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Sample records for human renal carcinoma

  1. Reduced cilia frequencies in human renal cell carcinomas versus neighboring parenchymal tissue

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    Basten Sander G

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cilia are essential organelles in multiple organ systems, including the kidney where they serve as important regulators of renal homeostasis. Renal nephron cilia emanate from the apical membrane of epithelia, extending into the lumen where they function in flow-sensing and ligand-dependent signaling cascades. Ciliary dysfunction underlies renal cyst formation that is in part caused by deregulation of planar cell polarity and canonical Wnt signaling. Renal cancer pathologies occur sporadically or in heritable syndromes caused by germline mutations in tumor suppressor genes including VHL. Importantly, Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL patients frequently develop complex renal cysts that can be considered a premalignant stage. One of the well-characterized molecular functions of VHL is its requirement for the maintenance of cilia. In this study, tissue from 110 renal cancer patients who underwent nephrectomy was analyzed to determine if lower ciliary frequency is a common hallmark of renal tumorigenesis by comparing cilia frequencies in both tumor and adjacent parenchymal tissue biopsies from the same kidney. Methods We stained sections of human renal material using markers for cilia. Preliminary staining was performed using an immunofluorescent approach and a combination of acetylated-α-tubulin and pericentrin antibodies and DAPI. After validation of an alternative, higher throughput approach using acetylated-α-tubulin immunohistochemistry, we continued to manually quantify cilia in all tissues. Nuclei were separately counted in an automated fashion in order to determine ciliary frequencies. Similar staining and scoring for Ki67 positive cells was performed to exclude that proliferation obscures cilia formation potential. Results Samples from renal cell carcinoma patients deposited in our hospital tissue bank were previously used to compose a tissue microarray containing three cores of both tumor and parenchymal tissue per patient

  2. Chromophobe Renal Cell Carcinoma.

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    Jyotsna Vijaykumar Wader

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma is the most common neoplasm of the kidney comprised of different histological variants. Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (ChRCC is a rare subtype of renal cell carcinoma (RCC mainly diagnosed in the sixth decade of life. It is important to identify this entity because it has significantly better prognosis than the clear cell (conventional and papillary renal cell carcinomas. The chromophobe renal cell carcinoma should be differentiated from oncocytoma and clear cell carcinoma. We report a case of a 70 year-old male who presented with a six month history of hematuria, left sided flank pain and a palpable non-tender lump in the left lumbar region. On radiology, the possibility of a left renal neoplasm was raised. A left radical nephrectomy was done and histopathological diagnosis of Type 2 (mixed chromophobe renal cell carcinoma was given. We present this case owing to its relative rarity of incidence, difficulties encountered and differential diagnoses to be considered during diagnosis as the prognosis and management protocols differ with different variants.

  3. [Effects of matrine on proliferation and apoptosis of human renal cell carcinoma cell line GRC-1].

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    Chong, Tie; Niu, Jian-Qiang; Wang, Zi-Ming; She, Jun-Jun; Huang, Chen

    2006-07-01

    To observe the effects of matrine on proliferation and apoptosis of human renal cell carcinoma cell line GRC-1 in vitro, and to explore its mechanism. The human renal cell carcinoma cell line GRC-1 was treated with matrine of different concentrations for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h respectively. The MTT assay was used to evaluate the cytotoxic effects of matrine on GRC-1 cells. The transmission electron microscope and flow cytometry were utilized to observe and detect the apoptosis of GRC-1 cells induced by matrine. The expression levels of Bcl-2 and Bax proteins were evaluated by streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase method. The matrine of different concentrations all have cytotoxic effects on GRC-1 cells, with obvious dose- and time-dependent effects. The apoptosis induced by matrine was confirmed in GRC-1 cells. With intervention of matrine (1.5 g/L) for 12 h, the expression level of Bcl-2 in GRC-1 cells was decreased while the expression level of Bax was increased as compared with those in the untreated group. The proliferation-inhibiting effects of matrine on human renal cell carcinoma cell line GRC-1 may be related to down-regulating the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax protein expression and promoting the apoptosis.

  4. [Sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma].

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    Arnoux, V; Lechevallier, E; Pamela, A; Long, J-A; Rambeaud, J-J

    2013-06-01

    The objective was to perform a systematic review of literature concerning epidemiology, clinical and biological data, prognosis and therapy of sarcomatoid renal cell carcinomas. Data on sarcomatoid renal cell carcinomas have been sought by querying the server Medline with MeSH terms following or combination of them: "renal carcinoma", "renal cell carcinoma," "renal cancer", "sarcomatoid" "sarcomatoid transformation" and "sarcomatoid differentiation." The articles obtained were selected according to their methodology, the language in English or French, the relevance and the date of publication. Twenty papers were selected. According to the literature, a sarcomatoid contingent can be observed in all subtypes of renal cell carcinomas, with a frequency of 1 to 15% of cases. The median age at diagnosis was 60 years with a majority of symptomatic patients (90%), mainly with abdominal pain and hematuria. These tumors were often found in patients with locally advanced or metastatic (45-77%). The imaging was not specific for the diagnosis and biopsy had a low sensitivity for identifying a sarcomatoid contingent. The treatment was based on a combination of maximal surgical resection whenever possible and systemic therapy for metastastic disease. Pathological data often showed large tumors, Furhman 4 grades, combined biphasic carcinomatous contingent (clear cell carcinoma in most cases) and sarcomatoid. Genetically, there was no specific abnormality but a complex association of chromosomal additions and deletions. The prognosis was pejorative with a specific median survival of 5 to 19 months without any impact of the sarcomatoid contingent rate. Sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma is a form not to ignore despite its rarity. Mainly symptomatic and discovered at an advanced stage, it has a poor prognosis, requiring multidisciplinary management quickly and correctly. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Allicin inhibits human renal clear cell carcinoma progression via suppressing HIF pathway.

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    Song, Bin; Shu, Ying; Cui, Tianlei; Fu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1α) protects hypoxic cells from apoptosis or necrosis under ischemic and anoxic conditions. Allicin is characterized by the anti-cancer characteristics. This study aims to explore whether allicin is involved in renal clear cell carcinoma progression through HIF-1α. A total of 40 RCC tissues and 39 normal renal tissues were collected H&E and immunohistochemistry were applied to study morphology changes. MTT assay and flow cytometry (FCM) were used to analyze cell viability and apoptosis. In vitro colony formation assay and wound healing assay were conducted to explore cell migration. The protein levels of Bcl-2, VEGF and HIF-1α were increased in RCC tissues. More importantly, treatment with allicin significantly decreased HIF-1α protein level, thereby reducing Bcl-2 and VEGF expression. In addition, allicin also obviously enhanced apoptotic cells. And colony formation capacity and cell migration rate were reduced in RCC-9863 cells treated with allicin. Further study revealed that overexpression of HIF-1α could partially repress allicin-induced downstream effects. To conclude, allicin inhibits human renal clear cell carcinoma progression partially by suppressing HIF pathway.

  6. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate Sensitizes Human 786-O Renal Cell Carcinoma Cells to TRAIL-Induced Apoptosis.

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    Wei, Ruojing; Zhu, Guodong; Jia, Ning; Yang, Wenzeng

    2015-05-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a promising anticancer agent. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is a polyphenolic constituent of green tea. In this study, potentiating effect of EGCG on TRAIL-induced apoptosis human renal carcinoma cell line 786-O which is relatively resistant to TRAIL was examined, and the possible mechanism was investigated. Here, we show that co-treatment with EGCG and TRAIL induced significantly more profound apoptosis in 786-O cells. Treatment of 786-O cells with EGCG and TRAIL downregulated c-FLIP, Mcl-1, and Bcl-2 proteins in a caspase-dependent pathway. Moreover, we found that pretreatment with NAC markedly inhibited the expression levels of c-FLIP, Mcl-1, and Bcl-2 downregulated by the combinatory treatment, suggesting that the regulating effect of EGCG on these above apoptosis-relevant molecules was partially mediated by generation of ROS. Taken together, the present study demonstrates that EGCG sensitizes human 786-O renal cell carcinoma cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis by downregulation of c-FLIP, Mcl-1, and Bcl-2.

  7. Galectin-3 inhibition sensitizes human renal cell carcinoma cells to arsenic trioxide treatment.

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    Xu, Yangyang; Gu, Xin; Gong, Mancheng; Guo, Guiying; Han, Kaiyu; An, Ruihua

    2013-10-01

    The anti-tumor effects of arsenic trioxide (ATO) were well established in acute promyelocytic leukemia, but not in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Recent evidences indicate that galectin-3 (Gal-3) plays an anti-apoptotic role in chemotherapy induced tumor cell death. This study was intended to clarify the exact roles of Gal-3 performed in ATO-induced apoptosis in RCC cells. Weak apoptosis was observed in Gal-3-positive RCC cells (Caki-1, Caki-2, 786-0, and ACHN) following ATO treatment. However, ATO treatment upregulated Gal-3 expression concurrently caused a Synexin-cooperated translocation of Gal-3 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Gal-3-knockdown cells were more sensitive to ATO treatment as indicated by a strong mitochondria-dependent apoptosis following ATO treatment. Meanwhile, Gal-3 was found to inhibit ATO-induced apoptosis through enhancing Bcl-2 expression and stabilizing mitochondria. To confirm the results obtained from genetic method, we employed a Gal-3 inhibitor, modified citrus prectin (MCP), and co-treated the RCC cells with ATO. The cells showed an increased apoptosis in the syngeneic application of Gal-3 inhibition and ATO compared with ATO application alone. Based on these results, we conclude that Gal-3 inhibition sensitizes human renal cell carcinoma cells to ATO treatment through increasing mitochondria-dependent apoptosis. Our studies implicate synergetic application of ATO and Gal-3 inhibition as a potential strategy for RCC treatment.

  8. [Prokaryotic expression, purification and antigenicity identification of human renal cell carcinoma-associated antigen G250].

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    Xiao, Yi; Gao, Jiangping; Gao, Kun; Yan, Jinqi; Zhang, Liang; Wang, Yu; Xu, Yuanji; Wang, Wei; Wang, Xiaoxiong; Yu, Jiyun

    2013-03-01

    To amplify human renal cell carcinoma (RCC)-associated antigen G250 gene and construct a recombinant plasmid pET-42a-hG250, express and purify human G250 protein and identify its antigenicity. The gene of human G250 was amplified from pGEM-T-G250 by PCR. After sequencing, the PCR product (112-1242 bp) was cloned into pET-42a prokaryotic expression vector to construct the recombinant plasmid pET-42a-hG250. The plasmid was transformed into BL21 (DE3) and human G250 protein was expressed under the induction of IPTG. The fusion protein was purified and identified by SDS-PAGE, Western blotting and ELISA sequentially. The human G250 prokaryotic expression vector pET-42a-hG250 was successfully constructed as confirmed by enzyme digestion and DNA sequencing. After transformation into BL21 (DE3), the target protein was successfully induced to express and purified as expected. Western blotting and ELISA demonstrated that the purified human G250 protein had a desirable immunogenicity. The recombinant prokaryotic expression vector pET-42a-hG250 has been constructed successfully. The purified human G250 protein has a good antigenicity.

  9. Bone morphogenetic protein-7 expression is down-regulated in human clear cell renal carcinoma.

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    Basic-Jukic, Nikolina; Hudolin, Tvrtko; Radic-Antolic, Margareta; Coric, Marijana; Zadro, Renata; Kastelan, Zeljko; Pasini, Josip; Bandic-Pavlovic, Daniela; Kes, Petar

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrated that the expression pattern of bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) is altered in different tumors. We determined expression of BMP-7 in human clear cell renal carcinoma (CCRC). Samples from cancer and corresponding healthy tissue were obtained from 20 patients who underwent nephrectomy for CCRC. Expression of BMP-7 mRNA was determined by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and protein expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. RT-PCR showed strong down-regulation of BMP-7 mRNA in cancer tissue. Immunohistochemistry revealed expression of BMP-7 in normal renal tissue, with almost complete loss of BMP-7 expression in malignant cells of 6 patients (30%). After 3 years of follow-up, 5 out of 6 patients with high BMP-7 mRNA expression were alive and disease-free, compared with 9 out of 14 patients with low BMP-7 mRNA expression. BMP-7 mRNA and protein expression were down-regulated in CCRC. Further prospective studies are needed to characterize the role of BMP-7 in human CCRC.

  10. Antitumor effects of galectin-3 inhibition in human renal carcinoma cells.

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    Xu, Yangyang; Li, Changfu; Sun, Jiahang; Li, Jingshu; Gu, Xin; Xu, Wanhai

    2016-07-01

    Galectins are thought to be prognosticators for survival in renal cell cancer. However, the biological activity of galectin-3 (Gal-3) in renal carcinoma cells is still debated. In this study, immunohistochemical staining confirmed a high expression of Gal-3 in tumor tissue from renal cell carcinoma. Critically, Gal-3 expression was related to tumor cell differentiation. Consistent with Gal-3 expression in renal cell cancer, strong expression of Gal-3 was also observed in several renal tumor cell lines but not in normal renal cells. A Gal-3 high-expression cell line Caki-1 was chosen to study the biological activity of Gal-3. Using short hairpin RNA method, Gal-3 expression in Caki-1 cells was knocked down. We evidenced that Gal-3 knockdown inhibited cell proliferation and invasion, induced Caspase-3-dependent apoptosis and arrested cell cycle at G1 phase. Mechanically, Cyclin D1 expression decreased, but p27 increased after Gal-3 knockdown. Taken together, these results suggest that Gal-3 is related to the development of renal cell cancer and could serve as a target to therapy renal cell cancer. © 2016 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  11. Multiple oncocytomas and renal carcinoma

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    Velasquez, G.; Glass, T.A.; D' Souza, V.J.; Formanek, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    Renal oncocytoma, although rare, is being diagnosed more frequently, and criteria to differentiate it from other tumors have been described. Multiple oncocytomas have been reported, but an association between multiple oncocytomas and renal carcinoma in the same kidney has not been described. The authors report a case with two oncocytomas and a renal carcinoma in the right kidney as well as a right adrenal adenoma.

  12. Prognostic impact of carbonic anhydrase IX expression in human renal cell carcinoma.

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    Sandlund, J.; Oosterwijk, E.; Grankvist, K.; Oosterwijk-Wakka, J.C.; Ljungberg, B.; Rasmuson, T.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prognostic information of carbonic anhydrase (CA) IX expression in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC), as increased expression of CA IX is correlated with a worse prognosis in several malignancies. PATIENTS AND METHODS: CA IX expression was assessed in RCC tumours

  13. Renal cell carcinoma with melanin pigment

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    Shetty, Jayaprakash; Chandrika; Laxman, Prabhu

    2010-01-01

    The incidence of renal cell carcinoma has been steadily increasing. There are several morphological types of renal cell carcinoma. Recognizing histologic patterns of renal cell carcinoma is important for correct diagnosis and subsequent medical care for the patient. Melanotic tumors in the kidney are very rare. Here, we present an unusual case of renal cell carcinoma with melanin pigment. PMID:20877613

  14. Expression of Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein in Human Kidney and in Renal Cell Carcinoma

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    Maria R. Ambrosio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Translationally controlled tumor protein is a multifaceted protein involved in several physiological and biological functions. Its expression in normal kidney and in renal carcinomas, once corroborated by functional data, may add elements to elucidate renal physiology and carcinogenesis. In this study, translationally controlled tumor protein expression was evaluated by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, and its localization was examined by immunohistochemistry on 84 nephrectomies for cancer. In normal kidney protein expression was found in the cytoplasm of proximal and distal tubular cells, in cells of the thick segment of the loop of Henle, and in urothelial cells of the pelvis. It was also detectable in cells of renal carcinoma with different pattern of localization (membranous and cytoplasmic depending on tumor histotype. Our data may suggest an involvement of translationally controlled tumor protein in normal physiology and carcinogenesis. However, functional in vitro and in vivo studies are needed to verify this hypothesis.

  15. Differential BCCIP gene expression in primary human ovarian cancer, renal cell carcinoma and colorectal cancer tissues.

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    Liu, Xiaoxia; Cao, Lingling; Ni, Jinsong; Liu, Ning; Zhao, Xiaoming; Wang, Yanfang; Zhu, Lin; Wang, Lingyao; Wang, Jin; Yue, Ying; Cai, Yong; Jin, Jingji

    2013-12-01

    Human BCCIP, a protein which interacts with BRCA2 and CDKN1A (Cip1, p21), has been implicated in many cellular processes including cell cycle regulation, DNA recombination and damage repair, telomere maintenance, embryonic development and genomic stability. BCCIP gene expression, which is an important BRCA2 cofactor in tumor suppression, has been identified in some primary cancers. Thus, we investigated the role of BCCIP expression in a large sample of clinically diagnosed primary ovarian cancer, renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and colorectal cancer (CRC) tissues. Using clinically diagnosed frozen primary cancer tissues, quantitative PCR (qPCR), western blot analysis (WB) and immunohistochemical staining (IHC) approaches were used to detect and measure gene expression. Reduced BCCIP gene expression in ovarian cancer, RCC and CRC tissues occurred in 74, 89 and 75% of tissue samples, respectively. qPCR analysis of mRNA expression in 54 ovarian cancer, 50 RCC and 44 CRC samples revealed significant (>2-fold decreased) BCCIP downregulation in 56, 70 and 46% of tissue samples, respectively. Although BCCIP expression in three different tumor tissues decreased, the relationship between BCCIP expression and clinicopathological features of each cancer was distinct. Compared to normal tissues, BCCIP expression in ovarian cancers was significantly downregulated in serous, endometrioid and mucinous carcinomas. Downregulation of BCCIP expression was strongly associated with clear cell RCC (ccRCC) and Fuhrman tumor grading, but significant differences in BCCIP expression between CRC and matched normal tissues occurred only in male CRC tissues (povarian cancer and RCC tissue samples (povarian cancer, RCC and CRC tissues, suggesting a role for the gene in the pathogenesis of these cancers.

  16. HLA-E expression and its clinical relevance in human renal cell carcinoma

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    Seliger, Barbara; Jasinski-Bergner, Simon; Quandt, Dagmar; Stoehr, Christine; Bukur, Juergen; Wach, Sven; Legal, Wolfgang; Taubert, Helge; Wullich, Bernd; Hartmann, Arndt

    2016-01-01

    The non-classical human leukocyte antigen E (HLA-E) expression is frequently overexpressed in tumor diseases, transplants and virus-infected cells and represents an immunomodulatory molecule by binding to the receptors CD94/NKG2A, -B and –C on NK and T cells. Due to its immune suppressive features HLA-E expression might represent an important mechanism of tumors to escape immune surveillance. While an aberrant expression of the non-classical HLA-G antigen in human renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has been demonstrated to be associated with a worse outcome of patients and reduced sensitivity to immune effector cell-mediated cytotoxicity, the expression and function of HLA-E has not yet been analyzed in this tumor entity. Higher levels of HLA-E transcripts were detected in all RCC cell lines and tumor lesions, which were tested in comparison to normal kidney epithelium. Immunohistochemical staining of a tissue microarray (TMA) using the HLA-E-specific monoclonal antibody TFL-033 recognizing the cytoplasmic HLA-E α-chain as monomer revealed a heterogeneous HLA-E expression in RCC lesions with the highest frequency in chromophobe RCC when compared to other RCC subtypes. HLA-E expression did not correlate with the frequency of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ and FoxP3+ immune cell infiltrations, but showed an inverse correlation with infiltrating CD56+ cells. In contrast to HLA-G, HLA-E expression in RCCs was not statistically significant associated with a decreased disease specific survival. These data suggest that HLA-E overexpression frequently occurs in RCC and correlates with reduced immunogenicity. PMID:27589686

  17. Immunolocalization and mRNA expression of bone morphogenetic protein-6 in human clear cell renal carcinoma.

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    Basic-Jukic, Nikolina; Radic-Antolic, Margareta; Hudolin, Tvrtko; Coric, Marijana; Zadro, Renata; Pasini, Josip; Kastelan, Zeljko; Kes, Petar

    2009-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. Dysregulation of BMP signaling has been suggested in the carcinogenesis of different organs. We determined BMP-6 mRNA and protein expression in localized human clear cell renal carcinoma (CCRC), obtained from 20 patients who underwent nephrectomy, by the real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. 15/20 patients exhibited higher BMP-6 mRNA expression in malignant than in healthy renal tissue relative to the PBGD expression (p < 0.05). Immunostaining intensity for BMP-6 in healthy renal tissue ranged from 0 to 2 (average 0.9), as well as in renal clear cell carcinoma (average 1.1). Seven of 20 (35%) healthy tissue samples failed to stain with BMP-6 antibody, compared to 2/20 (10%) tumor samples (p < 0.05). BMP-6 immunostaining was positive in 18/20 CCRC samples. Staining was localized in the cytoplasm and/or membrane of malignant cells. Malignant tissue had significantly higher BMP-6 mRNA expression than healthy tissue. There was no significant correlation between BMP-6 mRNA and protein expression with disease presentation, disease progression and patients' characteristics. Long-term follow-up of our patients is needed to determine the possible role of increased expression of BMP-6 in CCRC. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. [Breast carcinoma metastasis into a renal cell carcinoma].

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    Perrin, Christophe; Talarmin, Marie; Fontaine, Aurélie; Kerbrat, Pierre; Audrain, Odile; Rioux-Leclercq, Nathalie; Chiforeanu, Dan Cristian

    2011-10-01

    We report the case of a patient carrying a right breast carcinoma whose imaging exams showed lung and bone metastasic release, and incidentally synchronous right renal tumor. Histologic examination of the renal tumor found a mammary carcinoma metastasis into a clear renal cell carcinoma. This is the second case report of breast cancer with metastasis in a resected renal clear cell carcinoma. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. MicroRNA-141 is downregulated in human renal cell carcinoma and regulates cell survival by targeting CDC25B

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    Yu XY

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Xiu-yue Yu, Zhe Zhang, Jiao Liu, Bo Zhan, Chui-ze Kong Department of Urology, the First Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, People’s Republic of China Background/objective: MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small noncoding RNAs (ribonucleic acids, approximately 22 nucleotides in length, that function as regulators of gene expression. Dysregulation of miRNAs has been associated with the initiation and progression of oncogenesis in humans. The cell division cycle (CDC25 phosphatases are important regulators of the cell cycle. Their abnormal expression detected in a number of tumors implies that their dysregulation is involved in malignant transformation. Methods: Using miRNA target prediction software, we found that miR-141 could target the 3´ untranslated region (3´UTR sequence of CDC25B. To shed light on the role of miR-141 in renal cell carcinogenesis, the expression of miR-141 was examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR in renal cell carcinoma and normal tissues. The impact of miR-141 re-expression on 769-P cells was analyzed using 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT and colony-forming assay. A luciferase reporter assay was applied to prove the functionality of the miR-141 binding site. Results: miR-141 is significantly downregulated in renal cell carcinoma. miR-141 re-expression suppressed cell growth in 769-P cells. Luciferase expression from a reporter vector containing the CDC25B-3'UTR was decreased when this construct was transfected with miR-141 in 769-P cells. The overexpression of miR-141 suppressed the endogenous CDC25B protein level in 769-P cells. Conclusion: For the first time, we demonstrated that CDC25B is a direct target of miR-141 in renal cell carcinoma. The transcriptional loss of miR-141 and the resultant increase in CDC25B expression facilitates increased genomic instability at an early stage of renal cell carcinoma development. Keywords: carcinogenesis, 769-P, target, Micro

  20. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma management

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    Flavio L. Heldwein

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assess the current treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma, focusing on medical treatment options. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The most important recent publications have been selected after a literature search employing PubMed using the search terms: advanced and metastatic renal cell carcinoma, anti-angiogenesis drugs and systemic therapy; also significant meeting abstracts were consulted. RESULTS: Progress in understanding the molecular basis of renal cell carcinoma, especially related to genetics and angiogenesis, has been achieved mainly through of the study of von Hippel-Lindau disease. A great variety of active agents have been developed and tested in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC patients. New specific molecular therapies in metastatic disease are discussed. Sunitinib, Sorafenib and Bevacizumab increase the progression-free survival when compared to therapy with cytokines. Temsirolimus increases overall survival in high-risk patients. Growth factors and regulatory enzymes, such as carbonic anhydrase IX may be targets for future therapies. CONCLUSIONS: A broader knowledge of clear cell carcinoma molecular biology has permitted the beginning of a new era in mRCC therapy. Benefits of these novel agents in terms of progression-free and overall survival have been observed in patients with mRCC, and, in many cases, have become the standard of care. Sunitinib is now considered the new reference first-line treatment for mRCC. Despite all the progress in recent years, complete responses are still very rare. Currently, many important issues regarding the use of these agents in the management of metastatic renal cancer still need to be properly addressed.

  1. Renal cell carcinoma

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    ... kidney Patient Instructions Kidney removal - discharge Images Kidney anatomy Kidney tumor - CT scan Kidney metastases, CT scan Kidney - blood and urine flow References Campbell SC, Lane BR. Malignant renal tumors. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, Partin AW, ...

  2. Renal cell carcinoma in patient with crossed fused renal ectopia

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    Ozgur Cakmak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary renal cell carcinomas have rarely been reported in patients with crossed fused renal ectopia. We presented a patient with right to left crossed fused kidney harbouring renal tumor. The most frequent tumor encountered in crossed fused renal ectopia is renal cell carcinoma. In this case, partial nephrectomy was performed which pave way to preservation of the uninvolved both renal units. Due to unpredictable anatomy, careful preoperative planning and meticulous delineation of renal vasculature is essential for preservation of the uninvolved renal units.

  3. Renal Preservation Therapy for Renal Cell Carcinoma

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    Yichun Chiu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal preservation therapy has been a promising concept for the treatment of localized renal cell carcinoma (RCC for 20 years. Nowadays partial nephrectomy (PN is well accepted to treat the localized RCC and the oncological control is proved to be the same as the radical nephrectomy (RN. Under the result of well oncological control, minimal invasive method gains more popularity than the open PN, like laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN and robot assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (RPN. On the other hand, thermoablative therapy and cryoablation also play an important role in the renal preservation therapy to improve the patient procedural tolerance. Novel modalities, but limited to small number of patients, include high-intensity ultrasound (HIFU, radiosurgery, microwave therapy (MWT, laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT, and pulsed cavitational ultrasound (PCU. Although initial results are encouraging, their real clinical roles are still under evaluation. On the other hand, active surveillance (AS has also been advocated by some for patients who are unfit for surgery. It is reasonable to choose the best therapeutic method among varieties of treatment modalities according to patients' age, physical status, and financial aid to maximize the treatment effect among cancer control, patient morbidity, and preservation of renal function.

  4. Retroperitoneal Cystic Metastases from Renal Cell Carcinoma

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    Rastogi Rajul

    2008-01-01

    Many malignant tumors produce retroperitoneal nodal metastases. However, cystic nodal retroperitoneal metastases are uncommon. Renal cell carcinoma is one of the very few carcinomas that can infrequently produce cystic nodal retroperitoneal metastases. Hence, This is a case of retroperitoneal cystic nodal metastases secondary to renal cell carcinoma, which has been rarely reported in the medical literature

  5. Carcinoma medular do rim Renal medullary carcinoma

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    Paulo Guilherme de Oliveira Salles

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available É relatado caso de paciente de 24 anos, portador de traço falciforme, com imagem sólida no rim direito, submetido a nefrectomia radical que revelou tumor, cujo exame anatomopatológico permitiu o diagnóstico de carcinoma medular do rim. Os autores discutem aspectos dessa neoplasia, tais como freqüência, patogênese, apresentação clínica, histopatologia e evolução.We report the case of a 24-year-old patient who presented a left kidney tumor that was diagnosed as a medullary renal cell carcinoma. The following aspects of this neoplasia are discussed in this communication: frequency, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, histopathological findings, differential diagnosis and follow-up.

  6. Metabolism-related enzyme alterations identified by proteomic analysis in human renal cell carcinoma

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    Lu Z

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Zejun Lu,1,* Yuqin Yao,2,* Qi Song,3 Jinliang Yang,4 Xiangfei Zhao,1 Ping Yang,1 Jingbo Kang1 1Department of Radiation Oncology, Naval General Hospital of People’s Liberation Army, Beijing, 2Research Center for Public Health and Preventive Medicine, West China School of Public Health/No 4 West China Teaching Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 3Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, The General Hospital of Chinese People’s Armed Police Force, Beijing, 4State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy/Collaborative Innovation Center for Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: The renal cell carcinoma (RCC is one of the most common types of kidney neoplasia in Western countries; it is relatively resistant to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Metabolic disorders have a profound effect on the degree of malignancy and treatment resistance of the tumor. However, the molecular characteristics related to impaired metabolism leading to the initiation of RCC are still not very clear. In this study, two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE and mass spectra (MS technologies were utilized to identify the proteins involved in energy metabolism of RCC. A total of 73 proteins that were differentially expressed in conventional RCC, in comparison with the corresponding normal kidney tissues, were identified. Bioinformatics analysis has shown that these proteins are involved in glycolysis, urea cycle, and the metabolic pathways of pyruvate, propanoate, and arginine/proline. In addition, some were also involved in the signaling network of p53 and FAS. These results provide some clues for new therapeutic targets and treatment strategies of RCC. Keywords: renal cell cancer, metabolism, two-dimensional electrophoresis, proteome 

  7. In Vitro Antitumor Effects of AHR Ligands Aminoflavone (AFP 464) and Benzothiazole (5F 203) in Human Renal Carcinoma Cells.

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    Luzzani, Gabriela A; Callero, Mariana A; Kuruppu, Anchala I; Trapani, Valentina; Flumian, Carolina; Todaro, Laura; Bradshaw, Tracey D; Loaiza Perez, Andrea I

    2017-12-01

    We investigated activity and mechanism of action of two AhR ligand antitumor agents, AFP 464 and 5F 203 on human renal cancer cells, specifically examining their effects on cell cycle progression, apoptosis, and migration. TK-10, SN12C, Caki-1, and ACHN human renal cancer cell lines were treated with AFP 464 and 5F 203. We evaluated cytotoxicity by MTS assays, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis by flow cytometry and corroborated a mechanism of action involving AhR signal transduction activation. Changes in migration properties by wound healing assays were investigated: 5F 203-sensitive cells show decreased migration after treatment, therefore, we measured c-Met phosphorylation by Western blot in these cells. A 5F 203 induced a decrease in cell viability which was more marked than AFP 464. This cytotoxicity was reduced after treatment with the AhR inhibitor α-NF for both compounds indicating AhR signaling activation plays a role in the mechanism of action. A 5F 203 is sequestered by TK-10 cells and induces CYP1A1 expression; 5F 203 potently inhibited migration of TK-10, Caki-1, and SN12C cells, and inhibited c-Met receptor phosphorylation in TK-10 cells. AhR ligand antitumor agents AFP 464 and 5F 203 represent potential new candidates for the treatment of renal cancer. A 5F 203 only inhibited migration of sensitive cells and c-Met receptor phosphorylation in TK-10 cells. c-Met receptor signal transduction is important in migration and metastasis. Therefore, we consider that 5F 203 offers potential for the treatment of metastatic renal carcinoma. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 4526-4535, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Identification of a yeast artificial chromosome that spans the human papillary renal cell carcinoma-associated t(X;1) breakpoint in Xp11.2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijkerbuijk, R F; Meloni, A M; Sinke, R J; de Leeuw, B; Wilbrink, M; Janssen, H A; Geraghty, M T; Monaco, A P; Sandberg, A A; Geurts van Kessel, A

    1993-01-01

    Recently, a specific chromosome abnormality, t(X;1)(p11;q21), was described for a subgroup of human papillary renal cell carcinomas. The translocation breakpoint in Xp11 is located in the same region as that in t(X;18)(p11;q11)-positive synovial sarcoma. We used fluorescence in situ hybridization

  9. pVHL co-ordinately regulates CXCR4/CXCL12 and MMP2/MMP9 expression in human clear-cell renal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Struckmann, K; Mertz, Kd; Steu, S

    2008-01-01

    Loss of pVHL function, characteristic for clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), causes increased expression of CXCR4 chemokine receptor, which triggers expression of metastasis-associated MMP2/MMP9 in different human cancers. The impact of pVHL on MMP2/MMP9 expression and their relationship...

  10. Safety and clinical effect of subcutaneous human interleukin-21 in patients with metastatic melanoma or renal cell carcinoma: a phase I trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Henrik; Brown, Janet; Mouritzen, Ulrik

    2010-01-01

    This phase I study in patients with metastatic melanoma (MM) and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) evaluated the safety and maximum tolerated dose (MTD), pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and preliminary antitumor activity of s.c. treatment of human recombinant interleukin 21 (IL-21)....

  11. [Studies on the interaction between interleukin-6 and human renal cell carcinoma cell line GRC-1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Z; Yu, L; Guo, Y

    2000-04-01

    To demonstrate the effects of IL-6 on the renal cell carcinoma cell line GRC-1. Immunocytochemical staining and RT-PCR analysis indicated that this cell line could express IL-6 both on mRNA and protein levels. Secretion of IL-6 in this cell line was 465 pg/ml, which was identified by ELISA assay. By RT-PCR analysis, we found that GRC-1 expressed IL-6 receptor system including IL-6 mRNA and gp130 mRNA. The rhIL-6 did not stimulate the growth of GRC-1 while the neutralizing antibody did not inhibit its growth. For further identification of the effect of IL-6 on GRC-1 cells, we introduced an antisense IL-6 RNA into GRC-1 cells. Thereafter, the lowered expression of IL-6 mRNA was observed by Northern blot, and the secretion of IL-6 was reduced to 250 pg/ml. But there were no significant growth-inhibitory effects on GRC-1 cells. Although GRC-1 could express IL-6, IL-6 R and gp130, the rhIL-6 and IL-6 neutralizing antibody or transducing antisense IL-6 RNA could not change the growth of GRC-1 cells significantly. These results suggest that it is not likely for IL-6 functioning as an autocrine growth factor for GRC-1.

  12. Renal collecting duct carcinoma in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, N; Suzuki, K; Shibuya, H; Sato, T; Aoki, I; Nagashima, Y

    2008-07-01

    An 8-year-old, male, mongrel dog developed severe cough and anorexia and died within 3 months. Autopsy revealed an invasive grayish-white mass in the right kidney and multiple nodules in the lungs, thoracic wall, and spleen. Histologically, the renal mass and the other nodules were mainly composed of papillotubular structures lined by oval-to-polygonal pleomorphic cells. The cells were reactive with DBA, PNA, and UEA-1 lectins and positive for vimentin but negative for CD10 and high molecular weight cytokeratin. Because of its histological, histochemical, and immunohistochemical similarities with human collecting duct carcinoma (CDC), a diagnosis of renal collecting duct carcinoma with pulmonary, thoracic, and splenic metastases was established. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of CDC in animals.

  13. Epigenetic change in kidney tumor: downregulation of histone acetyltransferase MYST1 in human renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yong

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MYST1 (also known as hMOF, a member of the MYST family of histone acetyltransferases (HATs as an epigenetic mark of active genes, is mainly responsible for histone H4K16 acetylation in the cells. Recent studies have shown that the abnormal gene expression of hMOF is involved in certain primary cancers. Here we examined the involvement of hMOF expression and histone H4K16 acetylation in primary renal cell carcinoma (RCC. Simultaneously, we investigated the correlation between the expression of hMOF and clear cell RCC (ccRCC biomarker carbohydrase IX (CA9 in RCC. Materials and methods The frozen RCC tissues and RCC cell lines as materials, the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, western blotting and immunohistochemical staining approaches were used. Results RT-PCR results indicate that hMOF gene expression levels frequently downregulated in 90.5% of patients (19/21 with RCC. The reduction of hMOF protein in both RCC tissues and RCC cell lines is tightly correlated with acetylation of histone H4K16. In addition, overexpression of CA9 was detected in 100% of ccRCC patients (21/21. However, transient transfection of hMOF in ccRCC 786–0 cells did not affect both the gene and protein expression of CA9. Conclusion hMOF as an acetyltransferase of H4K16 might be involved in the pathogenesis of kidney cancer, and this epigenetic changes might be a new CA9-independent RCC diagnostic maker.

  14. Beta2-microglobulin promotes the growth of human renal cell carcinoma through the activation of the protein kinase A, cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein, and vascular endothelial growth factor axis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nomura, Takeo; Huang, Wen-Chin; Zhau, Haiyen E; Wu, Daqing; Xie, Zhihui; Mimata, Hiromitsu; Zayzafoon, Majd; Young, Andrew N; Marshall, Fray F; Weitzmann, M Neale; Chung, Leland W K

    2006-01-01

    .... Because aberrant expression of beta2M has been reported in human renal cell carcinoma, we investigated the effects of beta2M overexpression on cancer cell growth and analyzed its molecular signaling pathway...

  15. Activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway induces urothelial carcinoma of the renal pelvis: identification in human tumors and confirmation in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Chao-Nan; Furge, Kyle A; Knol, Jared; Huang, Dan; Chen, Jindong; Dykema, Karl J; Kort, Eric J; Massie, Aaron; Khoo, Sok Kean; Vanden Beldt, Kristin; Resau, James H; Anema, John; Kahnoski, Richard J; Morreau, Hans; Camparo, Philippe; Comperat, Eva; Sibony, Mathilde; Denoux, Yves; Molinie, Vincent; Vieillefond, Annick; Eng, Charis; Williams, Bart O; Teh, Bin Tean

    2009-11-01

    Urothelial carcinoma of the renal pelvis is a deadly disease with an unclear tumorigenic mechanism. We conducted gene expression profiling on a set of human tumors of this type and identified a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT activation expression signature in 76.9% (n = 13) of our samples. Sequence analysis found both activating mutations of PIK3CA (13.6%, n = 22) and loss of heterozygosity at the PTEN locus (25%, n = 8). In contrast, none of the other subtypes of kidney neoplasms (e.g., clear-cell renal cell carcinoma) harbored PIK3CA mutations (n = 87; P elevation of phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR; 63.6%, n = 11). To confirm the role of the PI3K/AKT pathway in urothelial carcinoma, we generated mice containing biallelic inactivation of Pten in the urogenital epithelia. These mice developed typical renal pelvic urothelial carcinomas, with an incidence of 57.1% in mice older than 1 year. Laser capture microdissection followed by PCR confirmed the deletion of Pten exons 4 and 5 in the animal tumor cells. Immunohistochemical analyses showed increased phospho-mTOR and phospho-S6K levels in the animal tumors. Renal lymph node metastases were found in 15.8% of the animals with urothelial carcinoma. In conclusion, we identified and confirmed an important role for the PI3K/AKT pathway in the development of urothelial carcinoma and suggested that inhibitors of this pathway (e.g., mTOR inhibitor) may serve as effective therapeutic agents.

  16. Recurrent deletion of the short arm of chromosome 3 in human renal cell carcinoma: shift of the c-raf 1 locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teyssier, J R; Henry, I; Dozier, C; Ferre, D; Adnet, J J; Pluot, M

    1986-12-01

    A cytogenetic study performed on 6 human renal cell carcinomas after short-term culture on extracellular matrix with serum-free medium showed aneuploidy without structural changes in 2 tumors and a rearrangement of the short arm of chromosome 3 in 4 tumors, including deletions and a translocation involving the 3p14 and 3p21 bands. Chromosomal in situ hybridization with a c-raf 1 probe demonstrated that in 2 renal cancers with del3(p14 or 21) the cellular oncogene had shifted from 3p25 to 3p14 as a result of an interstitial deletion.

  17. BCL10 is rarely mutated in human prostate carcinoma, small-cell lung cancer, head and neck tumours, renal carcinoma and sarcomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, S; Broni, J; Jefferies, S; Osin, P; Kovacs, G; Maitland, N J; Eeles, R; Edwards, S M; Dyer, M J S; Willis, T G; Cooper, C S

    1999-01-01

    We have used single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis to screen for mutations in the BCL10 gene in 81 primary prostate carcinomas, 20 squamous cell cancers of the head and neck, 15 small-cell lung cancer cell lines, 24 renal carcinoma cell lines and 13 sarcoma cell lines. We failed to find evidence of somatically acquired mutations of the BCL10 gene suggesting that BCL10 does not play a major role in the development of these malignancies. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10408398

  18. Clinical significance and therapeutic potential of prostate cancer antigen-1/ALKBH3 in human renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Kiyohiko; Sho, Masayuki; Fujimoto, Kiyohide; Shimada, Keiji; Yamato, Ichiro; Anai, Satoshi; Harada, Hiroshi; Tsujikawa, Kazutake; Konishi, Noboru; Shinohara, Nobuo; Nakajima, Yoshiyuki

    2015-08-01

    Prostate cancer antigen-1 (PCA-1)/ALKBH3 has been recently identified in human prostate cancer and its expression is correlated with disease progression and prognosis. However, the precise role and function of PCA-1/ALKBH3 in human malignancies are largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the clinical significance and therapeutic potential of PCA-1/ALKBH3 in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). PCA-1/ALKBH3 expression was examined by immunohistochemistry in 101 RCC patients who underwent radical or partial nephrectomy. Its expression was positively correlated with advanced pathological T- and M-factors and TNM stage (T, P<0.05; M, P<0.01; TNM, P<0.01, respectively). In the prognostic analysis, PCA-1/ALKBH3-negative patients with RCC had a significantly better prognosis than PCA-1/ALKBH3-positive patients (5-year survival rate, 92.9 vs. 75.9%, respectively; P<0.05). Next, the therapeutic potential of targeting PCA-1/ALKBH3 was further evaluated by small interfering RNA method using a human RCC cell line (CAKI-1). We found that PCA-1/ALKBH3 knockdown significantly inhibited the growth of CAKI-1 cells compared with the control (P<0.001). Furthermore, knockdown of PCA-1 induced apoptosis in CAKI-1 cells, as assessed by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-cleavage assays. We demonstrated for the first time that PCA-1/ALKBH3 expression has a significant prognostic impact on patient prognosis in RCC. Furthermore, its knockdown has a therapeutic efficacy on RCC. Taken together, both our clinical and experimental data strongly suggest that PCA-1/ALKBH3 may be functionally important and a novel molecular target for human RCC.

  19. Targeting Strategies for Renal Cell Carcinoma: From Renal Cancer Cells to Renal Cancer Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Zhi-xiang; Mo, Jingxin; Zhao, Guixian; Shu, Gang; Fu, Hua-Lin; Wei ZHAO

    2016-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a common form of urologic tumor that originates from the highly heterogeneous epithelium of renal tubules. Over the last decade, targeting therapies to renal cancer cells have transformed clinical care for RCC. Recently, it was proposed that renal cancer stem cells (CSCs) isolated from renal carcinomas were responsible for driving tumor growth and resistance to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy, according to the theory of CSCs; this has provided the rati...

  20. Sunitinib benefits patients with renal cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findings from clinical trial patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma, a common kidney cancer, show they did not have accelerated tumor growth after treatment with sunitinib, in contrast to some study results in animals.

  1. Cardiac metastasis from a renal cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghamdi, Abdulaziz; Tam, James

    2006-01-01

    A 59-year-old man developed an episode of syncope while he was driving. This resulted in a motor vehicle accident, and the patient sustained an open fracture of the left femur. Biopsy of the left femur fracture showed a metastastic renal cell carcinoma, and echocardiography revealed a right ventricular mass without contiguous vena caval or right atrial involvement. This is one of the few reported cases of renal cell carcinoma associated with syncope as an initial symptom. PMID:17151773

  2. Progression of Human Renal Cell Carcinoma via Inhibition of RhoA-ROCK Axis by PARG1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junichiro Miyazaki

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma (RCC is the most lethal urological malignancy with high risk of recurrence; thus, new prognostic biomarkers are needed. In this study, a new RCC antigen, PTPL1 associated RhoGAP1 (PARG1, was identified by using serological identification of recombinant cDNA expression cloning with sera from RCC patients. PARG1 protein was found to be differentially expressed in RCC cells among patients. High PARG1 expression is significantly correlated with various clinicopathological factors relating to cancer cell proliferation and invasion, including G3 percentage (P = .0046, Ki-67 score (p expression is also correlated with high recurrence of N0M0 patients (P = .0084 and poor prognosis in RCC patients (P = .0345. Multivariate analysis has revealed that high PARG1 expression is an independent factor for recurrence (P = .0149 of N0M0 RCC patients. In in vitro studies, depletion of PARG1by siRNA in human RCC cell lines inhibited their proliferation through inducing G1 cell cycle arrest via upregulation of p53 and subsequent p21Cip1/Waf1, which are mediated by increased RhoA-ROCK activities. Similarly, PARG1 depletion cells inhibited invasion ability via increasing RhoA-ROCK activities in the RCC cell lines. Conversely, overexpression of PARG1 on human embryonic kidney cell line HEK293T promotes its cell proliferation and invasion. These results indicate that PARG1 plays crucial roles in progression of human RCC in increasing cell proliferation and invasion ability via inhibition of the RhoA-ROCK axis, and PARG1 is a poor prognostic marker, particularly for high recurrence of N0M0 RCC patients.

  3. Arterial embolization in patients with renal carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, S W; Berg, J; Brynitz, S

    1989-01-01

    The literature concerning embolization of the renal artery in patients with renal cell carcinoma is reviewed. Based on this review it is concluded that the method is useful in this patient group as it will facilitate the surgical procedure if nephrectomy is performed afterwards. Used...

  4. Induction of cell cycle arrest, DNA damage, and apoptosis by nimbolide in human renal cell carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yi-Hsien; Lee, Chien-Hsing; Chen, Hsiao-Yun; Hsieh, Shu-Ching; Lin, Chia-Liang; Tsai, Jen-Pi

    2015-09-01

    Nimbolide is a tetranortriterpenoid isolated from the leaves and flowers of Azadirachta indica which has been shown to exhibit anticancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-invasive properties in a variety of cancer cells. However, the anti-tumor effect on human renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cells is unknown. In this study, we found that nimbolide treatment had a cytotoxic effect on 786-O and A-498 RCC cells in a dose-dependent manner. According to flow cytometric analysis, nimbolide treatment resulted in G2/M arrest in 786-O and A-498 cells accompanied with an increase in the phosphorylation status of p53, cdc2, cdc25c, and decreased expressions of cyclin A, cyclin B, cdc2, and cdc25c. Nimbolide also caused DNA damage in a dose-dependent manner as determined by comet assay and measurement of γ-H2AX. In addition, apoptotic cells were observed in an Annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide double-stained assay. The activities of caspase-3, -9, and poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) were increased, and the expression of pro-caspase-8 was decreased in nimbolide-treated 786-O and A-498 cells. Western blot analysis revealed that the levels of intrinsic-related apoptotic proteins Bax and extrinsic-related proteins (DR5, CHOP) were significantly increased in nimbolide-treated 786-O and A-498 cells. In addition, the expressions of Bcl-2 and Mcl-1 were decreased in 786-O and A-498 cells after nimbolide treatment. We conclude that nimbolide can inhibit the growth of human RCC cells by inducing G2/M phase arrest by modulating cell cycle-related proteins and cell apoptosis by regulating intrinsic and extrinsic caspase signaling pathways. Nimbolide may be a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of RCC.

  5. Association of human telomerase reverse transcriptase gene polymorphisms, serum levels, and telomere length with renal cell carcinoma risk and pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Martino, Michela; Taus, Christopher; Lucca, Ilaria; Hofbauer, Sebastian L; Haitel, Andrea; Shariat, Shahrokh F; Klatte, Tobias

    2016-10-01

    Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) is the catalytic subunit of the human telomerase and plays a key role in telomere restitution and gene regulation. Evidence suggests that hTERT is linked with the risk and progression of several malignancies, but there are no comprehensive data in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). In this case-control study, we assessed seven polymorphic hTERT gene variants (MNS16A, rs2736100, rs2736098, rs7726159, rs2853677, rs13172201, and rs10069690), hTERT serum levels, and the telomere length of 663 individuals, including 243 with clear cell RCC and 420 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. The SL and SS genotypes of MNS16A were associated with a decreased risk for RCC on the multivariable logistic regression analysis (SL-OR 0.72, SS-OR 0.37, P < 0.001). The GG genotype of rs2736098 was associated with a decreased risk for RCC compared with AA (OR 0.18, P < 0.001). Both telomere length and hTERT serum levels increased with every G allele in rs2736098 (P = 0.008). Pretherapeutic hTERT serum levels were higher in patients with advanced tumor stages (P = 0.037) and distant metastases (P = 0.006). Rs2736100, rs7726159, rs2853677, rs13172201, and rs10069690 were not linked with RCC risk, and none of the polymorphisms was associated with RCC pathology. In conclusion, the polymorphic number of tandem repeats in hTERT (MNS16A) and rs2736098 may be linked with the risk for RCC. Rs2736098 may have an important role in telomere length restitution and serum hTERT levels may represent a novel biomarker for RCC. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Staging of renal cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller-Lisse, Ullrich G.; Meindl, Thomas; Coppenrath, Eva; Degenhart, Christoph; Graser, Anno; Scherr, Michael; Reiser, Maximilian F. [Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich (Germany). Department of Clinical Radiology; Mueller-Lisse, Ulrike L. [University of Munich (Germany). Department of Urology

    2007-09-15

    As in other malignant tumors, prognosis in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) depends on tumor extent and metastasis at the time of primary diagnosis. Staging systems formalize the way in which the extent of RCC is being described and classified. Primary staging of RCC aims at evaluating surgical options. Since surgical excision, which is the mainstay of therapy in non-metastatic RCC, and, recently, minimally invasive ablation methods have evolved significantly over the last decades, staging systems continue to evolve along the way. The 40-year-old Robson classification has been replaced with the TNM classification of RCC, because the latter adapts more easily to changing patterns of diagnosis and therapy. Modern cross-sectional imaging methods, such as multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), perform highly in T-staging of local tumor extent and M-staging of distant metastasis. However, both MDCT and MRI perform poorly in N-staging of lymphadenopathy. At present, 18-F-desoxy-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) appears to be unreliable in the detection of RCC and its metastasis. This overview of current radiological and surgical literature attempts to describe how modern staging systems for RCC are organized, and which radiological and surgical developments currently influence the way in which primary staging and prognosis of RCC depend on one another. (orig.)

  7. In search of suitable reference genes for gene expression studies of human renal cell carcinoma by real-time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristiansen Glen

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Housekeeping genes are commonly used as endogenous reference genes for the relative quantification of target genes in gene expression studies. No conclusive systematic study comparing the suitability of different candidate reference genes in clear cell renal cell carcinoma has been published to date. To remedy this situation, 10 housekeeping genes for normalizing purposes of RT-PCR measurements already recommended in various studies were examined with regard to their usefulness as reference genes. Results The expression of the potential reference genes was examined in matched malignant and non-malignant tissue specimens from 25 patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Quality assessment of isolated RNA performed with a 2100 Agilent Bioanalyzer showed a mean RNA integrity number of 8.7 for all samples. The between-run variations related to the crossing points of PCR reactions of a control material ranged from 0.17% to 0.38%. The expression of all genes did not depend on age, sex, and tumour stage. Except the genes TATA box binding protein (TBP and peptidylprolyl isomerase A (PPIA, all genes showed significant differences in expression between malignant and non-malignant pairs. The expression stability of the candidate reference genes was additionally controlled using the software programs geNorm and NormFinder. TBP and PPIA were validated as suitable reference genes by normalizing the target gene ADAM9 using these two most stably expressed genes in comparison with up- and down-regulated housekeeping genes of the panel. Conclusion Our study demonstrated the suitability of the two housekeeping genes PPIA and TBP as endogenous reference genes when comparing malignant tissue samples with adjacent normal tissue samples from clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Both genes are recommended as reference genes for relative gene quantification in gene profiling studies either as single gene or preferably in combination.

  8. Dexverapamil to modulate vinblastine resistance in metastatic renal cell carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.H.J. Mickisch; M.A. Noordzij (Marinus); A.v.d. Gaast (A. v d); P. Gebreamlack (P.); K.U. Köhrmann (K.); E. Mogler-Drautz (E.); N. Kupper (Nina); F.H. Schröder (Fritz)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractMultidrug resistance (MDR) in a variety of human tumours such as renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is thought to be caused by expression of the MDR1 gene and may be reversed by applying modern chemosensitisers such as dexverapamil, which inhibit the MDR1 gene product P-glycoprotein. This

  9. Regression of established renal cell carcinoma in nude mice using lentivirus-transduced human T cells expressing a human anti-CAIX chimeric antigen receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Shuk-Yee Lo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX is a tumor-associated antigen and marker of hypoxia that is overexpressed on > 90% of clear-cell type renal cell carcinoma (RCC but not on neighboring normal kidney tissue. Here, we report on the construction of two chimeric antigen receptors (CARs that utilize a carbonic anhydrase (CA domain mapped, human single chain antibody (scFv G36 as a targeting moiety but differ in their capacity to provide costimulatory signaling for optimal T cell proliferation and tumor cell killing. The resulting anti-CAIX CARs were expressed on human primary T cells via lentivirus transduction. CAR-transduced T cells (CART cells expressing second-generation G36-CD28-TCRζ exhibited more potent in vitro antitumor effects on CAIX+ RCC cells than first-generation G36-CD8-TCRζ including cytotoxicity, cytokine secretion, proliferation, and clonal expansion. Adoptive G36-CD28-TCRζ CART cell therapy combined with high-dose interleukin (IL-2 injection also lead to superior regression of established RCC in nude mice with evidence of tumor cell apoptosis and tissue necrosis. These results suggest that the fully human G36-CD28-TCRζ CARs should provide substantial improvements over first-generation mouse anti-CAIX CARs in clinical use through reduced human anti-mouse antibody responses against the targeting scFv and administration of lower doses of T cells during CART cell therapy of CAIX+ RCC.

  10. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 in the sera and in the urine of human oncocytoma and renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Carlo, Angelina

    2012-09-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of zinc-dependent endopeptidases, capable of degrading all the molecular components of extracellular matrix. MMPs have been shown to play critical roles in tumor cell invasion and metastasis. We verified the activity of MMPs in the sera and in the urine of patients with kidney carcinoma by gelatin zymography. Of these patients, 16 had clear cell renal carcinoma (ccRCC) and 4 patients had oncocytoma. The sera and the urine of 16 healthy subjects were used as controls. In the sera, zymography analysis showed gelatinolytic bands at 72 kDa (gelatinase A) at 92, 130 and 240 kDa (gelatinase B). MMP-9 activity was slightly enhanced in sera from ccRCC compared with oncocytoma patients. Serum MMP-2 activity was similar in ccRCC and in oncocytoma patients. In the urine, 2 oncocytoma patients and 3 (33%) of the ccRCC patients showed gelatinolytic activity, whereas MMPs could not be detected in the concentrated urine of healthy subjects. The most abundant lytic activity was at 92 kDa, whereas MMP-2 was present in lesser quantities. However, there was broad overlap of the data and we did not find any correlation to type, stage or grade. Therefore, despite previous evidence, MMP-2 and -9 activity in serum and urine may not be useful biomarker for kidney carcinomas.

  11. RENAL ONCOCYTOMA ASSOCIATED WITH RENAL CELL CARCINOMA : A CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    荒井, 陽一; 田中, 陽一; 谷口, 隆信; 岡田, 裕作; 岡田, 謙一郎; 川村, 寿一

    1983-01-01

    We herein report a case of renal oncocytoma associated with renal cell carcmoma in the same kidney. A 78-year-old man was admitted for further examination of the right abdominal mass. Angiogram revealed two hypervascular renal tumors, one of which showed a "spoke-wheel" appearancc. Right nephrectomy was performed and two neoplasms were found, one in the upper pole which was diagnosed as clear cell carcinoma, and another in the mid-portion which was considered to fit the histologic criteria fo...

  12. Incidental Eosinophilic Chromophobe Renal Cell Carcinoma in Renal Allograft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Alharbi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC in renal allograft in transplant recipients is 0.22–0.25%. De novo clear cell, papillary, and chromophobe RCCs and RCCs with sarcomatoid differentiation originating in renal allograft have been reported. Routine surveillance for graft tumours is not routinely practiced and these tumours are commonly asymptomatic and incidentally discovered. We describe a case of incidental, eosinophilic chromophobe RCC in a 31-year-old, long-term renal transplant male recipient, who presented with acute gastroenteritis 11 years after transplantation. The graft was nonfunctional at the time of presentation. Abdominal ultrasound and computed tomography scan demonstrated 1.8 cm well-defined, round enhancing lesion, confined to the renal allograft and suspicious for malignancy. Pathological examination of graft nephrectomy specimen showed gross, histopathological, and immunohistochemical features of eosinophilic chromophobe RCC. Fifty-five months after surgery, the patient was alive and free of malignancy. To the best of our knowledge, only five chromophobe RCCs originating in a renal allograft were previously described in English literature. We suggest that chromophobe RCC should be considered in the differential diagnosis of renal allograft mass, including eosinophilic tumours, and emphasise the importance of periodic screening of renal allograft in all renal transplant recipients.

  13. Incidental Eosinophilic Chromophobe Renal Cell Carcinoma in Renal Allograft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Abdullah; Al Turki, Maram S; Aloudah, Noura; Alsaad, Khaled O

    2017-01-01

    The incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in renal allograft in transplant recipients is 0.22-0.25%. De novo clear cell, papillary, and chromophobe RCCs and RCCs with sarcomatoid differentiation originating in renal allograft have been reported. Routine surveillance for graft tumours is not routinely practiced and these tumours are commonly asymptomatic and incidentally discovered. We describe a case of incidental, eosinophilic chromophobe RCC in a 31-year-old, long-term renal transplant male recipient, who presented with acute gastroenteritis 11 years after transplantation. The graft was nonfunctional at the time of presentation. Abdominal ultrasound and computed tomography scan demonstrated 1.8 cm well-defined, round enhancing lesion, confined to the renal allograft and suspicious for malignancy. Pathological examination of graft nephrectomy specimen showed gross, histopathological, and immunohistochemical features of eosinophilic chromophobe RCC. Fifty-five months after surgery, the patient was alive and free of malignancy. To the best of our knowledge, only five chromophobe RCCs originating in a renal allograft were previously described in English literature. We suggest that chromophobe RCC should be considered in the differential diagnosis of renal allograft mass, including eosinophilic tumours, and emphasise the importance of periodic screening of renal allograft in all renal transplant recipients.

  14. Percutaneous Cryoablation for Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsitskari Maria

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma (RCC is the most common type of kidney cancer in adults. Nephron sparing resection (partial nephrectomy has been the “gold standard” for the treatment of resectable disease. With the widespread use of cross sectional imaging techniques, more cases of renal cell cancers are detected at an early stage, i.e. stage 1A or 1B.  This has provided an impetus for expanding the nephron sparing options and especially, percutaneous ablative techniques.  Percutaneous ablation for RCC is now performed as a standard therapeutic nephron-sparing option in patients who are poor candidates for resection or when there is a need to preserve renal function due to comorbid conditions, multiple renal cell carcinomas, and/or heritable renal cancer syndromes. During the last few years, percutaneous cryoablation has been gaining acceptance as a curative treatment option for small renal cancers. Clinical studies to date indicate that cryoablation is a safe and effective therapeutic method with acceptable short and long term outcomes and with a low risk, in the appropriate setting.  In addition it seems to offer some advantages over radio frequency ablation (RFA and other thermal ablation techniques for renal masses.

  15. NPRL-Z-1, as a new topoisomerase II poison, induces cell apoptosis and ROS generation in human renal carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Szu-Ying; Pan, Shiow-Lin; Xiao, Zhi-Yan; Hsu, Jui-Ling; Chen, Mei-Chuan; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Teng, Che-Ming

    2014-01-01

    NPRL-Z-1 is a 4β-[(4"-benzamido)-amino]-4'-O-demethyl-epipodophyllotoxin derivative. Previous reports have shown that NPRL-Z-1 possesses anticancer activity. Here NPRL-Z-1 displayed cytotoxic effects against four human cancer cell lines (HCT 116, A549, ACHN, and A498) and exhibited potent activity in A498 human renal carcinoma cells, with an IC50 value of 2.38 µM via the MTT assay. We also found that NPRL-Z-1 induced cell cycle arrest in G1-phase and detected DNA double-strand breaks in A498 cells. NPRL-Z-1 induced ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) protein kinase phosphorylation at serine 1981, leading to the activation of DNA damage signaling pathways, including Chk2, histone H2AX, and p53/p21. By ICE assay, the data suggested that NPRL-Z-1 acted on and stabilized the topoisomerase II (TOP2)-DNA complex, leading to TOP2cc formation. NPRL-Z-1-induced DNA damage signaling and apoptotic death was also reversed by TOP2α or TOP2β knockdown. In addition, NPRL-Z-1 inhibited the Akt signaling pathway and induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. These results demonstrated that NPRL-Z-1 appeared to be a novel TOP2 poison and ROS generator. Thus, NPRL-Z-1 may present a significant potential anticancer candidate against renal carcinoma.

  16. The epidemiology of renal cell carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ljungberg, B.; Campbell, S.C.; Cho, H.Y.; Jacqmin, D.; Lee, J.E.; Weikert, S.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.

    2011-01-01

    CONTEXT: Kidney cancer is among the 10 most frequently occurring cancers in Western communities. Globally, about 270 000 cases of kidney cancer are diagnosed yearly and 116 000 people die from the disease. Approximately 90% of all kidney cancers are renal cell carcinomas (RCC). OBJECTIVE: The causes

  17. Physalin F induces cell apoptosis in human renal carcinoma cells by targeting NF-kappaB and generating reactive oxygen species.

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    Szu-Ying Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the molecular mechanisms of physalin F, an effective purified extract of Physalis angulata L. (Solanacae, in renal carcinoma A498 cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Physalin F was observed to significantly induce cytotoxicity of three human renal carcinoma A498, ACHN, and UO-31 cells in a concentration-dependent manner; this was especially potent in A498 cells. The physalin F-induced cell apoptosis of A498 cells was characterized by MTT assay, nuclear DNA fragmentation and chromatin condensation. Using flow cytometry analysis, physalin F induced A498 cell apoptosis as demonstrated by the accumulation of the sub-G1 phase in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Moreover, physalin F-mediated accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS caused Bcl-2 family proteins, Bcl-2, and Bcl-xL degradation, which led to disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential and release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria into the cytosol. These effects were associated with induction of caspase-3 and caspase-9 activity, which led to poly(ADP-ribose polymerase cleavage. However, the antioxidant N-acetyl-(L-cysteine (NAC and glutathione (GSH resulted in the inhibition of these events and reversed physalin F-induced cell apoptosis. In addition, physalin F suppressed NF-κB activity and nuclear translocation of p65 and p50, which was reversed by NAC and GSH. CONCLUSION: Physalin F induced cell apoptosis through the ROS-mediated mitochondrial pathway and suppressed NF-κB activation in human renal cancer A498 cells. Thus, physalin F appears to be a promising anti-cancer agent worthy of further clinical development.

  18. Carcinoma of the renal pelvis and ureter

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    Fernando Korkes

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the occurrence of upper urinary tract urothelial tumors (UUTT in Brazil. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a clinical and histopathologic study of 33 patients who were diagnosed with a malignant neoplasm in the renal pelvis or ureter in the period of 1994 to 2004, in a single institution. RESULTS: Among the patients with upper urinary tract carcinoma, 70% were males and 30% females, with mean age of 65 ± 16 years (ranging from 31 to 91 years. Nineteen patients presented renal pelvis tumor (58%, 9 ureteral tumor (27% and 5 synchronic pelvic and ureteral tumors (15%. Renal pelvis tumors represented 2.8% of all the urothelial neoplasms, and 11.4% of all renal neoplasms treated in the same period. Ureteral tumors represented 1.6% of all the urothelial malignancies surgically managed in these 11 years. Tobacco smoking was the most common risk factor, and analgesic abuse was not reported by those patients. Most carcinomas were high-grade and muscle-invasive. Mean time to diagnosis was 7 months, being hematuria the most common symptom. CONCLUSIONS: A high association was also found between UUTT and bladder urothelial carcinoma. UUTT were mostly seen in men in their seventies and related to a high overall and cancer-related mortality rate. The overall disease-specific survival was 40%, much lower than found in most of the reported series.

  19. Epidemiology and staging of renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridge, Carole A; Pua, Bradley B; Madoff, David C

    2014-03-01

    Incidence and mortality trends attributed to kidney cancer exhibit marked regional variability, likely related to demographic, environmental, and genetic factors. Efforts to identify reversible factors, which lead to the development of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), have led not only to a greater understanding of the etiology of RCC but also the genetic and histologic characteristics of renal tumors. This article describes this evolution by discussing contemporary RCC incidence and mortality data, the risk factors for development of RCC, the histologic features, and anatomic and integrated staging systems that guide treatment.

  20. Human telomerase reverse-transcriptase promoter-controlled and herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase-armed adenoviruses for renal cell carcinoma treatment

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    Tian DW

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Dawei Tian,1–4 Yan Sun,3 Yang Yang,2,3 Mingde Lei,3 Na Ding,3 Ruifa Han2,31Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Urinary Surgery, 3Tianjin Institute of Urology, Second Hospital of Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, People's Republic of China; 4Tianjin Nankai Hospital, Tianjin, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: New treatment strategies are required for renal cell carcinoma (RCC due to its relative insensitivity to conventional radio- and chemotherapies. The promising strategy of tumor inhibition using human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT-controlled herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase/ganciclovir (HSV-TK/GCV in the hTERT promoter-driven HSV-TK/GCV suicide gene system was investigated. Tumor volume, weight, relative proliferation rate, and cell-apoptosis levels were examined in mice injected with adenovirus (Ad-hTERT-HSV-TK and GCV. Increased cell death occurred following treatment with Ads carrying hTERT-HSV-TK/GCV or cytomegalovirus promoter-controlled (CMV-HSV-TK/GCV for human RCC 786-0 and fibroblast MRC-5 cells. In mice, Ad-hTERT-HSV-TK/GCV more specifically inhibited tumor and RCC xenograft growth than Ad-CMV-HSV-TK/GCV (P < 0.05. Furthermore, Ad-hTERT-HSV-TK/GCV did not significantly damage normal fibroblasts or organ systems (heart, lung, liver, brain, kidney, and spleen. Thus, Ad-hTERT-HSV-TK/GCV is an effective RCC inhibitor in human cells in vitro and in vivo mouse models, indicating potential usefulness in RCC-targeted gene therapy.Keywords: hTERT promoter, HSV-TK/GCV, renal cell carcinoma, adenovirus

  1. New agents in renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabney, Raetasha; Devine, Ryan; Sein, Nancy; George, Benjamin

    2014-09-01

    Prior to 2005, the treatment options for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) were limited. There has been a proliferation of agents since the introduction of sorafenib, sunitinib, and becavicumab for clinical use in advanced renal cell carcinoma. Recently, four new agents have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in mRCC. These agents come from two unique targeted pathways for RCC, tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors. This review examines the investigational evolution, phases of development, adverse event profiles, and future directions of pazopanib, axitinib, everolimus, and temsirolimus as well as new novel agents being explored in clinical trials for these targeted pathways.

  2. MRI features of renal oncocytoma and chromophobe renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Hindman, Nicole; Fitzgerald, Erin F; Niver, Benjamin E; Melamed, Jonathan; Babb, James S

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to retrospectively describe the MRI features of the pathologically related entities renal oncocytoma and chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Twenty-eight cases of histologically proven renal oncocytoma and 15 of chromophobe RCC evaluated with preoperative MRI from January 2003 through June 2009 at our institution were independently reviewed for an array of MRI features by two radiologists blinded to the final histopathologic diagnosis. These features were tabulated and compared between chromophobe RCC and renal oncocytoma by use of the Mann-Whitney test and binary logistic regression. Renal oncocytoma and chromophobe RCC showed no significant difference in size or any of 16 qualitative imaging features (p = 0.0842-1.0, reader 1; p = 0.0611-1.0, reader 2). Microscopic fat, hemorrhage, cysts, infiltrative margins, perinephric fat invasion, renal vein invasion, enhancement homogeneity, and hypervascularity were each observed in less than 20% of cases by both readers. A central scar and segmental enhancement inversion (a recently described finding in which early contrast-enhanced images show relatively more enhanced and less enhanced intralesional components with inversion of their relative enhancement on later images) were observed by both readers in at least 10% of cases of both renal oncocytoma and of chromophobe RCC with no significant difference between the two entities (p = 0.2092-0.2960). We have presented the largest series to date of the MRI features of both renal oncocytoma and chromophobe RCC. These related entities exhibited similar findings, and no MRI features were reliable in distinguishing between them.

  3. Renal medullary carcinoma with an ophthalmic metastasis

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    Christine Ibilibor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal medullary carcinoma (RMC is a rare, aggressive primary renal malignancy that classically occurs in adolescent males with sickle cell trait and universally presents with metastatic disease at presentation. We report a case of medullary carcinoma in a young man with likely ophthalmic metastasis. We also review relevant literature available to date. The patient is a 20-year-old African-American male with a past medical history significant to for sickle cell trait who presented to the University Medical Center with cough and the right eye pain for 1 month as well as painless gross hematuria for 1 week. A chest and abdominal computed tomography showed a 7 cm hypodense right renal mass with bilateral hilar adenopathy, and multiple bilateral pulmonary nodules. A renal biopsy was performed and showed RMC. Ophthalmic exam revealed the right retinal hemorrhage concerning for a metastatic lesion. Palliative chemotherapy was offered to the patient, however, he and his family chose to enroll in hospice care considering his poor prognosis. He subsequently passed away 33 days after presentation. To our knowledge, there is only one other case of ophthalmic metastasis in a patient with metastatic RMC. Thus, we present this case to contribute to current literature regarding orbital metastasis in this largely fatal disease.

  4. Analysis of the regulation of fatty acid binding protein 7 expression in human renal carcinoma cell lines

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    Sugiyama Takayuki

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improving the treatment of renal cell carcinoma (RCC will depend on the development of better biomarkers for predicting disease progression and aiding the design of appropriate therapies. One such marker may be fatty acid binding protein 7 (FABP7, also known as B-FABP and BLBP, which is expressed normally in radial glial cells of the developing central nervous system and cells of the mammary gland. Melanomas, glioblastomas, and several types of carcinomas, including RCC, overexpress FABP7. The abundant expression of FABP7 in primary RCCs compared to certain RCC-derived cell lines may allow the definition of the molecular components of FABP7's regulatory system. Results We determined FABP7 mRNA levels in six RCC cell lines. Two were highly expressed, whereas the other and the embryonic kidney cell line (HEK293 were weakly expressed FABP7 transcripts. Western blot analysis of the cell lines detected strong FABP7 expression only in one RCC cell line. Promoter activity in the RCC cell lines was 3- to 21-fold higher than that of HEK293. Deletion analysis demonstrated that three FABP7 promoter regions contributed to upregulated expression in RCC cell lines, but not in the HEK293 cell. Competition analysis of gel shifts indicated that OCT1, OCT6, and nuclear factor I (NFI bound to the FABP7 promoter region. Supershift experiments indicated that BRN2 (POU3F2 and NFI bound to the FABP7 promoter region as well. There was an inverse correlation between FABP7 promoter activity and BRN2 mRNA expression. The FABP7-positive cell line's NFI-DNA complex migrated faster than in other cell lines. Levels of NFIA mRNA were higher in the HEK293 cell line than in any of the six RCC cell lines. In contrast, NFIC mRNA expression was lower in the HEK293 cell line than in the six RCC cell lines. Conclusions Three putative FABP7 promoter regions drive reporter gene expression in RCC cell lines, but not in the HEK293 cell line. BRN2 and NFI may be key

  5. DNA methylation profiling distinguishes histological subtypes of renal cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Amy A.; Alokail, Majed; Gentle, Dean; Yao, Masahiro; Kovacs, Gyula; Maher, Eamonn R.

    2013-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) accounts for around 3% of cancers in the UK, and both incidence and mortality are increasing with the aging population. RCC can be divided into several subtypes: conventional RCC (the most common, comprising 75% of all cases), papillary RCC (15%) and chromophobe RCC (5%). Renal oncocytoma is a benign tumor and accounts for 5% of RCC. Cancer and epigenetics are closely associated, with DNA hypermethylation being widely accepted as a feature of many cancers. In this study the DNA methylation profiles of chromophobe RCC and renal oncocytomas were investigated by utilizing the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChips. Cancer-specific hypermethylation was identified in 9.4% and 5.2% of loci in chromophobe RCC and renal oncocytoma samples, respectively, while the majority of the genome was hypomethylated. Thirty (hypermethylated) and 41 (hypomethylated) genes were identified as differentially methylated between chromophobe RCC and renal oncocytomas (p renal oncocytoma in relation to the other histological subtypes, providing insight into the pathology of RCC subtypes and classification of renal tumors. PMID:23428843

  6. Store-Operated Ca2+ Entry Does Not Control Proliferation in Primary Cultures of Human Metastatic Renal Cellular Carcinoma

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    Silvia Dragoni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE is activated following depletion of the inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3-sensitive Ca2+ pool to regulate proliferation in immortalized cell lines established from either primary or metastatic lesions. The molecular nature of SOCE may involve both Stim1, which senses Ca2+ levels within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER Ca2+ reservoir, and a number of a Ca2+-permeable channels on the plasma membrane, including Orai1, Orai3, and members of the canonical transient receptor (TRPC1–7 family of ion channels. The present study was undertaken to assess whether SOCE is expressed and controls proliferation in primary cultures isolated from secondary lesions of heavily pretreated metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC patients. SOCE was induced following pharmacological depletion of the ER Ca2+ store, but not by InsP3-dependent Ca2+ release. Metastatic RCC cells express Stim1-2, Orai1–3, and TRPC1–7 transcripts and proteins. In these cells, SOCE was insensitive to BTP-2, 10 µM Gd3+ and Pyr6, while it was inhibited by 100 µM Gd3+, 2-APB, and carboxyamidotriazole (CAI. Neither Gd3+ nor 2-APB or CAI impaired mRCC cell proliferation. Consistently, no detectable Ca2+ signal was elicited by growth factor stimulation. Therefore, a functional SOCE is expressed but does not control proliferation of mRCC cells isolated from patients resistant to multikinase inhibitors.

  7. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 identifies cells with cancer stem cell-like properties in a human renal cell carcinoma cell line.

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    Kosuke Ueda

    Full Text Available Cancer stem cells (CSC or cancer stem cell-like cells (CSC-LCs have been identified in many malignant tumors. CSCs are proposed to be related with drug resistance, tumor recurrence, and metastasis and are considered as a new target for cancer treatment; however, there are only a few reports on CSCs or CSC-LCs in renal cell carcinoma (RCC. Different approaches have been reported for CSC identification, but there are no universal markers for CSC. We used two different approaches, the traditional side population (SP approach, and the enzymatic (aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1 approach to identify CSC-LC population in two RCC cell lines, ACHN and KRC/Y. We found that ACHN and KRC/Y contain 1.4% and 1.7% SP cells, respectively. ACHN SP cells showed a higher sphere forming ability, drug resistance, and a slightly higher tumorigenic ability in NOD/SCID mice than Non-SP (NSP cells, suggesting that cells with CSC-LC properties are included in ACHN SP cells. KRC/Y SP and NSP cells showed no difference in such properties. ALDH1 activity analysis revealed that ACHN SP cells expressed a higher level of activity than NSP cells (SP vs. NSP: 32.7% vs 14.6%. Analysis of ALDH1-positive ACHN cells revealed that they have a higher sphere forming ability, self-renewal ability, tumorigenicity and express higher mRNA levels of CSC-LC property-related genes (e.g., ABC transporter genes, self-replication genes, anti-apoptosis genes, and so forth than ALDH1-negative cells. Drug treatment or exposure to hypoxic condition induced a 2- to 3-fold increase in number of ALDH1-positive cells. In conclusion, the results suggest that the ALDH1-positive cell population rather than SP cells show CSC-LC properties in a RCC cell line, ACHN.

  8. Enhanced antitumor effects of an engineered measles virus Edmonston strain expressing the wild-type N, P, L genes on human renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xin; Nakamura, Takafumi; Okazaki, Toshihiko; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Atsushi; Miyamoto, Shohei; Sakaguchi, Gaku; Eto, Masatoshi; Naito, Seiji; Takeda, Makoto; Yanagi, Yusuke; Tani, Kenzaburo

    2010-03-01

    Measles virus Edmonston strain (MV-Edm) is thought to have remarkable oncolytic activity that selectively destroys human tumor cells. The P/V/C protein of wild-type MV was shown to resist the antiviral effects of interferon (IFN)-alpha. Here, we engineered new MVs by arming MV-Edm tag strain (a V-defective vaccine-lineage strain, MV-Etag) with the P or N, P, and L genes of wild-type MV (MV-P and MV-NPL, respectively). The oncolytic activities of the MVs were determined in human renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cell lines and primary human RCC cells by the MTT assay. The antitumor efficacy of the MVs was evaluated in A-498 xenografts in nude mice. IFN-alpha effectively inhibited the replication of MV-Etag and MV-P, but not MV-NPL. MV-NPL more efficiently induced cytopathic effects (CPEs) in OS-RC-2 cells, even in the presence of human IFN-alpha. MV-NPL replicated more rapidly than MV-P and MV-Etag in A-498 cells. Apoptosis was induced earlier in A-498 cells by MV-NPL than MV-Etag and MV-P. MV-NPL showed more significant antitumoral effects and had prolonged replication compared to MV-Etag and MV-P. In this study, we demonstrated that the newly engineered MV-NPL has more effective oncolytic activity and may help establish an innovative cancer therapy.

  9. Microwave treatment of renal cell carcinoma adjacent to renal sinus

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    Gao, Yongyan, E-mail: gaoyongyan7@163.com [Department of Interventional Ultrasound, Chinese PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing, 100853 (China); Department of Ultrasound, The General Hospital of Chinese People’s Armed Police Forces, 69 Yongding Road, Beijing, 100039 (China); Liang, Ping, E-mail: liangping301@hotmail.com [Department of Interventional Ultrasound, Chinese PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing, 100853 (China); Yu, Xiaoling, E-mail: 784107477@qq.com [Department of Interventional Ultrasound, Chinese PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing, 100853 (China); Yu, Jie, E-mail: 1411495161@qq.com [Department of Interventional Ultrasound, Chinese PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing, 100853 (China); Cheng, Zhigang, E-mail: 13691367317@163.com [Department of Interventional Ultrasound, Chinese PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing, 100853 (China); Han, Zhiyu, E-mail: hanzhiyu122@163.com [Department of Interventional Ultrasound, Chinese PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing, 100853 (China); Duan, Shaobo, E-mail: Dustin2662@163.com [Department of Interventional Ultrasound, Chinese PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing, 100853 (China); Huang, Hui, E-mail: 309hh@sina.com [Department of Interventional Ultrasound, Chinese PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing, 100853 (China)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • This study shows US-guided microwave ablation appears to be a promising method to treat renal cell carcinoma adjacent to renal sinus. • The estimated 1-, 3- and 5-year RCC-related survival were 100%, 93.3% and 93.3%, respectively. • The estimated 1-, 3- and 5-year overall survival were 97.1%, 87.8%, 83.6%, respectively. • For patients with RCC ≤4 cm, initial ablation success was 100% (29/29) and the estimated 5-year disease-free survival were 81.5%. - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of ultrasound (US)-guided percutaneous microwave ablation (MWA) for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) adjacent to renal sinus. Materials and methods: This retrospective study included 41 patients who underwent US-guided percutaneous MWA of 41 RCCs adjacent to the renal sinus from April 2006 to December 2015. Contrast-enhanced images of US and computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging were performed at pre-ablation and 1 day, 1 month, 3 months, and every 6 months after ablation. Initial ablation success (IAS), disease-free survival (DFS), RCC-related survival (RRS), and overall survival (OS) were recorded at the follow-up visits. Results: IAS was achieved in 92.7% (38/41) of the study subjects. The IAS significantly differed between patients with RCCs ≤4 cm (100%, 29/29) and RCCs >4 cm (75%, 9/12, p = 0.021). During the median follow-up of 37.6 (range, 3.0–97.3) months, the estimated 1-, 3-, and 5-year DFS of patients with an initial tumor of ≤4 cm were 100%, 89.7%, and 81.5%, respectively. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year RRS were 100%, 93.3%, and 93.3%, respectively. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year OS were 97.1%, 87.8%, and 83.6%, respectively. The multivariate analysis using the Cox proportional hazard model revealed no independent predictor of recurrence among all the variables. There were no MWA-related deaths among the study subjects. One patient developed a retroperitoneal abscess after ablation. Conclusion: US-guided percutaneous MWA

  10. Targeted Therapy for Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, R; Rawal, S

    2015-01-01

    Our study aims to evaluate the use of targeted therapy in metastatic renal cell carcinoma Methods: This is a prospective study done over three years from December 2010 to December, 2013.Out of Forty seven patients of metastatic renal cell carcinoma 8(neo-adjuvant cases) were excluded and 39 were included in this study. All patients received Tyrosine kinase inhibitor, sunitinib therapy (50 mg OD, 4/2 scheme). All 39 patients underwent radical nephrectomy prior to sunitinib therapy. Patients were followed up every cycle for their clinical symptoms following sunitinib therapy and every 3 months with chest X-ray, ultra-sonography and bone scan. CT scan was done if needed. A RECIST criterion was used to evaluate the complete, partial and no tumor response. The median survival was 28.5 months (CI 9.253-47.7) and progression free survival (PFS) was 9.16 months(CI 6.08-12.23).According to RECIST, stable disease was found in 6 patients till date and a complete response in two patients. Clear cell histology was found in 30(76.9%) patients, papillary variety in 6(15.39%) patients, chromophobe type was seen in one patient and rest had mixed sarcomatoid papillary and rhabdoid clear cell variety. Twenty four patients (61.5%) had multiple metastases. Most frequent metastasis was seen in lungs in 14 patients (36%) and bone in 12 patients (31%).Metastases were also seen in draining lymph nodes, adrenals, omentum,skin, liver, and brain. In our cohort, use of sunitinib showed similar outcome to previously published articles. Our study supports the use of sunitinib in metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

  11. Bilateral hybrid oncocytoma and renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piplani, S; Kapur, B N; Sandhu, A S; Dhagat, P K; Kakkar, S; Singh, Samarjeet; Bhatoe, H S

    2012-06-01

    A 26-year-old female presented with abdominal pain and distension in 2003. Clinical evaluation and imaging were suggestive of bilateral benign renal solid masses. Fine needle aspiration showed tubular cells only. Patient was kept under periodic follow up. She reported 4 years later with increase in pain and size of masses, and underwent bilateral staged nephron sparing surgery. The histopathology was reported as bilateral oncocytoma. Two years after surgery, she developed epidural spinal cord compression and liver metastasis. A decompression laminectomy and biopsy revealed conventional renal cell carcinoma (RCC). To our knowledge this is the first case report of sporadic bilateral synchronous hybrid RCC and oncocytoma in a young woman, with spinal epidural metastasis.

  12. Trigeminal perineural spread of renal cell carcinoma

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    Hornik, Alejandro; Rosenblum, Jordan; Biller, Jose [Stritch School of Medicine, Loyola University Medical Center, Chicago (United States)

    2012-07-01

    A 55-year-old man had a five-day history of 'pins and needles' sensation on the left chin. Examination showed decreased pinprick sensation on the territory of the left mandibular branch of the trigeminal nerve. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with gadolinium showed enhancement involving the left mandibular branch. Computed tomography (CT) of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis showed a left kidney mass diagnosed as renal carcinoma following nephrectomy. The 'numb-chin' syndrome heralds or accompanies systemic malignancies. Trigeminal perineural spread has been well-documented in head and neck neoplasms, however, to our knowledge, it has not been reported in renal neoplasms. (author)

  13. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma to the thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggal, Neal Murari; Horattas, Mark C

    2008-11-01

    To examine the presentation, diagnosis, and appropriate management of renal clear cell carcinoma metastasis to the thyroid gland. We describe a clinical case of solitary thyroid metastasis from renal clear cell carcinoma and present a comprehensive review of the related English-language literature. Common patterns of presentation and generalized overall management recommendations are evaluated and summarized. Eight years after nephrectomy for renal carcinoma at age 61 years, a man presented with a thyroid mass. Cytology and histopathologic surgical findings were consistent with a solitary metastasis most compatible with metastatic clear cell carcinoma from his previous renal carcinoma. After left thyroid lobectomy and isthmusectomy, the patient remains disease-free 5 years later. Although uncommon, nearly 150 cases of clinically recognized metastatic renal cell carcinoma to the thyroid have been reported in the English-language literature. Metastatic disease from the kidney to the thyroid gland can occur more than 20 years after nephrectomy with the average time interval being 7.5 years. Obtaining a full clinical history in any patient who presents with a thyroid nodule is essential to allow consideration of possible metastatic disease from previous primary tumor. Metastatic disease to the thyroid gland can be correctly diagnosed preoperatively. If metastatic renal cancer is limited to the thyroid gland only, prompt, appropriate surgical intervention can be curative. Metastatic renal carcinoma to the thyroid should be considered in any patient presenting with a thyroid mass and a medical history of renal cell carcinoma.

  14. Characterizing the outcomes of metastatic papillary renal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connor Wells, John; Donskov, Frede; Fraccon, Anna P

    2017-01-01

    Outcomes of metastatic papillary renal cell carcinoma (pRCC) patients are poorly characterized in the era of targeted therapy. A total of 5474 patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) in the International mRCC Database Consortium (IMDC) were retrospectively analyzed. Outcomes were com...

  15. Unilateral Renal Cell Carcinoma in a Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Y. Chung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 4-year-old, neutered male, American Cocker Spaniel weighing 8.3 kg was presented with a 1-month history of weight-loss, anorexia, intermittent vomiting and bloody-diarrhea. Abnormal blood tests results, a large mass on the kidney field in radiographic views and ultrasonography were presented. Nephroureterectomy was tried, but a large mass in the kidney and metastasis to the spleen caused to decline the surgery and treatment. The dog was euthanized, and necropsy and histological review revealed the renal cell carcinoma.

  16. X-ray induced DNA double-strand breakage and rejoining in a radiosensitive human renal carcinoma cell line estimated by CHEF electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, K. (Univ. Clinic for Radiotherapy and Radiobiology, Vienna Univ. (Austria) Inst. of Radiation Medicine, Beijing, BJ (China)); Wandl, E. (Univ. Clinic for Radiotherapy and Radiobiology, Vienna Univ. (Austria)); Kaercher, K.H. (Univ. Clinic for Radiotherapy and Radiobiology, Vienna Univ. (Austria))

    1993-12-01

    Cell intrinsic radiosensitivity is of great importance in radiation therapy, but its molecular basis is still uncertain. Since DNA double strand breakage is considered to be the most important lesion related to cell death induced by ionizing radiation, the relationship between DNA double-strand breakage, repair and cell survival was investigated in three cell lines: Chinese hamster cell (CHO-K1), human fibroblast and human renal carcinoma (Tu 25). The D[sub 0] values after X-irradiation were 1.73, 1.23, and 0.89 Gy, respectively, showing that Tu 25 was the most sensitive among them. DNA double-strand breaks were measured by CHEF electrophoresis, the initial yield of double-strand break per dose in the three cell lines was almost the same, and no correlation to cell survival was found. However, the rejoining capacity for DNA double-strand break differed. After a dose of 20 Gy, the repair rate was markedly lower in Tu 25, with a half repair time of 40 min, as compared with the other two cell lines with half repair times of 15 min. The results strongly supported the correlation between the repair capacity for DNA double-strand break and cell survival. It was concluded that DNA repair capacity is one of the determinants of cell radiosensitivity. Estimation of DNA double-strand break rejoining by CHEF was suggested as a predictive assay for radiosensitivity of human tumor cells. (orig.)

  17. Metastasis-associated in colon cancer 1 is a novel survival-related biomarker for human patients with renal pelvis carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailong Hu

    Full Text Available Metastasis-associated in colon cancer 1 (MACC1 has recently been identified as a novel independent prognostic indicator for metastasis occurrence, overall survival and cancer-free survival for patients with colon cancer and other solid tumors. In this study, we investigated the role of MACC1 in the development and progression of renal pelvis carcinoma, a form of upper tract urothelial carcinomas. MACC1 protein has been found in the cytoplasm as well as in the nucleus of the transitional epithelial cells of the normal renal pelvis in immunohistochemical (IHC assays. Quantitative IHC examinations revealed that MACC1 abnormal abundance in cancerous tissues might represent a biological indicator clinically suggestive of tumor malignancy in the renal pelvis. Furthermore, investigation of the association of MACC1 protein levels with clinicopathological parameters in this study has suggested a correlation of MACC1 expression with tumor-node-metastasis stage and histopathological grade of patients with renal pelvis carcinoma, with elevated MACC1 protein levels frequently associated with higher aggressiveness of the disease. Moreover, both disease-free survival and overall survival for the patients in the high MACC1 expression group were significantly lower than those in the low expression group. Multivariate analysis with a Cox proportional-hazards model suggested that MACC1 is indeed an independent prognostic indicator of overall survival and cancer-free survival for patients with renal pelvis carcinoma. Thus, MACC1 may represent a promising prognostic biomarker candidate, as well as a potential therapeutic target for this disease.

  18. [A Case Report of Splenic Metastasis of Renal Cell Carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Shunsuke; Haba, Tomomi; Kawaguchi, Makoto; Koike, Hiroshi

    2017-09-01

    A 64-year-old female patient underwent radical left nephrectomy in 2005 after being diagnosed with renal cell carcinoma. The pathological diagnosis was pT2b pN0 M0 clear cell carcinoma. Three years postoperatively, metastatic recurrence in the para-aortic lymph node was noted, and the patient underwent retroperitoneal lymph node dissection in 2008. The pathological diagnosis was renal cell carcinoma (a combination of clear cell carcinoma and type 2 papillary cell carcinoma). Five years later, she exhibited splenic metastasis on computed tomography, but no other distant metastases were observed. She underwent splenectomy in 2013, and the pathological diagnosis was splenic metastasis of renal cell carcinoma (type 2 papillary cell carcinoma). Three months after the splenectomy, she developed multiple bone metastases but refused to undergo treatment with molecularly targeted drugs ; hence, she was transferred to palliative care services. Fourteen months after the splenectomy, she died of cancer. Most metastatic splenic tumors occur as part of multiple organ metastases in the terminal stage of renal cell carcinoma. If splenic metastasis of renal cell carcinoma is observed, further imaging studies should be performed, and splenectomy should only be considered if a definitive diagnosis of sporadic splenic metastasis is made.

  19. Incidence and clinicopathologic behavior of uterine cervical carcinoma in renal transplant recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hur Soo Young

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Renal allograft recipients are reported to have a higher incidence of malignancy than the general population. This single hospital-based study examined the incidence and clinicopathologic behavior of uterine cervical carcinoma in renal transplant recipients. Methods Among 453 women receiving renal transplantation from January 1990 to December 2008, 5 patients were diagnosed with cervical carcinoma. Medical records of these 5 patients were retrospectively reviewed, and clinicopathologic data were collected and analyzed. Results The incidence of cervical carcinoma in renal transplant recipients was 58.1 out of 100,000 per year, which is 3.5 times higher than in the general Korean population. The mean interval between the time of renal transplantation and the time of cervical carcinoma diagnosis was 80.7 months. After a median follow-up of 96.2 months, there was no recurrence of the disease or death. In 4 patients who were positive from human papillomavirus in situ hybridization (HPV ISH, high or probably high risk HPV DNA was detected in all. Punctate staining of HPV ISH was detected in 3 out of 4 patients. Conclusions Higher incidence of cervical carcinoma is expected in renal transplant recipients, so appropriate surveillance is needed to ensure early detection and treatment of cervical carcinoma.

  20. Phase I study of GC1008 (fresolimumab: a human anti-transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ monoclonal antibody in patients with advanced malignant melanoma or renal cell carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C Morris

    Full Text Available In advanced cancers, transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ promotes tumor growth and metastases and suppresses host antitumor immunity. GC1008 is a human anti-TGFβ monoclonal antibody that neutralizes all isoforms of TGFβ. Here, the safety and activity of GC1008 was evaluated in patients with advanced malignant melanoma and renal cell carcinoma.In this multi-center phase I trial, cohorts of patients with previously treated malignant melanoma or renal cell carcinoma received intravenous GC1008 at 0.1, 0.3, 1, 3, 10, or 15 mg/kg on days 0, 28, 42, and 56. Patients achieving at least stable disease were eligible to receive Extended Treatment consisting of 4 doses of GC1008 every 2 weeks for up to 2 additional courses. Pharmacokinetic and exploratory biomarker assessments were performed.Twenty-nine patients, 28 with malignant melanoma and 1 with renal cell carcinoma, were enrolled and treated, 22 in the dose-escalation part and 7 in a safety cohort expansion. No dose-limiting toxicity was observed, and the maximum dose, 15 mg/kg, was determined to be safe. The development of reversible cutaneous keratoacanthomas/squamous-cell carcinomas (4 patients and hyperkeratosis was the major adverse event observed. One malignant melanoma patient achieved a partial response, and six had stable disease with a median progression-free survival of 24 weeks for these 7 patients (range, 16.4-44.4 weeks.GC1008 had no dose-limiting toxicity up to 15 mg/kg. In patients with advanced malignant melanoma and renal cell carcinoma, multiple doses of GC1008 demonstrated acceptable safety and preliminary evidence of antitumor activity, warranting further studies of single agent and combination treatments.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00356460.

  1. Renal Cell Carcinoma Presenting with Cutaneous Metastasis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilufer Onak Kandemir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma is the most common kidney tumor in adults. Cutaneous metastasis is a rare first symptom of the disease. This paper describes the diagnosis of a renal cell carcinoma that was indicated by cutaneous metastasis in the head and neck region, and considers the etiopathogenesis of such cases. A careful skin examination is important to detect cutaneous metastasis associated with renal cell carcinomas. Metastatic skin lesions in the head and neck region must be taken into consideration during a differential diagnosis.

  2. Renal Cell Carcinoma Presenting with Cutaneous Metastasis: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onak Kandemir, Nilufer; Barut, Figen; Yılmaz, Kıvanç; Tokgoz, Husnu; Hosnuter, Mubin; Ozdamar, Sukru Oguz

    2010-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma is the most common kidney tumor in adults. Cutaneous metastasis is a rare first symptom of the disease. This paper describes the diagnosis of a renal cell carcinoma that was indicated by cutaneous metastasis in the head and neck region, and considers the etiopathogenesis of such cases. A careful skin examination is important to detect cutaneous metastasis associated with renal cell carcinomas. Metastatic skin lesions in the head and neck region must be taken into consideration during a differential diagnosis. PMID:20811607

  3. Duodenal Bleeding from Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun Rustagi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Massive upper gastrointestinal bleeding due to malignancy is relatively uncommon and the duodenum is the least frequently involved site. Duodenal metastasis is rare in renal cell carcinoma (RCC and early detection, especially in case of a solitary mass, helps in planning further therapy. We report a case of intractable upper gastrointestinal bleeding from metastatic RCC to the duodenum. The patient presented with melena and anemia, 13 years after nephrectomy for RCC. On esophagogastroduodenoscopy, a submucosal mass was noted in the duodenum, biopsies of which revealed metastatic RCC. In conclusion, metastasis from RCC should be considered in nephrectomized patients presenting with gastrointestinal symptoms and a complete evaluation, especially endoscopic examination followed by biopsy, is suggested.

  4. Unilateral Blepharoptosis From Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Greco

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Blepharoptosis is the drooping or inferior displacement of the upper eyelid. Blepharoptosis can be either congenital or acquired. Tumour metastasis is one of the acquired causes of blepharoptosis. The lungs, locoregional lymph nodes, bone and liver are the usual sites of metastases of renal cell carcinoma (RCC; however, unusual locations of RCC have also been reported. Herein, we describe a case of a 47-year-old man with unilateral ptosis and blurred vision due to metastatic RCC. We describe the different causes of blepharopstosis, the path that led to the diagnosis, and how RCC can metastasize to unusual anatomical regions such as the orbit. Symptoms such as exophthalmos, lid edema, diplopia, ptosis, cranial nerve paralysis or blurred vision may mime a benign disease; however, they could also be the symptoms of a systemic malignancy.

  5. Metabolic alterations in renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massari, Francesco; Ciccarese, Chiara; Santoni, Matteo; Brunelli, Matteo; Piva, Francesco; Modena, Alessandra; Bimbatti, Davide; Fantinel, Emanuela; Santini, Daniele; Cheng, Liang; Cascinu, Stefano; Montironi, Rodolfo; Tortora, Giampaolo

    2015-11-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a metabolic disease, being characterized by the dysregulation of metabolic pathways involved in oxygen sensing (VHL/HIF pathway alterations and the subsequent up-regulation of HIF-responsive genes such as VEGF, PDGF, EGF, and glucose transporters GLUT1 and GLUT4, which justify the RCC reliance on aerobic glycolysis), energy sensing (fumarate hydratase-deficient, succinate dehydrogenase-deficient RCC, mutations of HGF/MET pathway resulting in the metabolic Warburg shift marked by RCC increased dependence on aerobic glycolysis and the pentose phosphate shunt, augmented lipogenesis, and reduced AMPK and Krebs cycle activity) and/or nutrient sensing cascade (deregulation of AMPK-TSC1/2-mTOR and PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathways). We analyzed the key metabolic abnormalities underlying RCC carcinogenesis, highlighting those altered pathways that may represent potential targets for the development of more effective therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Intraventricular metastatic clear cell renal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sava, I; Sava, Anca; Şapte, Elena; Mihailov, Claudia; Dumitrescu, Gabriela; Poeată, I; Sava, Florina; Haba, Danisia

    2013-01-01

    Intraventricular tumors represent a diagnostic problem, due to a wide range of differential diagnosis, with an important variability of tumoral histological types in adult and pediatric population. Patient, Our case is represented by a patient, aged 48 years, without any history of significant personal pathology, accusing nausea, vomiting, and intensive headache. In the morning, he became confused, having hallucinations for a short period of time, and has accused drowsiness for several weeks. Imaging (CT and MRI) shows a neoformation in the third ventricle, accompanied by bilateral lateral ventricles dilatation, with predominantly annular enhancement. During surgery, through the middle third transcallosal interhemispheric approach, it was revealed a reddish, well-demarcated intraventricular mass, well vascularized and with a firm consistency. Final pathologic diagnosis was metastatic clear cell renal carcinoma. Initial postoperative evolution was good, and then neurological and respiratory condition worsened as a bronchopneumonia lead to patient's death in 12 days after surgery. Clear cell carcinoma metastasis located in the third ventricle should be taken into consideration for patients presenting a single intraventricular lesion even they have no documented primary malignancy.

  7. Current MR imaging of renal cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Sae Lin; Sung, Seuk Jae [Dept. of Radiology, Anam Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) consists of approximately 85-90% of renal masses, and its incidence is increasing due to widespread use of modern imaging modalities such as ultrasonography or computed tomography. Computed tomography has served an important role in the diagnosis and staging of RCC; however, recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques have considerably improved our ability to predict tumor biology beyond the morphologic assessment. Multiparametric MRI protocols include standard sequences tailored for the morphologic evaluation and acquisitions that provide information about the tumor microenvironment such as diffusion-weighted imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. The role of multiparametric MRI in the evaluation of RCC now extends to preoperative characterization of RCC subtypes, histologic grade, and quantitative assessment of tumor response to targeted therapies in patients with metastatic disease. Herein, the clinical applications and recent advances in MRI applied to RCC are reviewed along with its merits and demerits. We aimed to review MRI techniques and image analysis that can improve the management of patients with RCC. Familiarity with the advanced MRI techniques and various imaging findings of RCC would also facilitate optimal clinical recommendations for patients.

  8. Wnt Signaling in Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Xu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma (RCC accounts for 90% of all kidney cancers. Due to poor diagnosis, high resistance to the systemic therapies and the fact that most RCC cases occur sporadically, current research switched its focus on studying the molecular mechanisms underlying RCC. The aim is the discovery of new effective and less toxic anti-cancer drugs and novel diagnostic markers. Besides the PI3K/Akt/mTOR, HGF/Met and VHL/hypoxia cellular signaling pathways, the involvement of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in RCC is commonly studied. Wnt signaling and its targeted genes are known to actively participate in different biological processes during embryonic development and renal cancer. Recently, studies have shown that targeting this pathway by alternating/inhibiting its intracellular signal transduction can reduce cancer cells viability and inhibit their growth. The targets and drugs identified show promising potential to serve as novel RCC therapeutics and prognostic markers. This review aims to summarize the current status quo regarding recent research on RCC focusing on the involvement of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and how its understanding could facilitate the identification of potential therapeutic targets, new drugs and diagnostic biomarkers.

  9. Papillary renal cell carcinoma within a renal oncocytoma: Case report of very rare coexistence

    OpenAIRE

    Özer, Cevahir; Gören, Mehmet Resit; Egilmez, Tulga; Bal, Nebil

    2014-01-01

    Renal oncocytomas accounts for 3% to 9% of primary renal neoplasms. The coexistence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) within the oncocytoma is extremely rare. We report the case of an asyptomatic 74-year-old man with papillary RCC within oncocytoma managed with left radical nephrectomy.

  10. S100A11 regulates renal carcinoma cell proliferation, invasion, and migration via the EGFR/Akt signaling pathway and E-cadherin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin; Miao, Long; Liu, Yang; Qi, Aihua; Xie, Ping; Chen, Jiacun; Zhu, Haitao

    2017-05-01

    S100A11 is a S100 protein family member that contributes to cancer progression. Upregulated in human renal cancer tissues, S100A11 may be a prognostic marker for clear cell renal cell carcinoma, but how it functions in cancer is uncertain. Thus, we studied S100A11 and noted knockdown of S100A11 using short hairpin RNA, which inhibited proliferation, invasion, and migration of renal carcinoma cells as well as increased expression of E-cadherin and decreased expression of epidermal growth factor receptor/Akt in renal carcinoma cells. Therefore, S100A11 may be a key molecular target for treating renal carcinoma.

  11. [Paraneoplastic syndromes in three patients with renal cell carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steffens, M.G.; Mulder, P.H.M. de; Mulders, P.F.A.

    2004-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma was diagnosed in three male patients, 45, 53 and 52 years of age. In addition, they had paraneoplastic symptoms: hypercalcaemia, hyperglycaemia and elevated hepatic enzyme levels, respectively. All three patients underwent tumour nephrectomy, after which the paraneoplastic

  12. Renal cell carcinoma in pregnancy: Still a management challenge

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Akpayak, I.C; Shuiabu, S.I; Ofoha, C.G; Dakum, N.K; Ramyil, V.M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Renal cell carcinoma during pregnancy is uncommon. We present a rare case, highlighting the dilemma faced by the patient and the challenge of deciding the appropriate management option. Patient...

  13. A case of renal cell carcinoma and angiomyolipoma in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. We describe a case of renal cell carcinoma in the right kidney together with an angiomyolipoma in the left kidney, encountered in an adolescent girl at Potchefstroom Provincial Hospital, North West Province, South Africa.

  14. Understanding Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC), the most common form of kidney cancer in adults, is not a single disease but rather a collection of different tumor types driven by distinct genetic changes that arise within the same tissue.

  15. New agents in treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jakub Zolnierek; Pawel Nurzynski; Piotr Rzepecki

    2007-01-01

      As renal cell carcinoma appears to be resistant to conventional treatment modalities and results of cytokine-based immunotherapy are far from satisfactory, there is desperate need for new active agents to be discovered...

  16. Renal collecting duct carcinoma: Report of a case with unusual imaging findings regarding renal function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longwang Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal collecting duct carcinoma (CDC is a rare and aggressive type of renal cell cancer (RCC, which is difficult to confirm before surgery. We present a case of CDC presenting a hypovascular mass on renal CTA and deteriorated renal function of the affected kidney on single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT, which are different from the most common RCC, clear cell RCC. Considering these findings, it would be worthwhile investigating the role of CTA and SPECT in CDC diagnosis.

  17. Clinical and pathological features of papillary renal cell carcinoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction and objectives: Papillary renal cell carcinoma (PRCC) accounts for 10–15% of renal tumors in adults. This type of tumor contains more than 75% of tubulo-papillary structures and is divided histologically into two subtypes. The distinction between these two subtypes is essential because of their prognostic value.

  18. Unilateral renal cell carcinoma in a Labrador retriever

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett, Fleur

    2004-01-01

    A 7-year-old, neutered male, Labrador retriever was presented with a history of hematuria. Radiographic and ultrasonographic studies led to a presumptive diagnosis of unilateral renal neoplasia. Unilateral nephroureterectomy was performed. Histopathologic examination of the resected mass confirmed the diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma. Six weeks postoperatively, the dog was well.

  19. Combined Treatment with Valproic Acid and 5-Aza-2'-Deoxycytidine Synergistically Inhibits Human Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma Growth and Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Wenjin; Chen, Xu; Sun, Jinbo; Wang, Wei; Huo, Yi; Zheng, Guoxu; Wu, Jieheng; Li, Yufang; Yang, Angang; Wang, Tao

    2018-02-19

    BACKGROUND Histone acetylation and DNA methylation are important mammalian epigenetic modifications that participate in the regulation of gene expression. Because dysregulation of histone deacetylase and DNA methyltransferases are hallmarks of malignancy, they have become promising therapeutic targets. In this study, we explored the anti-tumor activity of valproic acid (VPA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) and 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza), an inhibitor of DNA methyltransferases, on renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cell lines 786-O and 769-P. MATERIAL AND METHODS The cell proliferation was detected by xCELLigence RTCA DP Instrument, viability by CCK8 assay, cell apoptosis and cell cycle by flow cytometry, and cell migration by wound healing assay, Transwell assay and xCELLigence RTCA DP Instrument. RESULTS We discovered that VPA and 5-Aza could individually induce decreased viability and have an inhibitory effect on the proliferation of 786-O and 769-P cells. This anti-growth effect was more pronounced when the cells were treated with both VPA and 5-Aza. The combination of VPA and 5-Aza also elicited more apoptosis and produced more cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase for both cell lines. On the other hand, treatment of RCC cells with VPA, 5-Aza, or a combination of both resulted in slow wound healing and impaired migration. CONCLUSIONS These findings clearly demonstrated that VPA combined with 5-Aza could significantly increase anti-RCC effects by inhibiting cellular proliferation, inducing apoptosis, promoting cell cycle arrest and prohibiting the migration of human RCC cells.

  20. Renal cell carcinoma in end-stage renal disease: Multi-institutional comparative analysis of survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Cheryn; Hong, Sung Hoo; Chung, Jin Soo; Byun, Seok Soo; Kwak, Cheol; Jeong, Chang Wook; Seo, Seong Il; Jeon, Hwang Gyun; Seo, Ill Young

    2016-06-01

    To describe the clinical features of renal cell carcinoma arising in end-stage renal disease and to compare survival outcomes after definitive treatment with non-end-stage renal disease renal cell carcinoma. Data of 181 consecutive patients with end-stage renal disease renal cell carcinoma who had received surgical treatment between 1995 and 2011 at seven institutions were reviewed. Data of 362 non-end-stage renal disease renal cell carcinoma patients matched for clinicopathological parameters who received surgery at Asan Medical Center during the same study period were also reviewed. The two study groups were compared with respect to recurrence-free, cancer-specific, and overall survival by Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards method. Mean follow up was 40 ± 34.2 months after surgery. Median tumor size was 2.5 cm (interquartile range 1.5-4.5), and pathological tumor stage was T1 in 78%, T2 in 7.1% and T3 and higher in 14.9%. Tumor histological type was clear cell in 63%, papillary in 17%, chromophobe in 5%, clear cell papillary in 2.8% and acquired cystic disease-related in 6.1%. Compared with the controls, the stage-specific 5-year recurrence-free survival was similar (87.6 vs 88.5%), but cancer-specific and overall survival was significantly lower. On multivariate analysis, end-stage renal disease renal cell carcinoma was not a predictor for recurrence-free survival, but a significant predictor for cancer-specific (hazard ratio 4.07, 95% confidence interval 2.08-7.94) and overall survival (hazard ratio 3.13, 95% confidence interval 1.66-5.96). End-stage renal disease renal cell carcinoma seems to have comparable stage-specific recurrence-free, but poorer cancer-specific and overall survival compared with non-end-stage renal disease renal cell carcinoma. As patients with end-stage renal disease are a high-risk population for renal cell carcinoma, routine radiographic screening to improve survival outcomes should be further investigated. © 2016

  1. [Atypical sites of metastatic renal carcinoma. Literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Fentes, D A; Blanco Parra, M; Toucedo Caamaño, V; Lema Grille, J; Cimadevila García, A; Villar Núñez, M

    2005-01-01

    To review in the literature atypical sites of metastatic renal cell carcinoma, its onset, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. To review, using Medline database, atypical sites of metastatic renal cell carcinoma in the last five years Spanish literature. There have been published 15 spanish articles about atypical metastatic renal cell carcinoma in the last five years. Most patients were male with a mean age of 62,3 years and methacronous metastases. Imaging and pathological diagnosis. Main sites: ocular, renal graft, larynx, suprarenal, brain, penis, gastric and pancreatic. Surgical treatment if the surgeon is able to remove the lesion. Inmunotherapy and radiotherapy in the rest of cases. Renal cell carcinoma represents about 3% of all adult malignancy neoplasms. Its metastatic sites, in order of frequency, are lung, bone and liver, whether synchronic or methacronic. Its location, clinical features, onset, evolution and prognosis is very variable. Individualized diagnostic and therapeutic approach, according to prognostic factors. The knowledge of this atypical sites in patients with renal cell carcinoma in the past can lead us to an earlier diagnosis and treatment which could change the evolution of the illness.

  2. Cardiac Metastasis in Renal Cell Carcinoma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-10-21

    Oct 21, 2015 ... following: pleural mesothelioma (48.4%), melanoma (27.8%), lung adenocarcinoma (21%), undifferentiated carcinomas (19.5%), lung squamous cell carcinoma (18.2%) and breast carcinoma (15.5%). High rates of heart metastatisation have also been observed in patients affected by ovarian carcinoma ...

  3. Emerging therapeutics in refractory renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshkin, Vadim S; Rini, Brian I

    2016-06-01

    Metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) has seen the introduction of numerous new treatments over the past decade. However, the efficacy of these therapies has plateaued, and new treatment options are needed for the majority of patients with mRCC whose disease inevitably progresses through one or more standard therapies ('refractory' mRCC). Recently approved agents in this space have shown great promise. This article reviews the evidence behind current management strategies for mRCC. After reviewing clinical trials that established current first-line therapies and agents used in the refractory setting, we address new ideas for the treatment of refractory disease including combination therapies and novel targeted agents. In particular, we focus on targeted immunotherapy in refractory mRCC. We conclude by considering future directions in combination treatments utilizing these novel agents. Numerous approaches have produced tangible benefits for the treatment of patients with mRCC. These include development of next generation VEGFR/TKIs, targeted immunotherapy agents, and the development of combined regimens. In particular, immunotherapy agents targeting the PD1/PD-L1 pathway have shown great promise with a robust survival advantage seen in patients treated with nivolumab. A tolerable side effect profile of immunotherapy agents makes them amenable for use in combination therapies and ongoing trials are addressing this question.

  4. Expression analysis of Wnt-5a in renal epithelial neoplasms: distinguishing renal oncocytoma from a wide spectrum of renal cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Qiu; Liu, Xiao-hong; Zhou, Hang-bo; Ma, Heng-hui; Lu, Zhen-feng; Zhou, Xiao-jun

    2010-01-01

    To study the expression of a novel marker, Wnt-5a, in renal epithelial neoplasms and determine its clinicopathological significance. Immunohistochemical analysis of Wnt-5a was carried out in normal human kidney samples as well as in 123 primary renal epithelial neoplasms including 37 clear cell renal cell carcinomas (RCCs), 24 papillary RCCs (15 type 1 and 9 type 2), 25 chromophobe RCCs, 11 Xp11 translocation carcinomas, 6 mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinomas, and 20 oncocytomas. Wnt-5a was expressed in 18.9% (7/37) of clear cell RCCs, 12.5% (3/24) of papillary RCCs, 16% (4/25) of chromophobe RCCs, 18.2% (2/11) of Xp11 translocation carcinomas, 0% (0/6) of mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinomas, and 100% (20/20) of oncocytomas. There was a significant difference in Wnt-5a immunohistochemistry between renal oncocytoma and the other subtypes of RCC (P oncocytoma and other subtypes of RCC and also suggest that Wnt-5a may be a tumor suppressor gene in RCC.

  5. Are primary renal cell carcinoma and metastases of renal cell carcinoma the same cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semeniuk-Wojtaś, Aleksandra; Stec, Rafał; Szczylik, Cezary

    2016-05-01

    Metastasis is a process consisting of cells spreading from the primary site of the cancer to distant parts of the body. Our understanding of this spread is limited and molecular mechanisms causing particular characteristics of metastasis are still unknown. There is some evidence that primary renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and metastases of RCC exhibit molecular differences that may effect on the biological characteristics of the tumor. Some authors have detected differences in clear cell and nonclear cell component between these 2 groups of tumors. Investigators have also determined that primary RCC and metastases of RCC diverge in their range of renal-specific markers and other protein expression, gene expression pattern, and microRNA expression. There are also certain proteins that are variously expressed in primary RCCs and their metastases and have effect on clinical outcome, e.g., endothelin receptor type B, phos-S6, and CD44. However, further studies are needed on large cohorts of patients to identify differences representing promising targets for prognostic purposes predicting disease-free survival and the metastatic burden of a patient as well as their suitability as potential therapeutic targets. To sum up, in this review we have attempted to summarize studies connected with differences between primary RCC and its metastases and their influence on the biological characteristics of renal cancer. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A Novel Protein Is Lower Expressed in Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruili Guan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Engrailed-2 (EN2 has been identified as a candidate oncogene in breast cancer and prostate cancer. It is usually recognized as a mainly nuclear staining in the cells. However, recent studies showed a cytoplasmic staining occurred in prostate cancer, bladder cancer and clear cell renal cell carcinoma. The inconsistency makes us confused. To clarify the localization and expression of EN2 in renal cell carcinoma, anti-EN2 antibody (ab28731 and anti-EN2 antibody (MAB2600 were used for immunohistochemistry (IHC respectively. Interestingly, we found that EN2 detected by ab28731 was mainly presented in cytoplasm while EN2 detected by MAB2600 was mainly presented in nucleus. To further investigate the different patterns observed above, lysates from full-length EN2 over expression in HEK293T cells were used to identify which antibody the EN2 molecule bound by western blot. Results showed ab28731 did not react with the lysates. For this reason, the novel specific protein detected by ab28731 was not the EN2 molecule and was named nonEN2. Then using the renal carcinoma tissue microarray and renal tissues, we found that the protein expression levels of nonEN2 in kidney tumor tissues was significantly lower than that in kidney normal tissues (p < 0.05, so was in renal cell lines. Taken together, nonEN2 is lower expressed and may play an important role in renal cell carcinoma.

  7. Beta2-microglobulin promotes the growth of human renal cell carcinoma through the activation of the protein kinase A, cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein, and vascular endothelial growth factor axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Takeo; Huang, Wen-Chin; Zhau, Haiyen E; Wu, Daqing; Xie, Zhihui; Mimata, Hiromitsu; Zayzafoon, Majd; Young, Andrew N; Marshall, Fray F; Weitzmann, M Neale; Chung, Leland W K

    2006-12-15

    Beta(2)-microglobulin (beta2M), a soluble protein secreted by cancer and host inflammatory cells, has various biological functions, including antigen presentation. Because aberrant expression of beta2M has been reported in human renal cell carcinoma, we investigated the effects of beta2M overexpression on cancer cell growth and analyzed its molecular signaling pathway. We established clonal cell lines that overexpressed beta2M in human renal cell carcinoma (SN12C) cells and then examined cell growth in vitro and in vivo and studied the beta2M-mediated downstream cell signaling pathway. Our results showed that beta2M expression positively correlates with (a) in vitro growth on plastic dishes and as Matrigel colonies, (b) cell invasion and migration in Boyden chambers, and (c) vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and secretion by cells. We found, in addition, that beta2M mediates its action through increased phosphorylation of cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB) via the protein kinase A-CREB axis, resulting in increased VEGF expression and secretion. In convergence with this signal axis, beta2M overexpression also activated both phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. Beta2M overexpression induced accelerated growth of SN12C in mouse subcutis and bone. Interrupting the beta2M signaling pathway using small interfering RNA led to apoptosis with increased activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9 and cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. Our results showed for the first time that the beta2M-protein kinase A-CREB-VEGF signaling axis plays a crucial role in support of renal cell carcinoma growth and progression and reveals a novel therapeutic target.

  8. Axitinib controlled metastatic renal cell carcinoma for 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Tatsuya; Nagata, Masao; Kai, Fumitake; Sugiyama, Takayuki; Ozono, Seiichiro

    2013-07-01

    We present two patients with a long-term response to axitinib for cytokine-refractory metastatic renal cell carcinoma. One patient has had a continuing partial response for 58 months with cytokine-intolerant metastatic renal cell carcinoma and the other patient has had continuing stable disease accompanied by a mixed response for 57 months with cytokine-refractory and intolerant metastatic renal cell carcinoma. The condition of hypertension as an adverse event markedly depended on whether or not axitinib was administered. The patients responded to axitinib with an elevation of diastolic blood pressure to 90 mmHg or higher until 2 weeks after starting axitinib. To get a long-term response to axitinib, it may be important to control well the balance between treatment effect and adverse events while using drug withdrawal.

  9. [A case of synchronous contralateral renal cell carcinoma and urothelial carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soda, Tetsuji; Nishimura, Kenji; Kobayashi, Yasuyuki; Kato, Taigo; Tokugawa, Shigeki; Kishikawa, Hidefumi; Ihara, Hideari; Ichikawa, Yasuji

    2009-08-01

    A 63-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with gross hematuria. Abdominal computed tomography showed an 80mm right renal tumor, 31mm left renal tumor, and 30 mm splenic tumor. Cystoscopy revealed a papillary tumor around the left orifice. Right radical nephrectomy and splenectomy were performed. Histological examination findings showed that the right renal tumor was a renal cell carcinoma, clear cell type, G1, INFalpha, pT2, ly0, v0, and that the splenic tumor was an arteriovenous fistula. Next, transurethral resection of the bladder tumor was performed and a histological examination showed urothelial carcinoma. Magnetic resonance imaging indicated that the left renal tumor was a renal pelvic cancer. Left total nephroureterectomy and cystectomy were performed, and the histological diagnosis was urothelial carcinoma, G3, pT3, ly1, v2. Following the operation, hemodialysis was introduced. It is rare for a renal cell carcinoma and contralateral renal pelvic cancer to occur simultaneously, as only 15 cases including the present have been reported in Japan.

  10. Unclassified Renal Cell Carcinoma With Medullary Phenotype Versus Renal Medullary Carcinoma: Lessons From Diagnosis in an Italian Man Found to Harbor Sickle Cell Trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Piergiuseppe; Smith, Steven C; Massa, Simona; Renne, Salvatore L; Brambilla, Simona; Peschechera, Roberto; Graziotti, Pierpaolo; Roncalli, Massimo; Amin, Mahul B

    2015-11-01

    Medullary carcinoma is a rare malignant tumor of the kidney. It affects individuals of African descent and all cases reported show evidence of sickle cell trait. We reviewed an unusual carcinoma arising in a white man, the ninth in the literature. The tumor demonstrated features associated with renal medullary carcinoma, or unclassified renal cell carcinoma, medullary phenotype as recently described; the presence of sickle cell trait confirmed the diagnosis of medullary carcinoma. This case is helpful in the differential diagnosis with non-sickle cell associated "renal cell carcinoma, unclassified with medullary phenotype," and study of this spectrum of tumors is ongoing.

  11. HISTOSPECTROPHOTOMETRICAL AND IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRICAL RESEARCH OF RENAL INTRATUBULAR NEOPLASIA IN PERITUMOUROUS ZONE OF A RENAL CARCINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Cherdantseva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work displays renal intratubular neoplasia (RIN in peritumourous zone of a renal carcinoma have been studied. The object of our work, are the operative materials of 42 patients. Middle age of patients has made 57,4 ± 1,4 year. Men was 25, women — 17. Characteristic of tubular epithelium in PZ a renal carcinoma have been studied morphofunctional by means of histological, histospectrophotometrical and immunohistochemistrical methods. It is shown, that in PZ tumors of a high degree displays, of RIN much more often, than in tumors of low degree anaplasia. In tumors of a high degree anaplasia in tubular epithelium PZ registered increasing of nucleus, ploidy and expression of AgNORs, Ki-67, p53 and bcl-2. The presence of displays RIN in tubular epithelium PZ at a renal carcinoma should be considered at surgery operations.

  12. Percutaneous and laparoscopic assisted cryoablation of small renal cell carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tommy Kjærgaard; Østraat, Øyvind; Borre, Michael

    Aim: To evaluate the complication rate and short term oncological outcome of small renal cell carcinomas treated with cryoablation. Materials and methods: 91 biopsy verified renal cell carcinomas were cryoablated between 2006-11. Patients treated had primarily T1a tumors, but exceptions were made....... Of the 10 patients with residual tumor, 8 patients were reablated and 2 patients were referred to oncological treatment. Cancer specific survival was 100%. Overall survival was 91%. Complications: 8 pt. had minor bleeding in relation to cryoneedle removal, requiring Tachosil®. 1 pt. had subcutaneous...

  13. Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma to Jejunum: An Unusual Case Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Medic

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The small intestine is a very uncommon and peculiar site for metastasis from renal cell carcinoma (RCC. We present a clinical presentation of insidious and unusual development of a jejunal metastasis while having stable disease in a remainder of metastatic sites, in a patient undergoing immunotherapy with nivolumab. Due to the extreme rarity of metastatic renal cell carcinoma to the lumen of the small bowel, it is easy to overlook and misdiagnose symptoms of this pathologic entity, particularly when the remainder of metastatic disease responds well to ongoing therapy.

  14. Chromophobe Renal Cell Carcinoma is the Most Common Nonclear Renal Cell Carcinoma in Young Women: Results from the SEER Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Michael; Blakely, Stephen; Shapiro, Oleg; Vourganti, Srinivas; Mollapour, Mehdi; Bratslavsky, Gennady

    2016-04-01

    The renal cell cancer incidence is relatively low in younger patients, encompassing 3% to 7% of all renal cell cancers. While young patients may have renal tumors due to hereditary syndromes, in some of them sporadic renal cancers develop without any family history or known genetic mutations. Our recent observations from clinical practice have led us to hypothesize that there is a difference in histological distribution in younger patients compared to the older cohort. We queried the SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results) 18-registry database for all patients 20 years old or older who were surgically treated for renal cell carcinoma between 2001 and 2008. Patients with unknown race, grade, stage or histology and those with multiple tumors were excluded from study. Four cohorts were created by dividing patients by gender, including 1,202 females and 1,715 males younger than 40 years old, and 18,353 females and 30,891 males 40 years old or older. Chi-square analysis was used to compare histological distributions between the cohorts. While clear cell carcinoma was still the most common renal cell cancer subtype across all genders and ages, chromophobe renal cell cancer was the most predominant type of nonclear renal cell cancer histology in young females, representing 62.3% of all nonclear cell renal cell cancers (p renal cell cancer remained the most common type of nonclear renal cell cancer. It is possible that hormonal factors or specific pathway dysregulations predispose chromophobe renal cell cancer to develop in younger women. We hope that this work provides some new observations that could lead to further studies of gender and histology specific renal tumorigenesis. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Vitronectin in human breast carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaboe, Mads; Offersen, Birgitte Vrou; Christensen, Anni

    2003-01-01

    We have analysed the occurrence of the extracellular glycoprotein vitronectin in carcinomas and normal tissue of human breast. Immunohistochemical analysis of carcinomas revealed a strong vitronectin accumulation in extracellular matrix (ECM) around some cancer cell clusters and in the subendothe......We have analysed the occurrence of the extracellular glycoprotein vitronectin in carcinomas and normal tissue of human breast. Immunohistochemical analysis of carcinomas revealed a strong vitronectin accumulation in extracellular matrix (ECM) around some cancer cell clusters...... of the role of vitronectin in tumour biology in interaction with the plasminogen activation system and integrins....

  16. Ang-(1-7) promotes the migration and invasion of human renal cell carcinoma cells via Mas-mediated AKT signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shuai; Yang, Ying; Song, Ran; Yang, Xiaomei; Liu, Hua; Ma, Qian; Yang, Longyan; Meng, Ran; Tao, Tao; Wang, Songlin; He, Junqi

    2015-05-01

    Ang-(1-7) is an active peptide component of renin-angiotensin system and endogenous ligand for Mas receptor. In the current study, we showed that Ang-(1-7) enhanced migratory and invasive abilities of renal cell carcinoma cells 786-O and Caki-1 by wound-healing, transwell migration and transwell invasion assays. Mas antagonist A779 pretreatment or shRNA-mediated Mas knockdown abolished the stimulatory effect of Ang-(1-7). Furthermore, Ang-(1-7)-stimulated AKT activation was inhibited by either A779 pretreatment or Mas knockdown. Blockage of AKT signaling by AKT inhibitor VIII inhibited Ang-(1-7)-induced migration and invasion in 786-O cells. Taken together, our results provided the first evidence for the pro-metastatic role of Ang-(1-7) in RCC, which may help to better understand the molecular mechanism underlying the progression of this tumor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma: micro-RNA expression profiling and comparison with clear cell renal cell carcinoma and papillary renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munari, Enrico; Marchionni, Luigi; Chitre, Apurva; Hayashi, Masamichi; Martignoni, Guido; Brunelli, Matteo; Gobbo, Stefano; Argani, Pedram; Allaf, Mohamad; Hoque, Mohammad O; Netto, George J

    2014-06-01

    Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma (CCPRCC) is a low-grade renal neoplasm with morphological characteristics mimicking both clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC) and papillary renal cell carcinoma (PRCC). However, despite some overlapping features, their morphological, immunohistochemical, and molecular profiles are distinct. Micro-RNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that play a crucial role in regulating gene expression and are involved in various biological processes, including cancer development. To better understand the biology of this tumor, we aimed to analyze the miRNA expression profile of a set of CCPRCC using microarray and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. A total of 15 cases diagnosed as CCPRCC were used in this study. Among the most differentially expressed miRNA in CCPRCC, we found miR-210, miR-122, miR-34a, miR-21, miR-34b*, and miR-489 to be up-regulated, whereas miR-4284, miR-1202, miR-135a, miR-1973, and miR-204 were down-regulated compared with normal renal parenchyma. To identify consensus of differentially regulated miRNA between CCPRCC, CCRCC, and PRCC, we additionally determined differential miRNA expression using 2 publically available microarray data sets from the NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus database (GSE41282 and GSE3798). This comparison revealed that the miRNA expression profile of CCPRCC shows some overlapping characteristics between CCRCC and PRCC. Moreover, CCPRCC lacks dysregulation of important miRNAs typically associated with aggressive behavior. In summary, we describe the miRNA expression profile of a relatively infrequent type of renal cancer. Our results may help in understanding the molecular underpinning of this newly recognized entity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer syndrome associated renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamane, Shraddha; Desai, Sangeeta; Menon, Santosh

    2017-01-01

    Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma (HLRCC) is a recently described entity with unknown exact prevalence. The affected individuals are predisposed to have multiple leiomyomas and renal cancer due to germline mutation in fumarate hydratase gene on chromosome 1. The knowledge of this rare tumour is essential for early recognition and institution of appropriate therapy, since they have a grave prognosis. Herein, we present the first case from India of HLRCC in a 42 year old lady who presented with a renal mass and metastasis with consequent fulminant course of disease. We discuss the detailed histomorphologic features and iunique immunohistochemical signature of this unusual renal tumour with discussion of differential diagnosis.

  19. Pelvic Nephroureterectomy for Renal Cell Carcinoma in an Ectopic Kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin G. Baldie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of an ectopic renal tumor in a 61-year-old morbidly obese man with a pelvic kidney found after presenting with hematuria and irritative voiding symptoms. The mass, along with the ectopic kidney and ureter, was radically resected through an open operation that involved removing both them and the renal vessels from the underlying iliac vessels. Pathological analysis demonstrated an 8.3 cm papillary renal cell carcinoma (RCC with oncocytic features, Fuhrman nuclear grade 3, with angiolymphatic invasion and negative margins. The patient has been recurrence-free for over four years since tumor resection.

  20. Squamous cell carcinoma in a duplicated renal pelvis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Makiko; Morikawa, Teppei; Toyoshima, Toyoaki; Fukayama, Masashi

    2014-01-01

    We report an extremely rare case of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the renal pelvis associated with an incompletely duplicated renal pelvis and ureter. A 71-year-old woman presented with left lower back pain and gross hematuria. Urinary cytology showed atypical squamous cells. Computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and retrograde pyelography revealed left incompletely duplicated renal pelvis and ureter and a mass in the left upper renal pelvis. A clinical diagnosis of left renal pelvic cancer was made and the patient underwent total nephroureterectomy. Histological examination of the resected specimen revealed SCC with marked keratinization in the upper renal pelvis. The tumor had invaded the renal parenchyma and perinephric fat. There was no urothelial carcinoma component. The pathological stage was pT4 N0. There was no evidence of recurrence 6 months postoperatively. Because the prognosis of SCC of the upper urinary tract is poor, urologists and pathologists should be aware that SCC may develop in duplicated urinary systems. PMID:25550838

  1. Renal cell carcinoma in pregnancy: Still a management challenge

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I.C. Akpayak

    www.ees.elsevier.com/afju · www.sciencedirect.com. Short Communication. Renal cell carcinoma in pregnancy: Still a management challenge. I.C. Akpayak. ∗. , S.I. Shuiabu, C.G. Ofoha, N.K. Dakum, V.M. Ramyil. Urology Division, Surgery Department, Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria. Received 14 June 2014 ...

  2. EAU guidelines on renal cell carcinoma: the 2010 update.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ljungberg, B.; Cowan, N.C.; Hanbury, D.C.; Hora, M.; Kuczyk, M.A.; Merseburger, A.S.; Patard, J.J.; Mulders, P.F.A.; Sinescu, I.C.

    2010-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVES: The European Association of Urology Guideline Group for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has prepared these guidelines to help clinicians assess the current evidence-based management of RCC and to incorporate the present recommendations into daily clinical practice. EVIDENCE

  3. Severe paraneoplastic hypereosinophilia in metastatic renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todenhöfer Tilman

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Renal cell carcinoma can cause various paraneoplastic syndromes including metabolic and hematologic disturbances. Paraneoplastic hypereosinophilia has been reported in a variety of hematologic and solid tumors. We present the first case in the literature of severe paraneoplastic hypereosinophilia in a patient with renal cell carcinoma. Case presentation A 46 year-old patient patient with a history of significant weight loss, reduced general state of health and coughing underwent radical nephrectomy for metastasized renal cell carcinoma. Three weeks after surgery, the patient presented with excessive peripheral hypereosinophilia leading to profound neurological symptoms due to cerebral microinfarction. Systemic treatment with prednisolone, hydroxyurea, vincristine, cytarabine, temsirolimus and sunitinib led to reduction of peripheral eosinophils but could not prevent rapid disease progression of the patient. At time of severe leukocytosis, a considerable increase of cytokines associated with hypereosinophilia was measurable. Conclusions Paraneoplastic hypereosinophilia in patients with renal cell carcinoma might indicate poor prognosis and rapid disease progression. Myelosuppressive therapy is required in symptomatic patients.

  4. Renal cell carcinoma in children and adolescence: Our experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Literature on renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in children is lacking. Occasional case report has been mentioned. Aims and objective of our study are to evaluate the clinical presentation and outcome in children with RCC. Patients and Methods: Records of 11 children and adolescence, from January 2007 to June ...

  5. Renal Cell Carcinoma in a Pregnant Woman With Horseshoe Kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Scavuzzo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of renal cell carcinoma in kidney horseshoe diagnosed in the second trimester of pregnancy. We performed open radical nephrectomy when the pregnancy was completed. Kidney cancer is rare during pregnancy and the symptoms can be mimic urinary infection. The diagnosis and its management can be a challenge.

  6. Renal Cell Carcinoma in a Pregnant Woman With Horseshoe Kidney

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Scavuzzo; Zael Santana Rios; Cristobal Diaz-Gomez; Beatriz Varguez Gonzalez; Victor Osornio-Sanchez; Edgar Bravo-Castro; Edgar Linden-Castro; Pedro Martinez-Cervera; Miguel Angel Jimenez-Rios

    2017-01-01

    To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of renal cell carcinoma in kidney horseshoe diagnosed in the second trimester of pregnancy. We performed open radical nephrectomy when the pregnancy was completed. Kidney cancer is rare during pregnancy and the symptoms can be mimic urinary infection. The diagnosis and its management can be a challenge.

  7. Renal cell carcinoma in pregnancy: Still a management challenge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Renal cell carcinoma during pregnancy is uncommon. We present a rare case, highlighting the dilemma faced by the patient and the challenge of deciding the appropriate management option. Patient: A 28-year-old patient presented at 14 weeks of gestation with a 2-month history of left loin pain. Physical ...

  8. Renal cell carcinoma in children: Case report and literature review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Renal cell carcinoma is infrequent in children; consequently it is important to communicate its diagnosis and follow up. The behaviour of this type of tumor is better characterized in adults and in this setting the treatment of choice is surgical resection. However, the place of chemo- and radiotherapy has not been well defined.

  9. Cutaneous metastasis of transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cutaneous metastasis of transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis – case report. Vassilis Pitsinis, J Promsberger, J Corr. Abstract. No Abstract. African Journal of Urology Vol. 11(3) 2005: 234-235. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  10. Discovering Biomarkers within the Genomic Landscape of Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    A, Sankin

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in molecular sequencing technology have led to the discovery of numerous biomarkers in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). These biomarkers have the potential to predict clinical outcomes and aid in clinical management decisions. The following commentary is a review of the preliminary data on some of the most promising genetic biomarker candidates. PMID:27104219

  11. Renal cell carcinoma in pregnancy: Still a management challenge

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I.C. Akpayak

    Abstract. Background: Renal cell carcinoma during pregnancy is uncommon. We present a rare case, highlighting the dilemma faced by the patient and the challenge of deciding the appropriate management option. Patient: A 28-year-old patient presented at 14 weeks of gestation with a 2-month history of left loin pain.

  12. Claudin-7 and claudin-8: immunohistochemical markers for the differential diagnosis of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma and renal oncocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osunkoya, Adeboye O; Cohen, Cynthia; Lawson, Diane; Picken, Maria M; Amin, Mahul B; Young, Andrew N

    2009-02-01

    Claudin-7 and claudin-8 code for tight junction proteins expressed in distal nephron epithelium. In a recent oligonucleotide microarray study, we identified claudin-7 and claudin-8 as candidate markers to distinguish chromophobe renal cell carcinoma from other renal tumors, including oncocytoma. Distinction of these lesions can be difficult by light microscopy but is clinically important because chromophobe renal cell carcinoma has malignant biological potential, whereas renal oncocytoma is benign. Claudin-7 and claudin-8 expression was studied by immunohistochemistry in 11 chromophobe renal cell carcinomas and 17 oncocytomas using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections of tumor with adjacent nonneoplastic kidney. Steam antigen retrieval was performed before immunohistochemistry. Specificity was verified by negative control reactions without primary antibody and appropriate membranous staining patterns in positive control tissues (colon carcinoma and adjacent nonneoplastic kidney). Claudin-7 protein was expressed in a membranous pattern in 10 of 11 chromophobe renal cell carcinomas and 4 of 17 oncocytomas (P oncocytoma, 11 of 17 cases showed cytoplasmic, 4 of 17 membranous, and 2 of 17 negative reactions. In chromophobe renal cell carcinoma, 0 of 11 cases showed cytoplasmic, 3 of 11 membranous, and 8 of 11 negative reactions (P renal cell carcinomas and 1 of 17 oncocytomas (63% sensitivity, 84% specificity, 88% positive predictive value for chromophobe renal cell carcinoma). Negative claudin-7 and cytoplasmic claudin-8 were observed in 10 of 17 oncocytomas and 0 of 11 chromophobe renal cell carcinomas (59% sensitivity, 100% specificity and positive predictive value for oncocytoma). The distal nephron proteins claudin-7 and claudin-8 have potential use as immunohistochemical biomarkers in the differential diagnosis of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma and oncocytoma. Expression of claudin-7 and claudin-8 may reflect the relationship of chromophobe renal

  13. Cabozantinib versus Everolimus in Advanced Renal-Cell Carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choueiri, Toni K; Escudier, Bernard; Powles, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    to antiangiogenic drugs. This randomized, open-label, phase 3 trial evaluated the efficacy of cabozantinib, as compared with everolimus, in patients with renal-cell carcinoma that had progressed after VEGFR-targeted therapy. METHODS: We randomly assigned 658 patients to receive cabozantinib at a dose of 60 mg daily......BACKGROUND: Cabozantinib is an oral, small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor that targets vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) as well as MET and AXL, each of which has been implicated in the pathobiology of metastatic renal-cell carcinoma or in the development of resistance...... received everolimus. Discontinuation of study treatment owing to adverse events occurred in 9% of the patients who received cabozantinib and in 10% of those who received everolimus. CONCLUSIONS: Progression-free survival was longer with cabozantinib than with everolimus among patients with renal-cell...

  14. Magnetic Resonance Imaging as a Biomarker for Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As the most common neoplasm arising from the kidney, renal cell carcinoma (RCC continues to have a significant impact on global health. Conventional cross-sectional imaging has always served an important role in the staging of RCC. However, with recent advances in imaging techniques and postprocessing analysis, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI now has the capability to function as a diagnostic, therapeutic, and prognostic biomarker for RCC. For this narrative literature review, a PubMed search was conducted to collect the most relevant and impactful studies from our perspectives as urologic oncologists, radiologists, and computational imaging specialists. We seek to cover advanced MR imaging and image analysis techniques that may improve the management of patients with small renal mass or metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

  15. Third-line Targeted Therapy in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma: Results from the International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wells, J Connor; Stukalin, Igor; Norton, Craig

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of third-line targeted therapy (TTT) in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) is not well characterized and varies due to the lack of robust data to guide treatment decisions. This study examined the use of third-line therapy in a large international population. OBJECTIVE: To...

  16. PRIMARY SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA OF RENAL PELVIS ASSOCIATED WITH RENAL CALCULUS AND RECURRENT PYONEPHROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoti Lal

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma in the kidney is a rare malignant neoplasm associated with nephrolithiasis, typically monobacterial pyonephrosis and rarely Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis. It is an aggressive disease with a poor prognosis mostly due to lack of presenting clinical features like a palpable mass, gross haematuria and pain. We report a case presenting with renal calculus and pyonephrosis managed initially with percutaneous nephrostomy followed by nephrectomy due to complete loss of renal function. Histopathological evaluation revealed poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma which is managed by chemotherapy, although initially beneficial, patients later develop disseminated metastatic disease which holds a poor prognosis.

  17. Co-existence of chronic renal failure, renal clear cell carcinoma, and Blau syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akil, Ipek; Ozguven, Aykan; Canda, Ebru; Yilmaz, Omer; Nese, Nalan; Ozkol, Mine; May, Sandra; Franke, Andre; Cirak, Sebahattin

    2010-05-01

    Blau syndrome is a rare, multisystem, autosomal-dominant, and granulomatous disorder caused by susceptibility variants in the NOD2 gene. We describe here a 14-year-old girl with Blau syndrome with incidentally diagnosed renal carcinoma. The index case presented with growth retardation and recurrent symmetric arthritis. Her clinical symptoms included bilateral cataract due to recurrent uveitis, camptodactyly, and persistent erythematous rash with ichthyosis. Her two sisters and her mother were affected with combinations of these conditions-symmetric polyarthritis, uveitis, and skin involvement-suggesting an autosomal dominant trait. The index case developed a chronic renal insufficiency, and an abdominal computerized tomography scan revealed a 2.5-cm mass in the left kidney. The histopathological examination showed renal clear cell carcinoma, chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis,and giant cell granulomas in both the tumor and nonneoplastic renal tissue. Granulomatous inflammation was observed in the skin biopsy specimen. The patient was diagnosed with Blau syndrome based on her family history, uveitis, granulomatous inflammation proved by skin biopsy, and polyarthritis. Sequencing of the NOD2 gene showed a heterozygous p.R334Q mutation in all affected family members. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a patient with Blau syndrome accompanied by chronic renal failure and renal carcinoma.

  18. Report of a Rare Case of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Associated with Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Borzouei

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC is the most common well-differentiated cancer of the thyroid. Only in few cases of PTC entity of renal cell carcinoma has been observed in patients affected with PTC. Case Report: In this study we report a case of sporadic PTC and renal cell carcinoma in a 63 year-old woman. Conclusion: After surgery the patient was hospitalized for 1 month in ICU section. 3 months after being discharged from the hospital, she was still in a good condition and is under the follow-up treatment.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2012; 19 (3:75-77

  19. First Delayed Resection Findings After Irreversible Electroporation (IRE) of Human Localised Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) in the IRENE Pilot Phase 2a Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendler, Johann Jakob, E-mail: johann.wendler@med.ovgu.de [Otto von Guericke University of Magdeburg, Department of Urology, University Hospital (Germany); Ricke, Jens, E-mail: jens.Ricke@med.ovgu.de; Pech, Maciej, E-mail: macej.pech@med.ovgu.de; Fischbach, Frank, E-mail: frank.fischbach@med.ovgu.de; Jürgens, Julian, E-mail: julian.juergens@med.ovgu.de [University of Magdeburg, Department of Radiology (Germany); Siedentopf, Sandra, E-mail: sandra.siedentopf@med.ovgu.de; Roessner, Albert, E-mail: albert.roessner@med.ovgu.de [University of Magdeburg, Institute of Pathology (Germany); Porsch, Markus, E-mail: markus.porsch@med.ovgu.de; Baumunk, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.baumunk@med.ovgu.de; Schostak, Martin, E-mail: martin.schostak@med.ovgu.de [Otto von Guericke University of Magdeburg, Department of Urology, University Hospital (Germany); Köllermann, Jens, E-mail: jens.koellermann@sana.de [Sana Klinikum Offenbach Am Main, Institute of Pathology (Germany); Liehr, Uwe-Bernd, E-mail: uwe-bernd.liehr@med.ovgu.de [Otto von Guericke University of Magdeburg, Department of Urology, University Hospital (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    IntroductionIt is postulated that focal IRE affords complete ablation of soft-tissue tumours while protecting the healthy peritumoral tissue. Therefore, IRE may be an interesting option for minimally invasive, kidney-tissue-sparing, non-thermal ablation of renal tumours.AimWith this current pilot study (“IRENE trial”), we present the first detailed histopathological data of IRE of human RCC followed by delayed tumour resection. The aim of this interim analysis of the first three patients was to investigate the ablation efficiency of percutaneous image-guided focal IRE in RCC, to assess whether a complete ablation of T1a RCC and tissue preservation with the NanoKnife system is possible and to decide whether the ablation parameters need to be altered.MethodsFollowing resection 4 weeks after percutaneous IRE, the success of ablation and detailed histopathological description were used to check the ablation parameters.ResultsThe IRE led to a high degree of damage to the renal tumours (1 central, 2 peripheral; size range 15–17 mm). The postulated homogeneous, isomorphic damage was only partly confirmed. We found a zonal structuring of the ablation zone, negative margins and, enclosed within the ablation zone, very small tumour residues of unclear malignancy.ConclusionAccording to these initial, preliminary study results of the first three renal cases, a new zonal distribution of IRE damage was described and the curative intended, renal saving focal ablation of localised RCC below <3 cm by percutaneous IRE by the NanoKnife system appears to be possible, but needs further, systematic evaluation for this treatment method and treatment protocol.

  20. Long-term response to nivolumab and acute renal failure in a patient with metastatic papillary renal-cell carcinoma and a PD-L1 tumor expression increased with sunitinib therapy: A case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ruiz-Bañobre

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Papillary renal-cell carcinoma, which represents around 20% of renal cell carcinomas, is a heterogeneous disease that includes different tumor types with several clinical and molecular phenotypes. Nivolumab, a fully human IgG4 programmed cell death protein 1 immune checkpoint inhibitor antibody, has shown not only an overall survival advantage when compared to everolimus, but also a relatively good side-effect profile among patients with previously treated advanced or metastatic renal-cell carcinoma. Case report: We describe a case of a young man diagnosed with papillary renal-cell carcinoma that achieved a durable response to nivolumab despite a temporary suspension of the treatment due to a renal function side effect. To our knowledge, it is the first renal failure secondary to nivolumab in a metastatic renal-cell carcinoma patient.Concluding Remarks: Nivolumab is a promising drug in patients with metastatic papillary renal-cell carcinoma and long-term responses can be achieved. In case of acute renal failure secondary to this treatment, temporary therapy suspension and a low dose of systemic corticosteroids can recover renal function without a negative impact on treatment efficacy.

  1. Usefulness of computed tomography and ultrasonography for early detection of renal cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horii, Yasuhiro; Tsumatani, Kenichi; Natsume, Osamu

    1987-07-01

    Eighty-three cases of renal cell carcinomas admitted to Nara Medical University and its related hospitals from August, 1962 through July, 1984 were reviewed. We have been using computed tomography (CT) and ultrasonography (US) for early detection of renal cell carcinomas since 1980. Thereafter the number of patients with low stage renal cell carcinoma was significantly increased. Furthermore 6 carcinomas were incidentally detected by CT and/or US examination for checkup of other diseases. We believe that CT and US may be valuable as a screening modality for early detection of renal cell carcinoma.

  2. Novel germline c-MET mutation in a family with hereditary papillary renal carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadt, Karin; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Hansen, Thomas V O

    2012-01-01

    Hereditary papillary renal carcinoma (HPRC) is a highly penetrant hereditary renal cancer syndrome caused by germline missense mutations in the c-MET proto-oncogene. HPRC is clinically characterized by multiple bilateral papillary renal-cell carcinomas. Here we report a family with a novel missense...... mutation in c-MET. The original pathology report of four primary kidney cancers (1988-1997) revealed renal-cell carcinoma. A revised report described multiple adenomas and papillary renal-cell carcinomas with focal clear cells and a mixture of type 1 and type 2 pattern, emphasizing the importance...

  3. Induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition via activation of epidermal growth factor receptor contributes to sunitinib resistance in human renal cell carcinoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizumoto, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Nakayama, Yuko; Takara, Kohji; Nakagawa, Tsutomu; Hirano, Takeshi; Hirai, Midori

    2015-11-01

    Sunitinib is widely used for treating renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, some patients do not respond to treatment with this drug. We aimed to study the association between sunitinib sensitivity and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) regulation via epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling, which is a mechanism of resistance to anticancer drugs. Three RCC cell lines (786-O, ACHN, and Caki-1) were used, and then we evaluated cell viability, EMT regulatory proteins, and signal transduction with sunitinib treatment. Cell viability of 786-O cells was maintained after treatment with sunitinib. After treatment with sunitinib, EGFR phosphorylation increased in 786-O cells, resulting in an increase in the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, nuclear translocation of β-catenin, and expression of mesenchymal markers. These results suggest that sunitinib induced EMT via activation of EGFR in 786-O cells, but not in ACHN and Caki-1 cells. Caki-1/SN cells, a resistant cell line generated by continuous exposure to sunitinib, displayed increased phosphorylation of EGFR. Cell viability in the presence of sunitinib was decreased by erlotinib, as the selective inhibitor of EGFR, treatment in 786-O and Caki-1/SN cells. Similarly, erlotinib suppressed sunitinib-induced EGFR activation and upregulated mesenchymal markers. Thus, we postulate that resistance to sunitinib in RCC may be associated with EMT caused by activation of EGFR. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  4. Efficacy of Second-line Targeted Therapy for Renal Cell Carcinoma According to Change from Baseline in International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium Prognostic Category

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Ian D; Xie, Wanling; Pezaro, Carmel

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that changes in International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium (IMDC) prognostic category at start of second-line therapy (2L) for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) might predict response. OBJECTIVE: To assess outcomes of 2L according to type of...

  5. [Major complications of acquired renal cystic disease: Wünderlich syndrome and papilar carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Zarco, Enrique; Vallejo-Benítez, Ana; Delgado Cotán, Antonio; Pereira-Gallardo, Sofía

    2017-07-01

    We report a case of acquired renal cystic disease associated with renal dialysis and endstage renal disease. The patient suffered the two major complications related with acquired renal cystic disease; hemorrhage and renal carcinoma. Our case is a patient with acquired renal cystic disease, single kidney after surgery for renal clear cell carcinoma four years earlier, who developed a Wünderlich syndrome (WS). The histological study of the nephrectomy specimen showed a renal papillary carcinoma in the context of acquired renal cystic disease after surgery for a WS. Renal hemorrhage is a serious complication that can lead to a fatal outcome. Patients undergoing dialysis should be monitored actively due to the risk of developing acquired renal cystic disease and associated complications.

  6. Cardiac Metastasis in Renal Cell Carcinoma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-10-21

    Oct 21, 2015 ... &Corresponding author: Zairi Ihsen, Department of Cardiology, Habib Thameur Public Hospital, Bab El Fallah, Tunis, Tunisia. Key words: .... Journal of Clinical. Pathology. 2007; 60(1): 27-34. PubMed | Google Scholar. 5. Roigas J et al. Renal cell cancer with a symptomatic heart metastasis. BJU Int. 2002 ...

  7. Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase opposes renal carcinoma progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Qiu, Bo; Lee, David S M; Walton, Zandra E; Ochocki, Joshua D; Mathew, Lijoy K; Mancuso, Anthony; Gade, Terence P F; Keith, Brian; Nissim, Itzhak; Simon, M Celeste

    2014-09-11

    Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), the most common form of kidney cancer, is characterized by elevated glycogen levels and fat deposition. These consistent metabolic alterations are associated with normoxic stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) secondary to von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) mutations that occur in over 90% of ccRCC tumours. However, kidney-specific VHL deletion in mice fails to elicit ccRCC-specific metabolic phenotypes and tumour formation, suggesting that additional mechanisms are essential. Recent large-scale sequencing analyses revealed the loss of several chromatin remodelling enzymes in a subset of ccRCC (these included polybromo-1, SET domain containing 2 and BRCA1-associated protein-1, among others), indicating that epigenetic perturbations are probably important contributors to the natural history of this disease. Here we used an integrative approach comprising pan-metabolomic profiling and metabolic gene set analysis and determined that the gluconeogenic enzyme fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 1 (FBP1) is uniformly depleted in over six hundred ccRCC tumours examined. Notably, the human FBP1 locus resides on chromosome 9q22, the loss of which is associated with poor prognosis for ccRCC patients. Our data further indicate that FBP1 inhibits ccRCC progression through two distinct mechanisms. First, FBP1 antagonizes glycolytic flux in renal tubular epithelial cells, the presumptive ccRCC cell of origin, thereby inhibiting a potential Warburg effect. Second, in pVHL (the protein encoded by the VHL gene)-deficient ccRCC cells, FBP1 restrains cell proliferation, glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway in a catalytic-activity-independent manner, by inhibiting nuclear HIF function via direct interaction with the HIF inhibitory domain. This unique dual function of the FBP1 protein explains its ubiquitous loss in ccRCC, distinguishing FBP1 from previously identified tumour suppressors that are not consistently mutated in all tumours.

  8. Tubulocystic renal cell carcinoma: a new radiological entity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornelis, F.; Grenier, N. [Pellegrin Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bordeaux (France); Helenon, O.; Correas, J.M. [Necker Hospital, Department of Radiology, Paris (France); Lemaitre, L. [Claude Huriez Hospital, Department of Radiology, Lille (France); Andre, M. [La-Conception Hospital, Department of Radiology, Marseille (France); Meuwly, J.Y. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Department of Radiology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Sengel, C. [Grenoble Hospital, Department of Radiology, Grenoble (France); Derchi, L. [Universita di Genova, Radiologia - DICMI, Genova (Italy); Yacoub, M. [Pellegrin Hospital, Department of Pathology, Bordeaux (France); Verkarre, V. [Necker Hospital, Department of Pathology, Paris (France)

    2016-04-15

    Tubulocystic renal cell carcinoma (TC-RCC) is a recently identified renal malignancy. While approximately 100 cases of TC-RCC have been reported in the pathology literature, imaging features have not yet been clearly described. The purpose of this review is to describe the main radiologic features of this rare sub-type of RCC on ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), based jointly on the literature and findings from a multi-institutional retrospective HIPAA-compliant review of pathology and imaging databases. Using a combination of sonographic and CT/MRI features, diagnosis of TC-RCC appeared to be strongly suggested in many cases. (orig.)

  9. Germline BAP1 mutations predispose to renal cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Tatiana; Hebert, Lucie; Jacquemin, Virginie; Gad, Sophie; Caux-Moncoutier, Virginie; Dubois-d'Enghien, Catherine; Richaudeau, Bénédicte; Renaudin, Xavier; Sellers, Jason; Nicolas, André; Sastre-Garau, Xavier; Desjardins, Laurence; Gyapay, Gabor; Raynal, Virginie; Sinilnikova, Olga M; Andrieu, Nadine; Manié, Elodie; de Pauw, Antoine; Gesta, Paul; Bonadona, Valérie; Maugard, Christine M; Penet, Clotilde; Avril, Marie-Françoise; Barillot, Emmanuel; Cabaret, Odile; Delattre, Olivier; Richard, Stéphane; Caron, Olivier; Benfodda, Meriem; Hu, Hui-Han; Soufir, Nadem; Bressac-de Paillerets, Brigitte; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Stern, Marc-Henri

    2013-06-06

    The genetic cause of some familial nonsyndromic renal cell carcinomas (RCC) defined by at least two affected first-degree relatives is unknown. By combining whole-exome sequencing and tumor profiling in a family prone to cases of RCC, we identified a germline BAP1 mutation c.277A>G (p.Thr93Ala) as the probable genetic basis of RCC predisposition. This mutation segregated with all four RCC-affected relatives. Furthermore, BAP1 was found to be inactivated in RCC-affected individuals from this family. No BAP1 mutations were identified in 32 familial cases presenting with only RCC. We then screened for germline BAP1 deleterious mutations in familial aggregations of cancers within the spectrum of the recently described BAP1-associated tumor predisposition syndrome, including uveal melanoma, malignant pleural mesothelioma, and cutaneous melanoma. Among the 11 families that included individuals identified as carrying germline deleterious BAP1 mutations, 6 families presented with 9 RCC-affected individuals, demonstrating a significantly increased risk for RCC. This strongly argues that RCC belongs to the BAP1 syndrome and that BAP1 is a RCC-predisposition gene. Copyright © 2013 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Metastasis in renal cell carcinoma: Biology and implications for therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Gong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Although multiple advances have been made in systemic therapy for renal cell carcinoma (RCC, metastatic RCC remains incurable. In the current review, we focus on the underlying biology of RCC and plausible mechanisms of metastasis. We further outline evolving strategies to combat metastasis through adjuvant therapy. Finally, we discuss clinical patterns of metastasis in RCC and how distinct systemic therapy approaches may be considered based on the anatomic location of metastasis.

  11. Skeletal metastasis in renal cell carcinoma: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masood Umer

    2018-03-01

    Conclusion: Incidence of metastatic renal carcinoma is increasing. Overall prognosis of patient with advanced RCC is poor, emphasizing the importance of early detection and prompt treatment of primary lesion in its early stage. Advancement in targeted therapy in recent decades had made some improvement in treatment of SREs and has helped in improving patent's quality of life but still we are in need of further improvement in treatment modalities to cure disease thereby decreasing morbidity and mortality.

  12. Papillary carcinoma of the duodenum combined with right renal carcinoma: a case report

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    Zhang Xuan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report a case of papillary carcinoma of the duodenum combined with right renal carcinoma. A 58-year-old man underwent a physical examination that revealed intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile duct dilatation on B ultrasound. Intrahepatic bile duct dilatation could be seen on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, but the head of the pancreas and distal bile duct showed no tumor signals, which led to a diagnosis of periampullary carcinoma and right renal carcinoma. Considering the trauma of pancreaticoduodenectomy combined with renal resection operation is greater, we carried out the laparoscopic right renal radical resection first, and then a pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed. However, postoperative intra-abdominal infections and bleeding occurred; our patient improved after vascular interventional microcoil embolization for the treatment of hemostasis. The second operation for celiac necrotic tissue elimination, jejunal fistulization and peritoneal lavage and drainage was performed 14 days latter. Our patient improved gradually and was discharged on the 58th postoperative day. There has been no tumor recurrence after a follow-up of 26 months.

  13. Xp11 Translocation Renal Cell Carcinoma: Unusual Variant Masquerading as Upper Tract Urothelial Cell Carcinoma

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    Arash Akhavein

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinoma (TRCC is a rare subtype of renal cell carcinoma characterized by chromosomal translocations involving the TFE3 gene located at the Xp11.2 locus. Initial cases were more common in children, but cases in older adults have begun to accrue and suggest a relatively more aggressive course. We report a case of Xp11 TRCC in a 63-year-old female patient with initial presentation mimicking upper urinary tract urothelial cell carcinoma, with biopsy proving TRCC. She underwent a radical nephrectomy and paracaval lymph node dissection and is followed up with the intent to initiate vascular endothelial growth factor–targeted therapy in case of recurrence.

  14. Coexistence of Ovarian Cancer and Renal Cell Carcinoma

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    Kuo-How Huang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Coexistence of ovarian cancer and renal cell carcinoma (RCC is extremely rare. Only one case was diagnosed in a total of 584 patients with RCC from 1982 to 2002 at our hospital. A 58-year-old woman presented with an enlarged girdle length for 3 months. Computed tomography scan showed a right cystic adnexal mass measuring 10 × 10 cm, and another tumor measuring 3 × 2 cm at the right kidney. She underwent debulking surgery and radical nephrectomy. Pathologic examination revealed right ovarian clear-cell carcinoma with peritoneal, omental, and fallopian tube metastasis, and conventional clear-cell renal carcinoma. RCC was strongly positive in epithelial membrane antigen (EMA staining and negative in estrogen receptors (ER, progesterone receptors (PR, 34bE12 (high molecular weight cytokeratin, and vimentin staining. Ovarian clear-cell carcinoma showed weakly positive results in EMA staining and negative results in ER, PR, 34bE12, and vimentin staining. Although chemotherapy was given, the patient died of disseminated ovarian cancer metastasis 20 months after operation. In conclusion, coexistence of RCC and ovarian cancer is rare and the pathogenesis remains to be clarified. [J Formos Med Assoc 2007;106(3 Suppl:S15-S19

  15. Epidemiology, molecular epidemiology, and risk factors for renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Paglino

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite only accounting for approximately 2% of all new primary cancer cases, renal cell carcinoma (RCC incidence has dramatically increased over time. Incidence rates vary greatly according to geographic areas, so that it is extremely likely that exogenous risk factors could play an important role in the development of this cancer. Several risk factors have been linked with RCC, including cigarette smoking, obesity, hypertension (and antihypertensive drugs, chronic kidney diseases (also dialysis and transplantation, as well as the use of certain analgesics. Furthermore, although RCC has not generally been considered an occupational cancer, several types of occupationally-derived exposures have been implicated in its pathogenesis. These include exposure to asbestos, chlorinated solvents, gasoline, diesel exhaust fumes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, printing inks and dyes, cadmium and lead. Finally, families with a predisposition to the development of renal neoplasms were identified and the genes involved discovered and characterized. Therefore, there are now four well-characterized, genetically determined syndromes associated with an increased incidence of kidney tumors, i.e., Von Hippel Lindau (VHL, Hereditary Papillary Renal Carcinoma (HPRC, Birt-Hogg-Dubé Syndrome (BHD, and Hereditary Leiomyomatosis and Renal Cell Cancer (HLRCC. This review will address present knowledge about the epidemiology, molecular epidemiology and risk factors of RCC.

  16. Nucleophosmin expression in renal cell carcinoma and oncocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Aysegul; Calli, Aylin; Altinboga, Aysegul Aksoy; Pehlivan, Fatma Seher; Gorgel, Sacit Nuri; Balci, Ugur; Ermete, Murat; Dincel, Cetin; Cakalagaoglu, Fulya

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate nucleophosmin/B23 (NPM) expression in renal cell carcinomas (RCC) and renal oncocytomas. The expression of NPM was studied by immunohistochemical methods on 59 RCCs, 9 oncocytomas, and 19 tumour-negative renal tissues. The expression was assessed relative to various clinicopathological variables and histological subtypes, to determine its potential role as a prognostic and diagnostic marker. All tumours showed nuclear staining, and a minority also exhibited cytoplasmic immunoreactivity. Two patterns of nuclear staining were observed: nuclear staining with a prominent nucleolus (nucleolar staining) and nuclear staining without a prominent nucleolus. There were significant differences, in both nuclear staining and cytoplasmic NPM expression, between oncocytomas and chromophobe RCCs (p oncocytomas. A statistically significant correlation was discovered between nucleolar staining and nuclear grade (p oncocytoma and chromophobe RCC. In addition, increased nucleolar NPM expression in RCCs appears to be associated with tumour progression. © 2011 The Authors. APMIS © 2011 APMIS.

  17. Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma, oncocytic variant: Cytological and ultrastructural observations

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    Tadanori Yamaguchi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is only one report on cytological findings of oncocytic variant of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (RCC. In this article, we report a new case with focus on cytological, and ultrastructural findings. A 60-year-old Japanese man was found to have a right renal tumor on medical checkup. In imprint cytological materials, the smears consisted of slightly discohesive clusters and isolated tumor cells with granular green colored cytoplasm on Papanicolaou staining. Nuclei were generally round and centrally located in the cytoplasm, but nuclear irregularity or perinuclear halo was absent. Ultrastructurally, the tumor was full of mitochondria with tubulovesicular cristae. Fluorescence in situ hybridization study using histological material showed multiple chromosomal losses including chromosomes 7, 10, 13, and 17. This finding supports the hypothesis that this variant may ultrastructurally show the nature of chromophobe RCC rather than renal oncocytoma.

  18. Outcome of Patients With Metastatic Sarcomatoid Renal Cell Carcinoma: Results From the International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyriakopoulos, Christos E; Chittoria, Namita; Choueiri, Toni K

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma is associated with poor prognosis. Data regarding outcome in the targeted therapy era are lacking. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Clinical, prognostic, and treatment parameters in metastatic renal cell carcinoma patients with and without sarcomatoid histology......%-8%) or underlying clear cell histology (87%-88%). More than 93% of patients received VEGF inhibitors as first-line therapy; objective response was less common in sRCC whereas primary refractory disease was more common (21% vs. 26% and 43% vs. 21%; P ... treated with targeted therapy were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: Two thousand two hundred eighty-six patients were identified (sRCC: n = 230 and non-sRCC: n = 2056). sRCC patients had significantly worse IMDC prognostic criteria compared with non-sRCC (11% vs. 19% favorable risk; 49% vs. 57...

  19. 2 Cases of Renal Cell Carcinoma on Long-Term Hemodialysis

    OpenAIRE

    高原, 正信; 原, 繁; 松村,勉; 村上, 信乃; 浅田,学; 松嵜, 理

    1984-01-01

    Two cases of renal cell carcinoma on maintenance dialysis for chronic renal insufficiency are reported. The first case, a 40-year-old man, complained of hematuria after 9.3 years of dialysis. Nephrectomy was done and small renal cell carcinoma with acquired cystic disease of the kidney were observed. The second case, a 48-year-old man, was found to have renal cell carcinoma after 2.5 years of dialysis by means of routine examination without any symptoms. The kidney showed carcinoma with small...

  20. Cannabinoid CB1 receptor is expressed in chromophobe renal cell carcinoma and renal oncocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrinaga, Gorka; Sanz, Begoña; Blanco, Lorena; Perez, Itxaro; Candenas, María L; Pinto, Francisco M; Irazusta, Amaia; Gil, Javier; López, José I

    2013-05-01

    To analyze the mRNA and protein expression of cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 in chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (ChRCC) and renal oncocytoma (RO). Fresh and formalin-fixed tissue samples of ChRCC and RO were analyzed by using real-time quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemical techniques (n=40). Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that CB1 mRNA was underexpressed by 12-fold in ChRCC and had a variable expression in RO. CB1 protein showed intense positive immunostaining in both neoplasms. Both CB2 mRNA and protein were not expressed in tumor and non tumor renal tissue. This distinct immunoprofile may eventually be used as an additional tool with practical interest in the differential diagnosis of renal tumors. Copyright © 2013 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Unilateral renal cell carcinoma with coexistent renal disease: a rare cause of end-stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peces, R; Alvarez-Navascués, R

    2001-02-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a disorder encompassing a wide spectrum of pathological renal lesions. Coexistence of unilateral RCC and associated pathology in the contralateral kidney is an unusual and challenging therapeutic dilemma that can result in renal failure. So far, data on unilateral RCC with chronic renal failure necessitating renal replacement therapy have not been published. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) from unilateral RCC, and to assess the associated pathology and possible pathogenic factors. In 1999, a survey of the 350 patients treated by chronic dialysis in Asturias, Spain, was carried out to identify and collect clinical information on patients with primary unilateral RCC whilst on their renal replacement programme. Seven patients were identified as having ESRD and unilateral RCC, giving an incidence of 2% of patients treated by dialysis. There was a wide spectrum of associated disease and clinical presentation. All patients underwent radical or partial nephrectomy and were free of recurrence 6--64 months after surgery. Six patients were alive and free of malignancy recurrence for 6--30 months after the onset of haemodialysis. ESRD is rare in association with unilateral RCC, but does contribute to significant morbidity. However, the data presented here are encouraging and suggest that cancer-free survival with renal replacement therapy can be achieved in such patients.

  2. Renal carcinoma with brain metastases. Prognostic factors and treatment outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Golanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Surgical excision followed by whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT is a traditional treatment option for solitary brain metastases (SBM of renal carcinoma. In the presence of multiple brain metastases of renal carcinoma WBRT remains to be the most common treatment option in this group of patients. However, the effectiveness of WBRT is insufficient due to radioresistance of renal carcinoma. After introduction of the standards in the radiosurgical practice, treatment options of renal carcinoma have been changed, since radiosurgery may overcome WBRT limitations in the treatment of brain metastases of radioresistant tumorsObjective: to study the effectiveness of stereotactic radiosurgery by using “Gamma Knife” device in the treatment of brain metastases of renal carcinoma.Materials and methods. We have analyzed results of the treatment of 112 patients with brain metastases of renal carcinoma who underwent radiosurgical treatment in Moscow Center “Gamma Knife”. Age median of the patients was 58 (33 –77 years. Total number of irradiated metastatic foci – 444, an average number of brain metastases in 1 patient was 4 (1–30. Twenty eight (25.0 % patients had a single brain metastasis. A median of cumulative volume of brain metastases for each patient was 5.9 (0.1–29.1 cm3. An average value of the marginal dose for metastatic lesion was 22 (12–26 Gy, mean value of isodose used for treatment planning was 64 (39-99 %.Results. An overall survival (OS rate after radiosurgical treatment was 37.7; 16.4 and 9.3 % for 12, 24 and 36 months, respectively. A median OS was 9.1 months (95% confidence interval (CI 7.1–11.8. New brain metastases (distant recurrences following radiosurgical treatment occurred in 44 (54.3 % patients, with a median of 10.1 months (95 % CI:7-18. Local recurrences after radiosurgical treatment were detected in 19 (17 % patients with a median time of 6.6 months (95 % CI 4.0–9.6. Factors associated with the best

  3. Role of everolimus in the treatment of renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saby George

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Saby George1, Ronald M Bukowski21University of Texas Health Sciences Center, MC-8221, Division of Hematology and Oncology, San Antonio, Texas, USA; 2CCF Lerner College of Medicine Division of Hematology and Oncology, Cleveland, Ohio, USAAbstract: The therapeutic options in metastatic renal cell carcinoma have been recently expanded by the discovery of the VHL gene, the mutation of which is associated with development of clear cell carcinoma, and overexpression of the angiogenesis pathway, resulting in a very vascular tumor. This breakthrough in science led to the development of a variety of small molecules inhibiting the VEGF-dependent angiogenic pathway, such as sunitinib and sorafenib. These agents prolong overall and progression-free survival, respectively. The result was the development of robust front-line therapies which ultimately fail and are associated with disease progression. In this setting, there existed an unmet need for developing second-line therapies for patients with refractory metastatic renal cell carcinoma (MRCC. Everolimus (RAD 001 is an oral inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR pathway. The double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled phase III trial of everolimus (RECORD-1 conducted in MRCC patients after progression on sunitinib or sorafenib, or both, demonstrated a progression-free survival benefit favoring the study drug (4.9 months vs 1.9 months, HR 0.33, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.43, P ≤ 0 0.001. Everolimus thus established itself as a standard of care in the second-line setting for patients with MRCC who have failed treatment with VEGF receptor inhibitors.Keywords: mTOR inhibitor, mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor, signal transduction inhibitor, renal cell carcinoma, targeted therapy

  4. Immunotherapy for human renal cell carcinoma by adoptive transfer of autologous transforming growth factor beta-insensitive CD8+ T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Longxin; Wen, Weihong; Yuan, Jianlin; Helfand, Brian; Li, Yu; Shi, Changhong; Tian, Feng; Zheng, Jia; Wang, Fuli; Chen, Lin; Liang, Lili; Zhou, Liqun; Lee, Chung; Chen, Zhinan; Guo, Yinglu; Wang, He; Zhang, Qiang; Qin, Weijun

    2010-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is a potent immunosuppressor that has been associated with tumor evasion from the host immune surveillance and, thus, tumor progression. We tested a novel immunotherapy for human renal cell cancer (RCC) using a technique that involves the adoptive transfer of autologous tumor-reactive, TGF-beta-insensitive CD8(+) T cells into human RCC-challenged immunodeficient mice to identify its potent antitumor responses. The present study was conducted using a one-to-one adoptive transfer strategy to treat tumor-bearing severe combined immunodeficient (SCID/beige) mouse. The SCID/beige mice were humanized with peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with RCC (Hu-PBMC-SCID) before adoptive transfer. Autologous CD8(+) T cells were expanded ex vivo using autologous patient's dendritic cells pulsed with the tumor lysate and rendered TGF-beta insensitive by dominant-negative TGF-beta type II receptor. In addition, human RCC cell lines were generated using patients' tumor cells injected into SCID/beige mice. Using flow cytometry analysis, we confirmed the expression of the tumor-reactive, TGF-beta-insensitive CD8(+) T cells were the effector CD8(+) cells (CD27(-)CDRA(+)). Adoptive transfer of autologous TGF-beta-insensitive CD8(+) T cells into tumor-bearing Hu-PBMC-SCID mice induced robust tumor-specific CTL responses in vitro, were associated with tumor apoptosis, suppressed lung metastasis, and prolonged survival times in vivo. The one-to-one adoptive transfer strategy is an ideal in vivo murine model for studying the relationship between TGF-beta and immunosurveillance in RCC in vivo. Furthermore, this technique may offer the promise of a novel therapeutic option for the treatment of human patients with RCC.

  5. [Late thyroid and pancreas metastases from a clear cell renal carcinoma. Report of two cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urdiales-Viedma, Mariano; Luque, Rafael J; Elósegui-Martínez, Fernando; Martos-Padilla, Sebastián; López-Urdiales, Rafael

    2008-01-01

    To report two cases of late metastases of clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Two patients, a male and a female with history of nephrectomy 17 and 16 years before for renal cell carcinomas, presented new tumours in the thyroid and pancreas, which were excised. Pathology reported that both lesions were clear cell tumours and immunohistochemically they were consistent with metastases from clear renal cell carcinomas. 1) Previous history of any type of carcinoma should suggest the possibility of metastases when facing a thyroid or pancreatic nodule. 2) All-life follow-up should be made, nephrectomy (resection) for a renal cell carcinoma. 3) In the presence of a clear cell tumour of the thyroid or pan-creatic glands, the differential diagnosis must always include metastatic renal cell carcinoma. 4) The treatment of choice is surgical resection.

  6. Simulation of human renal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Haydar A; Botros, Nazeih M

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study is to develop a synthesisable computer-simulated model that mimics the function of a simplified renal system. Hardware description language has been used to simulate the model. In future phase of this study, the model will be realised on an electronic chip such as 'Field Programmable Gate Arrays'. The simulated model introduces a dynamic representation of the human body fluid balance under normal conditions and displays the change of urine flow with the amount of ingested water. The inputs of the model are average values of parameters extracted from the renal system. Some of these parameters and variables are: arterial pressure, daily ingested fluid volume, daily ingested sodium, daily ingested potassium, extracellular fluid volume, intracellular fluid volume, renin concentration, angiotensin II concentration, and aldosterone concentration. Our results show that the output of the model is in agreement with those of the literatures.

  7. Axitinib in sequential therapy in metastatic renal cell carcinoma

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    Agata Kuchar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Efficacy of new molecularly targeted drugs in the treatment of renal cell carcinoma (RCC, confirmed in clinical studies in relation to survival and prolongation of time to progression, has became a big chance for patients with metastatic renal cell cancer. Axitinib is a potent and selective receptor tyrosine kinase for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGFR-1, -2, -3, platelet-derived growth factor  (PDGRF- and c-KIT. This is a case report of a 57-year old female patient with a history of left nephrectomy due to clear cell renal cell carcinoma. The patient had received three prior systemic treatments (interferon – sorafenib – everolimus. After consecutive progression the patient was qualified to 4th line therapy – axitinib at a dose of 5 mg twice daily. Partial response to treatment was achieved. After 6 months therapy was stopped due to the disease progression. The total time to progression was 37.5 months. The total survival time from the disease diagnosis was 45 months. Based on literature date and own experience we showed that sequential treatment RCC is associated with improved survival. In summary, axitinib may be an effective drug after failure of tyrosine-kinase inhibitor (TKI therapy in previous lines of therapy.

  8. EXPRESSION PROFILES AND METHYLATION GENES IN CLEAR CELL RENAL CARCINOMA

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    E. A. Braga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal cancer (RC is a common malignancy of the genitourinary system. Clear cell renal cell carcinoma is the most common histological type of RC. In most cases diagnosis and prognosis of clear cell renal cell carcinoma are based on the results of instrumental tests, while search for novel molecular RC markers and their characterization remain relevant. Molecular genetic abnormalities accompanied with changes in gene expression underly the RC carcinogenesis; however, diagnostic panels of the expression markers of RC are still not widely used. This review represents the results of recent research in the area of gene expression markers of RC aimed to elaborate prognostic test systems. Application of the NotI-microarray methodology allowed for identification of many novel genes associated with RC pathogenesis. The relationship of alterations of expression level and methylation of chromosome 3 genes with RC progression and metastasis has been shown. Based on this data, a  diagnostic marker system for RC have been proposed with identification of expression and methylation profiles and novel markers, that is an urgent problem in modern urologic oncology.

  9. MicroRNAs and their target gene networks in renal cell carcinoma

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    Redova, Martina; Svoboda, Marek [Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute, Department of Comprehensive Cancer Care, Brno (Czech Republic); Slaby, Ondrej, E-mail: slaby@mou.cz [Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute, Department of Comprehensive Cancer Care, Brno (Czech Republic); Central European Institute of Technology, Masaryk University, Brno (Czech Republic)

    2011-02-11

    Research highlights: {yields} MiRNAs are related to the processes of cell proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis in RCC. {yields} MiRNAs expression profiles are associated with several RCC-specific genetic alterations. {yields} It has been well documented that several miRNAs are downstream effector molecules of the HIF-induced hypoxia response. {yields} MiR-200 family is linked to epithelial-mesenchymal transition which is one of the most significant pathogenetic mechanism in RCC. {yields} Mechanistic studies in RCC have provided the rationale of using miRNAs as potential therapeutic targets. -- Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-protein-coding short single stranded RNAs in the size range 19-25 nucleotides that are associated with gene regulation at the transcriptional and translational level. Recent studies have proved that miRNAs play important roles in a large number of biological processes, including cellular differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, etc. Changes in their expression were found in a variety of human cancers, including renal cell carcinoma pathogenesis. Specific miRNA alterations were associated with key pathogenetic mechanisms of renal cell carcinoma like hypoxia or epithelial-mesenchymal transition. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of miRNA functions in renal cell carcinoma with an emphasis on miRNAs potential to serve as a powerful biomarker of disease and a novel therapeutic target in oncology.

  10. Comparison of computed tomography findings between renal oncocytomas and chromophobe renal cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae Hyeok; Kim, Jong Won; Lee, Joo Yong; Han, Woong Kyu; Rha, Koon Ho; Choi, Young Deuk; Hong, Sung Joon; Yoon, Young Eun

    2015-10-01

    To investigate and distinguish the computed tomography (CT) characteristics of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (chRCC) and renal oncocytoma. Fifty-one patients with renal oncocytoma and 120 patients with chRCC, diagnosed by surgery between November 2005 and June 2015, were studied retrospectively. Two observers, who were urologists and unaware of the pathological results, reviewed the preoperative CT images. The tumors were evaluated for size, laterality, tumor type (ball or bean pattern), central stellate scar, segmental enhancement inversion, and angular interface pattern and tumor complexity. To accurately analyze the mass-enhancing pattern of renal mass, we measured Hounsfield units (HUs) in each phase and analyzed the mean, maximum, and minimum HU values and standard deviations. There were 51 renal oncocytomas and 120 chRCCs in the study cohort. No differences in clinical and demographic characteristics were observed between the two groups. A central stellate scar and segmental enhancement inversion were more likely in oncocytomas. However, there were no differences in ball-/bean-type categorization, enhancement pattern, and the shape of the interface between the groups. Higher HU values tended to be present in the corticomedullary and nephrogenic phases in oncocytomas than in chRCC. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis showed that the presence of a central stellate scar and higher mean HU values in the nephrogenic phase were highly predictive of renal oncocytoma (area under the curve=0.817, prenal oncocytomas from chRCCs.

  11. Comparison of computed tomography findings between renal oncocytomas and chromophobe renal cell carcinomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae Hyeok; Kim, Jong Won; Lee, Joo Yong; Han, Woong Kyu; Rha, Koon Ho; Choi, Young Deuk; Hong, Sung Joon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate and distinguish the computed tomography (CT) characteristics of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (chRCC) and renal oncocytoma. Materials and Methods Fifty-one patients with renal oncocytoma and 120 patients with chRCC, diagnosed by surgery between November 2005 and June 2015, were studied retrospectively. Two observers, who were urologists and unaware of the pathological results, reviewed the preoperative CT images. The tumors were evaluated for size, laterality, tumor type (ball or bean pattern), central stellate scar, segmental enhancement inversion, and angular interface pattern and tumor complexity. To accurately analyze the mass-enhancing pattern of renal mass, we measured Hounsfield units (HUs) in each phase and analyzed the mean, maximum, and minimum HU values and standard deviations. Results There were 51 renal oncocytomas and 120 chRCCs in the study cohort. No differences in clinical and demographic characteristics were observed between the two groups. A central stellate scar and segmental enhancement inversion were more likely in oncocytomas. However, there were no differences in ball-/bean-type categorization, enhancement pattern, and the shape of the interface between the groups. Higher HU values tended to be present in the corticomedullary and nephrogenic phases in oncocytomas than in chRCC. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis showed that the presence of a central stellate scar and higher mean HU values in the nephrogenic phase were highly predictive of renal oncocytoma (area under the curve=0.817, prenal oncocytomas from chRCCs. PMID:26495070

  12. [Renal Cell Carcinoma with Retroperitoneal Metastases and Renal Invasion from Breast Cancer : A Case Report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Go; Saito, Yoko; Mitome, Taku; Umemoto, Susumu; Kakazu, Ayano; Sugiyama, Tomoko; Ueki, Teiichiro

    2017-04-01

    A 67-year-old female was hospitalized with back pain. Computed tomography (CT) incidentally revealed a tumor in her left kidney tumor (33 mm) and bilateral breast tumors. She underwent a breast biopsy and was diagnosed with breast cancer (invasive lobular cancer, cT2N0M0). The renal tumor was suspected to be clear cell carcinoma, cT1aN0M0, based on contrast-enhanced CT. Surgery was considered necessary for both the breast cancer and renal tumor. First, laparoscopic radical nephrectomy was performed for the renal tumor. However, the lateroconal fascia adhered strongly to the perirenal fat, and so simple nephrectomy was carried out after conversion to open surgery. The perirenal fat was also excised after the nephrectomy. A histopathological examination revealed clear cell carcinoma and renal invasion by invasive lobular cancer cells. Also, scattered metastases were detected in the perirenal fat and the lateroconal fascia. So, it was considered that retroperitoneal metastases from the breast cancer had directly invaded the kidney. After the operation, the patient received hormonal therapy for her breast cancer, and she was still alive and symptom-free 5 months after the operation.

  13. Renal epithelioid angiomyolipoma presenting clinically as renal cell carcinoma – A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Johnson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe a 22-year old female who presented with a 5-year history of a palpable, painless mass in the right flank. Computerized tomography demonstrated a solid renal mass measuring 18 cm × 13 cm with peripheral calcification, areas of vascularity and necrosis. The appearance suggested renal cell carcinoma or nephroblastoma, but percutaneous renal biopsy suggested an adrenal origin. At right radical nephrectomy, the adrenal gland was completely normal. Histology showed sheets and nests of epithelioid cells with abundant eosinophilic to clear cytoplasm, confirming a diagnosis of epithelioid angiomyolipoma (EAML, a rare mesenchymal tumor belonging to the perivascular epithelioid cell tumor family (PEComas. At 33 months followup, there was no evidence of recurrence or metastases.

  14. Association of dyslipidemia with renal cell carcinoma: a 1∶2 matched case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunfang Zhang

    Full Text Available Abnormal serum lipid profiles are associated with the risk of some cancers, but the direction and magnitude of the association with renal cell carcinoma is unclear. We explore the relationship between serum lipids and renal cell carcinoma via a matched case-control study. A 1∶2-matched case-control study design was applied, where one renal cell carcinoma patient was matched to two non-renal-cell-carcinoma residents with respect to age (±0 year and gender. Cases (n = 248 were inpatients with a primary diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma, confirmed by pathology after operations. Controls were sampled from a community survey database matched on age and gender with cases, 2 controls for each case. Stratified Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was used to obtain hazard ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals of lipids level and dyslipidemia for the risk of renal cell carcinoma. Elevated serum cholesterol (p<0.001, LDL cholesterol (p<0.001, and HDL cholesterol (p = 0.003 are associated with decreased hazard of renal cell carcinoma, adjusting for obesity, smoke, hypertension and diabetes. However, risk caused by hTG showed no statistical significance (p = 0.263. This study indicates that abnormal lipid profile influences the risk of renal cell carcinoma.

  15. The dreadful and the deadly erection—Malignant priapism from renal cell carcinoma

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    Cheng-Ling Lee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Penile metastasis of renal cell carcinoma is a rare occurrence. We report a case in a 44-year-old man who presented with malignant priapism as the first sign of recurrence of renal cell carcinoma. Although invasive procedures have a limited role in survival benefits, we performed a total penectomy to alleviate pain and provide a better quality of life.

  16. Renal cell carcinoma in an ectopic pelvic kidney in a patient presenting with acute urinary retention

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    Isabella Dash

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of renal cell carcinoma in a pelvic kidney is rare, and has only been described in a very small number of cases. We describe a case where an incidental ectopic kidney with invasive renal cell carcinoma was diagnosed during a separate emergency admission for acute urinary retention.

  17. Hyper IgE Syndrome and Renal Cell Carcinoma

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    Neel H. Patel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyper IgE Syndrome (HIES is an immunodeficiency disorder characterized by increased serum levels of IgE, eczema, and recurrent cutaneous and pulmonary infections. In this report, we present, to our knowledge, the first documented case of renal cell carcinoma (RCC found in a patient with HIES. The patient received infectious disease clearance prior to obtaining a partial nephrectomy which revealed clear cell histology. Both HIES and RCC have an immunological basis for their pathophysiology and may involve common pathways. Further studies may provide insight into any possible link and clinicians should be mindful of immunocompromised patients who present with risk factors for genitourinary malignancy.

  18. Nivolumab versus Everolimus in Advanced Renal-Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motzer, Robert J; Escudier, Bernard; McDermott, David F; George, Saby; Hammers, Hans J; Srinivas, Sandhya; Tykodi, Scott S; Sosman, Jeffrey A; Procopio, Giuseppe; Plimack, Elizabeth R; Castellano, Daniel; Choueiri, Toni K; Gurney, Howard; Donskov, Frede; Bono, Petri; Wagstaff, John; Gauler, Thomas C; Ueda, Takeshi; Tomita, Yoshihiko; Schutz, Fabio A; Kollmannsberger, Christian; Larkin, James; Ravaud, Alain; Simon, Jason S; Xu, Li-An; Waxman, Ian M; Sharma, Padmanee

    2015-11-05

    Nivolumab, a programmed death 1 (PD-1) checkpoint inhibitor, was associated with encouraging overall survival in uncontrolled studies involving previously treated patients with advanced renal-cell carcinoma. This randomized, open-label, phase 3 study compared nivolumab with everolimus in patients with renal-cell carcinoma who had received previous treatment. A total of 821 patients with advanced clear-cell renal-cell carcinoma for which they had received previous treatment with one or two regimens of antiangiogenic therapy were randomly assigned (in a 1:1 ratio) to receive 3 mg of nivolumab per kilogram of body weight intravenously every 2 weeks or a 10-mg everolimus tablet orally once daily. The primary end point was overall survival. The secondary end points included the objective response rate and safety. The median overall survival was 25.0 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 21.8 to not estimable) with nivolumab and 19.6 months (95% CI, 17.6 to 23.1) with everolimus. The hazard ratio for death with nivolumab versus everolimus was 0.73 (98.5% CI, 0.57 to 0.93; P=0.002), which met the prespecified criterion for superiority (P≤0.0148). The objective response rate was greater with nivolumab than with everolimus (25% vs. 5%; odds ratio, 5.98 [95% CI, 3.68 to 9.72]; Pnivolumab and 4.4 months (95% CI, 3.7 to 5.5) with everolimus (hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.75 to 1.03; P=0.11). Grade 3 or 4 treatment-related adverse events occurred in 19% of the patients receiving nivolumab and in 37% of the patients receiving everolimus; the most common event with nivolumab was fatigue (in 2% of the patients), and the most common event with everolimus was anemia (in 8%). Among patients with previously treated advanced renal-cell carcinoma, overall survival was longer and fewer grade 3 or 4 adverse events occurred with nivolumab than with everolimus. (Funded by Bristol-Myers Squibb; CheckMate 025 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01668784.).

  19. Nivolumab versus Everolimus in Advanced Renal-Cell Carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Motzer, Robert J; Escudier, Bernard; McDermott, David F

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nivolumab, a programmed death 1 (PD-1) checkpoint inhibitor, was associated with encouraging overall survival in uncontrolled studies involving previously treated patients with advanced renal-cell carcinoma. This randomized, open-label, phase 3 study compared nivolumab with everolimus...... of nivolumab per kilogram of body weight intravenously every 2 weeks or a 10-mg everolimus tablet orally once daily. The primary end point was overall survival. The secondary end points included the objective response rate and safety. RESULTS: The median overall survival was 25.0 months (95% confidence...

  20. Current management of renal cell carcinoma and targeted therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canda, A Erdem; Kirkali, Ziya

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this review is to provide an update on the current management of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and targeted molecular therapy for metastatic RCC. A Pubmed database search was performed using the keywords "renal cell carcinoma, treatment, management, localized disease, metastatic disease and targeted therapy" covering 1995 to 2006. The most recent articles published having clinical relevance were reviewed for the preparation of this paper. Surgery is considered as the only curative treatment for localized RCC. Currently, open radical nephrectomy is mainly performed in patients with large tumor size, locally advanced tumors and tumor thrombus extending into the vena cava. Nephron sparing surgery (NSS) is the most commonly performed procedure with excellent local cancer control in small, resectable renal tumors. Increasingly, laparoscopy is being performed and now recommended for early-stage RCCs unsuitable for NSS. Laparoscopic radical nephrectomy seems to be providing long-term cancer control comparable to open radical nephrectomy. Laparoscopic NSS is now available particularly in patients with a relatively small and peripheral renal tumor. The current therapy for metastatic RCC is inadequate and surgery is an important component of the treatment with combined immunotherapy in which response rates remain at about 15% to 25%. In the past several years, significant advances in the underlying biological mechanisms of RCC development have permitted the design of new molecularly targeted therapeutics such as antibodies, tumor vaccines, anti-angiogenesis agents and small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors in order to improve treatment options. Surgery is the only curative treatment for localized RCC and NSS cures most of the patients with early-stage disease. Currently laparoscopy is recommended for early-stage RCCs unsuitable for NSS. Better understanding of the molecular pathways of carcinogenesis in RCC leads to the discovery of new drugs which can prolong

  1. Cystic papillary renal cell carcinoma arising from an involutional multicystic dysplastic kidney

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    Kim, Jeong Jae; Kim, Bong Soo; Huh, Jung Sik; Park, Kyung Gi; Choi, Guk Myung; Kim, Seung Hyoung; Maeng, Young Hee [Jeju National University School of Medicine, Jeju National University Hospital, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Multicystic dysplastic kidney is a common cystic renal disease that often occurs in infancy. Recent studies demonstrate the possibility for spontaneous involution of a dysplastic kidney. In such cases, the prognosis is generally excellent and there is a very low incidence of complications. Complications associated with multicystic dysplastic kidney include pain, infection, hypertension, and neoplasia. Renal cell carcinomas are extremely rare in multicystic dysplastic kidneys. To our knowledge, no case report has described a radiologic finding of renal cell carcinoma arising from an involutional multicystic dysplastic kidney. We report a case of histopathologically validated cystic papillary renal cell carcinoma arising from an involutional multicystic dysplastic kidney and describe its sonographic and CT features.

  2. Concurrent Multilocular Cystic Renal Cell Carcinoma and Leiomyoma in the Same Kidney: Previously Unreported Association

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    Min Su Cheong

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We present an unusual case of concurrent occurrence of a multilocular cystic renal cell carcinoma and a leiomyoma in the same kidney of a patient with no evident clinical symptoms. A 38-year-old man was found incidentally to have a cystic right renal mass on computed tomography. Laparoscopic radical nephrectomy was performed under a preoperative diagnosis of cystic renal cell carcinoma. Histology revealed a multilocular cystic renal cell carcinoma and a leiomyoma. This is the first report of this kind of presentation.

  3. Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma With Borderline Features of Clear Cell Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma: Combined Morphologic, Immunohistochemical, and Cytogenetic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Sean R; Gupta, Nilesh S; Eble, John N; Rogers, Craig G; Michalowski, Susan; Zhang, Shaobo; Wang, Mingsheng; Grignon, David J; Cheng, Liang

    2015-11-01

    Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma is increasingly recognized as a distinct tumor with unique morphology, immunohistochemistry, and cytogenetics. Histopathology often mimics clear cell renal cell carcinoma; however, metastasis has not been reported, emphasizing the clinical value of recognizing these likely nonaggressive tumors. We studied tumors with borderline morphology of clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma, utilizing immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization or karyotyping. Tumors from 22 patients (ages 33 to 82 y) were analyzed. Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma-like morphology varied from 10% to 90% of the tumor (median 25%). Sources of resemblance included: branched glands (95%), nuclear alignment (68%), small papillary tufts (32%), focal branching papillae (27%), and prominent papillary structures (9%). Carbonic anhydrase IX uniformly revealed diffuse positivity. Staining for cytokeratin 7 (CK7) was focal (64%) or negative (18%) in most tumors (82%); however, >50% labeling was present in 4 (18%). Reactivity for both CD10 and α-methyl-acyl-CoA-racemase (AMACR) was usually present (median 80% and 60% of cells). Seven tumors showed reactivity for high-molecular weight keratin (32%). Chromosome 3p loss was confirmed in 15 tumors (68%), including 4/7 with labeling for high-molecular weight keratin or >50% reactivity for CK7. A discordant immunohistochemical pattern typically correlates with loss of material from chromosome 3p in tumors with incomplete morphology of clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma, supporting classification as clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Diffuse labeling for CK7 can uncommonly be observed in clear cell renal cell carcinomas confirmed to have chromosome 3p loss, although these do not exhibit the expected staining pattern of clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma, including positivity for CD10 and AMACR.

  4. Immunohistochemical application of S100A1 in renal oncocytoma, oncocytic papillary renal cell carcinoma, and two variants of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Naoto; Kanomata, Naoki; Yamaguchi, Tadanori; Imamura, Yoshiaki; Ohe, Chisato; Sakaida, Noriko; Hes, Ondrej; Michal, Michal; Shuin, Taro; Lee, Gang-Hong

    2011-06-01

    S100A1 is a calcium-binding protein and a member of the S100 family. Recently, S100A1 immunohistochemistry may be an available marker in the differential diagnosis between renal oncocytoma and chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, there are no reports on S100A1 expression in oncocytic papillary RCC that has been recently identified. In this article, we immunohistochemically examined the expression of S100A1 protein in 18 renal tumors including 4 renal oncocytoma, 10 chromophobe RCCs, and 4 oncocytic papillary RCCs. All the cases of renal oncocytoma and oncocytic papillary RCC showed a positive reaction for S100A1 with cytoplasmic pattern. In chromophobe RCC, 3 of 4 tumors with typical variant and 4 of 6 tumors in eosinophilic variant were completely negative for S100A1. Finally, S100A1 immunohistochemistry may be useful in distinguishing renal oncocytoma from chromophobe RCC, but it may be of no use in the differential diagnosis between renal oncocytoma and oncocytic papillary RCC.

  5. Renal Cell Carcinoma Metastatic to Thyroid Gland, Presenting Like Anaplastic Carcinoma of Thyroid

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    Khalid Riaz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC has unpredictable and diverse behavior. The classic triad of hematuria, loin pain, and abdominal mass is uncommon. At time of diagnosis, 25%–30% of patients are found to have metastases. Bones, lungs, liver, and brain are the frequent sites of metastases. RCC with metastasis to the head and neck region and thyroid gland is the rarest manifestation and anaplastic carcinoma behaving metastatic thyroid mass is an extremely rare presentation of RCC. Case Presentation. A 56-year-old Saudi man with past history of right radical nephrectomy 5 years back presented with 3 months history of rapid increasing neck mass with dysphagia, presenting like anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Tru-cut biopsy turned out to be metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Patient was treated with radiation therapy 30 Gy in 10 fractions to mass. Patient died 4 months after the discovery of anaplastic thyroid looking metastasis. Conclusion. Rapidly progressing thyroid metastases secondary to RCC are rare and found often unresectable which are not amenable to surgery. Palliative radiotherapy can be considered for such patients.

  6. Cox-2 gene overexpression in ureteral stump urothelial carcinoma following nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma: a case report

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    Chang Wei-Pin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction A primary ureteral stump tumor after a nephrectomy is rare; urothelial carcinoma of the ureteral stump after a nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma is even rarer. A thorough review of the literature indicated that only seven cases have previously been reported. In this study, we report the first Taiwanese case of urothelial carcinoma of the ureteral stump after a nephrectomy. It is also the first female case in the literature. The relationship between inflammatory genes, medication history and ureteral stump carcinoma after a nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma has not been reported. Case presentation A 72-year-old Asian Taiwanese women with chronic hepatitis C, liver cirrhosis and chronic kidney disease underwent a hand-assisted laparoscopic radical nephrectomy in 2001 due to renal cell carcinoma. Nine years later, she was diagnosed with ureteral stump urothelial carcinoma. Genetic and medication surveys were performed. Importantly, our patient had taken Chinese herbal drugs for more than 10 years and the inflammatory gene, Cox-2, was highly expressed in this patient. This is the first report to study the relationship between the Cox-2 gene and ureteral stump carcinoma after a nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma. Conclusion Long-term multiple use of Chinese herbal drugs could be one of the important risk factors for developing urothelial cancer. Close functional coupling between Chinese herbal drugs, Cox-2 gene activation and urothelial cancer should be further investigated.

  7. The prospect of precision therapy for renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarese, Chiara; Brunelli, Matteo; Montironi, Rodolfo; Fiorentino, Michelangelo; Iacovelli, Roberto; Heng, Daniel; Tortora, Giampaolo; Massari, Francesco

    2016-09-01

    The therapeutic landscape of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has greatly expanded in the last decade. From being a malignancy orphan of effective therapies, kidney cancer has become today a tumor with several treatment options. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a metabolic disease, being characterized by the dysregulation of metabolic pathways involved in oxygen sensing (VHL/HIF pathway alterations and the subsequent up-regulation of HIF-responsive genes such as VEGF, PDGF, EGF, and glucose transporters GLUT1 and GLUT4, which justify the RCC reliance on aerobic glycolysis), energy sensing (fumarate hydratase-deficient, succinate dehydrogenase-deficient RCC, mutations of HGF/MET pathway resulting in the metabolic Warburg shift marked by RCC increased dependence on aerobic glycolysis and the pentose phosphate shunt, augmented lipogenesis, and reduced AMPK and Krebs cycle activity) and/or nutrient sensing cascade (deregulation of AMPK-TSC1/2-mTOR and PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathways). In this complex scenario it is important to find prognostic and predictive factors that can help in decision making in the treatment of mRCC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A review of integrated staging systems for renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meskawi, Malek; Sun, Maxine; Trinh, Quoc-Dien; Bianchi, Marco; Hansen, Jens; Tian, Zhe; Rink, Michael; Ismail, Salima; Shariat, Shahrokh F; Montorsi, Francesco; Perrotte, Paul; Karakiewicz, Pierre I

    2012-08-01

    Several outstanding integrated staging systems (ISSs) have been devised for patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). To review the available literature on existing ISSs. A nonsystematic search was conducted using Medline and PubMed databases. Original articles, review articles, and editorials addressing the development and validation of ISSs in RCC published up to February 2012 were identified. The search was limited to the English language. Keywords included kidney cancer, renal cell carcinoma, nomogram, risk group, prognosis, predictive accuracy, external validation, and discrimination. Links to related articles and cross-reading of citations in related articles were surveyed. All articles with a pertinent level of evidence were included and represent the basis for the current review article. In nephrectomy patients, a variety of models have been developed for prediction of recurrence and survival, both in the preoperative and postoperative settings. Several of those models relied on variables that are not routinely available in clinical practice. Not all tools were externally validated. In patients treated with systemic therapy, novel tools that were developed and validated in the targeted therapy era replaced tools devised during the cytokine era. The development of ISSs for prediction of risk or prognosis in the context of RCC has evolved and improved. In the targeted therapy era, the urologic community should focus on direct comparisons of existing tools with the intent of identifying the optimal ISS for each specific end point. Copyright © 2012 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Sarcomatoid differentiation in renal cell carcinoma: prognostic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos F. Dall'Oglio

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Renal cell carcinoma with sarcomatoid differentiation is a tumor with aggressive behavior that is poorly responsive to immunotherapy. The objective of this study is to report our experience in the treatment of 15 patients with this tumor. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 15 consecutive cases of renal cell carcinoma with sarcomatoid differentiation diagnosed between 1991 and 2003. The clinical presentation and the pathological stage were assessed, as were the tumor's pathological features, use of adjuvant immunotherapy and survival. The study's primary end-point was to assess survival of these individuals. RESULTS: The sample included 8 women and 7 men with mean age of 63 years (44 - 80; follow-up ranged from 1 to 100 months (mean 34. Upon presentation, 87% were symptomatic and 4 individuals had metastatic disease. Mean tumor size was 9.5 cm (4 - 24 with the following pathological stages: 7% pT1, 7% pT2, 33% pT3, and 53% pT4. The pathological features showed high-grade tumors with tumoral necrosis in 87% of the lesions and 80% of intratumoral microvascular invasion. Disease-free and cancer-specific survival rates were 40 and 46% respectively, with 2 cases responding to adjuvant immunotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with sarcomatoid tumors of the kidney have a low life expectancy, and sometimes surgical resection associated with immunotherapy can lead to a long-lasting therapeutic response.

  10. Role of surgery in advanced/metastatic renal cell carcinoma

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    Suresh Bhat

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic renal cell cancer (RCC is a malignant disease without curative treatment. These patients are usually symptomatic and desperate for effective palliative treatment. Radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and hormonal therapy are not effective in these patients. A multimodal approach consisting of cytoreductive nephrectomy, systemic therapy (which includes cytokines or targeted molecules, and metastasectomy have been shown to be useful in prolonging the survival and improving the quality of life in a select group of patients with metastatic renal cancer. Patients with oligometastatic disease, good performance status, and delayed presentation of the secondaries have better results following this integrated approach. Although there is some controversy regarding the order in which nephrectomy and systemic therapy are to be instituted, well-controlled studies like the South West Oncology Group and European organization research and treatment of cancer have shown that upfront nephrectomy gives better survival compared to neoadjuvant systemic therapy followed by nephrectomy. This order is the standard presently. Of late, with better understanding of the genetic basis and the biology of the various subtypes of renal cell carcinoma, targeted molecular therapies have emerged as an equally effective alternative therapy to cytokines. Recent reports have proven that targeted therapy is more effective with comparable side effects. Metastasectomy in a subgroup of patients improves survival and quality of life specifically in those with lung secondaries and painful bone metastases.

  11. Renal cell carcinoma: histological classification and correlation with imaging findings

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    Valdair F. Muglia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Renal cell carcinoma (RCC is the seventh most common histological type of cancer in the Western world and has shown a sustained increase in its prevalence. The histological classification of RCCs is of utmost importance, considering the significant prognostic and therapeutic implications of its histological subtypes. Imaging methods play an outstanding role in the diagnosis, staging and follow-up of RCC. Clear cell, papillary and chromophobe are the most common histological subtypes of RCC, and their preoperative radiological characterization, either followed or not by confirmatory percutaneous biopsy, may be particularly useful in cases of poor surgical condition, metastatic disease, central mass in a solitary kidney, and in patients eligible for molecular targeted therapy. New strategies recently developed for treating renal cancer, such as cryo and radiofrequency ablation, molecularly targeted therapy and active surveillance also require appropriate preoperative characterization of renal masses. Less common histological types, although sharing nonspecific imaging features, may be suspected on the basis of clinical and epidemiological data. The present study is aimed at reviewing the main clinical and imaging findings of histological RCC subtypes.

  12. Renal cell carcinoma: histological classification and correlation with imaging findings

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    Muglia, Valdair F., E-mail: fmuglia@fmrp.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (CCIFM/FMRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias das Imagens e Fisica Medica. Faculdade de Medicina; Prando, Adilson [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil); Hospital Vera Cruz, Campinas, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Imaginologia

    2015-05-15

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the seventh most common histological type of cancer in the Western world and has shown a sustained increase in its prevalence. The histological classification of RCCs is of utmost importance, considering the significant prognostic and therapeutic implications of its histological subtypes. Imaging methods play an outstanding role in the diagnosis, staging and follow-up of RCC. Clear cell, papillary and chromophobe are the most common histological subtypes of RCC, and their preoperative radiological characterization, either followed or not by confirmatory percutaneous biopsy, may be particularly useful in cases of poor surgical condition, metastatic disease, central mass in a solitary kidney, and in patients eligible for molecular targeted therapy. New strategies recently developed for treating renal cancer, such as cryo and radiofrequency ablation, molecularly targeted therapy and active surveillance also require appropriate preoperative characterization of renal masses. Less common histological types, although sharing nonspecific imaging features, may be suspected on the basis of clinical and epidemiological data. The present study is aimed at reviewing the main clinical and imaging findings of histological RCC subtypes. (author)

  13. [Clinical analysis of renal cell carcinoma with intravenous tumor thrombus].

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    Kogawa, T; Sawada, Y; Narita, S; Tanaka, S; Sato, F; Kudo, S; Kitagawa, M; Suzuki, T

    1990-11-20

    We reviewed treatment and prognosis in 7 operative and 7 non-operative cases of renal cell carcinoma with venous tumor thrombosis formation, 14 cases in total. Treatment after around 1983 involved the use of biological response modifier (BRM), chiefly interferon (IFN), and operation by thoracoabdominal approach. Before that, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and operation by peritoneal approach were used, with many cases judged inoperable. Even in non-operative cases, life-prolongation was frequently achieved by embolization of the renal artery and administration of various BRMs. On the other hand, in cases judged operable which were always treated by resection, early postoperative death sometimes occurred. These facts brought home to us the difficulty of choosing appropriate treatment. Though it is hard to determine the relative merits of various treatments from the present data, since the series is small and contains cases from 1963 onwards, the clinical and pathological pictures should be carefully evaluated for each case, and the most suitable course of treatment should be selected individually. We describe a non-operative case in which a combined use of embolization, IFN-gamma and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) elicited a lasting partial response, and an operative case in which postoperative complications such as pulmonary infarction and renal failure occurred after operation under extracorporeal circulation and patient died at 2 months after operation.

  14. Changes in the expression and subcellular distribution of galectin-3 in clear cell renal cell carcinoma

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    Straube Tamara

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clear cell renal cell carcinoma, a solid growing tumor, is the most common tumor in human kidney. Evaluating the usefulness of β-galactoside binding galectin-3 as a diagnostic marker for this type of cancer could open avenues for preventive and therapeutic strategies by employing specific inhibitors of the lectin. To study a putative correlation between the extent of galectin-3 and the development of clear cell renal cell carcinoma, we monitored the quantity and distribution of this lectin in tissue samples from 39 patients. Methods Galectin-3 concentrations in normal, intermediate and tumor tissues were examined by immunofluorescence microscopy and on immunoblots with antibodies directed against galectin-3 and renal control proteins. The cell nuclei were isolated to determine quantities of galectin-3 that were transferred into this compartment in normal or tumor samples. Results Immunofluorescence data revealed a mosaic pattern of galectin-3 expression in collecting ducts and distal tubules of normal kidney. Galectin-3 expression was significantly increased in 79% of tumor samples as compared to normal tissues. Furthermore, we observed an increase in nuclear translocation of the lectin in tumor tissues. Conclusions Our data indicate that changes in the cellular level of galectin-3 correlate with the development of clear cell renal cell carcinoma, which is in line with previously published data on this specific type of tumor. In most of these studies the lectin tends to be highly expressed in tumor tissues. Furthermore, this study suggests that the increase in the proportion of galectin-3 affects the balance from a cytosolic distribution towards translocation into the nucleus.

  15. FISH scoring on paraffin sections versus single-cell suspension for chromophobe renal carcinoma and renal oncocytoma.

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    Brunelli, Matteo; Segala, Diego; Delahunt, Brett; Parolini, Claudia; Bersani, Samantha; Cheng, Liang; Eble, John N; Chilosi, Marco; Gobbo, Stefano; Martignoni, Guido

    2011-10-01

    Sectioning of the nuclei on tissue sections may give an overestimate of monosomy, a feature diagnostic of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma versus renal oncocytoma. The aim of the study was to assess whether or not nuclear sectioning may distort the results obtained from interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) comparing the data obtained from analysis of isolated nuclei derived from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections with histological sections from the adjacent sections from the same tumors. Five chromophobe renal cell carcinomas and five renal oncocytomas were recruited. Sections of 5 μm and 30 μm were cut for FISH to investigate chromosomes 1, 2, 6 10 and 17. FISH of isolated nuclei from renal oncocytomas showed a mean increase of 3.0% for nuclei with two signals when compared to tissue sections. For chromosomes 2, 6, 10 and 17, isolated nuclei showed a mean increase of 4.9% of fluorescent signals over nuclei from tissue sections. FISH analysis of isolated nuclei from chromophobe renal cell carcinoma showed a similar counts. When a tumor section exhibits a borderline percentage of nuclei with single signals around the cut-off level on tissue sections, the test should be repeated on isolated nuclei to confirm chromosomal loss, diagnostic of chromophobe renal carcinoma.

  16. Targeting miR-21 decreases expression of multi-drug resistant genes and promotes chemosensitivity of renal carcinoma.

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    Gaudelot, Kelly; Gibier, Jean-Baptiste; Pottier, Nicolas; Hémon, Brigitte; Van Seuningen, Isabelle; Glowacki, François; Leroy, Xavier; Cauffiez, Christelle; Gnemmi, Viviane; Aubert, Sébastien; Perrais, Michaël

    2017-07-01

    Renal cell carcinoma, the most common neoplasm of adult kidney, accounts for about 3% of adult malignancies and is usually highly resistant to conventional therapy. MicroRNAs are a class of small non-coding RNAs, which have been previously shown to promote malignant initiation and progression. In this study, we focused our attention on miR-21, a well described oncomiR commonly upregulated in cancer. Using a cohort of 99 primary renal cell carcinoma samples, we showed that miR-21 expression in cancer tissues was higher than in adjacent non-tumor tissues whereas no significant difference was observed with stages, grades, and metastatic outcome. In vitro, miR-21 was also overexpressed in renal carcinoma cell lines compared to HK-2 human proximal tubule epithelial cell line. Moreover, using Boyden chambers and western blot techniques, we also showed that miR-21 overexpression increased migratory, invasive, proliferative, and anti-apoptotic signaling pathways whereas opposite results were observed using an anti-miR-21-based silencing strategy. Finally, we assessed the role of miR-21 in mediating renal cell carcinoma chemoresistance and further showed that miR-21 silencing significantly (1) increased chemosensitivity of paclitaxel, 5-fluorouracil, oxaliplatin, and dovitinib; (2) decreased expression of multi-drug resistance genes; and (4) increased SLC22A1/OCT1, SLC22A2/OCT2, and SLC31A1/CTR1 platinum influx transporter expression. In conclusion, our results showed that miR-21 is a key actor of renal cancer progression and plays an important role in the resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs. In renal cell carcinoma, targeting miR-21 is a potential new therapeutic strategy to improve chemotherapy efficacy and consequently patient outcome.

  17. Differentiation of renal oncocytoma and renal clear cell carcinoma using relative CT enhancement ratio.

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    Ren, An; Cai, Feng; Shang, Yan-Ning; Ma, En-Sen; Huang, Zhen-Guo; Wang, Wu; Lu, Yan; Zhang, Xue-Zhe

    2015-01-20

    The difference between renal oncocytomas (RO) and renal clear cell carcinomas (RCCs) presents the greatest diagnostic challenge. The aim of this study was to retrospectively determine if RO and RCCs could be differentiated on computed tomography (CT) images on the basis of their enhancement patterns with a new enhancement correcting method. Forty-six patients with a solitary renal mass who underwent total or partial nephrectomy were included in this study. Fourteen of those were RO and 32 were RCCs. All patients were examined with contrast-enhanced CT. The pattern and degree of enhancement were evaluated. We selected the area that demonstrated the greatest degree of enhancement of the renal lesion in the corticomedullary nephrographic and excretory phase images. Regions of interest (ROI) were also placed in adjacent normal renal cortex for normalization. We used the values of the normal renal cortex that were measured at the same time as divisors. The ratios of lesion-to-renal cortex enhancement were calculated for all three phases. The Student's t-test and Pearson's Chi-square test were used for statistical analyses. All RCCs masses showed contrast that appeared to be better enhanced than RO on all contrast-enhanced phases of CT imaging, but there was no significant difference in absolute attenuation values between these two diseases (P > 0.05). The ratio of lesion-to-cortex attenuation in the corticomedullary phase showed significantly different values between RO and RCCs. The degree of contrast enhancement in RCCs was equal to or greater than that of the normal renal cortex, but it was less than that of the normal cortex in RO in the corticomedullary phase. The ratio of lesion-to-cortex attenuation in the corticomedullary phase was higher than the cut off value of 1.0 in most RCCs (84%, 27/32) and lower than 1.0 in most RO (93%, 13/14) (P renal lesion-to-cortex attenuation ratios may be helpful in differentiating RO from RCCs.

  18. [A case of multilocular cystic renal cell carcinoma treated by partial nephrectomy associated with adrenal tumor].

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    Fukuoka, H; Ishibashi, Y; Fujinami, K; Tsuchiya, F; Sakanishi, S

    1994-12-01

    A case of multilocular cystic renal cell carcinoma was reported. The patient was 69-year-old male who had been examined for postoperative study of gastric cancer by abdominal CT. The abdominal CT incidentally revealed right adrenal tumor which was non-functional and multilocular cysts in the lower pole of the right kidney. Selective renal arteriography showed a hypovascular mass with fine neovascularity. These two findings of CT and arteriography were though to represent a probable malignant tumor but renal function of the patient decreased moderately. Surgical exploration was done and right renal masses were thought to be seen benign multilocular cysts without capsule. Simple excision of the wall of cysts and right adrenalectomy were performed. Pathological examinations showed multilocular cystic renal cell carcinoma and benign adrenal hyperplasia. Additionally partial nephrectomy was done. Surgical margin of the kidney was tumor free and postoperative course was uneventful. Prognosis of multiocular cystic renal cell carcinoma is good, therefore conservative surgery is recommended.

  19. Suture Granuloma Mimicking Renal Cell Carcinoma: Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI and Pathologic Correlation

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    İbrahim İlker Öz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Solid renal masses are generally distinguished with contrast enhancement and intratumoral fatty foci by radiological examinations. The present of enhancement is most important criteria for diagnosis of malignant lesions. Generally, a contrast enhanced solid mass in kidney is accepted as a neoplasm. Foreign body granuloma is an extraordinary cause of enhanced solid renal mass. This case of a renal suture granuloma demonstrated peripheral enhanced exophytic renal mass mimic renal cell carcinoma, and underwent surgery. At the solid renal mass with different radiological features, biopsy is an option to determining the necessity of surgery as well as the surgical approach.

  20. The Role of Everolimus in Renal Cell Carcinoma

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    Malek Meskawi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Everolimus (RAD001 is an orally administered agent that inhibits the mammalian target of rapamycin serine-threonine kinase. A phase III pivotal trial on everolimus, published in 2008, provided the first evidence for the efficacy of sequential therapy for patients with metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC. In this study, everolimus was used after failure of one or several previous lines of therapy, and it demonstrated a 3-month survival benefit relative to placebo. Currently, based on the level 1 evidence, everolimus represents the molecule of choice for third-line therapy after failure of previous two tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs. However, second-line use after failure of one TKI is challenged by two new molecules (nivolumab and cabozantinib, which proved to have better efficacy with similar toxicity profile. In non-clear cell metastatic RCC, the current evidence recommends everolimus as a second-line therapy after failure of previous first-line sunitinib.

  1. The Evolution of Systemic Therapy in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma.

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    Hutson, Thomas E; Thoreson, Gregory R; Figlin, Robert A; Rini, Brian I

    2016-01-01

    The treatment landscape for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a dynamic process that has seen considerable change in recent years. We have seen a rebirth of original breakthroughs with immune checkpoint inhibitors showing promise in patients with treatment-refractory disease. The optimal sequencing of treatments and incorporation of novel therapeutics are actively being investigated and have yet to be determined. The clinical challenges of this evolving treatment paradigm can be attributed to cost considerations, toxicity, and defining endpoints in the management of advanced RCC. As novel therapeutics emerge, finding the optimal treatment regimen for patients will have an increasing focus on patient-centered outcomes and improvement in quality of life in addition to improving survival.

  2. Multilevel Genomics-Based Taxonomy of Renal Cell Carcinoma

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    Fengju Chen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of multidimensional and comprehensive molecular characterization (including DNA methalylation and copy number, RNA, and protein expression, we classified 894 renal cell carcinomas (RCCs of various histologic types into nine major genomic subtypes. Site of origin within the nephron was one major determinant in the classification, reflecting differences among clear cell, chromophobe, and papillary RCC. Widespread molecular changes associated with TFE3 gene fusion or chromatin modifier genes were present within a specific subtype and spanned multiple subtypes. Differences in patient survival and in alteration of specific pathways (including hypoxia, metabolism, MAP kinase, NRF2-ARE, Hippo, immune checkpoint, and PI3K/AKT/mTOR could further distinguish the subtypes. Immune checkpoint markers and molecular signatures of T cell infiltrates were both highest in the subtype associated with aggressive clear cell RCC. Differences between the genomic subtypes suggest that therapeutic strategies could be tailored to each RCC disease subset.

  3. Sarcomatoid Renal Cell Carcinoma Metastasis to the Penis

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    Victor D. Liou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Secondary cancers of the penis are extremely uncommon with less than 300 cases reported in the past 100 years. These cancers are most frequently a result of an aggressive or poorly managed primary prostate or bladder cancer and rarely a metastasis from a primary kidney tumor. Currently, there is no published literature which describes the spread of sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma (SRCC to the penis. In this report, we present a 55-year-old-man who presented with a large right-sided SRCC which metastasized to the base of his penis within 1 month of symptom onset. We also discuss the possible route of metastasis based on primary tumor size and location within the retroperitoneum.

  4. Treatment of elderly patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

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    Zanardi, Elisa; Grassi, Paolo; Cavo, Alessia; Verzoni, Elena; Maggi, Claudia; De Braud, Filippo; Boccardo, Francesco; Procopio, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    The risk of developing renal cell carcinoma (RCC) increases with age, and given the constant gain in life expectancy of the general population, both localized RCC and metastatic RCC (mRCC) are more frequently observed in the elderly population. The elderly are a heterogeneous group of patients often characterized by the presence of comorbidities, different compliance to treatment and polypharmacy. Here we review the available data with the aim to analyze the safety and efficacy of new targeted therapies (TTs) in elderly mRCC patients. TTs seem to be effective in both older and younger patients, but elderly patients appear to show reduced tolerance to treatments compared to younger patients. Prospective trials are needed to better understand how to manage mRCC in elderly patients.

  5. Renal medullary carcinoma and sickle cell trait: A systematic review.

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    Alvarez, Ofelia; Rodriguez, Maria M; Jordan, Lanetta; Sarnaik, Sharada

    2015-10-01

    Sickle cell trait (SCT) carries a small risk of renal medullary carcinoma (RMC). We conducted a systematic literature review and reported new four RMC cases (total N = 217). Eighty eight percent had SCT and 8% had sickle cell disease; 50% were children. Males had 2.4× risk than females. Isolated hematuria or in combination with abdominal or flank pain was the presenting sign in 66% cases. Tumor-related mortality was 95%. Four non-metastatic patients were long-term disease-free survivors. Although risk appears to be very low, individuals with SCT should be informed about the low risk of RMC with the hope of early diagnosis. Hematuria should prompt immediate investigation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Recent developments in small molecule therapies for renal cell carcinoma.

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    Song, Minsoo

    2017-12-15

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common type of kidney cancer in adults and is known to be the 10th most common type of cancer in the world. Most of the currently available RCC drugs are tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). However, combination therapies of TKIs and immune checkpoint inhibitors such as programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and programmed cell death protein 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitors are the focus of most of the final stage clinical trials. Meanwhile, other small molecule therapies for RCC that target indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO1), glutaminase, C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), and transglutaminase 2 (TG2) are emerging as the next generation of therapeutics. In this review, these three major streams for the development of small molecule drugs for RCC are described. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Axitinib in metastatic renal cell carcinoma: single center experience

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    Agnieszka Buraczewska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study : Due to the emergence of new therapeutic opportunities in the second-line treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma, the choice of the appropriate medication requires consideration. Making the selection one should take into account the likelihood of response, the probability of toxicity, properties of the drug and the clinical characteristics of the patient. Aim of the work was to confirm antitumor efficacy of axitinib in patients with metastatic clear-cell renal-cell carcinoma in the second line treatment remaining under the care of our institution. The primary objective was to determine antitumor activity, secondary – to evaluate progression free survival, safety of the treatment and to analyse clinical characteristics of treated population. Results: Treatment records of 27 patients (9 females, 18 males treated from October 2014 to the present (July 2016 were reviewed. The median duration of treatment which corresponds to the time to disease progression in observed population was 6 months (range: under 1 month – 16 months. 1 patient (3.7% had got objective response (PR, partial remission. Clinical benefit rate (PR + SD (stable disease was 66%. 9 patients (33.33% experienced treatment toxicity only in the first degree of CTCAE (common toxicity criteria for adverse events, 11 patients (40.74% presented the second degree toxicity and 5 patients (18.5% – third degree. The most commonly reported treatment related adverse events were diarrhea (47%, fatigue (26%, hand-foot syndrome (26%, deterioration of blood pressure control (22.2%, abnormal liver function tests (18.5%, mucositis (11.1%.We observed 3 cases of unacceptable toxicity. Conclusions : Axitinib confirms its effectiveness also in situ ation outside clinical trials, however, it is characterized by significant toxicity. Therefore, qualification for treatment should take into account the clinical patient characteristics. Effective diagnosis and treatment of side

  8. The tumour-targeting human L19-IL2 immunocytokine: preclinical safety studies, phase I clinical trial in patients with solid tumours and expansion into patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma.

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    Johannsen, Manfred; Spitaleri, Gianluca; Curigliano, Giuseppe; Roigas, Jan; Weikert, Steffen; Kempkensteffen, Carsten; Roemer, Andreas; Kloeters, Christian; Rogalla, Patrik; Pecher, Gabriele; Miller, Kurt; Berndt, Alexander; Kosmehl, Hartwig; Trachsel, Eveline; Kaspar, Manuela; Lovato, Valeria; González-Iglesias, Reinerio; Giovannoni, Leonardo; Menssen, Hans D; Neri, Dario; de Braud, Filippo

    2010-11-01

    L19-IL2, a tumour-targeting immunocytokine composed of the recombinant human antibody fragment L19 (specific to the alternatively-spliced EDB domain of fibronectin, a well characterised marker of tumour neo-vasculature) and of human IL2, has demonstrated strong therapeutic activity in animal cancer models. This phase I/II trial was performed to evaluate safety, tolerability, recommended phase II dose (RD) and early signs of activity of L19-IL2. Five cohorts of patients with progressive solid tumours (n=21) received an intravenous infusion of L19-IL2 (from 5 to 30 Mio IU IL2 equivalent dose) on days 1, 3 and 5 every 3 weeks. This treatment cycle was repeated up to six times. In the following expansion phase, patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) (n=12) were treated at the RD of L19-IL2. Clinical data and laboratory findings were analysed for safety, tolerability and activity. Preclinical studies in rats and monkeys did not raise any safety concerns. The RD was defined to be 22.5 Mio IU IL2 equivalent. Pharmacokinetics of L19-IL2 was dose proportional over the tested range, with a terminal half-life of 2-3h. Toxicities were manageable and reversible with no treatment-related deaths. We observed stable disease in 17/33 patients (51%) and 15/18 with mRCC (83%) after two cycles. Median progression-free survival of RCC patients in the expansion phase of the study was 8 months (1.5-30.5). L19-IL2 can be safely and repeatedly administered at the RD of 22.5 Mio IU IL2 equivalent in advanced solid tumours. Preliminary evaluation suggests clinical activity of L19-IL2 in patients with mRCC. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Progression of renal cell carcinoma is inhibited by genistein and radiation in an orthotopic model

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    Kucuk Omer

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously reported the potentiation of radiotherapy by the soy isoflavone genistein for prostate cancer using prostate tumor cells in vitro and orthotopic prostate tumor models in vivo. However, when genistein was used as single therapy in animal models, it promoted metastasis to regional para-aortic lymph nodes. To clarify whether these intriguing adverse effects of genistein are intrinsic to the orthotopic prostate tumor model, or these results could also be recapitulated in another model, we used the orthotopic metastatic KCI-18 renal cell carcinoma (RCC model established in our laboratory. Methods The KCI-18 RCC cell line was generated from a patient with papillary renal cell carcinoma. Following orthotopic renal implantation of KCI-18 RCC cells and serial in vivo kidney passages in nude mice, we have established a reliable and predictable metastatic RCC tumor model. Mice bearing established kidney tumors were treated with genistein combined with kidney tumor irradiation. The effect of the therapy was assessed on the primary tumor and metastases to various organs. Results In this experimental model, the karyotype and histological characteristics of the human primary tumor are preserved. Tumor cells metastasize from the primary renal tumor to the lungs, liver and mesentery mimicking the progression of RCC in humans. Treatment of established kidney tumors with genistein demonstrated a tendency to stimulate the growth of the primary kidney tumor and increase the incidence of metastasis to the mesentery lining the bowel. In contrast, when given in conjunction with kidney tumor irradiation, genistein significantly inhibited the growth and progression of established kidney tumors. These findings confirm the potentiation of radiotherapy by genistein in the orthotopic RCC model as previously shown in orthotopic models of prostate cancer. Conclusion Our studies in both RCC and prostate tumor models demonstrate that the

  10. Novel immunotherapy approaches for metastatic urothelial and renal cell carcinoma

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    Zhiying Shao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC and urothelial carcinoma (UC remains a major challenge. Past research has implicated the immune system in tumor surveillance of both malignancies, leading to the application of immunotherapy agents for both cancers. Among them, the most promising agents are the checkpoint blockade drugs, such as antibodies targeting the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4, programmed death receptor 1 (PD-1, and PD-1 ligand (PD-L1. In normal physiology, these immune checkpoints act as inhibitory signals to fine-tune the duration and strength of immune reactions, which is pivotal for maintaining self-tolerance. However, tumor cells also utilize immune checkpoint pathways to evade anti-tumor immune response, leading to disease progression and metastasis. Thus, there has been intense preclinical and clinical effort focused on the application of checkpoint inhibitors in metastatic RCC and UC. To date, nivolumab (anti-PD-1 and atezolizumab (anti-PD-L1 have been approved for the treatment of metastatic RCC and UC, respectively. Despite these successes, challenges remain in how to further improve response rates to immunotherapy and how to select patients that will benefit from this approach. In this report, we review existing data and research on immunotherapy in metastatic RCC and UC.

  11. Renal cell carcinoma: current status and future prospects.

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    Drucker, Beverly J

    2005-11-01

    The incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is increasing. Despite improvements in the management of localized RCC, most patients are diagnosed with advanced RCC, which is often refractory and associated with a poor prognosis. Although surgery is the only curative treatment for localized RCC, improved diagnostic methods facilitating early detection and characterization of renal tumors have enabled more effective use of less invasive treatments. Adrenal-sparing radical total nephrectomy, and laparoscopic radical and total nephrectomy are increasingly being performed in preference to radical nephrectomy. However, standard treatments for advanced RCC are largely unsuccessful. Radiotherapy is often used to control symptoms associated with RCC in patients unsuitable for surgery. Immunotherapy with cytokines is the standard systemic treatment for advanced RCC, and is associated with prolonged survival in a subset of patients, but is generally poorly tolerated. An increased knowledge of the underlying pathophysiology of RCC has resulted in the identification of molecular pathways involved in tumor growth. Promising new agents designed to target these pathways are in development.

  12. The role of glutathione transferases in renal cell carcinoma

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    Ćorić Vesna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mounting evidence suggest that members of the subfamily of cytosolic glutathione S-transferases (GSTs possess roles far beyond the classical glutathione-dependent enzymatic conjugation of electrophilic metabolites and xenobiotics. Namely, monomeric forms of certain GSTs are capable of forming protein: protein interactions with protein kinases and regulate cell apoptotic pathways. Due to this dual functionality of cytosolic GSTs, they might be implicated in both the development and the progression of renal cell carcinoma (RCC. Prominent genetic heterogeneity, resulting from the gene deletions, as well as from SNPs in the coding and non-coding regions of GST genes, might affect GST isoenzyme profiles in renal parenchyma and therefore serve as a valuable indicator for predicting the risk of cancer development. Namely, GSTs are involved in the biotransformation of several compounds recognized as risk factors for RCC. The most potent carcinogen of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon diol epoxides, present in cigarette smoke, is of benzo(apyrene (BPDE, detoxified by GSTs. So far, the relationship between GST genotype and BPDE-DNA adduct formation, in determining the risk for RCC, has not been evaluated in patients with RCC. Although the association between certain individual and combined GST genotypes and RCC risk has been debated in a the literature, the data on the prognostic value of GST polymorphism in patients with RCC are scarce, probably due to the fact that the molecular mechanism supporting the role of GSTs in RCC progression has not been clarified as yet.

  13. Radiofrequency Ablation Treatment for Renal Cell Carcinoma: Early Clinical Experience

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    Park, Seong Hoon; Yoon, Seong Kuk; Cho, Jin Han; Oh, Jong Young; Nam, Kyung Jin; Kwon, Hee Jin; Kim, Su Yeon; Kang, Myong Jin; Choi, Sun Seob; Sung, Gyung Tak [Dong-A University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-08-15

    To evaluate the early clinical experience associated with radiofrequency (RF) ablation in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The RF ablation treatment was performed on 17 tumors from 16 patients (mean age, 60.5 years; range, 43 73 years) with RCC. The treatment indications were localized, solid renal mass, comorbidities, high operation risk, and refusal to perform surgery. All tumors were treated by a percutaneous CT (n = 10), followed by an US-guided (n = 2), laparoscopy-assisted US (n = 2), and an open (n = 2) RF ablation. Furthermore, patients underwent a follow- up CT at one day, one week, one month, three and six months, and then every six months from the onset of treatment. We evaluated the technical success, technical effectiveness, ablation zone, benign periablation enhancement, irregular peripheral enhancement, and complications. All 17 exophytic tumors (mean size, 2.2 cm; range, 1.1 5.0 cm) were completely ablated. Technical success and effectiveness was achieved in all cases and the mean follow-up period was 23.8 months (range, 17 33 months). A local recurrence was not detected in any of the cases; however, five patients developed complications as a result of treatment, including hematuria (n = 2), mild thermal injury of the psoas muscle (n = 1), mild hydronephrosis (n = 1), and fistula formation (n = 1). The RF ablation is an alternative treatment for exophytic RCCs and represents a promising treatment for some patients with small RCCs.

  14. MCPIP1 contributes to clear cell renal cell carcinomas development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligeza, Janusz; Marona, Paulina; Gach, Natalia; Lipert, Barbara; Miekus, Katarzyna; Wilk, Waclaw; Jaszczynski, Janusz; Stelmach, Andrzej; Loboda, Agnieszka; Dulak, Jozef; Branicki, Wojciech; Rys, Janusz; Jura, Jolanta

    2017-08-01

    Monocyte Chemoattractant protein-induced protein 1 (MCPIP1), also known as Regnase-1, is encoded by the ZC3H12a gene, and it mediates inflammatory processes by regulating the stability of transcripts coding for proinflammatory cytokines and controlling activity of transcription factors, such as NF-κB and AP1. We found that MCPIP1 transcript and protein levels are strongly downregulated in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) samples, which were derived from patients surgically treated for renal cancer compared to surrounded normal tissues. Using Caki-1 cells as a model, we analyzed the role of MCPIP1 in cancer development. We showed that MCPIP1 expression depends on the proteasome activity; however, hypoxia and hypoxia inducible factor 2 alfa (HIF2α) are key factors lowering MCPIP1 expression. Furthermore, we found that MCPIP1 negatively regulates HIF1α and HIF2α levels and in the case of the last one, the mechanism is based on the regulation of the half time of transcript coding for HIF2α. Enhanced expression of MCPIP1 in Caki-1 cells results in a downregulation of transcripts encoding VEGFA, GLUT1, and IL-6. Furthermore, MCPIP1 decreases the activity of mTOR and protein kinase B (Akt) in normoxic conditions. Taken together, MCPIP1 contributes to the ccRCC development.

  15. EAU guidelines on renal cell carcinoma: 2014 update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungberg, Borje; Bensalah, Karim; Canfield, Steven; Dabestani, Saeed; Hofmann, Fabian; Hora, Milan; Kuczyk, Markus A; Lam, Thomas; Marconi, Lorenzo; Merseburger, Axel S; Mulders, Peter; Powles, Thomas; Staehler, Michael; Volpe, Alessandro; Bex, Axel

    2015-05-01

    The European Association of Urology Guideline Panel for Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) has prepared evidence-based guidelines and recommendations for RCC management. To provide an update of the 2010 RCC guideline based on a standardised methodology that is robust, transparent, reproducible, and reliable. For the 2014 update, the panel prioritised the following topics: percutaneous biopsy of renal masses, treatment of localised RCC (including surgical and nonsurgical management), lymph node dissection, management of venous thrombus, systemic therapy, and local treatment of metastases, for which evidence synthesis was undertaken based on systematic reviews adhering to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Relevant databases (Medline, Cochrane Library, trial registries, conference proceedings) were searched (January 2000 to November 2013) including randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and retrospective or controlled studies with a comparator arm. Risk of bias (RoB) assessment and qualitative and quantitative synthesis of the evidence were performed. The remaining sections of the document were updated following a structured literature assessment. All chapters of the RCC guideline were updated. For the various systematic reviews, the search identified a total of 10,862 articles. A total of 151 studies reporting on 78,792 patients were eligible for inclusion; where applicable, data from RCTs were included and meta-analyses were performed. For RCTs, there was low RoB across studies; however, clinical and methodological heterogeneity prevented data pooling for most studies. The majority of studies included were retrospective with matched or unmatched cohorts based on single or multi-institutional data or national registries. The exception was for systemic treatment of metastatic RCC, in which several RCTs have been performed, resulting in recommendations based on higher levels of evidence. The 2014 guideline has been updated by

  16. Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Treatment of Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma: Today and Tomorrow

    OpenAIRE

    Molina, Ana M.; Motzer, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Recent updates to the guidelines put forth by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network and the European Association of Urology for the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma are discussed and future areas of research to be explored are outlined.

  17. A gallbladder tumor revealing metastatic clear cell renal carcinoma: report of case and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaouti Merieme

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Metastatic renal cell carcinoma in the gallbladder is extremely rare, with reported frequencies of less than 0.6% in large autopsy reviews. Only 40 cases were reported in the literature. We report a first case of gallbladder polypoid tumor revealing metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma, which demonstrates the importance of radiological tests, histology and immunohistochemistry when making a definitive diagnosis. These examinations also allow differentiating metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma from other polypoid lesions in the gallbladder with clear cell morphology. Cholecystectomy should be performed to obtain a definitive diagnosis and to improve survival in case of solitary metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Virtual slides The virtual slides’ for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/8956897238238989

  18. Synchronous sigmoid and caecal cancers together with a primary renal cell carcinoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bhargava, A

    2012-06-01

    Multiple primary neoplasms, a common clinical entity, can be classified as synchronous or metachronous. Renal cell carcinoma, in particular, is associated with a high rate of multiple primary neoplasms.

  19. Osseous Metaplasia and Bone Marrow Elements in a Case of Renal Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Seyma Ozkanli; Asif Yildirim; Ebru Zemheri; Sarp Korcan Keskin; Erem Kaan Basok

    2012-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma with osseous metaplasia and bone marrow elements is a relatively rare event in these tumors. We discuss pathological differential diagnosis for this tumor with a review of the literature on this unusual case.

  20. New treatment options for metastatic renal cell carcinoma with prior anti-angiogenesis therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Zarrabi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Angiogenesis is a critical process in the progression of advanced renal cell carcinoma. Agents targeting angiogenesis have played a primary role in the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma. However, resistance to anti-angiogenesis therapy almost always occurs, and major progress has been made in understanding its underlying molecular mechanism. Axitinib and everolimus have been used extensively in patients whom have had disease progression after prior anti-angiogenesis therapy. Recently, several new agents have been shown to improve overall survival in comparison with everolimus. This review provides an in-depth summary of drugs employable in the clinical setting, the rationale to their use, and the studies conducted leading to their approval for use and provides perspective on the paradigm shift in the treatment of renal cell carcinoma. Highlighted are the newly approved agents cabozantinib, nivolumab, and lenvatinib for advanced renal cell carcinoma patients treated with prior anti-angiogenesis therapy.

  1. Comparative study of CT appearances in renal oncocytoma and chromophobe renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jingtao; Zhu, Qingqiang; Zhu, Wenrong; Chen, Wenxin; Wang, Shouan

    2016-04-01

    Renal oncocytoma (RO) and chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (ChRCC) share histologic and some imaging features. To investigate the multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) characteristics of these two tumor types. Fifty-six patients with RO and 54 patients with ChRCC were studied retrospectively. MDCT was undertaken to investigate differences in tumor characteristics. Calcifications were visible in 24 (42.8%) patients with RO and in 11 (20.4%) patients with ChRCC (P = 0.011). 26 patients with RO had stellate scars as did 14 patients with ChRCC (P = 0.025). Spoken-wheel-like enhancement was visible in 41 patients with RO and in 11 with ChRCC (P renal parenchyma on unenhanced CT (P = 0.031). Enhancement was higher with RO than with ChRCC tumors in all phases (P = 0.021, < 0.001, and 0.007, respectively). CT imaging features such as stellate scar, spoken-wheel-like enhancement, and segmental enhancement inversion were more common in RO and they may help in differentiating RO from ChRCC. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2015.

  2. Culture and Characterization of Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Patients with Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Wenyu; Sun, Wei; Guo, Changcheng; Yan, Yang; Liu, Min; Yao, Xudong; Yang, Bin; Zheng, Junhua

    2015-07-01

    Although emerging evidence demonstrates increased circulating endothelial progenitor cells in patients with solid tumors, to our knowledge it is still unknown whether such cells can be cultured from patients with highly angiogenic renal cell carcinoma. We cultured and characterized circulating endothelial progenitor cells from patients with renal cell carcinoma. The circulating endothelial progenitor cell level (percent of CD45(-)CD34(+) VEGF-R2(+) cells in total peripheral blood mononuclear cells) was quantified in 47 patients with renal cell carcinoma and 40 healthy controls. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were then isolated from 33 patients with renal cell carcinoma and 30 healthy controls to culture and characterize circulating endothelial progenitor cells. The circulating endothelial progenitor cell level was significantly higher in patients with renal cell carcinoma than in healthy controls (0.276% vs 0.086%, p cells first emerged significantly earlier in patient than in control preparations (6.72 vs 14.67 days, p culture success rate (87.8% vs 40.0% of participants) and the number of colonies (10.06 vs 1.83) were significantly greater for patients than for controls (each p cell level correlated positively with the number of patient colonies (r = 0.762, p Cells cultured from patients and controls showed a similar growth pattern, immunophenotype, ability to uptake Ac-LDL and bind lectin, and form capillary tubes in vitro. However, significantly more VEGF-R2(+) circulating endothelial progenitor cells were found in preparations from patients with renal cell carcinoma than from healthy controls (21.1% vs 13.4%, p cell colonies, a higher cell culture success rate and more colonies were found for patients with renal cell carcinoma than for healthy controls. Results indicate the important significance of VEGF-R2(+) circulating endothelial progenitors in patients with renal cell carcinoma. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research

  3. Papillary renal cell carcinoma. A morphologic and cytogenetic study of 11 cases.

    OpenAIRE

    Kovacs, G.

    1989-01-01

    Most renal cell carcinomas are characterized by constant loss of the 3p13-pter chromosome segment and a frequent gain of the 5q22-qter segment. A comparative histologic and cytogenetic investigation of large series of renal cell carcinomas now shows that purely papillary tumors differ from the more common nonpapillary form not only in their morphologic characteristic, but also in karyotype changes observed. All of the 11 papillary tumors of this study failed to show any rearrangement of the c...

  4. Induction of trismus by sunitinib and pazopanib in metastatic renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridhima Iyer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tyrosine kinase inhibitors sunitinib and pazopanib are used as first-line agents in the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Treatment-related toxicities have been described with both these drugs. This report describes a patient with metastatic renal carcinoma who developed trismus while being treated with these agents and is, to the best of our knowledge, the first such case to be reported.

  5. Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma in a Hepatic Hemangioma: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joshua; Meunier, Rashna; Jamshed, Sarah; Karam, Adib R; Yates, Jennifer; Wang, Xiaofei; LaFemina, Jennifer

    2016-09-01

    We report the case of 55-year-old female with biopsy-proven clear cell renal cell carcinoma with a suspicious lesion found in the liver who presented for right radical nephrectomy and partial hepatectomy. Histologic evaluation of the hepatic specimen demonstrated metastatic renal cell carcinoma within a hepatic hemangioma. Herein we provide a review of the literature for this uncommon scenario. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Hyponatremia as a prognostic and predictive factor in metastatic renal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, A N; Jensen, H K; Donskov, F

    2010-01-01

    Low serum sodium has recently been associated with poor survival in localised renal cell carcinoma (RCC). We now show the prognostic effect of serum sodium in patients with metastatic RCC (mRCC).......Low serum sodium has recently been associated with poor survival in localised renal cell carcinoma (RCC). We now show the prognostic effect of serum sodium in patients with metastatic RCC (mRCC)....

  7. Spontaneously Arising Concurrent Ileocaecal Adenocarcinoma and Renal Pelvis Transitional Cell Carcinoma in a Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumber, S.; Wood, J. S.; Jones, A. C.; Strobert, E.

    2015-01-01

    Summary A 25-year-old, female rhesus macaque presented with a history of weight loss despite a normal appetite and supportive care. The animal was humanely destroyed due to poor prognosis. Post-mortem examination revealed a focally extensive, firm, white annular constriction at the ileocaecal junction and an incidental finding of a pale white nodule approximately 0.8 cm in diameter in the left renal pelvis. Based on the microscopical findings, ileocaecal adenocarcinoma and renal pelvis transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) was diagnosed. The use of cytokeratin (CK)-7 and-20 and uroplakin III as potential renal TCC markers was evaluated. The neoplastic cells were labelled intensely with antibodies to uroplakin III, but not to CK-7 or -20. Spontaneous intestinal adenocarcinoma has been documented in the rhesus macaque, but concurrent renal pelvis TCC is highly unusual. PMID:24016782

  8. Chronic kidney disease and risk of renal cell carcinoma: differences by race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Jonathan N; Corley, Douglas A; Zhao, Wei K; Colt, Joanne S; Shuch, Brian; Chow, Wong-Ho; Purdue, Mark P

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of renal cell carcinoma in the United States differs by race/ethnicity. To better understand these disparities, we conducted a nested case-control study investigating renal cell carcinoma risk factors across racial/ethnic groups within the Kaiser Permanente Northern California health care network. Our study included 3136 renal cell carcinoma cases (2152 whites, 293 blacks, 425 Hispanics, and 255 Asians) diagnosed between 1998 and 2008 and 31031 individually matched controls (21478 whites, 2836 blacks, 4147 Hispanics, and 2484 Asians). Risk of renal cell carcinoma was assessed in relation to smoking status, body mass index (BMI), hypertension, and chronic kidney disease. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using conditional logistic regression, and population attributable risk (PAR) to estimate by race the proportion of cases attributable to hypertension and chronic kidney disease. The association between chronic kidney disease and renal cell carcinoma differed markedly by race (Pinteraction chronic kidney disease (combined, PAR = 37%; hypertension only, PAR = 27%; chronic kidney disease, PAR = 10%). Our findings suggest that hypertension and chronic kidney disease likely have contributed to the observed excess in renal cell carcinoma incidence among blacks compared with whites.

  9. Pylorus-preserving total pancreatectomy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitade, Hiroaki; Yanagida, Hidesuke; Yamada, Masanori; Matsuura, Takashi; Yoshioka, Kazuhiko; Satoi, Sohei; Matsui, Yoichi; Kon, Masanori

    2015-09-16

    Resectable isolated multiple metastases to the pancreas from renal cell carcinoma are rare. In this report, we describe a patient with multiple metastases of renal cell carcinoma to the pancreas who was treated with pylorus-preserving total pancreatectomy. The patient was a 58-year-old Asian woman who had undergone right nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma 20 years earlier. In 2008, she was diagnosed with multiple metastases of renal cell carcinoma to the pancreas by abdominal computed tomography during routine follow-up for renal cell carcinoma. (18)F-2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography showed no accumulation in her body other than the pancreas. Because of concerns about her quality of life after total pancreatectomy, she underwent pylorus-preserving total pancreatectomy. After the resection, her control of blood sugar and quality of life were generally satisfactory. She died as a result of gastrointestinal bleeding 35 months after undergoing pancreatectomy. Pancreatic metastasectomy should be considered, even for multiple metastases, when the primary tumor is renal cell carcinoma and the metastatic lesions are isolated.

  10. Reduced expression of CXCR4, a novel renal cancer stem cell marker, is associated with high-grade renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasti, Arezoo; Abolhasani, Maryam; Zanjani, Leili Saeednejad; Asgari, Mojgan; Mehrazma, Mitra; Madjd, Zahra

    2017-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) represent a population with tumour-initiating, self-renewal, and differentiation potential. This study aimed to evaluate the expression patterns and clinical significance of chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) as a novel CSC marker in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The expression of CXCR4 was examined in 173 well-defined renal tumour tissues, including 106 (61.5 %) clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCCs), 35 (20 %) papillary renal cell carcinomas (pRCCs), and 32 (18.5 %) chromophobe renal cell carcinomas (ChRCCs), by immunohistochemistry on a tissue microarray. The association between expression of this marker and clinicopathologic parameters was then analysed. There was a significant difference in the expression levels of CXCR4 in the ccRCC samples compared to the ChRCC and pRCC samples (P renal carcinoma.

  11. [Value of spiral CT in diagnosis of cystic renal cell carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xing-han; Hua, Yan-qing; Ding, Jian-guo; Zhan, Jun-xin; Song, Tian; Yin, Yu-lei; Qian, Wei-qing; Song, Jian-da

    2006-02-01

    To investigate the image features and the diagnostic value of spiral CT for cystic renal cell carcinoma. The clinical data and CT manifestations of 17 operated and pathologically proven cystic renal cell carcinoma were retrospectively analyzed. There were 12 males and 5 females with an average age of 47.3 years (33 - 82 years). Plain and contrast CT scan (Siemens somatom) single layer sensation 16 layer spiral CT had been performed before operation. The image of artery phase (30 - 40 s), venous (60 - 70 s) and excretory (120 - 180 s) were respectively obtained after contrast administration. Various image reconstructions were done using Siemens Wizard workstation based on the raw images. It was found that 5 cystic renal cell cancers located in the right kidney and 12 in the left kidney. The long dimension of the tumor arranged from 21 - 100 mm with an average of 57 mm. The tumor looked like a round or round-like shape with density similar to fluid on plain CT scan. Some cystic renal carcinomas had a thick wall. Some had single or multiple cystic spaces filled with fluid of different densities. Some had infiltrated out of kidney surface or into renal sinus. Some showed enhanced nodules on the wall. Cystic renal cell carcinoma has its own specific morphologic features in spiral CT scan. Spiral CT may be very helpful in the diagnosis of cystic renal cell carcinoma before operation.

  12. Screening and identification of a renal carcinoma specific peptide from a phage display peptide library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tu Xiangan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Specific peptide ligands to cell surface receptors have been extensively used in tumor research and clinical applications. Phage display technology is a powerful tool for the isolation of cell-specific peptide ligands. To screen and identify novel markers for renal cell carcinoma, we evaluated a peptide that had been identified by phage display technology. Methods A renal carcinoma cell line A498 and a normal renal cell line HK-2 were used to carry out subtractive screening in vitro with a phage display peptide library. After three rounds of panning, there was an obvious enrichment for the phages specifically binding to the A498 cells, and the output/input ratio of phages increased about 100 fold. A group of peptides capable of binding specifically to the renal carcinoma cells were obtained, and the affinity of these peptides to the targeting cells and tissues was studied. Results Through a cell-based ELISA, immunocytochemical staining, immunohistochemical staining, and immunofluorescence, the Phage ZT-2 and synthetic peptide ZT-2 were shown to specifically bind to the tumor cell surfaces of A498 and incision specimens, but not to normal renal tissue samples. Conclusion A peptide ZT-2, which binds specifically to the renal carcinoma cell line A498 was selected from phage display peptide libraries. Therefore, it provides a potential tool for early diagnosis of renal carcinoma or targeted drug delivery in chemotherapy.

  13. Targeted Therapies: Bevacizumab and interferon-alpha in metastatic renal-cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Ronald M

    2009-05-01

    Rini and colleagues provide additional data on bevacizumab and interferon-alpha in clear-cell carcinoma of the kidney; a comparison of these results with the findings from contemporary trials suggests that bevacizumab and interferon-alpha is another clinically useful treatment option for patients with metastatic renal-cell carcinoma.

  14. Renal metastasis from adenoid cystic carcinoma of salivary gland: Report of the cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Myung Kwan; Kim, Seung Hyup; Han, Man Chung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-09-15

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the major salivary gland is a relatively rare tumor which is well known for its high local recurrence rate and frequent distant metastasis. Metastasis of this tumor to kidney has not been reported previously to our knowledge.We report two cases of renal metastasis from adenoid cystic carcinoma of the salivary gland.

  15. Nanotechnology combined therapy: tyrosine kinase-bound gold nanorod and laser thermal ablation produce a synergistic higher treatment response of renal cell carcinoma in animal model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immunologically naïve nude mice (Athymic Nude-Foxn1nu) were injected bilaterally on the flanks (n=36) with 2.5 x 106 cells of a human metastatic renal cell carcinoma cell line (RCC 786-O). Subcutaneous xenograft tumors developed 1 cm palpable nodules. AuNR encapsulated in Human Serum Albumin (HSA) P...

  16. Prognostic significance of extensive necrosis in renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jennifer; Epstein, Jonathan I

    2017-08-01

    Few studies using the current classification of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) have looked at a large number of cases with near total necrosis. We identified 21 cases of resections of RCC with >90% necrosis from the archives of Johns Hopkins Hospital between 2000 and 2015. Patients' mean age was 59 years (43-77) with 16 men (76%); 12 cases (57%) were papillary RCC, 4 clear cell papillary RCC (19%), 4 clear cell RCC (19%), and 1 unclassified with sarcomatoid differentiation (5%). International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) nucleolar grade was grade 1 (9 cases) or grade 2 (9 cases). Two cases were ISUP nucleolar grade 3, and 1 case was grade 4. Pathological stage was low (pT1-2) in 20 (95%) with the unclassified RCC with sarcomatoid differentiation RCC stage pT3a. Mean tumor size was 6.3 cm (1.2-17). In 52% (11) of cases, it was difficult to identify viable tumor, requiring multiple sections; 4 cases of papillary RCC were diagnosed in part due to necrotic tumor "ghost" architecture. Follow-up was available in 17 cases (81%) with a mean follow-up of 59 months. Thirteen patients (62%) are alive without disease. The patient with unclassified carcinoma with sarcomatoid differentiation died of cancer, and 2 died due to causes unrelated to cancer. One patient (5%) with low-grade clear cell RCC developed metastases but had a contralateral RCC. In the setting of a low-grade RCC, extensive necrosis does not have an adverse prognosis. In summary, our data, together with a prior study from our institution, comprise one of the largest cohorts of extensively (>90%) necrotic RCCs and suggests that in the setting of a low-grade RCC, it portends a good prognosis (only 2/36 cases showing progression (6%) on follow-up). However, we did identify a single case of high-grade RCC with an adverse prognosis and therefore, careful attention to tumor grade and classification is critical. The presence of tumor necrosis as a prognosticator in RCCs is complex, and despite its well

  17. [Transcatheter arterial chemotherapy with miriplatin for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and chronic renal failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Norihiro; Ikeda, Kenji; Seko, Yuya; Matsumoto, Naoki; Kawamura, Yusuke; Hosaka, Tetsuya; Kobayashi, Masahiro; Saitoh, Satoshi; Sezaki, Hitomi; Akuta, Norio; Suzuki, Fumitaka; Suzuki, Yoshiyuki; Arase, Yasuji; Kumada, Hiromitsu

    2011-11-01

    Miriplatin is a novel lipophilic platinum complex developed to treat hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Although HCC patients frequently have coexisting chronic renal failure, there is no reliable data regarding clinical toxicity of miriplatin in HCC patients with chronic renal failure. We retrospectively evaluated the safety and efficacy of transcatheter arterial chemotherapy with miriplatin in 67 HCC patients with chronic renal failure (estimated glomerular filtration rate [GFR] by the Cockcroft-Gault equation failure.

  18. Molecular Imaging to Predict Response to Targeted Therapies in Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Leguerney

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular magnetic resonance imaging targeted to an endothelial integrin involved in neoangiogenesis was compared to DCE-US and immunochemistry to assess the early response of three different therapeutic agents in renal cell carcinoma. Human A498 renal cells carcinoma was subcutaneously inoculated into 24 nude mice. Mice received either phosphate-buffered saline solution, sunitinib, everolimus, or bevacizumab during 4 days. DCE-US and molecular MRI targeting αvβ3 were performed at baseline and 4 days after treatment initiation. PI, AUC, relaxation rate variations ΔR2⁎, and percentage of vessels area quantified on CD31-stained microvessels were compared. Significant decreases were observed for PI and AUC parameters measured by DCE-US for bevacizumab group as early as 4 days, whereas molecular αvβ3-targeted MRI was able to detect significant changes in both bevacizumab and everolimus groups. Percentage of CD31-stained microvessels was significantly correlated with DCE-US parameters, PI (R=0.87, p=0.0003 and AUC (R=0.81, p=0.0013. The percentage of vessel tissue area was significantly reduced (p<0.01 in both sunitinib and bevacizumab groups. We report an early detection of neoangiogenesis modification after induction of targeted therapies, using DCE-US or αvβ3-targeted MRI. We consider these outcomes should encourage clinical trial developments to further evaluate the potential of this molecular MRI technique.

  19. Automated grading of renal cell carcinoma using whole slide imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Cheng Yeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recent technology developments have demonstrated the benefit of using whole slide imaging (WSI in computer-aided diagnosis. In this paper, we explore the feasibility of using automatic WSI analysis to assist grading of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC, which is a manual task traditionally performed by pathologists. Materials and Methods: Automatic WSI analysis was applied to 39 hematoxylin and eosin-stained digitized slides of clear cell RCC with varying grades. Kernel regression was used to estimate the spatial distribution of nuclear size across the entire slides. The analysis results were correlated with Fuhrman nuclear grades determined by pathologists. Results: The spatial distribution of nuclear size provided a panoramic view of the tissue sections. The distribution images facilitated locating regions of interest, such as high-grade regions and areas with necrosis. The statistical analysis showed that the maximum nuclear size was significantly different (P < 0.001 between low-grade (Grades I and II and high-grade tumors (Grades III and IV. The receiver operating characteristics analysis showed that the maximum nuclear size distinguished high-grade and low-grade tumors with a false positive rate of 0.2 and a true positive rate of 1.0. The area under the curve is 0.97. Conclusion: The automatic WSI analysis allows pathologists to see the spatial distribution of nuclei size inside the tumors. The maximum nuclear size can also be used to differentiate low-grade and high-grade clear cell RCC with good sensitivity and specificity. These data suggest that automatic WSI analysis may facilitate pathologic grading of renal tumors and reduce variability encountered with manual grading.

  20. Differentiation of Renal Oncocytoma and Renal Clear Cell Carcinoma Using Relative CT Enhancement Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Ren

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The difference between renal oncocytomas (RO and renal clear cell carcinomas (RCCs presents the greatest diagnostic challenge. The aim of this study was to retrospectively determine if RO and RCCs could be differentiated on computed tomography (CT images on the basis of their enhancement patterns with a new enhancement correcting method. Methods: Forty-six patients with a solitary renal mass who underwent total or partial nephrectomy were included in this study. Fourteen of those were RO and 32 were RCCs. All patients were examined with contrast-enhanced CT. The pattern and degree of enhancement were evaluated. We selected the area that demonstrated the greatest degree of enhancement of the renal lesion in the corticomedullary nephrographic and excretory phase images. Regions of interest (ROI were also placed in adjacent normal renal cortex for normalization. We used the values of the normal renal cortex that were measured at the same time as divisors. The ratios of lesion-to-renal cortex enhancement were calculated for all three phases. The Student′s t-test and Pearson′s Chi-square test were used for statistical analyses. Results: All RCCs masses showed contrast that appeared to be better enhanced than RO on all contrast-enhanced phases of CT imaging, but there was no significant difference in absolute attenuation values between these two diseases (P > 0.05. The ratio of lesion-to-cortex attenuation in the corticomedullary phase showed significantly different values between RO and RCCs. The degree of contrast enhancement in RCCs was equal to or greater than that of the normal renal cortex, but it was less than that of the normal cortex in RO in the corticomedullary phase. The ratio of lesion-to-cortex attenuation in the corticomedullary phase was higher than the cut off value of 1.0 in most RCCs (84%, 27/32 and lower than 1.0 in most RO (93%, 13/14 (P < 0.05. In the nephrographic phase, the ratio of lesion-to-cortex attenuation

  1. Implications of Von Hippel-Lindau Syndrome and Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan Ashouri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Von Hippel-Lindau syndrome (VHLS is a rare hereditary neoplastic disorder caused by mutations in the vhl gene leading to the development of tumors in several organs including the central nervous system, pancreas, kidneys, and reproductive organs. Manifestations of VHLS can present at different ages based on the affected organ and subclass of disease. In the subclasses of VHLS that cause renal disease, renal involvement typically begins closer to the end of the second decade of life and can present in different ways ranging from simple cystic lesions to solid tumors. Mutations in vhl are most often associated with clear cell renal carcinoma, the most common type of renal cancer, and also play a major role in sporadic cases of clear cell renal carcinoma. The recurrent, multifocal nature of this disease presents difficult challenges in the long-term management of patients with VHLS. Optimization of renal function warrants the use of several different approaches common to the management of renal carcinoma such as nephron sparing surgery, enucleation, ablation, and targeted therapies. In VHLS, renal lesions of 3 cm or bigger are considered to have metastatic potential and even small lesions often harbor malignancy. Many of the aspects of management revolve around optimizing both oncologic outcome and long-term renal function. As new surgical strategies and targeted therapies develop, the management of this complex disease evolves.  This review will discuss the key aspects of the current management of VHLS.

  2. Cardiac metastasis from renal cell carcinoma successfully treated with pazopanib: impact of TKIs' antiangiogenic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinzari, Giovanni; Monterisi, Santa; Signorelli, Diego; Cona, Silvia; Cassano, Alessandra; Danza, Francesco; Barone, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac metastasis from renal cell carcinoma, especially without neoplastic thrombosis of the vena cava, is extremely rare. The prognosis of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma has been radically influenced by the introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors, but very few reports in the literature have described their activity in heart metastasis. We report the case of a woman with a left ventricle metastasis from kidney cancer without renal vein involvement, who was treated with pazopanib. The patient achieved a prolonged partial response, with clear signs of metastasis devascularization and a favorable toxicity profile.

  3. Longitudinal change in renal function after nephroureterectomy in patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma

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    Chih-Yuan Chou

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: In this study, it was found that the average renal function of the patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma is not as good as the general population. More than half of the normal renal function patients have new onset chronic kidney disease after surgery. For preventing further deterioration of renal function, the implication of partial nephrectomy or segmental ureterectomy for selected patients with localized urothelial carcinoma should be re-examined. Besides, neoadjuvant chemotherapy should be considered for those who are not good candidates for local treatment.

  4. Renal cell carcinoma incidentally found by computed tomography. Report of 4 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuta, H.; Nakada, T.; Koike, H.; Katayama, T.

    1987-04-01

    A clinical study was made on 26 patients with renal cell carcinoma, who visited our department between October, 1979 and April, 1984. There were 21 men and 5 women. As the major initial symptoms, hematuria and flank pain were observed in 14 cases (53.8 %), followed by symptoms of metastatic tumors in 7 cases (26.9 %). Four cases of malignant renal masses which showed no abnormality on the excretory urogram were diagnosed by chance at the time of examination of the abdominal computed tomography (CT). CT was especially useful in diagnosing the renal cell carcinomas.

  5. Reference Genes for Gene Expression Analysis by Real-time Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction of Renal Cell Carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Henriette; Pedersen, Shona; Kristensen, Søren Risom

    2011-01-01

    Differentiation between malignant renal cell carcinoma and benign oncocytoma is of great importance to choose the optimal treatment. Accurate preoperative diagnosis of renal tumor is therefore crucial; however, existing imaging techniques and histologic examinations are incapable of providing...

  6. [Case report of rare co-occurrence of renal cell carcinoma and crossed renal dystopia (L-shaped kidney)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakov, V N; Los, M S

    2017-10-01

    L-shaped kidney refers to a rare anomaly of the relative kidney positioning. Due to low prevalence, the literature on the co-occurrence of this anomaly with malignancy is lacking. And, if the diagnosis of a renal anomaly does not present difficulties, if a tumor is detected in such a kidney, even MSCT does not always help differentiate a pelvic tumor from a tumor of the renal parenchyma spreading to the pelvicalyceal system. This has important implications for choosing an appropriate surgical strategy. A feature of the presented clinical observation is the co-occurrence of the rare anomaly of kidney position and locally advanced renal cell carcinoma spreading to the renal pelvis. Due to the massive spread of the tumor, an organ-sparing surgery was not feasible. Due to the suspicion of tumor spread to the renal pelvis, the patient underwent nephrureterectomy of the L-shaped kidney. Introduction to renoprival state with transfer to chronic hemodialysis became the only option to maintain homeostasis and extend the patients life. Histological examination revealed clear cell renal cell carcinoma with invasion of the pelvis and renal capsule, with no clear demarcation between the fused kidneys.

  7. Human papillomavirus DNA in aerodigestive squamous carcinomas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A series of 10 oesophageal and 10 laryngeal squamous carcinomas was examined by means of immuno cytochemistry and in situ DNA hybridisation to demonstrate human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Changes in the epithelium adjacent to the carcinoma were found in 5 of 10 oesophageal and 7 of 10 laryngeal ...

  8. Microarray gene expression profiling and analysis in renal cell carcinoma

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    Sadhukhan Provash

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Renal cell carcinoma (RCC is the most common cancer in adult kidney. The accuracy of current diagnosis and prognosis of the disease and the effectiveness of the treatment for the disease are limited by the poor understanding of the disease at the molecular level. To better understand the genetics and biology of RCC, we profiled the expression of 7,129 genes in both clear cell RCC tissue and cell lines using oligonucleotide arrays. Methods Total RNAs isolated from renal cell tumors, adjacent normal tissue and metastatic RCC cell lines were hybridized to affymatrix HuFL oligonucleotide arrays. Genes were categorized into different functional groups based on the description of the Gene Ontology Consortium and analyzed based on the gene expression levels. Gene expression profiles of the tissue and cell line samples were visualized and classified by singular value decomposition. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was performed to confirm the expression alterations of selected genes in RCC. Results Selected genes were annotated based on biological processes and clustered into functional groups. The expression levels of genes in each group were also analyzed. Seventy-four commonly differentially expressed genes with more than five-fold changes in RCC tissues were identified. The expression alterations of selected genes from these seventy-four genes were further verified using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Detailed comparison of gene expression patterns in RCC tissue and RCC cell lines shows significant differences between the two types of samples, but many important expression patterns were preserved. Conclusions This is one of the initial studies that examine the functional ontology of a large number of genes in RCC. Extensive annotation, clustering and analysis of a large number of genes based on the gene functional ontology revealed many interesting gene expression patterns in RCC. Most

  9. TGF-β1 expression in chromophobe renal cell carcinoma and renal oncocytoma

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    A. Demirovic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Distinguishing renal oncocytoma (RO from the eosinophilic variant of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (ChRCC under the light microscope is a common diagnostic problem. Our recent research has shown significant difference between the presence of tumor fibrous capsule in ChRCCs and ROs. Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1 is a potent cytokine involved in regulating a number of cellular processes. Two main purposes of this research were to investigate whether the TGF-β1 staining could be related to the presence of tumor fibrous capsule and if it could be used in the differential diagnosis between ChRCC and RO. We investigated 34 cases: 16 ChRCCs (8 eosinophilic and 8 classic and 18 ROs. All available slides of each tumor, routinely stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E were first analyzed to note the presence of tumor fibrous capsule. One paraffin embedded tissue block matching the representative H&E slide was selected for the immunohistochemical analysis. TGF-β1 expression was analyzed semiquantitatively in the tumor tissue, the tumor fibrous capsule, if present and the peritumoral renal parenchyma. Intensity of TGF-β1 expression was weaker in ChRCCs than the one observed in ROs (P<0.05. The type of reaction in ChRCCs was predominantly membranous unlike in ROs, which exhibited a predominantly cytoplasmic reaction (P<0.05. Moreover, none of the ROs showed membranous type of reaction for TGF-β1. In the group of ChRCCs, tumors with capsule had statistically significant higher quantity of TGF-β1 expression in tumor tissue and in peritumoral renal parenchyma compared to the tumors without capsule (P<0.05. Our results showed different types of TGF-β1 expression in ChRCCs and ROs: ChRCCs had predominantly membranous type of reaction, and ROs predominantly cytoplasmic. Furthermore, ChRCCs with capsule had statistically significant higher quantity of TGF-β1 expression in tumor tissue and in peritumoral renal parenchyma compared to the

  10. TGF-β1 expression in chromophobe renal cell carcinoma and renal oncocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirović, A; Cesarec, S; Marušić, Z; Tomas, D; Milošević, M; Hudolin, T; Krušlin, B

    2014-01-31

    Distinguishing renal oncocytoma (RO) from the eosinophilic variant of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (ChRCC) under the light microscope is a common diagnostic problem. Our recent research has shown significant difference between the presence of tumor fibrous capsule in ChRCCs and ROs. Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) is a potent cytokine involved in regulating a number of cellular processes. Two main purposes of this research were to investigate whether the TGF-β1 staining could be related to the presence of tumor fibrous capsule and if it could be used in the differential diagnosis between ChRCC and RO. We investigated 34 cases: 16 ChRCCs (8 eosinophilic and 8 classic) and 18 ROs. All available slides of each tumor, routinely stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) were first analyzed to note the presence of tumor fibrous capsule. One paraffin embedded tissue block matching the representative H&E slide was selected for the immunohistochemical analysis. TGF-β1 expression was analyzed semiquantitatively in the tumor tissue, the tumor fibrous capsule, if present and the peritumoral renal parenchyma. Intensity of TGF-β1 expression was weaker in ChRCCs than the one observed in ROs (P<0.05). The type of reaction in ChRCCs was predominantly membranous unlike in ROs, which exhibited a predominantly cytoplasmic reaction (P<0.05). Moreover, none of the ROs showed membranous type of reaction for TGF-β1. In the group of ChRCCs, tumors with capsule had statistically significant higher quantity of TGF-β1 expression in tumor tissue and in peritumoral renal parenchyma compared to the tumors without capsule (P<0.05). Our results showed different types of TGF-β1 expression in ChRCCs and ROs: ChRCCs had predominantly membranous type of reaction, and ROs predominantly cytoplasmic. Furthermore, ChRCCs with capsule had statistically significant higher quantity of TGF-β1 expression in tumor tissue and in peritumoral renal parenchyma compared to the tumors without

  11. Radiotherapy for renal cell carcinoma: renaissance of an overlooked approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siva, Shankar; Kothari, Gargi; Muacevic, Alexander; Louie, Alexander V; Slotman, Ben J; Teh, Bin S; Lo, Simon S

    2017-09-01

    Conventional radiotherapy previously had a limited role in the definitive treatment of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), owing to the disappointing outcomes of several trials and the perceived radioresistance of this type of cancer. In this context, radiotherapy has been relegated largely to the palliation of symptoms in patients with metastatic disease, with variable rates of response. Following the availability of newer technologies that enable safe delivery of high-dose radiotherapy, stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) has become increasingly used in patients with RCC. Preclinical evidence demonstrates that RCC cells are sensitive to ablative doses of radiotherapy (≥8-10 Gy). Trials in the setting of intracranial and extracranial oligometastases, as well as primary RCC, have demonstrated excellent tumour control using this approach. Additionally, an awareness of the capacity of high-dose radiation to stimulate antitumour immunity has resulted in novel combinations of SABR with immunotherapies. Here we describe the historical application of conventional radiotherapy, the current biological understanding of the effects of radiation, and the clinical evidence supporting the use of ablative radiotherapy in RCC. We also explore emerging opportunities to combine systemic targeted agents or immunotherapies with radiation. Radiotherapy, although once an overlooked approach, is moving towards the forefront of RCC treatment.

  12. Germline BAP1 Mutations Predispose to Renal Cell Carcinomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Tatiana; Hebert, Lucie; Jacquemin, Virginie; Gad, Sophie; Caux-Moncoutier, Virginie; Dubois-d’Enghien, Catherine; Richaudeau, Bénédicte; Renaudin, Xavier; Sellers, Jason; Nicolas, André; Sastre-Garau, Xavier; Desjardins, Laurence; Gyapay, Gabor; Raynal, Virginie; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Andrieu, Nadine; Manié, Elodie; de Pauw, Antoine; Gesta, Paul; Bonadona, Valérie; Maugard, Christine M.; Penet, Clotilde; Avril, Marie-Françoise; Barillot, Emmanuel; Cabaret, Odile; Delattre, Olivier; Richard, Stéphane; Caron, Olivier; Benfodda, Meriem; Hu, Hui-Han; Soufir, Nadem; Bressac-de Paillerets, Brigitte; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Stern, Marc-Henri

    2013-01-01

    The genetic cause of some familial nonsyndromic renal cell carcinomas (RCC) defined by at least two affected first-degree relatives is unknown. By combining whole-exome sequencing and tumor profiling in a family prone to cases of RCC, we identified a germline BAP1 mutation c.277A>G (p.Thr93Ala) as the probable genetic basis of RCC predisposition. This mutation segregated with all four RCC-affected relatives. Furthermore, BAP1 was found to be inactivated in RCC-affected individuals from this family. No BAP1 mutations were identified in 32 familial cases presenting with only RCC. We then screened for germline BAP1 deleterious mutations in familial aggregations of cancers within the spectrum of the recently described BAP1-associated tumor predisposition syndrome, including uveal melanoma, malignant pleural mesothelioma, and cutaneous melanoma. Among the 11 families that included individuals identified as carrying germline deleterious BAP1 mutations, 6 families presented with 9 RCC-affected individuals, demonstrating a significantly increased risk for RCC. This strongly argues that RCC belongs to the BAP1 syndrome and that BAP1 is a RCC-predisposition gene. PMID:23684012

  13. Renal cell carcinoma: An update for the practicing urologist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumanta K. Pal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic therapy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC has evolved drastically, with agents targeting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR now representing a standard of care. The present paper is to review the current status of relevant clinical trials that were either recently completed or ongoing. (1 Though observation remains a standard of care following resection of localized disease, multiple trials are underway to assess VEGF- and mTOR-directed therapies in this setting. (2 While the preponderance of retrospective data favors cytoreductive nephrectomy in the context of targeted agents, prospective data to support this approach is still forthcoming. (3 The first-line management of mRCC may change substantially with multiple studies exploring vaccines, immune checkpoint inhibitors, and novel targeted agents currently underway. In general, prospective studies that will report within the next several years will be critical in defining the role of adjuvant therapy and cytoreductive nephrectomy. Over the same span of time, the current treatment paradigm for first-line therapy may evolve.

  14. Coffee consumption and risk of renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antwi, Samuel O; Eckel-Passow, Jeanette E; Diehl, Nancy D; Serie, Daniel J; Custer, Kaitlynn M; Arnold, Michelle L; Wu, Kevin J; Cheville, John C; Thiel, David D; Leibovich, Bradley C; Parker, Alexander S

    2017-08-01

    Studies have suggested an inverse association between coffee consumption and risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC); however, data regarding decaffeinated coffee are limited. We conducted a case-control study of 669 incident RCC cases and 1,001 frequency-matched controls. Participants completed identical risk factor questionnaires that solicited information about usual coffee consumption habits. The study participants were categorized as non-coffee, caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, or both caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee drinkers. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using logistic regression, adjusting for multiple risk factors for RCC. Compared with no coffee consumption, we found an inverse association between caffeinated coffee consumption and RCC risk (OR 0.74; 95% CI 0.57-0.99), whereas we observed a trend toward increased risk of RCC for consumption of decaffeinated coffee (OR 1.47; 95% CI 0.98-2.19). Decaffeinated coffee consumption was associated also with increased risk of the clear cell RCC (ccRCC) subtype, particularly the aggressive form of ccRCC (OR 1.80; 95% CI 1.01-3.22). Consumption of caffeinated coffee is associated with reduced risk of RCC, while decaffeinated coffee consumption is associated with an increase in risk of aggressive ccRCC. Further inquiry is warranted in large prospective studies and should include assessment of dose-response associations.

  15. Immunotherapy in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Comprehensive Review

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    Rachna Raman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Localized renal cell carcinoma (RCC is often curable by surgery alone. However, metastatic RCC is generally incurable. In the 1990s, immunotherapy in the form of cytokines was the mainstay of treatment for metastatic RCC. However, responses were seen in only a minority of highly selected patients with substantial treatment-related toxicities. The advent of targeted agents such as vascular endothelial growth factor tyrosine kinase inhibitors VEGF-TKIs and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR inhibitors led to a change in this paradigm due to improved response rates and progression-free survival, a better safety profile, and the convenience of oral administration. However, most patients ultimately progress with about 12% being alive at 5 years. In contrast, durable responses lasting 10 years or more are noted in a minority of those treated with cytokines. More recently, an improved overall survival with newer forms of immunotherapy in other malignancies (such as melanoma and prostate cancer has led to a resurgence of interest in immune therapies in metastatic RCC. In this review we discuss the rationale for immunotherapy and recent developments in immunotherapeutic strategies for treating metastatic RCC.

  16. [Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH)-deficient renal cell carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaimy, A

    2016-03-01

    Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) represents a type II mitochondrial complex related to the respiratory chain and Krebs cycle. The complex is composed of four major subunits, SDHA, SDHB, SDHC and SDHD. The oncogenic role of this enzyme complex has only recently been recognized and the complex is currently considered an important oncogenic signaling pathway with tumor suppressor properties. In addition to the familial paraganglioma syndromes (types 1-5) as prototypical SDH-related diseases, many other tumors have been defined as SDH-deficient, in particular a subset of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), rare hypophyseal adenomas, a subset of pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (recently added) and a variety of other tumor entities, the latter mainly described as rare case reports. As a central core subunit responsible for the integrity of the SDH complex, the expression of SDHB is lost in all SDH-deficient neoplasms irrespective of the specific SDH subunit affected by a genetic mutation in addition to concurrent loss of the subunit specifically affected by genetic alteration. Accordingly, all SDH-deficient neoplasms are by definition SDHB-deficient. The SDH-deficient renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has only recently been well-characterized and it is included as a specific subtype of RCC in the new World Health Organization (WHO) classification published in 2016. In this review, the major clinicopathological, immunohistochemical and genetic features of this rare disease entity are presented and discussed in the context of the broad differential diagnosis.

  17. Evaluation of neuroendocrine markers in renal cell carcinoma

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    Kauppila Saila

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the study was to examine serotonin, CD56, neurone-specific enolase (NSE, chromogranin A and synaptophysin by immunohistochemistry in renal cell carcinomas (RCCs with special emphasis on patient outcome. Methods We studied 152 patients with primary RCCs who underwent surgery for the removal of kidney tumours between 1990 and 1999. The mean follow-up was 90 months. The expression of neuroendocrine (NE markers was determined by immunohistochemical staining using commercially available monoclonal antibodies. Results were correlated with patient age, clinical stage, Fuhrman grade and patient outcome. Results Eight percent of tumours were positive for serotonin, 18% for CD56 and 48% for NSE. Chromogranin A immunostaining was negative and only 1% of the tumours were synaptophysin immunopositive. The NSE immunopositivity was more common in clear cell RCCs than in other subtypes (p = 0.01. The other NE markers did not show any association with the histological subtype. Tumours with an immunopositivity for serotonin had a longer RCC-specific survival and tumours with an immunopositivity for CD56 and NSE had a shorter RCC-specific survival but the difference was not significant. There was no relationship between stage or Fuhrman grade and immunoreactivity for serotonin, CD56 and NSE. Conclusions Serotonin, CD56 and NSE but not synaptophysin and chromogranin A are expressed in RCCs. However, the prognostic potential of these markers remains obscure.

  18. Identification and Characterization of Renal Cell Carcinoma Gene Markers

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    Louis S. Liou

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Microarray gene expression profiling has been used to distinguish histological subtypes of renal cell carcinoma (RCC, and consequently to identify specific tumor markers. The analytical procedures currently in use find sets of genes whose average differential expression across the two categories differ significantly. In general each of the markers thus identifi ed does not distinguish tumor from normal with 100% accuracy, although the group as a whole might be able to do so. For the purpose of developing a widely used economically viable diagnostic signature, however, large groups of genes are not likely to be useful. Here we use two different methods, one a support vector machine variant, and the other an exhaustive search, to reanalyze data previously generated in our Lab (Lenburg et al. 2003. We identify 158 genes, each having an expression level that is higher (lower in every tumor sample than in any normal sample, and each having a minimum differential expression across the two categorie at a signifi cance of 0.01. The set is highly enriched in cancer related genes (p = 1.6 × 10 – 12, containing 43 genes previously associated with either RCC or other types of cancer. Many of the biomarkers appear to be associated with the central alterations known to be required for cancer transformation. These include the oncogenes JAZF1, AXL, ABL2; tumor suppressors RASD1, PTPRO, TFAP2A, CDKN1C; and genes involved in proteolysis or cell-adhesion such as WASF2, and PAPPA.

  19. Progress of Molecular Targeted Therapies for Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma

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    Alessandro Conti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF plays a crucial role in tumor angiogenesis. VEGF expression in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC is mostly regulated by hypoxia, predominantly via the hypoxia-induced factor (HIF/Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL pathway. Advances in our knowledge of VEGF role in tumor angiogenesis, growth, and progression have permitted development of new approaches for the treatment of mRCC, including several agents targeting VEGF and VEGF receptors: tyrosine kinase pathway, serine/threonine kinases, α5β1-integrin, deacetylase, CD70, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR, AKT, and phosphatidylinositol 3′-kinase (PI3K. Starting from sorafenib and sunitinib, several targeted therapies have been approved for mRCC treatment, with a long list of agents in course of evaluation, such as tivozanib, cediranib, and VEGF-Trap. Here we illustrate the main steps of tumor angiogenesis process, defining the pertinent therapeutic targets and the efficacy and toxicity profiles of these new promising agents.

  20. The epigenetic landscape of clear-cell renal cell carcinoma

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    Katarzyna Kluzek

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC is the most common subtype of all kidney tumors. During the last few years, epigenetics has emerged as an important mechanism in ccRCC pathogenesis. Recent reports, involving large-scale methylation and sequencing analyses, have identified genes frequently inactivated by promoter methylation and recurrent mutations in genes encoding chromatin regulatory proteins. Interestingly, three of detected genes (PBRM1, SETD2 and BAP1 are located on chromosome 3p, near the VHL gene, inactivated in over 80% ccRCC cases. This suggests that 3p alterations are an essential part of ccRCC pathogenesis. Moreover, most of the proteins encoded by these genes cooperate in histone H3 modifications. The aim of this review is to summarize the latest discoveries shedding light on deregulation of chromatin machinery in ccRCC. Newly described ccRCC-specific epigenetic alterations could potentially serve as novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers and become an object of novel therapeutic strategies.

  1. First-line sunitinib versus pazopanib in metastatic renal cell carcinoma: Results from the International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruiz-Morales, Jose Manuel; Swierkowski, Marcin; Wells, J Connor

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sunitinib (SU) and pazopanib (PZ) are standards of care for first-line treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). However, how the efficacy of these drugs translates into effectiveness on a population-based level is unknown. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We used the International m...

  2. Third-line Targeted Therapy in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma: Results from the International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, J Connor; Stukalin, Igor; Norton, Craig; Srinivas, Sandy; Lee, Jae Lyun; Donskov, Frede; Bjarnason, Georg A; Yamamoto, Haru; Beuselinck, Benoit; Rini, Brian I; Knox, Jennifer J; Agarwal, Neeraj; Ernst, D Scott; Pal, Sumanta K; Wood, Lori A; Bamias, Aristotelis; Alva, Ajjai S; Kanesvaran, Ravindran; Choueiri, Toni K; Heng, Daniel Y C

    2017-02-01

    The use of third-line targeted therapy (TTT) in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) is not well characterized and varies due to the lack of robust data to guide treatment decisions. This study examined the use of third-line therapy in a large international population. To evaluate the use and efficacy of targeted therapy in a third-line setting. Twenty-five international cancer centers provided consecutive data on 4824 mRCC patients who were treated with an approved targeted therapy. One thousand and twelve patients (21%) received TTT and were included in the analysis. Patients were analyzed for overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival using Kaplan-Meier curves, and were evaluated for overall response. Cox regression analyses were used to determine the statistical association between OS and the six factors included in the International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium (IMDC) prognostic model. Subgroup analysis was performed on patients stratified by their IMDC prognostic risk status. Everolimus was the most prevalent third-line therapy (27.5%), but sunitinib, sorafenib, pazopanib, temsirolimus, and axitinib were all utilized in over ≥9% of patients. Patients receiving any TTT had an OS of 12.4 mo, a progression-free survival of 3.9 mo, and 61.1% of patients experienced an overall response of stable disease or better. Patients not receiving TTT had an OS of 2.1 mo. Patients with favorable- (7.2%) or intermediate-risk (65.3%) disease had the highest OS with TTT, 29.9 mo and 15.5 mo, respectively, while poor-risk (27.5%) patients survived 5.5 mo. Results are limited by the retrospective nature of the study. TTT remains highly heterogeneous. The IMDC prognostic criteria can be used to stratify third-line patients. TTT use in favorable- and intermediate-risk patients was associated with the greatest OS. Patients with favorable- and intermediate-prognostic criteria disease treated with third-line targeted therapy have an associated

  3. Renal cell carcinoma: evolving approaches to advanced non-clear cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Y.C. Heng

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC has changed dramatically with the introduction of targeted therapies including sunitinib, sorafenib, and temsirolimus. Because patients with conventional clear cell histology account for 75- 80% of all patients with RCC, there has been little accumulated evidence on the treatment of patients with non-clear cell histologies. Most clinical trials have excluded them from enrolment, except for randomized studies investigating temsirolimus. Many retrospective studies on the use of all three of these targeted therapies in patients with non-clear cell histology have demonstrated response rates ranging from 3.7%–16%. Although response rates may not be as high compared to patients with clear cell histologies, targeted therapy does provide a clinically meaningful response.

  4. Molecular features of renal cell carcinoma: early diagnostics and perspectives for therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Kovaleva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Kidney cancer (renal cell carcinoma is one of the major problems of modern urological oncology. In Russia renal cell carcinoma accountsfor 4.3 % of all cancers. The global incidence of renal cell carcinoma has increased over the past two decades. Worldwide renal cell carcinoma accounts for 3.6 % of all cancers and is 10th frequent malignancy. For some malignancies, for instance tumours of prostate, there are markers known that allowed improved early diagnostics. Kidney cancer, however, remains to be hard to diagnose and to treat, since the symptoms can be detected on advanced stages of the disease. In Russia 75.4 % of renal cell carcinoma cases detected at the stage of local and locally advanced disease. Though there are various target drugs on the market aimed to treat this disease, the results of renal cell carcinoma treatment did not reach any substantial success. Most of existing target drugs for kidney cancer treatment include inhibitors of a single signalingpathway regulated by VHL1, which expression is lost in the vast majority of renal-cell carcinomas. Till now existing drugs did not reach sufficient efficacy. Therefore, it is highly important to search for new signaling pathways, regulating such cellular processes as proliferation, migration and apoptosis. Further, prognostic markers and therapy targets identified so far are not sufficient and poorly specific. Therefore identification and validation of new markers, and especially new specific targets for the treatment of kindey oncopathologies is highly important and timely task.

  5. Bio-informatics analysis of renal carcinoma gene matrix metalloproteinase-7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L; Wang, L X; Xu, G L; Yang, F; Gao, Q L; Niu, H; Shi, B; Jiang, X

    2016-01-01

    Renal cancer is one of the common malignant tumors of the urinary system, seriously threatening human being's health. The current discoveries, however, are far enough for efficient and secure treatment of renal cancer. The aim was to explore the mechanism of matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7) protein in renal carcinoma cell metastasis by bioinformatics analysis. Bioinformatics methods were used to analyze the composition of amino acids, as well as transmembrane structure, coiled coils, subcellular localization, signal peptide, functions and structures at all levels. It showed that the gene MMP-7 totally had 1131 bp. A peptide chain containing 267 amino acids was encoded in the coding region. Based on random coil, α helix, and further super-helix, it had formed a stable neutral hydrophilic protein. The subcellular location analysis indicated that the protein was located outside the cell. The mature peptide started from the 18th amino acid, and its front-end was the sequence of the signal peptide, belonging to the secreted protein. Analysis of the functional domain showed that this protein had two functional domains, the PG binding domain, and the zinc finger binding domain. Moreover, the protein, which was cross-linked with it, was also one related to cancer cell proliferation and metastasis. To sum up, MMP-7 is a stable neutral hydrophilic secreted protein, and it may play a vital role in the invasion and metastasis of cancer cells.

  6. Spectrum of diverse genomic alterations define non–clear cell renal carcinoma subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Bijay S; Zhang, Na; Toffessi-Tcheuyap, Vanina; Nguyen, Thong T; Pahuja, Kanika Bajaj; Chen, Ying-Jiun; Saleem, Sadia; Chaudhuri, Subhra; Heldens, Sherry; Jackson, Marlena; Peña-Llopis, Samuel; Guillory, Joseph; Toy, Karen; Ha, Connie; Harris, Corissa J; Holloman, Eboni; Hill, Haley M; Stinson, Jeremy; Rivers, Celina Sanchez; Janakiraman, Vasantharajan; Wang, Weiru; Kinch, Lisa N; Grishin, Nick V; Haverty, Peter M; Chow, Bernard; Gehring, Julian S; Reeder, Jens; Pau, Gregoire; Wu, Thomas D; Margulis, Vitaly; Lotan, Yair; Sagalowsky, Arthur; Pedrosa, Ivan; de Sauvage, Frederic J; Brugarolas, James; Seshagiri, Somasekar

    2015-01-01

    To further understand the molecular distinctions between kidney cancer subtypes, we analyzed exome, transcriptome and copy number alteration data from 167 primary human tumors that included renal oncocytomas and non–clear cell renal cell carcinomas (nccRCCs), consisting of papillary (pRCC), chromophobe (chRCC) and translocation (tRCC) subtypes. We identified ten significantly mutated genes in pRCC, including MET, NF2, SLC5A3, PNKD and CPQ. MET mutations occurred in 15% (10/65) of pRCC samples and included previously unreported recurrent activating mutations. In chRCC, we found TP53, PTEN, FAAH2, PDHB, PDXDC1 and ZNF765 to be significantly mutated. Gene expression analysis identified a five-gene set that enabled the molecular classification of chRCC, renal oncocytoma and pRCC. Using RNA sequencing, we identified previously unreported gene fusions, including ACTG1-MITF fusion. Ectopic expression of the ACTG1-MITF fusion led to cellular transformation and induced the expression of downstream target genes. Finally, we observed upregulation of the anti-apoptotic factor BIRC7 in MiTF-high RCC tumors, suggesting a potential therapeutic role for BIRC7 inhibitors. PMID:25401301

  7. microRNA-184 functions as tumor suppressor in renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhengming; Chen, Duqun; Li, Yifan; Zhang, Enpu; Yu, Zuhu; Chen, Ting; Jiang, Zhimao; Ni, Liangchao; Yang, Shangqi; Gui, Yaoting; Ye, Jiongxian; Lai, Yongqing

    2015-03-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are evolutionarily conserved, endogenous, small, noncoding RNA molecules of approximately 22 nucleotides in length that function as post-transcriptional gene regulators. Their aberrant expression may be involved in human diseases, including cancer. Although miRNA-184 (miR-184) has been reported in other tumors, its function in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is still unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of miR-184 in RCC. The impacts of miR-184 on cell migration, proliferation and apoptosis were evaluated using migration scratch, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and flow cytometry assay. Our studies revealed that miR-184 mimic significantly inhibits cell migration, suppresses cell proliferation and induces renal cancer cell apoptosis in vitro when compared with the negative control (P184 played a significant role as a tumor suppressor in RCC. Therefore, miR-184 may be a promising therapeutic target for renal cancer treatment in the future.

  8. A synchronous hepatocellular carcinoma and renal cell carcinoma treated with radio-frequency ablation

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    Yoon Serk Lee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Radio-frequency ablation (RFA is a curative treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Percutaneous RFA has been shown to be beneficial for patients with small renal cell carcinoma (RCC lacking indications for resection. We experienced the case of a 53-year-old male who had conditions that suggested HCC, RCC, and alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Abdominal contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance image showed liver cirrhosis with 2.8 cm ill-defined mass in segment 2 of the liver and 1.9 cm hypervascular mass in the left kidney. These findings were compatible with the double primary cancers of HCC and RCC. Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE was performed to treat the HCC. After the TACE, a focal lipiodol uptake defect was noticed on a follow up CT images and loco-regional treatment was recommended. Therefore, we performed RFAs to treat HCC and RCC. There was no evidence of recurrence in the follow up image after 1 month.

  9. Cytodiagnosis of myxoid adrenocortical carcinoma and role of immunocytochemistry to differentiate it from renal cell carcinoma

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    Santosh Kumar Mondal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC is a rare malignancy and cytodiagnosis of this tumor is not routinely encountered by a cytopathologist. Here, we report a case of ACC initially diagnosed by computed tomography (CT-guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC with the help of immunocytochemistry. A 48-year-old lady presented with flank pain and abdominal mass for the last 6 months. A CT scan of her abdomen revealed a large mass arising from the upper part of the left kidney. CT-guided FNAC was performed. Cytologic smears showed pleomorphic large cells arranged discretely and in small aggregates against a myxoid background. The cells had a high nucleocytoplasmic ratio, anisonucleosis and conspicuous nucleoli. Based on cytomorphology, differential diagnoses of ACC and renal cell carcinoma (RCC were made. On immunocytochemistry, the tumor cells were synaptophysin, inhibin, vimentin and Melan-A positive but cytokeratin and epithelial membrane antigen negative. Thus, a cytodiagnosis of myxoid ACC was made and histopathologic examination was suggested. Subsequent histologic examination and immunohistochemistry proved the case to be myxoid ACC.

  10. Expression of tissue levels of matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases in renal cell carcinoma

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    Qiao Zhen-kui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs are one of the major classes of proteolytic enzymes involved in tumor invasion and metastasis and are inhibited by naturally occurring tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs. {AU Query: Please verify that corrections made to previous sentence did not alter intended meaning}. In this study, we examined the expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, membrane-type 1 (MT1-MMP, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 in renal tissue samples of renal cell cancer and examined the correlation between their expression and clinicopathological parameters. Methods Renal tissue samples from 76 patients with renal cell carcinoma were available for this study. To determine the expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, MT1-MMP, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2, semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR was carried out on tumor and normal tissues. Results Mean MMP-2, MMP-9, MT1-MMP, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 mRNA expression in the renal cell carcinomas was significantly higher than in the normal renal tissue (P Conclusions Mean MMP-2, MMP-9, MT1-MMP, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 mRNA expression in the renal cell carcinomas was significantly higher than in the normal renal tissue.

  11. Differentiation of a pancreatic metastasis of a renal cell carcinoma from a primary pancreatic carcinoma by echo-enhanced power Doppler sonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flath, B; Rickes, S; Schweigert, M; Lochs, H; Possinger, K; Wermke, W

    2003-01-01

    In a 70-year-old patient who had been treated for a renal cell carcinoma, a pancreatic mass was detected on CT scan. To differentiate a pancreatic metastasis of the renal cell carcinoma from a pancreatic carcinoma, an echo-enhanced power Doppler sonography was performed. The pancreatic mass demonstrated a strong echo enhancement, proving its hypervascularization. This behaviour favoured the diagnosis of a pancreatic metastasis of the renal cell carcinoma which was confirmed by histology. The principles and the role of echo-enhanced power Doppler sonography in the differential diagnosis between a primary pancreatic carcinoma and a metastasis of a renal carcinoma in the pancreas are discussed. We conclude that this technique can provide an important contribution to the diagnosis in this special instance. However, histology is the standard in the differential diagnosis of pancreatic tumours. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel and IAP

  12. Clear cell renal cell carcinoma: discrimination from other renal cell carcinoma subtypes and oncocytoma at multiphasic multidetector CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jonathan R; Margolis, Daniel; Sauk, Steven; Pantuck, Allan J; Sayre, James; Raman, Steven S

    2013-05-01

    To determine whether enhancement at multiphasic multidetector computed tomography (CT) can help differentiate clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC) from oncocytoma, papillary RCC, and chromophobe RCC. With institutional review board approval for this HIPAA-compliant retrospective study, the pathology database was queried to derive a cohort of 298 cases of RCC and oncocytoma with preoperative multiphasic multidetector CT with as many as four phases (unenhanced, corticomedullary, nephrographic, and excretory). A total of 170 clear cell RCCs, 57 papillary RCCs, 49 oncocytomas, and 22 chromophobe RCCs were evaluated for multiphasic enhancement and compared by using t tests. Cutoff analysis was performed to determine optimal threshold levels to discriminate among the four groups. Mean enhancement of clear cell RCCs and oncocytomas peaked in the corticomedullary phase; mean enhancement of papillary and chromophobe RCCs peaked in the nephrographic phase. Enhancement of clear cell RCCs was greater than that of oncocytomas in the corticomedullary (125 HU vs 106 HU, P = .045) and excretory (80 HU vs 67 HU, P = .034) phases. Enhancement of clear cell RCCs was greater than that of papillary RCCs in the corticomedullary (125 HU vs 54 HU, P oncocytoma, papillary RCC, and chromophobe RCC with accuracies of 77% (83 of 108 cases), 85% (101 of 119 cases), and 84% (81 of 97 cases). Enhancement at multiphasic multidetector CT, if prospectively validated, may assist in the discrimination of clear cell RCC from oncocytoma, papillary RCC, and chromophobe RCC. © RSNA, 2013.

  13. Unusual Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding due to Late Metastasis from Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Case Report

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    Wen-Tsan Chang

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available A case of recurrent massive upper gastrointestinal bleeding originating from metastatic renal cell carcinoma is reported. A 63-year-old woman underwent right nephrectomy 9 years previously and experienced no recurrence during follow-up. A gradually enlarging ulcerative tumor over the bulb of the duodenum and four subsequent episodes of massive bleeding from this tumor occurred between June 2001 and March 2002. The patient underwent surgery in April 2002 for intractable bleeding from the tumor. Renal cell carcinoma metastasis to the duodenum was confirmed from the surgical specimen. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding due to malignancy is very rare and the duodenum is the least frequently involved site. Furthermore, a solitary late renal cell carcinoma metastasis 9 years after a nephrectomy is extremely uncommon. This case suggests that life-long follow-up of renal cell carcinoma patients is necessary, owing to unpredictable behavior and the possibility of long disease-free intervals. In nephrectomized patients suffering from gastrointestinal bleeding, complete evaluation, especially endoscopic examination, is indicated. The possibility of late recurrent renal cell carcinoma metastasis to the gastrointestinal tract should be kept in mind, although it is rare. If the patient is fit for surgery, metastatectomy is the first choice of treatment.

  14. Regan isoenzyme of alkaline phosphatase as a tumour marker for renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowczan, J; Pattman, S; Jenkinson, F; Quinton, R

    2014-09-01

    Alkaline phosphatase is an enzyme present in all tissues of the human body. Several isoforms of this enzyme have been described with different catalytic nature, stability and antigenic structure. Rises in the activity of alkaline phosphatase are recognised in various states including bone diseases, liver disease, pregnancy, hyperthyroidism and malignant processes. The Regan isoenzyme, a rare variant of placental alkaline phosphatase, has been identified circulating in association with various tumours. The reported case describes a rising Regan isoform of alkaline phosphatase concentrations that led to a new diagnosis of occult renal cell carcinoma and persistently elevated activity postoperatively signposting persistent or recurrent disease. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  15. Sunitinib Does Not Accelerate Tumor Growth in Patients with Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma

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    Krastan B. Blagoev

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Preclinical studies have suggested that sunitinib accelerates metastases in animals, ascribing this to inhibition of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor or the tumor’s adaptation. To address whether sunitinib accelerates tumors in humans, we analyzed data from the pivotal randomized phase III trial comparing sunitinib and interferon alfa in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. The evidence clearly shows that sunitinib was not harmful, did not accelerate tumor growth, and did not shorten survival. Specifically, neither longer sunitinib treatment nor a greater effect of sunitinib on tumors reduced survival. Sunitinib did reduce the tumor’s growth rate while administered, thereby improving survival, without appearing to alter tumor biology after discontinuation. Concerns arising from animal models do not apply to patients receiving sunitinib and likely will not apply to similar agents.

  16. Surgical treatment of renal-cell carcinoma in elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Covarrubias, F; Rivera-Ramirez, J A; Gabilondo-Pliego, B; Castillejos-Molina, R A; Sotomayor, M; Feria-Bernal, G; Gabilondo-Navarro, F

    2016-01-01

    To describe the oncological characteristics and evolution of patients 65 years or older who underwent surgery for renal-cell carcinoma (RCC). We reviewed our prospectively maintained database of patients with RCC treated surgically. Those ≥ 65 years old were selected. We analyzed clinical and pathological characteristics as well as oncological and functional outcomes. Overall survival (OS) was estimated with the Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariate Cox-proportional hazards model was used to determine predictors of OS. A total of 156 elderly patients with mean age 72.0±5.5 years (range 65-92) and median follow-up of 33 months were included. Surgical approach was open radical nephrectomy in 114 (73.5%), laparoscopic radical nephrectomy in 13 (8.4%), open partial nephrectomy in 23 (14.2%) and laparoscopic partial nephrectomy in 6 (3.9%). Pathological stage was: Stage I, 71 (45.5%); Stage II, 27 (17.3%); Stage III, 48 (30.8%); and Stage IV, 10 (6.4%). Lastly, 51 (32.6%) patients died, 22 (43.1%) from cancer. The 5-year OS according to pathological stage was 77.6%, 71.9%, 45.1% and 11.7% for stage I, II, III and IV, respectively (P<.001). On multivariate analysis, pathological stage independently predicted OS (HR 1.96, 95% CI [1.36-2.84], P=.0003). The surgical management of RCC appears to be safe in properly selected patients 65 years or older. Pathological stage predicts survival in this population. Copyright © 2016 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Computational Modelling of Metastasis Development in Renal Cell Carcinoma.

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    Etienne Baratchart

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The biology of the metastatic colonization process remains a poorly understood phenomenon. To improve our knowledge of its dynamics, we conducted a modelling study based on multi-modal data from an orthotopic murine experimental system of metastatic renal cell carcinoma. The standard theory of metastatic colonization usually assumes that secondary tumours, once established at a distant site, grow independently from each other and from the primary tumour. Using a mathematical model that translates this assumption into equations, we challenged this theory against our data that included: 1 dynamics of primary tumour cells in the kidney and metastatic cells in the lungs, retrieved by green fluorescent protein tracking, and 2 magnetic resonance images (MRI informing on the number and size of macroscopic lesions. Critically, when calibrated on the growth of the primary tumour and total metastatic burden, the predicted theoretical size distributions were not in agreement with the MRI observations. Moreover, tumour expansion only based on proliferation was not able to explain the volume increase of the metastatic lesions. These findings strongly suggested rejection of the standard theory, demonstrating that the time development of the size distribution of metastases could not be explained by independent growth of metastatic foci. This led us to investigate the effect of spatial interactions between merging metastatic tumours on the dynamics of the global metastatic burden. We derived a mathematical model of spatial tumour growth, confronted it with experimental data of single metastatic tumour growth, and used it to provide insights on the dynamics of multiple tumours growing in close vicinity. Together, our results have implications for theories of the metastatic process and suggest that global dynamics of metastasis development is dependent on spatial interactions between metastatic lesions.

  18. Gene Expression Profiling Predicts Survival in Conventional Renal Cell Carcinoma.

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    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Conventional renal cell carcinoma (cRCC accounts for most of the deaths due to kidney cancer. Tumor stage, grade, and patient performance status are used currently to predict survival after surgery. Our goal was to identify gene expression features, using comprehensive gene expression profiling, that correlate with survival. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Gene expression profiles were determined in 177 primary cRCCs using DNA microarrays. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis segregated cRCC into five gene expression subgroups. Expression subgroup was correlated with survival in long-term follow-up and was independent of grade, stage, and performance status. The tumors were then divided evenly into training and test sets that were balanced for grade, stage, performance status, and length of follow-up. A semisupervised learning algorithm (supervised principal components analysis was applied to identify transcripts whose expression was associated with survival in the training set, and the performance of this gene expression-based survival predictor was assessed using the test set. With this method, we identified 259 genes that accurately predicted disease-specific survival among patients in the independent validation group (p < 0.001. In multivariate analysis, the gene expression predictor was a strong predictor of survival independent of tumor stage, grade, and performance status (p < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: cRCC displays molecular heterogeneity and can be separated into gene expression subgroups that correlate with survival after surgery. We have identified a set of 259 genes that predict survival after surgery independent of clinical prognostic factors.

  19. Gene expression profiling predicts survival in conventional renal cell carcinoma.

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    Hongjuan Zhao

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Conventional renal cell carcinoma (cRCC accounts for most of the deaths due to kidney cancer. Tumor stage, grade, and patient performance status are used currently to predict survival after surgery. Our goal was to identify gene expression features, using comprehensive gene expression profiling, that correlate with survival. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Gene expression profiles were determined in 177 primary cRCCs using DNA microarrays. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis segregated cRCC into five gene expression subgroups. Expression subgroup was correlated with survival in long-term follow-up and was independent of grade, stage, and performance status. The tumors were then divided evenly into training and test sets that were balanced for grade, stage, performance status, and length of follow-up. A semisupervised learning algorithm (supervised principal components analysis was applied to identify transcripts whose expression was associated with survival in the training set, and the performance of this gene expression-based survival predictor was assessed using the test set. With this method, we identified 259 genes that accurately predicted disease-specific survival among patients in the independent validation group (p < 0.001. In multivariate analysis, the gene expression predictor was a strong predictor of survival independent of tumor stage, grade, and performance status (p < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: cRCC displays molecular heterogeneity and can be separated into gene expression subgroups that correlate with survival after surgery. We have identified a set of 259 genes that predict survival after surgery independent of clinical prognostic factors.

  20. Cystic Renal Oncocytoma and Tubulocystic Renal Cell Carcinoma: Morphologic and Immunohistochemical Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skenderi, Faruk; Ulamec, Monika; Vranic, Semir; Bilalovic, Nurija; Peckova, Kvetoslava; Rotterova, Pavla; Kokoskova, Bohuslava; Trpkov, Kiril; Vesela, Pavla; Hora, Milan; Kalusova, Kristyna; Sperga, Maris; Perez Montiel, Delia; Alvarado Cabrero, Isabel; Bulimbasic, Stela; Branzovsky, Jindrich; Michal, Michal; Hes, Ondrej

    2016-02-01

    Renal oncocytoma (RO) may present with a tubulocystic growth in 3% to 7% of cases, and in such cases its morphology may significantly overlap with tubulocystic renal cell carcinoma (TCRCC). We compared the morphologic and immunohistochemical characteristics of these tumors, aiming to clarify the differential diagnostic criteria, which facilitate the discrimination of RO from TCRCC. Twenty-four cystic ROs and 15 TCRCCs were selected and analyzed for: architectural growth patterns, stromal features, cytomorphology, ISUP nucleolar grade, necrosis, and mitotic activity. Immunohistochemical panel included various cytokeratins (AE1-AE3, OSCAR, CAM5.2, CK7), vimentin, CD10, CD117, AMACR, CA-IX, antimitochondrial antigen (MIA), EMA, and Ki-67. The presence of at least focal solid growth and islands of tumor cells interspersed with loose stroma, lower ISUP nucleolar grade, absence of necrosis, and absence of mitotic figures were strongly suggestive of a cystic RO. In contrast, the absence of solid and island growth patterns and presence of more compact, fibrous stroma, accompanied by higher ISUP nucleolar grade, focal necrosis, and mitotic figures were all associated with TCRCC. TCRCC marked more frequently for vimentin, CD10, AMACR, and CK7 and had a higher proliferative index by Ki-67 (>15%). CD117 was negative in 14/15 cases. One case was weakly CD117 reactive with cytoplasmic positivity. All cystic RO cases were strongly positive for CD117. The remaining markers (AE1-AE3, CAM5.2, OSCAR, CA-IX, MIA, EMA) were of limited utility. Presence of tumor cell islands and solid growth areas and the type of stroma may be major morphologic criteria in differentiating cystic RO from TCRCC. In difficult cases, or when a limited tissue precludes full morphologic assessment, immunohistochemical pattern of vimentin, CD10, CD117, AMACR, CK7, and Ki-67 could help in establishing the correct diagnosis.

  1. Biomolecular assessment of renal function in various types of surgical treatment of renal cell carcinoma

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    Popkov V.M.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess the possibility of using the markers of acute kidney injury to predict the preoperative risk for the subsequent decline in glomerular filtration rate in different types of surgical treatment of renal cell carcinoma (RCC. Material and methods. 60 patients with histologically confirmed RCC T1-3M0N0 operated in the clinic of urology of Saratov State Medical University n.a. V. I. Razumovsky in the volume of nephrectomy or partial nephrectomy. Before surgery all patients underwent standard examination intended for patients with kidney tumors: ultrasound, MRI, excretory urography and dynamic renoscintigraphy, the perioperative values of serum creatinine and glomerular filtration rate were determined. Using the method of immuno-enzymatic analysis the concentrations of excreted with the urine NGAL and IL-18 in serum samples at the preoperative stage, after 5 days and after 1 month of postoperative follow-up were investigated. Differences in clinical data and clinical variables were compared by using Spearman rank correlations and t-test. Results. The determined parameters of acute kidney injury markers IL-18 and NGAL in the early postoperative period were increased in patients after open nephrectomy. Moreover, the correlation analysis according to the Spearman method revealed a strong significant correlation between the preoperative levels of IL-18 and GFR after surgery (r=1; p<0.05. Conclusion. Laparoscopic resection of RCC is the method of choice for surgical treatment of RCC. As a predictor of adverse prognosis, the level of IL-18 in serum may be used. Its increase correlates with a decline in renal function in the postoperative period, and according to some reports, IL-18 also is an independent predictor of adverse prognosis in patients with a localized RCC.

  2. Transformation capacities of the papillary renal cell carcinoma-associated PRCCTFE3 and TFE3PRCC fusion genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weterman, M. A.; van Groningen, J. J.; den Hartog, A.; Geurts van Kessel, A.

    2001-01-01

    A recurrent chromosomal abnormality associated with a subset of papillary renal cell carcinomas is t(X;1)(p11;q21). This translocation leads to the formation of two fusion genes, TFE3PRCC and the reciprocal product PRCCTFE3. Both fusion genes are expressed in t(X;1)-positive renal cell carcinomas

  3. An aggressive merkel cell carcinoma in a patient with chronic renal failure

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    Sevda Gizlenti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC is a rare cutaneous tumor arising from neuroendocrine cells and Merkel cells. Early diagnosis and treatment is important because of its aggressive course. We here report a 61 years old man with chronic renal failure, 3x5 cm mass on his right leg and inguinal-paraaortic lymph node metastases and resulting in death. MCC in the literature of the AIDS disease, organ transplantation, immunosuppressive therapy areas, and additional malignancies (multiple myeloma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and melanoma have been reported in patients with increased incidence. Up to date a patient with renal transplantation and Merkel cell carcinoma have been reported in the literature, Merkel cell carcinoma with chronic renal failure have not been reported.

  4. An unusual Case of Transitional Cell Carcinoma of Renal Pelvis Presenting with Brain Metastases

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    MR Razzaghi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Transitional cell carcinoma of renal pelvis presenting with brain metastases is a very rare case which should be diagnosed and treated in order to prevent further damages. Case: We report a rare case, who had presented with a constellation of neurological symptoms (due to multiple brain metastases, but without any urological symptoms. During evaluation of patient, we found transitional cell carcinoma (TCC of left renal pelvis, for which palliative radical nephroureterectomy was performed . Conclusion: Although transitional cell carcinoma of renal pelvis presenting with brain metastases is a very rare case, but the patient was managed with gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery for the metastatic lesions. Afterward he received four cycles of paclitaxel and carboplatin chemotherapy. The patient is alive with stable disease at 32- months’ follow-up.

  5. Successful one stage operation for a synchronous, duodenal carcinoma, colonic carcinoma and renal oncocytoma in an adult patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraj, Walid; Sbaity, Eman; Mukherji, Deborah; Shamseddine, Ashraf; Shamseddine, Ali; Khalife, Mohamed

    2011-09-01

    We report a rare case of synchronous duodenal carcinoma, colonic carcinoma and renal oncocytoma successfully treated using a one-stage surgical approach. Potential risk factors for multiple primary malignancies associated with duodenal carcinoma are discussed. This case illustrates several practice points for consideration: 1. Patients presenting with small intestinal carcinomas have a higher than average chance of developing second primary tumors in other organs; this should be taken into consideration during staging and follow-up. 2. For full staging of patients presenting with small bowel tumors, upper and lower gastrointestinal endoscopy and PET scanning should be considered. 3. A one-stage surgical procedure can be used safely and successfully for multiple synchronous primary tumors.

  6. Successful one stage operation for a synchronous, duodenal carcinoma, colonic carcinoma and renal oncocytoma in an adult patient

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    Shamseddine Ali

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report a rare case of synchronous duodenal carcinoma, colonic carcinoma and renal oncocytoma successfully treated using a one-stage surgical approach. Potential risk factors for multiple primary malignancies associated with duodenal carcinoma are discussed. This case illustrates several practice points for consideration: 1. Patients presenting with small intestinal carcinomas have a higher than average chance of developing second primary tumors in other organs; this should be taken into consideration during staging and follow-up. 2. For full staging of patients presenting with small bowel tumors, upper and lower gastrointestinal endoscopy and PET scanning should be considered. 3. A one-stage surgical procedure can be used safely and successfully for multiple synchronous primary tumors.

  7. Successful one stage operation for a synchronous, duodenal carcinoma, colonic carcinoma and renal oncocytoma in an adult patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    We report a rare case of synchronous duodenal carcinoma, colonic carcinoma and renal oncocytoma successfully treated using a one-stage surgical approach. Potential risk factors for multiple primary malignancies associated with duodenal carcinoma are discussed. This case illustrates several practice points for consideration: 1. Patients presenting with small intestinal carcinomas have a higher than average chance of developing second primary tumors in other organs; this should be taken into consideration during staging and follow-up. 2. For full staging of patients presenting with small bowel tumors, upper and lower gastrointestinal endoscopy and PET scanning should be considered. 3. A one-stage surgical procedure can be used safely and successfully for multiple synchronous primary tumors. PMID:21884600

  8. Renal Cell Carcinoma Metastasis from Biopsy Associated Hematoma Disruption during Robotic Partial Nephrectomy

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    Christopher Caputo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case in which a patient with a past medical history of ovarian cancer received a diagnostic renal biopsy for an incidentally discovered renal mass. During left robotic partial nephrectomy (RPN, a perinephric hematoma was encountered. The hematoma was not present on preoperative imaging and was likely a result of the renal biopsy. The renal cell carcinoma (RCC and the associated hematoma were widely excised with negative surgical margins. On follow-up imaging at five months postoperatively, a recurrent renal mass at the surgical resection bed and several new nodules in the omentum were detected. During completion left robotic total nephrectomy and omental excision, intraoperative frozen sections confirmed metastatic RCC. We believe that a hematoma seeded with RCC formed as a result of the renal biopsy, and subsequent disruption of the hematoma during RPN caused contamination of RCC into the surrounding structures.

  9. Feasibility of sentinel node detection in renal cell carcinoma: a pilot study

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    Bex, Axel [Netherlands Cancer Institute, Department of Urology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Netherlands Cancer Institute, Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Urology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vermeeren, Lenka; Olmos, Renato A.V. [Netherlands Cancer Institute, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Windt, Geraldine de; Horenblas, Simon [Netherlands Cancer Institute, Department of Urology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Prevoo, Warner [Netherlands Cancer Institute, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-06-15

    Lymphatic drainage from renal cell carcinoma is unpredictable and the therapeutic benefit and extent of lymph node dissection are controversial. We evaluated the feasibility of intratumoural injection of a radiolabelled tracer to image and sample draining lymph nodes in clinically non-metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Eight patients with cT1-2 cN0 cM0 (<6 cm) renal cell carcinoma prospectively received percutaneous intratumoural injections of {sup 99m}Tc-nanocolloid under ultrasound guidance (0.4 ml, 225 MBq at one to four intratumoural locations depending on tumour size). Lymphoscintigraphy was performed 20 min, 2 h and 4 h after injection. After the delayed images a hybrid SPECT/CT was performed. SPECT was fused with CT to determine the anatomical localization of the sentinel node. Surgery with sampling was performed the following day using a gamma probe and a portable mini gamma camera. Eight patients, seven with right-sided renal cell carcinoma, were included with a mean age of 55 years (range: 45-77). The mean tumour size was 4 cm (range: 3.5-6 cm). Six patients had sentinel nodes on scintigraphy (two retrocaval, four interaortocaval, including one hilar) with one extraretroperitoneal location along the internal mammary chain. All nodes could be mapped and sampled. In two patients no drainage was visualized. Renal cell carcinomas were of clear cell subtype with no lymph node metastases. Sentinel node identification using preoperative and intraoperative imaging to locate and sample the sentinel node at surgery in renal cell carcinoma is feasible. Sentinel node biopsy may clarify the pattern of lymphatic drainage and extent of lymphatic spread which may have diagnostic and therapeutic implications. (orig.)

  10. Differentiation of oncocytoma and renal cell carcinoma in small renal masses (<4 cm): the role of 4-phase computerized tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Vincent G; Kanagarajah, Prashanth; Morillo, Gaston; Caruso, Daniel J; Ayyathurai, Rajinikanth; Leveillee, Raymond; Jorda, Merce

    2011-12-01

    We investigate the use of 4-phase computerized tomography with intravenous contrast to help distinguish oncocytoma from renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in tumors renal tumors renal mass protocol and had confirmed pathological diagnosis of either oncocytoma or RCC were included in the study. Enhancement readings were obtained for the tumor and the renal cortex using the same slice simultaneously. Our cohort involved 69 patients (46 men, 23 women; mean age 66) who presented with 79 renal masses. Histopathologically 40 were clear cell, 22 papillary, 5 chromophobe RCC and 12 oncocytoma. On the arterial, venous and delayed phase images, oncocytoma showed the highest mean enhancement change, i.e.,546, 396 and 239% followed by clear cell RCC 261, 261 and 174%, chromophobe RCC 147, 127 and 66% and papillary RCC 137, 184 and 118%, respectively. The enhancement pattern differed significantly on comparing oncocytoma with RCC (P oncocytoma, respectively. The enhancement and washout values in Hounsfield units obtained by multiphasic CT scan aid in distinguishing oncocytoma from the commonly seen subtypes of RCC in renal masses renal oncocytomas.

  11. Carcinoma da glândula supra-renal Adrenal gland carcinoma

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    Alexandre Coutinho Teixeira de Freitas

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: A neoplasia da glândula supra-renal pode ser oriunda de diversos tipos histológicos. O carcinoma é raro, correspondendo à 0,02% de todas as neoplasias. OBJETIVOS: Revisar os últimos avanços relacionados ao diagnóstico e ao tratamento do carcinoma da glândula supra-renal. MÉTODOS:Foi realizada revisão da literatura no Medline, livros texto de autores consagrados e referências obtidas de artigos considerados de maior relevância. CONCLUSÕES: Aproximadamente 79% dos carcinomas supra-renais são funcionantes. O hormônio mais comumente secretado é o cortisol causando síndrome de Cushing. Portadores de lesões não-funcionantes podem apresentar queixas relacionadas com o crescimento local da lesão. Ele está presente em uma série de síndromes neoplásicas de origem familiar. Ainda não está definido se o carcinoma esporádico tem origem em lesões benignas. De acordo com os sintomas, a investigação diagnóstica inicial envolve dosagens de cortisol urinário e nível sérico de aldosterona e renina. A tomografia abdominal ou a ressonância magnética são os exames de imagem de primeira linha. O PET scan com fluorodeoxiglicose apresenta potencial para diferenciação entre lesão benigna e maligna. A biópsia com agulha fina não está indicada devido à sua alta taxa de complicações. O tratamento de eleição é o cirúrgico com ressecção em bloco de órgãos adjacentes se necessário. Linfadenectomia aórtica e retroperitoneal deve ser realizada. Recorrência local ou metástases ocorrem em 80% dos casos. Procedimentos cirúrgicos citoredutores beneficiam os casos de doença avançada. Na presença de metástases, nos submetidos à cirurgia citoredutora e nos com recorrência local à quimioterapia com mitotano está indicada. Radioterapia é o tratamento de escolha no caso de metástases ósseas e tratamento adjuvante em alguns casos de risco elevado para recorrência. Em adultos a sobrevida média geral em 5 anos

  12. Renal cell carcinoma metastasizing to pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasm - the second case described in the world literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarek-Rajewska, Katarzyna; Zalewski, Przemysław; Bręborowicz, Danuta; Woźniak, Aldona

    Tumor-to-tumor metastases are very rare events. We report a case of a 64-year-old man who presented with a tumor of the pancreas. The patient underwent partial pancreatectomy. Frozen section diagnosis of the tumor was an endocrine neoplasm. Paraffin block slide examination revealed a tumor consisting of two components: pancreatic endocrine neoplasm at the periphery of the tumor and the central part composed of clear cells with delicate vessels. The results of immunohistochemical stains revealed renal cell carcinoma surrounded by pancreatic endocrine neoplasm, therefore representing an unusual case of renal cell carcinoma metastasizing to a pancreatic endocrine neoplasm.

  13. Ischiogluteal bursitis mimicking soft-tissue metastasis from a renal cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voelk, M.; Gmeinwieser, J.; Manke, C.; Strotzer, M. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital, Regensburg (Germany); Hanika, H. [Department of Urology, St. Josef Hospital, Regensburg (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    We report a case of ischiogluteal bursitis mimicking a soft-tissue metastasis from a renal cell carcinoma. A 66-year-old woman suffered from pain over the left buttock 6 months after she was operated on for renal cell carcinoma of the left kidney. CT of the abdomen and pelvis revealed a tumor-like lesion adjacent to the left os ischii, which was suspected to be a soft-tissue metastasis. Percutaneous biopsy revealed no evidence of malignancy, but the histopathological diagnosis of chronic bursitis. (orig.) With 2 figs., 8 refs.

  14. Spontaneous Rupture of the Kidney Affected by Multifocal Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Lucio Dell'Atti

    2014-01-01

    Papillary renal cell carcinoma (pRCC) represents the second most common type of malignant renal epithelial tumor (represents the 10% of the kidney’s carcinoma) and can be subclassified in the basophile type I and eosinophile type II. We report a clinical case of spontaneous rupture of the kidney affected by multifocal (42 tumors foci) pRCC in a young man 53 years old, without showing earlier specific cancer signs and symptoms. Prognosis for type I pRCC is better than type II pRCC, but it is a...

  15. Chromophobe Renal Cell Carcinoma and the Synchronous Presence of Primary Colon Malignancies. Is There a Relation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Sahsamanis

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available While the presence of multiple primary malignancies in the same patient is a well described phenomenon, there is no clear association between various histological subtypes of renal cell carcinoma (RCC and the synchronous presence of colon malignancies. We present the rare case of an 81-year-old female patient suffering from chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (chRCC and an angiomyolipoma of her left kidney, synchronous with an adenocarcinoma of the caecum. While there is an established connection between RCC and colon cancer, a literature review is performed to specify this association in regard to chRCC and the synchronous presence of colon malignancies.

  16. Reactive Hypertrophy of an Accessory Spleen Mimicking Tumour Recurrence of Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma

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    Christin Tjaden

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available De novo occurrence of an accessory spleen after splenectomy is worth noting for two reasons. First, it is known that splenectomy can cause reactive hypertrophy of initially inactive and macroscopically invisible splenic tissue. Second, it can mimic tumour recurrence in situations in which splenectomy has been performed for oncological reasons. This might cause difficulties in differential diagnosis and the clinical decision for reoperation. We report the case of a patient with suspected recurrence of renal cell carcinoma after total pancreatectomy and splenectomy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma, which finally revealed an accessory spleen as the morphological correlate of the newly diagnosed mass in the left retroperitoneum.

  17. Hepatocellular Carcinoma Masquerading as a Large Renal Mass with Hepatic Invasion

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    Joseph R. N. Zabell

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Large masses are evaluated with imaging to assess primary origin and tumor spread. We present the unusual case of a 53-year-old male with a 17-cm right upper quadrant mass suspected to be renal or adrenal in origin based on radiographic findings. After surgical excision, the mass was subsequently discovered to be primary hepatocellular carcinoma with direct extension to the kidney and adrenal gland. A diagnosis of chronic hepatitis B was made postoperatively. Primary hepatocellular carcinoma with direct renal extension is an exceedingly rare occurrence based on our experience and review of the published literature.

  18. Renal carcinoma after childhood cancer: a report from the childhood cancer survivor study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Carmen L; Ness, Kirsten K; Neglia, Joseph P; Hammond, Sue; Shnorhavorian, Margarett; Leisenring, Wendy L; Stovall, Marilyn; Robison, Leslie L; Armstrong, Gregory T

    2013-04-03

    Adult survivors of childhood cancer are known to be at increased risk of subsequent malignancy, but only limited data exist describing the incidence and risk factors for secondary renal carcinoma. Among 14 358 5-year survivors diagnosed between 1970 and 1986, we estimated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) for subsequent renal carcinoma and identified associations with primary cancer therapy using Poisson regression. Twenty-six survivors were diagnosed with renal carcinoma (median = 22.6 years from diagnosis; range = 6.3-35.7 years), reflecting a statistically significant excess (SIR = 8.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 5.2 to 11.7) compared with the general population. Highest risk was observed among neuroblastoma survivors (SIR = 85.8, 95% CI = 38.4 to 175.2) and, in multivariable analyses, with renal-directed radiotherapy of 5 Gy or greater (relative risk [RR] = 3.8, 95% CI = 1.6 to 9.3) and platinum-based chemotherapy (RR = 3.5, 95% CI = 1.0 to 11.2). To our knowledge, this is the first report of an association between cisplatin and subsequent renal carcinoma among survivors of childhood cancer.

  19. Critical appraisal of pazopanib as treatment for patients with advanced metastatic renal cell carcinoma

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    Bukowski RM

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Ronald M BukowskiCleveland Clinic Taussig Cancer Center, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH, USAAbstract: The management of renal cell carcinoma (RCC has undergone significant changes during the past 10 years, with the treatment of metastatic RCC undergoing the most radical changes. These developments reflect an enhanced understanding of this tumor's underlying biology, which was then translated into the development of a new treatment paradigm. Current therapeutic approaches for the management of patients with metastatic RCC utilize knowledge of histology, molecular abnormalities, clinical prognostic factors, the natural history of this malignancy, and the treatment efficacy and toxicity of available agents. The treatment options available for patients with metastatic RCC have changed dramatically over the past 6 years. Interferon-α and interleukin-2 were the previous mainstays of therapy, but since December 2005, six new agents have been approved in the US for the treatment of advanced RCC. Three are multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI including sunitinib, sorafenib, and pazopanib, two target the mammalian target of rapamycin (temsirolimus and everolimus, and one is a humanized monoclonal antibody (bevacizumab in combination with interferon-α. The current review focuses on the newest TKI available to treat patients with metastatic RCC, pazopanib. The development of this agent both preclinically and clinically is reviewed. The efficacy and safety data from the pivotal clinical trials are discussed, and the potential role of pazopanib in the treatment of patients with metastatic RCC in comparison to other treatment alternatives is critically appraised. This agent has a favorable overall risk benefit, and the available data demonstrate efficacy in patients with metastatic RCC who are either treatment-naïve or cytokine refractory. It therefore represents another alternative for treatment of metastatic RCC patients

  20. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma from a native kidney of a renal transplant patient diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alastal, Yaseen; Hammad, Tariq A; Rafiq, Ehsan; Nawras, Mohamad; Alaradi, Osama; Nawras, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) biopsy sampling of enlarged lymph nodes is increasingly used to diagnose metastatic tumors, especially of the gastrointestinal tract and the lungs. Herein, we describe the diagnosis of metastatic renal cell carcinoma from a native kidney of a 54 year-old male patient, who had a 5-years history of renal transplant, by EUS-FNA of mediastinal and celiac lymph nodes. Histological and immunohistochemical findings confirmed the origin of metastatic tumor. EUS-FNA with proper cytological evaluation can be useful in the diagnosis of metastatic renal cell carcinoma in renal transplant patients.

  1. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma from a native kidney of a renal transplant patient diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaseen Alastal

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA biopsy sampling of enlarged lymph nodes is increasingly used to diagnose metastatic tumors, especially of the gastrointestinal tract and the lungs. Herein, we describe the diagnosis of metastatic renal cell carcinoma from a native kidney of a 54 year-old male patient, who had a 5-years history of renal transplant, by EUS-FNA of mediastinal and celiac lymph nodes. Histological and immunohistochemical findings confirmed the origin of metastatic tumor. EUS-FNA with proper cytological evaluation can be useful in the diagnosis of metastatic renal cell carcinoma in renal transplant patients. 

  2. Neoadjuvant targeted therapy in patients with renal cell carcinoma

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    B. Ya. Alekseev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytoreductive nephrectomy as an independent option in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC cannot be considered as the only effective method, with rare exception, of a few patients with solitary metastases. Cytoreductive nephrectomy is now part of a multimodal approach encompassing surgical treatment and systemic drug therapy. Many retrospective and two prospective studies have demonstrated that it is expedient to perform cytoreductive nephrectomy. Immunotherapy should not be used as preoperatively in the era of cytokine therapy for mRCC due to that fact that it has no impact on primary tumor. In the current targeted therapy era, many investigators have concentrated attentionon the role of neoadjuvant targeted therapy for the treatment of patients with both localized and locally advanced mRCC. The potential benefits of neoadjuvant therapy for localized and locally advanced RCC include to make surgery easier and to increase the possibility of organsparing treatment, by decreasing the stage of primary tumor and the size of tumors. The possible potential advantages of neoadjuvant targeted therapy in patients with mRCC include prompt initiation of necessary systemic therapy; identification of patients with primary refractory tumors; and a preoperative reduction in the stage of primary tumor. Numerous retrospective and some prospective phase II studies have shown that neoadjuvant targeted therapy in patients with localized and locally advanced RCC is possible and tolerable and surgical treatment after neoadjuvant targeted therapy is safe and executable with a low incidence of complications. If neoadjuvant therapy is to be performed, it should be done within 2–4 months before surgery. Sorafenib and sunitinib are now most tested and suitable for neoadjuvant targeted therapy. Sorafenib is a more preferred drug due to its shorter half-life and accordingly to the possibility of discontinuing the drug immediately prior to

  3. IMMUNOLOGICAL MONITORING OF BIOTHERAPY FOR DISSEMINATED RENAL-CELL CARCINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. Molchanov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess a role of immunomonitoring in patients with disseminated renal-cell carcinoma.  Subjects and methods. One hundred and seventy-five patients treated in 1998 to 2008 were followed up. The patients received various immunochemotherapy regimens including interleukin-2 (IL-2, interferon-α (IFN-α, Xeloda, cyclophosphamide. The immune status, including lymphocytes and their subpopulations, cytokine components (IL-1, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12; IFN-α, IFN-γ; tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG, IgM, complement components (C1q, C3, C3a, C4, C5a, was evaluated before treatment and at therapy-free intervals. Results.  The time course of changes in cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10; TNF-α and IFN-γ and some lymphocyte subpopulations (CD4+CD8+, CD3-CD16+CD56+, CD3+CD16+CD56+, CD4+CD25+Foxp3 greatly differs in patients who belong to different prognostic groups according to the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC inclusion criteria. Multivariate analysis has shown that the levels of IL-6 (spontaneous and induced production, IL-8 (spontaneous and induced production, TNF-α (spontaneous production, IFN-γ (induced production, NK T cells (CD3+CD16+CD56+, regulatory T cells (CD4+CD25+Foxp3 affect survival. Integration of the above indices into the MSKCC scale revealed that the groups were prognostically heterogeneous. The median survival in patients with good prognosis was 36.2 months (50.3, 38.3, and 24.5 months in those with 0—1, 2—3, and more than 3 immunological factors, respectively and in those with relatively good and poor prognosis it was 15.3 (29.1, 15.3, and 18.1 months and 8.5 (12.1, 9.3, and 6.3 months months, respectively.Conclusion. The cytokine status reflects the aggressiveness of a tumor process. The cytokine level changes may be used to predict the out- come of the disease.  

  4. Functional significance of CD105-positive cells in papillary renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matak, Damian; Brodaczewska, Klaudia K; Szczylik, Cezary; Koch, Irena; Myszczyszyn, Adam; Lipiec, Monika; Lewicki, Slawomir; Szymanski, Lukasz; Zdanowski, Robert; Czarnecka, Anna M

    2017-01-05

    CD105 was postulated as a renal cell carcinoma (RCC) stem cell marker, and CD133 as a putative RCC progenitor. Hypoxia, a natural microenvironment that prevails in tumors, was also incorporated into the study, especially in terms of the promotion of hypothetical stem-like cell properties. Within this study, we verify the existence of CD105+ and CD133+ populations in selected papillary subtype RCC (pRCC) cell lines. Both populations were analyzed for correlation with stem-like cell properties, such as stemness gene expression, and sphere and colony formation. For the preliminary analysis, several RCC cell lines were chosen (786-O, SMKT-R2, Caki-2, 796-P, ACHN, RCC6) and the control was human kidney cancer stem cells (HKCSC) and renal cells of embryonic origin (ASE-5063). Four cell lines were chosen for further investigation: Caki-2 (one of the highest numbers of CD105+ cells; primary origin), ACHN (a low number of CD105+ cells; metastatic origin), HKCSC (putative positive control), and ASE-5063 (additional control). In 769-P and RCC6, we could not detect a CD105+ population. Hypoxia variously affects pRCC cell growth, and mainly diminishes the stem-like properties of cells. Furthermore, we could not observe the correlation of CD105 and/or CD133 expression with the enhancement of stem-like properties. Based on this analysis, CD105/CD133 cannot be validated as cancer stem cell markers of pRCC cell lines.

  5. Osthole enhances TRAIL-mediated apoptosis through downregulation of c-FLIP expression in renal carcinoma Caki cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Kyoung-Jin; Han, Min Ae; Kim, Shin; Park, Jong-Wook; Kwon, Taeg Kyu

    2017-04-01

    Osthole, an active constituent isolated from the fruit of Cnidium monnieri (L.) Cusson, has been shown to induce various beneficial biochemical effects such as anti-inflammatory and antitumor. In the present study, we examined whether osthole could sensitize TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis in human renal carcinoma Caki cells. We found that osthole and TRAIL alone, had no effect on apoptosis, but combined treatment with osthole and TRAIL markedly induced apoptosis in Caki (renal carcinoma), U251MG (glioma) and MDA-MB-231 (breast carcinoma) cells. In contrast, combined treatment with osthole and TRAIL did not induce apoptosis in normal human skin fibroblast cells. Osthole induced downregulation of cellular FLICE-like inhibitory protein (c-FLIP) expression, and overexpression of c-FLIP markedly blocked apoptosis induced by the combined treatment with osthole and TRAIL. In addition, osthole markedly reduced mitochondrial membrane potential levels, and increased cytosolic cytochrome c release in combined treatment with osthole and TRAIL. Therefore, these data suggest that osthole may be an efficient TRAIL sensitizer.

  6. Right-Sided Intrarenal Splenosis Mimicking a Renal Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay B. Page

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a patient who underwent nephrectomy for an enhancing right renal mass that was subsequently pathologically confirmed as right renal splenosis. Since renal splenosis is quite rare and has previously been reported only in the left kidney, we did not consider splenosis in our differential diagnosis during the evaluation of the renal mass. Magnetic resonance imaging, as well as radionucleotide scan using 99mTc-labelled red blood cells, has been utilized for identifying ectopic splenic tissue. An elevated index of suspicion must be present in patients with a history of splenectomy or traumatic splenic rupture to avoid undue nephrectomy.

  7. Molecular Genetic Study of Human Esophageal Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-16

    virus have been shown to be the causative agent for human cancer, as human papilloma - virus ( HPV ) was associated with...F.J., Syrjanen, S., Shen, Q., J.I, H., & Kyrjanen, K. Human papilloma virus ( HPV ) DNA in esophageal precursor lesions and squamous cell carcinomas...genital tumors. Gene products, such as SV40 tumor antigen, Ela and Elb in adenovirus, E6 and E7 protein of human papilloma virus type 16 and type

  8. DOG1, cyclin D1, CK7, CD117 and vimentin are useful immunohistochemical markers in distinguishing chromophobe renal cell carcinoma from clear cell renal cell carcinoma and renal oncocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Tian, Bo; Wu, Chao; Peng, Yan; Wang, Hui; Gu, Wen-Li; Gao, Feng-Hou

    2015-04-01

    The distinction between chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (ChRCC), clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CRCC) and renal oncocytoma may cause a diagnostic dilemma. The usefulness of DOG1, cyclin D1, CK7, CD117 and vimentin in the differential diagnosis of these renal epithelial tumors was investigated. DOG1 was positive in ChRCC (32 of 32, 100%) and in renal oncocytoma (21 of 21, 100%). In contrast, DOG1 was absent in all CRCC (0 of 30). Cyclin D1 was positive in renal oncocytomas (17 of 21, 81%) but negative in the ChRCC (0/23) and CRCC (0 of 30). CK7 was positive in ChRCC (30 of 32, 94%), but was negative in oncocytoma (only scattered single positive cells), and was only focal positive in two cases of CRCC. CD117 was expressed in 88% of ChRCC (28 of 32), 86% of renal oncocytoma (18 of 21), and was negative in all CRCC (0 of 30). Twenty-six of the 30 cases of CRCC were positive (87%) for vimentin with prominent membrane staining patterns. All 23 chromophobe carcinomas were negative for vimentin and 15 of 21 oncocytomas demonstrated focal vimentin positivity, but less than 10%. The above results demonstrate that: (1) DOG1 was very sensitive and specific marker for distinguish ChRCC from CRCC; (2) Cyclin D1 was a useful marker to discriminate between ChRCC and renal oncocytoma; (3) CK7 and CD117 were useful markers to distinguish ChRCC from renal oncocytoma and CRCC. (4) Vimentin was helpful for distinguishing clear cell RCC from chromophobe and oncocytoma (87% of clear cell RCC positive, negative in chromophobe, only focally positive in oncocytoma). (5) CK8/18, CK19, CD10, β-catenin and E-cadherin could not be used to distinguish ChRCC from renal oncocytoma and CRCC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Clinical symptoms predict poor overall survival in chronic-dialysis patients with renal cell carcinoma associated with end-stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikezawa, Eri; Kondo, Tsunenori; Hashimoto, Yasunobu; Kobayashi, Hirohito; Iizuka, Junpei; Takagi, Toshio; Omae, Kenji; Tanabe, Kazunari

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate which clinical symptoms predict the survival of patients with renal cell carcinoma associated with end-stage renal disease under chronic dialysis. We retrospectively evaluated 401 patients with renal cell carcinoma associated with end-stage renal disease who underwent radical nephrectomy at our institute up through December 2012. Patients were divided into two groups: the symptomatic group and the incidental group, by diagnosis. We compared the clinicopathologic features and patient survival of the two groups and investigated prognostic factors using Cox multivariate analysis. Of the 401 patients, 124 (30.9%) were in the symptomatic group and 277 (69.0%) in the incidental group. The symptomatic group included more advanced tumors in terms of larger tumor size, higher stage and higher grade compared with the incidental group. The 5-year cancer-specific survival and overall survival of the symptomatic and incidental groups were 76.9 vs. 95.3% (P renal cell carcinoma associated with end-stage renal disease as well as sporadic renal cell carcinoma. The high incidence of renal cell carcinoma as well as the poor oncologic outcome in patients with longer dialysis therapy may suggest an important role for routine screening in these patients. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Preoperative planning for renal cell carcinoma - benefits of 64-slice CT imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dighe, Manjiri; Bush Junior, William H. [University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Radiology]. E-mail: dighe@u.washington.edu; Takayama, Thomas [University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Surgery

    2007-05-15

    Surgery is the primary form of treatment in localized renal cell carcinoma. Adrenal-sparing nephrectomy, laparoscopic nephrectomy and nephron-sparing partial nephrectomy are growing trends for more limited surgical resection. Accurate preoperative imaging is essential for planning the surgical approach. Multislice CT and MR are regarded as the most efficient modalities for imaging renal neoplasms. Development of faster CT systems like 64-slice CT with improved resolution and capability to achieve isotropic reformats have significantly enhanced the role of CT in imaging of renal neoplasms.This review article describes the present state, technique and benefits of 64-slice CT scanning in preoperative planning for RCC. (author)

  11. End-Stage Renal Disease From Cast Nephropathy in a Teenager With Neuroendocrine Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butani, Lavjay; Ducore, Jonathan

    2016-07-01

    Cast nephropathy is the most common manifestation of renal injury in patients with multiple myeloma but is rarely reported in other conditions. We are reporting our experience in caring for a teenager with a metastatic neuroendocrine carcinoma who developed rapidly progressive kidney injury that advanced to end-stage renal disease. On renal biopsy extensive tubular necrosis and intratubular eosinophilic casts were noted. This previously unreported finding should prompt oncologists to closely monitor for such a complication in patients with secretory tumors. Whether early plasmapheresis could be of benefit, as has been tried in multiple myeloma, remains to be determined.

  12. Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma occurring in the renal allograft of a transplant recipient presenting with weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Mahdi Althaf

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of renal cell carcinomas (RCCs in renal transplant recipients is reported as 1.1-1.5% in the native kidneys and 0.22-0.25% in the renal allograft. There are no data to support routine surveillance for tumors in transplant recipients. Most reported cases of RCCs occurring in renal allografts were incidental findings in asymptomatic patients. Herein, we report the second case of lone chromophobe RCC (ChRCC of the renal allograft presenting with weight loss. Loss of weight is a presenting symptom in one-third of ChRCCs occurring in the native kidneys in the general population. Based on the age of the patient, R.E.N.A.L nephrometry score of the tumor and the lack of data on the prognosis of this histological subtype in a climate of long-term immunosuppression, we elected for radical nephrectomy. We suggest that RCCs should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a transplant recipient presenting with weight loss even in the absence of localizing symptoms or signs.

  13. Papillary renal cell carcinoma within a renal oncocytoma: case report of an incidental finding of a tumour within a tumour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowsell, Corwyn; Fleshner, Neil; Marrano, Paula; Squire, Jeremy; Evans, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    The most common renal tumours are clear cell, papillary, chromophobe and collecting duct renal cell carcinomas (RCCs), and benign oncocytomas and angiomyolipomas. Tumours with hybrid features between some of these entities have been recognised; in particular, tumours with features of both chromophobe RCC and oncocytoma. Case reports describing one distinct type of primary renal tumour actually within another are very rare. The incidental finding of a papillary RCC located in an oncocytoma in a nephrectomy specimen from a 75‐year‐old man is described. Morphological criteria for each tumour type were completely satisfied and fluorescence in situ hybridisation detected the expected number of copies of chromosome 7 in the cells of each tumour type. The cells in the papillary tumour contained three copies, whereas the oncocytoma cells contained only two per nucleus. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a papillary RCC being identified within an oncocytoma. PMID:17405978

  14. Small (Renal Mass: Differentiation of Oncocytoma From Renal Cell Carcinoma on Biphasic Contrast-Enhanced CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaguri, Kohei; Takahashi, Naoki; Gomez-Cardona, Daniel; Leng, Shuai; Schmit, Grant D; Carter, Rickey E; Leibovich, Bradley C; Kawashima, Akira

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether small (oncocytomas can be differentiated from renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) on biphasic contrast-enhanced CT. Forty-three patients with 53 oncocytomas and 123 patients with 128 RCCs (24 papillary subtype and 104 clear cell and other subtypes) who underwent biphasic contrast-enhanced CT were included in the study. Patient demographics and CT tumor characteristics were evaluated in each case. A multinomial logistic regression model was then constructed for differentiating oncocytoma from clear cell and other subtype RCCs, oncocytoma from papillary RCCs, and clear cell and other subtype RCCs from papillary RCCs. The probability of each group was calculated from the model. Diagnostic performance among three pairwise diagnoses and between oncocytoma and any RCC (clear cell and other subtypes and papillary) were assessed by AUC values. Patient age, tumor CT attenuation values and skewness (i.e., histogram analysis of CT values) in both the corticomedullary and nephrographic phases, and subjective tumor heterogeneity were statistically significant variables in the multinomial logistic regression analysis. The logistic regression model using the variables yielded AUCs of 0.82, 0.95, 0.91, and 0.84 for differentiating oncocytomas from clear cell and other subtype RCCs, oncocytomas from papillary RCCs, clear cell and other subtype RCCs from papillary RCCs, and oncocytomas from any RCC (clear cell and other subtypes and papillary), respectively. A combination of imaging features on biphasic CT, including tumor CT attenuation values and tumor texture (heterogeneity and skewness), can help differentiate oncocytoma from RCC.

  15. Cigarette smoking, von Hippel-Lindau gene mutations and sporadic renal cell carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, B.A.C. van; Schouten, L.J.; Oosterwijk, E.; Hulsbergen van de; Kaa, C.A.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Schalken, J.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2006-01-01

    We investigated whether smoking is associated with mutations in the Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene in 337 cases of sporadic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) among 120 852 people followed for 11.3 years; the findings suggest that smoking causes RCC independently of VHL gene mutations. © 2006 Cancer Research.

  16. Hypertension Caused by Lenvatinib and Everolimus in the Treatment of Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Mathias Alrø Fichtner; Grimm, Daniela; Bauer, Johann

    2017-01-01

    Administration (FDA) for the use in combination with everolimus, as treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma following one prior antiangiogenic therapy. A major problem of treating mRCC with lenvatinib and everolimus is the serious adverse event (AE) of arterial hypertension. During the treatment...

  17. Carotenoid and vitamin intake, von Hippel-Lindau gene mutations and sporadic renal cell carcinoma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, B.A.C. van; Schouten, L.J.; Oosterwijk, E.; Hulsbergen- van de Kaa, C.A.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Schalken, J.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether dietary carotenoid and vitamin intake and supplemental vitamin use were inversely associated with RCC risk and with Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL)-gene mutations in clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC). METHODS: The Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer (NLCS)

  18. Carotenoid and vitamin intake, von Hippel-Lindau gene mutations and sporadic renal cell carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, B.A.C. van; Schouten, L.J.; Oosterwijk, E.; Hulsbergen van de; Kaa, C.A.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Schalken, J.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2008-01-01

    Objective: We investigated whether dietary carotenoid and vitamin intake and supplemental vitamin use were inversely associated with RCC risk and with Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL)-gene mutations in clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Methods: The Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer (NLCS)

  19. Can duplex Doppler ultrasound replace computerized tomography in staging patients with renal cell carcinoma?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, SD; Mensink, HJA

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of duplex Doppler ultrasound (US) and computerized tomography (CT) in staging patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Sixty-six patients were evaluated pre-operatively with duplex Doppler ultrasound and CT. The results were

  20. Recent advances in the management of renal cell carcinoma-a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recent advances in the management of renal cell carcinoma-a Radiation Oncology perspective. ... Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice ... the international best practices in the multidisciplinary approach to the management of RCC, its diagnosis and treatment, with emphasis on recent advances and radiation treatment.

  1. Delirium after interleukin-2 and alpha-interferon therapy for renal cell carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Steijn, JHM; Nieboer, P; Hospers, GAP; De Vries, EGE; Mulder, NH

    2001-01-01

    A 55-year-old man receiving alpha-interferon and interieukin-2 therapy for renal cell carcinoma presented with seizures and delirium. A CT-scan of the cerebrum did not reveal any disorder. Both alpha-interferon and interleukin-2 were stopped Treatment with steroids led to complete regression of

  2. Tumour-to-tumour metastases: prostate carcinoma metastasising to a renal oncocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petts, Gemma; Rashid, Tina; Hrouda, David; Ngo, Nye-Thane

    2013-01-09

    This is a case report of prostate carcinoma metastasising to a renal oncocytoma. The report demonstrates the unusual presentation of metastases from a common cancer to a common benign tumour, and reviews the rare phenomenon of tumour-to-tumour metastases.

  3. Systematic Evaluation of the Prognostic Impact and Intratumour Heterogeneity of Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma Biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulati, Sakshi; Martinez, Pierre; Joshi, Tejal

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundCandidate biomarkers have been identified for clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) patients, but most have not been validated. ObjectiveTo validate published ccRCC prognostic biomarkers in an independent patient cohort and to assess intratumour heterogeneity (ITH) of the most promisi...

  4. Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma in an 18-year-old female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in young adults is uncommon. Whether they have different clinicopathologic characteristics and outcomes from those in older patients is still a conflicting matter. In this article we present an uncommon subtype of RCC which is chromophobe RCC (chRCC) in a female aged less than 20 years.

  5. Vegetable and fruit consumption and risk of renal cell carcinoma: results from the Netherlands cohort study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, B.A. van; Schouten, L.J.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2005-01-01

    Vegetable and fruit consumption is generally inversely associated with various cancer types, including renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The Netherlands cohort study on diet and cancer (NLCS) consists of 120,852 men and women, aged 55-69 years, who filled out a self-administered questionnaire that

  6. Cruciferous vegetables consumption and risk of renal cell carcinoma: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ben; Mao, Qiqi; Wang, Xiao; Zhou, Feng; Luo, Jindan; Wang, Chaojun; Lin, Yiwei; Zheng, Xiangyi; Xie, Liping

    2013-01-01

    Previous cohort and case-control studies on the association between cruciferous vegetables consumption and risk of renal cell carcinoma have illustrated conflicting results so far. To demonstrate the potential association between them, a meta-analysis was performed. Eligible studies were retrieved via both computerized searches and review of references. The summary relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for the highest vs. the lowest consumption of cruciferous vegetables were calculated. Heterogeneity and publication bias were also evaluated. Stratified analyses were performed as well. Three cohort and 7 case-control studies were included. A significantly decreased risk with renal cell carcinoma was observed in overall cruciferous vegetables consumption group (RR = 0.73; 95% CI, 0.63-0.83) and subgroup of case-control studies (RR = 0.69; 95% CI, 0.60-0.78), but not in cohort studies (RR = 0.96; 95% CI, 0.71-1.21). No heterogeneity and publication bias were detected across studies. Our findings supported that cruciferous vegetables consumption was related to the decreased risk of renal cell carcinoma. Because of the limited number of studies, further well-designed prospective studies and researches need to be conducted to better clarify the protective effect of cruciferous vegetables on renal cell carcinoma and potential mechanism.

  7. Vegetable and fruit consumption and risk of renal cell carcinoma: Results from the Netherlands cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, B.A.C. van; Schouten, L.J.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2005-01-01

    Vegetable and fruit consumption is generally inversely associated with various cancer types, including renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The Netherlands cohort study on diet and cancer (NLCS) consists of 120,852 men and women, aged 55-69 years, who filled out a self-administered questionnaire that

  8. Xp11.2 translocation renal cell carcinoma diagnosed by immunohistochemistry and cytogenetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswajit Dey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Xp11.2 translocation renal cell carcinomas (TRCCs are a group of neoplasms with distinct clinical, histopathological appearance, immunohistochemical, and cytogenetic profile. We report a case of Xp11.2 translocation TRCC in an 11-year-old male diagnosed based on immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization.

  9. Stereotactic irradiation using a linear accelerator for brain metastasis from renal cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawashima, Kazuyuki; Shirato, Hiroki; Miyasaka, Kazuo [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Medicine; Takamura, Akira; Shinohara, Nobuo; Sawamura, Yutaka

    1997-07-01

    The role of stereotactic irradiation using a linear accelerator for brain metastasis from renal cell carcinoma was investigated. Fifteen brain metastases in 11 patients with a history of renal cell carcinoma were treated using convergent narrow x-ray beams from a linear accelerator and rigid fixation of the head with a stereotactic frame. Twelve metastatic tumors in 8 patients were irradiated with 25 Gy at the center in a single fraction, and single tumors in 3 patients received the following doses: 25 Gy in 5 fractions, 28 Gy in 3 fractions, or 35 Gy in 4 fractions. The actuarial local control rate at 12 months was 90.6%. Twelve (92%) of 13 lesions that produced neurologic symptoms before stereotactic irradiation showed an improvement of symptoms. No complication related to the irradiation was observed. The median survival time was 6 months. Stereotactic irradiation is more effective in achieving local control than is conventional radiotherapy, and achieves improvement in symptoms and survival rates similar to those of surgical resection of the brain metastasis from renal cell carcinoma. Urologists and oncologists should be aware of the usefulness of stereotactic radiation in the management of patients with renal cell carcinoma. (author)

  10. Saudi oncology society and Saudi urology association combined clinical management guidelines for renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazarbashi, Shouki; Alkhateeb, Sultan; Abusamra, Ashraf; Rabah, Danny; Alotaibi, Mohammed; Almansour, Mubarak; Murshid, Esam; Alsharm, Abdullah; Alolayan, Ashwaq; Ahmad, Imran; Alghamdi, Khalid; Alghamdi, Abdullah

    2014-10-01

    In this report, updated guidelines for the evaluation, medical and surgical management of renal cell carcinoma are presented. They are categorized according the stage of the disease using the tumor node metastasis staging system 7(th) edition. The recommendations are presented with supporting evidence level.

  11. Saudi oncology society and Saudi urology association combined clinical management guidelines for renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouki Bazarbashi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this report, updated guidelines for the evaluation, medical and surgical management of renal cell carcinoma are presented. They are categorized according the stage of the disease using the tumor node metastasis staging system 7 th edition. The recommendations are presented with supporting evidence level.

  12. Linear IgA bullous dermatosis in a patient with renal cell carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Waal, RIF; Van de Scheur, MR; Pas, HH; Jonkman, MF; Van Groeningen, CJ; Nieboer, C; Starink, TM

    Linear IgA bullous dermatosis (LABD) is an autoimmune subepidermal bullous disease with heterogeneous clinical manifestations, characterized by linear deposition of IgA along the epidermal basement membrane zone. We report a patient with a metastasized renal cell carcinoma who developed an extensive

  13. Renal cell carcinomas mass of <4 cm are not always indolent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azawi, Nessn H; Lund, Lars; Fode, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    . On multivariate analysis, tumor size (P = 0.04), pT3a (P = 0.0017), and patient's age (P = 0.02) at the time of diagnosis were significant predictors of LM. CONCLUSIONS: Even small renal carcinomas may be aggressive, and caution should be taken when offering active surveillance....

  14. Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma in an 18-year-old female

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I. Saguem

    2016-08-01

    Aug 1, 2016 ... [18] Taccoen X, Valeri A, Descotes JL, Morin V, Stindel E, Doucet L, et al. Renal cell carcinoma in adults 40 years old or less: young age is an independent prognostic factor for cancer-specific survival. Eur Urol. 2007;51:980–7. [19] Goetzl MA, Desai M, Mansukhani M, Goluboff ET, Katz AE, Sawczuk.

  15. The potential of radiotherapy to enhance the efficacy of renal cell carcinoma therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. De Wolf (Katrien); K.Y. Vermaelen (Karim Y.); G. de meerleer (Gert); B.N.M. Lambrecht (Bart); P. Ost (Piet)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractRenal cell carcinoma (RCC) is an immunogenic tumor, but uses several immune-suppressive mechanisms to shift the balance from tumor immune response toward tumor growth. Although RCC has traditionally been considered to be radiation resistant, recent evidence suggests that hypofractionated

  16. Radioactive seed localization of renal cell carcinoma in a patient with Von Hippel-Lindau disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassing, Christina Marie Schiøttz; Tvedskov, Tove Filtenborg; Kroman, Niels

    2017-01-01

    This report describes the case of a patient, who had successful radioactive seed localization (RSL) performed to improve the identification and excision of a renal cell carcinoma. RSL is a new method of preoperative localization, which can ease the surgical procedure, minimize tissue trauma......, and ultimately benefit the patient....

  17. Salidroside reduces renal cell carcinoma proliferation by inhibiting JAK2/STAT3 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Cai; Huang, Yuan; Liu, Zhen-Xiang; Yu, Dan; Bai, Zhi-Ming

    2016-06-07

    Salidroside has been reported to exhibit anticancer properties. This study aimed to investigate the effects of salidroside on renal cell carcinoma growth. Cell viability and proliferation was assessed by Cell Counting Kit-8 and colony formation assays in A498 and 786-0 cells. The effects of salidroside on in vivo tumor growth were also assessed in a mouse xenograft model of renal cell carcinoma. Flow cytometry was used to analyze cell cycle and apoptosis and protein levels were determined by western blotting. Salidroside reduced cell viability and colony formation in both cell lines in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Tumor growth was also suppressed in the mouse model. Furthermore, salidroside induced significant G1 phase cell cycle arrest and induced apoptosis in both A498 and 786-0 cells. Higher concentrations of salidroside reduced the levels of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and Janus kinase 2 (JAK2). These results suggested that salidroside produced potent anticancer properties in renal cell carcinoma by modulating JAK2/STAT3 signaling. Administration of salidroside to patients with renal cell carcinoma might provide a promising therapeutic strategy for this malignancy.

  18. Vitamin E Intake and Risk of Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Meta-Analysis of 7 Case-Control Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yonggang; Yi, Shanhong; Cui, Dong; Han, Guangwei; Liu, Chengcheng

    2015-07-01

    Vitamin E intake may reduce the risk of renal cell carcinoma, but the results were inconsistent. Hence, we conducted a meta-analysis to assess the association between dietary vitamin E intake and the risk of renal cell carcinoma. We searched PubMed to identify the relevant case-control studies up to June 2014. Reference lists of retrieved articles were also reviewed. Odds ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals were used to estimate the association between dietary vitamin E intake and the risk of renal cell carcinoma. We identified 7 case-control studies regarding dietary vitamin E intake and risk of renal cell carcinoma, involving 5789 cases and 14866 controls. The odds ratio of renal cell carcinoma for the highest compared with the lowest dietary vitamin E intake was 0.75 (95% confidence interval: 0.59-0.91), and heterogeneity was observed across studies. The association between dietary vitamin E intake and the risk of renal cell carcinoma was not significantly differed by gender, but this association were inconsistent in the North American and European populations. Our study provided a evidence that there was a significant inverse association of dietary vitamin E intake with risk of renal cell carcinoma. However, this finding was based on the case-control studies, more well-designed cohort studies are needed. Copyright © 2015 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [Oncocytoma versus chromophobe renal cell carcinoma: Is there something in between?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüders, C; Kristiansen, G

    2016-03-01

    The differentiation of oncocytic tumors of the kidneys is often difficult, particularly in renal biopsies. Differential diagnoses are chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (ChRCC), renal oncocytoma (RO), the oncocytic variant of papillary renal cell carcinoma (OPRCC), the eosinophilic variant of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC) and hybrid oncocytic chromophobe tumors (HOCT). In difficult cases that cannot be resolved by morphology alone, immunohistochemistry is usually helpful. The RO and ChRCC show positive reactions for CD117, they are negative for vimentin and alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase (AMACR), while CCRCC are positive for vimentin and OPRCC are positive for AMACR. To distinguish between RO and ChRCC, CK7, claudin-7 (both strongly positive in ChRCC and negative or patchy positive in RO) and epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) can be used (positive in ChRCC, negative in RO); however, a diagnosis may remain difficult in some cases even with the use of immunohistochemistry. Thus, numerous new methods are being developed in the field of molecular pathology and computer-based morphometric tumor analysis; however, these new methods have not yet been applied in routine diagnostics.

  20. Imaging findings of common benign renal tumors in the era of small renal masses: Differential diagnosis from small renal cell carcinoma: Current status and future perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Sung Min; Cho, Jeong Yeon [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    The prevalence of small renal masses (SRM) has risen, paralleling the increased usage of cross-sectional imaging. A large proportion of these SRMs are not malignant, and do not require invasive treatment such as nephrectomy. Therefore, differentation between early renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and benign SRM is critical to achieve proper management. This article reviews the radiological features of benign SRMs, with focus on two of the most common benign entities, angiomyolipoma and oncocytoma, in terms of their common imaging findings and differential features from RCC. Furthermore, the role of percutaneous biopsy is discussed as imaging is yet imperfect, therefore necessitating biopsy in certain circumstances to confirm the benignity of SRMs.

  1. Clinically Undiagnosed Prostate Carcinoma Metastatic to Renal Oncocytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J. Horn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumors-to-tumor metastasis is an uncommon occurrence and can be a source of great diagnostic difficulty, especially when the donor tumor is undiagnosed. Here we report a case of a kidney resected for a primary neoplasm (oncocytoma that harbored metastases from a clinically undiagnosed prostatic adenocarcinoma. The presence of the poorly differentiated metastasis within an otherwise typical oncocytoma in the absence of metastases in the surrounding nonneoplastic renal parenchyma resulted in a diagnostic dilemma. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a case in the English literature of a clinically undiagnosed prostatic adenocarcinoma metastatic to a renal oncocytoma identified on examination of the resected renal neoplasm.

  2. Management of side effects associated with sunitinib therapy for patients with renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Schwandt1

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Anita Schwandt1, Laura S Wood1, Brian Rini1,2, Robert Dreicer1,21Department of Solid Tumor Oncology; 2Taussig Cancer Institute and the Glickman Urological and Kidney Institute; Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland OH, USAAbstract: Advances in the understanding of the biology of renal cell carcinoma have led to recent approval of several new agents including drugs that target vascular endothelial growth factor. Sunitinib is an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor which interferes with multiple intracellular tumorogenic pathways, and has demonstrated impressive antitumor activity in phase II and subsequently improvement in progression free survival in phase III renal cancer trials. We review the unique side effects of sunitinib therapy with emphasis on establishing effective patient education for anticipation and early management of therapy-related side effects.Keywords: sunitinib, renal cell carcinoma, side effects, tyrosine kinase inhibitor

  3. Succinate Dehydrogenase (SDH)-deficient Renal Carcinoma: A Morphologically Distinct Entity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hes, Ondrej; Papathomas, Thomas; Šedivcová, Monika; Tan, Puay Hoon; Agaimy, Abbas; Andresen, Per Arne; Kedziora, Andrew; Clarkson, Adele; Toon, Christopher W.; Sioson, Loretta; Watson, Nicole; Chou, Angela; Paik, Julie; Clifton-Bligh, Roderick J.; Robinson, Bruce G.; Benn, Diana E.; Hills, Kirsten; Maclean, Fiona; Niemeijer, Nicolasine D.; Vlatkovic, Ljiljana; Hartmann, Arndt; Corssmit, Eleonora P.M.; van Leenders, Geert J.L.H.; Przybycin, Christopher; McKenney, Jesse K.; Magi-Galluzzi, Cristina; Yilmaz, Asli; Yu, Darryl; Nicoll, Katherine D.; Yong, Jim L.; Sibony, Mathilde; Yakirevich, Evgeny; Fleming, Stewart; Chow, Chung W.; Miettinen, Markku; Michal, Michal; Trpkov, Kiril

    2014-01-01

    Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH)-deficient renal carcinoma has been accepted as a provisional entity in the 2013 International Society of Urological Pathology Vancouver Classification. To further define its morphologic and clinical features, we studied a multi-institutional cohort of 36 SDH-deficient renal carcinomas from 27 patients, including 21 previously unreported cases. We estimate that 0.05% to 0.2% of all renal carcinomas are SDH deficient. Mean patient age at presentation was 37 years (range, 14 to 76 y), with a slight male predominance (M:F=1.7:1). Bilateral tumors were observed in 26% of patients. Thirty-four (94%) tumors demonstrated the previously reported morphology at least focally, which included: solid or focally cystic growth, uniform cytology with eosinophilic flocculent cytoplasm, intracytoplasmic vacuolations and inclusions, and round to oval low-grade nuclei. All 17 patients who underwent genetic testing for mutation in the SDH subunits demonstrated germline mutations (16 in SDHB and 1 in SDHC). Nine of 27 (33%) patients developed metastatic disease, 2 of them after prolonged follow-up (5.5 and 30 y). Seven of 10 patients (70%) with high-grade nuclei metastasized as did all 4 patients with coagulative necrosis. Two of 17 (12%) patients with low-grade nuclei metastasized, and both had unbiopsied contralateral tumors, which may have been the origin of the metastatic disease. In conclusion, SDH-deficient renal carcinoma is a rare and unique type of renal carcinoma, exhibiting stereotypical morphologic features in the great majority of cases and showing a strong relationship with SDH germline mutation. Although this tumor may undergo dedifferentiation and metastasize, sometimes after a prolonged delay, metastatic disease is rare in the absence of high-grade nuclear atypia or coagulative necrosis. PMID:25025441

  4. Urine aquaporin 1 and perilipin 2 differentiate renal carcinomas from other imaged renal masses and bladder and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Jeremiah J; Mobley, Jonathan; Figenshau, R Sherburne; Vetter, Joel; Bhayani, Sam; Kharasch, Evan D

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of urine aquaporin 1 (AQP1) and perilipin 2 (PLIN2) concentrations to diagnose clear cell or papillary renal cell carcinoma (RCC) by comparing urine concentrations of these unique biomarkers in patients with RCC, noncancer renal masses, bladder cancer, and prostate cancer. From February 1, 2012, through October 31, 2012, preoperative urine samples were obtained from patients with a presumptive diagnosis of RCC based on an imaged renal mass, prostate cancer, or transitional cell bladder cancer. Imaged renal masses were diagnosed postnephrectomy—as malignant or benign—by histology. Urine AQP1 and PLIN2 concentrations were measured by using a sensitive and specific Western blot and normalized to urine creatinine concentration. Median concentrations of urine AQP1 and PLIN2 in patients with clear cell and papillary RCC (n=47) were 29 and 36 relative absorbance units/mg urine creatinine, respectively. In contrast, median concentrations in patients with bladder cancer (n=22) and prostate cancer (n=27), patients with chromophobe tumors (n=7), and patients with benign renal oncocytomas (n=9) and angiomyolipomas (n=7) were all less than 10 relative absorbance units/mg urine creatinine (Kruskal-Wallis test, Prenal masses. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00851994. Copyright © 2015 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Middle Segment-Preserving Pancreatectomy for Recurrent Metastasis of Renal Cell Carcinoma after Pancreatoduodenectomy: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiyama Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many cases of surgical resection of metastatic pancreatic tumors originating from renal cell carcinoma have been reported; however, cases of reresection of recurrent pancreatic metastasis of renal cell carcinoma in the remnant pancreas are rare. We performed a second resection for recurrent pancreatic metastasis of renal cell carcinoma six years after pancreatoduodenectomy with pancreaticogastrostomy reconstruction. By performing middle segment-preserving pancreatectomy, we were able to successfully spare the exocrine and endocrine pancreatic function compared to that observed after total pancreatectomy, with no signs of recurrence for two years after the surgery.

  6. Early diagnosis and treatment of renal cell carcinoma of native kidney in kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Álvarez, T; Mazuecos Blanca, A; Navas García, N; Calle García, L; Vallejos Roca, E; Moreno Salazar, A; Soto Villalba, J; Collantes Mateos, R; Rivero Sánchez, M

    2011-01-01

    The frecuency of malignancies in renal transplant (RT) patients is increasing. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) of native kidneys is one of the most frequent and its outcome can be more aggressive than in general population. To evaluate the incidence and prognosis of RCC in renal transplant patients followed in our transplantation unit. Between January 1997 and December 2009, 683 patients underwent kidney transplant at our hospital. Ultrasonography of the native kidneys was annually performed in all renal transplant patients. When suspect solid masses were found at ultrasonography, patients underwent computed tomography. If the suspicion was confirmed, nephrectomy was performed. 14 radical nephrectomies were performed in 12 patients due to suspect CCR. In 11 nephrectomies (corresponding to 9 patients), anatomopathologic diagnosis was CCR (incidence 1.5%). Histologic stage was T1N0M0 in all cases. In the other 3 RT, the diagnosis was complicated renal cyst. Those patients without carcinoma had polycystic kidney disease. The time on dialysis before CCR diagnosis was 36.7 ± 24.3 months and the interval between RT and diagnosis was 39 ± 25.8 months. After a mean follow-up of 58.6 ± 38.6 months, the outcome of all cases has been excellent, without tumor recurrence. Annual renal ultrasonography plays a key role in the early diagnosis of CRR. The early treatment of this pathology is associated with an excellent prognosis in RT patients.

  7. Oncocytoma-Like Renal Tumor With Transformation Toward High-Grade Oncocytic Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirintrapun, Sahussapont J.; Geisinger, Kim R.; Cimic, Adela; Snow, Anthony; Hagenkord, Jill; Monzon, Federico; Legendre, Benjamin L.; Ghazalpour, Anatole; Bender, Ryan P.; Gatalica, Zoran

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Renal oncocytoma is a benign tumor with characteristic histologic findings. We describe an oncocytoma-like renal tumor with progression to high-grade oncocytic carcinoma and metastasis. A 74-year-old man with no family history of cancer presented with hematuria. Computed tomography showed an 11 cm heterogeneous multilobulated mass in the right kidney lower pole, enlarged aortocaval lymph nodes, and multiple lung nodules. In the nephrectomy specimen, approximately one third of the renal tumor histologically showed regions classic for benign oncocytoma transitioning to regions of high-grade carcinoma without sharp demarcation. With extensive genomic investigation using single nucleotide polymorphism-based array virtual karyotyping, multiregion sequencing, and expression array analysis, we were able to show a common lineage between the benign oncocytoma and high-grade oncocytic carcinoma regions in the tumor. We were also able to show karyotypic differences underlying this progression. The benign oncocytoma showed no chromosomal aberrations, whereas the high-grade oncocytic carcinoma showed loss of the 17p region housing FLCN (folliculin [Birt–Hogg–Dubé protein]), loss of 8p, and gain of 8q. Gene expression patterns supported dysregulation and activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog (Akt), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and mechanistic target of rapamycin (serine/threonine kinase) (mTOR) pathways in the high-grade oncocytic carcinoma regions. This was partly attributable to FLCN underexpression but further accentuated by overexpression of numerous genes on 8q. In the high-grade oncocytic carcinoma region, vascular endothelial growth factor A along with metalloproteinases matrix metallopeptidase 9 and matrix metallopeptidase 12 were overexpressed, facilitating angiogenesis and invasiveness. Genetic molecular testing provided evidence for the

  8. Detection of renal cell carcinoma using neutron time of flight spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viana, Rodrigo S.; Yoriyaz, Helio, E-mail: rodrigossviana@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Lakshmanan, Manu N.; Agasthya, Greeshma A.; Kapadia, Anuj J. [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, (United States). Ravin Advanced Imaging Labs, Radiology

    2013-07-01

    The diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is challenging because the symptoms accompanying it are not unique to the disease, and can therefore be misdiagnosed as other diseases. Due to this characteristic, detection of renal cancer is incidental most of time, occurring via abdominal radiographic examinations unrelated to the disease. Presently, biopsy, which is invasive and an unpleasant procedure for the patient, is the most commonly used technique to diagnose RCC. In this study, we demonstrate the application of a novel noninvasive technique for detecting and imaging RCC in vivo. The elemental composition of biological tissues including kidneys has been investigated using a new technique called Neutron Stimulated Emission Computed Tomography (NSECT). This technique is based on detecting the energy signature emitted by the stable isotopes of elements in the body, which are stimulated to emit gamma radiation via inelastic neutron scattering. Methods for improving detection sensitivity and reducing dose, such as time-of-flight neutron spectroscopy have been explored. MCNP5 simulations were used to model the NSECT scanning of the human kidney where the energy and time of arrival of gamma photons were recorded in an ideal detector placed around the human torso. A 5 MeV collimated neutron beam was used to irradiate the kidney containing an RCC lesion. The resulting spectra were resolved in 100 picosecond and 1 keV time and energy bins, respectively. The preliminary results demonstrate the ability to localize the lesion through neutron time of flight spectroscopy and generate a tomographic image at a low dose to the patient. (author)

  9. Microscopic and nuclear morphometric findings of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma, renal oncocytoma, and tumor with overlapping histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Sun; Choi, Yoo Duk; Shim, Min Keun; Kim, Jin; Cho, Yong Mee; Jang, Ja June; Park, Ryung Jin; Juhng, Sang Woo; Choi, Chan

    2012-12-01

    We compared the microscopic and nuclear morphometric characteristics of classical chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (C-ChRC) and renal oncocytoma (RO) and applied meaningful characteristics to differentiate eosinophilic chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (E-ChRC) from RO that has overlapping histology (RO-OH) with E-ChRC to know the usefulness of nuclear morphometry. Microscopic and morphometric characteristics were evaluated in 24 C-ChRCs, 6 E-ChRCs, 5 RO-OHs, and 25 classical ROs (C-ROs). The microscopic findings favoring C-ChRC were rasinoid nuclei, perinuclear halo, and distinct cytoplasmic membrane. Characteristic for C-RO was either stromal edema or hyalinization. The morphometric values of nearest nuclear distance, shortest nuclear diameter, and nuclear diameter ratio were significantly different between C-ChRC and C-RO. However, it was impossible to distinguish E-ChRC from RO-OH by histology and nuclear morphometry. The results of our study show that nuclear morphometry and histomorphology can distinguish between C-ChRC and C-RO but not between E-ChRC and RO-OH. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Maslinic acid inhibits proliferation of renal cell carcinoma cell lines and suppresses angiogenesis of endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parth Thakor

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the introduction of many novel therapeutics in clinical practice, metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC remains a treatment-re-sistant cancer. As red and processed meat are considered risk factors for RCC, and a vegetable-rich diet is thought to reduce this risk, research into plant-based therapeutics may provide valuable complementary or alternative therapeutics for the management of RCC. Herein, we present the antiproliferative and antiangiogenic effects of maslinic acid, which occurs naturally in edible plants, particularly in olive fruits, and also in a variety of medicinal plants. Human RCC cell lines (ACHN, Caki-1, and SN12K1, endothelial cells (human umbilical vein endothelial cell line [HUVEC], and primary cultures of kidney proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTEC were treated with maslinic acid. Maslinic acid was relatively less toxic to PTEC when compared with RCC under similar experimental conditions. In RCC cell lines, maslinic acid induced a significant reduction in proliferation, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and colony formation. In HUVEC, maslinic acid induced a significant reduction in capillary tube formation in vitro and vascular endothelial growth factor. This study provides a rationale for incorporating a maslinic acid–rich diet either to reduce the risk of developing kidney cancer or as an adjunct to existing antiangiogenic therapy to improve efficacy.

  11. Transglutaminase 2 Expression and Its Prognostic Significance in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jee Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A few recent studies have demonstrated a possible role of transglutaminase 2 (TG2 in tumorigenesis or progression of renal cell carcinoma (RCC. The aim of this study was to examine TG2 expression and its clinicopathologic significance in a large number of human clear cell RCCs (CCRCCs. Methods: We analyzed 638 CCRCC patients who underwent partial or radical nephrectomy between 1995 and 2005. The expression of TG2 was determined by immunohistochemistry and categorized into four groups, according to staining intensity: negative (0, mild (1+, moderate (2+, and strong (3+. Results: TG2 staining intensity was negative in 8.5% of CCRCC (n=54, 1+ in 32.6% (n=208, 2+ in 50.5% (n=322, and 3+ in 8.5% (n=54. Strong TG2 expression was correlated with high Fuhrman nuclear grade (p=.011, high T category (p=.049, metastasis (p=.043 and male sex (p<.001 but not with N category.The survival analysis showed a significant association between strong TG2 expression and worse overall and cancer-specific survival (p=.027 and p=.010, respectively. On multivariate analysis, strong TG2 expression was a marginally significant prognostic indicator for Fuhrman nuclear grade and TNM staging (p=.054. Conclusions: Our study is the first to demonstrate the clinicopathologic significance of TG2 expression in a large number of human CCRCC samples. Strong TG2 expression was associated with high nuclear grade and poor prognosis.

  12. Mitochondrial Sirt3 supports cell proliferation by regulating glutamine-dependent oxidation in renal cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jieun; Koh, Eunjin; Lee, Yu Shin; Lee, Hyun-Woo; Kang, Hyeok Gu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Brain Korea 21 PLUS Project for Medical Sciences, Institute of Genetic Science, Integrated Genomic Research Center for Metabolic Regulation, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Young Eun; Han, Woong Kyu [Department of Urology, Urological Science Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Kyung Hwa [Department of Urology, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, Seongnam 463-712 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyung-Sup, E-mail: KYUNGSUP59@yuhs.ac [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Brain Korea 21 PLUS Project for Medical Sciences, Institute of Genetic Science, Integrated Genomic Research Center for Metabolic Regulation, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-03

    Clear cell renal carcinoma (RCC), the most common malignancy arising in the adult kidney, exhibits increased aerobic glycolysis and low mitochondrial respiration due to von Hippel-Lindau gene defects and constitutive hypoxia-inducible factor-α expression. Sirt3 is a major mitochondrial deacetylase that mediates various types of energy metabolism. However, the role of Sirt3 as a tumor suppressor or oncogene in cancer depends on cell types. We show increased Sirt3 expression in the mitochondrial fraction of human RCC tissues. Sirt3 depletion by lentiviral short-hairpin RNA, as well as the stable expression of the inactive mutant of Sirt3, inhibited cell proliferation and tumor growth in xenograft nude mice, respectively. Furthermore, mitochondrial pyruvate, which was used for oxidation in RCC, might be derived from glutamine, but not from glucose and cytosolic pyruvate, due to depletion of mitochondrial pyruvate carrier and the relatively high expression of malic enzyme 2. Depletion of Sirt3 suppressed glutamate dehydrogenase activity, leading to impaired mitochondrial oxygen consumption. Our findings suggest that Sirt3 plays a tumor-progressive role in human RCC by regulating glutamine-derived mitochondrial respiration, particularly in cells where mitochondrial usage of cytosolic pyruvate is severely compromised. -- Highlights: •Sirt3 is required for the maintenance of RCC cell proliferation. •Mitochondrial usage of cytosolic pyruvate is severely compromised in RCC. •Sirt3 supports glutamine-dependent oxidation in RCC.

  13. MYC oncogene overexpression drives renal cell carcinoma in a mouse model through glutamine metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroff, Emelyn H; Eberlin, Livia S; Dang, Vanessa M; Gouw, Arvin M; Gabay, Meital; Adam, Stacey J; Bellovin, David I; Tran, Phuoc T; Philbrick, William M; Garcia-Ocana, Adolfo; Casey, Stephanie C; Li, Yulin; Dang, Chi V; Zare, Richard N; Felsher, Dean W

    2015-05-26

    The MYC oncogene is frequently mutated and overexpressed in human renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, there have been no studies on the causative role of MYC or any other oncogene in the initiation or maintenance of kidney tumorigenesis. Here, we show through a conditional transgenic mouse model that the MYC oncogene, but not the RAS oncogene, initiates and maintains RCC. Desorption electrospray ionization-mass-spectrometric imaging was used to obtain chemical maps of metabolites and lipids in the mouse RCC samples. Gene expression analysis revealed that the mouse tumors mimicked human RCC. The data suggested that MYC-induced RCC up-regulated the glutaminolytic pathway instead of the glycolytic pathway. The pharmacologic inhibition of glutamine metabolism with bis-2-(5-phenylacetamido-1,2,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)ethyl sulfide impeded MYC-mediated RCC tumor progression. Our studies demonstrate that MYC overexpression causes RCC and points to the inhibition of glutamine metabolism as a potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of this disease.

  14. The radiologist's role in the management of papillary renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral de la Calle, M Á; Encinas de la Iglesia, J; Martín López, M R; Fernández Pérez, G C; Águeda Del Bas, D S

    Papillary carcinoma is the second most common renal cell carcinoma. It has a better prognosis than the more frequent clear cell carcinoma, although this does not hold true for advanced cases, because no specific treatment exists. It presents as a circumscribed peripheral tumor (small and homogeneously solid or larger and cystic/hemorrhagic) or as an infiltrating lesion that invades the veins, which has a worse prognosis. Due to their low vascular density, papillary renal cell carcinomas enhance less than other renal tumors, and this facilitates their characterization. On computed tomography, they might not enhance conclusively, and in these cases they are impossible to distinguish from hyperattenuating cysts. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging are more sensitive for detecting vascularization. Other characteristics include a specific vascular pattern, hypointensity on T2-weighted images, restricted water diffusion, and increased signal intensity in opposed phase images. We discuss the genetic, histologic, clinical, and radiological aspects of these tumors in which radiologists play a fundamental role in management. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Renal Cell Carcinoma of 4 cm or Less: An Appraisal of Its Clinical Presentation and Contemporary Surgical Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor T.W. Lee

    2006-01-01

    Conclusion: A significant proportion of patients had incidental diagnosis of small renal cell carcinoma. Local control may be achieved with either radical or partial nephrectomy, with excellent survival expected.

  16. Ethnic variation of the histological subtypes of renal cell carcinoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The commonest histological variant in each of the ethnic groups, irrespective of sex, was clear cell carcinoma which accounted for 79.7% of all the histological subtypes found in Chinese, for 70.5% in Malaysian and 77.4% in Indian patients. The sarcomatoid histological subtype was found in 4.3% of the studied population ...

  17. Primary renal carcinoid tumor mimicking non-clear cell renal cell carcinoma: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Lee Hi; Kim, See Hyung; Kim, Mi Jeong; Choe, Mi Sun [Keimyung University School of Medicine, Dongsan Medical Center, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    Carcinoid tumors are neoplasms with neuroendocrine differentiation, and they are most commonly found in the gastrointestinal and respiratory systems. Primary renal carcinoid tumor has rarely been reported. Here, we present a case of primary renal carcinoid tumor manifesting as a small but a gradually enhancing mass with calcification and a cystic component.

  18. Renal angiomyolipoma: report of three cases with regional lymph node involvement and/or with renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csanaky, G; Szereday, Z; Magyarlaki, T; Méhes, G; Herbert, T; Buzogány, I

    1995-01-01

    Angiomyolipomas (AMLs) are benign hamartoid tumors which frequently occur in tuberous sclerosis (TS). They may be manifest at different organ sites such as kidneys, lymph nodes, liver and lung and may be associated with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The nature of multiple organ involvement in AML (metastasis versus multicentric synchronous tumors), the malignant transformation and the relation of AML to RCC have not been sufficiently clarified. Three cases of renal AMLs in patients with tuberous sclerosis associated with lymphangioleiomyomatosis of the paraaortic lymph nodes and/or with RCC are reported. The concise clinical history of the patients as well as the findings of histology, immunohistochemistry and quantitative DNA analysis are presented. The multicentric form of AML and coincidence of renal AML and RCC were observed in 2 patients. AML and RCC were found within the same focus in one of the cases. RCCs were either aneuploid or "near diploid", whereas one of the multicentric AMLs showed a discordant DNA ploidy pattern, namely aneuploidy in the kidney and diploidy in the lymph nodes. The presented cases (all of them underwent periaortic lymphadenectomy) suggest that lymph node involvement in renal AML may be more frequent than expected (1-2% of all AMLs) on the basis of the few reported cases. The discordant DNA ploidy (renal versus lymph node lesions) observed in one of the cases with multicentric AML implies synchronous tumor growth at different sites rather than metastatic disease. The intimate coexistance of RCC and AML (RCC revealed by immunohistochemistry within a larger mass of renal AML) may indicate that malignant transformation of an AML should only be accepted, if such a coincidence is unequivocally excluded.

  19. C-kit overexpression is not associated with KIT gene mutations in chromophobe renal cell carcinoma or renal oncocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimpfer, Annette; Janke, Stephanie; Hühns, Maja; Schneider, Björn; Kundt, Günther; Zettl, Heike; Kilic, Ergin; Maruschke, Matthias; Hakenberg, Oliver W; Erbersdobler, Andreas

    2014-08-01

    C-kit overexpression has previously been described in chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (cpRCC) and renal oncocytoma (RO). However, so far no KIT mutations have been found. The objective of our study was to analyse c-kit in a large cohort of renal tumors and to perform KIT mutation analysis in a subset cpRCC and RO cases with overexpression of c-kit. We studied the immunohistochemical expression of c-kit on tissue microarrays containing formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples of 948 patients with renal tumors. CpRCC and RO cases with c-kit overexpression (n=23) were analyzed for KIT mutations in exons 9, 11, 13, 14, 15, and 17. Expression of c-kit was found in 6/642 (0.9%) clear cell RCC, 3/154 (1.9%) papillary RCC, 54/69 (78.3%) cpRCC, 37/45 (82.2%) RO and 2/30 (6.7%) of other unclassified tumor types. In none of the RO and cpRCC cases analyzed, a KIT gene mutation was found. C-kit expression is found in the majority of cpRCC and RO, but these tumors do not harbor the usual c-kit activating mutations. This may have implications for the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in patients with advanced cpRCC and c-kit expression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Metastatic breast carcinoma to renal angiomyolipomas in tuberous sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Todd R; Oakes, Michael F

    2008-02-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant genetic disease manifesting as hamartomatous involvement of several organs, including brain, kidneys, skin, heart, lungs, and retina. We report the first case of a patient with TSC, with large bilateral renal angiomyolipomas (AML), who developed multiple soft tissue masses within her primarily fatty AMLs, resulting from metastatic breast cancer.

  1. Focal Therapy in Renal Cell Carcinoma: Which Modality Is Best?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barwari, Kurdo; de La Rosette, Jean J. M. C. H.; Laguna, M. Pilar

    2011-01-01

    Context: Thermal ablation of small renal tumours is an established treatment modality in selected cases. Many groups have published their experiences. However, a major drawback of most of the previously published reviews and meta-analyses is their retrospective nature, the heterogeneity of included

  2. Clinical and pathological features of papillary renal cell carcinoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    M.M. Gargouri

    2016-08-21

    Aug 21, 2016 ... M.M. Gargouri et al. Conclusion: PRCC represents the second most common histological type of renal cancer. It has no clinical ... cancer at our institution were diagnosed with PRCC. Data were obtained from the .... Delahunt B, Brunelli M, et al. Molecular genetic evidence for the independent origin of multi-.

  3. THE AUTHOR’S EXPERIENCE IN USING BEVACIZUMAB PLUS INTERFERON ALFA-2A IN PATIENTS WITH DISSEMINATED RENAL CELL CARCINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Popov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Target therapy is a main approach to treating metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Bevacizumab plus interferon alfa-2A is now standard first-line options for patients with previously untreated, good or intermediate prognosis (using the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center criteria. We have presented our experience in using bevacisumab plus interferon alfa-2A in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Median progression-free survival and overall survival were 10 months and 22 months, respectively.

  4. THE AUTHOR’S EXPERIENCE IN USING BEVACIZUMAB PLUS INTERFERON ALFA-2A IN PATIENTS WITH DISSEMINATED RENAL CELL CARCINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Popov

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Target therapy is a main approach to treating metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Bevacizumab plus interferon alfa-2A is now standard first-line options for patients with previously untreated, good or intermediate prognosis (using the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center criteria. We have presented our experience in using bevacisumab plus interferon alfa-2A in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Median progression-free survival and overall survival were 10 months and 22 months, respectively.

  5. Renal cell carcinoma in adult polycystic kidney disease: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hwa Jin; Cho, Jae Ho [Yeungnam Univ. School of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-04-01

    The authors report a case of a renal cell carcinoma occurring in an adult suffering from polycystic kidney disease and diagnosed by radiologic examination. The patient presented with palpable flank mass, hematuria and weight loss. Ultrasonography, CT, MRI and angiography were performed preoperatively. Although severe renal architectural distortion and destruction caused by polycystic disease had masked evidence of malignancy, this was diagnosed after examination of the solid component of the mass lesion, and its hypervascular character, as seen on the three types of radiologic image. Malignancy was confirmed through nephrectomy and pathological examination.

  6. Omental Nodular Deposits of Recurrent Chromophobe Renal Cell Carcinoma Seen on FDG-PET/CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aung Zaw Win

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a 69-year-old male with chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (RCC. Chromophobe RCC accounts for only 4% of renal cancers and it is the least aggressive type. Omental nodular deposits due to RCC metastasis are very rare and it is reported only in more aggressive forms of RCC. This is the first report that shows FluoroDeoxyGlucose - Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomgraphy (FDG-PET/CT images of omental nodular deposits from chromophobe RCC. FDG-PET/CT is becoming very useful in restaging RCC with distant metastases.

  7. Omental Nodular Deposits of Recurrent Chromophobe Renal Cell Carcinoma Seen on FDG-PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Win, Aung Zaw; Aparici, Carina Mari

    2014-01-01

    We present the case of a 69-year-old male with chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Chromophobe RCC accounts for only 4% of renal cancers and it is the least aggressive type. Omental nodular deposits due to RCC metastasis are very rare and it is reported only in more aggressive forms of RCC. This is the first report that shows FluoroDeoxyGlucose - Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomgraphy (FDG-PET/CT) images of omental nodular deposits from chromophobe RCC. FDG-PET/CT is becoming very useful in restaging RCC with distant metastases.

  8. Cytological diagnosis of a rare case of cutaneous metastasis from transitional cell carcinoma, renal pelvis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragya Singh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC arising from renal pelvis rarely gives rise to cutaneous metastasis. Due to the insufficient literature, the exact incidence is not known till date. Moreover, the diagnosis is confirmed on histopathological examination with the aid of immunohistochemistry wherever needed. We are presenting a case of a 70-year-old female with metastatic TCC from the renal pelvis to the abdominal skin, which was diagnosed on cytology alone along with the cell block preparation. We also highlight the important cytomorphological and immunohistochemical features noted, which need to be known to avoid any diagnostic delay.

  9. Response to Radiation in Renal Medullary Carcinoma: a Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory K. Friedman

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Renal Medullary Carcinoma (RMC is a rare and highly aggressive malignancy arising from the renal medulla and found mostly in patients with sickle cell trait. RMC usually presents with widely metastatic disease. We describe a young man diagnosed with RMC who sustained a complete response to systemic chemotherapy but developed brain metastases with leptomeningeal involvement who had a partial response to brain irradiation. We discuss the use of radiation in RMC and propose upfront craniospinal irradiation as a reasonable addition to chemotherapy in order to give patients with metastatic RMC a chance at cure.

  10. Withanolides from Aeroponically Grown Physalis peruviana and Their Selective Cytotoxicity to Prostate Cancer and Renal Carcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ya-Ming; Wijeratne, E M Kithsiri; Babyak, Ashley L; Marks, Hanna R; Brooks, Alan D; Tewary, Poonam; Xuan, Li-Jiang; Wang, Wen-Qiong; Sayers, Thomas J; Gunatilaka, A A Leslie

    2017-07-28

    Investigation of aeroponically grown Physalis peruviana resulted in the isolation of 11 new withanolides, including perulactones I-L (1-4), 17-deoxy-23β-hydroxywithanolide E (5), 23β-hydroxywithanolide E (6), 4-deoxyphyperunolide A (7), 7β-hydroxywithanolide F (8), 7β-hydroxy-17-epi-withanolide K (9), 24,25-dihydro-23β,28-dihydroxywithanolide G (10), and 24,25-dihydrowithanolide E (11), together with 14 known withanolides (12-25). The structures of 1-11 were elucidated by the analysis of their spectroscopic data, and 12-25 were identified by comparison of their spectroscopic data with those reported. All withanolides were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against a panel of tumor cell lines including LNCaP (androgen-sensitive human prostate adenocarcinoma), 22Rv1 (androgen-resistant human prostate adenocarcinoma), ACHN (human renal adenocarcinoma), M14 (human melanoma), SK-MEL-28 (human melanoma), and normal human foreskin fibroblast cells. Of these, the 17β-hydroxywithanolides (17-BHWs) 6, 8, 9, 11-13, 15, and 19-22 showed selective cytotoxic activity against the two prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP and 22Rv1, whereas 13 and 20 exhibited selective toxicity for the ACHN renal carcinoma cell line. These cytotoxicity data provide additional structure-activity relationship information for the 17-BHWs.

  11. Renal cell carcinoma co-existent with other renal disease: clinico-pathological features in pre-dialysis patients and those receiving dialysis or renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peces, Ramón; Martínez-Ara, Jorge; Miguel, José Luis; Arrieta, Javier; Costero, Olga; Górriz, José Luis; Picazo, Mari-Luz; Fresno, Manuel

    2004-11-01

    Patients on chronic dialysis are prone to developing acquired cystic kidney disease (ACKD), which may lead to the development of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The risk factors for the development of RCC so far have not been determined in pre-dialysis patients with co-existent renal disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinico-pathological features of RCC in pre-dialysis patients with associated renal diseases or in those undergoing chronic dialysis and renal transplantation. We studied 32 kidneys from 31 patients with RCC and associated renal diseases. Of those, 18 kidneys were from 17 patients not on renal replacement therapy (RRT) when diagnosed with RCC; 14 patients received dialysis or dialysis followed by renal transplantation. Several clinico-pathological features were analysed and compared between the two groups. Overall, there was a preponderance of males (75%); nephrosclerosis was the predominant co-existent disease (31%). The median intervals from renal disease to RCC in the dialysis and transplanted groups were significantly longer than in the pre-dialysis group (15.8+/-1.1 vs 2.4+/-0.7 years, P<0.0001). In contrast to pre-dialysis RCC, the dialysis and transplant RCC groups had greater frequency of ACKD (100 vs 28%, P<0.0001), papillary type RCC (43 vs 11%, P<0.05) and multifocal tumours (43 vs 5%, P<0.05). At the end of the study, 71% of dialysis and transplanted patients and 72% of pre-dialysis patients were alive. ACKD develops in dialysis patients, as it does in those with renal disease prior to RRT. The duration of renal disease, rather than the dialysis procedure itself, appears to be the main determinant of ACKD and RCC. The RCC occurring in patients with ACKD and prolonged RRT is more frequently of the papillary type and multifocal than the RCC occurring in patients with no or few acquired cysts and a short history of renal disease. Long-term outcomes did not differ between the two groups.

  12. [Effect of Sunitinib therapy on immune function of patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, P; Li, Y; Zhou, H; Luo, H; Liu, N; Dai, J Y

    2016-10-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of Sunitinib therapy on immune function of patient with advanced renal cell carcinoma. Methods: A total of 27 patient with advanced renal cell carcinoma who received Sunitinib therapy in Chongqing Cancer Hospital from July 2010 to July 2014 were recruited in a prospective cohort study.Nineteen were male patients and 8 were female patients aged from 36 to 75 years with mean age of (58±7)years.Twenty-five cases were renal clear cell carcinoma, the other two cases were papillary renal cell carcinoma and Xp11.2 translocation renal cell carcinoma.According to MSKCC terminal prognosis scoring recommend by NCCN: 22 cases were in low risk, 5 cases were in high risk.All the patient took Sunitinib 50 mg orally once daily for 4 weeks, followed-up by 2 weeks.Flow cytometry was used to detect the levels of CD3 + , CD8 + , CD4 + T lymphocyte, NK cell and B lymphocyte in peripheral blood of patients before taking medicine.The levels of CD3 + , CD8 + , CD4 + T lymphocyte, NK cell, B lymphocyte in peripheral blood were detected again after 4 weeks, 6 weeks, 10 weeks and the disease progression.Paired t -test was used to analyze the data comparison of two groups, mean comparison in groups was conducted with repeated measurements analysis of variance, and the pairwise comparison was performed with LSD- t method. Results: The levels of CD3 + , CD8 + T lymphocyte, NK cell, B lymphocyte were significantly increased after the therapy of Sunitinib for 1 cycle(I-J was 212±22, 163±18, 59±12, 13.8±1.4, respectively, all P cell, B lymphocyte were significantly increased after the therapy of Sunitinib for 2 cycles(I-J was 362±43, 299±28, 91±19, 28.1±3.9, respectively, all P 0.05). CD4 + /CD8 + was significantly decreased after the therapy of Sunitinib for 1 cycle, and it went on decreasing after the therapy of Sunitinib for 2 cycles(I-J was -0.31±0.03, -0.44±0.04, respectively, all P Disease progression occurred in 10 cases during the follow

  13. Phase II trial of irofulven (6-hydroxymethylacylfulvene) for patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, W J; Schwartz, L; Yu, R; Mazumdar, M; Motzer, R J

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the antitumor activity of irofulven (6-hydroxymethylacylfulvene) in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Eligible patients had advanced renal cell carcinoma with bidimensionally measurable disease, a Karnofsky performance status of at least 70, life expectancy of greater than three months, no prior treatment with chemotherapy, and no evidence of brain metastases. Irofulven was administered at a dose of 11 mg/m2 by 5-min intravenous infusion, on 5 consecutive days. Cycles were repeated every 28 days. Thirteen patients were enrolled in this study and 12 were evaluable for response. Of the twelve evaluable patients, no major responses were achieved. Eight patients had stable disease as best response. Toxicity included myelosuppression and gastrointestinal side effects. At the dose and schedule used in this trial, irofulven did not produce clinical response in RCC.

  14. Squamous cell carcinoma of skin after 20 years of renal transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Poddar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid organ transplant recipients are at high risk of developing malignancies due to the prolonged use of immunosuppressant drugs. Squamous cell carcinoma of skin can occur in these patients even after decades of organ transplant. A 45-year-old male underwent renal transplant for end-stage renal disease 23 years ago and was on immunosuppressive drugs since then. The patient was on regular follow-up. Three years back, he developed squamous cell carcinoma of both forearms and hands, which was treated with radiation therapy using 8 MeV electrons, by parallel opposed fields to a dose of 60 Gy/30 fractions. Complete response to treatment was achieved at 3 months posttreatment. The patient is currently on follow-up and asymptomatic for skin lesions. Hence, these patients require longer follow-up, active surveillance, and screening for early diagnosis and prompt treatment of the premalignant and malignant conditions.

  15. LOCAL RECURRENCE OF TUBULOCYSTIC CARCINOMA 4 YEARS AFTER RENAL RESECTION (A CLINICAL OBSERVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Peters

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a clinical case of a local recurrence of tubulocystic carcinoma (TCC in a 46-year-old man, a relatively good course (the relapse occurred after 4 years, who has been successfully operated on and is being followed up. This disease is a rare renal malignancy and, until recently, it has been referred to as collecting tubular carcinoma. However, this disease has come to be regarded as an independent nosological entity, by taking into account its certain morphological, immunohistohemical, and cytogenetic characteristics, as well as the nature of its course. About 80 TCC cases have been described to date. Further study of this disease and other rare renal malignancies will allow the more accurate elaboration of management tactics for such patients in terms of certain prognostic factors, which calls for a larger number of cases of this disease.

  16. Rhabdomyosarcoma-associated renal cell carcinoma: a link with constitutional Tp53 mutation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Curry, Sarah

    2012-02-01

    The 2004 World Health Organization classification includes the new entity "neuroblastoma-associated renal cell carcinoma." The pathogenetic link between these entities is unknown as yet. The patient reported herein developed renal cell carcinoma after anaplastic embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma, a previously unknown association. The 2nd malignancy developed very soon after the 1st one, prompting concern for inherent cancer predisposition rather than a therapy-induced 2nd malignancy. A variety of features raised suspicion for Tp53 mutation, and indeed a pathogenic germline Tp53 mutation was identified in this child, despite a negative family history for Li-Fraumeni syndrome. Consideration of underlying predisposition is advocated in the context of rapid evolution of 2nd childhood malignancy.

  17. Renal cell carcinoma: Review of etiology, pathophysiology and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petejova, Nadezda; Martinek, Arnost

    2016-06-01

    The global incidence of renal cell cancer is increasing annually and the causes are multifactorial. Early diagnosis and successful urological procedures with partial or total nephrectomy can be life-saving. However, only up to 10% of RCC patients present with characteristic clinical symptoms. Over 60% are detected incidentally in routine ultrasound examination. The question of screening and preventive measures greatly depends on the cause of the tumor development. For the latter reason, this review focuses on etiology, pathophysiology and risk factors for renal neoplasm. A literature search using the databases Medscape, Pubmed, UpToDate and EBSCO from 1945 to 2015. Genetic predisposition/hereditary disorders, obesity, smoking, various nephrotoxic industrial chemicals, drugs and natural/manmade radioactivity all contribute and enviromental risks are a serious concern in terms of prevention and the need to screen populations at risk. Apropos treatment, current oncological research is directed to blocking cancer cell division and inhibiting angiogenesis based on a knowledge of molecular pathways.

  18. MALDI Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry Profiling of Dysregulated Sulfoglycosphingolipids in Renal Cell Carcinoma Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirásko, Robert; Holčapek, Michal; Khalikova, Maria; Vrána, David; Študent, Vladimír; Prouzová, Zuzana; Melichar, Bohuslav

    2017-08-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization coupled with Orbitrap mass spectrometry (MALDI-Orbitrap-MS) is used for the clinical study of patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC), as the most common type of kidney cancer. Significant changes in sulfoglycosphingolipid abundances between tumor and autologous normal kidney tissues are observed. First, sulfoglycosphingolipid species in studied RCC samples are identified using high mass accuracy full scan and tandem mass spectra. Subsequently, optimization, method validation, and statistical evaluation of MALDI-MS data for 158 tissues of 80 patients are discussed. More than 120 sulfoglycosphingolipids containing one to five hexosyl units are identified in human RCC samples based on the systematic study of their fragmentation behavior. Many of them are recorded here for the first time. Multivariate data analysis (MDA) methods, i.e., unsupervised principal component analysis (PCA) and supervised orthogonal partial least square discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), are used for the visualization of differences between normal and tumor samples to reveal the most up- and downregulated lipids in tumor tissues. Obtained results are closely correlated with MALDI mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) and histologic staining. Important steps of the present MALDI-Orbitrap-MS approach are also discussed, such as the selection of best matrix, correct normalization, validation for semiquantitative study, and problems with possible isobaric interferences on closed masses in full scan mass spectra.

  19. Computer approach to recognition of Fuhrman grade of cells in clear-cell renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruk, Michal; Osowski, Stanislaw; Markiewicz, Tomasz; Slodkowska, Janina; Koktysz, Robert; Kozlowski, Wojciech; Swiderski, Bartosz

    2014-06-01

    To present a computerized system for recognition of Fuhrman grade of cells in clear-cell renal cell carcinoma on the basis of microscopic images of the neoplasm cells in application of hematoxylin and eosin staining. The applied methods use combined gradient and mathematical morphology to obtain nuclei and classifiers in the form of support vector machine to estimate their Fuhrman grade. The starting point is a microscopic kidney image, which is subject to the advanced methods of preprocessing, leading finally to estimation of Fuhrman grade of cells and the whole analyzed image. The results of the numerical experiments have shown that the proposed nuclei descriptors based on different principles of generation are well connected with the Fuhrman grade. These descriptors have been used as the diagnostic features forming the inputs to the classifier, which performs the final recognition of the cells. The average discrepancy rate between the score of our system and the human expert results, estimated on the basis of over 3,000 nuclei, is below 10%. The obtained results have shown that the system is able to recognize 4 Fuhrman grades of the cells with high statistical accuracy and agreement with different expert scores. This result gives a good perspective to apply the system for supporting and accelerating the research of kidney cancer.

  20. Pazopanib: a multikinase inhibitor with activity in advanced renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Ronald M

    2010-05-01

    Treatment options for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) have changed dramatically, and a new paradigm has evolved. IFN-alpha and IL-2 were previously mainstays of therapy, but since December 2005, six new agents have been approved in the USA for the treatment of advanced RCC. Three of these new agents are multitargeted kinase inhibitors, including sunitinib, sorafenib, and recently pazopanib, two target the mTOR (temsirolimus and everolimus), and one is a humanized monoclonal antibody (bevacizumab in combination with IFN-alpha) that targets VEGF. Sunitinib has emerged as the standard of care for treatment-naive RCC patients, with the recently approved bevacizumab and IFN-alpha combination providing an additional option for this population. The recent approval of pazopanib, based on the results from sequential Phase II and III clinical trials demonstrating improved overall response rates and progression-free survival, provides yet another option for front-line therapy. The current article examines the pazopanib preclinical and clinical data, provides an overview of the development of this tyrosine kinase inhibitor, and provides some speculation concerning its role in RCC therapy.

  1. [Effects of SIPL1 screened by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) on biological function and drug resistance of renal cell carcinoma cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-yan; Yao, An-mei; Chang, Xiao-ning; Guo, Ya-huan; Xu, Rui

    2013-12-01

    To screen the differentially expressed genes in human renal clear-cell carcinoma (RCC) cells using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH), and to explore their biological function and underlying mechanism in RCC cells. Total RNAs were extracted from human renal clear-cell carcinoma cell line RLC-310 and human normal renal cell line HK-2 cells, and SSH technology was used to construct a RCC cell library of differential expression genes and to screen the most differentially expressed genes. RNA interference vector was constructed to silence the expression of the differentially expressed gene SIPL1 in human renal cell lines RLC-310 and GRC-1. Proliferation index was estimated by cell counting, MTT and tumor xenograft assay. Cell cycle analysis was performed using fluorescence activated cell sorting. Drug resistance potential to adriamycin was assessed by MTT. A subtractive cDNA library of highly expressed genes in the RCC cells was constructed and 12 differentially expressed genes were screened from the subtractive library, in which SIPL1 was the most differently expressed gene in the RCC cell line. SIPL1 overexpression in the RCC cells and clinical samples was confirmed by RT-PCR and Western blot analyses. The shRNA expression plasmid targeting to SIPL1 gene was constructed and transfected into RLC-310 and GRC-1 cells, resulting in downregulation of SIPL1. SIPL1 knockdown inhibited the cell proliferation (P SSH technology. SIPL1 functions as an oncogene in RCC, and may become a novel molecular target for RCC diagnosis and therapy.

  2. Prognostic factors for survival in metastatic renal cell carcinoma: update 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Ronald M

    2009-05-15

    A variety of prognostic factor models to predict survival in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma have been developed. Diverse populations of patients with variable treatments have been used for these analyses. A variety of clinical, pathologic, and molecular factors have been studied, but current models use predominantly easily obtained clinical factors. These approaches are reviewed, and current approaches to further refine and develop these techniques are reviewed. (c) 2009 American Cancer Society.

  3. RESULTS OF CLINICAL TRIALS OF MEDICAL TREA TMENT OF RENAL CELL CARCINOMA IN 2014–2015

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    A. M. Popov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade there have been significant changes in the approaches to the drug treatment of renal cell carcinoma. In clinical practice, there was a group of targeted drugs, the purpose of which has increased the life expectancy of patients with advanced kidney cancer. The studies devoted to the study of the sequence of destination targeted agents, combinations, studies of new drugs and to identify prognostic factors, are held.

  4. The occult nature of intramedullary spinal cord metastases from renal cell carcinoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Zakaria, Zaitun

    2012-01-01

    Renal cell carcinomas (RCC) are characterised by a tendency to metastasise widely, often while remaining occult. Intramedullary spinal cord metastases (ISCM) from RCC may be the presenting feature of the disease or present at any time in the disease course. This case report discusses an ISCM from RCC which became manifested at the time of resection of the primary tumour. We review the literature published on ISCM from RCC from 1990 to date comparing disease characteristics and presentations.

  5. Primary leiomyoma of ureter coexisting with renal cell carcinoma: A case report

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    Baek, Seung Hwan; Kim, Hee Jin; Han, Hyun Young [Dept. of Radiology, Eulji University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Mesenchymal origin of ureter tumors account for less than 3 percent of all primary ureteral tumors. Among mesenchymal tumors, primary leiomyoma of ureter is extremely rare. Here, we present a case of primary leiomyoma of ureter coexisting with renal cell carcinoma. When encountering well-defined homogeneously enhanced mass of ureter on computed tomography, radiologist should keep in mind that ureteral leiomyoma should be considered as differential diagnosis.

  6. Effects of Tobacco Smoke (TS) on Growth of Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma (ccRCC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-14-1-0347 TITLE: Effects of Tobacco Smoke ( TS ) on growth...0347 Effects of Tobacco Smoke ( TS ) on growth of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...males than in females1. Tobacco smoking ( TS ), obesity, hypertension, and age are established risk factors for ccRCC development1. Despite the well

  7. Keratoacanthoma Accompanied by Multiple Lung Squamous Cell Carcinomas Developing in a Renal Transplant Recipient

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    Sadanori Furudate

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Keratoacanthoma (KA is a benign keratinocytic neoplasm that spontaneously regresses after 3-6 months and shares features with well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (SCC. An increased incidence of both KA and non-melanoma skin tumor, including SCC, is seen among immunosuppressed, organ-transplant recipients. In this report we describe a case of KA accompanied by multiple lung SCCs developing in a renal transplant recipient.

  8. Renal cell carcinoma in a patient with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, T; Fukuda, T; Uetani, M; Hayashi, K; Kurosaki, N; Maeda, H; Matsumoto, T; Miyake, H

    1996-01-01

    We report the case of a patient with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) who developed renal cell carcinoma (RCC). At birth, this patient presented with macroglossia, diastasis recti, mild gigantism, hepatomegaly and hypoglycemia, and the diagnosis of BWS was made. At 22 months, an intrapelvic rhabdomyosarcoma was detected and resected. At 37 months, computed tomography (CT) demonstrated a small mass with high attenuation in the right kidney, which was surgically confirmed to be RCC.

  9. International consultation on urologic diseases and the European association of urology international consultation on locally advanced renal cell carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Margulis, V.; Master, V.A.; Cost, N.G.; Leibovich, B.C.; Joniau, S.; Kuczyk, M.; Mulders, P.F.A.; Kirkali, Z.; Wirth, M.P.; Hirao, Y.; Rawal, S.; Chong, T.W.; Wood, C.G.

    2011-01-01

    CONTEXT: Although an ever-increasing number of patients are being incidentally diagnosed with small renal masses, there is still a sizable portion of patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) who present with locally advanced or metastatic disease. Those with locally advanced disease present a

  10. Newer developments in the therapeutics of the transitional cell carcinoma of renal pelvis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasanu, Constantin A; Ong-Bacay, Aileen; Codreanu, Ion

    2012-03-01

    Many of the risk factors and pathogenesis of urothelial carcinoma of the renal pelvis are similar to the ones of the more common urothelial bladder cancer. In addition, two endemic nephropathies and two inherited syndromes have been linked with the development of upper urologic cancer. Multiple synchronous or metachronous lesions throughout urinary tract are rather common and should always be sought in the management of this entity. Surgical resection is the treatment of choice in early-stage tumors. The role of adjuvant radiation and chemoradiation for carcinoma of the renal pelvis remains to be redefined, given the advent of conformal approaches and intensity modulation. In non-surgical candidates, chemotherapy remains the mainstay. Metastatic urothelial renal pelvic cancer is usually treated with combination platinum-based chemotherapy. Definitive radiation therapy should be considered in persons with locally advanced/unresectable disease, multiple comorbidities, and/or severely compromised performance status. Recently, the antifolate agent pemetrexed has demonstrated an overall response rate of circa 30% in urothelial carcinoma. New targeted agents, alone or in combination with cytotoxic drugs, are currently being tested in clinical trials and may lead to new and exciting avenues for the therapy of this disease.

  11. Role of targeted therapy in combination with surgery in renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bex, Axel; Powles, Thomas; Karam, Jose A

    2016-01-01

    Surgical complete resection is the only curative treatment of renal cell carcinoma including patients with locally advanced disease and those with limited metastatic disease. Patients at high risk of recurrence after complete resection might theoretically benefit from adjuvant and neoadjuvant systemic treatment strategies to prolong disease-free survival and ultimately overall survival. Another rationale for using targeted therapy includes downsizing/downstaging of surgically complex locally advanced renal cell carcinoma to facilitate complete resection or primary tumors to allow for nephron-sparing strategies. Unfortunately, a considerable percentage of patients are diagnosed with metastatic disease at first presentation. Although large population-based studies consistently show a survival benefit after cytoreductive nephrectomy in the targeted therapy era, confounding factors preclude definite conclusions for this heterogeneous patient group until ongoing phase III trials are published. Presurgical targeted therapy has been proposed to identify patients with clinical benefit and potentially long-term survival after cytoreductive nephrectomy. Recently, the use of targeted therapy before or after local treatment of metastases has been reported in small retrospective series. The present review revisits the current evidence base of targeted therapy in combination with surgery for the various disease stages in renal cell carcinoma. © 2015 The Japanese Urological Association.

  12. Safety and clinical efficacy of everolimus in the treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohan Shahani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Rohan Shahani, Kevin G Kwan, Anil KapoorDivision of Urology, Department of Surgery, St. Joseph’s Healthcare Hamilton and McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, CanadaAbstract: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC is one of the most lethal genitourinary malignancies. Recently, there has been a paradigm shift in the management of advanced RCC. New targeted therapies including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR inhibitors have been developed which have shown promising results in a patient population who otherwise had very few options for treatment. The first mTOR inhibitor, temsirolimus, an intravenous prodrug, has shown improved overall survival in poor prognosis patients. More recently, an oral mTOR inhibitor, everolimus (RAD 001, has been developed which has been shown to delay disease progression in patients with metastatic RCC who have progressed on other targeted therapies. Although a survival advantage in phase III trials is seen with everolimus, associated systemic toxicities, while generally well tolerated, are not insignificant. These include mucositis, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and pneumonitis. Despite the side effects, emerging evidence points to everolimus as the optimal second-line treatment for patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma.Keywords: metastatic renal cell carcinoma, everolimus, mTOR inhibitors, VEGF inhibitors

  13. [Case of heterochronous triple urogenital cancer (renal cell carcinoma, bladder cancer, prostatic cancer)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Akiou; Tsuritani, Shinji; Takagawa, Kiyoshi; Fuse, Hideki

    2013-11-01

    We report a case of a 73-year-old male with heterochronous triple urogenital cancer. The patient was referred to our hospital because serum PSA was elevated (7.0 ng/ml) in 1998. Prostatic needle biopsy revealed prostatic cancer in the right lobe, and total prostatectomy was performed. The histopathological diagnosis was moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma (TlcNOMO). Non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) was detected during an examination for microhematuria in 2002. Transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TURBT) procedure was performed, and the histopathological diagnosis was grade 2 urothelial carcinoma (pTa). A right renal mass was detected incidentally on follow-up CT for bladder cancer in 2008. Renal enucleation was performed in 2009. The histopathological diagnosis was grade 2 clear cell renal cell carcinoma (pTlaNXMO). NMIBC was detected on follow-up urethrocystoscopy in 2011. The TURBT procedure was performed, and the histopathological diagnosis was grade 2 urothelial carcinoma (pTa). On follow-up for urogenital cancer patients, it is important to investigate recurrence of the primary cancer and also heterochronous canceration of other urogenital organs.

  14. Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Presenting as a Paranasal Sinus Mass: The Importance of Differential Diagnosis

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    Massimo Ralli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastases in the paranasal sinuses are rare; renal cell carcinoma is the most common cancer that metastasizes to this region. We present the case of a patient with a 4-month history of a rapidly growing mass of the nasal pyramid following a nasal trauma, associated with spontaneous epistaxis and multiple episodes of hematuria. Cranial CT scan and MRI showed an ethmoid mass extending to the choanal region, the right orbit, and the right frontal sinus with an initial intracranial extension. Patient underwent surgery with a trans-sinusal frontal approach using a bicoronal incision combined with an anterior midfacial degloving; histological exam was compatible with a metastasis of clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Following histological findings, a total body CT scan showed a solitary 6 cm mass in the upper posterior pole of the left kidney identified as the primary tumor. Although rare, metastatic renal cell carcinoma should always be suspected in patients with nasal or paranasal masses, especially if associated with symptoms suggestive of a systemic involvement such as hematuria. A correct early-stage diagnosis of metastatic RCC can considerably improve survival rate in these patients; preoperative differential diagnosis with contrast-enhanced imaging is fundamental for the correct treatment and follow-up strategy.

  15. Expression of drug targets in primary and matched metastatic renal cell carcinoma tumors

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    Aziz Saadia A

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Targeted therapies in renal cell carcinoma can have different effects on primary and metastatic tumors. To pave the way for predictive biomarker development, we assessed differences in expression of targets of currently approved drugs in matched primary and metastatic specimens from 34 patients. Methods Four cores from each site were embedded in tissue microarray blocks. Expression of B-Raf, C-Raf, cKIT, FGF-R1, HIF-2α, mTOR, PDGF-Rβ, VEGF-R1, VEGF-R2, VEGF-R3, VEGF, VEGF-B, VEGF-C, VEGF-D, MEK1, and ERK1/2 was studied using a quantitative immunofluorescence method. Results No significant differences were observed in global expression levels in primary and metastatic renal cell carcinoma tumors, with the exception of MEK, which had higher expression in metastatic than primary specimens. Similarly, more ki67 positive cells were seen in metastatic specimens. Correlations between marker expression in primary and metastatic specimens were variable, with the lowest correlation seen for FGF-R1 and VEGF-D. There were no significant differences in the degree of heterogeneity in primary versus metastatic tumors. Conclusions Expression of most of the studied markers was similar in primary and metastatic renal cell carcinoma tumors, suggesting that predictive biomarker testing for these markers can be conducted on either the primary or metastatic tumors for most markers.

  16. Axitinib in the treatment of renal cell carcinoma: design, development, and place in therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bellesoeur A

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Audrey Bellesoeur, Edith Carton, Jerome Alexandre, Francois Goldwasser, Olivier Huillard Department of Medical Oncology, Hopital Cochin AP-HP, Paris, France Abstract: Since 2005, the approved first-line treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma consists in tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFRs. Axitinib is an oral second-generation TKI and a potent VEGFR inhibitor with a half maximal inhibitory concentration for the VEGF family receptors 10-fold lower than other TKIs. Axitinib activity in renal cell carcinoma (RCC patients has been studied in various settings and particularly as second-line treatment. In this setting, axitinib with clinically based dose escalation compared to sorafenib has demonstrated an improvement in progression-free survival in a randomized Phase III trial leading to US Food and Drug Administration approval. In the first-line setting, axitinib failed to demonstrate improved efficacy over sorafenib, but the field of RCC treatment is rapidly changing with novel TKIs as cabozantinib or the emergence of check point inhibitors as nivolumab and the place of axitinib in therapy is therefore challenged. In this review, we focus on axitinib pharmacological and clinical properties in RCC patients and discuss its place in the treatment of patients with RCC. Keywords: renal cell carcinoma, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, vascular endothelial growth factor, axitinib, pharmacology

  17. Meridional lenticular astigmatism associated with bilateral concurrent uveal metastases in renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priluck JC

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Joshua C Priluck, Sandeep Grover, KV ChalamDepartment of Ophthalmology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Jacksonville, FL, USAPurpose: To demonstrate a case illustrating meridional lenticular astigmatism as a result of renal cell carcinoma uveal metastases.Methods: Case report with images.Results: Clinical findings and diagnostic testing of a patient with acquired meridional lenticular astigmatism are described. The refraction revealed best-corrected visual acuity of 20/20–1 OD (−2.50 + 0.25 × 090 and 20/50 OS (−8.25 + 3.25 × 075. Bilateral concurrent renal cell carcinoma metastases to the choroid and ciliary body are demonstrated by utilizing ultrasonography, ultrawidefield fluorescein angiography, and unique spectral-domain optical coherence tomography.Conclusions: Metastatic disease should be included in the differential of acquired astigmatism. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, ultrawidefield fluorescein angiography, and ultrasonography have roles in delineating choroidal metastases.Keywords: astigmatism, metastasis, optical coherence tomography, renal cell carcinoma

  18. Intraobserver and Interobserver Variability of Fuhrman and Modified Fuhrman Grading Systems for Conventional Renal Cell Carcinoma

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    Sibel Bektas

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The Fuhrman nuclear grade is the most widely used grading system for renal cell carcinoma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the intraobserver and interobserver variability of the Fuhrman and modified Fuhrman grading systems for conventional renal cell carcinoma. In this study, five pathologists independently classified 110 cases of conventional renal cell carcinoma according to the Fuhrman and modified (three- and two-tiered Fuhrman grading systems. The intraobserver and interobserver variability of these systems were assessed using κ statistics. The associations between the Fuhrman and modified Fuhrman grades, pathologic stage and tumor size were determined by correlation analysis. The intraobserver and interobserver combined mean κ values for four-tiered Fuhrman grading were 0.48 and 0.41, respectively. The highest agreement was detected in two-tiered modification (including grades 1 + 2 and 3 + 4; the intraobserver and inter-observer combined mean κ values were 0.67 and 0.62, respectively. Correlations between pathologic stage and tumor size with two-tiered modification (including grades 1 + 2 and 3 + 4 were greater than those in three- and four-tiered Fuhrman grading. Collapsing the Fuhrman grading into a two-tiered scheme improved the intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility.

  19. Castleman Disease in the Kidney and Retroperitoneum Mimicking Renal Cell Carcinoma with Retroperitoneal Lymphadenopathy: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Hee Sun; Woo, Ji Young; Hong, Hye Suk; Jung, Ah Young; Yang, Ik; Lee, Yul [Dept. of Radiology, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    Castleman disease, or angiofollicular lymph node hyperplasia, is a fairly rare benign tumor of lymphoid origin with unknown etiology. Castleman disease arises mostly in the mediastinum, and some cases of renal and retroperitoneal involvement have been reported. However, Castleman disease that simultaneously involves the kidney and regional lymph nodes has not been reported in radiologic literature. We report a case of renal and pararenal Castleman disease, mimicking renal cell carcinoma with retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy.

  20. ERK5/BMK1 Is a Novel Target of the Tumor Suppressor VHL: Implication in Clear Cell Renal Carcinoma12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-González, Laura; Moreno-Gimeno, Inmaculada; del Campo, Antonio Rubio; Serrano-Oviedo, Leticia; Valero, María Llanos; Esparís-Ogando, Azucena; de la Cruz-Morcillo, Miguel Ángel; Melgar-Rojas, Pedro; García-Cano, Jesús; Cimas, Francisco José; Hidalgo, María José Ruiz; Prado, Alfonso; Callejas-Valera, Juan Luis; Nam-Cha, Syong Hyun; Giménez-Bachs, José Miguel; Salinas-Sánchez, Antonio S; Pandiella, Atanasio; del Peso, Luis; Sánchez-Prieto, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5), also known as big mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) 1, is implicated in a wide range of biologic processes, which include proliferation or vascularization. Here, we show that ERK5 is degraded through the ubiquitin-proteasome system, in a process mediated by the tumor suppressor von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene, through a prolyl hydroxylation-dependent mechanism. Our conclusions derive from transient transfection assays in Cos7 cells, as well as the study of endogenous ERK5 in different experimental systems such as MCF7, HMEC, or Caki-2 cell lines. In fact, the specific knockdown of ERK5 in pVHL-negative cell lines promotes a decrease in proliferation and migration, supporting the role of this MAPK in cellular transformation. Furthermore, in a short series of fresh samples from human clear cell renal cell carcinoma, high levels of ERK5 correlate with more aggressive and metastatic stages of the disease. Therefore, our results provide new biochemical data suggesting that ERK5 is a novel target of the tumor suppressor VHL, opening a new field of research on the role of ERK5 in renal carcinomas. PMID:23730213

  1. ERK5/BMK1 Is a Novel Target of the Tumor Suppressor VHL: Implication in Clear Cell Renal Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Arias-González

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5, also known as big mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK 1, is implicated in a wide range of biologic processes, which include proliferation or vascularization. Here, we show that ERK5 is degraded through the ubiquitin-proteasome system, in a process mediated by the tumor suppressor von Hippel-Lindau (VHL gene, through a prolyl hydroxylation-dependent mechanism. Our conclusions derive from transient transfection assays in Cos7 cells, as well as the study of endogenous ERK5 in different experimental systems such as MCF7, HMEC, or Caki-2 cell lines. In fact, the specific knockdown of ERK5 in pVHL-negative cell lines promotes a decrease in proliferation and migration, supporting the role of this MAPK in cellular transformation. Furthermore, in a short series of fresh samples from human clear cell renal cell carcinoma, high levels of ERK5 correlate with more aggressive and metastatic stages of the disease. Therefore, our results provide new biochemical data suggesting that ERK5 is a novel target of the tumor suppressor VHL, opening a new field of research on the role of ERK5 in renal carcinomas.

  2. Nephron-sparing percutaneous ablation of a 5 cm renal cell carcinoma by superselective embolization and percutaneous RF-ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tacke, J.; Mahnken, A.; Buecker, A.; Guenther, R.W. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik; Rohde, D. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Abt. Urologie

    2001-11-01

    Purpose: To report on the nephron-sparing, percutaneous ablation of a large renal cell carcinoma by combined superselective embolization and percutaneous radiofrequency ablation. Materials and Methods: A 5 cm renal cell carcinoma of a 43-year-old drug abusing male with serologically proven HIV, hepatitis B and C infection, who refused surgery, was superselectively embolized using microspheres (size: 500 - 700 {mu}m) and a platinum coil under local anesthesia. Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation using a 7F LeVeen probe (size of expanded probe tip: 40 mm) and a 200 Watt generator was performed one day after transcatheter embolization under general anesthesia. Results: The combined treatment resulted in complete destruction of the tumor without relevant damage of the surrounding healthy renal tissue. The patient was discharged 24 hours after RF ablation. No complications like urinary leaks or fistulas were observed and follow up CT one day and 4 weeks after the radiofrequency intervention revealed no signs of residual tumor growth. Conclusion: The combined transcatheter embolization and percutaneous radiofrequency ablation of renal cell carcinoma has proved technically feasible, effective, and safe in this patient. It may be offered as an alternative treatment to partial or radical nephrectomy under certain circumstances. Abbreviations: RF = radiofrequency ablation; CT = computed tomography; HIV = human immunodeficiency virus. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Bericht ueber eine nierenschonende, perkutane Ablation eines 5 cm grossen Nierenzellkarzinoms durch kombinierte Transkatheterembolisation und perkutane Radiofrequenzablation. Material und Methoden: Ein 5 cm grosses Nierenzellkarzinom eines 43 Jahre alten Drogenabhaengigen mit serologisch nachgewiesener HIV, Hepatitis B- und C-Infektion, der eine operative Therapie ablehnte, wurde superselektiv durch Embosphaeren (Partikelgroesse: 500 - 700 {mu}m) und einer Platinspirale unter Lokalanaesthesie embolisiert. Am Folgetag

  3. The impact of NudCD1 on renal carcinoma cell proliferation, migration, and invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R-J; Wang, N; Cui, G; Chen, Y; Zhong, H; Tang, J

    2018-02-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common malignant tumor in the urogenital system. Its easily metastatic characteristics greatly reduce the postoperative survival rate. NudCD1, as a proto-oncogene, may be involved in the proliferation, migration, and invasion of renal cell carcinoma cell. This study intends to explore the expression of NudCD1 in renal cancer tissue and its effect on renal cell behavior. NudCD1 expression in RCC tissue was tested Western blot. The cellular localization of NudCD1 was detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC). NudCD1 highly expressed RCC cell line was selected. NudCD1 knockdown or overexpression was performed through cell transfection. Cell proliferation, migration, and invasion were assessed by MTT assay, wound scratch assay, and transwell assay, respectively. NudCD1 mainly located in the cytoplasm and significantly upregulated in RCC tissue compared with adjacent normal control (p < 0.05). NudCD1 expressed highest in A498 cell line among several RCC cell lines. NudCD1 expression was positively correlated with cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in A498. NudCD1 may be treated as a key factor in regulating cell behavior. NudCD1 significantly increased in RCC and was positively correlated with cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. It could be used as an indicator for the early screening and potential treatment target for RCC.

  4. Autocrine CSF-1 and CSF-1 Receptor Co-expression Promotes Renal Cell Carcinoma Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menke, Julia; Kriegsmann, Jörg; Schimanski, Carl Christoph; Schwartz, Melvin M.; Schwarting, Andreas; Kelley, Vicki R.

    2011-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma is increasing in incidence but the molecular mechanisms regulating its growth remain elusive. Co-expression of the monocytic growth factor CSF-1 and its receptor CSF-1R on renal tubular epithelial cells (TEC) will promote proliferation and anti-apoptosis during regeneration of renal tubules. Here we show that a CSF-1-dependent autocrine pathway is also responsible for the growth of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). CSF-1 and CSF-1R were co-expressed in RCC and TEC proximally adjacent to RCC. CSF-1 engagement of CSF-1R promoted RCC survival and proliferation and reduced apoptosis, in support of the likelihood that CSF-1R effector signals mediate RCC growth. In vivo CSF-1R blockade using a CSF-1R tyrosine kinase inhibitor decreased RCC proliferation and macrophage infiltration in a manner associated with a dramatic reduction in tumor mass. Further mechanistic investigations linked CSF-1 and EGF signaling in RCC. Taken together, our results suggest that budding RCC stimulates the proximal adjacent microenvironment in the kidney to release mediators of CSF-1, CSF-1R and EGF expression in RCC. Further, our findings imply that targeting CSF-1/CSF-1R signaling may be therapeutically effective in RCC. PMID:22052465

  5. MUC1 drives epithelial-mesenchymal transition in renal carcinoma through Wnt/β-catenin pathway and interaction with SNAIL promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnemmi, Viviane; Bouillez, Audrey; Gaudelot, Kelly; Hémon, Brigitte; Ringot, Bélinda; Pottier, Nicolas; Glowacki, François; Villers, Arnauld; Vindrieux, David; Cauffiez, Christelle; Van Seuningen, Isabelle; Bernard, David; Leroy, Xavier; Aubert, Sébastien; Perrais, Michaël

    2014-05-01

    MUC1 is overexpressed in human carcinomas. The transcription factor SNAIL can activate epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in cancer cells. In this study, in renal carcinoma, we demonstrate that (i) MUC1 and SNAIL were overexpressed in human sarcomatoid carcinomas, (ii) SNAIL increased indirectly MUC1 expression, (iii) MUC1 overexpression induced EMT, (iv) MUC1 C-terminal domain (MUC1-C) and β-catenin increased SNAIL transcriptional activity by interaction with its promoter and (v) blocking MUC1-C nuclear localization decreased Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway activation and SNAIL expression. Altogether, our findings demonstrate that MUC1 is an actor in EMT and appears as a new therapeutic target. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Concurrent renal-cell carcinoma and cutaneous leiomyomas: A case of HLRCC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara A. Fondriest, BS

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 51-year-old Caucasian female presenting with renal-cell cancer and cutaneous leiomyomas was later diagnosed with Hereditary Leiomyomatosis and Renal Cell Cancer (HLRCC Syndrome. HLRCC is an autosomal dominant condition caused by a mutation in the fumarate hydratase gene, which encodes for an enzyme in the citric acid cycle. This syndrome has been reported in over 100 families throughout the world, the majority of whom are of Eastern European descent. Those with this syndrome have a significantly increased risk of developing renal-cell carcinoma, cutaneous leiomyomas, and uterine leiomyomas, and a smaller chance of developing uterine leiomyosarcomas. This syndrome has a relatively poor prognosis, with tumor metastasis occurring in approximately 50% of patients. However, more aggressive prophylactic measures and recent studies have shown potential to improve patient prognosis.

  7. Tissue and Metabolomic Biomarkers of Recurrent Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    glycans directly on tissue using MALDI-MS imaging following PNGaseF digests . Depending on the tissue, 30-40 N-glycan species can be simultaneously...Thiyagarajan, T., Hernandex-Corbacho, M.J., Jones, E, Powers, T.W., Snider, A., Oates , J.C., Drake, R.R., and Siskind, L.J. (2014) Renal...Mass Spectrometry Annual Meeting, Minneapolis, MN, June 2013. “Novel on-tissue glycosidase and lipase digestion workflows to identify complex glycan

  8. Unusual metastatic sites from renal cell carcinoma detected by 18F-FDG PET/CT scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurangabadkar, Hrushikesh; Ali, Zakir

    2013-12-01

    Here we describe 2 cases of renal cell carcinoma where we found the unusual metastatic sites from renal cell carcinoma on 18F-FDG PET/CT scans in post-radical nephrectomy status. The first case resolves the venous migration of the tumor as a malignant thrombus arising from a remnant stump of the left renal vein, passing through hemiazygos vein further into the azygos vein and finally into the superior vena cava just before entering into the right atrium. The second case demonstrated extensive skeletal muscle deposits involving the muscles of the trunk as well as upper and lower extremities.

  9. Imaging Findings of Common Benign Renal Tumors in the Era of Small Renal Masses: Differential Diagnosis from Small Renal Cell Carcinoma: Current Status and Future Perspectives

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    Woo, Sungmin

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of small renal masses (SRM) has risen, paralleling the increased usage of cross-sectional imaging. A large proportion of these SRMs are not malignant, and do not require invasive treatment such as nephrectomy. Therefore, differentation between early renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and benign SRM is critical to achieve proper management. This article reviews the radiological features of benign SRMs, with focus on two of the most common benign entities, angiomyolipoma and oncocytoma, in terms of their common imaging findings and differential features from RCC. Furthermore, the role of percutaneous biopsy is discussed as imaging is yet imperfect, therefore necessitating biopsy in certain circumstances to confirm the benignity of SRMs. PMID:25598678

  10. Radiologic-staging: renal cell carcinoma; Radiologisches Staging des Nierenzellkarzinoms

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    Szolar, D.H.; Zebedin, D.; Unger, B.; Ranner, G. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiologie, Graz (Austria); Pummer, K. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Urologie, Graz (Austria)

    1999-07-01

    The routine staging work-up for renal cancer includes a contrast-enhanced multiphasic spiral CT and a chest radiograph. If there is doubt regarding the presence and extent of (supradiaphragmatic) IVC thrombus, MR imaging should be performed. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging should be used in place of CT in any patient with severe renal dysfunction, symptomatic polycystic kidney disease, or a history of allergy to iodinated contrast media. Cavography is no longer needed in the era of (adaptive array detector) spiral CT and MR venography. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das diagnostische Routine Work-up fuer das Nierenzellkarzinom-Staging beinhaltet ein mehrphasisches Abdomen Spiral-CT und ein Thoraxroentgen. Bei unklarem Spiral-CT Befund in der Fragestellung intravenoese Tumorausdehnung kann die kontrastmittelverstaerkte MRT eine wertvolle diagnostische Alternative darstellen. Die primaeren Indikationen zur renalen MRT stellen Patienten mit absoluter oder relativer Kontraindikation fuer nichtionische Roentgenkontrastmittel, Patienten im Stadium der kompensierten (noch nicht dialysepflichtigen) renalen Insuffizienz und Patienten mit symptomatischer polyzystischer Nierendegeneration dar. Die konventionelle Cavographie ist im Zeitalter der (Mehrzeilen-)Spiral-CT-Venographie und MR-Venographie obsolet. (orig.)

  11. Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma Revealed by Renal Traumatism: A Case Report in Lomé

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    Tchilabalo Matchonna Kpatcha

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study is a report on a case of papillary carcinoma of the kidney revealed by an abdominal contusion. The results of radiological investigations were discordant with the low intensity of the shock. The treatment consisted of radical nephrectomy because of the suspicion of a pre-existing malignancy. Histological analysis revealed a papillary carcinoma pT3N0M0. We focus on the need for performing diagnostic tests in order to avoid missing a pre-existing anomaly to the kidney trauma.

  12. Geographic Variation of Chronic Kidney Disease Prevalence: Correlation with the Incidence of Renal Cell Carcinoma or Urothelial Carcinoma?

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    Yit-Sheung Yap

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether geographic variations in the prevalence of late-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD exist and are associated with incidence rates of renal cell carcinoma (RCC, upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC, or lower tract urothelial carcinoma (LTUC. Methods. Prevalence rates of late-stage CKD for 366 townships (n>30 in Taiwan were calculated for 1,518,241 and 1,645,151 subjects aged 40 years or older in years 2010 and 2009, respectively. Late-stage CKD prevalence in year 2010 was used as a training set and its age-adjusted standardized morbidity rates (ASMR were divided into three groups as defined <1.76%, 1.76% ≤ ASMR < 2.64%, and ≥2.64%, respectively. Year 2009, defined as the validation set, was used to validate the results. Results. The ASMR of late-stage CKD in years 2010 and 2009 were 1.76%, and 2.09%, respectively. Geographic variations were observed, with notably higher rates of disease in areas of the central, southwestern mountainside, and southeastern seaboard. There were no significant differences among different combined risk groups of RCC, UTUC, and LTUC incidence. Conclusion. The substantial geographic variations in the prevalence of late-stage CKD exist, but are not correlated with RCC, UTUC, or LTUC incidence.

  13. Geographic Variation of Chronic Kidney Disease Prevalence: Correlation with the Incidence of Renal Cell Carcinoma or Urothelial Carcinoma?

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    Yap, Yit-Sheung; Chuang, Kai-Wen; Chiang, Chun-Ju; Chuang, Hung-Yi; Lu, Sheng-Nan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate whether geographic variations in the prevalence of late-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD) exist and are associated with incidence rates of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC), or lower tract urothelial carcinoma (LTUC). Prevalence rates of late-stage CKD for 366 townships (n > 30) in Taiwan were calculated for 1,518,241 and 1,645,151 subjects aged 40 years or older in years 2010 and 2009, respectively. Late-stage CKD prevalence in year 2010 was used as a training set and its age-adjusted standardized morbidity rates (ASMR) were divided into three groups as defined ASMR ASMR of late-stage CKD in years 2010 and 2009 were 1.76%, and 2.09%, respectively. Geographic variations were observed, with notably higher rates of disease in areas of the central, southwestern mountainside, and southeastern seaboard. There were no significant differences among different combined risk groups of RCC, UTUC, and LTUC incidence. The substantial geographic variations in the prevalence of late-stage CKD exist, but are not correlated with RCC, UTUC, or LTUC incidence.

  14. Combining differential expression, chromosomal and pathway analyses for the molecular characterization of renal cell carcinoma.

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    Furge, Kyle A; Dykema, Karl; Petillo, David; Westphal, Michael; Zhang, Zhongfa; Kort, Eric J; Teh, Bin Tean

    2007-06-01

    Using high-throughput gene-expression profiling technology, we can now gain a better understanding of the complex biology that is taking place in cancer cells. This complexity is largely dictated by the abnormal genetic makeup of the cancer cells. This abnormal genetic makeup can have profound effects on cellular activities such as cell growth, cell survival and other regulatory processes. Based on the pattern of gene expression, or molecular signatures of the tumours, we can distinguish or subclassify different types of cancers according to their cell of origin, behaviour, and the way they respond to therapeutic agents and radiation. These approaches will lead to better molecular subclassification of tumours, the basis of personalized medicine. We have, to date, done whole-genome microarray gene-expression profiling on several hundreds of kidney tumours. We adopt a combined bioinformatic approach, based on an integrative analysis of the gene-expression data. These data are used to identify both cytogenetic abnormalities and molecular pathways that are deregulated in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). For example, we have identified the deregulation of the VHL-hypoxia pathway in clear-cell RCC, as previously known, and the c-Myc pathway in aggressive papillary RCC. Besides the more common clear-cell, papillary and chromophobe RCCs, we are currently characterizing the molecular signatures of rarer forms of renal neoplasia such as carcinoma of the collecting ducts, mixed epithelial and stromal tumours, chromosome Xp11 translocations associated with papillary RCC, renal medullary carcinoma, mucinous tubular and spindle-cell carcinoma, and a group of unclassified tumours. Continued development and improvement in the field of molecular profiling will better characterize cancer and provide more accurate diagnosis, prognosis and prediction of drug response.

  15. LMP2, a novel immunohistochemical marker to distinguish renal oncocytoma from the eosinophilic variant of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma.

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    Zheng, Gang; Chaux, Alcides; Sharma, Rajni; Netto, George; Caturegli, Patrizio

    2013-02-01

    LMP2 is a subunit of the immunoproteasome that is overexpressed in oncocytic lesions of the thyroid gland. This study was designed to assess the expression profile and diagnostic utility of LMP2 in two renal oncocytic tumors that share similar morphologic features but have different clinical outcomes: renal oncocytoma (RO) and the eosinophilic variant of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (CHRCC-EO). A total of 56 RO, 38 classic CHRCC, and 7 CHRCC-EO cases, as well 84 normal kidney controls, were selected from the Johns Hopkins surgical pathology archive and stained for LMP2 using a standard immunohistochemical protocol. Sections were scored for cellular location (nuclear versus cytosolic), intensity (from 0 to 3), and percent of area involved (from 0 to 100%), and an H score was calculated multiplying the intensity by the extent of the staining signal. The cytoplasmic expression of LMP2 was similar among the renal lesions, being present in 44 of 56 (79%) ROs, 27 of 38 (71%) CHRCCs, and 7 of 7 (100%) CHRCC-EO cases. The nuclear expression of LMP2, however, was more informative. All CHRCC-EO cases (7 of 7, 100%) strongly showed nuclear LMP2 staining, as opposed to only 2 of 56 (4%, P<0.0001) ROs and 9 of 38 (24%, P=0.0001) classic CHRCCs. These results suggest that the nuclear LMP2 expression can be used in clinical scenarios where histological distinction between RO and CHRCC-EO remains challenging. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessment of Liver and Renal Functions of Asymptomatic Human ...

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    Winniecure), used in our institute for the treatment of Human Immuno Deficiency Virus (HIV) infection, on liver and renal functions of individuals undergoing therapy. A total of 100 asymptomatic Human Immuno Deficiency Virus (HIV) seropositive ...

  17. Sarcomatoid Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Renal Pelvis Masquerading as Emphysematous Pyelonephritis with Staghorn Calculus

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    Kivlin, Dana; Tong, Carmen; Friedlander, Justin; Perosio, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Staghorn calculi are well-established risk factors for recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) and subsequent renal deterioration. Less commonly, long-term urothelial irritation from a calculus may also pose a risk of malignant transformation. Case Presentation: A 77-year-old male with multiple medical comorbidities presented with a chronic right renal pelvic staghorn calculus and findings concerning for emphysematous pyelonephritis. He was subsequently taken to the operating room for a planned laparoscopic right nephrectomy. Final pathology analysis revealed sarcomatoid squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the renal pelvis with superimposed pyelonephritis and renal abscesses. Preoperative imaging was not suggestive of malignancy. Conclusion: Although SCC of the urothelium can be caused by chronic irritation, its presentation is usually isolated to the lower urinary tract and is rarely encountered in the renal pelvis. Our patient's presentation with sarcomatoid SCC is an even rarer entity. Chronic staghorn calculi must be considered as a potential risk factor for the development of both UTI and malignant urothelial transformation. PMID:27579427

  18. CD 9 and vimentin distinguish clear cell from chromophobe renal cell carcinoma

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    Ljunberg Börje

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC and chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (chRCC can usually be distinguished by histologic characteristics. Occasionally, diagnosis proves challenging and diagnostic difficulty will likely increase as needle biopsies of renal lesions become more common. Methods To identify markers that aid in differentiating ccRCC from chRCC, we used gene expression profiles to identify candidate markers that correlate with histology. 39 antisera and antibodies, including 35 for transcripts identified from gene expression profiling, were evaluated. Promising markers were tested on a tissue microarray (TMA containing 428 renal neoplasms. Strength of staining of each core on the TMA was formally scored and the distribution of staining across different types of renal neoplasms was analyzed. Results Based on results from initial immunohistochemical staining of multitissue titer arrays, 23 of the antisera and antibodies were selected for staining of the TMA. For 7 of these markers, strength of staining of each core on the TMA was formally scored. Vimentin (positive in ccRCC and CD9 (positive in chRCC best distinguished ccRCC from chRCC. The combination of vimentin negativity and CD9 positivity was found to distinguish chRCC from ccRCC with a sensitivity of 100.0% and a specificity of 95.2%. Conclusion Based on gene expression analysis, we identify CD9 and vimentin as candidate markers for distinguishing between ccRCC and chRCC. In difficult cases and particularly when the amount of diagnostic tissue is limited, vimentin and CD9 staining could serve as a useful adjunct in the differential diagnosis of ccRCC and chRCC.

  19. Pure Laparoscopic Radical Heminephrectomy for a Large Renal-Cell Carcinoma in a Horseshoe Kidney

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    Rafael B Reboucas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Horseshoe Kidneys are the most common renal fusion anomaly. When surgery is contemplated for renal-cell carcinoma in such kidneys, aberrant vasculature and isthmusectomy are the major issues to consider. We describe a case of a pure laparoscopic radical heminephrectomy with hand-sewn management of the isthmus for a 11 cm tumour in a horseshoe kidney. Presentation A 47-year-old man complaining of palpable left flank mass for two months. Magnetic resonance of the abdomen revealed a 11 cm renal mass arising from the left moiety of an incidentally discovered horseshoe kidney. Preoperative CT angiography revealed a dominant anterior renal artery feeding the upper and midpole, with two other arteries feeding the lower pole and isthmus. The patient was placed in a modified flank position. A four-port transperitoneal technique was used, the colon was reflected. Renal pedicle was dissected and the renal arteries and renal vein were secured with polymer clips. The kidney was fully mobilized and a Satinsky clamp was placed on the isthmus for its division. A running 2-0 vicryl hand-sewn was used for parenchyma hemostasis. The specimen was extracted intact in a plastic bag through an inguinal incision. Results The operative time was 220 minutes, and the estimated blood loss was 200 mL. There were no immediate or delayed complications. The patient resumed oral intake on postoperative day 1 and was discharged on postoperative day 2. Pathologic examination of the specimen confirmed a 11 cm organ-confined chromophobe renal-cell carcinoma, with negative margins. Discussion Laparoscopic oncologic surgery in patients with horseshoe kidneys can be technically challenging. The presence of a large cancer in a horseshoe kidney should not preclude a purely laparoscopic approach. With the aid of a Satinsky clamp, the isthmus can be sharply divided and sutured in a fashion similar to the open technique. To our knowledge, this report represents the largest

  20. Mandibular Mass as an Only Presentation of Metatatic Renal Cell Carcinoma For Four Years: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooran, Shahram; Fakhr Yasseri, Alimohammad; Behtash, Negar; Karimi, Arash; Khalili, Masoud; Asadi, Mahboobeh

    2017-01-18

    Renal cell carcinoma is one of the most common tumors of the urinary tract. This tumor may appear as Para neoplasticsyndromes or distant metastasis. Metastases in uncommon areas are one of the characteristics of renal tumors.One of the uncommon metastatic renal masses areas is the mandible. In different studies, patient survival aftermetastasis diagnosis is usually one year or less. In this study we introduce a patient with mass of the right mandiblewhich existed four years before his referral, and in examinations it was diagnosed as metastasis with renal origin.

  1. Hyperechoic renal tumors: anechoic rim and intratumoral cysts in US differentiation of renal cell carcinoma from angiomyolipoma.

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    Yamashita, Y; Ueno, S; Makita, O; Ogata, I; Hatanaka, Y; Watanabe, O; Takahashi, M

    1993-07-01

    To determine whether angiomyolipomas (AMLs) and renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) can be differentiated at ultrasonography (US), the authors retrospectively evaluated the sonographic appearances of 31 AMLs and 38 RCCs. Sonograms were evaluated by three radiologists without knowledge of histologic findings, with respect to the echogenicity of the tumor, predominant echotexture, and whether an anechoic rim was present. All patients had also undergone computed tomography (CT) to check for tumoral fat. Intratumoral fat was evident at CT in 28 of the 31 AMLs. RCCs had no fat at CT or histologic evaluation. An anechoic rim was evident in 32 of 38 (84%) RCCs, and 10 RCCs had small anechoic areas with back echo enhancement, which corresponded to intratumoral cysts or cystic necrosis at histologic evaluation. The anechoic rim and areas indicative of cysts were not found in AMLs. Demonstration of an anechoic rim and/or intratumoral cysts in a hyperechoic mass at US suggests that the tumor is an RCC.

  2. Renal transitional cell carcinoma with bilateral ocular metastasis in a cat

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    Irit Grader

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Case summary A 4-year-old, spayed female, domestic shorthair cat was presented for evaluation due to a 4 day history of inappetence and lethargy. Physical examination revealed mild dehydration and blindness of the left eye. Abnormal imaging findings included a well-margined soft tissue mass with irregular central cavity located in the dorsal aspect of the caudal lung lobe. Cytological examination of the mass revealed chronic inflammation with hemorrhage. Tests for parasitic and fungal diseases were negative. Ophthalmic examination 17 days after the cat was initially presented revealed severe diffuse pathology of both retinas. Left renomegaly was noted 22 days after the initial presentation, and cytological examination of samples obtained from the right vitreous, left kidney and the pulmonary mass yielded atypical epithelial cells exhibiting malignant changes. Post-mortem examination following euthanasia revealed renal transitional cell carcinoma with metastasis to both eyes, lungs and skeletal muscle. Immunohistochemical evaluation of the neoplastic cells in the eye revealed moderate cytoplasmic reactivity for CK7. CK20 immunohistochemistry was negative. Relevance and novel information To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of renal transitional cell carcinoma with ocular metastasis in a cat. In addition, this report describes immunohistochemistry results of transitional cell carcinoma in a cat using CK7 and CK20.

  3. Spontaneous rupture of the kidney affected by multifocal papillary renal cell carcinoma

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    Lucio Dell'Atti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Papillary renal cell carcinoma (pRCC represents the second most common type of malignant renal epithelial tumor (represents the 10% of the kidney’s carcinoma and can be subclassified in the basophile type I and eosinophile type II. We report a clinical case of spontaneous rupture of the kidney affected by multifocal (42 tumors foci pRCC in a young man 53 years old, without showing earlier specific cancer signs and symptoms. Prognosis for type I pRCC is better than type II pRCC, but it is anyway related to the tumoral grade, to the tumoral stage and to the diagnostic precocity. Signs and symptoms are very similar to those characterizing the more frequent clear cell carcinoma. Nevertheless in the 40% of the cases the lesion is asymptomatic. To our knowledge, this is the first case of spontaneous rupture of the kidney affected by multifocal pRCC in literature without showing earlier specific cancer signs and symptoms.

  4. Review : Third Generation Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors and Their Development in Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma

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    Ronald M Bukowski

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis in general and the VEGF signaling axis in particular is a validated target in renal cell carcinoma. Clear cell carcinoma of the kidney is now recognized as a malignancy that is sensitive to inhibitors of the vascular endothelial growth factor pathway. Treatment options for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma have evolved in dramatic fashion over the past six years, and a new paradigm has developed. The cytokines interferon-α and interleukin-2 were previously utilized for therapy, but since December 2005, six new agents have been approved in the United States for the treatment of advanced RCC. Three are tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI’s including sunitinib, sorafenib, and recently pazopanib. The current review examines the evolving data with the next generation of TKI’s, axitinib and tivozanib being developed for the treatment of advanced RCC. These agents were synthesized to provide increased target specificity and enhanced target inhibition. The preclinical and clinical data are examined, an overview of the development of these TKI’s is provided, and discussion plus speculation concerning their potential roles as RCC therapy is provided.

  5. Third generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors and their development in advanced renal cell carcinoma.

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    Bukowski, Ronald M

    2012-01-01

    Angiogenesis in general and the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling axis in particular is a validated target in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Clear-cell carcinoma of the kidney is now recognized as a malignancy that is sensitive to inhibitors of the VEGF pathway. Treatment options for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma have evolved in dramatic fashion over the past 6 years, and a new paradigm has developed. The cytokines interferon-α and interleukin-2 were previously utilized for therapy, but since December 2005, six new agents have been approved in the United States for the treatment of advanced RCC. Two are tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI's) including sunitinib and recently pazopanib, and the multikinase inhibitor sorafenib. The current review examines the evolving data with the next generation of TKI's, axitinib and tivozanib being developed for the treatment of advanced RCC. These agents were synthesized to provide increased target specificity and enhanced target inhibition. The preclinical and clinical data are examined, an overview of the development of these TKI's is provided, and discussion plus speculation concerning their potential roles as RCC therapy is provided.

  6. Surgical Management of Local Recurrences of Renal Cell Carcinoma

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    Ömer Acar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Surgical resection either in the form of radical nephrectomy or in the form of partial nephrectomy represents the mainstay options in the treatment of kidney cancer. In most instances, resecting the tumor bearing kidney or the tumor itself provides durable cancer specific survival rates. However, recurrences may rarely develop in the renal fossa or remnant kidney. Despite its rarity, locally recurrent RCC is a challenging condition in terms of the possible management options and relatively poor prognosis. If technically feasible, wide surgical excision and ensuring negative surgical margins are the most effective treatment options. Repeat surgeries (completion nephrectomy, excision of locally recurrent tumor, or repeat partial nephrectomy may often be complicated, and perioperative morbidity is a major concern. Open approach has been extensively applied in this context and 5-year cancer specific survival rates have been reported to be around 50%. The roles of minimally invasive surgical options (laparoscopic and robotic approach and nonsurgical alternatives (cryoablation, radiofrequency ablation have yet to be described. In selected patients, surgical resection may have to be complemented with (neoadjuvant radiotherapy or medical treatment.

  7. Immunohistochemical analysis of cytochrome C oxidase facilitates differentiation between oncocytoma and chromophobe renal cell carcinoma.

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    Adam, Alexander C; Scriba, Alexander; Ortmann, Monika; Huss, Sebastian; Kahl, Philip; Steiner, Susanne; Störkel, Stephan; Büttner, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    In this study, immunohistochemical staining pattern of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CCO1) was investigated in the differentiation of renal oncocytoma (RO) from eosinophilic (EoC) and classic chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (ChRCC). A feature found in ChRCC/EoC but not in RO is the predominance of a perinuclear halo when stained for CCO1. In a cohort of 103 mixed cases including 44 RO, 37 classic ChRCC and 22 EoC, the diagnosis based on this immunohistochemical feature alone was consistent with the previous routine diagnosis in 95.7%. We reached 100% specificity and 81.4% sensitivity of this pattern in ChRCC. Specificity for RO was 93.2% and sensitivity correspondingly 95.5%. We propose a novel and easily interpretable immunohistochemical method for the discrimination of benign RO from certain subtypes of malignant ChRCC. Because of strong similarity in morphology of the 2 entities the diagnosis often cannot be made based on standard histopathology alone. The study describes for the first time the formation of a perinuclear halo in CCO1 immunohistochemistry as a highly specific marker for the diagnosis of ChRCC. We think this method can be a strong amendment for routine diagnostics in renal cell carcinoma.

  8. Review of succinate dehydrogenase-deficient renal cell carcinoma with focus on clinical and pathobiological aspects

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    Naoto Kuroda

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH-deficient renal cell carcinoma (RCC was first identified in 2004 and has been integrated into the 2016 WHO classification of RCC. Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH is an enzyme complex composed of four protein subunits (SDHA, SDHB, SDHC and SDHD. The tumor which presents this enzyme mutation accounts for 0.05 to 0.2% of all renal carcinomas. Multiple tumors may occur in approximately 30% of affected patients. SDHB-deficient RCC is the most frequent, and the tumor histologically consists of cuboidal cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm, vacuolization, flocculent intracytoplasmic inclusion and indistinct cell borders. Ultrastructurally, the tumor contains abundant mitochondria. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells are positive for SDHA, but negative for SDHB in SDHB-, SDHC- and SDHD-deficient RCCs. However, SDHA-deficient RCC shows negativity for both SDHA and SDHB. In molecular genetic analyses, a germline mutation in the SDHB , SDHC or SDHD gene (in keeping with most patients having germline mutations in an SDH gene has been identified in patients with or without a family history of renal tumors, paraganglioma/pheochromocytoma or gastrointestinal stromal tumor. While most tumors are low grade, some tumors may behave in an aggressive fashion, particularly if they are high nuclear grade, and have coagulative necrosis or sarcomatoid differentiation.

  9. Renal medullary carcinoma: sonographic, computed tomography, magnetic resonance and angiographic findings

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    Khan, Ali E-mail: drkhan@primedia.co.uk; Thomas, Nigel; Costello, Brandon; Jobling, Louis; Kretser, Dan de; Broadfield, Emma; O' Shea, Sarah

    2000-07-01

    Renal medullary carcinoma is a recently described, highly aggressive tumour, occurring predominantly in young patients of African descent with sickle cell trait (SCT). All have been metastatic at surgery. Surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy do not appear to alter the course of the disease. The survival time is very short. Presentation is usually with haematuria, abdominal pain and weight loss. Forty-nine patients have been reported from the USA, of these 47 were African/Americans. The reports have mostly appeared in pathology journals. On review of the imaging findings reported in the radiological journals, it becomes apparent that it is possible for a radiologist to suggest a specific diagnosis in the appropriate demographic and clinical setting. Here the first British patient of Afro-Caribbean decent in whom a pre-operative diagnosis was suggested on the imaging findings of a centrally located renal pelvic tumour, encasing the pelvis on a background of SCT in a 28-year-old is described. It is expected that a high index of suspicion in the appropriate clinical setting may lead to earlier diagnosis, treatment and survival of patients. The patient is alive and reasonably well 9 months after surgery. The full range of imaging findings in renal medullary carcinoma are described.

  10. A case of anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive renal cell carcinoma coincident with Hodgkin lymphoma.

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    Oyama, Yuzo; Nishida, Haruto; Kusaba, Takahiro; Kadowaki, Hiroko; Arakane, Motoki; Daa, Tsutomu; Watanabe, Dai; Akita, Yasuyuki; Sato, Fuminori; Mimata, Hiromitsu; Yokoyama, Shigeo

    2017-12-01

    We report a case of ALK-positive renal cell carcinoma coincident with Hodgkin lymphoma. The patient was a 19 year-old-girl without sickle cell trait. The right renal tumor was discovered concomitantly with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). After chemotherapy for HL, right nephrectomy was performed. Microscopically, the tumor showed a solid and focally pseudo-papillary growth pattern studded with tubular structures. Most tumor cells were small bland eosinophilic cells, but rhabdoid cells, vacuolated cells, pleomorphic multinucleated giant cells were also admixed. The variety of growth patterns and cell features led us to speculate a possibility of ALK-positive renal cell carcinoma (ALK + RCC). ALK was immunohistochemically positive, and fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis detected a split signal of the ALK gene. We examined previously reported partner genes (STRN, TPM3, VCL and EML4) by RT-PCR, but fusion gene was not detected. RCC showing solid or cribriform growth patterns with vacuolated cells with intracytoplamic lumina, rhabdoid cells, and mucus production indicates the possibility of ALK + RCC. © 2017 Japanese Society of Pathology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  11. Keap1/Nrf2 pathway in kidney cancer: frequent methylation of KEAP1 gene promoter in clear renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrizio, Federico Pio; Costantini, Manuela; Copetti, Massimiliano; la Torre, Annamaria; Sparaneo, Angelo; Fontana, Andrea; Poeta, Luana; Gallucci, Michele; Sentinelli, Steno; Graziano, Paolo; Parente, Paola; Pompeo, Vincenzo; De Salvo, Laura; Simone, Giuseppe; Papalia, Rocco; Picardo, Francesco; Balsamo, Teresa; Flammia, Gerardo Paolo; Trombetta, Domenico; Pantalone, Angela; Kok, Klaas; Paranita, Ferronika; Muscarella, Lucia Anna; Fazio, Vito Michele

    2017-02-14

    The Keap1/Nrf2 pathway is a master regulator of the cellular redox state through the induction of several antioxidant defence genes implicated in chemotherapeutic drugs resistance of tumor cells. An increasing body of evidence supports a key role for Keap1/Nrf2 pathway in kidney diseases and renal cell carcinoma (RCC), but data concerning the molecular basis and the clinical effect of its deregulation remain incomplete.Here we present a molecular profiling of the KEAP1 and NFE2L2 genes in five different Renal Cell Carcinoma histotypes by analysing 89 tumor/normal paired tissues (clear cell Renal Carcinoma, ccRCCs; Oncocytomas; Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma Type 1, PRCC1; Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma Type 2, PRCC2; and Chromophobe Cell Carcinoma).A tumor-specific DNA methylation of the KEAP1 gene promoter region was found as a specific feature of the ccRCC subtype (18/37, 48.6%) and a direct correlation with mRNA levels was confirmed by in vitro 5-azacytidine treatment. Analysis of an independent data set of 481 ccRCC and 265 PRCC tumors corroborates our results and multivariate analysis reveals a significant correlation among ccRCCs epigenetic KEAP1 silencing and staging, grading and overall survival.Our molecular results show for the the first time the epigenetic silencing of KEAP1 promoter as the leading mechanism for modulation of KEAP1 expression in ccRCCs and corroborate the driver role of Keap1/Nrf2 axis deregulation with potential new function as independent epigenetic prognostic marker in renal cell carcinoma.

  12. Oncological and functional outcomes of salvage renal surgery following failed primary intervention for renal cell carcinoma

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    Fernando G. Abarzua-Cabezas

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose To assess the oncologic and functional outcomes of salvage renal surgery following failed primary intervention for RCC. Materials and Methods We performed a retrospective review of patients who underwent surgery for suspected RCC during 2004-2012. We identified 839 patients, 13 of whom required salvage renal surgery. Demographic data was collected for all patients. Intraoperative and postoperative data included ischemic duration, blood loss and perioperative complications. Preoperative and postoperative assessments included abdominal CT or magnetic resonance imaging, chest CT and routine laboratory work. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR was calculated according to the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation. Results The majority (85% of the patients were male, with an average age of 64 years. Ten patients underwent salvage partial nephrectomy while 3 underwent salvage radical nephrectomy. Cryotherapy was the predominant primary failed treatment modality, with 31% of patients undergoing primary open surgery. Pre-operatively, three patients were projected to require permanent post-operative dialysis. In the remaining 10 patients, mean pre- and postoperative serum creatinine and eGFR levels were 1.35 mg/dL and 53.8 mL/min/1.73 m2 compared to 1.43 mg/dL and 46.6 mL/min/1.73 m2, respectively. Mean warm ischemia time in 10 patients was 17.4 min and for all patients, the mean blood loss was 647 mL. The predominant pathological stage was pT1a (8/13; 62%. Negative surgical margins were achieved in all cases. The mean follow-up was 32.9 months (3.5-88 months. Conclusion While salvage renal surgery can be challenging, it is feasible and has adequate surgical, functional and oncological outcomes.

  13. CDK1 and CDK2 activity is a strong predictor of renal cell carcinoma recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongo, Fumiya; Takaha, Natsuki; Oishi, Masakatsu; Ueda, Takashi; Nakamura, Terukazu; Naitoh, Yasuyuki; Naya, Yoshio; Kamoi, Kazumi; Okihara, Koji; Matsushima, Tomoko; Nakayama, Satoshi; Ishihara, Hideki; Sakai, Toshiyuki; Miki, Tsuneharu

    2014-11-01

    In renal cell carcinoma (RCC), the prediction of metastasis via tumor prognostic markers remains a major problem. The objective of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)1 and CDK2 activity as a prognostic marker in human RCC. Surgical specimens were obtained from 125 patients with RCC without metastasis. Protein expression and kinase activity of CDKs were analyzed using a newly developed assay system named C2P (Sysmex, Kobe, Japan). We then examined the specific activities (SAs) of CDK1 and CDK2 and calculated CDK2SA-CDK1SA ratio in RCC. Also, risk score (RS) was examined. A total of 125 cases were tested, though 34 cases were excluded because of low sample quality (25 cases) and assay failure (9 cases). In total, 91 cases were analyzed. They included 68 male and 23 female patients, ranging in age from 19 to 83 years. At a median follow-up of 36 months (1-109M), tumor with low CDK2SA-CDK1SA ratio showed significantly better 5-year recurrence-free survival than those with high CDK2SA-CDK1SA ratio (88.7% vs. 54.7%, P = 0.00141). Also, RS enabled the classification of RCCs into high-risk and low-risk groups, and patients with tumors classified as low RS showed better recurrence-free survival than patients with tumors with high RS (88.7% vs. 54.7%, P = 0.0141). CDK1SA of tumors and the CDK2SA are both associated with recurrence and prognosis. CDK-based risk demonstrated is strongly associated with clinical outcome. CDK-based risk should be an accurate system for predicting recurrence and survival for planning follow-up. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Tissue and urinary KIM-1 relate to tumor characteristics in patients with clear renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijuskovic, Mirjana; Stanojevic, Ivan; Milovic, Novak; Cerovic, Snezana; Petrovic, Dejan; Maksic, Djoko; Kovacevic, Bozidar; Andjelic, Tamara; Aleksic, Predrag; Terzic, Brankica; Djukic, Mirjana; Vojvodic, Danilo

    2017-10-19

    The objective of this prospective follow-up trial was to ascertain whether the urinary kidney injury molecule-1 (uKIM-1) associates with tumor tissue (tKIM-1) expression and with the pathological characteristics of clear renal cell carcinoma (cRCC) in radically nephrectomized (RN) and/or in partially nephrectomized (PN) patients with cRCC, pre- and postoperatively. This clinical study included 40 patients subjected to RN/PN (cRCC group) and 30 healthy volunteers (control group). Urinary KIM-1 was determined by ELISA TIM-1/KIM-1 kit and normalized by urinary creatinine. Immunohistochemical staining (monoclonal anti-human anti-TIM-1/KIM-1/HAVCR antibody) was used for semiquantitative analysis of the tKIM-1 expression and expressed as a score (% KIM-1 positively stained tubules). Both markers were interpreted in terms of the tumor characteristics comprising tumor size, Fuhrman grade, pathological (pT) stage, tumor/nodes/metastasis (TNM) stage, lymphovascular invasion and type of surgery RN/PN. Preoperative uKIM-1 was significantly higher in the cRCC group compared to controls, such as uKIM-1 was statistically higher in RN than in PN patients. Postoperatively, uKIM-1 decreased to control values. Expression of tKIM-1 was documented in all nephrectomized patients. Significant associations were achieved between uKIM-1 and tKIM-1 and with considered tumor characteristics, especially with tumor size and grade. Based on the accomplished associations, we found uKIM-1 as a highly sensitive marker for cRCC diagnosis. The clinical trial registration number: 1110-2012.

  15. Critical appraisal of pazopanib as treatment for patients with advanced metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Ronald M

    2011-01-01

    The management of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has undergone significant changes during the past 10 years, with the treatment of metastatic RCC undergoing the most radical changes. These developments reflect an enhanced understanding of this tumor's underlying biology, which was then translated into the development of a new treatment paradigm. Current therapeutic approaches for the management of patients with metastatic RCC utilize knowledge of histology, molecular abnormalities, clinical prognostic factors, the natural history of this malignancy, and the treatment efficacy and toxicity of available agents. The treatment options available for patients with metastatic RCC have changed dramatically over the past 6 years. Interferon-α and interleukin-2 were the previous mainstays of therapy, but since December 2005, six new agents have been approved in the US for the treatment of advanced RCC. Three are multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) including sunitinib, sorafenib, and pazopanib, two target the mammalian target of rapamycin (temsirolimus and everolimus), and one is a humanized monoclonal antibody (bevacizumab in combination with interferon-α). The current review focuses on the newest TKI available to treat patients with metastatic RCC, pazopanib. The development of this agent both preclinically and clinically is reviewed. The efficacy and safety data from the pivotal clinical trials are discussed, and the potential role of pazopanib in the treatment of patients with metastatic RCC in comparison to other treatment alternatives is critically appraised. This agent has a favorable overall risk benefit, and the available data demonstrate efficacy in patients with metastatic RCC who are either treatment-naïve or cytokine refractory. It therefore represents another alternative for treatment of metastatic RCC patients.

  16. Nivolumab for Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma: Results of a Randomized Phase II Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motzer, Robert J.; Rini, Brian I.; McDermott, David F.; Redman, Bruce G.; Kuzel, Timothy M.; Harrison, Michael R.; Vaishampayan, Ulka N.; Drabkin, Harry A.; George, Saby; Logan, Theodore F.; Margolin, Kim A.; Plimack, Elizabeth R.; Lambert, Alexandre M.; Waxman, Ian M.; Hammers, Hans J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Nivolumab is a fully human immunoglobulin G4 programmed death–1 immune checkpoint inhibitor antibody that restores T-cell immune activity. This phase II trial assessed the antitumor activity, dose-response relationship, and safety of nivolumab in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Patients and Methods Patients with clear-cell mRCC previously treated with agents targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor pathway were randomly assigned (blinded ratio of 1:1:1) to nivolumab 0.3, 2, or 10 mg/kg intravenously once every 3 weeks. The primary objective was to evaluate the dose-response relationship as measured by progression-free survival (PFS); secondary end points included objective response rate (ORR), overall survival (OS), and safety. Results A total of 168 patients were randomly assigned to the nivolumab 0.3- (n = 60), 2- (n = 54), and 10-mg/kg (n = 54) cohorts. One hundred eighteen patients (70%) had received more than one prior systemic regimen. Median PFS was 2.7, 4.0, and 4.2 months, respectively (P = .9). Respective ORRs were 20%, 22%, and 20%. Median OS was 18.2 months (80% CI, 16.2 to 24.0 months), 25.5 months (80% CI, 19.8 to 28.8 months), and 24.7 months (80% CI, 15.3 to 26.0 months), respectively. The most common treatment-related adverse event (AE) was fatigue (24%, 22%, and 35%, respectively). Nineteen patients (11%) experienced grade 3 to 4 treatment-related AEs. Conclusion Nivolumab demonstrated antitumor activity with a manageable safety profile across the three doses studied in mRCC. No dose-response relationship was detected as measured by PFS. These efficacy and safety results in mRCC support study in the phase III setting. PMID:25452452

  17. CD4 + T cells promote renal cell carcinoma proliferation via modulating YBX1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Wang, Yiting; Xu, Liang; Lu, Xianqi; Fu, Donghe; Su, Jing; Geng, Hua; Qin, Guoxuan; Chen, Ruibing; Quan, Changyi; Niu, Yuanjie; Yue, Dan

    2018-02-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a common urologic tumor and the third leading cause of death among urological tumors. Recent studies demonstrate that RCC tumors are more heavily infiltrated by lymphocytes than other cancers. However, the exact roles played by CD4 + T cells in RCC proliferation remain unknown. In this study, we cocultured RCC cells with CD4 + T cells. Stable knockdown of YBX1 in RCC cells was constructed. The effects of CD4 + T cells, TGFβ1 and YBX1 on RCC cells were investigated using cell viability assays. In situ RCC nude mouse model was used to observe the tumor growth. The potential mechanisms of CD4 + T cells and YBX1 in RCC cells proliferation were explored by qRT-PCR and western blot. Expression of CD4, Foxp3 and TGFβ1 in RCC were quantified by immunohistochemical staining. The results indicated that CD4, Foxp3 and TGFβ1 were significantly up-regulated in RCC tissues. Human clinical sample and in vitro cell lines studies showed that RCC cells had better capacity than its surrounding normal kidney epithelial cells to recruit the CD4 + T cells. In vivo mouse model studies were consistent with the results by in vitro cell lines studies showing infiltrating T cells enhanced RCC cell proliferation. qRT-PCR and western blot exhibited that CD4 + T cells could enhance RCC cell proliferation via activating YBX1/HIF2α signaling pathway. Furthermore, CD4 + T cells functioned through inducing TGFβ1 expression. In a word, infiltrating CD4 + T cells promoted TGFβ1 expression in both RCC and T cells and regulated RCC cells proliferation via modulating TGFβ1/YBX1/ HIF2α signals. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Lapatinib versus hormone therapy in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma: a randomized phase III clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravaud, Alain; Hawkins, Robert; Gardner, Jason P

    2008-01-01

    of metastatic sites--were randomly assigned to lapatinib 1,250 mg daily or HT. The primary end point was time to progression (TTP); secondary end points included overall survival (OS), safety, and biomarker analyses. RESULTS: Four hundred sixteen patients were enrolled onto the study. Median TTP was 15.3 weeks......PURPOSE: Lapatinib is an orally reversible inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) tyrosine kinases with demonstrated activity in patients with HER-2-positive breast cancer. In the current phase III open-label trial, lapatinib...... was compared with hormone therapy (HT) in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) that express EGFR and/or HER-2. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with advanced RCC who had experienced disease progression through first-line cytokine therapy--stratified by Karnofsky performance status and number...

  19. Case report of renal pelvis squamous cell carcinoma with tumor embolus in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jing; Zhang, Xue-Bin; Wang, Wen-Ze; Li, Han-Zhong

    2016-08-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a multisystem hereditary disease characterized by formation of cysts in the ductal organs. Renal pelvis malignancy in ADPKD is very rare and sporadically reported in the previous literature. Here, we report the first case of renal pelvis squamous cell carcinoma with tumor embolus in a 35-year-old ADPKD patient. The patient presented with 3 months of persistent backache and intermittent fever, and was initially diagnosed as intracystic hemorrhage with inferior vena cava thrombosis formation. As a result, he received anticoagulation therapy in a local hospital. However, his backache got worsened during the therapy, and he lost 10 kg of his body weight from the onset of illness. In our hospital, computed tomography demonstrated a heterogeneous right renal mass as well as emboli in the inferior vena cava and bilateral renal veins. Positron emission tomography computed tomography and biopsy were also performed, but the results were equivocal. Considering the patient's willingness and the potential malignancy, we performed thoracoabdominal nephrectomy and embolectomy, and histological examination made the diagnosis of renal pelvis squamous cell carcinoma. After adjuvant chemotherapy including paclitaxel and carboplatin, the patient obtained improved physical status and was disease free at the 6-month follow-up. Although rare, renal pelvis squamous cell carcinoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of renal mass in ADPKD patients. Our case suggested surgery combined with adjuvant chemotherapy might be effective treatments in such a condition.

  20. Acquired cystic disease and renal cell carcinoma in hemodialysis patients--A case report on three patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijušković, Mirjana; Milović, Novak; Kovačević, Bozidar; Jovanović, Dragan; Stefanović, Dara; Ignjatović, Ljiljana; Terzić, Brankica; Pilčević, Jelena Tadić; Petrović, Marijana; Pilčević, Dejan; Obrencević, Katarina; Cerović, Snezana

    2015-10-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is derived from renal tubular epithelial cells and represents approximately 3.8% of all malignancies in adults. The incidence of renal cell carcinoma has been growing steadily and ranging from 0.6 to 14.7 for every 100,000 inhabitants. Patients with end-stage renal disease and acquired cystic kidney disease are at increased risk of developing RCC while undergoing dialysis treatment or after renal transplantation. We presented 3 patients undergoing hemodialysis, with acquired cystic kidney disease accompanied by the development of RCC. In all the patients tumor was asymptomatic and discovered through ultrasound screening in 2 patients and in 1 of the patients by post-surgery pathohistological analysis of the tissue of the kidney excised using nephrectomy. All the three patients had organ-limited disease at the time of the diagnosis and they did not require additional therapy after surgical treatment. During the follow-up after nephrectomy from 6 months to 7 years, local recurrence or metastasis of RCC were not diagnosed. Acquired cystic kidney disease represents a predisposing factor for the development of renal cell carcinoma in dialysis patients and requires regular ultrasound examinations of the abdomen aimed at early diagnosis of malignancies. Prognosis for patients with end-stage renal disease and RCC is mostly good because these tumors are usually of indolent course.

  1. Improved overall survival after implementation of targeted therapy for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma: Results from the Danish Renal Cancer Group (DARENCA) study-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anne V.; Donskov, Frede; Hermann, Gregers G.

    2014-01-01

    AbstractAim To evaluate the implementation of targeted therapy on overall survival (OS) in a complete national cohort of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Methods All Danish patients with mRCC referred for first line treatment with immunotherapy, TKIs or mTOR-inhibitors between...

  2. Targeted therapy after complete resection of metastatic lesions in metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong Hyun; Jung, Jin-Woo; Lee, Byung Ki; Lee, Sangchul; Jeong, Seong Jin; Byun, Seok-Soo; Lee, Sang Eun

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of targeted therapy after complete resection of metastatic lesions in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 53 patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma who underwent complete surgical resection of metastatic lesions between January 2006 and December 2012. Immediate postoperative targeted therapy was given to a subgroup of patients. Progression-free survival and cancer-specific survival were assessed. All patients underwent curative surgery for a primary tumor. A total of 13 patients (24.5%) had metastatic disease at initial diagnosis, and 49 (92.5%) had single-organ involvement at the time of first metastasis. None of the patients met the poor-risk criteria. Of the 19 patients who received immediate postoperative targeted therapy, five (26.3%) experienced relapse. Of the 34 patients who did not receive immediate postoperative targeted therapy, 27 (79.4%) experienced disease recurrence. Targeted therapy was restarted in 30 patients (93.8%) after relapse with excellent disease control rates (complete response: 3.3%, partial response: 36.7%, stable disease: 46.7%). Immediate postoperative targeted therapy was associated with better median progression-free survival (not reached vs 20.0 months; P = 0.017), but not better cancer-specific survival. Postoperative targeted therapy after complete metastasectomy seems to be associated with better progression-free survival in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma, but not with cancer-specific survival. © 2014 The Japanese Urological Association.

  3. The role of surgery in renal cell carcinoma with pancreatic metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Hsu Chang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis of renal cell carcinoma to the pancreas is uncommon and, in most cases, presents as a single pancreatic mass that shows a more favorable prognosis than primary pancreatic tumors. We examined patients with renal cell carcinoma metastatic to the pancreas, and discuss the clinical findings, treatment administered, and final outcomes. The present study is a retrospective analysis of renal cell carcinoma patients with pancreatic metastasis. Pancreatic tumor specimens were obtained by surgical excision, surgical biopsy, fine-needle biopsy, or endoscopic ultrasound biopsy. The surgical approaches included distal splenopancreatectomy, total pancreatectomy, or distal pancreatectomy. The physician determined the postoperative treatment regimen with interferon-α or targeted therapy on the basis of patient's performance. A total of six patients with median age of 50 years were included in the study. The median time from the primary nephrectomy to the development of pancreatic metastasis was 16 years. In the biopsy-only group, the mean stable disease period was 16.5 months. In the patients treated with surgery combined with interferon-α or targeted therapy, the mean stable disease period was 29.5 months. The patients treated with repeat mastectomy showed a mean stable disease period of 33.3 months. Aggressive surgical management is more effective than observation or immunotherapy. Recent advances in the design of targeted therapies may provide alternative treatment strategies. Combination therapy may play an important role in the future. Considering patient compliance and cost-effectiveness, resection of pancreatic metastasis is currently the first choice of treatment.

  4. Identification of TGF-β-activated kinase 1 as a possible novel target for renal cell carcinoma intervention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Fandong; Li, Yan; Tian, Xin; Fu, Liye; Yin, Yuanqin; Sui, Chengguang; Ma, Ping; Jiang, Youhong, E-mail: youyuanhongyeah@yeah.net

    2014-10-10

    Highlights: • Inhibition of TAK1 kinase activity suppresses NF-κB activation and RCC cell survival. • TAK1 inhibitors induces apoptotic cytotoxicity against RCC cells. • RCC cells with TAK1 depletion show reduced cell viability and increased apoptosis. • TAK1 and p-NF-κB are both over-expressed in human RCC tissues. • Inhibition or depletion of TAK1 enhances the activity of vinblastine sulfate. - Abstract: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is common renal malignancy within poor prognosis. TGF-β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) plays vital roles in cell survival, apoptosis-resistance and carcinogenesis through regulating nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and other cancer-related pathways. Here we found that TAK1 inhibitors (LYTAK1, 5Z-7-oxozeanol (5Z) and NG-25) suppressed NF-κB activation and RCC cell (786-O and A489 lines) survival. TAK1 inhibitors induced apoptotic cytotoxicity against RCC cells, which was largely inhibited by the broad or specific caspase inhibitors. Further, shRNA-mediated partial depletion of TAK1 reduced 786-O cell viability whiling activating apoptosis. Significantly, TAK1 was over-expressed in human RCC tissues, and its level was correlated with phosphorylated NF-κB. Finally, kinase inhibition or genetic depletion of TAK1 enhanced the activity of vinblastine sulfate (VLB) in RCC cells. Together, these results suggest that TAK1 may be an important oncogene or an effective target for RCC intervention.

  5. Clear cell renal cell carcinoma with osseous metaplasia: Rare case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Swapnil; Bohara, Sangita; Jha, Ruchi; Khurana, Nita; Agarwal, P N

    2015-01-01

    Osseous metaplasia with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is exceedingly rare. There are less than 20 reported cases of osseous metaplasia in association with RCC. We present a case of 39-year-old male patient presented to outpatient department with complaints of pain in the left lumbar region since 4 years. Computed tomography scan revealed a heterogeneous enhanced mass lesion having areas of necrosis and specks of calcification involving the left kidney. Clinicoradiological diagnosis of RCC was made and left radical nephrectomy was performed. Histological sections from the growth revealed features of clear cell carcinoma Fuhrman grade-2 with a focal area of metaplastic bone formation. The prognostic implications of calcification per se are not very clearly mentioned in the literature. Patients with osseous metaplasia generally present with early stage disease and a favorable prognosis. However, few of them were of high grade and poorer prognosis.

  6. Solitary intrathyroidal metastasis of renal clear cell carcinoma in a toxic substernal multinodular goiter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionigi Gianlorenzo

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Thyroid gland is a rare site of clinically detectable tumor metastasis. Case report A 71-year-old woman was referred to our department for an evaluation of toxic multinodular substernal goiter. She had a history of renal clear cell carcinoma of the left kidney, which had been resected 2 years previously. US confirmed the multinodular goiter. Total thyroidectomy with neuromonitoring was performed on March 2008. A histological examination revealed a solitary metastasis of a clear cell renal cancer in a diffuse multinodular goiter. No distant metastases are detected. Conclusion Although uncommon, it is important for the endocrine surgeon and endocrine oncologist to be able to recognize and differentiate intrathyroid metastases from more primary common thyroid neoplasms. The diagnosis can be suspected if the patient has a thyroid tumor and a past history of extrathyroid cancer. These tumors, on the whole, tend to behave more aggressively and, in most cases, the use of multimodality therapy is recommended.

  7. RESECTION OF THE S-SHAPED CROSSED DYSTOPIC KIDNEY IN A PATIENT WITH RENAL CELL CARCINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ya. Alekseev

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma (RCC is one of the most urgent topics in modern oncourology. This is attributable to the high morbidity and mortality rates associated with this pathology. Renal dystopia is a rather rare developmental anomaly. The literature data describing cases of the diagnosis and treatment in patients with dystopic kidney malignancies are scarce. Moreover, if a tumor is present in the solitary dystopic kidney, it is often extremely difficult to perform an organ-saving operation for a number of features of the anatomic structure of the dystopic kidney and its vascular architectonics. The paper describes a clinical case of S-shaped crossed dystopic kidney resection in a patient with RCC.

  8. Renal medullary carcinoma response to chemotherapy: a referral center experience in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Cavalcanti Maroja Silvino

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Renal medullary carcinoma (RMC is rare, accounting for less than 1% of all renal neoplasms. Case reports suggest RMC is highly aggressive, poorly responsive to chemotherapy, often metastatic at diagnosis, affects young men with sickle cell trait, and median overall survival (mOS is less than 12 months. We report the epidemiological characteristics, treatments performed, response rate to each treatment and mOS of five patients with RMC. All patients had sickle cell trait, four were male, three had metastatic disease at diagnosis and mean age at diagnosis was 25 years. Non-metastatic patients were submitted to nephrectomy. Two patients had partial response to first line chemotherapy including cisplatin and gemcitabine. There was no response to sunitinib or second line chemo - therapy; mOS was 6 months. Due to its rarity, case series are the only evidence available to discuss the treatment for RMC. In our experience, only cisplatin and gemcitabine based regimen offered response.

  9. Developing an algorithm for the management of Renal Cell Carcinoma: focus on metastatic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriazoglou Anastasios

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The treatment paradigm in renal cell carcinoma (RCC is rapidly changing. The incidental finding of small renal tumours combined with the development of novel therapeutic agents targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF or the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR pathways or inhibiting the interaction of the programmed death 1 (PD 1 receptor with its ligand have dramatically improved the prognosis of patients suffering from this malignancy. At the same time, the availability of multiple effective options with similar indications complicates the development and applicability of guidelines in this disease. We conducted a systematic review of the existing guidelines. Our study revealed areas of agreement as well as of discrepancies amongst the published scientific papers included. By critically evaluating these areas, we developed a therapeutic algorithm for RCC. We suggest that this methodology can define the practices of wide applicability and areas of future research.

  10. Translocational renal cell carcinoma (t(6;11)(p21;q12) with transcription factor EB (TFEB) amplification and an integrated precision approach: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilleby, Wolfgang; Vlatkovic, Ljiljana; Meza-Zepeda, Leonardo A; Revheim, Mona-Elisabeth; Hovig, Eivind

    2015-12-09

    Renal cell carcinoma with the distinct type of t(6;11)(p21;q12) translocation (transcription factor EB) is a rare neoplasm. In the present case study, we show for the first time an autophagy signature in a patient with transcription factor EB renal cell carcinoma. We attempted to characterize the mutational and expressional features of a t(6;11)(p21;q12) renal cell carcinoma, in an effort to address the potential for molecular guidance of personalized medical decision for a case in this renal cell carcinoma category. We report the case of a 42-year-old white man who had a late relapse of his renal cell carcinoma. The first diagnosis of clear cell renal carcinoma was derived from a histological examination; analyzing the metastasis and going back to the primary tumor it turned out to be a transcription factor EB-renal cell carcinoma. The treatment plan included local radiation and systemic therapy. As part of the multimodal approach, tumor samples for genetic assessment were obtained. However, there is no recommended standard therapy for transcription factor EB-renal cell carcinoma. Despite four lines of medical treatment with targeted therapy and one checkpoint inhibitor, all attempts to prolong the patient's survival failed. During the course of this unusual disease, we gained insights which, to the best of our knowledge, were unknown before in the expression of the gene signature linked to autophagy. This might in part explain the resistance to conventional targeted therapy acknowledged in our patient.

  11. Final results of the European Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma Sorafenib (EU-ARCCS) expanded-access study: a large open-label study in diverse community settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, J.; Procopio, G.; Bajetta, E.; Keilholz, U.; Negrier, S.; Szczylik, C.; Bokemeyer, C.; Bracarda, S.; Richel, D. J.; Staehler, M.; Strauss, U. P.; Mersmann, S.; Burock, K.; Escudier, B.

    2011-01-01

    The European Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma Sorafenib (EU-ARCCS) expanded-access study provided sorafenib to advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients in whom previous systemic therapy had failed. The study assessed the safety and use of sorafenib for the treatment of advanced RCC in a large

  12. The Complete Response to Targeted Drugs Without Surgery or Radiotherapy: A Case of Pituitary Metastasis From Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Payandeh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary gland metastasis was seen in elderly patients, and the incidence of pituitary metastasis is 1% to 4% of all cancer patients. Renal cell carcinoma is a primary malignancy in only 2.6% of pituitary metastases. We reported a 50-year-old man with pituitary metastasis from renal cell carcinoma that had signs of diabetes insipidus. He had multiple lesions in both lungs, and bone scan involved L12 and L1 vertebrates. He was treated with combination bevacizumab 600 mg/month and sunitinib 50 mg/D for four weeks with two weeks rest for 6 months. Treatment with targeted drugs without surgery of pituitary or radiotherapy improved metastatic renal cell carcinoma in the patient.

  13. Thyroid, Renal, and Breast Carcinomas, Chondrosarcoma, Colon Adenomas, and Ganglioneuroma: A New Cancer Syndrome, FAP, or Just Coincidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihab Shafek Atta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We are presenting a case associated with papillary thyroid carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma, invasive mammary carcinoma, chondrosarcoma, benign ganglioneuroma, and numerous colon adenomas. The patient had a family history of colon cancer, kidney and bladder cancers, lung cancer, thyroid cancer, leukemia, and throat and mouth cancers. She was diagnosed with colonic villous adenoma at the age of 41 followed by thyroid, renal, and breast cancers and chondrosarcoma at the ages of 48, 64, 71, and 74, respectively. Additionally, we included a table with the most common familial cancer syndromes with one or more benign or malignant tumors diagnosed in our case, namely, FAP, HNPCC, Cowden, Peutz-Jeghers, renal cancer, tuberous sclerosis, VHL, breast/other, breast/ovarian, Carney, Werner’s, Bloom, Li-Fraumeni, xeroderma pigmentosum, ataxia-telangiectasia, osteochondromatosis, retinoblastoma, and MEN2A.

  14. Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor Producing Infiltrating Urothelial Carcinoma of the Left Renal Pelvis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takamasa Horiuchi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF producing infiltrating urothelial carcinoma of the left renal pelvis. The patient was referred to our hospital for fever and anorexia. Blood tests showed elevated level of leukocytosis without any infectious diseases. The serum concentration of G-CSF was remarkably elevated. Abdominal computed tomography (CT revealed a huge mass in the left renal pelvis and para-aortic lymph node enlargement. He was underwent left nephroureterectomy and para-aortic lymphadenectomy. The histological examination revealed infiltrating urothelial carcinoma with positive staining for G-CSF antibody. The postoperative course was smooth and the leukocyte count became normalized within a week postoperatively. However, multiple lung metastasis and leukocytosis were revealed about 2 months after the operation. G-CSF producing infiltrating urothelial carcinoma of the renal pelvis is reported to have a significantly poor prognosis, so it is very important to monitor closely after the operation.

  15. Increased intratumoral FOXP3-positive regulatory immune cells during interleukin-2 treatment in metastatic renal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hanne Krogh; Donskov, Frede; Nordsmark, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: The administration of interleukin-2 (IL-2) may increase the frequency of peripherally circulating FOXP3-positive regulatory immune cells, thus potentially compromising this treatment option for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. The impact of IL-2-based therapy...... on the accumulation of FOXP3-positive immune cells in the tumor microenvironment in metastatic renal cell carcinoma is unknown. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Baseline (n = 58) and on-treatment (n = 42) tumor core biopsies were prospectively obtained from patients with clear cell metastatic renal cell carcinoma before...... tumor-infiltrating immune cells at baseline and during treatment (P 180 cells/mm2) of on-treatment FOXP3-positive intratumoral immune cells were dead within 22 months (n = 11), whereas patients with low numbers (

  16. Stereotactic ablative radiation therapy in renal cell carcinoma: From oligometastatic to localized disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alongi, Filippo; Arcangeli, Stefano; Triggiani, Luca; Mazzola, Rosario; Buglione di Monale E Bastia, Michela; Fersino, Sergio; Baiguini, Anna; Jereczek-Fossa, Barbara Alicja; Magrini, Stefano Maria

    2017-09-01

    Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) has historically been considered a radioresistant cancer, and radiotherapy was usually delivered with a palliative goal. Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) allows the delivery of high doses on small treatment volumes in a safe and effective way, thus opening the doors to new applicationsof radiotherapy both in the treatment of the primary and oligometastasic disease. Aim of the current review is to explore the state of art of SABR in the therapeutic approach to RCC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A Case of Leser-Trélat Syndrome Associated with a Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietrich Barth

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Seborrheic keratoses can often be found in elderly people. In general, they appear gradually. In cases of a sudden eruption with itching it might be paraneoplastic. Although some authors doubt the existence of the paraneoplastic Leser-Trélat syndrome, we present a case of sudden eruption of seborrheic keratoses connected with a newly diagnosed renal cell carcinoma. As far as we know, this is the first case report of a Leser-Trélat syndrome with a malignancy of the kidney.

  18. Management of Locally Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma with Invasion of the Duodenum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew T. Schlussel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma (RCC is rare but aggressive, with greater than 20% of patients presenting with stage III or IV, disease. Surgical resection of the primary tumor regardless of stage is the treatment of choice, and en bloc resection of involved organs provides the only potential chance for cure. This case report describes a patient with metastatic right-sided RCC with invasion of the inferior vena cava and duodenum managed by en block resection and pancreaticoduodenectomy. This report will review the workup and treatment of locally advanced RCC, as well as the role of cytoreductive nephrectomy in the setting of metastatic disease.

  19. Chronic lymphocytic lymphoma and concomitant renal cell carcinoma (Clear Cell Type: Review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burak Uz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present report, a 73 years-old male patient who developed clear cell type renal cell carcinoma (RCC 5 years after the diagnosis of chronic lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL and plausible explanations for this association were discussed by the authors. The incidence of CLL and RCC occurring in the same patient is higher than that expected in the general population. Various explicative hypotheses of this concurrence include treatment-related development of a second malignancy, immunomodulatory mechanisms, viral aetiology, cytokine (interleukin 6 release from a tumor, and common genetic mutations. Further investigations are warranted.

  20. High Occurrence of Non-Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venniyoor, Ajit; Essam, Abdul Monem; Ramadhan, Fatma; Keswani, Heeranand; Mehdi, Itrat; Bahrani, Bassim Al

    2016-01-01

    It is conventionally accepted that renal cell carcinoma (RCC) occurs in older patients and the clear cell type is the most common histology. However, ethnic variations exist and this study was carried out to determine the epidemiological pattern of RCC in Oman. Ninety RCC patients who presented to a tertiary care center in the Sultanate of Oman from 2010 to 2014 were studied. The main findings were that the median age of presentation was low, more patients presented with localized stage, and there was a higher incidence of non-clear (especially papillary) histology. Data from other Gulf countries and possible reasons for the different profile are discussed.

  1. RESECTIONOF A HORSESHOE KIDNEY IN A PATIENT WITH RENAL CELL CARCINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Nyushko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma (RCC is one of the most urgent problems of modern urology, due to the steady increase in the incidence of this disease worldwide. Horseshoe kidney is a rare observation, the frequency of detection of this disease in the population is 2.8% of all malformations. RCC horseshoe kidney are rare, less than 2% of all cases of horseshoe kidney. Surgical treatment remains the golden standard of therapy of patients with RCC. The article presents a clinical case of resection of horseshoe kidney in a patient with RCC.

  2. Donor Kidney With Renal Cell Carcinoma Successfully Treated With Radiofrequency Ablation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, S F; Hansen, Jesper Melchior

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The risk of donor-transmitted cancer is evident. CASE REPORT: We report the case of a 69-year-old woman who was transplanted with a kidney from a deceased donor. Four days after transplantation a routine ultrasound scan revealed a 3-cm tumor in the middle-upper pole of the allograft....... A biopsy showed the tumor to be papillary renal cell carcinoma. The patient was treated with radiofrequency ablation. This procedure was complicated by the development of a cutaneous fistula and open surgery was done with resection of an area of necrosis in the kidney and of the fistula. The maintenance...

  3. Renal Medullary Carcinoma with an Aggressive Clinical Course: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhumati R. Kalavar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal medullary carcinoma (RMC is a rare, yet aggressive malignancy of the kidney that is found predominantly in young patients with African descent and sickle cell hemoglobinopathies and most specifically sickle cell trait. Due to its aggressive nature, most cases have metastasis or local invasion at the time of diagnosis. Prognosis is extremely poor with survival less than 1 year after diagnosis. Here we present a case of metastatic RMC in a 29-year-old African female. Despite chemotherapy with cisplatin, gemcitabine, and paclitaxel, and initial shrinkage of the tumor, the patient died 5 months after diagnosis.

  4. Inflammatory pseudotumor of the spleen concomitant with renal cell carcinoma: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Ossamu Ioshii

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Inflammatory pseudotumor is a rare benign lesion that can occur at a wide variety of primary sites. It is usually worrisome for the patient and the medical staff, since it cannot be clinically or radiologically distinguished from malignant entities. CASE REPORT: We report on a case of splenic inflammatory pseudotumor presenting with concomitant renal cell carcinoma. Despite the alarming macroscopic appearance of pseudotumors, their microscopic features usually confirm the inflammatory nature of such lesions. Evidence regarding the etiology of pseudotumors is still lacking, but hypotheses have been created.

  5. A Stauffer's syndrome variant associated with renal cell carcinoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    İ. Ateş

    2015-10-09

    Oct 9, 2015 ... Anti-mitochondrial antibody, anti- nuclear antibody, anti-smooth muscle antibodies, anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody, TORCH, epstein barr virus, human immu- nodeficiency virus, acute and chronic viral hepatitis markers were negativeforserologicaltests.Inaddition,iron,ironbindingcapacity, ferritin, 24-h ...

  6. Radiation induced esophageal adenocarcinoma in a woman previously treated for breast cancer and renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raissouni Soundouss

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Secondary radiation-induced cancers are rare but well-documented as long-term side effects of radiation in large populations of breast cancer survivors. Multiple neoplasms are rare. We report a case of esophageal adenocarcinoma in a patient treated previously for breast cancer and clear cell carcinoma of the kidney. Case presentation A 56 year-old non smoking woman, with no alcohol intake and no familial history of cancer; followed in the National Institute of Oncology of Rabat Morocco since 1999 for breast carcinoma, presented on consultation on January 2011 with dysphagia. Breast cancer was treated with modified radical mastectomy, 6 courses of chemotherapy based on CMF regimen and radiotherapy to breast, inner mammary chain and to pelvis as castration. Less than a year later, a renal right mass was discovered incidentally. Enlarged nephrectomy realized and showed renal cell carcinoma. A local and metastatic breast cancer recurrence occurred in 2007. Patient had 2 lines of chemotherapy and 2 lines of hormonotherapy with Letrozole and Tamoxifen assuring a stable disease. On January 2011, the patient presented dysphagia. Oesogastric endoscopy showed middle esophagus stenosing mass. Biopsy revealed adenocarcinoma. No evidence of metastasis was noticed on computed tomography and breast disease was controlled. Palliative brachytherapy to esophagus was delivered. Patient presented dysphagia due to progressive disease 4 months later. Jejunostomy was proposed but the patient refused any treatment. She died on July 2011. Conclusion We present here a multiple neoplasm in a patient with no known family history of cancers. Esophageal carcinoma is most likely induced by radiation. However the presence of a third malignancy suggests the presence of genetic disorders.

  7. Complex Monitoring of Biochemical and Radionuclide Parameters in Patients with Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma during Immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Sayapina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Study Objective. To study the effectiveness of complex monitoring of the kidney function, based on biochemical and radionuclide methods in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC. Materials and Methods. 41 mRCC patients after nephrectomy received nivolumab (n = 23 and interferon-α (n = 18 from 2015 to 2017. At baseline and 2 months after, all patients underwent blood chemistry, urinalysis, Rehberg test, and ELISA to determine serum levels of IL-17A, TGF-β, and erythropoietin. The monitoring of the renal function and urodynamics by complex renal scintigraphy (CRS was used for all patients using a dual-detector gamma camera and simultaneous data recording in 2 projections. The interpretation of CRS data used the original SENS CRS technology. Study Results. Statistically significant correlations were established between IL-17A, TGF-β, and D (excretion rate of 99mTc-technephore from the parenchyma and Rnfsc (a stable sign of nephrosclerosis, respectively. A significant correlation was established between the parameters of the complex functional monitoring with the prognosis for the risk of renal failure (RF and efficacy of immunotherapy in mRCC. Conclusions. All mRCC patients after nephrectomy were recommended to undergo biochemical monitoring with inclusion of TGF-β and IL-17A, as well as radionuclide monitoring (CRS to determine the RF risk at an early stage.

  8. Renal Cell Carcinoma with venous neoplastic thrombosis: A ten years review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Maria Pirola

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To review the 10-year experience of our urological unit in the surgical management of renal cell carcinoma (RCC with neoplastic tumor thrombosis focusing on postoperative survival. Materials and Methods: We underwent a retrospective analysis of the patients treated for this pathology during the last decade 2002-2012, stratifying them by tumor thrombus level and histological subtype. Kaplan-Meyer curves were used to assess survival. Results: Overall, 67 patients underwent surgery for RCC with neoplastic tumoral thrombosis in the period under review. 60 were clear cell RCC, 4 were urothelial papillary tumors of the renal pelvis and 3 were rare histotypes, as a nefroblastoma, a spinocellular tumor of the renal pelvis and an unclassifiable renal carcinoma. Thrombus level was I in 40 cases, II in 17, III in 2 and IV in 8 patients. We report the main postoperative complications and our survival data, with mean follow up of 36 months. Tumor stage is the most important variable in predicting survival. Patients with N0M0 disease had 70% survival at 36 months, instead of 20% for those with primitive metastatic tumor. Conclusion: Our survival results fit with the main reports in literature and our surgical management was completely in keeping with international guidelines. We did not observe relevany post-operative complications, except of hemorrhagic ones that occurred in 6 patients (9% of total and were always successfully managed. Eighteen patients (26.87% of total underwent caval filter positioning, without evidence of complications during its positioning or removal. Life expectancy was particularly low for the cases of RCC without clear cell histotype (7 cases in our series, 10.4% of total that always was less than one year from surgery.

  9. Comparative Immunohistochemical Analysis of Ochratoxin A Tumourigenesis in Rats and Urinary Tract Carcinoma in Humans; Mechanistic Significance of p-S6 Ribosomal Protein Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Pinder

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA is considered to be a possible human urinary tract carcinogen, based largely on a rat model, but no molecular genetic changes in the rat carcinomas have yet been defined. The phosphorylated-S6 ribosomal protein is a marker indicating activity of the mammalian target of rapamycin, which is a serine/threonine kinase with a key role in protein biosynthesis, cell proliferation, transcription, cellular metabolism and apoptosis, while being functionally deregulated in cancer. To assess p-S6 expression we performed immunohistochemistry on formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tumours and normal tissues. Marked intensity of p-S6 expression was observed in highly proliferative regions of rat renal carcinomas and a rare angiosarcoma, all of which were attributed to prolonged exposure to dietary OTA. Only very small OTA-generated renal adenomas were negative for p-S6. Examples of rat subcutaneous fibrosarcoma and testicular seminoma, as well as of normal renal tissue, showed no or very weak positive staining. In contrast to the animal model, human renal cell carcinoma, upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma from cases of Balkan endemic nephropathy, and a human angiosarcoma were negative for p-S6. The combined findings are reminiscent of constitutive changes in the rat tuberous sclerosis gene complex in the Eker strain correlated with renal neoplasms, Therefore rat renal carcinogenesis caused by OTA does not obviously mimic human urinary tract tumourigenesis.

  10. [A Case of Xp.11.2 Traslocational Renal Cell Carcinoma Diagnosed by Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization (FISH)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iinuma, Koji; Kojima, Keitaro; Okamoto, Kiyohisa; Yuhara, Kazuya

    2016-08-01

    A 72-year-old woman was referred to our hospital with complaints of macro-hematuria. The radiographic evaluation including computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) suggested it to be renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in her right kidney. She underwent laparoscopic nephrectomy. We diagnosed her with renal cell carcinoma associated with Xp11.2 translocation/TFE3 gene fusion, based on pathological findings and break apart of transcription factor E3 (TFE3)by fluorescence in situ hybridization. She was free of recurrence at 8 months postoperatively.

  11. Therapeutic dendritic cell vaccination of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma: a clinical phase 1/2 trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Annika; Trepiakas, Redas; Wenandy, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    Therapeutic dendritic cell (DC) vaccination against cancer is a strategy aimed at activating the immune system to recognize and destroy tumor cells. In this nonrandomized phase 1/2 trial, we investigated the safety, feasibility, induction of T-cell response, and clinical response after treatment...... with a DC-based vaccine in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Twenty-seven patients with progressive cytokine-refractory metastatic renal cell carcinoma were vaccinated with DCs loaded with either a cocktail of survivin and telomerase peptides or tumor lysate depending on their HLA-A2 haplotype...

  12. Therapeutic dendritic cell vaccination of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma - A clinical, phase 1/2 trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, A.; Trepiakas, R.; Wenandy, L.

    2008-01-01

    Therapeutic dendritic cell (DC) vaccination against cancer is a strategy aimed at activating the immune system to recognize and destroy tumor cells. In this nonrandomized phase 1/2 trial, we investigated the safety, feasibility, induction of T-cell response, and clinical response after treatment...... with a DC- based vaccine in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Twenty-seven patients with progressive cytokine-refractory metastatic renal cell carcinoma were vaccinated with DCs loaded with either a cocktail of survivin and telomerase peptides or tumor lysate depending on their HLA-A2 haplotype...

  13. Frequent mutations of genes encoding ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis pathway components in clear cell renal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Guangwu; Gui, Yaoting; Gao, Shengjie

    2012-01-01

    We sequenced whole exomes of ten clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCCs) and performed a screen of similar to 1,100 genes in 88 additional ccRCCs, from which we discovered 12 previously unidentified genes mutated at elevated frequencies in ccRCC. Notably, we detected frequent mutations in the u......We sequenced whole exomes of ten clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCCs) and performed a screen of similar to 1,100 genes in 88 additional ccRCCs, from which we discovered 12 previously unidentified genes mutated at elevated frequencies in ccRCC. Notably, we detected frequent mutations...

  14. Radiological diagnosis of renal carcinoma in adults; Diagnostic radiologique du cancer du rein de l'adulte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mignon, F. [Hopital de Versailles, Service de Radiologie, 78 - Le Chesnay (France); Mesurolle, B. [Hopital General de Montreal, Service de Radiologie, Montreal (Canada)

    2003-09-01

    In this paper, we describe the new imaging modalities employed in initial imaging management of renal carcinoma which provide accurate answers to practical questions. This article highlights the more suitable diagnostic imaging tools, their strong and weak points, their limitations with emphasis placed on the major role of helical CT in diagnosis and initial staging of renal carcinoma: helical CT allows complete examination in the same time of the lesion and its possible extensions. In recent years with the advent of new imaging modalities, HelicalCT has become the standard diagnostic method for characterizing and staging renal carcinoma which decisively influences the therapeutic approach. CT can diagnose the type of carcinoma, precisely establish local and regional staging such as extension to the adjacent structures (perirenal fat, collecting system), presence of regional lymph node metastases and venous tumor thrombus. In addition helical CT is able to detail anatomical landmarks (venous and arterial) necessary for partial nephrectomy. This article points out the various key points in detection mid work-up of a renal carcinoma required for proper therapeutic decision-making. (authors)

  15. Composite oncocytoma and papillary renal cell carcinoma of the kidney treated by partial nephrectomy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Michael S; Javed, Saqib; Pradeep, Keloth E; De Bolla, Alan R

    2011-06-09

    We present the case of a 73-year-old woman who presented with lethargy and a nonproductive cough. Computerised tomography of her abdomen revealed a 38-mm mass in the lower pole of her left kidney. She underwent a partial nephrectomy, with final histopathological analysis confirming the presence of a concomitant oncocytoma and papillary cell carcinoma. To our knowledge, this is the only case report in the world literature describing a papillary renal cell carcinoma within an oncocytoma treated by partial nephrectomy.

  16. Late pancreatic metastasis of renal cell carcinoma with absence of FDG-uptake in PET-CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Karadeli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The primary tumors, which raise isolated pancreas metastases are frequently of renal origin, where colorectal cancer, melanoma, breast and lung cancers and sarcoma are the following causes of metastatic pancreas cancer . In this article, we present a case of pancreas-metastatic renal cell carcinoma with its radiological features, which did not exert anF-18 FDG-uptake in the whole-body positron emission tomography (PET. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(0.100: 92-94

  17. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging features of renal cell carcinoma and pulmonary metastases in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sun-Hye; Park, Noh-Won; Eom, Ki-Dong

    2014-05-01

    A 9-year-old spayed female cocker spaniel dog was referred for hematuria. A large abdominal mass and multiple pulmonary nodules were identified radiographically. A whole-body 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoro-d-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scan revealed intensely increased uptake in a renal mass and the pulmonary nodules. Renal cell carcinoma was diagnosed on histological examination.

  18. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging features of renal cell carcinoma and pulmonary metastases in a dog

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Sun-Hye; Park, Noh-Won; Eom, Ki-Dong

    2014-01-01

    A 9-year-old spayed female cocker spaniel dog was referred for hematuria. A large abdominal mass and multiple pulmonary nodules were identified radiographically. A whole-body 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-d-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scan revealed intensely increased uptake in a renal mass and the pulmonary nodules. Renal cell carcinoma was diagnosed on histological examination.

  19. Curcumin significantly enhances dual PI3K/Akt and mTOR inhibitor NVP-BEZ235-induced apoptosis in human renal carcinoma Caki cells through down-regulation of p53-dependent Bcl-2 expression and inhibition of Mcl-1 protein stability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Ram Seo

    Full Text Available The PI3K/Akt and mTOR signaling pathways are important for cell survival and growth, and they are highly activated in cancer cells compared with normal cells. Therefore, these signaling pathways are targets for inducing cancer cell death. The dual PI3K/Akt and mTOR inhibitor NVP-BEZ235 completely inhibited both signaling pathways. However, NVP-BEZ235 had no effect on cell death in human renal carcinoma Caki cells. We tested whether combined treatment with natural compounds and NVP-BEZ235 could induce cell death. Among several chemopreventive agents, curcumin, a natural biologically active compound that is extracted from the rhizomes of Curcuma species, markedly induced apoptosis in NVP-BEZ235-treated cells. Co-treatment with curcumin and NVP-BEZ235 led to the down-regulation of Mcl-1 protein expression but not mRNA expression. Ectopic expression of Mcl-1 completely inhibited curcumin plus NVP-NEZ235-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, the down-regulation of Bcl-2 was involved in curcumin plus NVP-BEZ235-induced apoptosis. Curcumin or NVP-BEZ235 alone did not change Bcl-2 mRNA or protein expression, but co-treatment reduced Bcl-2 mRNA and protein expression. Combined treatment with NVP-BEZ235 and curcumin reduced Bcl-2 expression in wild-type p53 HCT116 human colon carcinoma cells but not p53-null HCT116 cells. Moreover, Bcl-2 expression was completely reversed by treatment with pifithrin-α, a p53-specific inhibitor. Ectopic expression of Bcl-2 also inhibited apoptosis in NVP-BE235 plus curcumin-treated cells. In contrast, NVP-BEZ235 combined with curcumin did not have a synergistic effect on normal human skin fibroblasts and normal human mesangial cells. Taken together, combined treatment with NVP-BEZ235 and curcumin induces apoptosis through p53-dependent Bcl-2 mRNA down-regulation at the transcriptional level and Mcl-1 protein down-regulation at the post-transcriptional level.

  20. MUC13 overexpression in renal cell carcinoma plays a central role in tumor progression and drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Yonghua; Ng, Choa Ping; Lourie, Rohan; Shah, Esha T; He, Yaowu; Wong, Kuan Yau; Seim, Inge; Oancea, Iulia; Morais, Christudas; Jeffery, Penny L; Hooper, John; Gobe, Glenda C; McGuckin, Michael A

    2017-05-15

    Metastatic renal cell carcinoma is a largely incurable disease, and existing treatments targeting angiogenesis and tyrosine kinase receptors are only partially effective. Here we reveal that MUC13, a cell surface mucin glycoprotein, is aberrantly expressed by most renal cell carcinomas, with increasing expression positively correlating with tumor grade. Importantly, we demonstrated that high MUC13 expression was a statistically significant independent predictor of poor survival in two independent cohorts, particularly in stage 1 cancers. In cultured renal cell carcinoma cells MUC13 promoted proliferation and induced the cell cycle regulator, cyclin D1, and inhibited apoptosis by inducing the anti-apoptotic proteins, BCL-xL and survivin. Silencing of MUC13 expression inhibited migration and invasion, and sensitized renal cancer cells to killing by the multi-kinase inhibitors used clinically, sorafenib and sunitinib, and reversed acquired resistance to these drugs. Furthermore, we demonstrated that MUC13 promotion of renal cancer cell growth and survival is mediated by activation of nuclear factor κB, a transcription factor known to regulate the expression of genes that play key roles in the development and progression of cancer. These results show that MUC13 has potential as a prognostic marker for aggressive early stage renal cell cancer and is a plausible target to sensitize these tumors to therapy. © 2017 UICC.

  1. [Uterine cervical carcinoma and human papillomaviruses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugase, M

    1992-06-01

    For many years it has been thought that a significant proportion of cervical cancer could be attributed to sexually transmitted agents, such as sperm, smegma, Treponema pallidum, Gonococcus and herpes simplexvirus type 2. Recent advances of molecular biology, however, have revealed that human papillomavirus (HPV) might be the most causative virus of the disease. Since HPV type 16 DNA was found in a patient with cervical cancer in 1983, many HPV types have been cloned from cervical cancers, also from premalignant lesions (intraepithelial neoplasias). In Japan, we have found 6 new types of HPV (HPV 58, 59, 61, 62, 64, 67) in the female genital tract so far. Especially, HPV 58, which was cloned from a patient with cervical squamous cell carcinoma and was already fully sequenced, is thought to be an important agent for the development of cervical cancer as well as HPV 16. Now we are investigating extensively to clarify the real relationship between genital HPV infection and cervical cancer.

  2. Surgical Management of Advanced and Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Multidisciplinary Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian M. Shinder

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The past decade has seen a rapid proliferation in the number and types of systemic therapies available for renal cell carcinoma. However, surgery remains an integral component of the therapeutic armamentarium for advanced and metastatic kidney cancer. Cytoreductive surgery followed by adjuvant cytokine-based immunotherapy (predominantly high-dose interleukin 2 has largely given way to systemic-targeted therapies. Metastasectomy also has a role in carefully selected patients. Additionally, neoadjuvant systemic therapy may increase the feasibility of resecting the primary tumor, which may be beneficial for patients with locally advanced or metastatic disease. Several prospective trials examining the role of adjuvant therapy are underway. Lastly, the first immune checkpoint inhibitor was approved for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC in 2015, providing a new treatment mechanism and new opportunities for combining systemic therapy with surgery. This review discusses current and historical literature regarding the surgical management of patients with advanced and mRCC and explores approaches for optimizing patient selection.

  3. Practical management of adverse events associated with cabozantinib treatment in patients with renal-cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerendash BS

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Benjamin S Gerendash,1 Patricia A Creel2 1Department of Medical Oncology and Experimental Therapeutics, City of Hope Comprehensive Cancer Center, Duarte, CA, 2Oncology, Clinical Operations, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA Abstract: Cabozantinib is an oral tyrosine-kinase inhibitor whose targets include VEGFR, MET, and AXL. Cabozantinib is approved for the treatment of patients with advanced clear-cell renal-cell carcinoma (RCC who have received prior antiangiogenic therapy. In the pivotal Phase III trial of second-line RCC, cabozantinib was associated with a significant improvement in overall survival, progression-free survival, and antitumor response compared with everolimus. Adverse events (AEs were common for patients receiving cabozantinib, but were effectively managed with supportive care and dose modifications, as discontinuations of cabozantinib due to an AE were infrequent. This article reviews the management of the more common AEs associated with cabozantinib based on findings from the pivotal study, clinical practice guidelines, and the authors’ real-world clinical experience, with support from published literature. We focus on hypertension, palmar–plantar erythrodysesthesia, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, decreased appetite, fatigue, and stomatitis. Effective management of these AEs involves a multimodal strategy that includes patient education, prophylactic and supportive care, and dose modifications. Effective AE management can allow patients to maintain antitumor activity with cabozantinib while mitigating the impact on quality of life. Keywords: cabozantinib, adverse-event management, renal-cell carcinoma, targeted therapy, tyrosine-kinase inhibitors 

  4. Impact of metastasectomy on prognosis in patients treated with targeted therapy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Dalsan; Lee, Chunwoo; Jeong, In Gab; Song, Cheryn; Lee, Jae-Lyun; Hong, Bumsik; Hong, Jun Hyuk; Ahn, Hanjong; Kim, Choung-Soo

    2016-11-01

    We evaluated the value of metastasectomy in patients treated with targeted therapy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). The medical records of 325 patients who presented with mRCC were reviewed; among these patients, 33 underwent complete metastasectomy followed by targeted therapy (complete metastasectomy group), 29 underwent incomplete metastasectomy followed by targeted therapy (incomplete metastasectomy group), and 263 treated with targeted therapy alone (non-metastasectomy group). We estimated progression-free and overall survivals using Kaplan-Meier curves. A Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to estimate the prognostic significance of metastasectomy. Clinicopathological variables did not differ among the three groups except for age, history of nephrectomy, type of metastasis, the International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium risk groups, histology, and bone metastasis. The median progression-free survivals were 29.5, 18.8, and 14.8 months in the complete, incomplete, and non-metastasectomy groups (p disease progression, along with targeted agents, risk groups, sarcomatoid feature, and number of metastatic sites. The median overall survivals were 92.5, 29.6, and 23.5 months in the complete, incomplete, and non-metastasectomy groups (p therapy might improve progression-free and overall survivals in patients with mRCC.

  5. Adjuvant Therapies in Nonmetastatic Renal-Cell Carcinoma: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandini, Marco; Smith, Ariane; Marchioni, Michele; Pompe, Raisa S; Martel, Tristan F; Cindolo, Luca; Montorsi, Francesco; Shariat, Shahrokh F; Briganti, Alberto; Kapoor, Anil; Capitanio, Umberto; Karakiewicz, Pierre I

    2018-02-02

    To conduct a review of literature on adjuvant therapy in nonmetastatic renal-cell carcinoma (nmRCC) treated with nephrectomy and to describe the efficacy of adjuvant agents on cancer control outcomes. A review of the literature was performed in January 2018 to identify all studies evaluating adjuvant therapy in patients with nmRCC treated with nephrectomy using PubMed, Embase, Medline, and Cochrane Library databases. The following keywords were used: adjuvant therapy, renal-cell carcinoma, nonmetastatic, targeted molecular therapy, kidney cancer. The ClinicalTrials.gov website was queried to identify ongoing trials. Traditional adjuvant therapy agents consisted of interferon α, interleukin 2, autologous tumor cell vaccines, and monoclonal antibodies. None provided survival benefit. Three contemporary studies (S-TRAC, ASSURE, and PROTECT) using targeted therapy compared sunitinib to placebo (S-TRAC), sunitinib or sorafenib to placebo (ASSURE), and pazopanib to placebo (PROTECT), with controversial results. In contrast to ASSURE and PROTECT, S-TRAC demonstrated improved disease-free survival. Several trials that use checkpoint immunotherapy agents or vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors are ongoing. Many traditional therapies have shown no success as adjuvant therapy for nmRCC after nephrectomy. Targeted adjuvant therapy for nmRCC after nephrectomy showed controversial results, and its routine use is not currently endorsed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. In vitro selection of DNA aptamers against renal cell carcinoma using living cell-SELEX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jine; Zhang, Yajie; Chen, Yang; Hong, Shanni; Sun, Yan; Sun, Na; Pei, Renjun

    2017-12-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common form of kidney cancer with poor prognosis. Early diagnosis of RCC would significantly improve patient prognosis and quality of life. In this work, we developed new aptamer probes for RCC by using cell-SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) only after 12 rounds of selection, in which a clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) cell line 786-O was used as target cell, and embryonic kidney cell line 293T as negative control cell. The selected aptamers were subjected to flow cytometry and laser confocal fluorescence microscopy to evaluate their binding affinity and selectivity. The dissociation constant Kd values of four selected aptamers are all in the nanomolar range. Aptamer W786-1 with the best binding affinity and a Kd value of 9.4 ± 2.0nM was further optimized and its truncated sequence W786-1S showed considerable affinity to 786-O cells. The proteinase and temperature treatment experiment indicated that W786-1 could recognize the target 786-O cells through surface proteins, and remain good binding affinity and excellent selectivity under physiological conditions. Therefore, on the basis of its excellent targeting properties and functional versatility, W786-1 holds great potential to be used as a molecular probe for identifying and targeting RCC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Bone metastases from renal cell carcinoma: patient survival after surgical treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baur-Melnyk Andrea

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surgery is the primary treatment of skeletal metastases from renal cell carcinoma, because radiation and chemotherapy frequently are not effecting the survival. We therefore explored factors potentially affecting the survival of patients after surgical treatment. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 101 patients operatively treated for skeletal metastases of renal cell carcinoma between 1980 and 2005. Overall survival was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The effects of different variables were evaluated using a log-rank test. Results 27 patients had a solitary bone metastasis, 20 patients multiple bone metastases and 54 patients had concomitant visceral metastases. The overall survival was 58% at 1 year, 37% at 2 years and 12% at 5 years. Patients with solitary bone metastases had a better survival (p Conclusions The data suggest that patients with a solitary metastasis or a limited number of resectable metastases are candidates for wide resections. As radiation and chemotherapy are ineffective in most patients, surgery is a better option to achieve local tumor control and increase the survival.

  8. Spotlight on nivolumab in the treatment of renal cell carcinoma: design, development, and place in therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venur VA

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Vyshak Alva Venur,1 Monika Joshi,2 Kenneth G Nepple,3 Yousef Zakharia1 1Division of Hematology Oncology and Bone Marrow Transplant, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA, 2Division of Hematology-Oncology, Penn State Cancer Institute, Hershey, PA, 3Department of Urology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA, USA Abstract: Several tyrosine kinase inhibitors targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor receptors and molecules inhibiting the mammalian target of rapamycin are being used for management of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC; however, there is still a potential for improvement. Immune checkpoint inhibitors like nivolumab and other PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors provide an alternative approach for patients with mRCC. In this article, the authors review the safety profile and outcomes of phase 1, 2, and 3 clinical trials of nivolumab in mRCC. Keywords: renal cell carcinoma, kidney cancer, PD-1, nivolumab, immunotherapy

  9. Recommendations on managing lenvatinib and everolimus in patients with advanced or metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, E; Glen, H; Aller, J; Argenziano, G; Lamas, M J; Ruszniewski, P; Zamorano, J L; Edmonds, K; Sarker, S; Staehler, M; Larkin, J

    2017-12-01

    There are several second-line treatment options for patients with renal cell carcinoma after first-line failure of a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, especially with the recent approvals of cabozantinib, nivolumab, and the lenvatinib plus everolimus combination. A lack of reliable biomarkers and an overall lack of prospective head-to-head comparisons make it a challenge to choose a second-line treatment in the clinic. Areas covered: In this review/meta-opinion, we describe the safety profile of the lenvatinib plus everolimus combination in renal cell carcinoma. The combination of lenvatinib plus everolimus has achieved the highest rates of objective responses and the longest progression free and overall survival in cross-comparison trials. At the same time, the safety profile of this combination, including the rate of total and severe adverse events, the percentage of dose reductions required, and the rate of treatment discontinuation, was less favorable compared with available monotherapy options, suggesting that better management could help to maximize the activity of this combination while protecting patients from undue harm. Expert opinion: Herein, we aim to postulate multidisciplinary recommendations on the advice to offer to patients and caregivers before starting treatment and how to manage the combination from the perspective of daily clinical practice.

  10. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein as a predictor of locally advanced renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Marchiñena, Patricio; Billordo-Perés, Nicolas; Tobía-González, Ignacio; Jurado, Alberto; Damia, Oscar; Gueglio, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    To determine if elevated levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) in plasma are associated with locally advanced renal cell carcinoma (LARCC) after surgery. Retrospective cross-sectional study conducted from May 2009 to January 2011. Altogether, 192 patients with non-disseminated disease and with preoperative quantitative determination of the CRP were evaluated. We evaluated the relation between age, gender, history of smoking, symptoms and CRP higher than 10 mg/L, with LARCC. The chi-square and Fisher's tests were used to compare categorical variables. For the multivariate analysis, we used logistic regression methods. The median age was 62 years (r=23-85), 72.4% were males. The median CRP was 2.40 mg/L (r=0.1-173). Of all the patients, 43.2% had a history of smoking and 81.8% were asymptomatic. As for the tumors, 77.1%were clear cell carcinoma, 14.6% chromophobe, 4.7% papillary, 2.6% oncocytomas, and 1% other varieties of renal cell carcinoma. As for the TNM classification, 45.8% corresponded to stage pT1a, 27.6% pT1b, 13% pT2, and 13.5% pT3, pT4 was not found. In the multivariate analysis, the presence of symptoms (p=0.002, OR=3.1) and the presence of CRP higher than 10 mg/L (p=0.006, OR=4) remained as the only prognostic variables of LARCC. Values of CRP higher than 10 mg/L increase 4 times the possibilities of finding LARCC in the pathological study of the surgical specimen. This variable should be taken into account when deciding what is the best surgical option.

  11. The management of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) in a European regional renal transplant population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Alistair; Ng, Jenny Koo; Glendinning, James; Rix, David

    2012-07-01

    In the West, transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) in renal transplant patients is uncommon, but aggressive. Conversely, it appears to be frequent in the Far East, necessitating aggressive surgical approaches such as prophylactic nephroureterectomy. There are few European case series to date. TCC in the present population was predominantly low-grade and superficial, with no progression in patients with those tumours. Endoscopic management was sufficient for most patients. The behaviour of TCC in the present population was much less aggressive than that described in the Far East. Altering immunosuppression regimes may have a role to play in managing bladder cancer in renal transplant patients. To examine the clinical characteristics, management and long-term outcomes of patients with transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) who also have had renal transplantation. A retrospective case note review was performed for the 15-year period 1995-2009. Searches from three different urological centres in the UK, using multiple sources, yielded 1647 patients with renal transplants, 12 of whom had TCC. Eight cases were identified who developed de novo TCC after transplantation (0.48%). Four patients had pre-existing TCC who then had renal transplantation. The current literature was reviewed. In the eight de novo TCC cases, the bladder was the site in all with no upper tract TCC; seven were superficial (pTa/T1) and five were low grade (G1/2). The mean time to development of TCC after transplant was 5 years, with a mean follow-up of 11 years. There was no progression in low-grade superficial disease that was managed endoscopically. The 5- and 10-year overall survival was 83% and 72%, respectively. In patients with pre-existing TCC prophylactic bilateral nephroureterectomy before transplantation was performed once. There was progression of superficial disease whilst on immunosuppression in one patient. Sirolimus was used in patients with TCC and reports suggest this may have a role to play

  12. Differential expression of microRNA501-5p affects the aggressiveness of clear cell renal carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangolini, Alessandra; Bonon, Anna; Volinia, Stefano; Lanza, Giovanni; Gambari, Roberto; Pinton, Paolo; Russo, Gian Rosario; del Senno, Laura; Dell’Atti, Lucio; Aguiari, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma is a common neoplasia of the adult kidney that accounts for about 3% of adult malignancies. Clear cell renal carcinoma is the most frequent subtype of kidney cancer and 20–40% of patients develop metastases. The absence of appropriate biomarkers complicates diagnosis and prognosis of this disease. In this regard, small noncoding RNAs (microRNAs), which are mutated in several neoplastic diseases including kidney carcinoma, may be optimal candidates as biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of this kind of cancer. Here we show that patients with clear cell kidney carcinoma that express low levels of miR501-5p exhibited a good prognosis compared with patients with unchanged or high levels of this microRNA. Consistently, in kidney carcinoma cells the downregulation of miR501-5p induced an increased caspase-3 activity, p53 expression as well as decreased mTOR activation, leading to stimulation of the apoptotic pathway. Conversely, miR501-5p upregulation enhanced the activity of mTOR and promoted both cell proliferation and survival. These biological processes occurred through p53 inactivation by proteasome degradation in a mechanism involving MDM2-mediated p53 ubiquitination. Our results support a role for miR501-5p in balancing apoptosis and cell survival in clear cell renal carcinoma. In particular, the downregulation of microRNA501-5p promotes a good prognosis, while its upregulation contributes to a poor prognosis, in particular, if associated with p53 and MDM2 overexpression and mTOR activation. Thus, the expression of miR501-5p is a possible biomarker for the prognosis of clear cell renal carcinoma. PMID:25426415

  13. Clinical role of early dynamic FDG-PET/CT for the evaluation of renal cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Reiko; Abe, Koichiro; Sakai, Shuji [Tokyo Women' s Medical University, Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Kondo, Tsunenori; Tanabe, Kazunari [Tokyo Women' s Medical University, Department of Urology, Tokyo (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    We studied the usefulness of early dynamic (ED) and whole-body (WB) FDG-PET/CT for the evaluation of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). One hundred patients with 107 tumours underwent kidney ED and WB FDG-PET/CT. We visually and semiquantitatively evaluated the FDG accumulation in RCCs in the ED and WB phases, and compared the accumulation values with regard to histological type (clear cell carcinoma [CCC] vs. non-clear cell carcinoma [N-CCC]), the TNM stage (high stage [3-4] vs. low stage [1-2]), the Fuhrman grade (high grade [3-4] vs. low grade [1-2]) and presence versus absence of venous (V) and lymphatic (Ly) invasion. In the ED phase, visual evaluation revealed no significant differences in FDG accumulation in terms of each item. However, the maximum standardized uptake value and tumour-to-normal tissue ratios were significantly higher in the CCCs compared to the N-CCCs (p < 0.001). In the WB phase, in contrast, significantly higher FDG accumulation (p < 0.001) was found in RCCs with a higher TNM stage, higher Furman grade, and the presence of V and Ly invasion in both the visual and the semiquantitative evaluations. ED and WB FDG-PET/CT is a useful tool for the evaluation of RCCs. (orig.)

  14. Clinical role of early dynamic FDG-PET/CT for the evaluation of renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Reiko; Abe, Koichiro; Kondo, Tsunenori; Tanabe, Kazunari; Sakai, Shuji

    2016-06-01

    We studied the usefulness of early dynamic (ED) and whole-body (WB) FDG-PET/CT for the evaluation of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). One hundred patients with 107 tumours underwent kidney ED and WB FDG-PET/CT. We visually and semiquantitatively evaluated the FDG accumulation in RCCs in the ED and WB phases, and compared the accumulation values with regard to histological type (clear cell carcinoma [CCC] vs. non-clear cell carcinoma [N-CCC]), the TNM stage (high stage [3-4] vs. low stage [1-2]), the Fuhrman grade (high grade [3-4] vs. low grade [1-2]) and presence versus absence of venous (V) and lymphatic (Ly) invasion. In the ED phase, visual evaluation revealed no significant differences in FDG accumulation in terms of each item. However, the maximum standardized uptake value and tumour-to-normal tissue ratios were significantly higher in the CCCs compared to the N-CCCs (p evaluations. ED and WB FDG-PET/CT is a useful tool for the evaluation of RCCs. • ED and WB FDG-PET/ CT helps to assess patients with RCC • ED FDG-PET/CT enabled differentiation between CCC and N-CCC • FDG accumulation in the WB phase reflects tumour aggressiveness • Management of RCC is improved by ED and WB FDG-PET/CT.

  15. Initial robotic assistance in the surgical management of renal cell carcinoma with level 4 cavoatrial thrombus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma-Zamora, Isaac; Dalela, Deepansh; Barod, Ravi; Hsu, Linda; Menon, Mani; Rogers, Craig G

    2017-12-04

    We report a case of left-sided renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with level 4 cavoatrial tumor thrombus where robotic assistance was used to achieve hemostasis around the kidney in order to minimize coagulopathic hemorrhage from the nephrectomy bed during subsequent open completion nephrectomy and cavoatrial thrombectomy under extracorporeal circulation and hypothermic circulatory arrest. Robotic assistance allowed for meticulous dissection and ligation of parasitic and arterial vessels to the kidney, release of renal attachments, and exposure of the inferior vena cava. The kidney was mobilized while leaving the renal vein attached and tumor thrombus undisturbed using a "minimal touch" technique. Open completion nephrectomy and cavoatrial thrombectomy was then performed. An experienced cardiac anesthesia team performed intraoperative cardiac monitoring, including trans-esophageal echocardiography. A cardiothoracic surgeon was immediately available throughout the case. Cardiopulmonary bypass was initiated within 60 min of open incision with a total duration a circulatory arrest time of 25 min. There was no bleeding from the nephrectomy bed during bypass despite heparinization and hypothermia. A left RCC with level 4 thrombus may be approached with initial robotic assistance to achieve hemostasis of the nephrectomy bed for subsequent open completion nephrectomy and cavoatrial thrombectomy under extracorporeal circulation and hypothermic circulatory arrest.

  16. NY-ESO-1 as a potential immunotherapeutic target in renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesen, Eva; Jilaveanu, Lucia B; Parisi, Fabio; Kluger, Yuval; Camp, Robert L; Kluger, Harriet M

    2014-07-30

    Novel immune therapies targeting tumor specific antigens are being developed. Our purpose was to determine expression of the cancer testes antigen NY-ESO-1 in renal cell carcinoma (RCC), as NY-ESO-1 targeting approaches, particularly adoptive cell therapy, have not been evaluated in this disease. We employed tissue microarrays containing >300 unique RCC cases and adjacent benign renal tissue to determine NY-ESO-1 expression using a quantitative immunofluorescence method. In addition, we studied NY-ESO-1 expression in 35 matched primary and metastatic RCC specimens to assess concordance between different tumor sites. NY-ESO-1 was highly expressed in a subset of RCCs. Expression in primary RCC specimens was significantly higher than adjacent normal renal tissue (PESO-1 expression seen in clear cell RCC suggests that NY-ESO-1 targeting approaches should be studied in this disease. Expression is higher in metastatic sites, and discordance between primary and metastatic sites in some patients suggests that patient selection for these therapies should be based on expression in metastatic rather than nephrectomy specimens.

  17. Sorafenib in a hepatocellular carcinoma patient with end-stage renal failure: A pharmacokinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Takamichi; Hatano, Etsuro; Taura, Kojiro; Mizuno, Tomoyuki; Kawai, Tomoki; Fukudo, Masahide; Katsura, Toshiya; Uemoto, Shinji

    2014-06-01

    The efficacy of sorafenib against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been extensively reported. However, there is little information available about the use of sorafenib for HCC patients with end-stage renal failure. We herein report the safe introduction of sorafenib therapy for a HCC patient on hemodialysis. A 63-year-old man had received multidisciplinary treatments, including transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) and radiofrequency ablation, for HCC since 1996, and had been undergoing hemodialysis since 2005. He also underwent TACE for multiple liver recurrence of HCC in 2011. Sorafenib therapy (200 mg/day) started 8 days after the TACE. The pharmacokinetic parameters of sorafenib and its active metabolite, M-2, were within the reference levels observed in patients with normal renal function 8 and 9 days after the initiation of sorafenib. The dose of sorafenib was reduced to 200 mg every other day on day 154 due to hypertension and general fatigue. Because of the progression of disease after 5 months, sorafenib was withdrawn on day 180. He was admitted to the emergency department because of a high fever during hemodialysis on day 201, and died of septic shock induced by Staphylococcus lugdunensis on day 203. Sorafenib was well tolerated at an initial dose of 200 mg/day for a HCC patient undergoing hemodialysis, thus indicating that renal failure is not necessarily a contraindication for sorafenib therapy. © 2013 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  18. Comprehensive analysis of 5-aminolevulinic acid dehydrogenase (ALAD variants and renal cell carcinoma risk among individuals exposed to lead.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana M van Bemmel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies are reporting associations between lead exposure and human cancers. A polymorphism in the 5-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD gene affects lead toxicokinetics and may modify the adverse effects of lead. METHODS: The objective of this study was to evaluate single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs tagging the ALAD region among renal cancer cases and controls to determine whether genetic variation alters the relationship between lead and renal cancer. Occupational exposure to lead and risk of cancer was examined in a case-control study of renal cell carcinoma (RCC. Comprehensive analysis of variation across the ALAD gene was assessed using a tagging SNP approach among 987 cases and 1298 controls. Occupational lead exposure was estimated using questionnaire-based exposure assessment and expert review. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated using logistic regression. RESULTS: The adjusted risk associated with the ALAD variant rs8177796(CT/TT was increased (OR = 1.35, 95%CI = 1.05-1.73, p-value = 0.02 when compared to the major allele, regardless of lead exposure. Joint effects of lead and ALAD rs2761016 suggest an increased RCC risk for the homozygous wild-type and heterozygous alleles ((GGOR = 2.68, 95%CI = 1.17-6.12, p = 0.01; (GAOR = 1.79, 95%CI = 1.06-3.04 with an interaction approaching significance (p(int = 0.06. No significant modification in RCC risk was observed for the functional variant rs1800435(K68N. Haplotype analysis identified a region associated with risk supporting tagging SNP results. CONCLUSION: A common genetic variation in ALAD may alter the risk of RCC overall, and among individuals occupationally exposed to lead. Further work in larger exposed populations is warranted to determine if ALAD modifies RCC risk associated with lead exposure.

  19. Treatment Beyond Progression in Patients with Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma Treated with Nivolumab in CheckMate 025

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Escudier, Bernard; Motzer, Robert J; Sharma, Padmanee

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Response patterns to nivolumab differ from those seen with other approved targeted therapies. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy of nivolumab in previously treated patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma who were treated beyond (Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors) RE...

  20. Role of complex cadherins in cell-cell adhesion evaluated by spheroid formation in renal cell carcinoma cell lines.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shimazui, T.; Schalken, J.A.; Kawai, K.; Kawamoto, R.; Bockhoven, A. van; Oosterwijk, E.; Akaza, H.

    2004-01-01

    We have previously shown that renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cell lines expressed a complex set of cadherins, e.g. E-cadherin, N-cadherin and cadherin-6. It is also reported that E-cadherin and cadherin-6 have a predictive value for estimating a patient's prognosis in RCC. However, E-cadherin is