moreover, we demonstrate the capability of our method to evaluate PRR at a single cell level in unsynchronized cell population. PMID:23936422

  5. Characterization of a human prothrombin gene enhancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, B.K.

    1991-01-01

    The 5[prime] flanking sequence of the human prothrombin gene was isolated by screening a human liver phage library with a human prothrombin cDNA as a hybridization probe. A phage was identified that contained 3 kilobasepairs of DNA upstream of the initiator methionine codon. Primer extension studies showed that the major transcription initiation sites were located 23 and 36 basepairs upstream of the initiator codon. DNA sequences in the 5[prime] flanking region of the human prothrombin gene were then analyzed for cis-activating transcriptional activity by a transient expression system using the human growth hormone gene as the reporter gene. The chimeric expression vector was introduced into HepG2 cells, and secreted human growth hormone was monitored by using a radioimmunoassay. These studies showed that the 3 kbp fragment contained sequences that were sufficient for the initiation of transcription in HepG2 cells. Subsequent deletion studies showed that the 3 kbp fragment contained two elements: a weak promoter in the region immediately upstream of the mRNA coding sequence, and an enhancer located between nucleotides [minus]860 and [minus]940. The enhancer element was active at a distance and in either orientation. In addition, the enhancer was liver cell specific, and acted on heterologous promoters including the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase promoter and the mouse metallothionein I promoter. Comparison of the nucleotide sequence of the enhancer with a DNA sequence data base showed the enhancer sequence to be unique. The enhancer sequence is flanked by an inverted repeat, 5[prime] CCTCCC 3[prime], and contains a putative binding site for hepatic nuclear factor 1 (HNF-1). Deoxyribonuclease I footprint analysis and linker scanning mutagenesis showed that the enhancer contains multiple protein binding motifs. A Y-box binding protein sequence was also found, which may be a transcription factor for a number of genes.

  6. Association of common variants in mismatch repair genes and breast cancer susceptibility: a multigene study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pina Julieta

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MMR is responsible for the repair of base-base mismatches and insertion/deletion loops. Besides this, MMR is also associated with an anti-recombination function, suppressing homologous recombination. Losses of heterozygosity and/or microsatellite instability have been detected in a large number of skin samples from breast cancer patients, suggesting a potential role of MMR in breast cancer susceptibility. Methods We carried out a hospital-based case-control study in a Caucasian Portuguese population (287 cases and 547 controls to estimate the susceptibility to non-familial breast cancer associated with some polymorphisms in mismatch repair genes (MSH3, MSH4, MSH6, MLH1, MLH3, PMS1 and MUTYH. Results Using unconditional logistic regression we found that MLH3 (L844P, G>A polymorphism GA (Leu/Pro and AA (Pro/Pro genotypes were associated with a decreased risk: OR = 0.65 (0.45-0.95 (p = 0.03 and OR = 0.62 (0.41-0.94 (p = 0.03, respectively. Analysis of two-way SNP interaction effects on breast cancer revealed two potential associations to breast cancer susceptibility: MSH3 Ala1045Thr/MSH6 Gly39Glu - AA/TC [OR = 0.43 (0.21-0.83, p = 0.01] associated with a decreased risk; and MSH4 Ala97Thr/MLH3 Leu844Pro - AG/AA [OR = 2.35 (1.23-4.49, p = 0.01], GG/AA [OR = 2.11 (1.12-3,98, p = 0.02], and GG/AG [adjusted OR = 1.88 (1.12-3.15, p = 0.02] all associated with an increased risk for breast cancer. Conclusion It is possible that some of these common variants in MMR genes contribute significantly to breast cancer susceptibility. However, further studies with a large sample size will be needed to support our results.

  7. Combined effects of scaffold stiffening and mechanical preconditioning cycles on construct biomechanics, gene expression, and tendon repair biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmalanandhan, Victor Sanjit; Juncosa-Melvin, Natalia; Shearn, Jason T; Boivin, Gregory P; Galloway, Marc T; Gooch, Cynthia; Bradica, Gino; Butler, David L

    2009-08-01

    Our group has previously reported that in vitro mechanical stimulation of tissue-engineered tendon constructs significantly increases both construct stiffness and the biomechanical properties of the repair tissue after surgery. When optimized using response surface methodology, our results indicate that a mechanical stimulus with three components (2.4% strain, 3000 cycles/day, and one cycle repetition) produced the highest in vitro linear stiffness. Such positive correlations between construct and repair stiffness after surgery suggest that enhancing structural stiffness before surgery could not only accelerate repair stiffness but also prevent premature failures in culture due to poor mechanical integrity. In this study, we examined the combined effects of scaffold crosslinking and subsequent mechanical stimulation on construct mechanics and biology. Autologous tissue-engineered constructs were created by seeding mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from 15 New Zealand white rabbits on type I collagen sponges that had undergone additional dehydrothermal crosslinking (termed ADHT in this manuscript). Both constructs from each rabbit were mechanically stimulated for 8h/day for 12 consecutive days with half receiving 100 cycles/day and the other half receiving 3000 cycles/day. These paired MSC-collagen autologous constructs were then implanted in bilateral full-thickness, full-length defects in the central third of rabbit patellar tendons. Increasing the number of in vitro cycles/day delivered to the ADHT constructs in culture produced no differences in stiffness or gene expression and no changes in biomechanical properties or histology 12 weeks after surgery. Compared to MSC-based repairs from a previous study that received no additional treatment in culture, ADHT crosslinking of the scaffolds actually lowered the 12-week repair stiffness. Thus, while ADHT crosslinking may initially stiffen a construct in culture, this specific treatment also appears to mask any benefits

  8. Excision and crosslink repair of DNA and sister chromatid exchanges in cultured human fibroblasts with different repair capacities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, Y.; Kano, Y.; Paul, P.; Goto, K.; Yamamoto, K. (Kobe Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1981-01-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) groups A to G lacked the initial stage of ultraviolet (UV) excision repair in the order of A = G > C > D > E asymptotically equals F, while the XP variant was weakly defective in the later repair steps. Killing sensitivities were in the orders of A >= G > D > C > E asymptotically equals F asymptotically equals variant > normal to UV, A = G > D > F > C = E > variant > normal to 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO), and A > C > D = E = F = variant > G = normal to decarbamoyl mitomycin-C(DCMC). The induced sister chromatid exchange (SCE) frequency was unrelated to the extent of repair deficiency. The SCE induction rate was consistently 3 - 6 fold higher by these UV-like mutagens in XP group A cells than in normal cells. However, repair-proficient Cockayne's syndrome (CS) cells showed a higher SCE induction by UV, which was normalized by NAD/sup +/, suggesting that chromatin lesions as well as DNA damage contribute to SCE. Two-step crosslink repair involves a first rapid half-excision and a second slow nucleotide-excision repair. Fanconi's anemia (FA) cells had an impaired first half-excision and were supersensitive to MC, but not to UV and DCMC. The SCE frequency induced by MC (1 hr) was higher in FA cells than in normal cells despite their normal response to DCMC, and vice versa in XP cells. FA cells lacked the first rapid decline and showed higher remaining SCEs. Thus, part of the crosslink seems to lead to SCE formation. Caffeine synergistically elevated UV-induced SCEs, but not UV induced mutations in V79 cells, implying that SCE may not necessarily involve mutation.

  9. Genomics of the human carnitine acyltransferase genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Leij, FR; Huijkman, NCA; Boomsma, C; Kuipers, JRG; Bartelds, B

    2000-01-01

    Five genes in the human genome are known to encode different active forms of related carnitine acyltransferases: CPT1A for liver-type carnitine palmitoyltransferase I, CPT1B for muscle-type carnitine palmitoyltransferase I, CPT2 for carnitine palmitoyltransferase II, CROT for carnitine

  10. The human tenascin-R gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leprini, A; Gherzi, R; Siri, A; Querzé, G; Viti, F; Zardi, L

    1996-12-06

    The human tenascin-R gene encodes a multidomain protein belonging to the tenascin family, until now detected only in the central nervous system. During embryo development, tenascin-R is presumed to play a pivotal role in axonal path finding through its adhesive and repulsive properties. Recently, the primary structure of human tenascin-R has been elucidated (Carnemolla, B., Leprini, A., Borsi, L., Querzé, G., Urbini, S., and Zardi, L. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 8157-8160). As a further step to investigate the role of human tenascin-R, we defined the structure of its gene. The gene, which spans a region of chromosome 1 approximately 85 kilobases in length, consists of 21 exons, ranging in size from 90 to >670 base pairs. The sequence analysis of intron splice donor and acceptor sites revealed that the position of introns in human tenascin-R are precisely conserved in the other two tenascin family members, tenascin-C and tenascin-X. The determination of intronic sequences flanking the exon boundaries will allow investigation of whether mutations may be responsible for altered function of the gene product(s) leading to central nervous system development defects.

  11. Potential use of mesenchymal stem cells in human meniscal repair: current insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pak J

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Jaewoo Pak,1–3* Jung Hun Lee,1,4* Kwang Seung Park,4 Jeong Ho Jeon,4 Sang Hee Lee4 1Stems Medical Clinic, Gangnamgu, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 2TEDA‑Puhua International Hospital, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China; 3Life Science Institute, Komplek Permata Senayan, Jalan Tentara Pelajar, Jakarta Selatan, Indonesia; 4National Leading Research Laboratory, Department of Biological Sciences, Myongji University, Yongin, Gyeonggido, Republic of Korea *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: The menisci of the human knee play an important role in maintaining normal functions to provide stability and nutrition to the articular cartilage, and to absorb shock. Once injured, these important structures have very limited natural healing potential. Unfortunately, the traditional arthroscopic meniscectomy performed on these damaged menisci may predispose the joint toward early development of osteoarthritis. Although a very limited number of studies are available, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have been investigated as an alternative therapeutic modality to repair human knee meniscal tears. This review summarizes the results of published applications of MSCs in human patients, which showed that the patients who received MSCs (autologous adipose tissue-derived stem cells or culture-expanded bone marrow-derived stem cells presented symptomatic improvements, along with magnetic resonance imaging evidences of the meniscal repair. Keywords: adipose tissue-derived stem cells, bone marrow-derived stem cells, human knee, meniscal tear, articular cartilage, therapeutic modality

  12. Use of the comet-FISH assay to compare DNA damage and repair in p53 and hTERT genes following ionizing radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Declan J McKenna

    Full Text Available The alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay can be combined with fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH methodology in order to investigate the localisation of specific gene domains within an individual cell. The number and position of the fluorescent signal(s provides information about the relative damage and subsequent repair that is occurring in the targeted gene domain(s. In this study, we have optimised the comet-FISH assay to detect and compare DNA damage and repair in the p53 and hTERT gene regions of bladder cancer cell-lines RT4 and RT112, normal fibroblasts and Cockayne Syndrome (CS fibroblasts following γ-radiation. Cells were exposed to 5Gy γ-radiation and repair followed for up to 60 minutes. At each repair time-point, the number and location of p53 and hTERT hybridisation spots was recorded in addition to standard comet measurements. In bladder cancer cell-lines and normal fibroblasts, the p53 gene region was found to be rapidly repaired relative to the hTERT gene region and the overall genome, a phenomenon that appeared to be independent of hTERT transcriptional activity. However, in the CS fibroblasts, which are defective in transcription coupled repair (TCR, this rapid repair of the p53 gene region was not observed when compared to both the hTERT gene region and the overall genome, proving the assay can detect variations in DNA repair in the same gene. In conclusion, we propose that the comet-FISH assay is a sensitive and rapid method for detecting differences in DNA damage and repair between different gene regions in individual cells in response to radiation. We suggest this increases its potential for measuring radiosensitivity in cells and may therefore have value in a clinical setting.

  13. Use of the Comet-FISH Assay to Compare DNA Damage and Repair in p53 and hTERT Genes following Ionizing Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Declan J.; Doherty, Bernadette A.; Downes, C. Stephen; McKeown, Stephanie R.; McKelvey-Martin, Valerie J.

    2012-01-01

    The alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay can be combined with fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) methodology in order to investigate the localisation of specific gene domains within an individual cell. The number and position of the fluorescent signal(s) provides information about the relative damage and subsequent repair that is occurring in the targeted gene domain(s). In this study, we have optimised the comet-FISH assay to detect and compare DNA damage and repair in the p53 and hTERT gene regions of bladder cancer cell-lines RT4 and RT112, normal fibroblasts and Cockayne Syndrome (CS) fibroblasts following γ-radiation. Cells were exposed to 5Gy γ-radiation and repair followed for up to 60 minutes. At each repair time-point, the number and location of p53 and hTERT hybridisation spots was recorded in addition to standard comet measurements. In bladder cancer cell-lines and normal fibroblasts, the p53 gene region was found to be rapidly repaired relative to the hTERT gene region and the overall genome, a phenomenon that appeared to be independent of hTERT transcriptional activity. However, in the CS fibroblasts, which are defective in transcription coupled repair (TCR), this rapid repair of the p53 gene region was not observed when compared to both the hTERT gene region and the overall genome, proving the assay can detect variations in DNA repair in the same gene. In conclusion, we propose that the comet-FISH assay is a sensitive and rapid method for detecting differences in DNA damage and repair between different gene regions in individual cells in response to radiation. We suggest this increases its potential for measuring radiosensitivity in cells and may therefore have value in a clinical setting. PMID:23145163

  14. Mapping genes to human chromosome 19

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, Sarah [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    For this project, 22 Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) were fine mapped to regions of human chromosome 19. An EST is a short DNA sequence that occurs once in the genome and corresponds to a single expressed gene. {sup 32}P-radiolabeled probes were made by polymerase chain reaction for each EST and hybridized to filters containing a chromosome 19-specific cosmid library. The location of the ESTs on the chromosome was determined by the location of the ordered cosmid to which the EST hybridized. Of the 22 ESTs that were sublocalized, 6 correspond to known genes, and 16 correspond to anonymous genes. These localized ESTs may serve as potential candidates for disease genes, as well as markers for future physical mapping.

  15. Exome sequencing identifies rare deleterious mutations in DNA repair genes FANCC and BLM as potential breast cancer susceptibility alleles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella R Thompson

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite intensive efforts using linkage and candidate gene approaches, the genetic etiology for the majority of families with a multi-generational breast cancer predisposition is unknown. In this study, we used whole-exome sequencing of thirty-three individuals from 15 breast cancer families to identify potential predisposing genes. Our analysis identified families with heterozygous, deleterious mutations in the DNA repair genes FANCC and BLM, which are responsible for the autosomal recessive disorders Fanconi Anemia and Bloom syndrome. In total, screening of all exons in these genes in 438 breast cancer families identified three with truncating mutations in FANCC and two with truncating mutations in BLM. Additional screening of FANCC mutation hotspot exons identified one pathogenic mutation among an additional 957 breast cancer families. Importantly, none of the deleterious mutations were identified among 464 healthy controls and are not reported in the 1,000 Genomes data. Given the rarity of Fanconi Anemia and Bloom syndrome disorders among Caucasian populations, the finding of multiple deleterious mutations in these critical DNA repair genes among high-risk breast cancer families is intriguing and suggestive of a predisposing role. Our data demonstrate the utility of intra-family exome-sequencing approaches to uncover cancer predisposition genes, but highlight the major challenge of definitively validating candidates where the incidence of sporadic disease is high, germline mutations are not fully penetrant, and individual predisposition genes may only account for a tiny proportion of breast cancer families.

  16. Contribution of DNA double-strand break repair gene XRCC3 genotypes to oral cancer susceptibility in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chia-Wen; Chang, Wen-Shin; Liu, Juhn-Cherng; Tsai, Ming-Hsui; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Bau, Da-Tian

    2014-06-01

    The DNA repair gene X-ray repair cross complementing protein 3 (XRCC3) is thought to play a major role in double-strand break repair and in maintaining genomic stability. Very possibly, defective double-strand break repair of cells can lead to carcinogenesis. Therefore, a case-control study was performed to reveal the contribution of XRCC3 genotypes to individual oral cancer susceptibility. In this hospital-based research, the association of XRCC3 rs1799794, rs45603942, rs861530, rs3212057, rs1799796, rs861539, rs28903081 genotypes with oral cancer risk in a Taiwanese population was investigated. In total, 788 patients with oral cancer and 956 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were genotyped. The results showed that there was significant differential distribution among oral cancer and controls in the genotypic (p=0.001428) and allelic (p=0.0013) frequencies of XRCC3 rs861539. As for the other polymorphisms, there was no difference between case and control groups. In gene-lifestyle interaction analysis, we have provided the first evidence showing that there is an obvious joint effect of XRCC3 rs861539 genotype with individual areca chewing habits on oral cancer risk. In conclusion, the T allele of XRCC3 rs861539, which has an interaction with areca chewing habit in oral carcinogenesis, may be an early marker for oral cancer in Taiwanese. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  17. Human proton/oligopeptide transporter (POT) genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Botka, C. W.; Wittig, T. W.; Graul, R. C.

    2000-01-01

    The proton-dependent oligopeptide transporters (POT) gene family currently consists of approximately 70 cloned cDNAs derived from diverse organisms. In mammals, two genes encoding peptide transporters, PepT1 and PepT2 have been cloned in several species including humans, in addition to a rat...... human orthologue of rPHT1 (expression largely confined to rat brain and retina) was represented by numerous ESTs originating from many tissues. Assembly of these ESTs resulted in a contiguous sequence covering approximately 95% of the suspected coding region. The contig sequences and analyses revealed...... the presence of several possible splice variants of hPHT1. A second closely related human EST-contig displayed high identity to a recently cloned mouse cDNA encoding cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-inducible 1 protein (gi:4580995). This contig served to identify a PAC clone containing deduced exons...

  18. Biological evaluation of human hair keratin scaffolds for skin wound repair and regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Songmei; Sang, Lin [National Engineering Research Center for Biomaterials, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Zhang, Yaping [Engineering Research Center of Biomass Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); Wang, Xiaoliang [National Engineering Research Center for Biomaterials, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Li, Xudong, E-mail: xli20004@yahoo.com [National Engineering Research Center for Biomaterials, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China)

    2013-03-01

    The cytocompatibility, in vivo biodegradation and wound healing of keratin biomaterials were investigated. For the purposes, three groups of keratin scaffolds were fabricated by freeze-drying reduced solutions at 2 wt.%, 4 wt.% and 8 wt.% keratins extracted from human hairs. These scaffolds exhibited evenly distributed high porous structures with pore size of 120-220 {mu}m and the porosity > 90%. NIH3T3 cells proliferated well on these scaffolds in culture lasting up to 22 days. Confocal micrographs stained with AO visually revealed cell attachment and infiltration as well as scaffold architectural stability. In vivo animal experiments were conducted with 4 wt.% keratin scaffolds. Early degradation of subcutaneously implanted scaffolds occurred at 3 weeks in the outermost surface, in concomitant with inflammatory response. At 5 weeks, the overall porous structure of scaffolds severely deteriorated while the early inflammatory response in the outermost surface obviously subsided. A faster keratin biodegradation was observed in repairing full-thickness skin defects. Compared with the blank control, keratin scaffolds gave rise to more blood vessels at 2 weeks and better complete wound repair at 3 weeks with a thicker epidermis, less contraction and newly formed hair follicles. These preliminary results suggest that human hair keratin scaffolds are promising dermal substitutes for skin regeneration. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Preparation of highly-interconnected human hair keratin scaffolds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Long-term cell culturing and in vivo animal experiments with keratin scaffolds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biodegradation is dependent on implantation site and function Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Early vascularization and better repair in treating full-thickness skin wounds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A thicker epidermis, less contraction and newly formed hair follicles are observed.

  19. Constitutional Mismatch Repair Deficiency in Israel: High Proportion of Founder Mutations in MMR Genes and Consanguinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baris, Hagit N; Barnes-Kedar, Inbal; Toledano, Helen; Halpern, Marisa; Hershkovitz, Dov; Lossos, Alexander; Lerer, Israela; Peretz, Tamar; Kariv, Revital; Cohen, Shlomi; Half, Elizabeth E; Magal, Nurit; Drasinover, Valerie; Wimmer, Katharina; Goldberg, Yael; Bercovich, Dani; Levi, Zohar

    2016-03-01

    Heterozygous germline mutations in any of the mismatch repair (MMR) genes, MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2, cause Lynch syndrome (LS), an autosomal dominant cancer predisposition syndrome conferring a high risk of colorectal, endometrial, and other cancers in adulthood. Offspring of couples where both spouses have LS have a 1:4 risk of inheriting biallelic MMR gene mutations. These cause constitutional MMR deficiency (CMMRD) syndrome, a severe recessively inherited cancer syndrome with a broad tumor spectrum including mainly hematological malignancies, brain tumors, and colon cancer in childhood and adolescence. Many CMMRD children also present with café au lait spots and axillary freckling mimicking neurofibromatosis type 1. We describe our experience in seven CMMRD families demonstrating the role and importance of founder mutations and consanguinity on its prevalence. Clinical presentations included brain tumors, colon cancer, lymphoma, and small bowel cancer. In children from two nonconsanguineous Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) families, the common Ashkenazi founder mutations were detected; these were homozygous in one family and compound heterozygous in the other. In four consanguineous families of various ancestries, different homozygous mutations were identified. In a nonconsanguineous Caucasus/AJ family, lack of PMS2 was demonstrated in tumor and normal tissues; however, mutations were not identified. CMMRD is rare, but, especially in areas where founder mutations for LS and consanguinity are common, pediatricians should be aware of it since they are the first to encounter these children. Early diagnosis will enable tailored cancer surveillance in the entire family and a discussion regarding prenatal genetic diagnosis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. The Association of Low-Penetrance Variants in DNA Repair Genes with Colorectal Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Nikhil; Donald, Neil D; Malik, Salim; Selvendran, Subothini S; McPhail, Mark Jw; Monahan, Kevin J

    2017-07-27

    Approximately 35% of colorectal cancer (CRC) risk is attributable to heritable factors known hereditary syndromes, accounting for 6%. The remainder may be due to lower penetrance polymorphisms particularly of DNA repair genes. DNA repair pathways, including base excision repair (BER), nucleotide excision repair (NER), mismatch repair (MMR), direct reversal repair (DRR), and double-strand break repair are complex, evolutionarily conserved, and critical in carcinogenesis. Germline mutations in these genes are associated with high-penetrance CRC syndromes such as Lynch syndrome. However, the association of low-penetrance polymorphisms of DNA repair genes with CRC risk remains unclear. A systematic literature review of PubMed, Embase, and HuGENet databases was conducted. Pre-specified criteria determined study inclusion/exclusion. Per-allele, pooled odds ratios disclosed the risk attributed to each variant. Heterogeneity was investigated by subgroup analyses for ethnicity and tumor location; funnel plots and Egger's test assessed publication bias. Sixty-one polymorphisms in 26 different DNA repair genes were identified. Meta-analyses for 22 polymorphisms in 17 genes revealed that six polymorphisms were significantly associated with CRC risk within BER (APE1, PARP1), NER (ERCC5, XPC), double-strand break (RAD18), and DRR (MGMT), but none within MMR. Subgroup analyses revealed significant association of OGG1 rs1052133 with rectal cancer risk. Egger's test revealed no publication bias. Low-penetrance polymorphisms in DNA repair genes alter susceptibility to CRC. Future studies should therefore analyze whole-genome polymorphisms and any synergistic effects on CRC risk.Translational impact:This knowledge may enhance CRC risk assessment and facilitate a more personalized approach to cancer prevention.

  1. Automatic polygon mesh repair and simplification for three-dimensional human modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yaolin; Tian, Li; Wan, Taoruan

    2017-07-01

    We present a new approach to repair degenerated and self-intersected mesh of digitized human models, which automatically transforms a raw digitized mesh into a single manifold and closed triangle mesh. The algorithm interactively removes growing neighborhoods of undesired elements and fills resulted surface gaps to yield meshes which subject to user-specified quality criteria. We demonstrate our experimental results by multiple sets of low-quality original models with qualitative measurements compared with a number of existing methods. The results show that the proposed method produces high visual quality meshes with minimal changes of the original mesh appearances.

  2. Human exonuclease 1 and BLM helicase interact to resect DNA and initiate DNA repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimonkar, Amitabh V.; Özsoy, A. Zeynep; Genschel, Jochen; Modrich, Paul; Kowalczykowski, Stephen C.

    2008-01-01

    The error-free repair of double-stranded DNA breaks by homologous recombination requires processing of broken ends. These processed ends are substrates for assembly of DNA strand exchange proteins that mediate DNA strand invasion. Here, we establish that human BLM helicase, a member of the RecQ family, stimulates the nucleolytic activity of human exonuclease 1 (hExo1), a 5′→3′ double-stranded DNA exonuclease. The stimulation is specific because other RecQ homologs fail to stimulate hExo1. Stimulation of DNA resection by hExo1 is independent of BLM helicase activity and is, instead, mediated by an interaction between the 2 proteins. Finally, we show that DNA ends resected by hExo1 and BLM are used by human Rad51, but not its yeast or bacterial counterparts, to promote homologous DNA pairing. This in vitro system recapitulates initial steps of homologous recombination and provides biochemical evidence for a role of BLM and Exo1 in the initiation of recombinational DNA repair. PMID:18971343

  3. Identification of APN2, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae homolog of the major human AP endonuclease HAP1, and its role in the repair of abasic sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R E; Torres-Ramos, C A; Izumi, T; Mitra, S; Prakash, S; Prakash, L

    1998-10-01

    Abasic (AP) sites arise in DNA through spontaneous base loss and enzymatic removal of damaged bases. APN1 encodes the major AP-endonuclease of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Human HAP1 (REF1) encodes the major AP endonuclease which, in addition to its role in DNA repair, functions as a redox regulatory protein. We identify APN2, the yeast homolog of HAP1 and provide evidence that Apn1 and Apn2 represent alternate pathways for repairing AP sites. The apn1Delta apn2Delta strain displays a highly elevated level of MMS-induced mutagenesis, which is dependent on the REV3, REV7, and REV1 genes. Our findings indicate that AP sites are highly cytotoxic and mutagenic in eukaryotes, and that the REV3, REV7-encoded DNA polymerase zeta mediates the mutagenic bypass of AP sites.

  4. Association between DNA damage response and repair genes and risk of invasive serous ovarian cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joellen M Schildkraut

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We analyzed the association between 53 genes related to DNA repair and p53-mediated damage response and serous ovarian cancer risk using case-control data from the North Carolina Ovarian Cancer Study (NCOCS, a population-based, case-control study. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The analysis was restricted to 364 invasive serous ovarian cancer cases and 761 controls of white, non-Hispanic race. Statistical analysis was two staged: a screen using marginal Bayes factors (BFs for 484 SNPs and a modeling stage in which we calculated multivariate adjusted posterior probabilities of association for 77 SNPs that passed the screen. These probabilities were conditional on subject age at diagnosis/interview, batch, a DNA quality metric and genotypes of other SNPs and allowed for uncertainty in the genetic parameterizations of the SNPs and number of associated SNPs. Six SNPs had Bayes factors greater than 10 in favor of an association with invasive serous ovarian cancer. These included rs5762746 (median OR(odds ratio(per allele = 0.66; 95% credible interval (CI = 0.44-1.00 and rs6005835 (median OR(per allele = 0.69; 95% CI = 0.53-0.91 in CHEK2, rs2078486 (median OR(per allele = 1.65; 95% CI = 1.21-2.25 and rs12951053 (median OR(per allele = 1.65; 95% CI = 1.20-2.26 in TP53, rs411697 (median OR (rare homozygote = 0.53; 95% CI = 0.35 - 0.79 in BACH1 and rs10131 (median OR( rare homozygote = not estimable in LIG4. The six most highly associated SNPs are either predicted to be functionally significant or are in LD with such a variant. The variants in TP53 were confirmed to be associated in a large follow-up study. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Based on our findings, further follow-up of the DNA repair and response pathways in a larger dataset is warranted to confirm these results.

  5. DNA repair gene XRCC1 polymorphisms, smoking, and bladder cancer risk: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1 protein plays a crucial role in base excision repair (BER pathway by acting as a scaffold for other BER enzymes. Variants in the XRCC1 gene might alter protein structure or function or create alternatively spliced proteins which may influence BER efficiency and hence affect individual susceptibility to bladder cancer. Recent epidemiological studies have shown inconsistent associations between these polymorphisms and bladder cancer. To clarify the situation, a comprehensive meta-analysis of all available studies was performed in this study. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, and Chinese Biomedical Literature database (CBM databases have been systematically searched to identify all relevant studies for the period up to February 2013. Data were abstracted independently by two reviewers and Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated. Subgroup analyses were performed mainly by ethnicity and smoking status. RESULTS: A total of 26 case-control studies, including 24 studies for R399Q polymorphism, 15 studies for R194W polymorphism, and 7 studies for R280H polymorphism met the inclusion criteria and were selected. With respect to R399Q polymorphism, significantly decreased bladder cancer risk was found among smokers (AA vs. GG: OR=0.693, 95%CI= 0.515-0.932, P=0.015 and recessive model AA vs. GA+GG: OR=0.680, 95%CI= 0.515-0.898, P=0.007, respectively. With respect to R194W and R280H polymorphism, significantly increased bladder cancer risk were observed among Asians (TT+CT vs. CC:OR = 1.327, 95% CI 1.086-1.622, P=0.006 for R194W, and AA+GA vs. GG: OR=2.094, 95% CI 1.211-3.621, P=0.008 for R280H, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis suggests that the XRCC1 R399Q polymorphism may play a protective role against bladder cancer among smokers. However, the XRCC1 R194W and R280H polymorphisms were both associated with increased bladder cancer risk among Asians

  6. Repair genes expression profile of MLH1, MSH2 and ATM in the normal oral mucosa of chronic smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Mônica Ghislaine Oliveira; Carta, Celina Faig Lima; de Barros, Patrícia Pimentel; Issa, Jaqueline Scholz; Nunes, Fábio Daumas; Almeida, Janete Dias

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of chronic smoking on the expression profile of the repair genes MLH1, MSH2 and ATM in the normal oral mucosa of chronic smokers and never smokers. The sample consisted of thirty exfoliative cytology smears per group obtained from Smokers and Never Smokers. Total RNA was extracted and expression of the MLH1, MSH2 and ATM genes were evaluated by quantitative real-time and immunocytochemistry. The gene and protein expression data were correlated to the clinical data. Gene expression was analyzed statistically using the Student t-test and Pearson's correlation coefficient, with pATM genes were downregulated in the smoking group compared to the control with significant values for MLH1 (p=0.006), MSH2 (p=0.0001) and ATM (p=0.0001). Immunocytochemical staining for anti-MLH1, anti-MSH2 and anti-ATM was negative in Never Smokers; in Smokers it was rarely positive. No significant correlation was observed among the expression of MLH1, MSH2, ATM and age, number of cigarettes consumed per day, time of smoking during life, smoking history or levels of CO in expired air. The expression of genes and proteins related to DNA repair mechanism MLH1, MSH2 and ATM in the normal oral mucosa of chronic smokers was reduced. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. DNA repair and radiation sensitivity in mammalian cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, D.J.C.; Stackhouse, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Chen, D.S. [Rochester Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    1993-02-01

    Ionizing radiation induces various types of damage in mammalian cells including DNA single-strand breaks, DNA double-strand breaks (DSB), DNA-protein cross links, and altered DNA bases. Although human cells can repair many of these lesions there is little detailed knowledge of the nature of the genes and the encoded enzymes that control these repair processes. We report here on the cellular and genetic analyses of DNA double-strand break repair deficient mammalian cells. It has been well established that the DNA double-strand break is one of the major lesions induced by ionizing radiation. Utilizing rodent repair-deficient mutant, we have shown that the genes responsible for DNA double-strand break repair are also responsible for the cellular expression of radiation sensitivity. The molecular genetic analysis of DSB repair in rodent/human hybrid cells indicate that at least 6 different genes in mammalian cells are responsible for the repair of radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks. Mapping and the prospect of cloning of human radiation repair genes are reviewed. Understanding the molecular and genetic basis of radiation sensitivity and DNA repair in man will provide a rational foundation to predict the individual risk associated with radiation exposure and to prevent radiation-induced genetic damage in the human population.

  8. DNA repair and radiation sensitivity in mammalian cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, D.J.C.; Stackhouse, M. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Chen, D.S. (Rochester Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology)

    1993-01-01

    Ionizing radiation induces various types of damage in mammalian cells including DNA single-strand breaks, DNA double-strand breaks (DSB), DNA-protein cross links, and altered DNA bases. Although human cells can repair many of these lesions there is little detailed knowledge of the nature of the genes and the encoded enzymes that control these repair processes. We report here on the cellular and genetic analyses of DNA double-strand break repair deficient mammalian cells. It has been well established that the DNA double-strand break is one of the major lesions induced by ionizing radiation. Utilizing rodent repair-deficient mutant, we have shown that the genes responsible for DNA double-strand break repair are also responsible for the cellular expression of radiation sensitivity. The molecular genetic analysis of DSB repair in rodent/human hybrid cells indicate that at least 6 different genes in mammalian cells are responsible for the repair of radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks. Mapping and the prospect of cloning of human radiation repair genes are reviewed. Understanding the molecular and genetic basis of radiation sensitivity and DNA repair in man will provide a rational foundation to predict the individual risk associated with radiation exposure and to prevent radiation-induced genetic damage in the human population.

  9. Knockout targeting of the Drosophila nap1 gene and examination of DNA repair tracts in the recombination products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankenau, Susanne; Barnickel, Thorsten; Marhold, Joachim; Lyko, Frank; Mechler, Bernard M; Lankenau, Dirk-Henner

    2003-02-01

    We used ends-in gene targeting to generate knockout mutations of the nucleosome assembly protein 1 (Nap1) gene in Drosophila melanogaster. Three independent targeted null-knockout mutations were produced. No wild-type NAP1 protein could be detected in protein extracts. Homozygous Nap1(KO) knockout flies were either embryonic lethal or poorly viable adult escapers. Three additional targeted recombination products were viable. To gain insight into the underlying molecular processes we examined conversion tracts in the recombination products. In nearly all cases the I-SceI endonuclease site of the donor vector was replaced by the wild-type Nap1 sequence. This indicated exonuclease processing at the site of the double-strand break (DSB), followed by replicative repair at donor-target junctions. The targeting products are best interpreted either by the classical DSB repair model or by the break-induced recombination (BIR) model. Synthesis-dependent strand annealing (SDSA), which is another important recombinational repair pathway in the germline, does not explain ends-in targeting products. We conclude that this example of gene targeting at the Nap1 locus provides added support for the efficiency of this method and its usefulness in targeting any arbitrary locus in the Drosophila genome.

  10. Polymorphisms in DNA repair genes, smoking, and bladder cancer risk: findings from the International Consortium of Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Mariana C.; Lin, Jie; Figueroa, Jonine D.; Kelsey, Karl T.; Kiltie, Anne E.; Yuan, Jian-Min; Matullo, Giuseppe; Fletcher, Tony; Benhamou, Simone; Taylor, Jack A.; Placidi, Donatella; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Steineck, Gunnar; Rothman, Nathaniel; Kogevinas, Manolis; Silverman, Debra; Malats, Nuria; Chanock, Stephen; Wu, Xifeng; Karagas, Margaret R.; Andrew, Angeline S.; Nelson, Heather H.; Bishop, D. Timothy; Sak, Sei Chung; Choudhury, Ananya; Barrett, Jennifer H; Elliot, Faye; Corral, Román; Joshi, Amit D.; Gago-Dominguez, Manuela; Cortessis, Victoria K.; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Vineis, Paolo; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Guarrera, Simonetta; Polidoro, Silvia; Allione, Alessandra; Gurzau, Eugen; Koppova, Kvetoslava; Kumar, Rajiv; Rudnai, Peter; Porru, Stefano; Carta, Angela; Campagna, Marcello; Arici, Cecilia; Park, SungShim Lani; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat

    2009-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is the most important and well-established bladder cancer risk factor, and a rich source of chemical carcinogens and reactive oxygen species that can induce damage to DNA in urothelial cells. Therefore, common variation in DNA repair genes might modify bladder cancer risk. In this study we present results from meta- and pooled analyses conducted as part of the International Consortium of Bladder Cancer. We included data on 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms corresponding to 7 DNA repair genes from 13 studies. Pooled- and meta-analyses included 5,282 cases and 5,954 controls of non-Latino white origin. We found evidence for weak but consistent associations with ERCC2 D312N (rs1799793) (per allele OR = 1.10; 95% CI = 1.01–1.19; p = 0.021), NBN E185Q (rs1805794) (per allele OR = 1.09; 95% CI = 1.01–1.18; p = 0.028), and XPC A499V (rs2228000) (per allele OR = 1.10; 95% CI = 1.00–1.21, p = 0.044). The association with NBN E185Q was limited to ever smokers (interaction p = 0.002), and was strongest for the highest levels of smoking dose and smoking duration. Overall, our study provides the strongest evidence to date for a role of common variants in DNA repair genes in bladder carcinogenesis. PMID:19706757

  11. Comparative analysis of genome maintenance genes in naked mole rat, mouse, and human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacRae, Sheila L; Zhang, Quanwei; Lemetre, Christophe; Seim, Inge; Calder, Robert B; Hoeijmakers, Jan; Suh, Yousin; Gladyshev, Vadim N; Seluanov, Andrei; Gorbunova, Vera; Vijg, Jan; Zhang, Zhengdong D

    2015-04-01

    Genome maintenance (GM) is an essential defense system against aging and cancer, as both are characterized by increased genome instability. Here, we compared the copy number variation and mutation rate of 518 GM-associated genes in the naked mole rat (NMR), mouse, and human genomes. GM genes appeared to be strongly conserved, with copy number variation in only four genes. Interestingly, we found NMR to have a higher copy number of CEBPG, a regulator of DNA repair, and TINF2, a protector of telomere integrity. NMR, as well as human, was also found to have a lower rate of germline nucleotide substitution than the mouse. Together, the data suggest that the long-lived NMR, as well as human, has more robust GM than mouse and identifies new targets for the analysis of the exceptional longevity of the NMR. © 2015 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. High rate of CAD gene amplification in human cells deficient in MLH1 or MSH6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sihong; Bigner, Sandra H.; Modrich, Paul

    2001-01-01

    MutS and MutL homologs have been implicated in multiple genetic stabilization pathways. The activities participate in the correction of DNA biosynthetic errors, are involved in cellular responses to certain types of DNA damage, and serve to ensure the fidelity of genetic recombination. We show here that the rate of CAD (carbamyl-P synthetase/aspartate transcarbamylase/dihydroorotase) gene amplification is elevated 50- to 100-fold in human cell lines deficient in MLH1 or MSH6, as compared with mismatch repair-proficient control cells. Fluorescence in situ hybridization indicates that these amplification events are the probable consequence of unequal sister chromatid exchanges involving chromosome 2, as well as translocation events involving other chromosomes. These results implicate MutSα and MutLα in the suppression of gene amplification and suggest that defects in this genetic stabilization function may contribute to the cancer predisposition associated with mismatch repair deficiency. PMID:11717437

  13. Human Cell Assays for Synthesis-Dependent Strand Annealing and Crossing over During Double-Strand Break Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapotoczny, Grzegorz; Sekelsky, Jeff

    2017-04-03

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are one of the most deleterious types of lesions to the genome. Synthesis-dependent strand annealing (SDSA) is thought to be a major pathway of DSB repair, but direct tests of this model have only been conducted in budding yeast and Drosophila To better understand this pathway, we developed an SDSA assay for use in human cells. Our results support the hypothesis that SDSA is an important DSB repair mechanism in human cells. We used siRNA knockdown to assess the roles of a number of helicases suggested to promote SDSA. None of the helicase knockdowns reduced SDSA, but knocking down BLM or RTEL1 increased SDSA. Molecular analysis of repair products suggests that these helicases may prevent long-tract repair synthesis. Since the major alternative to SDSA (repair involving a double-Holliday junction intermediate) can lead to crossovers, we also developed a fluorescent assay that detects crossovers generated during DSB repair. Together, these assays will be useful in investigating features and mechanisms of SDSA and crossover pathways in human cells. Copyright © 2017 Zapotoczny and Sekelsky.

  14. Human Cell Assays for Synthesis-Dependent Strand Annealing and Crossing over During Double-Strand Break Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Zapotoczny

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs are one of the most deleterious types of lesions to the genome. Synthesis-dependent strand annealing (SDSA is thought to be a major pathway of DSB repair, but direct tests of this model have only been conducted in budding yeast and Drosophila. To better understand this pathway, we developed an SDSA assay for use in human cells. Our results support the hypothesis that SDSA is an important DSB repair mechanism in human cells. We used siRNA knockdown to assess the roles of a number of helicases suggested to promote SDSA. None of the helicase knockdowns reduced SDSA, but knocking down BLM or RTEL1 increased SDSA. Molecular analysis of repair products suggests that these helicases may prevent long-tract repair synthesis. Since the major alternative to SDSA (repair involving a double-Holliday junction intermediate can lead to crossovers, we also developed a fluorescent assay that detects crossovers generated during DSB repair. Together, these assays will be useful in investigating features and mechanisms of SDSA and crossover pathways in human cells.

  15. The repair of melphalan-induced DNA adducts in the transcribed strand of active genes is subject to a strong polarity effect.

    OpenAIRE

    Episkopou, Hara; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios A.; Sfikakis, Petros P.; Meletios A Dimopoulos; Souliotis, Vassilis L

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the mechanisms of the therapeutic action and drug resistance to the nitrogen mustard melphalan, melphalan-induced DNA damage repair and chromatin structure were examined along the p53, N-ras and d-globin gene loci in cells carrying different repair activities. In nucleotide excision repair-deficient XP-A cells, similar levels of adducts were found in all fragments examined, indicating uniform distribution of DNA damage. In both, repair-proficient CS-B and XP-C cells, faster rep...

  16. Alcohol Consumption and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer for Mismatch Repair Gene Mutation Carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashti, S Ghazaleh; Buchanan, Daniel D; Jayasekara, Harindra; Ait Ouakrim, Driss; Clendenning, Mark; Rosty, Christophe; Winship, Ingrid M; Macrae, Finlay A; Giles, Graham G; Parry, Susan; Casey, Graham; Haile, Robert W; Gallinger, Steven; Le Marchand, Loïc; Thibodeau, Stephen N; Lindor, Noralane M; Newcomb, Polly A; Potter, John D; Baron, John A; Hopper, John L; Jenkins, Mark A; Win, Aung Ko

    2017-03-01

    Background: People with germline mutation in one of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes have increased colorectal cancer risk. For these high-risk people, study findings of the relationship between alcohol consumption and colorectal cancer risk have been inconclusive. Methods: 1,925 MMR gene mutations carriers recruited into the Colon Cancer Family Registry who had completed a questionnaire on lifestyle factors were included. Weighted Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between alcohol consumption and colorectal cancer. Results: Colorectal cancer was diagnosed in 769 carriers (40%) at a mean (SD) age of 42.6 (10.3) years. Compared with abstention, ethanol consumption from any alcoholic beverage up to 14 g/day and >28 g/day was associated with increased colorectal cancer risk (HR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.09-2.07 and 1.69; 95% CI, 1.07-2.65, respectively; P trend = 0.05), and colon cancer risk (HR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.27-2.49 and 1.94; 95% CI, 1.19-3.18, respectively; P trend = 0.02). However, there was no clear evidence for an association with rectal cancer risk. Also, there was no evidence for associations between consumption of individual alcoholic beverage types (beer, wine, spirits) and colorectal, colon, or rectal cancer risk. Conclusions: Our data suggest that alcohol consumption, particularly more than 28 g/day of ethanol (∼2 standard drinks of alcohol in the United States), is associated with increased colorectal cancer risk for MMR gene mutation carriers. Impact: Although these data suggested that alcohol consumption in MMR carriers was associated with increased colorectal cancer risk, there was no evidence of a dose-response, and not all types of alcohol consumption were associated with increased risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(3); 366-75. ©2016 AACR . ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. Germ line mutations of mismatch repair genes in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer patients with small bowel cancer: International Society for Gastrointestinal Hereditary Tumours Collaborative Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Jae-Gahb; Kim, Duck-Woo; Hong, Chang Won

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of study was to determine the clinical characteristics and mutational profiles of the mismatch repair genes in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) patients with small bowel cancer (SBC). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A questionnaire was mailed to 55 members...... of the International Society for Gastrointestinal Hereditary Tumours, requesting information regarding patients with HNPCC-associated SBC and germ line mismatch repair gene mutations. RESULTS: The study population consisted of 85 HNPCC patients with identified mismatch repair gene mutations and SBCs. SBC was the first...... HNPCC-associated malignancy in 14 of 41 (34.1%) patients for whom a personal history of HNPCC-associated cancers was available. The study population harbored 69 different germ line mismatch repair gene mutations, including 31 mutations in MLH1, 34 in MSH2, 3 in MSH6, and 1 in PMS2. We compared...

  18. Regulation of gene expression in human tendinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archambault Joanne M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic tendon injuries, also known as tendinopathies, are common among professional and recreational athletes. These injuries result in a significant amount of morbidity and health care expenditure, yet little is known about the molecular mechanisms leading to tendinopathy. Methods We have used histological evaluation and molecular profiling to determine gene expression changes in 23 human patients undergoing surgical procedures for the treatment of chronic tendinopathy. Results Diseased tendons exhibit altered extracellular matrix, fiber disorientation, increased cellular content and vasculature, and the absence of inflammatory cells. Global gene expression profiling identified 983 transcripts with significantly different expression patterns in the diseased tendons. Global pathway analysis further suggested altered expression of extracellular matrix proteins and the lack of an appreciable inflammatory response. Conclusions Identification of the pathways and genes that are differentially regulated in tendinopathy samples will contribute to our understanding of the disease and the development of novel therapeutics.

  19. Brain infection and activation of neuronal repair mechanisms by the human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes in the lepidopteran model host Galleria mellonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Krishnendu; Hain, Torsten; Fischer, Rainer; Chakraborty, Trinad; Vilcinskas, Andreas

    2013-05-15

    Listeria monocytogenes the causative agent of the foodborne disease listeriosis in humans often involves fatal brainstem infections leading to meningitis and meningoencephalitis. We recently established the larvae of the greater wax moth (Galleria mellonella) as a model host for the investigation of L. monocytogenes pathogenesis and as a source of peptides exhibiting anti-Listeria-activity. Here we show that G. mellonella can be used to study brain infection and its impact on larval development as well as the activation of stress responses and neuronal repair mechanisms. The infection of G. mellonella larvae with L. monocytogenes elicits a cellular immune response involving the formation of melanized cellular aggregates (nodules) containing entrapped bacteria. These form under the integument and in the brain, resembling the symptoms found in human patients. We screened the G. mellonella transcriptome with marker genes representing stress responses and neuronal repair, and identified several modulated genes including those encoding heat shock proteins, growth factors, and regulators of neuronal stress. Remarkably, we discovered that L. monocytogenes infection leads to developmental shift in larvae and also modulates the expression of genes involved in the regulation of endocrine functions. We demonstrated that L. monocytogenes pathogenesis can be prevented by treating G. mellonella larvae with signaling inhibitors such as diclofenac, arachidonic acid, and rapamycin. Our data extend the utility of G. mellonella larvae as an ideal model for the high-throughput in vivo testing of potential compounds against listeriosis.

  20. Methylomics of gene expression in human monocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongmei; Ding, Jingzhong; Reynolds, Lindsay M.; Lohman, Kurt; Register, Thomas C.; De La Fuente, Alberto; Howard, Timothy D.; Hawkins, Greg A.; Cui, Wei; Morris, Jessica; Smith, Shelly G.; Barr, R. Graham; Kaufman, Joel D.; Burke, Gregory L.; Post, Wendy; Shea, Steven; Mccall, Charles E.; Siscovick, David; Jacobs, David R.; Tracy, Russell P.; Herrington, David M.; Hoeschele, Ina

    2013-01-01

    DNA methylation is one of several epigenetic mechanisms that contribute to the regulation of gene expression; however, the extent to which methylation of CpG dinucleotides correlates with gene expression at the genome-wide level is still largely unknown. Using purified primary monocytes from subjects in a large community-based cohort (n = 1264), we characterized methylation (>485 000 CpG sites) and mRNA expression (>48K transcripts) and carried out genome-wide association analyses of 8370 expression phenotypes. We identified 11 203 potential cis-acting CpG loci whose degree of methylation was associated with gene expression (eMS) at a false discovery rate threshold of 0.001. Most of the associations were consistent in effect size and direction of effect across sex and three ethnicities. Contrary to expectation, these eMS were not predominately enriched in promoter regions, or CpG islands, but rather in the 3′ UTR, gene bodies, CpG shores or ‘offshore’ sites, and both positive and negative correlations between methylation and expression were observed across all locations. eMS were enriched for regions predicted to be regulatory by ENCODE (Encyclopedia of DNA Elements) data in multiple cell types, particularly enhancers. One of the strongest association signals detected (P < 2.2 × 10−308) was a methylation probe (cg17005068) in the promoter/enhancer region of the glutathione S-transferase theta 1 gene (GSTT1, encoding the detoxification enzyme) with GSTT1 mRNA expression. Our study provides a detailed description of the epigenetic architecture in human monocytes and its relationship to gene expression. These data may help prioritize interrogation of biologically relevant methylation loci and provide new insights into the epigenetic basis of human health and diseases. PMID:23900078

  1. Associations of DNA-repair gene polymorphisms with a genetic susceptibility to ionizing radiation in residents of areas with high radon (222Rn) concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinitsky, Maxim Y; Larionov, Aleksey V; Asanov, Maxim A; Druzhinin, Vladimir G

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the individual radiosensitivity of the human genome in long-term residents of areas with high radon concentration. The materials used for this investigation were venous blood samples extracted from children living in the boarding school of Tashtagol (Kemerovo Region, Russia). Cytogenetic damage assessment was performed using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN) on peripheral blood lymphocytes. PCR, gel electrophoresis and product detection using a transilluminator were used to determine polymorphisms in the genes ADPRT (rs 1136410), hOGG1 (rs 1052133), NBS1 (rs 1805794), XRCC1 (rs 25487), XpC (rs 2228001), XpD (rs 13181), and XpG (rs 17655). Statistical analysis was performed using nonparametric methods. To ensure accurate results, FDR-correction for multiple comparisons was performed. We discovered a significant increase in the frequency of binucleated lymphocytes with micronuclei (MN) in carriers of the His/His genotype of the XpG gene Asp1104His polymorphism in comparison to heterozygous and homozygous carriers of the Asp allele. In addition, the Ala/Ala genotype for the ADPRT gene Val762Ala polymorphism and the Glu/Gln genotype for the NBS1 gene Glu185Gln polymorphism were associated with the elevated frequency of binucleated lymphocytes with nucleoplasmic bridges (NPB). As a result of this study, the elevated frequency of cytogenetic damage in people with particular DNA-repair gene polymorphisms in response to chronic exposure to radon was demonstrated. It was shown that the genes and corresponding polymorphisms (the XpG gene Asp1104His polymorphism, the ADPRT gene Val762Ala polymorphism and the NBS1 gene Glu185Gln polymorphism) can be used as molecular genetic markers of increased individual radiosensitivity in long-term residents of areas with high concentrations of radon.

  2. Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms of Genes Involved in Repair of Oxidative DNA Damage and the Risk of Recurrent Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarny, Piotr; Kwiatkowski, Dominik; Toma, Monika; Gałecki, Piotr; Orzechowska, Agata; Bobińska, Kinga; Bielecka-Kowalska, Anna; Szemraj, Janusz; Berk, Michael; Anderson, George; Śliwiński, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Background Depressive disorder, including recurrent type (rDD), is accompanied by increased oxidative stress and activation of inflammatory pathways, which may induce DNA damage. This thesis is supported by the presence of increased levels of DNA damage in depressed patients. Such DNA damage is repaired by the base excision repair (BER) pathway. BER efficiency may be influenced by polymorphisms in BER-related genes. Therefore, we genotyped nine single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in six genes encoding BER proteins. Material/Methods Using TaqMan, we selected and genotyped the following SNPs: c.-441G>A (rs174538) of FEN1, c.2285T>C (rs1136410) of PARP1, c.580C>T (rs1799782) and c.1196A>G (rs25487) of XRCC1, c.*83A>C (rs4796030) and c.*50C>T (rs1052536) of LIG3, c.-7C>T (rs20579) of LIG1, and c.-468T>G (rs1760944) and c.444T>G (rs1130409) of APEX1 in 599 samples (288 rDD patients and 311 controls). Results We found a strong correlation between rDD and both SNPs of LIG3, their haplotypes, as well as a weaker association with the c.-468T>G of APEXI which diminished after Nyholt correction. Polymorphisms of LIG3 were also associated with early onset versus late onset depression, whereas the c.-468T>G polymorphism showed the opposite association. Conclusions The SNPs of genes involved in the repair of oxidative DNA damage may modulate rDD risk. Since this is an exploratory study, the results should to be treated with caution and further work needs to be done to elucidate the exact involvement of DNA damage and repair mechanisms in the development of this disease. PMID:27866211

  3. Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms of Genes Involved in Repair of Oxidative DNA Damage and the Risk of Recurrent Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarny, Piotr; Kwiatkowski, Dominik; Toma, Monika; Gałecki, Piotr; Orzechowska, Agata; Bobińska, Kinga; Bielecka-Kowalska, Anna; Szemraj, Janusz; Berk, Michael; Anderson, George; Śliwiński, Tomasz

    2016-11-20

    BACKGROUND Depressive disorder, including recurrent type (rDD), is accompanied by increased oxidative stress and activation of inflammatory pathways, which may induce DNA damage. This thesis is supported by the presence of increased levels of DNA damage in depressed patients. Such DNA damage is repaired by the base excision repair (BER) pathway. BER efficiency may be influenced by polymorphisms in BER-related genes. Therefore, we genotyped nine single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in six genes encoding BER proteins. MATERIAL AND METHODS Using TaqMan, we selected and genotyped the following SNPs: c.-441G>A (rs174538) of FEN1, c.2285T>C (rs1136410) of PARP1, c.580C>T (rs1799782) and c.1196A>G (rs25487) of XRCC1, c.*83A>C (rs4796030) and c.*50C>T (rs1052536) of LIG3, c.-7C>T (rs20579) of LIG1, and c.-468T>G (rs1760944) and c.444T>G (rs1130409) of APEX1 in 599 samples (288 rDD patients and 311 controls). RESULTS We found a strong correlation between rDD and both SNPs of LIG3, their haplotypes, as well as a weaker association with the c.-468T>G of APEXI which diminished after Nyholt correction. Polymorphisms of LIG3 were also associated with early onset versus late onset depression, whereas the c.-468T>G polymorphism showed the opposite association. CONCLUSIONS The SNPs of genes involved in the repair of oxidative DNA damage may modulate rDD risk. Since this is an exploratory study, the results should to be treated with caution and further work needs to be done to elucidate the exact involvement of DNA damage and repair mechanisms in the development of this disease.

  4. The Use of Degradable Nerve Conduits for Human Nerve Repair: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Meek

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The management of peripheral nerve injury continues to be a major clinical challenge. The most widely used technique for bridging defects in peripheral nerves is the use of autologous nerve grafts. This technique, however, has some disadvantages. Many alternative experimental techniques have thus been developed, such as degradable nerve conduits. Degradable nerve guides have been extensively studied in animal experimental studies. However, the repair of human nerves by degradable nerve conduits has been limited to only a few clinical studies. In this paper, an overview of the available international published literature on degradable nerve conduits for bridging human peripheral nerve defects is presented for literature available until 2004. Also, the philosophy on the use of nerve guides and nerve grafts is given.

  5. Neutrophil activation during acetaminophen hepatotoxicity and repair in mice and humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, C. David; Bajt, Mary Lynn [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Sharpe, Matthew R. [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Hospital, Kansas City, KS (United States); McGill, Mitchell R. [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Farhood, Anwar [Department of Pathology, St. David' s North Austin Medical Center, Austin, TX 78756 (United States); Jaeschke, Hartmut, E-mail: hjaeschke@kumc.edu [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Following acetaminophen (APAP) overdose there is an inflammatory response triggered by the release of cellular contents from necrotic hepatocytes into the systemic circulation which initiates the recruitment of neutrophils into the liver. It has been demonstrated that neutrophils do not contribute to APAP-induced liver injury, but their role and the role of NADPH oxidase in injury resolution are controversial. C57BL/6 mice were subjected to APAP overdose and neutrophil activation status was determined during liver injury and liver regeneration. Additionally, human APAP overdose patients (ALT: > 800 U/L) had serial blood draws during the injury and recovery phases for the determination of neutrophil activation. Neutrophils in the peripheral blood of mice showed an increasing activation status (CD11b expression and ROS priming) during and after the peak of injury but returned to baseline levels prior to complete injury resolution. Hepatic sequestered neutrophils showed an increased and sustained CD11b expression, but no ROS priming was observed. Confirming that NADPH oxidase is not critical to injury resolution, gp91{sup phox}−/− mice following APAP overdose displayed no alteration in injury resolution. Peripheral blood from APAP overdose patients also showed increased neutrophil activation status after the peak of liver injury and remained elevated until discharge from the hospital. In mice and humans, markers of activation, like ROS priming, were increased and sustained well after active liver injury had subsided. The similar findings between surviving patients and mice indicate that neutrophil activation may be a critical event for host defense or injury resolution following APAP overdose, but not a contributing factor to APAP-induced injury. - Highlights: • Neutrophil (PMN) function increases during liver repair after acetaminophen overdose. • Liver repair after acetaminophen (APAP)-overdose is not dependent on NADPH oxidase. • Human PMNs do not appear

  6. Two human homologs of Rad23 are functionally interchangeable in complex formation and stimulation of XPC repair activity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Sugasawa (Kaoru); J.M.Y. Ng (Jessica); C. Masutani (Chikahide); T. Maekawa; A. Uchida; P.J. van der Spek (Peter); A.P.M. Eker (André); S. Rademakers (Suzanne); C.E. Visser (Cécile); A. Aboussekhra; R.D. Wood (Richard); F. Hanaoka (Fumio); D. Bootsma (Dirk); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractXPC-hHR23B protein complex is specifically involved in nucleotide excision repair (NER) of DNA lesions on transcriptionally inactive sequences as well as the nontranscribed strand of active genes. Here we demonstrate that not only highly purified recombinant hHR23B (rhHR23B) but also a

  7. Hepatocyte specific expression of human cloned genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortese, R.

    1986-01-01

    A large number of proteins are specifically synthesized in the hepatocyte. Only the adult liver expresses the complete repertoire of functions which are required at various stages during development. There is therefore a complex series of regulatory mechanisms responsible for the maintenance of the differentiated state and for the developmental and physiological variations in the pattern of gene expression. Human hepatoma cell lines HepG2 and Hep3B display a pattern of gene expression similar to adult and fetal liver, respectively; in contrast, cultured fibroblasts or HeLa cells do not express most of the liver specific genes. They have used these cell lines for transfection experiments with cloned human liver specific genes. DNA segments coding for alpha1-antitrypsin and retinol binding protein (two proteins synthesized both in fetal and adult liver) are expressed in the hepatoma cell lines HepG2 and Hep3B, but not in HeLa cells or fibroblasts. A DNA segment coding for haptoglobin (a protein synthesized only after birth) is only expressed in the hepatoma cell line HepG2 but not in Hep3B nor in non hepatic cell lines. The information for tissue specific expression is located in the 5' flanking region of all three genes. In vivo competition experiments show that these DNA segments bind to a common, apparently limiting, transacting factor. Conventional techniques (Bal deletions, site directed mutagenesis, etc.) have been used to precisely identify the DNA sequences responsible for these effects. The emerging picture is complex: they have identified multiple, separate transcriptional signals, essential for maximal promoter activation and tissue specific expression. Some of these signals show a negative effect on transcription in fibroblast cell lines.

  8. MISMATCH REPAIR-DEPENDENT ITERATIVE EXCISION AT IRREPARABLE O6-METHYLGUANINE LESIONS IN HUMAN NUCLEAR EXTRACTS*

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Sally J.; Modrich, Paul

    2008-01-01

    The response of mammalian cells to SN1 DNA methylators depends on functional MutSα and MutLα. Cells deficient in either of these activities are resistant to the cytotoxic effects of this class of chemotherapeutic drug. Because killing by SN1 methylators has been attributed to O6-methylguanine (MeG), we have constructed nicked circular heteroduplexes that contain a single MeG-T mispair and have examined processing of these molecules by mismatch repair in nuclear extracts of human cells. Excision provoked by MeG-T is restricted to the incised heteroduplex strand, leading to removal of the MeG when it resides on this strand. However, when the MeG is located on the continuous strand, the heteroduplex is irreparable. MeG-T-dependent repair DNA synthesis is observed on both reparable and irreparable, 3’ and 5’ heteroduplexes as judged by [32P]dAMP incorporation. Labeling with [α-32P]dATP followed by a cold dATP chase has demonstrated that newly synthesized DNA on irreparable molecules is subject to re-excision in a reaction that is MutLα-dependent, an effect attributable to presence of MeG on the template strand. Processing of the irreparable 3’ heteroduplex is also associated with incision of the discontinuous strand of a few percent of molecules near the thymidylate of the MeG-T base pair. These results provide the first direct evidence for mismatch repair-mediated iterative processing of DNA methylator damage, an effect that may be relevant to damage signaling events triggered by this class of chemotherapeutic agent. PMID:16772289

  9. Antioxidative dietary compounds modulate gene expression associated with apoptosis, DNA repair, inhibition of cell proliferation and migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Likui; Gao, Shijuan; Jiang, Wei; Luo, Cheng; Xu, Maonian; Bohlin, Lars; Rosendahl, Markus; Huang, Wenlin

    2014-09-15

    Many dietary compounds are known to have health benefits owing to their antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. To determine the molecular mechanism of these food-derived compounds, we analyzed their effect on various genes related to cell apoptosis, DNA damage and repair, oxidation and inflammation using in vitro cell culture assays. This review further tests the hypothesis proposed previously that downstream products of COX-2 (cyclooxygenase-2) called electrophilic oxo-derivatives induce antioxidant responsive elements (ARE), which leads to cell proliferation under antioxidative conditions. Our findings support this hypothesis and show that cell proliferation was inhibited when COX-2 was down-regulated by polyphenols and polysaccharides. Flattened macrophage morphology was also observed following the induction of cytokine production by polysaccharides extracted from viili, a traditional Nordic fermented dairy product. Coix lacryma-jobi (coix) polysaccharides were found to reduce mitochondrial membrane potential and induce caspase-3- and 9-mediated apoptosis. In contrast, polyphenols from blueberries were involved in the ultraviolet-activated p53/Gadd45/MDM2 DNA repair system by restoring the cell membrane potential. Inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 by saponin extracts of ginsenoside (Ginsen) and Gynostemma and inhibition of S100A4 by coix polysaccharides inhibited cancer cell migration and invasion. These observations suggest that antioxidants and changes in cell membrane potential are the major driving forces that transfer signals through the cell membrane into the cytosol and nucleus, triggering gene expression, changes in cell proliferation and the induction of apoptosis or DNA repair.

  10. Homology Requirements and Competition between Gene Conversion and Break-Induced Replication during Double-Strand Break Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Anuja; Beach, Annette; Haber, James E

    2017-02-02

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae mating-type switching is initiated by a double-strand break (DSB) at MATa, leaving one cut end perfectly homologous to the HMLα donor, while the second end must be processed to remove a non-homologous tail before completing repair by gene conversion (GC). When homology at the matched end is ≤150 bp, efficient repair depends on the recombination enhancer, which tethers HMLα near the DSB. Thus, homology shorter than an apparent minimum efficient processing segment can be rescued by tethering the donor near the break. When homology at the second end is ≤150 bp, second-end capture becomes inefficient and repair shifts from GC to break-induced replication (BIR). But when pol32 or pif1 mutants block BIR, GC increases 3-fold, indicating that the steps blocked by these mutations are reversible. With short second-end homology, absence of the RecQ helicase Sgs1 promotes gene conversion, whereas deletion of the FANCM-related Mph1 helicase promotes BIR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Yeast DNA-repair gene RAD14 encodes a zinc metalloprotein with affinity for ultraviolet-damaged DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzder, S N; Sung, P; Prakash, L; Prakash, S

    1993-06-15

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) patients suffer from a high incidence of skin cancers due to a defect in excision repair of UV light-damaged DNA. Of the seven XP complementation groups, A-G, group A represents a severe and frequent form of the disease. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae RAD14 gene is a homolog of the XP-A correcting (XPAC) gene. Like XP-A cells, rad14-null mutants are defective in the incision step of excision repair of UV-damaged DNA. We have purified RAD14 protein to homogeneity from extract of a yeast strain genetically tailored to overexpress RAD14. As determined by atomic emission spectroscopy, RAD14 contains one zinc atom. We also show in vitro that RAD14 binds zinc but does not bind other divalent metal ions. In DNA mobility-shift assays, RAD14 binds specifically to UV-damaged DNA. Removal of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers from damaged DNA by enzymatic photoreactivation has no effect on binding, strongly suggesting that RAD14 recognizes pyrimidine(6-4)pyrimidone photoproduct sites. These findings indicate that RAD14 functions in damage recognition during excision repair.

  12. Nicotinamide enhances repair of ultraviolet radiation-induced DNA damage in human keratinocytes and ex vivo skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surjana, Devita; Halliday, Gary M; Damian, Diona L

    2013-05-01

    Nicotinamide (vitamin B3) protects from ultraviolet (UV) radiation-induced carcinogenesis in mice and from UV-induced immunosuppression in mice and humans. Recent double-blinded randomized controlled Phase 2 studies in heavily sun-damaged individuals have shown that oral nicotinamide significantly reduces premalignant actinic keratoses, and may reduce new non-melanoma skin cancers. Nicotinamide is a precursor of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)), an essential coenzyme in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. Previously, we showed that nicotinamide prevents UV-induced ATP decline in HaCaT keratinocytes. Energy-dependent DNA repair is a key determinant of cellular survival after exposure to DNA-damaging agents such as UV radiation. Hence, in this study we investigated whether nicotinamide protection from cellular energy loss influences DNA repair. We treated HaCaT keratinocytes with nicotinamide and exposed them to low-dose solar-simulated UV (ssUV). Excision repair was quantified using an assay of unscheduled DNA synthesis. Nicotinamide increased both the proportion of cells undergoing excision repair and the repair rate in each cell. We then investigated ssUV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8oxoG) formation and repair by comet assay in keratinocytes and with immunohistochemistry in human skin. Nicotinamide reduced CPDs and 8oxoG in both models and the reduction appeared to be due to enhancement of DNA repair. These results show that nicotinamide enhances two different pathways for repair of UV-induced photolesions, supporting nicotinamide's potential as an inexpensive, convenient and non-toxic agent for skin cancer chemoprevention.

  13. Human Cell Assays for Synthesis-Dependent Strand Annealing and Crossing over During Double-Strand Break Repair

    OpenAIRE

    Grzegorz Zapotoczny; Jeff Sekelsky

    2017-01-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are one of the most deleterious types of lesions to the genome. Synthesis-dependent strand annealing (SDSA) is thought to be a major pathway of DSB repair, but direct tests of this model have only been conducted in budding yeast and Drosophila. To better understand this pathway, we developed an SDSA assay for use in human cells. Our results support the hypothesis that SDSA is an important DSB repair mechanism in human cells. We used siRNA knockdown to assess th...

  14. Anti-Inflammatory, Immunomodulatory, and Tissue Repair Activity on Human Keratinocytes by Green Innovative Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morganti, Pierfrancesco; Fusco, Alessandra; Paoletti, Iole; Perfetto, Brunella; Del Ciotto, Paola; Palombo, Marco; Chianese, Angelo; Baroni, Adone; Donnarumma, Giovanna

    2017-07-22

    The use of raw materials obtained by waste and processed through innovative industrial methodologies has generated an industry of about a trillion dollars in a short time, and in the near future will provide resources and services for the conservation and sustainable use of natural resources in order to ensure a better and fairer welfare for the human race. The production of nano-fiber chitin non-woven tissue is in accordance with the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and European Union (EU) bio-economic programs: 100% biodegradable, ecological, and therefore useful in decreasing dependence on fossil fuel resources. The aim of our study is the evaluation of different formulations of a non-woven tissue obtained from electrospinning of a mixture of nanochitin fibrils, lignin, and poly (ethylene) oxide (PEO) on the restoration of damaged tissues. Wound repair is a complex process that involves epithelial and immune cells and includes the induction of metalloproteinases, inflammatory mediators, and angiogenic factors. Our in vitro results have shown that all of the realized chitin nanofibrils-bio-lignin non-woven tissues tested as nontoxic for human keratinocytes (HaCat) cells. Furthermore, the bio-composites that included bio-lignin at 0.1% have been able to modulate the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (Tumor Necrosis Factor-α, IL-1α, and IL8), lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and human beta-defensin 2 (HBD-2) expression in HaCat cells, suggesting an anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory role. Taken together, our results suggest that our chitin nanofibrils-bio-lignin non-woven tissue represents a skin-friendly tool that is able to favor a correct and fast wound repair.

  15. Metal inhibition of human N-methylpurine-DNA glycosylase activity in base excision repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Guliaev, Anton B; Hang, Bo

    2006-10-25

    Cadmium (Cd2+), nickel (Ni2+) and cobalt (Co2+) are human and/or animal carcinogens. Zinc (Zn2+) is not categorized as a carcinogen, and rather an essential element to humans. Metals were recently shown to inhibit DNA repair proteins that use metals for their function and/or structure. Here we report that the divalent ions Cd2+, Ni2+, and Zn2+ can inhibit the activity of a recombinant human N-methylpurine-DNA glycosylase (MPG) toward a deoxyoligonucleotide with ethenoadenine (varepsilonA). MPG removes a variety of toxic/mutagenic alkylated bases and does not require metal for its catalytic activity or structural integrity. At concentrations starting from 50 to 1,000 microM, both Cd2+ and Zn2+ showed metal-dependent inhibition of the MPG catalytic activity. Ni2+ also inhibited MPG, but to a lesser extent. Such an effect can be reversed with EDTA addition. In contrast, Co2+ and Mg2+ did not inhibit the MPG activity in the same dose range. Experiments using HeLa cell-free extracts demonstrated similar patterns of inactivation of the varepsilonA excision activity by the same metals. Binding of MPG to the substrate was not significantly affected by Cd2+, Zn2+, and Ni2+ at concentrations that show strong inhibition of the catalytic function, suggesting that the reduced catalytic activity is not due to altered MPG binding affinity to the substrate. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with Zn2+ showed that the MPG active site has a potential binding site for Zn2+, formed by several catalytically important and conserved residues. Metal binding to such a site is expected to interfere with the catalytic mechanism of this protein. These data suggest that inhibition of MPG activity may contribute to metal genotoxicity and depressed repair of alkylation damage by metals in vivo.

  16. Membrane repair of human skeletal muscle cells requires Annexin-A5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmeille, Romain; Bouvet, Flora; Tan, Sisareuth; Croissant, Coralie; Gounou, Céline; Mamchaoui, Kamel; Mouly, Vincent; Brisson, Alain R; Bouter, Anthony

    2016-09-01

    Defect in membrane repair contributes to the development of limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B (LGMD2B) and Miyoshi myopathy. In healthy skeletal muscle, unraveling membrane repair mechanisms requires to establish an exhaustive list of the components of the resealing machinery. Here we show that human myotubes rendered deficient for Annexin-A5 (AnxA5) suffer from a severe defect in membrane resealing. This defect is rescued by the addition of recombinant AnxA5 while an AnxA5 mutant, which is unable to form 2D protein arrays, has no effect. Using correlative light and electron microscopy, we show that AnxA5 binds to the edges of the torn membrane, as early as a few seconds after sarcolemma injury, where it probably self-assembles into 2D arrays. In addition, we observed that membrane resealing is associated with the presence of a cluster of lipid vesicles at the wounded site. AnxA5 is present at the surface of these vesicles and may thus participate in plugging the cell membrane disruption. Finally, we show that AnxA5 behaves similarly in myotubes from a muscle cell line established from a patient suffering from LGMD2B, a myopathy due to dysferlin mutations, which indicates that trafficking of AnxA5 during sarcolemma damage is independent of the presence of dysferlin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Mutation rates of TGFBR2 and ACVR2 coding microsatellites in human cells with defective DNA mismatch repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heekyung Chung

    Full Text Available Microsatellite instability promotes colonic tumorigenesis through generating frameshift mutations at coding microsatellites of tumor suppressor genes, such as TGFBR2 and ACVR2. As a consequence, signaling through these TGFbeta family receptors is abrogated in DNA Mismatch repair (MMR-deficient tumors. How these mutations occur in real time and mutational rates of these human coding sequences have not previously been studied. We utilized cell lines with different MMR deficiencies (hMLH1-/-, hMSH6-/-, hMSH3-/-, and MMR-proficient to determine mutation rates. Plasmids were constructed in which exon 3 of TGFBR2 and exon 10 of ACVR2 were cloned +1 bp out of frame, immediately after the translation initiation codon of an enhanced GFP (EGFP gene, allowing a -1 bp frameshift mutation to drive EGFP expression. Mutation-resistant plasmids were constructed by interrupting the coding microsatellite sequences, preventing frameshift mutation. Stable cell lines were established containing portions of TGFBR2 and ACVR2, and nonfluorescent cells were sorted, cultured for 7-35 days, and harvested for flow cytometric mutation detection and DNA sequencing at specific time points. DNA sequencing revealed a -1 bp frameshift mutation (A9 in TGFBR2 and A7 in ACVR2 in the fluorescent cells. Two distinct fluorescent populations, M1 (dim, representing heteroduplexes and M2 (bright, representing full mutants were identified, with the M2 fraction accumulating over time. hMLH1 deficiency revealed 11 (5.91 x 10(-4 and 15 (2.18 x 10(-4 times higher mutation rates for the TGFBR2 and ACVR2 microsatellites compared to hMSH6 deficiency, respectively. The mutation rate of the TGFBR2 microsatellite was approximately 3 times higher in both hMLH1 and hMSH6 deficiencies than the ACVR2 microsatellite. The -1 bp frameshift mutation rates of TGFBR2 and ACVR2 microsatellite sequences are dependent upon the human MMR background.

  18. The effect of decellularized matrices on human tendon stem/progenitor cell differentiation and tendon repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zi; Chen, Xiao; Zhu, Ting; Hu, Jia-jie; Song, Hai-xin; Shen, Wei-liang; Jiang, Liu-yun; Heng, Boon Chin; Ji, Jun-feng; Ouyang, Hong-Wei

    2013-12-01

    It is reported that decellularized collagen matrices derived from dermal skin and bone have been clinically used for tendon repair. However, the varying biological and physical properties of matrices originating from different tissues may influence the differentiation of tendon stem cells, which has not been systematically evaluated. In this study, the effects of collagenous matrices derived from different tissues (tendon, bone and dermis) on the cell differentiation of human tendon stem/progenitor cells (hTSPCs) were investigated, in the context of tendon repair. It was found that all three matrices supported the adhesion and proliferation of hTSPCs despite differences in topography. Interestingly, tendon-derived decellularized matrix promoted the tendinous phenotype in hTSPCs and inhibited their osteogenesis, even under osteogenic induction conditions, through modulation of the teno- and osteolineage-specific transcription factors Scleraxis and Runx2. Bone-derived decellularized matrix robustly induced osteogenic differentiation of hTSPCs, whereas dermal skin-derived collagen matrix had no apparent effect on hTSPC differentiation. Based on the specific biological function of the tendon-derived decellularized matrix, a tissue-engineered tendon comprising TSPCs and tendon-derived matrix was successfully fabricated for Achilles tendon reconstruction. Implantation of this cell-scaffold construct led to a more mature structure (histology score: 4.08 ± 0.61 vs. 8.51 ± 1.66), larger collagen fibrils (52.2 ± 1.6 nm vs. 47.5 ± 2.8 nm) and stronger mechanical properties (stiffness: 21.68 ± 7.1 Nm m(-1) vs.13.2 ± 5.9 Nm m(-1)) of repaired tendons compared to the control group. The results suggest that stem cells promote the rate of repair of Achilles tendon in the presence of a tendinous matrix. This study thus highlights the potential of decellularized matrix for future tissue engineering applications, as well as developing a practical strategy for functional tendon

  19. A mutation in the XPB/ERCC3 DNA repair transcription gene, associated with trichothiodystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weeda, G.; Donker, I.; Vermeulen, W. [Erasmus Univ., Rotterdam (Netherlands)] [and others

    1997-02-01

    Trichothiodystrophy (TTD) is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder characterized by sulfur-deficient brittle hair and nails, mental retardation, impaired sexual development, and ichthyosis. Photosensitivity has been reported in {approximately}50% of the cases, but no skin cancer is associated with TTD. Virtually all photosensitive TTD patients have a deficiency in the nucleotide excision repair (NER) of UV-induced DNA damage that is indistinguishable from that of xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) complementation group D (XP-D) patients. DNA repair defects in XP-D are associated with two additional, quite different diseases; XP, a sun-sensitive and cancer-prone repair disorder, and Cockayne syndrome (CS), a photosensitive condition characterized by physical and mental retardation and wizened facial appearance. One photosensitive TTD case constitutes a new repair-deficient complementation group, TTD-A. Remarkably, both TTD-A and XP-D defects are associated with subunits of TFIIH, a basal transcription factor with a second function in DNA repair. Thus, mutations in TFIIH components may, on top of a repair defect, also cause transcriptional insufficiency, which may explain part of the non-XP clinical features of TTD. To date, three patients with the remarkable conjunction of XP and CS but not TM have been assigned to XP complementation group B (XP-B). Here we present the characterization of the NER defect in two mild TTD patients (TTD6VI and TTD4VI) and confirm the assignment to X-PB. The causative mutation was found to be a single base substitution resulting in a missense mutation (T119P) in a region of the XPB protein. These findings define a third TTD complementation group, extend the clinical heterogeneity associated with XP-B, stress the exclusive relationship between TTD and mutations in subunits of repair/transcription factor TFIIH, and strongly support the concept of {open_quotes}transcription syndromes.{close_quotes} 46 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. PAH-DNA adducts in environmentally exposed population in relation to metabolic and DNA repair gene polymorphisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binkova, Blanka [Laboratory of Genetic Ecotoxicology, Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR and Health Institute of Central Bohemia, Videnska 1083, 14220 Prague (Czech Republic); Chvatalova, Irena [Laboratory of Genetic Ecotoxicology, Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR and Health Institute of Central Bohemia, Videnska 1083, 14220 Prague (Czech Republic); Lnenickova, Zdena [Laboratory of Genetic Ecotoxicology, Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR and Health Institute of Central Bohemia, Videnska 1083, 14220 Prague (Czech Republic); Milcova, Alena [Laboratory of Genetic Ecotoxicology, Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR and Health Institute of Central Bohemia, Videnska 1083, 14220 Prague (Czech Republic); Tulupova, Elena [Laboratory of Genetic Ecotoxicology, Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR and Health Institute of Central Bohemia, Videnska 1083, 14220 Prague (Czech Republic); Cancer Biomarkers and Prevention Group, Biocentre, University of Leicester (United Kingdom); Farmer, Peter B. [Cancer Biomarkers and Prevention Group, Biocentre, University of Leicester (United Kingdom); Sram, Radim J. [Laboratory of Genetic Ecotoxicology, Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR and Health Institute of Central Bohemia, Videnska 1083, 14220 Prague (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: sram@biomed.cas.cz

    2007-07-01

    Epidemiologic studies indicate that prolonged exposure to particulate air pollution may be associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases and cancer in general population. These effects may be attributable to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) adsorbed to respirable air particles. It is expected that metabolic and DNA repair gene polymorphisms may modulate individual susceptibility to PAH exposure. This study investigates relationships between exposure to PAHs, polymorphisms of these genes and DNA adducts in group of occupationally exposed policemen (EXP, N = 53, males, aged 22-50 years) working outdoors in the downtown area of Prague and in matched 'unexposed' controls (CON, N = 52). Personal exposure to eight carcinogenic PAHs (c-PAHs) was evaluated by personal samplers during working shift prior to collection of biological samples. Bulky-aromatic DNA adducts were analyzed in lymphocytes by {sup 32}P-postlabeling assay. Polymorphisms of metabolizing (GSTM1, GSTP1, GSTT1, EPHX1, CYP1A1-MspI) and DNA repair (XRCC1, XPD) genes were determined by PCR-based RFLP assays. As potential modifiers and/or cofounders, urinary cotinine levels were analyzed by radioimmunoassay, plasma levels of vitamins A, C, E and folates by HPLC, cholesterol and triglycerides using commercial kits. During the sampling period ambient particulate air pollution was as follows: PM10 32-55 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, PM2.5 27-38 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, c-PAHs 18-22 ng/m{sup 3}; personal exposure to c-PAHs: 9.7 ng/m{sup 3} versus 5.8 ng/m{sup 3} (P < 0.01) for EXP and CON groups, respectively. The total DNA adduct levels did not significantly differ between EXP and CON groups (0.92 {+-} 0.28 adducts/10{sup 8} nucleotides versus 0.82 {+-} 0.23 adducts/10{sup 8} nucleotides, P = 0.065), whereas the level of the B[a]P-'like' adduct was significantly higher in exposed group (0.122 {+-} 0.036 adducts/10{sup 8} nucleotides versus 0.099 {+-} 0.035 adducts/10{sup 8} nucleotides, P = 0

  1. Dietary methanol regulates human gene activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia V Shindyapina

    Full Text Available Methanol (MeOH is considered to be a poison in humans because of the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH-mediated conversion of MeOH to formaldehyde (FA, which is toxic. Our recent genome-wide analysis of the mouse brain demonstrated that an increase in endogenous MeOH after ADH inhibition led to a significant increase in the plasma MeOH concentration and a modification of mRNA synthesis. These findings suggest endogenous MeOH involvement in homeostasis regulation by controlling mRNA levels. Here, we demonstrate directly that study volunteers displayed increasing concentrations of MeOH and FA in their blood plasma when consuming citrus pectin, ethanol and red wine. A microarray analysis of white blood cells (WBC from volunteers after pectin intake showed various responses for 30 significantly differentially regulated mRNAs, most of which were somehow involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD. There was also a decreased synthesis of hemoglobin mRNA, HBA and HBB, the presence of which in WBC RNA was not a result of red blood cells contamination because erythrocyte-specific marker genes were not significantly expressed. A qRT-PCR analysis of volunteer WBCs after pectin and red wine intake confirmed the complicated relationship between the plasma MeOH content and the mRNA accumulation of both genes that were previously identified, namely, GAPDH and SNX27, and genes revealed in this study, including MME, SORL1, DDIT4, HBA and HBB. We hypothesized that human plasma MeOH has an impact on the WBC mRNA levels of genes involved in cell signaling.

  2. Dietary Methanol Regulates Human Gene Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarova, Tatiana V.; Sheshukova, Ekaterina V.; Kosorukov, Vyacheslav S.; Kiryanov, Gleb I.; Dorokhov, Yuri L.

    2014-01-01

    Methanol (MeOH) is considered to be a poison in humans because of the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH)-mediated conversion of MeOH to formaldehyde (FA), which is toxic. Our recent genome-wide analysis of the mouse brain demonstrated that an increase in endogenous MeOH after ADH inhibition led to a significant increase in the plasma MeOH concentration and a modification of mRNA synthesis. These findings suggest endogenous MeOH involvement in homeostasis regulation by controlling mRNA levels. Here, we demonstrate directly that study volunteers displayed increasing concentrations of MeOH and FA in their blood plasma when consuming citrus pectin, ethanol and red wine. A microarray analysis of white blood cells (WBC) from volunteers after pectin intake showed various responses for 30 significantly differentially regulated mRNAs, most of which were somehow involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). There was also a decreased synthesis of hemoglobin mRNA, HBA and HBB, the presence of which in WBC RNA was not a result of red blood cells contamination because erythrocyte-specific marker genes were not significantly expressed. A qRT-PCR analysis of volunteer WBCs after pectin and red wine intake confirmed the complicated relationship between the plasma MeOH content and the mRNA accumulation of both genes that were previously identified, namely, GAPDH and SNX27, and genes revealed in this study, including MME, SORL1, DDIT4, HBA and HBB. We hypothesized that human plasma MeOH has an impact on the WBC mRNA levels of genes involved in cell signaling. PMID:25033451

  3. Epigenetic Studies Point to DNA Replication/Repair Genes as a Basis for the Heritable Nature of Long Term Complications in Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey A. Leontovich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic memory (MM is defined as the persistence of diabetic (DM complications even after glycemic control is pharmacologically achieved. Using a zebrafish diabetic model that induces a MM state, we previously reported that, in this model, tissue dysfunction was of a heritable nature based on cell proliferation studies in limb tissue and this correlated with epigenetic DNA methylation changes that paralleled alterations in gene expression. In the current study, control, DM, and MM excised fin tissues were further analyzed by MeDIP sequencing and microarray techniques. Bioinformatics analysis of the data found that genes of the DNA replication/DNA metabolism process group (with upregulation of the apex1, mcm2, mcm4, orc3, lig1, and dnmt1 genes were altered in the DM state and these molecular changes continued into MM. Interestingly, DNA methylation changes could be found as far as 6–13 kb upstream of the transcription start site for these genes suggesting potential higher levels of epigenetic control. In conclusion, DNA methylation changes in members of the DNA replication/repair process group best explain the heritable nature of cell proliferation impairment found in the zebrafish DM/MM model. These results are consistent with human diabetic epigenetic studies and provide one explanation for the persistence of long term tissue complications as seen in diabetes.

  4. Positive selection on gene expression in the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khaitovich, Philipp; Tang, Kun; Franz, Henriette

    2006-01-01

    Recent work has shown that the expression levels of genes transcribed in the brains of humans and chimpanzees have changed less than those of genes transcribed in other tissues [1] . However, when gene expression changes are mapped onto the evolutionary lineage in which they occurred, the brain...... shows more changes than other tissues in the human lineage compared to the chimpanzee lineage [1] , [2] and [3] . There are two possible explanations for this: either positive selection drove more gene expression changes to fixation in the human brain than in the chimpanzee brain, or genes expressed...... in the brain experienced less purifying selection in humans than in chimpanzees, i.e. gene expression in the human brain is functionally less constrained. The first scenario would be supported if genes that changed their expression in the brain in the human lineage showed more selective sweeps than other genes...

  5. Molecular phenotyping of human ovarian cancer stem cells unravels the mechanisms for repair and chemoresistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvero, Ayesha B; Chen, Rui; Fu, Han-Hsuan

    2009-01-01

    of the tumor and may be the primary source of recurrence. We describe the characterization of human ovarian cancer stem cells (OCSCs). These cells have a distinctive genetic profile that confers them with the capacity to recapitulate the original tumor, proliferate with chemotherapy, and promote recurrence...... to form spheroids in suspension, and the ability to recapitulate in vivo the original tumor. Chemotherapy eliminates the bulk of the tumor but it leaves a core of cancer cells with high capacity for repair and renewal. The molecular properties identified in these cells may explain some of the unique......A major burden in the treatment of ovarian cancer is the high percentage of recurrence and chemoresistance. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) provide a reservoir of cells that can self-renew, can maintain the tumor by generating differentiated cells [non-stem cells (non-CSCs)] which make up the bulk...

  6. Human DNA polymerase θ grasps the primer terminus to mediate DNA repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahn, Karl E; Averill, April M; Aller, Pierre; Wood, Richard D; Doublié, Sylvie

    2015-04-01

    DNA polymerase θ protects against genomic instability via an alternative end-joining repair pathway for DNA double-strand breaks. Polymerase θ is overexpressed in breast, lung and oral cancers, and reduction of its activity in mammalian cells increases sensitivity to double-strand break-inducing agents, including ionizing radiation. Reported here are crystal structures of the C-terminal polymerase domain from human polymerase θ, illustrating two potential modes of dimerization. One structure depicts insertion of ddATP opposite an abasic-site analog during translesion DNA synthesis. The second structure describes a cognate ddGTP complex. Polymerase θ uses a specialized thumb subdomain to establish unique upstream contacts to the primer DNA strand, including an interaction with the 3'-terminal phosphate from one of five distinctive insertion loops. These observations demonstrate how polymerase θ grasps the primer to bypass DNA lesions or extend poorly annealed DNA termini to mediate end-joining.

  7. Transplanted Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells Facilitate Lesion Repair in B6.Fas Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-ping Ruan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is a multisystem disease that is characterized by the appearance of serum autoantibodies. No effective treatment for SLE currently exists. Methods. We used human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell (H-UC-MSC transplantation to treat B6.Fas mice. Results. After four rounds of cell transplantation, we observed a statistically significant decrease in the levels of mouse anti-nuclear, anti-histone, and anti-double-stranded DNA antibodies in transplanted mice compared with controls. The percentage of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells in mouse peripheral blood significantly increased after H-UC-MSC transplantation. Conclusions. The results showed that H-UC-MSCs could repair lesions in B6.Fas mice such that all of the relevant disease indicators in B6.Fas mice were restored to the levels observed in normal C57BL/6 mice.

  8. Microarray analysis of DNA damage repair gene expression profiles in cervical cancer cells radioresistant to 252Cf neutron and X-rays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhen-Zhou

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to obtain stable radioresistant sub-lines from the human cervical cancer cell line HeLa by prolonged exposure to 252Cf neutron and X-rays. Radioresistance mechanisms were investigated in the resulting cells using microarray analysis of DNA damage repair genes. Methods HeLa cells were treated with fractionated 252Cf neutron and X-rays, with a cumulative dose of 75 Gy each, over 8 months, yielding the sub-lines HeLaNR and HeLaXR. Radioresistant characteristics were detected by clone formation assay, ultrastructural observations, cell doubling time, cell cycle distribution, and apoptosis assay. Gene expression patterns of the radioresistant sub-lines were studied through microarray analysis and verified by Western blotting and real-time PCR. Results The radioresistant sub-lines HeLaNR and HeLaXR were more radioresisitant to 252Cf neutron and X-rays than parental HeLa cells by detecting their radioresistant characteristics, respectively. Compared to HeLa cells, the expression of 24 genes was significantly altered by at least 2-fold in HeLaNR cells. Of these, 19 genes were up-regulated and 5 down-regulated. In HeLaXR cells, 41 genes were significantly altered by at least 2-fold; 38 genes were up-regulated and 3 down-regulated. Conclusions Chronic exposure of cells to ionizing radiation induces adaptive responses that enhance tolerance of ionizing radiation and allow investigations of cellular radioresistance mechanisms. The insights gained into the molecular mechanisms activated by these "radioresistance" genes will lead to new therapeutic targets for cervical cancer.

  9. Gene Expression in the Human Endolymphatic Sac

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Nue; Kirkeby, Svend; Vikeså, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: The purpose of the present study is to explore, demonstrate, and describe the expression of genes related to the solute carrier (SLC) molecules of ion transporters in the human endolymphatic sac. STUDY DESIGN: cDNA microarrays and immunohistochemistry were used for analyses......a1 sodium-bicarbonate transporter, SLC9a2 sodium-hydrogen transporter, SLC12a3 thiazide-sensitive Na-Cl transporter, and SLC34a2 sodium-phosphate transporter. CONCLUSIONS: Several important ion transporters of the SLC family are expressed in the human endolymphatic sac, including Pendrin......, the thiazide-sensitive Na-Cl transporter, and the Na-phosphate transporter SLC34a2. The data provide a new knowledge base considering the ion-dependent metabolic mechanisms maintaining inner ear homeostasis. More specifically, the results indicate a strong similarity with the ion transportation occurring...

  10. Non-homologous End-joining Genes are not Inactivated in Human Radiation-induced Sarcomas with Genomic Instability

    OpenAIRE

    Sandrine H., LEFEVRE; Arnaud, COQUELLE; Nathalie, GONIN LAURENT; Andrej, COR; Nicolas, VOGT; Laurent, CHAUVEINC; Philippe, ANRACT; Bernard, DUTRILLAUX; Sylvie, CHEVILLARD; Bernard, MALFOY; Institut for Histology and Embryology, Medical Faculty; Institut Curie, Service de Radiotherapie; Hopital Cochin. Service de Chirurgie Orthopedique et Oncologique; CEA, DSV DRR; Institut Curie-CNRS-UPMC UMR7147, CEA LRC38

    2005-01-01

    DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair pathways are implicated in the maintenance of genomic stability. However the alterations of these pathways, as may occur in human tumor cells with strong genomic instability, remain poorly characterized. We analyzed the loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and the presence of mutations for a series of genes implicated in DSB repair by non-homologous end-joining in five radiation-induced sarcomas devoid of both active Tp53 and Rb1. LOH was recurrently observed for ...

  11. Development-dependent expression of DNA repair genes and epigenetic regulators in Arabidopsis plants exposed to ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidler, Corinne; Li, Dongping; Kovalchuk, Olga; Kovalchuk, Igor

    2015-02-01

    Both plant senescence and plant response to ionizing radiation involve changes in gene expression and epigenetic profiles, that rely on the formation of reactive oxygen species. However, how the developmental stage of a plant affects its response to ionizing radiation has not been extensively studied. In this study, our experiments showed that exposure to low (10 Gy) and high (100 Gy) doses of ionizing radiation causes developmental delays in plants that may result in reduced biomass or even death of the organism. In particular, 20-day-old plants, which are in the process of transitioning to reproductive growth, showed a distinct response to irradiation compared to 10- or 30-day-old irradiated plants that affects the expression of DNA repair genes. Specifically, we found that the expression of mismatch repair genes was increased in 20-day-old plants, while RAD51 was increased in 10- and 30-day-old plants. Furthermore, we found increased expression of MET1, CMT3 and SUVH5 epigenetic regulators that paralleled decreased ONSEN transcript levels in 20-day-old irradiated plants. These findings suggest that plants exposed during early reproductive growth exhibit a tighter control over genome stability in response to ionizing irradiation compared to plants irradiated at other developmental stages.

  12. Purkinje Cell Degeneration in pcd Mice Reveals Large Scale Chromatin Reorganization and Gene Silencing Linked to Defective DNA Repair*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltanás, Fernando C.; Casafont, Iñigo; Lafarga, Vanesa; Weruaga, Eduardo; Alonso, José R.; Berciano, María T.; Lafarga, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    DNA repair protects neurons against spontaneous or disease-associated DNA damage. Dysfunctions of this mechanism underlie a growing list of neurodegenerative disorders. The Purkinje cell (PC) degeneration mutation causes the loss of nna1 expression and is associated with the postnatal degeneration of PCs. This PC degeneration dramatically affects nuclear architecture and provides an excellent model to elucidate the nuclear mechanisms involved in a whole array of neurodegenerative disorders. We used immunocytochemistry for histone variants and components of the DNA damage response, an in situ transcription assay, and in situ hybridization for telomeres to analyze changes in chromatin architecture and function. We demonstrate that the phosphorylation of H2AX, a DNA damage signal, and the trimethylation of the histone H4K20, a repressive mark, in extensive domains of genome are epigenetic hallmarks of chromatin in degenerating PCs. These histone modifications are associated with a large scale reorganization of chromatin, telomere clustering, and heterochromatin-induced gene silencing, all of them key factors in PC degeneration. Furthermore, ataxia telangiectasia mutated and 53BP1, two components of the DNA repair pathway, fail to be concentrated in the damaged chromatin compartments, even though the expression levels of their coding genes were slightly up-regulated. Although the mechanism by which Nna1 loss of function leads to PC neurodegeneration is undefined, the progressive accumulation of DNA damage in chromosome territories irreversibly compromises global gene transcription and seems to trigger PC degeneration and death. PMID:21700704

  13. Purkinje cell degeneration in pcd mice reveals large scale chromatin reorganization and gene silencing linked to defective DNA repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltanás, Fernando C; Casafont, Iñigo; Lafarga, Vanesa; Weruaga, Eduardo; Alonso, José R; Berciano, María T; Lafarga, Miguel

    2011-08-12

    DNA repair protects neurons against spontaneous or disease-associated DNA damage. Dysfunctions of this mechanism underlie a growing list of neurodegenerative disorders. The Purkinje cell (PC) degeneration mutation causes the loss of nna1 expression and is associated with the postnatal degeneration of PCs. This PC degeneration dramatically affects nuclear architecture and provides an excellent model to elucidate the nuclear mechanisms involved in a whole array of neurodegenerative disorders. We used immunocytochemistry for histone variants and components of the DNA damage response, an in situ transcription assay, and in situ hybridization for telomeres to analyze changes in chromatin architecture and function. We demonstrate that the phosphorylation of H2AX, a DNA damage signal, and the trimethylation of the histone H4K20, a repressive mark, in extensive domains of genome are epigenetic hallmarks of chromatin in degenerating PCs. These histone modifications are associated with a large scale reorganization of chromatin, telomere clustering, and heterochromatin-induced gene silencing, all of them key factors in PC degeneration. Furthermore, ataxia telangiectasia mutated and 53BP1, two components of the DNA repair pathway, fail to be concentrated in the damaged chromatin compartments, even though the expression levels of their coding genes were slightly up-regulated. Although the mechanism by which Nna1 loss of function leads to PC neurodegeneration is undefined, the progressive accumulation of DNA damage in chromosome territories irreversibly compromises global gene transcription and seems to trigger PC degeneration and death.

  14. Biomechanical Comparison of Standard and Linked Single-Row Rotator Cuff Repairs in a Human Cadaver Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisel, Adam F; Henninger, Heath B; Barber, F Alan; Getelman, Mark H

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the time zero cyclic and failure loading properties of a linked single-row rotator cuff repair compared with a standard simple suture single-row repair using triple-loaded suture anchors. Eighteen human cadaveric shoulders from 9 matched pairs were dissected, and full-thickness supraspinatus tears were created. The tendon cross-sectional area was recorded. In each pair, one side was repaired with a linked single-row construct and the other with a simple suture single-row construct, both using 2 triple-loaded suture anchors. After preloading, specimens were cycled to 1 MPa of effective stress at 1 Hz for 500 cycles, and gap formation was recorded with a digital video system. Samples were then loaded to failure, and modes of failure were recorded. There was no statistical difference in peak gap formation between the control and linked constructs (3.6 ± 0.9 mm and 3.6 ± 1.2 mm, respectively; P = .697). Both constructs averaged below a 5-mm cyclic failure threshold. There was no statistical difference in ultimate load to failure between the control and linked repair (511.1 ± 139.0 N and 561.2 ± 131.8 N, respectively; P = .164), and both groups reached failure at loads similar to previous studies. Constructs failed predominantly via tissue tearing parallel to the medial suture line. The linked repair performed similarly to the simple single-row repair. Both constructs demonstrated high ultimate load to failure and good resistance to gap formation with cyclic loading, validating the time zero strength of both constructs in a human cadaveric model. The linked repair provided equivalent resistance to gap formation and failure loads compared with simple suture single-row repairs with triple-loaded suture anchors. This suggests that the linked repair is a simplified rip-stop configuration using the existing suture that may perform similarly to current rotator cuff repair techniques. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy

  15. DNA repair proteins in cells of the human immune system; Le proteine della riparazione del DNA in cellule del sistema immunitario umano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frasca, D.; Barattini, P.; Guidi, F.; Scarpaci, S. [ENEA, Sez. Tossicologia e Scienze Biomediche, Rome (Italy); Doria, G. [Rome Univ. Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy). Cattedra di Immunologia

    2001-02-01

    Human longevity depends on the efficiency of DNA repair mechanisms. In irradiated cells of the human immune system, the principal repair mechanism involves the DNA-Pk protein complex. [Italian] La durata della vita dipende dalla efficienza di meccanismi di riparazione del DNA. Nelle cellule del sistema immunitario umano danneggiate il principale meccanismo di riparazione coinvolge il complesso proteico DNA-PK.

  16. Structure of the human lysyl oxidase gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haemaelaeinen, E.R.; Kemppainen, R.; Pihlajaniemi, T.; Kivirikko, K.I. (Univ. of Oulu (Finland))

    1993-09-01

    Lysyl oxidase (EC 1.4.3.13), an extracellular copper enzyme, initiates the crosslinking of collagens and elastin by catalyzing oxidative deamination of the [epsilon]-amino group in certain lysine and hydroxylysine residues. The authors report here that the human lysyl oxidase gene is about 15 kb in size and consists of seven exons. Transcription is initiated at one major site and four minor sites, and the first exon consists of 273 bp of untranslated sequences (calculated to the major site) and 631 bp of translated sequences, which accounts for about half of all the translated sequences of the gene. The seventh exon, on the other hand, codes for only the last codon of amino acid 416 and for amino acid 417, which are followed by the translation termination codon and the 3[prime] untranslated sequences. Exons 2-6 vary in size from 96to157 bp, and the introns from 331 bp to about 3.5 kb. The 5[prime] flanking region contains a TATA-like sequence at -30 relative to the major transcription initiation site and a CCAAT motif at -109. The 5[prime] flanking region and the downstream sequences present in the first exon and first intron contain altogether five possible binding sequences for Sp1, six for AP-2, one for AP-1, three of PEA3, three for MEP-1, and three CCCTCCC motifs, all of which may be involved in the regulation of the expression of the gene. 25 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Downregulation of Cockayne syndrome B protein reduces human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase-1 expression and repair of UV radiation-induced 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javeri, Arash; Lyons, James Guy; Huang, Xiao X; Halliday, Gary M

    2011-09-01

    Human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase-1 (hOGG1) is the key DNA repair enzyme responsible for initiating repair of UV radiation-induced 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG). Previously we have shown that basal cells in human epidermis are particularly sensitive to UVA-mediated DNA damage probably due to low expression of hOGG1. Here we investigate some aspects of the regulatory role of Cockayne syndrome B (CSB) on hOGG1 expression and function. Cockayne syndrome B and hOGG1 genes were knocked down by miRNA technology in the HaCaT human keratinocyte cell line. Loss of the CSB gene decreased hOGG1 mRNA, and loss of hOGG1 increased CSB, indicating that they influence each other's expression. Protein levels were assessed in cells grown into engineered human skin using immunohistochemistry. This confirmed that CSB knockdown with miRNA reduced hOGG1 protein levels, but hOGG1 knockdown did not influence expression of CSB protein. Using comet assay we found that both hOGG1 and CSB knockdown reduced repair of both UVA- and UVB-induced 8-oxo-dG, consistent with CSB downregulation of hOGG1 mRNA and protein. In contrast, CSB but not hOGG1 knockdown reduced repair of UVB- and UVA-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer photolesions. In engineered human skin, repair of UVA-induced 8-oxo-dG was inhibited by both hOGG1 and CSB knockdown, confirming the functional role of both proteins in cells with 3-D cellular contacts. These findings directly indicate that hOGG1 and CSB influence each other's expression. CSB is required for maintaining hOGG1 enzyme levels and function. Cockayne syndrome B could therefore be required for 8-oxo-dG repair due to its regulatory effect on hOGG1 expression. Cockayne syndrome B but not hOGG1 is also required for efficient repair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers. Cockayne syndrome B regulation of DNA repair could contribute to the effect of UVA in causing mutations that lead to skin cancer in humans. © 2011 Japanese Cancer Association.

  18. Molecular spectrum of excision repair cross-complementation group 8 gene defects in Chinese patients with Cockayne syndrome type A

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiaozhu; Huang, Yu; Yan, Ming; Li, Jiuwei; Ding, Changhong; Jin, Hong; Fang, Fang; Yang, Yanling; Wu, Baiyan; Chen, Dafang

    2017-01-01

    There are two genetics complementary groups Cockayne syndrome type A and B (CS-A and CS-B OMIM 216400, 133540), which is a rare autosomal recessive segmental progeroid syndrome. Homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the excision repair cross-complementation group 8 gene (ERCC8) result in CS-A, and mutations in ERCC6 result in CS-B. Homozygous ERCC6/ERCC8 mutations also result in UV-sensitive syndrome. In this study, twenty-one Han Chinese patients with CS were investigated to ident...

  19. Radiation-Induced Upregulation of Gene Expression From Adenoviral Vectors Mediated by DNA Damage Repair and Regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nokisalmi, Petri; Rajecki, Maria; Pesonen, Sari; Escutenaire, Sophie [Cancer Gene Therapy Group, Molecular Cancer Biology Program, Transplantation Laboratory, Haartman Institute, and Finnish Institute for Molecular Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Helsinki and Uusimaa Hospital District Laboratory, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Soliymani, Rabah [Protein Chemistry Unit, Department of Anatomy, Institute of Biomedicine, Biomedicum Helsinki (Finland); Tenhunen, Mikko [Department of Radiation and Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Ahtiainen, Laura [Cancer Gene Therapy Group, Molecular Cancer Biology Program, Transplantation Laboratory, Haartman Institute, and Finnish Institute for Molecular Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Helsinki and Uusimaa Hospital District Laboratory, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Hemminki, Akseli, E-mail: akseli.hemminki@helsinki.fi [Cancer Gene Therapy Group, Molecular Cancer Biology Program, Transplantation Laboratory, Haartman Institute, and Finnish Institute for Molecular Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Helsinki and Uusimaa Hospital District Laboratory, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: In the present study, we evaluated the combination of replication-deficient adenoviruses and radiotherapy in vitro. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the mechanism of radiation-mediated upregulation of adenoviral transgene expression. Methods and Materials: Adenoviral transgene expression (luciferase or green fluorescent protein) was studied with and without radiation in three cell lines: breast cancer M4A4-LM3, prostate cancer PC-3MM2, and lung cancer LNM35/enhanced green fluorescent protein. The effect of the radiation dose, modification of the viral capsid, and five different transgene promoters were studied. The cellular responses were studied using mass spectrometry and immunofluorescence analysis. Double strand break repair was modulated by inhibitors of heat shock protein 90, topoisomerase-I, and DNA protein kinase, and transgene expression was measured. Results: We found that a wide range of radiation doses increased adenoviral transgene expression regardless of the cell line, transgene, promoter, or viral capsid modification. Treatment with adenovirus, radiation, and double strand break repair inhibitors resulted in persistence of double strand breaks and subsequent increases in adenovirus transgene expression. Conclusions: Radiation-induced enhancement of adenoviral transgene expression is linked to DNA damage recognition and repair. Radiation induces a global cellular response that results in increased production of RNA and proteins, including adenoviral transgene products. This study provides a mechanistic rationale for combining radiation with adenoviral gene delivery.

  20. DNA repair gene XRCC3 241Met variant and breast cancer susceptibility of Azeri population in Iranian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gohari-Lasaki Sahar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA-repair systems are essential for repairing damage that occurs when there is recombination between homologous chromosomes. The gene XRCC3 (X-ray cross complementing group 3 encodes a member of the RecA/Rad51-related protein family that participates in homologous recombination to maintain chromosome stability and repair DNA damage. The Thr241Met XRCC3-18067C>T, rs861539 substitution, a C to T transition at codon 241 in exon7, thus plays critical roles in cancer development. The aim of this study was association between XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism and risk of sporadic breast cancer in Azari population. We analysed DNA samples from 100 sporadic breast cancer patients and 100 healthy women, for XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism using PCR-RFLP. Genotype specific risks were tested using chi-test with 95% confident intervals. Frequency of Thr/Thr at codon 241was 69% in controls and 70% in patients, Thr/Met frequency was 22% in controls and 13 % in patients, the Met/Met genotype was 9% incontrols and 17% in patients. No correlation between the genotype and allele distribution and increased susceptibility for breast Cancer. Our results suggested that in pre-menopausal women, breast cancer riskis not significantly associated with rs861539 in Azari population.

  1. Delayed neuromotor recovery and increased memory acquisition dysfunction following experimental brain trauma in mice lacking the DNA repair gene XPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasevic, Gregor; Laurer, Helmut L; Mattiasson, Gustav; van Steeg, Harry; Wieloch, Tadeusz; McIntosh, Tracy K

    2012-06-01

    This study investigates the outcome after traumatic brain injury (TBI) in mice lacking the essential DNA repair gene xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XPA). As damage to DNA has been implicated in neuronal cell death in various models, the authors sought to elucidate whether the absence of an essential DNA repair factor would affect the outcome of TBI in an experimental setting. Thirty-seven adult mice of either wild-type (n = 18) or XPA-deficient ("knock-out" [n = 19]) genotype were subjected to controlled cortical impact experimental brain trauma, which produced a focal brain injury. Sham-injured mice of both genotypes were used as controls (9 in each group). The mice were subjected to neurobehavoral tests evaluating learning/acquisition (Morris water maze) and motor dysfunction (Rotarod and composite neuroscore test), pre- and postinjury up to 4 weeks. The mice were killed after 1 or 4 weeks, and cortical lesion volume, as well as hippocampal and thalamic cell loss, was evaluated. Hippocampal staining with doublecortin antibody was used to evaluate neurogenesis after the insult. Brain-injured XPA(-/-) mice exhibited delayed recovery from impairment in neurological motor function, as well as pronounced cognitive dysfunction in a spatial learning task (Morris water maze), compared with injured XPA(+/+) mice (p recovery after TBI, although they do not support the notion that this DNA repair deficiency results in increased cell or tissue death in the posttraumatic brain.

  2. Effects of microinjected photoreactivating enzyme on thymine dimer removal and DNA repair synthesis in normal human and xeroderma pigmentosum fibroblasts.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Roza (Len); W. Vermeulen (Wim); J.B.A. Bergen Henegouwen (Jacqueline); A.P.M. Eker (André); N.G.J. Jaspers (Nicolaas); P.H.M. Lohman (Paul); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractUV-induced thymine dimers (10 J/m2 of UV-C) were assayed in normal human and xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) fibroblasts with a monoclonal antibody against these dimers and quantitative fluorescence microscopy. In repair-proficient cells dimer-specific immunofluorescence gradually decreased

  3. Expression of a Human Cytochrome P450 in Yeast Permits Analysis of Pathways for Response to and Repair of Aflatoxin-Induced DNA Damage†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yingying; Breeden, Linda L.; Zarbl, Helmut; Preston, Bradley D.; Eaton, David L.

    2005-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a human hepatotoxin and hepatocarcinogen produced by the mold Aspergillus flavus. In humans, AFB1 is primarily bioactivated by cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) and 3A4 to a genotoxic epoxide that forms N7-guanine DNA adducts. A series of yeast haploid mutants defective in DNA repair and cell cycle checkpoints were transformed with human CYP1A2 to investigate how these DNA adducts are repaired. Cell survival and mutagenesis following aflatoxin B1 treatment was assayed in strains defective in nucleotide excision repair (NER) (rad14), postreplication repair (PRR) (rad6, rad18, mms2, and rad5), homologous recombinational repair (HRR) (rad51 and rad54), base excision repair (BER) (apn1 apn2), nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) (yku70), mismatch repair (MMR) (pms1), translesion synthesis (TLS) (rev3), and checkpoints (mec1-1, mec1-1 rad53, rad9, and rad17). Together our data suggest the involvement of homologous recombination and nucleotide excision repair, postreplication repair, and checkpoints in the repair and/or tolerance of AFB1-induced DNA damage in the yeast model. Rev3 appears to mediate AFB1-induced mutagenesis when error-free pathways are compromised. The results further suggest unique roles for Rad5 and abasic endonuclease-dependent DNA intermediates in regulating AFB1-induced mutagenicity. PMID:15988000

  4. Expression of a human cytochrome p450 in yeast permits analysis of pathways for response to and repair of aflatoxin-induced DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yingying; Breeden, Linda L; Zarbl, Helmut; Preston, Bradley D; Eaton, David L

    2005-07-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a human hepatotoxin and hepatocarcinogen produced by the mold Aspergillus flavus. In humans, AFB1 is primarily bioactivated by cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) and 3A4 to a genotoxic epoxide that forms N7-guanine DNA adducts. A series of yeast haploid mutants defective in DNA repair and cell cycle checkpoints were transformed with human CYP1A2 to investigate how these DNA adducts are repaired. Cell survival and mutagenesis following aflatoxin B1 treatment was assayed in strains defective in nucleotide excision repair (NER) (rad14), postreplication repair (PRR) (rad6, rad18, mms2, and rad5), homologous recombinational repair (HRR) (rad51 and rad54), base excision repair (BER) (apn1 apn2), nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) (yku70), mismatch repair (MMR) (pms1), translesion synthesis (TLS) (rev3), and checkpoints (mec1-1, mec1-1 rad53, rad9, and rad17). Together our data suggest the involvement of homologous recombination and nucleotide excision repair, postreplication repair, and checkpoints in the repair and/or tolerance of AFB1-induced DNA damage in the yeast model. Rev3 appears to mediate AFB1-induced mutagenesis when error-free pathways are compromised. The results further suggest unique roles for Rad5 and abasic endonuclease-dependent DNA intermediates in regulating AFB1-induced mutagenicity.

  5. Bioinformatics and phylogenetic analysis of human Tp73 gene

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Imtiaz

    2013-06-26

    Jun 26, 2013 ... Accepted 26 April, 2013. The Tp73 gene encoding p73 protein belongs to the Tp53 gene family and it functions in the initiation of .... Phylogenetic tree shows the more similarity between human and chimpanzee, while mouse sequence was distantly related (Figure 1). Tp73 genes of human, mouse, rat and ...

  6. Classification and nomenclature of all human homeobox genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruford Elspeth A

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The homeobox genes are a large and diverse group of genes, many of which play important roles in the embryonic development of animals. Increasingly, homeobox genes are being compared between genomes in an attempt to understand the evolution of animal development. Despite their importance, the full diversity of human homeobox genes has not previously been described. Results We have identified all homeobox genes and pseudogenes in the euchromatic regions of the human genome, finding many unannotated, incorrectly annotated, unnamed, misnamed or misclassified genes and pseudogenes. We describe 300 human homeobox loci, which we divide into 235 probable functional genes and 65 probable pseudogenes. These totals include 3 genes with partial homeoboxes and 13 pseudogenes that lack homeoboxes but are clearly derived from homeobox genes. These figures exclude the repetitive DUX1 to DUX5 homeobox sequences of which we identified 35 probable pseudogenes, with many more expected in heterochromatic regions. Nomenclature is established for approximately 40 formerly unnamed loci, reflecting their evolutionary relationships to other loci in human and other species, and nomenclature revisions are proposed for around 30 other loci. We use a classification that recognizes 11 homeobox gene 'classes' subdivided into 102 homeobox gene 'families'. Conclusion We have conducted a comprehensive survey of homeobox genes and pseudogenes in the human genome, described many new loci, and revised the classification and nomenclature of homeobox genes. The classification scheme may be widely applicable to homeobox genes in other animal genomes and will facilitate comparative genomics of this important gene superclass.

  7. Dynamic dependence on ATR and ATM for double-strand break repair in human embryonic stem cells and neural descendants.

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    Bret R Adams

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The DNA double-strand break (DSB is the most toxic form of DNA damage. Studies aimed at characterizing DNA repair during development suggest that homologous recombination repair (HRR is more critical in pluripotent cells compared to differentiated somatic cells in which nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ is dominant. We have characterized the DNA damage response (DDR and quality of DNA double-strand break (DSB repair in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs, and in vitro-derived neural cells. Resolution of ionizing radiation-induced foci (IRIF was used as a surrogate for DSB repair. The resolution of gamma-H2AX foci occurred at a slower rate in hESCs compared to neural progenitors (NPs and astrocytes perhaps reflective of more complex DSB repair in hESCs. In addition, the resolution of RAD51 foci, indicative of active homologous recombination repair (HRR, showed that hESCs as well as NPs have high capacity for HRR, whereas astrocytes do not. Importantly, the ATM kinase was shown to be critical for foci formation in astrocytes, but not in hESCs, suggesting that the DDR is different in these cells. Blocking the ATM kinase in astrocytes not only prevented the formation but also completely disassembled preformed repair foci. The ability of hESCs to form IRIF was abrogated with caffeine and siRNAs targeted against ATR, implicating that hESCs rely on ATR, rather than ATM for regulating DSB repair. This relationship dynamically changed as cells differentiated. Interestingly, while the inhibition of the DNA-PKcs kinase (and presumably non-homologous endjoining [NHEJ] in astrocytes slowed IRIF resolution it did not in hESCs, suggesting that repair in hESCs does not utilize DNA-PKcs. Altogether, our results show that hESCs have efficient DSB repair that is largely ATR-dependent HRR, whereas astrocytes critically depend on ATM for NHEJ, which, in part, is DNA-PKcs-independent.

  8. Antioxidative Dietary Compounds Modulate Gene Expression Associated with Apoptosis, DNA Repair, Inhibition of Cell Proliferation and Migration

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    Likui Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Many dietary compounds are known to have health benefits owing to their antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. To determine the molecular mechanism of these food-derived compounds, we analyzed their effect on various genes related to cell apoptosis, DNA damage and repair, oxidation and inflammation using in vitro cell culture assays. This review further tests the hypothesis proposed previously that downstream products of COX-2 (cyclooxygenase-2 called electrophilic oxo-derivatives induce antioxidant responsive elements (ARE, which leads to cell proliferation under antioxidative conditions. Our findings support this hypothesis and show that cell proliferation was inhibited when COX-2 was down-regulated by polyphenols and polysaccharides. Flattened macrophage morphology was also observed following the induction of cytokine production by polysaccharides extracted from viili, a traditional Nordic fermented dairy product. Coix lacryma-jobi (coix polysaccharides were found to reduce mitochondrial membrane potential and induce caspase-3- and 9-mediated apoptosis. In contrast, polyphenols from blueberries were involved in the ultraviolet-activated p53/Gadd45/MDM2 DNA repair system by restoring the cell membrane potential. Inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 by saponin extracts of ginsenoside (Ginsen and Gynostemma and inhibition of S100A4 by coix polysaccharides inhibited cancer cell migration and invasion. These observations suggest that antioxidants and changes in cell membrane potential are the major driving forces that transfer signals through the cell membrane into the cytosol and nucleus, triggering gene expression, changes in cell proliferation and the induction of apoptosis or DNA repair.

  9. Antioxidative Dietary Compounds Modulate Gene Expression Associated with Apoptosis, DNA Repair, Inhibition of Cell Proliferation and Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Likui; Gao, Shijuan; Jiang, Wei; Luo, Cheng; Xu, Maonian; Bohlin, Lars; Rosendahl, Markus; Huang, Wenlin

    2014-01-01

    Many dietary compounds are known to have health benefits owing to their antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. To determine the molecular mechanism of these food-derived compounds, we analyzed their effect on various genes related to cell apoptosis, DNA damage and repair, oxidation and inflammation using in vitro cell culture assays. This review further tests the hypothesis proposed previously that downstream products of COX-2 (cyclooxygenase-2) called electrophilic oxo-derivatives induce antioxidant responsive elements (ARE), which leads to cell proliferation under antioxidative conditions. Our findings support this hypothesis and show that cell proliferation was inhibited when COX-2 was down-regulated by polyphenols and polysaccharides. Flattened macrophage morphology was also observed following the induction of cytokine production by polysaccharides extracted from viili, a traditional Nordic fermented dairy product. Coix lacryma-jobi (coix) polysaccharides were found to reduce mitochondrial membrane potential and induce caspase-3- and 9-mediated apoptosis. In contrast, polyphenols from blueberries were involved in the ultraviolet-activated p53/Gadd45/MDM2 DNA repair system by restoring the cell membrane potential. Inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 by saponin extracts of ginsenoside (Ginsen) and Gynostemma and inhibition of S100A4 by coix polysaccharides inhibited cancer cell migration and invasion. These observations suggest that antioxidants and changes in cell membrane potential are the major driving forces that transfer signals through the cell membrane into the cytosol and nucleus, triggering gene expression, changes in cell proliferation and the induction of apoptosis or DNA repair. PMID:25226533

  10. Metal inhibition of human alkylpurine-DNA-N-glycosylase activityin base excision repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ping; Guliaev, Anton B.; Hang, Bo

    2006-02-28

    Cadmium (Cd{sup 2+}), nickel (Ni{sup 2+}) and cobalt (Co{sup 2+}) are human and/or animal carcinogens. Zinc (Zn{sup 2+}) is not categorized as a carcinogen, and rather an essential element to humans. Metals were recently shown to inhibit DNA repair proteins that use metals for their function and/or structure. Here we report that the divalent ions Cd{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, and Zn{sup 2+} can inhibit the activity of a recombinant human N-methylpurine-DNA glycosylase (MPG) toward a deoxyoligonucleotide with ethenoadenine (var epsilonA). MPG removes a variety of toxic/mutagenic alkylated bases and does not require metal for its catalytic activity or structural integrity. At concentrations starting from 50 to 1000 {micro}M, both Cd{sup 2+} and Zn{sup 2+} showed metal-dependent inhibition of the MPG catalytic activity. Ni{sup 2+} also inhibited MPG, but to a lesser extent. Such an effect can be reversed with EDTA addition. In contrast, Co{sup 2+} and Mg{sup 2+} did not inhibit the MPG activity in the same dose range. Experiments using HeLa cell-free extracts demonstrated similar patterns of inactivation of the var epsilonA excision activity by the same metals. Binding of MPG to the substrate was not significantly affected by Cd{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, and Ni{sup 2+} at concentrations that show strong inhibition of the catalytic function, suggesting that the reduced catalytic activity is not due to altered MPG binding affinity to the substrate. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with Zn{sup 2+} showed that the MPG active site has a potential binding site for Zn{sup 2+}, formed by several catalytically important and conserved residues. Metal binding to such a site is expected to interfere with the catalytic mechanism of this protein. These data suggest that inhibition of MPG activity may contribute to metal genotoxicity and depressed repair of alkylation damage by metals in vivo.

  11. Expanding the landscape of chromatin modification (CM-related functional domains and genes in human.

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    Shuye Pu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Chromatin modification (CM plays a key role in regulating transcription, DNA replication, repair and recombination. However, our knowledge of these processes in humans remains very limited. Here we use computational approaches to study proteins and functional domains involved in CM in humans. We analyze the abundance and the pair-wise domain-domain co-occurrences of 25 well-documented CM domains in 5 model organisms: yeast, worm, fly, mouse and human. Results show that domains involved in histone methylation, DNA methylation, and histone variants are remarkably expanded in metazoan, reflecting the increased demand for cell type-specific gene regulation. We find that CM domains tend to co-occur with a limited number of partner domains and are hence not promiscuous. This property is exploited to identify 47 potentially novel CM domains, including 24 DNA-binding domains, whose role in CM has received little attention so far. Lastly, we use a consensus Machine Learning approach to predict 379 novel CM genes (coding for 329 proteins in humans based on domain compositions. Several of these predictions are supported by very recent experimental studies and others are slated for experimental verification. Identification of novel CM genes and domains in humans will aid our understanding of fundamental epigenetic processes that are important for stem cell differentiation and cancer biology. Information on all the candidate CM domains and genes reported here is publicly available.

  12. RPA mediates recombination repair during replication stress and is displaced from DNA by checkpoint signalling in human cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sleeth, Kate M; Sørensen, Claus Storgaard; Issaeva, Natalia

    2007-01-01

    The replication protein A (RPA) is involved in most, if not all, nuclear metabolism involving single-stranded DNA. Here, we show that RPA is involved in genome maintenance at stalled replication forks by the homologous recombination repair system in humans. Depletion of the RPA protein inhibited...... the formation of RAD51 nuclear foci after hydroxyurea-induced replication stalling leading to persistent unrepaired DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). We demonstrate a direct role of RPA in homology directed recombination repair. We find that RPA is dispensable for checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) activation...... and that RPA directly binds RAD52 upon replication stress, suggesting a direct role in recombination repair. In addition we show that inhibition of Chk1 with UCN-01 decreases dissociation of RPA from the chromatin and inhibits association of RAD51 and RAD52 with DNA. Altogether, our data suggest a direct role...

  13. SNPs in DNA repair or oxidative stress genes and late subcutaneous fibrosis in patients following single shot partial breast irradiation

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    Falvo Elisabetta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential association between single nucleotide polymorphisms related response to radiotherapy injury, such as genes related to DNA repair or enzymes involved in anti-oxidative activities. The paper aims to identify marker genes able to predict an increased risk of late toxicity studying our group of patients who underwent a Single Shot 3D-CRT PBI (SSPBI after BCS (breast conserving surgery. Methods A total of 57 breast cancer patients who underwent SSPBI were genotyped for SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms in XRCC1, XRCC3, GST and RAD51 by Pyrosequencing technology. Univariate analysis (ORs and 95% CI was performed to correlate SNPs with the risk of developing ≥ G2 fibrosis or fat necrosis. Results A higher significant risk of developing ≥ G2 fibrosis or fat necrosis in patients with: polymorphic variant GSTP1 (Ile105Val (OR = 2.9; 95%CI, 0.88-10.14, p = 0.047. Conclusions The presence of some SNPs involved in DNA repair or response to oxidative stress seem to be able to predict late toxicity. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01316328

  14. SNPs in DNA repair or oxidative stress genes and late subcutaneous fibrosis in patients following single shot partial breast irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falvo, Elisabetta; Strigari, Lidia; Citro, Gennaro; Giordano, Carolina; Boboc, Genoveva; Fabretti, Fabiana; Bruzzaniti, Vicente; Bellesi, Luca; Muti, Paola; Blandino, Giovanni; Pinnarò, Paola

    2012-01-24

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential association between single nucleotide polymorphisms related response to radiotherapy injury, such as genes related to DNA repair or enzymes involved in anti-oxidative activities. The paper aims to identify marker genes able to predict an increased risk of late toxicity studying our group of patients who underwent a Single Shot 3D-CRT PBI (SSPBI) after BCS (breast conserving surgery). A total of 57 breast cancer patients who underwent SSPBI were genotyped for SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) in XRCC1, XRCC3, GST and RAD51 by Pyrosequencing technology. Univariate analysis (ORs and 95% CI) was performed to correlate SNPs with the risk of developing ≥ G2 fibrosis or fat necrosis. A higher significant risk of developing ≥ G2 fibrosis or fat necrosis in patients with: polymorphic variant GSTP1 (Ile105Val) (OR = 2.9; 95%CI, 0.88-10.14, p = 0.047). The presence of some SNPs involved in DNA repair or response to oxidative stress seem to be able to predict late toxicity. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01316328.

  15. Schwann Cell Precursors from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells as a Potential Therapeutic Target for Myelin Repair

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    Han-Seop Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Schwann cells play a crucial role in successful nerve repair and regeneration by supporting both axonal growth and myelination. However, the sources of human Schwann cells are limited both for studies of Schwann cell development and biology and for the development of treatments for Schwann cell-associated diseases. Here, we provide a rapid and scalable method to produce self-renewing Schwann cell precursors (SCPs from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs, using combined sequential treatment with inhibitors of the TGF-β and GSK-3 signaling pathways, and with neuregulin-1 for 18 days under chemically defined conditions. Within 1 week, hPSC-derived SCPs could be differentiated into immature Schwann cells that were functionally confirmed by their secretion of neurotrophic factors and their myelination capacity in vitro and in vivo. We propose that hPSC-derived SCPs are a promising, unlimited source of functional Schwann cells for treating demyelination disorders and injuries to the peripheral nervous system.

  16. Value of recombinant human epidermal growth factor in corneal wound repair after corneal foreign body elimination

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    Hong-Jie Han

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the repair efficacy of recombinant human epidermal growth factor on corneal epithelium after corneal foreign body eliminating operation. METHODS: There were 102 patients with corneal foreign body(188 affected eyeschosen for the study. All patients were divided into treatment group and control group according to the random number table. Both groups received corneal foreign body elimination by slit lamp. Postoperatively, the treatment group was given eye drops containing epidermal growth factor(JinYinShucombined with tobramycin while the control group was only administrated with tobramycin. Treatment effects were compared 3d after treatment. RESULTS: Three days after treatment, the cure rate in the treatment group(93.7%, was significantly higher than that in the control group(76.6%(PPCONCLUSION: The recombinant human epidermal growth factor is capable of integrating with corneal epithelial cells and endothelial cell receptor, shortening healing time of corneal epithelial wound, thus making it an effective treatment of traumatic corneal epithelial defect.

  17. Architecture of the human and yeast general transcription and DNA repair factor TFIIH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jie; Cimermancic, Peter; Viswanath, Shruthi; Ebmeier, Christopher C.; Kim, Bong; Dehecq, Marine; Raman, Vishnu; Greenberg, Charles H.; Pellarin, Riccardo; Sali, Andrej; Taatjes, Dylan J.; Hahn, Steven; Ranish, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Summary TFIIH is essential for both RNA polymerase II transcription and DNA repair, and mutations in TFIIH can result in human disease. Here, we determine the molecular architecture of human and yeast TFIIH by an integrative approach using chemical crosslinking/mass spectrometry (CXMS) data, biochemical analyses, and previously published electron microscopy maps. We identified four new conserved “topological regions” that function as hubs for TFIIH assembly and more than 35 conserved topological features within TFIIH, illuminating a network of interactions involved in TFIIH assembly and regulation of its activities. We show that one of these conserved regions, the p62/Tfb1 Anchor region, directly interacts with the DNA helicase subunit XPD/Rad3 in native TFIIH and is required for the integrity and function of TFIIH. We also reveal the structural basis for defects in patients with Xeroderma pigmentosum and Trichothiodystrophy, with mutations found at the interface between the p62 Anchor region and the XPD subunit. PMID:26340423

  18. Schwann Cell Precursors from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells as a Potential Therapeutic Target for Myelin Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Han-Seop; Lee, Jungwoon; Lee, Da Yong; Kim, Young-Dae; Kim, Jae Yun; Lim, Hyung Jin; Lim, Sungmin; Cho, Yee Sook

    2017-06-06

    Schwann cells play a crucial role in successful nerve repair and regeneration by supporting both axonal growth and myelination. However, the sources of human Schwann cells are limited both for studies of Schwann cell development and biology and for the development of treatments for Schwann cell-associated diseases. Here, we provide a rapid and scalable method to produce self-renewing Schwann cell precursors (SCPs) from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), using combined sequential treatment with inhibitors of the TGF-β and GSK-3 signaling pathways, and with neuregulin-1 for 18 days under chemically defined conditions. Within 1 week, hPSC-derived SCPs could be differentiated into immature Schwann cells that were functionally confirmed by their secretion of neurotrophic factors and their myelination capacity in vitro and in vivo. We propose that hPSC-derived SCPs are a promising, unlimited source of functional Schwann cells for treating demyelination disorders and injuries to the peripheral nervous system. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Regeneration and repair of human digits and limbs: fact and fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tsun‐Chih

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A variety of digit and limb repair and reconstruction methods have been used in different clinical settings, but regeneration remains an item on every plastic surgeon's “wish list.” Although surgical salvage techniques are continually being improved, unreplantable digits and limbs are still abundant. We comprehensively review the structural and functional salvage methods in clinical practice, from the peeling injuries of small distal fingertips to multisegmented amputated limbs, and the developmental and tissue engineering approaches for regenerating human digits and limbs in the laboratory. Although surgical techniques have forged ahead, there are still situations in which digits and limbs are unreplantable. Advances in the field are delineated, and the regeneration processes of salamander limbs, lizard tails, and mouse digits and each component of tissue engineering approaches for digit‐ and limb‐building are discussed. Although the current technology is promising, there are many challenges in human digit and limb regeneration. We hope this review inspires research on the critical gap between clinical and basic science, and leads to more sophisticated digit and limb loss rescue and regeneration innovations. PMID:27499873

  20. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells promote peripheral nerve repair via paracrine mechanisms

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    Zhi-yuan Guo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs represent a promising young-state stem cell source for cell-based therapy. hUCMSC transplantation into the transected sciatic nerve promotes axonal regeneration and functional recovery. To further clarify the paracrine effects of hUCMSCs on nerve regeneration, we performed human cytokine antibody array analysis, which revealed that hUCMSCs express 14 important neurotrophic factors. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunohistochemistry showed that brain-derived neurotrophic factor, glial-derived neurotrophic factor, hepatocyte growth factor, neurotrophin-3, basic fibroblast growth factor, type I collagen, fibronectin and laminin were highly expressed. Treatment with hUCMSC-conditioned medium enhanced Schwann cell viability and proliferation, increased nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in Schwann cells, and enhanced neurite growth from dorsal root ganglion explants. These findings suggest that paracrine action may be a key mechanism underlying the effects of hUCMSCs in peripheral nerve repair.

  1. Electrospun Poly(l-lactide/Poly(ethylene glycol Scaffolds Seeded with Human Amniotic Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Urethral Epithelium Repair

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    Xiaokui Lv

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering-based urethral replacement holds potential for repairing large segmental urethral defects, which remains a great challenge at present. This study aims to explore the potential of combining biodegradable poly(l-lactide (PLLA/poly(ethylene glycol (PEG scaffolds and human amniotic mesenchymal cells (hAMSCs for repairing urethral defects. PLLA/PEG fibrous scaffolds with various PEG fractions were fabricated via electrospinning. The scaffolds were then seeded with hAMSCs prior to implantation in New Zealand male rabbits that had 2.0 cm-long defects in the urethras. The rabbits were randomly divided into three groups. In group A, hAMSCs were grown on PLLA/PEG scaffolds for two days and then implanted to the urethral defects. In group B, only the PLLA/PEG scaffolds were used to rebuild the rabbit urethral defect. In group C, the urethral defect was reconstructed using a regular urethral reparation technique. The repair efficacy was compared among the three groups by examining the urethral morphology, tissue reconstruction, luminal patency, and complication incidence (including calculus formation, urinary fistula, and urethral stricture using histological evaluation and urethral radiography methods. Findings from this study indicate that hAMSCs-loaded PLLA/PEG scaffolds resulted in the best urethral defect repair in rabbits, which predicts the promising application of a tissue engineering approach for urethral repair.

  2. Differentiation of Human Induced Pluripotent or Embryonic Stem Cells Decreases the DNA Damage Repair by Homologous Recombination

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    Kalpana Mujoo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The nitric oxide (NO-cyclic GMP pathway contributes to human stem cell differentiation, but NO free radical production can also damage DNA, necessitating a robust DNA damage response (DDR to ensure cell survival. How the DDR is affected by differentiation is unclear. Differentiation of stem cells, either inducible pluripotent or embryonic derived, increased residual DNA damage as determined by γ-H2AX and 53BP1 foci, with increased S-phase-specific chromosomal aberration after exposure to DNA-damaging agents, suggesting reduced homologous recombination (HR repair as supported by the observation of decreased HR-related repair factor foci formation (RAD51 and BRCA1. Differentiated cells also had relatively increased fork stalling and R-loop formation after DNA replication stress. Treatment with NO donor (NOC-18, which causes stem cell differentiation has no effect on double-strand break (DSB repair by non-homologous end-joining but reduced DSB repair by HR. Present studies suggest that DNA repair by HR is impaired in differentiated cells.

  3. Mouse BAZ1A (ACF1 is dispensable for double-strand break repair but is essential for averting improper gene expression during spermatogenesis.

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    James A Dowdle

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available ATP-dependent chromatin remodelers control DNA access for transcription, recombination, and other processes. Acf1 (also known as BAZ1A in mammals is a defining subunit of the conserved ISWI-family chromatin remodelers ACF and CHRAC, first purified over 15 years ago from Drosophila melanogaster embryos. Much is known about biochemical properties of ACF and CHRAC, which move nucleosomes in vitro and in vivo to establish ordered chromatin arrays. Genetic studies in yeast, flies and cultured human cells clearly implicate these complexes in transcriptional repression via control of chromatin structures. RNAi experiments in transformed mammalian cells in culture also implicate ACF and CHRAC in DNA damage checkpoints and double-strand break repair. However, their essential in vivo roles in mammals are unknown. Here, we show that Baz1a-knockout mice are viable and able to repair developmentally programmed DNA double-strand breaks in the immune system and germ line, I-SceI endonuclease-induced breaks in primary fibroblasts via homologous recombination, and DNA damage from mitomycin C exposure in vivo. However, Baz1a deficiency causes male-specific sterility in accord with its high expression in male germ cells, where it displays dynamic, stage-specific patterns of chromosomal localization. Sterility is caused by pronounced defects in sperm development, most likely a consequence of massively perturbed gene expression in spermatocytes and round spermatids in the absence of BAZ1A: the normal spermiogenic transcription program is largely intact but more than 900 other genes are mis-regulated, primarily reflecting inappropriate up-regulation. We propose that large-scale changes in chromatin composition that occur during spermatogenesis create a window of vulnerability to promiscuous transcription changes, with an essential function of ACF and/or CHRAC chromatin remodeling activities being to safeguard against these alterations.

  4. Widespread of horizontal gene transfer in the human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenze; Tsai, Lillian; Li, Yulong; Hua, Nan; Sun, Chen; Wei, Chaochun

    2017-04-04

    A fundamental concept in biology is that heritable material is passed from parents to offspring, a process called vertical gene transfer. An alternative mechanism of gene acquisition is through horizontal gene transfer (HGT), which involves movement of genetic materials between different species. Horizontal gene transfer has been found prevalent in prokaryotes but very rare in eukaryote. In this paper, we investigate horizontal gene transfer in the human genome. From the pair-wise alignments between human genome and 53 vertebrate genomes, 1,467 human genome regions (2.6 M bases) from all chromosomes were found to be more conserved with non-mammals than with most mammals. These human genome regions involve 642 known genes, which are enriched with ion binding. Compared to known horizontal gene transfer regions in the human genome, there were few overlapping regions, which indicated horizontal gene transfer is more common than we expected in the human genome. Horizontal gene transfer impacts hundreds of human genes and this study provided insight into potential mechanisms of HGT in the human genome.

  5. The human tyrosine hydroxylase gene promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Mark A; Yang, Ming; Gollomp, Kandace L; Jin, Hao; Iacovitti, Lorraine

    2003-04-10

    13.329 kilobases of the single copy human tyrosine hydroxylase (hTH) gene were isolated from a genomic library. The 5' flanking 11 kilobases fused to the reporter green fluorescent protein (GFP) drove high level expression in TH+ cells of the substantia nigra of embryonic and adult transgenic mice as determined by double label fluorescence microscopy. To provide a basis for future analysis of polymorphisms and structure-function studies, the previously unreported distal 10.5 kilobases of the hTH promoter were sequenced with an average coverage of 20-fold, the remainder with 4-fold coverage. Sequence features identified included four perfect matches to the bicoid binding element (BBE, consensus: BBTAATCYV) all of which exhibited specific binding by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Comparison to published sequences of mouse and rat TH promoters revealed five areas of exceptional homology shared by these species in the upstream TH promoter region -2 kb to -9 kb relative to the transcription start site. Within these conserved regions (CRs I-V), potential recognition sites for NR4A2 (Nurr1), HNF-3beta, HOXA4, and HOXA5 were shared across human, mouse, and rat TH promoters.

  6. Highly mutagenic exocyclic DNA adducts are substrates for the human nucleotide incision repair pathway.

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    Paulina Prorok

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oxygen free radicals induce lipid peroxidation (LPO that damages and breaks polyunsaturated fatty acids in cell membranes. LPO-derived aldehydes and hydroxyalkenals react with DNA leading to the formation of etheno(ε-bases including 1,N(6-ethenoadenine (εA and 3,N(4-ethenocytosine (εC. The εA and εC residues are highly mutagenic in mammalian cells and eliminated in the base excision repair (BER pathway and/or by AlkB family proteins in the direct damage reversal process. BER initiated by DNA glycosylases is thought to be the major pathway for the removal of non-bulky endogenous base damage. Alternatively, in the nucleotide incision repair (NIR pathway, the apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP endonucleases can directly incise DNA duplex 5' to a damaged base in a DNA glycosylase-independent manner. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we have characterized the substrate specificity of human major AP endonuclease 1, APE1, towards εA, εC, thymine glycol (Tg and 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8oxoG residues when present in duplex DNA. APE1 cleaves oligonucleotide duplexes containing εA, εC and Tg, but not those containing 8oxoG. Activity depends strongly on sequence context. The apparent kinetic parameters of the reactions suggest that APE1 has a high affinity for DNA containing ε-bases but cleaves DNA duplexes at an extremely slow rate. Consistent with this observation, oligonucleotide duplexes containing an ε-base strongly inhibit AP site nicking activity of APE1 with IC(50 values in the range of 5-10 nM. MALDI-TOF MS analysis of the reaction products demonstrated that APE1-catalyzed cleavage of εA•T and εC•G duplexes generates, as expected, DNA fragments containing 5'-terminal ε-base residue. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The fact that ε-bases and Tg in duplex DNA are recognized and cleaved by APE1 in vitro, suggests that NIR may act as a backup pathway to BER to remove a large variety of genotoxic base lesions in human cells.

  7. Clinical failure after Dresden repair of mid-substance Achilles tendon rupture: human cadaveric testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Fuente, Carlos; Carreño, Gabriel; Soto, Miguel; Marambio, Hugo; Henríquez, Hugo

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the angle of clinical failure during cyclical mobilization exercises in the Achilles tendon of human cadaveric specimens that were repaired using the Dresden technique and FiberWire® No. 2. The secondary aim was to identify the secure limit of mobilization, the type of failure, and the type of apposition. The lower limbs of eight males (mean age: 60.3 ± 6.3 years) were repaired with the Dresden technique following complete, percutaneous mid-substance Achilles tendon rupture. A basal tension of 10 N at 30° of plantarflexion was placed on each specimen. The angle of the ankle during clinical failure (tendon ends separation >5 mm) was then tested via cyclical exercises (i.e. 100 cycles between 30° and 15° of plantarflexion; 100 cycles between 15° of plantarflexion and 0°; 100 cycles between 0° and 15° of dorsiflexion; and 100 cycles between 15° of dorsiflexion and full dorsiflexion). Clinical failure was determined using the Laplacian edge detection filter, and the angle of clinical failure was obtained using a rotatory potentiometer aligned in relation to the intermalleolar axis of each foot specimen. The type of failure (knot, tendon, or suture) and apposition (termino-terminal or non-termino-terminal) were determined. Descriptive statistics were used to obtain the mean; standard deviation; 95 % confidence interval; 1st, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 100th percentiles; and the standard error of the mean for angle data. Proportions were used to describe the type of failure and apposition. The main results were a mean angle of clinical failure equal to 12.5° of plantarflexion, a limit of mobilization equal to 14.0° of plantarflexion, tendon failure type, and non-termino-terminal apposition in all specimens. While the mean angle of clinical failure in human cadaveric models was 12.5° of plantarflexion, after 14.0° of plantarflexion, the percutaneous Dresden technique was found insecure for cyclical mobilization

  8. Defining the Role of Essential Genes in Human Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, David L.; Hentges, Kathryn E.

    2011-01-01

    A greater understanding of the causes of human disease can come from identifying characteristics that are specific to disease genes. However, a full understanding of the contribution of essential genes to human disease is lacking, due to the premise that these genes tend to cause developmental abnormalities rather than adult disease. We tested the hypothesis that human orthologs of mouse essential genes are associated with a variety of human diseases, rather than only those related to miscarriage and birth defects. We segregated human disease genes according to whether the knockout phenotype of their mouse ortholog was lethal or viable, defining those with orthologs producing lethal knockouts as essential disease genes. We show that the human orthologs of mouse essential genes are associated with a wide spectrum of diseases affecting diverse physiological systems. Notably, human disease genes with essential mouse orthologs are over-represented among disease genes associated with cancer, suggesting links between adult cellular abnormalities and developmental functions. The proteins encoded by essential genes are highly connected in protein-protein interaction networks, which we find correlates with an over-representation of nuclear proteins amongst essential disease genes. Disease genes associated with essential orthologs also are more likely than those with non-essential orthologs to contribute to disease through an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern, suggesting that these diseases may actually result from semi-dominant mutant alleles. Overall, we have described attributes found in disease genes according to the essentiality status of their mouse orthologs. These findings demonstrate that disease genes do occupy highly connected positions in protein-protein interaction networks, and that due to the complexity of disease-associated alleles, essential genes cannot be ignored as candidates for causing diverse human diseases. PMID:22096564

  9. Identifying gene expression modules that define human cell fates

    OpenAIRE

    Germanguz, I; Listgarten, J; Cinkornpumin, J.; Solomon, A; Gaeta, X.; Lowry, W. E.

    2016-01-01

    Using a compendium of cell-state-specific gene expression data, we identified genes that uniquely define cell states, including those thought to represent various developmental stages. Our analysis sheds light on human cell fate through the identification of core genes that are altered over several developmental milestones, and across regional specification. Here we present cell-type specific gene expression data for 17 distinct cell states and demonstrate that these modules of genes can in f...

  10. Transfection of pseudouridine-modified mRNA encoding CPD-photolyase leads to repair of DNA damage in human keratinocytes: a new approach with future therapeutic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boros, Gábor; Miko, Edit; Muramatsu, Hiromi; Weissman, Drew; Emri, Eszter; Rózsa, Dávid; Nagy, Georgina; Juhász, Attila; Juhász, István; van der Horst, Gijsbertus; Horkay, Irén; Remenyik, Éva; Karikó, Katalin; Emri, Gabriella

    2013-01-01

    UVB irradiation induces harmful photochemical reactions, including formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) in DNA. Accumulation of unrepaired CPD lesions causes inflammation, premature ageing and skin cancer. Photolyases are DNA repair enzymes that can rapidly restore DNA integrity in a light-dependent process called photoreactivation, but these enzymes are absent in humans. Here, we present a novel mRNA-based gene therapy method that directs synthesis of a marsupial, Potorous tridactylus, CPD-photolyase in cultured human keratinocytes. Pseudouridine was incorporated during in vitro transcription to make the mRNA non-immunogenic and highly translatable. Keratinocytes transfected with lipofectamine-complexed mRNA expressed photolyase in the nuclei for at least 2 days. Exposing photolyase mRNA-transfected cells to UVB irradiation resulted in significantly less CPD in those cells that were also treated with photoreactivating light, which is required for photolyase activity. The functional photolyase also diminished other UVB-mediated effects, including induction of IL-6 and inhibition of cell proliferation. These results demonstrate that pseudouridine-containing photolyase mRNA is a powerful tool to repair UVB-induced DNA lesions. The pseudouridine-modified mRNA approach has a strong potential to discern cellular effects of CPD in UV-related cell biological studies. The mRNA-based transient expression of proteins offers a number of opportunities for future application in medicine. PMID:24211294

  11. Characterization of the linkage disequilibrium structure and identification of tagging-SNPs in five DNA repair genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camp Nicola J

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Characterization of the linkage disequilibrium (LD structure of candidate genes is the basis for an effective association study of complex diseases such as cancer. In this study, we report the LD and haplotype architecture and tagging-single nucleotide polymorphisms (tSNPs for five DNA repair genes: ATM, MRE11A, XRCC4, NBS1 and RAD50. Methods The genes ATM, MRE11A, and XRCC4 were characterized using a panel of 94 unrelated female subjects (47 breast cancer cases, 47 controls obtained from high-risk breast cancer families. A similar LD structure and tSNP analysis was performed for NBS1 and RAD50, using publicly available genotyping data. We studied a total of 61 SNPs at an average marker density of 10 kb. Using a matrix decomposition algorithm, based on principal component analysis, we captured >90% of the intragenetic variation for each gene. Results Our results revealed that three of the five genes did not conform to a haplotype block structure (MRE11A, RAD50 and XRCC4. Instead, the data fit a more flexible LD group paradigm, where SNPs in high LD are not required to be contiguous. Traditional haplotype blocks assume recombination is the only dynamic at work. For ATM, MRE11A and XRCC4 we repeated the analysis in cases and controls separately to determine whether LD structure was consistent across breast cancer cases and controls. No substantial difference in LD structures was found. Conclusion This study suggests that appropriate SNP selection for an association study involving candidate genes should allow for both mutation and recombination, which shape the population-level genomic structure. Furthermore, LD structure characterization in either breast cancer cases or controls appears to be sufficient for future cancer studies utilizing these genes.

  12. Pathological complete response after cisplatin neoadjuvant therapy is associated with the downregulation of DNA repair genes in BRCA1-associated triple-negative breast cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domagala, Pawel; Hybiak, Jolanta; Rys, Janusz; Byrski, Tomasz; Cybulski, Cezary; Lubinski, Jan

    2016-10-18

    Pathologic complete response (pCR) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy is considered a suitable surrogate marker of treatment efficacy in patients with triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying pCR as a result of such treatment remain obscure. Using real-time PCR arrays we compared the expression levels of 120 genes involved in the main mechanisms of DNA repair in 43 pretreatment biopsies of BRCA1-associated TNBCs exhibiting pCR and no pathological complete response (non-pCR) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy with cisplatin. Altogether, 25 genes were significantly differentially expressed between tumors exhibiting pCR and non-pCR, and these genes were downregulated in the pCR group compared to the non-pCR group. A difference in expression level greater than 1.5-fold was detected for nine genes: MGMT, ERCC4, FANCB, UBA1, XRCC5, XPA, XPC, PARP3, and RPA1. The non-homologous end joining and nucleotide excision repair pathways of DNA repair showed the most significant relevance. Expression profile of DNA repair genes associated with pCR was different in the node-positive (20 genes with fold change >1.5) and node-negative (only 3 genes) subgroups. Although BRCA1 germline mutations are the principal defects in BRCA1-associated TNBC, our results indicate that the additional downregulation of other genes engaged in major pathways of DNA repair may play a decisive role in the pathological response of these tumors to cisplatin neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The results suggest that patients with node-positive BRCA1-associated TNBCs that do not exhibit pCR after cisplatin neoadjuvant chemotherapy may be candidates for subsequent therapy with PARP inhibitors, whereas UBA1 may be a potential therapeutic target in node-negative subgroup.

  13. Dependence of colorectal cancer risk on the parent-of-origin of mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, Christine M; Dowty, James G; van Vliet, Jane L; Smith, Letitia; Mead, Leeanne J; Macrae, Finlay A; St John, D James B; Giles, Graham G; Southey, Melissa C; Jenkins, Mark A; Velan, Gary M; Hopper, John L

    2011-02-01

    Genetic diseases associated with dynamic mutations in microsatellite DNA often display parent-of-origin effects (POEs) in which the risk of disease depends on the sex of the parent from whom the disease allele was inherited. Carriers of germline mutations in mismatch repair (MMR) genes have high risks of colorectal carcinoma (CRC). We investigated whether these risks depend on the parent-of-origin of the mutation. We studied 422 subjects, including 89 MMR gene mutation carriers, from 17 population-based families who were each recruited via a CRC case diagnosed before age 45 years and found to carry a MMR gene mutation. The POE hazard ratio (HR(POE)), defined to be the CRC incidence for carriers with maternally derived mutations divided by the corresponding paternal incidence, was estimated using a novel application of modified segregation analysis. HR(POE) (95% confidence interval) was estimated to be 3.2 (1.1-9.8) for males (P = 0.03) and 0.8 (0.2-2.8) for females (P = 0.5) and the corresponding cumulative risks to age 80 years were 88% (54%-100%) for male carriers with maternally derived mutations and 38-48% for all other carriers. If confirmed by larger studies, these results will have important implications for the etiology of CRC and for the clinical management of MMR gene mutation carriers. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Polysaccharides of Aloe vera induce MMP-3 and TIMP-2 gene expression during the skin wound repair of rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabandeh, Mohammad Reza; Oryan, Ahmad; Mohammadalipour, Adel

    2014-04-01

    Polysaccharides are the main macromolecules of Aloe vera gel but no data about their effect on extracellular matrix (ECM) elements are available. Here, mannose rich Aloe vera polysaccharides (AVP) with molecular weight between 50 and 250 kDa were isolated and characterized. Open cutaneous wounds on the back of 45 rats (control and treated) were daily treated with 25mg (n=15) and 50 mg (n=15) AVP for 30 days. The levels of MMP-3 and TIMP-2 gene expression were analyzed using real time PCR. The levels of n-acetyl glucosamine (NAGA), n-acetyl galactosamine (NAGLA) and collagen contents were also measured using standard biochemical methods. Faster wound closure was observed at day 15 post wounding in AVP treated animals in comparison with untreated group. At day 10 post wounding, AVP inhibited MMP-3 gene expression, while afterwards MMP-3 gene expression was upregulated. AVP enhanced TIMP-2 gene expression, collagen, NAGLA and NAGA synthesis in relation to untreated wounds. Our results suggest that AVP has positive effects on the regulation of ECM factor synthesis, which open up new perspectives for the wound repair activity of Aloe vera polysaccharide at molecular level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The GH/IGF-1 axis in a critical period early in life determines cellular DNA repair capacity by altering transcriptional regulation of DNA repair-related genes: implications for the developmental origins of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlutsky, Andrej; Valcarcel-Ares, Marta Noa; Yancey, Krysta; Podlutskaya, Viktorija; Nagykaldi, Eszter; Gautam, Tripti; Miller, Richard A; Sonntag, William E; Csiszar, Anna; Ungvari, Zoltan

    2017-04-01

    Experimental, clinical, and epidemiological findings support the concept of developmental origins of health and disease (DOHAD), suggesting that early-life hormonal influences during a sensitive period around adolescence have a powerful impact on cancer morbidity later in life. The endocrine changes that occur during puberty are highly conserved across mammalian species and include dramatic increases in circulating GH and IGF-1 levels. Importantly, patients with developmental IGF-1 deficiency due to GH insensitivity (Laron syndrome) do not develop cancer during aging. Rodents with developmental GH/IGF-1 deficiency also exhibit significantly decreased cancer incidence at old age, marked resistance to chemically induced carcinogenesis, and cellular resistance to genotoxic stressors. Early-life treatment of GH/IGF-1-deficient mice and rats with GH reverses the cancer resistance phenotype; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that developmental GH/IGF-1 status impacts cellular DNA repair mechanisms. To achieve that goal, we assessed repair of γ-irradiation-induced DNA damage (single-cell gel electrophoresis/comet assay) and basal and post-irradiation expression of DNA repair-related genes (qPCR) in primary fibroblasts derived from control rats, Lewis dwarf rats (a model of developmental GH/IGF-1 deficiency), and GH-replete dwarf rats (GH administered beginning at 5 weeks of age, for 30 days). We found that developmental GH/IGF-1 deficiency resulted in persisting increases in cellular DNA repair capacity and upregulation of several DNA repair-related genes (e.g., Gadd45a, Bbc3). Peripubertal GH treatment reversed the radiation resistance phenotype. Fibroblasts of GH/IGF-1-deficient Snell dwarf mice also exhibited improved DNA repair capacity, showing that the persisting influence of peripubertal GH/IGF-1 status is not species-dependent. Collectively, GH/IGF-1 levels during a critical period

  16. Novel definition files for human GeneChips based on GeneAnnot

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ferrari, Francesco; Bortoluzzi, Stefania; Coppe, Alessandro; Sirota, Alexandra; Safran, Marilyn; Shmoish, Michael; Ferrari, Sergio; Lancet, Doron; Danieli, Gian Antonio; Bicciato, Silvio

    2007-01-01

    .... We developed a novel set of custom Chip Definition Files (CDF) and the corresponding Bioconductor libraries for Affymetrix human GeneChips, based on the information contained in the GeneAnnot database...

  17. Mutation analysis of the MCHR1 gene in human obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wermter, Anne-Kathrin; Reichwald, Kathrin; Büch, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The importance of the melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) system for regulation of energy homeostasis and body weight has been demonstrated in rodents. We analysed the human MCH receptor 1 gene (MCHR1) with respect to human obesity.......The importance of the melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) system for regulation of energy homeostasis and body weight has been demonstrated in rodents. We analysed the human MCH receptor 1 gene (MCHR1) with respect to human obesity....

  18. A domain in human EXOG converts apoptotic endonuclease to DNA-repair exonuclease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szymanski, Michal R.; Yu, Wangsheng; Gmyrek, Aleksandra M.; White, Mark A.; Molineux, Ian J.; Lee, J. Ching; Yin, Y. Whitney

    2017-05-03

    Human EXOG (hEXOG) is a 5'-exonuclease that is crucial for mitochondrial DNA repair; the enzyme belongs to a nonspecific nuclease family that includes the apoptotic endonuclease EndoG. Here we report biochemical and structural studies of hEXOG, including structures in its apo form and in a complex with DNA at 1.81 and 1.85 Å resolution, respectively. A Wing domain, absent in other ββα-Me members, suppresses endonuclease activity, but confers on hEXOG a strong 5'-dsDNA exonuclease activity that precisely excises a dinucleotide using an intrinsic ‘tape-measure’. The symmetrical apo hEXOG homodimer becomes asymmetrical upon binding to DNA, providing a structural basis for how substrate DNA bound to one active site allosterically regulates the activity of the other. These properties of hEXOG suggest a pathway for mitochondrial BER that provides an optimal substrate for subsequent gap-filling synthesis by DNA polymerase γ.

  19. Human DNA polymerase delta double-mutant D316A;E318A interferes with DNA mismatch repair in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Dekang; Frederiksen, Jane H; Liberti, Sascha E

    2017-01-01

    DNA mismatch repair (MMR) is a highly-conserved DNA repair mechanism, whose primary role is to remove DNA replication errors preventing them from manifesting as mutations, thereby increasing the overall genome stability. Defects in MMR are associated with increased cancer risk in humans and other...

  20. Bioinformatic prediction and functional characterization of human KIAA0100 gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Cui

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Our previous study demonstrated that human KIAA0100 gene was a novel acute monocytic leukemia-associated antigen (MLAA gene. But the functional characterization of human KIAA0100 gene has remained unknown to date. Here, firstly, bioinformatic prediction of human KIAA0100 gene was carried out using online softwares; Secondly, Human KIAA0100 gene expression was downregulated by the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR/CRISPR-associated (Cas 9 system in U937 cells. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were next evaluated in KIAA0100-knockdown U937 cells. The bioinformatic prediction showed that human KIAA0100 gene was located on 17q11.2, and human KIAA0100 protein was located in the secretory pathway. Besides, human KIAA0100 protein contained a signalpeptide, a transmembrane region, three types of secondary structures (alpha helix, extended strand, and random coil , and four domains from mitochondrial protein 27 (FMP27. The observation on functional characterization of human KIAA0100 gene revealed that its downregulation inhibited cell proliferation, and promoted cell apoptosis in U937 cells. To summarize, these results suggest human KIAA0100 gene possibly comes within mitochondrial genome; moreover, it is a novel anti-apoptotic factor related to carcinogenesis or progression in acute monocytic leukemia, and may be a potential target for immunotherapy against acute monocytic leukemia.

  1. A third approach to gene prediction suggests thousands of additional human transcribed regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Glusman

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The identification and characterization of the complete ensemble of genes is a main goal of deciphering the digital information stored in the human genome. Many algorithms for computational gene prediction have been described, ultimately derived from two basic concepts: (1 modeling gene structure and (2 recognizing sequence similarity. Successful hybrid methods combining these two concepts have also been developed. We present a third orthogonal approach to gene prediction, based on detecting the genomic signatures of transcription, accumulated over evolutionary time. We discuss four algorithms based on this third concept: Greens and CHOWDER, which quantify mutational strand biases caused by transcription-coupled DNA repair, and ROAST and PASTA, which are based on strand-specific selection against polyadenylation signals. We combined these algorithms into an integrated method called FEAST, which we used to predict the location and orientation of thousands of putative transcription units not overlapping known genes. Many of the newly predicted transcriptional units do not appear to code for proteins. The new algorithms are particularly apt at detecting genes with long introns and lacking sequence conservation. They therefore complement existing gene prediction methods and will help identify functional transcripts within many apparent "genomic deserts."

  2. DNA repair gene ERCC2, XPC, XRCC1, XRCC3 polymorphisms and associations with bladder cancer risk in a French cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Luc; Bosviel, Rémy; Delort, Laetitia; Guy, Laurent; Chalabi, Nasséra; Kwiatkowski, Fabrice; Satih, Samir; Rabiau, Nadège; Boiteux, Jean-Paul; Chamoux, Alain; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Bernard-Gallon, Dominique J

    2008-01-01

    In polygenic diseases, association studies look for genetic variation such as polymorphisms in low penetrance genes, i.e. genes in interaction with environmental factors. DNA repair systems that protect the genome from deleterious endogenous and exogenous damage have been shown to significantly reduce activity. In particular, enzymes of the nucleotide excision repair pathway are suspected to be implicated in cancer. In this study bladder cancer which is viewed as a polygenic disease was investigated. The functional polymorphisms of four DNA repair genes, excision repair cross-complementing group 2 (ERCC2), Xeroderma Pigmentosum group C (XPC), and Xray repair cross-complementing groups 1 and 3 (XRCC1 and XRCC3) were analyzed. The studied population included 51 bladder cancer cases and 45 controls. The genotyping of six SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) was carried out on these populations with the MGB (Minor Groove Binder) probe technique which uses allelic discrimination with the Taqman method. The Gln allele of the XPC 939 polymorphism was found to be associated with an increase in bladder cancer risk.

  3. Inactivation of the DNA repair genes mutS, mutL or the anti-recombination gene mutS2 leads to activation of vitamin B1 biosynthesis genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Fukui

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress generates harmful reactive oxygen species (ROS that attack biomolecules including DNA. In living cells, there are several mechanisms for detoxifying ROS and repairing oxidatively-damaged DNA. In this study, transcriptomic analyses clarified that disruption of DNA repair genes mutS and mutL, or the anti-recombination gene mutS2, in Thermus thermophilus HB8, induces the biosynthesis pathway for vitamin B(1, which can serve as an ROS scavenger. In addition, disruption of mutS, mutL, or mutS2 resulted in an increased rate of oxidative stress-induced mutagenesis. Co-immunoprecipitation and pull-down experiments revealed previously-unknown interactions of MutS2 with MutS and MutL, indicating that these proteins cooperatively participate in the repair of oxidatively damaged DNA. These results suggested that bacterial cells sense the accumulation of oxidative DNA damage or absence of DNA repair activity, and signal the information to the transcriptional regulation machinery for an ROS-detoxifying system.

  4. Imaging of the rotator cuff following repair: human and animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Hollis G; Jawetz, Shari T; Foo, Li Foong

    2007-01-01

    Imaging of the rotator cuff following repair may be challenging due to the type of fixation, surgical manipulation of the tissue and the presence of residual defects that may exist in the presence of good functional outcome. Both ultrasound and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging present unique advantages in evaluation of the postoperative tissue. MR imaging has superior soft tissue contrast and provides a more global shoulder assessment, including the degree of arthrosis, while ultrasound enables a more dynamic testing of the repaired tissue. Power Doppler ultrasound and new contrast agents provide insight into the degree of vascular recruitment following repair.

  5. Repair of articular cartilage defects one year after treatment with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, R S; Zhang, R; Glasson, S S; Kim, H D; Peluso, D; D'Augusta, D A; Beckwith, K; Morris, E A

    2000-02-01

    Damaged articular cartilage has a limited ability to repair. Operative removal of damaged cartilage and penetration into the subchondral bone to allow population of the defect with progenitor cells can result in filling of the defect with repair tissue. However, this repair tissue often degenerates over time because of its inability to withstand the mechanical forces to which it is subjected. We previously reported that recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) improves the repair of full-thickness defects of cartilage as long as six months postoperatively. We have now extended that study to examine the quality of the repair tissue at one year. Full-thickness defects of cartilage were created in the trochlear groove of twenty-five adult New Zealand White rabbits. Eight defects were left empty, eight were filled with a collagen sponge, and nine were filled with a collagen sponge impregnated with five micrograms of rhBMP-2. The animals were killed at fifty-two weeks postoperatively, and the gross appearance of the healed defect was assessed. The repair tissue was examined histologically and was evaluated, according to a grading scale, by four individuals who were blinded with respect to the treatment. The tissue sections were immunostained with antibodies against type-I collagen, type-II collagen, aggrecan, and link protein. The residence time of the rhBMP-2 in the cartilage defect was evaluated in vivo with use of scintigraphic imaging of radiolabeled protein. One year after a single implantation of a collagen sponge containing five micrograms of rhBMP-2, the defects had a significantly better histological appearance than the untreated defects (those left empty or filled with a collagen sponge). The histological features that showed improvement were integration at the margin, cellular morphology, architecture within the defect, and reformation of the tidemark. The total scores were also better for the defects treated with rhBMP-2 than for the

  6. Inactivation of RAD52 and HDF1 DNA repair genes leads to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Silvia Mercado-Sáenz

    2017-04-18

    Apr 18, 2017 ... respiration. As a consequence, low glucose leads to increase both replicative and chronological life span (Breitenbach et al. 2012). It has been reported that glycolytic/fermentative genes are upregulated in Sch9Δ, Ras2Δ and Tor1Δ mutants, while mitochondrial genes are down-regulated. In this way, it has.

  7. Repair of the three main types of bipyrimidine DNA photoproducts in human keratinocytes exposed to UVB and UVA radiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courdavault, Sophie; Baudouin, Caroline; Charveron, Marie; Canguilhem, Bruno; Favier, Alain; Cadet, Jean; Douki, Thierry

    2005-07-12

    Induction of DNA damage by solar UV radiation is a key event in the development of skin cancers. Bipyrimidine photoproducts, including cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs), (6-4) photoproducts (64 PPs) and their Dewar valence isomers, have been identified as major UV-induced DNA lesions. In order to identify the predominant and most persistent lesions, we studied the repair of the three types of photolesions in primary cultures of human keratinocytes. Specific and quantitative data were obtained using HPLC associated with tandem mass spectrometry. As shown in other cell types, 64 PPs are removed from UVB-irradiated keratinocytes much more efficiently than CPDs. In contrast, CPDs are still present in high amounts when cells recover their proliferation capacities after cell cycle arrest and elimination of a part of the population by apoptosis. The predominance of CPDs is still maintained when keratinocytes are exposed to a combination of UVB and UVA. Under these conditions, 64 PPs are converted into their Dewar valence isomers that are as efficiently repaired as their (6-4) precursors. Exposure of cells to pure UVA radiation generates thymine cyclobutane dimers that are slightly less efficiently repaired than CPDs produced upon UVB irradiation. Altogether, our results show that CPDs are the most frequent and the less efficiently repaired bipyrimidine photoproducts irrespectively of the applied UV treatment.

  8. The MutSα-Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen Interaction in Human DNA Mismatch Repair*S⃞♦

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Ravi R.; Pohlhaus, Timothy J.; Chen, Sihong; Hura, Gregory L.; Dzantiev, Leonid; Beese, Lorena S.; Modrich, Paul

    2008-01-01

    We have examined the interaction parameters, conformation, and functional significance of the human MutSα· proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) complex in mismatch repair. The two proteins associate with a 1:1 stoichiometry and a KD of 0.7 μm in the absence or presence of heteroduplex DNA. PCNA does not influence the affinity of MutSα for a mismatch, and mismatch-bound MutSα binds PCNA. Small angle x-ray scattering studies have established the molecular parameters of the complex, which are consistent with an elongated conformation in which the two proteins associate in an end-to-end fashion in a manner that does not involve an extended unstructured tether, as has been proposed for yeast MutSα and PCNA (Shell, S. S., Putnam, C. D., and Kolodner, R. D. (2007) Mol. Cell26 ,565 -57817531814). MutSα variants lacking the PCNA interaction motif are functional in 3′- or 5′-directed mismatch-provoked excision, but display a partial defect in 5′-directed mismatch repair. This finding is consistent with the modest mutability conferred by inactivation of the MutSα PCNA interaction motif and suggests that interaction of the replication clamp with other repair protein(s) accounts for the essential role of PCNA in MutSα-dependent mismatch repair. PMID:18326858

  9. 8-Methoxypsoralen DNA interstrand cross-linking of the ribosomal RNA genes in Tetrahymena thermophila. Distribution, repair and effect on rRNA synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fengquin, X; Nielsen, Henrik; Zhen, W

    1993-01-01

    The distribution and repair of 8-methoxypsoralen-DNA interstrand cross-links in the ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) in Tetrahymena thermophila have been studied in vivo by Southern blot analysis. It is found that the cross-links at a density of ... between three domains (terminal spacer, transcribed region and central spacer) as defined by restriction enzyme analysis (BamHI and ClaI). It is furthermore shown that a dosage resulting in approximately one cross-link per rDNA molecule (21 kbp, two genes) is sufficient to block RNA synthesis. Finally......, it is shown that the cross-links in the rDNA molecules are repaired at equal rate in all three domains within 24 h and that RNA synthesis is partly restored during this repair period. The majority of the cells also go through one to two cell divisions in this period but do not survive....

  10. Animal Models for Tendon Repair Experiments: A Comparison of Pig, Sheep and Human Deep Flexor Tendons in Zone II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltz, Tim Sebastian; Hoffman, Stuart William; Scougall, Peter James; Gianoutsos, Mark Peter; Savage, Robert; Oliver, Rema Antoinette; Walsh, William Robert

    2017-09-01

    This laboratory study compared pig, sheep and human deep flexor tendons in regards to their biomechanical comparability. To investigate the relevant biomechanical properties for tendon repair experiments, the tendons resistance to cheese-wiring (suture drag/splitting) was assessed. Cheese-wiring of a suture through a tendon is an essential factor for repair gapping and failure in a tendon repair. Biomechanical testing showed that forces required to pulling a uniform suture loop through sheep or pig tendons in Zone II were higher than in human tendons. At time point zero of testing these differences did not reach statistical significance, but differences became more pronounced when forces were measured beyond initial cheese-wiring (2 mm, 5 mm and 10 mm). The stronger resistance to cheese-wiring was more pronounced in the pig tendons. Also regarding size and histology, sheep tendons were more comparable to human tendons than pig tendons. Differences in tendon bio-properties should be kept in mind when comparing and interpreting the results of laboratory tendon experiments.

  11. Recognition and repair of the cyclobutane thymine dimer, a major cause of skin cancers, by the human excision nuclease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Joyce T; Sancar, Aziz

    2003-10-15

    The cyclobutane thymine dimer is the major DNA lesion induced in human skin by sunlight and is a primary cause of skin cancer, the most prevalent form of cancer in the Northern Hemisphere. In humans, the only known cellular repair mechanism for eliminating the dimer from DNA is nucleotide excision repair. Yet the mechanism by which the dimer is recognized and removed by this repair system is not known. Here we demonstrate that the six-factor human excision nuclease recognizes and removes the dimer at a rate consistent with the in vivo rate of removal of this lesion, even though none of the six factors alone is capable of efficiently discriminating the dimer from undamaged DNA. We propose a recognition mechanism by which the low-specificity recognition factors, RPA, XPA, and XPC, act in a cooperative manner to locate the lesion and, aided by the kinetic proofreading provided by TFIIH, form a high-specificity complex at the damage site that initiates removal of thymine dimers at a physiologically relevant rate and specificity.

  12. Evaluation of repair in duodenal perforation with human amniotic membrane: An animal model (dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Ghahramani

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: It seems that repairing duodenal wall defect with HAM would result in better histological outcomes compared with what is seen in simple duodenoraphy in animal models. However, there is no significant difference regarding surgical findings.

  13. Association between age and repair of oxidatively damaged DNA in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løhr, Mille; Jensen, Annie; Eriksen, Louise

    2015-01-01

    It has been hypothesised that positive associations between age and levels of oxidative stress-generated damage to DNA may be related to an age-dependent decline in DNA repair activity. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between age and repair activity of oxidatively......, the results show an inverse association between age and DNA repair activity of oxidatively damaged DNA....... damaged DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). We isolated PBMCs from subjects aged 18-83 years, as part of a health survey of the Danish population that focussed on lifestyle factors. The level of DNA repair activity was measured as incisions on potassium bromate-damaged DNA by the comet...

  14. Effects of opiates and demographic factors on DNA repair synthesis in human leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, J J; Falek, A; Shafer, D A; Glick, J H

    1979-11-01

    DNA repair synthesis in leukocytes stressed by far UV irradiation was studied in 90 normal individuals, 38 street-heroin addicts, and 18 methadone maintenance patients. Age, sex, coffee use, and alcohol use had no significant effect on the maximal repair synthesis response of the control subjects, but smoking tobacco significantly decreased the mean response and variance when compared with nonsmoking controls. Heroin addiction had an even more pronounced negative effect, and this may be related to the high rate of chromosome aberrations found in this population. Half of the addicts tested were incapable of repairing UV fluences one-quarter as large as those repaired by the control subjects (5 J/m2 and 20 J/m2, respectively) in the 2-hr assay period. Long-term methadone treatment ameliorated the effects of the street heroin, just as it resulted in a decrease of the chromosome aberration frequency.

  15. Modeling and Manipulating Human Diseases with Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells, Pig Models and Precision Gene Editing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonglun Luo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We have developed systems, e.g. C-Check, that can be used to rapidly select and quantify CRISPR/Cas9 nuclease activity and enrichment of genetically modified cells with desired mutations (Zhou et al., 2016. To facilitate the simultaneous manipulation of multiple genes in cells, we have developed a system that allows concordant delivery of up to 30 sgRNAs into one cell [Johan Vad-Nielsen et al., under review]. Targeted insertion, fluorescent tagging or correction of endogenous genes is of great interest but greatly hampered by the technical difficulties and relatively low homology directed repair efficiency compared to the higher efficiency of NHEJ. Thus, we have developed systems for rapid generation of gene targeting vectors (Luo et al., 2014, lentivirus-mediated gene targeting [Yujia Cai et al., Elife, in revision], and recombinant Cas9s to enhance HDR in mammalian cells. Furthermore, to recapitulate the pathogenesis of human diseases, we have developed pig models of breast cancer and diabetes using gene editing and SCNT, as well as human induced pluripotent stem cell models of MCADD.

  16. Oxidative DNA damage and repair in skeletal muscle of humans exposed to high-altitude hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, Carsten; Pilegaard, Henriette; van Hall, Gerrit

    2003-01-01

    Recent research suggests that high-altitude hypoxia may serve as a model for prolonged oxidative stress in healthy humans. In this study, we investigated the consequences of prolonged high-altitude hypoxia on the basal level of oxidative damage to nuclear DNA in muscle cells, a major oxygen......-consuming tissue. Muscle biopsies from seven healthy humans were obtained at sea level and after 2 and 8 weeks of hypoxia at 4100 m.a.s.l. We found increased levels of strand breaks and endonuclease III-sensitive sites after 2 weeks of hypoxia, whereas oxidative DNA damage detected by formamidopyrimidine DNA......) was unaltered by prolonged hypoxia, in accordance with the notion that HO-1 is an acute stress response protein. In conclusion, our data indicate high-altitude hypoxia may serve as a good model for oxidative stress and that antioxidant genes are not upregulated in muscle tissue by prolonged hypoxia despite...

  17. Time- and dose-dependent effects of curcumin on gene expression in human colon cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Erk Marjan J

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Curcumin is a spice and a coloring food compound with a promising role in colon cancer prevention. Curcumin protects against development of colon tumors in rats treated with a colon carcinogen, in colon cancer cells curcumin can inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis, it is an anti-oxidant and it can act as an anti-inflammatory agent. The aim of this study was to elucidate mechanisms and effect of curcumin in colon cancer cells using gene expression profiling. Methods Gene expression changes in response to curcumin exposure were studied in two human colon cancer cell lines, using cDNA microarrays with four thousand human genes. HT29 cells were exposed to two different concentrations of curcumin and gene expression changes were followed in time (3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours. Gene expression changes after short-term exposure (3 or 6 hours to curcumin were also studied in a second cell type, Caco-2 cells. Results Gene expression changes (>1.5-fold were found at all time points. HT29 cells were more sensitive to curcumin than Caco-2 cells. Early response genes were involved in cell cycle, signal transduction, DNA repair, gene transcription, cell adhesion and xenobiotic metabolism. In HT29 cells curcumin modulated a number of cell cycle genes of which several have a role in transition through the G2/M phase. This corresponded to a cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase as was observed by flow cytometry. Functional groups with a similar expression profile included genes involved in phase-II metabolism that were induced by curcumin after 12 and 24 hours. Expression of some cytochrome P450 genes was downregulated by curcumin in HT29 and Caco-2 cells. In addition, curcumin affected expression of metallothionein genes, tubulin genes, p53 and other genes involved in colon carcinogenesis. Conclusions This study has extended knowledge on pathways or processes already reported to be affected by curcumin (cell cycle arrest, phase

  18. Identification of mismatch repair gene mutations in young patients with colorectal cancer and in patients with multiple tumours associated with hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niessen, R.C.; Berends, M.J.; Wu, Y.; Sijmons, R.H.; Hollema, H.; Ligtenberg, M.J.L.; Walle, H.E. de; Vries, E.G.F. de; Karrenbeld, A.; Buys, C.H.C.M.; Zee, A.G. van der; Hofstra, R.M.; Kleibeuker, J.H.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with early-onset colorectal cancer (CRC) or those with multiple tumours associated with hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) raise suspicion of the presence of germline DNA mismatch repair (MMR) gene mutations. AIM: To analyse the value of family history,

  19. Identification of mismatch repair gene mutations in young patients with colorectal cancer and in patients with multiple tumours associated with hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niessen, R C; Berends, M J W; Wu, Y; Sijmons, R H; Hollema, H; Ligtenberg, M J L; de Walle, H E K; de Vries, E G E; Karrenbeld, A; Buys, C H C M; van der Zee, A G J; Hofstra, R M W; Kleibeuker, J H

    2006-01-01

    Background: Patients with early-onset colorectal cancer (CRC) or those with multiple tumours associated with hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) raise suspicion of the presence of germline DNA mismatch repair (MMR) gene mutations. Aim: To analyse the value of family history,

  20. Sequence-specific and domain-specific DNA repair in xeroderma pigmentosum and Cockayne syndrome cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Y; Bates, S; Pfeifer, G P

    1997-08-15

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) and Cockayne syndrome (CS) cells have specific DNA repair defects. We had previously analyzed repair rates of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers at nucleotide resolution along the human JUN gene in normal fibroblasts and found very efficient repair of sequences near the transcription initiation site but slow repair along the promoter. To investigate sequence-specific repair rate patterns in XP and CS cells, we conducted a similar analysis in XPA, XPB, XPC, XPD, and CSB fibroblasts. XPA cells were almost completely repair-deficient at all sequences analyzed. XPC cells repaired only the transcribed DNA strand beginning at position -20 relative to the transcription start site. Both XBP and XPD cells were deficient in repair of nontranscribed DNA and also very inefficiently repaired the transcribed strand including sequences near the transcription start site. CSB cells exhibited rapid repair near the transcription initiation site but were deficient in repair of sequences encountered by RNA polymerase during elongation (beginning at position +20). Since transcription of the JUN gene was UV-induced in all fibroblast strains, including CSB, the defective repair of the transcribed strand in CSB cannot be explained by a lack of transcription; rather, it appears to be a true DNA repair defect.

  1. Specific Inhibition of NEIL-initiated Repair of Oxidized Base Damage in Human Genome by Copper and Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Muralidhar L.; Hegde, Pavana M.; Holthauzen, Luis M. F.; Hazra, Tapas K.; Rao, K. S. Jagannatha; Mitra, Sankar

    2010-01-01

    Dyshomeostasis of transition metals iron and copper as well as accumulation of oxidative DNA damage have been implicated in multitude of human neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease. These metals oxidize DNA bases by generating reactive oxygen species. Most oxidized bases in mammalian genomes are repaired via the base excision repair pathway, initiated with one of four major DNA glycosylases: NTH1 or OGG1 (of the Nth family) or NEIL1 or NEIL2 (of the Nei family). Here we show that Fe(II/III) and Cu(II) at physiological levels bind to NEIL1 and NEIL2 to alter their secondary structure and strongly inhibit repair of mutagenic 5-hydroxyuracil, a common cytosine oxidation product, both in vitro and in neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cell extract by affecting the base excision and AP lyase activities of NEILs. The specificity of iron/copper inhibition of NEILs is indicated by a lack of similar inhibition of OGG1, which also indicated that the inhibition is due to metal binding to the enzymes and not DNA. Fluorescence and surface plasmon resonance studies show submicromolar binding of copper/iron to NEILs but not OGG1. Furthermore, Fe(II) inhibits the interaction of NEIL1 with downstream base excision repair proteins DNA polymerase β and flap endonuclease-1 by 4–6-fold. These results indicate that iron/copper overload in the neurodegenerative diseases could act as a double-edged sword by both increasing oxidative genome damage and preventing their repair. Interestingly, specific chelators, including the natural chemopreventive compound curcumin, reverse the inhibition of NEILs both in vitro and in cells, suggesting their therapeutic potential. PMID:20622253

  2. [Advance of gene-modified non-human primate models].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Cai, Yijun; Sun, Qiang

    2017-10-25

    Non-human primates would be particularly valuable in life sciences and biomedical research area. Gene-modified monkeys with gene overexpression or loss of function have been successfully generated with the rapid advance in gene manipulation technology such as lentivirus infection and programmable nucleases (ZFN, TALEN, CRISPR-Cas9). Here we review the recent development on gene-modified monkey generation by lentivirus and programmable nucleases. Then we discuss three concerns, the long time for sexual maturation, the off target and the mosaicism of founders, which limit the wide application of gene-modified non-human-primates. At last, hotspots and future trend for gene-modified non-human-primates generation are proposed.

  3. Identification of the human beta A2 crystallin gene (CRYBA2): localization of the gene on human chromosome 2 and of the homologous gene on mouse chromosome 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsebos, T. J.; Cerosaletti, K. M.; Fournier, R. E.; Sinke, R. J.; Rocchi, M.; Marzella, R.; Jenkins, N. A.; Gilbert, D. J.; Copeland, N. G.

    1995-01-01

    By using primers synthesized on the basis of the bovine beta A2 crystallin gene sequence, we amplified exons 5 and 6 of the human gene (CRYBA2). CRYBA2 was assigned to human chromosome 2 by concordance analysis in human x rodent somatic cell hybrids using the amplified PCR products as probe.

  4. Identification of the human beta A2 crystallin gene (CRYBA2) : localization of the gene on human chromosome 2 and of the homologous gene on mouse chromosome 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsebos, T J; Cerosaletti, K M; Fournier, R E; Sinke, R J; Rocchi, M; Marzella, R; Jenkins, N A; Gilbert, D J; Copeland, N G

    1995-01-01

    By using primers synthesized on the basis of the bovine beta A2 crystallin gene sequence, we amplified exons 5 and 6 of the human gene (CRYBA2). CRYBA2 was assigned to human chromosome 2 by concordance analysis in human x rodent somatic cell hybrids using the amplified PCR products as probe.

  5. Effect of chemical mutagens and carcinogens on gene expression profiles in human TK6 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lode Godderis

    Full Text Available Characterization of toxicogenomic signatures of carcinogen exposure holds significant promise for mechanistic and predictive toxicology. In vitro transcriptomic studies allow the comparison of the response to chemicals with diverse mode of actions under controlled experimental conditions. We conducted an in vitro study in TK6 cells to characterize gene expression signatures of exposure to 15 genotoxic carcinogens frequently used in European industries. We also examined the dose-responsive changes in gene expression, and perturbation of biochemical pathways in response to these carcinogens. TK6 cells were exposed at 3 dose levels for 24 h with and without S9 human metabolic mix. Since S9 had an impact on gene expression (885 genes, we analyzed the gene expression data from cells cultures incubated with S9 and without S9 independently. The ribosome pathway was affected by all chemical-dose combinations. However in general, no similar gene expression was observed among carcinogens. Further, pathways, i.e. cell cycle, DNA repair mechanisms, RNA degradation, that were common within sets of chemical-dose combination were suggested by clustergram. Linear trends in dose-response of gene expression were observed for Trichloroethylene, Benz[a]anthracene, Epichlorohydrin, Benzene, and Hydroquinone. The significantly altered genes were involved in the regulation of (anti- apoptosis, maintenance of cell survival, tumor necrosis factor-related pathways and immune response, in agreement with several other studies. Similarly in S9+ cultures, Benz[a]pyrene, Styrene and Trichloroethylene each modified over 1000 genes at high concentrations. Our findings expand our understanding of the transcriptomic response to genotoxic carcinogens, revealing the alteration of diverse sets of genes and pathways involved in cellular homeostasis and cell cycle control.

  6. Genetic variants in DNA double-strand break repair genes and risk of salivary gland carcinoma: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xu

    Full Text Available DNA double strand break (DSB repair is the primary defense mechanism against ionizing radiation-induced DNA damage. Ionizing radiation is the only established risk factor for salivary gland carcinoma (SGC. We hypothesized that genetic variants in DSB repair genes contribute to individual variation in susceptibility to SGC. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a case-control study in which we analyzed 415 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in 45 DSB repair genes in 352 SGC cases and 598 controls. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to calculate odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs. Rs3748522 in RAD52 and rs13180356 in XRCC4 were significantly associated with SGC after Bonferroni adjustment; ORs (95% CIs for the variant alleles of these SNPs were 1.71 (1.40-2.09, P = 1.70 × 10(-7 and 0.58 (0.45-0.74, P = 2.00 × 10(-5 respectively. The genetic effects were modulated by histological subtype. The association of RAD52-rs3748522 with SGC was strongest for mucoepidermoid carcinoma (OR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.55-3.15, P = 1.25 × 10(-5, n = 74, and the association of XRCC4-rs13180356 with SGC was strongest for adenoid cystic carcinoma (OR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.42-0.87, P = 6.91 × 10(-3, n = 123. Gene-level association analysis revealed one gene, PRKDC, with a marginally significant association with SGC risk in non-Hispanic whites. To our knowledge, this study is the first to comprehensively evaluate the genetic effect of DSB repair genes on SGC risk. Our results indicate that genetic variants in the DSB repair pathways contribute to inter-individual differences in susceptibility to SGC and show that the impact of genetic variants differs by histological subtype. Independent studies are warranted to confirm these findings.

  7. Gene regulation and the origins of human biological uniqueness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholtis, Samuel J; Noonan, James P

    2010-03-01

    What makes us human? It is likely that changes in gene expression and regulation, in addition to those in protein-coding genes, drove the evolution of uniquely human biological traits. In this review, we discuss how efforts to annotate regulatory functions in the human genome are being combined with maps of human-specific sequence acceleration to identify cis-regulatory elements with human-specific activity. Although the evolutionary interpretation of these events is a subject of considerable debate, the technical and analytical means are now at hand to identify the set of evolutionary genetic events that shaped our species. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Human gene therapy: novel approaches to improve the current gene delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucchiarini, Magali

    2016-06-01

    Even though gene therapy made its way through the clinics to treat a number of human pathologies since the early years of experimental research and despite the recent approval of the first gene-based product (Glybera) in Europe, the safe and effective use of gene transfer vectors remains a challenge in human gene therapy due to the existence of barriers in the host organism. While work is under active investigation to improve the gene transfer systems themselves, the use of controlled release approaches may offer alternative, convenient tools of vector delivery to achieve a performant gene transfer in vivo while overcoming the various physiological barriers that preclude its wide use in patients. This article provides an overview of the most significant contributions showing how the principles of controlled release strategies may be adapted for human gene therapy.

  9. De Novo Origin of Human Protein-Coding Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dong-Dong; Irwin, David M.; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2011-01-01

    The de novo origin of a new protein-coding gene from non-coding DNA is considered to be a very rare occurrence in genomes. Here we identify 60 new protein-coding genes that originated de novo on the human lineage since divergence from the chimpanzee. The functionality of these genes is supported by both transcriptional and proteomic evidence. RNA–seq data indicate that these genes have their highest expression levels in the cerebral cortex and testes, which might suggest that these genes contribute to phenotypic traits that are unique to humans, such as improved cognitive ability. Our results are inconsistent with the traditional view that the de novo origin of new genes is very rare, thus there should be greater appreciation of the importance of the de novo origination of genes. PMID:22102831

  10. Conservation of regional gene expression in mouse and human brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D Strand

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Many neurodegenerative diseases have a hallmark regional and cellular pathology. Gene expression analysis of healthy tissues may provide clues to the differences that distinguish resistant and sensitive tissues and cell types. Comparative analysis of gene expression in healthy mouse and human brain provides a framework to explore the ability of mice to model diseases of the human brain. It may also aid in understanding brain evolution and the basis for higher order cognitive abilities. Here we compare gene expression profiles of human motor cortex, caudate nucleus, and cerebellum to one another and identify genes that are more highly expressed in one region relative to another. We separately perform identical analysis on corresponding brain regions from mice. Within each species, we find that the different brain regions have distinctly different expression profiles. Contrasting between the two species shows that regionally enriched genes in one species are generally regionally enriched genes in the other species. Thus, even when considering thousands of genes, the expression ratios in two regions from one species are significantly correlated with expression ratios in the other species. Finally, genes whose expression is higher in one area of the brain relative to the other areas, in other words genes with patterned expression, tend to have greater conservation of nucleotide sequence than more widely expressed genes. Together these observations suggest that region-specific genes have been conserved in the mammalian brain at both the sequence and gene expression levels. Given the general similarity between patterns of gene expression in healthy human and mouse brains, we believe it is reasonable to expect a high degree of concordance between microarray phenotypes of human neurodegenerative diseases and their mouse models. Finally, these data on very divergent species provide context for studies in more closely related species that address

  11. Association between methylation in mismatch repair genes, V600E BRAF mutation and microsatellite instability in colorectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasuck, Carla G; Leite, Sinara M O; Komatsuzaki, Flavia; Ferreira, Alessandro C S; Oliveira, Vanessa C; Gomes, Karina B

    2012-03-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) corresponds to the third most prevalent type of cancer. Its origins can either be sporadic or inherited, being Lynch syndrome the most common form of hereditary CRC. The activation of BRAF oncogene, inactivation of mismatch repair genes by methylation of CpG islands, and microsatellite instability (MSI) have been reported to be involved in CRC development. The goal of the study was to characterize CRC tumors using clinical and molecular criteria through association and cluster analysis. Amsterdam II and Bethesda guidelines and molecular variables were analyzed in 77 patients from Brazil. The replication error (RER) status, based in microsatellite instability, showed association with metachronous tumor, MLH1 gene methylation and inverse association with left-sided and synchronous tumors. The PMS2 gene was considered the best predictor for differentiating levels of methylation and the mononucleotide were considered the best markers to evaluate RER status. The cluster 1 was characterized of individuals over 60 years of age, female, right-sided tumor, high microsatellite instability, and metachronous or synchronous tumors. The individuals in cluster 2 were younger than 45 years of age, male and showed left sided or rectum tumors, and microsatellite stability. Even though it was not observed a significant association, a higher number of individuals with family history of cancer and tumors without promoter methylation were found in cluster 2. The V600E mutation did not show association with clinical or molecular characteristics. Evaluation of MSI and methylation of MLH1 and PMS2 genes should be considered in order to assist with clinical diagnosis.

  12. Fibroblasts derived from human embryonic stem cells direct development and repair of 3D human skin equivalents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamis, Yulia; Hewitt, Kyle J; Carlson, Mark W; Margvelashvilli, Mariam; Dong, Shumin; Kuo, Catherine K; Daheron, Laurence; Egles, Christophe; Garlick, Jonathan A

    2011-02-21

    Pluripotent, human stem cells hold tremendous promise as a source of progenitor and terminally differentiated cells for application in future regenerative therapies. However, such therapies will be dependent upon the development of novel approaches that can best assess tissue outcomes of pluripotent stem cell-derived cells and will be essential to better predict their safety and stability following in vivo transplantation. In this study we used engineered, human skin equivalents (HSEs) as a platform to characterize fibroblasts that have been derived from human embryonic stem (hES) cell. We characterized the phenotype and the secretion profile of two distinct hES-derived cell lines with properties of mesenchymal cells (EDK and H9-MSC) and compared their biological potential upon induction of differentiation to bone and fat and following their incorporation into the stromal compartment of engineered, HSEs. While both EDK and H9-MSC cell lines exhibited similar morphology and mesenchymal cell marker expression, they demonstrated distinct functional properties when incorporated into the stromal compartment of HSEs. EDK cells displayed characteristics of dermal fibroblasts that could support epithelial tissue development and enable re-epithelialization of wounds generated using a 3D tissue model of cutaneous wound healing, which was linked to elevated production of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Lentiviral shRNA-mediated knockdown of HGF resulted in a dramatic decrease of HGF secretion from EDK cells that led to a marked reduction in their ability to promote keratinocyte proliferation and re-epithelialization of cutaneous wounds. In contrast, H9-MSCs demonstrated features of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) but not those of dermal fibroblasts, as they underwent multilineage differentiation in monolayer culture, but were unable to support epithelial tissue development and repair and produced significantly lower levels of HGF. Our findings demonstrate that hES-derived cells

  13. The major role of human AP-endonuclease homolog Apn2 in repair of abasic sites in Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    OpenAIRE

    Ribar, Balazs; Izumi, Tadahide; Mitra, Sankar

    2004-01-01

    The abasic (AP) sites, the major mutagenic and cytotoxic genomic lesions, induced directly by oxidative stress and indirectly after excision of damaged bases by DNA glycosylases, are repaired by AP-endonucleases (APEs). Among two APEs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Apn1 provides the major APE activity, and Apn2, the ortholog of the mammalian APE, provides back-up activity. We have cloned apn1 and apn2 genes of Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and have shown that inactivation of Apn2 and not Apn1 sens...

  14. The majority of human genes have regions repeated in other human genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britten, Roy J.

    2005-01-01

    Amino acid sequence comparisons have been made between all of 25,193 human proteins with each of the others by using blast software (National Center for Biotechnology Information) and recording the results for regions that are significantly related in sequence, that is, have an expectation of <1 × 10–3. The results are presented for each amino acid as the number of identical or similar amino acids matched in these aligned regions. This approach avoids summing or dealing directly with the different regions of any one protein that are often related to different numbers and types of other proteins. The results are presented graphically for a sample of 140 proteins. Relationships are not observed for 26.5% of the 12,728,866 amino acids. The average number of related amino acids is 36.5 for the majority (73.5%) that show relationships. The median number of recognized relationships is ≈3 for all of the amino acids, and the maximum number is 718. The results demonstrate the overwhelming importance of gene regional duplication forming families of proteins with related domains and show the variety of the resulting patterns of relationship. The magnitude of the set of relationships leads to the conclusion that the principal process by which new gene functions arise has been by making use of preexisting genes. PMID:15802472

  15. Types, Causes, Detection and Repair of DNA Fragmentation in Animal and Human Sperm Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Roy

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Concentration, motility and morphology are parameters commonly used to determine the fertilization potential of an ejaculate. These parameters give a general view on the quality of sperm but do not provide information about one of the most important components of the reproductive outcome: DNA. Either single or double DNA strand breaks can set the difference between fertile and infertile males. Sperm DNA fragmentation can be caused by intrinsic factors like abortive apoptosis, deficiencies in recombination, protamine imbalances or oxidative stress. Damage can also occur due to extrinsic factors such as storage temperatures, extenders, handling conditions, time after ejaculation, infections and reaction to medicines or post-testicular oxidative stress, among others. Two singular characteristics differentiate sperm from somatic cells: Protamination and absence of DNA repair. DNA repair in sperm is terminated as transcription and translation stops post-spermiogenesis, so these cells have no mechanism to repair the damage occurred during their transit through the epididymis and post-ejaculation. Oocytes and early embryos have been shown to repair sperm DNA damage, so the effect of sperm DNA fragmentation depends on the combined effects of sperm chromatin damage and the capacity of the oocyte to repair it. In this contribution we review some of these issues.

  16. Identification and validation of suitable endogenous reference genes for gene expression studies in human peripheral blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turner Renee J

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression studies require appropriate normalization methods. One such method uses stably expressed reference genes. Since suitable reference genes appear to be unique for each tissue, we have identified an optimal set of the most stably expressed genes in human blood that can be used for normalization. Methods Whole-genome Affymetrix Human 2.0 Plus arrays were examined from 526 samples of males and females ages 2 to 78, including control subjects and patients with Tourette syndrome, stroke, migraine, muscular dystrophy, and autism. The top 100 most stably expressed genes with a broad range of expression levels were identified. To validate the best candidate genes, we performed quantitative RT-PCR on a subset of 10 genes (TRAP1, DECR1, FPGS, FARP1, MAPRE2, PEX16, GINS2, CRY2, CSNK1G2 and A4GALT, 4 commonly employed reference genes (GAPDH, ACTB, B2M and HMBS and PPIB, previously reported to be stably expressed in blood. Expression stability and ranking analysis were performed using GeNorm and NormFinder algorithms. Results Reference genes were ranked based on their expression stability and the minimum number of genes needed for nomalization as calculated using GeNorm showed that the fewest, most stably expressed genes needed for acurate normalization in RNA expression studies of human whole blood is a combination of TRAP1, FPGS, DECR1 and PPIB. We confirmed the ranking of the best candidate control genes by using an alternative algorithm (NormFinder. Conclusion The reference genes identified in this study are stably expressed in whole blood of humans of both genders with multiple disease conditions and ages 2 to 78. Importantly, they also have different functions within cells and thus should be expressed independently of each other. These genes should be useful as normalization genes for microarray and RT-PCR whole blood studies of human physiology, metabolism and disease.

  17. Cobalt-induced genotoxicity in male zebrafish (Danio rerio), with implications for reproduction and expression of DNA repair genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinardy, Helena C.; Syrett, James R. [School of Biomedical and Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth (United Kingdom); Jeffree, Ross A. [Faculty of Science, University of Technology, Sydney, PO Box 123, Broadway, NSW 2007 (Australia); Henry, Theodore B., E-mail: ted.henry@plymouth.ac.uk [School of Biomedical and Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth (United Kingdom); Center for Environmental Biotechnology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Department of Forestry, Wildlife and Fisheries, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996. USA (United States); Jha, Awadhesh N. [School of Biomedical and Biological Sciences, The University of Plymouth (United Kingdom)

    2013-01-15

    Although cobalt (Co) is an environmental contaminant of surface waters in both radioactive (e.g. {sup 60}Co) and non-radioactive forms, there is relatively little information about Co toxicity in fishes. The objective of this study was to investigate acute and chronic toxicity of Co in zebrafish, with emphasis on male genotoxicity and implications for reproductive success. The lethal concentration for 50% mortality (LC{sub 50}) in larval zebrafish exposed (96 h) to 0-50 mg l{sup -1} Co was 35.3 {+-} 1.1 (95% C.I.) mg l{sup -1} Co. Adult zebrafish were exposed (13 d) to sub-lethal (0-25 mg l{sup -1}) Co and allowed to spawn every 4 d and embryos were collected. After 12-d exposure, fertilisation rate was reduced (6% total eggs fertilised, 25 mg l{sup -1}) and embryo survival to hatching decreased (60% fertilised eggs survived, 25 mg l{sup -1}). A concentration-dependent increase in DNA strand breaks was detected in sperm from males exposed (13 d) to Co, and DNA damage in sperm returned to control levels after males recovered for 6 d in clean water. Induction of DNA repair genes (rad51, xrcc5, and xrcc6) in testes was complex and not directly related to Co concentration, although there was significant induction in fish exposed to 15 and 25 mg l{sup -1} Co relative to controls. Induction of 4.0 {+-} 0.9, 2.5 {+-} 0.7, and 3.1 {+-} 0.7-fold change (mean {+-} S.E.M. for rad51, xrcc5, and xrcc6, respectively) was observed in testes at the highest Co concentration (25 mg l{sup -1}). Expression of these genes was not altered in offspring (larvae) spawned after 12-d exposure. Chronic exposure to Co resulted in DNA damage in sperm, induction of DNA repair genes in testes, and indications of reduced reproductive success.

  18. Hereditary truncating mutations of DNA repair and other genes in BRCA1/BRCA2/PALB2-negatively tested breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhota, F; Zemankova, P; Kleiblova, P; Soukupova, J; Vocka, M; Stranecky, V; Janatova, M; Hartmannova, H; Hodanova, K; Kmoch, S; Kleibl, Z

    2016-10-01

    Hereditary breast cancer comprises a minor but clinically meaningful breast cancer (BC) subgroup. Mutations in the major BC-susceptibility genes are important prognostic and predictive markers; however, their carriers represent only 25% of high-risk BC patients. To further characterize variants influencing BC risk, we performed SOLiD sequencing of 581 genes in 325 BC patients (negatively tested in previous BRCA1/BRCA2/PALB2 analyses). In 105 (32%) patients, we identified and confirmed 127 truncating variants (89 unique; nonsense, frameshift indels, and splice site), 19 patients harbored more than one truncation. Forty-six (36 unique) truncating variants in 25 DNA repair genes were found in 41 (12%) patients, including 16 variants in the Fanconi anemia (FA) genes. The most frequent variant in FA genes was c.1096_1099dupATTA in FANCL that also show a borderline association with increased BC risk in subsequent analysis of enlarged groups of BC patients and controls. Another 81 (53 unique) truncating variants were identified in 48 non-DNA repair genes in 74 patients (23%) including 16 patients carrying variants in genes coding proteins of estrogen metabolism/signaling. Our results highlight the importance of mutations in the FA genes' family, and indicate that estrogen metabolism genes may reveal a novel candidate genetic component for BC susceptibility. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Methylation and protein expression of DNA repair genes: association with chemotherapy exposure and survival in sporadic ovarian and peritoneal carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walsh Tom

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA repair genes critically regulate the cellular response to chemotherapy and epigenetic regulation of these genes may be influenced by chemotherapy exposure. Restoration of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mediates resistance to platinum chemotherapy in recurrent BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutated hereditary ovarian carcinomas. We evaluated BRCA1, BRCA2, and MLH1 protein expression in 115 sporadic primary ovarian carcinomas, of which 31 had paired recurrent neoplasms collected after chemotherapy. Additionally, we assessed whether promoter methylation of BRCA1, MLH1 or FANCF influenced response to chemotherapy or explained alterations in protein expression after chemotherapy exposure. Results Of 115 primary sporadic ovarian carcinomas, 39 (34% had low BRCA1 protein and 49 (42% had low BRCA2 expression. BRCA1 and BRCA2 protein expression were highly concordant (p Conclusion Low BRCA1 expression in primary sporadic ovarian carcinoma is associated with prolonged survival. Recurrent ovarian carcinomas commonly have increased BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 protein expression post chemotherapy exposure which could mediate resistance to platinum based therapies. However, alterations in expression of these proteins after chemotherapy are not commonly mediated by promoter methylation, and other regulatory mechanisms are likely to contribute to these alterations.

  20. Homologous Recombination DNA Repair Genes Play a Critical Role in Reprogramming to a Pluripotent State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico González

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs hold great promise for personalized regenerative medicine. However, recent studies show that iPSC lines carry genetic abnormalities, suggesting that reprogramming may be mutagenic. Here, we show that the ectopic expression of reprogramming factors increases the level of phosphorylated histone H2AX, one of the earliest cellular responses to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs. Additional mechanistic studies uncover a direct role of the homologous recombination (HR pathway, a pathway essential for error-free repair of DNA DSBs, in reprogramming. This role is independent of the use of integrative or nonintegrative methods in introducing reprogramming factors, despite the latter being considered a safer approach that circumvents genetic modifications. Finally, deletion of the tumor suppressor p53 rescues the reprogramming phenotype in HR-deficient cells primarily through the restoration of reprogramming-dependent defects in cell proliferation and apoptosis. These mechanistic insights have important implications for the design of safer approaches to creating iPSCs.

  1. Nucleotide sequence of the gene for human prothrombin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degen, S.J.F.; Davie, E.W.

    1987-09-22

    A human genomic DNA library was screened for the gene coding for human prothrombin with a cDNA coding for the human protein. Eighty-one positive lambda phage were identified, and three were chosen for further characterization. These three phage hybridized with 5' and/or 3' probes prepared from the prothrombin cDNA. The complete DNA sequence of 21 kilobases of the human prothrombin gene was determined and included a 4.9-kilobase region that was previously sequenced. The gene for human prothrombin contains 14 exons separated by 13 intervening sequences. The exons range in size from 25 to 315 base pairs, while the introns range from 84 to 9447 base pairs. Ninety percent of the gene is composed of intervening sequence. All the intron splice junctions are consistent with sequences found in other eukaryotic genes, except for the presence of GC rather than GT on the 5' end of intervening sequence L. Thirty copies of Alu repetitive DNA and two copies of partial KpnI repeats were identified in clusters within several of the intervening sequences, and these repeats represent 40% of the DNA sequence of the gene. The size, distribution, and sequence homology of the introns within the gene were the compared to those of the genes for the other vitamin K dependent proteins and several other serine proteases.

  2. Discovery of Novel Human Gene Regulatory Modules from Gene Co-expression and Promoter Motif Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shisong; Snyder, Michael; Dinesh-Kumar, Savithramma P

    2017-07-17

    Deciphering gene regulatory networks requires identification of gene expression modules. We describe a novel bottom-up approach to identify gene modules regulated by cis-regulatory motifs from a human gene co-expression network. Target genes of a cis-regulatory motif were identified from the network via the motif's enrichment or biased distribution towards transcription start sites in the promoters of co-expressed genes. A gene sub-network containing the target genes was extracted and used to derive gene modules. The analysis revealed known and novel gene modules regulated by the NF-Y motif. The binding of NF-Y proteins to these modules' gene promoters were verified using ENCODE ChIP-Seq data. The analyses also identified 8,048 Sp1 motif target genes, interestingly many of which were not detected by ENCODE ChIP-Seq. These target genes assemble into house-keeping, tissues-specific developmental, and immune response modules. Integration of Sp1 modules with genomic and epigenomic data indicates epigenetic control of Sp1 targets' expression in a cell/tissue specific manner. Finally, known and novel target genes and modules regulated by the YY1, RFX1, IRF1, and 34 other motifs were also identified. The study described here provides a valuable resource to understand transcriptional regulation of various human developmental, disease, or immunity pathways.

  3. A unique DNA repair and recombination gene (recN) sequence for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-04-23

    Apr 23, 2013 ... Ribosomal gene sequences are a popular choice for identification of bacterial species and, often, for making phylogenetic interpretations. Although very popular, the sequences of 16S rDNA and 16-23S intergenic sequences often fail to differentiate closely related species of bacteria. The availability of ...

  4. A unique DNA repair and recombination gene (recN) sequence for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ribosomal gene sequences are a popular choice for identification of bacterial species and, often, for making phylogenetic interpretations. Although very popular, the sequences of 16S rDNA and 16-23S intergenic sequences often fail to differentiate closely related species of bacteria. The availability of complete genome ...

  5. Identifying gene expression modules that define human cell fates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germanguz, I; Listgarten, J; Cinkornpumin, J; Solomon, A; Gaeta, X; Lowry, W E

    2016-05-01

    Using a compendium of cell-state-specific gene expression data, we identified genes that uniquely define cell states, including those thought to represent various developmental stages. Our analysis sheds light on human cell fate through the identification of core genes that are altered over several developmental milestones, and across regional specification. Here we present cell-type specific gene expression data for 17 distinct cell states and demonstrate that these modules of genes can in fact define cell fate. Lastly, we introduce a web-based database to disseminate the results. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Evolutionary and Topological Properties of Genes and Community Structures in Human Gene Regulatory Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szedlak, Anthony; Smith, Nicholas; Liu, Li; Paternostro, Giovanni; Piermarocchi, Carlo

    2016-06-01

    The diverse, specialized genes present in today's lifeforms evolved from a common core of ancient, elementary genes. However, these genes did not evolve individually: gene expression is controlled by a complex network of interactions, and alterations in one gene may drive reciprocal changes in its proteins' binding partners. Like many complex networks, these gene regulatory networks (GRNs) are composed of communities, or clusters of genes with relatively high connectivity. A deep understanding of the relationship between the evolutionary history of single genes and the topological properties of the underlying GRN is integral to evolutionary genetics. Here, we show that the topological properties of an acute myeloid leukemia GRN and a general human GRN are strongly coupled with its genes' evolutionary properties. Slowly evolving ("cold"), old genes tend to interact with each other, as do rapidly evolving ("hot"), young genes. This naturally causes genes to segregate into community structures with relatively homogeneous evolutionary histories. We argue that gene duplication placed old, cold genes and communities at the center of the networks, and young, hot genes and communities at the periphery. We demonstrate this with single-node centrality measures and two new measures of efficiency, the set efficiency and the interset efficiency. We conclude that these methods for studying the relationships between a GRN's community structures and its genes' evolutionary properties provide new perspectives for understanding evolutionary genetics.

  7. Identification of Human HK Genes and Gene Expression Regulation Study in Cancer from Transcriptomics Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhang; Liu, Jingxing; Wu, Jiayan; Yu, Jun

    2013-01-01

    The regulation of gene expression is essential for eukaryotes, as it drives the processes of cellular differentiation and morphogenesis, leading to the creation of different cell types in multicellular organisms. RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq) provides researchers with a powerful toolbox for characterization and quantification of transcriptome. Many different human tissue/cell transcriptome datasets coming from RNA-Seq technology are available on public data resource. The fundamental issue here is how to develop an effective analysis method to estimate expression pattern similarities between different tumor tissues and their corresponding normal tissues. We define the gene expression pattern from three directions: 1) expression breadth, which reflects gene expression on/off status, and mainly concerns ubiquitously expressed genes; 2) low/high or constant/variable expression genes, based on gene expression level and variation; and 3) the regulation of gene expression at the gene structure level. The cluster analysis indicates that gene expression pattern is higher related to physiological condition rather than tissue spatial distance. Two sets of human housekeeping (HK) genes are defined according to cell/tissue types, respectively. To characterize the gene expression pattern in gene expression level and variation, we firstly apply improved K-means algorithm and a gene expression variance model. We find that cancer-associated HK genes (a HK gene is specific in cancer group, while not in normal group) are expressed higher and more variable in cancer condition than in normal condition. Cancer-associated HK genes prefer to AT-rich genes, and they are enriched in cell cycle regulation related functions and constitute some cancer signatures. The expression of large genes is also avoided in cancer group. These studies will help us understand which cell type-specific patterns of gene expression differ among different cell types, and particularly for cancer. PMID:23382867

  8. Identification of human HK genes and gene expression regulation study in cancer from transcriptomics data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meili; Xiao, Jingfa; Zhang, Zhang; Liu, Jingxing; Wu, Jiayan; Yu, Jun

    2013-01-01

    The regulation of gene expression is essential for eukaryotes, as it drives the processes of cellular differentiation and morphogenesis, leading to the creation of different cell types in multicellular organisms. RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq) provides researchers with a powerful toolbox for characterization and quantification of transcriptome. Many different human tissue/cell transcriptome datasets coming from RNA-Seq technology are available on public data resource. The fundamental issue here is how to develop an effective analysis method to estimate expression pattern similarities between different tumor tissues and their corresponding normal tissues. We define the gene expression pattern from three directions: 1) expression breadth, which reflects gene expression on/off status, and mainly concerns ubiquitously expressed genes; 2) low/high or constant/variable expression genes, based on gene expression level and variation; and 3) the regulation of gene expression at the gene structure level. The cluster analysis indicates that gene expression pattern is higher related to physiological condition rather than tissue spatial distance. Two sets of human housekeeping (HK) genes are defined according to cell/tissue types, respectively. To characterize the gene expression pattern in gene expression level and variation, we firstly apply improved K-means algorithm and a gene expression variance model. We find that cancer-associated HK genes (a HK gene is specific in cancer group, while not in normal group) are expressed higher and more variable in cancer condition than in normal condition. Cancer-associated HK genes prefer to AT-rich genes, and they are enriched in cell cycle regulation related functions and constitute some cancer signatures. The expression of large genes is also avoided in cancer group. These studies will help us understand which cell type-specific patterns of gene expression differ among different cell types, and particularly for cancer.

  9. Prevalence of Germline Mutations in Genes Engaged in DNA Damage Repair by Homologous Recombination in Patients with Triple-Negative and Hereditary Non-Triple-Negative Breast Cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Domagala

    Full Text Available This study sought to assess the prevalence of common germline mutations in several genes engaged in the repair of DNA double-strand break by homologous recombination in patients with triple-negative breast cancers and hereditary non-triple-negative breast cancers. Tumors deficient in this type of DNA damage repair are known to be especially sensitive to DNA cross-linking agents (e.g., platinum drugs and to poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP inhibitors.Genetic testing was performed for 36 common germline mutations in genes engaged in the repair of DNA by homologous recombination, i.e., BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2, NBN, ATM, PALB2, BARD1, and RAD51D, in 202 consecutive patients with triple-negative breast cancers and hereditary non-triple-negative breast cancers.Thirty five (22.2% of 158 patients in the triple-negative group carried mutations in genes involved in DNA repair by homologous recombination, while 10 (22.7% of the 44 patients in the hereditary non-triple-negative group carried such mutations. Mutations in BRCA1 were most frequent in patients with triple-negative breast cancer (18.4%, and mutations in CHEK2 were most frequent in patients with hereditary non-triple-negative breast cancers (15.9%. In addition, in the triple-negative group, mutations in CHEK2, NBN, and ATM (3.8% combined were found, while mutations in BRCA1, NBN, and PALB2 (6.8% combined were identified in the hereditary non-triple-negative group.Identifying mutations in genes engaged in DNA damage repair by homologous recombination other than BRCA1/2 can substantially increase the proportion of patients with triple-negative breast cancer and hereditary non-triple-negative breast cancer who may be eligible for therapy using PARP inhibitors and platinum drugs.

  10. Prevalence of Germline Mutations in Genes Engaged in DNA Damage Repair by Homologous Recombination in Patients with Triple-Negative and Hereditary Non-Triple-Negative Breast Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domagala, Pawel; Jakubowska, Anna; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Kaczmarek, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Kurlapska, Agnieszka; Cybulski, Cezary; Lubinski, Jan

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to assess the prevalence of common germline mutations in several genes engaged in the repair of DNA double-strand break by homologous recombination in patients with triple-negative breast cancers and hereditary non-triple-negative breast cancers. Tumors deficient in this type of DNA damage repair are known to be especially sensitive to DNA cross-linking agents (e.g., platinum drugs) and to poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors. Genetic testing was performed for 36 common germline mutations in genes engaged in the repair of DNA by homologous recombination, i.e., BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2, NBN, ATM, PALB2, BARD1, and RAD51D, in 202 consecutive patients with triple-negative breast cancers and hereditary non-triple-negative breast cancers. Thirty five (22.2%) of 158 patients in the triple-negative group carried mutations in genes involved in DNA repair by homologous recombination, while 10 (22.7%) of the 44 patients in the hereditary non-triple-negative group carried such mutations. Mutations in BRCA1 were most frequent in patients with triple-negative breast cancer (18.4%), and mutations in CHEK2 were most frequent in patients with hereditary non-triple-negative breast cancers (15.9%). In addition, in the triple-negative group, mutations in CHEK2, NBN, and ATM (3.8% combined) were found, while mutations in BRCA1, NBN, and PALB2 (6.8% combined) were identified in the hereditary non-triple-negative group. Identifying mutations in genes engaged in DNA damage repair by homologous recombination other than BRCA1/2 can substantially increase the proportion of patients with triple-negative breast cancer and hereditary non-triple-negative breast cancer who may be eligible for therapy using PARP inhibitors and platinum drugs.

  11. Gene expression changes after ionizing radiation in endothelial cells derived from human endometrial cancer-preliminary outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Du, Xuelian; Sheng, Xiugui

    2014-06-01

    Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that death of microvascular endothelial cells plays a decisive role in the tumor response against radiotherapy. Nevertheless, radiation-induced gene alterations on cancer-associated endothelial cells of human endometrial carcinoma remain poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the gene expression changes after X-ray radiation in human endometrial carcinoma vascular endothelial cells and to provide new targets for combined treatment of radiation and anti-angiogenesis in human endometrial carcinoma. Endometrial cancer-derived endothelial cells, which obtained before and 4 h after 400 cGy X-ray radiation from four endometrial carcinomas, were analyzed by gene expression profile. The selected meaningful genes from gene microarray experiments were validated by real-time quantitative PCR. Microarray analyses showed 49 significantly changed genes which were common to all the microarray experiments. There into, 14 genes were found to be in persistent up-regulation and 14 in persistent down-regulation 4 h after X-ray radiation when compared with the control group. These genes were involved in cell cycle and growth regulation, cell-apoptosis, chemokine, cell signaling, cellular stress response, angiogenesis, DNA synthesis and repair and cell adhesion. Eight randomly selected genes were validated by real-time PCR. The genes of cancer-derived endothelial cells regulated by X-ray radiation as well as their related signal pathways, which obtained from gene expression profiling data, were relevant to radiosensitivity of endometrial cancer. This study shows that the identified genes and their related signaling pathways are candidated biomarkers for radiation and anti-angiogenesis of human endometrial carcinoma.

  12. Defective transcription-coupled repair in Cockayne syndrome B mice is associated with skin cancer predisposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Horst, G T; van Steeg, H; Berg, R J; van Gool, A J; de Wit, J; Weeda, G; Morreau, H; Beems, R B; van Kreijl, C F; de Gruijl, F R; Bootsma, D; Hoeijmakers, J H

    1997-05-02

    A mouse model for the nucleotide excision repair disorder Cockayne syndrome (CS) was generated by mimicking a truncation in the CSB(ERCC6) gene of a CS-B patient. CSB-deficient mice exhibit all of the CS repair characteristics: ultraviolet (UV) sensitivity, inactivation of transcription-coupled repair, unaffected global genome repair, and inability to resume RNA synthesis after UV exposure. Other CS features thought to involve the functioning of basal transcription/repair factor TFIIH, such as growth failure and neurologic dysfunction, are present in mild form. In contrast to the human syndrome, CSB-deficient mice show increased susceptibility to skin cancer. Our results demonstrate that transcription-coupled repair of UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers contributes to the prevention of carcinogenesis in mice. Further, they suggest that the lack of cancer predisposition in CS patients is attributable to a global genome repair process that in humans is more effective than in rodents.

  13. T-Box Genes in Human Development and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, T K; Brook, J D; Wilsdon, A

    2017-01-01

    T-box genes are important development regulators in vertebrates with specific patterns of expression and precise roles during embryogenesis. They encode transcription factors that regulate gene transcription, often in the early stages of development. The hallmark of this family of proteins is the presence of a conserved DNA binding motif, the "T-domain." Mutations in T-box genes can cause developmental disorders in humans, mostly due to functional deficiency of the relevant proteins. Recent studies have also highlighted the role of some T-box genes in cancer and in cardiomyopathy, extending their role in human disease. In this review, we focus on ten T-box genes with a special emphasis on their roles in human disease. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Microarray analyses of glucocorticoid and vitamin D3 target genes in differentiating cultured human podocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiwen Cheng

    Full Text Available Glomerular podocytes are highly differentiated epithelial cells that are key components of the kidney filtration units. Podocyte damage or loss is the hallmark of nephritic diseases characterized by severe proteinuria. Recent studies implicate that hormones including glucocorticoids (ligand for glucocorticoid receptor and vitamin D3 (ligand for vitamin D receptor protect or promote repair of podocytes from injury. In order to elucidate the mechanisms underlying hormone-mediated podocyte-protecting activity from injury, we carried out microarray gene expression studies to identify the target genes and corresponding pathways in response to these hormones during podocyte differentiation. We used immortalized human cultured podocytes (HPCs as a model system and carried out in vitro differentiation assays followed by dexamethasone (Dex or vitamin D3 (VD3 treatment. Upon the induction of differentiation, multiple functional categories including cell cycle, organelle dynamics, mitochondrion, apoptosis and cytoskeleton organization were among the most significantly affected. Interestingly, while Dex and VD3 are capable of protecting podocytes from injury, they only share limited target genes and affected pathways. Compared to VD3 treatment, Dex had a broader and greater impact on gene expression profiles. In-depth analyses of Dex altered genes indicate that Dex crosstalks with a broad spectrum of signaling pathways, of which inflammatory responses, cell migration, angiogenesis, NF-κB and TGFβ pathways are predominantly altered. Together, our study provides new information and identifies several new avenues for future investigation of hormone signaling in podocytes.

  15. Endoscopic observation of different repair patterns in human traumatic tympanic membrane perforations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Peng; Zhang, Shujun; Gong, Xinhong; Wang, Xuesong; Lou, Zi-Han

    2017-08-03

    In the last decade, there has been an increasing use of biomaterial patches in the regeneration of traumatic tympanic membrane perforations. The major advantages of biomaterial patches are to provisionally restore the physiological function of the middle ear, thereby immediately improving ear symptoms, and act as a scaffold for epithelium migration. However, whether there are additional biological effects on eardrum regeneration is unclear for biological material patching in the clinic. This study evaluated the healing response for different repair patterns in human traumatic tympanic membrane perforations by endoscopic observation. In total, 114 patients with traumatic tympanic membrane perforations were allocated sequentially to two groups: the spontaneous healing group (n=57) and Gelfoam patch-treated group (n=57). The closure rate, closure time, and rate of otorrhea were compared between the groups at 3 months. Ultimately, 107 patients were analyzed in the two groups (52 patients in the spontaneous healing group vs. 55 patients in the Gelfoam patch-treated group). The overall closure rate at the end of the 3 month follow-up period was 90.4% in the spontaneous healing group and 94.5% in the Gelfoam patch-treated group; the difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05). However, the total average closure time was significantly different between the two groups (26.8±9.1 days in the spontaneous healing group vs. 14.7±9.1 days in the Gelfoam patch-treated group, p<0.01). In addition, the closure rate was not significantly different between the spontaneous healing group and Gelfoam patch-treated group regardless of the perforation size. The closure time in the Gelfoam patch-treated group was significantly shorter than that in the spontaneous healing group regardless of the perforation size (small perforations: 7.1±1.6 days vs. 12.6±3.9, medium-sized perforations: 13.3±2.2 days vs. 21.8±4.2 days, and large perforations: 21.2±4.7 days vs. 38.4±5.7 days

  16. Bridging plant and human radiation response and DNA repair through an in silico approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nikitaki, Z.; Pavlopoulou, A.; Holá, Marcela; Donà, M.; Michalopoulos, I.; Balestrazzi, A.; Angelis, Karel; Georgakilas, A. G.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 6 (2017), č. článku 65. ISSN 2072-6694 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-01137S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Bioinformatics * DNA damage repair * In silico analysis * Ionizing radiation * Plant radiation biodosimeter * Ultraviolet radiation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  17. DNA repair enables sex identification in genetic material from human teeth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovatsi, L.; Nikou, D.; Triantaphyllou, S.; Njau, S. N.; Voutsaki, S.; Kouidou, S.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of a DNA repair protocol in improving genetic testing in compromised samples, frequently encountered in Forensic Medicine. Methods: In order to stretch the experiment conditions to the limits, as far as quality of samples and DNA is

  18. Molecular phenotyping of human ovarian cancer stem cells unravels the mechanisms for repair and chemoresistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvero, Ayesha B; Chen, Rui; Fu, Han-Hsuan

    2009-01-01

    . CSC identified in EOC cells isolated form ascites and solid tumors are characterized by: CD44+, MyD88+, constitutive NFkappaB activity and cytokine and chemokine production, high capacity for repair, chemoresistance to conventional chemotherapies, resistance to TNFalpha-mediated apoptosis, capacity...

  19. Human papillomavirus mediated inhibition of DNA damage sensing and repair drives skin carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Hufbauer (Martin); J. Cooke (James); G.T.J. van der Horst (Gijsbertus); H. Pfister (Herbert); A. Storey (Alan); B. Akgül (Baki)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The failure to mount an effective DNA damage response to repair UV induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) results in an increased propensity to develop cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC). High-risk patient groups, such as organ transplant recipients (OTRs)

  20. Repair of Osteochondral Defects Using Human Umbilical Cord Wharton's Jelly-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in a Rabbit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yanhui; Yuan, Mei; Guo, Weimin; Huang, Jingxiang; Zhao, Bin; Xu, Wenjing; Lu, Shibi

    2017-01-01

    Umbilical cord Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cell (WJMSC) is a new-found mesenchymal stem cell in recent years with multiple lineage potential. Due to its abundant resources, no damage procurement, and lower immunogenicity than other adult MSCs, WJMSC promises to be a good xenogenous cell candidate for tissue engineering. This in vivo pilot study explored the use of human umbilical cord Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells (hWJMSCs) containing a tissue engineering construct xenotransplant in rabbits to repair full-thickness cartilage defects in the femoral patellar groove. We observed orderly spatial-temporal remodeling of hWJMSCs into cartilage tissues during repair over 16 months, with characteristic architectural features, including a hyaline-like neocartilage layer with good surface regularity, complete integration with adjacent host cartilage, and regenerated subchondral bone. No immune rejection was detected when xenograft hWJMSCs were implanted into rabbit cartilage defects. The repair results using hWJMSCs were superior to those of chondrogenically induced hWJMSCs after assessing gross appearance and histological grading scores. These preliminary results suggest that using novel undifferentiated hWJMSCs as seed cells might be a better approach than using transforming growth factor-β-induced differentiated hWJMSCs for in vivo tissue engineering treatment of cartilage defects. hWJMSC allografts may be promising for clinical applications. PMID:28261617

  1. PAX 8 activates the enhancer of the human thyroperoxidase gene.

    OpenAIRE

    Esposito, C.; Miccadei, S; Saiardi, A.; Civitareale, D.

    1998-01-01

    In this study we report on a novel natural target of the paired domain transcription factor PAX 8 in the enhancer element of the human thyroperoxidase gene, one of the most important thyroid differentiation markers. It is the primary enzyme involved in thyroid hormone synthesis and PAX 8 has been previously identified as an activating factor of the rat thyroperoxidase gene promoter. In vitro, PAX 8 binds a cis element of the human enhancer and its exogenous expression induces the enhancer act...

  2. New Paradigms in the Repair of Oxidative Damage in Human Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Arijit; Yang, Chunying; Sengupta, Shiladitya; Mitra, Sankar; Hegde, Muralidhar L.

    2015-01-01

    Oxidized bases in the mammalian genome, which are invariably mutagenic due to their mis-pairing property, are continuously induced by endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) and more abundantly after oxidative stress. Unlike bulky base adducts induced by UV and other environmental mutagens in the genome that block replicative DNA polymerases, oxidatively damaged bases such as 5-hydoxyuracil (5-OHU), produced by oxidative deamination of cytosine in the template strand, do not block replicative polymerases and thus need to be repaired prior to replication in order to prevent mutation. Following up our earlier studies, which showed that the Nei endonuclease VIII like 1 (NEIL1) DNA glycosylase, one of five base excision repair (BER)-initiating enzymes in mammalian cells, has enhanced expression during the S-phase and higher affinity for replication fork-mimicking single-stranded (ss) DNA substrates, we recently provided direct experimental evidence for NEIL1’s role in replicating template-strand repair. The key requirement for this event, which we named as the ‘cow-catcher’ mechanism of pre-replicative BER, is NEIL1’s non-productive binding (substrate binding without product formation) to the lesion base in ss DNA template to stall DNA synthesis, causing fork regression. Repair of the lesion in re-annealed duplex is then carried out by NEIL1 in association with the DNA replication proteins. NEIL1 (and other BER-initiating enzymes) also interact with several accessory and non-canonical proteins including the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U (hnRNP-U) and Y-box-binding protein 1 (YB-1) as well as high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), whose precise roles in BER are still obscure. In this review, we have discussed the recent advances in our understanding of oxidative genome damage repair pathways with particular focus on the pre-replicative template strand repair and the role of scaffold factors like X-ray repair cross-complementing protein 1 (XRCC1

  3. Analysis of some conventional ab initio gene finders using human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-24

    Jan 24, 2012 ... using human and mouse DNA sequences .... two different levels: coding nucleotide sequence and exonic .... Table 3. Predicted number of exons in each class on multi-exon genes in three .... measures, hexamer frequency, usually in the form of ..... combination of gene prediction results from multiple ab.

  4. Analysis of some conventional ab initio gene finders using human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-24

    Jan 24, 2012 ... parts of a given protein coding sequence so that the users be able to choose the best program(s) in accordance with their research goals. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Sequence data set. In assessing five ab initio gene prediction programs, a data set consisting of 110 known orthologous genes of human ...

  5. Xeroderma pigmentosum group F caused by a defect in a structure-specific DNA repair endonuclease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Sijbers (Anneke); W.L. de Laat (Wouter); R.A. Ariza (Rafael); M. Biggerstaff (Maureen); Y-F. Wei; J.G. Moggs (Jonathan); K.C. Carter (Kenneth); B.K. Shell (Brenda); E. Evans (Elizabeth); M.C. de Jong (Mariska); S. Rademakers (Suzanne); J.D. de Rooij (Johan); N.G.J. Jaspers (Nicolaas); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); R.D. Wood (Richard)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractNucleotide excision repair, which is defective in xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), involves incision of a DNA strand on each side of a lesion. We isolated a human gene homologous to yeast Rad1 and found that it corrects the repair defects of XP group F as well as rodent groups 4 and 11.

  6. Impact of charged particle exposure on homologous DNA double-strand break repair in human blood-derived cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie eRall

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ionizing radiation generates DNA double-strand breaks (DSB which, unless faithfully repaired, can generate chromosomal rearrangements in hematopoietic stem and/or progenitor cells (HSPC, potentially priming the cells towards a leukemic phenotype. Using an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP-based reporter system, we recently identified differences in the removal of enzyme-mediated DSB in human HSPC versus mature peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL, particularly regarding homologous DSB repair (HR. Assessment of chromosomal breaks via premature chromosome condensation or γH2AX foci indicated similar efficiency and kinetics of radiation-induced DSB formation and rejoining in PBL and HSPC. Prolonged persistence of chromosomal breaks was observed for higher LET charged particles which are known to induce more complex DNA damage compared to X rays. Consistent with HR deficiency in HSPC observed in our previous study, we noticed here pronounced focal accumulation of 53BP1 after X-ray and carbon ion exposure (intermediate LET in HSPC versus PBL. For higher LET, 53BP1 foci kinetics were similarly delayed in PBL and HSPC suggesting similar failure to repair complex DNA damage. Data obtained with plasmid reporter systems revealed a dose- and LET-dependent HR increase after X-ray, carbon ion and higher LET exposure, particularly in HR-proficient immortalized and primary lymphocytes, confirming preferential use of conservative HR in PBL for intermediate LET damage repair. HR measured adjacent to the leukemia-associated MLL breakpoint cluster sequence in reporter lines revealed dose-dependency of potentially leukemogenic rearrangements underscoring the risk of leukemia-induction by radiation treatment.

  7. Participation of different genes in the ruptures repair of double chain in Escherichia coli stumps exposed to gamma radiation; Participacion de diferentes genes en la reparacion de rupturas de doble cadena en cepas de Escherichia coli expuestas a radiacion gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serment G, J. H.; Martinez M, E.; Alcantara D, D., E-mail: jorge.serment@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Departamento de Biologia, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2013-05-01

    All living organisms are naturally exposed to radiation from different sources. Ionizing radiation produces a plethora of lesions upon DNA that can be categorized as single and double strand breaks and base damage. Among them, unrepaired double strand breaks (Dbs) have the greatest biological significance, since they are responsible of cell death. In Escherichia coli this kind of lesions are repaired mostly by homologous recombination. In this work the participation of some recombination genes in the repair of Dbs is evaluated. Escherichia coli defective strains were exposed to gamma radiation and incubated for different periods in ideal conditions. Both micro electrophoresis and pulse field gel electrophoresis techniques were used to evaluate the kinetics of repair of such lesions, reflecting the importance of each defective gene in the process. (Author)

  8. Mapping gene associations in human mitochondria using clinical disease phenotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curt Scharfe

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear genes encode most mitochondrial proteins, and their mutations cause diverse and debilitating clinical disorders. To date, 1,200 of these mitochondrial genes have been recorded, while no standardized catalog exists of the associated clinical phenotypes. Such a catalog would be useful to develop methods to analyze human phenotypic data, to determine genotype-phenotype relations among many genes and diseases, and to support the clinical diagnosis of mitochondrial disorders. Here we establish a clinical phenotype catalog of 174 mitochondrial disease genes and study associations of diseases and genes. Phenotypic features such as clinical signs and symptoms were manually annotated from full-text medical articles and classified based on the hierarchical MeSH ontology. This classification of phenotypic features of each gene allowed for the comparison of diseases between different genes. In turn, we were then able to measure the phenotypic associations of disease genes for which we calculated a quantitative value that is based on their shared phenotypic features. The results showed that genes sharing more similar phenotypes have a stronger tendency for functional interactions, proving the usefulness of phenotype similarity values in disease gene network analysis. We then constructed a functional network of mitochondrial genes and discovered a higher connectivity for non-disease than for disease genes, and a tendency of disease genes to interact with each other. Utilizing these differences, we propose 168 candidate genes that resemble the characteristic interaction patterns of mitochondrial disease genes. Through their network associations, the candidates are further prioritized for the study of specific disorders such as optic neuropathies and Parkinson disease. Most mitochondrial disease phenotypes involve several clinical categories including neurologic, metabolic, and gastrointestinal disorders, which might indicate the effects of gene defects

  9. Interactive effects of ultraviolet-B radiation and pesticide exposure on DNA photo-adduct accumulation and expression of DNA damage and repair genes in Xenopus laevis embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shuangying; Tang, Song; Mayer, Gregory D; Cobb, George P; Maul, Jonathan D

    2015-02-01

    Pesticide use and ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation have both been suggested to adversely affect amphibians; however, little is known about their interactive effects. One potential adverse interaction could involve pesticide-induced dysregulation of DNA repair pathways, resulting in greater numbers of DNA photo-adducts from UVB exposure. In the present study, we investigated the interactive effects of UVB radiation and two common pesticides (endosulfan and α-cypermethrin) on induction of DNA photo-adducts and expression of DNA damage and repair related genes in African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) embryos. We examined 13 genes that are, collectively, involved in stress defense, cell cycle arrest, nucleotide excision repair (NER), base excision repair, mismatch repair, DNA repair regulation, and apoptosis. We exposed X. laevis embryos to 0, 25, and 50 μg/L endosulfan or 0, 2.5, and 5.0 μg/L α-cypermethrin for 96 h, with environmentally relevant exposures of UVB radiation during the last 7 h of the 96 h exposure. We measured the amount of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and mRNA abundance of the 13 genes among treatments including control, pesticide only, UVB only, and UVB and pesticide co-exposures. Each of the co-exposure scenarios resulted in elevated CPD levels compared to UVB exposure alone, suggesting an inhibitory effect of endosulfan and α-cypermethrin on CPD repair. This is attributed to results indicating that α-cypermethrin and endosulfan reduced mRNA abundance of XPA and HR23B, respectively, to levels that may affect the initial recognition of DNA lesions. In contrast, both pesticides increased transcript abundance of CSA and MUTL. In addition, mRNA abundance of HSP70 and GADD45α were increased by endosulfan and mRNA abundance of XPG was increased by α-cypermethrin. XPC, HR23B, XPG, and GADD45α exhibited elevated mRNA concentrations whereas there was a reduction in MUTL transcript concentrations in UVB-alone treatments. It appeared that even

  10. Investigation of DNA repair-related SNPs underlying susceptibility to papillary thyroid carcinoma reveals MGMT as a novel candidate gene in Belarusian children exposed to radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonjou, Christine; Damiola, Francesca; Moissonnier, Monika; Durand, Geoffroy; Malakhova, Irina; Masyakin, Vladimir; Le Calvez-Kelm, Florence; Cardis, Elisabeth; Byrnes, Graham; Kesminiene, Ausrele; Lesueur, Fabienne

    2017-05-12

    Genetic factors may influence an individual's sensitivity to ionising radiation and therefore modify his/her risk of developing papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Previously, we reported that common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the DNA damage recognition gene ATM contribute to PTC risk in Belarusian children exposed to fallout from the Chernobyl power plant accident. Here we explored in the same population the contribution of a panel of DNA repair-related SNPs in genes acting downstream of ATM. The association of 141 SNPs located in 43 DNA repair genes was examined in 75 PTC cases and 254 controls from the Gomel region in Belarus. All subjects were younger than 15 years at the time of the Chernobyl accident. Conditional logistic regressions accounting for radiation dose were performed with PLINK using the additive allelic inheritance model, and a linkage disequilibrium (LD)-based Bonferroni correction was used for correction for multiple testing. The intronic SNP rs2296675 in MGMT was associated with an increased PTC risk [per minor allele odds ratio (OR) 2.54 95% CI 1.50, 4.30, P per allele = 0.0006, P corr.= 0.05], and gene-wide association testing highlighted a possible role for ERCC5 (P Gene = 0.01) and PCNA (P Gene = 0.05) in addition to MGMT (P Gene = 0.008). These findings indicate that several genes acting in distinct DNA repair mechanisms contribute to PTC risk. Further investigation is needed to decipher the functional properties of the methyltransferase encoded by MGMT and to understand how alteration of such functions may lead to the development of the most common type of thyroid cancer.

  11. Instability of the octarepeat region of the human prion protein gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baiya Li

    Full Text Available Prion diseases are a family of unique fatal transmissible neurodegenerative diseases that affect humans and many animals. Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD is the most common prion disease in humans, accounting for 85-90% of all human prion cases, and exhibits a high degree of diversity in phenotypes. The etiology of sCJD remains to be elucidated. The human prion protein gene has an octapeptide repeat region (octarepeats that normally contains 5 repeats of 24-27 bp (1 nonapeptide and 4 octapeptide coding sequences. An increase of the octarepeat numbers to six or more or a decrease of the octarepeat number to three is linked to genetic prion diseases with heterogeneous phenotypes in humans. Here we report that the human octarepeat region is prone to either contraction or expansion when subjected to PCR amplification in vitro using Taq or Pwo polymerase and when replicated in wild type E. coli cells. Octarepeat insertion mutants were even less stable, and the mutation rate for the wild type octarepeats was much higher when replicated in DNA mismatch repair-deficient E. coli cells. All observed octarepeat mutants resulting from DNA replication in E. coli were contained in head-to-head plasmid dimers and DNA mfold analysis (http://mfold.rna.albany.edu/?q=mfold/DNA-Folding-Form indicates that both DNA strands of the octarepeat region would likely form multiple stable hairpin structures, suggesting that the octarepeat sequence may form stable hairpin structures during DNA replication or repair to cause octarepeat instability. These results provide the first evidence supporting a somatic octarepeat mutation-based model for human sCJD etiology: 1 the instability of the octarepeat region leads to accumulation of somatic octarepeat mutations in brain cells during development and aging, 2 this instability is augmented by compromised DNA mismatch repair in aged cells, and 3 eventually some of the octarepeat mutation-containing brain cells start

  12. Homologous-pairing activity of the human DNA-repair proteins Xrcc3⋅Rad51C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurumizaka, Hitoshi; Ikawa, Shukuko; Nakada, Maki; Eda, Keiko; Kagawa, Wataru; Takata, Minoru; Takeda, Shunichi; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Shibata, Takehiko

    2001-01-01

    The human Xrcc3 protein is involved in the repair of damaged DNA through homologous recombination, in which homologous pairing is a key step. The Rad51 protein is believed to be the only protein factor that promotes homologous pairing in recombinational DNA repair in mitotic cells. In the brain, however, Rad51 expression is extremely low, whereas XRCC3, a human homologue of Saccharomyces cerevisiae RAD57 that activates the Rad51-dependent homologous pairing with the yeast Rad55 protein, is expressed. In this study, a two-hybrid analysis conducted with the use of a human brain cDNA library revealed that the major Xrcc3-interacting protein is a Rad51 paralog, Rad51C/Rad51L2. The purified Xrcc3⋅Rad51C complex, which shows apparent 1:1 stoichiometry, was found to catalyze the homologous pairing. Although the activity is reduced, the Rad51C protein alone also catalyzed homologous pairing, suggesting that Rad51C is a catalytic subunit for homologous pairing. The DNA-binding activity of Xrcc3⋅Rad51C was drastically decreased in the absence of Xrcc3, indicating that Xrcc3 is important for the DNA binding of Xrcc3⋅Rad51C. Electron microscopic observations revealed that Xrcc3⋅Rad51C and Rad51C formed similar filamentous structures with circular single-stranded DNA. PMID:11331762

  13. Polymorphisms in human muscarinic receptor subtype genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel, Martin C.; Teitsma, Christine A.

    2012-01-01

    A wide range of polymorphisms have been reported in muscarinic receptor subtype genes, mostly in M₁ and M₂ and, to a lesser extent, M₃ receptors. Most studies linking such genetic variability to phenotype have been performed for brain functions, but a more limited amount of information is also

  14. Ultrasound-induced hyperthermia for the spatio-temporal control of gene expression in bone repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Christopher; Padilla, Frédéric; Zhang, Man; Vilaboa, Nuria; Kripfgans, Oliver; Fowlkes, Brian; Franceschi, Renny

    2012-10-01

    Spatial and temporal control over the expression of growth/differentiation factors is of great interest for regeneration of bone, but technologies capable of providing tight and active control over gene expression remain elusive. We propose the use of focused ultrasound for the targeted activation of heat shock-sensitive expression systems in engineered bone. We report in vitro results with cells that express firefly luciferase (fLuc) under the control of a heat shock protein promoter. Cells were embedded in fibrin scaffolds and exposed to focused ultrasound, using a custom 3.3MHz transducer (focal length 4", f-number 1.33", focal dimension 1.2mm lateral FWHM) in CW mode for 2-20 minutes at intensities ISPTA=120-440 W/cm2. The kinetics of ultrasound-mediated activation of the cells was compared with that of strictly thermal activation. Bioluminescence imaging revealed fLuc expression in an area ≥2.5mm in diameter at the position of the ultrasound focus, and the diameter and intensity of the signal increased with the amplitude of the acoustic energy. We also found that ultrasound activated fLuc expression with substantially shorter exposures than thermal activation. Our results demonstrate the potential for focused ultrasound to selectively activate the expression of a gene of interest in an engineered tissue and suggest that focused ultrasound activates the heat shock pathway by a combination of thermal and non-thermal mechanisms.

  15. Mutations of the BRAF gene in human cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, H.; Bignell, G.R.; Cox, C.; Stephens, P.; Edkins, S.; Clegg, S.; Teague, J.; Woffendin, H.; Garnett, M.J.; Bottomley, W.; Davis, N.; Dicks, E.; Ewing, R.; Floyd, Y.; Gray, K.

    2002-01-01

    Cancers arise owing to the accumulation of mutations in critical genes that alter normal programmes of cell proliferation, differentiation and death. As the first stage of a systematic genome-wide screen for these genes, we have prioritized for analysis signalling pathways in which at least one gene is mutated in human cancer. The RAS RAF MEK ERK MAP kinase pathway mediates cellular responses to growth signals. RAS is mutated to an oncogenic form in about 15% of human cancer. The three RAF ge...

  16. The exonuclease activity of hPMC2 is required for transcriptional regulation of the QR gene and repair of estrogen-induced abasic sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, N; Ngam, C R; Berdis, A J; Montano, M M

    2011-11-24

    We have previously reported that the expression of antioxidative stress enzymes is upregulated by trans-hydroxytamoxifen (TOT) in breast epithelial cell lines providing protection against estrogen-induced DNA damage. This regulation involves Estrogen Receptor β (ERβ) recruitment to the Electrophile Response Element (EpRE) and a novel protein, human homolog of Xenopus gene which Prevents Mitotic Catastrophe (hPMC2). We have also demonstrated that ERβ and hPMC2 are required for TOT-dependent recruitment of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) and Topoisomerase IIβ (Topo IIβ) to the EpRE. Sequence analysis reveals that the C-terminus of hPMC2 encodes a putative exonuclease domain. Using in vitro kinetic assays, we found that hPMC2 is a 3'-5' non-processive exonuclease that degrades both single-stranded and double-stranded substrates. Mutation of two conserved carboxylate residues drastically reduced the exonuclease activity of hPMC2, indicating the relative importance of the catalytic residues. Western blot analysis of breast cancer cell lines for Quinone Reductase (QR) levels revealed that the intrinsic exonuclease activity of hPMC2 was required for TOT-induced QR upregulation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays also indicated that hPMC2 was involved in the formation of strand breaks observed with TOT treatment and is specific for the EpRE-containing region of the QR gene. We also determined that the transcription factor NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) is involved in the specificity of hPMC2 for the EpRE. In addition, we determined that the catalytic activity of hPMC2 is required for repair of abasic sites that result from estrogen-induced DNA damage. Thus, our study provides a mechanistic basis for transcriptional regulation by hPMC2 and provides novel insights into its role in cancer prevention.

  17. From mouse to human: evolutionary genomics analysis of human orthologs of essential genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Georgi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the core set of genes that are necessary for basic developmental functions is one of the central goals in biology. Studies in model organisms identified a significant fraction of essential genes through the analysis of null-mutations that lead to lethality. Recent large-scale next-generation sequencing efforts have provided unprecedented data on genetic variation in human. However, evolutionary and genomic characteristics of human essential genes have never been directly studied on a genome-wide scale. Here we use detailed phenotypic resources available for the mouse and deep genomics sequencing data from human populations to characterize patterns of genetic variation and mutational burden in a set of 2,472 human orthologs of known essential genes in the mouse. Consistent with the action of strong, purifying selection, these genes exhibit comparatively reduced levels of sequence variation, skew in allele frequency towards more rare, and exhibit increased conservation across the primate and rodent lineages relative to the remainder of genes in the genome. In individual genomes we observed ~12 rare mutations within essential genes predicted to be damaging. Consistent with the hypothesis that mutations in essential genes are risk factors for neurodevelopmental disease, we show that de novo variants in patients with Autism Spectrum Disorder are more likely to occur in this collection of genes. While incomplete, our set of human orthologs shows characteristics fully consistent with essential function in human and thus provides a resource to inform and facilitate interpretation of sequence data in studies of human disease.

  18. Gene Editing in Human Lymphoid Cells: Role for Donor DNA, Type of Genomic Nuclease and Cell Selection Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Zotova

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Programmable endonucleases introduce DNA breaks at specific sites, which are repaired by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ or homology recombination (HDR. Genome editing in human lymphoid cells is challenging as these difficult-to-transfect cells may also inefficiently repair DNA by HDR. Here, we estimated efficiencies and dynamics of knockout (KO and knockin (KI generation in human T and B cell lines depending on repair template, target loci and types of genomic endonucleases. Using zinc finger nuclease (ZFN, we have engineered Jurkat and CEM cells with the 8.2 kb human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 ∆Env genome integrated at the adeno-associated virus integration site 1 (AAVS1 locus that stably produce virus particles and mediate infection upon transfection with helper vectors. Knockouts generated by ZFN or clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR/Cas9 double nicking techniques were comparably efficient in lymphoid cells. However, unlike polyclonal sorted cells, gene-edited cells selected by cloning exerted tremendous deviations in functionality as estimated by replication of HIV-1 and human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1 in these cells. Notably, the recently reported high-fidelity eCas9 1.1 when combined to the nickase mutation displayed gene-dependent decrease in on-target activity. Thus, the balance between off-target effects and on-target efficiency of nucleases, as well as choice of the optimal method of edited cell selection should be taken into account for proper gene function validation in lymphoid cells.

  19. The Modified Human DNA Repair Enzyme O6-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase Is a Negative Regulator of Estrogen Receptor-Mediated Transcription upon Alkylation DNA Damage

    OpenAIRE

    Teo, Alvin K. C.; Oh, Hue Kian; Ali, Rahmen B.; Li, Benjamin F. L.

    2001-01-01

    Cell proliferation requires precise control to prevent mutations from replication of (unrepaired) damaged DNA in cells exposed spontaneously to mutagens. Here we show that the modified human DNA repair enzyme O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (R-MGMT), formed from the suicidal repair of the mutagenic O6-alkylguanine (6RG) lesions by MGMT in the cells exposed to alkylating carcinogens, functions in such control by preventing the estrogen receptor (ER) from transcription activation that me...

  20. Translational selection in human: More pronounced in housekeeping genes

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Lina

    2014-07-10

    Background: Translational selection is a ubiquitous and significant mechanism to regulate protein expression in prokaryotes and unicellular eukaryotes. Recent evidence has shown that translational selection is weakly operative in highly expressed genes in human and other vertebrates. However, it remains unclear whether translational selection acts differentially on human genes depending on their expression patterns.Results: Here we report that human housekeeping (HK) genes that are strictly defined as genes that are expressed ubiquitously and consistently in most or all tissues, are under stronger translational selection.Conclusions: These observations clearly show that translational selection is also closely associated with expression pattern. Our results suggest that human HK genes are more efficiently and/or accurately translated into proteins, which will inevitably open up a new understanding of HK genes and the regulation of gene expression.Reviewers: This article was reviewed by Yuan Yuan, Baylor College of Medicine; Han Liang, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (nominated by Dr Laura Landweber) Eugene Koonin, NCBI, NLM, NIH, United States of America Sandor Pongor, International Centre for Genetic Engineering and biotechnology (ICGEB), Italy. © 2014 Ma et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  1. Are mice pigmentary genes throwing light on humans?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bose S

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the rapid advances made in the molecular genetics of inherited disorders of hypo and hyperpigmentation during the past three years are reviewed. The main focus is on studies in mice as compared to homologues in humans. The main hypomelanotic diseases included are, piebaldism (white spotting due to mutations of c-KIT, PDGF and MGF genes; vitiligo (microphathalmia mice mutations of c-Kit and c-fms genes; Waardenburg syndrome (splotch locus mutations of mice PAX-3 or human Hup-2 genes; albinism (mutations of tyrosinase genes, Menkes disease (Mottled mouse, premature graying (mutations in light/brown locus/gp75/ TRP-1; Griscelli disease (mutations in TRP-1 and steel; Prader-willi and Angelman syndromes, tyrosinase-positive oculocutaneous albinism and hypomelanosis of lto (mutations of pink-eyed dilution gene/mapping to human chromosomes 15 q 11.2 - q12; and human platelet storage pool deficiency diseases due to defects in pallidin, an erythrocyte membrane protein (pallid mouse / mapping to 4.2 pallidin gene. The genetic characterization of hypermelanosis includes, neurofibromatosis 1 (Café-au-lait spots and McCune-Albright Syndrome. Rapid evolving knowledge about pigmentary genes will increase further the knowledge about these hypo and hyperpigmentary disorders.

  2. Histone Sprocket Arginine Residues Are Important for Gene Expression, DNA Repair, and Cell Viability in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Amelia J.; Gallegos, Isaura J.; Laughery, Marian F.; Meas, Rithy; Tran, Linh; Wyrick, John J.

    2015-01-01

    A critical feature of the intermolecular contacts that bind DNA to the histone octamer is the series of histone arginine residues that insert into the DNA minor groove at each superhelical location where the minor groove faces the histone octamer. One of these “sprocket” arginine residues, histone H4 R45, significantly affects chromatin structure in vivo and is lethal when mutated to alanine or cysteine in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (budding yeast). However, the roles of the remaining sprocket arginine residues (H3 R63, H3 R83, H2A R43, H2B R36, H2A R78, H3 R49) in chromatin structure and other cellular processes have not been well characterized. We have genetically characterized mutations in each of these histone residues when introduced either singly or in combination to yeast cells. We find that pairs of arginine residues that bind DNA adjacent to the DNA exit/entry sites in the nucleosome are lethal in yeast when mutated in combination and cause a defect in histone occupancy. Furthermore, mutations in individual residues compromise repair of UV-induced DNA lesions and affect gene expression and cryptic transcription. This study reveals simple rules for how the location and structural mode of DNA binding influence the biological function of each histone sprocket arginine residue. PMID:25971662

  3. Detoxification and repair process of ozone injury: From O{sub 3} uptake to gene expression adjustment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castagna, A., E-mail: castagna@agr.unipi.i [Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Biotechnology, University of Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Ranieri, A., E-mail: aranieri@agr.unipi.i [Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Biotechnology, University of Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa (Italy)

    2009-05-15

    Plants react to O{sub 3} threat by setting up a variety of defensive strategies involving the co-ordinated modulation of stress perception, signalling and metabolic responses. Although stomata largely controls O{sub 3} uptake, differences in O{sub 3} tolerance cannot always be ascribed to changes in stomatal conductance but cell protective and repair processes should be taken into account. O{sub 3}-driven ROS production in the apoplast induces a secondary, active, self-propagating generation of ROS, whose levels must be finely tuned, by many enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant systems, to induce gene activation without determining uncontrolled cell death. Additional signalling molecules, as ethylene, jasmonic and salicylic acid are also crucial to determine the spreading and the containment of leaf lesions. The main recent results obtained on O{sub 3} sensing, signal transduction, ROS formation and detoxification mechanisms are here discussed. - A dissection of the complex network of interacting mechanisms which determine the cell fate under ozone stress.

  4. Histone Sprocket Arginine Residues Are Important for Gene Expression, DNA Repair, and Cell Viability in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Amelia J; Gallegos, Isaura J; Laughery, Marian F; Meas, Rithy; Tran, Linh; Wyrick, John J

    2015-07-01

    A critical feature of the intermolecular contacts that bind DNA to the histone octamer is the series of histone arginine residues that insert into the DNA minor groove at each superhelical location where the minor groove faces the histone octamer. One of these "sprocket" arginine residues, histone H4 R45, significantly affects chromatin structure in vivo and is lethal when mutated to alanine or cysteine in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (budding yeast). However, the roles of the remaining sprocket arginine residues (H3 R63, H3 R83, H2A R43, H2B R36, H2A R78, H3 R49) in chromatin structure and other cellular processes have not been well characterized. We have genetically characterized mutations in each of these histone residues when introduced either singly or in combination to yeast cells. We find that pairs of arginine residues that bind DNA adjacent to the DNA exit/entry sites in the nucleosome are lethal in yeast when mutated in combination and cause a defect in histone occupancy. Furthermore, mutations in individual residues compromise repair of UV-induced DNA lesions and affect gene expression and cryptic transcription. This study reveals simple rules for how the location and structural mode of DNA binding influence the biological function of each histone sprocket arginine residue. Copyright © 2015 by the Genetics Society of America.

  5. Localization of b-defensin genes in non human primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ventura

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Defensins are a family of host defence peptides that play an important role in the innate immunity of mammalian and avian species. In humans, four b-defensins have been isolated so far, corresponding to the products of the genes DEFB1 (h-BD1, GenBank accession number NM_005218; DEFB4 (h-Bd2, NM_004942.2, DEFB103 (h-BD3, NM_018661; and DEFB104 (hBD4, NM_080389 mapping on chromosome 8p23.22. We have localized b- defensin genes on metaphasic chromosomes of great apes and several non-human primate species to determine their physical mapping. Using fluorescent in situ hybridization and BAC probes containing the four b-defensin genes, we have mapped the homologous regions to the b-defensin genes on chromosome 8p23-p.22 in non-human primates, while no signals were detected on prosimians chromosomes.

  6. Genetic effects on gene expression across human tissues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battle, Alexis; Brown, Christopher D.; Engelhardt, Barbara E.; Montgomery, Stephen B.; Aguet, François; Ardlie, Kristin G.; Cummings, Beryl B.; Gelfand, Ellen T.; Getz, Gad; Hadley, Kane; Handsaker, Robert E.; Huang, Katherine H.; Kashin, Seva; Karczewski, Konrad J.; Lek, Monkol; Li, Xiao; MacArthur, Daniel G.; Nedzel, Jared L.; Nguyen, Duyen T.; Noble, Michael S.; Segrè, Ayellet V.; Trowbridge, Casandra A.; Tukiainen, Taru; Abell, Nathan S.; Balliu, Brunilda; Barshir, Ruth; Basha, Omer; Bogu, Gireesh K.; Brown, Andrew; Castel, Stephane E.; Chen, Lin S.; Chiang, Colby; Conrad, Donald F.; Cox, Nancy J.; Damani, Farhan N.; Davis, Joe R.; Delaneau, Olivier; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T.; Eskin, Eleazar; Ferreira, Pedro G.; Frésard, Laure; Gamazon, Eric R.; Garrido-Martín, Diego; Gewirtz, Ariel D. H.; Gliner, Genna; Gloudemans, Michael J.; Guigo, Roderic; Hall, Ira M.; Han, Buhm; He, Yuan; Hormozdiari, Farhad; Howald, Cedric; Kyung Im, Hae; Jo, Brian; Yong Kang, Eun; Kim, Yungil; Kim-Hellmuth, Sarah; Lappalainen, Tuuli; Li, Gen; Li, Xin; Liu, Boxiang; Mangul, Serghei; McCarthy, Mark I.; McDowell, Ian C.; Mohammadi, Pejman; Monlong, Jean; Muñoz-Aguirre, Manuel; Ndungu, Anne W.; Nicolae, Dan L.; Nobel, Andrew B.; Oliva, Meritxell; Ongen, Halit; Palowitch, John J.; Panousis, Nikolaos; Papasaikas, Panagiotis; Park, Yoson; Parsana, Princy; Payne, Anthony J.; Peterson, Christine B.; Quan, Jie; Reverter, Ferran; Sabatti, Chiara; Saha, Ashis; Sammeth, Michael; Scott, Alexandra J.; Shabalin, Andrey A.; Sodaei, Reza; Stephens, Matthew; Stranger, Barbara E.; Strober, Benjamin J.; Sul, Jae Hoon; Tsang, Emily K.; Urbut, Sarah; van de Bunt, Martijn; Wang, Gao; Wen, Xiaoquan; Wright, Fred A.; Xi, Hualin S.; Yeger-Lotem, Esti; Zappala, Zachary; Zaugg, Judith B.; Zhou, Yi-Hui; Akey, Joshua M.; Bates, Daniel; Chan, Joanne; Claussnitzer, Melina; Demanelis, Kathryn; Diegel, Morgan; Doherty, Jennifer A.; Feinberg, Andrew P.; Fernando, Marian S.; Halow, Jessica; Hansen, Kasper D.; Haugen, Eric; Hickey, Peter F.; Hou, Lei; Jasmine, Farzana; Jian, Ruiqi; Jiang, Lihua; Johnson, Audra; Kaul, Rajinder; Kellis, Manolis; Kibriya, Muhammad G.; Lee, Kristen; Billy Li, Jin; Li, Qin; Lin, Jessica; Lin, Shin; Linder, Sandra; Linke, Caroline; Liu, Yaping; Maurano, Matthew T.; Molinie, Benoit; Nelson, Jemma; Neri, Fidencio J.; Park, Yongjin; Pierce, Brandon L.; Rinaldi, Nicola J.; Rizzardi, Lindsay F.; Sandstrom, Richard; Skol, Andrew; Smith, Kevin S.; Snyder, Michael P.; Stamatoyannopoulos, John; Tang, Hua; Wang, Li; Wang, Meng; van Wittenberghe, Nicholas; Wu, Fan; Zhang, Rui; Nierras, Concepcion R.; Branton, Philip A.; Carithers, Latarsha J.; Guan, Ping; Moore, Helen M.; Rao, Abhi; Vaught, Jimmie B.; Gould, Sarah E.; Lockart, Nicole C.; Martin, Casey; Struewing, Jeffery P.; Volpi, Simona; Addington, Anjene M.; Koester, Susan E.; Little, A. Roger; Brigham, Lori E.; Hasz, Richard; Hunter, Marcus; Johns, Christopher; Johnson, Mark; Kopen, Gene; Leinweber, William F.; Lonsdale, John T.; McDonald, Alisa; Mestichelli, Bernadette; Myer, Kevin; Roe, Brian; Salvatore, Michael; Shad, Saboor; Thomas, Jeffrey A.; Walters, Gary; Washington, Michael; Wheeler, Joseph; Bridge, Jason; Foster, Barbara A.; Gillard, Bryan M.; Karasik, Ellen; Kumar, Rachna; Miklos, Mark; Moser, Michael T.; Jewell, Scott D.; Montroy, Robert G.; Rohrer, Daniel C.; Valley, Dana R.; Davis, David A.; Mash, Deborah C.; Undale, Anita H.; Smith, Anna M.; Tabor, David E.; Roche, Nancy V.; McLean, Jeffrey A.; Vatanian, Negin; Robinson, Karna L.; Sobin, Leslie; Barcus, Mary E.; Valentino, Kimberly M.; Qi, Liqun; Hunter, Steven; Hariharan, Pushpa; Singh, Shilpi; Um, Ki Sung; Matose, Takunda; Tomaszewski, Maria M.; Barker, Laura K.; Mosavel, Maghboeba; Siminoff, Laura A.; Traino, Heather M.; Flicek, Paul; Juettemann, Thomas; Ruffier, Magali; Sheppard, Dan; Taylor, Kieron; Trevanion, Stephen J.; Zerbino, Daniel R.; Craft, Brian; Goldman, Mary; Haeussler, Maximilian; Kent, W. James; Lee, Christopher M.; Paten, Benedict; Rosenbloom, Kate R.; Vivian, John; Zhu, Jingchun; Brown, Andrew A.; Nguyen, Duyen Y.; Sullivan, Timothy J.; Addington, Anjene; Koester, Susan; Lockhart, Nicole C.; Roe, Bryan; Valley, Dana; He, Amy Z.; Kang, Eun Yong; Quon, Gerald; Ripke, Stephan; Shimko, Tyler C.; Teran, Nicole A.; Zhang, Hailei; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Guigó, Roderic

    2017-01-01

    Characterization of the molecular function of the human genome and its variation across individuals is essential for identifying the cellular mechanisms that underlie human genetic traits and diseases. The Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project aims to characterize variation in gene expression

  7. Microsatellite instability and novel mismatch repair gene mutations in northern Chinese population with hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Jian Qiu; Chan, Tsun Leung; Chan, Yee Wai; Huang, Ji Sheng; Chen, Ji Gui; Zhang, Ming Zhi; Guo, Xiu Lan; Mu, Hong; Chan, Annie Sy; Li, Shi Rong; Yuen, Siu Tsan; Leung, Suet Yi

    2006-01-01

    Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) syndrome is the most common cause of hereditary colorectal cancer with an early age of onset. Microsatellite instability (MSI) and germline mutation in one of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes are found in the majority of HNPCC families and provide an opportunity for genetic diagnosis and prophylactic screening. The MMR gene mutation spectrum may vary across different populations and be influenced by founder mutations that prevail in specific ethnic groups. China is a big and ancient nation with enormous genetic diversity, which is especially notable between the northern and southern Chinese populations. A MMR gene mutation database for the southern Chinese population based in Hong Kong has been previously established. This study compares the MMR gene mutation spectrum and the MSI of HNPCC between the northern and southern Chinese populations. Twenty-five HNPCC families from northern China were systematically analyzed. The MSI analysis was performed using five loci in the USA National Cancer Institute (NCI) panel (D2S123, D5S346, BAT-25, BAT-26 and BAT-40) by PCR from the tumor and normal tissue. MSH2, MSH6 and MLH1 were performed using immunohistochemical staining. Two founder mutations of MSH2 and MLH1 were examined by PCR base analyses using primers flanking the two deletion sites (c.1452_1455delAATG in MSH2 and 1.8 kb deletion involving exon 11 of MLH1). Of the 25 families collected, 19 met Bethesda guideline (BG) 1 and six met BG3. Twenty-two (15.7%) were extra-colonic cancers with gastric cancer (in seven patients) being the most common cancer type. Of the 25 tumors analyzed, 21 (84%) were high level microsatellite instability (MSI-H) and four (16%) were microsatellite stable (MSS). Eighteen (86%) of the 21 MSI-H tumors showed loss of either the MLH1 or the MSH2 protein. Three MSI-H tumors and all four MSS tumors showed no loss of expression of the three MMR proteins. Out of the 21 patients with MSI

  8. Assessing SNP-SNP interactions among DNA repair, modification and metabolism related pathway genes in breast cancer susceptibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadav Sapkota

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWASs have identified low-penetrance common variants (i.e., single nucleotide polymorphisms, SNPs associated with breast cancer susceptibility. Although GWASs are primarily focused on single-locus effects, gene-gene interactions (i.e., epistasis are also assumed to contribute to the genetic risks for complex diseases including breast cancer. While it has been hypothesized that moderately ranked (P value based weak single-locus effects in GWASs could potentially harbor valuable information for evaluating epistasis, we lack systematic efforts to investigate SNPs showing consistent associations with weak statistical significance across independent discovery and replication stages. The objectives of this study were i to select SNPs showing single-locus effects with weak statistical significance for breast cancer in a GWAS and/or candidate-gene studies; ii to replicate these SNPs in an independent set of breast cancer cases and controls; and iii to explore their potential SNP-SNP interactions contributing to breast cancer susceptibility. A total of 17 SNPs related to DNA repair, modification and metabolism pathway genes were selected since these pathways offer a priori knowledge for potential epistatic interactions and an overall role in breast carcinogenesis. The study design included predominantly Caucasian women (2,795 cases and 4,505 controls from Alberta, Canada. We observed two two-way SNP-SNP interactions (APEX1-rs1130409 and RPAP1-rs2297381; MLH1-rs1799977 and MDM2-rs769412 in logistic regression that conferred elevated risks for breast cancer (P(interaction<7.3 × 10(-3. Logic regression identified an interaction involving four SNPs (MBD2-rs4041245, MLH1-rs1799977, MDM2-rs769412, BRCA2-rs1799943 (P(permutation = 2.4 × 10(-3. SNPs involved in SNP-SNP interactions also showed single-locus effects with weak statistical significance, while BRCA2-rs1799943 showed stronger statistical significance (P

  9. Effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field and cisplatin on mRNA levels of some DNA repair genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanie-Jahromi, Fatemeh; Saadat, Iraj; Saadat, Mostafa

    2016-12-01

    It has been shown that exposure to extremely-low frequency (˂300Hz) oscillating electromagnetic field (EMF) can affect gene expression. The effects of different exposure patterns of 50-Hz EMF and co-treatment of EMF plus cisplatin (CDDP) on mRNA levels of seven genes involved in DNA repair pathways (GADD45A, XRCC1, XRCC4, Ku70, Ku80, DNA-PKcs and LIG4) were evaluated. Two 50-Hz EMF intensities (0.25 and 0.50mT), three exposure patterns (5min field-on/5min field-off, 15min field-on/15min field-off, 30min field-on continuously) and two cell lines (MCF-7 and SH-SY5Y) were used. The mRNA levels were measured using quantitative real-time PCR. The examined genes had tendency to be down-regulated in MCF-7 cells treated with EMF. In the pattern of 15min field-on/15min field-off of the 0.50mT EMF, no increase in mRNA levels were observed, but the mRNA levels of GADD45A, XRCC1, XRCC4, Ku80, Ku70, and LIG4 were down-regulated. A significant elevation in IC50 of CDDP was observed when MCF-7 and SH-SY5Y cells were co-treated with CDDP+EMF in comparison with the cells treated with CDDP alone. GADD45A mRNA levels in MCF-7 and SH-SY5Y cells co-treated with CDDP+EMF were increased and at the same time the mRNA levels of XRCC4, Ku80, Ku70 and DNA-PKcs were down-regulated. Present study provides evidence that co-treatment of CDDP+EMF can enhance down-regulation of the genes involved in non-homologous end-joining pathway. It might be suggested that co-treatment of CDDP+EMF could be more promising for sensitizing cancer cells to DNA double strand breaks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Base excision repair activities differ in human lung cancer cells and corresponding normal controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karahalil, Bensu; Bohr, Vilhelm A; De Souza-Pinto, Nadja C

    2010-01-01

    for the repair of oxidized modifications both in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. In order to ascertain whether diminished BER capacity might account for increased levels of oxidative DNA damage in cancer cells, the activities of BER enzymes in three different lung cancer cell lines and their non......-cancerous counterparts were measured using oligonucleotide substrates with single DNA lesions to assess specific BER enzymes. The activities of four BER enzymes, OGG1, NTH1, UDG and APE1, were compared in mitochondrial and nuclear extracts. For each specific lesion, the repair activities were similar among the three...... cell lines used. However, the specific activities and cancer versus control comparison differed significantly between the nuclear and mitochondrial compartments. OGG1 activity, as measured by 8-oxodA incision, was up-regulated in cancer cell mitochondria but down-regulated in the nucleus when compared...

  11. Preclinical validation and imaging of Wnt-induced repair in human 3D lung tissue cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhl, Franziska E; Vierkotten, Sarah; Wagner, Darcy E; Burgstaller, Gerald; Costa, Rita; Koch, Ina; Lindner, Michael; Meiners, Silke; Eickelberg, Oliver; Königshoff, Melanie

    2015-10-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterised by a progressive loss of lung tissue. Inducing repair processes within the adult diseased lung is of major interest and Wnt/β-catenin signalling represents a promising target for lung repair. However, the translation of novel therapeutic targets from model systems into clinical use remains a major challenge.We generated murine and patient-derived three-dimensional (3D) ex vivo lung tissue cultures (LTCs), which closely mimic the 3D lung microenvironment in vivo. Using two well-known glycogen synthase kinase-3β inhibitors, lithium chloride (LiCl) and CHIR 99021 (CT), we determined Wnt/β-catenin-driven lung repair processes in high spatiotemporal resolution using quantitative PCR, Western blotting, ELISA, (immuno)histological assessment, and four-dimensional confocal live tissue imaging.Viable 3D-LTCs exhibited preserved lung structure and function for up to 5 days. We demonstrate successful Wnt/β-catenin signal activation in murine and patient-derived 3D-LTCs from COPD patients. Wnt/β-catenin signalling led to increased alveolar epithelial cell marker expression, decreased matrix metalloproteinase-12 expression, as well as altered macrophage activity and elastin remodelling. Importantly, induction of surfactant protein C significantly correlated with disease stage (per cent predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s) in patient-derived 3D-LTCs.Patient-derived 3D-LTCs represent a valuable tool to analyse potential targets and drugs for lung repair. Enhanced Wnt/β-catenin signalling attenuated pathological features of patient-derived COPD 3D-LTCs. Copyright ©ERS 2015.

  12. Automated discovery of functional generality of human gene expression programs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg K Gerber

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available An important research problem in computational biology is the identification of expression programs, sets of co-expressed genes orchestrating normal or pathological processes, and the characterization of the functional breadth of these programs. The use of human expression data compendia for discovery of such programs presents several challenges including cellular inhomogeneity within samples, genetic and environmental variation across samples, uncertainty in the numbers of programs and sample populations, and temporal behavior. We developed GeneProgram, a new unsupervised computational framework based on Hierarchical Dirichlet Processes that addresses each of the above challenges. GeneProgram uses expression data to simultaneously organize tissues into groups and genes into overlapping programs with consistent temporal behavior, to produce maps of expression programs, which are sorted by generality scores that exploit the automatically learned groupings. Using synthetic and real gene expression data, we showed that GeneProgram outperformed several popular expression analysis methods. We applied GeneProgram to a compendium of 62 short time-series gene expression datasets exploring the responses of human cells to infectious agents and immune-modulating molecules. GeneProgram produced a map of 104 expression programs, a substantial number of which were significantly enriched for genes involved in key signaling pathways and/or bound by NF-kappaB transcription factors in genome-wide experiments. Further, GeneProgram discovered expression programs that appear to implicate surprising signaling pathways or receptor types in the response to infection, including Wnt signaling and neurotransmitter receptors. We believe the discovered map of expression programs involved in the response to infection will be useful for guiding future biological experiments; genes from programs with low generality scores might serve as new drug targets that exhibit minimal

  13. An atlas of gene expression and gene co-regulation in the human retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Michele; Carissimo, Annamaria; Cutillo, Luisa; Lai, Ching-Hung; Mutarelli, Margherita; Moretti, Maria Nicoletta; Singh, Marwah Veer; Karali, Marianthi; Carrella, Diego; Pizzo, Mariateresa; Russo, Francesco; Ferrari, Stefano; Ponzin, Diego; Angelini, Claudia; Banfi, Sandro; di Bernardo, Diego

    2016-07-08

    The human retina is a specialized tissue involved in light stimulus transduction. Despite its unique biology, an accurate reference transcriptome is still missing. Here, we performed gene expression analysis (RNA-seq) of 50 retinal samples from non-visually impaired post-mortem donors. We identified novel transcripts with high confidence (Observed Transcriptome (ObsT)) and quantified the expression level of known transcripts (Reference Transcriptome (RefT)). The ObsT included 77 623 transcripts (23 960 genes) covering 137 Mb (35 Mb new transcribed genome). Most of the transcripts (92%) were multi-exonic: 81% with known isoforms, 16% with new isoforms and 3% belonging to new genes. The RefT included 13 792 genes across 94 521 known transcripts. Mitochondrial genes were among the most highly expressed, accounting for about 10% of the reads. Of all the protein-coding genes in Gencode, 65% are expressed in the retina. We exploited inter-individual variability in gene expression to infer a gene co-expression network and to identify genes specifically expressed in photoreceptor cells. We experimentally validated the photoreceptors localization of three genes in human retina that had not been previously reported. RNA-seq data and the gene co-expression network are available online (http://retina.tigem.it). © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  14. Human amniotic epithelial cells c