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Sample records for human protein tyrosine

  1. Protein tyrosine adduct in humans self-poisoned by chlorpyrifos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Eyer, Peter; Eddleston, Michael; Jiang, Wei; Schopfer, Lawrence M.; Lockridge, Oksana

    2013-01-01

    Studies of human cases of self-inflicted poisoning suggest that chlorpyrifos oxon reacts not only with acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase but also with other blood proteins. A favored candidate is albumin because in vitro and animal studies have identified tyrosine 411 of albumin as a site covalently modified by organophosphorus poisons. Our goal was to test this proposal in humans by determining whether plasma from humans poisoned by chlorpyrifos has adducts on tyrosine. Plasma samples from 5 self-poisoned humans were drawn at various time intervals after ingestion of chlorpyrifos for a total of 34 samples. All 34 samples were analyzed for plasma levels of chlorpyrifos and chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO) as a function of time post-ingestion. Eleven samples were analyzed for the presence of diethoxyphosphorylated tyrosine by mass spectrometry. Six samples yielded diethoxyphosphorylated tyrosine in pronase digests. Blood collected as late as 5 days after chlorpyrifos ingestion was positive for CPO-tyrosine, consistent with the 20-day half-life of albumin. High plasma CPO levels did not predict detectable levels of CPO-tyrosine. CPO-tyrosine was identified in pralidoxime treated patients as well as in patients not treated with pralidoxime, indicating that pralidoxime does not reverse CPO binding to tyrosine in humans. Plasma butyrylcholinesterase was a more sensitive biomarker of exposure than adducts on tyrosine. In conclusion, chlorpyrifos oxon makes a stable covalent adduct on the tyrosine residue of blood proteins in humans who ingested chlorpyrifos. PMID:23566956

  2. Protein tyrosine adduct in humans self-poisoned by chlorpyrifos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Bin; Eyer, Peter; Eddleston, Michael; Jiang, Wei; Schopfer, Lawrence M.; Lockridge, Oksana

    2013-01-01

    Studies of human cases of self-inflicted poisoning suggest that chlorpyrifos oxon reacts not only with acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase but also with other blood proteins. A favored candidate is albumin because in vitro and animal studies have identified tyrosine 411 of albumin as a site covalently modified by organophosphorus poisons. Our goal was to test this proposal in humans by determining whether plasma from humans poisoned by chlorpyrifos has adducts on tyrosine. Plasma samples from 5 self-poisoned humans were drawn at various time intervals after ingestion of chlorpyrifos for a total of 34 samples. All 34 samples were analyzed for plasma levels of chlorpyrifos and chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO) as a function of time post-ingestion. Eleven samples were analyzed for the presence of diethoxyphosphorylated tyrosine by mass spectrometry. Six samples yielded diethoxyphosphorylated tyrosine in pronase digests. Blood collected as late as 5 days after chlorpyrifos ingestion was positive for CPO-tyrosine, consistent with the 20-day half-life of albumin. High plasma CPO levels did not predict detectable levels of CPO-tyrosine. CPO-tyrosine was identified in pralidoxime treated patients as well as in patients not treated with pralidoxime, indicating that pralidoxime does not reverse CPO binding to tyrosine in humans. Plasma butyrylcholinesterase was a more sensitive biomarker of exposure than adducts on tyrosine. In conclusion, chlorpyrifos oxon makes a stable covalent adduct on the tyrosine residue of blood proteins in humans who ingested chlorpyrifos. - Highlights: • Chlorpyrifos-poisoned patients have adducts on protein tyrosine. • Diethoxyphosphate-tyrosine does not lose an alkyl group. • Proteins in addition to AChE and BChE are modified by organophosphates

  3. Protein tyrosine adduct in humans self-poisoned by chlorpyrifos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Bin, E-mail: binli@unmc.edu [Eppley Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-5950 (United States); Eyer, Peter, E-mail: peter.eyer@lrz.uni-muenchen.de [Walther-Straub-Institut Für Pharmakologie und Toxikologie, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, 80336 München (Germany); Eddleston, Michael, E-mail: M.Eddleston@ed.ac.uk [Clinical Pharmacology Unit, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Jiang, Wei, E-mail: wjiang@unmc.edu [Eppley Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-5950 (United States); Schopfer, Lawrence M., E-mail: lmschopf@unmc.edu [Eppley Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-5950 (United States); Lockridge, Oksana, E-mail: olockrid@unmc.edu [Eppley Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-5950 (United States)

    2013-06-15

    Studies of human cases of self-inflicted poisoning suggest that chlorpyrifos oxon reacts not only with acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase but also with other blood proteins. A favored candidate is albumin because in vitro and animal studies have identified tyrosine 411 of albumin as a site covalently modified by organophosphorus poisons. Our goal was to test this proposal in humans by determining whether plasma from humans poisoned by chlorpyrifos has adducts on tyrosine. Plasma samples from 5 self-poisoned humans were drawn at various time intervals after ingestion of chlorpyrifos for a total of 34 samples. All 34 samples were analyzed for plasma levels of chlorpyrifos and chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO) as a function of time post-ingestion. Eleven samples were analyzed for the presence of diethoxyphosphorylated tyrosine by mass spectrometry. Six samples yielded diethoxyphosphorylated tyrosine in pronase digests. Blood collected as late as 5 days after chlorpyrifos ingestion was positive for CPO-tyrosine, consistent with the 20-day half-life of albumin. High plasma CPO levels did not predict detectable levels of CPO-tyrosine. CPO-tyrosine was identified in pralidoxime treated patients as well as in patients not treated with pralidoxime, indicating that pralidoxime does not reverse CPO binding to tyrosine in humans. Plasma butyrylcholinesterase was a more sensitive biomarker of exposure than adducts on tyrosine. In conclusion, chlorpyrifos oxon makes a stable covalent adduct on the tyrosine residue of blood proteins in humans who ingested chlorpyrifos. - Highlights: • Chlorpyrifos-poisoned patients have adducts on protein tyrosine. • Diethoxyphosphate-tyrosine does not lose an alkyl group. • Proteins in addition to AChE and BChE are modified by organophosphates.

  4. INHIBITION OF PROTEIN TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE ACTIVITY MEDIATES EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR SIGNALING IN HUMAN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiological studies have implicated zinc in the toxicity of ambient particulate matter (PM) inhalation. We previously showed that exposure to metal-laden PM inhibits protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) activity in human primary bronchial epithelial cells (HAEC) and leads t...

  5. Structural stability of human protein tyrosine phosphatase ρ catalytic domain: effect of point mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Pasquo

    Full Text Available Protein tyrosine phosphatase ρ (PTPρ belongs to the classical receptor type IIB family of protein tyrosine phosphatase, the most frequently mutated tyrosine phosphatase in human cancer. There are evidences to suggest that PTPρ may act as a tumor suppressor gene and dysregulation of Tyr phosphorylation can be observed in diverse diseases, such as diabetes, immune deficiencies and cancer. PTPρ variants in the catalytic domain have been identified in cancer tissues. These natural variants are nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms, variations of a single nucleotide occurring in the coding region and leading to amino acid substitutions. In this study we investigated the effect of amino acid substitution on the structural stability and on the activity of the membrane-proximal catalytic domain of PTPρ. We expressed and purified as soluble recombinant proteins some of the mutants of the membrane-proximal catalytic domain of PTPρ identified in colorectal cancer and in the single nucleotide polymorphisms database. The mutants show a decreased thermal and thermodynamic stability and decreased activation energy relative to phosphatase activity, when compared to wild- type. All the variants show three-state equilibrium unfolding transitions similar to that of the wild- type, with the accumulation of a folding intermediate populated at ~4.0 M urea.

  6. Tyrosine phosphorylation of a 66KD soluble protein and augmentation of lectin induced mitogenesis by DMSO in human T lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wedner, H.J.; Bass, G.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have demonstrated that induction of mitogenesis in human T lymphocytes is associated with the tyrosine phosphorylation of a 66KD soluble substrate-TPP 66. Since DMSO has been shown to be a non-specific stimulator of tyrosine protein kinases they have examined the effect of DMSO on both activation and tyrosine phosphorylation in human T cells. Human peripheral blood T lymphocytes were isolated by dextran sedimentation, Ficol/Paque centrifugation and nylon wool filtration. Phosphorylation was performed in cells incubated with [ 32 P] orthophosphate followed by DMSO for 30 min. TPP 66 was identified by 2-D PAGE, autoradiography, and HV electrophoresis of the hydrolyzed protein. Concentrations of DMSO from 1% to 50% induced the tyrosine phosphorylation of TPP 66 with maximal stimulation seen at 20%. DMSO alone did not activate the T cells (measured by [ 3 H] thymidine incorporation) when tested at high concentrations for 30 sec to 10 min. (longer incubations were markedly toxic) or low concentrations for 12 to 48 hrs. Low concentrations of DMSO 0.1%-0.5% did however, markedly augment [ 3 H] thymidine incorporation induced by PHA or Con A. These data suggest that tyrosine phosphorylation of TPP 66 alone may not constitute sufficient signal for the activation sequence to begin but the phosphorylation of this soluble substrate may be a critical factor in the propagation of the activation sequence

  7. Tyrosine phosphorylation of WW proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuven, Nina; Shanzer, Matan

    2015-01-01

    A number of key regulatory proteins contain one or two copies of the WW domain known to mediate protein–protein interaction via proline-rich motifs, such as PPxY. The Hippo pathway components take advantage of this module to transduce tumor suppressor signaling. It is becoming evident that tyrosine phosphorylation is a critical regulator of the WW proteins. Here, we review the current knowledge on the involved tyrosine kinases and their roles in regulating the WW proteins. PMID:25627656

  8. MECHANISM OF PROTEIN TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE INHIBITION IN HUMAN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS (HAEC) EXPOSED TO ZN2+

    Science.gov (United States)

    A number of studies have implicated zinc in the toxicity of ambient particulate matter (PM) inhalation. We previously showed that exposure to Zn2+ inhibits protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) activity and leads to activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling in ...

  9. Protein tyrosine phosphatases: regulatory mechanisms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hertog, J.; Ostman, A.; Bohmer, F.D.

    2008-01-01

    Protein-tyrosine phosphatases are tightly controlled by various mechanisms, ranging from differential expression in specific cell types to restricted subcellular localization, limited proteolysis, post-translational modifications affecting intrinsic catalytic activity, ligand binding and

  10. Bacterial Protein-Tyrosine Kinases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Lei; Kobir, Ahasanul; Jers, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    in exopolysaccharide production, virulence, DNA metabolism, stress response and other key functions of the bacterial cell. BY-kinases act through autophosphorylation (mainly in exopolysaccharide production) and phosphorylation of other proteins, which have in most cases been shown to be activated by tyrosine......Bacteria and Eukarya share essentially the same family of protein-serine/threonine kinases, also known as the Hanks-type kinases. However, when it comes to protein-tyrosine phosphorylation, bacteria seem to have gone their own way. Bacterial protein-tyrosine kinases (BY-kinases) are bacterial...... and highlighted their importance in bacterial physiology. Having no orthologues in Eukarya, BY-kinases are receiving a growing attention from the biomedical field, since they represent a particularly promising target for anti-bacterial drug design....

  11. Tyrosine phosphorylation in human lymphomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haralambieva, E; Jones, M.; Roncador, GM; Cerroni, L; Lamant, L; Ott, G; Rosenwald, A; Sherman, C; Thorner, P; Kusec, R; Wood, KM; Campo, E; Falini, B; Ramsay, A; Marafioti, T; Stein, H; Kluin, PM; Pulford, K; Mason, DY

    2002-01-01

    In a previous study, we showed that the high level of protein tyrosine phosphorylation present in lymphomas containing an anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) can be demonstrated in routinely processed paraffin tissue sections using immunolabelling techniques. In the present study we investigated

  12. Protein tyrosine nitration in the cell cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Min; Mateoiu, Claudia; Souchelnytskyi, Serhiy

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Enrichment of 3-nitrotyrosine containing proteins from cells synchronized in different phases of the cell cycle. → Identification of 76 tyrosine nitrated proteins that change expression during the cell cycle. → Nineteen identified proteins were previously described as regulators of cell proliferation. -- Abstract: Nitration of tyrosine residues in proteins is associated with cell response to oxidative/nitrosative stress. Tyrosine nitration is relatively low abundant post-translational modification that may affect protein functions. Little is known about the extent of protein tyrosine nitration in cells during progression through the cell cycle. Here we report identification of proteins enriched for tyrosine nitration in cells synchronized in G0/G1, S or G2/M phases of the cell cycle. We identified 27 proteins in cells synchronized in G0/G1 phase, 37 proteins in S phase synchronized cells, and 12 proteins related to G2/M phase. Nineteen of the identified proteins were previously described as regulators of cell proliferation. Thus, our data indicate which tyrosine nitrated proteins may affect regulation of the cell cycle.

  13. Experimental and Theoretical Study of the Movement of the Wpd Flexible Loop of Human Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase PTP1B in Complex with Halide Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Aline; Saenz-Méndez, Patricia; Cousido-Siah, Alexandra; Podjarny, Alberto D.; Ventura, Oscar N.

    2012-11-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphorylation is a post-translational modification mechanism, crucial for the regulation of nearly all aspects of cell life. This dynamic, reversible process is regulated by the balanced opposing activity of protein tyrosine kinases and protein tyrosine phosphatases. In particular, the protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is implicated in the regulation of the insulin-receptor activity, leptin-stimulated signal transduction pathways and other clinically relevant metabolic routes, and it has been found overexpressed or overregulated in human breasts, colon and ovary cancers. The WPD loop of the enzyme presents an inherent flexibility, and it plays a fundamental role in the enzymatic catalysis, turning it into a potential target in the design of new efficient PTP1B inhibitors. In order to determine the interactions that control the spatial conformation adopted by the WPD loop, complexes between the enzyme and halide ions (Br- and I- in particular) were crystallized and their crystallographic structure determined, and the collective movements of the aforementioned complexes were studied through Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations. Both studies yielded concordant results, indicating the existence of a relationship between the identity of the ion present in the complex and the strength of the interactions it establishes with the surrounding protein residues.

  14. A rapid lateral flow immunoassay for the detection of tyrosine phosphatase-like protein IA-2 autoantibodies in human serum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Kikkas

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes (T1D results from the destruction of pancreatic insulin-producing beta cells and is strongly associated with the presence of islet autoantibodies. Autoantibodies to tyrosine phosphatase-like protein IA-2 (IA-2As are considered to be highly predictive markers of T1D. We developed a novel lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA based on a bridging format for the rapid detection of IA-2As in human serum samples. In this assay, one site of the IA-2As is bound to HA-tagged-IA-2, which is subsequently captured on the anti-HA-Tag antibody-coated test line on the strip. The other site of the IA-2As is bound to biotinylated IA-2, allowing the complex to be visualized using colloidal gold nanoparticle-conjugated streptavidin. For this study, 35 serum samples from T1D patients and 44 control sera from non-diabetic individuals were analyzed with our novel assay and the results were correlated with two IA-2A ELISAs. Among the 35 serum samples from T1D patients, the IA-2A LFIA, the in-house IA-2A ELISA and the commercial IA-2A ELISA identified as positive 21, 29 and 30 IA-2A-positive sera, respectively. The major advantages of the IA-2A LFIA are its rapidity and simplicity.

  15. Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase PTPRS Is an Inhibitory Receptor on Human and Murine Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunin, A.; Sisirak, V.; Ghosh, H.S.; Grajkowska, L.T.; Hou, Z.E.; Miron, M.; Yang, C.; Ceribelli, M.; Uetani, N.; Chaperot, L.; Plumas, J.; Hendriks, W.J.; Tremblay, M.L.; Hacker, H.; Staudt, L.M.; Green, P.H.; Bhagat, G.; Reizis, B.

    2015-01-01

    Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are primary producers of type I interferon (IFN) in response to viruses. The IFN-producing capacity of pDCs is regulated by specific inhibitory receptors, yet none of the known receptors are conserved in evolution. We report that within the human immune system,

  16. Identification of tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins associated with metastasis and functional analysis of FER in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Haiyu; Ren, Zhenggang; Kang, Xiaonan; Zhang, Lan; Li, Xuefei; Wang, Yan; Xue, Tongchun; Shen, Yuefang; Liu, Yinkun

    2009-01-01

    Aberrant activity of tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins is commonly associated with HCC metastasis. Cell signaling events driven by these proteins are implicated in numerous processes that alter cancer cell behavior. Exploring the activities and signaling pathways of these proteins in HCC metastasis may help in identifying new candidate molecules for HCC-targeted therapy. Hep3B (a nonmetastatic HCC cell line) and MHCC97H (a highly metastatic HCC cell line) were used in this study, and the tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins expressed in these cell lines were profiled by a phosphoproteomics technique based on LC-MS/MS. Protein-protein interaction and functional clustering analyses were performed to determine the activities of the identified proteins and the signaling pathways closely related to HCC metastasis. In both cell lines, a total of 247 phosphotyrosine (pTyr) proteins containing 281 pTyr sites were identified without any stimulation. The involvement of almost 30% of these in liver or liver cancer has not been reported previously. Biological process clustering analysis indicated that pTyr proteins involved in cell motility, migration, protein autophosphorylation, cell-cell communication, and antiapoptosis functions were overexpressed during metastasis. Pathway clustering analysis revealed that signaling pathways such as those involved in EGFR signaling, cytokine- and chemokine-mediated signal transduction, and the PI3K and JAK-STAT cascades were significantly activated during HCC metastasis. Moreover, noncanonical regulation of the JNK cascade might also provide new targets for HCC metastasis. After comparing the pTyr proteins that were differentially expressed during HCC cell metastasis, we selected FER, a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase, and validated its role in terms of both expression and function. The data confirmed that FER might play a critical role in the invasion and metastasis of HCC. The identification of pTyr proteins and signaling pathways associated

  17. Tyrosine-Nitrated Proteins: Proteomic and Bioanalytical Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batthyány, Carlos; Bartesaghi, Silvina; Mastrogiovanni, Mauricio; Lima, Analía; Demicheli, Verónica; Radi, Rafael

    2017-03-01

    "Nitroproteomic" is under active development, as 3-nitrotyrosine in proteins constitutes a footprint left by the reactions of nitric oxide-derived oxidants that are usually associated to oxidative stress conditions. Moreover, protein tyrosine nitration can cause structural and functional changes, which may be of pathophysiological relevance for human disease conditions. Biological protein tyrosine nitration is a free radical process involving the intermediacy of tyrosyl radicals; in spite of being a nonenzymatic process, nitration is selectively directed toward a limited subset of tyrosine residues. Precise identification and quantitation of 3-nitrotyrosine in proteins has represented a "tour de force" for researchers. Recent Advances: A small number of proteins are preferential targets of nitration (usually less than 100 proteins per proteome), contrasting with the large number of proteins modified by other post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation, acetylation, and, notably, S-nitrosation. Proteomic approaches have revealed key features of tyrosine nitration both in vivo and in vitro, including selectivity, site specificity, and effects in protein structure and function. Identification of 3-nitrotyrosine-containing proteins and mapping nitrated residues is challenging, due to low abundance of this oxidative modification in biological samples and its unfriendly behavior in mass spectrometry (MS)-based technologies, that is, MALDI, electrospray ionization, and collision-induced dissociation. The use of (i) classical two-dimensional electrophoresis with immunochemical detection of nitrated proteins followed by protein ID by regular MS/MS in combination with (ii) immuno-enrichment of tyrosine-nitrated peptides and (iii) identification of nitrated peptides by a MIDAS™ experiment is arising as a potent methodology to unambiguously map and quantitate tyrosine-nitrated proteins in vivo. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 26, 313-328.

  18. SOCS proteins in regulation of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazi, Julhash U.; Kabir, Nuzhat N.; Flores Morales, Amilcar

    2014-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are a family of cell surface receptors that play critical roles in signal transduction from extracellular stimuli. Many in this family of kinases are overexpressed or mutated in human malignancies and thus became an attractive drug target for cancer treatment....... The signaling mediated by RTKs must be tightly regulated by interacting proteins including protein-tyrosine phosphatases and ubiquitin ligases. The suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) family proteins are well-known negative regulators of cytokine receptors signaling consisting of eight structurally similar...

  19. Selective expression of a protein-tyrosine kinase, p56lyn, in hematopoietic cells and association with production of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanashi, Yuji; Mori, Shigeo; Inoue, Kazushi; Yamamoto, Tadashi; Toyoshima, Kumao; Yoshida, Mitsuaki; Kishimoto, Tadamitsu

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports the identification of the lyn gene product, a member of the src-related family of protein-tyrosine kinases, and its expression in hematopoietic cells. A lyn-specific sequence (Arg-25 to Ala-119 of the protein) was expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein with β-galactosidase. Antiserum raised against the fusion protein immunoprecipitated a 56-kDa protein from human B lymphocytes. Incubation of the immunoprecipitate with [γ- 32 P]ATP resulted in the phosphorylation of this protein at tyrosine residues. Immunohistological and immunoblotting analyses showed that the lyn gene product was expressed in lymphatic tissues (spleen and tonsil) and in adult lung, which contains many macrophages. Furthermore, both the transcripts and the protein products of the lyn gene accumulated in macrophages/monocytes, platelets, and B lymphocytes but were not expressed appreciably in granulocytes, erythrocytes, or T lymphocytes, suggesting that lyn gene products function primarily in certain differentiated cells of lymphoid and myeloid lineages

  20. MHC-I-induced apoptosis in human B-lymphoma cells is dependent on protein tyrosine and serine/threonine kinases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Elm; Bregenholt, S; Johansen, B

    1999-01-01

    B lymphoma cells, is dependent on protein tyrosine kinases and the phosphatidylinositol 3 (PI-3) kinase. Functional studies showed that MHC-I crosslinking induced almost complete inhibition of the spontaneous proliferation of the B lymphoma cells as early as 6 h post-crosslinking and apoptosis 24 h...... post-crosslinking. Preincubation with either protein tyrosine kinase or protein serine/threonine kinase inhibitors reduced the MHC-I-induced apoptosis to background levels, whereas inhibition of PI-3 kinase had no effect. These data demonstrate a pivotal role for protein tyrosine and serine...

  1. Enzyme kinetic characterization of protein tyrosine phosphatases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Günther H.J.; Branner, S.; Møller, K. B.

    2003-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) play a central role in cellular signaling processes, resulting in an increased interest in modulating the activities of PTPs. We therefore decided to undertake a detailed enzyme kinetic evaluation of various transmembrane and cytosolic PTPs (PTPalpha, PTPbeta...

  2. Protein-Tyrosine Phosphorylation in Bacillus subtilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijakovic, Ivan; Petranovic, Dina; Bottini, N.

    2005-01-01

    phosphorylation, indicating that this post-translational modifi cation could regulate physiological processes ranging from stress response and exopolysaccharide synthesis to DNA metabolism. Some interesting work in this fi eld was done in Bacillus subtilis , and we here present the current state of knowledge...... on protein-tyrosine phosphorylation in this gram-positive model organism. With its two kinases, two kinase modulators, three phosphatases and at least four different tyrosine-phosphorylated substrates, B. subtilis is the bacterium with the highest number of presently known participants in the global network...

  3. The human cytomegalovirus UL11 protein interacts with the receptor tyrosine phosphatase CD45, resulting in functional paralysis of T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildar Gabaev

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Human cytomegalovirus (CMV exerts diverse and complex effects on the immune system, not all of which have been attributed to viral genes. Acute CMV infection results in transient restrictions in T cell proliferative ability, which can impair the control of the virus and increase the risk of secondary infections in patients with weakened or immature immune systems. In a search for new immunomodulatory proteins, we investigated the UL11 protein, a member of the CMV RL11 family. This protein family is defined by the RL11 domain, which has homology to immunoglobulin domains and adenoviral immunomodulatory proteins. We show that pUL11 is expressed on the cell surface and induces intercellular interactions with leukocytes. This was demonstrated to be due to the interaction of pUL11 with the receptor tyrosine phosphatase CD45, identified by mass spectrometry analysis of pUL11-associated proteins. CD45 expression is sufficient to mediate the interaction with pUL11 and is required for pUL11 binding to T cells, indicating that pUL11 is a specific CD45 ligand. CD45 has a pivotal function regulating T cell signaling thresholds; in its absence, the Src family kinase Lck is inactive and signaling through the T cell receptor (TCR is therefore shut off. In the presence of pUL11, several CD45-mediated functions were inhibited. The induction of tyrosine phosphorylation of multiple signaling proteins upon TCR stimulation was reduced and T cell proliferation was impaired. We therefore conclude that pUL11 has immunosuppressive properties, and that disruption of T cell function via inhibition of CD45 is a previously unknown immunomodulatory strategy of CMV.

  4. Tyrosine phosphorylation switching of a G protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Tunc-Ozdemir, Meral; Urano, Daisuke; Jia, Haiyan; Werth, Emily G; Mowrey, David D; Hicks, Leslie M; Dokholyan, Nikolay V; Torres, Matthew P; Jones, Alan M

    2018-03-30

    Heterotrimeric G protein complexes are molecular switches relaying extracellular signals sensed by G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to downstream targets in the cytoplasm, which effect cellular responses. In the plant heterotrimeric GTPase cycle, GTP hydrolysis, rather than nucleotide exchange, is the rate-limiting reaction and is accelerated by a receptor-like regulator of G signaling (RGS) protein. We hypothesized that posttranslational modification of the Gα subunit in the G protein complex regulates the RGS-dependent GTPase cycle. Our structural analyses identified an invariant phosphorylated tyrosine residue (Tyr 166 in the Arabidopsis Gα subunit AtGPA1) located in the intramolecular domain interface where nucleotide binding and hydrolysis occur. We also identified a receptor-like kinase that phosphorylates AtGPA1 in a Tyr 166 -dependent manner. Discrete molecular dynamics simulations predicted that phosphorylated Tyr 166 forms a salt bridge in this interface and potentially affects the RGS protein-accelerated GTPase cycle. Using a Tyr 166 phosphomimetic substitution, we found that the cognate RGS protein binds more tightly to the GDP-bound Gα substrate, consequently reducing its ability to accelerate GTPase activity. In conclusion, we propose that phosphorylation of Tyr 166 in AtGPA1 changes the binding pattern with AtRGS1 and thereby attenuates the steady-state rate of the GTPase cycle. We coin this newly identified mechanism "substrate phosphoswitching." © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Human NACHT, LRR, and PYD domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activity is regulated by and potentially targetable through Bruton tyrosine kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao; Pichulik, Tica; Wolz, Olaf-Oliver; Dang, Truong-Minh; Stutz, Andrea; Dillen, Carly; Delmiro Garcia, Magno; Kraus, Helene; Dickhöfer, Sabine; Daiber, Ellen; Münzenmayer, Lisa; Wahl, Silke; Rieber, Nikolaus; Kümmerle-Deschner, Jasmin; Yazdi, Amir; Franz-Wachtel, Mirita; Macek, Boris; Radsak, Markus; Vogel, Sebastian; Schulte, Berit; Walz, Juliane Sarah; Hartl, Dominik; Latz, Eicke; Stilgenbauer, Stephan; Grimbacher, Bodo; Miller, Lloyd; Brunner, Cornelia; Wolz, Christiane; Weber, Alexander N R

    2017-10-01

    The Nod-like receptor NACHT, LRR, and PYD domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) and Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) are protagonists in innate and adaptive immunity, respectively. NLRP3 senses exogenous and endogenous insults, leading to inflammasome activation, which occurs spontaneously in patients with Muckle-Wells syndrome; BTK mutations cause the genetic immunodeficiency X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA). However, to date, few proteins that regulate NLRP3 inflammasome activity in human primary immune cells have been identified, and clinically promising pharmacologic targeting strategies remain elusive. We sought to identify novel regulators of the NLRP3 inflammasome in human cells with a view to exploring interference with inflammasome activity at the level of such regulators. After proteome-wide phosphoproteomics, the identified novel regulator BTK was studied in human and murine cells by using pharmacologic and genetic BTK ablation. Here we show that BTK is a critical regulator of NLRP3 inflammasome activation: pharmacologic (using the US Food and Drug Administration-approved inhibitor ibrutinib) and genetic (in patients with XLA and Btk knockout mice) BTK ablation in primary immune cells led to reduced IL-1β processing and secretion in response to nigericin and the Staphylococcus aureus toxin leukocidin AB (LukAB). BTK affected apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC) speck formation and caspase-1 cleavage and interacted with NLRP3 and ASC. S aureus infection control in vivo and IL-1β release from cells of patients with Muckle-Wells syndrome were impaired by ibrutinib. Notably, IL-1β processing and release from immune cells isolated from patients with cancer receiving ibrutinib therapy were reduced. Our data suggest that XLA might result in part from genetic inflammasome deficiency and that NLRP3 inflammasome-linked inflammation could potentially be targeted pharmacologically through BTK. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy

  6. A Tyrosine-Based Trafficking Motif of the Tegument Protein pUL71 Is Crucial for Human Cytomegalovirus Secondary Envelopment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Andrea N; Villinger, Clarissa; Becker, Stefan; Frick, Manfred; von Einem, Jens

    2018-01-01

    The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) tegument protein pUL71 is required for efficient secondary envelopment and accumulates at the Golgi compartment-derived viral assembly complex (vAC) during infection. Analysis of various C-terminally truncated pUL71 proteins fused to enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) identified amino acids 23 to 34 as important determinants for its Golgi complex localization. Sequence analysis and mutational verification revealed the presence of an N-terminal tyrosine-based trafficking motif (YXXΦ) in pUL71. This led us to hypothesize a requirement of the YXXΦ motif for the function of pUL71 in infection. Mutation of both the tyrosine residue and the entire YXXΦ motif resulted in an altered distribution of mutant pUL71 at the plasma membrane and in the cytoplasm during infection. Both YXXΦ mutant viruses exhibited similarly decreased focal growth and reduced virus yields in supernatants. Ultrastructurally, mutant-virus-infected cells exhibited impaired secondary envelopment manifested by accumulations of capsids undergoing an envelopment process. Additionally, clusters of capsid accumulations surrounding the vAC were observed, similar to the ultrastructural phenotype of a UL71-deficient mutant. The importance of endocytosis and thus the YXXΦ motif for targeting pUL71 to the Golgi complex was further demonstrated when clathrin-mediated endocytosis was inhibited either by coexpression of the C-terminal part of cellular AP180 (AP180-C) or by treatment with methyl-β-cyclodextrin. Both conditions resulted in a plasma membrane accumulation of pUL71. Altogether, these data reveal the presence of a functional N-terminal endocytosis motif that is an important determinant for intracellular localization of pUL71 and that is furthermore required for the function of pUL71 during secondary envelopment of HCMV capsids at the vAC. IMPORTANCE Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the leading cause of birth defects among congenital virus infections and can

  7. Protein Tyrosine Nitration : Selectivity, Physicochemical and Biological Consequences, Denitration, and Proteomics Methods for the Identification of Tyrosine-Nitrated Proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abello, Nicolas; Kerstjens, Huib A. M.; Postma, Dirkje S.; Bischoff, Rainer

    Protein tyrosine nitration (PTN) is a post-translational modification occurring under the action of a nitrating agent. Tyrosine is modified in the 3-position of the phenolic ring through the addition of a nitro group (NO(2)). In the present article, we review the main nitration reactions and

  8. Protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B (PTP1B) helps regulate EGF-induced stimulation of S-phase entry in human corneal endothelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishino, Yutaka; Zhu, Cheng; Harris, Deshea L.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Human corneal endothelial cells (HCEC), particularly from older donors, only proliferate weakly in response to EGF. The protein tyrosine phosphatase, PTP1B, is known to negatively regulate EGF-induced signaling in several cell types by dephosphorylating the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). The current studies were conducted to determine whether PTP1B plays a role in regulating cell cycle entry in HCEC in response to EGF stimulation. Methods Donor corneas were obtained from the National Disease Research Interchange and accepted for study based on established exclusion criteria. PTP1B was localized in the endothelium of ex vivo corneas and in cultured cells by immunocytochemistry. Western blot analysis verified PTP1B protein expression in HCEC and then compared the relative expression of EGFR and PTP1B in HCEC from young (60 years old). The effect of inhibiting the activity of PTP1B on S-phase entry was tested by comparing time-dependent BrdU incorporation in subconfluent HCEC incubated in the presence or absence of the PTP1B inhibitor, CinnGEL 2Me, before EGF stimulation. Results PTP1B was localized in a punctate pattern mainly within the cytoplasm of HCEC in ex vivo corneas and cultured cells. Western blots revealed the presence of three PTP1B-positive bands in HCEC and the control. Further western blot analysis showed no significant age-related difference in expression of EGFR (p=0.444>0.05); however, PTP1B expression was significantly higher in HCEC from older donors (p=0.024<0.05). Pre-incubation of HCEC with the PTP1B inhibitor significantly increased (p=0.019<0.05) the number of BrdU positive cells by 48 h after EGF stimulation. Conclusions Both immunolocalization and western blot studies confirmed that PTP1B is expressed in HCEC. Staining patterns strongly suggest that at least a subset of PTP1B is localized to the cytoplasm and most likely to the endoplasmic reticulum, the known site of EGFR/PTP1B interaction following EGF stimulation. PTP1B

  9. Tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase-1 and tyrosine sulfation of chemokine receptor 4 are induced by Epstein-Barr virus encoded latent membrane protein 1 and associated with the metastatic potential of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Xu

    Full Text Available The latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1, which is encoded by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV, is an important oncogenic protein that is closely related to carcinogenesis and metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC, a prevalent cancer in China. We previously reported that the expression of the functional chemokine receptor CXCR4 is associated with human NPC metastasis. In this study, we show that LMP1 induces tyrosine sulfation of CXCR4 through tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase-1 (TPST-1, an enzyme that is responsible for catalysis of tyrosine sulfation in vivo, which is likely to contribute to the highly metastatic character of NPC. LMP1 could induce tyrosine sulfation of CXCR4 and its associated cell motility and invasiveness in a NPC cell culture model. In contrast, the expression of TPST-1 small interfering RNA reversed LMP1-induced tyrosine sulfation of CXCR4. LMP1 conveys signals through the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR pathway, and EGFR-targeted siRNA inhibited the induction of TPST-1 by LMP1. We used a ChIP assay to show that EGFR could bind to the TPST-1 promoter in vivo under the control of LMP1. A reporter gene assay indicated that the activity of the TPST-1 promoter could be suppressed by deleting the binding site between EGFR and TPST-1. Finally, in human NPC tissues, the expression of TPST-1 and LMP1 was directly correlated and clinically, the expression of TPST-1 was associated with metastasis. These results suggest the up-regulation of TPST-1 and tyrosine sulfation of CXCR4 by LMP1 might be a potential mechanism contributing to NPC metastasis.

  10. The Syk protein tyrosine kinase can function independently of CD45 or Lck in T cell antigen receptor signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chu, D. H.; Spits, H.; Peyron, J. F.; Rowley, R. B.; Bolen, J. B.; Weiss, A.

    1996-01-01

    The protein tyrosine phosphatase CD45 is a critical component of the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) signaling pathway, acting as a positive regulator of Src family protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) such as Lck. Most CD45-deficient human and murine T cell lines are unable to signal through their TCRs.

  11. Helicobacter pylori VacA, acting through receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase ?, is crucial for CagA phosphorylation in human duodenum carcinoma cell line AZ-521

    OpenAIRE

    Nakano, Masayuki; Yahiro, Kinnosuke; Yamasaki, Eiki; Kurazono, Hisao; Akada, Junko; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Niidome, Takuro; Hatakeyama, Masanori; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Yamamoto, Taro; Moss, Joel; Isomoto, Hajime; Hirayama, Toshiya

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Helicobacter pylori, a major cause of gastroduodenal diseases, produces vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA) and cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA), which seem to be involved in virulence. VacA exhibits pleiotropic actions in gastroduodenal disorders via its specific receptors. Recently, we found that VacA induced the phosphorylation of cellular Src kinase (Src) at Tyr418 in AZ-521 cells. Silencing of receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase (RPTP)?, a VacA receptor, reduced VacA-induced Src ph...

  12. The role of oestrogen receptor {alpha} in human thyroid cancer: contributions from coregulatory proteins and the tyrosine kinase receptor HER2.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kavanagh, Dara O

    2012-02-01

    Epidemiological, clinical, and molecular studies suggest a role for oestrogen in thyroid cancer. How oestrogen mediates its effects and the consequence of it on clinical outcome has not been fully elucidated. The participation of coregulatory proteins in modulating oestrogen receptor (ER) function and input of crosstalk with the tyrosine kinase receptor HER2 was investigated. Oestrogen induced cell proliferation in the follicular thyroid cancer (FTC)-133 cells, but not in the anaplastic 8305C cell line. Knockdown of the coactivator steroid receptor coactivator (SRC)-1 inhibited FTC-133 basal, but not oestrogen induced, cell proliferation. Oestrogen also increased protein expression of SRC-1 and the ER target gene cyclin D1 in the FTC-133 cell line. ERalpha, ERbeta, the coregulatory proteins SRC-1 and nuclear corepressor (NCoR), and the tyrosine kinase receptor HER2 were localised by immunohistochemistry and immnofluorescence in paraffin-embedded tissue from thyroid tumour patients (n=111). ERalpha was colocalised with both SRC-1 and NCoR to the nuclei of the tumour epithelial cells. Expression of ERalpha and NCoR was found predominantly in non-anaplastic tumours and was significantly associated with well-differentiated tumours and reduced incidence of disease recurrence. In non-anaplastic tumours, HER2 was significantly associated with SRC-1, and these proteins were associated with poorly differentiated tumours, capsular invasion and disease recurrence. Totally, 87% of anaplastic tumours were positive for SRC-1. Kaplan-Meier estimates of disease-free survival indicated that in thyroid cancer, SRC-1 strongly correlates with reduced disease-free survival (P<0.001), whereas NCoR predicted increased survival (P<0.001). These data suggest opposing roles for the coregulators SRC-1 and NCoR in thyroid tumour progression.

  13. Association of connexin43 with a receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giepmans, Ben N G; Feiken, Elles; Gebbink, Martijn F B G; Moolenaar, Wouter H

    2003-01-01

    Connexin-43(Cx43)-based gap junctional communication is transiently inhibited by certain G protein-coupled receptor agonists, including lysophosphatidic acid, endothelin and thrombin. Our previous studies have implicated the c-Src protein tyrosine kinase in mediating closure of Cx43 based gap

  14. A protein-tyrosine phosphatase with sequence similarity to the SH2 domain of the protein-tyrosine kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, S H; Bastien, L; Posner, B I; Chrétien, P

    1991-08-22

    The phosphorylation of proteins at tyrosine residues is critical in cellular signal transduction, neoplastic transformation and control of the mitotic cycle. These mechanisms are regulated by the activities of both protein-tyrosine kinases (PTKs) and protein-tyrosine phosphatases (PTPases). As in the PTKs, there are two classes of PTPases: membrane associated, receptor-like enzymes and soluble proteins. Here we report the isolation of a complementary DNA clone encoding a new form of soluble PTPase, PTP1C. The enzyme possesses a large noncatalytic region at the N terminus which unexpectedly contains two adjacent copies of the Src homology region 2 (the SH2 domain) found in various nonreceptor PTKs and other cytoplasmic signalling proteins. As with other SH2 sequences, the SH2 domains of PTP1C formed high-affinity complexes with the activated epidermal growth factor receptor and other phosphotyrosine-containing proteins. These results suggest that the SH2 regions in PTP1C may interact with other cellular components to modulate its own phosphatase activity against interacting substrates. PTPase activity may thus directly link growth factor receptors and other signalling proteins through protein-tyrosine phosphorylation.

  15. Fundamentals on the biochemistry of peroxynitrite and protein tyrosine nitration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvina Bartesaghi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this review we provide an analysis of the biochemistry of peroxynitrite and tyrosine nitration. Peroxynitrite is the product of the diffusion-controlled reaction between superoxide (O2•- and nitric oxide (•NO. This process is in competition with the enzymatic dismutation of O2•- and the diffusion of •NO across cells and tissues and its reaction with molecular targets (e.g. guanylate cyclase. Understanding the kinetics and compartmentalization of the O2•- / •NO interplay is critical to rationalize the shift of •NO from a physiological mediator to a cytotoxic intermediate. Once formed, peroxynitrite (ONOO- and ONOOH; pKa = 6,8 behaves as a strong one and two-electron oxidant towards a series of biomolecules including transition metal centers and thiols. In addition, peroxynitrite anion can secondarily evolve to secondary radicals either via its fast reaction with CO2 or through proton-catalyzed homolysis. Thus, peroxynitrite can participate in direct (bimolecular and indirect (through secondary radical intermediates oxidation reactions; through these processes peroxynitrite can participate as cytotoxic effector molecule against invading pathogens and/or as an endogenous pathogenic mediator. Peroxynitrite can cause protein tyrosine nitration in vitro and in vivo. Indeed, tyrosine nitration is a hallmark of the reactions of •NO-derived oxidants in cells and tissues and serves as a biomarker of oxidative damage. Protein tyrosine nitration can mediate changes in protein structure and function that affect cell homeostasis. Tyrosine nitration in biological systems is a free radical process that can be promoted either by peroxynitrite-derived radicals or by other related •NO-dependent oxidative processes. Recently, mechanisms responsible of tyrosine nitration in hydrophobic biostructures such as membranes and lipoproteins have been assessed and involve the parallel occurrence and connection with lipid

  16. Expression of protein-tyrosine phosphatases in the major insulin target tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norris, K; Norris, F; Kono, D H

    1997-01-01

    Protein-tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) are key regulators of the insulin receptor signal transduction pathway. We have performed a detailed analysis of PTP expression in the major human insulin target tissues or cells (liver, adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and endothelial cells). To obtain a repre...

  17. Anxious moments for the protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnan, Navasona; Tonks, Nicholas K.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic stress can lead to the development of anxiety and mood disorders. Thus, novel therapies for preventing adverse effects of stress are vitally important. Recently, the protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B was identified as a novel regulator of stress-induced anxiety. This opens up exciting opportunities to exploit PTP1B inhibitors as anxiolytics.

  18. Receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase alpha is essential for hippocampal neuronal migration and long-term potentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrone, Angiola; Battaglia, Fortunato; Wang, Cheng

    2003-01-01

    Despite clear indications of their importance in lower organisms, the contributions of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) to development or function of the mammalian nervous system have been poorly explored. In vitro studies have indicated that receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase alpha...

  19. Regulation of hematopoietic cell function by protein tyrosine kinase-encoding oncogenes, a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Punt, C. J.

    1992-01-01

    Tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins by protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) is an important mechanism in the regulation of various cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, and transformation. Accumulating data implicate PTKs as essential intermediates in the transduction of

  20. Receptor tyrosine phosphatase R-PTP-alpha is tyrosine-phosphorylated and associated with the adaptor protein Grb2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, J; Batzer, A; Sap, J

    1994-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine phosphatases (R-PTPases) have generated interest because of their suspected involvement in cellular signal transduction. The adaptor protein Grb2 has been implicated in coupling receptor tyrosine kinases to Ras. We report that a ubiquitous R-PTPase, R-PTP-alpha, is tyrosine......-phosphorylated and associated in vivo with the Grb2 protein. This association can be reproduced in stably and transiently transfected cells, as well as in vitro using recombinant Grb2 protein. Association requires the presence of an intact SH2 domain in Grb2, as well as tyrosine phosphorylation of R-PTP-alpha. This observation...... links a receptor tyrosine phosphatase with a key component of a central cellular signalling pathway and provides a basis for addressing R-PTP-alpha function....

  1. Interleukin-2 induces tyrosine phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of stat3 in human T lymphocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M; Svejgaard, A; Skov, S

    1994-01-01

    that stimulation through the IL-2R induced tyrosine phosphorylation and subsequent nuclear translocation of stat3, a newly identified member of the signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) family of proteins. In contrast, stat1 proteins were not tyrosine phosphorylated after IL-2 ligation, whereas...... an apparent molecular mass of 84 kDa and was not recognized by stat3 or stat1 mAb or antisera. Since IL-2 induced nuclear translocation of the 84 kDa protein and stat3 followed identical kinetics, p84 is a candidate for a new, yet undefined, member of the STAT family. Taken together, we report that IL-2...... induces tyrosine phosphorylation and subsequent nuclear translocation of stat3 and an as yet undefined 84-kDa protein in antigen-specific human T cell lines....

  2. Putative tyrosine kinases expressed in K-562 human leukemia cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partanen, J.; Maekelae, T.P.; Lehvaeslaiho, H.; Alitalo, K.; Alitalo, R.

    1990-01-01

    Tyrosine phosphorylation is important in the transmission of growth and differentiation signals; known tyrosine kinases include several oncoproteins and growth factor receptors. Interestingly, some differentiated cell types, such as erythrocytes and platelets contain high amounts of phosphotyrosine. The authors analyzed tyrosine kinases expressed in the K-562 chronic myelogenous leukemia cell line, which has a bipotential erythroid and megakaryoblastoid differentiation capacity. Analysis of 359 polymerase chain reaction-amplified cDNA clones led to the identification of 14 different tyrosine kinase-related sequences (JTK1-14). Two of the clones (JTK2 and JTK4) represent unusual members of the fibroblast growth factor receptor gene family, and the clones JTK5, JTK11, and JTK14 may also belong to the family of receptor tyrosine kinases but lack a close relationship to any known tyrosine kinase. Each of these different genes has its own characteristic expression pattern in K-562 cells and several other human tumor cell lines. In addition, the JTK11 and JTK14 mRNAs are induced during the megakaryoblastoid differentiation of K-562 cells. These tyrosine kinases may have a role in the differentiation of megakaryoblasts or in the physiology of platelets

  3. Natural compounds as a source of protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitors : Application to the rational design of small-molecule derivatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, Carmen V.; Justo, Giselle Z.; Souza, Ana C. S.; Queiroz, Karla C. S.; Zambuzzi, William F.; Aoyama, Hiroshi; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.

    2006-01-01

    Reversible phosphorylation of tyrosine residues is a key regulatory mechanism for numerous cellular events. Protein tyrosine kinases and protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) have a pivotal role in regulating both normal cell physiology and pathophysiology. Accordingly, deregulated activity of both

  4. Structure determination of T-cell protein-tyrosine phosphatase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, L.F.; Møller, K. B.; Pedersen, A.K.

    2002-01-01

    Protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) has recently received much attention as a potential drug target in type 2 diabetes. This has in particular been spurred by the finding that PTP1B knockout mice show increased insulin sensitivity and resistance to diet-induced obesity. Surprisingly, the highly...... homologous T cell protein-tyrosine phosphatase (TC-PTP) has received much less attention, and no x-ray structure has been provided. We have previously co-crystallized PTP1B with a number of low molecular weight inhibitors that inhibit TC-PTP with similar efficiency. Unexpectedly, we were not able to co...... the high degree of functional and structural similarity between TC-PTP and PTP1B, we have been able to identify areas close to the active site that might be addressed to develop selective inhibitors of each enzyme....

  5. Src protein-tyrosine kinase structure and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roskoski, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Src and Src-family protein kinases are proto-oncogenes that play key roles in cell morphology, motility, proliferation, and survival. v-Src (a viral protein) is encoded by the chicken oncogene of Rous sarcoma virus, and Src (the cellular homologue) is encoded by a physiological gene, the first of the proto-oncogenes. From the N- to C-terminus, Src contains an N-terminal 14-carbon myristoyl group, a unique segment, an SH3 domain, an SH2 domain, a protein-tyrosine kinase domain, and a C-terminal regulatory tail. The chief phosphorylation sites of Src include tyrosine 416 that results in activation from autophosphorylation and tyrosine 527 that results in inhibition from phosphorylation by C-terminal Src kinase. In the restrained state, the SH2 domain forms a salt bridge with phosphotyrosine 527, and the SH3 domain binds to the kinase domain via a polyproline type II left-handed helix. The SH2 and SH3 domains occur on the backside of the kinase domain away from the active site where they stabilize a dormant enzyme conformation. Protein-tyrosine phosphatases such as PTPα displace phosphotyrosine 527 from the Src SH2 domain and mediate its dephosphorylation leading to Src kinase activation. C-terminal Src kinase consists of an SH3, SH2, and kinase domain; it lacks an N-terminal myristoyl group and a C-terminal regulatory tail. Its X-ray structure has been determined, and the SH2 lobe occupies a position that is entirely different from that of Src. Unlike Src, the C-terminal Src kinase SH2 and SH3 domains stabilize an active enzyme conformation. Amino acid residues in the αD helix near the catalytic loop in the large lobe of C-terminal Src kinase serve as a docking site for the physiological substrate (Src) but not for an artificial substrate (polyGlu 4 Tyr)

  6. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 are induced differently by metal nanoparticles in human monocytes: The role of oxidative stress and protein tyrosine kinase activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Rong; Mo Yiqun; Zhang Xing; Chien Sufan; Tollerud, David J.; Zhang Qunwei

    2008-01-01

    Recently, many studies have shown that nanoparticles can translocate from the lungs to the circulatory system. As a particulate foreign body, nanoparticles could induce host responses such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, inflammatory cytokine and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) release which play a major role in tissue destruction and remodeling. However, the direct effects of nanoparticles on leukocytes, especially monocytes, are still unclear. The objective of the present study was to compare the ability of Nano-Co and Nano-TiO 2 to cause alteration of transcription and activity of MMPs and to explore possible mechanisms. We hypothesized that non-toxic doses of some transition metal nanoparticles stimulate an imbalance of MMP/TIMP that cause MMP production that may contribute to their health effects. To test this hypothesis, U937 cells were treated with Nano-Co and Nano-TiO 2 and cytotoxic effects and ROS generation were measured. The alteration of MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression and activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 after exposure to these metal nanoparticles were subsequently determined. To investigate the potential signaling pathways involved in the Nano-Co-induced MMP activation, the ROS scavengers or inhibitors, AP-1 inhibitor, and protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) inhibitors were also used to pre-treat U937 cells. Our results demonstrated that exposure of U937 cells to Nano-Co, but not to Nano-TiO 2 , at a dose that does not cause cytotoxicity, resulted in ROS generation and up-regulation of MMP-2 and MMP-9 mRNA expression .. Our results also showed dose- and time-related increases in pro-MMP-2 and pro-MMP-9 gelatinolytic activities in conditioned media after exposure of U937 cells to Nano-Co, but not to Nano-TiO 2 . Nano-Co-induced pro-MMP-2 and pro-MMP-9 activity increases were inhibited by pre-treatment with ROS scavengers or inhibitors. We also demonstrated dose- and time-related decreases in tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases 2 (TIMP-2) in U937 cells

  7. Tyrosine Sulfation as a Protein Post-Translational Modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuh-Shyong Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Integration of inorganic sulfate into biological molecules plays an important role in biological systems and is directly involved in the instigation of diseases. Protein tyrosine sulfation (PTS is a common post-translational modification that was first reported in the literature fifty years ago. However, the significance of PTS under physiological conditions and its link to diseases have just begun to be appreciated in recent years. PTS is catalyzed by tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase (TPST through transfer of an activated sulfate from 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate to tyrosine in a variety of proteins and peptides. Currently, only a small fraction of sulfated proteins is known and the understanding of the biological sulfation mechanisms is still in progress. In this review, we give an introductory and selective brief review of PTS and then summarize the basic biochemical information including the activity and the preparation of TPST, methods for the determination of PTS, and kinetics and reaction mechanism of TPST. This information is fundamental for the further exploration of the function of PTS that induces protein-protein interactions and the subsequent biochemical and physiological reactions.

  8. Tyrosine Phosphorylation of the Human Serotonin Transporter: A Role in the Transporter Stability and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annamalai, Balasubramaniam; Mannangatti, Padmanabhan; Arapulisamy, Obulakshmi; Shippenberg, Toni S.; Jayanthi, Lankupalle D.

    2012-01-01

    The serotonin (5-HT) transporter (SERT) regulates serotoninergic neurotransmission by clearing 5-HT released into the synaptic space. Phosphorylation of SERT on serine and threonine mediates SERT regulation. Whether tyrosine phosphorylation regulates SERT is unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that tyrosine-phosphorylation of SERT regulates 5-HT transport. In support of this, alkali-resistant 32P-labeled SERT was found in rat platelets, and Src-tyrosine kinase inhibitor 4-amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo [3,4,d]pyrimidine (PP2) decreased platelet SERT function and expression. In human placental trophoblast cells expressing SERT, PP2 reduced transporter function, expression, and stability. Although siRNA silencing of Src expression decreased SERT function and expression, coexpression of Src resulted in PP2-sensitive increases in SERT function and expression. PP2 treatment markedly decreased SERT protein stability. Compared with WT-SERT, SERT tyrosine mutants Y47F and Y142F exhibited reduced 5-HT transport despite their higher total and cell surface expression levels. Moreover, Src-coexpression increased total and cell surface expression of Y47F and Y142F SERT mutants without affecting their 5-HT transport capacity. It is noteworthy that Y47F and Y142F mutants exhibited higher protein stability compared with WT-SERT. However, similar to WT-SERT, PP2 treatment decreased the stability of Y47F and Y142F mutants. Furthermore, compared with WT-SERT, Y47F and Y142F mutants exhibited lower basal tyrosine phosphorylation and no further enhancement of tyrosine phosphorylation in response to Src coexpression. These results provide the first evidence that SERT tyrosine phosphorylation supports transporter protein stability and 5HT transport. PMID:21992875

  9. DETECTION AND PURIFICATION OF TYROSINE-SULFATED PROTEINS USING A NOVEL ANTI-SULFOTYROSINE MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffhines, Adam J.; Damoc, Eugen; Bridges, Kristie G.; Leary, Julie A.; Moore, Kevin L.

    2006-01-01

    Protein-tyrosine O-sulfation is a post-translational modification mediated by one of two Golgi tyrosylprotein sulfotransferases (TPST-1 & TPST-2) that catalyze the transfer of sulfate to tyrosine residues in secreted and transmembrane proteins. Tyrosine sulfation plays a role in protein-protein interactions in several well-defined systems. Although dozens of tyrosine-sulfated proteins are known, many more are likely to exist and await description. Advancing our understanding of the importance of tyrosine sulfation in biological systems requires the development of new tools for the detection and study of tyrosine-sulfated proteins. We have developed a novel anti-sulfotyrosine monoclonal antibody, called PSG2, that binds with high affinity and exquisite specificity to sulfotyrosine residues in peptides and proteins independent of sequence context. We show that it can detect tyrosinesulfated proteins in complex biological samples and can be used as a probe to assess the role of tyrosine sulfation in protein function. We also demonstrate the utility of PSG2 in the purification of tyrosine-sulfated proteins from crude tissue samples. Finally, Western blot analysis using PSG2 indicates that certain sperm/epididymal proteins are undersulfated in Tpst2−/− mice. This indicates that TPST-1 and TPST-2 have distinct macromolecular substrate specificities and provides clues as to the molecular mechanism of the infertility of Tpst2−/− males. PSG2 should be widely applicable for identification of tyrosine-sulfated proteins in other systems and organisms. PMID:17046811

  10. Muscarinic agonists and phorbol esters increase tyrosine phosphorylation of a 40-kilodalton protein in hippocampal slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stratton, K.R.; Worley, P.F.; Huganir, R.L.; Baraban, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have used the hippocampal slice preparation to investigate the regulation of protein tyrosine phosphorylation in brain. After pharmacological treatment of intact slices, proteins were separated by electrophoresis, and levels of protein tyrosine phosphorylation were assessed by immunoblotting with specific anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies. Phorbol esters, activators of the serine- and threonine-phosphorylating enzyme protein kinase C, selectively increase tyrosine phosphorylation of a soluble protein with an apparent molecular mass of approximately 40 kilodaltons. Muscarinic agonists such as carbachol and oxotremorine M that strongly activate the inositol phospholipid system also increase tyrosine phosphorylation of this protein. Neurotransmitter activation of the inositol phospholipid system and protein kinase C appears to trigger a cascade leading to increased tyrosine phosphorylation

  11. Exposure of tropoelastin to peroxynitrous acid gives high yields of nitrated tyrosine residues, di-tyrosine cross-links and altered protein structure and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degendorfer, Georg; Chuang, Christine Yu-Nung; Mariotti, Michele

    2018-01-01

    Elastin is an abundant extracellular matrix protein in elastic tissues, including the lungs, skin and arteries, and comprises 30–57% of the aorta by dry mass. The monomeric precursor, tropoelastin (TE), undergoes complex processing during elastogenesis to form mature elastic fibres. Peroxynitrous......-protein di-tyrosine cross-links have been characterized by mass spectrometry. Examination of human atherosclerotic lesions shows colocalization of 3-nitroTyr with elastin epitopes, consistent with TE or elastin modification in vivo, and also an association of 3-nitroTyr containing proteins and elastin...

  12. Early fetal acquisition of the chromaffin and neuronal immunophenotype by human adrenal medullary cells. An immunohistological study using monoclonal antibodies to chromogranin A, synaptophysin, tyrosine hydroxylase, and neuronal cytoskeletal proteins.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, W M; Lee, V M; Trojanowski, J Q

    1990-01-01

    The development of chromaffin and neuronal features in the adrenal medulla was studied in normal human fetuses with gestational ages (GAs) of 6-34 weeks. Monoclonal antibodies specific for chromogranin A, synaptophysin, and tyrosine hydroxylase; for different subunits and phosphoisoforms of

  13. Bacterial single-stranded DNA-binding proteins are phosphorylated on tyrosine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijakovic, Ivan; Petranovic, Dina; Macek, B

    2006-01-01

    for phosphotyrosine-containing proteins in Streptomyces griseus by immunoaffinity chromatography identified bacterial SSBs as a novel target of bacterial tyrosine kinases. Since genes encoding protein-tyrosine kinases (PTKs) have not been recognized in streptomycetes, and SSBs from Streptomyces coelicolor (Sc......SSB) and Bacillus subtilis (BsSSB) share 38.7% identity, we used a B.subtilis protein-tyrosine kinase YwqD to phosphorylate two cognate SSBs (BsSSB and YwpH) in vitro. We demonstrate that in vivo phosphorylation of B.subtilis SSB occurs on tyrosine residue 82, and this reaction is affected antagonistically...... by kinase YwqD and phosphatase YwqE. Phosphorylation of B.subtilis SSB increased binding almost 200-fold to single-stranded DNA in vitro. Tyrosine phosphorylation of B.subtilis, S.coelicolor and Escherichia coli SSBs occured while they were expressed in E.coli, indicating that tyrosine phosphorylation...

  14. Suppression of adhesion-induced protein tyrosine phosphorylation decreases invasive and metastatic potentials of B16-BL6 melanoma cells by protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, C; Han, R

    1997-01-01

    Protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) appears to be involved in the activation of signaling during cell attachment to and spreading on extracellular matrix (ECM) in the metastatic cascade. To verify the assumption that PTK inhibitors might impair ECM signaling and prevent cancer metastasis, the highly metastatic B16-BL6 mouse melanoma cells were exposed to the PTK inhibitor genistein for 3 days. The ability of the cells to invade through reconstituted basement membrane (Matrigel) and to establish experimental pulmonary metastatic foci in C57BL/6 mice decreased after genistein exposure. The genistein-treated cells were also prevented from attaching to Matrigel and spread extremely poorly on the ECM substratum. Immunoblot analysis showed that tyrosine phosphorylation of a 125-kD protein in response to cell spreading on Matrigel was suppressed in the genistein-treated cells. Adhesion-induced protein tyrosine phosphorylation represents the earlier and specific event in the activation of ECM signaling, so this result implied ECM signaling was impaired in the treated cells. With immunofluorescence microscopy, the adhesion-induced tyrosine phosphorylated proteins were located at the pericytoplasms of well-spread cells, but not at the periphery of poorly spread genistein-treated cells. Therefore, this paper suggests that genistein might impair ECM signaling and subsequently prevent cancer cells from spreading well and invading or establishing metastasis through the suppression of adhesion-induced protein tyrosine phosphorylation. PTKs and adhesion-induced protein tyrosine phosphorylation might play a role in the control of invasion and metastasis.

  15. Structural basis for inhibition of the protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B by phosphotyrosine peptide mimetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groves, M R; Yao, Z J; Roller, P P; Burke, T R; Barford, D

    1998-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatases regulate diverse cellular processes and represent important targets for therapeutic intervention in a number of diseases. The crystal structures of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) in complex with small molecule inhibitors based upon two classes of

  16. Central regulation of metabolism by protein tyrosine phosphatases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan eTsou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs are important regulators of intracellular signaling pathways via the dephosphorylation of phosphotyrosyl residues on various receptor and non-receptor substrates. The phosphorylation state of central nervous system (CNS signaling components underlies the molecular mechanisms of a variety of physiological functions including the control of energy balance and glucose homeostasis. In this review, we summarize the current evidence implicating PTPs as central regulators of metabolism, specifically highlighting their interactions with the neuronal leptin and insulin signaling pathways. We discuss the role of a number of PTPs (PTP1B, SHP2, TCPTP, RPTPe, and PTEN, reviewing the findings from genetic mouse models and in vitro studies which highlight these phosphatases as key central regulators of energy homeostasis.

  17. Activation of the protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 via the interleukin-6 signal transducing receptor protein gp130 requires tyrosine kinase Jak1 and limits acute-phase protein expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaper, F; Gendo, C; Eck, M; Schmitz, J; Grimm, C; Anhuf, D; Kerr, I M; Heinrich, P C

    1998-11-01

    Stimulation of the interleukin-6 (IL-6) signalling pathway occurs via the IL-6 receptor-glycoprotein 130 (IL-6R-gp130) receptor complex and results in the regulation of acute-phase protein genes in liver cells. Ligand binding to the receptor complex leads to tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of Janus kinases (Jak), phosphorylation of the signal transducing subunit gp130, followed by recruitment and phosphorylation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription factors STAT3 and STAT1 and the src homology domain (SH2)-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase (SHP2). The tyrosine phosphorylated STAT factors dissociate from the receptor, dimerize and translocate to the nucleus where they bind to enhancer sequences of IL-6 target genes. Phosphorylated SHP2 is able to bind growth factor receptor bound protein (grb2) and thus might link the Jak/STAT pathway to the ras/raf/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Here we present data on the dose-dependence, kinetics and kinase requirements for SHP2 phosphorylation after the activation of the signal transducer, gp130, of the IL-6-type family receptor complex. When human fibrosarcoma cell lines deficient in Jak1, Jak2 or tyrosine kinase 2 (Tyk2) were stimulated with IL-6-soluble IL-6R complexes it was found that only in Jak1-, but not in Jak 2- or Tyk2-deficient cells, SHP2 activation was greatly impaired. It is concluded that Jak1 is required for the tyrosine phosphorylation of SHP2. This phosphorylation depends on Tyr-759 in the cytoplasmatic domain of gp130, since a Tyr-759-->Phe exchange abrogates SHP2 activation and in turn leads to elevated and prolonged STAT3 and STAT1 activation as well as enhanced acute-phase protein gene induction. Therefore, SHP2 plays an important role in acute-phase gene regulation.

  18. Proteomic analysis of tyrosine phosphorylation during human liver transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boutros Tarek

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R causes a dramatic reprogramming of cell metabolism during liver transplantation and can be linked to an alteration of the phosphorylation level of several cellular proteins. Over the past two decades, it became clear that tyrosine phosphorylation plays a pivotal role in a variety of important signalling pathways and was linked to a wide spectrum of diseases. Functional profiling of the tyrosine phosphoproteome during liver transplantation is therefore of great biological significance and is likely to lead to the identification of novel targets for drug discovery and provide a basis for novel therapeutic strategies. Results Using liver biopsies collected during the early phases of organ procurement and transplantation, we aimed at characterizing the global patterns of tyrosine phosphorylation during hepatic I/R. A proteomic approach, based on the purification of tyrosine phosphorylated proteins followed by their identification using mass spectrometry, allowed us to identify Nck-1, a SH2/SH3 adaptor, as a potential regulator of I/R injury. Using immunoblot, cell fractionation and immunohistochemistry, we demonstrate that Nck-1 phosphorylation, expression and localization were affected in liver tissue upon I/R. In addition, mass spectrometry identification of Nck-1 binding partners during the course of the transplantation also suggested a dynamic interaction between Nck-1 and actin during I/R. Conclusion Taken together, our data suggest that Nck-1 may play a role in I/R-induced actin reorganization, which was previously reported to be detrimental for the hepatocytes of the transplanted graft. Nck-1 could therefore represent a target of choice for the design of new organ preservation strategies, which could consequently help to reduce post-reperfusion liver damages and improve transplantation outcomes.

  19. A Multifeatures Fusion and Discrete Firefly Optimization Method for Prediction of Protein Tyrosine Sulfation Residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Song; Liu, Chunhua; Zhou, Peng; Li, Yanling

    2016-01-01

    Tyrosine sulfation is one of the ubiquitous protein posttranslational modifications, where some sulfate groups are added to the tyrosine residues. It plays significant roles in various physiological processes in eukaryotic cells. To explore the molecular mechanism of tyrosine sulfation, one of the prerequisites is to correctly identify possible protein tyrosine sulfation residues. In this paper, a novel method was presented to predict protein tyrosine sulfation residues from primary sequences. By means of informative feature construction and elaborate feature selection and parameter optimization scheme, the proposed predictor achieved promising results and outperformed many other state-of-the-art predictors. Using the optimal features subset, the proposed method achieved mean MCC of 94.41% on the benchmark dataset, and a MCC of 90.09% on the independent dataset. The experimental performance indicated that our new proposed method could be effective in identifying the important protein posttranslational modifications and the feature selection scheme would be powerful in protein functional residues prediction research fields.

  20. Tailor-Made Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases: In Vitro Site-Directed Mutagenesis of PTEN and PTPRZ-B

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luna, S.; Mingo, J.; Aurtenetxe, O.; Blanco, L.; Amo, L.; Schepens, J.; Hendriks, W.J.A.J.; Pulido, R.

    2016-01-01

    In vitro site-directed mutagenesis (SDM) of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) is a commonly used approach to experimentally analyze PTP functions at the molecular and cellular level and to establish functional correlations with PTP alterations found in human disease. Here, using the

  1. Signaling by Kit protein-tyrosine kinase--the stem cell factor receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskoski, Robert

    2005-11-11

    Signaling by stem cell factor and Kit, its receptor, plays important roles in gametogenesis, hematopoiesis, mast cell development and function, and melanogenesis. Moreover, human and mouse embryonic stem cells express Kit transcripts. Stem cell factor exists as both a soluble and a membrane-bound glycoprotein while Kit is a receptor protein-tyrosine kinase. The complete absence of stem cell factor or Kit is lethal. Deficiencies of either produce defects in red and white blood cell production, hypopigmentation, and sterility. Gain-of-function mutations of Kit are associated with several human neoplasms including acute myelogenous leukemia, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, and mastocytomas. Kit consists of an extracellular domain, a transmembrane segment, a juxtamembrane segment, and a protein kinase domain that contains an insert of about 80 amino acid residues. Binding of stem cell factor to Kit results in receptor dimerization and activation of protein kinase activity. The activated receptor becomes autophosphorylated at tyrosine residues that serve as docking sites for signal transduction molecules containing SH2 domains. The adaptor protein APS, Src family kinases, and Shp2 tyrosyl phosphatase bind to phosphotyrosine 568. Shp1 tyrosyl phosphatase and the adaptor protein Shc bind to phosphotyrosine 570. C-terminal Src kinase homologous kinase and the adaptor Shc bind to both phosphotyrosines 568 and 570. These residues occur in the juxtamembrane segment of Kit. Three residues in the kinase insert domain are phosphorylated and attract the adaptor protein Grb2 (Tyr703), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (Tyr721), and phospholipase Cgamma (Tyr730). Phosphotyrosine 900 in the distal kinase domain binds phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase which in turn binds the adaptor protein Crk. Phosphotyrosine 936, also in the distal kinase domain, binds the adaptor proteins APS, Grb2, and Grb7. Kit has the potential to participate in multiple signal transduction pathways as a result of

  2. Protein tyrosine kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathways contribute to differences in heterophil-mediated innate immune responsiveness between two lines of broilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protein tyrosine phosphorylation mediates signal transduction of cellular processes, with protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) regulating virtually all signaling events. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) super-family consists of three conserved pathways that convert receptor activation into ce...

  3. DMPD: Macrophage-stimulating protein and RON receptor tyrosine kinase: potentialregulators of macrophage inflammatory activities. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 12472665 Macrophage-stimulating protein and RON receptor tyrosine kinase: potential...:545-53. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Macrophage-stimulating protein and RON receptor tyrosine kinase:...le Macrophage-stimulating protein and RON receptor tyrosine kinase: potentialregulators of macrophage inflam

  4. UV-Vis spectroscopy of tyrosine side-groups in studies of protein structure. Part 1: basic principles and properties of tyrosine chromophore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antosiewicz, Jan M; Shugar, David

    2016-06-01

    Spectroscopic properties of tyrosine residues may be employed in structural studies of proteins. Here we discuss several different types of UV-Vis spectroscopy, like normal, difference and second-derivative UV absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, linear and circular dichroism spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy, and corresponding optical properties of the tyrosine chromophore, phenol, which are used to study protein structure.

  5. Protein Tyrosine Nitration: Biochemical Mechanisms and Structural Basis of its Functional Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radi, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    CONSPECTUS The nitration of protein tyrosine residues to 3-nitrotyrosine represents an oxidative postranslational modification that unveils the disruption of nitric oxide (•NO) signaling and metabolism towards pro-oxidant processes. Indeed, excess levels of reactive oxygen species in the presence of •NO or •NO-derived metabolites lead to the formation of nitrating species such as peroxynitrite. Thus, protein 3-nitrotyrosine has been established as a biomarker of cell, tissue and systemic “nitroxidative stress”. Moreover, tyrosine nitration modifies key properties of the amino acid (i.e. phenol group pKa, redox potential, hydrophobicity and volume). Thus, the incorporation of a nitro group (−NO2) to protein tyrosines can lead to profound structural and functional changes, some of which contribute to altered cell and tissue homeostasis. In this Account, I describe our current efforts to define 1) biologically-relevant mechanisms of protein tyrosine nitration and 2) how this modification can cause changes in protein structure and function at the molecular level. First, the relevance of protein tyrosine nitration via free radical-mediated reactions (in both peroxynitrite-dependent or independent pathways) involving the intermediacy of tyrosyl radical (Tyr•) will be underscored. This feature of the nitration process becomes critical as Tyr• can take variable fates, including the formation of 3-nitrotyrosine. Fast kinetic techniques, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies, bioanalytical methods and kinetic simulations have altogether assisted to characterize and fingerprint the reactions of tyrosine with peroxynitrite and one-electron oxidants and its further evolution to 3-nitrotyrosine. Recent findings show that nitration of tyrosines in proteins associated to biomembranes is linked to the lipid peroxidation process via a connecting reaction that involves the one-electron oxidation of tyrosine by lipid peroxyl radicals (LOO•). Second

  6. Mapping of the receptor protein-tyrosine kinase 10 to human chromosome 1q21-q23 and mouse chromosome 1H1-5 by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelhoff, S.; Disteche, C.M. [Univ. of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA (United States); Lai, C. [Scripps Research Inst., LaJolla, CA (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Receptor protein-tyrosine kinases (PTKs) play a critical role in the transduction of signals important to cell growth, differentiation, and survival. Mutations affecting the expression of receptor PTK genes have been associated with a number of vertebrate and invertebrate developmental abnormalities, and the aberrant regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation is implicated in a variety of neoplasias. One estimate suggests that approximately 100 receptor PTK genes exist in the mammalian genome, about half of which have been identified. The tyro-10 receptor protein-tyrosine kinase, first identified in a PCR-based survey for novel tyrosine kinases in the rat nervous system, defines a new subfamily of PTKs. It exhibits a catalytic domain most closely related to those found in the trk PTK receptor subfamily, which transduces signals for nerve growth factor and the related molecules brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3, and neurotrophin-4 (NT-3 and NT-4). Trk and the related PTK receptors trkB and trkC play a critical role in the neurotrophin-dependent survival of subsets of sensory and motor neurons. The predicted tyro-10 extracellular region is, however, distinct from that of the trk subfamily and is unique except for a domain shared with the blood coagulation factors V and VIII, thought to be involved in phospholipid binding. Although tyro-10 RNA is most abundant in heart and skeletal muscle in the adult rat, it is expressed in a wide variety of tissues, including the developing and mature brain. Tyro-10 appears identical to the murine TKT sequence reported by Karn et al. and exhibits a high degree of similarity with the CaK, DDR, and Nep PTKs. A ligand for tyro-10 has not yet been identified. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  7. Mechanism of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B-mediated inhibition of leptin signalling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, I K; Hansen, J A; Andersen, H S

    2005-01-01

    Upon leptin binding, the leptin receptor is activated, leading to stimulation of the JAK/STAT signal transduction cascade. The transient character of the tyrosine phosphorylation of JAK2 and STAT3 suggests the involvement of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) as negative regulators...

  8. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of rat protein tyrosine phosphatase η

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matozo, Huita C.; Nascimento, Alessandro S.; Santos, Maria A. M. [Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Departamento de Física e Informática, Universidade de São Paulo, Avenida Trabalhador São Carlense 400, CEP 13566-590 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Iuliano, Rodolfo [Dipartimento di Medicina Sperimentale e Clinica, Facoltà di Medicina e Chirurgia, Università di Catanzaro, 88100 Catanzaro (Italy); Fusco, Alfredo [Dipartimento di Biologia e Patologia Cellulare e Molecolare, c/o Instituto di Endocrinologia ed Oncologia Sperimentale del CNR, Facolta di Medicina e Chirurgia, Università degli Studi di Napoli ‘Federico II’, Via Pansini 5, 80131 Naples (Italy); NOGEC (Naples Oncogenomocs Center)-CEINGE, Biotecnologie Avanzate, Via Comunale Margherita 482, 80145 Naples (Italy); Polikarpov, Igor, E-mail: ipolikarpov@if.sc.usp.br [Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Departamento de Física e Informática, Universidade de São Paulo, Avenida Trabalhador São Carlense 400, CEP 13566-590 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncrotron, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2006-09-01

    In this study, the catalytic domain of rat protein tyrosine phosphatase η was produced in Escherichia coli in soluble form and purified to homogeneity. Crystals were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The rat protein tyrosine phosphatase η (rPTPη) is a cysteine-dependent phosphatase which hydrolyzes phosphoester bonds in proteins and other molecules. rPTPη and its human homologue DEP-1 are involved in neoplastic transformations. Thus, expression of the protein is reduced in all oncogene-transformed thyroid cell lines and is absent in highly malignant thyroid cells. Moreover, consistent with the suggested tumour suppression role of PTPη, inhibition of the tumorigenic process occurs after its exogenous reconstitution, suggesting that PTPη might be important for gene therapy of cancers. In this study, the catalytic domain of rPTPη was produced in Escherichia coli in soluble form and purified to homogeneity. Crystals were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Diffraction data were collected to 1.87 Å resolution. The crystal belongs to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 46.46, b = 63.07, c = 111.64 Å, and contains one molecule per asymmetric unit.

  9. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of rat protein tyrosine phosphatase η

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matozo, Huita C.; Nascimento, Alessandro S.; Santos, Maria A. M.; Iuliano, Rodolfo; Fusco, Alfredo; Polikarpov, Igor

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the catalytic domain of rat protein tyrosine phosphatase η was produced in Escherichia coli in soluble form and purified to homogeneity. Crystals were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The rat protein tyrosine phosphatase η (rPTPη) is a cysteine-dependent phosphatase which hydrolyzes phosphoester bonds in proteins and other molecules. rPTPη and its human homologue DEP-1 are involved in neoplastic transformations. Thus, expression of the protein is reduced in all oncogene-transformed thyroid cell lines and is absent in highly malignant thyroid cells. Moreover, consistent with the suggested tumour suppression role of PTPη, inhibition of the tumorigenic process occurs after its exogenous reconstitution, suggesting that PTPη might be important for gene therapy of cancers. In this study, the catalytic domain of rPTPη was produced in Escherichia coli in soluble form and purified to homogeneity. Crystals were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Diffraction data were collected to 1.87 Å resolution. The crystal belongs to space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 46.46, b = 63.07, c = 111.64 Å, and contains one molecule per asymmetric unit

  10. Finding the smoking gun: protein tyrosine phosphatases as tools and targets of unicellular microorganisms and viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heneberg, P

    2012-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) are increasingly recognized as important effectors of host-pathogen interactions. Since Guan and Dixon reported in 1990 that phosphatase YopH serves as an essential virulence determinant of Yersinia, the field shifted significantly forward, and dozens of PTPs were identified in various microorganisms and even in viruses. The discovery of extensive tyrosine signaling networks in non-metazoan organisms refuted the moth-eaten paradigm claiming that these organisms rely exclusively on phosphoserine/phosphothreonine signaling. Similarly to humans, phosphotyrosine signaling is thought to comprise a small fraction of total protein phosphorylation, but plays a disproportionately important role in cell-cycle control, differentiation, and invasiveness. Here we summarize the state-of-art knowledge on PTPs of important non-metazoan pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Caulobacter crescentus, Yersinia, Synechocystis, Leishmania, Plasmodium falciparum, Entamoeba histolytica, etc.), and focus also at the microbial proteins affecting directly or indirectly the PTPs of the host (Mycobacterium tuberculosis MTSA-10, Bacillus anthracis anthrax toxin, streptococcal β protein, Helicobacter pylori CagA and VacA, Leishmania GP63 and EF-1α, Plasmodium hemozoin, etc.). This is the first review summarizing the knowledge on biological activity and pharmacological inhibition of non-metazoan PTPs, with the emphasis of those important in host-pathogen interactions. Targeting of numerous non-metazoan PTPs is simplified by the fact that they act either as ectophosphatases or are secreted outside of the pathogen. Interfering with tyrosine phosphorylation represents a powerful pharmacologic approach, and even though the PTP inhibitors are difficult to develop, lifting the fog of phosphatase inhibition is of the great market potential and further clinical impact.

  11. Further RFLPs at the human tyrosine hydroxylase locus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koerner, J; Uhlhaas, S; Propping, P; Gal, A [Institut fuer Humangenetik der Universitaet, Bonn (West Germany); Mallet, J [CNRS, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1988-09-26

    The human cDNA clone (Ty7) of tyrosine hydroxylase was used. A two-allele (C1 and C2) Bg1II RFLP has been described recently with bands either at 6.9 or 8.4 kb (2). In addition, a faint invariant band appears at 9.0 kb. A third Bg1II allele (C3) with a band at 8.0 kb was detected. The allele frequency was studied in 35 and 39 unrelated Caucasians. Co-dominant inheritance for both RFLPs described here was demonstrated in 6 nuclear kindreds. RFLPs were observed under normal hybridization and wash stringencies.

  12. A Drosophila protein-tyrosine phosphatase associates with an adapter protein required for axonal guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, J C; Ursuliak, Z; Clemens, K K; Price, J V; Dixon, J E

    1996-07-19

    We have used the yeast two-hybrid system to isolate a novel Drosophila adapter protein, which interacts with the Drosophila protein-tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) dPTP61F. Absence of this protein in Drosophila causes the mutant photoreceptor axon phenotype dreadlocks (dock) (Garrity, P. A., Rao, Y., Salecker, I., and Zipursky, S. L.(1996) Cell 85, 639-650). Dock is similar to the mammalian oncoprotein Nck and contains three Src homology 3 (SH3) domains and one Src homology 2 (SH2) domain. The interaction of dPTP61F with Dock was confirmed in vivo by immune precipitation experiments. A sequence containing five PXXP motifs from the non-catalytic domain of the PTP is sufficient for interaction with Dock. This suggests that binding to the PTP is mediated by one or more of the SH3 domains of Dock. Immune precipitations of Dock also co-precipitate two tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins having molecular masses of 190 and 145 kDa. Interactions between Dock and these tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins are likely mediated by the Dock SH2 domain. These findings identify potential signal-transducing partners of Dock and propose a role for dPTP61F and the unidentified phosphoproteins in axonal guidance.

  13. ROLE OF TYROSINE-SULFATED PROTEINS IN RETINAL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanan, Y.; Al-Ubaidi, M.R.

    2014-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) plays a significant role in cellular and retinal health. The study of retinal tyrosine-sulfated proteins is an important first step toward understanding the role of ECM in retinal health and diseases. These secreted proteins are members of the retinal ECM. Tyrosine sulfation was shown to be necessary for the development of proper retinal structure and function. The importance of tyrosine sulfation is further demonstrated by the evolutionary presence of tyrosylprotein sulfotransferases, enzymes that catalyze proteins’ tyrosine sulfation, and the compensatory abilities of these enzymes. Research has identified four tyrosine-sulfated retinal proteins: fibulin 2, vitronectin, complement factor H (CFH), and opticin. Vitronectin and CFH regulate the activation of the complement system and are involved in the etiology of some cases of age-related macular degeneration. Analysis of the role of tyrosine sulfation in fibulin function showed that sulfation influences the protein's ability to regulate growth and migration. Although opticin was recently shown to exhibit anti-angiogenic properties, it is not yet determined what role sulfation plays in that function. Future studies focusing on identifying all of the tyrosine-sulfated retinal proteins would be instrumental in determining the impact of sulfation on retinal protein function in retinal homeostasis and diseases. PMID:25819460

  14. Loss of Function Studies in Mice and Genetic Association Link Receptor Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase a to Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takahashi, Nagahide; Nielsen, Karin Sandager; Aleksic, Branko

    2011-01-01

    Solid evidence links schizophrenia (SZ) susceptibility to neurodevelopmental processes involving tyrosine phosphorylation-mediated signaling. Mouse studies implicate the Ptpra gene, encoding protein tyrosine phosphatase RPTPa, in the control of radial neuronal migration, cortical cytoarchitecture...

  15. Sch proteins are localized on endoplasmic reticulum membranes and are redistributed after tyrosine kinase receptor activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lotti, L V; Lanfrancone, L; Migliaccio, E

    1996-01-01

    area of the cell and mostly associated with the cytosolic side of rough endoplasmic reticulum membranes. Upon epidermal growth factor treatment and receptor tyrosine kinase activation, the immunolabeling became peripheral and was found to be associated with the cytosolic surface of the plasma membrane....... The rough endoplasmic reticulum localization of Shc proteins in unstimulated cells and their massive recruitment to the plasma membrane, endocytic structures, and peripheral cytosol following receptor tyrosine kinase activation could account for multiple putative functions of the adaptor protein....

  16. Requirement for tyrosine phosphatase during serotonergic neuromodulation by protein kinase C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catarsi, S; Drapeau, P

    1997-08-01

    Tyrosine kinases and phosphatases are abundant in the nervous system, where they signal cellular differentiation, mediate the responses to growth factors, and direct neurite outgrowth during development. Tyrosine phosphorylation can also alter ion channel activity, but its physiological significance remains unclear. In an identified leech mechanosensory neuron, the ubiquitous neuromodulator serotonin increases the activity of a cation channel by activating protein kinase C (PKC), resulting in membrane depolarization and modulation of the receptive field properties. We observed that the effects on isolated neurons and channels were blocked by inhibiting tyrosine phosphatases. Serotonergic stimulation of PKC thus activates a tyrosine phosphatase activity associated with the channels, which reverses their constitutive inhibition by tyrosine phosphorylation, representing a novel form of neuromodulation.

  17. Mechanisms underlying the inhibitory effects of arsenic compounds on protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, Kanwal; Chen, Zhe; Wang, Wen Wen; Wang, Yan Wei; Sakamoto, Akira; Zhang, Yan Fang; Naranmandura, Hua; Suzuki, Noriyuki

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic binding to biomolecules is considered one of the major toxic mechanisms, which may also be related to the carcinogenic risks of arsenic in humans. At the same time, arsenic is also known to activate the phosphorylation-dependent signaling pathways including the epidermal growth factor receptor, the mitogen-activated protein kinase and insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 pathways. These signaling pathways originate at the level of receptor tyrosine kinases whose phosphorylation status is regulated by opposing protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) activity. Reversible tyrosine phosphorylation, which is governed by the balanced action of protein tyrosine kinases and phosphatases, regulates important signaling pathways that are involved in the control of cell proliferation, adhesion and migration. In the present study, we have focused on the interaction of cellular PTPs with toxic trivalent arsenite (iAs III ) and its intermediate metabolites such as monomethylarsonous acid (MMA III ) and dimethylarsinous acid (DMA III ) in vitro, and then determined the arsenic binding site in PTP by the use of recombinant PTPs (e.g., PTP1B and CD45). Interestingly, the activities of PTP1B (cytoplasm-form) or CD45 (receptor-linked form) were observed to be strongly inhibited by both methylated metabolites (i.e., MMA III and DMA III ) but not by iAs III . Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has clearly confirmed that the organic intermediate, DMA III directly bound to the active site cysteine residue of PTP1B (e.g., Cys215), resulting in inhibition of enzyme activity. These results suggest that arsenic exposure may disturb the cellular signaling pathways through PTP inactivation. Highlights: ► This study focused on the interaction of PTPs with trivalent arsenicals in vitro. ► We for the first time confirmed that DMA III strongly inhibited activity of PTP1B. ► DMA III directly bound to PTP1B, resulting in inhibition of

  18. Free radical-mediated stimulation of tyrosine-specific protein kinase in rat liver plasma membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, T.M.; Tatoyan, A.; Cheng, E.; Shargill, N.S.; Pleta, M.

    1986-01-01

    Incorporation of 32 P from (γ- 32 P)-ATP into endogenous proteins of plasma membranes isolated from rat liver was significantly increased by several naphthoquinones including menadione. This apparent stimulation of membrane-associated protein kinase activity by these compounds was most striking (up to 6-7 fold) when the synthetic copolymers containing glutamate and tyrosine residues (4:1) was used as substrate. Since tyrosine residues are the only possible phosphate acceptor in the copolymers, the quinone-stimulated liver membrane protein kinase is most likely tyrosine specific. Although not required for protein kinase activity, dithiothreitol (DTT) was necessary for its stimulation by these quinonoid compounds. Hydrolysis of ATP was not significantly affected by quinones under the experimental conditions. Both menadione and vitamin k 5 increased phosphorylation of plasma membrane proteins of molecular weight 45 and 60 kd. The stimulatory effect of menadione on protein phosphorylation was prevented by the addition of superoxide dismutase. Dihydroxyfumerate, which spontaneously produces various radical species, and H 2 O 2 , also stimulated tyrosine-specific protein phosphorylation. DTT was also required for their full effect. It, therefore, appears that quinonone stimulation of tyrosine-specific protein phosphorylation is mediated by oxygen radicals

  19. Adaptor protein GRB2 promotes Src tyrosine kinase activation and podosomal organization by protein-tyrosine phosphatase ϵ in osteoclasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy-Apter, Einat; Finkelshtein, Eynat; Vemulapalli, Vidyasiri; Li, Shawn S-C; Bedford, Mark T; Elson, Ari

    2014-12-26

    The non-receptor isoform of protein-tyrosine phosphatase ϵ (cyt-PTPe) supports adhesion of bone-resorbing osteoclasts by activating Src downstream of integrins. Loss of cyt-PTPe reduces Src activity in osteoclasts, reduces resorption of mineralized matrix both in vivo and in cell culture, and induces mild osteopetrosis in young female PTPe KO mice. Activation of Src by cyt-PTPe is dependent upon this phosphatase undergoing phosphorylation at its C-terminal Tyr-638 by partially active Src. To understand how cyt-PTPe activates Src, we screened 73 Src homology 2 (SH2) domains for binding to Tyr(P)-638 of cyt-PTPe. The SH2 domain of GRB2 bound Tyr(P)-638 of cyt-PTPe most prominently, whereas the Src SH2 domain did not bind at all, suggesting that GRB2 may link PTPe with downstream molecules. Further studies indicated that GRB2 is required for activation of Src by cyt-PTPe in osteoclast-like cells (OCLs) in culture. Overexpression of GRB2 in OCLs increased activating phosphorylation of Src at Tyr-416 and of cyt-PTPe at Tyr-638; opposite results were obtained when GRB2 expression was reduced by shRNA or by gene inactivation. Phosphorylation of cyt-PTPe at Tyr-683 and its association with GRB2 are integrin-driven processes in OCLs, and cyt-PTPe undergoes autodephosphorylation at Tyr-683, thus limiting Src activation by integrins. Reduced GRB2 expression also reduced the ability of bone marrow precursors to differentiate into OCLs and reduced the fraction of OCLs in which podosomal adhesion structures assume organization typical of active, resorbing cells. We conclude that GRB2 physically links cyt-PTPe with Src and enables cyt-PTPe to activate Src downstream of activated integrins in OCLs. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Hemin-Graphene Derivatives with Increased Peroxidase Activities Restrain Protein Tyrosine Nitration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huan; Yang, Zhen; Li, Hailing; Gao, Zhonghong

    2017-12-14

    Protein tyrosine nitration is implicated in the occurrence and progression of pathological conditions involving free radical reactions. It is well recognized that hemin can catalyze protein tyrosine nitration in the presence of nitrite and hydrogen peroxide. Generally, the catalytic efficiency is positively correlated to its peroxidase activity. In this study, however, it is found that the efficiency of hemin in catalyzing protein tyrosine nitration is largely suppressed after functionalization with graphene derivatives, even though its peroxidase-like activity is more than quadrupled. Further studies show that the oxidation of tyrosine is still observed for these composites; dityrosine formation, however, is greatly inhibited. Furthermore, these composites also exhibit strong effects on the oxidation of nitrite into nitrate. Therefore, we propose a mechanism in which hemin-graphene derivatives facilitate the oxidation of tyrosine and nitrite to produce tyrosyl radicals and nitrogen dioxide radicals in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, but graphene interlayers serve as barriers that hinder radical-radical coupling reactions; consequently, protein tyrosine nitration is restrained. This property of hemin-graphene derivatives, by which they catalyze substrate oxidation but suppress radical-radical coupling reactions, shows their great potential in selective oxidation procedures for byproduct removal. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Versatile and Efficient Site-Specific Protein Functionalization by Tubulin Tyrosine Ligase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Dominik; Helma, Jonas; Mann, Florian A; Pichler, Garwin; Natale, Francesco; Krause, Eberhard; Cardoso, M Cristina; Hackenberger, Christian P R; Leonhardt, Heinrich

    2015-11-09

    A novel chemoenzymatic approach for simple and fast site-specific protein labeling is reported. Recombinant tubulin tyrosine ligase (TTL) was repurposed to attach various unnatural tyrosine derivatives as small bioorthogonal handles to proteins containing a short tubulin-derived recognition sequence (Tub-tag). This novel strategy enables a broad range of high-yielding and fast chemoselective C-terminal protein modifications on isolated proteins or in cell lysates for applications in biochemistry, cell biology, and beyond, as demonstrated by the site-specific labeling of nanobodies, GFP, and ubiquitin. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Regulation of tumor cell migration by protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP)-proline-, glutamate-, serine-, and threonine-rich sequence (PEST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yanhua; Lu, Zhimin

    2013-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP)–proline-, glutamate-, serine-, and threonine-rich sequence (PEST) is ubiquitously expressed and is a critical regulator of cell adhesion and migration. PTP-PEST activity can be regulated transcriptionally via gene deletion or mutation in several types of human cancers or via post-translational modifications, including phosphorylation, oxidation, and caspase-dependent cleavage. PTP-PEST interacts with and dephosphorylates cytoskeletal and focal adhesion-associated proteins. Dephosphorylation of PTP-PEST substrates regulates their enzymatic activities and/or their interaction with other proteins and plays an essential role in the tumor cell migration process. PMID:23237212

  3. Electrophoretic Detection and Confocal Microscopic Imaging of Tyrosine Nitrated Proteins in Plant Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Dhara; Singh, Neha; Bhatla, Satish C

    2018-01-01

    Tyrosine nitrated proteins can be detected in plant cells electrophoretically and their distribution can be monitored by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) imaging. One-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (1D PAGE) followed by Western blotting using polyclonal antibody against 3-nitrotyrosine residues enables detection of tyrosine nitrated proteins in plant cells. Here we describe detection of tyrosine nitrated proteins in the homogenates derived from sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seedling cotyledons. Total soluble proteins obtained from tissue homogenates are resolved using vertical gel electrophoresis followed by their electrophoretic transfer on to a microporous membrane support for immunodetection. Spatial distribution of tyrosine nitrated proteins can be visualized using an antibody against 3-nitrotyrosine residues. Immunofluorescent localization is performed by cutting 7 μm thick wax sections of tissue followed by incubation in primary anti-nitrotyrosine antibody (dilution 1:200) and secondary Cy-3 labeled anti-rabbit IgG antibody (dilution 1:1500). Confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis is undertaken using argon lasers (ex: 530-550 nm and em: 570 nm) at pinhole 1. Modulation in the abundance and spatial localization of tyrosine nitrated proteins in plant tissues can be monitored using these techniques.

  4. A new monoclonal antibody detects downregulation of protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type γ in chronic myeloid leukemia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzia Vezzalini

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor gamma (PTPRG is a ubiquitously expressed member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase family known to act as a tumor suppressor gene in many different neoplasms with mechanisms of inactivation including mutations and methylation of CpG islands in the promoter region. Although a critical role in human hematopoiesis and an oncosuppressor role in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML have been reported, only one polyclonal antibody (named chPTPRG has been described as capable of recognizing the native antigen of this phosphatase by flow cytometry. Protein biomarkers of CML have not yet found applications in the clinic, and in this study, we have analyzed a group of newly diagnosed CML patients before and after treatment. The aim of this work was to characterize and exploit a newly developed murine monoclonal antibody specific for the PTPRG extracellular domain (named TPγ B9-2 to better define PTPRG protein downregulation in CML patients. Methods TPγ B9-2 specifically recognizes PTPRG (both human and murine by flow cytometry, western blotting, immunoprecipitation, and immunohistochemistry. Results Co-localization experiments performed with both anti-PTPRG antibodies identified the presence of isoforms and confirmed protein downregulation at diagnosis in the Philadelphia-positive myeloid lineage (including CD34+/CD38bright/dim cells. After effective tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI treatment, its expression recovered in tandem with the return of Philadelphia-negative hematopoiesis. Of note, PTPRG mRNA levels remain unchanged in tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI non-responder patients, confirming that downregulation selectively occurs in primary CML cells. Conclusions The availability of this unique antibody permits its evaluation for clinical application including the support for diagnosis and follow-up of these disorders. Evaluation of PTPRG as a potential therapeutic target is also facilitated by the

  5. Asperentin B, a New Inhibitor of the Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiese, Jutta; Aldemir, Hülya; Schmaljohann, Rolf; Gulder, Tobias A M; Imhoff, Johannes F

    2017-06-21

    In the frame of studies on secondary metabolites produced by fungi from deep-sea environments we have investigated inhibitors of enzymes playing key roles in signaling cascades of biochemical pathways relevant for the treatment of diseases. Here we report on a new inhibitor of the human protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), a target in the signaling pathway of insulin. A new asperentin analog is produced by an Aspergillus sydowii strain isolated from the sediment of the deep Mediterranean Sea. Asperentin B ( 1 ) contains an additional phenolic hydroxy function at C-6 and exhibits an IC 50 value against PTP1B of 2 μM in vitro, which is six times stronger than the positive control, suramin. Interestingly, asperentin ( 2 ) did not show any inhibition of this enzymatic activity. Asperentin B ( 1 ) is discussed as possible therapeutic agents for type 2 diabetes and sleeping sickness.

  6. Ionization of tyrosine residues in human serum albumin and in its complexes with bilirubin and laurate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honoré, B; Brodersen, R

    1992-01-01

    Spectrophotometric titration of human serum albumin indicates that ionization of the 18 tyrosine residues takes place between pH 9 and 12.7. A Hill plot indicates that protons dissociate co-operatively from tyrosine residues, in pure albumin between pH 11.0 and 11.4 with a Hill coefficient 1.7, a...

  7. Syndecan-2 is a novel ligand for the protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor CD148

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whiteford, James R; Xian, Xiaojie; Chaussade, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Syndecan-2 is a heparan sulfate proteoglycan that has a cell adhesion regulatory domain contained within its extracellular core protein. Cell adhesion to the syndecan-2 extracellular domain (S2ED) is ß1 integrin dependent; however, syndecan-2 is not an integrin ligand. Here the protein tyrosine...

  8. Effect of acute maternal starvation on tyrosine metabolism and protein synthesis in fetal sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamurti, C.R.; Schaefer, A.L.

    1984-01-01

    To determine the effects of acute maternal starvation on intrauterine growth, tyrosine concentration and specific activity values in plasma, intracellular free and protein bound pools were determined in catheterized ovine fetuses following an 8 h continuous infusion of L-[2,3,5,6 3 H] or L-[U- 14 C] tyrosine into the ewe and fetus respectively at 115-125 days of gestation. From the kinetic data the rates of whole body and tissue fractional protein synthesis were calculated. Although placental protein synthesis was not significantly changed as a result of acute maternal starvation, fetal whole body protein synthesis was reduced from 63 g/d/kg in the fed to 25 g/d/kg in the starved condition. There was also a 10 fold reduction in the net placental transfer of tyrosine to the fetus in the starved ewes. In addition, a three fold increase was observed in the quantity of tyrosine used for oxidation by the fetuses of starved ewes, changing from 5.2% of tyrosine net utilization in the fed to 13.7% in the starved condition. Significant reductions in tissue fractional protein synthesis rates were also seen in the liver, brain, lung kidney and GIT tissues from 78, 37, 65, 45 and 71%/d respectively in the fed to 12, 10, 23, 22 and 35%/d in the fetuses of starved ewes. The data indicate that during acute maternal starvation the sheep fetus utilizes more tyrosine for oxidation and less for anabolic purposes which is reflected in a decrease both in whole body and tissue fractional rates of protein synthesis

  9. Identification and analysis of a novel protein-tyrosine kinase from bovine thymus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zioncheck, T.F.; Harrison, M.L.; Geahlen, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    A cytosolic protein-tyrosine kinase has been identified and purified to near homogeneity from calf thymus by using the phosphorylation of the tyrosine-containing peptide angiotensin I as an assay. Specific peptide phosphorylating activity was enhanced by carrying out the assay at high ionic strength (2M NaCl). The inclusion of NaCl at this concentration acts to stimulate endogenous protein-tyrosine kinase activity while simultaneously inhibiting other endogenous kinases. The purification procedure involved extraction of the enzyme from calf-thymus and sequential chromatography on columns of DEAE-cellulose, heparin-agarose, casein-sepharose, butylagarose, and Sephadex G-75. Analysis of the most highly purified preparations by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed a single Coomassie blue-stained band of 41 KDa. This molecular weight was consistent with results obtained from gel filtration, indicating that the enzyme exists as a monomer. The enzyme has also been found to catalyze an autophosphorylation reaction. Incubation of the enzyme with Mn 2+ and [γ- 32 P]ATP led to its modification on a tyrosine residue. Phosphopeptide mapping experiments indicated that the 41 KDa kinase was distinct from p56, the major membrane-associated protein-tyrosine kinase in T lymphocytes

  10. Detection and Quantification of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinases in Primary Human Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnley, Gareth W; Wheatcroft, Stephen B; Ponnambalam, Sreenivasan

    2015-01-01

    Proteins differ widely in their pattern of expression depending on organism, tissue, and regulation in response to changing conditions. In the mammalian vasculature, the endothelium responds to vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) via membrane-bound receptor tyrosine kinases (VEGFRs) to modulate many aspects of vascular physiology including vasculogenesis, angiogenesis, and blood pressure. Studies on VEGFR biology are thus dependent on detecting expression levels in different cell types and evaluating how changes in protein levels correlate with changing conditions including circulating VEGF levels. Here, we present a robust immunoblot-based protocol for detecting and quantifying VEGFRs in human endothelial cells. Using internal and external standards, we can rapidly evaluate receptor copy number and assess how this is altered in response to the cellular environment.

  11. Formylbenzene diazonium hexafluorophosphate reagent for tyrosine-selective modification of proteins and the introduction of a bioorthogonal aldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilyuk, Julia; Ban, Hitoshi; Nagano, Masanobu; Hakamata, Wataru; Barbas, Carlos F

    2012-12-19

    4-Formylbenzene diazonium hexafluorophosphate (FBDP) is a novel bench-stable crystalline diazonium salt that reacts selectively with tyrosine to install a bioorthogonal aldehyde functionality. Model studies with N-acyl-tyrosine methylamide allowed us to identify conditions optimal for tyrosine ligation reactions with small peptides and proteins. FBDP-based conjugation was used for the facile introduction of small molecule tags, poly(ethylene glycol) chains (PEGylation), and functional small molecules onto model proteins and to label the surface of living cells.

  12. Oxidation of protein tyrosine or methionine residues: From the amino acid to the peptide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berges, J [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, UMR 7616, Laboratoire de Chimie Theorique, 75005 Paris (France); Trouillas, P [EA 4021 Faculte de Pharmacie, 2 Rue du Dr. Marcland, 87025 Limoges Cedex (France); Houee-Levin, C, E-mail: jb@lct.jussieu.fr, E-mail: patrick.trouillas@unilim.fr, E-mail: chantal.houee@u-psud.fr [Universite Paris Sud, UMR 8000, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique, 91405 Orsay (France) (France)

    2011-01-01

    Methionine and tyrosine are competing targets of oxidizing free radicals in peptides or proteins. The first step is the addition of OH radicals either on the sulphur atom of methionine, followed by OH{sup -} elimination, or on the aromatic cycle of tyrosine. The next step can be stabilization of methionine radical cation by a two centre-three electron bond, or intramolecular electron transfer from tyrosine to the methionine radical cation. In this latter case a tyrosine radical is formed, which appears deprotonated. In a first step we have compared the stability of the OH radical adducts on Methionine or on Tyrosine. In agreement with experimental results, the thermodynamical data indicate that the OH adduct on Tyrosine and the radical cation are more stable than those on methionine. In a second step we have investigated the stabilization of the radical cations of Methionine by formation of intramolecular S:X two-center three-electron bond (X=S, N, O). Finally we have compared the spin densities on separated amino acids to that in a radical pentapeptide, methionine enkephalin. One observes a delocalisation of the orbital of the odd electron on the sulfur atom of Met and on the cycle of Tyr. The peptidic chain is also concerned.

  13. Oxidation of protein tyrosine or methionine residues: From the amino acid to the peptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berges, J; Trouillas, P; Houee-Levin, C

    2011-01-01

    Methionine and tyrosine are competing targets of oxidizing free radicals in peptides or proteins. The first step is the addition of OH radicals either on the sulphur atom of methionine, followed by OH - elimination, or on the aromatic cycle of tyrosine. The next step can be stabilization of methionine radical cation by a two centre-three electron bond, or intramolecular electron transfer from tyrosine to the methionine radical cation. In this latter case a tyrosine radical is formed, which appears deprotonated. In a first step we have compared the stability of the OH radical adducts on Methionine or on Tyrosine. In agreement with experimental results, the thermodynamical data indicate that the OH adduct on Tyrosine and the radical cation are more stable than those on methionine. In a second step we have investigated the stabilization of the radical cations of Methionine by formation of intramolecular S:X two-center three-electron bond (X=S, N, O). Finally we have compared the spin densities on separated amino acids to that in a radical pentapeptide, methionine enkephalin. One observes a delocalisation of the orbital of the odd electron on the sulfur atom of Met and on the cycle of Tyr. The peptidic chain is also concerned.

  14. Inhibition of receptor tyrosine kinase signalling by small molecule agonist of T-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattila, Elina; Marttila, Heidi; Sahlberg, Niko; Kohonen, Pekka; Tähtinen, Siri; Halonen, Pasi; Perälä, Merja; Ivaska, Johanna

    2010-01-01

    T-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase (TCPTP/TC45) is a ubiquitously expressed intra-cellular non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase involved in the negative regulation of several cancer relevant cellular signalling pathways. We have previously shown that interaction between the α-cytoplasmic tail of α1β1 integrin and TCPTP activates TCPTP by disrupting an inhibitory intra-molecular bond in TCPTP. Thus, inhibition of the regulatory interaction in TCPTP is a desirable strategy for TCPTP activation and attenuation of oncogenic RTK signalling. However, this is challenging with low molecular weight compounds. We developed a high-throughput compatible assay to analyse activity of recombinant TCPTP in vitro. Using this assay we have screened 64280 small molecules to identify novel agonists for TCPTP. Dose-dependent response to TCPTP agonist was performed using the in vitro assay. Inhibition effects and specificity of TCPTP agonists were evaluated using TCPTP expressing and null mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Western blot analysis was used to evaluate attenuation of PDGFRβ and EGFR phosphorylation. Inhibition of VEGF signalling was analysed with VEGF-induced endothelial cell sprouting assays. From the screen we identified six TCPTP agonists. Two compounds competed with α1-cytoplasmic domain for binding to TCPTP, suggesting that they activate TCPTP similar to α1-cyt by disrupting the intra-molecular bond in TCPTP. Importantly, one of the compounds (spermidine) displayed specificity towards TCPTP in cells, since TCPTP -/- cells were 43-fold more resistant to the compound than TCPTP expressing cells. This compound attenuates PDGFRβ and VEGFR2 signalling in cells in a TCPTP-dependent manner and functions as a negative regulator of EGFR phosphorylation in cancer cells. In this study we showed that small molecules mimicking TCPTP-α1 interaction can be used as TCPTP agonists. These data provide the first proof-of-concept description of the use of high-throughput screening

  15. A Novel Molecular Diagnostic of Glioblastomas: Detection of an Extracellular Fragment of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase μ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M. Burden-Gulley

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We recently found that normal human brain and low-grade astrocytomas express the receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase mu (PTPμ and that the more invasive astrocytomas, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, downregulate full-length PTPμ expression. Loss of PTPμ expression in GBMs is due to proteolytic cleavage that generates an intracellular and potentially a cleaved and released extracellular fragment of PTPμ. Here, we identify that a cleaved extracellular fragment containing the domains required for PTPμ-mediated adhesion remains associated with GBM tumor tissue. We hypothesized that detection of this fragment would make an excellent diagnostic tool for the localization of tumor tissue within the brain. To this end, we generated a series of fluorescently tagged peptide probes that bind the PTPμ fragment. The peptide probes specifically recognize GBM cells in tissue sections of surgically resected human tumors. To test whether the peptide probes are able to detect GBM tumors in vivo, the PTPμ peptide probes were tested in both mouse flank and intracranial xenograft human glioblastoma tumor model systems. The glial tumors were molecularly labeled with the PTPμ peptide probes within minutes of tail vein injection using the Maestro FLEX In Vivo Imaging System. The label was stable for at least 3 hours. Together, these results indicate that peptide recognition of the PTPμ extracellular fragment provides a novel molecular diagnostic tool for detection of human glioblastomas. Such a tool has clear translational applications and may lead to improved surgical resections and prognosis for patients with this devastating disease.

  16. Cardiac sodium channel Na(v)1.5 interacts with and is regulated by the protein tyrosine phosphatase PTPH1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Thomas; Gavillet, Bruno; van Bemmelen, Miguel X

    2006-01-01

    In order to identify proteins interacting with the cardiac voltage-gated sodium channel Na(v)1.5, we used the last 66 amino acids of the C-terminus of the channel as bait to screen a human cardiac cDNA library. We identified the protein tyrosine phosphatase PTPH1 as an interacting protein. Pull......-down experiments confirmed the interaction, and indicated that it depends on the PDZ-domain binding motif of Na(v)1.5. Co-expression experiments in HEK293 cells showed that PTPH1 shifts the Na(v)1.5 availability relationship toward hyperpolarized potentials, whereas an inactive PTPH1 or the tyrosine kinase Fyn...... does the opposite. The results of this study suggest that tyrosine phosphorylation destabilizes the inactivated state of Na(v)1.5....

  17. Disabled is a putative adaptor protein that functions during signaling by the sevenless receptor tyrosine kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, N; Simon, M A

    1998-08-01

    DRK, the Drosophila homolog of the SH2-SH3 domain adaptor protein Grb2, is required during signaling by the sevenless receptor tyrosine kinase (SEV). One role of DRK is to provide a link between activated SEV and the Ras1 activator SOS. We have investigated the possibility that DRK performs other functions by identifying additional DRK-binding proteins. We show that the phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domain-containing protein Disabled (DAB) binds to the DRK SH3 domains. DAB is expressed in the ommatidial clusters, and loss of DAB function disrupts ommatidial development. Moreover, reduction of DAB function attenuates signaling by a constitutively activated SEV. Our biochemical analysis suggests that DAB binds SEV directly via its PTB domain, becomes tyrosine phosphorylated upon SEV activation, and then serves as an adaptor protein for SH2 domain-containing proteins. Taken together, these results indicate that DAB is a novel component of the SEV signaling pathway.

  18. Protein synthesis rate measured with l-[1-11C]tyrosine positron emission tomography correlates with mitotic activity and MIB-1 antibody-detected proliferation in human soft tissue sarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plaat, B.; Mastik, M.; Molenaar, W.; Kole, A.; Vaalburg, W.; Hoekstra, H.

    1999-01-01

    Protein synthesis rate (PSR) can be assessed in vivo using positron emission tomography with l-[1- 11 C]tyrosine (TYR-PET). Biological activity of soft tissue sarcomas (STS) can be measured in vitro by the mitotic rate and number of proliferating cells. In STS the grade of malignancy, in which the mitotic index plays a major role, is considered to be the major standard in predicting biological tumour behaviour. This study was designed to test the validity of TYR-PET in relation to different histopathological features. In 21 patients with untreated STS, the PSR was measured using TYR-PET. The number of mitoses was counted and tumours were graded according to the grading system of Coindre et al. (Cancer 1986; 58:306-309). Proliferative activity was assessed by immunohistological detection of the Ki-67 nuclear antigen using MIB-1 monoclonal antibody. To test the association between the PSR and these tumour parameters, a correlation analysis was performed. A significant (P<0.05) correlation was found between PSR and the Ki-67 proliferation index (R = 0.54), and between PSR and mitotic rate (R = 0.64). There was no correlation between PSR and tumour grade. The present study in malignant soft tissue tumours relates in vivo tumour metabolism as established with TYR-PET to tumour activity measured in vitro and indicates that the non-invasive method of TYR-PET can estimate the mitotic and proliferative activity in STS. (orig.)

  19. Brain tumors : L-[1-C-11]tyrosine PET for visualization and quantification of protein synthesis rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruim, J; Willemsen, A T; Molenaar, W M; Waarde, A van; Paans, A M; Heesters, M A; Go, K G; Visser, Gerben; Franssen, E J; Vaalburg, W

    1995-01-01

    PURPOSE: Positron emission tomography (PET) with the amino acid tracer L-[1-C-11]-tyrosine was evaluated in 27 patients with primary and recurrent brain tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients underwent either static (n = 14) or dynamic PET (n = 13), with quantification of protein synthesis rate

  20. Emerging issues in receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase function: lifting fog or simply shifting?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrone, A; Sap, J

    2000-01-01

    Transmembrane (receptor) tyrosine phosphatases are intimately involved in responses to cell-cell and cell-matrix contact. Several important issues regarding the targets and regulation of this protein family are now emerging. For example, these phosphatases exhibit complex interactions with signal...

  1. In vitro characterization of the Bacillus subtilis protein tyrosine phosphatase YwqE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijakovic, Ivan; Musumeci, Lucia; Tautz, Lutz

    2005-01-01

    Both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria possess protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) with a catalytic Cys residue. In addition, many gram-positive bacteria have acquired a new family of PTPs, whose first characterized member was CpsB from Streptococcus pneumoniae. Bacillus subtilis contains...

  2. Water molecule network and active site flexibility of apo protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A.K.; Peters, Günther H.J.; Møller, K.B.

    2004-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) plays a key role as a negative regulator of insulin and leptin signalling and is therefore considered to be an important molecular target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and obesity. Detailed structural information about the structure of PTP1B, including...

  3. Pterocarpans with inhibitory effects on protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B from Erythrina lysistemon Hutch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dao, Trong Tuan; Nguyen, Phi Hung; Thuong, Phuong Thien

    2009-01-01

    ',5':3,4]-2'',2''-dimethyldihydropyrano[6'',5'':9,10]pterocarpan (1), furano[5',4':3,4]-9-hydroxy-10-prenylpterocarpan (2), and 8-formyl-3,9-dihydroxy-4,10-diprenylpterocarpan (3), based on spectroscopic analyses. All the isolates, with the exception of 3, 6, and 11, strongly inhibited protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) activity...

  4. Incorporation of Ortho- and Meta-Tyrosine Into Cellular Proteins Leads to Erythropoietin-Resistance in an Erythroid Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esztella Mikolás

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Erythropoietin-resistance is an unsolved concern in the treatment of renal anaemia. We aimed to investigate the possible role of ortho- and meta-tyrosine - the hydroxyl free radical products of L-phenylalanine - in the development of erythropoietin-resistance. Methods: TF-1 erythroblast cell line was used. Cell concentration was determined on day 1; 2 and 3 by two independent observers simultaneously in Bürker cell counting chambers. Protein concentration was determined with colorimetric method. Para-, ortho- and meta-tyrosine levels were measured using reverse phase-HPLC with fluorescence detection. Using Western blot method activating phosphorylation of STAT5 and ERK1/2 were investigated. Results: We found a time- and concentration-dependent decrease of erythropoietin-induced proliferative activity in case of ortho- and meta-tyrosine treated TF-1 erythroblasts, compared to the para-tyrosine cultured cells. Decreased erythropoietin-response could be regained with a competitive dose of para-tyrosine. Proteins of erythroblasts treated by ortho- or meta-tyrosine had lower para-tyrosine and higher ortho- or meta-tyrosine content. Activating phosphorylation of ERK and STAT5 due to erythropoietin was practically prevented by ortho- or meta-tyrosine treatment. Conclusion: According to this study elevated ortho- and meta-tyrosine content of erythroblasts may lead to the dysfunction of intracellular signaling, resulting in erythropoietin-hyporesponsiveness.

  5. Formylbenzene diazonium hexafluorophosphate reagent for tyrosine-selective modification of proteins and the introduction of a bioorthogonal aldehyde

    OpenAIRE

    Gavrilyuk, Julia; Ban, Hitoshi; Nagano, Masanobu; Hakamata, Wataru; Barbas, Carlos F.

    2012-01-01

    4-Formylbenzene diazonium hexafluorophosphate (FBDP) is a novel bench-stable crystalline diazonium salt that reacts selectively with tyrosine to install a bioorthogonal aldehyde functionality. Model studies with N-acyl-tyrosine methylamide allowed us to identify conditions optimal for tyrosine ligation reactions with small peptides and proteins. FBDP-based conjugation was used for the facile introduction of small molecule tags, poly(ethylene) glycol chains (PEGylation), and functional small m...

  6. Phagocytosis by macrophages mediated by receptors for denatured proteins - dependence on tyrosine protein kinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Hespanhol

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated that some components of the leukocyte cell membrane, CR3 (Mac-1, CD11b/CD18 and p150/95, are able to bind to denatured proteins. Thus, it is of interest to know which effector functions of these cells can be triggered by these receptors when they interact with particles or surfaces covered with denatured proteins. In the present study we analyzed their possible role as mediators of phagocytosis of red cells covered with denatured bovine serum albumin (BSA by mouse peritoneal macrophages. We observed that a macrophages are able to recognize (bind to these red cells, b this interaction can be inhibited by denatured BSA in the fluid phase, c there is no phagocytosis of these particles by normal macrophages, d phagocytosis mediated by denatured BSA can be, however, effectively triggered in inflammatory macrophages induced by glycogen or in macrophages activated in vivo with LPS, and e this phagocytic capacity is strongly dependent on the activity of tyrosine protein kinases in its signal transduction pathway, as demonstrated by using three kinds of enzyme inhibitors (genistein, quercetin and herbimycin A.

  7. Ethanol and Other Short-Chain Alcohols Inhibit NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation through Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Laura R.; Ather, Jennifer L.; Randall, Matthew J.; DePuccio, Daniel P.; Landry, Christopher C.; Wewers, Mark D.; Gavrilin, Mikhail A.; Poynter, Matthew E.

    2016-01-01

    Immunosuppression is a major complication of alcoholism that contributes to increased rates of opportunistic infections and sepsis in alcoholics. The NLRP3 inflammasome, a multi-protein intracellular pattern recognition receptor complex that facilitates the cleavage and secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18, can be inhibited by ethanol and we sought to better understand the mechanism through which this occurs and whether chemically similar molecules exert comparable effects. We show that ethanol can specifically inhibit activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome, resulting in attenuated IL-1β and caspase-1 cleavage and secretion, as well as diminished ASC speck formation, without affecting potassium efflux, in a mouse macrophage cell line (J774), mouse bone marrow derived dendritic cells, mouse neutrophils, and human PBMCs. The inhibitory effects on the Nlrp3 inflammasome were independent of GABAA receptor activation or NMDA receptor inhibition, but was associated with decreased oxidant production. Ethanol treatment markedly decreased cellular tyrosine phosphorylation, while administration of the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor sodium orthovanadate prior to ethanol restored tyrosine phosphorylation and IL-1β secretion subsequent to ATP stimulation. Furthermore, sodium orthovanadate-induced phosphorylation of ASC Y144, necessary and sufficient for Nlrp3 inflammasome activation, and secretion of phosphorylated ASC, were inhibited by ethanol. Finally, multiple alcohol-containing organic compounds exerted inhibitory effects on the Nlrp3 inflammasome, whereas 2-methylbutane (isopentane), the analogous alkane of the potent inhibitor isoamyl alcohol (isopentanol), did not. Our results demonstrate that ethanol antagonizes the NLRP3 inflammasome at an apical event in its activation through the stimulation of protein tyrosine phosphatases, an effect shared by other short-chain alcohols. PMID:27421477

  8. Measurement of protein synthesis: in vitro comparison of (68)Ga-DOTA-puromycin, [ (3)H]tyrosine, and 2-fluoro-[ (3)H]tyrosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eigner, Sebastian; Beckford Vera, Denis R; Fellner, Marco; Loktionova, Natalia S; Piel, Markus; Melichar, Frantisek; Rösch, Frank; Roß, Tobias L; Lebeda, Ondrej; Henke, Katerina Eigner

    2013-01-01

    Puromycin has played an important role in our understanding of the eukaryotic ribosome and protein synthesis. It has been known for more than 40 years that this antibiotic is a universal protein synthesis inhibitor that acts as a structural analog of an aminoacyl-transfer RNA (aa-tRNA) in eukaryotic ribosomes. Due to the role of enzymes and their synthesis in situations of need (DNA damage, e.g., after chemo- or radiation therapy), determination of protein synthesis is important for control of antitumor therapy, to enhance long-term survival of tumor patients, and to minimize side-effects of therapy. Multiple attempts to reach this goal have been made through the last decades, mostly using radiolabeled amino acids, with limited or unsatisfactory success. The aim of this study is to estimate the possibility of determining protein synthesis ratios by using (68)Ga-DOTA-puromycin ((68)Ga-DOTA-Pur), [(3)H]tyrosine, and 2-fluoro-[(3)H]tyrosine and to estimate the possibility of different pathways due to the fluorination of tyrosine. DOTA-puromycin was synthesized using a puromycin-tethered controlled-pore glass (CPG) support by the usual protocol for automated DNA and RNA synthesis following our design. (68)Ga was obtained from a (68)Ge/(68)Ga generator as described previously by Zhernosekov et al. (J Nucl Med 48:1741-1748, 2007). The purified eluate was used for labeling of DOTA-puromycin at 95°C for 20 min. [(3)H]Tyrosine and 2-fluoro-[(3)H]tyrosine of the highest purity available were purchased from Moravek (Bera, USA) or Amersham Biosciences (Hammersmith, UK). In vitro uptake and protein incorporation as well as in vitro inhibition experiments using cycloheximide to inhibit protein synthesis were carried out for all three substances in DU145 prostate carcinoma cells (ATCC, USA). (68)Ga-DOTA-Pur was additionally used for μPET imaging of Walker carcinomas and AT1 tumors in rats. Dynamic scans were performed for 45 min after IV application (tail vein) of 20-25 MBq (68

  9. Protein synthesis rate measured with l-[1-{sup 11}C]tyrosine positron emission tomography correlates with mitotic activity and MIB-1 antibody-detected proliferation in human soft tissue sarcomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plaat, B.; Mastik, M.; Molenaar, W. [Department of Pathology, University Hospital Groningen (Netherlands); Kole, A.; Vaalburg, W. [PET Centre, University Hospital Groningen (Netherlands); Hoekstra, H. [Department of Surgical Oncology, University Hospital Groningen (Netherlands)

    1999-04-29

    Protein synthesis rate (PSR) can be assessed in vivo using positron emission tomography with l-[1-{sup 11}C]tyrosine (TYR-PET). Biological activity of soft tissue sarcomas (STS) can be measured in vitro by the mitotic rate and number of proliferating cells. In STS the grade of malignancy, in which the mitotic index plays a major role, is considered to be the major standard in predicting biological tumour behaviour. This study was designed to test the validity of TYR-PET in relation to different histopathological features. In 21 patients with untreated STS, the PSR was measured using TYR-PET. The number of mitoses was counted and tumours were graded according to the grading system of Coindre et al. (Cancer 1986; 58:306-309). Proliferative activity was assessed by immunohistological detection of the Ki-67 nuclear antigen using MIB-1 monoclonal antibody. To test the association between the PSR and these tumour parameters, a correlation analysis was performed. A significant (P<0.05) correlation was found between PSR and the Ki-67 proliferation index (R = 0.54), and between PSR and mitotic rate (R = 0.64). There was no correlation between PSR and tumour grade. The present study in malignant soft tissue tumours relates in vivo tumour metabolism as established with TYR-PET to tumour activity measured in vitro and indicates that the non-invasive method of TYR-PET can estimate the mitotic and proliferative activity in STS. (orig.) With 2 figs., 2 tabs., 30 refs.

  10. Receptor-like protein-tyrosine phosphatase alpha specifically inhibits insulin-increased prolactin gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacob, K K; Sap, J; Stanley, F M

    1998-01-01

    A physiologically relevant response to insulin, stimulation of prolactin promoter activity in GH4 pituitary cells, was used as an assay to study the specificity of protein-tyrosine phosphatase function. Receptor-like protein-tyrosine phosphatase alpha (RPTPalpha) blocks the effect of insulin...... is specific by two criteria. A number of potential RPTPalpha targets were ruled out by finding (a) that they are not affected or (b) that they are not on the pathway to insulin-increased prolactin-CAT activity. The negative effect of RPTPalpha on insulin activation of the prolactin promoter is not due...... to reduced phosphorylation or kinase activity of the insulin receptor or to reduced phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 or Shc. Inhibitor studies suggest that insulin-increased prolactin gene expression is mediated by a Ras-like GTPase but is not mitogen-activated protein kinase dependent...

  11. SH2/SH3 adaptor proteins can link tyrosine kinases to a Ste20-related protein kinase, HPK1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anafi, M; Kiefer, F; Gish, G D; Mbamalu, G; Iscove, N N; Pawson, T

    1997-10-31

    Ste20-related protein kinases have been implicated as regulating a range of cellular responses, including stress-activated protein kinase pathways and the control of cytoskeletal architecture. An important issue involves the identities of the upstream signals and regulators that might control the biological functions of mammalian Ste20-related protein kinases. HPK1 is a protein-serine/threonine kinase that possesses a Ste20-like kinase domain, and in transfected cells activates a protein kinase pathway leading to the stress-activated protein kinase SAPK/JNK. Here we have investigated candidate upstream regulators that might interact with HPK1. HPK1 possesses an N-terminal catalytic domain and an extended C-terminal tail with four proline-rich motifs. The SH3 domains of Grb2 bound in vitro to specific proline-rich motifs in the HPK1 tail and functioned synergistically to direct the stable binding of Grb2 to HPK1 in transfected Cos1 cells. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulation did not affect the binding of Grb2 to HPK1 but induced recruitment of the Grb2.HPK1 complex to the autophosphorylated EGF receptor and to the Shc docking protein. Several activated receptor and cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases, including the EGF receptor, stimulated the tyrosine phosphorylation of the HPK1 serine/threonine kinase. These results suggest that HPK1, a mammalian Ste20-related protein-serine/threonine kinase, can potentially associate with protein-tyrosine kinases through interactions mediated by SH2/SH3 adaptors such as Grb2. Such interaction may provide a possible mechanism for cross-talk between distinct biochemical pathways following the activation of tyrosine kinases.

  12. Bacillus subtilis strain deficient for the protein-tyrosine kinase PtkA exhibits impaired DNA replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petranovic, Dina; Michelsen, Ole; Zahradka, K

    2007-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis has recently come into the focus of research on bacterial protein-tyrosine phosphorylation, with several proteins kinases, phosphatases and their substrates identified in this Gram-positive model organism. B. subtilis protein-tyrosine phosphorylation system Ptk...... microscopy. B. subtilis cells lacking the kinase PtkA accumulated extra chromosome equivalents, exhibited aberrant initiation mass for DNA replication and an unusually long D period....

  13. Enzymatic-induced upconversion photoinduced electron transfer for sensing tyrosine in human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiongqiong; Fang, Aijin; Li, Haitao; Zhang, Youyu; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2016-03-15

    This paper reports a novel nanosensor for tyrosine based on photoinduced electron-transfer (PET) between NaYF4:Yb, Tm upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) and melanin-like polymers. Melanin-like films were obtained from catalytic oxidation of tyrosine by tyrosinase, and deposited on the surface of UCNPs, and then quenched the fluorescence of UCNPs. Under the optimized conditions, the fluorescence quenching of UCNPs showed a good linear response to tyrosine concentration in the range of 0.8-100 μΜ with a detection limit of 1.1 μΜ. Meanwhile, it showed good sensitivity, stability and has been successfully applied to the detection of tyrosine in human serum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Utilization of 14C-tyrosine in brain and peripheral tissues of developmentally protein malnourished rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.; Leahy, J.P.; McConville, F.; Morgane, P.J.; Resnick, O.

    1978-01-01

    Prior studies of developmentally protein malnourished rats have reported substantial changes in brain and peripheral utilization of 14 C-leucine, 14 C-phenylalanine, and 14 C-tryptophan. In the present study rats born to dams fed a low protein diet (8% casein) compared to the offspring of control rats fed a normal diet (25% casein) showed few significant differences in the uptake and incorporation of 14 C-tyrosine into brain and peripheral tissues from birth to age 21 days. At birth, the 8% casein pups exhibited significant decreases in brain and peripheral tissue incorporation of tracer only at short post-injection times (10 and 20 min), but not at longer intervals (90 and 180 min). During ontogenetic development (Days 5-21), the 8% casein rats showed significant increases in uptake of 14 C-tyrosine into the brain and peripheral tissues on Day 11 and a significantly higher percent incorporation of tracer into brain protein on Day 21 as compared to the 25% casein rats. For the most part, there were no significant changes in incorporation of radioactivity in peripheral tissues for the 2 diet groups on these post-birth days. Overall, the data indicates that developmental protein malnutrition causes relatively fewer changes in brain and peripheral utilization of the semi-essential amino acid tyrosine than those observed in previous studies with essential amino acids

  15. SH2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 2 and focal adhesion kinase protein interactions regulate pulmonary endothelium barrier function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chichger, Havovi; Braza, Julie; Duong, Huetran; Harrington, Elizabeth O

    2015-06-01

    Enhanced protein tyrosine phosphorylation is associated with changes in vascular permeability through formation and dissolution of adherens junctions and regulation of stress fiber formation. Inhibition of the protein tyrosine phosphorylase SH2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 2 (SHP2) increases tyrosine phosphorylation of vascular endothelial cadherin and β-catenin, resulting in disruption of the endothelial monolayer and edema formation in the pulmonary endothelium. Vascular permeability is a hallmark of acute lung injury (ALI); thus, enhanced SHP2 activity offers potential therapeutic value for the pulmonary vasculature in diseases such as ALI, but this has not been characterized. To assess whether SHP2 activity mediates protection against edema in the endothelium, we assessed the effect of molecular activation of SHP2 on lung endothelial barrier function in response to the edemagenic agents LPS and thrombin. Both LPS and thrombin reduced SHP2 activity, correlated with decreased focal adhesion kinase (FAK) phosphorylation (Y(397) and Y(925)) and diminished SHP2 protein-protein associations with FAK. Overexpression of constitutively active SHP2 (SHP2(D61A)) enhanced baseline endothelial monolayer resistance and completely blocked LPS- and thrombin-induced permeability in vitro and significantly blunted pulmonary edema formation induced by either endotoxin (LPS) or Pseudomonas aeruginosa exposure in vivo. Chemical inhibition of FAK decreased SHP2 protein-protein interactions with FAK concomitant with increased permeability; however, overexpression of SHP2(D61A) rescued the endothelium and maintained FAK activity and FAK-SHP2 protein interactions. Our data suggest that SHP2 activation offers the pulmonary endothelium protection against barrier permeability mediators downstream of the FAK signaling pathway. We postulate that further studies into the promotion of SHP2 activation in the pulmonary endothelium may offer a therapeutic approach for patients

  16. Inhibition of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B by Aurintricarboxylic Acid and Methylenedisalicylic Acid: Polymer versus Monomer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrestha, Suja; Lee, Keun Hyeung; Cho, Hyeong Jin

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we examined whether the in vitro inhibitory activity of ATA against PTPases resides in the monomer or high molecular weight components. Not to mention commercial ATA, the ATA sample synthesized according to the method previously reported to produce monomer was also found to contain polymeric materials as described below. Therefore, monomeric component of ATA was prepared absolutely free of polymer. Also synthesized in a pure form was methylenedisalicylic acid (MDSA), one of the low molecular weight components formed in the conventional preparation of ATA. Commercial MDSA was also proved to contain polymeric substances. The inhibitory potency of ATA and MDSA synthesized in a polymer-free form was evaluated against human protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B). Commercial ATA, however, contains significant amounts of polymeric materials schematically represented as. In general, ATA is prepared by condensation of salicylic acid with formaldehyde and the branching reaction results in the formation of polymers of molecular weights up to several thousands Dalton

  17. Genistein suppresses adhesion-induced protein tyrosine phosphorylation and invasion of B16-BL6 melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, C; Han, R

    1998-07-03

    Protein tyrosine phosphorylation occurs as one of the earlier events in cancer cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interaction. With immunoblot analysis and immunofluorescence microscopy, genistein was found to suppress the tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins located at the cell periphery, including a 125 kDa protein, when B16-BL6 melanoma cells attached to and interacted with ECM. When accompanied by the suppression of adhesion-induced protein tyrosine phosphorylation, the invasive potential of B16-BL6 cells through reconstituted basement membrane was decreased significantly. However, neither adhesive capability nor cell growth was significantly affected by genistein. Therefore, the interruption of cancer cell-ECM interaction by suppression of protein tyrosine phosphorylation may contribute to invasion prevention of genistein.

  18. Abelson tyrosine-protein kinase 2 regulates myoblast proliferation and controls muscle fiber length

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jennifer K; Hallock, Peter T; Burden, Steven J

    2017-01-01

    Muscle fiber length is nearly uniform within a muscle but widely different among different muscles. We show that Abelson tyrosine-protein kinase 2 (Abl2) has a key role in regulating myofiber length, as a loss of Abl2 leads to excessively long myofibers in the diaphragm, intercostal and levator auris muscles but not limb muscles. Increased myofiber length is caused by enhanced myoblast proliferation, expanding the pool of myoblasts and leading to increased myoblast fusion. Abl2 acts in myobla...

  19. Abelson tyrosine-protein kinase 2 Regulates Myoblast Proliferation and Controls Muscle Fiber Length

    OpenAIRE

    Burden, Steven; Lee, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Muscle fiber length is nearly uniform within a muscle but widely different among muscles. Here, we show that Abelson tyrosine-protein kinase 2 (Abl2) has a key role in regulating myofiber length, as a loss of Abl2 leads to excessively long myofibers in the diaphragm and other muscles. Increased myofiber length is caused by enhanced myoblast proliferation, expanding the pool of available myoblasts and leading to increased myoblast fusion. Abl2 acts in myoblasts, but expansion of the diaphragm ...

  20. Tyrosine 129 of the murine gammaherpesvirus M2 protein is critical for M2 function in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangaswamy, Udaya S; O'Flaherty, Brigid M; Speck, Samuel H

    2014-01-01

    A common strategy shared by all known gammaherpesviruses is their ability to establish a latent infection in lymphocytes--predominantly in B cells. In immunocompromised patients, such as transplant recipients or AIDS patients, gammaherpesvirus infections can lead to the development of lymphoproliferative disease and lymphoid malignancies. The human gamma-herpesviruses, EBV and KSHV, encode proteins that are capable of modulating the host immune signaling machinery, thereby subverting host immune responses. Murine gamma-herpesvirus 68 (MHV68) infection of laboratory strains of mice has proven to be useful small-animal model that shares important pathogenic strategies with the human gamma-herpesviruses. The MHV68 M2 protein is known to manipulate B cell signaling and, dependent on route and dose of virus inoculation, plays a role in both the establishment of latency and virus reactivation. M2 contains two tyrosines that are targets for phosphorylation, and have been shown to interact with the B cell signaling machinery. Here we describe in vitro and in vivo studies of M2 mutants which reveals that while both tyrosines Y120 and Y129 are required for M2 induction of IL-10 expression from primary murine B cells in vitro, only Y129 is critical for reactivation from latency and plasma cell differentiation in vivo.

  1. Tyrosine 129 of the murine gammaherpesvirus M2 protein is critical for M2 function in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udaya S Rangaswamy

    Full Text Available A common strategy shared by all known gammaherpesviruses is their ability to establish a latent infection in lymphocytes--predominantly in B cells. In immunocompromised patients, such as transplant recipients or AIDS patients, gammaherpesvirus infections can lead to the development of lymphoproliferative disease and lymphoid malignancies. The human gamma-herpesviruses, EBV and KSHV, encode proteins that are capable of modulating the host immune signaling machinery, thereby subverting host immune responses. Murine gamma-herpesvirus 68 (MHV68 infection of laboratory strains of mice has proven to be useful small-animal model that shares important pathogenic strategies with the human gamma-herpesviruses. The MHV68 M2 protein is known to manipulate B cell signaling and, dependent on route and dose of virus inoculation, plays a role in both the establishment of latency and virus reactivation. M2 contains two tyrosines that are targets for phosphorylation, and have been shown to interact with the B cell signaling machinery. Here we describe in vitro and in vivo studies of M2 mutants which reveals that while both tyrosines Y120 and Y129 are required for M2 induction of IL-10 expression from primary murine B cells in vitro, only Y129 is critical for reactivation from latency and plasma cell differentiation in vivo.

  2. Sorbitol Can Fuel Mouse Sperm Motility and Protein Tyrosine Phosphorylation via Sorbitol Dehydrogenase1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wenlei; Aghajanian, Haig K.; Haig-Ladewig, Lisa A.; Gerton, George L.

    2008-01-01

    Energy sources that can be metabolized to yield ATP are essential for normal sperm functions such as motility. Two major monosaccharides, sorbitol and fructose, are present in semen. Furthermore, sorbitol dehydrogenase (SORD) can convert sorbitol to fructose, which can then be metabolized via the glycolytic pathway in sperm to make ATP. Here we characterize Sord mRNA and SORD expression during mouse spermatogenesis and examine the ability of sorbitol to support epididymal sperm motility and tyrosine phosphorylation. Sord mRNA levels increased during the course of spermatogenic differentiation. SORD protein, however, was first detected at the condensing spermatid stage. By indirect immunofluorescence, SORD was present along the length of the flagella of caudal epididymal sperm. Furthermore, immunoelectron microscopy showed that SORD was associated with mitochondria and the plasma membranes of sperm. Sperm incubated with sorbitol maintained motility, indicating that sorbitol was utilized as an energy source. Sorbitol, as well as glucose and fructose, were not essential to induce hyperactive motility. Protein tyrosine phosphorylation increased in a similar manner when sorbitol was substituted for glucose in the incubation medium used for sperm capacitation. These results indicate that sorbitol can serve as an alternative energy source for sperm motility and protein tyrosine phosphorylation. PMID:18799757

  3. Molecular dynamics simulations of protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B. I. Ligand-induced changes in the protein motions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Günther H. J.; Frimurer, T.M.; Andersen, J.N.

    1999-01-01

    Activity of enzymes, such as protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs), is often associated with structural changes in the enzyme, resulting in selective and stereospecific reactions with the substrate. To investigate the effect of a substrate on the motions occurring in PTPs, we have performed...... molecular dynamics simulations of PTP1B and PTP1B complexed with a high-affinity peptide DADEpYL, where pY stands for phosphorylated tyrosine. The peptide sequence is derived from the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR(988-993)). Simulations were performed in water for 1 ns, and the concerted motions...... in the protein were analyzed using the essential dynamics technique. Our results indicate that the predominately internal motions in PTP1B occur in a subspace of only a few degrees of freedom. Upon substrate binding, the flexibility of the protein is reduced by similar to 10%. The largest effect is found...

  4. Multiple forms of the human tyrosine phosphatase RPTP alpha. Isozymes and differences in glycosylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daum, G; Regenass, S; Sap, J

    1994-01-01

    Among all the receptor-linked protein-tyrosine-phosphatase RPTP alpha clones described from mammalian tissues, one differed in that it encoded a 9-amino-acid insert 3 residues upstream from the transmembrane segment (Kaplan, R., Morse, B., Huebner, K., Croce, C., Howk, R. Ravera, M., Ricca, G...

  5. Suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 interacts with oncogenic lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkitachalam, Srividya; Chueh, Fu-Yu; Leong, King-Fu; Pabich, Samantha; Yu, Chao-Lan

    2011-03-01

    Lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase (Lck) plays a key role in T cell signal transduction and is tightly regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. Lck can function as an oncoprotein when overexpressed or constantly activated by mutations. Our previous studies showed that Lck-induced cellular transformation could be suppressed by enforced expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1), a SOCS family member involved in the negative feedback control of cytokine signaling. We observed attenuated Lck kinase activity in SOCS1-expressing cells, suggesting an important role of SOCS in regulating Lck functions. It remains largely unknown whether and how SOCS proteins interact with the oncogenic Lck kinase. Here, we report that among four SOCS family proteins, SOCS1, SOCS2, SOCS3 and CIS (cytokine-inducible SH2 domain containing protein), SOCS1 has the highest affinity in binding to the oncogenic Lck kinase. We identified the positive regulatory phosphotyrosine 394 residue in the kinase domain as the key interacting determinant in Lck. Additionally, the Lck kinase domain alone is sufficient to bind SOCS1. While the SH2 domain in SOCS1 is important in its association with the oncogenic Lck kinase, other functional domains may also contribute to overall binding affinity. These findings provide important mechanistic insights into the role of SOCS proteins as tumor suppressors in cells transformed by oncogenic protein tyrosine kinases.

  6. Implication of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B in MCF-7 cell proliferation and resistance to 4-OH tamoxifen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanquart, Christophe; Karouri, Salah-Eddine; Issad, Tarik

    2009-01-01

    The protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) and the T-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase (TC-PTP) were initially thought to be mainly anti-oncogenic. However, overexpression of PTP1B and TC-PTP has been observed in human tumors, and recent studies have demonstrated that PTP1B contributes to the appearance of breast tumors by modulating ERK pathway. In the present work, we observed that decreasing the expression of TC-PTP or PTP1B in MCF-7 cells using siRNA reduced cell proliferation without affecting cell death. This reduction in proliferation was associated with decreased ERK phosphorylation. Moreover, selection of tamoxifen-resistant MCF-7 cells, by long-term culture in presence of 4-OH tamoxifen, resulted in cells that display overexpression of PTP1B and TC-PTP, and concomitant increase in ERK and STAT3 phosphorylation. siRNA experiments showed that PTP1B, but not TC-PTP, is necessary for resistance to 4-OH tamoxifen. Therefore, our work indicates that PTP1B could be a relevant therapeutic target for treatment of tamoxifen-resistant breast cancers.

  7. Modulation of catalytic activity in multi-domain protein tyrosine phosphatases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalima L Madan

    Full Text Available Signaling mechanisms involving protein tyrosine phosphatases govern several cellular and developmental processes. These enzymes are regulated by several mechanisms which include variation in the catalytic turnover rate based on redox stimuli, subcellular localization or protein-protein interactions. In the case of Receptor Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases (RPTPs containing two PTP domains, phosphatase activity is localized in their membrane-proximal (D1 domains, while the membrane-distal (D2 domain is believed to play a modulatory role. Here we report our analysis of the influence of the D2 domain on the catalytic activity and substrate specificity of the D1 domain using two Drosophila melanogaster RPTPs as a model system. Biochemical studies reveal contrasting roles for the D2 domain of Drosophila Leukocyte antigen Related (DLAR and Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase on Drosophila chromosome band 99A (PTP99A. While D2 lowers the catalytic activity of the D1 domain in DLAR, the D2 domain of PTP99A leads to an increase in the catalytic activity of its D1 domain. Substrate specificity, on the other hand, is cumulative, whereby the individual specificities of the D1 and D2 domains contribute to the substrate specificity of these two-domain enzymes. Molecular dynamics simulations on structural models of DLAR and PTP99A reveal a conformational rationale for the experimental observations. These studies reveal that concerted structural changes mediate inter-domain communication resulting in either inhibitory or activating effects of the membrane distal PTP domain on the catalytic activity of the membrane proximal PTP domain.

  8. Protein tyrosine phosphatase SAP-1 protects against colitis through regulation of CEACAM20 in the intestinal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Yoji; Kotani, Takenori; Supriatna, Yana; Kitamura, Yasuaki; Imada, Shinya; Kawahara, Kohichi; Nishio, Miki; Daniwijaya, Edwin Widyanto; Sadakata, Hisanobu; Kusakari, Shinya; Mori, Munemasa; Kanazawa, Yoshitake; Saito, Yasuyuki; Okawa, Katsuya; Takeda-Morishita, Mariko; Okazawa, Hideki; Ohnishi, Hiroshi; Azuma, Takeshi; Suzuki, Akira; Matozaki, Takashi

    2015-08-04

    Intestinal epithelial cells contribute to regulation of intestinal immunity in mammals, but the detailed molecular mechanisms of such regulation have remained largely unknown. Stomach-cancer-associated protein tyrosine phosphatase 1 (SAP-1, also known as PTPRH) is a receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase that is localized specifically at microvilli of the brush border in gastrointestinal epithelial cells. Here we show that SAP-1 ablation in interleukin (IL)-10-deficient mice, a model of inflammatory bowel disease, resulted in a marked increase in the severity of colitis in association with up-regulation of mRNAs for various cytokines and chemokines in the colon. Tyrosine phosphorylation of carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule (CEACAM) 20, an intestinal microvillus-specific transmembrane protein of the Ig superfamily, was greatly increased in the intestinal epithelium of the SAP-1-deficient animals, suggesting that this protein is a substrate for SAP-1. Tyrosine phosphorylation of CEACAM20 by the protein tyrosine kinase c-Src and the consequent association of CEACAM20 with spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) promoted the production of IL-8 in cultured cells through the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). In addition, SAP-1 and CEACAM20 were found to form a complex through interaction of their ectodomains. SAP-1 and CEACAM20 thus constitute a regulatory system through which the intestinal epithelium contributes to intestinal immunity.

  9. Gene expression analysis after receptor tyrosine kinase activation reveals new potential melanoma proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teutschbein, Janka; Haydn, Johannes M; Samans, Birgit; Krause, Michael; Eilers, Martin; Schartl, Manfred; Meierjohann, Svenja

    2010-01-01

    Melanoma is an aggressive tumor with increasing incidence. To develop accurate prognostic markers and targeted therapies, changes leading to malignant transformation of melanocytes need to be understood. In the Xiphophorus melanoma model system, a mutated version of the EGF receptor Xmrk (Xiphophorus melanoma receptor kinase) triggers melanomagenesis. Cellular events downstream of Xmrk, such as the activation of Akt, Ras, B-Raf or Stat5, were also shown to play a role in human melanomagenesis. This makes the elucidation of Xmrk downstream targets a useful method for identifying processes involved in melanoma formation. Here, we analyzed Xmrk-induced gene expression using a microarray approach. Several highly expressed genes were confirmed by realtime PCR, and pathways responsible for their induction were revealed using small molecule inhibitors. The expression of these genes was also monitored in human melanoma cell lines, and the target gene FOSL1 was knocked down by siRNA. Proliferation and migration of siRNA-treated melanoma cell lines were then investigated. Genes with the strongest upregulation after receptor activation were FOS-like antigen 1 (Fosl1), early growth response 1 (Egr1), osteopontin (Opn), insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (Igfbp3), dual-specificity phosphatase 4 (Dusp4), and tumor-associated antigen L6 (Taal6). Interestingly, most genes were blocked in presence of a SRC kinase inhibitor. Importantly, we found that FOSL1, OPN, IGFBP3, DUSP4, and TAAL6 also exhibited increased expression levels in human melanoma cell lines compared to human melanocytes. Knockdown of FOSL1 in human melanoma cell lines reduced their proliferation and migration. Altogether, the data show that the receptor tyrosine kinase Xmrk is a useful tool in the identification of target genes that are commonly expressed in Xmrk-transgenic melanocytes and melanoma cell lines. The identified molecules constitute new possible molecular players in melanoma development

  10. Gene expression analysis after receptor tyrosine kinase activation reveals new potential melanoma proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krause Michael

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Melanoma is an aggressive tumor with increasing incidence. To develop accurate prognostic markers and targeted therapies, changes leading to malignant transformation of melanocytes need to be understood. In the Xiphophorus melanoma model system, a mutated version of the EGF receptor Xmrk (Xiphophorus melanoma receptor kinase triggers melanomagenesis. Cellular events downstream of Xmrk, such as the activation of Akt, Ras, B-Raf or Stat5, were also shown to play a role in human melanomagenesis. This makes the elucidation of Xmrk downstream targets a useful method for identifying processes involved in melanoma formation. Methods Here, we analyzed Xmrk-induced gene expression using a microarray approach. Several highly expressed genes were confirmed by realtime PCR, and pathways responsible for their induction were revealed using small molecule inhibitors. The expression of these genes was also monitored in human melanoma cell lines, and the target gene FOSL1 was knocked down by siRNA. Proliferation and migration of siRNA-treated melanoma cell lines were then investigated. Results Genes with the strongest upregulation after receptor activation were FOS-like antigen 1 (Fosl1, early growth response 1 (Egr1, osteopontin (Opn, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (Igfbp3, dual-specificity phosphatase 4 (Dusp4, and tumor-associated antigen L6 (Taal6. Interestingly, most genes were blocked in presence of a SRC kinase inhibitor. Importantly, we found that FOSL1, OPN, IGFBP3, DUSP4, and TAAL6 also exhibited increased expression levels in human melanoma cell lines compared to human melanocytes. Knockdown of FOSL1 in human melanoma cell lines reduced their proliferation and migration. Conclusion Altogether, the data show that the receptor tyrosine kinase Xmrk is a useful tool in the identification of target genes that are commonly expressed in Xmrk-transgenic melanocytes and melanoma cell lines. The identified molecules constitute

  11. FAK tyrosine phosphorylation is regulated by AMPK and controls metabolism in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassiter, David G; Nylén, Carolina; Sjögren, Rasmus J O

    2018-01-01

    the FAK gene, PTK2. RESULTS: AMPK activation reduced tyrosine phosphorylation of FAK in skeletal muscle. AICAR reduced p-FAKY397in isolated human skeletal muscle and cultured myotubes. Insulin stimulation did not alter FAK phosphorylation. Serum starvation increased AMPK activation, as demonstrated...

  12. Engineering of kinase-based protein interacting devices: active expression of tyrosine kinase domains

    KAUST Repository

    Diaz Galicia, Miriam Escarlet

    2018-05-01

    Protein-protein interactions modulate cellular processes in health and disease. However, tracing weak or rare associations or dissociations of proteins is not a trivial task. Kinases are often regulated through interaction partners and, at the same time, themselves regulate cellular interaction networks. The use of kinase domains for creating a synthetic sensor device that reads low concentration protein-protein interactions and amplifies them to a higher concentration interaction which is then translated into a FRET (Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer) signal is here proposed. To this end, DNA constructs for interaction amplification (split kinases), positive controls (intact kinase domains), scaffolding proteins and phosphopeptide - SH2-domain modules for the reading of kinase activity were assembled and expression protocols for fusion proteins containing Lyn, Src, and Fak kinase domains in bacterial and in cell-free systems were optimized. Also, two non-overlapping methods for measuring the kinase activity of these proteins were stablished and, finally, a protein-fragment complementation assay with the split-kinase constructs was tested. In conclusion, it has been demonstrated that features such as codon optimization, vector design and expression conditions have an impact on the expression yield and activity of kinase-based proteins. Furthermore, it has been found that the defined PURE cell-free system is insufficient for the active expression of catalytic kinase domains. In contrast, the bacterial co-expression with phosphatases produced active kinase fusion proteins for two out of the three tested Tyrosine kinase domains.

  13. The Pattern of Tyrosine Phosphorylation in Human Sperm in Response to Binding to Zona Pellucida or Hyaluronic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sati, Leyla; Cayli, Sevil; Delpiano, Elena; Sakkas, Denny

    2014-01-01

    In mammalian species, acquisition of sperm fertilization competence is dependent on the phenomenon of sperm capacitation. One of the key elements of capacitation is protein tyrosine phosphorylation (TP) in various sperm membrane regions. In previous studies performed, the pattern of TP was examined in human sperm bound to zona pellucida of oocytes. In the present comparative study, TP patterns upon sperm binding to the zona pellucida or hyaluronic acid (HA) were investigated in spermatozoa arising from the same semen samples. Tyrosine phosphorylation, visualized by immunofluorescence, was localized within the acrosomal cap, equatorial head region, neck, and the principal piece. Tyrosine phosphorylation has increased in a time-related manner as capacitation progressed, and the phosphorylation pattern was identical within the principal piece and neck, regardless of the sperm bound to the zona pellucida or HA. Thus, the data demonstrated that the patterns of sperm activation-related TP were similar regardless of the spermatozoa bound to zona pellucida or HA. Further, sperm with incomplete development, as detected by excess cytoplasmic retention, failed to exhibit TP. PMID:24077441

  14. Expression of Eph receptor tyrosine kinases and their ligands in human Granulosa lutein cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y; Zagoura, D; Keck, C; Pietrowski, D

    2006-11-01

    Corpus luteum development is regulated by gonadotropins and accompanied by extremely rapid vascularization of the avascular granulosa cell compartiment by endothelial cells (EC). The proliferation of Granulosa cells (GC) and EC is a complex interplay and takes place in a spatially and temporarily coordinated manner. The erythropoietin-producing hepatoma amplified sequence (Eph) receptors and their ligands-the ephrins- are a recently detected family of membrane located protein tyrosine kinases which play a crucial role in the growth and development of nerve and blood vessel network. We report about the mRNA expression pattern of Ephs and their ligands in human GC, in human EC, and in carcinoma cell lines OvCar-3 and Hela. The mRNA of EphA4, EphA7, ephrinA4, ephrinB1 and ephrinB2 was detected in GC and EC, while EphA2 was expressed only in GC. The expression of various Ephs and ephrins did not change in GC after stimulation with human chorion gonadotropin. Our study analyzes for the first time the expression of the complete human Eph/ephriny-system in GC and in EC. The remarkable similarity between these two cell types supports the theory of a functional relationship of EC and GC. In addition, it was shown that hCG is not a major determinant of Eph/ephrin regulation in GC.

  15. Striatal-enriched Tyrosine Protein Phosphatase (STEP) in the Mechanisms of Depressive Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikova, Elizabeth; Kulikov, Alexander

    2017-08-30

    Striatal-enriched tyrosine protein phosphatase (STEP) is expressed mainly in the brain. Its dysregulation is associated with Alzheimer's and Huntington's diseases, schizophrenia, fragile X syndrome, drug abuse and stroke/ischemia. However, an association between STEP and depressive disorders is still obscure. The review discusses the theoretical foundations and experimental facts concerning possible relationship between STEP dysregulation and depression risk. STEP dephosphorylates and inactivates several key neuronal signaling proteins such as extracellular signal-regulating kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), stress activated protein kinases p38, the Src family tyrosine kinases Fyn, Pyk2, NMDA and AMPA glutamate receptors. The inactivation of these proteins decreases the expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) necessary for neurogenesis and neuronal survival. The deficit of BDNF results in progressive degeneration of neurons in the hippocampus and cortex and increases depression risk. At the same time, a STEP inhibitor, 8-(trifluoromethyl)-1,2,3,4,5-benzopentathiepin-6-amine hydrochloride (TC-2153), increases BDNF expression in the hippocampus and attenuated the depressivelike behavior in mice. Thus, STEP is involved in the mechanism of depressive disorders and it is a promising molecular target for atypical antidepressant drugs of new generation. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  16. An evolutionarily conserved glycine-tyrosine motif forms a folding core in outer membrane proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Michalik

    Full Text Available An intimate interaction between a pair of amino acids, a tyrosine and glycine on neighboring β-strands, has been previously reported to be important for the structural stability of autotransporters. Here, we show that the conservation of this interacting pair extends to nearly all major families of outer membrane β-barrel proteins, which are thought to have originated through duplication events involving an ancestral ββ hairpin. We analyzed the function of this motif using the prototypical outer membrane protein OmpX. Stopped-flow fluorescence shows that two folding processes occur in the millisecond time regime, the rates of which are reduced in the tyrosine mutant. Folding assays further demonstrate a reduction in the yield of folded protein for the mutant compared to the wild-type, as well as a reduction in thermal stability. Taken together, our data support the idea of an evolutionarily conserved 'folding core' that affects the folding, membrane insertion, and thermal stability of outer membrane protein β-barrels.

  17. Cross-phosphorylation of bacterial serine/threonine and tyrosine protein kinases on key regulatory residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei eShi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria possess protein serine/threonine and tyrosine kinases which resemble eukaryal kinases in their capacity to phosphorylate multiple substrates. We hypothesized that the analogy might extend further, and bacterial kinases may also undergo mutual phosphorylation and activation, which is currently considered as a hallmark of eukaryal kinase networks. In order to test this hypothesis, we explored the capacity of all members of four different classes of serine/threonine and tyrosine kinases present in the firmicute model organism Bacillus subtilis to phosphorylate each other in vitro and interact with each other in vivo. The interactomics data suggested a high degree of connectivity among all types of kinases, while phosphorylation assays revealed equally wide-spread cross-phosphorylation events. Our findings suggest that the Hanks-type kinases PrkC, PrkD and YabT exhibit the highest capacity to phosphorylate other B. subtilis kinases, while the BY-kinase PtkA and the two-component-like kinases RsbW and SpoIIAB show the highest propensity to be phosphorylated by other kinases. Analysis of phosphorylated residues on several selected recipient kinases suggests that most cross-phosphorylation events concern key regulatory residues. Therefore, cross-phosphorylation events are very likely to influence the capacity of recipient kinases to phosphorylate substrates downstream in the signal transduction cascade. We therefore conclude that bacterial serine/threonine and tyrosine kinases probably engage in a network-type behavior previously described only in eukaryal cells.

  18. Role of Cbl-associated protein/ponsin in receptor tyrosine kinase signaling and cell adhesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritva Tikkanen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The Cbl-associated protein/ponsin (CAP is an adaptor protein that contains a so-called Sorbin homology (SoHo domain and three Src homology 3 (SH3 domains which are engaged in diverse protein-protein interactions. CAP has been shown to function in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton and cell adhesion and to be involved in the differentiation of muscle cells and adipocytes. In addition, it participates in signaling pathways through several receptor tyrosine kinases such as insulin and neurotrophin receptors. In the last couple of years, several studies have shed light on the details of these processes and identified novel interaction partners of CAP. In this review, we summarize these recent findings and provide an overview on the function of CAP especially in cell adhesion and membrane receptor signaling.

  19. Complexes of γ-tubulin with nonreceptor protein tyrosine kinases Src and Fyn in differentiating P19 embryonal carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukharskyy, Vitaliy; Sulimenko, Vadym; Macurek, Libor; Sulimenko, Tetyana; Draberova, Eduarda; Draber, Pavel

    2004-01-01

    Nonreceptor protein tyrosine kinases of the Src family have been shown to play an important role in signal transduction as well as in regulation of microtubule protein interactions. Here we show that γ-tubulin (γ-Tb) in P19 embryonal carcinoma cells undergoing neuronal differentiation is phosphorylated and forms complexes with protein tyrosine kinases of the Src family, Src and Fyn. Elevated expression of both kinases during differentiation corresponded with increased level of proteins phosphorylated on tyrosine. Immunoprecipitation experiments with antibodies against Src, Fyn, γ-tubulin, and with anti-phosphotyrosine antibody revealed that γ-tubulin appeared in complexes with these kinases. In vitro kinase assays showed tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins in γ-tubulin complexes isolated from differentiated cells. Pretreatment of cells with Src family selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor PP2 reduced the amount of phosphorylated γ-tubulin in the complexes. Binding experiments with recombinant SH2 and SH3 domains of Src and Fyn kinases revealed that protein complexes containing γ-tubulin bound to SH2 domains and that these interactions were of SH2-phosphotyrosine type. The combined data suggest that Src family kinases might have an important role in the regulation of γ-tubulin interaction with tubulin dimers or other proteins during neurogenesis

  20. Recruitment of SHP-1 protein tyrosine phosphatase and signalling by a chimeric T-cell receptor-killer inhibitory receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, M D; Geisler, C

    2000-01-01

    Receptors expressing the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM) in their cytoplasmic tail play an important role in the negative regulation of natural killer and B-cell activation. A subpopulation of T cells expresses the ITIM containing killer cell inhibitory receptor (KIR), which...... recognize MHC class I molecules. Following coligation of KIR with an activating receptor, the tyrosine in the ITIM is phosphorylated and the cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 is recruited to the ITIM via its SH2 domains. It is still not clear how SHP-1 affects T-cell receptor (TCR) signalling...... regarding total protein tyrosine phosphorylation, TCR down-regulation, mobilization of intracellular free calcium, or induction of the activation markers CD69 and CD25....

  1. Ripening of pepper (Capsicum annuum) fruit is characterized by an enhancement of protein tyrosine nitration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaki, Mounira; Álvarez de Morales, Paz; Ruiz, Carmelo; Begara-Morales, Juan C; Barroso, Juan B; Corpas, Francisco J; Palma, José M

    2015-09-01

    Pepper (Capsicum annuum, Solanaceae) fruits are consumed worldwide and are of great economic importance. In most species ripening is characterized by important visual and metabolic changes, the latter including emission of volatile organic compounds associated with respiration, destruction of chlorophylls, synthesis of new pigments (red/yellow carotenoids plus xanthophylls and anthocyanins), formation of pectins and protein synthesis. The involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in fruit ripening has been established, but more work is needed to detail the metabolic networks involving NO and other reactive nitrogen species (RNS) in the process. It has been reported that RNS can mediate post-translational modifications of proteins, which can modulate physiological processes through mechanisms of cellular signalling. This study therefore examined the potential role of NO in nitration of tyrosine during the ripening of California sweet pepper. The NO content of green and red pepper fruit was determined spectrofluorometrically. Fruits at the breaking point between green and red coloration were incubated in the presence of NO for 1 h and then left to ripen for 3 d. Profiles of nitrated proteins were determined using an antibody against nitro-tyrosine (NO2-Tyr), and profiles of nitrosothiols were determined by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Nitrated proteins were identified by 2-D electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis. Treatment with NO delayed the ripening of fruit. An enhancement of nitrosothiols and nitroproteins was observed in fruit during ripening, and this was reversed by the addition of exogenous NO gas. Six nitrated proteins were identified and were characterized as being involved in redox, protein, carbohydrate and oxidative metabolism, and in glutamate biosynthesis. Catalase was the most abundant nitrated protein found in both green and red fruit. The RNS profile reported here indicates that ripening of pepper fruit is characterized by an enhancement of S

  2. Presence of ecto-protein tyrosine phosphatase activity is vital for survival of Setaria cervi, a bovine filarial parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Neetu; Heneberg, Petr; Rathaur, Sushma

    2014-10-01

    The ecto protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTP) are known to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis and survival of the intracellular parasites. However, their presence and role in filarial parasites is still unknown. We found a significant amount of tyrosine phosphatase activity in the surface antigen fraction extracted from Setaria cervi (S. cervi), a bovine filarial parasite. An antibody designed against the conserved catalytic core of human protein tyrosine phosphatases, PTP1B cross reacted with a 63 kDa band in the surface antigen. We detected a significant amount of PTP activity in the intact S. cervi adult parasites as well as microfilariae in this study for the first time. This PTP may be localized on the surface of the parasite with an exposed active site available for the external substrates. The PTP activity was also inhibited by sodium orthovanadate and phenyl arsine oxide, specific inhibitors of PTP in both the life stages. The Km and Vmax for PTP in the adult parasites and microfilariae were determined to be 2.574 ± 0.14 mM; 206.3 ± 2.75 μM Pi/h/two parasites and 5.510 ± 0.59 mM; 62.27 ± 2.27 μM Pi/h/10(6) parasites respectively using O-P-L-Tyrosine as substrate. Interestingly, a positive correlation was observed between the inhibition in PTP activity and reduction in the motility/ viability of the parasites when they were subjected to the specific PTP inhibitors (Orthovanadate and Phenyl arsine oxide) for 4 h in the KRB maintenance medium. The activity was also significantly inhibited in the parasites exposed to antifilarial drug/compounds for e.g. Diethylcarbamazine, Acetylsalicylic Acid and SK7, a methyl chalcone. Therefore suggesting a possible role played by PTP in the survival of the parasite, its interaction with the host as well as in the screening of newly synthesized antifilarials/drugs.

  3. Keratinocyte-derived laminin-332 protein promotes melanin synthesis via regulation of tyrosine uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Heesung; Jung, Hyejung; Lee, Jung-Hyun; Oh, Hye Yun; Kim, Ok Bin; Han, Inn-Oc; Oh, Eok-Soo

    2014-08-01

    Melanocytes, which produce the pigment melanin, are known to be closely regulated by neighboring keratinocytes. However, how keratinocytes regulate melanin production is unclear. Here we report that melanin production in melanoma cells (B16F10 and MNT-1) was increased markedly on a keratinocyte-derived extracellular matrix compared with a melanoma cell-derived extracellular matrix. siRNA-mediated reduction of keratinocyte-derived laminin-332 expression decreased melanin synthesis in melanoma cells, and laminin-332, but not fibronectin, enhanced melanin content and α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone-regulated melanin production in melanoma cells. Similar effects were observed in human melanocytes. Interestingly, however, laminin-332 did not affect the expression or activity of tyrosinase. Instead, laminin-332 promoted the uptake of extracellular tyrosine and, subsequently, increased intracellular levels of tyrosine in both melanocytes and melanoma cells. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that keratinocyte-derived laminin-332 contributes to melanin production by regulating tyrosine uptake. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 induces protein tyrosine phosphorylation during uptake by HeLa cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkelund, Svend; Johnsen, H; Christiansen, Gunna

    1994-01-01

    . By use of a monoclonal antibody against phosphotyrosine, we showed that three classes of proteins are tyrosine phosphorylated: a triple band of 68, 66, and 64 kDa, a 97-kDa band, and a 140-kDa band. The phosphorylation could be detected by immunoblotting from 15 min after infection of HeLa cells. We...... inactive. Attachment of EBs to host cells is medicated by a heparan sulfate-like glycosaminoglycan. Following attachment, the EB is internalized within a membrane-bound vesicle, and during the first 8 h of infection the vesicles are transported to a perinuclear location where they aggregate and fuse...

  5. Pseudomonas aeruginosa invasion and cytotoxicity are independent events, both of which involve protein tyrosine kinase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, D J; Frank, D W; Finck-Barbançon, V; Wu, C; Fleiszig, S M

    1998-04-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates exhibit invasive or cytotoxic phenotypes. Cytotoxic strains acquire some of the characteristics of invasive strains when a regulatory gene, exsA, that controls the expression of several extracellular proteins, is inactivated. exsA mutants are not cytotoxic and can be detected within epithelial cells by gentamicin survival assays. The purpose of this study was to determine whether epithelial cell invasion precedes and/or is essential for cytotoxicity. This was tested by measuring invasion (gentamicin survival) and cytotoxicity (trypan blue staining) of PA103 mutants deficient in specific exsA-regulated proteins and by testing the effect of drugs that inhibit invasion for their effect on cytotoxicity. A transposon mutant in the exsA-regulated extracellular factor exoU was neither cytotoxic nor invasive. Furthermore, several of the drugs that inhibited invasion did not prevent cytotoxicity. These results show that invasion and cytotoxicity are mutually exclusive events, inversely regulated by an exsA-encoded invasion inhibitor(s). Both involve host cell protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) activity, but they differ in that invasion requires Src family tyrosine kinases and calcium-calmodulin activity. PTK inhibitor drugs such as genistein may have therapeutic potential through their ability to block both invasive and cytotoxicity pathways via an action on the host cell.

  6. The tyrosine kinase inhibitor dasatinib induces a marked adipogenic differentiation of human multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Borriello

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The introduction of specific BCR-ABL inhibitors in chronic myelogenous leukemia therapy has entirely mutated the prognosis of this hematologic cancer from being a fatal disorder to becoming a chronic disease. Due to the probable long lasting treatment with tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (TKIs, the knowledge of their effects on normal cells is of pivotal importance. DESIGN AND METHODS: We investigated the effects of dasatinib treatment on human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs. RESULTS: Our findings demonstrate, for the first time, that dasatinib induces MSCs adipocytic differentiation. Particularly, when the TKI is added to the medium inducing osteogenic differentiation, a high MSCs percentage acquires adipocytic morphology and overexpresses adipocytic specific genes, including PPARγ, CEBPα, LPL and SREBP1c. Dasatinib also inhibits the activity of alkaline phosphatase, an osteogenic marker, and remarkably reduces matrix mineralization. The increase of PPARγ is also confirmed at protein level. The component of osteogenic medium required for dasatinib-induced adipogenesis is dexamethasone. Intriguingly, the increase of adipocytic markers is also observed in MSCs treated with dasatinib alone. The TKI effect is phenotype-specific, since fibroblasts do not undergo adipocytic differentiation or PPARγ increase. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that dasatinib treatment affects bone marrow MSCs commitment and suggest that TKIs therapy might modify normal phenotypes with potential significant negative consequences.

  7. Broad substrate tolerance of tubulin tyrosine ligase enables one-step site-specific enzymatic protein labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Dominik; Lemke, Oliver; Helma, Jonas; Gerszonowicz, Lena; Waller, Verena; Stoschek, Tina; Durkin, Patrick M; Budisa, Nediljko; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Keller, Bettina G; Hackenberger, Christian P R

    2017-05-01

    The broad substrate tolerance of tubulin tyrosine ligase is the basic rationale behind its wide applicability for chemoenzymatic protein functionalization. In this context, we report that the wild-type enzyme enables ligation of various unnatural amino acids that are substantially bigger than and structurally unrelated to the natural substrate, tyrosine, without the need for extensive protein engineering. This unusual substrate flexibility is due to the fact that the enzyme's catalytic pocket forms an extended cavity during ligation, as confirmed by docking experiments and all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. This feature enabled one-step C-terminal biotinylation and fluorescent coumarin labeling of various functional proteins as demonstrated with ubiquitin, an antigen binding nanobody, and the apoptosis marker Annexin V. Its broad substrate tolerance establishes tubulin tyrosine ligase as a powerful tool for in vitro enzyme-mediated protein modification with single functional amino acids in a specific structural context.

  8. Nano titanium dioxide photocatalytic protein tyrosine nitration: A potential hazard of TiO2 on skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Naihao; Zhu Zhening; Zhao Xuqi; Tao Ran; Yang Xiangliang; Gao Zhonghong

    2008-01-01

    Protein tyrosine nitration is a prevalent post-translational modification which occurs as a result of oxidative and nitrative stress, it may be directly involved in the onset and/or progression of diseases. Considering the existence of nano titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) in environment and sunscreen products along with the high content of nitrite in sweat, the UV-exposed skin may be a significant target for the photosensitized damage. In this paper, tyrosine nitration of bovine serum albumin (BSA) was initiated in the UV-irradiated reaction mixture containing 0.2-3.0 mg/ml of three commercially nano TiO 2 products and 0.25-1.0 mM NO 2 - . It was found that anatase TiO 2 and Degussa P25 TiO 2 showed prominent photocatalytic activity on promoting the formation of protein tyrosine nitration, and the optimum condition for the reaction was around physiological pH. Meanwhile, the photocatalytic effect of rutile on protein tyrosine nitration was subtle. The potential physiological significance of nano TiO 2 -photocatalytic protein nitration was also demonstrated in mouse skin homogenate. Although the relationship between photocatalytic protein tyrosine nitration and chronic cutaneous diseases needs further study, the toxicity of nano TiO 2 to the skin disease should be paid more attention in the production and utilization process

  9. Protein-tyrosine Phosphatase SHP2 Contributes to GDNF Neurotrophic Activity through Direct Binding to Phospho-Tyr687 in the RET Receptor Tyrosine Kinase*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrinjaquet, Maurice; Vilar, Marçal; Ibáñez, Carlos F.

    2010-01-01

    The signaling mechanisms by which neurotrophic receptors regulate neuronal survival and axonal growth are still incompletely understood. In the receptor tyrosine kinase RET, a receptor for GDNF (glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor), the functions of the majority of tyrosine residues that become phosphorylated are still unknown. Here we have identified the protein-tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 as a novel direct interactor of RET and the first effector known to bind to phosphorylated Tyr687 in the juxtamembrane region of the receptor. We show that SHP2 is recruited to RET upon ligand binding in a cooperative fashion, such that both interaction with Tyr687 and association with components of the Tyr1062 signaling complex are required for stable recruitment of SHP2 to the receptor. SHP2 recruitment contributes to the ability of RET to activate the PI3K/AKT pathway and promote survival and neurite outgrowth in primary neurons. Furthermore, we find that activation of protein kinase A (PKA) by forskolin reduces the recruitment of SHP2 to RET and negatively affects ligand-mediated neurite outgrowth. In agreement with this, mutation of Ser696, a known PKA phosphorylation site in RET, enhances SHP2 binding to the receptor and eliminates the effect of forskolin on ligand-induced outgrowth. Together, these findings establish SHP2 as a novel positive regulator of the neurotrophic activities of RET and reveal Tyr687 as a critical platform for integration of RET and PKA signals. We anticipate that several other phosphotyrosines of unknown function in neuronal receptor tyrosine kinases will also support similar regulatory functions. PMID:20682772

  10. Protein-tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 contributes to GDNF neurotrophic activity through direct binding to phospho-Tyr687 in the RET receptor tyrosine kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrinjaquet, Maurice; Vilar, Marçal; Ibáñez, Carlos F

    2010-10-08

    The signaling mechanisms by which neurotrophic receptors regulate neuronal survival and axonal growth are still incompletely understood. In the receptor tyrosine kinase RET, a receptor for GDNF (glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor), the functions of the majority of tyrosine residues that become phosphorylated are still unknown. Here we have identified the protein-tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 as a novel direct interactor of RET and the first effector known to bind to phosphorylated Tyr(687) in the juxtamembrane region of the receptor. We show that SHP2 is recruited to RET upon ligand binding in a cooperative fashion, such that both interaction with Tyr(687) and association with components of the Tyr(1062) signaling complex are required for stable recruitment of SHP2 to the receptor. SHP2 recruitment contributes to the ability of RET to activate the PI3K/AKT pathway and promote survival and neurite outgrowth in primary neurons. Furthermore, we find that activation of protein kinase A (PKA) by forskolin reduces the recruitment of SHP2 to RET and negatively affects ligand-mediated neurite outgrowth. In agreement with this, mutation of Ser(696), a known PKA phosphorylation site in RET, enhances SHP2 binding to the receptor and eliminates the effect of forskolin on ligand-induced outgrowth. Together, these findings establish SHP2 as a novel positive regulator of the neurotrophic activities of RET and reveal Tyr(687) as a critical platform for integration of RET and PKA signals. We anticipate that several other phosphotyrosines of unknown function in neuronal receptor tyrosine kinases will also support similar regulatory functions.

  11. Molecular mechanism of ERK dephosphorylation by striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase (STEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Li, Kang-shuai; Su, Jing; Chen, Lai-Zhong; Xu, Yun-Fei; Wang, Hong-Mei; Gong, Zheng; Cui, Guo-Ying; Yu, Xiao; Wang, Kai; Yao, Wei; Xin, Tao; Li, Min-Yong; Xiao, Kun-Hong; An, Xiao-fei; Huo, Yuqing; Xu, Zhi-gang; Sun, Jin-Peng; Pang, Qi

    2013-01-01

    Striatal-enriched tyrosine phosphatase (STEP) is an important regulator of neuronal synaptic plasticity, and its abnormal level or activity contributes to cognitive disorders. One crucial downstream effector and direct substrate of STEP is extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), which has important functions in spine stabilisation and action potential transmission. The inhibition of STEP activity toward phospho-ERK has the potential to treat neuronal diseases, but the detailed mechanism underlying the dephosphorylation of phospho-ERK by STEP is not known. Therefore, we examined STEP activity toward pNPP, phospho-tyrosine-containing peptides, and the full-length phospho-ERK protein using STEP mutants with different structural features. STEP was found to be a highly efficient ERK tyrosine phosphatase that required both its N-terminal regulatory region and key residues in its active site. Specifically, both KIM and KIS of STEP were required for ERK interaction. In addition to the N-terminal KIS region, S245, hydrophobic residues L249/L251, and basic residues R242/R243 located in the KIM region were important in controlling STEP activity toward phospho-ERK. Further kinetic experiments revealed subtle structural differences between STEP and HePTP that affected the interactions of their KIMs with ERK. Moreover, STEP recognised specific positions of a phospho-ERK peptide sequence through its active site, and the contact of STEP F311 with phospho-ERK V205 and T207 were crucial interactions. Taken together, our results not only provide the information for interactions between ERK and STEP, but will also help in the development of specific strategies to target STEP-ERK recognition, which could serve as a potential therapy for neurological disorders. PMID:24117863

  12. Survey of tyrosine kinase signaling reveals ROS kinase fusions in human cholangiocarcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Lei Gu

    Full Text Available Cholangiocarcinoma, also known as bile duct cancer, is the second most common primary hepatic carcinoma with a median survival of less than 2 years. The molecular mechanisms underlying the development of this disease are not clear. To survey activated tyrosine kinases signaling in cholangiocarcinoma, we employed immunoaffinity profiling coupled to mass spectrometry and identified DDR1, EPHA2, EGFR, and ROS tyrosine kinases, along with over 1,000 tyrosine phosphorylation sites from about 750 different proteins in primary cholangiocarcinoma patients. Furthermore, we confirmed the presence of ROS kinase fusions in 8.7% (2 out of 23 of cholangiocarcinoma patients. Expression of the ROS fusions in 3T3 cells confers transforming ability both in vitro and in vivo, and is responsive to its kinase inhibitor. Our data demonstrate that ROS kinase is a promising candidate for a therapeutic target and for a diagnostic molecular marker in cholangiocarcinoma. The identification of ROS tyrosine kinase fusions in cholangiocarcinoma, along with the presence of other ROS kinase fusions in lung cancer and glioblastoma, suggests that a more broadly based screen for activated ROS kinase in cancer is warranted.

  13. Lack of protein-tyrosine sulfation disrupts photoreceptor outer segment morphogenesis, retinal function and retinal anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, David M; Murray, Anne R; Kanan, Yogita; Arbogast, Kelsey L; Hamilton, Robert A; Fliesler, Steven J; Burns, Marie E; Moore, Kevin L; Al-Ubaidi, Muayyad R

    2010-11-01

    To investigate the role(s) of protein-tyrosine sulfation in the retina, we examined retinal function and structure in mice lacking tyrosylprotein sulfotransferases (TPST) 1 and 2. Tpst double knockout (DKO; Tpst1(-/-) /Tpst2 (-/-) ) retinas had drastically reduced electroretinographic responses, although their photoreceptors exhibited normal responses in single cell recordings. These retinas appeared normal histologically; however, the rod photoreceptors had ultrastructurally abnormal outer segments, with membrane evulsions into the extracellular space, irregular disc membrane spacing and expanded intradiscal space. Photoreceptor synaptic terminals were disorganized in Tpst DKO retinas, but established ultrastructurally normal synapses, as did bipolar and amacrine cells; however, the morphology and organization of neuronal processes in the inner retina were abnormal. These results indicate that protein-tyrosine sulfation is essential for proper outer segment morphogenesis and synaptic function, but is not critical for overall retinal structure or synapse formation, and may serve broader functions in neuronal development and maintenance. © 2010 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2010 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Sequential Proton Loss Electron Transfer in Deactivation of Iron(IV) Binding Protein by Tyrosine Based Food Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Ning; Skibsted, Leif Horsfelt

    2017-01-01

    The iron(IV) binding protein ferrylmyoglobin, MbFe(IV)=O, was found to be reduced by tyrosine based food components in aqueous solution through a sequential proton loss electron transfer reaction mechanism without binding to the protein as confirmed by isothermal titration calorimetry. Dopamine a...

  15. Receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase alpha activates Src-family kinases and controls integrin-mediated responses in fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, J; Muranjan, M; Sap, J

    1999-01-01

    of tyrosine kinases, the activity of which is tightly controlled by inhibitory phosphorylation of a carboxyterminal tyrosine residue (Tyr527 in chicken c-Src); this phosphorylation induces the kinases to form an inactive conformation. Whereas the identity of such inhibitory Tyr527 kinases has been well...... established, no corresponding phosphatases have been identified that, under physiological conditions, function as positive regulators of c-Src and Fyn in fibroblasts. RESULTS: Receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase alpha (RPTPalpha) was inactivated by homologous recombination. Fibroblasts derived from...... these RPTPalpha-/- mice had impaired tyrosine kinase activity of both c-Src and Fyn, and this was accompanied by a concomitant increase in c-Src Tyr527 phosphorylation. RPTPalpha-/- fibroblasts also showed a reduction in the rate of spreading on fibronectin substrates, a trait that is a phenocopy of the effect...

  16. Expression and function of the protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor J (PTPRJ in normal mammary epithelial cells and breast tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanel E Smart

    Full Text Available The protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor J, PTPRJ, is a tumor suppressor gene that has been implicated in a range of cancers, including breast cancer, yet little is known about its role in normal breast physiology or in mammary gland tumorigenesis. In this paper we show that PTPRJ mRNA is expressed in normal breast tissue and reduced in corresponding tumors. Meta-analysis revealed that the gene encoding PTPRJ is frequently lost in breast tumors and that low expression of the transcript associated with poorer overall survival at 20 years. Immunohistochemistry of PTPRJ protein in normal human breast tissue revealed a distinctive apical localisation in the luminal cells of alveoli and ducts. Qualitative analysis of a cohort of invasive ductal carcinomas revealed retention of normal apical PTPRJ localization where tubule formation was maintained but that tumors mostly exhibited diffuse cytoplasmic staining, indicating that dysregulation of localisation associated with loss of tissue architecture in tumorigenesis. The murine ortholog, Ptprj, exhibited a similar localisation in normal mammary gland, and was differentially regulated throughout lactational development, and in an in vitro model of mammary epithelial differentiation. Furthermore, ectopic expression of human PTPRJ in HC11 murine mammary epithelial cells inhibited dome formation. These data indicate that PTPRJ may regulate differentiation of normal mammary epithelia and that dysregulation of protein localisation may be associated with tumorigenesis.

  17. Identification of Tyrosine Phosphorylated Proteins by SH2 Domain Affinity Purification and Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhs, Sophia; Gerull, Helwe; Nollau, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Phosphotyrosine signaling plays a major role in the control of many important biological functions such as cell proliferation and apoptosis. Deciphering of phosphotyrosine-dependent signaling is therefore of great interest paving the way for the understanding of physiological and pathological processes of signal transduction. On the basis of the specific binding of SH2 domains to phosphotyrosine residues, we here present an experimental workflow for affinity purification and subsequent identification of tyrosine phosphorylated proteins by mass spectrometry. In combination with SH2 profiling, a broadly applicable platform for the characterization of phosphotyrosine profiles in cell extracts, our pull down strategy enables researchers by now to identify proteins in signaling cascades which are differentially phosphorylated and selectively recognized by distinct SH2 domains.

  18. Protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type R deficient mice exhibit increased exploration in a new environment and impaired novel object recognition memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkens, M.; Bakker, B.; Duijn, L.M. van; Hendriks, W.J.A.J.; Zee, C.E.E.M. van der

    2014-01-01

    Mouse gene Ptprr encodes multiple protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type R (PTPRR) isoforms that negatively regulate mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. In the mouse brain, PTPRR proteins are expressed in cerebellum, olfactory bulb, hippocampus, amygdala and perirhinal

  19. Phosphorylation of Staphylococcus aureus Protein-Tyrosine Kinase Affects the Function of Glucokinase and Biofilm Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasu, Dudipeta; Kumar, Pasupuleti Santhosh; Prasad, Uppu Venkateswara; Swarupa, Vimjam; Yeswanth, Sthanikam; Srikanth, Lokanathan; Sunitha, Manne Mudhu; Choudhary, Abhijith; Sarma, Potukuchi Venkata Gurunadha Krishna

    2017-03-01

    When Staphylococcus aureus is grown in the presence of high concentration of external glucose, this sugar is phosphorylated by glucokinase (glkA) to form glucose-6-phosphate. This product subsequently enters into anabolic phase, which favors biofilm formation. The presence of ROK (repressor protein, open reading frame, sugar kinase) motif, phosphate-1 and -2 sites, and tyrosine kinase sites in glkA of S. aureus indicates that phosphorylation must regulate the glkA activity. The aim of the present study was to identify the effect of phosphorylation on the function of S. aureus glkA and biofilm formation. Pure glkA and protein-tyrosine kinase (BYK) of S. aureus ATCC 12600 were obtained by fractionating the cytosolic fractions of glkA1 and BYK-1 expressing recombinant clones through nickel metal chelate column. The pure glkA was used as a substrate for BYK and the phosphorylation of glkA was confirmed by treating with reagent A and resolving in SDS-PAGE, as well as staining with reagent A. The kinetic parameters of glkA and phosphorylated glkA were determined spectrophotometrically, and in silico tools were used for validation. S. aureus was grown in brain heart infusion broth, which was supplemented with glucose, and then biofilm units were calculated. Fourfold elevated glkA activity was observed upon the phosphorylation by BYK. Protein-protein docking analysis revealed that glkA structure docked close to the adenosine triphosphate-binding site of BYK structure corroborating the kinetic results. Further, S. aureus grown in the presence of elevated glucose concentration exhibited an increase in the rate of biofilm formation. The elevated function of glkA is an essential requirement for increased biofilm units in S. aureus, a key pathogenic factor that helps its survival and spread the infection.

  20. Membrane skeletal proteins and their integral membrane protein anchors are targets for tyrosine and threonine kinases in Euglena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, M J; Da Silva, A C; Rosiere, T K; Bouck, G B

    1995-01-01

    Proteins of the membrane skeleton of Euglena gracilis were extensively phosphorylated in vivo and in vitro after incubation with [32P]-orthophosphate or gamma-[32P] ATP. Endogenous protein threonine/serine activity phosphorylated the major membrane skeletal proteins (articulins) and the putative integral membrane protein (IP39) anchor for articulins. The latter was also the major target for endogenous protein tyrosine kinase activity. A cytoplasmic domain of IP39 was specifically phosphorylated, and removal of this domain with papain eliminated the radiolabeled phosphoamino acids and eliminated or radically shifted the PI of the multiple isoforms of IP39. In gel kinase assays IP39 autophosphorylated and a 25 kDa protein which does not autophosphorylate was identified as a threonine/serine (casein) kinase. Plasma membranes from the membrane skeletal protein complex contained threonine/serine (casein) kinase activity, and cross-linking experiments suggested that IP39 was the likely source for this membrane activity. pH optima, cation requirements and heparin sensitivity of the detergent solubilized membrane activity were determined. Together these results suggest that protein kinases may be important modulators of protein assembly and function of the membrane skeleton of these protistan cells.

  1. Behavioral and cognitive effects of tyrosine intake in healthy human adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hase, Adrian; Jung, Sophie E.; aan het Rot, Marije

    2015-01-01

    The amino acid tyrosine is the precursor to the catecholamine neurotransmitters dopamine and norepinephrine. Increasing tyrosine uptake may positively influence catecholamine-related psychological functioning. We conducted a systematic review to examine the effects of tyrosine on behavior and

  2. Protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor delta acts as a neuroblastoma tumor suppressor by destabilizing the aurora kinase a oncogene

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Meehan, Maria

    2012-02-05

    Abstract Background Protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor delta (PTPRD) is a member of a large family of protein tyrosine phosphatases which negatively regulate tyrosine phosphorylation. Neuroblastoma is a major childhood cancer arising from precursor cells of the sympathetic nervous system which is known to acquire deletions and alterations in the expression patterns of PTPRD, indicating a potential tumor suppressor function for this gene. The molecular mechanism, however, by which PTPRD renders a tumor suppressor effect in neuroblastoma is unknown. Results As a molecular mechanism, we demonstrate that PTPRD interacts with aurora kinase A (AURKA), an oncogenic protein that is over-expressed in multiple forms of cancer, including neuroblastoma. Ectopic up-regulation of PTPRD in neuroblastoma dephosphorylates tyrosine residues in AURKA resulting in a destabilization of this protein culminating in interfering with one of AURKA\\'s primary functions in neuroblastoma, the stabilization of MYCN protein, the gene of which is amplified in approximately 25 to 30% of high risk neuroblastoma. Conclusions PTPRD has a tumor suppressor function in neuroblastoma through AURKA dephosphorylation and destabilization and a downstream destabilization of MYCN protein, representing a novel mechanism for the function of PTPRD in neuroblastoma.

  3. Determination of ortho-tyrosine in irradiated protein containing foods by HPLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mischke, J.; Voehringer, M.; Helle, N.; Boegl K.W.; Schreiber, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    In order to control the processing and trading of irradiated foodstuffs several chemical and physical methods have been developed to identify irradiation induced changes. The three most promising methods are gas chromatorgraphic determination of radiation induced volatiles from the lipid content of foods, thermoluminescence measurements on minerals and e.s.r.-spectroscopic measurements on solids and food contents with a low water amount. There is a lack in detecting the irradiation in foods with a high protein content. It is based on the radiation induced hydroxylation of phenylalanine, forming small amounts of ortho- (and meta-) tyrosine. This method can be useful for foods with a low lipid content such as shrimps and pure egg-white. The results obtained on shrimps and egg-white are promising. All shrimp samples showed a good dose dependence which was similar to results reported by Chuaqui-Offermanns and McDougall obtained on frozen materials (chicken) irradiated at a slightly higher dose rate. There are not enough data about o-tyrosine-contents in different kinds of unirradiated shrimps. Therfore next step will be the analysis of a great number of various samples. With these information and by the use of an internal standard it should be possible to apply the HPLC method for routine analysis. As internal standards α-methyltyrosine or 4-hydroxyphenylglycine could be used. (orig./vhe)

  4. Coordinated Regulation of Insulin Signaling by the Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases PTP1B and TCPTP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galic, Sandra; Hauser, Christine; Kahn, Barbara B.; Haj, Fawaz G.; Neel, Benjamin G.; Tonks, Nicholas K.; Tiganis, Tony

    2005-01-01

    The protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B is a negative regulator of insulin signaling and a therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes. Our previous studies have shown that the closely related tyrosine phosphatase TCPTP might also contribute to the regulation of insulin receptor (IR) signaling in vivo (S. Galic, M. Klingler-Hoffmann, M. T. Fodero-Tavoletti, M. A. Puryer, T. C. Meng, N. K. Tonks, and T. Tiganis, Mol. Cell. Biol. 23:2096-2108, 2003). Here we show that PTP1B and TCPTP function in a coordinated and temporally distinct manner to achieve an overall regulation of IR phosphorylation and signaling. Whereas insulin-induced phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling was prolonged in both TCPTP−/− and PTP1B−/− immortalized mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs), mitogen-activated protein kinase ERK1/2 signaling was elevated only in PTP1B-null MEFs. By using phosphorylation-specific antibodies, we demonstrate that both IR β-subunit Y1162/Y1163 and Y972 phosphorylation are elevated in PTP1B−/− MEFs, whereas Y972 phosphorylation was elevated and Y1162/Y1163 phosphorylation was sustained in TCPTP−/− MEFs, indicating that PTP1B and TCPTP differentially contribute to the regulation of IR phosphorylation and signaling. Consistent with this, suppression of TCPTP protein levels by RNA interference in PTP1B−/− MEFs resulted in no change in ERK1/2 signaling but caused prolonged Akt activation and Y1162/Y1163 phosphorylation. These results demonstrate that PTP1B and TCPTP are not redundant in insulin signaling and that they act to control both common as well as distinct insulin signaling pathways in the same cell. PMID:15632081

  5. Protection against gamma-radiation injury by protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Mojena

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B is widely expressed in mammalian tissues, in particular in immune cells, and plays a pleiotropic role in dephosphorylating many substrates. Moreover, PTP1B expression is enhanced in response to pro-inflammatory stimuli and to different cell stressors. Taking advantage of the use of mice deficient in PTP1B we have investigated the effect of γ-radiation in these animals and found enhanced lethality and decreased respiratory exchange ratio vs. the corresponding wild type animals. Using bone-marrow derived macrophages and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs from wild-type and PTP1B-deficient mice, we observed a differential response to various cell stressors. PTP1B-deficient macrophages exhibited an enhanced response to γ-radiation, UV-light, LPS and S-nitroso-glutathione. Macrophages exposed to γ-radiation show DNA damage and fragmentation, increased ROS production, a lack in GSH elevation and enhanced acidic β-galactosidase activity. Interestingly, these differences were not observed in MEFs. Differential gene expression analysis of WT and KO macrophages revealed that the main pathways affected after irradiation were an up-regulation of protein secretion, TGF-β signaling and angiogenesis among other, and downregulation of Myc targets and Hedgehog signaling. These results demonstrate a key role for PTP1B in the protection against the cytotoxicity of irradiation in intact animal and in macrophages, which might be therapeutically relevant. Keywords: Protein tyrosine phosphatase, Cell viability, Irradiation sensitivity, Lethality, p53

  6. Identification of nuclear protein targets for six leukemogenic tyrosine kinases governed by post-translational regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Pierce

    Full Text Available Mutated tyrosine kinases are associated with a number of different haematological malignancies including myeloproliferative disorders, lymphoma and acute myeloid leukaemia. The potential commonalities in the action of six of these leukemogenic proteins on nuclear proteins were investigated using systematic proteomic analysis. The effects on over 3600 nuclear proteins and 1500 phosphopeptide sites were relatively quantified in seven isogenic cell lines. The effects of the kinases were diverse although some commonalities were found. Comparison of the nuclear proteomic data with transcriptome data and cytoplasmic proteomic data indicated that the major changes are due to post-translational mechanisms rather than changes in mRNA or protein distribution. Analysis of the promoter regions of genes whose protein levels changed in response to the kinases showed the most common binding site found was that for NFκB whilst other sites such as those for the glucocorticoid receptor were also found. Glucocorticoid receptor levels and phosphorylation were decreased by all 6 PTKs. Whilst Glucocorticoid receptor action can potentiate NFκB action those proteins where genes have NFκB binding sites were in often regulated post-translationally. However all 6 PTKs showed evidence of NFkB pathway modulation via activation via altered IkB and NFKB levels. Validation of a common change was also undertaken with PMS2, a DNA mismatch repair protein. PMS2 nuclear levels were decreased in response to the expression of all 6 kinases, with no concomitant change in mRNA level or cytosolic protein level. Response to thioguanine, that requires the mismatch repair pathway, was modulated by all 6 oncogenic kinases. In summary common targets for 6 oncogenic PTKs have been found that are regulated by post-translational mechanisms. They represent potential new avenues for therapies but also demonstrate the post-translational regulation is a key target of leukaemogenic kinases.

  7. Low molecular weight protein tyrosine phosphatases control antibiotic production in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohoni, Sujata Vijay; Lieder, Sarah; Bapat, Prashant Madhusudhan

    2014-01-01

    3700 was established usingpara-nitrophenyl phosphate and the tyrosine-phosphorylated protein PtkA from Bacillus subtilis as substrates. Theoptimum pH for the Sco3700 phosphatase activity was 6.8, and KM for pNPP was 14.3 mM compared to pH 6.0and KM0.75 mM for PtpA. The potential of Sco3700...... of ACT in the ptpA over expression strain. Furthermore, a significantly earlier onset of ACT productionwas observed when ptpA was over expressed. Sco3700 overexpression had a pleiotropic effect on the cell, and thestrain exhibited lower productivities and final concentrations of antibiotics. We conclude...... that Sco3700 is indeed atyrosine phosphatase, and it contributes to regulation of antibiotic production in S. coelicolor affecting the timing ofonset of the antibiotic production...

  8. Caged xanthones displaying protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibition from Cratoxylum cochinchinense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zuo Peng; Lee, Hyeong-Hwan; Uddin, Zia; Song, Yeong Hun; Park, Ki Hun

    2018-08-01

    Four new caged xanthones (1-4) and two known compounds (5, 6) were isolated from the roots of Cratoxylum cochinchinense, a polyphenol rich plant, collected in China. The structures of the isolated compounds (1-6) were characterized by obtaining their detailed spectroscopic data. In particular, compounds 1 and 6 were fully identified by X-ray crystallographic data. The isolated compounds (1-6) were evaluated against protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), which plays an important role in diabetes, obesity, and cancer. Among these compounds, 3, 4, and 6 displayed significant inhibition with IC 50 values of 76.3, 43.2, and 6.6 µM, respectively. A detailed kinetic study was conducted by determining K m , V max , and the ratio of K ik and K iv , which revealed that all the compounds behaved as competitive inhibitors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Abelson tyrosine-protein kinase 2 regulates myoblast proliferation and controls muscle fiber length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jennifer K; Hallock, Peter T; Burden, Steven J

    2017-12-12

    Muscle fiber length is nearly uniform within a muscle but widely different among different muscles. We show that Abelson tyrosine-protein kinase 2 (Abl2) has a key role in regulating myofiber length, as a loss of Abl2 leads to excessively long myofibers in the diaphragm, intercostal and levator auris muscles but not limb muscles. Increased myofiber length is caused by enhanced myoblast proliferation, expanding the pool of myoblasts and leading to increased myoblast fusion. Abl2 acts in myoblasts, but as a consequence of expansion of the diaphragm muscle, the diaphragm central tendon is reduced in size, likely contributing to reduced stamina of Abl2 mutant mice. Ectopic muscle islands, each composed of myofibers of uniform length and orientation, form within the central tendon of Abl2 +/- mice. Specialized tendon cells, resembling tendon cells at myotendinous junctions, form at the ends of these muscle islands, suggesting that myofibers induce differentiation of tendon cells, which reciprocally regulate myofiber length and orientation.

  10. Knockout mice reveal a role for protein tyrosine phosphatase H1 in cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardizzone Michele

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study has investigated the protein tyrosine phosphatase H1 (PTPH1 expression pattern in mouse brain and its impact on CNS functions. Methods We have previously described a PTPH1-KO mouse, generated by replacing the PTP catalytic and the PDZ domain with a LacZ neomycin cassette. PTPH1 expression pattern was evaluated by LacZ staining in the brain and PTPH1-KO and WT mice (n = 10 per gender per genotype were also behaviorally tested for CNS functions. Results In CNS, PTPH1 is expressed during development and in adulthood and mainly localized in hippocampus, thalamus, cortex and cerebellum neurons. The behavioral tests performed on the PTPH1-KO mice showed an impact on working memory in male mice and an impaired learning performance at rotarod in females. Conclusion These results demonstrate for the first time a neuronal expression of PTPH1 and its functionality at the level of cognition.

  11. Insulin receptor substrate proteins create a link between the tyrosine phosphorylation cascade and the Ca2+-ATPases in muscle and heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algenstaedt, P; Antonetti, D A; Yaffe, M B; Kahn, C R

    1997-09-19

    Following phosphorylation by the insulin receptor kinase, the insulin receptor substrates (IRS)-1 and IRS-2 bind to and activate several Src homology 2 (SH2) domain proteins. To identify novel proteins that interact with IRS proteins in muscle, a human skeletal muscle cDNA expression library was created in the lambdaEXlox system and probed with baculovirus-produced and tyrosine-phosphorylated human IRS-1. One clone of the 10 clones which was positive through three rounds of screening represented the C terminus of the human homologue of the adult fast twitch skeletal muscle Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA1) including the cytoplasmic tail and part of transmembrane region 10. Western blot analysis of extracts of rat muscle demonstrated co-immunoprecipitation of both IRS-1 and IRS-2 with the skeletal muscle Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA1) and the cardiac muscle isoform (SERCA2). In both cases, injection of insulin stimulated a 2- to 6-fold increase in association of which was maximal within 5 min. In primary cultures of aortic smooth muscle cells and C2C12 cells, the insulin-stimulated interaction between IRS proteins and SERCA1 and -2 was dose-dependent with a maximum induction at 100 nM insulin. This interaction was confirmed in a "pull down" experiment using a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein containing the C terminus of the human SERCA isoform and phosphorylated IRS-1 in vitro and could be blocked by a FLVRES-like domain peptide present in the human SERCA sequence. Affinity chromatography of phosphopeptide libraries using the glutathione S-transferase fusion protein of the C terminus of SERCA1 indicated a consensus sequence for binding of XpYGSS; this is identical to potential tyrosine phosphorylation sites at position 431 of human IRS-1 and at position 500 of human IRS-2. In streptozotocin diabetic rats the interaction between IRS proteins and SERCA1 in skeletal muscle and SERCA2 in cardiac muscle was significantly reduced. Taken together, these results indicate that the IRS

  12. Macrophage fusion is controlled by the cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP-PEST/PTPN12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Inmoo; Davidson, Dominique; Souza, Cleiton Martins; Vacher, Jean; Veillette, André

    2013-06-01

    Macrophages can undergo cell-cell fusion, leading to the formation of multinucleated giant cells and osteoclasts. This process is believed to promote the proteolytic activity of macrophages toward pathogens, foreign bodies, and extracellular matrices. Here, we examined the role of PTP-PEST (PTPN12), a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase, in macrophage fusion. Using a macrophage-targeted PTP-PEST-deficient mouse, we determined that PTP-PEST was not needed for macrophage differentiation or cytokine production. However, it was necessary for interleukin-4-induced macrophage fusion into multinucleated giant cells in vitro. It was also needed for macrophage fusion following implantation of a foreign body in vivo. Moreover, in the RAW264.7 macrophage cell line, PTP-PEST was required for receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL)-triggered macrophage fusion into osteoclasts. PTP-PEST had no impact on expression of fusion mediators such as β-integrins, E-cadherin, and CD47, which enable macrophages to become fusion competent. However, it was needed for polarization of macrophages, migration induced by the chemokine CC chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), and integrin-induced spreading, three key events in the fusion process. PTP-PEST deficiency resulted in specific hyperphosphorylation of the protein tyrosine kinase Pyk2 and the adaptor paxillin. Moreover, a fusion defect was induced upon treatment of normal macrophages with a Pyk2 inhibitor. Together, these data argue that macrophage fusion is critically dependent on PTP-PEST. This function is seemingly due to the ability of PTP-PEST to control phosphorylation of Pyk2 and paxillin, thereby regulating cell polarization, migration, and spreading.

  13. Carbon-11 tyrosine PET for visualization and protein synthesis rate assessment of laryngeal and hypopharyngeal carcinomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boer, Jurjan R. de; Laan, Bernard F.A.M. van der; Albers, Frans W.J. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Groningen University Hospital, Hanzeplein 1, 9700 RB Groningen (Netherlands); Pruim, Jan; Que, Tjin H.; Willemsen, Antoon T.M.; Vaalburg, Willem [PET Center of Groningen University Hospital, Groningen (Netherlands); Burlage, Fred [Department of Radiotherapy, Groningen University Hospital, Groningen (Netherlands); Krikke, Allard [Department of Radiology, Groningen University Hospital, Groningen (Netherlands); Tiebosch, Anton T.M.G. [Department of Pathology, Groningen University Hospital, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2002-09-01

    Accurate assessment of tumour extent and lymph node involvement in squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck region is essential for therapy planning. Unfortunately, conventional diagnostic examination and imaging techniques, which monitor tumours on the basis of anatomical parameters, have drawbacks in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of L-[1-{sup 11}C]-tyrosine (TYR) positron emission tomography (PET) for visualisation of squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx and hypopharynx and quantification of tumour activity by assessment of protein synthesis rate (PSR). Dynamic TYR PET was performed on 31 patients with T1-T4 laryngeal or hypopharyngeal carcinoma before therapy. Plasma activity of TYR, {sup 11}CO{sub 2} and {sup 11}C-protein levels were measured, and PSRs were calculated for primary malignancies. All 31 laryngeal and hypopharyngeal tumours were visualised as a hotspot (sensitivity 100%). The median PSR of the tumours (2.06 nmol ml{sup -1} min{sup -1}; range 0.72-6.96) was significantly higher (P<0.001) than that of non-tumour (background) tissue (0.51 nmol ml{sup -1} min{sup -1}; range 0.22-0.89). L-[1-{sup 11}C]-Tyrosine PET appears to be a potential method for visualisation of primary laryngeal and hypopharyngeal tumours. In vivo quantification of tumour activity by assessment of PSR is possible and may have a future role in the therapy planning and therapy evaluation of laryngeal and hypopharyngeal tumours. (orig.)

  14. Demonstration of tyrosinase in the vitiligo skin of human beings by a sensitive fluorometric method as well as by 14C(U)-L-tyrosine incorporation into melanin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husain, I.; Vijayan, E.; Ramaiah, A.; Pasricha, J.S.; Madan, N.C.

    1982-01-01

    Tyrosinase activity (Monophenol, dihydroxyphenylalanine: oxygen oxidoreductase EC 1.14.18.1) in vitiligo and normal epidermal homogenates of skin from human beings was measured by estimating beta 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (dopa) by a highly sensitive fluorometric method described in this paper. The tyrosine activity in the vitiligo skin was about 4 to 37% of corresponding normal skin. The activity of tyrosinase in normal human skin from different individuals and from different regions of the body was in the range of 4 to 140 picomoles of beta 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine formed per min/mg protein of epidermal homogenate. The enzyme from vitiligo and normal skin was severely inhibited by substance(s) of low molecular weight. The enzyme exhibits a lag of about 4 hr in the absence of added beta 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine and 1 hr in presence of 5 microM dopa. Tyrosinase from the normal and vitiligo skin was inhibited by excess concentration of tyrosine. The homogenates from vitiligo skin could synthesize melanin from C14(U)-L-Tyrosine. The rate of tyrosine incorporation into melanin by the epidermal homogenates is increased by 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (dopa) disproportionate to its effect on tyrosinase activity. Based on the data presented in this paper it is concluded that melanocytes are present in the vitiligo skin. A tentative hypothesis is put forward to explain the lack of melanin synthesis by the vitiligo skin under in vivo conditions, although melanocytes are present

  15. Dynamic substrate enhancement for the identification of specific, second-site-binding fragments targeting a set of protein tyrosine phosphatases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, Marco F; Groves, Matthew R; Rademann, Jörg

    2011-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) are key regulators in living systems and thus are attractive drug targets. The development of potent, selective PTP inhibitors has been a difficult challenge mainly due to the high homology of the phosphotyrosine substrate pockets. Here, a strategy of dynamic

  16. UV-Vis spectroscopy of tyrosine side-groups in studies of protein structure. Part 2: selected applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antosiewicz, Jan M; Shugar, David

    2016-06-01

    In Part 2 we discuss application of several different types of UV-Vis spectroscopy, such as normal, difference, and second-derivative UV absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, linear and circular dichroism spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy, of the side-chain of tyrosine residues in different molecular environments. We review the ways these spectroscopies can be used to probe complex protein structures.

  17. The myeloperoxidase-derived oxidant hypothiocyanous acid inhibits protein tyrosine phosphatases via oxidation of key cysteine residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cook, Naomi L.; Moeke, Cassidy H.; Fantoni, Luca I.

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorylation of protein tyrosine residues is critical to cellular processes, and is regulated by kinases and phosphatases (PTPs). PTPs contain a redox-sensitive active site Cys residue, which is readily oxidized. Myeloperoxidase, released from activated leukocytes, catalyzes thiocyanate ion (SCN...

  18. Cloning and characterization of rat density-enhanced phosphatase-1, a protein tyrosine phosphatase expressed by vascular cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, L G; Seifert, R A; Grant, F J; Hart, C E; Disteche, C M; Edelhoff, S; Solca, F F; Lieberman, M A; Lindner, V; Fischer, E H; Lok, S; Bowen-Pope, D F

    1996-09-01

    We have cloned from cultured vascular smooth muscle cells a protein tyrosine phosphatase, rat density-enhanced phosphatase-1 (rDEP-1), which is a probable rat homologue of DEP-1/HPTP eta. rDEP-1 is encoded by an 8.7-kb transcript and is expressed as a 180- to 220-kD protein. The rDEP-1 gene is located on human chromosome 11 (region p11.2) and on mouse chromosome 2 (region 2E). The cDNA sequence predicts a transmembrane protein consisting of a single phosphatase catalytic domain in the intracellular region, a single transmembrane domain, and eight fibronectin type III repeats in the extracellular region (GenBank accession number U40790). In situ hybridization analysis demonstrates that rDEP-1 is widely expressed in vivo but that expression is highest in cells that form epithelioid monolayers. In cultured cells with epitheliod morphology, including endothelial cells and newborn smooth muscle cells, but not in fibroblast-like cells, rDEP-1 transcript levels are dramatically upregulated as population density increases. In vivo, quiescent endothelial cells in normal arteries express relatively high levels of rDEP-1. During repair of vascular injury, expression of rDEP-1 is downregulated in migrating and proliferating endothelial cells. In vivo, rDEP-1 transcript levels are present in very high levels in megakaryocytes, and circulating plates have high levels of the rDEP-1 protein. In vitro, initiation of differentiation of the human megakaryoblastic cell line CHRF-288-11 with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate leads to a very strong upregulation of rDEP-1 transcripts. The deduced structure and the regulation of expression of rDEP-1 suggest that it may play a role in adhesion and/or signaling events involving cell-cell and cell-matrix contact.

  19. Identification of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B and casein as substrates for 124-v-Mos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stabel Silvia

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mos proto-oncogene encodes a cytoplasmic serine/threonine-specific protein kinase with crucial function during meiotic cell division in vertebrates. Based on oncogenic amino acid substitutions the viral derivative, 124-v-Mos, displays constitutive protein kinase activity and functions independent of unknown upstream effectors of mos protein kinase. We have utilized this property of 124-v-Mos and screened for novel mos substrates in immunocomplex kinase assays in vitro. Results We generated recombinant 124-v-Mos using the baculovirus expression system in Spodoptera frugiperda cells and demonstrated constitutive kinase activity by the ability of 124-v-Mos to auto-phosphorylate and to phosphorylate vimentin, a known substrate of c-Mos. Using this approach we analyzed a panel of acidic and basic substrates in immunocomplex protein kinase assays and identified novel in vitro substrates for 124-v-Mos, the protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B, alpha-casein and beta-casein. We controlled mos-specific phosphorylation of PTP1B and casein in comparative assays using a synthetic kinase-inactive 124-v-Mos mutant and further, tryptic digests of mos-phosphorylated beta-casein identified a phosphopeptide specifically targeted by wild-type 124-v-Mos. Two-dimensional phosphoamino acid analyses showed that 124-v-mos targets serine and threonine residues for phosphorylation in casein at a 1:1 ratio but auto-phosphorylation occurs predominantly on serine residues. Conclusion The mos substrates identified in this study represent a basis to approach the identification of the mos-consensus phosphorylation motif, important for the development of specific inhibitors of the Mos protein kinase.

  20. A bipolar clamp mechanism for activation of Jak-family protein tyrosine kinases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipak Barua

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Most cell surface receptors for growth factors and cytokines dimerize in order to mediate signal transduction. For many such receptors, the Janus kinase (Jak family of non-receptor protein tyrosine kinases are recruited in pairs and juxtaposed by dimerized receptor complexes in order to activate one another by trans-phosphorylation. An alternative mechanism for Jak trans-phosphorylation has been proposed in which the phosphorylated kinase interacts with the Src homology 2 (SH2 domain of SH2-B, a unique adaptor protein with the capacity to homo-dimerize. Building on a rule-based kinetic modeling approach that considers the concerted nature and combinatorial complexity of modular protein domain interactions, we examine these mechanisms in detail, focusing on the growth hormone (GH receptor/Jak2/SH2-Bbeta system. The modeling results suggest that, whereas Jak2-(SH2-Bbeta(2-Jak2 heterotetramers are scarcely expected to affect Jak2 phosphorylation, SH2-Bbeta and dimerized receptors synergistically promote Jak2 trans-activation in the context of intracellular signaling. Analysis of the results revealed a unique mechanism whereby SH2-B and receptor dimers constitute a bipolar 'clamp' that stabilizes the active configuration of two Jak2 molecules in the same macro-complex.

  1. Are tyrosine residues involved in the photoconversion of the water-soluble chlorophyll-binding protein of Chenopodium album?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, S; Seki, Y; Uchida, A; Nakayama, K; Satoh, H

    2015-05-01

    Non-photosynthetic and hydrophilic chlorophyll (Chl) proteins, called water-soluble Chl-binding proteins (WSCPs), are distributed in various species of Chenopodiaceae, Amaranthaceae, Polygonaceae and Brassicaceae. Based on their photoconvertibility, WSCPs are categorised into two classes: Class I (photoconvertible) and Class II (non-photoconvertible). Chenopodium album WSCP (CaWSCP; Class I) is able to convert the chlorin skeleton of Chl a into a bacteriochlorin-like skeleton under light in the presence of molecular oxygen. Potassium iodide (KI) is a strong inhibitor of the photoconversion. Because KI attacks tyrosine residues in proteins, tyrosine residues in CaWSCP are considered to be important amino acid residues for the photoconversion. Recently, we identified the gene encoding CaWSCP and found that the mature region of CaWSCP contained four tyrosine residues: Tyr13, Tyr14, Tyr87 and Tyr134. To gain insight into the effect of the tyrosine residues on the photoconversion, we constructed 15 mutant proteins (Y13A, Y14A, Y87A, Y134A, Y13-14A, Y13-87A, Y13-134A, Y14-87A, Y14-134A, Y87-134A, Y13-14-87A, Y13-14-134A, Y13-87-134A, Y14-87-134A and Y13-14-87-134A) using site-directed mutagenesis. Amazingly, all the mutant proteins retained not only chlorophyll-binding activity, but also photoconvertibility. Furthermore, we found that KI strongly inhibited the photoconversion of Y13-14-87-134A. These findings indicated that the four tyrosine residues are not essential for the photoconversion. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  2. Receptor-type Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase β Regulates Met Phosphorylation and Function in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiru Xu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC is the sixth most common cancer and has a high rate of mortality. Emerging evidence indicates that hepatocyte growth factor receptor (or Met pathway plays a pivotal role in HNSCC metastasis and resistance to chemotherapy. Met function is dependent on tyrosine phosphorylation that is under direct control by receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase β (RPTP-β. We report here that RPTP-β expression is significantly downregulated in HNSCC cells derived from metastatic tumors compared to subject-matched cells from primary tumors. Knockdown of endogenous RPTP-β in HNSCC cells from primary tumor potentiated Met tyrosine phosphorylation, downstream mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinase pathway activation, cell migration, and invasion. Conversely, restoration of RPTP-β expression in cells from matched metastatic tumor decreased Met tyrosine phosphorylation and downstream functions. Furthermore, we observed that six of eight HNSCC tumors had reduced levels of RPTP-β protein in comparison with normal oral tissues. Collectively, the results demonstrate the importance of RPTP-β in tumor biology of HNSCC through direct dephosphorylation of Met and regulation of downstream signal transduction pathways. Reduced RPTP-β levels, with or without Met overexpression, could promote Met activation in HNSCC tumors.

  3. Application of SAIL phenylalanine and tyrosine with alternative isotope-labeling patterns for protein structure determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Mitsuhiro [Nagoya University, Structural Biology Research Center, Graduate School of Science (Japan); Ono, Akira M.; Terauchi, Tsutomu [SAIL Technologies Co., Inc. (Japan); Kainosho, Masatsune, E-mail: kainosho@nmr.chem.metro-u.ac.j [Nagoya University, Structural Biology Research Center, Graduate School of Science (Japan)

    2010-01-15

    The extensive collection of NOE constraint data involving the aromatic ring signals is essential for accurate protein structure determination, although it is often hampered in practice by the pervasive signal overlapping and tight spin couplings for aromatic rings. We have prepared various types of stereo-array isotope labeled phenylalanines ({epsilon}- and {zeta}-SAIL Phe) and tyrosine ({epsilon}-SAIL Tyr) to overcome these problems (Torizawa et al. 2005), and proven that these SAIL amino acids provide dramatic spectral simplification and sensitivity enhancement for the aromatic ring NMR signals. In addition to these SAIL aromatic amino acids, we recently synthesized {delta}-SAIL Phe and {delta}-SAIL Tyr, which allow us to observe and assign {delta}-{sup 13}C/{sup 1}H signals very efficiently. Each of the various types of SAIL Phe and SAIL Tyr yields well-resolved resonances for the {delta}-, {epsilon}- or {zeta}-{sup 13}C/{sup 1}H signals, respectively, which can readily be assigned by simple and robust pulse sequences. Since the {delta}-, {epsilon}-, and {zeta}-proton signals of Phe/Tyr residues give rise to complementary NOE constraints, the concomitant use of various types of SAIL-Phe and SAIL-Tyr would generate more accurate protein structures, as compared to those obtained by using conventional uniformly {sup 13}C, {sup 15}N-double labeled proteins. We illustrated this with the case of an 18.2 kDa protein, Escherichia coli peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase b (EPPIb), and concluded that the combined use of {zeta}-SAIL Phe and {epsilon}-SAIL Tyr would be practically the best choice for protein structural determinations.

  4. Application of SAIL phenylalanine and tyrosine with alternative isotope-labeling patterns for protein structure determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Mitsuhiro; Ono, Akira M; Terauchi, Tsutomu; Kainosho, Masatsune

    2010-01-01

    The extensive collection of NOE constraint data involving the aromatic ring signals is essential for accurate protein structure determination, although it is often hampered in practice by the pervasive signal overlapping and tight spin couplings for aromatic rings. We have prepared various types of stereo-array isotope labeled phenylalanines (epsilon- and zeta-SAIL Phe) and tyrosine (epsilon-SAIL Tyr) to overcome these problems (Torizawa et al. 2005), and proven that these SAIL amino acids provide dramatic spectral simplification and sensitivity enhancement for the aromatic ring NMR signals. In addition to these SAIL aromatic amino acids, we recently synthesized delta-SAIL Phe and delta-SAIL Tyr, which allow us to observe and assign delta-(13)C/(1)H signals very efficiently. Each of the various types of SAIL Phe and SAIL Tyr yields well-resolved resonances for the delta-, epsilon- or zeta-(13)C/(1)H signals, respectively, which can readily be assigned by simple and robust pulse sequences. Since the delta-, epsilon-, and zeta-proton signals of Phe/Tyr residues give rise to complementary NOE constraints, the concomitant use of various types of SAIL-Phe and SAIL-Tyr would generate more accurate protein structures, as compared to those obtained by using conventional uniformly (13)C, (15)N-double labeled proteins. We illustrated this with the case of an 18.2 kDa protein, Escherichia coli peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase b (EPPIb), and concluded that the combined use of zeta-SAIL Phe and epsilon-SAIL Tyr would be practically the best choice for protein structural determinations.

  5. Application of SAIL phenylalanine and tyrosine with alternative isotope-labeling patterns for protein structure determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Mitsuhiro; Ono, Akira M.; Terauchi, Tsutomu; Kainosho, Masatsune

    2010-01-01

    The extensive collection of NOE constraint data involving the aromatic ring signals is essential for accurate protein structure determination, although it is often hampered in practice by the pervasive signal overlapping and tight spin couplings for aromatic rings. We have prepared various types of stereo-array isotope labeled phenylalanines (ε- and ζ-SAIL Phe) and tyrosine (ε-SAIL Tyr) to overcome these problems (Torizawa et al. 2005), and proven that these SAIL amino acids provide dramatic spectral simplification and sensitivity enhancement for the aromatic ring NMR signals. In addition to these SAIL aromatic amino acids, we recently synthesized δ-SAIL Phe and δ-SAIL Tyr, which allow us to observe and assign δ- 13 C/ 1 H signals very efficiently. Each of the various types of SAIL Phe and SAIL Tyr yields well-resolved resonances for the δ-, ε- or ζ- 13 C/ 1 H signals, respectively, which can readily be assigned by simple and robust pulse sequences. Since the δ-, ε-, and ζ-proton signals of Phe/Tyr residues give rise to complementary NOE constraints, the concomitant use of various types of SAIL-Phe and SAIL-Tyr would generate more accurate protein structures, as compared to those obtained by using conventional uniformly 13 C, 15 N-double labeled proteins. We illustrated this with the case of an 18.2 kDa protein, Escherichia coli peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase b (EPPIb), and concluded that the combined use of ζ-SAIL Phe and ε-SAIL Tyr would be practically the best choice for protein structural determinations.

  6. Human albumin prevents 6-hydroxydopamine-induced loss of tyrosine hydroxylase in in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Juan Zhang

    Full Text Available Human albumin has recently been demonstrated to protect brain neurons from injury in rat ischemic brain. However, there is no information available about whether human albumin can prevent loss of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH expression of dopaminergic (DA neurons induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA toxicity that is most commonly used to create a rat model of Parkinson's disease (PD. In the present study, two microliters of 1.25% human albumin were stereotaxically injected into the right striatum of rats one day before or 7 days after the 6-OHDA lesion in the same side. D-Amphetamine-induced rotational asymmetry was measured 7 days, 3 and 10 weeks after 6-OHDA lesion. We observed that intrastriatal administration of human albumin significantly reduced the degree of rotational asymmetry. The number of TH-immunoreactive neurons present in the substantia nigra was greater in 6-OHDA lesioned rats following human albumin-treatment than non-human albumin treatment. TH-immunoreactivity in the 6-OHDA-lesioned striatum was also significantly increased in the human albumin-treated rats. To examine the mechanisms underlying the effects of human albumin, we challenged PC12 cells with 6-OHDA as an in vitro model of PD. Incubation with human albumin prevented 6-OHDA-induced reduction of cell viability in PC12 cell cultures, as measured by MTT assay. Furthermore, human albumin reduced 6-OHDA-induced formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and apoptosis in cultured PC12 cells, as assessed by flow cytometry. Western blot analysis showed that human albumin inhibited 6-OHDA-induced activation of JNK, c-Jun, ERK, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK signaling in PC12 cultures challenged with 6-OHDA. Human albumin may protect against 6-OHDA toxicity by influencing MAPK pathway followed by anti-ROS formation and anti-apoptosis.

  7. Human Albumin Prevents 6-Hydroxydopamine-Induced Loss of Tyrosine Hydroxylase in In Vitro and In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Juan; Xue, Yue-Qiang; Yang, Chun; Yang, Wei-Hua; Chen, Long; Zhang, Qian-Jin; Qu, Ting-Yu; Huang, Shile; Zhao, Li-Ru; Wang, Xiao-Min; Duan, Wei-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Human albumin has recently been demonstrated to protect brain neurons from injury in rat ischemic brain. However, there is no information available about whether human albumin can prevent loss of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression of dopaminergic (DA) neurons induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) toxicity that is most commonly used to create a rat model of Parkinson's disease (PD). In the present study, two microliters of 1.25% human albumin were stereotaxically injected into the right striatum of rats one day before or 7 days after the 6-OHDA lesion in the same side. D-Amphetamine-induced rotational asymmetry was measured 7 days, 3 and 10 weeks after 6-OHDA lesion. We observed that intrastriatal administration of human albumin significantly reduced the degree of rotational asymmetry. The number of TH-immunoreactive neurons present in the substantia nigra was greater in 6-OHDA lesioned rats following human albumin-treatment than non-human albumin treatment. TH-immunoreactivity in the 6-OHDA-lesioned striatum was also significantly increased in the human albumin-treated rats. To examine the mechanisms underlying the effects of human albumin, we challenged PC12 cells with 6-OHDA as an in vitro model of PD. Incubation with human albumin prevented 6-OHDA-induced reduction of cell viability in PC12 cell cultures, as measured by MTT assay. Furthermore, human albumin reduced 6-OHDA-induced formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis in cultured PC12 cells, as assessed by flow cytometry. Western blot analysis showed that human albumin inhibited 6-OHDA-induced activation of JNK, c-Jun, ERK, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling in PC12 cultures challenged with 6-OHDA. Human albumin may protect against 6-OHDA toxicity by influencing MAPK pathway followed by anti-ROS formation and anti-apoptosis. PMID:22815976

  8. PTPN13, a Fas-associated protein tyrosine phosphatase, is located on the long arm of chromosome 4 at band q21.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inazawa, Johji; Ariyama, Takeshi; Abe, Tatsuo [Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan)] [and others

    1996-01-15

    PTPN13 is a protein tyrosine phosphatase that associates with the C-terminal negative regulatory domain in the Fas (APO-1/CD95) receptor. The PTPN13 protein contains six GLGF repeats that have been found in the rat postsynaptic density protein (PSD-95) and the Drosophila tumor suppressor protein, lethal-(1)-disclarge-1 (dlg-1). The localization of the PTPN13 gene to human chromosome 4q21.3 was determined by both FISH and PCR analysis of somatic cell hybrids. This 4q21.3 chromosomal region contains a gene for autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease as well as the region frequently deleted in liver and ovarian cancers, suggesting that PTPN13 is a candidate for one of the putative tumor suppressor genes on the long arm of chromosome 4. 21 refs., 1 fig.

  9. Voltage sensitive phosphatases: emerging kinship to protein tyrosine phosphatases from structure-function research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirstin eHobiger

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The transmembrane protein Ci-VSP from the ascidian Ciona intestinalis was described as first member of a fascinating family of enzymes, the voltage sensitive phosphatases (VSPs. Ci-VSP and its voltage-activated homologs from other species are stimulated by positive membrane potentials and dephosphorylate the head groups of negatively charged phosphoinositide phosphates (PIPs. In doing so, VSPs act as control centers at the cytosolic membrane surface, because they intervene in signaling cascades that are mediated by PIP lipids. The characteristic motif CX5RT/S in the active site classifies VSPs as members of the huge family of cysteine-based protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs. Although PTPs have already been well characterized regarding both, structure and function, their relationship to VSPs has drawn only limited attention so far. Therefore, the intention of this review is to give a short overview about the extensive knowledge about PTPs in relation to the facts known about VSPs. Here, we concentrate on the structural features of the catalytic domain which are similar between both classes of phosphatases and their consequences for the enzymatic function. By discussing results obtained from crystal structures, molecular dynamics simulations, and mutagenesis studies, a possible mechanism for the catalytic cycle of VSPs is presented based on that one proposed for PTPs. In this way, we want to link the knowledge about the catalytic activity of VSPs and PTPs.

  10. Lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase (Lck) interacts with CR6-interacting factor 1 (CRIF1) in mitochondria to repress oxidative phosphorylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vahedi, Shahrooz; Chueh, Fu-Yu; Chandran, Bala; Yu, Chao-Lan

    2015-01-01

    Many cancer cells exhibit reduced mitochondrial respiration as part of metabolic reprogramming to support tumor growth. Mitochondrial localization of several protein tyrosine kinases is linked to this characteristic metabolic shift in solid tumors, but remains largely unknown in blood cancer. Lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase (Lck) is a key T-cell kinase and widely implicated in blood malignancies. The purpose of our study is to determine whether and how Lck contributes to metabolic shift in T-cell leukemia through mitochondrial localization. We compared the human leukemic T-cell line Jurkat with its Lck-deficient derivative Jcam cell line. Differences in mitochondrial respiration were measured by the levels of mitochondrial membrane potential, oxygen consumption, and mitochondrial superoxide. Detailed mitochondrial structure was visualized by transmission electron microscopy. Lck localization was evaluated by subcellular fractionation and confocal microscopy. Proteomic analysis was performed to identify proteins co-precipitated with Lck in leukemic T-cells. Protein interaction was validated by biochemical co-precipitation and confocal microscopy, followed by in situ proximity ligation assay microscopy to confirm close-range (<16 nm) interaction. Jurkat cells have abnormal mitochondrial structure and reduced levels of mitochondrial respiration, which is associated with the presence of mitochondrial Lck and lower levels of mitochondrion-encoded electron transport chain proteins. Proteomics identified CR6-interacting factor 1 (CRIF1) as the novel Lck-interacting protein. Lck association with CRIF1 in Jurkat mitochondria was confirmed biochemically and by microscopy, but did not lead to CRIF1 tyrosine phosphorylation. Consistent with the role of CRIF1 in functional mitoribosome, shRNA-mediated silencing of CRIF1 in Jcam resulted in mitochondrial dysfunction similar to that observed in Jurkat. Reduced interaction between CRIF1 and Tid1, another key component

  11. Tyrosine kinase signalling in breast cancer: Modulation of tyrosine kinase signalling in human breast cancer through altered expression of signalling intermediates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kairouz, Rania; Daly, Roger J

    2000-01-01

    The past decade has seen the definition of key signalling pathways downstream of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) in terms of their components and the protein-protein interactions that facilitate signal transduction. Given the strong evidence that links signalling by certain families of RTKs to the progression of breast cancer, it is not surprising that the expression profile of key downstream signalling intermediates in this disease has also come under scrutiny, particularly because some exhibit transforming potential or amplify mitogenic signalling pathways when they are overexpressed. Reflecting the diverse cellular processes regulated by RTKs, it is now clear that altered expression of such signalling proteins in breast cancer may influence not only cellular proliferation (eg Grb2) but also the invasive properties of the cancer cells (eg EMS1/cortactin)

  12. Physical and functional interactions between SH2 and SH3 domains of the Src family protein tyrosine kinase p59fyn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panchamoorthy, G.; Fukazawa, T.; Stolz, L.; Payne, G.; Reedquist, K.; Shoelson, S.; Songyang, Z.; Cantley, L.; Walsh, C.; Band, H.

    1994-01-01

    The Src family protein tyrosine kinases participate in signalling through cell surface receptors that lack intrinsic tyrosine kinase domains. All nine members of this family possess adjacent Src homology (SH2 and SH3) domains, both of which are essential for repression of the enzymatic activity. The

  13. Dual Inhibition of Topoisomerase II and Tyrosine Kinases by the Novel Bis-Fluoroquinolone Chalcone-Like Derivative HMNE3 in Human Pancreatic Cancer Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Chao Ma

    Full Text Available Both tyrosine kinase and topoisomerase II (TopII are important anticancer targets, and their respective inhibitors are widely used in cancer therapy. However, some combinations of anticancer drugs could exhibit mutually antagonistic actions and drug resistance, which further limit their therapeutic efficacy. Here, we report that HMNE3, a novel bis-fluoroquinolone chalcone-like derivative that targets both tyrosine kinase and TopII, induces tumor cell proliferation and growth inhibition. The viabilities of 6 different cancer cell lines treated with a range of HMNE3 doses were detected using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. Cellular apoptosis was determined using Hoechst 33258 fluorescence staining and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL assay. The expression of activated Caspase-3 was examined by immunocytochemistry. The tyrosine kinase activity was measured with a human receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK detection kit using a horseradish peroxidase (HRP-conjugated phosphotyrosine (pY20 antibody as the substrate. The topoisomerase II activity was measured using agarose gel electrophoresis with the DNA plasmid pBR322 as the substrate. The expression levels of the P53, Bax, Bcl-2, Caspase-3, -8, -9, p-cSrc, c-Src and topoisomerase II proteins were detected by western blot analysis. The proliferation of five of the six cancer cell lines was significantly inhibited by HMNE3 at 0.312 to 10 μmol/L in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Treatment of the Capan-1 and Panc-1 cells with 1.6 to 3.2 μM HMNE3 for 48 h significantly increased the percentage of apoptotic cells (P<0.05, and this effect was accompanied by a decrease in tyrosine kinase activity. HMNE3 potentially inhibited tyrosine kinase activity in vitro with an IC50 value of 0.64±0.34 μmol/L in Capan-1 cells and 3.1±0.86 μmol/L in Panc-1 cells. The activity of c-Src was significantly inhibited by HMNE3 in a dose

  14. Deficient tyrosine phosphorylation of c-Cbl and associated proteins in phorbol ester-resistant EL4 mouse thymoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, X; Sando, J J

    1997-05-02

    Two tyrosine phosphoproteins in phorbol ester-sensitive EL4 (S-EL4) mouse thymoma cells have been identified as the p120 c-Cbl protooncogene product and the p85 subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Tyrosine phosphorylation of p120 and p85 increased rapidly after phorbol ester stimulation. Phorbol ester-resistant EL4 (R-EL4) cells expressed comparable amounts of c-Cbl and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase protein but greatly diminished tyrosine phosphorylation. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments revealed complexes of c-Cbl with p85, and of p85 with the tyrosine kinase Lck in phorbol ester-stimulated S-EL4 but not in unstimulated S-EL4 or in R-EL4 cells. In vitro binding of c-Cbl with Lck SH2 or SH3 domains was detected in both S-EL4 and R-EL4 cells, suggesting that c-Cbl, p85, and Lck may form a ternary complex. In vitro kinase assays revealed phosphorylation of p85 by Lck only in phorbol ester-stimulated S-EL4 cells. Collectively, these results suggest that Cbl-p85 and Lck-p85 complexes may form in unstimulated S-EL4 and R-EL4 cells but were not detected due to absence of tyrosine phosphorylation of p85. Greatly decreased tyrosine phosphorylation of c-Cbl and p85 in the complexes may contribute to the failure of R-EL4 cells to respond to phorbol ester.

  15. Radical transfer between proteins: role of tyrosine, tryptophan and protein peroxyl radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irwin, J.A.; Ostdal, H.; Davies, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    Reaction of the Fe(III) forms of the heme proteins myoglobin (Mb) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) with H 2 O 2 gives rise to high-oxidation-state heme-derived species which can be described as a Fe(IV)-oxo porphyrin radical-cation ('Compound 1'). In the case of Mb, the Fe(IV)-oxo porphyrin radical-cation undergoes rapid electron transfer with the surrounding protein to give protein (globin)-derived radicals and an Fe(lV)-oxo species ('Compound 2'). The globin-derived radicals have been shown to be located at two (or more) sites: Tyr-103 or Trp-14, with the latter radical known to react with oxygen to give a Trp-derived peroxyl radical (Mb-Trp-OO*). With HRP, the Fe(lV)-oxo porphyrin radical-cation carries out two successive one-electron oxidation reactions at the exposed heme edge to give firstly 'Compound 2' [the Fe(lV)oxo species] and then the resting Fe(III) state of the enzyme. n this study we have investigated whether the Trp-14 peroxyl radical from Mb and the Compound 1 and 2 species from HRP (in the absence and presence of free Tyr) can oxidise amino acids, peptides and proteins. Such reactions constitute intermolecular protein-to-protein radical transfer reactions and hence protein chain-oxidation. We have also examined whether these oxidants react with antioxidants. Reaction of these heme-protein derived oxidants with amino acids, proteins and antioxidants has been carried out at room temperature for defined periods of time before freeze-quenching to 77K to halt reaction. The radical species present in the reaction system at the time of freezing were subsequently examined by EPR spectroscopy at 77K. Three free amino acids, Tyr, Trp and Cys (with Cys the least efficient) have been shown to react rapidly with Mb-Trp-OO*, as evidenced by the loss of the characteristic EPR features of Mb-Trp-OO* on inclusion of increasing concentrations of the amino acids. All other amino acids are much less reactive. Evidence has also been obtained for (inefficient) hydrogen

  16. Fps/Fes and Fer non-receptor protein-tyrosine kinases regulate collagen- and ADP-induced platelet aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senis, Y A; Sangrar, W; Zirngibl, R A; Craig, A W B; Lee, D H; Greer, P A

    2003-05-01

    Fps/Fes and Fer proto-oncoproteins are structurally related non-receptor protein-tyrosine kinases implicated in signaling downstream from cytokines, growth factors and immune receptors. We show that Fps/Fes and Fer are expressed in human and mouse platelets, and are activated following stimulation with collagen and collagen-related peptide (CRP), suggesting a role in GPVI receptor signaling. Fer was also activated following stimulation with thrombin and a protease-activated receptor4 (PAR4)-activating peptide, suggesting a role in signaling downstream from the G protein-coupled PAR4. There were no detectable perturbations in CRP-induced activation of Syk, PLCgamma2, cortactin, Erk, Jnk, Akt or p38 in platelets from mice lacking Fps/Fes, Fer, or both kinases. Platelets lacking Fps/Fes, from a targeted fps/fes null strain of mice, showed increased rates and amplitudes of collagen-induced aggregation, relative to wild-type platelets. P-Selectin expression was also elevated on the surface of Fps/Fes-null platelets in response to CRP. Fer-deficient platelets, from mice targeted with a kinase-inactivating mutation, disaggregated more rapidly than wild-type platelets in response to ADP. This report provides the first evidence that Fps/Fes and Fer are expressed in platelets and become activated downstream from the GPVI collagen receptor, and that Fer is activated downstream from a G-protein coupled receptor. Furthermore, using targeted mouse models we show that deficiency in Fps/Fes or Fer resulted in disregulated platelet aggregation and disaggregation, demonstrating a role for these kinases in regulating platelet functions.

  17. PAH- and PCB-induced Alterations of Protein Tyrosine Kinase and Cytokine Gene Transcription in Harbor Seal (Phoca Vitulina PBMC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer C. C. Neale

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms underlying in vitro immunomodulatory effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs were investigated in harbor seal peripheral leukocytes, via real-time PCR. We examined the relative genetic expression of the protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs Fyn and Itk, which play a critical role in T cell activation, and IL-2, a cytokine of central importance in initiating adaptive immune responses. IL-1, the macrophage-derived pro-inflammatory cytokine of innate immunity, was also included as a measure of macrophage function. Harbor seal PBMC were exposed to the prototypic immunotoxic PAH benzo[a]pyrene (BaP, 3,3',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-169, a model immunotoxic PCB, or DMSO (vehicle control. Exposure of Con A-stimulated harbor seal PBMC to both BaP and CB-169 produced significantly altered expression in all four targets relative to vehicle controls. The PTKs Fyn and Itk were both up-regulated following exposure to BaP and CB-169. In contrast, transcripts for IL-2 and IL-1 were decreased relative to controls by both treatments. Our findings are consistent with those of previous researchers working with human and rodent systems and support a hypothesis of contaminant-altered lymphocyte function mediated (at least in part by disruption of T cell receptor (TCR signaling and cytokine production.

  18. Residue 182 influences the second step of protein-tyrosine phosphatase-mediated catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A.K.; Guo, X.; Møller, K.B.

    2004-01-01

    Previous enzyme kinetic and structural studies have revealed a critical role for Asp(181) (PTP1B numbering) in PTP (protein-tyrosine phosphatase)-mediated catalysis. In the E-P (phosphoenzyme) formation step, Asp(181) functions as a general acid, while in the E-P hydrolysis step it acts...... as a general base. Most of our understanding of the role of Asp(181). is derived from studies with the Yersinia PTP and the mammalian PTP1B, and to some extent also TC (T-cell)-PTP and, the related PTPalpha and PTPepsilon. The neighbouring residue 182 is a phenylalanine in these four mammalian enzymes...... and a glutamine in Yersinia PTP. Surprisingly, little attention has been paid to the fact that this residue is a histidine in most other mammalian PTPs. Using a reciprocal single-point mutational approach with introduction of His(182) in PTP1B and Phe(182) in PTPH1, we demonstrate here that His(182)-PTPs...

  19. Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B (PTP1B): A Potential Target for Alzheimer's Therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Marcelo N N; Lyra E Silva, Natalia M; Ferreira, Sergio T; De Felice, Fernanda G

    2017-01-01

    Despite significant advances in current understanding of mechanisms of pathogenesis in Alzheimer's disease (AD), attempts at drug development based on those discoveries have failed to translate into effective, disease-modifying therapies. AD is a complex and multifactorial disease comprising a range of aberrant cellular/molecular processes taking part in different cell types and brain regions. As a consequence, therapeutics for AD should be able to block or compensate multiple abnormal pathological events. Here, we examine recent evidence that inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) may represent a promising strategy to combat a variety of AD-related detrimental processes. Besides its well described role as a negative regulator of insulin and leptin signaling, PTB1B recently emerged as a modulator of various other processes in the central nervous system (CNS) that are also implicated in AD. These include signaling pathways germane to learning and memory, regulation of synapse dynamics, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and microglia-mediated neuroinflammation. We propose that PTP1B inhibition may represent an attractive and yet unexplored therapeutic approach to correct aberrant signaling pathways linked to AD.

  20. Abelson tyrosine-protein kinase 2 regulates myoblast proliferation and controls muscle fiber length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jennifer K; Hallock, Peter T

    2017-01-01

    Muscle fiber length is nearly uniform within a muscle but widely different among different muscles. We show that Abelson tyrosine-protein kinase 2 (Abl2) has a key role in regulating myofiber length, as a loss of Abl2 leads to excessively long myofibers in the diaphragm, intercostal and levator auris muscles but not limb muscles. Increased myofiber length is caused by enhanced myoblast proliferation, expanding the pool of myoblasts and leading to increased myoblast fusion. Abl2 acts in myoblasts, but as a consequence of expansion of the diaphragm muscle, the diaphragm central tendon is reduced in size, likely contributing to reduced stamina of Abl2 mutant mice. Ectopic muscle islands, each composed of myofibers of uniform length and orientation, form within the central tendon of Abl2+/− mice. Specialized tendon cells, resembling tendon cells at myotendinous junctions, form at the ends of these muscle islands, suggesting that myofibers induce differentiation of tendon cells, which reciprocally regulate myofiber length and orientation. PMID:29231808

  1. Transient expression of protein tyrosine phosphatases encoded in Cotesia plutellae bracovirus inhibits insect cellular immune responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed M. A.; Kim, Yonggyun

    2008-01-01

    Several immunosuppressive factors are associated with parasitism of an endoparasitoid wasp, Cotesia plutellae, on the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. C. plutellae bracovirus (CpBV) encodes a large number of putative protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs), which may play a role in inhibiting host cellular immunity. To address this inhibitory hypothesis of CpBV-PTPs, we performed transient expression of individual CpBV-PTPs in hemocytes of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, and analyzed their cellular immune responses. Two different forms of CpBV-PTPs were chosen and cloned into a eukaryotic expression vector under the control of the p10 promoter of baculovirus: one with the normal cysteine active site (CpBV-PTP1) and the other with a mutated active site (CpBV-PTP5). The hemocytes transfected with CpBV-PTP1 significantly increased in PTP activity compared to control hemocytes, but those with CpBV-PTP5 exhibited a significant decrease in the PTP activity. All transfected hemocytes exhibited a significant reduction in both cell spreading and encapsulation activities compared to control hemocytes. Co-transfection of CpBV-PTP1 together with its double-stranded RNA reduced the messenger RNA (mRNA) level of CpBV-PTP1 and resulted in recovery of both hemocyte behaviors. This is the first report demonstrating that the polydnaviral PTPs can manipulate PTP activity of the hemocytes to interrupt cellular immune responses.

  2. Discovery and study of novel protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Chen, Xi; Feng, Changgen

    2017-10-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is considered to be a target for therapy of type II diabetes and obesity. So it is of great significance to take advantage of a computer aided drug design protocol involving the structured-based virtual screening with docking simulations for fast searching small molecule PTP1B inhibitors. Based on optimized complex structure of PTP1B bound with specific inhibitor of IX1, structured-based virtual screening against a library of natural products containing 35308 molecules, which was constructed based on Traditional Chinese Medicine database@ Taiwan (TCM database@ Taiwan), was conducted to determine the occurrence of PTP1B inhibitors using the Lubbock module and CDOCKER module from Discovery Studio 3.1 software package. The results were further filtered by predictive ADME simulation and predictive toxic simulation. As a result, 2 good drug-like molecules, namely para-benzoquinone compound 1 and Clavepictine analogue 2 were identified ultimately with the dock score of original inhibitor (IX1) and the receptor as a threshold. Binding model analyses revealed that these two candidate compounds have good interactions with PTP1B. The PTP1B inhibitory activity of compound 2 hasn't been reported before. The optimized compound 2 has higher scores and deserves further study.

  3. Expression, prognostic significance and mutational analysis of protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 in chronic myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Vasiliki; Kontandreopoulou, Elina; Panayiotidis, Panayiotis; Roumelioti, Maria; Angelopoulou, Maria; Kyriazopoulou, Lydia; Diamantopoulos, Panagiotis T; Vaiopoulos, George; Variami, Eleni; Kotsianidis, Ioannis; Athina Viniou, Nora

    2016-05-01

    The protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 dephosphorylates BCR-ABL1, thereby serving as a potential control mechanism of BCR-ABL1 kinase activity. Pathways regulating SHP-1 expression, which could be exploited in the therapeutics of TKI-resistant chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), remain unknown. Moreover, the questions of whether there is any kind of SHP-1 deregulation in CML, contributing to disease initiation or evolution, as well as the question of prognostic significance of SHP-1, have not been definitively answered. This study shows moderately lower SHP-1 mRNA expression in chronic phase CML patients in comparison to healthy individuals and no change in SHP-1 mRNA levels after successful TKI treatment. Mutational analysis of the aminoterminal and phosphatase domains of SHP-1 in patients did not reveal genetic lesions. This study also found no correlation of SHP-1 expression at diagnosis with response to treatment, although a trend for lower SHP-1 expression was noted in the very small non-responders' group of the 3-month therapeutic milestone.

  4. Regional differences in endothelial cell cytoskeleton, junctional proteins and phosphorylated tyrosine labeling in the porcine vortex vein system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Priscilla Ern Zhi; Yu, Paula K; Yang, Hongfang; Cringle, Stephen J; Yu, Dao-Yi

    2018-07-01

    We previously demonstrated endothelial phenotype heterogeneity in the vortex vein system. This study is to further determine whether regional differences are present in the cytoskeleton, junctional proteins and phosphorylated tyrosine labeling within the system. The vortex vein system of twenty porcine eyes was perfused with labels for f-actin, claudin-5, VE-Cadherin, phosphorylated tyrosine and nucleic acid. The endothelial cells of eight different regions (choroidal veins, pre-ampulla, anterior ampulla, mid-ampulla, posterior ampulla, post-ampulla, intra-scleral canal and the extra-ocular vortex vein) were studied using confocal microscopy. There were regional differences in the endothelial cell structures. Cytoskeleton labeling was relatively even in intensity throughout Regions 1 to 6. Overall VE-Cadherin had a non-uniform distribution and thicker width endothelial cell border staining than claudin-5. Progressing downstream there was an increased variation in thickness of VE-cadherin labeling. There was an overlap in phosphorylated tyrosine and VE-Cadherin labeling in the post-ampulla, intra-scleral canal and extra-ocular vortex vein. Intramural cells were observed that were immune-positive for VE-Cadherin and phosphorylated tyrosine. There were significant differences in the number of intramural cells in different regions. Significant regional differences with endothelial cell labeling of cytoskeleton, junction proteins, and phosphorylated tyrosine were found within the vortex vein system. These findings support existing data on endothelial cell phenotype heterogeneity, and may aid in the knowledge of venous pathologies by understanding regions of vulnerability to endothelial damage within the vortex vein system. It could be valuable to further investigate and characterize the VE-cadherin and phosphotyrosine immune-positive intramural cells. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Effects of experimental hyperthyroidism on protein turnover in skeletal and cardiac muscle as measured by [14C]tyrosine infusion.

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, W J; Benjamin, W S; Faas, F H

    1982-01-01

    The effect of T3 (3,3',5-tri-iodothyronine) on protein turnover in skeletal and cardiac muscle was measured in intact rats by means of a 6 h [14C]tyrosine-infusion technique. Treatment with 25-30 micrograms of T3/100 g body wt. daily for 4-7 days increased the fractional rate of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle. Since the fractional growth rate of the muscle was decreased or unchanged, T3 treatment increased the rate of muscle protein breakdown. These findings suggest that increased prote...

  6. Receptor tyrosine kinase EphA5 is a functional molecular target in human lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staquicini, Fernanda I; Qian, Ming D; Salameh, Ahmad; Dobroff, Andrey S; Edwards, Julianna K; Cimino, Daniel F; Moeller, Benjamin J; Kelly, Patrick; Nunez, Maria I; Tang, Ximing; Liu, Diane D; Lee, J Jack; Hong, Waun Ki; Ferrara, Fortunato; Bradbury, Andrew R M; Lobb, Roy R; Edelman, Martin J; Sidman, Richard L; Wistuba, Ignacio I; Arap, Wadih; Pasqualini, Renata

    2015-03-20

    Lung cancer is often refractory to radiotherapy, but molecular mechanisms of tumor resistance remain poorly defined. Here we show that the receptor tyrosine kinase EphA5 is specifically overexpressed in lung cancer and is involved in regulating cellular responses to genotoxic insult. In the absence of EphA5, lung cancer cells displayed a defective G1/S cell cycle checkpoint, were unable to resolve DNA damage, and became radiosensitive. Upon irradiation, EphA5 was transported into the nucleus where it interacted with activated ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated) at sites of DNA repair. Finally, we demonstrate that a new monoclonal antibody against human EphA5 sensitized lung cancer cells and human lung cancer xenografts to radiotherapy and significantly prolonged survival, thus suggesting the likelihood of translational applications. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Protein tyrosine phosphatase, PTP1B, expression and activity in rat corneal endothelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Deshea L.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose The current studies were conducted to determine whether the protein tyrosine phosphatase, PTP1B, plays a role in regulating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) Tyr992 phosphorylation and cell cycle entry in rat corneal endothelial cells. Methods Corneas were obtained from male Sprague-Dawley rats. PTP1B mRNA and protein expression were compared in confluent and subconfluent cells by RT-PCR and western blots. Immunocytochemistry was used to determine the subcellular localization of both PTP1B and EGFR following epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulation. Western blots were used to analyze the time-dependent effect of EGF on phosphorylation of EGFR Tyr992 plus or minus CinnGEL 2Me, an inhibitor of PTP1B activity. The effect of PTP1B inhibition on cell cycle entry was determined by calculating the percent of Ki67-positive cells following EGF treatment. Results PTP1B mRNA expression was similar in confluent and subconfluent cells, but PTP1B protein was expressed at 3 fold higher levels in subconfluent cells. Positive staining for PTP1B was localized in vesicular structures below the plasma membrane. EGFR staining was located at cell-cell borders in untreated endothelium, but was mainly cytoplasmic by 15 min after EGF treatment. In control cultures, phosphorylation of EGFR Tyr992 peaked by 5 min following EGF stimulation and rapidly decreased to basal levels by 30 min. In cultures pretreated with CinnGEL 2Me, Tyr992 phosphorylation peaked 2 min following EGF addition and was consistently sustained at a higher level than controls until 60 min after treatment. By 18 h following EGF treatment, cultures pretreated with CinnGEL 2Me exhibited a 1.7 fold increase in the number of Ki67-positive cells compared with control cultures. Conclusions Comparison of PTP1B mRNA and protein levels indicates that PTP1B expression is regulated mainly at the protein level and is higher in subconfluent cells. PTP1B was located in vesicles below the plasma membrane. The fact that

  8. Vanillic acid derivatives from the green algae Cladophora socialis as potent protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yunjiang; Carroll, Anthony R; Addepalli, Rama; Fechner, Gregory A; Avery, Vicky M; Quinn, Ronald J

    2007-11-01

    A novel vanillic acid derivative (1) and its sulfate adduct (2) were isolated from a green algae, Cladophora socialis. The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated from NMR and HRESIMS experiments. Both compounds showed potent inhibitory activity against protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), an enzyme involved in the regulation of insulin cell signaling. Compounds 1 and 2 had IC50 values of 3.7 and 1.7 microM, respectively.

  9. Contribution of Protein Tyrosine Phosphateses to the Ontogeny and Progression of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tremblay, Michel

    2006-01-01

    ...). Inappropriate STAT1 and STAT5 activation have been observed in the Philadelphia chromosome-positive CML cell lines K562 and BV17, yet low levels of JAK1 tyrosine phosphorylation were observed...

  10. Paralog-Specific Patterns of Structural Disorder and Phosphorylation in the Vertebrate SH3-SH2-Tyrosine Kinase Protein Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Helena G; Siltberg-Liberles, Jessica

    2016-09-19

    One of the largest multigene families in Metazoa are the tyrosine kinases (TKs). These are important multifunctional proteins that have evolved as dynamic switches that perform tyrosine phosphorylation and other noncatalytic activities regulated by various allosteric mechanisms. TKs interact with each other and with other molecules, ultimately activating and inhibiting different signaling pathways. TKs are implicated in cancer and almost 30 FDA-approved TK inhibitors are available. However, specific binding is a challenge when targeting an active site that has been conserved in multiple protein paralogs for millions of years. A cassette domain (CD) containing SH3-SH2-Tyrosine Kinase domains reoccurs in vertebrate nonreceptor TKs. Although part of the CD function is shared between TKs, it also presents TK specific features. Here, the evolutionary dynamics of sequence, structure, and phosphorylation across the CD in 17 TK paralogs have been investigated in a large-scale study. We establish that TKs often have ortholog-specific structural disorder and phosphorylation patterns, while secondary structure elements, as expected, are highly conserved. Further, domain-specific differences are at play. Notably, we found the catalytic domain to fluctuate more in certain secondary structure elements than the regulatory domains. By elucidating how different properties evolve after gene duplications and which properties are specifically conserved within orthologs, the mechanistic understanding of protein evolution is enriched and regions supposedly critical for functional divergence across paralogs are highlighted. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  11. Insulin rapidly stimulates phosphorylation of a 46-kDa membrane protein on tyrosine residues as well as phosphorylation of several soluble proteins in intact fat cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haering, H.U.; White, M.F.; Machicao, F.; Ermel, B.; Schleicher, E.; Obermaier, B.

    1987-01-01

    It is speculated that the transmission of an insulin signal across the plasma membrane of cells occurs through activation of the tyrosine-specific receptor kinase, autophosphorylation of the receptor, and subsequent phosphorylation of unidentified substrates in the cell. In an attempt to identify possible substrates, the authors labeled intact rat fat cells with [ 32 P]orthophosphate and used an antiphosphotyrosine antibody to identify proteins that become phosphorylated on tyrosine residues in an insulin-stimulated way. In the membrane fraction of the fat cells, they found, in addition to the 95-kDa β-subunit of the receptor, a 46-kDa phosphoprotein that is phosphorylated exclusively on tyrosine residues. This protein is not immunoprecipitated by antibodies against different regions of the insulin receptor and its HPLC tryptic peptide map is different from the tryptic peptide map of the insulin receptor, suggesting that it is not derived from the receptor β-subunit. Insulin stimulates the tyrosine phosphorylation of the 46-kDa protein within 150 sec in the intact cell 3- to 4-fold in a dose-dependent way at insulin concentrations between 0.5 nM and 100 nM. Insulin (0.5 nM, 100 nM) stimulated within 2 min the 32 P incorporation into a 116-kDa band, a 62 kDa band, and three bands between 45 kDa and 50 kDa 2- to 10-fold. They suggest that the 46-kDa membrane protein and possibly also the soluble proteins are endogenous substrates of the receptor tyrosine kinase in fat cells and that their phosphorylation is an early step in insulin signal transmission

  12. Genistein and tyrphostin AG556 decrease ultra-rapidly activating delayed rectifier K+ current of human atria by inhibiting EGF receptor tyrosine kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Guo-Sheng; Zhang, Yan-Hui; Wu, Wei; Sun, Hai-Ying; Wang, Yan; Li, Gui-Rong

    2017-03-01

    The ultra-rapidly activating delayed rectifier K + current I Kur (encoded by K v 1.5 or KCNA5) plays an important role in human atrial repolarization. The present study investigates the regulation of this current by protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs). Whole-cell patch voltage clamp technique and immunoprecipitation and Western blotting analysis were used to investigate whether the PTK inhibitors genistein, tyrphostin AG556 (AG556) and PP2 regulate human atrial I Kur and hKv1.5 channels stably expressed in HEK 293 cells. Human atrial I Kur was decreased by genistein (a broad-spectrum PTK inhibitor) and AG556 (a highly selective EGFR TK inhibitor) in a concentration-dependent manner. Inhibition of I Kur induced by 30 μM genistein or 10 μM AG556 was significantly reversed by 1 mM orthovanadate (a protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor). Similar results were observed in HEK 293 cells stably expressing hK v 1.5 channels. On the other hand, the Src family kinase inhibitor PP2 (1 μM) slightly enhanced I Kur and hK v 1.5 current, and the current increase was also reversed by orthovanadate. Immunoprecipitation and Western blotting analysis showed that genistein, AG556, and PP2 decreased tyrosine phosphorylation of hK v 1.5 channels and that the decrease was countered by orthovanadate. The PTK inhibitors genistein and AG556 decrease human atrial I Kur and cloned hK v 1.5 channels by inhibiting EGFR TK, whereas the Src kinase inhibitor PP2 increases I Kur and hK v 1.5 current. These results imply that EGFR TK and the soluble Src kinases may have opposite effects on human atrial I Kur . © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  13. MHC class I ligation of human T cells activates the ZAP70 and p56lck tyrosine kinases, leads to an alternative phenotype of the TCR/CD3 zeta-chain, and induces apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, S; Bregenholt, S; Claesson, Mogens Helweg

    1997-01-01

    Cross-linking of MHC class I (MHC-I) molecules on human T cells induces signal-transduction events, including activation of tyrosine kinases, tyrosine phosphorylation of phospholipase C-gamma 1, and elevation of the intracellular free calcium concentration. In this study, we demonstrate...... that the ZAP70 tyrosine kinase is tyrosine phosphorylated in Jurkat T cells and in purified peripheral T cells after MHC-I ligation. The tyrosine-phosphorylated ZAP70 kinase exhibits a particular phenotype with low affinities for proteins at 21, 40, 60, and 120 kDa, proteins normally co-precipitated with ZAP70...... after TCR/CD3 stimulation. The phosphorylation of ZAP70 after MHC-I ligation was dependent on TCR/CD3 surface expression. One of the natural substrates for ZAP70 is the zeta-chain dimer of the TCR/CD3 complex. MHC-I cross-linking induces a phosphorylated zeta-protein that migrates as a dimer at 42 k...

  14. SDS-binding assay based on tyrosine fluorescence as a tool to determine binding properties of human serum albumin in blood plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhdanova, Nadezda; Shirshin, Evgeny; Fadeev, Victor; Priezzhev, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Among all plasma proteins human serum albumin (HSA) is the most studied one as it is the main transport protein and can bind a wide variety of ligands especially fatty acids (FAs). The concentration of FAs bound to HSA in human blood plasma differs by three times under abnormal conditions (fasting, physical exercises or in case of social important diseases). In the present study a surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was used to simulate FAs binding to HSA. It was shown that the increase of Tyr fluorescence of human blood plasma due to SDS addition can be completely explained by HSA-SDS complex formation. Binding parameters of SDS-HSA complex (average number of sites and apparent constant of complex formation) were determined from titration curves based on tyrosine (Tyr) fluorescence.

  15. Evolutionary mechanisms driving the evolution of a large polydnavirus gene family coding for protein tyrosine phosphatases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serbielle Céline

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene duplications have been proposed to be the main mechanism involved in genome evolution and in acquisition of new functions. Polydnaviruses (PDVs, symbiotic viruses associated with parasitoid wasps, are ideal model systems to study mechanisms of gene duplications given that PDV genomes consist of virulence genes organized into multigene families. In these systems the viral genome is integrated in a wasp chromosome as a provirus and virus particles containing circular double-stranded DNA are injected into the parasitoids’ hosts and are essential for parasitism success. The viral virulence factors, organized in gene families, are required collectively to induce host immune suppression and developmental arrest. The gene family which encodes protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs has undergone spectacular expansion in several PDV genomes with up to 42 genes. Results Here, we present strong indications that PTP gene family expansion occurred via classical mechanisms: by duplication of large segments of the chromosomally integrated form of the virus sequences (segmental duplication, by tandem duplications within this form and by dispersed duplications. We also propose a novel duplication mechanism specific to PDVs that involves viral circle reintegration into the wasp genome. The PTP copies produced were shown to undergo conservative evolution along with episodes of adaptive evolution. In particular recently produced copies have undergone positive selection in sites most likely involved in defining substrate selectivity. Conclusion The results provide evidence about the dynamic nature of polydnavirus proviral genomes. Classical and PDV-specific duplication mechanisms have been involved in the production of new gene copies. Selection pressures associated with antagonistic interactions with parasitized hosts have shaped these genes used to manipulate lepidopteran physiology with evidence for positive selection involved in

  16. Regulation of brown fat adipogenesis by protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Matsuo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B is a physiological regulator of insulin signaling and energy balance, but its role in brown fat adipogenesis requires additional investigation.To precisely determine the role of PTP1B in adipogenesis, we established preadipocyte cell lines from wild type and PTP1B knockout (KO mice. In addition, we reconstituted KO cells with wild type, substrate-trapping (D/A and sumoylation-resistant (K/R PTP1B mutants, then characterized differentiation and signaling in these cells. KO, D/A- and WT-reconstituted cells fully differentiated into mature adipocytes with KO and D/A cells exhibiting a trend for enhanced differentiation. In contrast, K/R cells exhibited marked attenuation in differentiation and lipid accumulation compared with WT cells. Expression of adipogenic markers PPARγ, C/EBPα, C/EBPδ, and PGC1α mirrored the differentiation pattern. In addition, the differentiation deficit in K/R cells could be reversed completely by the PPARγ activator troglitazone. PTP1B deficiency enhanced insulin receptor (IR and insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1 tyrosyl phosphorylation, while K/R cells exhibited attenuated insulin-induced IR and IRS1 phosphorylation and glucose uptake compared with WT cells. In addition, substrate-trapping studies revealed that IRS1 is a substrate for PTP1B in brown adipocytes. Moreover, KO, D/A and K/R cells exhibited elevated AMPK and ACC phosphorylation compared with WT cells.These data indicate that PTP1B is a modulator of brown fat adipogenesis and suggest that adipocyte differentiation requires regulated expression of PTP1B.

  17. Putaminal mosaic visualized by tyrosine hydroxylase immunohistochemistry in the human neostriatum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryoma eMorigaki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Among the basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits, the putamen plays a critical role in the ‘motor’ circuits that control voluntary movements and motor learning. The human neostriatum comprises two functional subdivisions known as the striosome (patch and matrix compartments. Accumulating evidence suggests that compartment-specific dysregulations of dopamine activity might be involved in the disease-specific pathology and symptoms of human striatal diseases including movement disorders. This study was undertaken to examine whether or how striatal dopaminergic innervations are organized into the compartmentalized architecture found in the putamen of adult human brains. For this purpose, we used a highly sensitive immunohistochemistry technique to identify tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, EC 1.14.16.2, a marker for striatal dopaminergic axons and terminals, in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues obtained from autopsied human brains. Herein, we report that discrete compartmentalization of TH-labeled innervations occurs in the putamen, as in the caudate nucleus, with a higher density of TH labeling in the matrix compared to the striosomes. Our results provide anatomical evidence to support the hypothesis that compartment-specific dysfunction of the striosome-matrix dopaminergic systems might contribute to the genesis of movement disorders.

  18. A protein-binding domain, EH, identified in the receptor tyrosine kinase substrate Eps15 and conserved in evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, W T; Schumacher, C; Salcini, A E

    1995-01-01

    In this report we structurally and functionally define a binding domain that is involved in protein association and that we have designated EH (for Eps15 homology domain). This domain was identified in the tyrosine kinase substrate Eps15 on the basis of regional conservation with several heteroge......In this report we structurally and functionally define a binding domain that is involved in protein association and that we have designated EH (for Eps15 homology domain). This domain was identified in the tyrosine kinase substrate Eps15 on the basis of regional conservation with several...... heterogeneous proteins of yeast and nematode. The EH domain spans about 70 amino acids and shows approximately 60% overall amino acid conservation. We demonstrated the ability of the EH domain to specifically bind cytosolic proteins in normal and malignant cells of mesenchymal, epithelial, and hematopoietic...... (for Eps15-related). Structural comparison of Eps15 and Eps15r defines a family of signal transducers possessing extensive networking abilities including EH-mediated binding and association with Src homology 3-containing proteins....

  19. Microvillus-Specific Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase SAP-1 Plays a Role in Regulating the Intestinal Paracellular Transport of Macromolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Shingo; Kamei, Noriyasu; Murata, Yoji; Takayama, Kozo; Matozaki, Takashi; Takeda-Morishita, Mariko

    2017-09-01

    The stomach cancer-associated protein tyrosine phosphatase 1 (SAP-1) is a receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase that is specifically expressed on the apical membrane of the intestinal epithelium. SAP-1 is known to maintain the balance of phosphorylation of proteins together with protein kinases; however, its biological function and impact on pharmacokinetics in the intestine remain unclear. The present study, therefore, aimed at clarifying the relationship between SAP-1 and the intestinal absorption behaviors of typical transporter substrates and macromolecules. The endogenous levels of glucose and total cholesterol in the blood were similar between wild-type and SAP-1-deficient mice (Sap1 -/- ), suggesting no contribution of SAP-1 to biogenic influx. Moreover, in vitro transport study with everted ileal sacs demonstrated that there was no difference in the absorption of breast cancer resistance protein, P-glycoprotein, and peptide transporter substrates between both mice. However, absorptive clearance of macromolecular model dextrans (FD-4 and FD-10) in Sap1 -/- mice was significantly higher than that in wild-type mice, and this was confirmed by the trend of increased FD-4 absorption from colonic loops of Sap1 -/- mice. Therefore, the results of this study suggest the partial contribution of SAP-1 to the regulated transport of hydrophilic macromolecules through paracellular tight junctions. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Role of tyrosine phosphatase inhibitors in cancer treatment with emphasis on SH2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatases (SHPs)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Irandoust, Mahban; van den Berg, Timo K.; Kaspers, Gertjan J. L.; Cloos, Jacqueline

    2009-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphorylation is one of the key mechanisms involved in signal transduction pathways. This modification is regulated by concerted action of protein tyrosine phosphatases and protein tyrosine kinases. Deregulation of either of these key regulators lead to abnormal cellular

  1. Crystal Structure of Human Dual-Specificity Tyrosine-Regulated Kinase 3 Reveals New Structural Features and Insights into its Auto-phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kuglae; Cha, Jeong Seok; Cho, Yong-Soon; Kim, Hoyoung; Chang, Nienping; Kim, Hye-Jung; Cho, Hyun-Soo

    2018-04-07

    Dual-specificity tyrosine-regulated kinases (DYRKs) auto-phosphorylate a critical tyrosine residue in their activation loop and phosphorylate their substrate on serine and threonine residues. The auto-phosphorylation occurs intramolecularly and is a one-off event. DYRK3 is selectively expressed at a high level in hematopoietic cells and attenuates erythroblast development, leading to anemia. In the present study, we determined the crystal structure of the mature form of human DYRK3 in complex with harmine, an ATP competitive inhibitor. The crystal structure revealed a phosphorylation site, residue S350, whose phosphorylation increases the stability of DYRK3 and enhances its kinase activity. In addition, our structural and biochemical assays suggest that the N-terminal auto-phosphorylation accessory domain stabilizes the DYRK3 protein, followed by auto-phosphorylation of the tyrosine of the activation loop, which is important for kinase activity. Finally, our docking analysis provides information for the design of novel and potent therapeutics to treat anemia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Phosphorylation of SLP-76 by the ZAP-70 protein-tyrosine kinase is required for T-cell receptor function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubeck Wardenburg, J; Fu, C; Jackman, J K; Flotow, H; Wilkinson, S E; Williams, D H; Johnson, R; Kong, G; Chan, A C; Findell, P R

    1996-08-16

    Two families of tyrosine kinases, the Src and Syk families, are required for T-cell receptor activation. While the Src kinases are responsible for phosphorylation of receptor-encoded signaling motifs and for up-regulation of ZAP-70 activity, the downstream substrates of ZAP-70 are unknown. Evidence is presented herein that the Src homology 2 (SH2) domain-containing leukocyte protein of 76 kDa (SLP-76) is a substrate of ZAP-70. Phosphorylation of SLP-76 is diminished in T cells that express a catalytically inactive ZAP-70. Moreover, SLP-76 is preferentially phosphorylated by ZAP-70 in vitro and in heterologous cellular systems. In T cells, overexpression of wild-type SLP-76 results in a hyperactive receptor, while expression of a SLP-76 molecule that is unable to be tyrosine-phosphorylated attenuates receptor function. In addition, the SH2 domain of SLP-76 is required for T-cell receptor function, although its role is independent of the ability of SLP-76 to undergo tyrosine phosphorylation. As SLP-76 interacts with both Grb2 and phospholipase C-gamma1, these data indicate that phosphorylation of SLP-76 by ZAP-70 provides an important functional link between the T-cell receptor and activation of ras and calcium pathways.

  3. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is dispensable for IgE-mediated cutaneous reaction in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ting; Xie, Zhongping; Li, Hua; Yue, Lei; Pang, Zheng; MacNeil, Adam J; Tremblay, Michel L; Tang, Jin-Tian; Lin, Tong-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Mast cells play a critical role in allergic reactions. The cross-linking of FcεRI-bound IgE with multivalent antigen initiates a cascade of signaling events leading to mast cell activation. It has been well-recognized that cross linking of FcεRI mediates tyrosine phosphorylation. However, the mechanism involved in tyrosine dephosphorylation in mast cells is less clear. Here we demonstrated that protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B)-deficient mast cells showed increased IgE-mediated phosphorylation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) and enhanced production of CCL9 (MIP-1γ) and IL-6 in IgE-mediated mast cells activation in vitro. However, IgE-mediated calcium mobilization, β-hexaosaminidase release (degranulation), and phosphorylation of IκB and MAP kinases were not affected by PTP1B deficiency. Furthermore, PTP1B deficient mice showed normal IgE-dependent passive cutaneous anaphylaxis and late phase cutaneous reactions in vivo. Thus, PTP1B specifically regulates IgE-mediated STAT5 pathway, but is redundant in influencing mast cell function in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Mechanisms of photosensitization by drugs: Involvement of tyrosines in the photomodification of proteins mediated by tiaprofenic acid in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, M A; Castell, J V; Sarabia, Z; Hernández, D; Puertes, I; Morera, I M; Gómez-Lechón, M J

    1997-10-01

    The photosensitizing potential of drugs must be related to their photoreactivity towards the target biomolecules. In this context, a representative photosensitizing drug (tiaprofenic acid) was co-irradiated with a model protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA). This led to a significant degree of protein crosslinking and to the formation of trace amounts of drug-BSA photoadducts. Amino acid analysis of the hydrolysed (HC1) protein showed that His and Tyr undergo a dramatic decrease (approx. 90%) as a consequence of drug-mediated photodynamic processes. When the drug was irradiated in the presence of the pure amino acids, extensive phototransformation of the latter was observed. Other photosensitizing drugs gave rise to similar processes when irradiated in the presence of BSA or the isolated amino acids. In conclusion, histidine and tyrosine appear to be key sites for the photosensitized damage to proteins. Photodegradation of the isolated amino acids in vitro may be an indicator of the photosensitizing potential of drugs.

  5. LC-MS/MS assay for the quantitation of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor neratinib in human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesel, Brian F; Parise, Robert A; Wong, Alvin; Keyvanjah, Kiana; Jacobs, Samuel; Beumer, Jan H

    2017-02-05

    Neratinib is an orally available tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeting HER2 (ERBB2) and EGFR (ERBB). It is being clinically evaluated for the treatment of breast and other solid tumors types as a single agent or in combination with other chemotherapies. In support of several phase I/II clinical trials investigating neratinib combinations, we developed and validated a novel LC-MS/MS assay for the quantification of neratinib in 100μL of human plasma with a stable isotopic internal standard. Analytes were extracted from plasma using protein precipitation and evaporation of the resulting supernatant followed by resuspension. Chromatographic separation was achieved using an Acquity UPLC BEH Shield RP18 column and a gradient methanol-water mobile phase containing 10% ammonium acetate. An ABI 4000 mass spectrometer and electrospray positive mode ionization were used for detection. The assay was linear from 2 to 1,000ng/mL and proved to be accurate (98.9-106.5%) and precise (neratinib. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Sequential Proton Loss Electron Transfer in Deactivation of Iron(IV) Binding Protein by Tyrosine Based Food Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ning; Skibsted, Leif H

    2017-08-02

    The iron(IV) binding protein ferrylmyoglobin, MbFe(IV)═O, was found to be reduced by tyrosine based food components in aqueous solution through a sequential proton loss electron transfer reaction mechanism without binding to the protein as confirmed by isothermal titration calorimetry. Dopamine and epinephrine are the most efficient food components reducing ferrylmyoglobin to oxymyoglobin, MbFe(II)O 2 , and metmyoglobin, MbFe(III), as revealed by multivariate curve resolution alternating least-squares with second order rate constants of 33.6 ± 2.3 L/mol/s (ΔH ⧧ of 19 ± 5 kJ/mol, ΔS ⧧ of -136 ± 18 J/mol K) and 228.9 ± 13.3 L/mol/s (ΔH ⧧ of 110 ± 7 kJ/mol, ΔS ⧧ of 131 ± 25 J/mol K), respectively, at pH 7.4 and 25 °C. The other tyrosine based food components were found to reduce ferrylmyoglobin to metmyoglobin with similar reduction rates at pH 7.4 and 25 °C. These reduction reactions were enhanced by protonation of ferrylmyoglobin and facilitated proton transfer at acidic conditions. Enthalpy-entropy compensation effects were observed for the activation parameters (ΔH ⧧ and ΔS ⧧ ), indicating the common reaction mechanism. Moreover, principal component analysis combined with heat map were performed to understand the relationship between density functional theory calculated molecular descriptors and kinetic data, which was further modeled by partial least squares for quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis. In addition, a three tyrosine residue containing protein, lysozyme, was also found to be able to reduce ferrylmyoglobin with a second order rate constant of 66 ± 28 L/mol/s as determined by a competitive kinetic method.

  7. SH3 domain tyrosine phosphorylation--sites, role and evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Tatárová

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: SH3 domains are eukaryotic protein domains that participate in a plethora of cellular processes including signal transduction, proliferation, and cellular movement. Several studies indicate that tyrosine phosphorylation could play a significant role in the regulation of SH3 domains. RESULTS: To explore the incidence of the tyrosine phosphorylation within SH3 domains we queried the PhosphoSite Plus database of phosphorylation sites. Over 100 tyrosine phosphorylations occurring on 20 different SH3 domain positions were identified. The tyrosine corresponding to c-Src Tyr-90 was by far the most frequently identified SH3 domain phosphorylation site. A comparison of sequences around this tyrosine led to delineation of a preferred sequence motif ALYD(Y/F. This motif is present in about 15% of human SH3 domains and is structurally well conserved. We further observed that tyrosine phosphorylation is more abundant than serine or threonine phosphorylation within SH3 domains and other adaptor domains, such as SH2 or WW domains. Tyrosine phosphorylation could represent an important regulatory mechanism of adaptor domains. CONCLUSIONS: While tyrosine phosphorylation typically promotes signaling protein interactions via SH2 or PTB domains, its role in SH3 domains is the opposite - it blocks or prevents interactions. The regulatory function of tyrosine phosphorylation is most likely achieved by the phosphate moiety and its charge interfering with binding of polyproline helices of SH3 domain interacting partners.

  8. The tricarboxylic acid cycle activity in cultured primary astrocytes is strongly accelerated by the protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor tyrphostin 23

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hohnholt, Michaela C; Blumrich, Eva-Maria; Waagepetersen, Helle S

    2017-01-01

    production. In addition, T23-treatment strongly increased the molecular carbon labeling of the TCA cycle intermediates citrate, succinate, fumarate and malate, and significantly increased the incorporation of (13)C-labelling into the amino acids glutamate, glutamine and aspartate. These results clearly......Tyrphostin 23 (T23) is a well-known inhibitor of protein tyrosine kinases and has been considered as potential anti-cancer drug. T23 was recently reported to acutely stimulate the glycolytic flux in primary cultured astrocytes. To investigate whether T23 also affects the tricarboxylic acid (TCA...

  9. Role of MbtH-like Proteins in the Adenylation of Tyrosine during Aminocoumarin and Vancomycin Biosynthesis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boll, Björn; Taubitz, Tatjana; Heide, Lutz

    2011-01-01

    MbtH-like proteins consist of ∼70 amino acids and are encoded in the biosynthetic gene clusters of non-ribosomally formed peptides and other secondary metabolites derived from amino acids. Recently, several MbtH-like proteins have been shown to be required for the adenylation of amino acid in non-ribosomal peptide synthesis. We now investigated the role of MbtH-like proteins in the biosynthesis of the aminocoumarin antibiotics novobiocin, clorobiocin, and simocyclinone D8 and of the glycopeptide antibiotic vancomycin. The tyrosine-adenylating enzymes CloH, SimH, and Pcza361.18, involved in the biosynthesis of clorobiocin, simocyclinone D8, and vancomycin, respectively, required the presence of MbtH-like proteins in a 1:1 molar ratio, forming heterotetrameric complexes. In contrast, NovH, involved in novobiocin biosynthesis, showed activity in the absence of MbtH-like proteins. Comparison of the active centers of CloH and NovH showed only one amino acid to be different, i.e. Leu-383 versus Met-383. Mutation of this amino acid in CloH (L383M) indeed led to MbtH-independent adenylating activity. All investigated tyrosine-adenylating enzymes exhibited remarkable promiscuity for MbtH-like proteins from different pathways and organisms. YbdZ, the MbtH-like protein from the expression host Escherichia coli, was found to bind to adenylating enzymes during expression and to influence their biochemical properties markedly. Therefore, the use of ybdZ-deficient expression hosts is important in biochemical studies of adenylating enzymes. PMID:21890635

  10. Derivation of mouse embryonic stem cell lines from tyrosine hydroxylase reporter mice crossed with a human SNCA transgenic mouse model of Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Chumarina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC lines were derived by crossing heterozygous transgenic (tg mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP under the control of the rat tyrosine hydroxylase (TH promoter, with homozygous alpha-synuclein (aSYN mice expressing human mutant SNCAA53T under the control of the mouse Prion promoter (MoPrP, or wildtype (WT mice. The expression of GFP and human aSYN was validated by immunocytochemistry in midbrain neuron cultures upon differentiation of mESC lines using stromal cell-derived inducing activity. These mESC lines can help to study the impact of human aSYN expression in neurons and oligodendrocytes, and also trace GFP-expressing midbrain neurons.

  11. Novel Tyrosine Phosphorylation Sites in Rat Skeletal Muscle Revealed by Phosphopeptide Enrichment and HPLC-ESI-MS/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangmin; Højlund, Kurt; Luo, Moulun; Meyer, Christian; Thangiah, Geetha; Yi, Zhengping

    2012-01-01

    Tyrosine phosphorylation plays a fundamental role in many cellular processes including differentiation, growth and insulin signaling. In insulin resistant muscle, aberrant tyrosine phosphorylation of several proteins has been detected. However, due to the low abundance of tyrosine phosphorylation (tyrosine phosphorylation sites have been identified in mammalian skeletal muscle to date. Here, we used immunoprecipitation of phosphotyrosine peptides prior to HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis to improve the discovery of tyrosine phosphorylation in relatively small skeletal muscle biopsies from rats. This resulted in the identification of 87 distinctly localized tyrosine phosphorylation sites in 46 muscle proteins. Among them, 31 appear to be novel. The tyrosine phosphorylated proteins included major enzymes in the glycolytic pathway and glycogen metabolism, sarcomeric proteins, and proteins involved in Ca2+ homeostasis and phosphocreatine resynthesis. Among proteins regulated by insulin, we found tyrosine phosphorylation sites in glycogen synthase, and two of its inhibitors, GSK-3α and DYRK1A. Moreover, tyrosine phosphorylation sites were identified in several MAP kinases and a protein tyrosine phosphatase, SHPTP2. These results provide the largest catalogue of mammalian skeletal muscle tyrosine phosphorylation sites to date and provide novel targets for the investigation of human skeletal muscle phosphoproteins in various disease states. PMID:22609512

  12. Regulation of Discrete Functional Responses by Syk and Src Family Tyrosine Kinases in Human Neutrophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thornin Ear

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophils play a critical role in innate immunity and also influence adaptive immune responses. This occurs in good part through their production of inflammatory and immunomodulatory cytokines, in conjunction with their prolonged survival at inflamed foci. While a picture of the signaling machinery underlying these neutrophil responses is now emerging, much remains to be uncovered. In this study, we report that neutrophils constitutively express various Src family isoforms (STKs, as well as Syk, and that inhibition of these protein tyrosine kinases selectively hinders inflammatory cytokine generation by acting posttranscriptionally. Accordingly, STK or Syk inhibition decreases the phosphorylation of signaling intermediates (e.g., eIF-4E, S6K, and MNK1 involved in translational control. By contrast, delayed apoptosis appears to be independent of either STKs or Syk. Our data therefore significantly extend our understanding of which neutrophil responses are governed by STKs and Syk and pinpoint some signaling intermediates that are likely involved. In view of the foremost role of neutrophils in several chronic inflammatory conditions, our findings identify potential molecular targets that could be exploited for future therapeutic intervention.

  13. Molecular dynamics simulations of protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B: II. Substrate-enzyme interactions and dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Günther H.j.; Frimurer, T. M.; Andersen, J. N.

    2000-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) complexed with the phosphorylated peptide substrate DADEpYL and the free substrate have been conducted to investigate 1) the physical forces involved in substrate-protein interactions, 2) the importance of enzyme...... to substrate binding. Based on essential dynamics analysis of the PTP1B/DADEpYL trajectory, it is shown that internal motions in the binding pocket occur in a subspace of only a few degrees of freedom. in particular, relatively large flexibilities are observed along several eigenvectors in the segments: Arg(24...... for catalysis. Analysis of the individual enzyme-substrate interaction energies revealed that mainly electrostatic forces contribute to binding. Indeed, calculation of the electrostatic field of the enzyme reveals that only the field surrounding the binding pocket is positive, while the remaining protein...

  14. Immunoreactivity of protein tyrosine phosphatase A (PtpA) in sera from sheep infected with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurung, Ratna B; Begg, Douglas J; Purdie, Auriol C; Bach, Horacio; Whittington, Richard J

    2014-07-15

    Evasion of host defense mechanisms and survival inside infected host macrophages are features of pathogenic mycobacteria including Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, the causative agent of Johne's disease in ruminants. Protein tyrosine phosphatase A (PtpA) has been identified as a secreted protein critical for survival of mycobacteria within infected macrophages. The host may mount an immune response to such secreted proteins. In this study, the humoral immune response to purified recombinant M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis PtpA was investigated using sera from a cohort of sheep infected with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and compared with uninfected healthy controls. A significantly higher level of reactivity to PtpA was observed in sera collected from M. avium subspecies paratuberculosis infected sheep when compared to those from uninfected healthy controls. PtpA could be a potential candidate antigen for detection of humoral immune responses in sheep infected with M. avium subspecies paratuberculosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The roles of the conserved tyrosine in the β2-α2 loop of the prion protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Danzhi; Caflisch, Amedeo

    2015-01-01

    Prions cause neurodegenerative diseases for which no cure exists. Despite decades of research activities the function of the prion protein (PrP) in mammalians is not known. Moreover, little is known on the molecular mechanisms of the self-assembly of the PrP from its monomeric state (cellular PrP, PrP(C)) to the multimeric state. The latter state includes the toxic species (scrapie PrP, PrP(Sc)) knowledge of which would facilitate the development of drugs against prion diseases. Here we analyze the role of a tyrosine residue (Y169) which is strictly conserved in mammalian PrPs. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy studies of many mammalian PrP(C) proteins have provided evidence of a conformational equilibrium between a 3(10)-helical turn and a type I β turn conformation in the β2-α2 loop (residues 165-175). In vitro cell-free experiments of the seeded conversion of PrP(C) indicate that non-aromatic residues at position 169 reduce the formation of proteinase K-resistant PrP. Recent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of monomeric PrP and several single-point mutants show that Y169 stabilizes the 3(10)-helical turn conformation more than single-point mutants at position 169 or residues in contact with it. In the 3(10)-helical turn conformation the hydrophobic and aggregation-prone segment 169-YSNQNNF-175 is buried and thus not-available for self-assembly. From the combined analysis of simulation and experimental results it emerges that Y169 is an aggregation gatekeeper with a twofold role. Mutations related to 3 human prion diseases are interpreted on the basis of the gatekeeper role in the monomeric state. Another potential role of the Y169 side chain is the stabilization of the ordered aggregates, i.e., reduction of frangibility of filamentous protofibrils and fibrils, which is likely to reduce the generation of toxic species.

  16. Neurotrophin-3 Enhances the Synaptic Organizing Function of TrkC-Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase σ in Rat Hippocampal Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammendrup-Johnsen, Ina; Naito, Yusuke; Craig, Ann Marie; Takahashi, Hideto

    2015-09-09

    Neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and its high-affinity receptor TrkC play crucial trophic roles in neuronal differentiation, axon outgrowth, and synapse development and plasticity in the nervous system. We demonstrated previously that postsynaptic TrkC functions as a glutamatergic synapse-inducing (synaptogenic) cell adhesion molecule trans-interacting with presynaptic protein tyrosine phosphatase σ (PTPσ). Given that NT-3 and PTPσ bind distinct domains of the TrkC extracellular region, here we tested the hypothesis that NT-3 modulates TrkC/PTPσ binding and synaptogenic activity. NT-3 enhanced PTPσ binding to cell surface-expressed TrkC and facilitated the presynapse-inducing activity of TrkC in rat hippocampal neurons. Imaging of recycling presynaptic vesicles combined with TrkC knockdown and rescue approaches demonstrated that NT-3 rapidly potentiates presynaptic function via binding endogenous postsynaptic TrkC in a tyrosine kinase-independent manner. Thus, NT-3 positively modulates the TrkC-PTPσ complex for glutamatergic presynaptic assembly and function independently from TrkC kinase activation. Our findings provide new insight into synaptic roles of neurotrophin signaling and mechanisms controlling synaptic organizing complexes. Significance statement: Although many synaptogenic adhesion complexes have been identified in recent years, little is known about modulatory mechanisms. Here, we demonstrate a novel role of neurotrophin-3 in synaptic assembly and function as a positive modulator of the TrkC-protein tyrosine phosphatase σ complex. This study provides new insight into the involvement of neurotrophin signaling in synapse development and plasticity, presenting a molecular mechanism that may underlie previous observations of short- and long-term enhancement of presynaptic function by neurotrophin. Given the links of synaptogenic adhesion molecules to autism and schizophrenia, this study might also contribute to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of

  17. Functional interaction between nonreceptor tyrosine kinase c-Abl and SR-Rich protein RBM39

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mai, Sanyue; Qu, Xiuhua; Li, Ping; Ma, Qingjun; Liu, Xuan; Cao, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    RBM39, also known as splicing factor HCC1.4, acts as a transcriptional coactivator for the steroid nuclear receptors JUN/AP-1, ESR1/ER-α and ESR2/ER-β. RBM39 is involved in the regulation of the transcriptional responses of these steroid nuclear receptors and promotes transcriptional initiation. In this paper, we report that RBM39 interacts with the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase c-Abl. Both the Src homology (SH) 2 and SH3 domains of c-Abl interact with RBM39. The major tyrosine phosphorylation sites on RBM39 that are phosphorylated by c-Abl are Y95 and Y99, as demonstrated by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) and mutational analysis. c-Abl was shown boost the transcriptional coactivation activity of RBM39 for ERα and PRβ in a tyrosine kinase-dependent manner. The results suggest that mammalian c-Abl plays an important role in steroid hormone receptor-mediated transcription by regulating RBM39. - Highlights: • c-Abl interacts with RBM39. • RBM39 is phosphorylated by c-Abl. • c-Abl regulates transcriptional coactivation activity of RBM39 on the ERα and PRβ.

  18. Functional interaction between nonreceptor tyrosine kinase c-Abl and SR-Rich protein RBM39

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, Sanyue [Beijing Institute of Biotechnology, 27 Taiping Rd, Haidian District, Beijing 100850 (China); Qu, Xiuhua [General Navy Hospital of PLA, 6 Fucheng Rd, Haidian District, Beijing 100037 (China); Li, Ping; Ma, Qingjun [Beijing Institute of Biotechnology, 27 Taiping Rd, Haidian District, Beijing 100850 (China); Liu, Xuan, E-mail: liux931932@163.com [Beijing Institute of Biotechnology, 27 Taiping Rd, Haidian District, Beijing 100850 (China); Cao, Cheng, E-mail: cao_c@sohu.com [Beijing Institute of Biotechnology, 27 Taiping Rd, Haidian District, Beijing 100850 (China)

    2016-04-22

    RBM39, also known as splicing factor HCC1.4, acts as a transcriptional coactivator for the steroid nuclear receptors JUN/AP-1, ESR1/ER-α and ESR2/ER-β. RBM39 is involved in the regulation of the transcriptional responses of these steroid nuclear receptors and promotes transcriptional initiation. In this paper, we report that RBM39 interacts with the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase c-Abl. Both the Src homology (SH) 2 and SH3 domains of c-Abl interact with RBM39. The major tyrosine phosphorylation sites on RBM39 that are phosphorylated by c-Abl are Y95 and Y99, as demonstrated by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) and mutational analysis. c-Abl was shown boost the transcriptional coactivation activity of RBM39 for ERα and PRβ in a tyrosine kinase-dependent manner. The results suggest that mammalian c-Abl plays an important role in steroid hormone receptor-mediated transcription by regulating RBM39. - Highlights: • c-Abl interacts with RBM39. • RBM39 is phosphorylated by c-Abl. • c-Abl regulates transcriptional coactivation activity of RBM39 on the ERα and PRβ.

  19. Isothiazolidinone (IZD) as a phosphoryl mimetic in inhibitors of the Yersinia pestis protein tyrosine phosphatase YopH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung-Eun; Bahta, Medhanit; Lountos, George T.; Ulrich, Robert G.; Burke, Terrence R. Jr; Waugh, David S.

    2011-01-01

    The first X-ray crystal structure of the Y. pestis protein tyrosine phosphatase YopH in complex with an isothiazolidinone-based lead-fragment compound is reported. Isothiazolidinone (IZD) heterocycles can act as effective components of protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) inhibitors by simultaneously replicating the binding interactions of both a phosphoryl group and a highly conserved water molecule, as exemplified by the structures of several PTP1B–inhibitor complexes. In the first unambiguous demonstration of IZD interactions with a PTP other than PTP1B, it is shown by X-ray crystallography that the IZD motif binds within the catalytic site of the Yersinia pestis PTP YopH by similarly displacing a highly conserved water molecule. It is also shown that IZD-based bidentate ligands can inhibit YopH in a nonpromiscuous fashion at low micromolar concentrations. Hence, the IZD moiety may represent a useful starting point for the development of YopH inhibitors

  20. Role of Zinc and Magnesium Ions in the Modulation of Phosphoryl Transfer in Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellomo, Elisa; Abro, Asma; Hogstrand, Christer; Maret, Wolfgang; Domene, Carmen

    2018-03-28

    While the majority of phosphatases are metalloenzymes, the prevailing model for the reactions catalyzed by protein tyrosine phosphatases does not involve any metal ion, yet both metal cations and oxoanions affect their enzymatic activity. Mg 2+ and Zn 2+ activate and inhibit, respectively, protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B). Molecular dynamics simulations, metadynamics, and quantum chemical calculations in combination with experimental investigations demonstrate that Mg 2+ and Zn 2+ compete for the same binding site in the active site only in the closed conformation of the enzyme in its phosphorylated state. The two cations have different effects on the arrangements and activities of water molecules that are necessary for the hydrolysis of the phosphocysteine intermediate in the second catalytic step of the reaction. Remarkable differences between the established structural enzymology of PTP1B investigated ex vivo and the function of PTP1B in vivo become evident. Different reaction pathways are viable when the presence of metal ions and their cellular concentrations are considered. The findings suggest that the substrate delivers the inhibitory Zn 2+ ion to the active site. The inhibition and activation can be ascribed to the different coordination chemistries of Zn 2+ and Mg 2+ ions and the orientation of the metal-coordinated water molecules. Metallochemistry adds an additional dimension to the regulation of PTP1B and presumably other members of this enzyme family.

  1. Cloning and characterization of R-PTP-kappa, a new member of the receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase family with a proteolytically cleaved cellular adhesion molecule-like extracellular region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Y P; Wang, H; D'Eustachio, P

    1993-01-01

    We describe a new member of the receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase family, R-PTP-kappa, cDNA cloning predicts that R-PTP-kappa is synthesized from a precursor protein of 1,457 amino acids. Its intracellular domain displays the classical tandemly repeated protein tyrosine phosphatase homology, ...

  2. Phosphorylation of human link proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oester, D.A.; Caterson, B.; Schwartz, E.R.

    1986-01-01

    Three link proteins of 48, 44 and 40 kDa were purified from human articular cartilage and identified with monoclonal anti-link protein antibody 8-A-4. Two sets of lower molecular weight proteins of 30-31 kDa and 24-26 kDa also contained link protein epitopes recognized by the monoclonal antibody and were most likely degradative products of the intact link proteins. The link proteins of 48 and 40 kDa were identified as phosphoproteins while the 44 kDa link protein did not contain 32 P. The phosphorylated 48 and 40 kDa link proteins contained approximately 2 moles PO 4 /mole link protein

  3. Tyrosine411 and Arginine410 of Human Serum Albumin Play an Important Role in the Binding of Sodium 4-Phenylbutyrate to Site II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enokida, Taisuke; Yamasaki, Keishi; Okamoto, Yuko; Taguchi, Kazuaki; Ishiguro, Takako; Maruyama, Toru; Seo, Hakaru; Otagiri, Masaki

    2016-06-01

    Sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (PB) has many pharmacological activities; therefore extending its clinical use to the treatment of a wider variety of diseases would be desirable. However, our knowledge of the binding of PB to plasma proteins is not extensive. To address this issue in more detail, we characterized the protein binding of PB. Binding experiments showed that PB mainly binds to human serum albumin (HSA) in plasma. PB was also found to bind to a single site on HSA, which was identified as site II by fluorescent probe displacement experiment. Furthermore, an appropriate alkyl chain length and a carboxylic group in the PB structure were required for PB binding to HSA, suggesting that hydrophobic (and van der Waals) and electrostatic interactions are involved as binding modes. The contributions of hydrogen bonding and/or van der Waals interactions were also indicated by thermodynamic analyses. Tyrosine411 and arginine410 were identified as being involved in the binding of PB to site II, based on binding experiments using chemically modified- and mutant-HSA preparations. In conclusion, the available evidence indicates that PB binds to site II of HSA with assistance by multiple forces and that tyrosine411 and arginine410 both play important roles in this phenomenon. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Identification of potential inhibitors based on compound proposal contest: Tyrosine-protein kinase Yes as a target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Shuntaro; Ikeda, Kazuyoshi; Ishida, Takashi; Gromiha, M Michael; Taguchi, Y-H; Iwadate, Mitsuo; Umeyama, Hideaki; Hsin, Kun-Yi; Kitano, Hiroaki; Yamamoto, Kazuki; Sugaya, Nobuyoshi; Kato, Koya; Okuno, Tatsuya; Chikenji, George; Mochizuki, Masahiro; Yasuo, Nobuaki; Yoshino, Ryunosuke; Yanagisawa, Keisuke; Ban, Tomohiro; Teramoto, Reiji; Ramakrishnan, Chandrasekaran; Thangakani, A Mary; Velmurugan, D; Prathipati, Philip; Ito, Junichi; Tsuchiya, Yuko; Mizuguchi, Kenji; Honma, Teruki; Hirokawa, Takatsugu; Akiyama, Yutaka; Sekijima, Masakazu

    2015-11-26

    A search of broader range of chemical space is important for drug discovery. Different methods of computer-aided drug discovery (CADD) are known to propose compounds in different chemical spaces as hit molecules for the same target protein. This study aimed at using multiple CADD methods through open innovation to achieve a level of hit molecule diversity that is not achievable with any particular single method. We held a compound proposal contest, in which multiple research groups participated and predicted inhibitors of tyrosine-protein kinase Yes. This showed whether collective knowledge based on individual approaches helped to obtain hit compounds from a broad range of chemical space and whether the contest-based approach was effective.

  5. Molecular Mechanisms of SH2- and PTB-Domain-Containing Proteins in Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Melany J.; Stacey, Melissa M.; Liu, Bernard A.; Pawson, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Intracellular signaling is mediated by reversible posttranslational modifications (PTMs) that include phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and acetylation, among others. In response to extracellular stimuli such as growth factors, receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) typically dimerize and initiate signaling through phosphorylation of their cytoplasmic tails and downstream scaffolds. Signaling effectors are recruited to these phosphotyrosine (pTyr) sites primarily through Src homology 2 (SH2) domains and pTyr-binding (PTB) domains. This review describes how these conserved domains specifically recognize pTyr residues and play a major role in mediating precise downstream signaling events. PMID:24296166

  6. Molecular mechanisms of SH2- and PTB-domain-containing proteins in receptor tyrosine kinase signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Melany J; Stacey, Melissa M; Liu, Bernard A; Pawson, Tony

    2013-12-01

    Intracellular signaling is mediated by reversible posttranslational modifications (PTMs) that include phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and acetylation, among others. In response to extracellular stimuli such as growth factors, receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) typically dimerize and initiate signaling through phosphorylation of their cytoplasmic tails and downstream scaffolds. Signaling effectors are recruited to these phosphotyrosine (pTyr) sites primarily through Src homology 2 (SH2) domains and pTyr-binding (PTB) domains. This review describes how these conserved domains specifically recognize pTyr residues and play a major role in mediating precise downstream signaling events.

  7. Effects of experimental hyperthyroidism on protein turnover in skeletal and cardiac muscle as measured by [14C]tyrosine infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, W J; Benjamin, W S; Faas, F H

    1982-04-15

    The effect of T3 (3,3',5-tri-iodothyronine) on protein turnover in skeletal and cardiac muscle was measured in intact rats by means of a 6 h [14C]tyrosine-infusion technique. Treatment with 25-30 micrograms of T3/100 g body wt. daily for 4-7 days increased the fractional rate of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle. Since the fractional growth rate of the muscle was decreased or unchanged, T3 treatment increased the rate of muscle protein breakdown. These findings suggest that increased protein degradation is an important factor in decreasing skeletal-muscle mass in hyperthyroidism. In contrast with skeletal muscle, T3 treatment for 7 days caused an equivalent increase in the rate of cardiac muscle growth and protein synthesis. This suggests that hyperthyroidism does not increase protein breakdown in heart muscle as it does in skeletal muscle. The failure of T3 to increase proteolysis in heart muscle may be due to a different action on the cardiac myocyte or to systemic effects of T3 which increase cardiac work.

  8. Viral Organization of Human Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuchty, Stefan; Siwo, Geoffrey; Ferdig, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    Although maps of intracellular interactions are increasingly well characterized, little is known about large-scale maps of host-pathogen protein interactions. The investigation of host-pathogen interactions can reveal features of pathogenesis and provide a foundation for the development of drugs and disease prevention strategies. A compilation of experimentally verified interactions between HIV-1 and human proteins and a set of HIV-dependency factors (HDF) allowed insights into the topology and intricate interplay between viral and host proteins on a large scale. We found that targeted and HDF proteins appear predominantly in rich-clubs, groups of human proteins that are strongly intertwined among each other. These assemblies of proteins may serve as an infection gateway, allowing the virus to take control of the human host by reaching protein pathways and diversified cellular functions in a pronounced and focused way. Particular transcription factors and protein kinases facilitate indirect interactions between HDFs and viral proteins. Discerning the entanglement of directly targeted and indirectly interacting proteins may uncover molecular and functional sites that can provide novel perspectives on the progression of HIV infection and highlight new avenues to fight this virus. PMID:20827298

  9. Dual role of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B in the progression and reversion of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Águeda González-Rodríguez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is the most common chronic liver disease in Western countries. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B, a negative modulator of insulin and cytokine signaling, is a therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes and obesity. We investigated the impact of PTP1B deficiency during NAFLD, particularly in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH. Methods: NASH features were evaluated in livers from wild-type (PTP1BWT and PTP1B-deficient (PTP1BKO mice fed methionine/choline-deficient diet (MCD for 8 weeks. A recovery model was established by replacing MCD to chow diet (CHD for 2–7 days. Non-parenchymal liver cells (NPCs were analyzed by flow cytometry. Oval cells markers were measured in human and mouse livers with NASH, and in oval cells from PTP1BWT and PTP1BKO mice. Results: PTP1BWT mice fed MCD for 8 weeks exhibited NASH, NPCs infiltration, and elevated Fgf21, Il6 and Il1b mRNAs. These parameters decreased after switching to CHD. PTP1B deficiency accelerated MCD-induced NASH. Conversely, after switching to CHD, PTP1BKO mice rapidly reverted NASH compared to PTP1BWT mice in parallel to the normalization of serum triglycerides (TG levels. Among NPCs, a drop in cytotoxic natural killer T (NKT subpopulation was detected in PTP1BKO livers during recovery, and in these conditions M2 macrophage markers were up-regulated. Oval cells markers (EpCAM and cytokeratin 19 significantly increased during NASH only in PTP1B-deficient livers. HGF-mediated signaling and proliferative capacity were enhanced in PTP1BKO oval cells. In NASH patients, oval cells markers were also elevated. Conclusions: PTP1B elicits a dual role in NASH progression and reversion. Additionally, our results support a new role for PTP1B in oval cell proliferation during NAFLD. Keywords: PTP1B, Steatosis, Steatohepatitis, Inflammation, Oval cells

  10. Deficiency in Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase PTP1B Shortens Lifespan and Leads to Development of Acute Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Sommer, Samantha; Morrice, Nicola; Pesaresi, Martina; Thompson, Dawn; Vickers, Mark A; Murray, Graeme I; Mody, Nimesh; Neel, Benjamin G; Bence, Kendra K; Wilson, Heather M; Delibegović, Mirela

    2018-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B is a critical regulator of signaling pathways controlling metabolic homeostasis, cell proliferation, and immunity. In this study, we report that global or myeloid-specific deficiency of PTP1B in mice decreases lifespan. We demonstrate that myeloid-specific deficiency of PTP1B is sufficient to promote the development of acute myeloid leukemia. LysM-PTP1B -/- mice lacking PTP1B in the innate myeloid cell lineage displayed a dysregulation of bone marrow cells with a rapid decline in population at midlife and a concomitant increase in peripheral blood blast cells. This phenotype manifested further with extramedullary tumors, hepatic macrophage infiltration, and metabolic reprogramming, suggesting increased hepatic lipid metabolism prior to overt tumor development. Mechanistic investigations revealed an increase in anti-inflammatory M2 macrophage responses in liver and spleen, as associated with increased expression of arginase I and the cytokines IL10 and IL4. We also documented STAT3 hypersphosphorylation and signaling along with JAK-dependent upregulation of antiapoptotic proteins Bcl2 and BclXL. Our results establish a tumor suppressor role for PTP1B in the myeloid lineage cells, with evidence that its genetic inactivation in mice is sufficient to drive acute myeloid leukemia. Significance: This study defines a tumor suppressor function for the protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B in myeloid lineage cells, with evidence that its genetic inactivation in mice is sufficient to drive acute myeloid leukemia. Cancer Res; 78(1); 75-87. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  11. Substitution of Active Site Tyrosines with Tryptophan Alters the Free Energy for Nucleotide Flipping by Human Alkyladenine DNA Glycosylase†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendershot, Jenna M.; Wolfe, Abigail E.; O'Brien, Patrick J.

    2011-01-01

    Human alkyladenine DNA glycosylase (AAG) locates and excises a wide variety of structurally diverse alkylated and oxidized purine lesions from DNA to initiate the base excision repair pathway. Recognition of a base lesion requires flipping of the damaged nucleotide into a relatively open active site pocket between two conserved tyrosine residues, Y127 and Y159. We have mutated each of these amino acids to tryptophan and measured the kinetic effects on the nucleotide flipping and base excision steps. The Y127W and Y159W mutant proteins have robust glycosylase activity toward DNA containing 1,N6-ethenoadenine (εA), within 4-fold of that of the wildtype enzyme, raising the possibility that tryptophan fluorescence could be used to probe the DNA binding and nucleotide flipping steps. Stopped-flow fluorescence was used to compare the time-dependent changes in tryptophan fluorescence and εA fluorescence. For both mutants, the tryptophan fluorescence exhibited two-step binding with essentially identical rate constants as were observed for the εA fluorescence changes. These results provide evidence that AAG forms an initial recognition complex in which the active site pocket is perturbed and the stacking of the damaged base is disrupted. Upon complete nucleotide flipping, there is further quenching of the tryptophan fluorescence with coincident quenching of the εA fluorescence. Although these mutations do not have large effects on the rate constant for excision of εA, there are dramatic effects on the rate constants for nucleotide flipping that result in 40 to 100-fold decreases in the flipping equilibrium relative to wildtype. Most of this effect is due to an increased rate of unflipping, but surprisingly the Y159W mutation causes a 5-fold increase in the rate constant for flipping. The large effect on the equilibrium for nucleotide flipping explains the greater deleterious effects that these mutations have on the glycosylase activity toward base lesions that are in

  12. Photoinduced electron transfer for an eosin-tyrosine conjugate. Activity of the tyrosinate anion in long-range electron transfer in a protein-like polymer matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, G. II; Feng, Z.; Oh, C. [Boston Univ., MA (United States)

    1995-03-23

    The Xanthene dye eosin Y has been modified via a thiohydantoin link to the amine terminus of the amino acid L-tyrosine. Photochemical electron transfer involving the singlet state of the dye and the attached phenol-containing residue led to a reduction in eosin fluorescence quantum yield and lifetime for aqueous solutions at elevated pH. The conjugate provided an electron transfer product of relatively long lifetime (1 {mu}s range) observed by flash photolysis of solutions at pH 12.0, conditions under which the tyrosine moiety is ionized. The effects of binding of the conjugate in the polymer poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) on the rates of electron transfer of species of different charge type were examined. 30 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Kinetic alteration of a human dihydrodiol/3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase isoenzyme, AKR1C4, by replacement of histidine-216 with tyrosine or phenylalanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, T; Ishikura, S; Shintani, S; Usami, N; Hara, A

    2000-01-01

    Human dihydrodiol dehydrogenase with 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity exists in four forms (AKR1C1-1C4) that belong to the aldo-keto reductase (AKR) family. Recent crystallographic studies on the other proteins in this family have indicated a role for a tyrosine residue (corresponding to position 216 in these isoenzymes) in stacking the nicotinamide ring of the coenzyme. This tyrosine residue is conserved in most AKR family members including AKR1C1-1C3, but is replaced with histidine in AKR1C4 and phenylalanine in some AKR members. In the present study we prepared mutant enzymes of AKR1C4 in which His-216 was replaced with tyrosine or phenylalanine. The two mutations decreased 3-fold the K(m) for NADP(+) and differently influenced the K(m) and k(cat) for substrates depending on their structures. The kinetic constants for bile acids with a 12alpha-hydroxy group were decreased 1.5-7-fold and those for the other substrates were increased 1.3-9-fold. The mutation also yielded different changes in sensitivity to competitive inhibitors such as hexoestrol analogues, 17beta-oestradiol, phenolphthalein and flufenamic acid and 3,5,3', 5'-tetraiodothyropropionic acid analogues. Furthermore, the mutation decreased the stimulatory effects of the enzyme activity by sulphobromophthalein, clofibric acid and thyroxine, which increased the K(m) for the coenzyme and substrate of the mutant enzymes more highly than those of the wild-type enzyme. These results indicate the importance of this histidine residue in creating the cavity of the substrate-binding site of AKR1C4 through the orientation of the nicotinamide ring of the coenzyme, as well as its involvement in the conformational change by binding non-essential activators. PMID:11104674

  14. Dosimetric estimation of O-(3-18F-fluoropropyl)-L-tyrosine in human based on mice biodistribution data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Ganghua; Wang Mingfang; Luo Lei; Gan Manquan; Tang Xiaolan

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the radiation absorbed doses in humans due to intravenous administration of O-(3- 18 F-fluoropropyl)-L-tyrosine (FPT) based on mice biodistribution data and appraise the security of FPT in humans. Methods: FPT was injected into mice through a tail vein. At 10, 30, 60, 120 and 180 min after injection, the mice were killed by cervical fracture and biodistribution in mice were determined. Human dosimetric estimation was performed from the biodistribution of FPT in mice and the standard MIRD method using fractional radioactivity-time curves for humans. Results: The bone in human was the organ receiving highest dose of 4.29 x 10 -3 mGy/MBq, the brain received lowest dose of 1.57 x 10 -3 mGy/MBq, and other organs received doses between 1.8 x 10 -3 and 2.4 x 10 -3 mGy/MBq. The effective dose was estimated to be 9.15 x 10 -3 mSv/MBq. These results were comparable to values reported by foreign authors on the radiation dosimetry of O-(2- 18 F-fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine. Conclusion: Human dosimetric estimation can be performed based on mice biodistribution data. The study provides an important data for clinical safety of FPT

  15. Human conglutinin-like protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensenius, J C; Thiel, S; Baatrup, G

    1985-01-01

    The presence in human plasma of a molecule homologous to bovine conglutinin is indicated by the results of biological and immunochemical analysis. The human conglutinin-like protein shows calcium-dependent binding to complement-treated solid phase IgG and immunological cross-reaction with chicken...... anti-bovine conglutinin. The binding of the human protein to complement-treated IgG was inhibited by N-acetyl-D-glucosamine but not by other sugars. Analysis by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting showed reaction of anti-conglutinin with molecules of similar mobility to the monomer and hexamer of bovine...

  16. Protein-bound tyrosine oxidation, nitration and chlorination by-products assessed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Cuevas, Isabel; Kuligowski, Julia; Cárcel, María; Cháfer-Pericás, Consuelo; Asensi, Miguel; Solberg, Rønnaug; Cubells, Elena; Nuñez, Antonio; Saugstad, Ola Didrik; Vento, Máximo; Escobar, Javier

    2016-03-24

    Free radicals cause alterations in cellular protein structure and function. Oxidized, nitrated, and chlorinated modifications of aromatic amino acids including phenylalanine and tyrosine are reliable biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation in clinical conditions. To develop, validate and apply a rapid method for the quantification of known hallmarks of tyrosine oxidation, nitration and chlorination in plasma and tissue proteins providing a snapshot of the oxidative stress and inflammatory status of the organism and of target organs respectively. The extraction and clean up procedure entailed protein precipitation, followed by protein re-suspension and enzymatic digestion with pronase. An Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-tandem Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed to quantify protein released ortho-tyrosine (o-Tyr), meta-tyrosine (m-Tyr), 3-nitrotyrosine (3NO2-Tyr) and 3-chlorotyrosine (3Cl-Tyr) as well as native phenylalanine (Phe) and tyrosine (p-Tyr) in plasma and tissue from a validated hypoxic newborn piglet experimental model. In plasma there was a significant increase in the 3NO2-Tyr/p-Tyr ratio. On the other hand m-Tyr/Phe and 3Cl-Tyr/p-Tyr ratios were significantly increased in liver of hypoxic compared with normoxic animals. Although no significant differences were found in brain tissue, a clear tendency to increased ratios was observed under hypoxic conditions. UPLC-MS/MS has proven suitable for the analysis of plasma and tissue samples from newborn piglets. The analysis of biomarkers of protein oxidation, nitration and chlorination will be applied in future studies aiming to provide a deeper insight into the mechanisms of oxidation-derived protein modification caused during neonatal asphyxia and resuscitation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Expression of receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase in developing and adult renal vasculature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Takahashi

    Full Text Available Renal vascular development is a coordinated process that requires ordered endothelial cell proliferation, migration, intercellular adhesion, and morphogenesis. In recent decades, studies have defined the pivotal role of endothelial receptor tyrosine kinases (RPTKs in the development and maintenance of renal vasculature. However, the expression and the role of receptor tyrosine phosphatases (RPTPs in renal endothelium are poorly understood, though coupled and counterbalancing roles of RPTKs and RPTPs are well defined in other systems. In this study, we evaluated the promoter activity and immunolocalization of two endothelial RPTPs, VE-PTP and PTPμ, in developing and adult renal vasculature using the heterozygous LacZ knock-in mice and specific antibodies. In adult kidneys, both VE-PTP and PTPμ were expressed in the endothelium of arterial, glomerular, and medullary vessels, while their expression was highly limited in peritubular capillaries and venous endothelium. VE-PTP and PTPμ promoter activity was also observed in medullary tubular segments in adult kidneys. In embryonic (E12.5, E13.5, E15.5, E17.5 and postnatal (P0, P3, P7 kidneys, these RPTPs were expressed in ingrowing renal arteries, developing glomerular microvasculature (as early as the S-shaped stage, and medullary vessels. Their expression became more evident as the vasculatures matured. Peritubular capillary expression of VE-PTP was also noted in embryonic and postnatal kidneys. Compared to VE-PTP, PTPμ immunoreactivity was relatively limited in embryonic and neonatal renal vasculature and evident immunoreactivity was observed from the P3 stage. These findings indicate 1 VE-PTP and PTPμ are expressed in endothelium of arterial, glomerular, and medullary renal vasculature, 2 their expression increases as renal vascular development proceeds, suggesting that these RPTPs play a role in maturation and maintenance of these vasculatures, and 3 peritubular capillary VE-PTP expression

  18. In vivo modification of tyrosine residues in recombinant mussel adhesive protein by tyrosinase co-expression in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Yoo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In nature, mussel adhesive proteins (MAPs show remarkable adhesive properties, biocompatibility, and biodegradability. Thus, they have been considered promising adhesive biomaterials for various biomedical and industrial applications. However, limited production of natural MAPs has hampered their practical applications. Recombinant production in bacterial cells could be one alternative to obtain useable amounts of MAPs, although additional post-translational modification of tyrosine residues into 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-alanine (Dopa and Dopaquinone is required. The superior properties of MAPs are mainly attributed to the introduction of quinone-derived intermolecular cross-links. To solve this problem, we utilized a co-expression strategy of recombinant MAP and tyrosinase in Escherichia coli to successfully modify tyrosine residues in vivo. Results A recombinant hybrid MAP, fp-151, was used as a target for in vivo modification, and a dual vector system of pET and pACYC-Duet provided co-expression of fp-151 and tyrosinase. As a result, fp-151 was over-expressed and mainly obtained from the soluble fraction in the co-expression system. Without tyrosinase co-expression, fp-151 was over-expressed in an insoluble form in inclusion bodies. The modification of tyrosine residues in the soluble-expressed fp-151 was clearly observed from nitroblue tetrazolium staining and liquid-chromatography-mass/mass spectrometry analyses. The purified, in vivo modified, fp-151 from the co-expression system showed approximately 4-fold higher bulk-scale adhesive strength compared to in vitro tyrosinase-treated fp-151. Conclusion Here, we reported a co-expression system to obtain in vivo modified MAP; additional in vitro tyrosinase modification was not needed to obtain adhesive properties and the in vivo modified MAP showed superior adhesive strength compared to in vitro modified protein. It is expected that this co-expression strategy will accelerate

  19. Apoptosis-related molecular differences for response to tyrosin kinase inhibitors in drug-sensitive and drug-resistant human bladder cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jixia Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR family is reportedly overexpressed in bladder cancer, and tyrosine kinaseinhibitors (TKIs have been suggested as treatment. Gefitinib is a selective inhibitor of the EGFR and lapatinib is a dual inhibitor of both the EGFR and HER2 (human EGFR type 2 receptor. Both compounds compete with the binding of adenosine triphosphate (ATP to the tyrosine kinase domain of the respective receptors to inhibit receptor autophosphorylation causing suppression of signal transduction. Unfortunately, resistance to these inhibitors is a major clinical problem. Aims: To compare the apoptosis signaling pathway(s induced by gefitinib and lapatinib, in UM-UC-5 (drug-sensitive and UM-UC-14 (drug-resistant bladder cancer cells and to identify molecular differences that might be useful predictors of their efficacy. Materials and Methods: Cell proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis assay were used to detect the effect of TKIs on UM-UC-5 and UM-UC-14 cells. Molecular differences for response to TKIs were examined by protein array. Results: TKIs strongly inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell cycle G1 arrest and apoptosis in UM-UC-5 cells. Most notable apoptosis molecular differences included decreased claspin, trail, and survivin by TKIs in the sensitive cells. In contrast, TKIs had no effect on resistant cells. Conclusions: Claspin, trail, and survivin might be used to determine the sensitivity of bladder cancers to TKIs.

  20. ER-bound protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B interacts with Src at the plasma membrane/substrate interface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melisa C Monteleone

    Full Text Available PTP1B is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER anchored enzyme whose access to substrates is partly dependent on the ER distribution and dynamics. One of these substrates, the protein tyrosine kinase Src, has been found in the cytosol, endosomes, and plasma membrane. Here we analyzed where PTP1B and Src physically interact in intact cells, by bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC in combination with temporal and high resolution microscopy. We also determined the structural basis of this interaction. We found that BiFC signal is displayed as puncta scattered throughout the ER network, a feature that was enhanced when the substrate trapping mutant PTP1B-D181A was used. Time-lapse and co-localization analyses revealed that BiFC puncta did not correspond to vesicular carriers; instead they localized at the tip of dynamic ER tubules. BiFC puncta were retained in ventral membrane preparations after cell unroofing and were also detected within the evanescent field of total internal reflection fluorescent microscopy (TIRFM associated to the ventral membranes of whole cells. Furthermore, BiFC puncta often colocalized with dark spots seen by surface reflection interference contrast (SRIC. Removal of Src myristoylation and polybasic motifs abolished BiFC. In addition, PTP1B active site and negative regulatory tyrosine 529 on Src were primary determinants of BiFC occurrence, although the SH3 binding motif on PTP1B also played a role. Our results suggest that ER-bound PTP1B dynamically interacts with the negative regulatory site at the C-terminus of Src at random puncta in the plasma membrane/substrate interface, likely leading to Src activation and recruitment to adhesion complexes. We postulate that this functional ER/plasma membrane crosstalk could apply to a wide array of protein partners, opening an exciting field of research.

  1. Crosstalk between G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs and tyrosine kinase receptor (TXR in the heart after morphine withdrawal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar eAlmela

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs comprise a large family of membrane receptors involved in signal transduction. These receptors are linked to a variety of physiological and biological processes such as regulation of neurotransmission, growth and cell differentiation among others. Some of the effects of GPCRs are known to be mediated by the activation of mitogen-activated extracellular kinase (MAPK pathways. Cross-talk among various signal pathways plays an important role in activation of intracellular and intranuclear signal transduction cascades. Naloxone-induced morphine withdrawal leads to an up-regulation of adenyl cyclase-mediated signalling, resulting in high expression of protein kinase (PK A. In addition, there is also an increased expression of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK, one member of MAPK. For this reason, the crosstalk between these GPCRs and receptors with tyrosine kinase activity (TKR can be considered a possible mechanism for adaptive changes that occurs after morphine withdrawal. Morphine withdrawal activates ERK1/2 and phosphorylated tyrosine hydroxylase (TH at Ser31 in the right and left ventricle. When N-(2-guanidinoethyl-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide (HA-1004, a PKA inhibitor was infused, the ability of morphine withdrawal to activate ERK, which phosphorylates TH at Ser31, was reduced. The present finding demonstrated that the enhancement of ERK1/2 expression and the phosphorylation state of TH at Ser31 during morphine withdrawal are dependent on PKA and suggest cross-talk between PKA and ERK1/2 transduction pathway mediating morphine withdrawal-induced activation of TH. Increasing understanding of the mechanisms that interconnect the two pathway regulated by GPCRs and TKRs may facilitate the design of new therapeutic strategies.

  2. SILAC-based quantification of changes in protein tyrosine phosphorylation induced by Interleukin-2 (IL-2) and IL-15 in T-lymphocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osinalde, Nerea; Sánchez-Quiles, Virginia; Akimov, Vyacheslav

    2015-01-01

    This data article presents the first large-scale quantitative phosphoproteomics dataset generated to decipher the signaling networks initiated by IL-2 and IL-15 in T-lymphocytes. Data was collected by combining immunoprecipitation of tyrosine phosphorylated proteins and TiO2-based phosphopeptide...

  3. Proteins aggregation and human diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chin-Kun

    2015-04-01

    Many human diseases and the death of most supercentenarians are related to protein aggregation. Neurodegenerative diseases include Alzheimer's disease (AD), Huntington's disease (HD), Parkinson's disease (PD), frontotemporallobar degeneration, etc. Such diseases are due to progressive loss of structure or function of neurons caused by protein aggregation. For example, AD is considered to be related to aggregation of Aβ40 (peptide with 40 amino acids) and Aβ42 (peptide with 42 amino acids) and HD is considered to be related to aggregation of polyQ (polyglutamine) peptides. In this paper, we briefly review our recent discovery of key factors for protein aggregation. We used a lattice model to study the aggregation rates of proteins and found that the probability for a protein sequence to appear in the conformation of the aggregated state can be used to determine the temperature at which proteins can aggregate most quickly. We used molecular dynamics and simple models of polymer chains to study relaxation and aggregation of proteins under various conditions and found that when the bending-angle dependent and torsion-angle dependent interactions are zero or very small, then protein chains tend to aggregate at lower temperatures. All atom models were used to identify a key peptide chain for the aggregation of insulin chains and to find that two polyQ chains prefer anti-parallel conformation. It is pointed out that in many cases, protein aggregation does not result from protein mis-folding. A potential drug from Chinese medicine was found for Alzheimer's disease.

  4. Direct association between the Ret receptor tyrosine kinase and the Src homology 2-containing adapter protein Grb7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, A; Liu, X; Dixon, J E; Di Fiore, P P; Dixit, V M

    1996-05-03

    Adapter proteins containing Src homology 2 (SH2) domains link transmembrane receptor protein-tyrosine kinases to downstream signal transducing molecules. A family of SH2 containing adapter proteins including Grb7 and Grb10 has been recently identified. We had previously shown that Grb10 associates with Ret via its SH2 domain in an activation-dependent manner (Pandey, A., Duan, H., Di Fiore, P.P., and Dixit, V.M. (1995) J. Biol, Chem. 270, 21461-21463). We now demonstrate that the related adapter molecule Grb7 also associates with Ret in vitro and in vivo, and that the binding of the SH2 domain of Grb7 to Ret is direct. This binding is dependent upon Ret autophosphorylation since Grb7 is incapable of binding a kinase-defective mutant of Ret. Thus two members of the Grb family, Grb7 and Grb10, likely relay signals emanating from Ret to other, as yet, unidentified targets within the cell.

  5. Inactivation and unfolding of protein tyrosine phosphatase from Thermus thermophilus HB27 during urea and guanidine hydrochloride denaturation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yejing Wang

    Full Text Available The effects of urea and guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl on the activity, conformation and unfolding process of protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPase, a thermostable low molecular weight protein from Thermus thermophilus HB27, have been studied. Enzymatic activity assays showed both urea and GdnHCl resulted in the inactivation of PTPase in a concentration and time-dependent manner. Inactivation kinetics analysis suggested that the inactivation of PTPase induced by urea and GdnHCl were both monophasic and reversible processes, and the effects of urea and GdnHCl on PTPase were similar to that of mixed-type reversible inhibitors. Far-ultraviolet (UV circular dichroism (CD, Tryptophan and 1-anilinonaphthalene -8-sulfonic acid (ANS fluorescence spectral analyses indicated the existence of a partially active and an inactive molten globule-like intermediate during the unfolding processes induced by urea and GdnHCl, respectively. Based on the sequence alignment and the homolog Tt1001 protein structure, we discussed the possible conformational transitions of PTPase induced by urea and GdnHCl and compared the conformations of these unfolding intermediates with the transient states in bovine PTPase and its complex structures in detail. Our results may be able to provide some valuable clues to reveal the relationship between the structure and enzymatic activity, and the unfolding pathway and mechanism of PTPase.

  6. IP3 production in the hypersensitive response of lemon seedlings against Alternaria alternata involves active protein tyrosine kinases but not a G-protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XIMENA ORTEGA

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available IP3 increase and de novo synthesis of scoparone are produced in the hypersensitive response (HR of lemon seedlings against the fungus Alternaria alternata. To elucidate whether a G-protein and/or a protein tyrosine kinase (PTK are involved in signal transduction leading to the production of such a defensive response, we studied the HR in this plant system after treatment with G-protein activators alone and PTK inhibitors in the presence of fungal conidia. No changes in the level of IP3 were detected in response to the treatment with the G-protein activators cholera toxin or mastoparan, although the HR was observed in response to these compounds as determined by the scoparone synthesis. On the contrary, the PTK inhibitors lavendustin A and 2,5-dihidroxy methyl cinnamate (DHMC not only prevented the IP3 changes observed in response to the fungal inoculation of lemon seedlings but also blocked the development of the HR. These results suggest that the IP3 changes observed in response to A. alternata require a PTK activity and are the result of a G-protein independent Phospholipase C activity, even though the activation of a G-protein can also lead to the development of a HR. Therefore, it appears that more than one signaling pathway may be activated for the development of HR in lemon seedlings: one involving a G-protein and the other involving a PTK-dependent PLC.

  7. Association between receptor protein-tyrosine phosphatase RPTPalpha and the Grb2 adaptor. Dual Src homology (SH) 2/SH3 domain requirement and functional consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, J; Yang, L T; Sap, J

    1996-01-01

    domain in Grb2 (, ). We show here that association of Grb2 with RPTPalpha also involves a critical function for the C-terminal SH3 domain of Grb2. Furthermore, Grb2 SH3 binding peptides interfere with RPTPalpha-Grb2 association in vitro, and the RPTPalpha protein can dissociate the Grb2-Sos complex...... in vivo. These observations constitute a novel mode of Grb2 association and suggest a model in which association with a tyrosine-phosphorylated protein restricts the repertoire of SH3 binding proteins with which Grb2 can simultaneously interact. The function of the Tyr798 tyrosine phosphorylation/Grb2...... binding site in RPTPalpha was studied further by expression of wild type or mutant RPTPalpha proteins in PC12 cells. In these cells, wild type RPTPalpha interferes with acidic fibroblast growth factor-induced neurite outgrowth; this effect requires both the catalytic activity and the Grb2 binding Tyr798...

  8. SAM domain-dependent activity of PfTKL3, an essential tyrosine kinase-like kinase of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Abdirahman; Eschenlauer, Sylvain; Reininger, Luc; Doerig, Christian

    2010-10-01

    Over the last decade, several protein kinases inhibitors have reached the market for cancer chemotherapy. The kinomes of pathogens represent potentially attractive targets in infectious diseases. The functions of the majority of protein kinases of Plasmodium falciparum, the parasitic protist responsible for the most virulent form of human malaria, remain unknown. Here we present a thorough characterisation of PfTKL3 (PF13_0258), an enzyme that belongs to the tyrosine kinase-like kinase (TKL) group. We demonstrate by reverse genetics that PfTKL3 is essential for asexual parasite proliferation in human erythrocytes. PfTKL3 is expressed in both asexual and gametocytes stages, and in the latter the protein co-localises with cytoskeleton microtubules. Recombinant PfTKL3 displays in vitro autophosphorylation activity and is able to phosphorylate exogenous substrates, and both activities are dramatically dependent on the presence of an N-terminal "sterile alpha-motif" domain. This study identifies PfTKL3 as a validated drug target amenable to high-throughput screening.

  9. Mutations of the central tyrosines of putative cholesterol recognition amino acid consensus (CRAC) sequences modify folding, activity, and sterol-sensing of the human ABCG2 multidrug transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gál, Zita; Hegedüs, Csilla; Szakács, Gergely; Váradi, András; Sarkadi, Balázs; Özvegy-Laczka, Csilla

    2015-02-01

    Human ABCG2 is a plasma membrane glycoprotein causing multidrug resistance in cancer. Membrane cholesterol and bile acids are efficient regulators of ABCG2 function, while the molecular nature of the sterol-sensing sites has not been elucidated. The cholesterol recognition amino acid consensus (CRAC, L/V-(X)(1-5)-Y-(X)(1-5)-R/K) sequence is one of the conserved motifs involved in cholesterol binding in several proteins. We have identified five potential CRAC motifs in the transmembrane domain of the human ABCG2 protein. In order to define their roles in sterol-sensing, the central tyrosines of these CRACs (Y413, 459, 469, 570 and 645) were mutated to S or F and the mutants were expressed both in insect and mammalian cells. We found that mutation in Y459 prevented protein expression; the Y469S and Y645S mutants lost their activity; while the Y570S, Y469F, and Y645F mutants retained function as well as cholesterol and bile acid sensitivity. We found that in the case of the Y413S mutant, drug transport was efficient, while modulation of the ATPase activity by cholesterol and bile acids was significantly altered. We suggest that the Y413 residue within a putative CRAC motif has a role in sterol-sensing and the ATPase/drug transport coupling in the ABCG2 multidrug transporter. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Protein Crystal Recombinant Human Insulin

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The comparison of protein crystal, Recombiant Human Insulin; space-grown (left) and earth-grown (right). On STS-60, Spacehab II indicated that space-grown crystals are larger and of greater optical clarity than their earth-grown counterparts. Recombiant Human Insulin facilitates the incorporation of glucose into cells. In diabetics, there is either a decrease in or complete lack of insulin, thereby leading to several harmful complications. Principal Investigator is Larry DeLucas.

  11. Characterization of a yeast sporulation-specific P450 family protein, Dit2, using an in vitro assay to crosslink formyl tyrosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemena, Leo D; Mukama, Omar; Wang, Ning; Gao, Xiao-Dong; Nakanishi, Hideki

    2018-02-01

    The outermost layer of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae spore, termed the dityrosine layer, is primarily composed of bisformyl dityrosine. Bisformyl dityrosine is produced in the spore cytosol by crosslinking of two formyl tyrosine molecules, after which it is transported to the nascent spore wall and assembled into the dityrosine layer by an unknown mechanism. A P450 family protein, Dit2, is believed to mediate the crosslinking of bisformyl dityrosine molecules. To characterize Dit2 and gain insight into the biological process of dityrosine layer formation, we performed an in vitro assay to crosslink formyl tyrosine with using permeabilized cells. For an unknown reason, the production of bisformyl dityrosine could not be confirmed under our experimental conditions, but dityrosine was detected in acid hydrolysates of the reaction mixtures in a Dit2 dependent manner. Thus, Dit2 mediated the crosslinking of formyl tyrosine in vitro. Dityrosine was detected when formyl tyrosine, but not tyrosine, was used as a substrate and the reaction required NADPH as a cofactor. Intriguingly, apart from Dit2, we found that the spore wall, but not the vegetative cell wall, contains bisformyl dityrosine crosslinking activity. This activity may be involved in the assembly of the dityrosine layer. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  12. Evidence for radical-oxidation of plasma proteins in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, D.; Davies, M.; Dean, R.; Fu, S.; Taurins, A.; Sullivans, D.

    1998-01-01

    Oxidation of proteins by radicals has been implicated in many pathological processes. The hydroxyl radical is known to generate protein-bound hydroxylated derivatives of amino acids, for example hydroxyvaline (from Val), hydroxyleucine (from Leu), o-tyrosine (from Phe), and DOPA (from Tyr). In this study, we have investigated the occurrence of these oxidised amino acids in human plasma proteins from both normal subjects and dialysis patients. By employing previously established HPLC methods [Fu et al. Biochemical Journal, 330, 233-239, 1998], we have found that oxidised amino acids exist in normal human plasma proteins (n=32). The level of these oxidised amino acids is not correlated to age. Similar levels of oxidised amino acids are found in the plasma proteins of the dialysis patients (n=6), but a more detailed survey is underway. The relative abundance of the oxidised amino acids is similar to that resulting from oxidation of BSA by hydroxy radicals or Fenton systems [Fu et al. Biochemical Journal, 333, 519-525, 1998]. The results suggest that metal-ion catalysed oxyl-radical chemistry may be a key contributor to the oxidative damage in plasma proteins in vivo in humans

  13. The Buecherer-Strecker synthesis of D- and L-(1-11C)tyrosine and the in vivo study of 0100L-(1-11C)tyrosine in human brain using positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halldin, C.; Wiesel, F.A.

    1987-01-01

    The synthesis of D- and L-(1- 11 C)tyrosine, starting with 11 C-cyanide, is reported. DL-(1- 11 C)tyrosine was prepared by the Buecherer-Strecker reaction, from carrier added 11 C-cyanide with an incorporation of 80% in 20 min. The isolation of the pure D- and L-amino acid isomers from the enantiomeric mixture was accomplished within 15 min by preparative HPLC using a chiral stationary phase and a phosphate buffer as the mobile phase. Typically, the total synthesis time was 50 min (including purification) from end of trapping of 11 C-cyanide, with a radiochemical yield of D- and L-amino acid of 40%-60%. The D- and L-(1- 11 C)tyrosine were both obtained optically pure, with a carrier added specific activity of 0.3-0.5 Ci/mmol and a radiochemical purity better than 99%. The 11 C labelled L-tyrosine was used in an in vivo study in the human brain using positron emission tomography (PET). (orig.)

  14. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is required for cardiac lineage differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshkiki, Zahra Shokati; Ghahremani, Mohammad Hossein; Shabani, Parisa; Firuzjaee, Sattar Gorgani; Sadeghi, Asie; Ghanbarian, Hossein; Meshkani, Reza

    2017-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) has been shown to regulate multiple cellular events such as differentiation, cell growth, and proliferation; however, the role of PTP1B in differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) cells into cardiomyocytes remains unexplored. In the present study, we investigated the effects of PTP1B inhibition on differentiation of ES cells into cardiomyocytes. PTP1B mRNA and protein levels were increased during the differentiation of ES cells into cardiomyocytes. Accordingly, a stable ES cell line expressing PTP1B shRNA was established. In vitro, the number and size of spontaneously beating embryoid bodies were significantly decreased in PTP1B-knockdown cells, compared with the control cells. Decreased expression of cardiac-specific markers Nkx2-5, MHC-α, cTnT, and CX43, as assessed by real-time PCR analysis, was further confirmed by immunocytochemistry of the markers. The results also showed that PTP1B inhibition induced apoptosis in both differentiated and undifferentiated ES cells, as presented by increasing the level of cleaved caspase-3, cytochrome C, and cleaved PARP. Further analyses revealed that PTP1B inhibition did not change proliferation and pluripotency of undifferentiated ES cells. Taken together, the data presented here suggest that PTP1B is essential for proper differentiation of ES cells into cardiomyocytes.

  15. Tyrosine phosphorylation in T cells is regulated by phosphatase activity: studies with phenylarsine oxide.

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Morales, P; Minami, Y; Luong, E; Klausner, R D; Samelson, L E

    1990-01-01

    Activation of T cells induces rapid tyrosine phosphorylation on the T-cell receptor zeta chain and other substrates. These phosphorylations can be regulated by a number of protein-tyrosine kinases (ATP: protein-tyrosine O-phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.1.112) and protein-tyrosine-phosphatases (protein-tyrosine-phosphate phosphohydrolase, EC 3.1.3.48). In this study, we demonstrate that phenylarsine oxide can inhibit tyrosine phosphatases while leaving tyrosine kinase function intact. We use this ...

  16. A novel strategy for the development of selective active-site inhibitors of the protein tyrosine phosphatase-like proteins islet-cell antigen 512 (IA-2) and phogrin (IA-2beta).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drake, P.G.; Peters, G.H.; Andersen, H.S.; Hendriks, W.J.A.J.; Moller, N.P.

    2003-01-01

    Islet-cell antigen 512 (IA-2) and phogrin (IA-2beta) are atypical members of the receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family that are characterized by a lack of activity against conventional PTP substrates. The physiological role(s) of these proteins remain poorly defined, although recent

  17. Ortho- and meta-tyrosine formation from phenylalanine in human saliva as a marker of hydroxyl radical generation during betel quid chewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, U J; Nair, J; Friesen, M D; Bartsch, H; Ohshima, H

    1995-05-01

    The habit of betel quid chewing, common in South-East Asia and the South Pacific islands, is causally associated with an increased risk of oral cancer. Reactive oxygen species formed from polyphenolic betel quid ingredients and lime at alkaline pH have been implicated as the agents responsible for DNA and tissue damage. To determine whether hydroxyl radical (HO.) is generated in the human oral cavity during chewing of betel quid, the formation of o- and m-tyrosine from L-phenylalanine was measured. Both o- and m-tyrosine were formed in vitro in the presence of extracts of areca nut and/or catechu, transition metal ions such as Cu2+ and Fe2+ and lime or sodium carbonate (alkaline pH). Omission of any of these ingredients from the reaction mixture significantly reduced the yield of tyrosines. Hydroxyl radical scavengers such as ethanol, D-mannitol and dimethylsulfoxide inhibited the phenylalanine oxidation in a dose-dependent fashion. Five volunteers chewed betel quid consisting of betel leaf, areca nut, catechu and slaked lime (without tobacco). Their saliva, collected after chewing betel quid, contained high concentrations of p-tyrosine, but no appreciable amounts of o- or m-tyrosine. Saliva samples from the same subjects after chewing betel quid to which 20 mg phenylalanine had been added contained o- and m-tyrosine at concentrations ranging from 1010 to 3000 nM and from 1110 to 3140 nM respectively. These levels were significantly higher (P betel quid, which ranged from 14 to 70 nM for o-tyrosine and from 10 to 35 nM for m-tyrosine. These studies clearly demonstrate that the HO. radical is formed in the human oral cavity during betel quid chewing and is probably implicated in the genetic damage that has been observed in oral epithelial cells of chewers.

  18. Engineering of kinase-based protein interacting devices: active expression of tyrosine kinase domains

    KAUST Repository

    Diaz Galicia, Miriam Escarlet

    2018-01-01

    is then translated into a FRET (Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer) signal is here proposed. To this end, DNA constructs for interaction amplification (split kinases), positive controls (intact kinase domains), scaffolding proteins and phosphopeptide - SH2-domain

  19. Proteins aggregation and human diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Chin-Kun

    2015-01-01

    Many human diseases and the death of most supercentenarians are related to protein aggregation. Neurodegenerative diseases include Alzheimer's disease (AD), Huntington's disease (HD), Parkinson's disease (PD), frontotemporallobar degeneration, etc. Such diseases are due to progressive loss of structure or function of neurons caused by protein aggregation. For example, AD is considered to be related to aggregation of Aβ40 (peptide with 40 amino acids) and Aβ42 (peptide with 42 amino acids) and HD is considered to be related to aggregation of polyQ (polyglutamine) peptides. In this paper, we briefly review our recent discovery of key factors for protein aggregation. We used a lattice model to study the aggregation rates of proteins and found that the probability for a protein sequence to appear in the conformation of the aggregated state can be used to determine the temperature at which proteins can aggregate most quickly. We used molecular dynamics and simple models of polymer chains to study relaxation and aggregation of proteins under various conditions and found that when the bending-angle dependent and torsion-angle dependent interactions are zero or very small, then protein chains tend to aggregate at lower temperatures. All atom models were used to identify a key peptide chain for the aggregation of insulin chains and to find that two polyQ chains prefer anti-parallel conformation. It is pointed out that in many cases, protein aggregation does not result from protein mis-folding. A potential drug from Chinese medicine was found for Alzheimer's disease. (paper)

  20. Multisite tyrosine phosphorylation of the N-terminus of Mint1/X11α by Src kinase regulates the trafficking of amyloid precursor protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunning, Christopher J R; Black, Hannah L; Andrews, Katie L; Davenport, Elizabeth C; Conboy, Michael; Chawla, Sangeeta; Dowle, Adam A; Ashford, David; Thomas, Jerry R; Evans, Gareth J O

    2016-05-01

    Mint/X11 is one of the four neuronal trafficking adaptors that interact with amyloid precursor protein (APP) and are linked with its cleavage to generate β-amyloid peptide, a key player in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease. How APP switches between adaptors at different stages of the secretory pathway is poorly understood. Here, we show that tyrosine phosphorylation of Mint1 regulates the destination of APP. A canonical SH2-binding motif ((202) YEEI) was identified in the N-terminus of Mint1 that is phosphorylated on tyrosine by C-Src and recruits the active kinase for sequential phosphorylation of further tyrosines (Y191 and Y187). A single Y202F mutation in the Mint1 N-terminus inhibits C-Src binding and tyrosine phosphorylation. Previous studies observed that co-expression of wild-type Mint1 and APP causes accumulation of APP in the trans-Golgi. Unphosphorylatable Mint1 (Y202F) or pharmacological inhibition of Src reduced the accumulation of APP in the trans-Golgi of heterologous cells. A similar result was observed in cultured rat hippocampal neurons where Mint1(Y202F) permitted the trafficking of APP to more distal neurites than the wild-type protein. These data underline the importance of the tyrosine phosphorylation of Mint1 as a critical switch for determining the destination of APP. The regulation of amyloid precursor protein (APP) trafficking is poorly understood. We have discovered that the APP adapter, Mint1, is phosphorylated by C-Src kinase. Mint1 causes APP accumulation in the trans-Golgi network, whereas inhibition of Src or mutation of Mint1-Y202 permits APP recycling. The phosphorylation status of Mint1 could impact on the pathological trafficking of APP in Alzheimer's disease. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Society for Neurochemistry.

  1. Cell surface expression of channel catfish leukocyte immune-type receptors (IpLITRs) and recruitment of both Src homology 2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase (SHP)-1 and SHP-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Benjamin C S; Mewes, Jacqueline; Davidson, Chelsea; Burshtyn, Deborah N; Stafford, James L

    2009-04-01

    Channel catfish leukocyte immune-type receptors (IpLITRs) are immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) members believed to play a role in the control and coordination of cellular immune responses in teleost. Putative stimulatory and inhibitory IpLITRs are co-expressed by different types of catfish immune cells (e.g. NK cells, T cells, B cells, and macrophages) but their signaling potential has not been determined. Following cationic polymer-mediated transfections into human cell lines we examined the surface expression, tyrosine phosphorylation, and phosphatase recruitment potential of two types of putative inhibitory IpLITRs using 'chimeric' expression constructs and an epitope-tagged 'native' IpLITR. We also cloned and expressed the teleost Src homology 2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatases (SHP)-1 and SHP-2 and examined their expression in adult tissues and developing zebrafish embryos. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments support the inhibitory signaling potential of distinct IpLITR-types that bound both SHP-1 and SHP-2 following the phosphorylation of tyrosine residues within their cytoplasmic tail (CYT) regions. Phosphatase recruitment by IpLITRs represents an important first step in understanding their influence on immune cell effector functions and suggests that certain inhibitory signaling pathways are conserved among vertebrates.

  2. A Dual Role for the Nonreceptor Tyrosine Kinase Pyk2 during the Intracellular Trafficking of Human Papillomavirus 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschalk, Elinor Y; Meneses, Patricio I

    2015-09-01

    The infectious process of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) has been studied considerably, and many cellular components required for viral entry and trafficking continue to be revealed. In this study, we investigated the role of the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase Pyk2 during HPV16 pseudovirion infection of human keratinocytes. We found that Pyk2 is necessary for infection and appears to be involved in the intracellular trafficking of the virus. Small interfering RNA-mediated reduction of Pyk2 resulted in a significant decrease in infection but did not prevent viral entry at the plasma membrane. Pyk2 depletion resulted in altered endolysosomal trafficking of HPV16 and accelerated unfolding of the viral capsid. Furthermore, we observed retention of the HPV16 pseudogenome in the trans-Golgi network (TGN) in Pyk2-depleted cells, suggesting that the kinase could be required for the viral DNA to exit the TGN. While Pyk2 has previously been shown to function during the entry of enveloped viruses at the plasma membrane, the kinase has not yet been implicated in the intracellular trafficking of a nonenveloped virus such as HPV. Additionally, these data enrich the current literature on Pyk2's function in human keratinocytes. In this study, we investigated the role of the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase Pyk2 during human papillomavirus (HPV) infection of human skin cells. Infections with high-risk types of HPV such as HPV16 are the leading cause of cervical cancer and a major cause of genital and oropharyngeal cancer. As a nonenveloped virus, HPV enters cells by interacting with cellular receptors and established cellular trafficking routes to ensure that the viral DNA reaches the nucleus for productive infection. This study identified Pyk2 as a cellular component required for the intracellular trafficking of HPV16 during infection. Understanding the infectious pathways of HPVs is critical for developing additional preventive therapies. Furthermore, this study advances our knowledge of

  3. A genomic perspective on protein tyrosine phosphatases: gene structure, pseudogenes, and genetic disease linkage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jannik N; Jansen, Peter G; Echwald, Søren M

    2004-01-01

    sequence databases, we discovered one novel human PTP gene and defined chromosomal loci and exon structure of the additional 37 genes encoding known PTP transcripts. Direct orthologs were present in the mouse genome for all 38 human PTP genes. In addition, we identified 12 PTP pseudogenes unique to humans...... that have probably contaminated previous bioinformatics analysis of this gene family. PCR amplification and transcript sequencing indicate that some PTP pseudogenes are expressed, but their function (if any) is unknown. Furthermore, we analyzed the enhanced diversity generated by alternative splicing...

  4. Irradiation and various cytotoxic drugs enhance tyrosine phosphorylation and β1-integrin clustering in human A549 lung cancer cells in a substratum-dependent manner in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordes, N.; Beinke, C.; Beuningen, D. van; Plasswilm, L.

    2004-01-01

    Background and purpose: interactions of cells with a substratum, especially extracellular matrix proteins, initiate clustering of integrin receptors in the cell membrane. This process represents the initial step for the activation of signaling pathways regulating survival, proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, and migration, and could, furthermore, be important for cellular resistance-mediating mechanisms against radiation or cytotoxic drugs. The lack of data elucidating the impact of irradiation or cytotoxic drugs on this important phenomenon led to this study on human A549 lung cancer cells in vitro. Material and methods: the human lung carcinoma cell line A549 grown on polystyrene or fibronectin (FN) was irradiated with 0-8 Gy or treated with cisplatin (0.1-50 μM), paclitaxel (0.1-50 nM), or mitomycin (0.1-50 μM). Colony formation assays, immunofluorescence staining in combination with activation of integrin clustering using anti-β 1 -integrin antibodies (K20), and Western blotting for tyrosine phosphorylation under treatment of cells with the IC 50 for irradiation (2 Gy; IC 50 = 2.2 Gy), cisplatin (2 μM), paclitaxel (5 nM), or mitomycin (7 μM) were performed. Results: attachment of cells to FN resulted in a significantly reduced radio- and chemosensitivity compared to polystyrene. The clustering of β 1 -integrins examined by immunofluorescence staining was only stimulated by irradiation, cisplatin, paclitaxel, or mitomycin in case of cell attachment to FN. By contrast, tyrosine phosphorylation, as one of the major events following β 1 -integrin clustering, showed a 3.7-fold, FN-related enhancement, and treatment of cells with the IC 50 of radiation, cisplatin, paclitaxel, or mitomycin showed a substratum-dependent induction. Conclusion: for the first time, a strong influence of irradiation and a variety of cytotoxic drugs on the clustering of β 1 -integrins could be shown. This event is a prerequisite for tyrosine phosphorylation and, thus, the

  5. Dynamic gene and protein expression patterns of the autism-associated met receptor tyrosine kinase in the developing mouse forebrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judson, Matthew C; Bergman, Mica Y; Campbell, Daniel B; Eagleson, Kathie L; Levitt, Pat

    2009-04-10

    The establishment of appropriate neural circuitry depends on the coordination of multiple developmental events across space and time. These events include proliferation, migration, differentiation, and survival-all of which can be mediated by hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) signaling through the Met receptor tyrosine kinase. We previously found a functional promoter variant of the MET gene to be associated with autism spectrum disorder, suggesting that forebrain circuits governing social and emotional function may be especially vulnerable to developmental disruptions in HGF/Met signaling. However, little is known about the spatiotemporal distribution of Met expression in the forebrain during the development of such circuits. To advance our understanding of the neurodevelopmental influences of Met activation, we employed complementary Western blotting, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry to comprehensively map Met transcript and protein expression throughout perinatal and postnatal development of the mouse forebrain. Our studies reveal complex and dynamic spatiotemporal patterns of expression during this period. Spatially, Met transcript is localized primarily to specific populations of projection neurons within the neocortex and in structures of the limbic system, including the amygdala, hippocampus, and septum. Met protein appears to be principally located in axon tracts. Temporally, peak expression of transcript and protein occurs during the second postnatal week. This period is characterized by extensive neurite outgrowth and synaptogenesis, supporting a role for the receptor in these processes. Collectively, these data suggest that Met signaling may be necessary for the appropriate wiring of forebrain circuits, with particular relevance to the social and emotional dimensions of behavior. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Sampling the genomic pool of protein tyrosine kinase genes using the polymerase chain reaction with genomic DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates, A C; Wollberg, P; Achen, M G; Wilks, A F

    1998-08-28

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR), with cDNA as template, has been widely used to identify members of protein families from many species. A major limitation of using cDNA in PCR is that detection of a family member is dependent on temporal and spatial patterns of gene expression. To circumvent this restriction, and in order to develop a technique that is broadly applicable we have tested the use of genomic DNA as PCR template to identify members of protein families in an expression-independent manner. This test involved amplification of DNA encoding protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) genes from the genomes of three animal species that are well known development models; namely, the mouse Mus musculus, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, and the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans. Ten PTK genes were identified from the mouse, 13 from the fruit fly, and 13 from the nematode worm. Among these kinases were 13 members of the PTK family that had not been reported previously. Selected PTKs from this screen were shown to be expressed during development, demonstrating that the amplified fragments did not arise from pseudogenes. This approach will be useful for the identification of many novel members of gene families in organisms of agricultural, medical, developmental and evolutionary significance and for analysis of gene families from any species, or biological sample whose habitat precludes the isolation of mRNA. Furthermore, as a tool to hasten the discovery of members of gene families that are of particular interest, this method offers an opportunity to sample the genome for new members irrespective of their expression pattern.

  7. Phenylketonuria : tyrosine supplementation in phenylalanine-restricted diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Spronsen, FJ; van Rijn, M; Bekhof, J; Koch, R; Smit, PGA

    Treatment of phenylketonuria (PKU) consists of restriction of natural protein and provision of a protein substitute that lacks phenylalanine but is enriched in tyrosine. Large and unexplained differences exist, however, in the tyrosine enrichment of the protein substitutes. Furthermore, some

  8. Chronic restraint stress induces sperm acrosome reaction and changes in testicular tyrosine phosphorylated proteins in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supatcharee Arun

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stress is a cause of male infertility. Although sex hormones and sperm quality have been shown to be low in stress, sperm physiology and testicular functional proteins, such as phosphotyrosine proteins, have not been documented. Objective: To investigate the acrosome status and alterations of testicular proteins involved in spermatogenesis and testosterone synthesis in chronic stress in rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, male rats were divided into 2 groups (control and chronic stress (CS, n=7. CS rats were immobilized (4 hr/day for 42 consecutive days. The blood glucose level (BGL, corticosterone, testosterone, acrosome status, and histopathology were examined. The expressions of testicular steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR, cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage (CYP11A1, and phosphorylated proteins were analyzed. Results: Results showed that BGL (71.25±2.22 vs. 95.60±3.36 mg/dl, corticosterone level (24.33±4.23 vs. 36.9±2.01 ng/ml, acrosome reacted sperm (3.25±1.55 vs. 17.71±5.03%, and sperm head abnormality (3.29±0.71 vs. 6.21±1.18% were significantly higher in CS group in comparison with control. In contrast, seminal vesicle (0.41±0.05 vs. 0.24±0.07 g/100g, testosterone level (3.37±0.79 vs. 0.61±0.29 ng/ml, and sperm concentration (115.33±7.70 vs. 79.13±3.65×106 cells/ml of CS were significantly lower (p<0.05 than controls. Some atrophic seminiferous tubules and low sperm mass were apparent in CS rats. The expression of CYP11A1 except StAR protein was markedly decreased in CS rats. In contrast, a 55 kDa phosphorylated protein was higher in CS testes. Conclusion: CS decreased the expression of CYP11A, resulting in decreased testosterone, and increased acrosome-reacted sperm, assumed to be the result of an increase of 55 kDa phosphorylated protein.

  9. Human plasminogen binding protein tetranectin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastrup, J S; Rasmussen, H; Nielsen, B B

    1997-01-01

    The recombinant human plasminogen binding protein tetranectin (TN) and the C-type lectin CRD of this protein (TN3) have been crystallized. TN3 crystallizes in the tetragonal space group P4(2)2(1)2 with cell dimensions a = b = 64.0, c = 75.7 A and with one molecule per asymmetric unit. The crystals...... to at least 2.5 A. A full data set has been collected to 3.0 A. The asymmetric unit contains one monomer of TN. Molecular replacement solutions for TN3 and TN have been obtained using the structure of the C-type lectin CRD of rat mannose-binding protein as search model. The rhombohedral space group indicates...

  10. Evidence for in vivo phosphorylation of the Grb2 SH2-domain binding site on focal adhesion kinase by Src-family protein-tyrosine kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaepfer, D D; Hunter, T

    1996-10-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a nonreceptor protein-tyrosine kinase (PTK) that associates with integrin receptors and participates in extracellular matrix-mediated signal transduction events. We showed previously that the c-Src nonreceptor PTK and the Grb2 SH2/SH3 adaptor protein bound directly to FAK after fibronectin stimulation (D. D. Schlaepfer, S.K. Hanks, T. Hunter, and P. van der Geer, Nature [London] 372:786-791, 1994). Here, we present evidence that c-Src association with FAK is required for Grb2 binding to FAK. Using a tryptic phosphopeptide mapping approach, the in vivo phosphorylation of the Grb2 binding site on FAK (Tyr-925) was detected after fibronectin stimulation of NIH 3T3 cells and was constitutively phosphorylated in v-Src-transformed NIH 3T3 cells. In vitro, c-Src phosphorylated FAK Tyr-925 in a glutathione S-transferase-FAK C-terminal domain fusion protein, whereas FAK did not. Using epitope-tagged FAK constructs, transiently expressed in human 293 cells, we determined the effect of site-directed mutations on c-Src and Grb2 binding to FAK. Mutation of FAK Tyr-925 disrupted Grb2 binding, whereas mutation of the c-Src binding site on FAK (Tyr-397) disrupted both c-Src and Grb2 binding to FAK in vivo. These results support a model whereby Src-family PTKs are recruited to FAK and focal adhesions following integrin-induced autophosphorylation and exposure of FAK Tyr-397. Src-family binding and phosphorylation of FAK at Tyr-925 creates a Grb2 SH2-domain binding site and provides a link to the activation of the Ras signal transduction pathway. In Src-transformed cells, this pathway may be constitutively activated as a result of FAK Tyr-925 phosphorylation in the absence of integrin stimulation.

  11. A study on the protein-tyrosine kinase inhibitor, Genistein against radiation mortality on Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lata, Manju; Patni, Shikha; Gaur, Ajay; Bhatia, A.L.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The radioprotective effects of an acute administration of the isoflavone, Genistein (4', 5, 7-trihydroxyflavone) obtained from Soya foods has been investigated in adult mice. Genistein is also classified as a phytoestrogen. Genistein (4', 5, 7-trihydroxyflavone) is a naturally occurring isoflavone mainly found in legumes, such as soyabeans. Genistein has gained increasing attention because of its association with beneficial effects for treatment of cardiovascular disease, high blood pressure, osteoporosis, breast cancer, and prostate cancer. Genistein block protein-tyrosine kinase and other enzymes that trigger tumor formation. Genistein apparently reverse the process in which cancerous cells loose their individual identity. Mice were administered with different doses (100, 200, 300 and 400 mg/kg body weight) of Genistein before 8 Gy gamma radiations and optimum dose (200 mg/kg) was worked out for the experiment. The dose of Genistein (200 mg/kg) was administered intra peritoneally (I.P.; in 0.5 ml) to mice 15 minutes and 24 hrs before gamma irradiation. Mice treated with Genistein (200 mg/kg), 24 hr before irradiation demonstrated a significant increase in 30-day survival in contrast to mice treated with Genistein 15 minutes before irradiation

  12. Computational revelation of binding mechanisms of inhibitors to endocellular protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B using molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fangfang; Liu, Xinguo; Zhang, Shaolong; Su, Jing; Zhang, Qinggang; Chen, Jianzhong

    2017-11-06

    Endocellular protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is one of the most promising target for designing and developing drugs to cure type-II diabetes and obesity. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations combined with molecular mechanics generalized Born surface area (MM-GBSA) and solvated interaction energy methods were applied to study binding differences of three inhibitors (ID: 901, 941, and 968) to PTP1B, the calculated results show that the inhibitor 901 has the strongest binding ability to PTP1B among the current inhibitors. Principal component (PC) analysis was also carried out to investigate the conformational change of PTP1B, and the results indicate that the associations of inhibitors with PTP1B generate a significant effect on the motion of the WPD-loop. Free energy decomposition method was applied to study the contributions of individual residues to inhibitor bindings, it is found that three inhibitors can generate hydrogen bonding interactions and hydrophobic interactions with different residues of PTP1B, which provide important forces for associations of inhibitors with PTP1B. This research is expected to give a meaningfully theoretical guidance to design and develop of effective drugs curing type-II diabetes and obesity.

  13. A complex between contactin-1 and the protein tyrosine phosphatase PTPRZ controls the development of oligodendrocyte precursor cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamprianou, Smaragda; Chatzopoulou, Elli; Thomas, Jean-Léon; Bouyain, Samuel; Harroch, Sheila (IP-Korea); (UPMC); (UMKC)

    2013-09-23

    The six members of the contactin (CNTN) family of neural cell adhesion molecules are involved in the formation and maintenance of the central nervous system (CNS) and have been linked to mental retardation and neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism. Five of the six CNTNs bind to the homologous receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases gamma (PTPRG) and zeta (PTPRZ), but the biological roles of these interactions remain unclear. We report here the cocrystal structure of the carbonic anhydrase-like domain of PTPRZ bound to tandem Ig repeats of CNTN1 and combine these structural data with binding assays to show that PTPRZ binds specifically to CNTN1 expressed at the surface of oligodendrocyte precursor cells. Furthermore, analyses of glial cell populations in wild-type and PTPRZ-deficient mice show that the binding of PTPRZ to CNTN1 expressed at the surface of oligodendrocyte precursor cells inhibits their proliferation and promotes their development into mature oligodendrocytes. Overall, these results implicate the PTPRZ/CNTN1 complex as a previously unknown modulator of oligodendrogenesis.

  14. Steric Hindrance as a Basis for Structure-Based Design of Selective Inhibitors of Protein-Tyrosine Phosphatases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, L. F.; Andersen, H. S.; Møller, K. B.

    2001-01-01

    Utilizing structure-based design, we have previously demonstrated that it is possible to obtain selective inhibitors of protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B). A basic nitrogen was introduced into a general PTP inhibitor to form a salt bridge to Asp48 in PTP1B and simultaneously cause repulsion...... in PTPs containing an asparagine in the equivalent position [Iversen, L. F., et al. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 10300−10307]. Further, we have recently demonstrated that Gly259 in PTP1B forms the bottom of a gateway that allows easy access to the active site for a broad range of substrates, while bulky...... in accessibility to the active site among various PTPs. We show that a general, low-molecular weight PTP inhibitor can be developed into a highly selective inhibitor for PTP1B and TC-PTP by introducing a substituent, which is designed to address the region around residues 258 and 259. Detailed enzyme kinetic...

  15. Covalent Allosteric Inactivation of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) by an Inhibitor-Electrophile Conjugate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punthasee, Puminan; Laciak, Adrian R; Cummings, Andrea H; Ruddraraju, Kasi Viswanatharaju; Lewis, Sarah M; Hillebrand, Roman; Singh, Harkewal; Tanner, John J; Gates, Kent S

    2017-04-11

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is a validated drug target, but it has proven difficult to develop medicinally useful, reversible inhibitors of this enzyme. Here we explored covalent strategies for the inactivation of PTP1B using a conjugate composed of an active site-directed 5-aryl-1,2,5-thiadiazolidin-3-one 1,1-dioxide inhibitor connected via a short linker to an electrophilic α-bromoacetamide moiety. Inhibitor-electrophile conjugate 5a caused time-dependent loss of PTP1B activity consistent with a covalent inactivation mechanism. The inactivation occurred with a second-order rate constant of (1.7 ± 0.3) × 10 2 M -1 min -1 . Mass spectrometric analysis of the inactivated enzyme indicated that the primary site of modification was C121, a residue distant from the active site. Previous work provided evidence that covalent modification of the allosteric residue C121 can cause inactivation of PTP1B [Hansen, S. K., Cancilla, M. T., Shiau, T. P., Kung, J., Chen, T., and Erlanson, D. A. (2005) Biochemistry 44, 7704-7712]. Overall, our results are consistent with an unusual enzyme inactivation process in which noncovalent binding of the inhibitor-electrophile conjugate to the active site of PTP1B protects the nucleophilic catalytic C215 residue from covalent modification, thus allowing inactivation of the enzyme via selective modification of allosteric residue C121.

  16. Inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP1B) and α-glucosidase by geranylated flavonoids from Paulownia tomentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yeong Hun; Uddin, Zia; Jin, Young Min; Li, Zuopeng; Curtis-Long, Marcus John; Kim, Kwang Dong; Cho, Jung Keun; Park, Ki Hun

    2017-12-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) and α-glucosidase are important targets to treat obesity and diabetes, due to their deep correlation with insulin and leptin signalling, and glucose regulation. The methanol extract of Paulownia tomentosa fruits showed potent inhibition against both enzymes. Purification of this extract led to eight geranylated flavonoids (1-8) displaying dual inhibition of PTP1B and α-glucosidase. The isolated compounds were identified as flavanones (1-5) and dihydroflavonols (6-8). Inhibitory potencies of these compounds varied accordingly, but most of the compounds were highly effective against PTP1B (IC 50  = 1.9-8.2 μM) than α-glucosidase (IC 50  = 2.2-78.9 μM). Mimulone (1) was the most effective against PTP1B with IC 50  = 1.9 μM, whereas 6-geranyl-3,3',5,5',7-pentahydroxy-4'-methoxyflavane (8) displayed potent inhibition against α-glucosidase (IC 50  = 2.2 μM). All inhibitors showed mixed type Ι inhibition toward PTP1B, and were noncompetitive inhibitors of α-glucosidase. This mixed type behavior against PTP1B was fully demonstrated by showing a decrease in V max , an increase of K m , and K ik /K iv ratio ranging between 2.66 and 3.69.

  17. Residue 259 in protein-tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B and PTPα determines the flexibility of glutamine 262

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Günther H.j.; Iversen, L.F.; Andersen, H.S.

    2004-01-01

    To study the flexibility of the substrate-binding site and in particular of Gln262, we have performed adiabatic conformational search and molecular dynamics simulations on the crystal structure of the catalytic domain of wild-type protein-tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) 1B, a mutant PTP1B(R47V),(D48N...... and second step of the phosphate hydrolysis. Analyses of the trajectories revealed that in the cysteine-phosphor complex of PTP1B, Gln262 oscillates freely between the bound phosphate group and Gly259 frequently forming, as observed in the crystal structure, a hydrogen bond with the backbone oxygen of Gly259...... around Gln262 and the active site Cys215 reveals that the probability of finding a water molecule correctly positioned for catalysis is much larger in PTP1B than in PTP1B(R47V),(D48N),(M258C),(G259Q) and PTPalpha, in accordance with experiments....

  18. Toward the identification of a reliable 3D-QSAR model for the protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fangfang; Zhou, Bo

    2018-04-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is an intracellular non-receptor phosphatase that is implicated in signal transduction of insulin and leptin pathways, thus PTP1B is considered as potential target for treating type II diabetes and obesity. The present article is an attempt to formulate the three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) modeling of a series of compounds possessing PTP1B inhibitory activities using comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) techniques. The optimum template ligand-based models are statistically significant with great CoMFA (R2cv = 0.600, R2pred = 0.6760) and CoMSIA (R2cv = 0.624, R2pred = 0.8068) values. Molecular docking was employed to elucidate the inhibitory mechanisms of this series of compounds against PTP1B. In addition, the CoMFA and CoMSIA field contour maps agree well with the structural characteristics of the binding pocket of PTP1B active site. The knowledge of structure-activity relationship and ligand-receptor interactions from 3D-QSAR model and molecular docking will be useful for better understanding the mechanism of ligand-receptor interaction and facilitating development of novel compounds as potent PTP1B inhibitors.

  19. The Hem protein mediates neuronal migration by inhibiting WAVE degradation and functions opposite of Abelson tyrosine kinase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zengrong; Bhat, Krishna Moorthi

    2011-01-01

    In the nervous system, neurons form in different regions, then they migrate and occupy specific positions. We have previously shown that RP2/sib, a well-studied neuronal pair in the Drosophila ventral nerve cord (VNC), has a complex migration route. Here, we show that the Hem protein, via the WAVE complex, regulates migration of GMC-1 and its progeny RP2 neuron. In Hem or WAVE mutants, RP2 neuron either abnormally migrates, crossing the midline from one hemisegment to the contralateral hemisegment, or does not migrate at al and fail to send out its axon projection. We report that Hem regulates neuronal migration through stabilizing WAVE. Since Hem and WAVE normally form a complex, our data argues that in the absence of Hem, WAVE, which is presumably no longer in a complex, becomes susceptible to degradation. We also find that Abelson Tyrosine kinase affects RP2 migration in a similar manner as Hem and WAVE, and appears to operate via WAVE. However, while Abl negatively regulates the levels of WAVE, it regulates migration via regulating the activity of WAVE. Our results also show that during the degradation of WAVE, Hem function is opposite to that of and downstream of Abl. PMID:21726548

  20. The Nonreceptor Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase PTP1B Binds to the Cytoplasmic Domain of N-Cadherin and Regulates the Cadherin–Actin Linkage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsamo, Janne; Arregui, Carlos; Leung, TinChung; Lilien, Jack

    1998-01-01

    Cadherin-mediated adhesion depends on the association of its cytoplasmic domain with the actin-containing cytoskeleton. This interaction is mediated by a group of cytoplasmic proteins: α-and β- or γ- catenin. Phosphorylation of β-catenin on tyrosine residues plays a role in controlling this association and, therefore, cadherin function. Previous work from our laboratory suggested that a nonreceptor protein tyrosine phosphatase, bound to the cytoplasmic domain of N-cadherin, is responsible for removing tyrosine-bound phosphate residues from β-catenin, thus maintaining the cadherin–actin connection (Balsamo et al., 1996). Here we report the molecular cloning of the cadherin-associated tyrosine phosphatase and identify it as PTP1B. To definitively establish a causal relationship between the function of cadherin-bound PTP1B and cadherin-mediated adhesion, we tested the effect of expressing a catalytically inactive form of PTP1B in L cells constitutively expressing N-cadherin. We find that expression of the catalytically inactive PTP1B results in reduced cadherin-mediated adhesion. Furthermore, cadherin is uncoupled from its association with actin, and β-catenin shows increased phosphorylation on tyrosine residues when compared with parental cells or cells transfected with the wild-type PTP1B. Both the transfected wild-type and the mutant PTP1B are found associated with N-cadherin, and recombinant mutant PTP1B binds to N-cadherin in vitro, indicating that the catalytically inactive form acts as a dominant negative, displacing endogenous PTP1B, and rendering cadherin nonfunctional. Our results demonstrate a role for PTP1B in regulating cadherin-mediated cell adhesion. PMID:9786960

  1. The immunoglobulin-like domains 1 and 2 of the protein tyrosine phosphatase LAR adopt an unusual horseshoe-like conformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biersmith, Bridget H.; Hammel, Michal; Geisbrecht, Erika R.; Bouyain, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    Neurogenesis depends on exquisitely regulated interactions between macromolecules on the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix. In particular, interactions between proteoglycans and members of the type IIa subgroup of receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases underlie critical developmental processes such as the formation of synapses at the neuromuscular junction and the migration of axons to their appropriate targets. We report here the crystal structures of the first and second immunoglobulin-like domains of the Drosophila type IIa receptor Dlar and its mouse homologue LAR. These two domains adopt an unusual antiparallel arrangement that has not been previously observed in tandem repeats of immunoglobulin-like domains and that is presumably conserved in all type IIa receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases. PMID:21402080

  2. Csk-Induced Phosphorylation of Src at Tyrosine 530 is Essential for H2O2-Mediated Suppression of ERK1/2 in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Bo Kyung; Kwon, Kihwan; Kang, Jihee Lee; Choi, Youn-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are key signal transducers involved in various cellular events such as growth, proliferation, and differentiation. Previous studies have reported that H2O2 leads to phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), one of the MAPKs in endothelial cells. The current study shows that H2O2 suppressed ERK1/2 activation and phosphorylation at specific concentrations and times in human umbilical vein endothelial cells but not in immortalized mouse aortic endothelial cells or human astrocytoma cell line CRT-MG. Phosphorylation of other MAPK family members (i.e., p38 and JNK) was not suppressed by H2O2. The decrease in ERK1/2 phosphorylation induced by H2O2 was inversely correlated with the level of phosphorylation of Src tyrosine 530. Using siRNA, it was found that H2O2-induced suppression of ERK1/2 was dependent on Csk. Physiological laminar flow abrogated, but oscillatory flow did not affect, the H2O2-induced suppression of ERK1/2 phosphorylation. In conclusion, H2O2-induced Csk translocation to the plasma membrane leads to phosphorylation of Src at the tyrosine 530 residue resulting in a reduction of ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Physiological laminar flow abrogates this effect of H2O2 by inducing phosphorylation of Src tyrosine 419. These findings broaden our understanding of signal transduction mechanisms in the endothelial cells against oxidative stress. PMID:26234813

  3. Influence of the O-phosphorylation of serine, threonine and tyrosine in proteins on the amidic N-15 chemical shielding anisotropy tensors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Emmer, J.; Vavrinská, A.; Sychrovský, Vladimír; Benda, Ladislav; Kříž, Z.; Koča, J.; Boelens, R.; Sklenář, V.; Trantírek, L.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 1 (2013), s. 59-70 ISSN 0925-2738 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/10/0228 Grant - others:CEITEC(XE) CZ.1.05/1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : CSA * phosphorylation * amidic nitrogen * serine * threonine * tyrosine * protein * NMR Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.305, year: 2013

  4. Relationship between tyrosine phosphorylation and protein expression of insulin receptor and insulin resistance in gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yong-li; Gong, Yu-dian; Su, Zhi-hui; Yu, Hong-na; Cui, Qing; Jiang, Hai-yang; Qu, Hong-mei

    2014-06-01

    The relationship between tyrosine phosphorylation (TP) and protein expression of insulin receptor (InsR) and insulin resistance (IR) in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) was investigated. The InsR expression and TP in skeleton muscle tissue were determined by Western blotting and immunoprecipitation in women with GDM (GDM group, n=22), normal pregnant women (normal pregnancy group, n=22) and normal non-pregnant women (normal non-pregnant group, n=13). Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and fasting insulin (FINS) were measured by oxidase assay and immunoradioassay. The results showed that the levels of FPG (5.61±0.78 mmol/L), FINS (15.42±5.13 mU/L) and Homeostasis model assessment-IR (HOMA-IR) (1.21±0.52) in GDM group were significantly higher than those in normal pregnancy group (4.43±0.46 mmol/L, 10.56±3.07 mU/L and 0.80±0.31 respectively) (Ppregnant group (7.56±2.31 mU/L and 0.47±0.26 respectively) (P0.05). TP of InsR with insulin stimulation was significantly decreased in GDM group (0.20±0.05) as compared with normal pregnancy group (0.26±0.06) (Pinsulin stimulation in normal pregnancy group was lower than that in normal non-pregnant group (0.31±0.06) (Pinsulin stimulation was negatively related with HOMA-IR in GDM group (r=-0.525, P0.05). It was suggested that there is no significant correlation between the protein expression of InsR in skeletal muscle and IR in GDM, but changes in TP of InsR are associated with IR in GDM.

  5. Quantitation of deuterated and non-deuterated phenylalanine and tyrosine in human plasma using the selective ion monitoring method with combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagalak, M.-J.; Curtius, H.-Ch.; Leimbacher, W.; Redweik, U.

    1977-01-01

    A specific method is described for the quantitative analysis of deutarated and non-deuterated phenylalanine and tyrosine in human plasma by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using selective ion monitoring. From the several derivatives investigated, the N- or N,O-trifluoroacetyl methyl esters were found to be the most suitable for our purposes. DL-Phenylalanine-4-d 1 and L-tyrosine-d 7 were used as internal standards. The sensitivity of this method permits the measurement of amounts as small as ca. 2.5 ng/ml in plasma for both phenylalanine and tyrosine. The coefficients of variation were found to be ca. 1.6% (n=12) for phenylalanine and 3.0% (n=12) for tyrosine. Using this method, an in vivo determination of phenylalanine-4-monooxygenase activity in humans is possible by loading the subjects with deuterated L-phenylalanine-d 5 (accepted as substrate by phenylalanine-4-monooxygenase E.C. 1.14.16.1) and the subsequent measuring of deuterated L-tyrosine-d 4 formed and residual L-phenylalanine-d 5

  6. Constitutive phosphorylation of Shc proteins in human tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelicci, G; Lanfrancone, L; Salcini, A E

    1995-01-01

    The Shc gene encodes three overlapping proteins which all contain a carboxy-terminal SH2 domain. Shc proteins are ubiquitously expressed and are downstream targets and effectors of activated tyrosine kinases (TK). We investigated tyrosine-phosphorylation of Shc proteins in normal and transformed...... of the Shc-associated phosphoproteins (EGFR, PDGFR, erbB-2, Met, bcr-abl, H4-ret) bound both the Shc- and Grb2-SH2 domains in vitro; others (p175; p70-p80) only the Shc-SH2 domain and yet others (p140) only the Grb2-SH3 domains. These results indicate that Shc proteins are common substrates of constitutively...

  7. The V protein of canine distemper virus is required for virus replication in human epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriyuki Otsuki

    Full Text Available Canine distemper virus (CDV becomes able to use human receptors through a single amino acid substitution in the H protein. In addition, CDV strains possessing an intact C protein replicate well in human epithelial H358 cells. The present study showed that CDV strain 007Lm, which was isolated from lymph node tissue of a dog with distemper, failed to replicate in H358 cells, although it possessed an intact C protein. Sequence analyses suggested that a cysteine-to-tyrosine substitution at position 267 of the V protein caused this growth defect. Analyses using H358 cells constitutively expressing the CDV V protein showed that the V protein with a cysteine, but not that with a tyrosine, at this position effectively blocked the interferon-stimulated signal transduction pathway, and supported virus replication of 007Lm in H358 cells. Thus, the V protein as well as the C protein appears to be functional and essential for CDV replication in human epithelial cells.

  8. Deletion of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B (PTP1B Enhances Endothelial Cyclooxygenase 2 Expression and Protects Mice from Type 1 Diabetes-Induced Endothelial Dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Herren

    Full Text Available Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B dephosphorylates receptors tyrosine kinase and acts as a molecular brake on insulin signaling pathway. Conditions of metabolic dysfunction increase PTP1B, when deletion of PTP1B protects against metabolic disorders by increasing insulin signaling. Although vascular insulin signaling contributes to the control of glucose disposal, little is known regarding the direct role of PTP1B in the control of endothelial function. We hypothesized that metabolic dysfunctions increase PTP1B expression in endothelial cells and that PTP1B deletion prevents endothelial dysfunction in situation of diminished insulin secretion. Type I diabetes (T1DM was induced in wild-type (WT and PTP1B-deficient mice (KO with streptozotocin (STZ injection. After 28 days of T1DM, KO mice exhibited a similar reduction in body weight and plasma insulin levels and a comparable increase in glycemia (WT: 384 ± 20 vs. Ko: 432 ± 29 mg/dL, cholesterol and triglycerides, as WT mice. T1DM increased PTP1B expression and impaired endothelial NO-dependent relaxation, in mouse aorta. PTP1B deletion did not affect baseline endothelial function, but preserved endothelium-dependent relaxation, in T1DM mice. NO synthase inhibition with L-NAME abolished endothelial relaxation in control and T1DM WT mice, whereas L-NAME and the cyclooxygenases inhibitor indomethacin were required to abolish endothelium relaxation in T1DM KO mice. PTP1B deletion increased COX-2 expression and PGI2 levels, in mouse aorta and plasma respectively, in T1DM mice. In parallel, simulation of diabetic conditions increased PTP1B expression and knockdown of PTP1B increased COX-2 but not COX-1 expression, in primary human aortic endothelial cells. Taken together these data indicate that deletion of PTP1B protected endothelial function by compensating the reduction in NO bioavailability by increasing COX-2-mediated release of the vasodilator prostanoid PGI2, in T1DM mice.

  9. Fully automated synthesis of (phosphopeptide arrays in microtiter plate wells provides efficient access to protein tyrosine kinase characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldstein David J

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Synthetic peptides have played a useful role in studies of protein kinase substrates and interaction domains. Synthetic peptide arrays and libraries, in particular, have accelerated the process. Several factors have hindered or limited the applicability of various techniques, such as the need for deconvolution of combinatorial libraries, the inability or impracticality of achieving full automation using two-dimensional or pin solid phases, the lack of convenient interfacing with standard analytical platforms, or the difficulty of compartmentalization of a planar surface when contact between assay components needs to be avoided. This paper describes a process for synthesis of peptides and phosphopeptides on microtiter plate wells that overcomes previous limitations and demonstrates utility in determination of the epitope of an autophosphorylation site phospho-motif antibody and utility in substrate utilization assays of the protein tyrosine kinase, p60c-src. Results The overall reproducibility of phospho-peptide synthesis and multiplexed EGF receptor (EGFR autophosphorylation site (pY1173 antibody ELISA (9H2 was within 5.5 to 8.0%. Mass spectrometric analyses of the released (phosphopeptides showed homogeneous peaks of the expected molecular weights. An overlapping peptide array of the complete EGFR cytoplasmic sequence revealed a high redundancy of 9H2 reactive sites. The eight reactive phospopeptides were structurally related and interestingly, the most conserved antibody reactive peptide motif coincided with a subset of other known EGFR autophosphorylation and SH2 binding motifs and an EGFR optimal substrate motif. Finally, peptides based on known substrate specificities of c-src and related enzymes were synthesized in microtiter plate array format and were phosphorylated by c-Src with the predicted specificities. The level of phosphorylation was proportional to c-Src concentration with sensitivities below 0.1 Units of

  10. Therapeutic effects of the allosteric protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitor KY-226 on experimental diabetes and obesity via enhancements in insulin and leptin signaling in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuma Ito

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The anti-diabetic and anti-obesity effects of the allosteric protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B inhibitor 4-(biphenyl-4-ylmethylsulfanylmethyl-N-(hexane-1-sulfonylbenzoylamide (KY-226 were pharmacologically evaluated. KY-226 inhibited human PTP1B activity (IC50 = 0.28 μM, but did not exhibit peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ agonist activity. In rodent preadipocytes (3T3-L1, KY-226 up to 10 μM had no effects on adipocyte differentiation, whereas pioglitazone, a PPARγ agonist, markedly promoted it. In human hepatoma-derived cells (HepG2, KY-226 (0.3–10 μM increased the phosphorylated insulin receptor (pIR produced by insulin. In db/db mice, the oral administration of KY-226 (10 and 30 mg/kg/day, 4 weeks significantly reduced plasma glucose and triglyceride levels as well as hemoglobin A1c values without increasing body weight gain, while pioglitazone exerted similar effects with increases in body weight gain. KY-226 attenuated plasma glucose elevations in the oral glucose tolerance test. KY-226 also increased pIR and phosphorylated Akt in the liver and femoral muscle. In high-fat diet-induced obese mice, the oral administration of KY-226 (30 and 60 mg/kg/day, 4 weeks decreased body weight gain, food consumption, and fat volume gain with increases in phosphorylated STAT3 in the hypothalamus. In conclusion, KY-226 exerted anti-diabetic and anti-obesity effects by enhancing insulin and leptin signaling, respectively. Keywords: PTP1B inhibitor, Diabetes, Obesity, Allosteric inhibitor, db/db mouse

  11. Testing whether Metazoan Tyrosine Loss Was Driven by Selection against Promiscuous Phosphorylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Siddharth; Struck, Travis J.; Mannakee, Brian K.; Paniscus, Mary; Gutenkunst, Ryan N.

    2015-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphorylation is a key regulatory modification in metazoans, and the corresponding kinase enzymes have diversified dramatically. This diversification is correlated with a genome-wide reduction in protein tyrosine content, and it was recently suggested that this reduction was driven by selection to avoid promiscuous phosphorylation that might be deleterious. We tested three predictions of this intriguing hypothesis. 1) Selection should be stronger on residues that are more likely to be phosphorylated due to local solvent accessibility or structural disorder. 2) Selection should be stronger on proteins that are more likely to be promiscuously phosphorylated because they are abundant. We tested these predictions by comparing distributions of tyrosine within and among human and yeast orthologous proteins. 3) Selection should be stronger against mutations that create tyrosine versus remove tyrosine. We tested this prediction using human population genomic variation data. We found that all three predicted effects are modest for tyrosine when compared with the other amino acids, suggesting that selection against deleterious phosphorylation was not dominant in driving metazoan tyrosine loss. PMID:25312910

  12. Tyrosine positron emission tomography and protein synthesis rate in pituitary adenoma: Different effects of surgery and radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergh, Alfons C.M. van den; Pruim, Jan; Links, Thera P.; Vliet, Anton M. van der; Sluiter, Wim; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H.R.; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Hoving, Eelco W.; Dullaart, Robin P.F.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Positron emission tomography (PET) using amino acid tracers is able to establish biochemical tumour characterization in vivo. The use of PET in the follow-up of non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFA) and growth hormone producing pituitary adenomas (GHA) after surgery and radiation treatment is not yet clear. Methods: To determine the value of PET before and after transsphenoidal neurosurgery in NFA and GHA, we investigated 12 patients with pituitary adenoma (9 NFA and 3 GHA) before and 4 months after surgery with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and tyrosine PET (TYR-PET). Three years after radiation therapy TYR-PET was used to document residual activity in 6 of these patients (4 NFA- and 2 GHA). Tumour size was quantified by computerized MRI measurements. In TYR-PET, tumour activity was assessed by computerized measurements of the hot spot and by determination of protein synthesis rate (PSR). Results: In response to surgery, MRI showed a median tumour volume reduction of 58% (P 0.30). After radiation therapy the MRI-volumes of the residual pituitary adenomas did not change but the volume of the hot spot on TYR-PET-imaging was reduced by 58% (P = 0.02), and PSR decreased in 5 of 6 patients (P = 0.12). Conclusion: Amino acid PET tumour activity is reduced parallel with MRI volume changes after surgery. The decrease in TYR-PET activity after radiation therapy, despite unaltered MRI tumour volume, supports the concept that it is possible to follow biological tumour activity with this technique. The diagnostic merit of this tracer technique, predicting pituitary adenoma re-growth, needs to be validated in a large prospective study.

  13. Competitive protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibitors, prenylated caged xanthones from Garcinia hanburyi and their inhibitory mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xue Fei; Uddin, Zia; Park, Chanin; Song, Yeong Hun; Son, Minky; Lee, Keun Woo; Park, Ki Hun

    2017-04-15

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) plays important role in diabetes, obesity and cancer. The methanol extract of the gum resin of Garcinia hanburyi (G. hanburyi) showed potent PTP1B inhibition at 10µg/ml. The active compounds were identified as prenylated caged xanthones (1-9) which inhibited PTP1B in dose-dependent manner. Carboxybutenyl group within caged motif (A ring) was found to play a critical role in enzyme inhibition such as 1-6 (IC 50 s=0.47-4.69µM), whereas compounds having hydroxymethylbutenyl 7 (IC 50 =70.25µM) and methylbutenyl 8 (IC 50 >200µM) showed less activity. The most potent inhibitor, gambogic acid 1 (IC 50 =0.47µM) showed 30-fold more potency than ursolic acid (IC 50 =15.5µM), a positive control. In kinetic study, all isolated xanthones behaved as competitive inhibitors which were fully demonstrated with K m , V max and K ik /K iv ratio. It was also proved that inhibitor 1 operated under the enzyme isomerization model having k 5 =0.0751µM - 1 S - 1 , k 6 =0.0249µM - 1 S - 1 and K i app =0.499µM. To develop a pharmacophore model, we explored the binding sites of compound 1 and 7 in PTP1B. These modeling results were in agreement with our findings, which revealed that the inhibitory activities are tightly related to caged motif and prenyl group in A ring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B deficiency ameliorates murine experimental colitis via the expansion of myeloid-derived suppressor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhang

    Full Text Available Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B is a key molecule in modulating low-degree inflammatory conditions such as diabetes. The role of PTP1B in other chronic inflammations, however, remains unknown. Here, we report that PTP1B deficiency ameliorates Dextran Sulfate Sodium (DSS-induced murine experimental colitis via expanding CD11b(+Gr-1(+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs. Employing DSS-induced murine experimental colitis as inflammatory animal model, we found that, compared with wild-type littermates, PTP1B-null mice demonstrated greater resistance to DSS-induced colitis, as reflected by slower weight-loss, greater survival rates and decreased PMN and macrophage infiltration into the colon. The evidence collectively also demonstrated that the resistance of PTP1B-null mice to DSS-induced colitis is based on the expansion of MDSCs. First, PTP1B-null mice exhibited a greater frequency of MDSCs in the bone marrow (BM, peripheral blood and spleen when compared with wild-type littermates. Second, PTP1B levels in BM leukocytes were significantly decreased after cells were induced into MDSCs by IL-6 and GM-CSF, and the MDSC induction occurred more rapidly in PTP1B-null mice than in wild-type littermates, suggesting PTP1B as a negative regulator of MDSCs. Third, the adoptive transfer of MDSCs into mice with DSS-colitis significantly attenuated colitis, which accompanies with a decreased serum IL-17 level. Finally, PTP1B deficiency increased the frequency of MDSCs from BM cells likely through enhancing the activities of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 and Janus kinase 2 (JAK2. In conclusion, our study provides the first evidences that PTP1B deficiency ameliorates murine experimental colitis via expanding MDSCs.

  15. Protein-Tyrosine Phosphatase-1B Mediates Sleep Fragmentation-Induced Insulin Resistance and Visceral Adipose Tissue Inflammation in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozal, David; Khalyfa, Abdelnaby; Qiao, Zhuanghong; Akbarpour, Mahzad; Maccari, Rosanna; Ottanà, Rosaria

    2017-09-01

    Sleep fragmentation (SF) is highly prevalent and has emerged as an important contributing factor to obesity and metabolic syndrome. We hypothesized that SF-induced increases in protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B (PTP-1B) expression and activity underlie increased food intake, inflammation, and leptin and insulin resistance. Wild-type (WT) and ObR-PTP-1b-/- mice (Tg) were exposed to SF and control sleep (SC), and food intake was monitored. WT mice received a PTP-1B inhibitor (RO-7d; Tx) or vehicle (Veh). Upon completion of exposures, systemic insulin and leptin sensitivity tests were performed as well as assessment of visceral white adipose tissue (vWAT) insulin receptor sensitivity and macrophages (ATM) polarity. SF increased food intake in either untreated or Veh-treated WT mice. Leptin-induced hypothalamic STAT3 phosphorylation was decreased, PTP-1B activity was increased, and reduced insulin sensitivity emerged both systemic and in vWAT, with the latter displaying proinflammatory ATM polarity changes. All of the SF-induced effects were abrogated following PTP-1B inhibitor treatment and in Tg mice. SF induces increased food intake, reduced leptin signaling in hypothalamus, systemic insulin resistance, and reduced vWAT insulin sensitivity and inflammation that are mediated by increased PTP-1B activity. Thus, PTP-1B may represent a viable therapeutic target in the context of SF-induced weight gain and metabolic dysfunction. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Differential Expression of Tyrosine Hydroxylase Protein and Apoptosis-Related Genes in Differentiated and Undifferentiated SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells Treated with MPP+

    OpenAIRE

    Khwanraj, Kawinthra; Phruksaniyom, Chareerut; Madlah, Suriyat; Dharmasaroja, Permphan

    2015-01-01

    The human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line has been used as a dopaminergic cell model for Parkinson's disease research. Whether undifferentiated or differentiated SH-SY5Y cells are more suitable remains controversial. This study aims to evaluate the expression of apoptosis-related mRNAs activated by MPP+ and evaluate the differential expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in undifferentiated and retinoic acid- (RA-) induced differentiated cells. The western blot results showed a gradual decre...

  17. 21 CFR 582.5920 - Tyrosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tyrosine. 582.5920 Section 582.5920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS... § 582.5920 Tyrosine. (a) Product. Tyrosine (L- and DL-forms). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  18. Human dosimetric estimation of O-(2-18F-fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine based on mice biodistribution data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Ganghua; Wang Mingfang; Luo Lei; Gan Manquan; Tang Xiaolan

    2004-01-01

    To estimate the human radiation absorbed doses of O-(2- 18 F-fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine (FET), mice are considered as model. FET is injected into mice through a tail vein. At 10, 30, 60, 120 and 180 min after injection, the mice are killed by cervical fracture and the biodistribution in mice are determined. Human dosimetric estimation is performed from the biodistribution of FET in mice and the standard Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) method using time-fractional radioactivity curves for humans. The bone in human is the organ receiving highest dose of 4.78 pGy/Bq, the brain and the whole body receive the lowest dose of 1.6 pGy/Bq, and other organs receive doses between 1.6 and 3.5 pGy/Bq. The effective dose is estimated to be 9.0 pSv/Bq. The data show that a 370 MBq injection of FET leads to an estimated effective dose of 3.3 mSv, which is in the range of routine nuclear medicine investigations. The potential radiation risks associated with this study are well within accepted limits

  19. Induction of matrix metalloproteinase-2 by tenascin-X deficiency is mediated through the c-Jun N-terminal kinase and protein tyrosine kinase phosphorylation pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Ken-ichi; Minamitani, Takeharu; Orba, Yasuko; Sato, Mami; Sawa, Hirofumi; Ariga, Hiroyoshi

    2004-01-01

    The results of our previous study showed that tumor invasion and metastasis are promoted in extracellular matrix (ECM) tenascin-X-deficient (TNX-/-) mice via increased expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). However, little is known about the relationship between TNX deficiency and activation of MMP genes. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism by which TNX deficiency activates the MMP-2 gene. We examined the intracellular signaling pathways that regulate gene expression of the proteinase in isolated fibroblasts. Results of gelatin zymography showed that MMP-2 was induced to a greater extent in TNX-/- fibroblasts embedded in type I collagen than in wild-type fibroblasts. RT-PCR analysis revealed that the increased level of MMP-2 expression was caused at the transcription level. Conversely, stable overexpression of TNX in a fibroblast cell line reduced MMP-2 expression and suppressed MMP-2 promoter activity. In addition, treatment of TNX-/- fibroblasts with SP600125, a c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor, and genistein, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, suppressed the increased level of proMMP-2 and increased MMP-2 promoter activity in TNX-/- fibroblasts. Furthermore, increased activation of JNK and tyrosine phosphorylation of certain proteins were observed in TNX-/- fibroblasts. These findings suggest that induction of MMP-2 by TNX deficiency is mediated, at least in part, through the JNK and protein tyrosine kinase phosphorylation pathway

  20. Evidence for in vivo phosphorylation of the Grb2 SH2-domain binding site on focal adhesion kinase by Src-family protein-tyrosine kinases.

    OpenAIRE

    Schlaepfer, D D; Hunter, T

    1996-01-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a nonreceptor protein-tyrosine kinase (PTK) that associates with integrin receptors and participates in extracellular matrix-mediated signal transduction events. We showed previously that the c-Src nonreceptor PTK and the Grb2 SH2/SH3 adaptor protein bound directly to FAK after fibronectin stimulation (D. D. Schlaepfer, S.K. Hanks, T. Hunter, and P. van der Geer, Nature [London] 372:786-791, 1994). Here, we present evidence that c-Src association with FAK is req...

  1. IL-1 receptor accessory protein-like 1 associated with mental retardation and autism mediates synapse formation by trans-synaptic interaction with protein tyrosine phosphatase δ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Tomoyuki; Yasumura, Misato; Uemura, Takeshi; Lee, Sung-Jin; Ra, Moonjin; Taguchi, Ryo; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Mishina, Masayoshi

    2011-09-21

    Mental retardation (MR) and autism are highly heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorders. IL-1-receptor accessory protein-like 1 (IL1RAPL1) is responsible for nonsyndromic MR and is associated with autism. Thus, the elucidation of the functional role of IL1RAPL1 will contribute to our understanding of the pathogenesis of these mental disorders. Here, we showed that knockdown of endogenous IL1RAPL1 in cultured cortical neurons suppressed the accumulation of punctate staining signals for active zone protein Bassoon and decreased the number of dendritic protrusions. Consistently, the expression of IL1RAPL1 in cultured neurons stimulated the accumulation of Bassoon and spinogenesis. The extracellular domain (ECD) of IL1RAPL1 was required and sufficient for the presynaptic differentiation-inducing activity, while both the ECD and cytoplasmic domain were essential for the spinogenic activity. Notably, the synaptogenic activity of IL1RAPL1 was specific for excitatory synapses. Furthermore, we identified presynaptic protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) δ as a major IL1RAPL1-ECD interacting protein by affinity chromatography. IL1RAPL1 interacted selectively with certain forms of PTPδ splice variants carrying mini-exon peptides in Ig-like domains. The synaptogenic activity of IL1RAPL1 was abolished in primary neurons from PTPδ knock-out mice. IL1RAPL1 showed robust synaptogenic activity in vivo when transfected into the cortical neurons of wild-type mice but not in PTPδ knock-out mice. These results suggest that IL1RAPL1 mediates synapse formation through trans-synaptic interaction with PTPδ. Our findings raise an intriguing possibility that the impairment of synapse formation may underlie certain forms of MR and autism as a common pathogenic pathway shared by these mental disorders.

  2. Detection of a rare BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase fusion protein in H929 multiple myeloma cells using immunoprecipitation (IP)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitkopf, Susanne B; Yuan, Min; Pihan, German A; Asara, John M

    2012-10-02

    Hypothesis directed proteomics offers higher throughput over global analyses. We show that immunoprecipitation (IP)-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in H929 multiple myeloma (MM) cancer cells led to the discovery of a rare and unexpected BCR-ABL fusion, informing a therapeutic intervention using imatinib (Gleevec). BCR-ABL is the driving mutation in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and is uncommon to other cancers. Three different IP-MS experiments central to cell signaling pathways were sufficient to discover a BCR-ABL fusion in H929 cells: phosphotyrosine (pY) peptide IP, p85 regulatory subunit of phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) IP, and the GRB2 adaptor IP. The pY peptides inform tyrosine kinase activity, p85 IP informs the activating adaptors and receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) involved in AKT activation and GRB2 IP identifies RTKs and adaptors leading to ERK activation. Integration of the bait-prey data from the three separate experiments identified the BCR-ABL protein complex, which was confirmed by biochemistry, cytogenetic methods, and DNA sequencing revealed the e14a2 fusion transcript. The tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 and the GAB2 adaptor protein, important for MAPK signaling, were common to all three IP-MS experiments. The comparative treatment of tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) drugs revealed only imatinib, the standard of care in CML, was inhibitory to BCR-ABL leading to down-regulation of pERK and pS6K and inhibiting cell proliferation. These data suggest a model for directed proteomics from patient tumor samples for selecting the appropriate TKI drug(s) based on IP and LC-MS/MS. The data also suggest that MM patients, in addition to CML patients, may benefit from BCR-ABL diagnostic screening.

  3. Tyrosine and aurora kinase inhibitors diminish transport function of multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP 4 and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhiannon N. Hardwick

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tyrosine and aurora kinases are important effectors in signal transduction pathways that are often involved in aberrant cancer cell growth. Tyrosine (TKI and aurora (AKI kinase inhibitors are anti-cancer agents specifically designed to target such signaling pathways through TKI/AKI binding to the ATP-binding pocket of kinases thereby leading to diminished kinase activity. Some TKIs have been identified as inhibitors of ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters such as P-glycoprotein and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP, which are commonly upregulated in malignant cells. TKI/AKIs have been investigated as ABC transporter inhibitors in order to facilitate the accumulation of concomitantly administered chemo-therapeutics within cancer cells. However, ABC transporters are prominently expressed in the liver and other eliminating organs, and their inhibition has been linked to intracellular accumulation of drugs, altered disposition, and toxicity. The potential for TKIs/AKIs to inhibit other important hepatic efflux transporters, particularly multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs, remains unknown. The aim of the current study was to compare the inhibitory potency of 20 selected TKI/AKIs against MRP4 and BCRP through the use of inverted membrane vesicle assays. Relative IC50 values were estimated by determining TKI/AKI inhibition of MRP4-mediated [3H]-dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate uptake and BCRP-mediated [3H]-estrone sulfate uptake. To provide insight to the clinical relevance of TKI/AKI inhibition of ABC efflux transporters, the ratio of the steady-state maximum total plasma concentration (Css to the IC50 for each compound was calculated with Css/IC50 ratio >0.1 deemed potentially clinically relevant. Such analysis identified several potentially clinically relevant inhibitors of MRP4: alisertib, danusertib, erlotinib, lapatinib, neratinib, nilotinib, pazopanib, sorafenib, and tozasertib. The potentially clinically relevant inhibition of

  4. Human Antimicrobial Peptides and Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangshun Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available As the key components of innate immunity, human host defense antimicrobial peptides and proteins (AMPs play a critical role in warding off invading microbial pathogens. In addition, AMPs can possess other biological functions such as apoptosis, wound healing, and immune modulation. This article provides an overview on the identification, activity, 3D structure, and mechanism of action of human AMPs selected from the antimicrobial peptide database. Over 100 such peptides have been identified from a variety of tissues and epithelial surfaces, including skin, eyes, ears, mouths, gut, immune, nervous and urinary systems. These peptides vary from 10 to 150 amino acids with a net charge between −3 and +20 and a hydrophobic content below 60%. The sequence diversity enables human AMPs to adopt various 3D structures and to attack pathogens by different mechanisms. While α-defensin HD-6 can self-assemble on the bacterial surface into nanonets to entangle bacteria, both HNP-1 and β-defensin hBD-3 are able to block cell wall biosynthesis by binding to lipid II. Lysozyme is well-characterized to cleave bacterial cell wall polysaccharides but can also kill bacteria by a non-catalytic mechanism. The two hydrophobic domains in the long amphipathic α-helix of human cathelicidin LL-37 lays the basis for binding and disrupting the curved anionic bacterial membrane surfaces by forming pores or via the carpet model. Furthermore, dermcidin may serve as ion channel by forming a long helix-bundle structure. In addition, the C-type lectin RegIIIα can initially recognize bacterial peptidoglycans followed by pore formation in the membrane. Finally, histatin 5 and GAPDH(2-32 can enter microbial cells to exert their effects. It appears that granulysin enters cells and kills intracellular pathogens with the aid of pore-forming perforin. This arsenal of human defense proteins not only keeps us healthy but also inspires the development of a new generation of personalized

  5. Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinase (RSK-2 as a central effector molecule in RON receptor tyrosine kinase mediated epithelial to mesenchymal transition induced by macrophage-stimulating protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Rui-Wen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT occurs during cancer cell invasion and malignant metastasis. Features of EMT include spindle-like cell morphology, loss of epithelial cellular markers and gain of mesenchymal phenotype. Activation of the RON receptor tyrosine kinase by macrophage-stimulating protein (MSP has been implicated in cellular EMT program; however, the major signaling determinant(s responsible for MSP-induced EMT is unknown. Results The study presented here demonstrates that RSK2, a downstream signaling protein of the Ras-Erk1/2 pathway, is the principal molecule that links MSP-activated RON signaling to complete EMT. Using MDCK cells expressing RON as a model, a spindle-shape based screen was conducted, which identifies RSK2 among various intracellular proteins as a potential signaling molecule responsible for MSP-induced EMT. MSP stimulation dissociated RSK2 with Erk1/2 and promoted RSK2 nuclear translocation. MSP strongly induced RSK2 phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner. These effects relied on RON and Erk1/2 phosphorylation, which is significantly potentiated by transforming growth factor (TGF-β1, an EMT-inducing cytokine. Specific RSK inhibitor SL0101 completely prevented MSP-induced RSK phosphorylation, which results in inhibition of MSP-induced spindle-like morphology and suppression of cell migration associated with EMT. In HT-29 cancer cells that barely express RSK2, forced RSK2 expression results in EMT-like phenotype upon MSP stimulation. Moreover, specific siRNA-mediated silencing of RSK2 but not RSK1 in L3.6pl pancreatic cancer cells significantly inhibited MSP-induced EMT-like phenotype and cell migration. Conclusions MSP-induced RSK2 activation is a critical determinant linking RON signaling to cellular EMT program. Inhibition of RSK2 activity may provide a therapeutic opportunity for blocking RON-mediated cancer cell migration and subsequent invasion.

  6. Regulation of the Src Kinase-associated Phosphoprotein 55 Homologue by the Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase PTP-PEST in the Control of Cell Motility*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoub, Emily; Hall, Anita; Scott, Adam M.; Chagnon, Mélanie J.; Miquel, Géraldine; Hallé, Maxime; Noda, Masaharu; Bikfalvi, Andreas; Tremblay, Michel L.

    2013-01-01

    PTP-PEST is a cytosolic ubiquitous protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) that contains, in addition to its catalytic domain, several protein-protein interaction domains that allow it to interface with several signaling pathways. Among others, PTP-PEST is a key regulator of cellular motility and cytoskeleton dynamics. The complexity of the PTP-PEST interactome underscores the necessity to identify its interacting partners and physiological substrates in order to further understand its role in focal adhesion complex turnover and actin organization. Using a modified yeast substrate trapping two-hybrid system, we identified a cytosolic adaptor protein named Src kinase-associated phosphoprotein 55 homologue (SKAP-Hom) as a novel substrate of PTP-PEST. To confirm PTP-PEST interaction with SKAP-Hom, in vitro pull down assays were performed demonstrating that the PTP catalytic domain and Proline-rich 1 (P1) domain are respectively binding to the SKAP-Hom Y260 and Y297 residues and its SH3 domain. Subsequently, we generated and rescued SKAP-Hom-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) with WT SKAP-Hom, SKAP-Hom tyrosine mutants (Y260F, Y260F/Y297F), or SKAP-Hom SH3 domain mutant (W335K). Given the role of PTP-PEST, wound-healing and trans-well migration assays were performed using the generated lines. Indeed, SKAP-Hom-deficient MEFs showed a defect in migration compared with WT-rescued MEFs. Interestingly, the SH3 domain mutant-rescued MEFs showed an enhanced cell migration corresponding potentially with higher tyrosine phosphorylation levels of SKAP-Hom. These findings suggest a novel role of SKAP-Hom and its phosphorylation in the regulation of cellular motility. Moreover, these results open new avenues by which PTP-PEST regulates cellular migration, a hallmark of metastasis. PMID:23897807

  7. Cancer Cell-derived Exosomes Induce Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase-dependent Monocyte Survival by Transport of Functional Receptor Tyrosine Kinases*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiao; Ding, Yanping; Liu, Gang; Yang, Xiao; Zhao, Ruifang; Zhang, Yinlong; Zhao, Xiao; Anderson, Gregory J.; Nie, Guangjun

    2016-01-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) play pivotal roles in cancer initiation and progression. Monocytes, the precursors of TAMs, normally undergo spontaneous apoptosis within 2 days, but can subsist in the inflammatory tumor microenvironment for continuous survival and generation of sufficient TAMs. The mechanisms underlying tumor-driving monocyte survival remain obscure. Here we report that cancer cell-derived exosomes were crucial mediators for monocyte survival in the inflammatory niche. Analysis of the survival-promoting molecules in monocytes revealed that cancer cell-derived exosomes activated Ras and extracellular signal-regulated kinases in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, resulting in the prevention of caspase cleavage. Phosphorylated receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), such as phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2), were abundantly expressed in cancer cell-derived exosomes. Knock-out of EGFR or/and HER-2, or alternatively, inhibitors against their phosphorylation significantly disturbed the exosome-mediated activation of the MAPK pathway, inhibition of caspase cleavage, and increase in survival rate in monocytes. Moreover, the deprived survival-stimulating activity of exosomes due to null expression of EGFR and HER-2 could be restored by activation of another RTK, insulin receptor. Overall, our study uncovered a mechanism of tumor-associated monocyte survival and demonstrated that cancer cell-derived exosomes can stimulate the MAPK pathway in monocytes through transport of functional RTKs, leading to inactivation of apoptosis-related caspases. This work provides insights into the long sought question on monocyte survival prior to formation of plentiful TAMs in the tumor microenvironment. PMID:26895960

  8. Cancer Cell-derived Exosomes Induce Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase-dependent Monocyte Survival by Transport of Functional Receptor Tyrosine Kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiao; Ding, Yanping; Liu, Gang; Yang, Xiao; Zhao, Ruifang; Zhang, Yinlong; Zhao, Xiao; Anderson, Gregory J; Nie, Guangjun

    2016-04-15

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) play pivotal roles in cancer initiation and progression. Monocytes, the precursors of TAMs, normally undergo spontaneous apoptosis within 2 days, but can subsist in the inflammatory tumor microenvironment for continuous survival and generation of sufficient TAMs. The mechanisms underlying tumor-driving monocyte survival remain obscure. Here we report that cancer cell-derived exosomes were crucial mediators for monocyte survival in the inflammatory niche. Analysis of the survival-promoting molecules in monocytes revealed that cancer cell-derived exosomes activated Ras and extracellular signal-regulated kinases in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, resulting in the prevention of caspase cleavage. Phosphorylated receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), such as phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2), were abundantly expressed in cancer cell-derived exosomes. Knock-out of EGFR or/and HER-2, or alternatively, inhibitors against their phosphorylation significantly disturbed the exosome-mediated activation of the MAPK pathway, inhibition of caspase cleavage, and increase in survival rate in monocytes. Moreover, the deprived survival-stimulating activity of exosomes due to null expression of EGFR and HER-2 could be restored by activation of another RTK, insulin receptor. Overall, our study uncovered a mechanism of tumor-associated monocyte survival and demonstrated that cancer cell-derived exosomes can stimulate the MAPK pathway in monocytes through transport of functional RTKs, leading to inactivation of apoptosis-related caspases. This work provides insights into the long sought question on monocyte survival prior to formation of plentiful TAMs in the tumor microenvironment. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Phosphotyrosine Signaling Proteins that Drive Oncogenesis Tend to be Highly Interconnected*

    OpenAIRE

    Koytiger, Grigoriy; Kaushansky, Alexis; Gordus, Andrew; Rush, John; Sorger, Peter K.; MacBeath, Gavin

    2013-01-01

    Mutation and overexpression of receptor tyrosine kinases or the proteins they regulate serve as oncogenic drivers in diverse cancers. To better understand receptor tyrosine kinase signaling and its link to oncogenesis, we used protein microarrays to systematically and quantitatively measure interactions between virtually every SH2 or PTB domain encoded in the human genome and all known sites of tyrosine phosphorylation on 40 receptor tyrosine kinases and on most of the SH2 and PTB domain-cont...

  10. Xanthium strumarium as an Inhibitor of α-Glucosidase, Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1β, Protein Glycation and ABTS⁺ for Diabetic and Its Complication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Seung Hwan; Wang, Zhiqiang; Yoon, Ha Na; Lim, Soon Sung

    2016-09-16

    Phytochemical investigation of the natural products from Xanthium strumarium led to the isolation of fourteen compounds including seven caffeoylquinic acid (CQA) derivatives. The individual compounds were screened for inhibition of α-glucosidase, protein tyrosine phosphatase 1β (PTP1β), advanced glycation end products (AGEs), and ABTS⁺ radical scavenging activity using in vitro assays. Among the isolated compounds, methyl-3,5-di-caffeoyquinic acid exhibited significant inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase (18.42 μM), PTP1β (1.88 μM), AGEs (82.79 μM), and ABTS⁺ (6.03 μM). This effect was marked compared to that of the positive controls (acarbose 584.79 μM, sumarin 5.51 μM, aminoguanidine 1410.00 μM, and trolox 29.72 μM respectively). In addition, 3,5-di-O-CQA (88.14 μM) and protocatechuic acid (32.93 μM) had a considerable inhibitory effect against α-glucosidase and ABTS⁺. Based on these findings, methyl-3,5-di-caffeoyquinic acid was assumed to be potentially responsible for the anti-diabetic actions of X. strumarium.

  11. Xanthium strumarium as an Inhibitor of α-Glucosidase, Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1β, Protein Glycation and ABTS+ for Diabetic and Its Complication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Hwan Hwang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigation of the natural products from Xanthium strumarium led to the isolation of fourteen compounds including seven caffeoylquinic acid (CQA derivatives. The individual compounds were screened for inhibition of α-glucosidase, protein tyrosine phosphatase 1β (PTP1β, advanced glycation end products (AGEs, and ABTS+ radical scavenging activity using in vitro assays. Among the isolated compounds, methyl-3,5-di-caffeoyquinic acid exhibited significant inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase (18.42 μM, PTP1β (1.88 μM, AGEs (82.79 μM, and ABTS+ (6.03 μM. This effect was marked compared to that of the positive controls (acarbose 584.79 μM, sumarin 5.51 μM, aminoguanidine 1410.00 μM, and trolox 29.72 μM respectively. In addition, 3,5-di-O-CQA (88.14 μM and protocatechuic acid (32.93 μM had a considerable inhibitory effect against α-glucosidase and ABTS+. Based on these findings, methyl-3,5-di-caffeoyquinic acid was assumed to be potentially responsible for the anti-diabetic actions of X. strumarium.

  12. Genistein, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, enhanced radiosensitivity in human esophageal cancer cell lines in vitro: Possible involvement of inhibition of survival signal transduction pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimoto, Tetsuo; Nonaka, Tetsuo; Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Sakurai, Hideyuki; Saitoh, Jun-ichi; Takahashi, Takeo; Mitsuhashi, Norio

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: The effect of genistein, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, on radiosensitivity was examined, especially focusing on 'survival signal transduction pathways'. Methods and Materials: Two human esophageal squamous cell cancer cell lines, TE-1 (p53, mutant) and TE-2 (p53, wild), were used. Radiosensitivity was determined by clonogenic assay, and activation of survival signals was examined by Western blot. Results: Genistein (30 μM) greatly enhanced radiosensitivity in these cell lines by suppressing radiation-induced activation of survival signals, p42/p44 extracellular signal-regulated kinase and AKT/PKB. Significant increase in the percentage of apoptotic cells and increased poly[ADP-ribose] polymerase cleavage were observed in TE-2, but not in TE-1 even after combination of genistein with irradiation. In terms of changes in expression of p53-related proteins, increase in expression of Bax and decrease in that of Bcl-2 were observed in TE-2 but not in TE-1, suggesting that the main mode of cell death induced by genistein in a cell line with wild type p53 differed from that with mutant p53. Conclusions: This study suggested that survival signals, including p42/p44 ERK and AKT/PKB, may be involved in determining radiosensitivity, and genistein would be a potent therapeutic agent that has an enhancing effect on radiation

  13. Antibody-mediated platelet phagocytosis by human macrophages is inhibited by siRNA specific for sequences in the SH2 tyrosine kinase, Syk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ying; Wang, Weiming; Mao, Huiming; Hu, Hai; Wu, Yanling; Chen, Bing-Guan; Liu, Zhongmin

    2011-01-01

    Immune thrombocytopenia depends upon Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis that involves signaling through the SH2 tyrosine kinase, Syk. We designed small interfering (siRNA) sequences complementary to Syk coding regions to decrease the expression of Syk in the human macrophage cell line, THP-1. To evaluate the functional effect of siRNA on phagocytosis, we developed a new in vitro assay for antibody-mediated platelet ingestion by THP-1 cells. Incubation of THP-1 cells at 37°C with fluorescence-labeled platelets and anti-platelet antibody promoted ingestion of platelets that could be quantitated by flow cytometry. Transfection of THP-1 cells with Syk-specific siRNA resulted in a reduction in the amount of FcγRII-associated Syk protein. Coincident with decreased Syk expression, we observed inhibition of antibody-mediated platelet ingestion. These results confirm a key role for Syk in antibody-mediated phagocytosis and suggest Syk-specific siRNA as a possible therapeutic candidate for immune thrombocytopenia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Protein Kinases in Human Breast Carcinoma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cane, William

    1998-01-01

    .... Rak is a novel nuclear tyrosine that our group has identified in breast cancer tissues and cell lines that has structural homology to the Src tyrosine kinase, with SH2 and SH3 domains at its amino terminus...

  15. Regulation of Src family kinases involved in T cell receptor signaling by protein-tyrosine phosphatase CD148

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štěpánek, Ondřej; Kalina, T.; Dráber, Peter; Skopcová, Tereza; Svojgr, K.; Angelisová, Pavla; Hořejší, Václav; Weiss, A.; Brdička, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 286, č. 25 (2011), s. 22101-22112 ISSN 0021-9258 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06064; GA MŠk 1M0506 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : CD148 * tyrosine phosphatase * Src family kinases Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.773, year: 2011

  16. Coarse-grained molecular simulation of epidermal growth factor receptor protein tyrosine kinase multi-site self-phosphorylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G Koland

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Upon the ligand-dependent dimerization of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, the intrinsic protein tyrosine kinase (PTK activity of one receptor monomer is activated, and the dimeric receptor undergoes self-phosphorylation at any of eight candidate phosphorylation sites (P-sites in either of the two C-terminal (CT domains. While the structures of the extracellular ligand binding and intracellular PTK domains are known, that of the ∼225-amino acid CT domain is not, presumably because it is disordered. Receptor phosphorylation on CT domain P-sites is critical in signaling because of the binding of specific signaling effector molecules to individual phosphorylated P-sites. To investigate how the combination of conventional substrate recognition and the unique topological factors involved in the CT domain self-phosphorylation reaction lead to selectivity in P-site phosphorylation, we performed coarse-grained molecular simulations of the P-site/catalytic site binding reactions that precede EGFR self-phosphorylation events. Our results indicate that self-phosphorylation of the dimeric EGFR, although generally believed to occur in trans, may well occur with a similar efficiency in cis, with the P-sites of both receptor monomers being phosphorylated to a similar extent. An exception was the case of the most kinase-proximal P-site-992, the catalytic site binding of which occurred exclusively in cis via an intramolecular reaction. We discovered that the in cis interaction of P-site-992 with the catalytic site was facilitated by a cleft between the N-terminal and C-terminal lobes of the PTK domain that allows the short CT domain sequence tethering P-site-992 to the PTK core to reach the catalytic site. Our work provides several new mechanistic insights into the EGFR self-phosphorylation reaction, and demonstrates the potential of coarse-grained molecular simulation approaches for investigating the complexities of self-phosphorylation in

  17. α-Glucosidase and Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B Inhibitory Activity of Plastoquinones from Marine Brown Alga Sargassum serratifolium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Yousof Ali

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sargassum serratifolium C. Agardh (Phaeophyceae, Fucales is a marine brown alga that belongs to the family Sargassaceae. It is widely distributed throughout coastal areas of Korea and Japan. S. serratifolium has been found to contain high concentrations of plastoquinones, which have strong anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and neuroprotective activity. This study aims to investigate the anti-diabetic activity of S. serratifolium and its major constituents through inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B, α-glucosidase, and ONOO−-mediated albumin nitration. S. serratifolium ethanolic extract and fractions exhibited broad PTP1B and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50, 1.83~7.04 and 3.16~24.16 µg/mL for PTP1B and α-glucosidase, respectively. In an attempt to identify bioactive compounds, three plastoquinones (sargahydroquinoic acid, sargachromenol and sargaquinoic acid were isolated from the active n-hexane fraction of S. serratifolium. All three plastoquinones exhibited dose-dependent inhibitory activity against PTP1B in the IC50 range of 5.14–14.15 µM, while sargachromenol and sargaquinoic acid showed dose-dependent inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase (IC50 42.41 ± 3.09 and 96.17 ± 3.48 µM, respectively. In the kinetic study of PTP1B enzyme inhibition, sargahydroquinoic acid and sargaquinoic acid led to mixed-type inhibition, whereas sargachromenol displayed noncompetitive-type inhibition. Moreover, plastoquinones dose-dependently inhibited ONOO−-mediated albumin nitration. Docking simulations of these plastoquinones demonstrated negative binding energies and close proximity to residues in the binding pocket of PTP1B and α-glucosidase, indicating that these plastoquinones have high affinity and tight binding capacity towards the active site of the enzymes. These results demonstrate that S. serratifolium and its major plastoquinones may have the potential as functional food ingredients for the

  18. Effects of SOV-induced phosphatase inhibition and expression of protein tyrosine phosphatases in rat corneal endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Li; Harris, Deshea L; Joyce, Nancy C

    2005-11-01

    Contact inhibition is an important mechanism for maintaining corneal endothelium in a non-replicative state. Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) play a role in regulating the integrity of cell-cell contacts, differentiation, and growth. In this study, we aimed to evaluate whether phosphatases are involved in the maintenance of contact-dependent inhibition of proliferation in corneal endothelial cells and to identify candidate PTPs that are expressed in these cells and might be involved in regulation of contact inhibition. Confluent cultures of rat corneal endothelial cells or endothelium in ex vivo corneas were treated with the general phosphatase inhibitor, sodium orthovanadate (SOV). Immunocytochemistry (ICC) evaluated the effect of SOV on cell-cell contacts by staining for ZO-1, and on cell cycle progression by staining for Ki67. Transverse sections of rat cornea and cultured rat corneal endothelial cells were used to test for expression of the candidate PTPs: PTP-mu, PTP-LAR, PTP1B, SHP-1, SHP-2, and PTEN using ICC and either Western blots or RT-PCR. ZO-1 staining demonstrated that SOV induced a time-dependent release of cell-cell contacts in confluent cultures of corneal endothelial cells and in the endothelium of ex vivo corneas. Staining for Ki67 indicated that SOV promoted limited cell cycle progression in the absence of serum. PTP-mu, PTP1B, SHP-1, SHP-2, and PTEN, but not PTP-LAR, were expressed in rat corneal endothelial cells in situ and in culture. The subcellular location of PTP-mu and PTP1B differed in subconfluent and confluent cells, while that of SHP-1, SHP-2, and PTEN was similar, regardless of confluent status. Western blots confirmed the expression of PTP1B, SHP-1, SHP-2, and PTEN. RT-PCR confirmed expression of PTP-mu mRNA. Phosphatases are involved in regulation of junctional integrity and of cell proliferation in corneal endothelial cells. PTP-mu, PTP1B, SHP-1, SHP-2, and PTEN are expressed in rat corneal endothelium and may be involved in

  19. Tyrosine kinases in rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobayashi Akiko

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is an inflammatory, polyarticular joint disease. A number of cellular responses are involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis, including activation of inflammatory cells and cytokine expression. The cellular responses involved in each of these processes depends on the specific signaling pathways that are activated; many of which include protein tyrosine kinases. These pathways include the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, Janus kinases/signal transducers and activators transcription pathway, spleen tyrosine kinase signaling, and the nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells pathway. Many drugs are in development to target tyrosine kinases for the treatment of RA. Based on the number of recently published studies, this manuscript reviews the role of tyrosine kinases in the pathogenesis of RA and the potential role of kinase inhibitors as new therapeutic strategies of RA.

  20. Optimization of extraction parameters of PTP1β (protein tyrosine phosphatase 1β), inhibitory polyphenols, and anthocyanins from Zea mays L. using response surface methodology (RSM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Seung Hwan; Kwon, Shin Hwa; Wang, Zhiqiang; Kim, Tae Hyun; Kang, Young-Hee; Lee, Jae-Yong; Lim, Soon Sung

    2016-08-26

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase expressed in insulin-sensitive tissues (such as liver, muscle, and adipose tissue) has a key role in the regulation of insulin signaling and pathway activation, making protein tyrosine phosphatase a promising target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity and response surface methodology (RSM) is an effective statistical technique for optimizing complex processes using a multi-variant approach. In this study, Zea mays L. (Purple corn kernel, PCK) and its constituents were investigated for protein tyrosine phosphatase 1β (PTP1β) inhibitory activity including enzyme kinetic study and to improve total yields of anthocyanins and polyphenols, four extraction parameters, including temperature, time, solid-liquid ratio, and solvent volume, were optimized by RSM. Isolation of seven polyphenols and five anthocyanins was achieved by PTP1β assay. Among them, cyanidin-3-(6"malonylglucoside) and 3'-methoxyhirsutrin showed the highest PTP1β inhibition with IC50 values of 54.06 and 64.04 μM, respectively and 4.52 mg gallic acid equivalent/g (GAE/g) of total polyphenol content (TPC) and 43.02 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalent/100 g (C3GE/100g) of total anthocyanin content (TAC) were extracted at 40 °C for 8 h with a 33 % solid-liquid ratio and a 1:15 solvent volume. Yields were similar to predictions of 4.58 mg GAE/g of TPC and 42.28 mg C3GE/100 g of TAC. These results indicated that PCK and 3'-methoxyhirsutrin and cyanidin-3-(6"malonylglucoside) might be active natural compounds and could be apply by optimizing of extraction process using response surface methodology.

  1. Protein tyrosine kinases p53/56lyn and p72syk in MHC class I-mediated signal transduction in B lymphoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Elm; Bregenholt, S; Skov, S

    1998-01-01

    syk are among the tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins. The kinetics of phosphorylation of these kinases after MHC-I crosslinking differ from the kinetics observed after crosslinking of the B cell antigen receptor (BCR). Additional experiments were performed with chicken lyn- and syk-negative DT40 B cells...... mobilization of intracellular free calcium compared with MHC-I crosslinking of wild-type DT40 cells. Thus, expression of BCR at the cell surface is likely to be important for the signal cascade initiated by MHC-I crosslinking. Our data suggest that signal transduction initiated through ligation of the MHC...

  2. Overexpression of protein tyrosine phosphatase-alpha (PTP-alpha) but not PTP-kappa inhibits translocation of GLUT4 in rat adipose cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cong, L N; Chen, H; Li, Y

    1999-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPases) are likely to play important roles in insulin action. We recently demonstrated that the nontransmembrane PTPase PTP1B can act as a negative modulator of insulin-stimulated translocation of GLUT4. We now examine the role of PTP-alpha and PTP-kappa (two...... of cell surface GLUT4 in response to insulin and a threefold decrease in insulin sensitivity when compared with control cells expressing only tagged GLUT4. Co-overexpression of PTP-alpha and PTP1B did not have additive effects, suggesting that these PTPases share common substrates. Cells overexpressing...

  3. Postsynaptic density protein 95-regulated NR2B tyrosine phosphorylation and interactions of Fyn with NR2B in levodopa-induced dyskinesia rat models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ba M

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Maowen Ba,1,* Min Kong,2,* Guozhao Ma3 1Department of Neurology, Yuhuangding Hospital, Yantai City, Shandong, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Neurology, Yantaishan Hospital, Yantai City, Shandong, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Neurology, Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital, Shandong University, Shandong, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Context: Abnormality in interactions between N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA receptor and its signaling molecules occurs in the lesioned striatum in Parkinson’s disease (PD and levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID. It was reported that Fyn-mediated NR2B tyrosine phosphorylation, can enhance NMDA receptor function. Postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95, one of the synapse-associated proteins, regulates interactions between receptor and downstream-signaling molecules. In light of the relationship between PSD-95, NR2B, and Fyn kinases, does PSD-95 contribute to the overactivity of NMDA receptor function induced by dopaminergic treatment? To further prove the possibility, the effects of regulating the PSD-95 expression on the augmented NR2B tyrosine phosphorylation and on the interactions of Fyn and NR2B in LID rat models were evaluated.Methods: In the present study, parkinsonian rat models were established by injecting 6-hydroxydopamine. Subsequently, valid PD rats were treated with levodopa (50 mg/kg/day with benserazide 12.5 mg/kg/day, twice daily intraperitoneally for 22 days to create LID rat models. Then, the effect of pretreatment with an intrastriatal injection of the PSD-95mRNA antisense oligonucleotides (PSD-95 ASO on the rotational response to levodopa challenge was assessed. The effects of pretreatment with an intrastriatal injection of PSD-95 ASO on the augmented NR2B tyrosine phosphorylation and interactions of Fyn with NR2B in the LID rat models were detected by immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation. Results: Levodopa

  4. Effects of Src Kinase Inhibition on Expression of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B after Brain Hypoxia in a Piglet Animal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Angelis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs in conjunction with protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs regulate cellular processes by posttranslational modifications of signal transduction proteins. PTP nonreceptor type 1B (PTP-1B is an enzyme of the PTP family. We have previously shown that hypoxia induces an increase in activation of a class of nonreceptor PTK, the Src kinases. In the present study, we investigated the changes that occur in the expression of PTP-1B in the cytosolic component of the brain of newborn piglets acutely after hypoxia as well as long term for up to 2 weeks. Methods. Newborn piglets were divided into groups: normoxia, hypoxia, hypoxia followed by 1 day and 15 days in FiO2 0.21, and hypoxia pretreated with Src kinase inhibitor PP2, prior to hypoxia followed by 1 day and 15 days. Hypoxia was achieved by providing 7% FiO2 for 1 hour and PTP-1B expression was measured via immunoblotting. Results. PTP-1B increased posthypoxia by about 30% and persisted for 2 weeks while Src kinase inhibition attenuated the expected PTP-1B-increased expression. Conclusions. Our study suggests that Src kinase mediates a hypoxia-induced increased PTP-1B expression.

  5. Study on expression of SH2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 and SHP-2 in γ-ray irradiation-induced thymus lymphoma in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Dingde; Chen Qi; Han Ling; Cai Jianming; Li Bailong; Huang Yuecheng; Gao Jianguo; Sun Suping

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the expression of SH2 domain containing-protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 and SHP-2 in γ-ray irradiation-induced thymus lymphoma in mice. Methods: Altogether 338 BALB/c mice were randomly divided into irradiation groups and controls. Irradiation groups which were irradiated with γ-rays included canceration groups confirmed with histology and uncanceration groups. The controls were fed synchronistically with irradiation groups. The expression of SHP-1 and SHP-2 was detected with Western blot in thymus cells. Results: The expression of SHP-1 in canceration groups was much higher than that in uncanceration groups and controls significantly, while the expression of SHP-2 in canceration groups was higher than that in uncanceration groups and controls. When authors detected the expression of SHP-2 with Western blot, the authors found another protein with a molecular weight of 55x10 3 , which expression in canceration groups was higher than that in uncanceration groups and controls. Conclusion: The expression of SH2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 and SHP-2 is significantly increased in canceration groups, suggesting that SHP-1 and SHP-2 may be related with γ-ray induced thymus lymphoma in mice. Further research is expected on the relationship between development of cancer and SHP-1 and SHP-2

  6. Polymeric immunoglobulin receptor-mediated invasion of Streptococcus pneumoniae into host cells requires a coordinate signaling of SRC family of protein-tyrosine kinases, ERK, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Vaibhav; Asmat, Tauseef M; Dierdorf, Nina I; Hauck, Christof R; Hammerschmidt, Sven

    2010-11-12

    Streptococcus pneumoniae are commensals of the human nasopharynx with the capacity to invade mucosal respiratory cells. PspC, a pneumococcal surface protein, interacts with the human polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) to promote bacterial adherence to and invasion into epithelial cells. Internalization of pneumococci requires the coordinated action of actin cytoskeleton rearrangements and the retrograde machinery of pIgR. Here, we demonstrate the involvement of Src protein-tyrosine kinases (PTKs), focal adhesion kinase (FAK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) but not p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) in pneumococcal invasion via pIgR. Pharmacological inhibitors of PTKs and MAPKs and genetic interference with Src PTK and FAK functions caused a significant reduction of pIgR-mediated pneumococcal invasion but did not influence bacterial adhesion to host cells. Furthermore, pneumococcal ingestion by host cells induces activation of ERK1/2 and JNK. In agreement with activated JNK, its target molecule and DNA-binding protein c-Jun was phosphorylated. We also show that functionally active Src PTK is essential for activation of ERK1/2 upon pneumococcal infections. In conclusion, these data illustrate the importance of a coordinated signaling between Src PTKs, ERK1/2, and JNK during PspC-pIgR-mediated uptake of pneumococci by host epithelial cells.

  7. Calix[6]arene bypasses human pancreatic cancer aggressiveness: downregulation of receptor tyrosine kinases and induction of cell death by reticulum stress and autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelizzaro-Rocha, Karin Juliane; de Jesus, Marcelo Bispo; Ruela-de-Sousa, Roberta Regina; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Reis, Fabiano Souza; de Fátima, Angelo; Ferreira-Halder, Carmen Veríssima

    2013-12-01

    Pancreatic cancer ranks fourth among cancer-related causes of death in North America. Minimal progress has been made in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with late-stage tumors. Moreover, pancreatic cancer aggressiveness is closely related to high levels of pro-survival mediators, which can ultimately lead to rapid disease progression, resistance and metastasis. The main goal of this study was to define the mechanisms by which calix[6]arene, but not other calixarenes, efficiently decreases the aggressiveness of a drug resistant human pancreas carcinoma cell line (Panc-1). Calix[6]arene was more potent in reducing Panc-1 cell viability than gemcitabine and 5-fluorouracil. In relation to the underlying mechanisms of cytotoxic effects, it led to cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase through downregulation of PIM1, CDK2, CDK4 and retinoblastoma proteins. Importantly, calix[6]arene abolished signal transduction of Mer and AXL tyrosine kinase receptors, both of which are usually overexpressed in pancreatic cancer. Accordingly, inhibition of PI3K and mTOR was also observed, and these proteins are positively modulated by Mer and AXL. Despite decreasing the phosphorylation of AKT at Thr308, calix[6]arene caused an increase in phosphorylation at Ser473. These findings in conjunction with increased BiP and IRE1-α provide a molecular basis explaining the capacity of calix[6]arene to trigger endoplasmic reticulum stress and autophagic cell death. Our findings highlight calix[6]arene as a potential candidate for overcoming pancreatic cancer aggressiveness. Importantly, we provide evidence that calix[6]arene affects a broad array of key targets that are usually dysfunctional in pancreatic cancer, a highly desirable characteristic for chemotherapeutics. © 2013.

  8. Contributions of F-BAR and SH2 domains of Fes protein tyrosine kinase for coupling to the FcepsilonRI pathway in mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Victor A; Everingham, Stephanie; Karisch, Robert; Smith, Julie A; Udell, Christian M; Zheng, Jimin; Jia, Zongchao; Craig, Andrew W B

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the roles of Fer-CIP4 homology (FCH)-Bin/amphiphysin/Rvs (F-BAR) and SH2 domains of Fes protein tyrosine kinase in regulating its activation and signaling downstream of the high-affinity immunoglobulin G (IgE) receptor (FcepsilonRI) in mast cells. Homology modeling of the Fes F-BAR domain revealed conservation of some basic residues implicated in phosphoinositide binding (R113/K114). The Fes F-BAR can bind phosphoinositides and induce tubulation of liposomes in vitro. Mutation of R113/K114 to uncharged residues (RK/QQ) caused a significant reduction in phosphoinositide binding in vitro and a more diffuse cytoplasmic localization in transfected COS-7 cells. RBL-2H3 mast cells expressing full-length Fes carrying the RK/QQ mutation show defects in FcepsilonRI-induced Fes tyrosine phosphorylation and degranulation compared to cells expressing wild-type Fes. This correlated with reduced localization to Lyn kinase-containing membrane fractions for the RK/QQ mutant compared to wild-type Fes in mast cells. The Fes SH2 domain also contributes to Fes signaling in mast cells, via interactions with the phosphorylated FcepsilonRI beta chain and the actin regulatory protein HS1. We show that Fes phosphorylates C-terminal tyrosine residues in HS1 implicated in actin stabilization. Thus, coordinated actions of the F-BAR and SH2 domains of Fes allow for coupling to FcepsilonRI signaling and potential regulation the actin reorganization in mast cells.

  9. SH3 domain-mediated binding of the Drk protein to Dos is an important step in signaling of Drosophila receptor tyrosine kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, Stephan M; Wecklein, Heike; Lewitzky, Marc; Kibler, Eike; Raabe, Thomas

    2002-08-01

    Activation of the Sevenless (Sev) receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) in the developing Drosophila eye is required for the specification of the R7 photoreceptor cell fate. Daughter of Sevenless (Dos), a putative multi-site adaptor protein, is a substrate of the Sev kinase and is known to associate with the tyrosine phosphatase Corkscrew (Csw). Binding of Csw to Dos depends on the Csw Src homology 2 (SH2) domains and is an essential step for signaling by the Sev RTK. Dos, however, lacks a recognizable phosphotyrosine interaction domain and it was previously unclear how it is recruited to the Sev receptor. Here it is shown that the SH2/SH3 domain adaptor protein Drk can provide this link. Drk binds with its SH2 domain to the autophosphorylated Sev receptor while the C-terminal SH3 domain is able to associate with Dos. The Drk SH3 domain binding motifs on Dos were mapped to two sites which do not conform the known Drk SH3 domain binding motif (PxxPxR) but instead have the consensus PxxxRxxKP. Mutational analysis in vitro and in vivo provided evidence that both Drk binding sites fulfil an important function in the context of Sev and Drosophila epidermal growth factor receptor mediated signaling processes.

  10. Phosphorylation of actin-binding protein (ABP-280; filamin) by tyrosine kinase p56lck modulates actin filament cross-linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal Sharma, C; Goldmann, Wolfgang H

    2004-01-01

    Actin-binding protein (ABP-280; filamin) is a phosphoprotein present in the periphery of the cytoplasm where it can cross-link actin filaments, associate with lipid membranes, and bind to membrane surface receptors. Given its function and localization in the cell, we decided to investigate the possibility of whether it serves as substrate for p56lck, a lymphocyte-specific member of the src family of protein tyrosine kinases associated with cell surface glycoproteins. The interaction of p56lck with membrane glycoproteins is important for cell development and functional activation. Here, we show that purified p56lck interacts and catalyzes in vitro kinase reactions. Tyrosine phosphorylation by p56lck is restricted to a single peptide of labeled ABP-280 shown by protease digest. The addition of phorbol ester to cells results in the inhibition of phosphorylation of ABP-280 by p56lck. These results show a decrease in phosphorylation suggesting conformationally induced regulation. Dynamic light scattering confirmed increased actin filament cross-linking due to phosphorylation of ABP-280 by p56lck.

  11. Structural and biochemical analysis of a unique phosphatase from Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus reveals its structural and functional relationship with the protein tyrosine phosphatase class of phytase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Gruninger

    Full Text Available Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus is an unusual δ-proteobacterium that invades and preys on other Gram-negative bacteria and is of potential interest as a whole cell therapeutic against pathogens of man, animals and crops. PTPs (protein tyrosine phosphatases are an important class of enzyme involved in desphosphorylating a variety of substrates, often with implications in cell signaling. The B. bacteriovorus open reading frame Bd1204 is predicted to encode a PTP of unknown function. Bd1204 is both structurally and mechanistically related to the PTP-like phytase (PTPLP class of enzymes and possesses a number of unique properties not observed in any other PTPLPs characterized to date. Bd1204 does not display catalytic activity against some common protein tyrosine phosphatase substrates but is highly specific for hydrolysis of phosphomonoester bonds of inositol hexakisphosphate. The structure reveals that Bd1204 has the smallest and least electropositive active site of all characterized PTPLPs to date yet possesses a unique substrate specificity characterized by a strict preference for inositol hexakisphosphate. These two active site features are believed to be the most significant contributors to the specificity of phytate degrading enzymes. We speculate that Bd1204 may be involved in phosphate acquisition outside of prey.

  12. Protein phosphorylation systems in postmortem human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walaas, S.I.; Perdahl-Wallace, E.; Winblad, B.; Greengard, P.

    1989-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation systems regulated by cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cyclic AMP), or calcium in conjunction with calmodulin or phospholipid/diacylglycerol, have been studied by phosphorylation in vitro of particulate and soluble fractions from human postmortem brain samples. One-dimensional or two-dimensional gel electrophoretic protein separations were used for analysis. Protein phosphorylation catalyzed by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase was found to be highly active in both particulate and soluble preparations throughout the human CNS, with groups of both widely distributed and region-specific substrates being observed in different brain nuclei. Dopamine-innervated parts of the basal ganglia and cerebral cortex contained the phosphoproteins previously observed in rodent basal ganglia. In contrast, calcium/phospholipid-dependent and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphorylation systems were less prominent in human postmortem brain than in rodent brain, and only a few widely distributed substrates for these protein kinases were found. Protein staining indicated that postmortem proteolysis, particularly of high-molecular-mass proteins, was prominent in deeply located, subcortical regions in the human brain. Our results indicate that it is feasible to use human postmortem brain samples, when obtained under carefully controlled conditions, for qualitative studies on brain protein phosphorylation. Such studies should be of value in studies on human neurological and/or psychiatric disorders

  13. Giant hub Src and Syk tyrosine kinase thermodynamic profiles recapitulate evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, J. C.

    2017-10-01

    Thermodynamic scaling theory, previously applied mainly to small proteins, here analyzes quantitative evolution of the titled functional network giant hub enzymes. The broad domain structure identified homologically is confirmed hydropathically using amino acid sequences only. The most surprising results concern the evolution of the tyrosine kinase globular surface roughness from avians to mammals, which is first order, compared to the evolution within mammals from rodents to humans, which is second order. The mystery of the unique amide terminal region of proto oncogene tyrosine protein kinase is resolved by the discovery there of a rare hydroneutral septad targeting cluster, which is paralleled by an equally rare octad catalytic cluster in tyrosine kinase in humans and a few other species (cat and dog). These results, which go far towards explaining why these proteins are among the largest giant hubs in protein interaction networks, use no adjustable parameters.

  14. Human Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Tyrosine 34 Contribution to Structure and Catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. Jefferson P.; Hearn, Amy S.; Cabelli, Diane E.; Nick, Harry S.; Tainer, John A.; Silverman, David N.

    2009-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes are critical in controlling levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are linked to aging, cancer and neurodegenerative disease. Superoxide (O2 •−) produced during respiration is removed by the product of the SOD2 gene, the homotetrameric manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD). Here, we examine the structural and catalytic roles of the highly conserved active-site residue Tyr34, based upon structure-function studies of MnSOD enzymes with mutations at this site. Substitution of Tyr34 with five different amino acids retained the active site protein structure and assembly, but causes a substantial decrease in the catalytic rate constant for the reduction of superoxide. The rate constant for formation of product inhibition complex also decreases but to a much lesser extent, resulting in a net increase in the product inhibition form of the mutant enzymes. Comparisons of crystal structures and catalytic rates also suggest that one mutation, Y34V, interrupts the hydrogen-bonded network, which is associated with a rapid dissociation of the product-inhibited complex. Notably, with three of the Tyr34 mutants we also observe an intermediate in catalysis, which has not been reported previously. Thus, these mutants establish a means to trap a catalytic intermediate that promises to help elucidate the mechanism of catalysis. PMID:19265433

  15. Elevated free nitrotyrosine levels, but not protein-bound nitrotyrosine or hydroxyl radicals, throughout amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-like disease implicate tyrosine nitration as an aberrant in vivo property of one familial ALS-linked superoxide dismutase 1 mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruijn, L I; Beal, M F; Becher, M W; Schulz, J B; Wong, P C; Price, D L; Cleveland, D W

    1997-07-08

    Mutations in superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1; EC 1.15.1.1) are responsible for a proportion of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) through acquisition of an as-yet-unidentified toxic property or properties. Two proposed possibilities are that toxicity may arise from imperfectly folded mutant SOD1 catalyzing the nitration of tyrosines [Beckman, J. S., Carson, M., Smith, C. D. & Koppenol, W. H. (1993) Nature (London) 364, 584] through use of peroxynitrite or from peroxidation arising from elevated production of hydroxyl radicals through use of hydrogen peroxide as a substrate [Wiedau-Pazos, M., Goto, J. J., Rabizadeh, S., Gralla, E. D., Roe, J. A., Valentine, J. S. & Bredesen, D. E. (1996) Science 271, 515-518]. To test these possibilities, levels of nitrotyrosine and markers for hydroxyl radical formation were measured in two lines of transgenic mice that develop progressive motor neuron disease from expressing human familial ALS-linked SOD1 mutation G37R. Relative to normal mice or mice expressing high levels of wild-type human SOD1, 3-nitrotyrosine levels were elevated by 2- to 3-fold in spinal cords coincident with the earliest pathological abnormalities and remained elevated in spinal cord throughout progression of disease. However, no increases in protein-bound nitrotyrosine were found during any stage of SOD1-mutant-mediated disease in mice or at end stage of sporadic or SOD1-mediated familial human ALS. When salicylate trapping of hydroxyl radicals and measurement of levels of malondialdehyde were used, there was no evidence throughout disease progression in mice for enhanced production of hydroxyl radicals or lipid peroxidation, respectively. The presence of elevated nitrotyrosine levels beginning at the earliest stages of cellular pathology and continuing throughout progression of disease demonstrates that tyrosine nitration is one in vivo aberrant property of this ALS-linked SOD1 mutant.

  16. Ror receptor tyrosine kinases: orphans no more

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Jennifer L.; Kuntz, Steven G.; Sternberg, Paul W.

    2008-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor (Ror) proteins are a conserved family of tyrosine kinase receptors that function in developmental processes including skeletal and neuronal development, cell movement and cell polarity. Although Ror proteins were originally named because the associated ligand and signaling pathway were unknown, recent studies in multiple species have now established that Ror proteins are Wnt receptors. Depending on the cellular context, Ror proteins can either act...

  17. Regulation of Cys-based protein tyrosine phosphatases via reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in mast cells and basophils

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heneberg, Petr; Dráber, Petr

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 16 (2005), s. 1859-1871 ISSN 0929-8673 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA204/03/0594; GA ČR(CZ) GA301/03/0596; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA5052310; GA MZd(CZ) NR8079; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0506; GA MŠk(CZ) 1P04OE158 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : mast cell * tyrosine phosphatase * reactive oxygen species Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.904, year: 2005

  18. Human phenylalanine hydroxylase is activated by H2O2: a novel mechanism for increasing the L-tyrosine supply for melanogenesis in melanocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schallreuter, Karin U.; Wazir, Umar; Kothari, Sonal; Gibbons, Nicholas C.J.; Moore, Jeremy; Wood, John M.

    2004-01-01

    Epidermal phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) produces L-tyrosine from the essential amino acid L-phenylalanine supporting melanogenesis in human melanocytes. Those PAH activities increase linearly in the different skin phototypes I-VI (Fitzpatrick classification) and also increase up to 24 h after UVB light with only one minimal erythemal dose. Since UVB generates also H 2 O 2 , we here asked the question whether this reactive oxygen species could influence the activity of pure recombinant human PAH. Under saturating conditions with the substrate L-phenylalanine (1 x 10 -3 M), the V max for enzyme activity increased 4-fold by H 2 O 2 (>2.0 x 10 -3 M). Lineweaver-Burk analysis identified a mixed activation mechanism involving both the regulatory and catalytic domains of PAH. Hyperchem molecular modelling and Deep View analysis support oxidation of the single Trp 120 residue to 5-OH-Trp 120 by H 2 O 2 causing a conformational change in the regulatory domain. PAH was still activated by H 2 O 2 in the presence of the electron donor/cofactor 6(R)-L-erythro-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin despite slow oxidation of this cofactor. In vivo FT-Raman spectroscopy confirmed decreased epidermal phenylalanine in association with increased tyrosine after UVB exposure. Hence, generation of H 2 O 2 by UVB can activate epidermal PAH leading to an increased L-tyrosine pool for melanogenesis

  19. p56Lck and p59Fyn Regulate CD28 Binding to Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase, Growth Factor Receptor-Bound Protein GRB-2, and T Cell-Specific Protein-Tyrosine Kinase ITK: Implications for T-Cell Costimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Monika; Cai, Yun-Cai; Bunnell, Stephen C.; Heyeck, Stephanie D.; Berg, Leslie J.; Rudd, Christopher E.

    1995-09-01

    T-cell activation requires cooperative signals generated by the T-cell antigen receptor ξ-chain complex (TCRξ-CD3) and the costimulatory antigen CD28. CD28 interacts with three intracellular proteins-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase), T cell-specific protein-tyrosine kinase ITK (formerly TSK or EMT), and the complex between growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 and son of sevenless guanine nucleotide exchange protein (GRB-2-SOS). PI 3-kinase and GRB-2 bind to the CD28 phosphotyrosine-based Tyr-Met-Asn-Met motif by means of intrinsic Src-homology 2 (SH2) domains. The requirement for tyrosine phosphorylation of the Tyr-Met-Asn-Met motif for SH2 domain binding implicates an intervening protein-tyrosine kinase in the recruitment of PI 3-kinase and GRB-2 by CD28. Candidate kinases include p56Lck, p59Fyn, ξ-chain-associated 70-kDa protein (ZAP-70), and ITK. In this study, we demonstrate in coexpression studies that p56Lck and p59Fyn phosphorylate CD28 primarily at Tyr-191 of the Tyr-Met-Asn-Met motif, inducing a 3- to 8-fold increase in p85 (subunit of PI 3-kinase) and GRB-2 SH2 binding to CD28. Phosphatase digestion of CD28 eliminated binding. In contrast to Src kinases, ZAP-70 and ITK failed to induce these events. Further, ITK binding to CD28 was dependent on the presence of p56Lck and is thus likely to act downstream of p56Lck/p59Fyn in a signaling cascade. p56Lck is therefore likely to be a central switch in T-cell activation, with the dual function of regulating CD28-mediated costimulation as well as TCR-CD3-CD4 signaling.

  20. The biological activity of the human epidermal growth factor receptor is positively regulated by its C-terminal tyrosines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helin, K; Velu, T; Martin, P

    1991-01-01

    mutants in the full length receptor. EGF-dependent transforming ability of the single point mutants is similar to that of the wild type, while that of double mutants is decreased and an even lower activity is present in the triple mutant. In each bioassay, including EGF-dependent focal transformation...... biologically. The EGF-R kinase activity is affected by tyrosine substitution since in vitro phosphorylation of exogenous substrates is reduced in the double and triple mutants. Autophosphorylation, in vivo and in vitro, is also reduced, but not totally abolished in the triple point mutant and Dc123 indicating......The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) C-terminus contains three conserved tyrosines (Y-1068, Y-1148, Y-1173) which are phosphorylated upon EGF activation. To clarify the functional role of these tyrosines, each has been mutated to phenylalanine and studied as single, double and triple...

  1. Preclinical evaluation of sunitinib, a multi-tyrosine kinase inhibitor, as a radiosensitizer for human prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, Colin; Sheu, Tommy; Bridges, Kathleen; Mason, Kathy; Kuban, Deborah; Mathew, Paul; Meyn, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    Many prostate cancers demonstrate an increased expression of growth factor receptors such as vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) and platelet derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) which have been correlated with increased resistance to radiotherapy and poor prognosis in other tumors. Therefore, response to radiation could potentially be improved by using inhibitors of these abnormally activated pathways. We have investigated the radiosensitizing effects of sunitinib, a potent, multi-tyrosine kinase inhibitor of the VEGFR and PDGFR receptors, on human prostate cancer cells. The radiosensitizing effects of sunitinib were assessed on human prostate cancer cell lines DU145, PC3 and LNCaP by clonogenic assay. Sunitinib’s ability to inhibit the activities of its key targets was determined by immunoblot analysis. The radiosensitizing effects of sunitinib in vivo were tested on human tumor xenografts growing in nude mice where response was assessed by tumor growth delay. Clonogenic survival curve assays for both DU145 and PC3 cells showed that the surviving fraction at 2 Gy was reduced from 0.70 and 0.52 in controls to 0.44 and 0.38, respectively, by a 24 hr pretreatment with 100 nM sunitinib. LNCaP cells were not radiosensitized by sunitinib. Dose dependent decreases in VEGFR and PDGFR activation were also observed following sunitinib in both DU145 and PC3 cells. We assessed the ability of sunitinib to radiosensitize PC3 xenograft tumors growing in the hind limb of nude mice. Sunitinib given concurrently with radiation did not prolong tumor growth delay. However, when animals were treated with sunitinib commencing the day after fractionated radiation was complete, tumor growth delay was enhanced compared to radiation alone. We conclude, based on the in vivo results, that sunitinib and radiation do not interact directly to radiosensitize the PC3 tumor cells in vivo as they did in vitro. The fact that tumor growth delay was enhanced when sunitinib was

  2. Protein tyrosine phosphatase µ (PTP µ or PTPRM, a negative regulator of proliferation and invasion of breast cancer cells, is associated with disease prognosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Hui Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: PTPRM has been shown to exhibit homophilic binding and confer cell-cell adhesion in cells including epithelial and cancer cells. The present study investigated the expression of PTPRM in breast cancer and the biological impact of PTPRM on breast cancer cells. DESIGN: Expression of PTPRM protein and gene transcript was examined in a cohort of breast cancer patients. Knockdown of PTPRM in breast cancer cells was performed using a specific anti-PTPRM transgene. The impact of PTPRM knockdown on breast cancer was evaluated using in vitro cell models. RESULTS: A significant decrease of PTPRM transcripts was seen in poorly differentiated and moderately differentiated tumours compared with well differentiated tumours. Patients with lower expression of PTPRM had shorter survival compared with those which had a higher level of PTPRM expression. Knockdown of PTPRM increased proliferation, adhesion, invasion and migration of breast cancer cells. Furthermore, knockdown of PTPRM in MDA-MB-231 cells resulted in increased cell migration and invasion via regulation of the tyrosine phosphorylation of ERK and JNK. CONCLUSIONS: Decreased expression of PTPRM in breast cancer is correlated with poor prognosis and inversely correlated with disease free survival. PTPRM coordinated cell migration and invasion through the regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of ERK and JNK.

  3. New compounds from acid hydrolyzed products of the fruits of Momordica charantia L. and their inhibitory activity against protein tyrosine phosphatas 1B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ke; He, Yan-Ni; Yang, Di; Cao, Jia-Qing; Xia, Xi-Chun; Zhang, Shi-Jun; Bi, Xiu-Li; Zhao, Yu-Qing

    2014-06-23

    Four new cucurbitane-type triterpene sapogenins, compounds 1-4, together with other eight known compounds were isolated from the acid-hydrolyzed fruits extract of Momordica charantia L. Their chemical structures were established by NMR, mass spectrometry and X-ray crystallography. Compounds 1-7 and 9-12 were evaluated for their inhibitory activities toward protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), a tyrosine phosphatase that has been implicated as a key target for therapy against type II diabetes. Compounds 1, 2, 4, 7 and 9 were shown inhibitory activities of 77%, 62%, 62% 60% and 68% against PTP1B, respectively. All of these tested compounds were exhibited higher PTP1B inhibition activities than that of the Na3VO4, a known PTP1B inhibitor used as positive control in present study. Structure activity relationship (SAR) analysis indicated that the inhibition activity of PTP1B was associated with the presence and number of -OH groups. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Down-regulated expression of the protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is associated with aggressive clinicopathologic features and poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Long-Yi; Zhou, Dong-Xun; Lu, Jin; Zhang, Wen-Jun; Zou, Da-Jin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► PTP1B protein showed decreased expression in 67.79% of the HCC patients. ► Low PTP1B expression predicts poor prognosis of HCC. ► Low PTP1B expression is correlated with expansion of OV6 + tumor-initiating cells. ► Down-regulation of PTP1B is associated with activation of Wnt/β-Catenin signaling. -- Abstract: The protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is a classical non-transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatase that plays a key role in metabolic signaling and can exert both tumor suppressing and tumor promoting effects in different cancers depending on the substrate involved and the cellular context. However, the expression level and function of PTP1B in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain unclear. In this study, PTP1B expression was detected by immunohistochemistry in normal liver tissue (n = 16) and hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 169). The correlations between PTP1B expression level and clinicopathologic features and patient survival were also analyzed. One hundred and eleven of 169 HCC patients (65.7%) had negative or low PTP1B expression in tumorous tissues, whereas normal tissues always expressed strong PTP1B. Decreased PTP1B expression was significantly associated with aggressive clinicopathologic features and poor prognosis. Immunohistochemistry also showed that low PTP1B expression level was correlated with high percentage of OV6 + tumor-initiating cells (T-ICs) and high frequency of nuclear β-Catenin expression in HCC specimens. Our findings demonstrate for the first time that the loss of inhibitory effect of PTP1B may contribute to progression and invasion of HCC through activation of Wnt/β-Catenin signaling and expansion of liver T-ICs. PTP1B may serve as a valuable prognostic biomarker and potential therapeutic target in HCC.

  5. Down-regulated expression of the protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is associated with aggressive clinicopathologic features and poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Long-Yi [Department of Endocrinology, Changhai Hospital, 168 Changhai Road, Shanghai 200433 (China); Zhou, Dong-Xun [Department of Comprehensive Treatment II, Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital, 225 Changhai Road, Shanghai 200438 (China); Lu, Jin [Department of Endocrinology, Changhai Hospital, 168 Changhai Road, Shanghai 200433 (China); Zhang, Wen-Jun [Department of Emergency, Changhai Hospital, 168 Changhai Road, Shanghai 200433 (China); Zou, Da-Jin, E-mail: dajinzou@hotmail.com [Department of Endocrinology, Changhai Hospital, 168 Changhai Road, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2012-04-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PTP1B protein showed decreased expression in 67.79% of the HCC patients. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low PTP1B expression predicts poor prognosis of HCC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low PTP1B expression is correlated with expansion of OV6{sup +} tumor-initiating cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Down-regulation of PTP1B is associated with activation of Wnt/{beta}-Catenin signaling. -- Abstract: The protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is a classical non-transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatase that plays a key role in metabolic signaling and can exert both tumor suppressing and tumor promoting effects in different cancers depending on the substrate involved and the cellular context. However, the expression level and function of PTP1B in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain unclear. In this study, PTP1B expression was detected by immunohistochemistry in normal liver tissue (n = 16) and hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 169). The correlations between PTP1B expression level and clinicopathologic features and patient survival were also analyzed. One hundred and eleven of 169 HCC patients (65.7%) had negative or low PTP1B expression in tumorous tissues, whereas normal tissues always expressed strong PTP1B. Decreased PTP1B expression was significantly associated with aggressive clinicopathologic features and poor prognosis. Immunohistochemistry also showed that low PTP1B expression level was correlated with high percentage of OV6{sup +} tumor-initiating cells (T-ICs) and high frequency of nuclear {beta}-Catenin expression in HCC specimens. Our findings demonstrate for the first time that the loss of inhibitory effect of PTP1B may contribute to progression and invasion of HCC through activation of Wnt/{beta}-Catenin signaling and expansion of liver T-ICs. PTP1B may serve as a valuable prognostic biomarker and potential therapeutic target in HCC.

  6. Nuclear localization of lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase (Lck) and its role in regulating LIM domain only 2 (Lmo2) gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkitachalam, Srividya; Chueh, Fu-Yu [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, H. M. Bligh Cancer Research Laboratories, Chicago Medical School, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, North Chicago, IL 60064 (United States); Yu, Chao-Lan, E-mail: chaolan.yu@rosalindfranklin.edu [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, H. M. Bligh Cancer Research Laboratories, Chicago Medical School, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, North Chicago, IL 60064 (United States)

    2012-01-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lmo2 expression is elevated in Lck-transformed cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both endogenous and exogenous Lck localize in the nucleus. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nuclear Lck is active in Lck-transformed cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lck binds to the promoter region of Lmo2 gene in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In contrast to JAK2, Lck does not increase histone H3 phosphorylation on Tyr 41. -- Abstract: LIM domain only protein 2 (Lmo2) is a transcription factor that plays a critical role in the development of T-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). A previous report established a link between Lmo2 expression and the nuclear presence of oncogenic Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), a non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase. The oncogenic JAK2 kinase phosphorylates histone H3 on Tyr 41 that leads to the relief of Lmo2 promoter repression and subsequent gene expression. Similar to JAK2, constitutive activation of lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase (Lck) has been implicated in lymphoid malignancies. However, it is not known whether oncogenic Lck regulates Lmo2 expression through a similar mechanism. We show here that Lmo2 expression is significantly elevated in T cell leukemia LSTRA overexpressing active Lck kinase and in HEK 293 cells expressing oncogenic Y505FLck kinase. Nuclear localization of active Lck kinase was confirmed in both Lck-transformed cells by subcellular fractionation and immunofluorescence microscopy. More importantly, in contrast to oncogenic JAK2, oncogenic Lck kinase does not result in significant increase in histone H3 phosphorylation on Tyr 41. Instead, chromatin immunoprecipitation experiment shows that oncogenic Y505FLck kinase binds to the Lmo2 promoter in vivo. This result raises the possibility that oncogenic Lck may activate Lmo2 promoter through direct interaction.

  7. Human cancer protein-protein interaction network: a structural perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gozde Kar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Protein-protein interaction networks provide a global picture of cellular function and biological processes. Some proteins act as hub proteins, highly connected to others, whereas some others have few interactions. The dysfunction of some interactions causes many diseases, including cancer. Proteins interact through their interfaces. Therefore, studying the interface properties of cancer-related proteins will help explain their role in the interaction networks. Similar or overlapping binding sites should be used repeatedly in single interface hub proteins, making them promiscuous. Alternatively, multi-interface hub proteins make use of several distinct binding sites to bind to different partners. We propose a methodology to integrate protein interfaces into cancer interaction networks (ciSPIN, cancer structural protein interface network. The interactions in the human protein interaction network are replaced by interfaces, coming from either known or predicted complexes. We provide a detailed analysis of cancer related human protein-protein interfaces and the topological properties of the cancer network. The results reveal that cancer-related proteins have smaller, more planar, more charged and less hydrophobic binding sites than non-cancer proteins, which may indicate low affinity and high specificity of the cancer-related interactions. We also classified the genes in ciSPIN according to phenotypes. Within phenotypes, for breast cancer, colorectal cancer and leukemia, interface properties were found to be discriminating from non-cancer interfaces with an accuracy of 71%, 67%, 61%, respectively. In addition, cancer-related proteins tend to interact with their partners through distinct interfaces, corresponding mostly to multi-interface hubs, which comprise 56% of cancer-related proteins, and constituting the nodes with higher essentiality in the network (76%. We illustrate the interface related affinity properties of two cancer-related hub

  8. Protein Misfolding and Human Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Niels; Bross, Peter Gerd; Vang, Søren

    2006-01-01

    phenylketonuria, Parkinson's disease, α-1-antitrypsin deficiency, familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus, and short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency. Despite the differences, an emerging paradigm suggests that the cellular effects of protein misfolding provide a common framework that may contribute...

  9. PTP1B-dependent regulation of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling by the actin-binding protein Mena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Shannon K; Oudin, Madeleine J; Tadros, Jenny; Neil, Jason; Del Rosario, Amanda; Joughin, Brian A; Ritsma, Laila; Wyckoff, Jeff; Vasile, Eliza; Eddy, Robert; Philippar, Ulrike; Lussiez, Alisha; Condeelis, John S; van Rheenen, Jacco; White, Forest; Lauffenburger, Douglas A; Gertler, Frank B

    2015-11-01

    During breast cancer progression, alternative mRNA splicing produces functionally distinct isoforms of Mena, an actin regulator with roles in cell migration and metastasis. Aggressive tumor cell subpopulations express Mena(INV), which promotes tumor cell invasion by potentiating EGF responses. However, the mechanism by which this occurs is unknown. Here we report that Mena associates constitutively with the tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B and mediates a novel negative feedback mechanism that attenuates receptor tyrosine kinase signaling. On EGF stimulation, complexes containing Mena and PTP1B are recruited to the EGFR, causing receptor dephosphorylation and leading to decreased motility responses. Mena also interacts with the 5' inositol phosphatase SHIP2, which is important for the recruitment of the Mena-PTP1B complex to the EGFR. When Mena(INV) is expressed, PTP1B recruitment to the EGFR is impaired, providing a mechanism for growth factor sensitization to EGF, as well as HGF and IGF, and increased resistance to EGFR and Met inhibitors in signaling and motility assays. In sum, we demonstrate that Mena plays an important role in regulating growth factor-induced signaling. Disruption of this attenuation by Mena(INV) sensitizes tumor cells to low-growth factor concentrations, thereby increasing the migration and invasion responses that contribute to aggressive, malignant cell phenotypes. © 2015 Hughes, Oudin, et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  10. Sesquiterpene dimmer (DSF-27) inhibits the release of neuroinflammatory mediators from microglia by targeting spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) and Janus kinase 2 (Jak2): Two major non-receptor tyrosine signaling proteins involved in inflammatory events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Ke-Wu [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China); Wang, Shu [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China); Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Analysis, Logistics College of Chinese People' s Armed Police Forces, Tianjin 300162 (China); Dong, Xin; Jiang, Yong; Jin, Hong-Wei [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China); Tu, Peng-Fei, E-mail: pengfeitu@vip.163.com [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2014-03-15

    Non-receptor protein tyrosine kinases (NRPTKs)-dependent inflammatory signal transduction cascades play key roles in immunoregulation. However, drug intervention through NRPTKs-involved immunoregulation mechanism in microglia (the major immune cells of the central nervous system) has not been widely investigated. A main aim of the present study is to elucidate the contribution of two major NRPTKs (Syk and Jak2) in neuroinflammation suppression by a bioactive sesquiterpene dimmer (DSF-27). We found that LPS-stimulated BV-2 cells activated Syk and further initiated Akt/NF-κB inflammatory pathway. This Syk-dependent Akt/NF-κB inflammatory pathway can be effectively ameliorated by DSF-27. Moreover, Jak2 was activated by LPS, which was followed by transcriptional factor Stat3 activation. The Jak2/Stat3 signal was suppressed by DSF-27 through inhibition of Jak2 and Stat3 phosphorylation, promotion of Jak/Stat3 inhibitory factors PIAS3 expression, and down-regulation of ERK and p38 MAPK phosphorylation. Furthermore, DSF-27 protected cortical and mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons against neuroinflammatory injury. Taken together, our findings indicate NRPTK signaling pathways including Syk/NF-κB and Jak2/Stat3 cascades are potential anti-neuroinflammatory targets in microglia, and may also set the basis for the use of sesquiterpene dimmer as a therapeutic approach for neuroinflammation via interruption of these pathways. - Highlights: • Sesquiterpene dimmer DSF-27 inhibits inflammatory mediators' production in microglia. • Syk-dependent Akt/NF-κB pathway is important for DSF-27's anti-inflammation activity. • Jak2/Stat3 pathway is important for DSF-27's anti-inflammation activity. • Jak2/Stat3 signaling pathway is partly regulated by ERK and p38 MAPKs and PIAS3. • DSF-27 protects neurons against microglia-mediated neuroinflammatory injury.

  11. THE UNCOVERING OF A NOVEL REGULATORY MECHANISM FOR PLD2: FORMATION OF A TERNARY COMPLEX WITH PROTEIN TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE PTP1B AND GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR-BOUND PROTEIN GRB2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Jeff; Lopez, Isabel; Miller, Mill; Gomez-Cambronero, Julian

    2011-01-01

    The regulation of PLD2 activation is poorly understood at present. Transient transfection of COS-7 with a mycPLD2 construct results in elevated levels of PLD2 enzymatic activity and tyrosyl phosphorylation. To investigate whether this phosphorylation affects PLD2 enzymatic activity, anti-myc immunoprecipitates were treated with recombinant protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B. Surprisingly, lipase activity and PY levels both increased over a range of PTP1B concentrations. These increases occurred in parallel to a measurable PTP1B-associated phosphatase activity. Inhibitor studies demonstrated that an EGF-receptor type kinase is involved in phosphorylation. In a COS-7 cell line created in the laboratory that stably expressed myc-PLD2, PTP1B induced a robust (>6-fold) augmentation of myc-PLD2 phosphotyrosine content. The addition of growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (Grb2) to cell extracts also elevated PY levels of myc-PLD (>10-fold). Systematic co-immunoprecipitation-immunoblotting experiments pointed at a physical association between PLD2, Grb2 and PTP1B in both physiological conditions and in overexpressed cells. This is the first report of a demonstration of the mammalian isoform PLD2 existing in a ternary complex with a protein tyrosine phosphatase, PTP1b, and the docking protein Grb2 which greatly enhances tyrosyl phosphorylation of the lipase. PMID:15896299

  12. Inferring high-confidence human protein-protein interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Xueping

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As numerous experimental factors drive the acquisition, identification, and interpretation of protein-protein interactions (PPIs, aggregated assemblies of human PPI data invariably contain experiment-dependent noise. Ascertaining the reliability of PPIs collected from these diverse studies and scoring them to infer high-confidence networks is a non-trivial task. Moreover, a large number of PPIs share the same number of reported occurrences, making it impossible to distinguish the reliability of these PPIs and rank-order them. For example, for the data analyzed here, we found that the majority (>83% of currently available human PPIs have been reported only once. Results In this work, we proposed an unsupervised statistical approach to score a set of diverse, experimentally identified PPIs from nine primary databases to create subsets of high-confidence human PPI networks. We evaluated this ranking method by comparing it with other methods and assessing their ability to retrieve protein associations from a number of diverse and independent reference sets. These reference sets contain known biological data that are either directly or indirectly linked to interactions between proteins. We quantified the average effect of using ranked protein interaction data to retrieve this information and showed that, when compared to randomly ranked interaction data sets, the proposed method created a larger enrichment (~134% than either ranking based on the hypergeometric test (~109% or occurrence ranking (~46%. Conclusions From our evaluations, it was clear that ranked interactions were always of value because higher-ranked PPIs had a higher likelihood of retrieving high-confidence experimental data. Reducing the noise inherent in aggregated experimental PPIs via our ranking scheme further increased the accuracy and enrichment of PPIs derived from a number of biologically relevant data sets. These results suggest that using our high

  13. Epithelial mesenchymal transition status is associated with anti-cancer responses towards receptor tyrosine-kinase inhibition by dovitinib in human bladder cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hänze, Jörg; Henrici, Marcus; Hegele, Axel; Hofmann, Rainer; Olbert, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Dovitinib (TKI-258) is a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitor targeting fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) and further related RTKs. TKI-258 is under investigation as anticancer drug for the treatment of various cancers including bladder cancer with aberrant RTK signaling. Here, we analyzed the responses of ten human bladder cancer cell lines towards TKI-258 treatment in relation to the epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) status of the cells. Expression of epithelial marker E-cadherin as well as mesenchymal markers N-cadherin and vimentin was determined by quantitative RT-PCR and Western-blot in RNA and protein extracts from the cultured cell lines. The cell responses were analyzed upon addition of TKI-258 by viability/proliferation (XTT assay) and colony formation assay for measurement of cell contact independent growth. The investigated bladder cancer cell lines turned out to display quite different EMT patterns as indicated by the abundance of E-cadherin or N-cadherin and vimentin. Protein and mRNA levels of the respective components strongly correlated. Based on E-cadherin and N-cadherin mRNA levels that were expressed approximately mutual exclusively, an EMT-score was calculated for each cell line. A high EMT-score indicated mesenchymal-like cells and a low EMT-score epithelial-like cells. Then, we determined the IC 50 values for TKI-258 by dose response curves (0-12 μM TKI-258) in XTT assays for each cell line. Also, we measured the clonogenic survival fraction after adding TKI-258 (1 μM) by colony formation assay. We observed significant correlations between EMT-score and IC 50 values (r = 0.637, p = 0.0474) and between EMT-score and clonogenic survival fraction (r = 0.635, p = 0.0483) as analyzed by linear regression analyses. In sum, we demonstrated that the EMT status based on E-cadherin and N-cadherin mRNA levels may be useful to predict responses towards TKI-258 treatment in bladder cancer

  14. Structural analysis of recombinant human protein QM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gualberto, D.C.H.; Fernandes, J.L.; Silva, F.S.; Saraiva, K.W.; Affonso, R.; Pereira, L.M.; Silva, I.D.C.G.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: The ribosomal protein QM belongs to a family of ribosomal proteins, which is highly conserved from yeast to humans. The presence of the QM protein is necessary for joining the 60S and 40S subunits in a late step of the initiation of mRNA translation. Although the exact extra-ribosomal functions of QM are not yet fully understood, it has been identified as a putative tumor suppressor. This protein was reported to interact with the transcription factor c-Jun and thereby prevent c-Jun actives genes of the cellular growth. In this study, the human QM protein was expressed in bacterial system, in the soluble form and this structure was analyzed by Circular Dichroism and Fluorescence. The results of Circular Dichroism showed that this protein has less alpha helix than beta sheet, as described in the literature. QM protein does not contain a leucine zipper region; however the ion zinc is necessary for binding of QM to c-Jun. Then we analyzed the relationship between the removal of zinc ions and folding of protein. Preliminary results obtained by the technique Fluorescence showed a gradual increase in fluorescence with the addition of increasing concentration of EDTA. This suggests that the zinc is important in the tertiary structure of the protein. More studies are being made for better understand these results. (author)

  15. Temporal pattern changes in duodenal protein tyrosine nitration events in response to Eimeria acervulina infection in chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intracellular generation of nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide anion (SOA) can result in the formation of 3'-nitrotyrosine proteins (NTp). Nitrated proteins usually are associated with significant perturbation in protein function, apoptosis, and cell death. We undertook the present study to establis...

  16. Evidence for roles of radicals in protein oxidation in advanced human atherosclerotic plaque

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fu, S; Davies, Michael Jonathan; Stocker, R

    1998-01-01

    ) or oxidation has been obtained by immunochemical methods; the specificities of these antibodies are unclear. Here we present chemical determinations of six protein-bound oxidation products: dopa, o-tyrosine, m-tyrosine, dityrosine, hydroxyleucine and hydroxyvaline, some of which reflect particularly oxy...

  17. Subcellular localization analysis of the closely related Fps/Fes and Fer protein-tyrosine kinases suggests a distinct role for Fps/Fes in vesicular trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirngibl, R; Schulze, D; Mirski, S E; Cole, S P; Greer, P A

    2001-05-15

    The subcellular localizations of the Fps/Fes and closely related Fer cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases were studied using green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusions and confocal fluorescence microscopy. In contrast to previous reports, neither kinase localized to the nucleus. Fer was diffusely cytoplasmic throughout the cell cycle. Fps/Fes also displayed a diffuse cytoplasmic localization, but in addition it showed distinct accumulations in cytoplasmic vesicles as well as in a perinuclear region consistent with the Golgi. This localization was very similar to that of TGN38, a known marker of the trans Golgi. The localization of Fps/Fes and TGN38 were both perturbed by brefeldin A, a fungal metabolite that disrupts the Golgi apparatus. Fps/Fes was also found to colocalize to various extents with several Rab proteins, which are members of the monomeric G-protein superfamily involved in vesicular transport between specific subcellular compartments. Using Rabs that are involved in endocytosis (Rab5B and Rab7) or exocytosis (Rab1A and Rab3A), we showed that Fps/Fes is localized in both pathways. These results suggest that Fps/Fes may play a general role in the regulation of vesicular trafficking. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  18. Src homology domain 2-containing protein-tyrosine phosphatase-1 (SHP-1) binds and dephosphorylates G(alpha)-interacting, vesicle-associated protein (GIV)/Girdin and attenuates the GIV-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Yash; Pavlova, Yelena; Garcia-Marcos, Mikel; Ghosh, Pradipta

    2011-09-16

    GIV (Gα-interacting vesicle-associated protein, also known as Girdin) is a bona fide enhancer of PI3K-Akt signals during a diverse set of biological processes, e.g. wound healing, macrophage chemotaxis, tumor angiogenesis, and cancer invasion/metastasis. We recently demonstrated that tyrosine phosphorylation of GIV by receptor and non-receptor-tyrosine kinases is a key step that is required for GIV to directly bind and enhance PI3K activity. Here we report the discovery that Src homology 2-containing phosphatase-1 (SHP-1) is the major protein-tyrosine phosphatase that targets two critical phosphotyrosines within GIV and antagonizes phospho-GIV-dependent PI3K enhancement in mammalian cells. Using phosphorylation-dephosphorylation assays, we demonstrate that SHP-1 is the major and specific protein-tyrosine phosphatase that catalyzes the dephosphorylation of tyrosine-phosphorylated GIV in vitro and inhibits ligand-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of GIV downstream of both growth factor receptors and GPCRs in cells. In vitro binding and co-immunoprecipitation assays demonstrate that SHP-1 and GIV interact directly and constitutively and that this interaction occurs between the SH2 domain of SHP-1 and the C terminus of GIV. Overexpression of SHP-1 inhibits tyrosine phosphorylation of GIV and formation of phospho-GIV-PI3K complexes, and specifically suppresses GIV-dependent activation of Akt. Consistently, depletion of SHP-1 enhances peak tyrosine phosphorylation of GIV, which coincides with an increase in peak Akt activity. We conclude that SHP-1 antagonizes the action of receptor and non-receptor-tyrosine kinases on GIV and down-regulates the phospho-GIV-PI3K-Akt axis of signaling.

  19. Involvement of protein tyrosine phosphatases BcPtpA and BcPtpB in regulation of vegetative development, virulence and multi-stress tolerance in Botrytis cinerea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianqian Yang

    Full Text Available Tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation have emerged as fundamentally important mechanisms of signal transduction and regulation in eukaryotic cells, governing many processes, but little has been known about their functions in filamentous fungi. In this study, we deleted two putative protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP genes (BcPTPA and BcPTPB in Botrytis cinerea, encoding the orthologs of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ptp2 and Ptp3, respectively. Although BcPtpA and BcPtpB have opposite functions in conidiation, they are essential for sclerotial formation in B. cinerea. BcPTPA and BcPTPB deletion mutants ΔBcPtpA-10 and ΔBcPtpB-4 showed significantly increased sensitivity to osmotic and oxidative stresses, and to cell wall damaging agents. Inoculation tests showed that both mutants exhibited dramatically decreased virulence on tomato leaves, apples and grapes. In S. cerevisiae, it has been shown that Ptp2 and Ptp3 negatively regulate the high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG pathway and the cell wall integrity (CWI pathway. Although both BcPtpA and BcPtpB were able to inactive Hog1 and Mpk1 in S. cerevisiae, in contrast to S. cerevisiae, they positively regulate phosphorylation of BcSak1 (the homologue of Hog1 and BcBmp3 (the homologue of Mpk1 in B. cinerea under stress conditions. These results demonstrated that functions of PTPs in B. cinerea are different from those in S. cerevisiae, and BcPtpA and BcPtpB play important roles in regulation of vegetative development, virulence and in adaptation to oxidative, osmotic and cell-wall damage stresses in B. cinerea.

  20. Fps/Fes protein-tyrosine kinase regulates mast cell adhesion and migration downstream of Kit and beta1 integrin receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Julie A; Samayawardhena, Lionel A; Craig, Andrew W B

    2010-03-01

    Activation of Kit receptor protein-tyrosine kinase (PTK) by its ligand Stem Cell Factor (SCF) is required for the development of mast cells, and for the regulation of mast cell proliferation, migration and modulation of inflammatory mediator release. Recent studies have implicated the non-receptor PTK Fps/Fes (hereafter referred to as Fes) in signaling downstream of oncogenic Kit, however, the potential role of Fes in regulating Kit signaling is not well defined. In this study, we show that SCF induces transient tyrosine phosphorylation of wild-type Fes as well as kinase-dead Fes in bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs). The latter finding implicates an upstream kinase acting on Fes, which we identified as Fyn PTK. SCF treatment of BMMCs promoted recruitment of Fes to Kit, potentially via direct interaction of the Fes SH2 domain with phosphorylated Kit. While Fes was not required for SCF-induced signaling to Akt and Erk kinases, Fes-deficient (fes-/-) BMMCs displayed a defect in sustained p38 kinase activation, compared to control cells. SCF-treated Fes-deficient BMMCs also displayed elevated beta1 integrin-mediated cell adhesion and spreading on fibronectin, compared to control cells, and a reduction in cell polarization at later times of SCF treatment. Restoring Fes expression in fes-/- BMMCs by retroviral transduction was sufficient to rescue cell spreading and polarization defects. Interestingly, SCF-induced chemotaxis of BMMCs was also defective in Fes-deficient BMMCs, and restored in Fes-rescue BMMCs. Overall, these results implicate Fes in regulating cross-talk between Kit and beta1 integrins to promote cytoskeletal reorganization and motility of mast cells.

  1. The bone morphogenetic protein antagonist gremlin 1 is overexpressed in human cancers and interacts with YWHAH protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namkoong, Hong; Shin, Seung Min; Kim, Hyun Kee; Ha, Seon-Ah; Cho, Goang Won; Hur, Soo Young; Kim, Tae Eung; Kim, Jin Woo

    2006-01-01

    Basic studies of oncogenesis have demonstrated that either the elevated production of particular oncogene proteins or the occurrence of qualitative abnormalities in oncogenes can contribute to neoplastic cellular transformation. The purpose of our study was to identify an unique gene that shows cancer-associated expression, and characterizes its function related to human carcinogenesis. We used the differential display (DD) RT-PCR method using normal cervical, cervical cancer, metastatic cervical tissues, and cervical cancer cell lines to identify genes overexpressed in cervical cancers and identified gremlin 1 which was overexpressed in cervical cancers. We determined expression levels of gremlin 1 using Northern blot analysis and immunohistochemical study in various types of human normal and cancer tissues. To understand the tumorigenesis pathway of identified gremlin 1 protein, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen, GST pull down assay, and immunoprecipitation to identify gremlin 1 interacting proteins. DDRT-PCR analysis revealed that gremlin 1 was overexpressed in uterine cervical cancer. We also identified a human gremlin 1 that was overexpressed in various human tumors including carcinomas of the lung, ovary, kidney, breast, colon, pancreas, and sarcoma. PIG-2-transfected HEK 293 cells exhibited growth stimulation and increased telomerase activity. Gremlin 1 interacted with homo sapiens tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, eta polypeptide (14-3-3 eta; YWHAH). YWHAH protein binding site for gremlin 1 was located between residues 61–80 and gremlin 1 binding site for YWHAH was found to be located between residues 1 to 67. Gremlin 1 may play an oncogenic role especially in carcinomas of the uterine cervix, lung, ovary, kidney, breast, colon, pancreas, and sarcoma. Over-expressed gremlin 1 functions by interaction with YWHAH. Therefore, Gremlin 1 and its binding protein YWHAH could be good targets for developing diagnostic and

  2. Novel tyrosine phosphorylation sites in rat skeletal muscle revealed by phosphopeptide enrichment and HPLC-ESI-MS/MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiangmin; Højlund, Kurt; Luo, Moulun

    2012-01-01

    Tyrosine phosphorylation plays a fundamental role in many cellular processes including differentiation, growth and insulin signaling. In insulin resistant muscle, aberrant tyrosine phosphorylation of several proteins has been detected. However, due to the low abundance of tyrosine phosphorylation (...

  3. [Cow's milk protein allergy through human milk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, M; Loras-Duclaux, I; Lachaux, A

    2012-03-01

    Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is the first allergy that affects infants. In this population, the incidence rate reaches 7.5%. The multiplicity and aspecificity of the symptoms makes its diagnosis sometimes complicated, especially in the delayed type (gastrointestinal, dermatological, and cutaneous). CMPA symptoms can develop in exclusively breastfed infants with an incidence rate of 0.5%. It, therefore, raises questions about sensitization to cow's milk proteins through breast milk. Transfer of native bovine proteins such as β-lactoglobulin into the breast milk is controversial: some authors have found bovine proteins in human milk but others point to cross-reactivity between human milk proteins and cow's milk proteins. However, it seems that a small percentage of dietary proteins can resist digestion and become potentially allergenic. Moreover, some authors suspect the transfer of some of these dietary proteins from the maternal bloodstream to breast milk, but the mechanisms governing sensitization are still being studied. Theoretically, CMPA diagnosis is based on clinical observations, prick-test or patch-test results, and cow's milk-specific IgE antibody concentration. A positive food challenge test usually confirms the diagnosis. No laboratory test is available to make a certain diagnosis, but the detection of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in the mother's milk, for example, seems to be advantageous since it is linked to CMA. Excluding cow's milk from the mother's diet is the only cure when she still wants to breastfeed. Usually, cow's milk proteins are reintroduced after 6 months of exclusion. Indeed, the prognosis for infants is very good: 80% acquire a tolerance before the age of 3 or 4 years. Mothers should not avoid dairy products during pregnancy and breastfeeding as preventive measures against allergy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Tyrosine 87 is vital for the activity of human protein arginine methyltransferase 3 (PRMT3)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Handrková, H.; Petrák, J.; Halada, Petr; Pospíšilová, D.; Čmejla, R.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 1814, č. 2 (2011), s. 277-282 ISSN 1570-9639 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC07017 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : DIAMOND-BLACKFAN ANEMIA * SUBSTRATE -SPECIFICITY * N-METHYLTRANSFERASE Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.635, year: 2011

  5. Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase-PEST and β8 Integrin Regulate Spatiotemporal Patterns of RhoGDI1 Activation in Migrating Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye Shin; Cheerathodi, Mujeeburahiman; Chaki, Sankar P.; Reyes, Steve B.; Zheng, Yanhua; Lu, Zhimin; Paidassi, Helena; DerMardirossian, Celine; Lacy-Hulbert, Adam; Rivera, Gonzalo M.

    2015-01-01

    Directional cell motility is essential for normal development and physiology, although how motile cells spatiotemporally activate signaling events remains largely unknown. Here, we have characterized an adhesion and signaling unit comprised of protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP)-PEST and the extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion receptor β8 integrin that plays essential roles in directional cell motility. β8 integrin and PTP-PEST form protein complexes at the leading edge of migrating cells and balance patterns of Rac1 and Cdc42 signaling by controlling the subcellular localization and phosphorylation status of Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor 1 (RhoGDI1). Translocation of Src-phosphorylated RhoGDI1 to the cell's leading edge promotes local activation of Rac1 and Cdc42, whereas dephosphorylation of RhoGDI1 by integrin-bound PTP-PEST promotes RhoGDI1 release from the membrane and sequestration of inactive Rac1/Cdc42 in the cytoplasm. Collectively, these data reveal a finely tuned regulatory mechanism for controlling signaling events at the leading edge of directionally migrating cells. PMID:25666508

  6. Homogeneous competitive assay of ligand affinities based on quenching fluorescence of tyrosine/tryptophan residues in a protein via Főrster-resonance-energy-transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yanling; Yang, Xiaolan; Pu, Jun; Zhao, Yunsheng; Zhang, Ying; Xie, Guoming; Zheng, Jun; Yuan, Huidong; Liao, Fei

    2010-11-01

    A new homogeneous competitive assay of ligand affinities was proposed based on quenching the fluorescence of tryptophan/tyrosine residues in a protein via Főrster-resonance-energy-transfer using a fluorescent reference ligand as the acceptor. Under excitation around 280 nm, the fluorescence of a protein or a bound acceptor was monitored upon competitive binding against a nonfluorescent candidate ligand. Chemometrics for deriving the binding ratio of the acceptor with either fluorescence signal was discussed; the dissociation constant ( Kd) of a nonfluorescent candidate ligand was calculated from its concentration to displace 50% binding of the acceptor. N-biotinyl-N'-(1-naphthyl)-ethylenediamine (BNEDA) and N-biotinyl-N'-dansyl-ethylenediamine (BDEDA) were used as the reference ligands and acceptors to streptavidin to test this new homogeneous competitive assay. Upon binding of an acceptor to streptavidin, there were the quench of streptavidin fluorescence at 340 nm and the characteristic fluorescence at 430 nm for BNEDA or at 525 nm for BDEDA. Kd of BNEDA and BDEDA was obtained via competitive binding against biotin. By quantifying BNEDA fluorescence, Kd of each tested nonfluorescent biotin derivative was consistent with that by quantifying streptavidin fluorescence using BNEDA or BDEDA as the acceptor. The overall coefficients of variation were about 10%. Therefore, this homogeneous competitive assay was effective and promising to high-throughput-screening.

  7. Pharmacological inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B: a promising strategy for the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzhinskiy, E; Ren, J; Nair, S

    2013-01-01

    Obesity and metabolic syndrome represent major public health problems, and are the biggest preventable causes of death worldwide. Obesity is the leading risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), cardiovascular diseases and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Obesity-associated insulin resistance, which is characterized by reduced uptake and utilization of glucose in muscle, adipose and liver tissues, is a key predictor of metabolic syndrome and T2DM. With increasing prevalence of obesity in adults and children, the need to identify and characterize potential targets for treating metabolic syndrome is imminent. Emerging evidence from animal models, clinical studies and cell lines studies suggest that protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), an enzyme that negatively regulates insulin signaling, is likely to be involved in the pathways leading to insulin resistance. PTP1B is tethered to the cytosolic surface of endoplasmic reticulum (ER), an organelle that is responsible for folding, modification, and trafficking of proteins. Recent evidence links the disruption of ER homeostasis, referred to as ER stress, to the pathogenesis of obesity and T2DM. PTP1B has been recognized as an important player linking ER stress and insulin resistance in obese subjects. This review highlights recent advances in the research related to the role of PTP1B in signal transduction processes implicated in pathophysiology of obesity and type 2 diabetes, and focuses on the potential therapeutic exploitation of PTP1B inhibitors for the management of these conditions.

  8. Dataset of protein species from human liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Naryzhny

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article contains data related to the research article entitled “Zipf׳s law in proteomics” (Naryzhny et al., 2017 [1]. The protein composition in the human liver or hepatocarcinoma (HepG2 cells extracts was estimated using a filter-aided sample preparation (FASP protocol. The protein species/proteoform composition in the human liver was determined by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE followed by Electrospray Ionization Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (ESI LC-MS/MS. In the case of two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE, the gel was stained with Coomassie Brilliant Blue R350, and image analysis was performed with ImageMaster 2D Platinum software (GE Healthcare. The 96 sections in the 2D gel were selected and cut for subsequent ESI LC-MS/MS and protein identification. If the same protein was detected in different sections, it was considered to exist as different protein species/proteoforms. A list of human liver proteoforms detected in this way is presented.

  9. Both stimulatory and inhibitory effects of dietary 5-hydroxytryptophan and tyrosine are found on urinary excretion of serotonin and dopamine in a large human population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George J Trachte

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available George J Trachte1, Thomas Uncini2, Marty Hinz31Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of MN Medical School Duluth, Duluth, MN, USA; 2Chief Medical Examiner, St. Louis County, Hibbing, MN, USA; 3Clinical Research, NeuroResearch Clinics, Inc., Duluth, MN, USA Abstract: Amino acid precursors of dopamine and serotonin have been administered for decades to treat a variety of clinical conditions including depression, anxiety, insomnia, obesity, and a host of other illnesses. Dietary administration of these amino acids is designed to increase dopamine and serotonin levels within the body, particularly the brain. Convincing evidence exists that these precursors normally elevate dopamine and serotonin levels within critical brain tissues and other organs. However, their effects on urinary excretion of neurotransmitters are described in few studies and the results appear equivocal. The purpose of this study was to define, as precisely as possible, the influence of both 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP and tyrosine on urinary excretion of serotonin and dopamine in a large human population consuming both 5-HTP and tyrosine. Curiously, only 5-HTP exhibited a marginal stimulatory influence on urinary serotonin excretion when 5-HTP doses were compared to urinary serotonin excretion; however, a robust relationship was observed when alterations in 5-HTP dose were compared to alterations in urinary serotonin excretion in individual patients. The data indicate three statistically discernible components to 5-HTP responses, including inverse, direct, and no relationships between urinary serotonin excretion and 5-HTP doses. The response to tyrosine was more consistent but primarily yielded an unexpected reduction in urinary dopamine excretion. These data indicate that the urinary excretion pattern of neurotransmitters after consumption of their precursors is far more complex than previously appreciated. These data on urinary neurotransmitter excretion might

  10. Importance of the content and localization of tyrosine residues for thyroxine formation within the N-terminal part of human thyroglobulin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hartog, M. T.; Sijmons, C. C.; Bakker, O.; Ris-Stalpers, C.; de Vijlder, J. J.

    1995-01-01

    Thyroxine (T4) is formed by coupling of iodinated tyrosine residues within thyroglobulin (TG). In mature TG, some iodinated tyrosine residues are involved preferentially in T4 formation. In order to investigate the specific role of various tyrosine residues in T4 formation, N-terminal TG fragments

  11. The Tyrosine Aminomutase TAM1 Is Required for β-Tyrosine Biosynthesis in Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jian; Aboshi, Takako; Teraishi, Masayoshi; Strickler, Susan R.; Spindel, Jennifer E.; Tung, Chih-Wei; Takata, Ryo; Matsumoto, Fuka; Maesaka, Yoshihiro; McCouch, Susan R.; Okumoto, Yutaka; Mori, Naoki; Jander, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Non-protein amino acids, often isomers of the standard 20 protein amino acids, have defense-related functions in many plant species. A targeted search for jasmonate-induced metabolites in cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) identified (R)-β-tyrosine, an isomer of the common amino acid (S)-α-tyrosine in the seeds, leaves, roots, and root exudates of the Nipponbare cultivar. Assays with 119 diverse cultivars showed a distinct presence/absence polymorphism, with β-tyrosine being most prevalent in temperate japonica cultivars. Genetic mapping identified a candidate gene on chromosome 12, which was confirmed to encode a tyrosine aminomutase (TAM1) by transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana and in vitro enzyme assays. A point mutation in TAM1 eliminated β-tyrosine production in Nipponbare. Rice cultivars that do not produce β-tyrosine have a chromosome 12 deletion that encompasses TAM1. Although β-tyrosine accumulation was induced by the plant defense signaling molecule jasmonic acid, bioassays with hemipteran and lepidopteran herbivores showed no negative effects at physiologically relevant β-tyrosine concentrations. In contrast, root growth of Arabidopsis thaliana and other tested dicot plants was inhibited by concentrations as low as 1 μM. As β-tyrosine is exuded into hydroponic medium at higher concentrations, it may contribute to the allelopathic potential of rice. PMID:25901084

  12. Purification of human alpha uterine protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutcliffe, R G; Bolton, A E; Sharp, F; Nicholson, L V; MacKinnon, R

    1980-03-01

    Human alpha uterine protein (AUP) has been prepared from extracts of decudua by antibody affinity chromatography, DEAE Sepharose chromatography and by filtration through Sephadex G-150. This procedure yielded a protein fraction containing AUP, which was labelled with 125I by chloramine T. When analysed by SDS gel electrophoresis this radioiodinated protein fraction was found to contain predominantly a single species of protein which was precipitated by antibodies against AUP in antibody-antigen crossed electrophoresis. Rabbit anti-AUP precipitated 55-65% of the tracer in a double-antibody system. Sephadex G150 gel filtration of AUP obtained before and after affinity chromatography provided a molecular weight estimate of 50000. Since SDS gel electrophoresis revealed a polypeptide molecular weight of 23000-25000, it is suggested that AUP is a dimer.

  13. Molecular mechanisms of the synergy between cysteinyl-leukotrienes and receptor tyrosine kinase growth factors on human bronchial fibroblast proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajime Yoshisue

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We have reported that cysteinyl-leukotrienes (cys-LTs synergise not only with epidermal growth factor (EGF but also with platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF and fibroblast growth factor (FGF to induce mitogenesis in human bronchial fibroblasts. We now describe the molecular mechanisms underlying this synergism. Mitogenesis was assessed by incorporation of [3H]thymidine into DNA and changes in protein phosphorylation by Western blotting. Surprisingly, no CysLT receptor antagonists (MK-571, montelukast, BAY u9773 prevented the synergistic mitogenesis. LTD4 did not cause phosphorylation of EGFR nor did it augment EGF-induced phosphorylation of EGFR, and the synergy between LTD4 and EGF was not blocked by the metalloproteinase inhibitor GM6001 or by an HB-EGF neutralising antibody. The EGFR-selective kinase inhibitor, AG1478, suppressed the synergy by LTD4 and EGF, but had no effect on the synergy with PDGF and FGF. While inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinase, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and protein kinase C (PKC prevented the synergy, these drugs also inhibited mitogenesis elicited by EGF alone. In contrast, pertussis toxin (PTX efficiently inhibited the potentiating effect of LTD4 on EGF-induced mitogenesis, as well as that provoked by PDGF or FGF, but had no effect on mitogenesis elicited by the growth factors alone. Whereas LTD4 alone did not augment phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk-1/2 and Akt, it increased phosphorylation of PKC in a Gi-dependent manner. Addition of LTD4 prolonged the duration of EGF-induced phosphorylation of Erk-1/2 and Akt, both of which were sensitive to PTX. The effect of cys-LTs involves a PTX-sensitive and PKC-mediated intracellular pathway leading to sustained growth factor-dependent phosphorylation of Erk-1/2 and Akt.

  14. Expression of a truncated receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase kappa in the brain of an adult transgenic mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, P; Canoll, P D; Sap, J

    1999-01-01

    that goal, we have used this mouse model to map the distribution of the truncated RPTP-kappa/beta-geo fusion protein in the adult mouse brain using beta-galactosidase as a marker enzyme. Visualization of the beta-galactosidase activity revealed a non-random pattern of expression, and identified cells......-6596]. Nevertheless, since the transgene's expression is driven by the endogenous RPTP-kappa promoter, distribution of the truncated RPTP-kappa/beta-geo fusion protein should reflect the regional and cellular expression of wild-type RPTP-kappa, and thus may identify sites where RPTP-kappa is important. Towards...

  15. Protein tyrosine nitration in chronic intramuscular parasitism: immunohistochemical evaluation of relationships between nitration, and fiber type-specific responses to infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ted H. Elsasser

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine whether preferential muscle catabolism [psoas major (PM > rectus femoris (RF] observed during the chronic intramuscular stage of Sarcocystis cruzi infection could be associated with the pathological consequences of increased protein tyrosine nitration in fibers characteristically more metabolically active due to higher mitochondrial density. Holstein calves were assigned to control (C, or S. cruzi-infected (I groups, n=5/group. Calves were euthanized on day 63 of infection. Samples of RF and PM were prepared for metabolic fiber typing (MFT: slow oxidative, SO – Type I; fast oxidative glycolytic, FOG - Type IIa; fast glycolytic, FG – Type IIb, fiber area, and immunohistochemical localization of fast myosin heavy chain 2a and 2b, nitrotyrosine (NT, and mitochondrial Complex V ATP-synthase. MFT analysis documented that PM contained twice the number of SO fibers compared to RF (32 v 16%, P<0.002. SO and FOG fibers (Both higher in mitochondrial density than FG fibers in both PM and RF were significantly smaller in area in I calves with mean FG areas not different between C and I. Muscle NT content (Western blot of myofibrillar protein fraction increased with infection; NT was immunohistochemically localized into three distinct patterns in fibers: i sparse fiber staining, ii dense punctuate intrafiber staining, and iii pericystic staining. By image analysis, the greatest punctuate intrafiber pixel density of NT was associated with SO fibers from I calves with the NT colocalizing with mitochondrial Complex V – F1F0 ATP synthase. More fibers were positive for the colocalization in PM than RF (P<0.04. The data are consistent with the concept that fibers rich in mitochondria possessing more inherent oxidative energy capacity generate more nitrated proteins than glycolytic fibers and as such are more affected by the proinflammatory response to infections like Sarcocystosis.

  16. Expression of a truncated receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase kappa in the brain of an adult transgenic mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, P; Canoll, P D; Sap, J

    1999-01-01

    processes such as axonal growth and target recognition, as has been demonstrated for certain Drosophila RPTPs. The brain distribution of RPTP-kappa-expressing cells has not been determined, however. In a gene-trap mouse model with a beta-gal+neo (beta-geo) insertion in the endogenous RPTP-kappa gene......-6596]. Nevertheless, since the transgene's expression is driven by the endogenous RPTP-kappa promoter, distribution of the truncated RPTP-kappa/beta-geo fusion protein should reflect the regional and cellular expression of wild-type RPTP-kappa, and thus may identify sites where RPTP-kappa is important. Towards...... that goal, we have used this mouse model to map the distribution of the truncated RPTP-kappa/beta-geo fusion protein in the adult mouse brain using beta-galactosidase as a marker enzyme. Visualization of the beta-galactosidase activity revealed a non-random pattern of expression, and identified cells...

  17. A potent, selective, and orally bioavailable inhibitor of the protein-tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B improves insulin and leptin signaling in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Navasona; Konidaris, Konstantis F; Gasser, Gilles; Tonks, Nicholas K

    2018-02-02

    The protein-tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B is a negative regulator of insulin and leptin signaling and a highly validated therapeutic target for diabetes and obesity. Conventional approaches to drug development have produced potent and specific PTP1B inhibitors, but these inhibitors lack oral bioavailability, which limits their potential for drug development. Here, we report that DPM-1001, an analog of the specific PTP1B inhibitor trodusquemine (MSI-1436), is a potent, specific, and orally bioavailable inhibitor of PTP1B. DPM-1001 also chelates copper, which enhanced its potency as a PTP1B inhibitor. DPM-1001 displayed anti-diabetic properties that were associated with enhanced signaling through insulin and leptin receptors in animal models of diet-induced obesity. Therefore, DPM-1001 represents a proof of concept for a new approach to therapeutic intervention in diabetes and obesity. Although the PTPs have been considered undruggable, the findings of this study suggest that allosteric PTP inhibitors may help reinvigorate drug development efforts that focus on this important family of signal-transducing enzymes. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Isolation and Characterization of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B (PTP1B Inhibitory Polyphenolic Compounds From Dodonaea viscosa and Their Kinetic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zia Uddin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is one of a major worldwide concerns, regulated by either defects in secretion or action of insulin, or both. Insulin signaling down-regulation has been related with over activity of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B enzyme, which has been a promising target for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Herein, activity guided separation of methanol extract (95% of Dodonaea viscosa aerial parts afforded nine (1-9 polyphenolic compounds, all of them were identified through spectroscopic data including 2D NMR and HREIMS. Subsequently, their PTP1B inhibitory potentials were evaluated, in which all of the isolates exhibited significant dose-dependent inhibition with IC50 13.5–57.9 μM. Among them, viscosol (4 was found to be the most potent compound having IC50 13.5 μM. In order to unveil the mechanistic behavior, detailed kinetic study was carried out, in which compound 4 was observed as a reversible, and mixed type I inhibitor of PTP1B with inhibitory constant (Ki value of 4.6 μM. Furthermore, we annotated the major metabolites through HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS analysis, in which compounds 3, 6, 7, and 9 were found to be the most abundant metabolites in D. viscosa extract.

  19. Sulfone-stabilized carbanions for the reversible covalent capture of a posttranslationally-generated cysteine oxoform found in protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Zachary D; Ruddraraju, Kasi Viswanatharaju; Santo, Nicholas; Gates, Kent S

    2016-06-15

    Redox regulation of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) involves oxidative conversion of the active site cysteine thiolate into an electrophilic sulfenyl amide residue. Reduction of the sulfenyl amide by biological thiols regenerates the native cysteine residue. Here we explored fundamental chemical reactions that may enable covalent capture of the sulfenyl amide residue in oxidized PTP1B. Various sulfone-containing carbon acids were found to react readily with a model peptide sulfenyl amide via attack of the sulfonyl carbanion on the electrophilic sulfur center in the sulfenyl amide. Both the products and the rates of these reactions were characterized. The results suggest that capture of a peptide sulfenyl amide residue by sulfone-stabilized carbanions can slow, but not completely prevent, thiol-mediated generation of the corresponding cysteine-containing peptide. Sulfone-containing carbon acids may be useful components in the construction of agents that knock down PTP1B activity in cells via transient covalent capture of the sulfenyl amide oxoform generated during insulin signaling processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Geranylated 2-arylbenzofurans from Morus alba var. tatarica and their α-glucosidase and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya-Long; Luo, Jian-Guang; Wan, Chuan-Xing; Zhou, Zhong-Bo; Kong, Ling-Yi

    2014-01-01

    Ten new geranylated 2-arylbenzofuran derivatives, including two monoterpenoid 2-arylbenzofurans (1 and 2), two geranylated 2-arylbenzofuran enantiomers (3a and 3b), and six geranylated 2-arylbenzofurans (4-9), along with four known 2-arylbenzofurans (10-13) were isolated from the root bark of Morus alba var. tatarica. Their structures and relative configurations were established on the basis of spectroscopic data analysis. Compounds 3-7 with one asymmetric carbon at C-7″ were supposed to be enantiomeric mixtures confirmed by chiral HPLC analysis, and the absolute configurations of each enantiomer in 3-7 were determined by Rh2(OCOCF3)4-induced CD and Snatzke's method. The enantiomers with the substituting group at C-2' exhibited better resolutions on a Chiralpak AD-H column than those with the substituting group at C-4'. Compounds 1-7, 10, 11 and 13, showed α-glucosidase inhibitory activities with IC50 values of 11.9-131.9 μM, and compounds 1 and 9-13 inhibited protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) with IC50 values of 7.9-38.1 μM. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. No association between the protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor-type, Z Polypeptide 1 (PTPRZ1) gene and schizophrenia in the Japanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yoshihito; Yamada, Shinnosuke; Takahashi, Nagahide; Saito, Shinichi; Yoshimi, Akira; Inada, Toshiya; Noda, Yukihiro; Ozaki, Norio

    2008-10-05

    NRG1-ERBB signaling influences the risk for schizophrenia pathology. A recent study has reported that MAGI1, MAGI2, and protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor-type, Z polypeptide 1 (PTPRZ1; located on 7q31.3) gene products regulate the NRG1-ERBB4 signaling pathway, and PTPRZ1 is associated with schizophrenia in a Caucasian population. By applying a gene-based association concept, we analyzed any association between PTPRZ1 tagging SNPs and schizophrenia in the Japanese population (576 schizophrenics and 768 controls). After linkage disequilibrium analysis, 29 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped using a 5'-exonuclease allelic discrimination assay. We found a significant association of one tagging SNP in a genotype-wise analysis (P = 0.007); however, this might be resulted from type I error due to multiple testing (P = 0.17 after SNPSpD correction). No association was observed between schizophrenic patients and controls in either allelic, genotypic, or haplotypic analyses. Our results therefore suggest that PTPRZ1 is unlikely to be related to the development of schizophrenia in the Japanese population.

  2. Isolation and characterization of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibitory polyphenolic compounds from Dodonaea viscosa and their kinetic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Zia; Song, Yeong Hun; Ullah, Mahboob; Li, Zuopeng; Kim, Jeong Yoon; Park, Ki Hun

    2018-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of a major worldwide concerns, regulated by either defects in secretion or action of insulin, or both. Insulin signaling down-regulation has been related with over activity of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) enzyme, which has been a promising target for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Herein, activity guided separation of methanol extract (95%) of Dodonaea viscosa aerial parts afforded nine (1-9) polyphenolic compounds, all of them were identified through spectroscopic data including 2D NMR and HREIMS. Subsequently, their PTP1B inhibitory potentials were evaluated, in which all of the isolates exhibited significant dose-dependent inhibition with IC50 13.5-57.9 μM. Among them, viscosol (4) was found to be the most potent compound having IC50 13.5 μM. In order to unveil the mechanistic behavior, detailed kinetic study was carried out, in which compound 4 was observed as a reversible, and mixed type I inhibitor of PTP1B with inhibitory constant (Ki) value of 4.6 μM. Furthermore, we annotated the major metabolites through HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS analysis, in which compounds 3, 6, 7 and 9 were found to be the most abundant metabolites in D.viscosa extract.

  3. A novel protein tyrosine phosphatase like phytase from Lactobacillus fermentum NKN51: Cloning, characterization and application in mineral release for food technology applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rekha; Kumar, Piyush; Kaushal, Vandana; Das, Rahul; Kumar Navani, Naveen

    2018-02-01

    A novel protein tyrosine phosphatase like phytase (PTPLP), designated as PhyLf from probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus fermentum NKN51 was identified, cloned, expressed and characterized. The recombinant PhyLf showed specific activity of 174.5 U/mg. PhyLf exhibited strict specificity towards phytate and optimum temperature at 60 °C, pH 5.0 and ionic strength of 100 mM. K m and K cat of PhyLf for phytate were 0.773 mM and 84.31 s -1 , respectively. PhyLf exhibited high resistance against oxidative inactivation. PhyLf shares no homology, sans the active site with reported PTLPs, warranting classification as a new subclass. Dephytinization of durum wheat and finger millet under in vitro gastrointestinal conditions using PhyLf enhanced the bioaccessibility of mineral ions. Probiotic origin, phytate specificity, resistance to oxidative environment and gastric milieu coupled with ability to release micronutrients are unique properties of PhyLf which present a strong case for its use in ameliorating nutritional value of cereals and animal feed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Chromosome locations of genes encoding human signal transduction adapter proteins, Nck (NCK), Shc (SHC1), and Grb2 (GRB2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huebner, K; Kastury, K; Druck, T

    1994-01-01

    "adapter" proteins, which are involved in transducing signals from receptor tyrosine kinases to downstream signal recipients such as ras, because adaptor protein genes could also, logically, serve as targets of mutation, rearrangement, or other aberration in disease. Therefore, DNAs from panels of rodent-human......Abnormalities due to chromosomal aberration or point mutation in gene products of growth factor receptors or in ras gene products, which lie on the same signaling pathway, can cause disease in animals and humans. Thus, it can be important to determine chromosomal map positions of genes encoding...... hybrids carrying defined complements of human chromosomes were assayed for the presence of the cognate genes for NCK, SHC, and GRB2, three SH2 or SH2/SH3 (Src homology 2 and 3) domain-containing adapter proteins. Additionally, NCK and SHC genes were more narrowly localized by chromosomal in situ...

  5. Internalization and down-regulation of the human epidermal growth factor receptor are regulated by the carboxyl-terminal tyrosines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helin, K; Beguinot, L

    1991-01-01

    with receptors in which 1, 2, or all 3 tyrosines were changed to phenylalanines. The triple point mutant EGF-R, expressed in NIH-3T3, exhibited low autophosphorylation in vivo, low biological and reduced kinase activities. Single and double point mutants were down-regulated, as well as wild type EGF......-R in response to EGF showing a half-life of about 1 h. Degradation of the triple point mutant, however, was impaired and resulted in a half-life of 4 h in the presence of EGF. EGF-dependent down-regulation of surface receptors was decreased in the triple point mutant EGF-R as was internalization and degradation...... of EGF. The specific rate of internalization of the triple point mutant was reduced. By contrast, intracellular processing of ligand previously internalized at 20 degrees C was similar between wild type and mutant receptors. Taken together the data indicate that the delay in degradation observed in cells...

  6. Anti-VEGF strategies - from antibodies to tyrosine kinase inhibitors: background and clinical development in human cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Korpanty, Grzegorz

    2012-01-01

    Tumour angiogenesis (formation of new blood vessels supporting tumour growth and metastasis) is a result of complex interactions between the tumour and the surrounding microenvironment. Targeting tumours with anti-angiogenic therapy remains an exciting area of preclinical and clinical studies. Although many significant advances have been achieved and the clinical use of anti-angiogenic drugs is now well recognized in many solid malignancies, these therapies fall short of their anticipated clinical benefits and leave many unanswered questions like exact mechanism of action, patients\\' selection and monitoring response to anti-angiogenic drugs. Tumour angiogenesis is controlled by complex signaling cascades and ongoing research into molecular mechanisms of tumour angiogenesis not only helps to understand its basic mechanisms but hopefully will identify new therapeutic targets. In 2012, both monoclonal antibodies and small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors remain the two major clinically useful therapeutic options that interfere with tumour angiogenesis in many solid malignancies.

  7. Cow's milk proteins in human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscia, A; Orrù, S; Di Nicola, P; Giuliani, F; Rovelli, I; Peila, C; Martano, C; Chiale, F; Bertino, E

    2012-01-01

    Cow's milk proteins (CMPs) are among the best characterized food allergens. Cow's milk contains more than twenty five different proteins, but only whey proteins alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, bovine serum albumin (BSA), and lactoferrin, as well as the four caseins, have been identified as allergens. Aim of this study was to investigate by proteomics techniques cow's milk allergens in human colostrum of term and preterm newborns' mothers, not previously detected, in order to understand if such allergens could be cause of sensitization during lactation. Term colostrum samples from 62 healthy mothers and preterm colostrum samples from 11 healthy mothers were collected for this purpose. The most relevant finding was the detection of the intact bovine alpha-S1-casein in both term and preterm colostrum. Using this method, which allows direct proteins identification, beta-lactoglobulin was not detected in any of colostrum samples. According to our results bovine alpha 1 casein that is considered a major cow's milk allergen is readily secreted in human milk: further investigations are needed in order to clarify if alpha-1-casein has a major role in sensitization or tolerance to cow's milk of exclusively breastfed predisposed infants.

  8. Temporal pattern changes in duodenal protein tyrosine nitration events in response to Eimeria acervulina infection in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsasser, Ted H; Miska, Kate; Kahl, Stanislaw; Fetterer, Raymond H; Martínez Ramirez, Alfredo

    2018-06-04

    Intracellular generation of nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide anion (SOA) can result in the formation of 3'-nitrotyrosine proteins (NTp). Nitrated proteins usually are associated with significant perturbation in protein function, apoptosis, autophagy, and cell death. We undertook the present study to establish the temporal dynamics of NTp generation in cytokeratin-18-positive epithelial cells (ETCs) of broiler chickens in response to infection with Eimeria acervulina. Duodenal tissue was harvested from noninfected (NOI) and infected (INF) broilers on days (d) 1, 3, 6, 7, and 10 postinfection (PI) and fixed, embedded, and sectioned for quantitative image analysis, immunohistochemistry with antibodies specific to NTp and the SOA-generating enzyme xanthine oxidase (XO). The pixel density characteristics for NTp and XO representative of ETCs demonstrated that NTp and XO increased in intestinal villi as early as d1 PI (P ETCs through d6 PI. For XO, increases in cell content increased only through d3. On d6 and d7 PI, high levels of NTp were present in immune infiltrating cells (IIC) where no XO was detected. The increases in ETC NTp occurred in a defined pattern, significant by villus-to-crypt location for day of infection, initiating in the distal villus and progressing down into the crypts. Two NTp patterns were observed for ETCs: a high level associated with ETCs harboring parasites and a low-level increase in ETCs not containing Eimeria but in proximity to such. The data suggest that NTp and XO responses may mediate some of the processes through which ETCs respond to Eimeria to limit the extent of infection by this pathogen.

  9. Tyrosine phosphorylation in signal transduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, T.M.; Kaplan, D.; Morgan, W.; Keller, T.; Mamon, H.; Piwnica-Worms, H.; Druker, B.; Whitman, M.; Morrison, D.; Cohen, B.; Schaffhausen, B.; Cantley, L.; Rapp, U.

    1988-01-01

    Recent work has focused on the elucidation of the mechanisms by which membrane-bound tyrosine kinases transmit signals within the cell. To examine the role of tyrosine phosphorylation the authors have employed the following strategy. First, they have utilized antibodies to phosphotyrosine (anti-P.Tyr) to identify candidate substrates of various tyrosine kinases, such as pp60 c-src , the CSF- receptor, or the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor. Second, they have attempted to characterize the biochemical properties of the putative substrates and to determine in what manner these properties are modified by phosphorylation on tyrosine residues. In this endeavor, they are recapitulating the classic biochemical analysis used to study the effect of kinases on metabolism. The final portion of our work consists of using modern molecular biological strategies to clone the genes or cDNAs for the substrates and overproduce the relevant proteins for studies in vitro in defined systems. This paper describes the first and second aspects of this strategy, the identification and characterization of novel substrate molecules

  10. The tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 regulates hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α protein levels in endothelial cells under hypoxia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan K Alig

    Full Text Available The tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 negatively influences endothelial function, such as VEGF signaling and reactive oxygen species (ROS formation, and has been shown to influence angiogenesis during tissue ischemia. In ischemic tissues, hypoxia induced angiogenesis is crucial for restoring oxygen supply. However, the exact mechanism how SHP-1 affects endothelial function during ischemia or hypoxia remains unclear. We performed in vitro endothelial cell culture experiments to characterize the role of SHP-1 during hypoxia.SHP-1 knock-down by specific antisense oligodesoxynucleotides (AS-Odn increased cell growth as well as VEGF synthesis and secretion during 24 hours of hypoxia compared to control AS-Odn. This was prevented by HIF-1α inhibition (echinomycin and apigenin. SHP-1 knock-down as well as overexpression of a catalytically inactive SHP-1 (SHP-1 CS further enhanced HIF-1α protein levels, whereas overexpression of a constitutively active SHP-1 (SHP-1 E74A resulted in decreased HIF-1α levels during hypoxia, compared to wildtype SHP-1. Proteasome inhibition (MG132 returned HIF-1α levels to control or wildtype levels respectively in these cells. SHP-1 silencing did not alter HIF-1α mRNA levels. Finally, under hypoxic conditions SHP-1 knock-down enhanced intracellular endothelial reactive oxygen species (ROS formation, as measured by oxidation of H2-DCF and DHE fluorescence.SHP-1 decreases half-life of HIF-1α under hypoxic conditions resulting in decreased cell growth due to diminished VEGF synthesis and secretion. The regulatory effect of SHP-1 on HIF-1α stability may be mediated by inhibition of endothelial ROS formation stabilizing HIF-1α protein. These findings highlight the importance of SHP-1 in hypoxic signaling and its potential as therapeutic target in ischemic diseases.

  11. Brain catecholamine depletion and motor impairment in a Th knock-in mouse with type B tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korner, Germaine; Noain, Daniela; Ying, Ming; Hole, Magnus; Flydal, Marte I; Scherer, Tanja; Allegri, Gabriella; Rassi, Anahita; Fingerhut, Ralph; Becu-Villalobos, Damasia; Pillai, Samyuktha; Wueest, Stephan; Konrad, Daniel; Lauber-Biason, Anna; Baumann, Christian R; Bindoff, Laurence A; Martinez, Aurora; Thöny, Beat

    2015-10-01

    Tyrosine hydroxylase catalyses the hydroxylation of L-tyrosine to l-DOPA, the rate-limiting step in the synthesis of catecholamines. Mutations in the TH gene encoding tyrosine hydroxylase are associated with the autosomal recessive disorder tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency, which manifests phenotypes varying from infantile parkinsonism and DOPA-responsive dystonia, also termed type A, to complex encephalopathy with perinatal onset, termed type B. We generated homozygous Th knock-in mice with the mutation Th-p.R203H, equivalent to the most recurrent human mutation associated with type B tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency (TH-p.R233H), often unresponsive to l-DOPA treatment. The Th knock-in mice showed normal survival and food intake, but hypotension, hypokinesia, reduced motor coordination, wide-based gate and catalepsy. This phenotype was associated with a gradual loss of central catecholamines and the serious manifestations of motor impairment presented diurnal fluctuation but did not improve with standard l-DOPA treatment. The mutant tyrosine hydroxylase enzyme was unstable and exhibited deficient stabilization by catecholamines, leading to decline of brain tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactivity in the Th knock-in mice. In fact the substantia nigra presented an almost normal level of mutant tyrosine hydroxylase protein but distinct absence of the enzyme was observed in the striatum, indicating a mutation-associated mislocalization of tyrosine hydroxylase in the nigrostriatal pathway. This hypomorphic mouse model thus provides understanding on pathomechanisms in type B tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency and a platform for the evaluation of novel therapeutics for movement disorders with loss of dopaminergic input to the striatum. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Dimerization in the Grb7 Protein

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, Tabitha A.; Benallie, Renee L.; Bradford, Andrew M.; Pias, Sally C.; Yazzie, Jaron.; Lor, Siamee N.; Haulsee, Zachary M.; Park, Chad K.; Johnson, Dennis L.; Rohrschneider, Larry R.; Spuches, Anne.; Lyons, Barbara A.

    2012-01-01

    In previous studies, we showed that the tyrosine phosphorylation state of growth factor receptor–bound protein 7 (Grb7) affects its ability to bind to the transcription regulator FHL2 and the cortactin-interacting protein, human HS-1-associated protein-1. Here, we present results describing the importance of dimerization in the Grb7–Src homology 2 (SH2) domain in terms of its structural integrity and the ability to bind phosphorylated tyrosine peptide ligands. A tyrosine phosphorylation-mimic...

  13. Human Cementum Protein 1 induces expression of bone and cementum proteins by human gingival fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmona-Rodriguez, Bruno; Alvarez-Perez, Marco Antonio; Narayanan, A. Sampath; Zeichner-David, Margarita; Reyes-Gasga, Jose; Molina-Guarneros, Juan; Garcia-Hernandez, Ana Lilia; Suarez-Franco, Jose Luis; Chavarria, Ivet Gil; Villarreal-Ramirez, Eduardo; Arzate, Higinio

    2007-01-01

    We recently presented evidence showing that a human cementoblastoma-derived protein, named Cementum Protein 1 (CEMP1) may play a role as a local regulator of cementoblast differentiation and cementum-matrix mineralization. This protein was shown to be expressed by cementoblasts and progenitor cells localized in the periodontal ligament. In this study we demonstrate that transfection of CEMP1 into human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) induces mineralization and expression of bone and cementum-matrix proteins. The transfected HGF cells had higher alkaline phosphatase activity and proliferation rate and they expressed genes for alkaline phosphatase, bone sialoprotein, osteocalcin, osteopontin, the transcription factor Runx2/Cbfa1, and cementum attachment protein (CAP). They also produced biological-type hydroxyapatite. These findings indicate that the CEMP1 might participate in differentiation and mineralization of nonosteogenic cells, and that it might have a potential function in cementum and bone formation

  14. Differential Expression of Tyrosine Hydroxylase Protein and Apoptosis-Related Genes in Differentiated and Undifferentiated SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells Treated with MPP+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawinthra Khwanraj

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line has been used as a dopaminergic cell model for Parkinson’s disease research. Whether undifferentiated or differentiated SH-SY5Y cells are more suitable remains controversial. This study aims to evaluate the expression of apoptosis-related mRNAs activated by MPP+ and evaluate the differential expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH in undifferentiated and retinoic acid- (RA- induced differentiated cells. The western blot results showed a gradual decrease in TH in undifferentiated cells and a gradual increase in TH in differentiated cells from days 4 to 10 after cell plating. Immunostaining revealed a gradual increase in TH along with neuritic outgrowth in differentiated cells on days 4 and 7 of RA treatment. For the study on cell susceptibility to MPP+ and the expression of apoptosis-related genes, MTT assay showed a decrease in cell viability to approximately 50% requiring 500 and 1000 μM of MPP+ for undifferentiated and RA-differentiated cells, respectively. Using real-time RT-PCR, treatment with 500 μM MPP+ led to significant increases in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, p53, and caspase-3 in undifferentiated cells but was without significance in differentiated cells. In conclusion, differentiated cells may be more suitable, and the shorter duration of RA differentiation may make the SH-SY5Y cell model more accessible.

  15. Activation of Src kinase by protein-tyrosine phosphatase-PEST in osteoclasts: comparative analysis of the effects of bisphosphonate and protein-tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor on Src activation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chellaiah, Meenakshi A; Schaller, Michael D

    2009-08-01

    PTP-PEST is involved in the regulation of sealing ring formation in osteoclasts. In this article, we have shown a regulatory role for PTP-PEST on dephosphorylation of c-Src at Y527 and phosphorylation at Y418 in the catalytic site. Activation of Src in osteoclasts by over-expression of PTP-PEST resulted in the phosphorylation of cortactin at Y421 and WASP at Y294. Also enhanced as a result, is the interaction of Src, cortactin, and Arp2 with WASP. Moreover, the number of osteoclasts displaying sealing ring and bone resorbing activity was increased in response to PTP-PEST over-expression as compared with control osteoclasts. Cells expressing constitutively active-Src (527YDeltaF) simulate the effects mediated by PTP-PEST. Treatment of osteoclasts with a bisphosphonate alendronate or a potent PTP inhibitor PAO decreased the activity and phosphorylation of Src at Y418 due to reduced dephosphorylation state at Y527. Therefore, Src-mediated phosphorylation of cortactin and WASP as well as the formation of WASP.cortactin.Arp2 complex and sealing ring were reduced in these osteoclasts. Similar effects were observed in osteoclasts treated with an Src inhibitor PP2. We have shown that bisphosphonates could modulate the function of osteoclasts by inhibiting downstream signaling mediated by PTP-PEST/Src, in addition to its effect on the inhibition of the post-translational modification of small GTP-binding proteins such as Rab, Rho, and Rac as shown by others. The promising effects of the inhibitors PP2 and PAO on osteoclast function suggest a therapeutic approach for patients with bone metastases and osteoporosis as an alternative to bisphosphonates.

  16. Conformational Clusters of Phosphorylated Tyrosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrasoul, Maha; Ponniah, Komala; Mao, Alice; Warden, Meghan S; Elhefnawy, Wessam; Li, Yaohang; Pascal, Steven M

    2017-12-06

    Tyrosine phosphorylation plays an important role in many cellular and intercellular processes including signal transduction, subcellular localization, and regulation of enzymatic activity. In 1999, Blom et al., using the limited number of protein data bank (PDB) structures available at that time, reported that the side chain structures of phosphorylated tyrosine (pY) are partitioned into two conserved conformational clusters ( Blom, N.; Gammeltoft, S.; Brunak, S. J. Mol. Biol. 1999 , 294 , 1351 - 1362 ). We have used the spectral clustering algorithm to cluster the increasingly growing number of protein structures with pY sites, and have found that the pY residues cluster into three distinct side chain conformations. Two of these pY conformational clusters associate strongly with a narrow range of tyrosine backbone conformation. The novel cluster also highly correlates with the identity of the n + 1 residue, and is strongly associated with a sequential pYpY conformation which places two adjacent pY side chains in a specific relative orientation. Further analysis shows that the three pY clusters are associated with distinct distributions of cognate protein kinases.

  17. Eating to stop: Tyrosine supplementation enhances inhibitory control but not response execution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colzato, L.S.; Jongkees, B.J.; Sellaro, R.; van den Wildenberg, W.P.M.; Hommel, B.

    2014-01-01

    Animal studies and research in humans have shown that the supplementation of tyrosine, or tyrosine-containing diets, increase the plasma tyrosine and enhance brain dopamine (DA). However, the strategy of administering tyrosine (and the role of DA therein) to enhance cognition is unclear and heavily

  18. Anethum graveolens Linn. (dill) extract enhances the mounting frequency and level of testicular tyrosine protein phosphorylation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iamsaard, Sitthichai; Prabsattroo, Thawatchai; Sukhorum, Wannisa; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Srisaard, Panee; Uabundit, Nongnut; Thukhammee, Wipawee; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn

    2013-03-01

    To investigate the effect of Anethum graveolens (AG) extracts on the mounting frequency, histology of testis and epididymis, and sperm physiology. Male rats induced by cold immobilization before treating with vehicle or AG extracts [50, 150, and 450 mg/kg body weight (BW)] via gastric tube for consecutive 1, 7, and 14 d were examined for mounting frequency, testicular phosphorylation level by immunoblotting, sperm concentration, sperm acrosome reaction, and histological structures of testis and epididymis, respectively. AG (50 mg/kg BW) significantly increased the mounting frequency on Days 1 and 7 compared to the control group. Additionally, rat testis treated with 50 mg/kg BW AG showed high levels of phosphorylated proteins as compared with the control group. In histological analyses, AG extract did not affect the sperm concentration, acrosome reaction, and histological structures of testis and epididymis. AG extract enhances the aphrodisiac activity and is not harmful to sperm and male reproductive organs.

  19. Anethum graveolens Linn. (dill) extract enhances the mounting frequency and level of testicular tyrosine protein phosphorylation in rats*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iamsaard, Sitthichai; Prabsattroo, Thawatchai; Sukhorum, Wannisa; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Srisaard, Panee; Uabundit, Nongnut; Thukhammee, Wipawee; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of Anethum graveolens (AG) extracts on the mounting frequency, histology of testis and epididymis, and sperm physiology. Methods: Male rats induced by cold immobilization before treating with vehicle or AG extracts [50, 150, and 450 mg/kg body weight (BW)] via gastric tube for consecutive 1, 7, and 14 d were examined for mounting frequency, testicular phosphorylation level by immunoblotting, sperm concentration, sperm acrosome reaction, and histological structures of testis and epididymis, respectively. Results: AG (50 mg/kg BW) significantly increased the mounting frequency on Days 1 and 7 compared to the control group. Additionally, rat testis treated with 50 mg/kg BW AG showed high levels of phosphorylated proteins as compared with the control group. In histological analyses, AG extract did not affect the sperm concentration, acrosome reaction, and histological structures of testis and epididymis. Conclusions: AG extract enhances the aphrodisiac activity and is not harmful to sperm and male reproductive organs. PMID:23463768

  20. A scored human protein-protein interaction network to catalyze genomic interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Taibo; Wernersson, Rasmus; Hansen, Rasmus B

    2017-01-01

    Genome-scale human protein-protein interaction networks are critical to understanding cell biology and interpreting genomic data, but challenging to produce experimentally. Through data integration and quality control, we provide a scored human protein-protein interaction network (InWeb_InBioMap,......Genome-scale human protein-protein interaction networks are critical to understanding cell biology and interpreting genomic data, but challenging to produce experimentally. Through data integration and quality control, we provide a scored human protein-protein interaction network (In...

  1. HD-PTP is a catalytically inactive tyrosine phosphatase due to a conserved divergence in its phosphatase domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Claude Gingras

    Full Text Available The HD-PTP protein has been described as a tumor suppressor candidate and based on its amino acid sequence, categorized as a classical non-transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP. To date, no HD-PTP phosphorylated substrate has been identified and controversial results concerning its catalytic activity have been recently reported.Here we report a rigorous enzymatic analysis demonstrating that the HD-PTP protein does not harbor tyrosine phosphatase or lipid phosphatase activity using the highly sensitive DiFMUP substrate and a panel of different phosphatidylinositol phosphates. We found that HD-PTP tyrosine phosphatase inactivity is caused by an evolutionary conserved amino acid divergence of a key residue located in the HD-PTP phosphatase domain since its back mutation is sufficient to restore the HD-PTP tyrosine phosphatase activity. Moreover, in agreement with a tumor suppressor activity, HD-PTP expression leads to colony growth reduction in human cancer cell lines, independently of its catalytic PTP activity status.In summary, we demonstrate that HD-PTP is a catalytically inactive protein tyrosine phosphatase. As such, we identify one residue involved in its inactivation and show that its colony growth reduction activity is independent of its PTP activity status in human cancer cell lines.

  2. Diffusion of protein through the human cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalel, Resmi A; Engberg, Kristin; Noolandi, Jaan; Cochran, Jennifer R; Frank, Curtis; Ta, Christopher N

    2012-01-01

    To determine the rate of diffusion of myoglobin and bovine serum albumin (BSA) through the human cornea. These small proteins have hydrodynamic diameters of approximately 4.4 and 7.2 nm, and molecular weights of 16.7 and 66 kDa, for myoglobin and BSA, respectively. Diffusion coefficients were measured using a diffusion chamber where the protein of interest and balanced salt solution were in different chambers separated by an ex vivo human cornea. Protein concentrations in the balanced salt solution chamber were measured over time. Diffusion coefficients were calculated using equations derived from Fick's law and conservation of mass in a closed system. Our experiments demonstrate that the diffusion coefficient of myoglobin is 5.5 ± 0.9 × 10(-8) cm(2)/s (n = 8; SD = 1.3 × 10(-8) cm(2)/s; 95% CI: 4.6 × 10(-8) to 6.4 × 10(-8) cm(2)/s) and the diffusion coefficient of BSA is 3.1 ± 1.0 × 10(-8) cm(2)/s (n = 8; SD = 1.4 × 10(-8) cm(2)/s; 95% CI: 2.1 × 10(-8) to 4.1 × 10(-8) cm(2)/s). Our study suggests that molecules as large as 7.2 nm may be able to passively diffuse through the human cornea. With applications in pharmacotherapy and the development of an artificial cornea, further experiments are warranted to fully understand the limits of human corneal diffusion and its clinical relevance. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Downstream of tyrosine kinase/docking protein 6, as a novel substrate of tropomyosin-related kinase C receptor, is involved in neurotrophin 3-mediated neurite outgrowth in mouse cortex neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Jian

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The downstream of tyrosine kinase/docking protein (Dok adaptor protein family has seven members, Dok1 to Dok7, that act as substrates of multiple receptor tyrosine kinase and non-receptor tyrosine kinase. The tropomyosin-related kinase (Trk receptor family, which has three members (TrkA, TrkB and TrkC, are receptor tyrosine kinases that play pivotal roles in many stages of nervous system development, such as differentiation, migration, axon and dendrite projection and neuron patterning. Upon related neurotrophin growth factor stimulation, dimerisation and autophosphorylation of Trk receptors can occur, recruiting adaptor proteins to mediate signal transduction. Results In this report, by using yeast two-hybrid assays, glutathione S-transferase (GST precipitation assays and coimmunoprecipitation (Co-IP experiments, we demonstrate that Dok6 selectively binds to the NPQY motif of TrkC through its phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB domain in a kinase activity-dependent manner. We further confirmed their interaction by coimmunoprecipitation and colocalisation in E18.5 mouse cortex neurons, which provided more in vivo evidence. Next, we demonstrated that Dok6 is involved in neurite outgrowth in mouse cortex neurons via the RNAi method. Knockdown of Dok6 decreased neurite outgrowth in cortical neurons upon neurotrophin 3 (NT-3 stimulation. Conclusions We conclude that Dok6 interacts with the NPQY motif of the TrkC receptor through its PTB domain in a kinase activity-dependent manner, and works as a novel substrate of the TrkC receptor involved in NT-3-mediated neurite outgrowth in mouse cortex neurons.

  4. Tyrosine Residues Regulate Multiple Nuclear Functions of P54nrb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ahn R; Hung, Wayne; Xie, Ning; Liu, Liangliang; He, Leye; Dong, Xuesen

    2017-04-01

    The non-POU-domain-containing octamer binding protein (NONO; also known as p54nrb) has various nuclear functions ranging from transcription, RNA splicing, DNA synthesis and repair. Although tyrosine phosphorylation has been proposed to account for the multi-functional properties of p54nrb, direct evidence on p54nrb as a phosphotyrosine protein remains unclear. To investigate the tyrosine phosphorylation status of p54nrb, we performed site-directed mutagenesis on the five tyrosine residues of p54nrb, replacing the tyrosine residues with phenylalanine or alanine, and immunoblotted for tyrosine phosphorylation. We then preceded with luciferase reporter assays, RNA splicing minigene assays, co-immunoprecipitation, and confocal microscopy to study the function of p54nrb tyrosine residues on transcription, RNA splicing, protein-protein interaction, and cellular localization. We found that p54nrb was not phosphorylated at tyrosine residues. Rather, it has non-specific binding affinity to anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies. However, replacement of tyrosine with phenylalanine altered p54nrb activities in transcription co-repression and RNA splicing in gene context-dependent fashions by means of differential regulation of p54nrb protein association with its interacting partners and co-regulators of transcription and splicing. These results demonstrate that tyrosine residues, regardless of phosphorylation status, are important for p54nrb function. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 852-861, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Inferring modules from human protein interactome classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaurasia Gautam

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The integration of protein-protein interaction networks derived from high-throughput screening approaches and complementary sources is a key topic in systems biology. Although integration of protein interaction data is conventionally performed, the effects of this procedure on the result of network analyses has not been examined yet. In particular, in order to optimize the fusion of heterogeneous interaction datasets, it is crucial to consider not only their degree of coverage and accuracy, but also their mutual dependencies and additional salient features. Results We examined this issue based on the analysis of modules detected by network clustering methods applied to both integrated and individual (disaggregated data sources, which we call interactome classes. Due to class diversity, we deal with variable dependencies of data features arising from structural specificities and biases, but also from possible overlaps. Since highly connected regions of the human interactome may point to potential protein complexes, we have focused on the concept of modularity, and elucidated the detection power of module extraction algorithms by independent validations based on GO, MIPS and KEGG. From the combination of protein interactions with gene expressions, a confidence scoring scheme has been proposed before proceeding via GO with further classification in permanent and transient modules. Conclusions Disaggregated interactomes are shown to be informative for inferring modularity, thus contributing to perform an effective integrative analysis. Validation of the extracted modules by multiple annotation allows for the assessment of confidence measures assigned to the modules in a protein pathway context. Notably, the proposed multilayer confidence scheme can be used for network calibration by enabling a transition from unweighted to weighted interactomes based on biological evidence.

  6. [Development and Application of Catalytic Tyrosine Modification].

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    Sato, Shinichi; Tsushima, Michihiko; Nakamura, Kosuke; Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2018-01-01

     The chemical labeling of proteins with synthetic probes is a key technique used in chemical biology, protein-based therapy, and material science. Much of the chemical labeling of native proteins, however, depends on the labeling of lysine and cysteine residues. While those methods have significantly contributed to native protein labeling, alternative methods that can modify different amino acid residues are still required. Herein we report the development of a novel methodology of tyrosine labeling, inspired by the luminol chemiluminescence reaction. Tyrosine residues are often exposed on a protein's surface and are thus expected to be good targets for protein functionalization. In our studies so far, we have found that 1) hemin oxidatively activates luminol derivatives as a catalyst, 2) N-methyl luminol derivative specifically forms a covalent bond with a tyrosine residue among the 20 kinds of natural amino acid residues, and 3) the efficiency of tyrosine labeling with N-methyl luminol derivative is markedly improved by using horseradish peroxidase (HRP) as a catalyst. We were able to use molecular oxygen as an oxidant under HRP/NADH conditions. By using these methods, the functionalization of purified proteins was carried out. Because N-methyl luminol derivative is an excellent protein labeling reagent that responds to the activation of peroxidase, this new method is expected to open doors to such biological applications as the signal amplification of HRP-conjugated antibodies and the detection of protein association in combination with peroxidase-tag technology.

  7. Mitochondrial Fusion Proteins and Human Diseases

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    Michela Ranieri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are highly dynamic, complex organelles that continuously alter their shape, ranging between two opposite processes, fission and fusion, in response to several stimuli and the metabolic demands of the cell. Alterations in mitochondrial dynamics due to mutations in proteins involved in the fusion-fission machinery represent an important pathogenic mechanism of human diseases. The most relevant proteins involved in the mitochondrial fusion process are three GTPase dynamin-like proteins: mitofusin 1 (MFN1 and 2 (MFN2, located in the outer mitochondrial membrane, and optic atrophy protein 1 (OPA1, in the inner membrane. An expanding number of degenerative disorders are associated with mutations in the genes encoding MFN2 and OPA1, including Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2A and autosomal dominant optic atrophy. While these disorders can still be considered rare, defective mitochondrial dynamics seem to play a significant role in the molecular and cellular pathogenesis of more common neurodegenerative diseases, for example, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. This review provides an overview of the basic molecular mechanisms involved in mitochondrial fusion and focuses on the alteration in mitochondrial DNA amount resulting from impairment of mitochondrial dynamics. We also review the literature describing the main disorders associated with the disruption of mitochondrial fusion.

  8. Liver-Specific Deletion of Protein-Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) Improves Metabolic Syndrome and Attenuates Diet-Induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

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    Delibegovic, Mirela; Zimmer, Derek; Kauffman, Caitlin; Rak, Kimberly; Hong, Eun-Gyoung; Cho, You-Ree; Kim, Jason K.; Kahn, Barbara B.; Neel, Benjamin G.; Bence, Kendra K.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—The protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B is a negative regulator of insulin signaling; consequently, mice deficient in PTP1B are hypersensitive to insulin. Because PTP1B−/− mice have diminished fat stores, the extent to which PTP1B directly regulates glucose homeostasis is unclear. Previously, we showed that brain-specific PTP1B−/− mice are protected against high-fat diet–induced obesity and glucose intolerance, whereas muscle-specific PTP1B−/− mice have increased insulin sensitivity independent of changes in adiposity. Here we studied the role of liver PTP1B in glucose homeostasis and lipid metabolism. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—We analyzed body mass/adiposity, insulin sensitivity, glucose tolerance, and lipid metabolism in liver-specific PTP1B−/− and PTP1Bfl/fl control mice, fed a chow or high-fat diet. RESULTS—Compared with normal littermates, liver-specific PTP1B−/− mice exhibit improved glucose homeostasis and lipid profiles, independent of changes in adiposity. Liver-specific PTP1B−/− mice have increased hepatic insulin signaling, decreased expression of gluconeogenic genes PEPCK and G-6-Pase, enhanced insulin-induced suppression of hepatic glucose production, and improved glucose tolerance. Liver-specific PTP1B−/− mice exhibit decreased triglyceride and cholesterol levels and diminished expression of lipogenic genes SREBPs, FAS, and ACC. Liver-specific PTP1B deletion also protects against high-fat diet–induced endoplasmic reticulum stress response in vivo, as evidenced by decreased phosphorylation of p38MAPK, JNK, PERK, and eIF2α and lower expression of the transcription factors C/EBP homologous protein and spliced X box-binding protein 1. CONCLUSIONS—Liver PTP1B plays an important role in glucose and lipid metabolism, independent of alterations in adiposity. Inhibition of PTP1B in peripheral tissues may be useful for the treatment of metabolic syndrome and reduction of cardiovascular risk in addition to

  9. Hydrogen exchange rate of tyrosine hydroxyl groups in proteins as studied by the deuterium isotope effect on C(zeta) chemical shifts.

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    Takeda, Mitsuhiro; Jee, Jungoo; Ono, Akira Mei; Terauchi, Tsutomu; Kainosho, Masatsune

    2009-12-30

    We describe a new NMR method for monitoring the individual hydrogen exchange rates of the hydroxyl groups of tyrosine (Tyr) residues in proteins. The method utilizes (2S,3R)-[beta(2),epsilon(1,2)-(2)H(3);0,alpha,beta,zeta-(13)C(4);(15)N]-Tyr, zeta-SAIL Tyr, to detect and assign the (13)C(zeta) signals of Tyr rings efficiently, either by indirect (1)H-detection through 7-8 Hz (1)H(delta)-(13)C(zeta) spin couplings or by direct (13)C(zeta) observation. A comparison of the (13)C(zeta) chemical shifts of three Tyr residues of an 18.2 kDa protein, EPPIb, dissolved in H(2)O and D(2)O, revealed that all three (13)C(zeta) signals in D(2)O appeared at approximately 0.13 ppm ( approximately 20 Hz at 150.9 MHz) higher than those in H(2)O. In a H(2)O/D(2)O (1:1) mixture, however, one of the three signals for (13)C(zeta) appeared as a single peak at the averaged chemical shifts, and the other two appeared as double peaks at exactly the same chemical shifts in H(2)O and D(2)O, in 50 mM phosphate buffer (pH 6.6) at 40 degrees C. These three peaks were assigned to Tyr-36, Tyr-120, and Tyr-30, from the lower to higher chemical shifts, respectively. The results indicate that the hydroxyl proton of Tyr-120 exchanges faster than a few milliseconds, whereas those of Tyr-30 and Tyr-36 exchange more slowly. The exchange rate of the Tyr-30 hydroxyl proton, k(ex), under these conditions was determined by (13)C NMR exchange spectroscopy (EXSY) to be 9.2 +/- 1.1 s(-1). The Tyr-36 hydroxyl proton, however, exchanges too slowly to be determined by EXSY. These profound differences among the hydroxyl proton exchange rates are closely related to their relative solvent accessibility and the hydrogen bonds associated with the Tyr hydroxyl groups in proteins.

  10. Deletion of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1b in proopiomelanocortin neurons reduces neurogenic control of blood pressure and protects mice from leptin- and sympatho-mediated hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruder-Nascimento, Thiago; Butler, Benjamin R; Herren, David J; Brands, Michael W; Bence, Kendra K; Belin de Chantemèle, Eric J

    2015-12-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1b (Ptp1b), which represses leptin signaling, is a promising therapeutic target for obesity. Genome wide deletion of Ptp1b, increases leptin sensitivity, protects mice from obesity and diabetes, but alters cardiovascular function by increasing blood pressure (BP). Leptin-control of metabolism is centrally mediated and involves proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons. Whether these neurons contribute to leptin-mediated increases in BP remain unclear. We hypothesized that increasing leptin signaling in POMC neurons with Ptp1b deletion will sensitize the cardiovascular system to leptin and enhance neurogenic control of BP. We analyzed the cardiovascular phenotype of Ptp1b+/+ and POMC-Ptp1b-/- mice, at baseline and after 7 days of leptin infusion or sympatho-activation with phenylephrine. POMCPtp1b deletion did not alter baseline cardiovascular hemodynamics (BP, heart rate) but reduced BP response to ganglionic blockade and plasma catecholamine levels that suggests a decreased neurogenic control of BP. In contrast, POMC-Ptp1b deletion increased vascular adrenergic reactivity and aortic α-adrenergic receptors expression. Chronic leptin treatment reduced vascular adrenergic reactivity and blunted diastolic and mean BP increases in POMC-Ptp1b-/- mice only. Similarly POMC-Ptp1b-/- mice exhibited a blunted increased in diastolic and mean BP accompanied by a gradual reduction in adrenergic reactivity in response to chronic vascular sympatho-activation with phenylephrine. Together these data rule out our hypothesis but suggest that deletion of Ptp1b in POMC neurons protects from leptin- and sympatho-mediated increases in BP. Vascular adrenergic desensitization appears as a protective mechanism against hypertension, and POMC-Ptp1b as a key therapeutic target for the treatment of metabolic and cardiovascular dysfunctions associated with obesity. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Adipocyte-specific protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B deletion increases lipogenesis, adipocyte cell size and is a minor regulator of glucose homeostasis.

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    Carl Owen

    Full Text Available Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B, a key negative regulator of leptin and insulin signaling, is positively correlated with adiposity and contributes to insulin resistance. Global PTP1B deletion improves diet-induced obesity and glucose homeostasis via enhanced leptin signaling in the brain and increased insulin signaling in liver and muscle. However, the role of PTP1B in adipocytes is unclear, with studies demonstrating beneficial, detrimental or no effect(s of adipose-PTP1B-deficiency on body mass and insulin resistance. To definitively establish the role of adipocyte-PTP1B in body mass regulation and glucose homeostasis, adipocyte-specific-PTP1B knockout mice (adip-crePTP1B(-/- were generated using the adiponectin-promoter to drive Cre-recombinase expression. Chow-fed adip-crePTP1B(-/- mice display enlarged adipocytes, despite having similar body weight/adiposity and glucose homeostasis compared to controls. High-fat diet (HFD-fed adip-crePTP1B(-/- mice display no differences in body weight/adiposity but exhibit larger adipocytes, increased circulating glucose and leptin levels, reduced leptin sensitivity and increased basal lipogenesis compared to controls. This is associated with decreased insulin receptor (IR and Akt/PKB phosphorylation, increased lipogenic gene expression and increased hypoxia-induced factor-1-alpha (Hif-1α expression. Adipocyte-specific PTP1B deletion does not beneficially manipulate signaling pathways regulating glucose homeostasis, lipid metabolism or adipokine secretion in adipocytes. Moreover, PTP1B does not appear to be the major negative regulator of the IR in adipocytes.

  12. Protein tyrosine phosphatase-PEST (PTP-PEST) regulates mast cell-activating signals in PTP activity-dependent and -independent manners.

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    Motohashi, Satoru; Koizumi, Karen; Honda, Reika; Maruyama, Atsuko; Palmer, Helen E F; Mashima, Keisuke

    2014-01-01

    Aggregation of the high-affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI) in mast cells leads to degranulation and production of numerous cytokines and lipid mediators that promote allergic inflammation. Tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins in response to FcεRI aggregation has been implicated in mast cell activation. Here, we determined the role of PTP-PEST (encoded by PTPN12) in the regulation of mast cell activation using the RBL-2H3 rat basophilic leukemia cell line as a model. PTP-PEST expression was significantly induced upon FcεRI-crosslinking, and aggregation of FcεRI induced the phosphorylation of PTP-PEST at Ser39, thus resulting in the suppression of PTP activity. By overexpressing a phosphatase-dead mutant (PTP-PEST CS) and a constitutively active mutant (PTP-PEST SA) in RBL-2H3 cells, we showed that PTP-PEST decreased degranulation and enhanced IL-4 and IL-13 transcription in FcεRI-crosslinked RBL-2H3 cells, but PTP activity of PTP-PEST was not necessary for this regulation. However, FcεRI-induced TNF-α transcription was increased by the overexpression of PTP-PEST SA and suppressed by the overexpression of PTP-PEST CS. Taken together, these results suggest that PTP-PEST is involved in the regulation of FcεRI-mediated mast cell activation through at least two different processes represented by PTP activity-dependent and -independent pathways. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) and α-glucosidase by xanthones from Cratoxylum cochinchinense, and their kinetic characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zuo Peng; Song, Yeong Hun; Uddin, Zia; Wang, Yan; Park, Ki Hun

    2018-02-01

    Cratoxylum cochinchinense displayed significant inhibition against protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) and α-glucosidase, both of which are key target enzymes to attenuate diabetes and obesity. The compounds responsible for both enzymes inhibition were identified as twelve xanthones (1-12) among which compounds 1 and 2 were found to be new ones. All of them simultaneously inhibited PTP1B with IC 50 s of (2.4-52.5 µM), and α-glucosidase with IC 50 values of (1.7-72.7 µM), respectively. Cratoxanthone A (3) and γ-mangostin (7) were estimated to be most active inhibitors against both PTP1B (IC 50  = 2.4 µM for 3, 2.8 µM for 7) and α-glucosidase (IC 50  = 4.8 µM for 3, 1.7 µM for 7). In kinetic studies, all isolated xanthones emerged to be mixed inhibitors of α-glucosidase, whereas they behaved as competitive inhibitors of PTP1B. In time dependent experiments, compound 3 showed isomerization inhibitory behavior with following kinetic parameters: K i app  = 2.4 µM; k 5  = 0.05001 µM -1  S -1 and k 6  = 0.02076 µM -1  S -1 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Protein tyrosine phosphatase encoded in Cotesia plutellae bracovirus suppresses a larva-to-pupa metamorphosis of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiwan; Hepat, Rahul; Lee, Daeweon; Kim, Yonggyun

    2013-09-01

    Parasitization by an endoparasitoid wasp, Cotesia plutellae, inhibits a larva-to-pupa metamorphosis of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. This study tested an inhibitory effect of C. plutellae bracovirus (CpBV) on the metamorphosis of P. xylostella. Parasitized P. xylostella exhibited significantly reduced prothoracic gland (PTG) development at the last instar compared to nonparasitized larvae. Expression of the ecdysone receptor (EcR) was markedly suppressed during the last instar larvae parasitized by C. plutellae. By contrast, expression of the insulin receptor (InR) significantly increased in the parasitized larvae. Microinjection of CpBV significantly inhibited the larva-to-pupa metamorphosis of nonparasitized larvae in a dose-dependent manner. Injection of CpBV also inhibited the expression of the EcR and increased the expression of the InR. Individual CpBV segments were transiently expressed in its encoded genes in nonparasitized larvae and screened to determine antimetamorphic viral gene(s). Out of 21 CpBV segments, two viral segments (CpBV-S22 and CpBV-S27) were proved to inhibit larva-to-pupa metamorphosis by transient expression assay. RNA interference of each gene encoded in the viral segments was applied to determine antimetamorphic gene(s). Protein tyrosine phosphatase, early expressed gene, and four hypothetical genes were selected to be associated with the antimetamorphic activity of CpBV. These results suggest that antimetamorphosis of P. xylostella parasitized by C. plutellae is induced by inhibiting PTG development and subsequent ecdysteroid signaling with viral factors of CpBV. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The protein tyrosine phosphatase, nonreceptor type 22-1858C->T (rs2476601 polymorphism is not a genetic risk factor for systemic lupus erythematosus in Indian Tamils

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    Panneer Devaraju

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, a systemic autoimmune disease, occurs due to disruption of immune homeostasis against self-antigens. The etiology of SLE is complex and multiple genetic factors contribute to disease susceptibility and clinical phenotypes. Protein tyrosine phosphatase, nonreceptor type 22 (PTPN22 is a lymphoid-specific phosphatase that negatively regulates T-cell receptor signaling and is responsible for the maintenance of T-cell homeostasis. Genetic aberrations affecting the function of PTPN22 result in the proliferation of autoreactive T-cells and development of autoimmune diseases. Methods: We carried out a case–control genetic study to analyze the association of PTPN22 R620W polymorphism (rs2476601 with disease susceptibility and clinical and autoantibody profile in Indian Tamils with SLE. Three hundred SLE patients satisfying the 1997 revised American College of Rheumatology classification criteria for SLE were enrolled in the study. Disease activity was measured using the SLE Disease Activity Index. We recruited 460 age-, sex-, and ethnicity-matched individuals without a family history of autoimmune diseases as control population. Genomic DNA was extracted from the blood sample by salting-out method. The PTPN22-1858C->T (rs2476601 polymorphism was screened by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Results: The frequency of the ancestral allele “C” was similar in both cases and controls (99.3% and 99.8%, respectively and the mutant allele “T” was less frequent in South Indian Tamil population; it did not influence clinical or serological phenotypes. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the PTPN22 (rs2476601 polymorphism is less frequent and did not confer a risk for lupus or its associated clinical or serological phenotypes in South Indian Tamils.

  16. MicroRNA-194 promotes the growth, migration, and invasion of ovarian carcinoma cells by targeting protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor type 12

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    Liang T

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Tian Liang, Liru Li, Yan Cheng, Chengcheng Ren, Guangmei Zhang Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, The first Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Nangang District, Harbin, Hei Longjiang, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Ovarian carcinoma is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy among women. Ovarian cancer metastasis is the main reason for poor prognosis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs have been shown to play an important role in tumorigenesis and metastasis in various cancers by affecting the expression of their targets. In this study, we explored the role of miR-194 in ovarian cancer. Real-time polymerase chain reaction assays showed that miR-194 was significantly upregulated in ovarian cancer tissues. Overexpression of miR-194 in ovarian cancer cells promotes cell proliferation, migration, and invasion; in contrast, inhibition of the expression of miR-194 has the opposite effects. Meanwhile, bioinformatics tools were used to identify protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor type 12 (PTPN12 as a potential target of miR-194. The luciferase assay showed that miR-194 directly binds to the 3'-untranslated region of PTPN12. Western blot analysis and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay revealed that PTPN12 expression was negatively associated with miR-194 expression in both ovarian cancer tissues and cells. Thus, we conclude that miR-194 targets PTPN12 and functions as an oncogene in ovarian cancer cells. This novel pathway may provide a new insight to explain ovarian cancer development and metastasis. Keywords: miR-194, ovarian cancer, PTPN12, metastasis

  17. C-reactive protein is a predictor of prognosis in renal cell carcinoma patients receiving tyrosine kinase inhibitors: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhun; Peng, Shuanghe; Wang, Aixiang; Xie, Hui; Guo, Linpei; Jiang, Ning; Niu, Yuanjie

    2017-12-01

    The prognostic value of C-reactive protein (CRP) in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients receiving tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) has been investigated in previous studies; however, the results remain inconclusive. This study investigated the prognostic value of pretreatment CRP in patients with metastatic RCC treated with TKIs. PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane databases were searched for studies investigating the relationships between pretreatment CRP and prognosis in patients with metastatic RCC. Hazard ratios (HRs) for overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were extracted from eligible studies. Heterogeneity was assessed using the I 2 value. The fixed-effects model was used if there was no evidence of heterogeneity; otherwise, the random-effects model was used. Publication bias was evaluated using Begg's funnel plots and Egger's regression test. A total of 1199 patients from nine studies were included in the analysis. The results showed that an elevated CRP level was an effective prognostic marker of both OS (pooled HR=2.87, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.34-3.54, p<0.001) and PFS (pooled HR=2.39, 95% CI: 1.75-3.26, p<0.001). Subgroup analysis revealed that an elevated CRP level significantly predicted poor OS and PFS in studies conducted in Japan (OS, pooled HR=3.03, 95% CI: 2.29-4.01, p<0.001; PFS, pooled HR=3.6, 95% CI: 1.62-8.0, p=0.002), and in cut-off value of CRP <0.8 (OS, pooled HR=2.93, 95% CI: 2.21-3.88, p<0.001; PFS, pooled HR=2.57, 95% CI: 1.82-3.65, p<0.001). This study suggests that an elevated CRP level is correlated with poor prognosis in patients with metastatic RCC receiving TKIs treatment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Probing the origins of catalytic discrimination between phosphate and sulfate monoester hydrolysis: comparative analysis of alkaline phosphatase and protein tyrosine phosphatases.

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    Andrews, Logan D; Zalatan, Jesse G; Herschlag, Daniel

    2014-11-04

    Catalytic promiscuity, the ability of enzymes to catalyze multiple reactions, provides an opportunity to gain a deeper understanding of the origins of catalysis and substrate specificity. Alkaline phosphatase (AP) catalyzes both phosphate and sulfate monoester hydrolysis reactions with a ∼10(10)-fold preference for phosphate monoester hydrolysis, despite the similarity between these reactions. The preponderance of formal positive charge in the AP active site, particularly from three divalent metal ions, was proposed to be responsible for this preference by providing stronger electrostatic interactions with the more negatively charged phosphoryl group versus the sulfuryl group. To test whether positively charged metal ions are required to achieve a high preference for the phosphate monoester hydrolysis reaction, the catalytic preference of three protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs), which do not contain metal ions, were measured. Their preferences ranged from 5 × 10(6) to 7 × 10(7), lower than that for AP but still substantial, indicating that metal ions and a high preponderance of formal positive charge within the active site are not required to achieve a strong catalytic preference for phosphate monoester over sulfate monoester hydrolysis. The observed ionic strength dependences of kcat/KM values for phosphate and sulfate monoester hydrolysis are steeper for the more highly charged phosphate ester with both AP and the PTP Stp1, following the dependence expected based on the charge difference of these two substrates. However, the dependences for AP were not greater than those of Stp1 and were rather shallow for both enzymes. These results suggest that overall electrostatics from formal positive charge within the active site is not the major driving force in distinguishing between these reactions and that substantial discrimination can be attained without metal ions. Thus, local properties of the active site, presumably including multiple positioned dipolar

  19. Adaptor protein SH2-B linking receptor-tyrosine kinase and Akt promotes adipocyte differentiation by regulating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma messenger ribonucleic acid levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshiga, Daigo; Sato, Naoichi; Torisu, Takehiro; Mori, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Ryoko; Nakamura, Seiji; Takaesu, Giichi; Kobayashi, Takashi; Yoshimura, Akihiko

    2007-05-01

    Adipocyte differentiation is regulated by insulin and IGF-I, which transmit signals by activating their receptor tyrosine kinase. SH2-B is an adaptor protein containing pleckstrin homology and Src homology 2 (SH2) domains that have been implicated in insulin and IGF-I receptor signaling. In this study, we found a strong link between SH2-B levels and adipogenesis. The fat mass and expression of adipogenic genes including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) were reduced in white adipose tissue of SH2-B-/- mice. Reduced adipocyte differentiation of SH2-B-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) was observed in response to insulin and dexamethasone, whereas retroviral SH2-B overexpression enhanced differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes to adipocytes. SH2-B overexpression enhanced mRNA level of PPARgamma in 3T3-L1 cells, whereas PPARgamma levels were reduced in SH2-B-deficient MEFs in response to insulin. SH2-B-mediated up-regulation of PPARgamma mRNA was blocked by a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor, but not by a MAPK kinase inhibitor. Insulin-induced Akt activation and the phosphorylation of forkhead transcription factor (FKHR/Foxo1), a negative regulator of PPARgamma transcription, were up-regulated by SH2-B overexpression, but reduced in SH2-B-deficient MEFs. These data indicate that SH2-B is a key regulator of adipogenesis both in vivo and in vitro by regulating the insulin/IGF-I receptor-Akt-Foxo1-PPARgamma pathway.

  20. Tyrosine phosphorylation of AAV2 vectors and its consequences on viral intracellular trafficking and transgene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Li; Li, Baozheng; Jayandharan, Giridhararao; Mah, Cathryn S.; Govindasamy, Lakshmanan; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Herzog, Roland W.; Weigel-Van Aken, Kirsten A.; Hobbs, Jacqueline A.; Zolotukhin, Sergei; Muzyczka, Nicholas; Srivastava, Arun

    2008-01-01

    We have documented that epidermal growth factor receptor protein tyrosine kinase (EGFR-PTK) signaling negatively affects intracellular trafficking and transduction efficiency of recombinant adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) vectors. Specifically, inhibition of EGFR-PTK signaling leads to decreased ubiquitination of AAV2 capsid proteins, which in turn, facilitates viral nuclear transport by limiting proteasome-mediated degradation of AAV2 vectors. In the present studies, we observed that AAV capsids can indeed be phosphorylated at tyrosine residues by EGFR-PTK in in vitro phosphorylation assays and that phosphorylated AAV capsids retain their structural integrity. However, although phosphorylated AAV vectors enter cells as efficiently as their unphosphorylated counterparts, their transduction efficiency is significantly reduced. This reduction is not due to impaired viral second-strand DNA synthesis since transduction efficiency of both single-stranded AAV (ssAAV) and self-complementary AAV (scAAV) vectors is decreased by ~68% and ~74%, respectively. We also observed that intracellular trafficking of tyrosine-phosphorylated AAV vectors from cytoplasm to nucleus is significantly decreased, which leads to ubiquitination of AAV capsids followed by proteasome-mediated degradation, although downstream consequences of capsid ubiquitination may also be affected by tyrosine-phosphorylation. These studies provide new insights into the role of tyrosine-phosphorylation of AAV capsids in various steps in the virus life cycle, which has implications in the optimal use of recombinant AAV vectors in human gene therapy. PMID:18834608

  1. Growth inhibitory effects of the dual ErbB1/ErbB2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor PKI-166 on human prostate cancer xenografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellinghoff, Ingo K; Tran, Chris; Sawyers, Charles L

    2002-09-15

    Experiments with human prostate cancer cell lines have shown that forced overexpression of the ErbB2-receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) promotes androgen-independent growth and increases androgen receptor-transcriptional activity in a ligand-independent fashion. To investigate the relationship between ErbB-RTK signaling and androgen in genetically unmanipulated human prostate cancer, we performed biochemical and biological studies with the dual ErbB1/ErbB2 RTK inhibitor PKI-166 using human prostate cancer xenograft models with isogenic sublines reflecting the transition from androgen-dependent to androgen-independent growth. In the presence of low androgen concentrations, PKI-166 showed profound growth-inhibitory effects on tumor growth, which could be partially reversed by androgen add-back. At physiological androgen concentrations, androgen withdrawal greatly enhanced the ability of PKI-166 to retard tumor growth. The level of extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation correlated with the response to PKI-166 treatment, whereas the expression levels of ErbB1 and ErbB2 did not. These results suggest that ErbB1/ErbB2 RTKs play an important role in the biology of androgen-independent prostate cancer and provide a rationale for clinical evaluation of inhibitors targeted to this pathway.

  2. Radioimmunoassay of human plasma protein C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bocheng; Li Jinquan; Jing Jian; Zhang Manda

    1995-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay method for the measurement of human plasma protein C (PC) is established. PC was isolated and purified from human plasma. The antisera against PC was obtained by immunizing rabbits. Iodination of PC was carried out with chroramine-T. The sensitivity was 3.94% μg/L, and the assay covered 6.25∼1024 μg/L for PC. The intra-assay and inter-assay CV were 4.4% and 9.68% respectively, with a recovery rate of 104.28%. There was no cross reaction with factor II. The normal value was 3.84 +- 0.34 mg/L in 36 normal persons. Value of 1.03 +-0.41 mg/L was found in 16 patients with fulminating hepatitis complicated with coagulation disturbance. It is an effective approach for the diagnosis of hereditary or acquired PC deficiency and also for the study of thrombotic diseases

  3. Trace elements and protein in human milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abusamra, Y.I.H.

    1995-01-01

    The trace elements Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn, Ni and Pb and some related major elements which are Ca, Cl K and total protein contents of human samples from ninety mothers were examined in this study. Samples were collected from Khartoum, Khartoum North and Omdurman, from the second day of delivery up to the third month where the milk reaches a relatively stable levels. These samples representing different stages of lactation which are colostrum ( 1-3 days ), tranitional ( up to 14 days ) and mature milk. The principle aim of this study is to measure the trace elements and protein contents in relation to stage of lactation and to compare with the literature. Atomic absorption spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence were used to measure trace elements in the samples. The methods were found to be quite reliable as proved by the analysis of the standard reference material HM-1. Whereas neutron activation analysis was used for measurements of total protein. Colostrum was found to have the highest amounts of trace elements and protein. Fe mean concentration was 273 g/dm 3 at colostrum stage and it decreased to 146 g/dm 3 in mature milk ( 49% ). Zn decreased from 6000 g/dm 3 in colostrum to 1300 g/dm 3 in mature stage ( 78% ). Mn was 12g/dm 3 in colostrum, and it decreased to 2.9 g/dm 3 in mature milk ( 75% ). Cu decreased from 370 g/dm 3 to 117 g/dm 3 ( 68% ). Ni decreased from 24 g/dm 3 to 8.8 g/dm 3 ( 63% ) and Pb from 12 g/dm 3 to 2.6 g/dm 3 ( 76% ). Total protein was 37.3% of the dry milk in colostrum and it was 12.2% in mature milk. (author). 75 refs., 25 tabs., 30 figs

  4. Deletion of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B rescues against myocardial anomalies in high fat diet-induced obesity: Role of AMPK-dependent autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandadi, Machender R; Panzhinskiy, Evgeniy; Roe, Nathan D; Nair, Sreejayan; Hu, Dahai; Sun, Aijun

    2015-02-01

    Obesity-induced cardiomyopathy may be mediated by alterations in multiple signaling cascades involved in glucose and lipid metabolism. Protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B (PTP1B) is an important negative regulator of insulin signaling. This study was designed to evaluate the role of PTP1B in high fat diet-induced cardiac contractile anomalies. Wild-type and PTP1B knockout mice were fed normal (10%) or high (45%) fat diet for 5months prior to evaluation of cardiac function. Myocardial function was assessed using echocardiography and an Ion-Optix MyoCam system. Western blot analysis was employed to evaluate levels of AMPK, mTOR, raptor, Beclin-1, p62 and LC3-II. RT-PCR technique was employed to assess genes involved in hypertrophy and lipid metabolism. Our data revealed increased LV thickness and LV chamber size as well as decreased fractional shortening following high fat diet intake, the effect was nullified by PTP1B knockout. High fat diet intake compromised cardiomyocyte contractile function as evidenced by decreased peak shortening, maximal velocity of shortening/relengthening, intracellular Ca²⁺ release as well as prolonged duration of relengthening and intracellular Ca²⁺ decay, the effects of which were alleviated by PTP1B knockout. High fat diet resulted in enlarged cardiomyocyte area and increased lipid accumulation, which were attenuated by PTP1B knockout. High fat diet intake dampened myocardial autophagy as evidenced by decreased LC3-II conversion and Beclin-1, increased p62 levels as well as decreased phosphorylation of AMPK and raptor, the effects of which were significantly alleviated by PTP1B knockout. Pharmacological inhibition of AMPK using compound C disengaged PTP1B knockout-conferred protection against fatty acid-induced cardiomyocyte contractile anomalies. Taken together, our results suggest that PTP1B knockout offers cardioprotection against high fat diet intake through activation of AMPK. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled

  5. Autophosphorylation of JAK2 on tyrosines 221 and 570 regulates its activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Argetsinger, Lawrence S; Kouadio, Jean-Louis K; Steen, Hanno

    2004-01-01

    or which of the 49 tyrosines in JAK2 are autophosphorylated. In this study, mass spectrometry and two-dimensional peptide mapping were used to determine that tyrosines 221, 570, and 1007 in JAK2 are autophosphorylated. Phosphorylation of tyrosine 570 is particularly robust. In response to growth hormone......, JAK2 was rapidly and transiently phosphorylated at tyrosines 221 and 570, returning to basal levels by 60 min. Analysis of the sequences surrounding tyrosines 221 and 570 in JAK2 and tyrosines in other proteins that are phosphorylated in response to ligands that activate JAK2 suggests that the YXX......[L/I/V] motif is one of the motifs recognized by JAK2. Experiments using JAK2 with tyrosines 221 and 570 mutated to phenylalanine suggest that tyrosines 221 and 570 in JAK2 may serve as regulatory sites in JAK2, with phosphorylation of tyrosine 221 increasing kinase activity and phosphorylation of tyrosine 570...

  6. Euglena mitochondria and chloroplasts form tyrosine-O-sulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saidha, T.; Hanfstingl, U.; Schiff, J.A. (Brandeis Univ., Waltham, MA (USA))

    1989-04-01

    Mitochondria from light-grown wild-type Euglena gracilis var. bacillaris Cori or dark-grown mutant W{sub 10}BSmL incubated with {sup 35}SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} and ATP, or with {sup 14}C-tyrosine, non-radioactive sulfate and ATP accumulate a labeled compound in the medium. Since this compound shows exact coelectrophoresis with tyrosine-O-sulfate (TOS) at pH 2.0, 5.8 or 8.0., yields sulfate and tyrosine on acid hydrolysis, and treatment with aryl sulfatase from Aerobacter aerogenes yields sulfate and tyrosine but no tyrosine methyl ester, it is identified as TOS. No TOS is found outside purified developing chloroplasts incubated with {sup 35}SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} and ATP, but both chloroplasts and mitochondria form to {sup 35}S externally when incubated with adenosine 3{prime} phosphate 5{prime}phospho({sup 35}S) sulfate (PAP{sup 35}S). Since no tyrosine need be added, tyrosine is provided from endogenous sources. Although TOS is found in the free pool of Euglena cells it cannot be detected in proteins of cells or mucus ruling our sulfation of tyrosine of protein or incorporation of TOS into proteins. The system forming TOS is membrane-bound and may be involved in tyrosine transport.

  7. Tyrosine phosphorylation of Grb14 by Tie2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumont Daniel J

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Growth factor receptor bound (Grb proteins 7, 10 and 14 are a family of structurally related multi-domain adaptor proteins involved in a variety of biological processes. Grb7, 10 and 14 are known to become serine and/or threonine phosphorylated in response to growth factor (GF stimulation. Grb7 and 10 have also been shown to become tyrosine phosphorylated under certain conditions. Under experimental conditions Grb7 is tyrosine phosphorylated by the Tie2/Tie-2/Tek angiogenic receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK. Furthermore, Grb14 has also been shown to interact with Tie2, however tyrosine phosphorylation of this Grb family member has yet to be reported. Results Here we report for the first time tyrosine phosphorylation of Grb14. This phosphorylation requires a kinase competent Tie2 as well as intact tyrosines 1100 and 1106 (Y1100 and Y1106 on the receptor. Furthermore, a complete SH2 domain on Grb14 is required for Grb14 tyrosine phosphorylation by Tie2. Grb14 was also able to become tyrosine phosphorylated in primary endothelial cells when treated with a soluble and potent variant of the Tie2 ligand, cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP Ang1. Conclusion Our results show that Grb14, like its family members Grb7 and Grb10, is able to be tyrosine phosphorylated. Furthermore, our data indicate a role for Grb14 in endothelial signaling downstream of the Tie2 receptor.

  8. Myeloid protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) deficiency protects against atherosclerotic plaque formation in the ApoE-/- mouse model of atherosclerosis with alterations in IL10/AMPKα pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, D; Morrice, N; Grant, L; Le Sommer, S; Ziegler, K; Whitfield, P; Mody, N; Wilson, H M; Delibegović, M

    2017-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most prevalent cause of mortality among patients with Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes, due to accelerated atherosclerosis. Recent evidence suggests a strong link between atherosclerosis and insulin resistance due to impaired insulin receptor (IR) signaling. Moreover, inflammatory cells, in particular macrophages, play a key role in pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and insulin resistance in humans. We hypothesized that inhibiting the activity of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), the major negative regulator of the IR, specifically in macrophages, would have beneficial anti-inflammatory effects and lead to protection against atherosclerosis and CVD. We generated novel macrophage-specific PTP1B knockout mice on atherogenic background (ApoE -/- /LysM-PTP1B). Mice were fed standard or pro-atherogenic diet, and body weight, adiposity (echoMRI), glucose homeostasis, atherosclerotic plaque development, and molecular, biochemical and targeted lipidomic eicosanoid analyses were performed. Myeloid-PTP1B knockout mice on atherogenic background (ApoE -/- /LysM-PTP1B) exhibited a striking improvement in glucose homeostasis, decreased circulating lipids and decreased atherosclerotic plaque lesions, in the absence of body weight/adiposity differences. This was associated with enhanced phosphorylation of aortic Akt, AMPKα and increased secretion of circulating anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE 2 ), without measurable alterations in IR phosphorylation, suggesting a direct beneficial effect of myeloid-PTP1B targeting. Here we demonstrate that inhibiting the activity of PTP1B specifically in myeloid lineage cells protects against atherosclerotic plaque formation, under atherogenic conditions, in an ApoE -/- mouse model of atherosclerosis. Our findings suggest for the first time that macrophage PTP1B targeting could be a therapeutic target for atherosclerosis treatment and reduction of CVD risk.

  9. Crystal structure of the EphA4 protein tyrosine kinase domain in the apo-and dasantinib-bound state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farenc, C; Celie, C; Tensen, P.H.N; de Esch, I.J.P.; Siegal, C.P.

    2011-01-01

    The Eph family of receptor tyrosine kinases regulates diverse cellular processes while the over-expression of a member of this family, EphA4, has been reported in a variety of malignant carcinomas. To gain insight into molecular mechanisms and to facilitate structure-based inhibitor design, we

  10. Protein modification in the post-mating spermatophore of the signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus: insight into the tyrosine phosphorylation in a non-motile spermatozoon

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Niksirat, H.; Vancová, Marie; Andersson, L.; James, P.; Kouba, A.; Kozák, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 172, SEP (2016), s. 123-130 ISSN 0378-4320 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TE01020118 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : microtubular radial arm * spermatozoon capacitation * tyrosine-phosphorylation * ultrastructural localization Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.605, year: 2016

  11. Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Non-receptor 22 Gene C1858T Polymorphism in Patients with Coexistent Type 2 Diabetes and Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Bulut

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: A protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 22 (PTPN22 C1858T gene polymorphism has been reported to be associated with both Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT separately. However, no study has been conducted to explore the C1858T polymorphism in T2DM and HT coexistent cases up to now. Aims: The study aimed to determine whether a relationship exists or not between the PTPN22 C1858T polymorphism and this coexistent patient group. Study Design: Case-control study. Methods: Peripheral blood samples from 135 T2DM patients, 102 patients with coexistent T2DM+HT, 71 HT patients and 135 healthy controls were collected into ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA anticoagulant tubes and genomic DNA was extracted. The PTPN22 C1858T polymorphism was analyzed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP methods. Results: Statistically significant differences were not observed between the patient and control groups. This study demonstrated a statistically significant association between both the CT genotype and the T allele in the female patient group with coexistent T2DM+HT (CT genotype: p=0.04; T allele: p=0.045 with a statistically significant association between the CT genotype and the mean values of body mass index (BMI and free T3 levels (FT3 (BMI: p=0.044 and FT3: p=0.021 that was detected in the patient group with coexistent T2DM+HT. The minor genotype TT was observed in none of the groups in this study. The CT genotype frequency was [number (frequency: 5 (3.8%, 7 (6.86%, 5 (7.04%, 3 (2.22%, while the T allele frequency was 5 (1.86%, 7 (3.44%, 5 (3.53% and 3 (1.12%] in the T2DM, T2DM+HT, HT and control groups, respectively. Conclusion: Our data suggest that the PTPN22 1858T allele and the CT genotype are associated with increased risk in female patients for coexistent T2DM+HT. The CT genotype was associated with high mean BMI and free T3 values in the patient group

  12. Chimeric design, synthesis, and biological assays of a new nonpeptide insulin-mimetic vanadium compound to inhibit protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scior, Thomas; Guevara-García, José Antonio; Melendez, F J; Abdallah, Hassan H; Do, Quoc-Tuan; Bernard, Philippe

    2010-09-24

    Prior to its total synthesis, a new vanadium coordination compound, called TSAG0101, was computationally designed to inhibit the enzyme protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B). The PTP1B acts as a negative regulator of insulin signaling by blocking the active site where phosphate hydrolysis of the insulin receptor takes place. TSAG001, [V(V)O(2)(OH)(picolinamide)], was characterized by infrared (IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy; IR: ν/cm(-1) 3,570 (NH), 1,627 (C=O, coordinated), 1,417 (C-N), 970/842 (O=V=O), 727 δ̣ (pyridine ring); (13)C NMR: 5 bands between 122 and 151 ppm and carbonyl C shifted to 180 ppm; and (1)H NMR: 4 broad bands from 7.6 to 8.2 ppm and NH(2) shifted to 8.8 ppm. In aqueous solution, in presence or absence of sodium citrate as a biologically relevant and ubiquitous chelator, TSAG0101 undergoes neither ligand exchange nor reduction of its central vanadium atom during 24 hours. TSAG0101 shows blood glucose lowering effects in rats but it produced no alteration of basal- or glucose-induced insulin secretion on β cells during in vitro tests, all of which excludes a direct mechanism evidencing the extrapancreatic nature of its activity. The lethal dose (LD(50)) of TSAG0101 was determined in Wistar mice yielding a value of 412 mg/kg. This value is one of the highest among vanadium compounds and classifies it as a mild toxicity agent when compared with literature data. Due to its nonsubstituted, small-sized scaffold design, its remarkable complex stability, and low toxicity; TSAG0101 should be considered as an innovative insulin-mimetic principle with promising properties and, therefore, could become a new lead compound for potential nonpeptide PTP1B inhibitors in antidiabetic drug research. In view of the present work, the inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) and extended solution stability will be tested.

  13. Compact conformations of human protein disulfide isomerase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang Yang

    Full Text Available Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI composed of four thioredoxin-like domains a, b, b', and a', is a key enzyme catalyzing oxidative protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum. Large scale molecular dynamics simulations starting from the crystal structures of human PDI (hPDI in the oxidized and reduced states were performed. The results indicate that hPDI adopts more compact conformations in solution than in the crystal structures, which are stabilized primarily by inter-domain interactions, including the salt bridges between domains a and b' observed for the first time. A prominent feature of the compact conformations is that the two catalytic domains a and a' can locate close enough for intra-molecular electron transfer, which was confirmed by the characterization of an intermediate with a disulfide between the two domains. Mutations, which disrupt the inter-domain interactions, lead to decreased reductase activity of hPDI. Our molecular dynamics simulations and biochemical experiments reveal the intrinsic conformational dynamics of hPDI and its biological impact.

  14. Phosphotyrosine signaling proteins that drive oncogenesis tend to be highly interconnected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koytiger, Grigoriy; Kaushansky, Alexis; Gordus, Andrew; Rush, John; Sorger, Peter K; MacBeath, Gavin

    2013-05-01

    Mutation and overexpression of receptor tyrosine kinases or the proteins they regulate serve as oncogenic drivers in diverse cancers. To better understand receptor tyrosine kinase signaling and its link to oncogenesis, we used protein microarrays to systematically and quantitatively measure interactions between virtually every SH2 or PTB domain encoded in the human genome and all known sites of tyrosine phosphorylation on 40 receptor tyrosine kinases and on most of the SH2 and PTB domain-containing adaptor proteins. We found that adaptor proteins, like RTKs, have many high affinity bindings sites for other adaptor proteins. In addition, proteins that drive cancer, including both receptors and adaptor proteins, tend to be much more highly interconnected via networks of SH2 and PTB domain-mediated interactions than nononcogenic proteins. Our results suggest that network topological properties such as connectivity can be used to prioritize new drug targets in this well-studied family of signaling proteins.

  15. Interaction Of Calcium Phosphate Nanoparticles With Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Modifies Secondary And Tertiary Protein Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Hakeim Hussein K

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Calcium phosphate nanoparticles (CaPNP have good biocompatibility and bioactivity inside human body. In this study, the interaction between CaPNP and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG was analyzed to determine the changes in the protein structure in the presence of CaPNP and the quantity of protein adsorbed on the CaPNP surface. The results showed a significant adsorption of hCG on the CaPNP nanoparticle surface. The optimal fit was achieved using the Sips isotherm equation with a maximum adsorption capacity of 68.23 µg/mg. The thermodynamic parameters, including ∆H° and ∆G°, of the adsorption process are positive, whereas ∆S° is negative. The circular dichroism results of the adsorption of hCG on CaPNP showed the changes in its secondary structure; such changes include the decomposition of α-helix strand and the increase in β-pleated sheet and random coil percentages. Fluorescence study indicated minimal changes in the tertiary structure near the microenvironment of the aromatic amino acids such as tyrosine and phenyl alanine caused by the interaction forces between the CaPNP and hCG protein. The desorption process showed that the quantity of the hCG desorbed significantly increases as temperature increases, which indicates the weak forces between hCG and the surface.

  16. Analysis of tyrosine-O-sulfation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, J.R.; Sen, J.W.; Johnsen, A.H.

    2008-01-01

    Tyrosine O-sulfation was first described about 50 years ago as a post-translational modification of fibrinogen. In the following 30 years it was considered to be a rare modification affecting only a few proteins and peptides. However, in the beginning of the 1980s tyrosine (Tyr) sulfation was shown...... to be a common modification and since then an increasing number of proteins have been identified as sulfated. The target proteins belong to the classes of secretory, plasma membrane, and lysosomal proteins, which reflects the intracellular localization of the enzymes catalyzing Tyr sulfation, the tyrosylprotein...... sulfotransferases (TPSTs).Traditionally, Tyr sulfation has been analyzed by incorporation of radiolabeled sulfate into target cells followed by purification of the target protein. Subsequently, the protein is degraded enzymatically or by alkaline hydrolysis followed by thin-layer electrophoresis to demonstrate...

  17. Ror receptor tyrosine kinases: orphans no more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jennifer L; Kuntz, Steven G; Sternberg, Paul W

    2008-11-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor (Ror) proteins are a conserved family of tyrosine kinase receptors that function in developmental processes including skeletal and neuronal development, cell movement and cell polarity. Although Ror proteins were originally named because the associated ligand and signaling pathway were unknown, recent studies in multiple species have now established that Ror proteins are Wnt receptors. Depending on the cellular context, Ror proteins can either activate or repress transcription of Wnt target genes and can modulate Wnt signaling by sequestering Wnt ligands. New evidence implicates Ror proteins in planar cell polarity, an alternative Wnt pathway. Here, we review the progress made in understanding these mysterious proteins and, in particular, we focus on their function as Wnt receptors.

  18. Coordination modes of tyrosinate-ligated catalase-type heme enzymes: magnetic circular dichroism studies of Plexaura homomalla allene oxide synthase, Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis protein-2744c, and bovine liver catalase in their ferric and ferrous states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandara, D M Indika; Sono, Masanori; Bruce, Grant S; Brash, Alan R; Dawson, John H

    2011-12-01

    Bovine liver catalase (BLC), catalase-related allene oxide synthase (cAOS) from Plexaura homomalla, and a recently isolated protein from the cattle pathogen Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP-2744c (MAP)) are all tyrosinate-ligated heme enzymes whose crystal structures have been reported. cAOS and MAP have low (enzymes in their ferric and ferrous states using magnetic circular dichroism and UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. The MAP protein shows remarkable spectral similarities to cAOS and BLC in its native Fe(III) state, but clear differences from ferric proximal heme ligand His93Tyr Mb (myoglobin) mutant, which may be attributed to the presence of an Arg(+)-N(ω)-H···¯O-Tyr (proximal heme axial ligand) hydrogen bond in the first three heme proteins. Furthermore, the spectra of Fe(III)-CN¯, Fe(III)-NO, Fe(II)-NO (except for five-coordinate MAP), Fe(II)-CO, and Fe(II)-O(2) states of cAOS and MAP, but not H93Y Mb, are also similar to the corresponding six-coordinate complexes of BLC, suggesting that a tyrosinate (Tyr-O¯) is the heme axial ligand trans to the bound ligands in these complexes. The Arg(+)-N(ω)-H to ¯O-Tyr hydrogen bond would be expected to modulate the donor properties of the proximal tyrosinate oxyanion and, combined with the subtle differences in the catalytic site structures, affect the activities of cAOS, MAP and BLC. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Involvement of Src tyrosine kinase and protein kinase C in the expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor induced by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in HL-1 mouse cardiac muscle cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, F. [Department of Cardiology, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Cardiovascular Institute, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou (China); Research Center of Medical Sciences, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangzhou (China); Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou (China); Deng, C.Y. [Research Center of Medical Sciences, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangzhou (China); Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou (China); Zhang, Q.H.; Xue, Y.M. [Department of Cardiology, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Cardiovascular Institute, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou (China); Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou (China); Xiao, D.Z.; Kuang, S.J.; Lin, Q.X.; Shan, Z.X.; Liu, X.Y.; Zhu, J.N. [Research Center of Medical Sciences, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangzhou (China); Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou (China); Yu, X.Y. [Department of Cardiology, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Cardiovascular Institute, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou (China); Research Center of Medical Sciences, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangzhou (China); Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou (China); Wu, S.L. [Department of Cardiology, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Cardiovascular Institute, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou (China); Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou (China)

    2013-09-06

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a pleiotropic cytokine, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation; however, the upstream regulation of MIF in atrial myocytes remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated whether and how MIF is regulated in response to the renin-angiotensin system and oxidative stress in atrium myocytes (HL-1 cells). MIF protein and mRNA levels in HL-1 cells were assayed using immunofluorescence, real-time PCR, and Western blot. The result indicated that MIF was expressed in the cytoplasm of HL-1 cells. Hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}), but not angiotensin II, stimulated MIF expression in HL-1 cells. H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced MIF protein and gene levels increased in a dose-dependent manner and were completely abolished in the presence of catalase. H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced MIF production was completely inhibited by tyrosine kinase inhibitors genistein and PP1, as well as by protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor GF109203X, suggesting that redox-sensitive MIF production is mediated through tyrosine kinase and PKC-dependent mechanisms in HL-1 cells. These results suggest that MIF is upregulated by HL-1 cells in response to redox stress, probably by the activation of Src and PKC.

  20. Development of human protein reference database as an initial platform for approaching systems biology in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peri, Suraj; Navarro, J Daniel; Amanchy, Ramars

    2003-01-01

    Human Protein Reference Database (HPRD) is an object database that integrates a wealth of information relevant to the function of human proteins in health and disease. Data pertaining to thousands of protein-protein interactions, posttranslational modifications, enzyme/substrate relationships...

  1. A Physical Interaction Network of Dengue Virus and Human Proteins*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadka, Sudip; Vangeloff, Abbey D.; Zhang, Chaoying; Siddavatam, Prasad; Heaton, Nicholas S.; Wang, Ling; Sengupta, Ranjan; Sahasrabudhe, Sudhir; Randall, Glenn; Gribskov, Michael; Kuhn, Richard J.; Perera, Rushika; LaCount, Douglas J.

    2011-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV), an emerging mosquito-transmitted pathogen capable of causing severe disease in humans, interacts with host cell factors to create a more favorable environment for replication. However, few interactions between DENV and human proteins have been reported to date. To identify DENV-human protein interactions, we used high-throughput yeast two-hybrid assays to screen the 10 DENV proteins against a human liver activation domain library. From 45 DNA-binding domain clones containing either full-length viral genes or partially overlapping gene fragments, we identified 139 interactions between DENV and human proteins, the vast majority of which are novel. These interactions involved 105 human proteins, including six previously implicated in DENV infection and 45 linked to the replication of other viruses. Human proteins with functions related to the complement and coagulation cascade, the centrosome, and the cytoskeleton were enriched among the DENV interaction partners. To determine if the cellular proteins were required for DENV infection, we used small interfering RNAs to inhibit their expression. Six of 12 proteins targeted (CALR, DDX3X, ERC1, GOLGA2, TRIP11, and UBE2I) caused a significant decrease in the replication of a DENV replicon. We further showed that calreticulin colocalized with viral dsRNA and with the viral NS3 and NS5 proteins in DENV-infected cells, consistent with a direct role for calreticulin in DENV replication. Human proteins that interacted with DENV had significantly higher average degree and betweenness than expected by chance, which provides additional support for the hypothesis that viruses preferentially target cellular proteins that occupy central position in the human protein interaction network. This study provides a valuable starting point for additional investigations into the roles of human proteins in DENV infection. PMID:21911577

  2. A physical interaction network of dengue virus and human proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadka, Sudip; Vangeloff, Abbey D; Zhang, Chaoying; Siddavatam, Prasad; Heaton, Nicholas S; Wang, Ling; Sengupta, Ranjan; Sahasrabudhe, Sudhir; Randall, Glenn; Gribskov, Michael; Kuhn, Richard J; Perera, Rushika; LaCount, Douglas J

    2011-12-01

    Dengue virus (DENV), an emerging mosquito-transmitted pathogen capable of causing severe disease in humans, interacts with host cell factors to create a more favorable environment for replication. However, few interactions between DENV and human proteins have been reported to date. To identify DENV-human protein interactions, we used high-throughput yeast two-hybrid assays to screen the 10 DENV proteins against a human liver activation domain library. From 45 DNA-binding domain clones containing either full-length viral genes or partially overlapping gene fragments, we identified 139 interactions between DENV and human proteins, the vast majority of which are novel. These interactions involved 105 human proteins, including six previously implicated in DENV infection and 45 linked to the replication of other viruses. Human proteins with functions related to the complement and coagulation cascade, the centrosome, and the cytoskeleton were enriched among the DENV interaction partners. To determine if the cellular proteins were required for DENV infection, we used small interfering RNAs to inhibit their expression. Six of 12 proteins targeted (CALR, DDX3X, ERC1, GOLGA2, TRIP11, and UBE2I) caused a significant decrease in the replication of a DENV replicon. We further showed that calreticulin colocalized with viral dsRNA and with the viral NS3 and NS5 proteins in DENV-infected cells, consistent with a direct role for calreticulin in DENV replication. Human proteins that interacted with DENV had significantly higher average degree and betweenness than expected by chance, which provides additional support for the hypothesis that viruses preferentially target cellular proteins that occupy central position in the human protein interaction network. This study provides a valuable starting point for additional investigations into the roles of human proteins in DENV infection.

  3. Differential role of EGF and BFGF in human GBM-TIC proliferation: relationship to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor sensibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajetto, A; Porcile, C; Pattarozzi, A; Scotti, L; Aceto, A; Daga, A; Barbieri, F; Florio, T

    2013-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is among the most devastating human tumors being rapidly fatal despite aggressive surgery, radiation and chemotherapies. It is characterized by extensive dissemination of tumor cells within the brain that hinders complete surgical resection. GBM tumor initiating-cells (TICs) are a rare subpopulation of cells responsible for tumor development, growth, invasiveness and recurrence after chemotherapy. TICs from human GBM can be selected in vitro using the same conditions permissive for the growth of normal neural cells, of which share some features including marker expression, self-renewal capacity, long-term proliferation, and ability to differentiate into neuronal and glial cells. EGFR overexpression and its constitutive activation is one of the most important signaling alteration identified in GBM, and its pharmacological targeting represents an attractive therapeutic goal. We previously demonstrated that human GBM TICs have different sensitivity to the EGFR kinase inhibitors erlotinib and gefitinib, depending on the differential modulation of downstream signaling cascades. In this work we investigated the mechanisms of resistance to erlotinib in two human GBM TIC cultures, analyzing EGF and bFGF individual contribution to proliferation, clonogenicity, and migration. We demonstrated the presence of a small cell subpopulation whose proliferation is supported by EGF and a larger one mainly dependent on bFGF. Thus, insensitivity to EGFR kinase inhibitors as far as TIC proliferation results from a predominant FGFR activation that hides the inhibitory effects induced on EGFR signaling. Conversely, EGF and bFGF induced cell migration with similar efficacy. In addition, unlike neural stem/progenitors cells, the removal of chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans from cell surface was unable to discern EGF- and bFGF-dependent subpopulations in GBM TICs.

  4. [F-18]fluoro-meta-L-tyrosine is a better PET tracer than [F-18]fluoro-L-dopa for the delineation of dopaminergic structures in the human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firnau, G.; Chirakal, R.; Nahmias, C.; Garnett, E.S.

    1990-01-01

    Fluorine-18 labelled fluoro-m-L-tyrosine (FmLtyr) and fluoro-L-Dopa (F-Dopa) have been synthesized, and the utility of FmLtyr for PET investigations of dopaminergic brain regions has been compared to that of F-dopa. Experimental results from both monkey and human studies indicate that FmLtyr gives better delineation of striatum, and is a better PET tracer than F-dopa

  5. Human Serum Protein-Bound iodine and Protein Fractions at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Iodine profile of Nigerians at different ages in both sexes and in pregnant women, and under narcotic influence, such as alcoholism, cigarette smoking and marijuana addiction were studied. Their serum total protein, albumin and globulin concentrations were also determined. Results of the study showed that serum protein ...

  6. Concurrent Autophagy Inhibition Overcomes the Resistance of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors in Human Bladder Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Minyong; Lee, Kyoung-Hwa; Lee, Hye Sun; Jeong, Chang Wook; Kwak, Cheol; Kim, Hyeon Hoe; Ku, Ja Hyeon

    2017-02-04

    Despite the potential therapeutic efficacy of epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors in the treatment of advanced stage bladder cancer, there currently is no clear evidence to support this hypothesis. In this study, we investigate whether the concurrent treatment of autophagy-blocking agents with EGFR inhibitors exerts synergistic anti-cancer effects in T24 and J82 human bladder cancer cells. Lapatinib and gefitinib were used as EGFR inhibitors, and bafilomycin A1 (BFA1), chloroquine (CQ) and 3-methyladenine (3-MA) were used as the pharmacologic inhibitors of autophagy activities. To assess the proliferative and self-renewal capabilities, the Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and a clonogenic assay were performed, respectively. To examine apoptotic cell death, flow cytometry using annexin-V/propidium iodide (PI) was used. To measure the autophagy activities, the expression levels of LC3I and II was determined by Western blot analysis. To validate the synergistic effects of autophagy inhibition with EGFR inhibitors, we specifically blocked key autophagy regulatory gene ATG12 by transfection of small interference RNA and examined the phenotypic changes. Of note, lapatinib and gefitinib triggered autophagy activities in T24 and J82 human bladder cancer cells, as indicated by upregulation of LC3II. More importantly, inhibiting autophagy activities with pharmacologic inhibitors (BFA1, CQ or 3-MA) remarkably reduced the cell viabilities and clonal proliferation of T24 and J82 cells, compared to those treated with either of the agents alone. We also obtained similar results of the enhanced anti-cancer effects of EGFR inhibitors by suppressing the expression of ATG12. Notably, the apoptotic assay showed that synergistic anti-cancer effects were induced via the increase of apoptotic cell death. In summary, concomitant inhibition of autophagy activities potentiated the anti-cancer effects of EGFR inhibitors in human bladder cancer cells, indicating a novel

  7. Concurrent Autophagy Inhibition Overcomes the Resistance of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors in Human Bladder Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minyong Kang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite the potential therapeutic efficacy of epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR inhibitors in the treatment of advanced stage bladder cancer, there currently is no clear evidence to support this hypothesis. In this study, we investigate whether the concurrent treatment of autophagy-blocking agents with EGFR inhibitors exerts synergistic anti-cancer effects in T24 and J82 human bladder cancer cells. Lapatinib and gefitinib were used as EGFR inhibitors, and bafilomycin A1 (BFA1, chloroquine (CQ and 3-methyladenine (3-MA were used as the pharmacologic inhibitors of autophagy activities. To assess the proliferative and self-renewal capabilities, the Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8 assay and a clonogenic assay were performed, respectively. To examine apoptotic cell death, flow cytometry using annexin-V/propidium iodide (PI was used. To measure the autophagy activities, the expression levels of LC3I and II was determined by Western blot analysis. To validate the synergistic effects of autophagy inhibition with EGFR inhibitors, we specifically blocked key autophagy regulatory gene ATG12 by transfection of small interference RNA and examined the phenotypic changes. Of note, lapatinib and gefitinib triggered autophagy activities in T24 and J82 human bladder cancer cells, as indicated by upregulation of LC3II. More importantly, inhibiting autophagy activities with pharmacologic inhibitors (BFA1, CQ or 3-MA remarkably reduced the cell viabilities and clonal proliferation of T24 and J82 cells, compared to those treated with either of the agents alone. We also obtained similar results of the enhanced anti-cancer effects of EGFR inhibitors by suppressing the expression of ATG12. Notably, the apoptotic assay showed that synergistic anti-cancer effects were induced via the increase of apoptotic cell death. In summary, concomitant inhibition of autophagy activities potentiated the anti-cancer effects of EGFR inhibitors in human bladder cancer cells, indicating

  8. Structure of human Rad51 protein filament from molecular modeling and site-specific linear dichroism spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Reymer, A.; Frykholm, K.; Morimatsu, K.; Takahashi, M.; Norden, B.

    2009-01-01

    for central and N-terminal parts of pure (uncomplexed) Rad51 protein by aid of linear dichroism spectroscopy, providing angular orientations of substituted tyrosine residues of Rad51-dsDNA filaments in solution. The structure, validated by comparison

  9. Increased activity of the Vesicular Soluble N-Ethylmaleimide-sensitive Factor Attachment Protein Receptor TI-VAMP/VAMP7 by Tyrosine Phosphorylation in the Longin Domain*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgo, Andrea; Casano, Alessandra M.; Kuster, Aurelia; Arold, Stefan T.; Wang, Guan; Nola, Sébastien; Verraes, Agathe; Dingli, Florent; Loew, Damarys; Galli, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Vesicular (v)- and target (t)-SNAREs play essential roles in intracellular membrane fusion through the formation of cytoplasmic α-helical bundles. Several v-SNAREs have a Longin N-terminal extension that, by promoting a closed conformation, plays an autoinhibitory