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Sample records for human proportions jean-joseph

  1. Sauvegarde et valorisation du fonds d’archives familiales de Jean-Joseph Rabearivelo à Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Ink

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Figure essentielle et encore mal connue de la littérature malgache et internationale, Jean-Joseph Rabearivelo (1903‑1937 fut à la fois poète, journaliste et critique, dramaturge et romancier, historien de sa tradition, collecteur et traducteur de textes anciens comme de textes modernes. L’aventure qui débuta fin 2008 pour aboutir à la publication de ses œuvres complètes (AUF/ITEM, CNRS Éditions, Coll. Planète libre, Paris, 2 tomes, 2010 et 2012 consistait à sauvegarder l’important fonds d’archives familiales (plus de 800 manuscrits, tapuscrits, textes édités ou documents de travail confié par les ayant droits à l’Institut Français de Madagascar (Antananarivo, par un travail de tri, de numérisation et de mise en conditionnement neutre, in situ, et à le valoriser par l’édition des textes, pour une grande part inédits, dans une approche scientifique à caractère génétique. Expérience novatrice, structurée par une méthodologie devant constamment s’adapter aux exigences géographique, scientifique et éditoriale, elle est également à considérer comme un cas d’école, pour une meilleure approche des fonds d’archives littéraires, aujourd’hui en péril dans bon nombre de pays du Sud.

  2. The evolution of human and ape hand proportions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Almécija, Sergio; Smaers, Jeroen B; Jungers, William L

    2015-01-01

    ...) of humans and chimpanzees. We inspect human and ape hand-length proportions using phylogenetically informed morphometric analyses and test alternative models of evolution along the anthropoid tree of life, including fossils...

  3. PROPORTIONS AND HUMAN SCALE IN DAMASCENE COURTYARD HOUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Salim Ferwati

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Interior designers, architects, landscape architects, and even urban designers, agree that environment, as a form of non-verbal communication means, has a symbolic dimension to it. As for its aesthetic dimension, it seems that beauty is related to a certain proportion, partially and as a whole. Suitable proportion leaves a good impression upon the beholders, especially when it matches human proportion. That in fact was the underlining belief of LeCorbusier, according to which he developed his Modular concept. The study searches for a modular, or proportion, system that governs the design of Damascene traditional house. By geometrical and mathematical examinations of 28 traditional houses, it was found that a certain proportional relationship existed; however, these proportional relationships were not fixed ones. The study relied on analyzing the Iwan elevation as well as the inner courtyard proportion in relation to the building area. Charts, diagrams and tables were produced to summarize the results.

  4. The evolution of human and ape hand proportions

    OpenAIRE

    Alm?cija, Sergio; Smaers, Jeroen B; Jungers, William L.

    2015-01-01

    Human hands are distinguished from apes by possessing longer thumbs relative to fingers. However, this simple ape-human dichotomy fails to provide an adequate framework for testing competing hypotheses of human evolution and for reconstructing the morphology of the last common ancestor (LCA) of humans and chimpanzees. We inspect human and ape hand-length proportions using phylogenetically informed morphometric analyses and test alternative models of evolution along the anthropoid tree of life...

  5. The evolution of human and ape hand proportions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almécija, Sergio; Smaers, Jeroen B; Jungers, William L

    2015-07-14

    Human hands are distinguished from apes by possessing longer thumbs relative to fingers. However, this simple ape-human dichotomy fails to provide an adequate framework for testing competing hypotheses of human evolution and for reconstructing the morphology of the last common ancestor (LCA) of humans and chimpanzees. We inspect human and ape hand-length proportions using phylogenetically informed morphometric analyses and test alternative models of evolution along the anthropoid tree of life, including fossils like the plesiomorphic ape Proconsul heseloni and the hominins Ardipithecus ramidus and Australopithecus sediba. Our results reveal high levels of hand disparity among modern hominoids, which are explained by different evolutionary processes: autapomorphic evolution in hylobatids (extreme digital and thumb elongation), convergent adaptation between chimpanzees and orangutans (digital elongation) and comparatively little change in gorillas and hominins. The human (and australopith) high thumb-to-digits ratio required little change since the LCA, and was acquired convergently with other highly dexterous anthropoids.

  6. Proportionality lost - proportionality regained?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, the European Court of Justice (the ECJ) seems to have accepted restrictions on the freedom of establishment and other basic freedoms, despite the fact that a more thorough proportionality test would have revealed that the restriction in question did not pass the 'rule of reason....... This often cannot be done without thorough knowledge of the particular legal field in which the case is anchored, and the ECJ is often left to flounder somewhat on this, with the result that we are suddenly faced with the Court’s acceptance of a restriction. The difficulty often lies - not in recognising...... the restriction, but in testing its proportionality. The article illustrates its point by referring to two categories of decision: (A) proportionality-strong decisions, which illustrate a thorough and firm proportionality assessment, and (B) proportionality-weak decisions, which could have led to a different...

  7. Compact Tissue-equivalent Proportional Counter for Deep Space Human Missions

    OpenAIRE

    Straume, T.; Braby, L.A.; Borak, T.B.; Lusby, T.; Warner, D.W.; Perez-Nunez, D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Effects on human health from the complex radiation environment in deep space have not been measured and can only be simulated here on Earth using experimental systems and beams of radiations produced by accelerators, usually one beam at a time. This makes it particularly important to develop instruments that can be used on deep-space missions to measure quantities that are known to be relatable to the biological effectiveness of space radiation. Tissue-equivalent proportional counter...

  8. Precuneus proportions and cortical folding: A morphometric evaluation on a racially diverse human sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Emiliano; Pereira-Pedro, Ana Sofia; Chen, Xu; Rilling, James K

    2017-05-01

    Recent analyses have suggested that the size and proportions of the precuneus are remarkably variable among adult humans, representing a major source of geometrical difference in midsagittal brain morphology. The same area also represents the main midsagittal brain difference between humans and chimpanzees, being more expanded in our species. Enlargement of the upper parietal surface is a specific feature of Homo sapiens, when compared with other fossil hominids, suggesting the involvement of these cortical areas in recent modern human evolution. Here, we provide a survey on midsagittal brain morphology by investigating whether precuneus size represents the largest component of variance within a larger and racially diverse sample of 265 adult humans. Additionally, we investigate the relationship between precuneus shape variation and folding patterns. Precuneus proportions are confirmed to be a major source of human brain variation even when racial variability is considered. Larger precuneus size is associated with additional precuneal gyri, generally in its anterior district. Spatial variation is most pronounced in the dorsal areas, with no apparent differences between hemispheres, between sexes, or among different racial groups. These dorsal areas integrate somatic and visual information together with the lateral elements of the parietal cortex, representing a crucial node for self-centered mental imagery. The histological basis and functional significance of this intra-specific variation in the upper precuneus remains to be evaluated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. The morphology of human hyoid bone in relation to sex, age and body proportions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanová, P; Hejna, P; Zátopková, L; Šafr, M

    2013-06-01

    Morphological aspects of the human hyoid bone are, like many other skeletal elements in human body, greatly affected by individual's sex, age and body proportions. Still, the known sex-dependent bimodality of a number of body size characteristics overshadows the true within-group patterns. Given the ambiguity of the causal effects of age, sex and body size upon hyoid morphology the present study puts the relationship between shape of human hyoid bone and body proportions (height and weight) under scrutiny of a morphological study. Using 211 hyoid bones and landmark-based methods of geometric morphometrics, it was shown that the size of hyoid bones correlated positively with measured body dimensions but showed no correlation if the individual's sex was controlled for. For shape variables, our results revealed that hyoid morphology is clearly related to body size as expressed in terms of the height and weight. Yet, the hyoid shape was shown to result primarily from the sex-related bimodal distribution of studied body size descriptors which, in the case of the height-dependent model, exhibited opposite trends for males and females. Apart from the global hyoid shape given by spatial arrangements of the greater horns, body size dependency was translated into size and position of the hyoid body. None of the body size characters had any impact on hyoid asymmetry. Ultimately, sexually dimorphic variation was revealed for age-dependent changes in both size and shape of hyoid bones as male hyoids tend to be more susceptible to modifications with age than female bones. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Human locomotor adaptive learning is proportional to depression of cerebellar excitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaram, Gowri; Galea, Joseph M; Bastian, Amy J; Celnik, Pablo

    2011-08-01

    Human locomotor adaptive learning is thought to involve the cerebellum, but the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying this process are not known. While animal research has pointed to depressive modulation of cerebellar outputs, a direct correlation between adaptive learning and cerebellar depression has never been demonstrated. Here, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation to assess excitability changes occurring in the cerebellum and primary motor cortex (M1) after individuals learned a new locomotor pattern on a split-belt treadmill. To control for potential changes associated to task performance complexity, the same group of subjects was also assessed after performing 2 other locomotor tasks that did not elicit learning. We found that only adaptive learning resulted in reduction of cerebellar inhibition. This effect was strongly correlated with the magnitude of learning (r = 0.78). In contrast, M1 excitability changes were not specific to learning but rather occurred in association with task complexity performance. Our results demonstrate that locomotor adaptive learning in humans is proportional to cerebellar excitability depression. This finding supports the theory that adaptive learning is mediated, at least in part, by long-term depression in Purkinje cells. This knowledge opens the opportunity to target cerebellar processes with noninvasive brain stimulation to enhance motor learning.

  11. Compact Tissue-equivalent Proportional Counter for Deep Space Human Missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straume, T; Braby, L A; Borak, T B; Lusby, T; Warner, D W; Perez-Nunez, D

    2015-10-01

    Effects on human health from the complex radiation environment in deep space have not been measured and can only be simulated here on Earth using experimental systems and beams of radiations produced by accelerators, usually one beam at a time. This makes it particularly important to develop instruments that can be used on deep-space missions to measure quantities that are known to be relatable to the biological effectiveness of space radiation. Tissue-equivalent proportional counters (TEPCs) are such instruments. Unfortunately, present TEPCs are too large and power intensive to be used beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). Here, the authors describe a prototype of a compact TEPC designed for deep space applications with the capability to detect both ambient galactic cosmic rays and intense solar particle event radiation. The device employs an approach that permits real-time determination of yD (and thus quality factor) using a single detector. This was accomplished by assigning sequential sampling intervals as detectors “1” and “2” and requiring the intervals to be brief compared to the change in dose rate. Tests with g rays show that the prototype instrument maintains linear response over the wide dose-rate range expected in space with an accuracy of better than 5% for dose rates above 3 mGy h(-1). Measurements of yD for 200 MeV n(-1) carbon ions were better than 10%. Limited tests with fission spectrum neutrons show absorbed dose-rate accuracy better than 15%.

  12. Ankle joint mechanics and foot proportions differ between human sprinters and non-sprinters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Josh R.; Novack, Thomas A.; Van Werkhoven, Herman; Pennell, David R.; Piazza, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies of sprinters and distance runners have suggested that variations in human foot proportions and plantarflexor muscle moment arm correspond to the level of sprint performance or running economy. Less clear, however, is whether differences in muscle moment arm are mediated by altered tendon paths or by variation in the centre of ankle joint rotation. Previous measurements of these differences have relied upon assumed joint centres and measurements of bone geometry made externally, such that they would be affected by the thickness of the overlying soft tissue. Using magnetic resonance imaging, we found that trained sprinters have shorter plantarflexor moment arms (p = 0.011) and longer forefoot bones (p = 0.019) than non-sprinters. The shorter moment arms of sprinters are attributable to differences in the location of the centre of rotation (p < 0.001) rather than to differences in the path of the Achilles tendon. A simple computer model suggests that increasing the ratio of forefoot to rearfoot length permits more plantarflexor muscle work during plantarflexion that occurs at rates expected during the acceleration phase following the sprint start. PMID:22189400

  13. Proportional reasoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dole, Shelley; Hilton, Annette; Hilton, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    Proportional reasoning is widely acknowledged as a key to success in school mathematics, yet students’ continual difficulties with proportion-related tasks are well documented. This paper draws on a large research study that aimed to support 4th to 9th grade teachers to design and implement tasks...

  14. CMKLR1 activation ex vivo does not increase proportionally to serum total chemerin in obese humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Toulany

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Prochemerin is the inactive precursor of the adipokine chemerin. Proteolytic processing is obligatory for the conversion of prochemerin into active chemerin and subsequent regulation of cellular processes via the chemokine-like receptor 1 (CMKLR1. Elevated plasma or serum chemerin concentrations and differential processing of prochemerin have been reported in obese humans. The impact of these changes on CMKLR1 signalling in humans is unknown. The objective of this pilot study was to develop a cellular bioassay to measure CMKLR1 activation by chemerin present in human serum and to characterise how obesity modifies serum activation of CMKLR1 under fasted and fed conditions. Blood samples were collected from control (N = 4, BMI 20–25 and obese (N = 4, BMI >30 female subjects after an overnight fast (n = 2 and at regular intervals (n = 7 following consumption of breakfast over a period of 6 h. A cellular CMKLR1-luminescent reporter assay and a pan-chemerin ELISA were used to determine CMKLR1 activation and total chemerin concentrations, respectively. Serum total chemerin concentration (averaged across all samples was higher in obese vs control subjects (17.9 ± 1.8 vs 10.9 ± 0.5 nM, P < 0.05, but serum activation of CMKLR1 was similar in both groups. The CMKLR1 activation/total chemerin ratio was lower in obese vs control subjects (0.33 ± 0.04 vs 0.58 ± 0.05, P < 0.05. After breakfast, serum total chemerin or CMKLR1 activation did not differ from baseline values. In conclusion, the unexpected observation that obese serum activation of CMKLR1 did not match increased total chemerin concentrations suggests impaired processing to and/or enhanced degradation of active chemerin in serum of obese humans.

  15. Allometry and apparent paradoxes in human limb proportions: Implications for scaling factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Benjamin M; Sylvester, Adam D

    2011-03-01

    It has been consistently demonstrated that human proximal limb elements exhibit negative allometry, while distal elements scale with positive allometry. Such scaling implies that longer limbs will have higher intralimb indices, a phenomenon not borne out by empirical analyses. This, therefore, creates a paradox within the limb allometry literature. This study shows that these apparently conflicting results are the product of two separate phenomena. First, the use of the geometric mean of limb elements produces allometry coefficients that are not independent, and that when using ordinary least squares regression must yield an average slope of one. This phenomenon argues against using the geometric mean as a size variable when examining limb allometry. While the employment of relevant dimensions independent of those under analysis to calculate the geometric mean--as suggested by Coleman (Am J Phys Anthropol 135 (2008) 404-415)--may be a partial method for resolving the problem, an empirically determined, independent and biologically relevant size variable is advocated. If stature is used instead of the geometric mean as an independent size variable, all major limb elements scale with positive allometry. Second, while limb allometry coefficients do indicate differential allometry in limb elements, and thus should lead to some intralimb index allometry, this pattern appears to be attenuated by other sources of limb element length variation. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. The physiological period length of the human circadian clock in vivo is directly proportional to period in human fibroblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Pagani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diurnal behavior in humans is governed by the period length of a circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the brain hypothalamus. Nevertheless, the cell-intrinsic mechanism of this clock is present in most cells of the body. We have shown previously that for individuals of extreme chronotype ("larks" and "owls", clock properties measured in human fibroblasts correlated with extreme diurnal behavior. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we have measured circadian period in human primary fibroblasts taken from normal individuals and, for the first time, compared it directly with physiological period measured in vivo in the same subjects. Human physiological period length was estimated via the secretion pattern of the hormone melatonin in two different groups of sighted subjects and one group of totally blind subjects, each using different methods. Fibroblast period length was measured via cyclical expression of a lentivirally delivered circadian reporter. Within each group, a positive linear correlation was observed between circadian period length in physiology and in fibroblast gene expression. Interestingly, although blind individuals showed on average the same fibroblast clock properties as sighted ones, their physiological periods were significantly longer. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that the period of human circadian behaviour is mostly driven by cellular clock properties in normal individuals and can be approximated by measurement in peripheral cells such as fibroblasts. Based upon differences among sighted and blind subjects, we also speculate that period can be modified by prolonged unusual conditions such as the total light deprivation of blindness.

  17. New evidence that a large proportion of human blood plasma cell-free DNA is localized in exosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, M Rohan; Jiang, Chao; Krzyzanowski, Gary D; Ryan, Wayne L

    2017-01-01

    Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) in blood is used as a source of genetic material for noninvasive prenatal and cancer diagnostic assays in clinical practice. Recently we have started a project for new biomarker discovery with a view to developing new noninvasive diagnostic assays. While reviewing literature, it was found that exosomes may be a rich source of biomarkers, because exosomes play an important role in human health and disease. While characterizing exosomes found in human blood plasma, we observed the presence of cfDNA in plasma exosomes. Plasma was obtained from blood drawn into K3EDTA tubes. Exosomes were isolated from cell-free plasma using a commercially available kit. Sizing and enumeration of exosomes were done using electron microscopy and NanoSight particle counter. NanoSight and confocal microscopy was used to demonstrate the association between dsDNA and exosomes. DNA extracted from plasma and exosomes was measured by a fluorometric method and a droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) method. Size of extracellular vesicles isolated from plasma was heterogeneous and showed a mean value of 92.6 nm and a mode 39.7 nm. A large proportion of extracellular vesicles isolated from plasma were identified as exosomes using a fluorescence probe specific for exosomes and three protein markers, Hsp70, CD9 and CD63, that are commonly used to identify exosome fraction. Fluorescence dye that stain dsDNA showed the association between exosomes and dsDNA. Plasma cfDNA concentration analysis showed more than 93% of amplifiable cfDNA in plasma is located in plasma exosomes. Storage of a blood sample showed significant increases in exosome count and exosome DNA concentration. This study provide evidence that a large proportion of plasma cfDNA is localized in exosomes. Exosome release from cells is a metabolic energy dependent process, thus suggesting active release of cfDNA from cells as a source of cfDNA in plasma.

  18. CB(1) blockade-induced weight loss over 48 weeks decreases liver fat in proportion to weight loss in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergholm, R; Sevastianova, K; Santos, A; Kotronen, A; Urjansson, M; Hakkarainen, A; Lundbom, J; Tiikkainen, M; Rissanen, A; Lundbom, N; Yki-Järvinen, H

    2013-05-01

    Studies in mice have suggested that endocannabinoid blockade using the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) blocker rimonabant prevents obesity-induced hepatic steatosis. To determine effects of rimonabant on liver fat in humans, we measured liver fat content by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in 37 subjects who used either a CB1 blocker rimonabant or placebo in a double-blind, randomized manner. This was retrospectively compared with a historical hypocaloric diet weight loss group (n=23). Weight loss averaged 8.5±1.4 kg in the rimonabant, 1.7±1.0 kg in the placebo and 7.5±0.2 kg in the hypocaloric diet group (Pfat decreased more in the rimonabant (5.9% (2.5-14.6%) vs 1.8% (0.9-3.5%), before vs after) than in the placebo group (6.8% (2.2-15.7%) vs 4.9% (1.6-7.8%), before vs after, Ploss of liver fat (r=0.70, P>0.0001). The decreases in liver fat were comparable between the rimonabant and the young historical hypocaloric diet groups. We conclude that, unlike in mice, in humans rimonabant decreases liver fat in proportion to weight loss.

  19. Consistently high estimates for the proportion of human exposure to malaria vector populations occurring indoors in rural Africa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huho, Bernadette; Briët, Olivier; Seyoum, Aklilu; Sikaala, Chadwick; Bayoh, Nabie; Gimnig, John; Okumu, Fredros; Diallo, Diadier; Abdulla, Salim; Smith, Thomas; Killeen, Gerry

    2013-01-01

    .... funestus group, usually prefer biting humans indoors at night. Matched surveys of mosquito and human behaviour from six rural sites in Burkina Faso, Tanzania, Zambia, and Kenya, with ITN use ranging from 0.2% to 82.5...

  20. Size and Proportions of Slow-Twitch and Fast-Twitch Muscle Fibers in Human Costal Diaphragm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Meznaric

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Smaller diaphragmatic motor unit potentials (MUPs compared to MUPs of limb muscles lead to the hypothesis that diaphragmatic muscle fibers, being the generators of MUPs, might be also smaller. We compared autopsy samples of costal diaphragm and vastus lateralis of healthy men with respect to fibers’ size and expression of slow myosin heavy chain isoform (MyHC-1 and fast 2A isoform (MyHC-2A. Diaphragmatic fibers were smaller than fibers in vastus lateralis with regard to the mean minimal fiber diameter of slow-twitch (46.8 versus 72.2 μm, p<0.001, fast-twitch (45.1 versus 62.4 μm, p<0.001, and hybrid fibers (47.3 versus 65.0 μm, p<0.01 as well as to the mean fiber cross-sectional areas of slow-twitch (2376.0 versus 5455.9 μm2, p<0.001, fast-twitch (2258.7 versus 4189.7 μm2, p<0.001, and hybrid fibers (2404.4 versus 4776.3 μm2, p<0.01. The numerical proportion of slow-twitch fibers was higher (50.2 versus 36.3%, p<0.01 in costal diaphragm and the numerical proportion of fast-twitch fibers (47.2 versus 58.7%, p<0.01 was lower. The numerical proportion of hybrid fibers did not differ. Muscle fibers of costal diaphragm have specific characteristics which support increased resistance of diaphragm to fatigue.

  1. Proportions of Streptococcus sanguis, an Organism Associated with Subacute Bacterial Endocarditis, in Human Feces and Dental Plaque

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Houte, J.; Jordan, H. V.; Bellack, S.

    1971-01-01

    The relative absence of Streptococcus sanguis in human feces, in contrast to its high concentration on teeth, supports the concept of the mouth as the likely bacterial source in cases of subacute bacterial endocarditis involving this organism. PMID:5154899

  2. In nondiabetic, human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with lipodystrophy, hepatic insulin extraction and posthepatic insulin clearance rate are decreased in proportion to insulin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Steen B; Andersen, Ove; Hansen, Birgitte R

    2005-01-01

    , human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with and without lipodystrophy. We studied 18 HIV-infected patients with lipodystrophy (LIPO) on antiretroviral therapy and 25 HIV-infected patients without lipodystrophy (controls) of whom 18 were on antiretroviral therapy and 7 were not. Posthepatic...... > .1). Our data suggest that HEXi and MCRi are decreased in proportion to the degree of insulin resistance in nondiabetic HIV-infected patients with lipodystrophy....

  3. The divine proportion

    CERN Document Server

    Huntley, H E

    1970-01-01

    Using simple mathematical formulas, most as basic as Pythagoras's theorem and requiring only a very limited knowledge of mathematics, Professor Huntley explores the fascinating relationship between geometry and aesthetics. Poetry, patterns like Pascal's triangle, philosophy, psychology, music, and dozens of simple mathematical figures are enlisted to show that the ""divine proportion"" or ""golden ratio"" is a feature of geometry and analysis which awakes answering echoes in the human psyche. When we judge a work of art aesthetically satisfying, according to his formulation, we are making it c

  4. Both PAX4 and MAFA are expressed in a substantial proportion of normal human pancreatic alpha cells and deregulated in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rémy Bonnavion

    Full Text Available Pax4 and MafA (v-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog A are two transcription factors crucial for normal functions of islet beta cells in the mouse. Intriguingly, recent studies indicate the existence of notable difference between human and rodent islet in terms of gene expression and functions. To better understand the biological role of human PAX4 and MAFA, we investigated their expression in normal and diseased human islets, using validated antibodies. PAX4 was detected in 43.0±5.0% and 39.1±4.0% of normal human alpha and beta cells respectively. We found that MAFA, detected in 88.3±6.3% insulin(+cells as in the mouse, turned out to be also expressed in 61.2±6.4% of human glucagons(+ cells with less intensity than in insulin(+ cells, whereas MAFB expression was found not only in the majority of glucagon(+ cells (67.2±7.6%, but also in 53.6±10.5% of human insulin(+ cells. Interestingly, MAFA nuclear expression in both alpha and beta cells, and the percentage of alpha cells expressing PAX4 were found altered in a substantial proportion of patients with type 2 diabetes. Both MAFA and PAX4 display, therefore, a distinct expression pattern in human islet cells, suggesting more potential plasticity of human islets as compared with rodent islets.

  5. The Proportion of Anemia Associated with Iron Deficiency in Low, Medium, and High Human Development Index Countries: A Systematic Analysis of National Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolai Petry

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency is commonly assumed to cause half of all cases of anemias, with hereditary blood disorders and infections such as hookworm and malaria being the other major causes. In countries ranked as low, medium, and high by the Human Development Index, we conducted a systematic review of nationally representative surveys that reported the prevalence of iron deficiency, iron deficiency anemia, and anemia among pre-school children and non-pregnant women of reproductive age. Using random effects meta-analyses techniques, data from 23 countries for pre-school children and non-pregnant women of reproductive age was pooled, and the proportion of anemia attributable to iron deficiency was estimated by region, inflammation exposure, anemia prevalence, and urban/rural setting. For pre-school children and non-pregnant women of reproductive age, the proportion of anemia associated with iron deficiency was 25.0% (95% CI: 18.0, 32.0 and 37.0% (95% CI: 28.0, 46.0, respectively. The proportion of anemia associated with iron deficiency was lower in countries where anemia prevalence was >40%, especially in rural populations (14% for pre-school children; 16% for non-pregnant women of reproductive age, and in countries with very high inflammation exposure (20% for pre-school children; 25% for non-pregnant women of reproductive age. Despite large heterogeneity, our analyses suggest that the proportion of anemia associated with iron deficiency is lower than the previously assumed 50% in countries with low, medium, or high Human Development Index ranking. Anemia-reduction strategies and programs should be based on an analysis of country-specific data, as iron deficiency may not always be the key determinant of anemia.

  6. The Proportion of Anemia Associated with Iron Deficiency in Low, Medium, and High Human Development Index Countries: A Systematic Analysis of National Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Nicolai; Olofin, Ibironke; Hurrell, Richard F; Boy, Erick; Wirth, James P; Moursi, Mourad; Donahue Angel, Moira; Rohner, Fabian

    2016-11-02

    Iron deficiency is commonly assumed to cause half of all cases of anemias, with hereditary blood disorders and infections such as hookworm and malaria being the other major causes. In countries ranked as low, medium, and high by the Human Development Index, we conducted a systematic review of nationally representative surveys that reported the prevalence of iron deficiency, iron deficiency anemia, and anemia among pre-school children and non-pregnant women of reproductive age. Using random effects meta-analyses techniques, data from 23 countries for pre-school children and non-pregnant women of reproductive age was pooled, and the proportion of anemia attributable to iron deficiency was estimated by region, inflammation exposure, anemia prevalence, and urban/rural setting. For pre-school children and non-pregnant women of reproductive age, the proportion of anemia associated with iron deficiency was 25.0% (95% CI: 18.0, 32.0) and 37.0% (95% CI: 28.0, 46.0), respectively. The proportion of anemia associated with iron deficiency was lower in countries where anemia prevalence was >40%, especially in rural populations (14% for pre-school children; 16% for non-pregnant women of reproductive age), and in countries with very high inflammation exposure (20% for pre-school children; 25% for non-pregnant women of reproductive age). Despite large heterogeneity, our analyses suggest that the proportion of anemia associated with iron deficiency is lower than the previously assumed 50% in countries with low, medium, or high Human Development Index ranking. Anemia-reduction strategies and programs should be based on an analysis of country-specific data, as iron deficiency may not always be the key determinant of anemia.

  7. Analysis of urinary human chorionic gonadotrophin concentrations in normal and failing pregnancies using longitudinal, Cox proportional hazards and two-stage modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, Lorrae; Zinaman, Michael; Abrams, Keith R; Crowther, Michael J; Johnson, Sarah

    2017-09-01

    Background Human chorionic gonadotrophin is a marker of early pregnancy. This study sought to determine the possibility of being able to distinguish between healthy and failing pregnancies by utilizing patient-associated risk factors and daily urinary human chorionic gonadotrophin concentrations. Methods Data were from a study that collected daily early morning urine samples from women trying to conceive (n = 1505); 250 of whom became pregnant. Data from 129 women who became pregnant (including 44 miscarriages) were included in these analyses. A longitudinal model was used to profile human chorionic gonadotrophin, a Cox proportional hazards model to assess demographic/menstrual history data on the time to failed pregnancy, and a two-stage model to combine these two models. Results The profile for log human chorionic gonadotrophin concentrations in women suffering miscarriage differs to that of viable pregnancies; rate of human chorionic gonadotrophin rise is slower in those suffering a biochemical loss (loss before six weeks, recognized by a rise and fall of human chorionic gonadotrophin) and tends to plateau at a lower log human chorionic gonadotrophin in women suffering an early miscarriage (loss six weeks or later), compared with viable pregnancies. Maternal age, longest cycle length and time from luteinizing hormone surge to human chorionic gonadotrophin reaching 25 mIU/mL were found to be significantly associated with miscarriage risk. The two-stage model found that for an increase of one day in the time from luteinizing hormone surge to human chorionic gonadotrophin reaching 25 mIU/mL, there is a 30% increase in miscarriage risk (hazard ratio: 1.30; 95% confidence interval: 1.04, 1.62). Conclusion Rise of human chorionic gonadotrophin in early pregnancy could be useful to predict pregnancy viability. Daily tracking of urinary human chorionic gonadotrophin may enable early identification of some pregnancies at risk of miscarriage.

  8. High proportion of MERS-CoV shedding dromedaries at slaughterhouse with a potential epidemiological link to human cases, Qatar 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmoubasher A. B. A. Farag

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Two of the earliest Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS cases were men who had visited the Doha central animal market and adjoining slaughterhouse in Qatar. We show that a high proportion of camels presenting for slaughter in Qatar show evidence for nasal MERS-CoV shedding (62/105. Sequence analysis showed the circulation of at least five different virus strains at these premises, suggesting that this location is a driver of MERS-CoV circulation and a high-risk area for human exposure. No correlation between RNA loads and levels of neutralizing antibodies was observed, suggesting limited immune protection and potential for reinfection despite previous exposure.

  9. Movement Performance of Human-Robot Cooperation Control Based on EMG-Driven Hill-Type and Proportional Models for an Ankle Power-Assist Exoskeleton Robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Di; Song, Rong; Gao, JinWu

    2017-08-01

    Although the merits of electromyography (EMG)-based control of powered assistive systems have been certified, the factors that affect the performance of EMG-based human-robot cooperation, which are very important, have received little attention. This study investigates whether a more physiologically appropriate model could improve the performance of human-robot cooperation control for an ankle power-assist exoskeleton robot. To achieve the goal, an EMG-driven Hill-type neuromusculoskeletal model (HNM) and a linear proportional model (LPM) were developed and calibrated through maximum isometric voluntary dorsiflexion (MIVD). The two control models could estimate the real-time ankle joint torque, and HNM is more accurate and can account for the change of the joint angle and muscle dynamics. Then, eight healthy volunteers were recruited to wear the ankle exoskeleton robot and complete a series of sinusoidal tracking tasks in the vertical plane. With the various levels of assist based on the two calibrated models, the subjects were instructed to track the target displayed on the screen as accurately as possible by performing ankle dorsiflexion and plantarflexion. Two measurements, the root mean square error (RMSE) and root mean square jerk (RMSJ), were derived from the assistant torque and kinematic signals to characterize the movement performances, whereas the amplitudes of the recorded EMG signals from the tibialis anterior (TA) and the gastrocnemius (GAS) were obtained to reflect the muscular efforts. The results demonstrated that the muscular effort and smoothness of tracking movements decreased with an increase in the assistant ratio. Compared with LPM, subjects made lower physical efforts and generated smoother movements when using HNM, which implied that a more physiologically appropriate model could enable more natural and human-like human-robot cooperation and has potential value for improvement of human-exoskeleton interaction in future applications.

  10. Proportion of collagen type II in the extracellular matrix promotes the differentiation of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells into nucleus pulposus cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yiqing; Zhou, Xiaopeng; Liu, Dongyu; Li, Hao; Liang, Chengzhen; Li, Fangcai; Chen, Qixin

    2016-01-01

    During degeneration process, the catabolism of collagen type II and anabolism of collagen type I in nucleus pulposus (NP) may influence the bioactivity of transplanted cells. Human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hADMSCs) were cultured as a micromass or in a series of gradual proportion hydrogels of a mix of collagen types I and II. Cell proliferation and cytotoxicity were detected using CCK-8 and LDH assays respectively. The expression of differentiation-related genes and proteins, including SOX9, aggrecan, collagen type I, and collagen type II, was examined using RT-qPCR and Western blotting. Novel phenotypic genes were also detected by RT-qPCR and western blotting. Alcian blue and dimethylmethylene blue assays were used to investigate sulfate proteoglycan expression, and PI3K/AKT, MAPK/ERK, and Smad signaling pathways were examined by Western blotting. The results showed collagen hydrogels have good biocompatibility, and cell proliferation increased after collagen type II treatment. Expressions of SOX9, aggrecan, and collagen type II were increased in a collagen type II dependent manner. Sulfate proteoglycan synthesis increased in proportion to collagen type II concentration. Only hADMSCs highly expressed NP cell marker KRT19 in collagen type II culture. Additionally, phosphorylated Smad3, which is associated with phosphorylated ERK, was increased after collagen type II-stimulation. The concentration and type of collagen affect hADMSC differentiation into NP cells. Collagen type II significantly ameliorates hADMSC differentiation into NP cells and promotes extracellular matrix synthesis. Therefore, anabolism of collagen type I and catabolism of type II may attenuate the differentiation and biosynthesis of transplanted stem cells. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  11. Ionizing Radiation and Human Gender Proportion at Birth: A Concise Review of the Literature and A Complementary Analysis of Historical and Recent Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eslami J.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Dear Editor, This letter considers an article by Scherb et al. entitled “Ionizing radiation and the human gender proportion at birth: A concise review of the literature and a complementary analysis of historical and recent data” published in Early Human Development (DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2015.10.012 [1]. The authors of this challenging paper have reviewed the literature regarding the effect of exposure to ionizing radiation on gender ratio at birth. Scherb et al. have stated that above-thebackground levels of ionizing radiation may alter the gender ratio at birth: “We are of the strong opinion that gradually increasing the level of background radiation poses an increased genetic risk to humans and creature and that more research should be initiated in this respect. This has implications for the nuclear power industry, and emphasizes the importance of finding safe methods for processing and storing nuclear waste”. They also claimed that the data they presented confirm the existence of an impact of ionizing radiation on human secondary sex. This paper bears a very basic shortcoming. We know that at present, the level of natural background radiation varies on Earth at least two orders of magnitude [2]. Mortazavi et al. have previously published reports on the health effects of exposure to elevated levels of natural ionizing radiation in HBNRAs of Ramsar [2-6]. While radiation level in Ramsar is up to 260 mSv y−1 (the highest background radiation levels known among inhabited areas, up to 13 times higher than the recommended dose limit for radiation workers in Iran that is 20 mSv y−1, people living in high background radiation areas of Ramsar show no observable detrimental effect. It is worth mentioning that if a radiation dose of a few hundred mSv per year has adverse health effects and causes genetic abnormalities or an increased risk of cancer, it should be evident to the residents of these hot areas [6]. Moreover

  12. Multiwire proportional chamber development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolittle, R. F.; Pollvogt, U.; Eskovitz, A. J.

    1973-01-01

    The development of large area multiwire proportional chambers, to be used as high resolution spatial detectors in cosmic ray experiments is described. A readout system was developed which uses a directly coupled, lumped element delay-line whose characteristics are independent of the MWPC design. A complete analysis of the delay-line and the readout electronic system shows that a spatial resolution of about 0.1 mm can be reached with the MWPC operating in the strictly proportional region. This was confirmed by measurements with a small MWPC and Fe-55 X-rays. A simplified analysis was carried out to estimate the theoretical limit of spatial resolution due to delta-rays, spread of the discharge along the anode wire, and inclined trajectories. To calculate the gas gain of MWPC's of different geometrical configurations a method was developed which is based on the knowledge of the first Townsend coefficient of the chamber gas.

  13. The Principle of Proportionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Morten; Meisner Nielsen, Kasper

    2005-01-01

    by analyzing the use of instruments to separate ownership from control across legal regimes in a sample of over 4,000 publicly traded firms from 14 Western European countries. First, we confirm the negative impact on firm value from disproportional ownership structures previously established in a sample......Recent policy initiatives within the harmonization of European company laws have promoted a so-called "principle of proportionality" through proposals that regulate mechanisms opposing a proportional distribution of ownership and control. We scrutinize the foundation for these initiatives...... of Asian firms by Claessens et al. (2002). Second, we show that dual class shares have a larger and more significant negative effect on firm value than pyramids and cross holdings. Third, we find that the impact of disproportionality and the underlying instruments is inversely related to the level...

  14. Restrictions and Proportionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2009-01-01

    against host country restrictions, but which is often not recognised to the same extent by national law, and 3) the importance of also identifying and recognising an exit restriction, so that it is possible to achieve the required test of appropriateness and proportionality in relation to the rule......The article discusses three central aspects of the freedoms under European Community law, namely 1) the prohibition against restrictions as an important extension of the prohibition against discrimination, 2) a prohibition against exit restrictions which is just as important as the prohibition...

  15. Metacarpal proportions in Australopithecus africanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, David J; Gordon, Adam D

    2008-05-01

    Recent work has shown that, despite being craniodentally more derived, Australopithecus africanus had more apelike limb-size proportions than A. afarensis. Here, we test whether the A. africanus hand, as judged by metacarpal shaft and articular proportions, was similarly apelike. More specifically, did A. africanus have a short and narrow first metacarpal (MC1) relative to the other metacarpals? Proportions of both MC breadth and length were considered: the geometric mean (GM) of articular and midshaft measurements of MC1 breadth was compared to those of MC2-4, and MC1 length was compared to MC3 length individually and also to the GM of MC2 and 3 lengths. To compare the extant hominoid sample with an incomplete A. africanus fossil record (11 attributed metacarpals), a resampling procedure imposed sampling constraints on the comparative groups that produced composite intrahand ratios. Resampled ratios in the extant sample are not significantly different from actual ratios based on associated elements, demonstrating the methodological appropriateness of this technique. Australopithecus africanus metacarpals do not differ significantly from the great apes in the comparison of breadth ratios but are significantly greater than chimpanzees and orangutans in both measures of relative length. Conversely, A. africanus has a significantly smaller breadth ratio than modern humans, but does not significantly differ from this group in either measure of relative length. We conclude that the first metacarpals of A. africanus are more apelike in relative breadth while also being more humanlike in relative length, a finding consistent with previous work on A. afarensis hand proportions. This configuration would have likely promoted a high degree of manipulative dexterity, but the relatively slender, apelike first metacarpal suggests that A. africanus did not place the same mechanical demands on the thumb as more recent, stone-tool-producing hominins.

  16. Visual Manipulatives for Proportional Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Joyce L.; Schwartz, Daniel L.

    The use of a visual representation in learning about proportional relations was studied, examining students' understandings of the invariance of a multiplicative relation on both sides of a proportion equation and the invariance of the structural relations that exist in different semantic types of proportion problems. Subjects were 49 high-ability…

  17. In nondiabetic, human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with lipodystrophy, hepatic insulin extraction and posthepatic insulin clearance rate are decreased in proportion to insulin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Steen B; Andersen, Ove; Hansen, Birgitte R

    2005-01-01

    In healthy, nondiabetic individuals with insulin resistance, fasting insulin is inversely correlated to the posthepatic insulin clearance rate (MCRi) and the hepatic insulin extraction (HEXi). We investigated whether similar early mechanisms to facilitate glucose homeostasis exist in nondiabetic......, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with and without lipodystrophy. We studied 18 HIV-infected patients with lipodystrophy (LIPO) on antiretroviral therapy and 25 HIV-infected patients without lipodystrophy (controls) of whom 18 were on antiretroviral therapy and 7 were not. Posthepatic...... insulin (130%, P .8). In LIPO, HEXi and MCRi correlated inversely with fasting insulin (r = -0.56, P

  18. Introduction: Two Kinds of Proportion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A Cohen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject of architectural proportional systems in the history of architecture, the topic of this special collection of essays in 'Architectural Histories', has long been characterized by a fundamental ambiguity: the word and concept of proportion simultaneously signify two unrelated and in some ways opposite meanings. Proportion can refer to ratios, or it can refer to architectural beauty. In this introduction to the papers that follow, Matthew A. Cohen proposes a simple clarification of this ambiguity as a framework for continued discussion of this subject: that whenever scholars use the word proportion, they specify whether they intend ‘proportion-as-ratio’ or ‘proportion-as-beauty’. The frequent blending of these meanings today, Cohen argues, is a survival of attitudes toward proportional systems in architecture that were prevalent as long ago as the early Renaissance. Cohen proposes an alternative to Rudolf Wittkower's paradigmatic ‘break-away’ theory of the history of proportional systems, according to which virtually everyone accepted proportional systems as sources of universal beauty in architecture until the mid-eighteenth century, and after that time virtually everyone believed that beauty and proportional systems were matters of individual preference. Rather than a long period respectful of tradition followed by a long period skeptical of it, Cohen argues, based in part on a new interpretation of Claude Perrault’s 1683 codification of the notion of positive beauty, that architects and others have always had access to two parallel strands of thought pertaining to proportional systems: a skeptical-pragmatic strand and a respectful-metaphysical strand. This new historical and historiographical interpretation of the problem of architectural proportional systems, and the new vocabulary with which to discuss it critically presented herein, helps to separate aesthetic from historical considerations.

  19. Proportioning of light weight concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmus, Lars

    1996-01-01

    Development of a method to determine the proportions of the raw materials in light weight concrete made with leight expanded clay aggregate. The method is based on composite theory......Development of a method to determine the proportions of the raw materials in light weight concrete made with leight expanded clay aggregate. The method is based on composite theory...

  20. The proportion and trend of human immunodeficiency virus infections associated with men who have sex with men from Chinese voluntary blood donors: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jinxin; Xu, Junjie; Reilly, Kathleen Heather; Li, Yongze; Zhang, Christiana Meng; Jiang, Yongjun; Geng, Wenqing; Wang, Lunan; Shang, Hong

    2015-03-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive cases associated with men who have sex with men (MSM) have rapidly increased over the past years. The objective of this study is to comprehensively evaluate the proportions, changing trends, and geographical distribution of MSM-associated HIV cases from Chinese voluntary blood donors by systematically reviewing the available literature. Major English and Chinese research databases were searched for studies reporting study locations, study years, the number of HIV infections among blood donors, and the number of HIV-positive donations associated with MSM in China. The proportion estimates were calculated; subgroup analyses and test for time trend were performed using software of comprehensive meta-analysis. Thirty-four studies met eligibility criteria. The pooled proportion of HIV-positive donations associated with MSM from 2001 to 2012 was 36.5% (95% confidence interval, 29.6%-44.1%). The epidemic was found to be more severe in northeast and north China compared to south China (59.6%; 55.0% vs. 3.8%, respectively). The proportion showed a significantly increasing trend over the study period (10.3% in 2001-2005; 38.6% in 2006-2009; and 47.6% in 2010-2012; trend test chi-square = 16.42, p public education and improving knowledge of blood safety are needed to prevent this at-risk population from seeking HIV testing through blood donation. It is also imperative to expand the scope of postdonation nucleic acid testing to shorten the window period to improve blood supply safety in China. © 2014 AABB.

  1. Variabilidad de las proporciones molares en poblaciones humanas: un abordaje empleando modelos del desarrollo y experimentales / Variability of molar proportions in human populations: insights from developmental models and experiments in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas A. D´Addona

    2016-03-01

    experimental studies have not yet been integrated in the context of biological anthropology. In this sense, this paper proposes: a to evaluate the consistency between changes in molar proportions in human populations that exhibit a wide variation in tooth size and the predictions derived from an inhibitory cascade model of dental development, and b to analyze the effect of the systemic factors controlling the growth of the organism on the lower molars proportions using strains of Mus musculus. The crown area of the mandibular molars was estimated from the bucco-lingual and mesio-distal diameters. The results obtained for human populations showed that the pattern of variation in molar proportions is consistent with expectations derived from the inhibitory cascade model and that most groups exhibit a general trend towards molar size reduction in the antero-posterior direction. Also, a significant positive association between the total molar area and the molar ratios M2/M1 and M3/M1 was observed. In the experimental models, growth alteration caused by systemic factors (protein subnutrition and reduced growth hormone resulted in a reduction of total molar area associated with changes in molar proportions. The latter are consistent with an increased antero-posterior inhibition. Overall, these results suggest that alterations in the systemic factors that control molar area can produce changes in the proportion of activators and inhibitors, and contribute in turn to inter-population differentiation in molar proportions. Keywords: Inhibitory cascade model; dental size; experimental and comparative approach

  2. The egg-sharing model for human therapeutic cloning research: managing donor selection criteria, the proportion of shared oocytes allocated to research, and amount of financial subsidy given to the donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Boon Chin; Tong, Guo Qing; Stojkovic, Miodrag

    2006-01-01

    Recent advances in human therapeutic cloning made by Hwang and colleagues have opened up new avenues of therapy for various human diseases. However, the major bottleneck of this new technology is the severe shortage of human donor oocytes. Egg-sharing in return for subsidized fertility treatment has been suggested as an ethically justifiable and practical solution to overcome the shortage of donor oocytes for therapeutic cloning. Because the utilization of shared oocytes in therapeutic cloning research does not result in any therapeutic benefit to a second party, this would necessitate a different management strategy compared to their use for the assisted conception of infertile women who are unable to produce any oocytes of their own. It is proposed that the pool of prospective egg-sharers in therapeutic cloning research be limited only to younger women (below 30 years of age) with indications for either male partner sub-fertility or tubal blockage. With regards to the proportion of the shared gametes being allocated to research, a threshold number of retrieved oocytes should be set that if not exceeded, would result in the patient being automatically removed from the egg-sharing scheme. Any excess supernumerary oocyte above this threshold number can be contributed to science, and allocation should be done in a randomized manner. Perhaps, a total of 10 retrieved oocytes from the patient may be considered a suitable threshold, since the chances of conception are unlikely to be impaired. With regards to the amount of subsidy being given to the patient, it is suggested that the proportion of financial subsidy should be equal to the proportion of the patient's oocytes being allocated to research. No doubt, the promise of future therapeutic benefit may be offered to the patient instead of financial subsidy. However, this is ethically controversial because therapeutic cloning has not yet been demonstrated to be a viable model of clinical therapy and any promises made to

  3. Testing Departure from Hardy-Weinberg Proportions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Shete, Sanjay

    2017-01-01

    The Hardy-Weinberg principle, one of the most important principles in population genetics, was originally developed for the study of allele frequency changes in a population over generations. It is now, however, widely used in studies of human diseases to detect inbreeding, population stratification, and genotyping errors. For assessment of deviation from Hardy-Weinberg proportions in data, the most popular approaches include the asymptotic Pearson's chi-squared goodness-of-fit test and the exact test. Pearson's chi-squared goodness-of-fit test is simple and straightforward, but is very sensitive to a small sample size or rare allele frequency. The exact test of Hardy-Weinberg proportions is preferable in these situations. The exact test can be performed through complete enumeration of heterozygote genotypes or on the basis of the Markov chain Monte Carlo procedure. In this chapter, we describe the Hardy-Weinberg principle and the commonly used Hardy-Weinberg proportion tests and their applications, and we demonstrate how the chi-squared test and exact test of Hardy-Weinberg proportions can be performed step-by-step using the popular software programs SAS, R, and PLINK, which have been widely used in genetic association studies, along with numerical examples. We also discuss approaches for testing Hardy-Weinberg proportions in case-control study designs that are better than traditional approaches for testing Hardy-Weinberg proportions in controls only. Finally, we note that deviation from the Hardy-Weinberg proportions in affected individuals can provide evidence for an association between genetic variants and diseases.

  4. Development of multiwire proportional chambers

    CERN Multimedia

    Charpak, G

    1969-01-01

    It has happened quite often in the history of science that theoreticians, confronted with some major difficulty, have successfully gone back thirty years to look at ideas that had then been thrown overboard. But it is rare that experimentalists go back thirty years to look again at equipment which had become out-dated. This is what Charpak and his colleagues did to emerge with the 'multiwire proportional chamber' which has several new features making it a very useful addition to the armoury of particle detectors. In the 1930s, ion-chambers, Geiger- Muller counters and proportional counters, were vital pieces of equipment in nuclear physics research. Other types of detectors have since largely replaced them but now the proportional counter, in new array, is making a comeback.

  5. Dietary indicaxanthin from cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica L. Mill) fruit prevents eryptosis induced by oxysterols in a hypercholesterolaemia-relevant proportion and adhesion of human erythrocytes to endothelial cell layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesoriere, Luisa; Attanzio, Alessandro; Allegra, Mario; Livrea, Maria A

    2015-08-14

    Toxic oxysterols in a hypercholesterolaemia-relevant proportion cause suicidal death of human erythrocytes or eryptosis. This process proceeds through early production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), release of prostaglandin (PGE2) and opening of PGE2-dependent Ca channels, membrane phosphatidylserine (PS) externalisation, and cell shrinkage. The present study was the first to reveal that a bioavailable phytochemical, indicaxanthin (Ind) from cactus pear fruit, in a concentration range (1.0-5.0 μM) consistent with its plasma level after a fruit meal, prevents PS externalisation and cell shrinkage in a dose-dependent manner when incubated with isolated healthy human erythrocytes exposed to an oxysterol mixture for 48 h. Dietary Ind inhibited ROS production, glutathione (GSH) depletion, PGE2 release and Ca2+ entry. Ind alone did not modify the erythrocyte redox environment or affect other parameters. Ex vivo spiking of normal human blood with the oxysterol mixture for 48 h induced eryptosis, resulting in the production of ROS and decreased levels of GSH, which was prevented by concurrent exposure to 5 μm-Ind. The adherence of eryptotic erythrocytes to the endothelium causes vascular tissue injury. Erythrocytes isolated from blood incubated with the oxysterol mixture plus 5 μm-Ind did not adhere to endothelial cell monolayers. Eryptotic erythrocytes may contribute to thrombotic complications in hypercholesterolaemia. Our findings suggest the positive effects of diets containing Ind on erythrocytes in hypercholesterolaemic subjects.

  6. The proportion of CD40+ mucosal macrophages is increased in inflammatory bowel disease whereas CD40 ligand (CD154)+ T cells are relatively decreased, suggesting differential modulation of these costimulatory molecules in human gut lamina propria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Hege S; Yamanaka, Takeshi; Scott, Helge; Rugtveit, Jarle; Brandtzaeg, Per

    2006-11-01

    Signal transduction through binding of CD40 on antigen-presenting cells and CD40 ligand (CD154) on T cells appears to be crucial for mutual cellular activation. Antibodies aimed at blocking the CD40-CD154 costimulatory pathway dampen the severity of experimental colitis. To elucidate the microanatomical basis for signaling through this costimulatory pathway in human inflammatory bowel disease, we studied in situ the cellular distribution of these 2 molecules on lamina propria macrophages and T cells, respectively. Colonic specimens from 8 patients with ulcerative colitis and 8 with Crohn's disease, 8 small bowel specimens of Crohn's disease, and histologically normal control samples (6 from colon and 6 from small bowel) were included. Multicolor immunofluorescence in situ staining was performed to determine the percentage of subepithelial macrophages expressing CD40 and that of lamina propria T cells expressing CD154 while avoiding cells in lymphoid aggregates. The proportion of subepithelial CD40CD68 macrophages was significantly increased in normal colon compared with normal small bowel and showed further elevation in both colon and small bowel afflicted with inflammatory bowel disease. In addition, on a per-CD68-cell basis, CD40 expression was significantly increased in severely inflamed compared with moderately inflamed colonic specimens. Conversely, the proportion of CD154 T cells was similar in colon and small bowel, and interestingly, it was significantly reduced in colonic inflammatory bowel disease. Our findings suggested that modulation of CD40 expression by subepithelial macrophages and CD154 by lamina propria T cells is inversely modulated in the human gut.

  7. Constant Proportion Debt Obligations (CPDOs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cont, Rama; Jessen, Cathrine

    2012-01-01

    Constant Proportion Debt Obligations (CPDOs) are structured credit derivatives that generate high coupon payments by dynamically leveraging a position in an underlying portfolio of investment-grade index default swaps. CPDO coupons and principal notes received high initial credit ratings from...

  8. Disease proportions attributable to environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineis Paolo

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Population disease proportions attributable to various causal agents are popular as they present a simplified view of the contribution of each agent to the disease load. However they are only summary figures that may be easily misinterpreted or over-interpreted even when the causal link between an exposure and an effect is well established. This commentary discusses several issues surrounding the estimation of attributable proportions, particularly with reference to environmental causes of cancers, and critically examines two recently published papers. These issues encompass potential biases as well as the very definition of environment and of environmental agent. The latter aspect is not just a semantic question but carries implications for the focus of preventive actions, whether centred on the material and social environment or on single individuals.

  9. Disease proportions attributable to environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracci, Rodolfo; Vineis, Paolo

    2007-11-28

    Population disease proportions attributable to various causal agents are popular as they present a simplified view of the contribution of each agent to the disease load. However they are only summary figures that may be easily misinterpreted or over-interpreted even when the causal link between an exposure and an effect is well established. This commentary discusses several issues surrounding the estimation of attributable proportions, particularly with reference to environmental causes of cancers, and critically examines two recently published papers. These issues encompass potential biases as well as the very definition of environment and of environmental agent. The latter aspect is not just a semantic question but carries implications for the focus of preventive actions, whether centred on the material and social environment or on single individuals.

  10. Photodetectors for scintillator proportionality measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moses, William W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (United States)], E-mail: wwmoses@lbl.gov; Choong, Woon-Seng [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (United States); Hull, Giulia; Payne, Steve; Cherepy, Nerine; Valentine, John D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (United States)

    2009-10-21

    We evaluate photodetectors for use in a Compton Coincidence apparatus designed for measuring scintillator proportionality. There are many requirements placed on the photodetector in these systems, including active area, linearity, and the ability to accurately measure low light levels (which implies high quantum efficiency and high signal-to-noise ratio). Through a combination of measurement and Monte Carlo simulation, we evaluate a number of potential photodetectors, especially photomultiplier tubes and hybrid photodetectors. Of these, we find that the most promising devices available are photomultiplier tubes with high ({approx}50%) quantum efficiency, although hybrid photodetectors with high quantum efficiency would be preferable.

  11. Challenging the principle of proportionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Anna-Karin Margareta

    2016-04-01

    The first objective of this article is to examine one aspect of the principle of proportionality (PP) as advanced by Alan Gewirth in his 1978 bookReason and Morality Gewirth claims that being capable of exercising agency to some minimal degree is a property that justifies having at least prima facie rights not to get killed. However, according to the PP, before the being possesses the capacity for exercising agency to that minimal degree, the extent of her rights depends on to what extent she approaches possession of agential capacities. One interpretation of PP holds that variations in degree of possession of the physical constitution necessary to exercise agency are morally relevant. The other interpretation holds that only variations in degree of actual mental capacity are morally relevant. The first of these interpretations is vastly more problematic than the other. The second objective is to argue that according to the most plausible interpretation of the PP, the fetus' level of development before at least the 20th week of pregnancy does not affect the fetus' moral rights status. I then suggest that my argument is not restricted to such fetuses, although extending my argument to more developed fetuses requires caution. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. Global Volcano Proportional Economic Loss Risk Deciles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Volcano Proportional Economic Loss Risk Deciles is a 2.5 minute grid of volcano hazard economic loss as proportions of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per...

  13. Global Drought Proportional Economic Loss Risk Deciles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Drought Proportional Economic Loss Risk Deciles is a 2.5 minute grid of drought hazard economic loss as proportions of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per...

  14. Global Multihazard Proportional Economic Loss Risk Deciles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Multihazard Proportional Economic Loss Risks is a 2.5 minute grid of a multihazard-based economic loss risk as a proportion of the economic productivity of...

  15. Global Landslide Proportional Economic Loss Risk Deciles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Landslide Proportional Economic Loss Risk Deciles is a 2.5 minute grid of landslide hazard economic loss as proportions of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per...

  16. Global Flood Proportional Economic Loss Risk Deciles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Flood Proportional Economic Loss Risk Deciles is a 2.5 minute grid of flood hazard economic loss as proportions of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per analytical...

  17. Global Earthquake Proportional Economic Loss Risk Deciles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Earthquake Proportional Economic Loss Risk Deciles is a 2.5 minute grid of earthquake hazard economic loss as proportions of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per...

  18. Global Cyclone Proportional Economic Loss Risk Deciles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Cyclone Proportional Economic Loss Risk Deciles is a 2.5 minute grid of cyclone hazard economic loss as proportions of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per...

  19. Global Cyclone Proportional Economic Loss Risk Deciles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Cyclone Proportional Economic Loss Risk Deciles is a 2.5 by 2.5 minute grid of cyclone hazard economic loss as proportions of gross domestic product (GDP) per...

  20. Limb-size proportions in Australopithecus afarensis and Australopithecus africanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, David J; Gordon, Adam D; Richmond, Brian G

    2007-02-01

    Previous analyses have suggested that Australopithecus africanus possessed more apelike limb proportions than Australopithecus afarensis. However, due to the errors involved in estimating limb length and body size, support for this conclusion has been limited. In this study, we use a new Monte Carlo method to (1) test the hypothesis that A. africanus had greater upper:lower limb-size proportions than A. afarensis and (2) assess the statistical significance of interspecific differences among these taxa, extant apes, and humans. Our Monte Carlo method imposes sampling constraints that reduce extant ape and human postcranial measurements to sample sizes comparable to the fossil samples. Next, composite ratios of fore- and hindlimb geometric means are calculated for resampled measurements from the fossils and comparative taxa. Mean composite ratios are statistically indistinguishable (alpha=0.05) from the actual ratios of extant individuals, indicating that this method conserves each sample's central tendency. When applied to the fossil samples, upper:lower limb-size proportions in A. afarensis are similar to those of humans (p=0.878) and are significantly different from all great ape proportions (pAustralopithecus africanus is more similar to the apes (p> or =0.180) and significantly different from humans and A. afarensis (pafricanus possessed more apelike limb-size proportions than A. afarensis, suggesting that A. africanus either evolved from a more postcranially primitive ancestor than A. afarensis or that the more apelike limb-size proportions of A. africanus were secondarily derived from an A. afarensis-like ancestor. Among the extant taxa, limb-size proportions correspond with observed levels of forelimb- and hindlimb-dominated positional behaviors. In conjunction with detailed anatomical features linked to arboreality, these results suggest that arboreal posture and locomotion may have been more important components of the A. africanus behavioral repertoire

  1. Presence or absence of carbohydrates and the proportion of fat in a high-protein diet affect appetite suppression but not energy expenditure in normal-weight human subjects fed in energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhorst, Margriet A B; Westerterp, Klaas R; van Vught, Anneke J A H; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2010-11-01

    Two types of relatively high-protein diets, with a normal or low proportion of carbohydrates, have been shown effective for weight loss. The objective was to assess the significance of the presence or absence of carbohydrates and the proportion of fat in high-protein diets for affecting appetite suppression, energy expenditure, and fat oxidation in normal-weight subjects in energy balance. Subjects (aged 23 (sd 3) years and BMI 22·0 (sd 1·9) kg/m2) were stratified in two groups. Each was offered two diets in a randomised cross-over design: group 1 (n 22) - normal protein (NP; 10, 60 and 30 % energy (En%) from protein, carbohydrate and fat), high protein (HP; 30, 40 and 30 En%); group 2 (n 23) - normal protein (NP-g; 10, 60 and 30 En%), high protein, carbohydrate-free (HP-0C; 30, 0 and 70 En%) for 2 d; NP-g and HP-0C were preceded by glycogen-lowering exercise (day 1). Appetite was measured throughout day 2 using visual analogue scales (VAS). Energy expenditure (EE) and substrate oxidation (respiratory quotient; RQ) were measured in a respiration chamber (08.00 hours on day 2 until 07.30 hours on day 3). Fasting plasma β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentration was measured (day 3). NP-g and NP did not differ in hunger, EE, RQ and BHB. HP-0C and HP v. NP-g and NP, respectively, were lower in hunger (P carbohydrates exchanged for fat. Energy expenditure was not affected by the carbohydrate content of a high-protein diet.

  2. Relating arithmetical techniques of proportion to geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wijayanti, Dyana

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how textbooks introduce and treat the theme of proportion in geometry (similarity) and arithmetic (ratio and proportion), and how these themes are linked to each other in the books. To pursue this aim, we use the anthropological theory of the didactic...

  3. Declining trends of male proportion at birth in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martuzzi, M; Di Tanno, N D; Bertollini, R

    2001-01-01

    Declining trends in male proportion at birth observed in several Western countries might reflect widespread exposure to pollutants capable of interfering with human reproduction. In this study, the authors describe male live birth proportion trends in 23 European countries from 1950 to 1996 (total of 305 million live births). Overall, there was a significant linearly decreasing trend of 10 fewer males per 100,000 births each year, resulting in a loss of 73,462 boys during a 47-yr period. The proportion of male births during the first 3 yr of the study period was higher than in the last 3 yr in 18 countries (i.e., 78%). Decreasing trends, which varied in slope and shape, were observed in 11 countries; no significant trend was found in 8 countries, and male birth proportion increased in 4 countries. The results of this study confirmed that the proportion of male births is declining in Europe, and differences exist by region and country. Social and cultural aggregations of countries with decreasing trends suggest that sociodemographic characteristics might be more likely to explain trends than environmental exposures to chemicals. Investigators should evaluate this hypothesis to assess the usefulness of male birth proportion as a sentinel event.

  4. Exact Tests for Hardy-Weinberg Proportions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Engels, William R

    2009-01-01

    Exact conditional tests are often required to evaluate statistically whether a sample of diploids comes from a population with Hardy-Weinberg proportions or to confirm the accuracy of genotype assignments...

  5. Adaptive bayesian analysis for binomial proportions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Das, Sonali

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available decision procedure to conduct statistical inference. The authors use the -divergence measure to quantify the perturbation of the posterior distribution of the proportion in different time points. They present a simulation study to compare the statistical...

  6. Proportion congruency effects: Instructions may be enough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga eEntel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Learning takes time, namely, one needs to be exposed to contingency relations between stimulus dimensions in order to learn, whereas intentional control can be recruited through task demands. Therefore showing that control can be recruited as a function of experimental instructions alone, that is, adapting the processing according to the instructions before the exposure to the task, can be taken as evidence for existence of control recruitment in the absence of learning. This was done by manipulating the information given at the outset of the experiment. In the first experiment, we manipulated list-level congruency proportion. Half of the participants were informed that most of the stimuli would be congruent, whereas the other half were informed that most of the stimuli would be incongruent. This held true for the stimuli in the second part of each experiment. In the first part, however, the proportion of the two stimulus types was equal. A proportion congruent effect was found in both parts of the experiment, but it was larger in the second part. In our second experiment, we manipulated the proportion of the stimuli within participants by applying an item-specific design. This was done by presenting some color words most often in their congruent color, and other color words in incongruent colors. Participants were informed about the exact word-color pairings in advance. Similar to Experiment 1, this held true only for the second experimental part. In contrast to our first experiment, informing participants in advance did not result in an item-specific proportion effect, which was observed only in the second part. Thus our results support the hypothesis that instructions may be enough to trigger list-level control, yet learning does contribute to the proportion congruent effect under such conditions. The item-level proportion effect is apparently caused by learning or at least it is moderated by it.

  7. Progress in studying scintillator proportionality: Phenomenological model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bizarri, Gregory; Cherepy, Nerine; Choong, Woon-Seng; Hull, Giulia; Moses, William; Payne, Sephen; Singh, Jai; Valentine, John; Vasilev, Andrey; Williams, Richard

    2009-04-30

    We present a model to describe the origin of non-proportional dependence of scintillator light yield on the energy of an ionizing particle. The non-proportionality is discussed in terms of energy relaxation channels and their linear and non-linear dependences on the deposited energy. In this approach, the scintillation response is described as a function of the deposited energy deposition and the kinetic rates of each relaxation channel. This mathematical framework allows both a qualitative interpretation and a quantitative fitting representation of scintillation non-proportionality response as function of kinetic rates. This method was successfully applied to thallium doped sodium iodide measured with SLYNCI, a new facility using the Compton coincidence technique. Finally, attention is given to the physical meaning of the dominant relaxation channels, and to the potential causes responsible for the scintillation non-proportionality. We find that thallium doped sodium iodide behaves as if non-proportionality is due to competition between radiative recombinations and non-radiative Auger processes.

  8. Proportional loss functions for debris flow events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Rheinberger

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative risk assessments of debris flows and other hydrogeological hazards require the analyst to predict damage potentials. A common way to do so is by use of proportional loss functions. In this paper, we analyze a uniquely rich dataset of 132 buildings that were damaged in one of five large debris flow events in Switzerland. Using the double generalized linear model, we estimate proportional loss functions that may be used for various prediction purposes including hazard mapping, landscape planning, and insurance pricing. Unlike earlier analyses, we control for confounding effects of building characteristics, site specifics, and process intensities as well as for overdispersion in the data. Our results suggest that process intensity parameters are the most meaningful predictors of proportional loss sizes. Cross-validation tests suggest that the mean absolute prediction errors of our models are in the range of 11%, underpinning the accurateness of the approach.

  9. Lily Pad Doubling: Proportional Reasoning Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robichaux-Davis, Rebecca R.

    2017-01-01

    Progressing from additive to multiplicative thinking is critical for the development of middle school students' proportional reasoning abilities. Yet, many middle school mathematics teachers lack a thorough understanding of additive versus multiplicative situations. This article describes a sequence of instructional activities used to develop the…

  10. Using Artwork to Explore Proportional Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Sarah B.; Karp, Karen S.; Nadler, Jennifer; Gibbons, Katie

    2016-01-01

    Having an answer to "When are we ever going to use this in real life?" is important to middle school mathematics teachers. The activity described in this article awakened sixth graders' understanding of how artists use mathematics. By exploring ratio and proportionality in different paintings, students realized the use of proportional…

  11. Author: IM Rautenbach PROPORTIONALITY AND THE LIMITATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10332324

    , and they refer to other ... basis of all different constitutional languages and cultures".3 Cohen-Eliya and Porat describe proportionality as ... with reference to its German origin6 and its application in Western Europe, on the one hand, and the ...

  12. Large-Scale Analysis of Art Proportions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karl Kristoffer

    2014-01-01

    While literature often tries to impute mathematical constants into art, this large-scale study (11 databases of paintings and photos, around 200.000 items) shows a different truth. The analysis, consisting of the width/height proportions, shows a value of rarely if ever one (square...

  13. Enhanced Cluster Computing Performance Through Proportional Fairness

    OpenAIRE

    Bonald, Thomas; Roberts, James

    2014-01-01

    International audience; The performance of cluster computing depends on how concurrent jobs share multiple data center resource types like CPU, RAM and disk storage. Recent research has discussed efficiency and fairness requirements and identified a number of desirable scheduling objectives including so-called dominant resource fairness (DRF). We argue here that proportional fairness (PF), long recognized as a desirable objective in sharing network bandwidth between ongoing flows, is preferab...

  14. Student Obstacles in Ratio and Proportion Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andini, W.; Jupri, Al

    2017-02-01

    Ratio and proportion are mathematics topics that are learned in elementary school. In the learning process, teachers often found students who have difficulties in learning these topics. Analysing the difficulties on the topics is important for teachers, as an attempt to doa reflection of the learning process and as a reference in devising a learning plan, including for anticipation of the possibility of these barriers that might appear in the next learning process. This research used as the qualitative method, and involved 49 students of grade 5 and one teacher. From the analysis of the data, i.e., student test results and observation of the learning, we found some obstacles that faced by students, such as students confused in understanding about ratio and proportion topic, students found it difficult in completing the problem which have different contexts, the learning material of ratio and proportion topic that presented in textbooks are still partial (not depth), and the lack of ability of the teacher in creating problems.

  15. The Dynamics of Naval Power System with Integrator Proportional and Derivative Integrator Proportional Regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentiu Deliu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The essay analyses the dynamics activity of the naval power system regulators using the integrator proportional and derivative integrator proportional regulators, system that provides the necessary energy for ship consumers so that the voltage and the frequency is always within nominal values.

  16. Designing an optimally proportional inorganic scintillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Jai, E-mail: jai.singh@cdu.edu.au [School of Engineering and IT, B-Purple-12, Faculty of EHSE, Charles Darwin University, NT 0909 (Australia); Koblov, Alexander [School of Engineering and IT, B-Purple-12, Faculty of EHSE, Charles Darwin University, NT 0909 (Australia)

    2012-09-01

    The nonproportionality observed in the light yield of inorganic scintillators is studied theoretically as a function of the rates of bimolecular and Auger quenching processes occurring within the electron track initiated by a gamma- or X-ray photon incident on a scintillator. Assuming a cylindrical track, the influence of the track radius and concentration of excitations created within the track on the scintillator light yield is also studied. Analysing the calculated light yield a guideline for inventing an optimally proportional scintillator with optimal energy resolution is presented.

  17. Measurement of proportional counter gas gain

    CERN Document Server

    Borisov, A; Goryachev, V N; Kojine, A

    2000-01-01

    A method of evaluation of proportional counter gas gain from arbitrary current measurements has been developed. It provides absolute value of the gain in range from 1 to 10**8 with moderate current sensitivity and without knowledge of used radioactive source properties. As an example we present dependence of the gain versus voltage for drift lubes of ATLAS Muon Spectrometer filled with mixtures Ar-CO//2(93-7) and Ar-N//2-CH//4(91-4-5) at 3 bar absolute pressure. Results are compared with the gain obtained from ADC measurements. 7 Refs.

  18. Energy Proportionality for Disk Storage Using Replication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jinoh; Rotem, Doron

    2010-09-09

    Energy saving has become a crucial concern in datacenters as several reports predict that the anticipated energy costs over a three year period will exceed hardware acquisition. In particular, saving energy for storage is of major importance as storage devices (and cooling them off) may contribute over 25 percent of the total energy consumed in a datacenter. Recent work introduced the concept of energy proportionality and argued that it is a more relevant metric than just energy saving as it takes into account the tradeoff between energy consumption and performance. In this paper, we present a novel approach, called FREP (Fractional Replication for Energy Proportionality), for energy management in large datacenters. FREP includes areplication strategy and basic functions to enable flexible energy management. Specifically, our method provides performance guarantees by adaptively controlling the power states of a group of disks based on observed and predicted workloads. Our experiments, using a set of real and synthetic traces, show that FREP dramatically reduces energy requirements with a minimal response time penalty.

  19. Gradient lasso for Cox proportional hazards model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Insuk; Kim, Jinseog; Jung, Sin-Ho; Park, Changyi

    2009-07-15

    There has been an increasing interest in expressing a survival phenotype (e.g. time to cancer recurrence or death) or its distribution in terms of a subset of the expression data of a subset of genes. Due to high dimensionality of gene expression data, however, there is a serious problem of collinearity in fitting a prediction model, e.g. Cox's proportional hazards model. To avoid the collinearity problem, several methods based on penalized Cox proportional hazards models have been proposed. However, those methods suffer from severe computational problems, such as slow or even failed convergence, because of high-dimensional matrix inversions required for model fitting. We propose to implement the penalized Cox regression with a lasso penalty via the gradient lasso algorithm that yields faster convergence to the global optimum than do other algorithms. Moreover the gradient lasso algorithm is guaranteed to converge to the optimum under mild regularity conditions. Hence, our gradient lasso algorithm can be a useful tool in developing a prediction model based on high-dimensional covariates including gene expression data. Results from simulation studies showed that the prediction model by gradient lasso recovers the prognostic genes. Also results from diffuse large B-cell lymphoma datasets and Norway/Stanford breast cancer dataset indicate that our method is very competitive compared with popular existing methods by Park and Hastie and Goeman in its computational time, prediction and selectivity. R package glcoxph is available at http://datamining.dongguk.ac.kr/R/glcoxph.

  20. Viking-Age Sails: Form and Proportion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Vibeke

    2017-04-01

    Archaeological ship-finds have shed much light on the design and construction of vessels from the Viking Age. However, the exact proportions of their sails remain unknown due to the lack of fully preserved sails, or other definite indicators of their proportions. Key Viking-Age ship-finds from Scandinavia—the Oseberg Ship, the Gokstad Ship and Skuldelev 3—have all revealed traces of rigging. In all three finds, the keelson—with the mast position—is preserved, together with fastenings for the sheets and the tack, indicating the breadth of the sail. The sail area can then be estimated based on practical experience of how large a sail the specific ship can carry, in conjunction with hull form and displacement. This article presents reconstructions of the form and dimensions of rigging and sail based on the archaeological finds, evidence from iconographic and written sources, and ethnographic parallels with traditional Nordic boats. When these sources are analysed, not only do the similarities become apparent, but so too does the relative disparity between the archaeological record and the other sources. Preferential selection in terms of which source is given the greatest merit is therefore required, as it is not possible to afford them all equal value.

  1. Estimation and Inference for the Mediation Proportion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevo, Daniel; Liao, Xiaomei; Spiegelman, Donna

    2017-09-20

    In epidemiology, public health and social science, mediation analysis is often undertaken to investigate the extent to which the effect of a risk factor on an outcome of interest is mediated by other covariates. A pivotal quantity of interest in such an analysis is the mediation proportion. A common method for estimating it, termed the "difference method", compares estimates from models with and without the hypothesized mediator. However, rigorous methodology for estimation and statistical inference for this quantity has not previously been available. We formulated the problem for the Cox model and generalized linear models, and utilize a data duplication algorithm together with a generalized estimation equations approach for estimating the mediation proportion and its variance. We further considered the assumption that the same link function hold for the marginal and conditional models, a property which we term "g-linkability". We show that our approach is valid whenever g-linkability holds, exactly or approximately, and present results from an extensive simulation study to explore finite sample properties. The methodology is illustrated by an analysis of pre-menopausal breast cancer incidence in the Nurses' Health Study. User-friendly publicly available software implementing those methods can be downloaded from the last author's website (SAS) or from CRAN (R).

  2. Proportional-Integral-Resonant AC Current Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STOJIC, D.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an improved stationary-frame AC current controller based on the proportional-integral-resonant control action (PIR is proposed. Namely, the novel two-parameter PIR controller is applied in the stationary-frame AC current control, accompanied by the corresponding parameter-tuning procedure. In this way, the proportional-resonant (PR controller, common in the stationary-frame AC current control, is extended by the integral (I action in order to enable the AC current DC component tracking, and, also, to enable the DC disturbance compensation, caused by the voltage source inverter (VSI nonidealities and by nonlinear loads. The proposed controller parameter-tuning procedure is based on the three-phase back-EMF-type load, which corresponds to a wide range of AC power converter applications, such as AC motor drives, uninterruptible power supplies, and active filters. While the PIR controllers commonly have three parameters, the novel controller has two. Also, the provided parameter-tuning procedure needs only one parameter to be tuned in relation to the load and power converter model parameters, since the second controller parameter is directly derived from the required controller bandwidth value. The dynamic performance of the proposed controller is verified by means of simulation and experimental runs.

  3. Bariatric Surgery Significantly Improves Body Proportion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Thomas; Wooldridge, James; Periou, Laura; Richardson, William S.

    2012-01-01

    Background It is well known that bariatric surgery provides excellent weight loss and resolution of comorbid conditions. We propose an additional benefit: Because body proportion is an independent predictor of diabetes and cardiovascular risk, we hypothesize that bariatric surgery results in improved body proportion and may thus improve health risk independent of overall weight loss and resolution of comorbid conditions. Methods A total of 168 patients underwent laparoscopic bariatric surgery at our institution from December 2006 to September 2009. Prospective data gathered preoperatively and at 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively included body mass index (BMI); excess weight loss (EWL); waist-hip ratio (WHR); and discontinuation of hypertensive, hyperlipidemic, and diabetic medications. Results Of the 168 patients, 122 underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, 40 gastric band, and 6 gastric sleeve procedures. Mean preoperative BMI was 48.6 kg/m2 (SD  =  7.8 kg/m2). Mean EWL was 33.7 lbs (SD  =  11.9 lbs) at 3 months, 46.35 lbs (SD  =  15.58 lbs) at 6 months, and 52.48 lbs (SD  =  24.19 lbs) at 1 year. Mean WHR was 0.91 (SD  =  0.1) preoperatively, 0.87 (SD  =  0.1) at 3 months (P < .0001), 0.87 (SD  =  0.09) at 6 months (P < .0001), and 0.86 (SD  =  0.1) at 1 year (P  =  .0006). At 1-year follow-up, 52% of patients had discontinued hypertensive medications, 64% had discontinued diabetic medications, and 56% had discontinued hyperlipidemic medications. Conclusions Along with well-known improvements in overall weight and comorbid conditions, bariatric surgery significantly improves body proportion, which may decrease health risk. Continued follow-up will determine if this change is long term or if patients will revert to preoperative WHRs. Future studies with sufficient power to study individual bariatric procedures will determine which procedures, if any, provide patients with the greatest

  4. Proportion of Population under 5 years

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Variable was created as part of a set of indicators that demonstrate links between the condition of natural areas and human concerns and that quantify dependencies...

  5. Proportion of Population Aged 65 or Older

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Variable was created as part of a set of indicators that demonstrate links between the condition of natural areas and human concerns and that quantify dependencies...

  6. Proportion of Employed Population in Mining

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Variable was created as part of a set of indicators that demonstrate links between the condition of natural areas and human concerns and that quantify dependencies...

  7. Proportion of Households with Low Money Income

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Variable was created as part of a set of indicators that demonstrate links between the condition of natural areas and human concerns and that quantify dependencies...

  8. Proportional representation apportionment methods and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pukelsheim, Friedrich

    2017-01-01

    The book offers an in-depth study of the translation of vote counts into seat numbers in proportional representation systems  – an approach guided by practical needs. It also provides plenty of empirical instances illustrating the results. It analyzes in detail the 2014 elections to the European Parliament in the 28 member states, as well as the 2009 and 2013 elections to the German Bundestag. This second edition is a complete revision and expanded version of the first edition published in 2014, and many empirical election results that serve as examples have been updated. Further, a final chapter has been added assembling biographical sketches and authoritative quotes from individuals who pioneered the development of apportionment methodology. The mathematical exposition and the interrelations with political science and constitutional jurisprudence make this an apt resource for interdisciplinary courses and seminars on electoral systems and apportionment methods.

  9. Exact tests for Hardy-Weinberg proportions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, William R

    2009-12-01

    Exact conditional tests are often required to evaluate statistically whether a sample of diploids comes from a population with Hardy-Weinberg proportions or to confirm the accuracy of genotype assignments. This requirement is especially common when the sample includes multiple alleles and sparse data, thus rendering asymptotic methods, such as the common chi(2)-test, unreliable. Such an exact test can be performed using the likelihood ratio as its test statistic rather than the more commonly used probability test. Conceptual advantages in using the likelihood ratio are discussed. A substantially improved algorithm is described to permit the performance of a full-enumeration exact test on sample sizes that are too large for previous methods. An improved Monte Carlo algorithm is also proposed for samples that preclude full enumeration. These algorithms are about two orders of magnitude faster than those currently in use. Finally, methods are derived to compute the number of possible samples with a given set of allele counts, a useful quantity for evaluating the feasibility of the full enumeration procedure. Software implementing these methods, ExactoHW, is provided.

  10. Environmental drivers of sapwood and heartwood proportions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurner, Martin; Beer, Christian

    2017-04-01

    Recent advances combining information on stem volume from remote sensing with allometric relationships derived from forest inventory databases have led to spatially continuous estimates of stem, branch, root and foliage biomass in northern boreal and temperate forests. However, a separation of stem biomass into sapwood and heartwood mass has remained unsolved, despite their important differences in biogeochemical function, for instance concerning their contribution to tree respiratory costs. Although relationships between sapwood cross-sectional area and supported leaf area are well established, less is known about relations between sapwood or heartwood mass and other traits (e.g. stem mass), since these biomass compartments are more difficult to measure in practice. Here we investigate the variability in sapwood and heartwood proportions and determining environmental factors. For this task we explore an available biomass and allometry database (BAAD) and study relative sapwood and heartwood area, volume, mass and density in dependence of tree species, age and climate. First, a theoretical framework on how to estimate sap- and heartwood mass from stem mass is developed. Subsequently, the underlying assumptions and relationships are explored with the help of the BAAD. The established relationships can be used to derive spatially continuous sapwood and heartwood mass estimates by applying them to remote sensing based stem volume products. This would be a fundamental step forward to a data-driven estimate of autotrophic respiration.

  11. Football Banning Orders, Proportionality and Public Order

    OpenAIRE

    Stott, Clifford; Pearson, Geoff

    2006-01-01

    This article provides a critical analysis of the UK legislation on football banning orders. The historical development of this legislation is outlined and concerns are raised about its impact upon civil liberties and human rights, particularly with respect to Section 14B of the Football (Disorder) Act 2000. The article then outlines a body of research on crowd psychology, public order policing and football ‘disorder’ that questions the determining role of the banning order in the reductio...

  12. Obesity: A Venusian story of Paleolithic proportions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna G Seshadri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Art through the ages has been a marker of societal trends and fashion. Obesity is proscribed by physicians and almost reviled by today′s society. While Venus (Aphrodite continues to be the role model for those to aspire to free themselves from the clutches of obesity, Paleolithic humans had a different view of the perfect female form. Whether the Venus of Willendorf was a fashion symbol will be never answered, but the fact is that she remains testimony to the fact that obesity has been with us for several millennia.

  13. The elite athlete - assessing body shape, size, proportion and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, D A; Ackland, T R; Schreiner, A B

    1995-03-01

    In the quest to optimize performance of the elite athlete the sport scientist has sought to determine the ideal physique for a given sport or event. For some sports, specific structural characteristics offer definite performance advantages; for example in rowing, in addition to height, a large arm span has been identified as important. In other sports. such as long distance running, low levels of adiposity or 'fatness' appear to be linked with faster running times. There are four areas where appraisal of the athlete's physique can provide useful information: (1) identification of talented athletes; (2) to assess and monitor the growing athlete; (3) to monitor training and performance; and (4) to determine 'race weight' in weight-category sports. As a research tool a particular method must be reliable and valid. Other considerations include how expensive the method is, if it is suitable for a field situation and if large amounts of data on a number of subjects can be collected quickly. The method should be safe for both the athlete and the tester and provide useful feedback for the athlete or coach. Anthropometry, with training is able to fulfil most of these criteria and is the most widely used method of physique assessment in sports science. Large anthropometric data bases have been collected on elite athletes at Olympic games and world championships according to a standard protocol. Kinanthropometry, which has developed from anthropometry, is concerned with measurement and evaluation of different aspects of human movement and individual variation in body shape, size, proportion and composition. For the assessment of adiposity a sum of skinfolds, usually over six sites, is most commonly used rather than percentage body fat formulae. Muscle mass can be assessed indirectly through girth and corrected girth measurements. Limb lengths and breadths are used to assess skeletal structure and proportional differences in limb size. The anthropometric methods most commonly

  14. A study of dentists' preferred maxillary anterior tooth width proportions: comparing the recurring esthetic dental proportion to other mathematical and naturally occurring proportions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Daniel H

    2007-01-01

    Presently, there are no generally accepted standards for designing smiles using tooth proportion relationships. The purpose of this study was to determine whether North American dentists prefer smile designs created using the recurring esthetic dental (RED) proportion, other mathematically defined tooth proportion relationships, or naturally occurring tooth-to-tooth width proportions previously reported to occur in the North American population. Three hundred and one North American dentists were surveyed to determine their preferences of imaged smiles exhibiting different anterior tooth width proportions and the primary proportion influencing their decision. One-sample t-tests were used to compare preferences of constructed smiles. Pearson's Chi-square test was used to assess the independence of the relationship between the subjects' demographic attributes and the factors reported as being instrumental in their decision processes. Fifty-seven percent of dentists surveyed preferred the smiles with the 70% RED proportion over the smiles with the naturally occurring maxillary anterior tooth width proportions in normal-length teeth. Dentists preferred the smiles of the naturally occurring maxillary tooth proportions (70%) and the 70% RED proportion (75%) over the golden proportion. In smiles with tall teeth, the golden proportion was preferred by 58% of the surveyed dentists over the naturally occurring tooth-to-tooth width proportions as previously defined by Preston. Sixty-two percent of dentists cited the overall balance as the primary factor affecting their selection. Twenty-three percent made their selection based on the size of the maxillary central incisors, whereas 15% used other teeth or factors. Smiles created using the principles of the RED proportion were preferred by a majority of dentists surveyed. The majority of dentists reported that overall balance was the primary factor affecting their selection. The RED proportion may be useful in creating smiles

  15. Estimating sighting proportions of American alligator nests during helicopter survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Kenneth G.; Percival, H. Franklin; Woodward, Allan R.

    2000-01-01

    Proportions of American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) nests sighted during aerial survey in Florida were estimated based upon multiple surveys by different observers. We compared sighting proportions across habitats, nesting seasons, and observer experience levels. The mean sighting proportion across all habitats and years was 0.736 (SE=0.024). Survey counts corrected by the mean sighting proportion reliably predicted total nest counts (7?2=0.933). Sighting proportions did not differ by habitat type (P=0.668) or year P=0.328). Experienced observers detected a greater proportion of nests (P<0.0001) than did either less experienced or inexperienced observers. Reliable estimates of nest abundance can be derived from aerial counts of alligator nests when corrected by the appropriate sighting proportion.

  16. Investigation of Adding Proportion of RAP in Recycled Asphalt Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao He

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the relationship between gradation and proportion of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP and design gradation of recycled mixture, the authors discussed the influence of proportion of RAP on gradation adjustment of recycled mixture. And then, recycled mixture with 0%, 30%, 50%, 70% of RAP were made, and Influence of proportion of RAP on high and low temperature performance, water stability and anti-aging performance of recycled mixture were discussed. The results and analysis indicate that gradation of recycled mixture would not be adjusted to aiming gradation if proportion of RAP was too big. With the increase of proportion of RAP, high temperature performance and anti-aging performance of recycled mixture enhanced, but low temperature performance and water stability decayed sharply. In practical application, reasonable proportion of RAP should be determined according to gradation, performance demand and economy of recycled mixture.

  17. Inquiry pedagogy to promote emerging proportional reasoning in primary students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding-Wells, Jill; Dole, Shelley; Makar, Katie

    2014-03-01

    Proportional reasoning as the capacity to compare situations in relative (multiplicative) rather than absolute (additive) terms is an important outcome of primary school mathematics. Research suggests that students tend to see comparative situations in additive rather than multiplicative terms and this thinking can influence their capacity for proportional reasoning in later years. In this paper, excerpts from a classroom case study of a fourth-grade classroom (students aged 9) are presented as they address an inquiry problem that required proportional reasoning. As the inquiry unfolded, students' additive strategies were progressively seen to shift to proportional thinking to enable them to answer the question that guided their inquiry. In wrestling with the challenges they encountered, their emerging proportional reasoning was supported by the inquiry model used to provide a structure, a classroom culture of inquiry and argumentation, and the proportionality embedded in the problem context.

  18. Finishing procedures in Orthodontics: dental dimensions and proportions (microesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Carlos Bodart Brandão

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present article is to describe procedures that can be performed to achieve excellence in orthodontic treatment finishing. The content is limited to microesthetics, which comprises the concept of ideal dental dimensions and proportions (white esthetics and its correlation with the periodontium (pink esthetics. Standards of normality are described both in their real dimensions (dental height and width, and in those effectively perceived by the observer, the virtual dimensions. METHODS: The best scientific evidence was sought in the literature to support the clinical procedures that must guide the professional to obtain maximum esthetic quality on their treatments. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate what the other specialties in Dentistry expect from Orthodontics and, specially, what they have to offer. Clinical cases will be used to illustrate the dental movement that might maximize treatment outcome and to confront the ideal standards with the current state of the art. CONCLUSION: Treatment quality is directly related to the amount of procedures implemented by the orthodontist, associated with concepts and resources from Periodontics and Dental Prosthesis. Microesthetics cannot be seen in isolation, but rather as the key to establish a pleasant smile (miniesthetics in addition to a harmonious face (macroesthetics and a human being with high self-esteem (hyper-esthetics.

  19. Le Corbusier’s Modulor and the Debate on Proportion in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Louis Cohen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Finally codified in 1945 after several years of research, Le Corbusier’s Modulor is probably the most comprehensive proportional system imagined during the 20th century. Developed through contacts with consultants such as art historian Elisa Maillard, and referring to statistical measurements of the human body, the Modulor concluded decades of discourse on proportions, a theme that preoccupied Le Corbusier ever since his sojourn in Germany in 1910. Matila Ghyka’s work on the golden section was one of the sources for the Modulor, but his work in general was used by other architects, such as Le Corbusier’s rival André Lurçat, who proposed his own range of proportions related to the work of builders as much as to that of designers. Proportions thus became a central issue in the postwar French reconstruction, as architects struggled to maintain their status amid changing procedures in building production.

  20. Which Mixed-Member Proportional Electoral Formula Fits You Best? Assessing the Proportionality Principle of Positive Vote Transfer Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bochsler, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Mixed-member proportional systems (MMP) are a family of electoral systems which combine district-based elections with a proportional seat allocation. Positive vote transfer systems belong to this family. This article explains why they might be better than their siblings, and examines under which ...... conditions full proportionality is reached. A formal model shows that full proportionality depends on the number of compensation mandates available, and on the degree of coordination among voters and parties. The model is applied to six elections in Hungary....

  1. Visualizing Proportions and Dissimilarities by Space-filling Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrizosa, Emilio; Guerrero, Vanesa; Morales, Dolores Romero

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we address the problem of visualizing a set of individuals, which have attached a statistical value given as a proportion, and a dissimilarity measure. Each individual is represented as a region within the unit square, in such a way that the area of the regions represent the proport...

  2. Attention Modulation by Proportion Congruency: The Asymmetrical List Shifting Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamse, Elger L.; Duthoo, Wout; Notebaert, Wim; Risko, Evan F.

    2013-01-01

    Proportion congruency effects represent hallmark phenomena in current theorizing about cognitive control. This is based on the notion that proportion congruency determines the relative levels of attention to relevant and irrelevant information in conflict tasks. However, little empirical evidence exists that uniquely supports such an attention…

  3. On estimation methods and test for proportional hazards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work compared three estimation methods to handle tied survival time data under the semiparametric Cox proportional hazards model framework (the Exact, Breslow and Efron partial likelihood) and also two parametric proportional hazards models (the Exponential and Weibull) which utilized full likelihood estimation ...

  4. Sexual dimorphism based on body proportions and ontogenetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sexual dimorphism in the Brazilian electric ray Narcine brasiliensis from the south-western Atlantic coast was evaluated based on body proportions and ontogenetic changes. All regions of the body were found to have differences in body proportions between the sexes, except the spiracles. The nature of allometric and ...

  5. The principle of proportionality and European contract law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cauffman, C.; Rutgers, J.; Sirena, P.

    2015-01-01

    The paper investigates the role of the principle of proportionality within contract law, in balancing the rights and obligations of the contracting parties. It illustrates that the principle of proportionality is one of the general principles which govern contractual relations, and as such it is an

  6. What proportion of abortion seekers in Calabar are really pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: A significant proportion of women seeking abortion services in Calabar Nigeria are not pregnant. The routine use of pregnancy tests and/or ultrasonography could prevent a substantial proportion of unnecessary procedures. This will result in reduced health risks and substantial cost saving for women.

  7. Proportional reasoning as a key to numeracy across the curriculum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilton, Annette; Hilton, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    . Proportional reasoning is the ability to understand, interpret, and solve problems related to situations of proportion, using comparison and relative and multiplicative thinking. It relies on numerous foundational skills including fractional thinking and an understanding of ratio, scale, decimals......Numeracy (mathematical literacy) is an essential skill in life and work. Lack of numeracy has been linked to poor health and work outcomes, and diminished social and civic participation. A key aspect of numeracy, which is not often explicitly mentioned in school curricula, is proportional reasoning...... internationally. Research has also shown that while proportional reasoning develops in students from Years 5 to 9, this development does not always happen naturally. Further, research suggests that targeted teaching can assist students to develop better proportional reasoning skills. This multi-state Australian...

  8. Investigating Proportional Reasoning in a University Quantitative Literacy Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Frith

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to reason with proportions is known to take a long time to develop and to be difficult to learn. We regard proportional reasoning (the ability to reason about quantities in relative terms as a threshold concept for academic quantitative literacy. Our study of the teaching and learning of proportional reasoning in a university quantitative literacy course for law students consisted of iterative action research, in which we introduced various teaching interventions and analysed students’ written responses to assessment questions requiring students to explain their reasoning in situations that call for proportional reasoning. For this analysis we used a modified phenomenographic method to develop and refine a framework to code the responses. This enabled us to broadly describe the responses in terms of the concept of the liminal space that a student must traverse in coming to a full understanding of a threshold concept, and to further define the liminal space to facilitate finer description of students’ responses. Our latest analysis confirmed that many university students cannot reason with proportions, that this kind of thinking is difficult to learn, and that it takes more time than is available in a one-semester course. The context and structure of the questions have a marked effect on students’ ability to apply proportional reasoning successfully. The fraction of students who were classified as ‘at or over the threshold’ (i.e., fairly competent at proportional reasoning after instruction ranged between 8% for the most difficult question and 48% for the easiest.

  9. Inexpensive weir and proportional sampler for miniature watershed ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabholz, J V; Crossley, Jr, D A; Best, G R

    1979-07-01

    A weir system with proportional sampler for use on miniature water-shed ecosystems is described. Eight weir collection systems were evaluated for their ability to measure and sample the inputs and outputs of soil-island ecosystems which occur on granite outcrops. The proportion of water actually collected by the weir systems was generally less than the proportion the systems were designed to sample, but adequate for supplying data needed for estimating elemental budgets. The weir systems were not able to account for 25 to 50% of the variation in total water passing over the cutoff wall. Several ways of improving overall performance of the weir systems are discussed.

  10. Properties of an imaging gas scintillation proportional counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, W. H.-M.; Hailey, C. J.

    1981-01-01

    An instrument which combines the improved energy resolution offered by the gas scintillation proportional counter (GSPC) with the submillimeter imaging capabilities of the multiwire proportional counter (MWPC) is described. The imaging gas scintillation proportional counter detects the centroid of the UV light excited by X-ray photons interacting in the noble gas of the GSPC with a UV sensitive gas in the MWPC. The prototype counter yields a measured performance of 9% (FWHM) energy resolution and 0.9 mm (FWHM) spatial resolution at 6 keV. Further design refinements should achieve 18% (FWHM) energy resolution and 0.6 mm (FWHM) spatial resolution at 1 keV.

  11. Proportion hyperglycosylated hCG: a new test for discriminating gestational trophoblastic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Laurence A

    2014-11-01

    Hyperglycosylated human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a variant of hCG with large oligosaccharide side chains. Although hCG is produced by syncytiotrophoblast cells, hyperglycosylated hCG marks cytotrophoblast cell. Hyperglycosylated hCG signals placental implantation. Total hCG in serum and urine is measured by the Siemens Immulite hCG pregnancy test; the result is in milli-international unit per milliliter. Hyperglycosylated hCG is determined by the B152 microtiter plate assay; the result is in nanogram per milliliter. Hyperglycosylated hCG results can be converted to milli-international unit per milliliter equivalents by multiplying by 11. The test measures proportion hyperglycosylated hCG, hyperglycosylated hCG / total hCG. Proportion hyperglycosylated hCG marks cases intent on developing persistent hydatidiform mole (68% detection at 17% false detection). Proportion hyperglycosylated hCG also marks persistent hydatidiform mole (100% detection at 5.1% false detection). Proportion hyperglycosylated hCG distinguishes choriocarcinoma and gestational trophoblastic neoplasm cases, absolutely discriminating aggressive cases and minimally aggressive cases. Proportion hyperglycosylated hCG identifies quiescent gestational trophoblastic disease cases. It recognizes quiescent cases that become persistent disease (100% detection at 0% false positive). Proportion hyperglycosylated hCG is an invaluable test for discriminating gestational trophoblastic diseases.

  12. Evaluation of the Divine Proportion in the facial profile of young females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahanbin Arezoo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Beauty is the phenomenon of experiencing pleasure, through the perception of balance. According to some authors, attractive faces have ideal proportions that are related to the Divine Proportion (1.618:1. Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Divine Proportion in the human profile and investigate the effects of this ratio on the perception of the beauty of the profile. Study and Design: We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the mentioned aims. Materials and Methods : In this cross-sectional study, fifty females in the age range of 20-25 years, with acceptable profiles were selected. Standardized profile silhouettes were each given a score by 20 judges (consisting of 10 men and 10 women using the visual analog scale. Five landmarks were determined and five ratios were measured on the silhouettes by using the adobe photoshop program. Statistical Analysis: The Student′s t test was used to compare profile proportions of the subjects. Results: Statistical analysis showed none of the proportions had the mean of 1.618, but in subjects having higher esthetic scores, trichion (Te-soft tissue menton (Me:Tr-subnasale (Sn and Tr-Me:soft tissue nasion (N-Me, with the mean of 1.58 were closer to Divine Proportion. Conclusions : The results suggested the perception of beauty is influenced by the Divine Proportions and Tr-Me:Tr-Sn and Tr-Me:N-Me are the most influential ratios in the perception of the beauty of profile; however, if the Divine Proportion is to be used in treatment planning, it should be used along with other factors.

  13. Proportionality: a valid alternative to correlation for relative data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lovell

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the life sciences, many measurement methods yield only the relative abundances of different components in a sample. With such relative-or compositional-data, differential expression needs careful interpretation, and correlation-a statistical workhorse for analyzing pairwise relationships-is an inappropriate measure of association. Using yeast gene expression data we show how correlation can be misleading and present proportionality as a valid alternative for relative data. We show how the strength of proportionality between two variables can be meaningfully and interpretably described by a new statistic ϕ which can be used instead of correlation as the basis of familiar analyses and visualisation methods, including co-expression networks and clustered heatmaps. While the main aim of this study is to present proportionality as a means to analyse relative data, it also raises intriguing questions about the molecular mechanisms underlying the proportional regulation of a range of yeast genes.

  14. Constant Proportion Portfolio Insurance Strategy in Southeast European Markets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elma Agić-Šabeta

    2016-01-01

    .... A special attention is given to modelling non-risky assets of the portfolio. Monte Carlo simulations are used to test the buy-and-hold, the constant-mix, and the constant proportion portfolio insurance (CPPI...

  15. Proportional reasoning in the learning of chemistry: levels of complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramful, Ajay; Narod, Fawzia Bibi

    2014-03-01

    This interdisciplinary study sketches the ways in which proportional reasoning is involved in the solution of chemistry problems, more specifically, problems involving quantities in chemical reactions (commonly referred to as stoichiometry problems). By building on the expertise of both mathematics and chemistry education research, the present paper shows how the theoretical constructs in proportional reasoning in mathematics education offer rich explanatory accounts of the complexities involved in solving stoichiometry problems. Using Vergnaud's concept of measure spaces, the theoretical analysis shows that proportionality situations are relatively more intricate, involving various layers of complexity in chemistry as compared to those in the mathematics curriculum. Knowledge of proportionality and chemistry are simultaneously required to provide solutions to chemical reactions. Our analysis of a range of stoichiometry situations led us to propose a problem analysis framework involving five levels of difficulty. Further, the specificity of proportionality in stoichiometry is that it can only be established when quantities are interpreted in the unit "mole," a unit which does not have any physical embodiment in terms of a measure of quantity unlike mass and volume. Our analysis of student-teachers' solution to the stoichiometry problems, shows that they tend to incorrectly (probably intuitively) set proportional relationships when two quantities in a reaction are expressed in non-molar quantities such as mass. The data also bring to the fore the primarily formulaic approach that student-teachers use in setting inherent proportionality relationships. An important finding is the interpretation of a chemical equation as a mathematical equation, rather than a statement of proportionality.

  16. Examining the Proportion of Dietary Phosphorus From Plants, Animals, and Food Additives Excreted in Urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Jules, David E; Jagannathan, Ram; Gutekunst, Lisa; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Sevick, Mary Ann

    2017-03-01

    Phosphorus bioavailability is an emerging topic of interest in the field of renal nutrition that has important research and clinical implications. Estimates of phosphorus bioavailability, based on digestibility, indicate that bioavailability of phosphorus increases from plants to animals to food additives. In this commentary, we examined the proportion of dietary phosphorus from plants, animals, and food additives excreted in urine from four controlled-feeding studies conducted in healthy adults and patients with chronic kidney disease. As expected, a smaller proportion of phosphorus from plant foods was excreted in urine compared to animal foods. However, contrary to expectations, phosphorus from food additives appeared to be incompletely absorbed. The apparent discrepancy between digestibility of phosphorus additives and the proportion excreted in urine suggests a need for human balance studies to determine the bioavailability of different sources of phosphorus. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The principle of proportionality revisited: interpretations and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermerén, Göran

    2012-11-01

    The principle of proportionality is used in many different contexts. Some of these uses and contexts are first briefly indicated. This paper focusses on the use of this principle as a moral principle. I argue that under certain conditions the principle of proportionality is helpful as a guide in decision-making. But it needs to be clarified and to be used with some flexibility as a context-dependent principle. Several interpretations of the principle are distinguished, using three conditions as a starting point: importance of objective, relevance of means, and most favourable option. The principle is then tested against an example, which suggests that a fourth condition, focusing on non-excessiveness, needs to be added. I will distinguish between three main interpretations of the principle, some primarily with uses in research ethics, others with uses in other areas of bioethics, for instance in comparisons of therapeutic means and ends. The relations between the principle of proportionality and the precautionary principle are explored in the following section. It is concluded that the principles are different and may even clash. In the next section the principle of proportionality is applied to some medical examples drawn from research ethics and bioethics. In concluding, the status of the principle of proportionality as a moral principle is discussed. What has been achieved so far and what remains to be done is finally summarized.

  18. A reduced feedback proportional fair multiuser scheduling scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad

    2011-12-01

    Multiuser switched-diversity scheduling schemes were recently proposed in order to overcome the heavy feedback requirements of conventional opportunistic scheduling schemes by applying a threshold-based, distributed and ordered scheduling mechanism. A slight reduction in the prospected multiuser diversity gains is an acceptable trade-off for great savings in terms of required channel-state-information feedback messages. In this work, we propose a novel proportional fair multiuser switched-diversity scheduling scheme and we demonstrate that it can be optimized using a practical and distributed method to obtain the per-user feedback thresholds. We demonstrate by numerical examples that our reduced feedback proportional fair scheduler operates within 0.3 bits/sec/Hz from the achievable rates by the conventional full feedback proportional fair scheduler in Rayleigh fading conditions. © 2011 IEEE.

  19. Prospective Teachers Proportional Reasoning and Presumption of Student Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujiyem Sapti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to describe the proportional reasoning of prospective teachers and their predictions about students' answers. Subjects were 4 prospective teacher  7th semester Department of Mathematics Education, Muhammadiyah University of Purworejo. Proportional reasoning task used to obtain research data. Subjects were asked to explain their reasoning and write predictions of student completion. Data was taken on October 15th, 2014. Interviews were conducted after the subjects completed the task and recorded with audio media. The research data were subject written work and interview transcripts. Data were analyzed using qualitative analysis techniques. In solving the proportional reasoning task, subjects using the cross product. However, they understand the meaning of the cross product. Subject also could predict students' reasoning on the matter.

  20. A multiball read-out for the spherical proportional counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giganon, A.; Giomataris, I.; Gros, M.; Katsioulas, I.; Navick, X. F.; Tsiledakis, G.; Savvidis, I.; Dastgheibi-Fard, A.; Brossard, A.

    2017-12-01

    We present a novel concept of proportional gas amplification for the read-out of the spherical proportional counter. The standard single-ball read-out presents limitations for large diameter spherical detectors and high-pressure operations. We have developed a multi-ball read-out system which consists of several balls placed at a fixed distance from the center of the spherical vessel. Such a module can tune the volume electric field at the desired value and can also provide detector segmentation with individual ball read-out. In the latter case, the large volume of the vessel becomes a spherical time projection chamber with 3D capabilities.

  1. Full simulation of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory proportional counters

    CERN Document Server

    Beltran, B; Cai, B.; Cox, G.A.; Deng, H.; Detwiler, J.; Formaggio, J.A.; Habib, S.; Hallin, A.L.; Hime, A.; Huang, M.; Kraus, C.; Leslie, H.R.; Loach, J.C.; Martin, R.; McGee, S.; Miller, M.L.; Monreal, B.; Monroe, J.; Oblath, N.S.; Peeters, S.J.M.; Poon, A.W.P.; Prior, G.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R.G.H.; Smith, M.W.E.; Stonehill, L.C.; Tolich, N.; Van Wechel, T.; Wan Chan Tseung, H.; Wendland, J.; Wilkerson, J.F.; Wright, A.

    2011-01-01

    The third phase of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) experiment added an array of 3He proportional counters to the detector. The purpose of this Neutral Current Detection (NCD) array was to observe neutrons resulting from neutral-current solar neutrino-deuteron interactions. We have developed a detailed simulation of the current pulses from the NCD array proportional counters, from the primary neutron capture on 3He through the NCD array signal-processing electronics. This NCD array Monte Carlo simulation was used to model the alpha-decay background in SNO's third-phase 8B solar-neutrino measurement.

  2. The MSFC large-area imaging multistep proportional counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, B. D.; Weisskopf, M. C.; Joy, M. K.

    1989-01-01

    A large-area multistep imaging proportional counter that is being currently developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center is described. The device, known as a multistep fluorescence gated detector, consists of a multiwire proportional counter (MWPC) with a preamplification region. The MWCP features superior spatial resolution with a very high degree of background rejection. It is ideally suited for use in X-ray astronomy in 20-100 keV energy range. The paper includes the MWPC schematic and a list of instrument specifications.

  3. Full simulation of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory proportional counters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltran, B; Habib, S; Hallin, A L [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2R3 (Canada); Bichsel, H; Cox, G A; Formaggio, J A; McGee, S; Miller, M L; Oblath, N S [Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics, and Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Cai, B; Kraus, C; Leslie, H R; Martin, R [Department of Physics, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6 (Canada); Deng, H [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6396 (United States); Detwiler, J; Loach, J C [Institute for Nuclear and Particle Astrophysics and Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Hime, A [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Huang, M [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712-0264 (United States); Monreal, B; Monroe, J, E-mail: nsoblath@mit.edu [Laboratory for Nuclear Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    The third phase of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) experiment added an array of {sup 3}He proportional counters to the detector. The purpose of this neutral-current detection (NCD) array was to observe neutrons resulting from neutral-current solar-neutrino-deuteron interactions. We have developed a detailed simulation of current pulses from NCD array proportional counters, from the primary neutron capture on {sup 3}He through NCD array signal-processing electronics. This NCD array MC simulation was used to model the alpha-decay background in SNO's third-phase {sup 8}B solar-neutrino measurement.

  4. Naval Power System Dynamics with Proportional Type Regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentiu Deliu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This work analyzes the dynamic behavior of naval power system using proportional type controllers, system which provides energy for consumers on the vessel so that the voltage and frequency is always in nominal value limits. Essential problems of the work relates to the tuning of controllers, because the system is nonlinear and we can’t apply known criteria. Analyzing type P controllers we found that oscillations known to occur in proportional type controller can put out the naval power system.

  5. Map Scale, Proportion, and Google[TM] Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberge, Martin C.; Cooper, Linda L.

    2010-01-01

    Aerial imagery has a great capacity to engage and maintain student interest while providing a contextual setting to strengthen their ability to reason proportionally. Free, on-demand, high-resolution, large-scale aerial photography provides both a bird's eye view of the world and a new perspective on one's own community. This article presents an…

  6. faba bean and field pea seed proportion for intercropping system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Intercropping of Faba bean (Vicia fabae) and field pea (Pisum sativum) is an important cropping system in the. Horro highlands of Ethiopia, but seed proportions balance is important to intercrop productivity. An experiment was conducted to determine the optimum seed rates on component crop yield and land equivalent ...

  7. The relation between spatial thinking and proportional reasoning in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möhring, Wenke; Newcombe, Nora S; Frick, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    Previous research has indicated a close link between spatial and mathematical thinking. However, what shared processes account for this link? In this study, we focused on the spatial skill of map reading and the mathematical skill of proportional reasoning and investigated whether scaling, or the ability to relate information in different-sized representations, is a shared process. Scaling was experimentally manipulated in both tasks. In the map task, 4- and 5-year-olds (N=50) were asked to point to the same position shown on a map in a larger referent space on a touch screen. The sizes of the maps were varied systematically, such that some trials required scaling and some did not (i.e., the map had the same size as the referent space). In the proportional reasoning task, children were presented with different relative amounts of juice and water and were asked to estimate each mixture on a rating scale. Again, some trials required scaling, but others could be solved by directly mapping the proportional components onto the rating scale. Children's absolute errors in locating targets in the map task were closely related to their performance in the proportional reasoning task even after controlling for age and verbal intelligence. Crucially, this was only true for trials that required scaling, whereas performance on nonscaled trials was not related. These results shed light on the mechanisms involved in the close connection between spatial and mathematical thinking early in life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. An Investigation of Proportional Reasoning Skills of Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgun-Koca, S. Asli; Altay, Mesture Kayhan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the proportional reasoning skills of Turkish middle school students. It was also aimed at revealing the differences in students' performances in terms of their gender, grade level, and problem types--missing value and numerical comparison. The study was conducted with two sixth and seventh grade classes…

  9. Nature and proportion of total injuries at the Stellenbosch Rugby ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to compare the nature and proportion of total injuries occurring at Stellenbosch Rugby Football Club in Stellenbosch, South Africa, between the years 1973 - 1975 and 2003 - 2005. Design. Retrospective, descriptive study. Main outcome measures. Injured rugby players from the ...

  10. Effect of Different Proportion of Lucerne Meal in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Tkáčová

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We carried the feeding experiment with broiler chickens ROSS 308. The experiment was contained from two groups. In each group were 100 pcs broiler chickens. We research in the experiment the efficiency of lucerne meal with proportion 2% and 6% in feed mixtures. The lucerne meal contains protein 164 g per kg, fiber 257 g per kg, lysine 6.95 g per kg, methionine 2.4 g per kg, methionine + cysteine 4.1 g per kg, threonine 6.66 g per kg, thryptophane 2.1 g per kg, metabolizable energy 4.0 MJ per kg and carotenoids content 293.0 mg per kg. The broilers body weight was increased 1738.4 g in group with proportion of lucerne meal 2% in feed mixtures. The proportion of proportion 6% lucerne meal in feed mixtures decreased a body weight of the broiler chickens on level 1552.8 g. The differences of body weight between groups of the broiler chickens were statistically significant (P<0.05. Lucerne meal contains fiber, which increases the overall percentage of fiber in the compound, resulting in worse feed utilization.

  11. Proportional control valves integrated in silicon nitride surface channel technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, Maarten; Groenesteijn, Jarno; Meutstege, Esken; Brookhuis, Robert Anton; Brouwer, Dannis Michel; Lötters, Joost Conrad; Wiegerink, Remco J.

    2015-01-01

    We have designed and realized two types of proportional microcontrol valves in a silicon nitride surface channel technology process. This enables on-die integration of flow controllers with other surface channel devices, such as pressure sensors or thermal or Coriolis-based (mass) flow sensors, to

  12. The proportional odds cumulative incidence model for competing risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Frank; Li, Jianing; Scheike, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We suggest an estimator for the proportional odds cumulative incidence model for competing risks data. The key advantage of this model is that the regression parameters have the simple and useful odds ratio interpretation. The model has been considered by many authors, but it is rarely used in pr...

  13. Performance Evaluation of Proportional Fair Scheduling Algorithm with Measured Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard; Pons, Manuel Rubio

    2005-01-01

    Motivated by the promising performance results of the proportional fair (PF) packet scheduling algorithm, often quoted in connection with WCDMA High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA), we have performed an evaluation of the PF gain in comparison to the simpler round robin (RR) scheduler when...

  14. Fairness of seat allocation methods in proportional representation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fairness of seat allocation methods in proportional representation. 95 is allocated the next seat and the quotient is recalculated with si increased by one. This process is repeated until all the seats have been allocated. d'Hondt's method to allocate. 6 seats to 5 parties is shown in Table 1. The numbers in bold indicate where ...

  15. Proportionality in the New German Insurance Contract Act 2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Heiss (Helmut)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In 2008, the German legislature enacted a completely revised Insurance Contract Act, in which a new rule of proportionality replaced the former all-or-nothing principle for questions of liability. This article outlines the reasons for this shift and the impact of the

  16. Proportional Reasoning in the Learning of Chemistry: Levels of Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramful, Ajay; Narod, Fawzia Bibi

    2014-01-01

    This interdisciplinary study sketches the ways in which proportional reasoning is involved in the solution of chemistry problems, more specifically, problems involving quantities in chemical reactions (commonly referred to as stoichiometry problems). By building on the expertise of both mathematics and chemistry education research, the present…

  17. Proportion of bacteria causing healthcare associated infection in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proportion of bacteria causing healthcare associated infection in Khartoum North Teaching Hospital. ... isolates were highly sensitive to antibiotic such as ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin and imipenem, while P. aeruginosa showed resistant to many commonly used antibiotics, but was sensitive to imipenem and pipracillin.

  18. Population-Sample Regression in the Estimation of Population Proportions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzman, R. A.

    2006-01-01

    Focusing on a single sample obtained randomly with replacement from a single population, this article examines the regression of population on sample proportions and develops an unbiased estimator of the square of the correlation between them. This estimator turns out to be the regression coefficient. Use of the squared-correlation estimator as a…

  19. Facial approximation: Evaluation of dental and facial proportions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To explore if any relationship exists between dental and facial proportions as well as the height of the individuals. Methods: Two hundred and four dental students of the Obafemi Awolowo University volunteered to participated in the study. The lower facial height, inter incisal, inter canine, and intercommisure ...

  20. Fairness of seat allocation methods in proportional representation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper the fairness of some methods of allocating seats in a proportional representation (PR) voting system is investigated. Different PR systems are in use throughout the democratic world, but the primary focus here is the method used in South Africa, namely the largest remainder method with a Droop quota.

  1. Geometric proportions in Islamic architecture: case of the Sidi El ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the next step the measurements of heights, widths, lengths and angles of different architectural elements were compared in order to find arithmetic and harmonic proportions. The last ones were found especially in the golden number Φ, equal to 1.618. In addition, the cubit of time was computed and found equal to 0.4375 ...

  2. The Case of Lesotho's Mixed Member Proportional System | Kapa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    preparation of the 2002 poll, prominent among which has been the introduction of the Mixed Member Proportional (MMP) electoral system. Through this model, Lesotho enjoyed a large degree of political stability as almost all parties that contested the poll got representation in the national parliament. However, following the ...

  3. Modelling boron-lined proportional counter response to neutrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahri, A; Ghal-Eh, N; Etaati, G R

    2013-09-01

    The detailed Monte Carlo simulation of a boron-lined proportional counter response to a neutron source has been presented. The MCNP4C and experimental data on different source-moderator geometries have been given for comparison. The influence of different irradiation geometries and boron-lining thicknesses on the detector response has been studied.

  4. The influence of proportion of Hereford breeding in a multibreed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    frame-sized breeds such as the Simmentaler and Charolais to the composition of the herd (Schoeman et al., submitted). In earlier reports (Schoeman et al., 1993) it was found that the large negative maternal effect overrides a positive direct effect, thus leading to the decreased WW with increasing proportion of H, despite a ...

  5. High condylectomy versus proportional condylectomy: is secondary orthognathic surgery necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fariña, R; Olate, S; Raposo, A; Araya, I; Alister, J P; Uribe, F

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the need for secondary orthognathic surgery in patients undergoing two different condylectomy protocols for active unilateral condylar hyperplasia (UCH). A retrospective cohort study evaluated UCH patients treated by condylectomy. Two groups were established: group 1 comprised those who had undergone a high condylectomy (5 mm removed) and group 2 comprised those who had undergone a proportional condylectomy (removing the difference observed between the measurements of the hyperplastic and the healthy side). Data analysis was done with the Levene test and t-test; a P-value of <0.05 indicated a statistically significant relationship. Forty-nine patients, with an average age of 19.83 years, were analyzed; 11 were included in group 1 and 38 in group 2. There was no statistical difference between the two groups with regard to age or sex (P=0.781). An average of 5.81 mm was removed in the high condylectomy group, while an average of 9.28 mm was removed in the proportional condylectomy group; this difference was statistically significant (P=0.042). Comparing the two groups, proportional condylectomy reduced the need for secondary orthognathic surgery (P<0.001). The proportional condylectomy can be used as the sole surgical treatment in cases of UCH, thus avoiding the need for secondary orthognathic surgery. Copyright © 2015 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. One-step quantitative cortisol dipstick with proportional reading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leung, Wingman; Chan, Puiyee; Bosgoed, F.; Lehmann, Karin; Renneberg, Ilka; Lehmann, Matthias; Renneberg, Reinhard

    2003-01-01

    Rapid quantitative immuno-detection of haptens by the lateral flow assay without “typical” competitive inhibition results is studied. In the present study, we describe an immuno-threshold-based assay for the quantification of cortisol. It gives a signal which is directly proportional to the cortisol

  7. Proportional hazards modeling of saccadic response times during reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Mattias; Nivre, Joakim

    2013-07-01

    In this article we use proportional hazards models to examine how low-level processes affect the probability of making a saccade over time, through the period of fixation, during reading. We apply the Cox proportional hazards model to investigate how launch distance (relative to word beginning), fixation location (relative to word center), and word frequency affect the hazard of a saccadic response. This model requires that covariates have a constant impact on the hazard over time, the assumption of proportional hazards. We show that this assumption is not supported. The impact of the covariates changes with the time passed since fixation onset. To account for the non-proportional hazards we fit step functions of time, resulting in a model with time-varying effects on the hazard. We evaluate the ability to predict the timing of saccades on held-out fixation data. The model with time-varying effects performs better in predicting the timing of saccades for fixations as short as 100 ms and as long as 500 ms, when compared both to a baseline model without covariates and a model which assumes constant covariate effects. This result suggests that the time-varying effects model better recovers the time course of low-level processes that influence the decision to move the eyes. Copyright © 2013 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  8. Development of a honeycomb gas proportional counter array for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Development of a honeycomb gas proportional counter array for photon multiplicity measurements in high multiplicity environment. M S Ganti ... A novel gas-based detector using large arrays of honeycomb cells has been developed and tested for use as a pre-shower photon multiplicity detector (PMD) for STAR and ALICE ...

  9. Differences in body composition, body proportions and timing of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to assess differences in body composition, proportions and timing of puberty between stunted and non-stunted South African adolescents in the North West Province, South Africa. A total of 259 black adolescents (118 boys, 141 girls), aged 13-18 years were measured. The following data were ...

  10. The Principle of Proportionality in International Criminal Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venus GHAREH BAGHI

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The principle of proportionality indicated to, are that the criminal codes should contain specific maximums for crime or category of crimes. As to the applicable penalty, should be made distinctive not only between types of crimes but also between completed crimes and inchoate crimes. Unfortunately, the principle of proportionality is not obvious in substantive international law. Although the 1993 draft statute allowed for right of appeal against sentences where there was obvious disproportion between the crime and the sentence. The Tribunals’ Rules of Procedure and Evidence has been given additional directives on sentencing but The ICC Statute, does not provide precise penalties for specific crimes, despite the wide range of offenses and forms of participation that the court is called upon to judge.

  11. Proportional Distribution of Patient Satisfaction Scores by Clinical Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Leonard MD, MS

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Proportional Responsibility for Integrated Metrics by Encounter (PRIME model is a novel means of allocating patient experience scores based on the proportion of each physician's involvement in care. Secondary analysis was performed on Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems surveys from a tertiary care academic institution. The PRIME model was used to calculate specialty-level scores based on encounters during a hospitalization. Standard and PRIME scores for services with the most inpatient encounters were calculated. Hospital medicine had the most discharges and encounters. The standard model generated a score of 74.6, while the PRIME model yielded a score of 74.9. The standard model could not generate a score for anesthesiology due to the lack of returned surveys, but the PRIME model yielded a score of 84.2. The PRIME model provides a more equitable method for distributing satisfaction scores and can generate scores for specialties that the standard model cannot.

  12. Detecting selection-induced departures from Hardy-Weinberg proportions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachance, Joseph

    2009-01-21

    Viability selection influences the genotypic contexts of alleles and leads to quantifiable departures from Hardy-Weinberg proportions. One measure of these departures is Wright's inbreeding coefficient (F), where observed heterozygosity is compared with expected heterozygosity. Here, I extend population genetics theory to describe post-selection genotype frequencies in terms of post-selection allele frequencies and fitness dominance. The resulting equations correspond to non-equilibrium populations, allowing the following questions to be addressed: When selection is present, how large a sample size is needed to detect significant departures from Hardy-Weinberg? How do selection-induced departures from Hardy-Weinberg vary with allele frequencies and levels of fitness dominance? For realistic selection coefficients, large sample sizes are required and departures from Hardy-Weinberg proportions are small.

  13. A multiwire proportional counter for XAS fluorescence experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrea, R A; Tamura, E; Tolentino, H C

    2001-03-01

    A multiwire proportional counter was used in fluorescence X ray absorption measurements and a comparison to a Si(Li) and NaI(Tl) detectors was done. The main features of the multiwire proportional counter are its high counting rate capability (10(7)) counts x s(-1)) and large active area (6 x 6 cm2). It was shown that the MWPC is suitable for fluorescence absorption. Although the maximum capability was not reached in the present experiments, it was found that as the counting rate increase the MWPC performance became better than Si(Li) detectors and shows a similar response to the scintillator counter at medium counting rates (up to 10(5) counts x s(-1)).

  14. Exact Group Sequential Methods for Estimating a Binomial Proportion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengjia Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We first review existing sequential methods for estimating a binomial proportion. Afterward, we propose a new family of group sequential sampling schemes for estimating a binomial proportion with prescribed margin of error and confidence level. In particular, we establish the uniform controllability of coverage probability and the asymptotic optimality for such a family of sampling schemes. Our theoretical results establish the possibility that the parameters of this family of sampling schemes can be determined so that the prescribed level of confidence is guaranteed with little waste of samples. Analytic bounds for the cumulative distribution functions and expectations of sample numbers are derived. Moreover, we discuss the inherent connection of various sampling schemes. Numerical issues are addressed for improving the accuracy and efficiency of computation. Computational experiments are conducted for comparing sampling schemes. Illustrative examples are given for applications in clinical trials.

  15. Detecting selection-induced departures from Hardy-Weinberg proportions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachance, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Viability selection influences the genotypic contexts of alleles and leads to quantifiable departures from Hardy-Weinberg proportions. One measure of these departures is Wright's inbreeding coefficient (F), where observed heterozygosity is compared with expected heterozygosity. Here, I extend population genetics theory to describe post-selection genotype frequencies in terms of post-selection allele frequencies and fitness dominance. The resulting equations correspond to non-equilibrium populations, allowing the following questions to be addressed: When selection is present, how large a sample size is needed to detect significant departures from Hardy-Weinberg? How do selection-induced departures from Hardy-Weinberg vary with allele frequencies and levels of fitness dominance? For realistic selection coefficients, large sample sizes are required and departures from Hardy-Weinberg proportions are small. PMID:19284519

  16. Sur l'utilité de la carte en proportions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle DEBEER

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available Seule la carte en proportions révèle des répartitions de masses. Cette règle élémentaire de cartographie est rappelée ici par un exemple opérationnel: la répartition spatiale des logements chauffés à l'énergie solaire en Belgique.

  17. Finishing procedures in Orthodontics: dental dimensions and proportions (microesthetics)

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Carlos Bodart Brandão; Larissa Bustamente Capucho Brandão

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present article is to describe procedures that can be performed to achieve excellence in orthodontic treatment finishing. The content is limited to microesthetics, which comprises the concept of ideal dental dimensions and proportions (white esthetics) and its correlation with the periodontium (pink esthetics). Standards of normality are described both in their real dimensions (dental height and width), and in those effectively perceived by the observer, the vi...

  18. Constitutional Model and Rationality in Judicial Decisions from Proportionality Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Feio, Thiago Alves

    2016-01-01

    In the current legal systems, the content of the Constitutions consists of values that serve to limit state action. The department in charge of the control of this system is, usually, the Judiciary. This choice leads to two major problems, the tension between democracy and constitutionalism and the subjectivity that control. One of the solutions to subjectivity is weighting of principles through the proportionality technique, which aims to give rational decisions. This technique doesn’t elimi...

  19. Implicative analysis of strategies in solving proportional and nonproportional problems

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Verdú, Ceneida; Llinares Ciscar, Salvador; Valls González, Julia

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the implicative relationship among students’ strategies while solving proportional and nonproportional problems. We used the computer software CHIC to carry out an implicative statistical analysis of the strategies used in different types of problems. Our analysis showed that the use of some strategies was linked to characteristics of the problem, as the context and the type of relationship between numbers in the situation. The implicative analysis gene...

  20. Proportional drift tubes for large area muon detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, C.; Higashi, S.; Hiraoka, N.; Maruyama, A.; Okusawa, T.; Sato, T.; Suwada, T.; Takahashi, T.; Umeda, H.

    1985-01-01

    A proportional drift chamber which consists of eight rectangular drift tubes with cross section of 10 cm x 5 cm, a sense wire of 100 micron phi gold-plated tungsten wire and the length of 6 m, was tested using cosmic ray muons. Spatial resolution (rms) is between 0.5 and 1 mm over drift space of 50 mm, depending on incident angle and distance from sense wire.

  1. Pharmacokinetics and dose proportionality of ceftibuten in men.

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, C; Lim, J; Radwanski, E; Marco, A; Affrime, M

    1995-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics and dose proportionality of ceftibuten were evaluated in healthy male volunteers receiving single oral doses of 200, 400, and 800 mg of ceftibuten. The drug was absorbed with similar times to the maximum concentration of drug in plasma for all three doses. Concentrations of ceftibuten in plasma increased with increasing dose. Analysis of variance was carried out on the dose-adjusted values for the maximum concentration of drug in plasma and the area under the plasma conce...

  2. Proportion and Factors Associated with late Antenatal Care Booking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: Late booking, Antenatal care, Gondar Town. Résumé. La proportion de femmes enceintes qui commencent à fréquenter les centre des soins prénatals au cours du premier trimestre de grossesse est l'une des mesures de la performance clinique standard pour évaluer la qualité des soins de santé maternelle.

  3. Regularization Paths for Cox's Proportional Hazards Model via Coordinate Descent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah Simon

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a pathwise algorithm for the Cox proportional hazards model, regularized by convex combinations of l1 and l2 penalties (elastic net. Our algorithm fits via cyclical coordinate descent, and employs warm starts to find a solution along a regularization path. We demonstrate the efficacy of our algorithm on real and simulated data sets, and find considerable speedup between our algorithm and competing methods.

  4. Proportionality in enterprise development of South African towns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maitland T. Seaman

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated proportionalities in the enterprise structures of 125 South African towns through examining four hypotheses, (1 the magnitude of enterprise development in a town is a function of the population size of the town; (2 the size of an enterprise assemblage of a town is a function of the town’s age; (3 there are statistically significant relationships, and hence proportionalities, between the total number of enterprises in towns and some, if not all, of the enterprise numbers of different business sectors in towns; and (4 the implications of proportionalities have far-reaching implications for rural development and job creation. All hypotheses were accepted on the basis of statistically significant (p < 0.05 correlations, except for the second hypothesis – the age of a town does not determine the size of its enterprise assemblage. Analysis for the fourth hypothesis suggested that there are two broad entrepreneurial types in South African towns: ‘run-of-the-mill’ entrepreneurs and ‘special’ entrepreneurs, which give rise to different enterprise development dynamics. ‘Run-of-the-mill’ enterprises are dependent on, and limited by, local demand and if there is only a small demand, the entrepreneurial space is small. By comparison, ‘special’ enterprises have much larger markets because their products and/or services are exportable. We propose that the fostering of ‘special’ entrepreneurs is an imperative for local economic development in South African towns.

  5. Pharmacokinetics and dose proportionality of ceftibuten in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C; Lim, J; Radwanski, E; Marco, A; Affrime, M

    1995-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics and dose proportionality of ceftibuten were evaluated in healthy male volunteers receiving single oral doses of 200, 400, and 800 mg of ceftibuten. The drug was absorbed with similar times to the maximum concentration of drug in plasma for all three doses. Concentrations of ceftibuten in plasma increased with increasing dose. Analysis of variance was carried out on the dose-adjusted values for the maximum concentration of drug in plasma and the area under the plasma concentration-time curve; the results indicated that the concentrations in plasma after the 200- and 400-mg doses were dose proportional, and after the 800-mg of dose they were less than dose proportional. The elimination half-life from plasma ranged from 2.0 to 2.3 h and was independent of dose. The total excretion of unchanged ceftibuten in urine accounted for 53 to 68% of the dose, and the renal clearance was estimated to be 53 to 61 ml/min after all doses. The amount of ceftibuten-trans, the major in vitro and in vivo conversion product of ceftibuten, was low in both plasma and urine. PMID:7726498

  6. Body physique and proportionality of Brazilian female artistic gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacciotti, Sarita; Baxter-Jones, Adam; Gaya, Adroaldo; Maia, José

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to identify physique characteristics (anthropometry, somatotype, body proportionality) of Brazilian female artistic gymnasts, and to compare them across competitive levels (sub-elite versus non-elite) within competitive age-categories. Two hundred forty-nine female gymnasts (68 sub-elite; 181 non-elite) from 26 Brazilian gymnastics clubs, aged 9-20 years and split into four age-categories, were sampled. Gymnasts were assessed for 16 anthropometric traits (height, weight, lengths, widths, girths, and skinfolds); somatotype was determined according to Heath-Carter method, body fat was estimated by bioimpedance, and proportionality was computed based on the z-phantom strategy. Non-elite and sub-elite gymnasts had similar values in anthropometric characteristics, however non-elite had higher fat folds in all age-categories (P < 0.01). In general, mesomorphy was the salient somatotype component in all age-categories, and an increase in endomorphy, followed by a decrease in ectomorphy across age was observed. Regarding proportionality, profile similarity was found between sub-elite and non-elite within age-categories. In conclusion results suggest the presence of a typical gymnast's physical prototype across age and competitive level, which can be useful to coaches during their selection processes in clubs and regional/national teams.

  7. Energy Proportionality and Performance in Data Parallel Computing Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jinoh; Chou, Jerry; Rotem, Doron

    2011-02-14

    Energy consumption in datacenters has recently become a major concern due to the rising operational costs andscalability issues. Recent solutions to this problem propose the principle of energy proportionality, i.e., the amount of energy consumedby the server nodes must be proportional to the amount of work performed. For data parallelism and fault tolerancepurposes, most common file systems used in MapReduce-type clusters maintain a set of replicas for each data block. A coveringset is a group of nodes that together contain at least one replica of the data blocks needed for performing computing tasks. In thiswork, we develop and analyze algorithms to maintain energy proportionality by discovering a covering set that minimizesenergy consumption while placing the remaining nodes in lowpower standby mode. Our algorithms can also discover coveringsets in heterogeneous computing environments. In order to allow more data parallelism, we generalize our algorithms so that itcan discover k-covering sets, i.e., a set of nodes that contain at least k replicas of the data blocks. Our experimental results showthat we can achieve substantial energy saving without significant performance loss in diverse cluster configurations and workingenvironments.

  8. Pharmacokinetics and dose proportionality of ceftibuten in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C; Lim, J; Radwanski, E; Marco, A; Affrime, M

    1995-02-01

    The pharmacokinetics and dose proportionality of ceftibuten were evaluated in healthy male volunteers receiving single oral doses of 200, 400, and 800 mg of ceftibuten. The drug was absorbed with similar times to the maximum concentration of drug in plasma for all three doses. Concentrations of ceftibuten in plasma increased with increasing dose. Analysis of variance was carried out on the dose-adjusted values for the maximum concentration of drug in plasma and the area under the plasma concentration-time curve; the results indicated that the concentrations in plasma after the 200- and 400-mg doses were dose proportional, and after the 800-mg of dose they were less than dose proportional. The elimination half-life from plasma ranged from 2.0 to 2.3 h and was independent of dose. The total excretion of unchanged ceftibuten in urine accounted for 53 to 68% of the dose, and the renal clearance was estimated to be 53 to 61 ml/min after all doses. The amount of ceftibuten-trans, the major in vitro and in vivo conversion product of ceftibuten, was low in both plasma and urine.

  9. LDPC Codes with Minimum Distance Proportional to Block Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Jones, Christopher; Dolinar, Samuel; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    Low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes characterized by minimum Hamming distances proportional to block sizes have been demonstrated. Like the codes mentioned in the immediately preceding article, the present codes are error-correcting codes suitable for use in a variety of wireless data-communication systems that include noisy channels. The previously mentioned codes have low decoding thresholds and reasonably low error floors. However, the minimum Hamming distances of those codes do not grow linearly with code-block sizes. Codes that have this minimum-distance property exhibit very low error floors. Examples of such codes include regular LDPC codes with variable degrees of at least 3. Unfortunately, the decoding thresholds of regular LDPC codes are high. Hence, there is a need for LDPC codes characterized by both low decoding thresholds and, in order to obtain acceptably low error floors, minimum Hamming distances that are proportional to code-block sizes. The present codes were developed to satisfy this need. The minimum Hamming distances of the present codes have been shown, through consideration of ensemble-average weight enumerators, to be proportional to code block sizes. As in the cases of irregular ensembles, the properties of these codes are sensitive to the proportion of degree-2 variable nodes. A code having too few such nodes tends to have an iterative decoding threshold that is far from the capacity threshold. A code having too many such nodes tends not to exhibit a minimum distance that is proportional to block size. Results of computational simulations have shown that the decoding thresholds of codes of the present type are lower than those of regular LDPC codes. Included in the simulations were a few examples from a family of codes characterized by rates ranging from low to high and by thresholds that adhere closely to their respective channel capacity thresholds; the simulation results from these examples showed that the codes in question have low

  10. PRINCIPLE OF PROPORTIONALITY, CRITERION OF LEGITIMACY IN THE PUBLIC LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIUS ANDREESCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A problem of essence of the state is the one to delimit the discretionary power, respectively the power abuse in the activity of the state’s institutions. The legal behavior of the state’s institutions consists in their right to appreciate them and the power excess generates the violation of a subjective right or of the right that is of legitimate interest to the citizen. The application and nonobservance of the principle of lawfulness in the activities of the state is a complex problem because the exercise of the state’s functions assumes the discretionary powers with which the states authorities are invested, or otherwise said the ‘right of appreciation” of the authorities regarding the moment of adopting the contents of the measures proposed. The discretionary power cannot be opposed to the principle of lawfulness, as a dimension of the state de jure. In this study we propose to analyze the concept of discretionary power, respectively the power excess, having as a guidance the legislation, jurisprudence and doctrine in the matter. At the same time we would like to identify the most important criterions that will allow the user, regardless that he is or not an administrator, a public clerk or a judge, to delimit the legal behavior of the state’s institutions from the power excess. Within this context, we appreciate that the principle of proportionality represents such a criterion. The proportionality is a legal principle of the law, but at the same time it is a principle of the constitutional law and of other law branches. It expresses clearly the idea of balance, reasonability but also of adjusting the measures ordered by the state’s authorities to the situation in fact, respectively to the purpose for which they have been conceived. In our study we choose theoretical and jurisprudence arguments according to which the principle of proportionality can procedurally be determined and used to delimit the discretionary power and

  11. High proportion of male faeces in jaguar populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Palomares

    Full Text Available Faeces provide relevant biological information which includes, with the application of genetic techniques, the sex and identity of individuals that defecated, thus providing potentially useful data on the behaviour and ecology of individuals, as well as the dynamics and structure of populations. This paper presents estimates of the sex ratio of different felid species (jaguar, Panthera onca; puma, Puma concolor; and ocelot/margay, Leopardus pardalis/Leopardus wiedi as observed in field collected faeces, and proposes several hypotheses that could explain the strikingly high proportion of faeces from male jaguars. The proportion of male and female faeces was estimated using a non-invasive faecal sampling method in 14 study areas in Mexico and Brazil. Faecal samples were genetically analysed to identify the species, the sex and the individual (the latter only for samples identified as belonging to jaguars. Considering the three species, 72.6% of faeces (n = 493 were from males; however, there were significant differences among them, with the proportion from males being higher for jaguars than for pumas and ocelots/margays. A male-bias was consistently observed in all study areas for jaguar faeces, but not for the other species. For jaguars the trend was the same when considering the number of individuals identified (n = 68, with an average of 4.2±0.56 faeces per male and 2.0±0.36 per female. The observed faecal marking patterns might be related to the behaviour of female jaguars directed toward protecting litters from males, and in both male and female pumas, to prevent interspecific aggressions from male jaguars. The hypothesis that there are effectively more males than females in jaguar populations cannot be discarded, which could be due to the fact that females are territorial and males are not, or a tendency for males to disperse into suboptimal areas for the species.

  12. Generalized Proportional Integral Control for an Unmanned Quadrotor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Fernández-Caballero

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a generalized proportional integral (GPI control approach is presented for regulation and trajectory tracking problems in a nonlinear, multivariable quadrotor system model. In the feedback control law, no asymptotic observers or time discretizations are needed in the feedback loop. The GPI controller guarantees the asymptotically and exponentially stable behaviour of the controlled quadrotor position and orientation, as well as the possibilities of carrying out trajectory tracking tasks. The simulation results presented in the paper show that the proposed method exhibits very good stabilization and tracking performance in the presence of atmospheric disturbances and noise measurements.

  13. The simulation analysis for cartridge proportional flow valve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Peng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical and electrical integration is an important direction for future development of the industry. There are many products in hydraulic filed. By connecting electrical and mechanical, we can obtain more precise displacement, velocity and force of controlled object. The simulation can reduct the model and evaluate the performance of the controlled system. The overall development time and costs saved. The aim of the paper is to build a model of cartridge proportional flow valve with LMS Imagine.lab -AMESim and validate the accuracy of the built model by comparing with products catalogue.

  14. Monte Carlo algorithms for Hardy-Weinberg proportions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Mark; Chen, Yuguo; Dinwoodie, Ian; Dobra, Adrian; Nicholas, Mike

    2006-03-01

    The Hardy-Weinberg law is among the most important principles in the study of biological systems. Given its importance, many tests have been devised to determine whether a finite population follows Hardy-Weinberg proportions. Because asymptotic tests can fail, Guo and Thompson developed an exact test; unfortunately, the Monte Carlo method they proposed to evaluate their test has a running time that grows linearly in the size of the population N. Here, we propose a new algorithm whose expected running time is linear in the size of the table produced, and completely independent of N. In practice, this new algorithm can be considerably faster than the original method.

  15. Average and Asymptotic Properties of Apportionment Methods for Proportional Representation

    OpenAIRE

    Schwingenschlögl, Udo

    2006-01-01

    Because in democratic systems the electoral outcome decides on the line of future policy, the process of voting is of great importance for society. In general, an election consists of two parts, both influencing its result. In the first step, each voter gives his vote to one of the parties participating in the election. The numbers of votes in favor of the competing parties then give rise to vote proportions, which specify the share of voters supporting a party. In the second step, almost con...

  16. A multiwire proportional counter for very high counting rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, A.F.; Guedes, G.P. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Tamura, E. [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS), Campinas, SP (Brazil); Pepe, I.M.; Oliveira, N.B. [Bahia Univ., Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    1997-12-01

    Preliminary measurements in a proportional counter with two independently counting wires showed that counting rates up to 10{sup 6} counts/s per wire can be reached without critical loss in the true versus measured linearity relation. Results obtained with a detector containing 30 active wires (2 mm pitch) are presented. To each wire is associated a fast pre-amplifier and a discriminator channel. Global counting rates in excess to 10{sup 7} events/s are reported. Data acquisition systems are described for 1D (real time) and 2D (off-line) position sensitive detection systems. (author) 13 refs., 6 figs.

  17. The arcsine is asinine: the analysis of proportions in ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warton, David I; Hui, Francis K C

    2011-01-01

    The arcsine square root transformation has long been standard procedure when analyzing proportional data in ecology, with applications in data sets containing binomial and non-binomial response variables. Here, we argue that the arcsine transform should not be used in either circumstance. For binomial data, logistic regression has greater interpretability and higher power than analyses of transformed data. However, it is important to check the data for additional unexplained variation, i.e., overdispersion, and to account for it via the inclusion of random effects in the model if found. For non-binomial data, the arcsine transform is undesirable on the grounds of interpretability, and because it can produce nonsensical predictions. The logit transformation is proposed as an alternative approach to address these issues. Examples are presented in both cases to illustrate these advantages, comparing various methods of analyzing proportions including untransformed, arcsine- and logit-transformed linear models and logistic regression (with or without random effects). Simulations demonstrate that logistic regression usually provides a gain in power over other methods.

  18. [Survey on changes in the proportion for facial aesthetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Shize; Wu, Qizhen; Shi, Qingmei; Lei, Shaorong

    2016-12-28

    To explore the proportion for facial aesthetics that may be recognized by the potential group who will do plastic surgery in the future. 
 Methods: We measured the celebrity photos, who were born before 1980 recognizable by the people over 40 years old or by high school students. The proportions for facial aesthetics recognizable by these two generations were obtained and compared. 
 Results: Compared the new generation of male celebrities with the older generation of male celebrities, the difference was statistically significant by the independent samples t test (t=-2.502, P0.05). Compared the new generation of female celebrities with the older generation of female celebrities, the difference was statistically significant by the independent samples t test. The ratios between inter-canthic diameter and eyeslit breadth, mouth breadth and eyeslit breadth, stirnhohe and 1/3 of the physiognomic facial height, nasal height and 1/3 of the physiognomic facial height were significantly different (P0.05).
 Conclusion: The young new generation loves more larger eyeslit breadth for men, while a larger eyeslit breadth, smaller bizygomatic breadth and sharper chin for women.

  19. Aesthetics of the Nasal Dorsum: Proportions, Light, and Shadow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krane, Natalie A; Markey, Jeffrey D; Moneta, Lauren B; Kim, Michael M

    2017-04-01

    Due to its central location, the nose plays a prominent role in facial aesthetics. As tastes have shifted and techniques have advanced, the accepted "ideal" appearance and proportions of the nose have evolved over time. By assessing the aesthetics of the nasal dorsum through the use of lines and angles, one can more precisely elucidate a goal for the patient's postoperative nasal shape, which should, in turn, guide the surgeon to execute specific operative maneuvers needed to achieve that contour. In assessing the aesthetics of the nasal dorsum, practitioners calculate and observe aspects such as the paired dorsal aesthetic lines, the nasofrontal angle, and the nasofacial angle. There is also additional consideration given to nasal tip position as this must fit harmoniously with the shape of the dorsum. In contrast to the established aesthetic lines and angles, using nasal geometric polygons for the aesthetic evaluation and development of operative goals in rhinoplasty has recently been described in the literature. Constructed ideals, in the form of proportions, lines, and angles, should be used with caution, as there are many factors to consider in the aesthetic analysis of the nasal dorsum, including ethnic differences, and subjective and changing views of beauty. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  20. Fitting stratified proportional odds models by amalgamating conditional likelihoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Bhramar; Ahn, Jaeil; Liu, Ivy; Rathouz, Paul J; Sánchez, Brisa N

    2008-10-30

    Classical methods for fitting a varying intercept logistic regression model to stratified data are based on the conditional likelihood principle to eliminate the stratum-specific nuisance parameters. When the outcome variable has multiple ordered categories, a natural choice for the outcome model is a stratified proportional odds or cumulative logit model. However, classical conditioning techniques do not apply to the general K-category cumulative logit model (K>2) with varying stratum-specific intercepts as there is no reduction due to sufficiency; the nuisance parameters remain in the conditional likelihood. We propose a methodology to fit stratified proportional odds model by amalgamating conditional likelihoods obtained from all possible binary collapsings of the ordinal scale. The method allows for categorical and continuous covariates in a general regression framework. We provide a robust sandwich estimate of the variance of the proposed estimator. For binary exposures, we show equivalence of our approach to the estimators already proposed in the literature. The proposed recipe can be implemented very easily in standard software. We illustrate the methods via three real data examples related to biomedical research. Simulation results comparing the proposed method with a random effects model on the stratification parameters are also furnished. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Global Partial Likelihood for Nonparametric Proportional Hazards Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kani; Guo, Shaojun; Sun, Liuquan; Wang, Jane-Ling

    2010-01-01

    As an alternative to the local partial likelihood method of Tibshirani and Hastie and Fan, Gijbels, and King, a global partial likelihood method is proposed to estimate the covariate effect in a nonparametric proportional hazards model, λ(t|x) = exp{ψ(x)}λ(0)(t). The estimator, ψ̂(x), reduces to the Cox partial likelihood estimator if the covariate is discrete. The estimator is shown to be consistent and semiparametrically efficient for linear functionals of ψ(x). Moreover, Breslow-type estimation of the cumulative baseline hazard function, using the proposed estimator ψ̂(x), is proved to be efficient. The asymptotic bias and variance are derived under regularity conditions. Computation of the estimator involves an iterative but simple algorithm. Extensive simulation studies provide evidence supporting the theory. The method is illustrated with the Stanford heart transplant data set. The proposed global approach is also extended to a partially linear proportional hazards model and found to provide efficient estimation of the slope parameter. This article has the supplementary materials online.

  2. Proportion of Population Employed in Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Variable was created as part of a set of indicators that demonstrate links between the condition of natural areas and human concerns and that quantify dependencies...

  3. Proportion of Employed Population in Mining in 2020

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Variable was created as part of a set of indicators that demonstrate links between the condition of natural areas and human concerns and that quantify dependencies...

  4. Imaging performance of a multiwire proportional-chamber positron camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Mandez, V.; Del Guerra, A.; Nelson, W.R.; Tam, K.C.

    1982-08-01

    A new design - fully three-dimensional - Positron Camera is presented, made of six MultiWire Proportional Chamber modules arranged to form the lateral surface of a hexagonal prism. A true coincidence rate of 56000 c/s is expected with an equal accidental rate for a 400 ..mu..Ci activity uniformly distributed in a approx. 3 l water phantom. A detailed Monte Carlo program has been used to investigate the dependence of the spatial resolution on the geometrical and physical parameters. A spatial resolution of 4.8 mm FWHM has been obtained for a /sup 18/F point-like source in a 10 cm radius water phantom. The main properties of the limited angle reconstruction algorithms are described in relation to the proposed detector geometry.

  5. Method of proportioning stone to stowing installations underground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szafarczyk, J.; Kubek, F.

    1992-07-01

    Reviews types of stowing intallations and the technology of supplying after-washing stone used. It is recommended to take advantage of downward inclined stowing pipeline sections for underground feeding of the stowing stone. Calculation of the mass of stone fed to a stowing pipeline is explained. First experience of using the method in the Jankowice black coal mine in 1991 is reported on. About 8,000 t of stone were stowed using the method during 7 months. The stowing installation consists of a tippler, a belt conveyor and a batcher of about 10 m[sup 3]. The capacity of the installation is 30 m[sup 3]/h. Suitable proportions of slag-crushed stone mixtures are recommended.

  6. A prototype low-background multiwire proportional chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Z.; Bowles, M. A.; Bunker, R.; Golwala, S. R.; Grant, D. R.; Kos, M.; Nelson, R. H.; Rider, A.; Schnee, R. W.; Sotolongo, D.; Wang, B.; Zahn, A.

    2014-01-01

    A prototype multiwire proportional chamber (MWPC) was developed to demonstrate the feasibility of constructing a radiopure time projection chamber with MWPC track readout to assay materials for alpha- and beta-emitting surface contaminants for future rare-event-search experiments as well as other scientific fields. The design features and assembly techniques described here are motivated by the position and energy resolution required to reconstruct alpha and beta tracks while efficiently rejecting backgrounds. Results from a test setup using an 55Fe x-ray source indicate excellent operational stability and a near-ideal energy resolution of 15.8% FWHM at 5.89 keV and a gas gain of ~ 104.

  7. On the energy resolution obtained with a multistep proportional counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, B. D.; Weisskopf, M. C.

    1986-01-01

    Results of laboratory experiments with a standard multiwire imaging proportional counter (MWPC), modified to include a parallel grid preamplification stage are presented. Both argon and xenon were used as the primary absorbing gas in conjunction with a number of quench gases. It is found that extremely good energy resolution is obtained from the preamplification stage, almost independent of the ionization potential of the quench gas and over a broad range of gains. Furthermore, regardless of absorbing gas or quench agent, there was no difficulty in transferring a portion of this preamplified charge to the MWPC section for multistep mode operation. Finally, even for overall system gains greater than 10,000, the energy resolution from the second stage is found to be significantly improved, as long as the preamplification stage is operating. These results should have wide application and are of special interest for X-ray astronomy.

  8. Mixtures of organic and inorganic substrates, particle size and proportion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Raymundo Morales-Maldonado

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to review the mixtures of organic and inorganic materials used in the preparation of a new material, particle size, proportion, and their response in plant. In Mexico, agricultural waste is considered as a pollutant reservoir; however, from another perspective, this represents an industry with great potential. The nutrients ingested by animals represent nutriments available for plants when properly recycled. An option that minimizes the risk of contamination and improves its quality is the production of compost and vermicompost. Both processes are an alternative to organic production. A material by itself does not meet the optimum conditions. Reducing the volume of an organic material increases compaction and compression of roots, affecting the efficiency of irrigation and fertilization, so it is necessary to make mixtures with inorganic materials, that is used in the development of a new material for better growing conditions of the plant.

  9. Constant Proportion Portfolio Insurance Strategies in Contagious Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buccioli, Alice; Kokholm, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    charging and for risk management. The literature on CPPI modeling typically assumes diffusive or Lévy-driven dynamics for the risky asset underlying the strategy. In either case the self-contagious nature of asset prices is not taken into account. In order to account for contagion while preserving......Constant Proportion Portfolio Insurance (CPPI) strategies are popular as they allow to gear up the upside potential of a stock index while limiting its downside risk. From the issuer's perspective it is important to adequately assess the risks associated with the CPPI, both for correct "gap'' fee......-time rebalancing rules governing the CPPI product. When rebalancing is performed on a frequency less than weekly, failing to take contagion into account will significantly underestimate the risks of the CPPI. Finally, in order to mimic a situation with low liquidity, we impose a daily trading cap on the risky...

  10. Design of pneumatic proportional flow valve type 5/3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laski, P. A.; Pietrala, D. S.; Zwierzchowski, J.; Czarnogorski, K.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper the 5/3-way pneumatic, proportional flow valve was designed and made. Stepper linear actuator was used to move the spool. The valve is controlled by the controlled based on a AVR microcontroller. Virtual model of the valve was created in CAD. The real element was made based on a standard 5/3-way manually actuated valve with hand lever, which was dismounted and replaced by linear stepper motor. All the elements was mounted in a specially made housing. The controller consists of microcontroller Atmega16, integrated circuit L293D, display, two potentiometers, three LEDs and six buttons. Series of research was also conducted. Simulation research were performed using CFD by the Flow Simulation addition to SolidWorks. During the experiments the valve characteristics of flow and pressure was determined.

  11. Penalized estimation for proportional hazards models with current status data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Minggen; Li, Chin-Shang

    2017-12-30

    We provide a simple and practical, yet flexible, penalized estimation method for a Cox proportional hazards model with current status data. We approximate the baseline cumulative hazard function by monotone B-splines and use a hybrid approach based on the Fisher-scoring algorithm and the isotonic regression to compute the penalized estimates. We show that the penalized estimator of the nonparametric component achieves the optimal rate of convergence under some smooth conditions and that the estimators of the regression parameters are asymptotically normal and efficient. Moreover, a simple variance estimation method is considered for inference on the regression parameters. We perform 2 extensive Monte Carlo studies to evaluate the finite-sample performance of the penalized approach and compare it with the 3 competing R packages: C1.coxph, intcox, and ICsurv. A goodness-of-fit test and model diagnostics are also discussed. The methodology is illustrated with 2 real applications. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Biologic rationale of esthetic crown lengthening using innovative proportion gauges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Research shows that practitioners tend to underestimate the amount of tooth structure that must be exposed during a crown lengthening procedure. In the anterior portion of the mouth, this can lead to biologic width problems and subsequent cosmetic issues. This paper presents a biologically based, step-by-step approach to periodontal esthetic crown lengthening. Using a series of innovative measuring gauges, the ideal clinical crown length of a tooth as well as the proper occlusogingival placement of the interproximal papilla will be determined based on established, documented tooth proportion relationships. The biologic crown length of the tooth, defined as the distance from the incisal edge to the bone crest, will subsequently be determined as a function of the clinical crown length, with the ultimate goals being adequate tooth structure for the placement of a restorative margin, establishment of a healthy dentogingival complex, and the placement of an esthetically pleasing definitive restoration.

  13. Debris and meteoroid proportions deduced from impact crater residue analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthoud, Lucinda; Mandeville, Jean-Claude; Durin, Christian; Borg, Janet

    1995-01-01

    This study is a further investigation of space-exposed samples recovered from the LDEF satellite and the Franco-Russian 'Aragatz' dust collection experiment on the Mir Space Station. Impact craters with diameters ranging from 1 to 900 micron were found on the retrieved samples. Elemental analysis of residues found in the impact craters was carried out using Energy Dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX). The analyses show evidence of micrometeoroid and orbital debris origins for the impacts. The proportions of these two components vary according to particle size and experimental position with respect to the leading edge of the spacecraft. On the LDEF leading edge 17 percent of the impacts were apparently caused by micrometeoroids and 11 percent by debris; on the LDEF trailing edge 23 percent of the impacts are apparently caused by micrometeoroids and 4 percent consist of debris particles - mostly larger than 3 micron in diameter - in elliptical orbits around the Earth. For Mir, the analyses indicate that micrometeoroids form 23 percent of impacts and debris 9 percent. However, we note that 60-70 percent of the craters are unidentifiable, so the definitive proportions of natural v. man-made particles are yet to be determined. Experiments carried out using a light gas gun to accelerate glass spheres and fragments demonstrate the influence of particle shape on crater morphology. The experiments also show that it is more difficult to analyze the residues produced by an irregular fragment than those produced by a spherical projectile. If the particle is travelling above a certain velocity, it vaporizes upon impact and no residues are left. Simulation experiments carried out with an electrostatic accelerator indicate that this limit is about 14 km/s for Fe particles impacting Al targets. This chemical analysis cut-off may bias interpretations of the relative populations of meteoroid and orbital debris. Oblique impacts and multiple foil detectors provide a higher likelihood

  14. Boosted PWM open loop control of hydraulic proportional valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amirante, R.; Catalano, L.A. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica e Gestionale, Politecnico di Bari, Via Re David 200, 70125 Bari (Italy); Innone, A. [Universita degli Studi di Foggia, via Napoli, 25 Foggia (Italy)

    2008-08-15

    This paper presents an innovative open loop control technique for direct single stage hydraulic proportional valves whose response rate is significantly higher than that obtained by standard open loop control techniques, even comparable to more costly commercial closed loop systems. Different from standard open loop techniques, which provide the coil with a constant current proportional to the target position, the control strategy proposed in this paper employs the peak and hold (P and H) technique, widely used in Diesel engine modern supply systems, to boost the duty cycle value of the pulse width modulation (PWM) signal for a short time, namely during the spool displacement, while maintaining a lower duty cycle for holding the spool in the required opening position. The developed 'boosted PWM' technique only requires a low cost microcontroller, such as a peripheral interface controller (PIC) equipped with a metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) power driver. The PWM parameters are calibrated as a function of the spool displacement so as to maximize the response rate without introducing overshoots: the collected data are stored in the PIC. Different valve opening procedures with step response have been compared to demonstrate the merits of the proposed boosted PWM technique. No overshoots have been registered. Moreover, the proposed method is characterized by a significantly higher response rate with respect to a standard open loop control, which approximately has the same cost. Similar experimental tests show that the proposed boosted PWM technique has a response rate even higher than that provided by the more costly commercial closed loop system mounted on the valve, and it produces no overshoots. (author)

  15. Improved yield of minimal proportional sample volume platelet bacterial culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, Hany; Townsend, Mary; Bravo, Marjorie; Vassallo, Ralph R

    2017-10-01

    Reports of septic transfusion reactions (STRs) after transfusion of culture-negative platelets (PLTs) justify more effective prevention strategies. Pathogen reduction technologies or performance of additional point-of-issue testing are proposed strategies to enhance safety through Day 5 of storage. Trima leukoreduced apheresis PLTs (APs) were collected during two study periods (45 and 31 months) using standard procedures, with target settings adjusted during the second period to maintain split rate after increased culture volume. Primary testing for bacterial contamination was performed using BacT/ALERT 3D with sampling from the mother bag 24 to 36 hours after collection. Two culture approaches were compared: in Period A, an 8-mL sample in one aerobic culture bottle (CB), and in Period B a minimal proportional sample volume (PSV) of at least 3.8% of mother bag volume into one to three aerobic CBs (7-10 mL per bottle). In Periods A and B, 188,389 and 159,098 AP collections were tested, respectively. The true-positive (TP) rate in Period A was 0.90 per 10,000 collections and in Period B was 1.83 per 10,000 (p collections, was significantly higher than that of Period A, 3.66 per 10,000. One contaminated collection resulting in STR(s) was reported in each study period. Implementation of PSV was operationally successful and did not impact the AP split rate. Proportional sample volume improved the sensitivity of primary testing and identified collections that could have escaped detection had only a single bottle with 8- to 10-mL volume been used. PSV may represent another approach to enhanced PLT safety for 5-day storage without a requirement for secondary testing. © 2017 AABB.

  16. [Respiratory work and pattern with different proportional assist ventilation levels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Ferrón, Francisco; Machado, Juan; Morante, Antonia; Galindo, Silvia; Castillo, Ana; Rucabado, Luis

    2009-01-01

    To study the minimum assistance level during proportional assist ventilation (PAV) to decrease the work of breathing to physiological limits (0.6 j/l) and the relationship between breathing pattern changes and respiratory effort at different PAV levels. Prospective cohort study. Polyvalent intensive care unit of a teaching hospital of Jaen, Spain. Twelve long-term mechanical ventilated patients who met criteria to initiate weaning from the ventilator. We used the Puritan-Bennett 840 ventilator in proportional assist ventilation. The percentage of support was randomly modified between 5% and 80%, in intervals of 10%. Prior to the change in the PAV level, the patients were ventilated in assist-volume control followed by pressure support ventilation. Before PAV, we measured the respiratory mechanics and the breathing pattern and work of breathing during this mode. The decrease in respiratory assist in PAV was related to significantly higher work of breathing, this going from 0.2+/-0,07 (0.1-0.3) j/l with PAV80 to 0.9+/-0.2 (0.4-1.5) j/l with PAV5 (p=0.002). The coefficient correlation between PAV level and work of breathing (measured as j/l and j/min) was r=-0.8 and -0.6, respectively. Minimum PAV level related with physiological work of breathing was 30% (0.63+/-0.13 j/l). Except for the tidal volume that increased significantly (PAV80 vs PAV5=0.4+/-0.1 vs 0.3+/-0.1; p=0.02), the remaining variables defining the breathing pattern did not changed with the increase in PAV. In the group of patients studied, the increase in the PAV levels decreases work of breathing, without significantly changing the breathing pattern. Levels lower than 30% of PAV are associated to excessive work of breathing.

  17. Effect of vibrotactile feedback on an EMG-based proportional cursor control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shunchong; Chen, Xingyu; Zhang, Dingguo; Sheng, Xinjun; Zhu, Xiangyang

    2013-01-01

    Surface electromyography (sEMG) has been introduced into the bio-mechatronics systems, however, most of them are lack of the sensory feedback. In this paper, the effect of vibrotactile feedback for a myoelectric cursor control system is investigated quantitatively. Simultaneous and proportional control signals are extracted from EMG using a muscle synergy model. Different types of feedback including vibrotactile feedback and visual feedback are added, assessed and compared with each other. The results show that vibrotactile feedback is capable of improving the performance of EMG-based human machine interface.

  18. Body proportions of Australopithecus afarensis and A. africanus and the origin of the genus Homo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHenry, H M; Berger, L R

    1998-07-01

    New discoveries of A. africanus fossils from Member 4 Sterkfontein reveal a body form quite unlike earlier Australopithecus species. The new adult material consists of over 48 fore- and hindlimb specimens and includes an associated partial skeleton, Stw 431. The forelimbs and relatively large: the average size of their joints corresponds to a modern human with body mass of 53 kg. The hindlimbs are much smaller with an average size matching a modern human of only 33 kg. Analyses of the Stw 431 partial skeleton confirm these results. In contrast, A. afarensis and anamensis more closely approximate a human pattern of forelimb joint size. This is an unanticipated complication in our understanding of early human evolution. In general, craniodental morphology tracks time in species of Australopithecus: A. anamensis (3.5-4.1 Ma) is the the most primitive with a strongly sloping symphysis, large canine roots, etc., A. afarensis (3.0-3.6 Ma) is less primitive, and A. africanus (2.6-3.0 Ma) shares many derived characteristics with early Homo (e.g., expanded brain, reduced canine, bicuspid lower third premolar, reduced prognathism, greater flexion of the cranial base, deeper TMJ). the new postcranial material, however, reveals an apparently primitive morphology of relatively large forelimb and small hindlimb joints resembling more the pongid than the human pattern. More pongid-like proportions are also present in the two known associated partial skeletons of H. habilis (OH 62 KNM-ER 3735). This may imply either (1) that A. africanus and H. habilis evolved craniodental characters in parallel with the lineage leading to later Homo, or (2) that fore- to hindlimb proportions of A. afarensis (and perhaps A. anamensis) evolved independent of the lineage leading to Homo and does not imply a close phylogenetic link with Homo. Both of these explanations or any other phylogeny imply homoplasy.

  19. High proportion of mosquito vectors in Zika forest, Uganda, feeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a steady increase in the contact between humans and wildlife, brought about by encroachment, destruction of natural forests, climatic and environmental changes. Mosquitoes get exposed to hosts and pathogens; creating possibilities for new disease patterns. Therefore, the identification of blood-meal sources is ...

  20. Conflicts between domestic inequality and global poverty: lexicality versus proportionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco García Gibson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Current views on global justice often hold that affluent states are under at least two duties: a duty to reduce socioeconomic inequalities at home and a duty to reduce extreme poverty abroad. Potential duty conflicts deriving from resource scarcity can be solved in broadly two principled ways. The ‘lexical’ principle requires all disputed resources to be allocated to the weightiest duty. The ‘proportionality’ principle requires resources to be distributed between the two duties according to their relative weight (the weightiest duty receives the largest resource share, but the less weighty duty receives a share too. I argue that the proportionality principle is morally preferable. I show that it is sensitive to a number of factors that are intuitively relevant when solving duty conflicts: the number of affected individuals, the size of the benefits each individual could get, and the time it could take to eventually comply with the less weighty duty. Some argue that the lexical principle should nevertheless be preferred because domestic egalitarian duties are duties of justice, and they are therefore lexically prior to mere humanitarian duties to reduce global poverty. I reject this view by showing that duties of justice are not necessarily lexically prior to humanitarian duties, and that (even if they were duties to reduce global poverty can be regarded as duties of justice too.

  1. Facial approximation: evaluation of dental and facial proportions with height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esan, T A; Oziegbe, O E; Onapokya, H O

    2012-03-01

    Fabrication of complete dentures requires the use of certain guidelines which are placed on the bite blocks to assist the clinician to have the maxillary anterior teeth restored to optimal dento-labial relations, in harmony with the overall facial appearance. To explore if any relationship exists between dental and facial proportions as well as the height of the individuals. Two hundred and four dental students of the Obafemi Awolowo University volunteered to participated in the study. The lower facial height, inter incisal, inter canine, and intercommisure distances, as well as the height of the participants were measured. The data were imputed, analyzed, and reported as simple frequency, means and standard deviations using the SPSS vs 11. Statistical significance was inferred at pfacial height, and the height of the participants with the intercommissural distance. Hence, intercommissural distance may not be used in marking canine line during bite registration procedure. At best, 1.75-2.45 cm should be subtracted from the intercommissural distance to determine the intercanine distance.

  2. Flexible proportional-rate scheduling for OFDMA system

    KAUST Repository

    Leith, Alex

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we study the sum-rate maximization algorithms for downlink and uplink orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) systems under proportional-rate constraint (PRC) and minimum-rate constraint. We develop a low-complexity weighted channel signal-to-noise ratio (w-SNR)-based ranking scheme for user selection on each subchannel in OFDMA combined with waterfilling (WF) power allocation. Both offline and online optimization algorithms are developed to optimize the SNR weight vector to maximize the sum rate while satisfying several constraints, such as PRC. The offline weight optimization technique relies on the analytical throughput results developed in this paper, and the online weight adaptation method tracks the user rates and meets the PRC using a subgradient search. Furthermore, we introduce a novel SNR operating region test to enhance the multiuser diversity gain and the sum rate. The proposed schemes have a low complexity, which is linear to the numbers of users and subchannels. Simulation results verify the accuracy of the developed analytical rates and fairness formulas, and show that the proposed w-SNR schemes can achieve higher sum rates than several benchmark schemes that provide the PRC with either short-term or long-term fairness. © 2013 IEEE. © 2013 ESO.

  3. The European ‘Nomofilachia’ and the Principle of Proportionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio BARONE

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available *The European Court of Justice greatly contributes to the guarantees that Community law will be uniformly interpreted and applied (“nomofilachia” and the rights which individuals derive from the Community legal order will be effectively protected. This essay analyses some aspects of the European Union “nomofilachia”; the research is developed in two steps which are strictly correlated. In the first part, it will be underlined how the uniform interpretation and the uniform application of EC law go beyond the provisions of art. 234 of the EC Treat; and are supported by new kind of relations among the Court of Justice, national courts and national administrations. In the second part of the research, it will be highlighted the impact of the general principles of the European Community legal system, moulded through the “nomofilachia” function of the Luxembourg Court, as regards the activities of national administrations. The analysis gives a particular attention to the evolutionary dynamics of the proportionality principle. All these aspects work in a contemporary context of deep transformation of the traditional relations among law, courts, administrations and citizens. * This essay is the joint work of both authors with Barone primary responsible for paragraph 1,2,3,4,9 and Ansaldi for paragraph 5,6,7,8.

  4. Boron-lined proportional counters with improved neutron sensitivity

    CERN Document Server

    Dighe, P M; Prasad, K R; Kataria, S K; Athavale, S N; Pappachan, A L; Grover, A K

    2003-01-01

    Boron-lined proportional counters with higher neutron sensitivity have been developed by introducing baffle structures within the sensitive volume. the results are compared to devices developed with multiple cathode assemblies in a single enclosure. in either case, the increase in the boron-coated surface area results in higher neutron sensitivity. one of these counters has 51 annular baffles coated with natural boron with 10 mm hole for the anode wire to pass through. filled with p-10 gas at 20 cm hg, it has an overall diameter of 30 and 300 mm length. multiple dip coating method was employed for better uniformity in boron thickness. the neutron sensitivity of this counter is 1.6 cps/nv, which is 2.5 times that of a counter with standard electrode geometry. another counter was developed with three cathode assemblies (30 mm IDx300 mm) coated with 92% sup 1 sup 0 B while the third has seven assemblies coated with natural boron (16 mm IDx750 mm length). the neutron sensitivity is 10 and 5.5 cps/nv, respectively...

  5. A surface EMG test tool to measure proportional prosthetic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturma, Agnes; Roche, Aidan D; Göbel, Peter; Herceg, Malvina; Ge, Nan; Fialka-Moser, Veronika; Aszmann, Oskar

    2015-06-01

    In upper limb amputees, prosthetic control training is recommended before and after fitting. During rehabilitation, the focus is on selective proportional control signals. For functional monitoring, many different tests are available. None can be used in the early phase of training. However, an early assessment is needed to judge if a patient has the potential to control a certain prosthetic set-up. This early analysis will determine if further training is needed or if other strategies would be more appropriate. Presented here is a tool that is capable of predicting achievable function in voluntary EMG control. This tool is applicable to individual muscle groups to support preparation of training and fitting. In four of five patients, the sEMG test tool accurately predicted the suitability for further myoelectric training based on SHAP outcome measures. (P1: "Poor" function in the sEMG test tool corresponded to 54/100 in the SHAP test; P2: Good: 85; P3: Good: 81; P4: Average: 78). One patient scored well during sEMG testing, but was unmotivated during SHAP testing. (Good: 50) Therefore, the surface EMG test tool may predict achievable control skills to a high extent, validated with the SHAP, but requires further clinical testing to validate this technique.

  6. Proportional Hazards Model with Covariate Measurement Error and Instrumental Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiao; Wang, Ching-Yun

    2014-12-01

    In biomedical studies, covariates with measurement error may occur in survival data. Existing approaches mostly require certain replications on the error-contaminated covariates, which may not be available in the data. In this paper, we develop a simple nonparametric correction approach for estimation of the regression parameters in the proportional hazards model using a subset of the sample where instrumental variables are observed. The instrumental variables are related to the covariates through a general nonparametric model, and no distributional assumptions are placed on the error and the underlying true covariates. We further propose a novel generalized methods of moments nonparametric correction estimator to improve the efficiency over the simple correction approach. The efficiency gain can be substantial when the calibration subsample is small compared to the whole sample. The estimators are shown to be consistent and asymptotically normal. Performance of the estimators is evaluated via simulation studies and by an application to data from an HIV clinical trial. Estimation of the baseline hazard function is not addressed.

  7. Factors influencing proportion and composition of CLA in beef

    OpenAIRE

    De La Torre, Anne; Gruffat, Dominique; Durand, Denis; Micol, Didier; Peyron, A.; Scislowski, V.; Bauchart, Dominique

    2006-01-01

    Bovine meat is criticised for the bad nutritional image of its lipids and fatty acids. However, with dairy products, beef is the major source of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) which could have several human health benefits. The present study compared, from data of five nutritional experiments on bovine animals performed by the laboratory, the impact of factors linked to the animals (breed, age, sex, type of muscle) and to feeding conditions (basal diet, lipid supplements) on the CLA proportio...

  8. Proportion of gynecologic cancer patients using complementary and alternative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supoken, Amornrat; Chaisrisawatsuk, Thitima; Chumworathayi, Bandit

    2009-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for treatment of cancer and for supportive care of cancer patients must be clearly separated. There is encouraging evidence for CAM in the latter area, such as acupuncture and progressive muscle relaxation for chemotherapy-related nausea and vomiting, and aromatherapy for decreasing anxiety and increasing quality of life. However, there are limited data about CAM used by gynecologic cancer patients, especially in Thai women. Therefore, the authors aimed to investigate the proportion and types of CAM using in our gynecologic cancer patients. This cross-sectional survey was conducted between October to December, 2008. Totals of 50 admitted and 50 walk-in gynecologic cancer patients 1 month after diagnosis, aged more than 20 years and able to give informed consent, were selected for one-by-one interview by random walking survey. Among the 100 interviewed patients, aged 21-69 (mean=50.12), there were 46 cases of cervical cancers, 35 of ovarian cancers, 18 of endometrial cancers (two of these also had ovarian cancers), 2 of malignant gestational trophoblastic diseases, 1 of vulvar cancer, and 1 liver cancer (in a patient with ovarian cancer). Some 67% (95% CI, 57.8-76.2%) of them used CAM. As diet modifications, 11 used Chinese vegetarian, 8 common vegetarian, 5 Cheewajit, and 1 macrobiotics. Five of them used dietary supplements while colonic detoxification was emplyed in three. As herbal medicines, 27 used Thai herbs, 4 Chinese herbs, and 1 a herbal sauna. Twelve were receiving Thai massage. As exercises, 23 used aerobics and 5 stretching. Interestingly, 62 of them used Buddhist praying while only 3 employed native magic. The three most common forms of CAM used by our gynecologic cancer patients were Buddhist praying (62/67, 92.5%), followed by herbal medicines (27/67, 40.3%) and exercises (25/67, 37.3%).

  9. Aplikasi Kontrol PI (Proportional Integral pada Katup Ekspansi Mesin Pendingin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayu Rudiyanto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melakukan proses perancangan dan pembuatan kontrol katup ekspansi otomatis dengan menggunakan sistem kontrol PI, untuk melakukan proses pengontrolan temperatur ruang evaporator agar didapatkan hasil pembekuan yang lebih optimal. Sensor temperatur LM35 digunakan dalam penelitian ini untuk melakukan pembacaan temperatur pada ruang evaporator, yang mana dari hasil pembacaan sensor tersebut digunakan sebagai sinyal masukan untuk sistem kontrol PI. Berdasarkan hasil pengujian sensor LM35 mempunyai sensitivitas pembacaan sebesar 0,009335 V/oC.  Unjuk kerja sistem kontrol PI pada penelitian ini didapatkan respon yang baik pada nilai Kp = 20 dan Ki = 10, dimana dengan nilai berikut untuk mencapai temperatur set point waktu yang dibutuhkan selama 251 detik dengan nilai maximum overshoot lebih rendah yaitu -2,4 oC. Hasil pendinginan yang didapatkan pada penelitian ini dengan menggunakan sistem kontrol katup ekspansi otomatis didapat proses pendinginan yang lebih cepat dan energi yang dibutuhkan jauh lebih hemat yaitu sebesar 0,265 kWh.   The Application of A Control PI (Proportional Integral on Expansion Valves Refrigeration Machine  Abstract. This research aim to do design process and making control valve expansion automatic by using control system PI, which then applied on refrigerator plates touch to perform the process of control freezing temperatures. Censor temperature LM35 used in this research to do reading the temperature at evaporator room, of results reading sensors is used as input signal to control system PI. Based on the test result of testing censor LM35 have the sensitivity reading of almost accordance with the datav sheet is as much as 0,009335 V/oC. Were control sistem works PI the research this obtained response good to value center Kp = 20 and Ki =10. In which value, to reach set temperature point , the time it takes 251 seconds by value maximum overshoot point lower then -2.4°C. The result

  10. The Principle of Proportionality and the European Arrest Warrant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Haggenmüller

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The European Arrest Warrant (EAW is a grossly coercive instrument that was designed for the persecution of serious cross-border crimes. In recent years, however, Member States have increasingly reported cases in which EAWs have not been issued for serious, but rather for harmless and minor offences. This article analyses the reasons behind the disproportionate use of the EAW and outlines measures to alleviate the problem. Thereby, it claims that in current debates different categories of disproportionate use of EAWs are often lumped together, and only concentrate on the introduction of a (binding proportionality test, failing to consider other alternative legislative solutions regarding minor crimes, such as the introduction of new comparable and effective alternative measures. These, however, are considered to be crucial for an alleviation of disproportionate warrants. La orden de detención europea (ODE es un instrumento extremadamente coercitivo que fue diseñado para la persecución de delitos transfronterizos graves. En años recientes, sin embargo, los Estados miembro han notificado cada vez más casos en los que la ODE no se debía a delitos serios, sino a casos menores e inofensivos.. En este artículo se analizan las razones que hay detrás del uso desproporcionado de la orden de detención europea y propone medidas para paliar el problema. De esta manera, se defiende que el debate actual, frecuentemente agrupan diferentes categorías de uso desproporcionado de la ODE, y sólo se concentran en la introducción de un test de proporcionalidad (vinculante, sin tener en cuenta otras soluciones legislativas alternativas, en lo que respecta a delitos menores, como la introducción de nuevas medidas alternativas, comparables y eficaces. Sin embargo, se considera que estas medidas son cruciales para reducir las órdenes de arresto desproporcionadas. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2200874

  11. Learning to walk with an adaptive gain proportional myoelectric controller for a robotic ankle exoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Jeffrey R; Jacobs, Daniel A; Ferris, Daniel P; Remy, C David

    2015-11-04

    Robotic ankle exoskeletons can provide assistance to users and reduce metabolic power during walking. Our research group has investigated the use of proportional myoelectric control for controlling robotic ankle exoskeletons. Previously, these controllers have relied on a constant gain to map user's muscle activity to actuation control signals. A constant gain may act as a constraint on the user, so we designed a controller that dynamically adapts the gain to the user's myoelectric amplitude. We hypothesized that an adaptive gain proportional myoelectric controller would reduce metabolic energy expenditure compared to walking with the ankle exoskeleton unpowered because users could choose their preferred control gain. We tested eight healthy subjects walking with the adaptive gain proportional myoelectric controller with bilateral ankle exoskeletons. The adaptive gain was updated each stride such that on average the user's peak muscle activity was mapped to maximal power output of the exoskeleton. All subjects participated in three identical training sessions where they walked on a treadmill for 50 minutes (30 minutes of which the exoskeleton was powered) at 1.2 ms(-1). We calculated and analyzed metabolic energy consumption, muscle recruitment, inverse kinematics, inverse dynamics, and exoskeleton mechanics. Using our controller, subjects achieved a metabolic reduction similar to that seen in previous work in about a third of the training time. The resulting controller gain was lower than that seen in previous work (β=1.50±0.14 versus a constant β=2). The adapted gain allowed users more total ankle joint power than that of unassisted walking, increasing ankle power in exchange for a decrease in hip power. Our findings indicate that humans prefer to walk with greater ankle mechanical power output than their unassisted gait when provided with an ankle exoskeleton using an adaptive controller. This suggests that robotic assistance from an exoskeleton can allow

  12. Adapting proportional myoelectric-controlled interfaces for prosthetic hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistohl, Tobias; Cipriani, Christian; Jackson, Andrew; Nazarpour, Kianoush

    2013-01-01

    Powered hand prostheses with many degrees of freedom are moving from research into the market for prosthetics. In order to make use of the prostheses' full functionality, it is essential to find efficient ways to control their multiple actuators. Human subjects can rapidly learn to employ electromyographic (EMG) activity of several hand and arm muscles to control the position of a cursor on a computer screen, even if the muscle-cursor map contradicts directions in which the muscles would act naturally. We investigated whether a similar control scheme, using signals from four hand muscles, could be adopted for real-time operation of a dexterous robotic hand. Despite different mapping strategies, learning to control the robotic hand over time was surprisingly similar to the learning of two-dimensional cursor control.

  13. SAS macros for point and interval estimation of area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for non-proportional and proportional hazards Weibull models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannan, Haider; Stevenson, Chris

    2010-08-01

    For prediction of risk of cardiovascular end points using survival models the proportional hazards assumption is often not met. Thus, non-proportional hazards models are more appropriate for developing risk prediction equations in such situations. However, computer program for evaluating the prediction performance of such models has been rarely addressed. We therefore developed SAS macro programs for evaluating the discriminative ability of a non-proportional hazards Weibull model developed by Anderson (1991) and that of a proportional hazards Weibull model using the area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Two SAS macro programs for non-proportional hazards Weibull model using Proc NLIN and Proc NLP respectively and model validation using area under ROC curve (with its confidence limits) were written with SAS IML language. A similar SAS macro for proportional hazards Weibull model was also written. The computer program was applied to data on coronary heart disease incidence for a Framingham population cohort. The five risk factors considered were current smoking, age, blood pressure, cholesterol and obesity. The predictive ability of the non-proportional hazard Weibull model was slightly higher than that of its proportional hazard counterpart. An advantage of SAS Proc NLP in terms of the example provided here is that it provides significance level for the parameter estimates whereas Proc NLIN does not. The program is very useful for evaluating the predictive performance of non-proportional and proportional hazards Weibull models.

  14. The Golden Ratio of Gait Harmony: Repetitive Proportions of Repetitive Gait Phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Iosa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In nature, many physical and biological systems have structures showing harmonic properties. Some of them were found related to the irrational number known as the golden ratio that has important symmetric and harmonic properties. In this study, the spatiotemporal gait parameters of 25 healthy subjects were analyzed using a stereophotogrammetric system with 25 retroreflective markers located on their skin. The proportions of gait phases were compared with , the value of which is about 1.6180. The ratio between the entire gait cycle and stance phase resulted in 1.620 ± 0.058, that between stance and the swing phase was 1.629 ± 0.173, and that between swing and the double support phase was 1.684 ± 0.357. All these ratios did not differ significantly from each other (, , repeated measure analysis of variance or from (, resp., t-tests. The repetitive gait phases of physiological walking were found in turn in repetitive proportions with each other, revealing an intrinsic harmonic structure. Harmony could be the key for facilitating the control of repetitive walking. Harmony is a powerful unifying factor between seemingly disparate fields of nature, including human gait.

  15. Limb Bone Structural Proportions and Locomotor Behavior in A.L. 288-1 ("Lucy".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher B Ruff

    Full Text Available While there is broad agreement that early hominins practiced some form of terrestrial bipedality, there is also evidence that arboreal behavior remained a part of the locomotor repertoire in some taxa, and that bipedal locomotion may not have been identical to that of modern humans. It has been difficult to evaluate such evidence, however, because of the possibility that early hominins retained primitive traits (such as relatively long upper limbs of little contemporaneous adaptive significance. Here we examine bone structural properties of the femur and humerus in the Australopithecus afarensis A.L. 288-1 ("Lucy", 3.2 Myr that are known to be developmentally plastic, and compare them with other early hominins, modern humans, and modern chimpanzees. Cross-sectional images were obtained from micro-CT scans of the original specimens and used to derive section properties of the diaphyses, as well as superior and inferior cortical thicknesses of the femoral neck. A.L. 288-1 shows femoral/humeral diaphyseal strength proportions that are intermediate between those of modern humans and chimpanzees, indicating more mechanical loading of the forelimb than in modern humans, and by implication, a significant arboreal locomotor component. Several features of the proximal femur in A.L. 288-1 and other australopiths, including relative femoral head size, distribution of cortical bone in the femoral neck, and cross-sectional shape of the proximal shaft, support the inference of a bipedal gait pattern that differed slightly from that of modern humans, involving more lateral deviation of the body center of mass over the support limb, which would have entailed increased cost of terrestrial locomotion. There is also evidence consistent with increased muscular strength among australopiths in both the forelimb and hind limb, possibly reflecting metabolic trade-offs between muscle and brain development during hominin evolution. Together these findings imply

  16. Limb Bone Structural Proportions and Locomotor Behavior in A.L. 288-1 ("Lucy").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, Christopher B; Burgess, M Loring; Ketcham, Richard A; Kappelman, John

    2016-01-01

    While there is broad agreement that early hominins practiced some form of terrestrial bipedality, there is also evidence that arboreal behavior remained a part of the locomotor repertoire in some taxa, and that bipedal locomotion may not have been identical to that of modern humans. It has been difficult to evaluate such evidence, however, because of the possibility that early hominins retained primitive traits (such as relatively long upper limbs) of little contemporaneous adaptive significance. Here we examine bone structural properties of the femur and humerus in the Australopithecus afarensis A.L. 288-1 ("Lucy", 3.2 Myr) that are known to be developmentally plastic, and compare them with other early hominins, modern humans, and modern chimpanzees. Cross-sectional images were obtained from micro-CT scans of the original specimens and used to derive section properties of the diaphyses, as well as superior and inferior cortical thicknesses of the femoral neck. A.L. 288-1 shows femoral/humeral diaphyseal strength proportions that are intermediate between those of modern humans and chimpanzees, indicating more mechanical loading of the forelimb than in modern humans, and by implication, a significant arboreal locomotor component. Several features of the proximal femur in A.L. 288-1 and other australopiths, including relative femoral head size, distribution of cortical bone in the femoral neck, and cross-sectional shape of the proximal shaft, support the inference of a bipedal gait pattern that differed slightly from that of modern humans, involving more lateral deviation of the body center of mass over the support limb, which would have entailed increased cost of terrestrial locomotion. There is also evidence consistent with increased muscular strength among australopiths in both the forelimb and hind limb, possibly reflecting metabolic trade-offs between muscle and brain development during hominin evolution. Together these findings imply significant differences in

  17. Concrete pavement mixture design and analysis (MDA) : an innovative approach to proportioning concrete mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Mixture proportioning is routinely a matter of using a recipe based on a previously produced concrete, rather than adjusting the : proportions based on the needs of the mixture and the locally available materials. As budgets grow tighter and increasi...

  18. Fitting Proportional Odds Model to Case-Control data with Incorporating Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Zehui; Li, Xinmin; Li, Qizhai

    2015-11-26

    Genetic association studies have been proved to be an efficient tool to reveal the aetiology of many human complex diseases and traits. When the phenotype is binary, the logistic regression model is commonly employed to evaluate the association strength of the genetic variants predispose to human diseases because the maximum likelihood estimator of the odds ratio based on case-control data is equivalent to that from the same model by taking the data as being arisen prospectively. This equivalence does not hold for the proportional odds model and using it to analyze the case-control data directly often results in a substantial bias. Through putting a parameter of the minor allele frequency in the modified likelihood function under the condition that the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium law holds within controls, a consistent estimator is obtained. On the basis of it, we construct a score test statistic to test whether the genetic variant is associated with the diseases. Simulation studies show that the proposed estimator has smaller mean squared error than the existing methods when the genetic effect size is away from zero and the proposed test statistic has a good control of type I error rate and is more powerful than the existing procedures. Application to 45 single nucleotide polymorphisms located in the region of TRAF1-C5 genes for the association with four-level anticyclic citrullinated protein antibody from Genetic Analysis Workshop 16 further demonstrates its performance.

  19. Problem based learning to improve proportional reasoning of students in mathematics learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misnasanti, Utami, Ratna Widianti; Suwanto, Fevi Rahmawati

    2017-08-01

    This paper reviews about the using of Problem Based Learning (PBL) to improve proportional reasoning of students in mathematics learning. Mathematics is one of the subjects at school which generally has a goal to help students preparing themselves in this growth century. To achieve the goal of mathematics learning, student's good reasoning is needed as the base of mathematics itself. This reasoning is an ability to think through logic ideas about mathematics concept. One of reasoning mathematics ability is the proportional reasoning. Proportional reasoning is knowing the multiplicative relationship between the base ratio and the proportional situation to which it's applied. Proportional reasoning is important to have by students in learning mathematics. Many topics within the school mathematics require knowledge and understanding of ratio and proportion, for examples problem solving and calculation activities in domains involving scale, probability, percent, rate, trigonometry, equivalence, measurement, the geometry of plane shapes, algebra are assisted through ratio and proportion knowledge. But, the mastership of proportional reasoning ability, of course, can't be apart from teacher's role. In learning, a teacher has to choose and apply the right model so that it can improve the proportional reasoning ability of students. One of the alternative ways which could be applied to improve proportional reasoning ability of students is by applying PBL Model. Applying PBL which based on problem indirectly has trained students to solve every problem in front of them. Thus, applying PBL can improve mathematics proportional reasoning of students in mathematics learning.

  20. Effects of Proportions of Dietary Macronutrients on Glucocorticoid Metabolism in Diet-Induced Obesity in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimson, Roland H.; Lobley, Gerald E.; Maraki, Ioanna; Morton, Nicholas M.; Andrew, Ruth; Walker, Brian R.

    2010-01-01

    Tissue glucocorticoid levels in the liver and adipose tissue are regulated by regeneration of inactive glucocorticoid by 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) and inactivation by 5α- and 5β-reductases. A low carbohydrate diet increases hepatic 11β-HSD1 and reduces glucocorticoid metabolism during weight loss in obese humans. We hypothesized that similar variations in macronutrient proportions regulate glucocorticoid metabolism in obese rats. Male Lister Hooded rats were fed an obesity-inducing ad libitum ‘Western’ diet (37% fat, n = 36) for 22 weeks, then randomised to continue this diet (n = 12) or to switch to either a low carbohydrate (n = 12) or a moderate carbohydrate (n = 12) diet for the final 8 weeks. A parallel lean control group were fed an ad libitum control diet (10% fat, n = 12) throughout. The low and moderate carbohydrate diets decreased hepatic 11β-HSD1 mRNA compared with the Western diet (both 0.7±0.0 vs 0.9±0.1 AU; pdiet. Compared with lean controls, the Western diet decreased 11β-HSD1 activity (1.6±0.1 vs 2.8±0.1 nmol/mcg protein/hr; pobesity-inducing high fat diet in rats recapitulates the abnormal glucocorticoid metabolism associated with human obesity in liver (but not in adipose tissue), a low carbohydrate diet does not increase hepatic 11β-HSD1 in obese rats as occurs in humans. PMID:20098742

  1. THE CONCEPT OF DEGRESSIVE AND PROGRESSIVE PROPORTIONALITY AND ITS NORMATIVE AND DESCRIPTIVE APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haman Jacek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the concept of progressive and degressive proportionality of the distribution of parliamentary seats. In the first part are presented axiological sources of the principles of proportionality and progressive and degressive proportionality and the history of degressively proportional apportionments of seats in the European Parliament. The main part of the article is devoted to the formulation of proposals for strict formal definition of degressive and progressive proportionality, and a description of the method of apportionment of seats in the European Parliament based on the strict definition of degressive proportionality and maintaining maximum compatibility with former apportionments adopted in multilateral negotiations. The last part of the article consists of a discussion of the possibilities of adopting the concept of progressive proportionality in the analysis of the functioning of parliamentary electoral systems.

  2. Evaluation and visualization of multiaxial stress and strain states under non-proportional loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sakane

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a simple method of determining stresses and strains and a severity of loading history under non-proportional loadings with defining the rotation angles of the maximum principal stress and strain in a three dimensional stress and strain space. Based on the method, non-proportional stress and strain ranges are derived and applicability of the range to the life evaluation for low carbon steel under non-proportional random strain paths are discussed. The strain range taking account of intensity of loading path reducing life can be suitable parameter for multiaxial fatigue life evaluation under multiaxial non-proportional loading. This paper also shows a method of visually presenting the principal stress and strain that assists designers to understand the loading mode whether proportional or non-proportional under 3 dimensional (6 stress/strain components multiaxial loading.

  3. An imaging gas scintillation proportional counter for the detection of subkiloelectron-volt X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailey, C. J.; Ku, W. H. M.; Vartanian, M. H.

    1981-01-01

    A large area imaging gas scintillation proportional counter (IGSPC) was constructed for use in X-ray astronomy. The IGSPC consists of a gas scintillation proportional counted (GSPC) with a micron polyprotylene window coupled to a multiwire proportional counter (MWPC) via a calcium fluoride window. Over a sensitive area of 21 cu cm the instrument has a measured energy resolution of 17.5% (FWHM) and 1.9 mm (FWHM) spatial resolution at 1.5 keV.

  4. Energetically efficient Proportional-Integral control of flow past a circular cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesavadas, Pramode; Anand, Vijay; Patnaik, B. S. V.; Shaiju, A. J.

    2015-11-01

    In this numerical study, we present an energetically efficient Proportional (P) and Integral (I) control strategy for the cessation of vortex shedding behind a circular cylinder. Reflectionally symmetric controllers are designed such that, they are located on a small sector of the cylinder over which, tangential sliding mode control is imparted. Energetically efficient optimal parameters for the P, I and PI controls have been numerically assessed. An estimation of the time-averaged kinetic energy of different flow regimes using Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) is also carried out. These values are obtained with and without the optimal controllers. The Navier-Stokes equations along with an evolution equation for the PI controller, is numerically solved using finite volume method. The optimization procedure is formulated as a standard Linear Quadratic (LQ) problem and the time-averaged kinetic energy is obtained by summation of POD eigenvalues. The energetic efficiency for the, I controller was observed to be superior compared to the other two classes of controllers. By performing detailed fluid flow simulations, it was observed that, the system is energetically efficient, even when the twin eddies are still persisting behind the circular cylinder. The first author wishes to acknowledge the Ministry of Human Resource Development, Govt. of India.

  5. Deviations from Hardy-Weinberg proportions for multiple alleles under viability selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Gonzalo

    2008-04-01

    Departures of genotype frequencies from Hardy-Weinberg proportions (HWP) for a single autosomal locus due to viability selection in a random mating population have been studied only for the two-allele case. In this article, the analysis of deviations from HWP due to constant viability selection is extended to multiple alleles. The deviations for an autosomal locus with k alleles are measured by means of k fii fixation indices for homozygotes and k(k-1)/2 fij fixation indices for heterozygotes, and expressions are obtained for these indices (FIS statistics) under the multiallele viability model. Furthermore, expressions for fii and fij when the multiallele polymorphism is at stable equilibrium are also derived and it is demonstrated that the pattern of multiallele Hardy-Weinberg deviations at equilibrium is characterized by a global heterozygote excess and a deficiency of each of the homozygotes. This pattern may be useful for detecting whether a given multiallelic polymorphism is at stable equilibrium in the population due to viability selection. An analysis of Hardy-Weinberg deviations from published data for the three-allele polymorphism at the beta-globin locus in human populations from West Africa is presented for illustration.

  6. Biased retro-proportional navigation law for interception of high-speed targets with angular constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Yan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A new guidance law, called biased retro proportional navigation (BRPN, is proposed. The guidance law is designed to intercept high-speed targets with angular constraint, which can be used for ballistic target interception. BRPN guidance law is defined, and the exact time-varying bias for a required impact angle is derived. Furthermore, the simulation results (trajectory, variation of navigation ratio, capture region, etc are compared with those of biased proportional navigation (BPN, proportional navigation and retro-proportional navigation. The results show that, at the cost of a higher intercept time, BRPN demands lower terminal lateral acceleration and has larger capture region compared to BPN.

  7. Effect of arrangement of stick figures on estimates of proportion in risk graphics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancker, Jessica S; Weber, Elke U; Kukafka, Rita

    2011-01-01

    Health risks are sometimes illustrated with stick figures, with a certain proportion colored to indicate they are affected by the disease. Perception of these graphics may be affected by whether the affected stick figures are scattered randomly throughout the group or arranged in a block. . To assess the effects of stick-figure arrangement on first impressions of estimates of proportion, under a 10-s deadline. . Questionnaire. Participants and Setting. Respondents recruited online (n = 100) or in waiting rooms at an urban hospital (n = 65). Intervention. Participants were asked to estimate the proportion represented in 6 unlabeled graphics, half randomly arranged and half sequentially arranged. Measurements. Estimated proportions. . Although average estimates were fairly good, the variability of estimates was high. Overestimates of random graphics were larger than overestimates of sequential ones, except when the proportion was near 50%; variability was also higher with random graphics. Although the average inaccuracy was modest, it was large enough that more than one quarter of respondents confused 2 graphics depicting proportions that differed by 11 percentage points. Low numeracy and educational level were associated with inaccuracy. Limitations. Participants estimated proportions but did not report perceived risk. . Randomly arranged arrays of stick figures should be used with care because viewers' ability to estimate the proportion in these graphics is so poor that moderate differences between risks may not be visible. In addition, random arrangements may create an initial impression that proportions, especially large ones, are larger than they are.

  8. Background Parenchymal Enhancement and Fibroglandular Tissue Proportion on Breast MRI: Correlation with Hormone Receptor Expression and Molecular Subtypes of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Mesut; Polat, Ahmet Veysel; Süllü, Yurdanur; Tomak, Leman; Polat, Ayfer Kamalı

    2017-01-01

    To assess the relationship between background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) and fibroglandular tissue (FGT) proportion on breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and hormone receptor expression and molecular subtypes in invasive breast cancer. This retrospective study enrolled 75 breast cancer patients who underwent breast MRI before treatment. T1-weighted images were reviewed to determine the FGT proportion, and contrast-enhanced fat-suppressed T1-weighted images were reviewed to determine BPE. Estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor 2-neu (HER2) status, and molecular subtypes of the tumors were compared with the BPE and FGT proportions. Women with high BPE tended to have increased rate of ER and PR positive tumors (p=0.018 and p=0.013). FGT proportion was associated with ER positivity (p=0.009), but no significant differences between FGT proportion and PR positivity were found (p=0.256). There was no significant difference between HER2 status and any of the imaging features (p=0.453 and p=0.922). For premenopausal women, both FGT proportion and BPE were associated with molecular subtypes (p=0.025 and p=0.042). FGT proportion was also associated with BPE (pbreast cancer, both high FGT containing breasts and high BPE breasts tended to have ER positive tumors.

  9. Numerical measures of the degree of non-proportionality of multiaxial fatigue loadings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bolchoun

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the non-proportional loadings on the fatigue life depends on the material ductility. Ductile materials react with a shortening of lifetime compared to proportional loading conditions. For a semiductile material there is almost no difference between proportional and non-proportional loadings with respect to the fatigue life. Brittle materials show an increase of the lifetime under non-proportional loadings. If fatigue life assessment is performed using stress-based hypotheses, it is a rather difficult task to take into account material ductility correctly, especially the fatigue life reduction as displayed by ductile materials. Most stress-based hypotheses will compute a longer fatigue life under non-proportional loading conditions. There are also hypotheses, which already include quantitative evaluation of the non-proportionality (e.g. EESH, SSCH and MWCM. Anyway in order to improve assessment for ductile materials, some sort of numerical measure for the degree of non-proportionality of the fatigue loading is required. A number of measures of this kind (or non-proportionality factors were proposed in the literature and are discussed here: - the factor used in EESH is a quotient of stress amplitudes integrals, - the factor according to Gaier, which works with a discrete stress tensor values in a scaled stress space, - the factor according to Kanazawa, which makes use of plane-based stress values, - the factor used in MWCM, which exploits stress values in the plane with the highest shear stress amplitude, a new non-proportionality factor, which is based on the correlation between individual stress tensor components, is proposed. General requirements imposed on the non-proportionality factors are discussed and each of the factors is evaluated with respect to these requirements. Also application with the stress-based hypotheses is discussed and illustrated using the experimental data for aluminum and magnesium welded joints under

  10. A Biomechanical Comparison of Proportional Electromyography Control to Biological Torque Control Using a Powered Hip Exoskeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron J. Young

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundDespite a large increase in robotic exoskeleton research, there are few studies that have examined human performance with different control strategies on the same exoskeleton device. Direct comparison studies are needed to determine how users respond to different types of control. The purpose of this study was to compare user performance using a robotic hip exoskeleton with two different controllers: a controller that targeted a biological hip torque profile and a proportional myoelectric controller.MethodsWe tested both control approaches on 10 able-bodied subjects using a pneumatically powered hip exoskeleton. The state machine controller targeted a biological hip torque profile. The myoelectric controller used electromyography (EMG of lower limb muscles to produce a proportional control signal for the hip exoskeleton. Each subject performed two 30-min exoskeleton walking trials (1.0 m/s using each controller and a 10-min trial with the exoskeleton unpowered. During each trial, we measured subjects’ metabolic cost of walking, lower limb EMG profiles, and joint kinematics and kinetics (torques and powers using a force treadmill and motion capture.ResultsCompared to unassisted walking in the exoskeleton, myoelectric control significantly reduced metabolic cost by 13% (p = 0.005 and biological hip torque control reduced metabolic cost by 7% (p = 0.261. Subjects reduced muscle activity relative to the unpowered condition for a greater number of lower limb muscles using myoelectric control compared to the biological hip torque control. More subjects subjectively preferred the myoelectric controller to the biological hip torque control.ConclusionMyoelectric control had more advantages (metabolic cost and muscle activity reduction compared to a controller that targeted a biological torque profile for walking with a robotic hip exoskeleton. However, these results were obtained with a single exoskeleton device with specific

  11. A Biomechanical Comparison of Proportional Electromyography Control to Biological Torque Control Using a Powered Hip Exoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Aaron J; Gannon, Hannah; Ferris, Daniel P

    2017-01-01

    Despite a large increase in robotic exoskeleton research, there are few studies that have examined human performance with different control strategies on the same exoskeleton device. Direct comparison studies are needed to determine how users respond to different types of control. The purpose of this study was to compare user performance using a robotic hip exoskeleton with two different controllers: a controller that targeted a biological hip torque profile and a proportional myoelectric controller. We tested both control approaches on 10 able-bodied subjects using a pneumatically powered hip exoskeleton. The state machine controller targeted a biological hip torque profile. The myoelectric controller used electromyography (EMG) of lower limb muscles to produce a proportional control signal for the hip exoskeleton. Each subject performed two 30-min exoskeleton walking trials (1.0 m/s) using each controller and a 10-min trial with the exoskeleton unpowered. During each trial, we measured subjects' metabolic cost of walking, lower limb EMG profiles, and joint kinematics and kinetics (torques and powers) using a force treadmill and motion capture. Compared to unassisted walking in the exoskeleton, myoelectric control significantly reduced metabolic cost by 13% (p = 0.005) and biological hip torque control reduced metabolic cost by 7% (p = 0.261). Subjects reduced muscle activity relative to the unpowered condition for a greater number of lower limb muscles using myoelectric control compared to the biological hip torque control. More subjects subjectively preferred the myoelectric controller to the biological hip torque control. Myoelectric control had more advantages (metabolic cost and muscle activity reduction) compared to a controller that targeted a biological torque profile for walking with a robotic hip exoskeleton. However, these results were obtained with a single exoskeleton device with specific control configurations while level walking at a

  12. Analysis of the camouflage effect in time of segregation in texturized regions using the Cox proportional hazard model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Yoshio Nakano

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Humans have trichromatic vision. However variations in gene can cause deficiency in color vision resulting to dichromatism. The aim of this work was to verify the real efficiency of dichromats to break colour camouflage. Total of nine colour-blind individuals participated in this study and the variable considered was the time to segregation of camouflaged targets. The interest was to compare the response time in several conditions of camouflage and the analysis was performed using the Cox proportional hazard model.

  13. High proportion of knowlesi malaria in recent malaria cases in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, Ruhani; Lau, Yee Ling; Mahmud, Rohela; Fong, Mun Yik; Jelip, Jenarun; Ngian, Hie Ung; Mustakim, Sahlawati; Hussin, Hani Mat; Marzuki, Noradilah; Mohd Ali, Marlindawati

    2014-05-03

    Plasmodium knowlesi is a simian parasite that has been recognized as the fifth species causing human malaria. Naturally-acquired P. knowlesi infection is widespread among human populations in Southeast Asia. The aim of this epidemiological study was to determine the incidence and distribution of malaria parasites, with a particular focus on human P. knowlesi infection in Malaysia. A total of 457 microscopically confirmed, malaria-positive blood samples were collected from 22 state and main district hospitals in Malaysia between September 2012 and December 2013. Nested PCR assay targeting the 18S rRNA gene was used to determine the infecting Plasmodium species. A total of 453 samples were positive for Plasmodium species by using nested PCR assay. Plasmodium knowlesi was identified in 256 (56.5%) samples, followed by 133 (29.4%) cases of Plasmodium vivax, 49 (10.8%) cases of Plasmodium falciparum, two (0.4%) cases of Plasmodium ovale and one (0.2%) case of Plasmodium malariae. Twelve mixed infections were detected, including P. knowlesi/P. vivax (n = 10), P. knowlesi/P. falciparum (n = 1), and P. falciparum/P. vivax (n = 1). Notably, P. knowlesi (Included mixed infections involving P. knowlesi (P. knowlesi/P. vivax and P. knowlesi /P. falciparum)) showed the highest proportion in Sabah (84/115 cases, prevalence of 73.0%), Sarawak (83/120, 69.2%), Kelantan (42/56, 75.0%), Pahang (24/25, 96.0%), Johor (7/9, 77.8%), and Terengganu (4/5, 80.0%,). In contrast, the rates of P. knowlesi infection in Selangor and Negeri Sembilan were found to be 16.2% (18/111 cases) and 50.0% (5/10 cases), respectively. Sample of P. knowlesi was not obtained from Kuala Lumpur, Melaka, Perak, Pulau Pinang, and Perlis during the study period, while a microscopically-positive sample from Kedah was negative by PCR. In addition to Sabah and Sarawak, which have been known for high prevalence of P. knowlesi infection, the findings from this study highlight the widespread distribution of P

  14. The role of misclassification in estimating proportions and an estimator of misclassification probability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick L. Zimmerman; Greg C. Liknes

    2010-01-01

    Dot grids are often used to estimate the proportion of land cover belonging to some class in an aerial photograph. Interpreter misclassification is an often-ignored source of error in dot-grid sampling that has the potential to significantly bias proportion estimates. For the case when the true class of items is unknown, we present a maximum-likelihood estimator of...

  15. Proportionality and the limitation clauses of the South African Bill of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SUMMARY "Proportionality" is a contemporary heavy-weight concept which has been described as an element of a globalised international grammar and as a foundational element of global constitutionalism. The article firstly describes the elements of proportionality as they are generally understood in foreign systems, ...

  16. A Cross-Disciplinary Approach to Teaching Data Literacy and Proportionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahey, Philip; Rafanan, Ken; Patton, Charles; Swan, Karen; van't Hooft, Mark; Kratcoski, Annette; Stanford, Tina

    2012-01-01

    The Thinking with Data project (TWD) expands on current notions of data literacy by (1) focusing on proportional reasoning as key to data literacy and (2) leveraging the non-mathematics disciplines to engage students in deep thinking about the context of data and the application of proportionality. A set of four 2-week, sequential modules for…

  17. proportional counting chamber for large-area-coated β sources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Surface contamination; windowless proportional counter; beta counting chamber; large area coated sources. Abstract. Detection system for measuring absolute emission rate from large-area-coated β sources has been indigenously developed. The system consists of a multiwire-based proportional counter with ...

  18. Child Proportional Scaling: Is 1/3 = 2/6 = 3/9 = 4/12?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Ty W.; Levine, Susan C.

    2012-01-01

    The current experiments examined the role of scale factor in children's proportional reasoning. Experiment 1 used a choice task and Experiment 2 used a production task to examine the abilities of kindergartners through fourth-graders to match equivalent, visually depicted proportional relations. The findings of both experiments show that accuracy…

  19. Improved Margin of Error Estimates for Proportions in Business: An Educational Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzumanyan, George; Halcoussis, Dennis; Phillips, G. Michael

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the Agresti & Coull "Adjusted Wald" method for computing confidence intervals and margins of error for common proportion estimates. The presented method is easily implementable by business students and practitioners and provides more accurate estimates of proportions particularly in extreme samples and small…

  20. Make Your Own Paint Chart: A Realistic Context for Developing Proportional Reasoning with Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beswick, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Proportional reasoning has been recognised as a crucial focus of mathematics in the middle years and also as a frequent source of difficulty for students (Lamon, 2007). Proportional reasoning concerns the equivalence of pairs of quantities that are related multiplicatively; that is, equivalent ratios including those expressed as fractions and…

  1. Scientific basis for banana cultivar proportions on-farm in East Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    perceptions behind cultivar proportions and to understand the scientific basis of these proportions in selected sites in East Africa. The study was carried out in Karagwe, Bushenyi and Masaka districts in East Africa, a region considered to be a secondary centre of diversity for bananas. Thirty farms were sampled in one ...

  2. Model of predicting proportion of diesel fuel and engine oil in diesel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Viscosity of diesel adulterated SAE 40 engine oil at varying proportions of the mixture is presented. Regression, variation of intercept and the power parameters methods are used for developing polynomial and power law functions for predicting proportion of either diesel or engine oil in diesel adulterated SAE 40 engine oil ...

  3. Performance of microstrip proportional counters for x-ray astronomy on spectrum-roentgen-gamma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl; BAHNSEN, A; Christensen, Finn Erland

    1991-01-01

    DSRI will provide a set of four imaging proportional counters for the Danish-Soviet X-ray telescopes XSPECT/SODART. The sensor principle is based on the novel micro-strip proportional counter (MSPC), where the strip electrodes are deposited by photolithography onto a rigid substrate. The MSPC off...

  4. Effect of Strategy Teaching for the Solution of Ratio Problems on Students' Proportional Reasoning Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Ceylan; Güler, Gürsel

    2017-01-01

    The study was conducted to reveal the effects of the instruction of different problem-solving strategies on the proportional reasoning skills of students in solving proportional problems in the 6th grade math's class. Quasi-experimental research model with pretest-posttest control group was employed in the study. For eight class hours, the…

  5. The mediation proportion: a structural equation approach for estimating the proportion of exposure effect on outcome explained by an intermediate variable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Susanne; Christensen, Ulla; Lynch, John

    2005-01-01

    example is a randomized clinical trial of the effects of interferon-alpha on visual acuity in patients with age-related macular degeneration. In this example, the exposure, mediator and response are all binary. The second example is a common problem in social epidemiology-to find the proportion...

  6. The role of cognitive style and its influence on proportional reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niaz, Mansoor

    It has been suggested that proportional reasoning tasks contain field effects. Field-dependent students are considered to be highly influenced by the structure of the perceptual field and lack an articulated conceptual framework. To test the hypothesis that there is a significant correlation between field independence and proportional reasoning tasks, a sample of science students were tested to determine performance in proportional reasoning and degree of field independence. It was found that even students who are normally capable of proportional reasoning can be misled by the presence of field effects. A significant correlation (r = 0.50; p = 0.001) was found between the test of field independence and the nine items of proportional reasoning. Educational implications are drawn.

  7. The effects of hydrogen proportion on the synthesis of carbon nanomaterials with gaseous detonation (deflagration) method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tiejun; Li, Xiaojie; Lee, John H. S.; Yan, Honghao

    2018-02-01

    Using ferrocene, H2 and O2, Carbon nanomaterials were prepared with gaseous detonation (deflagration) method. The effects of H2 on the phase and morphology of carbon nanomaterials were studied by various proportions of H2 in the reaction. The prepared samples were characterized by x-ray diffractometer, transmission electron microscope and Raman spectrometer. The results show that hydrogen proportion has a great influence on the phase and morphology of carbon nanomaterials. The high hydrogen proportion leads to much unreacted hydrogen, which could protect the iron atom from oxidation of carbon and dilute the reactants contributing to uniform particle size. In addition, the graphitization degree of multi-walled carbon nanotubes, observed in samples with high H2 proportion, is high enough to see the lattice fringes, but the degree of graphitization of whole sample is lower than which fabricated with low H2 proportion, and it may result from the low energy generation.

  8. Genome-wide Analysis of Body Proportion Classifies Height-Associated Variants by Mechanism of Action and Implicates Genes Important for Skeletal Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chan, Yingleong; Salem, Rany M.; Hsu, Yu-Han H.; McMahon, George; Pers, Tune H.; Vedantam, Sailaja; Esko, Tonu; Guo, Michael H.; Lim, Elaine T.; Franke, Lude; Smith, George Davey; Strachan, David P.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.

    2015-01-01

    Human height is a composite measurement, reflecting the sum of leg, spine, and head lengths. Many common variants influence total height, but the effects of these or other variants on the components of height (body proportion) remain largely unknown. We studied sitting height ratio (SHR), the ratio

  9. Pulmonary surfactant function is abolished by an elevated proportion of cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekara, Lasantha; Schürch, Samuel; Schoel, W Michael; Nag, Kaushik; Leonenko, Zoya; Haufs, Michael; Amrein, Matthias

    2005-10-15

    A molecular film of pulmonary surfactant strongly reduces the surface tension of the lung epithelium-air interface. Human pulmonary surfactant contains 5-10% cholesterol by mass, among other lipids and surfactant specific proteins. An elevated proportion of cholesterol is found in surfactant, recovered from acutely injured lungs (ALI). The functional role of cholesterol in pulmonary surfactant has remained controversial. Cholesterol is excluded from most pulmonary surfactant replacement formulations, used clinically to treat conditions of surfactant deficiency. This is because cholesterol has been shown in vitro to impair the surface activity of surfactant even at a physiological level. In the current study, the functional role of cholesterol has been re-evaluated using an improved method of evaluating surface activity in vitro, the captive bubble surfactometer (CBS). Cholesterol was added to one of the clinically used therapeutic surfactants, BLES, a bovine lipid extract surfactant, and the surface activity evaluated, including the adsorption rate of the substance to the air-water interface, its ability to produce a surface tension close to zero and the area compression needed to obtain that low surface tension. No differences in the surface activity were found for BLES samples containing either none, 5 or 10% cholesterol by mass with respect to the minimal surface tension. Our findings therefore suggest that the earlier-described deleterious effects of physiological amounts of cholesterol are related to the experimental methodology. However, at 20%, cholesterol effectively abolished surfactant function and a surface tension below 15 mN/m was not obtained. Inhibition of surface activity by cholesterol may therefore partially or fully explain the impaired lung function in the case of ALI. We discuss a molecular mechanism that could explain why cholesterol does not prevent low surface tension of surfactant films at physiological levels but abolishes surfactant

  10. High proportion of abnormal pap smear tests and cervical dysplasia in women with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousset-Jablonski, Christine; Reynaud, Quitterie; Nove-Josserand, Raphaëlle; Ray-Coquard, Isabelle; Mekki, Yahia; Golfier, François; Durieu, Isabelle

    2017-12-09

    Insufficient gynecological follow-up and cervical screening has been reported in women with cystic fibrosis (CF). Some of these patients will require a pulmonary transplantation, known to be associated with a higher risk of cervical dysplasia. The aim of this study was to explore the results of cervical screening in adult women with CF, and to report the prevalence of abnormal pap smear tests in this population. We retrospectively analyzed medical records of sexually active women with CF who attended a gynecological consultation in Lyon University CF referral center between June 2014 and December 2015. The primary outcome was the result of the pap smear test. Forty-seven women (32 non-transplanted and 15 transplanted) were included in the study. The median age of the patients was 28 (range 18-53). The clinical examination revealed that 20 (42.5%) women presented an abnormality (inflammatory cervix, cervical or vulvovaginal condyloma). An abnormal pap smear was found in 8/32 (25%) non transplanted women and in 5/15 (33.3%) transplanted women, with no significant difference between the two groups (p=0.75): seven atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US), five low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), one atypical glandular cells (AGC). Six (12.8%) (four non transplanted, and two transplanted) women had an histologically proven dysplasia (four Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN)1, one CIN2, and one endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ). Overall, ten (21.3%) women had a Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) related disease (cervical and/or vulvovaginal). A high proportion of transplanted and non-transplanted women with CF had abnormal pap smear tests and cervical dysplasia. A regular gynaecological follow-up, periodic cervical screening, and routine HPV vaccination are strongly recommended in this population. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Impact of Donation Mode on the Proportion and Function of T Lymphocytes in the Liver.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Xystrakis

    Full Text Available Liver T-cells respond to the inflammatory insult generated during organ procurement and contribute to the injury following reperfusion. The mode of liver donation alters various metabolic and inflammatory pathways but the way it affects intrahepatic T-cells is still unclear.We investigated the modifications occurring in the proportion and function of T-cells during liver procurement for transplantation. We isolated hepatic mononuclear cells (HMC from liver perfusate of living donors (LD and donors after brain death (DBD or cardiac death (DCD and assessed the frequency of T-cell subsets, their cytokine secretion profile and CD8 T-cell cytotoxicity function, responsiveness to a danger associated molecular pattern (High Mobility Group Box1, HMGB1 and association with donor and recipient clinical parameters and immediate graft outcome.We found that T-cells in healthy human livers were enriched in memory CD8 T-cells exhibiting a phenotype of non-circulating tissue-associated lymphocytes, functionally dominated by more cytotoxicity and IFN-γ-production in DBD donors, including upon activation by HMGB1 and correlating with peak of post-transplant AST. This liver-specific pattern of CD8 T-cell was prominent in DBD livers compared to DCD and LD livers suggesting that it was influenced by events surrounding brain death, prior to retrieval.Mode of liver donation can affect liver T-cells with increased liver damage in DBD donors. These findings may be relevant in designing therapeutic strategies aimed at organ optimization prior to transplantation.

  12. Evaluation of Facial Proportions and Their Association with Thumbprint Patterns among Hausa Ethnic Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawan Hassan Adamu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Evolutionary forces such as founder effect resulted in reproductive isolation and reduced genetic diversity may have led to ethnic variation in the facial appearance and other features like fingerprints pattern. Aim. To determine the pattern of facial proportion based on neoclassical facial canon. The associations between facial proportions and thumbprint patterns were also investigated. Subject and Methods. A total of 534 subjects of 18–25 years of age participated. Direct sensing and photographs methods were used to determine fingerprint and facial features, respectively. Fisher’s Exact test was used to test for association between variables. Results. It was observed that in both males and females there was no (0% occurrence of classical canon of facial proportion. There was also no association between sex and facial proportions. A significant association was found in between thumbprint patterns and vertical class III neoclassical facial proportion only when the frequency of both left and right thumbprint patterns was considered a single entity. There is no significant association between the thumbprint patterns of the right and left thumbs with vertical horizontal facial proportions in male and female participants. It was observed that right and left thumbs have more tendency of significance with facial proportion in males and females, respectively. Conclusion. Fingerprint pattern and its associated features may be controlled by a different mechanism such that the two may correlate differently with other features as the case may be with facial features.

  13. Evaluation of maxillary anterior teeth and their relation to the golden proportion in Malaysian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Marzok, Maan Ibrahim; Majeed, Kais Raad Abdul; Ibrahim, Ibrahim Khalil

    2013-01-24

    The maxillary anterior teeth are important in achieving pleasing dental aesthetics. Various methods are used to measure the size and form of them, including the golden proportion between their perceived widths, and the width-to-height ratio, referred to as the golden standard. The purpose of this study was conducted to evaluate whether consistent relationships exist between tooth width and height of the clinical crown dimensions; and to investigate the occurrence of the golden proportion of the maxillary anterior teeth. Dental casts of the maxillary arches were made in this cross-sectional study from MAHSA University College students who met the inclusion criteria. The 49 participants represented the Malaysian population main ethnics. The dimensions of the anterior teeth and the perceived width of anterior teeth viewed from front were measured using a digital caliper. Comparison of the perceived width ratio of lateral to central incisor and canine to lateral incisor with the golden proportion of 0.618 revealed there were a significant statistical difference (p standard of 80%. There was no significant difference in the comparison among ethnic groups for the golden proportion and the golden standard. The golden proportion was not found to exist between the perceived widths of maxillary anterior teeth. No golden standard were detected for the width-to-height proportions of maxillary incisors. Specific population characteristics and perception of beauty must be considered. However, ethnicity has no association with the proportions of maxillary anterior teeth.

  14. Proportional Systems in the History of Architecture: A Conversation with James S. Ackerman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A Cohen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In November 2010, James S. Ackerman, today the only living participant of the conference ‘De divina proportione’, which was held in Milan in 1951, sat for a video interview that was later shown at the conference ‘Proportional Systems in the History of Architecture’ in Leiden in 2011 to mark the sixtieth anniversary of the Milan conference. In this interview, conducted by Matthew A. Cohen, Ackerman discusses how the study of proportional systems has changed over the past six decades, and thereby provides a unique link between the two conferences. The interview begins with Ackerman’s experiences in northern Italy at the close of World War II, and a few years later at the Milan conference. It considers prevailing twentieth-century attitudes toward proportion up to the time of the conference, and compares them with prevailing medieval and Renaissance attitudes. Ackerman then shares his thoughts on the works and legacies of Rudolf Wittkower, Le Corbusier and Colin Rowe, before exploring the influences of architectural proportional theory on architectural design, and possible relationships between proportional systems and architectural beauty. After exploring changes in the uses of proportional systems that accompanied the rise of Abstract Expressionism, the arc of the interview concludes with Ackerman’s thoughts about the future of proportional systems in light of the evolving role of the computer in architectural practice today.

  15. The Relationship between Eighth Grade Primary School Students’ Proportional Reasoning Skills and Success in Solving Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Cetin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the relationship between eighth grade primary school students’ success levels in solving equations and proportional reasoning skills. 344 eighth grade students, who were registered at various primary schools in the central districts of Konya in the 2007-2008 educational year, participated in the research. The study had a relational survey research design. The findings indicated that eighth grade students’ success in solving equations and their proportional reasoning skills were highly correlated (r=0.89. Students were most successful at finding the missing value within the proportional reasoning question types, followed by questions that required quantitative comparison and qualitative comparison.

  16. The Relationship between Eighth Grade Primary School Students’ Proportional Reasoning Skills and Success in Solving Equations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hatice Cetin; Erhan Ertekin

    2011-01-01

    ...’ success levels in solving equations and proportional reasoning skills. 344 eighth grade students, who were registered at various primary schools in the central districts of Konya in the 2007-2008 educational year, participated in the research...

  17. Proportion of Uterine Malignant Tumors in Patients with Laparoscopic Myomectomy: A National Multicenter Study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Yang

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: The proportion of malignancy is low after using morcellation in patients who undergo laparoscopic myomectomy. Patients with fast-growing uterine fibroids and abnormal ultrasonic tumor blood flow should be considered for malignant potential, and morcellation should be avoided.

  18. Testing for Hardy-Weinberg proportions: have we lost the plot?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Waples, Robin S

    2015-01-01

    Testing for Hardy-Weinberg proportions (HWP) is routine in almost all genetic studies of natural populations, but many researchers do not demonstrate a full understanding of the purposes of these tests or how to interpret the results...

  19. Federal Report Shows Drop in Proportion of Children in US Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Releases News Release Friday, July 12, 2013 Federal report shows drop in proportion of children in US ... children, according to the federal government’s annual statistical report on the well-being of the nation’s children ...

  20. Epistemological Obstacles on the Topic of Ratio and Proportion among Junior High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyuningrum, A. S.; Suryadi, D.; Turmudi

    2017-09-01

    This study intends to investigate how students’ understanding of ratio and proportion concept indicates epistemological obstacles. It was part of Didactical Design Research which was conducted to 72 students of 8th grade who ever learned about ratio and proportion. Data were collected through the students’ answers and interview in solving ratio and proportion problems. The results show that students’ conception, the ways of applying other mathematical concepts, the ways of using the rules, and variety of contexts are factors influencing epistemological obstacles in teaching and learning of ratio and proportion. These conditions can affect the students’ understanding o f related mathematics topics. Based on analysis of the results, this study is expected to overcome or minimize the epistemological obstacles.

  1. Using Photographic Images to Enhance Conceptual Development in Situations of Proportion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Annette; Hilton, Geoff; Dole, Shelley; Goos, Merrilyn

    2015-01-01

    Find out how to use photographic images to support the conceptual development of proportional thinking. This paper provides insight into a sequenced activity that promotes student engagement and makes links to familiar and unfamiliar contexts.

  2. Equality of Shapley value and fair proportion index in phylogenetic trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Michael; Jin, Emma Yu

    2015-11-01

    The Shapley value and the fair proportion index of phylogenetic trees have been introduced recently for the purpose of making conservation decisions in genetics. Moreover, also very recently, Hartmann (J Math Biol 67:1163-1170, 2013) has presented data which shows that there is a strong correlation between a slightly modified version of the Shapley value (which we call the modified Shapley value) and the fair proportion index. He gave an explanation of this correlation by showing that the contribution of both indices to an edge of the tree becomes identical as the number of taxa tends to infinity. In this note, we show that the Shapley value and the fair proportion index are in fact the same. Moreover, we also consider the modified Shapley value and show that its covariance with the fair proportion index in random phylogenetic trees under the Yule-Harding model and uniform model is indeed close to one.

  3. Allocation of seats in the European Parliament and a degressive proportionality

    CERN Document Server

    Florek, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Distribution of seats in The European Parliament postulated by Treaty of Lisbon should be degressively proportional. The meaning of degressively proportional concept can be found in two principles annexed to the draft of European Parliament resolution. The first, referred as the principle of fair division, states that "the larger the population of a Member State, the greater is entitlement to a large number of seats". The other condition, referred to as the principle of relative proportionality, holds that "the larger the population of a country, the more inhabitants are represented by each of its Members of the EU". We postulate a clear and fair method which determines uniquely a distribution of seats in the European Parliament which fulfill the requirements of degressive proportionality.

  4. Ethnicity, education, and the non-proportional hazard of first marriage in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, DeAnna L; Carlson, Elwood

    2010-07-01

    This study uses the 1998 Turkish Demographic and Health Survey to estimate non-proportional piecewise-constant hazards for first marriage among women in Turkey by education and ethnicity, with controls for region of residence and rural-urban migration. At low education levels Kurdish speakers married earlier than women who spoke Turkish or other languages, but at high education levels Kurdish women delayed marriage more than other women. This reversal across education groups furnishes a new illustration of the minority-group-status hypothesis specifically focused on marriage as the first step in the family formation process. The ethnic contrast concerned only marriage timing in Turkey, not proportions ever marrying. Eventual marriage remained nearly universal for all groups of women. This means that an assumption of proportional duration hazards (widespread in contemporary research) across the whole range of marriage-forming ages should be replaced by models with non-proportional duration hazards.

  5. Le test binomial exact de la différence entre deux proportions et ses approximations [The exact binomial test between two proportions and its approximations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurencelle, Louis

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Though it is a commonplace and quite frequent operation, the comparison of two independent proportions remains a problematic and ill understood issue in textbooks on applied statistics and for researchers. On the one hand, the comparison may be arrayed as a $2 \\times 2$ contingency table and be referred to chi-square type calculations; on the other hand, it can be viewed as the difference between means based on 0 / 1 data, this perspective leading to alternative normal-type treatments. The main known solutions for deciding upon the difference between two proportions are reviewed and briefly discussed. An original, theoretically deduced solution that we deem `exact' is then proposed. We conclude with a short numerical study that endorses two well-known approximate solutions. Résumé: Situation statistique banale, voire quotidiennement rencontrée, la comparaison de deux proportions indépendantes demeure une opération problématique dans les ouvrages de statistique appliquée comme dans la pratique. D'un côté, cette comparaison peut être présentée dans le format d'un tableau de contingence $2\\times 2$, ce qui l'associe aux statistiques habituelles d'un tel tableau; d'un autre côté, la différence entre deux proportions équivaut à la différence entre deux moyennes indépendantes, en considérant que les valeurs moyennées sont des "0" et des "1", ce cas admettant un autre type de traitement. Nous revoyons ici les principales solutions proposées pour l'étude de la différence entre deux proportions, et nous élaborons par déduction notre propre solution, que nous croyons exacte. Dans une courte étude numérique, nous établissons enfin les vertus de deux approximations déjà connues.

  6. The Relationship between Eighth Grade Primary School Students’ Proportional Reasoning Skills and Success in Solving Equations

    OpenAIRE

    Hatice Cetin; Erhan Ertekin

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between eighth grade primary school students’ success levels in solving equations and proportional reasoning skills. 344 eighth grade students, who were registered at various primary schools in the central districts of Konya in the 2007-2008 educational year, participated in the research. The study had a relational survey research design. The findings indicated that eighth grade students’ success in solving equations and their proportional reasoning sk...

  7. Proportional fair scheduling with superposition coding in a cellular cooperative relay system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaneko, Megumi; Hayashi, Kazunori; Popovski, Petar

    2013-01-01

    Many works have tackled on the problem of throughput and fairness optimization in cellular cooperative relaying systems. Considering firstly a two-user relay broadcast channel, we design a scheme based on superposition coding (SC) which maximizes the achievable sum-rate under a proportional...... outperform conventional schedulers based on orthogonal user allocation, both in terms of throughput and proportional fairness. These results indicate promising new directions for the design of future radio resource allocation and scheduling algorithms....

  8. Time-trend and variations in the proportion of second-eye cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernal-Delgado Enrique

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite recommendations for greater use of second-eye cataract surgery and the bilateral progression of the disease, there is a substantial proportion of unmet need for this treatment. Few studies have explored the factors associated with second-eye cataract surgery utilisation. The objective of our study was to estimate the proportion of second-eye cataract surgery, evaluate its time-trend, and explore differences in utilisation by patients' gender, age, and region of residence. Methods All senile cataract surgeries performed between 1999 and 2002 in the public health system of Catalonia (Spain were obtained from the Minimum Data Set. The proportion of second-eye surgery from November 2000 to December 2002 was calculated. The time-trend of this proportion was characterised through linear regression models with the logarithmic transformation of time. Results The proportion of second-eye surgery was 30.0% and showed an increasing trend from 24.8% (95% Confidence Interval [CI] 21.6; 26.1 in November 2000 to 31.8% (95% CI 31.4; 33.6 in December 2002. This proportion was 1.9% (95% CI 0.9; 2.9 higher in women (p Conclusion We predict greater utilization of second-eye surgery in patients aged 70 to 79 years and in women. A greater increase in the utilisation rates of second-eye surgery is expected in the regions with lower proportions and in older patients. The observed trend suggests that there will be a substantial proportion of unmet need for bilateral surgery.

  9. Estimation of Sensitive Proportion by Randomized Response Data in Successive Sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the problem of estimation for binomial proportions of sensitive or stigmatizing attributes in the population of interest. Randomized response techniques are suggested for protecting the privacy of respondents and reducing the response bias while eliciting information on sensitive attributes. In many sensitive question surveys, the same population is often sampled repeatedly on each occasion. In this paper, we apply successive sampling scheme to improve the estimation of the sensitive proportion on current occasion.

  10. A Positron CT Camera System Using Multiwire Proportional Chambers as Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-18

    Beijing) Abstract This article reports on a positron computerized tomography camera syste:. using 7ultiwire proportional chambers ( MWPC ) as detectors...This system is composed of two high-density MWPC gamma-ray detectors, an electronic readout system and a computer foi data piocessing. Three...proportional chamber ( MWPC ) PECT is directly used in the field of solid body investigation in physics to measure Fermi surfaces as well as to determine Lhe

  11. Computer Simulation of Atoms Nuclei Structure Using Information Coefficients of Proportionality

    OpenAIRE

    Labushev, Mikhail M.

    2012-01-01

    The latest research of the proportionality of atomic weights of chemical elements made it possible to obtain 3 x 3 matrices for the calculation of information coefficients of proportionality Ip that can be used for 3D modeling of the structure of atom nucleus. The results of computer simulation show high potential of nucleus structure research for the characterization of their chemical and physical properties.

  12. Modern prejudice and strength of conjunction error : overestimating proportions of minority employees

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfram, Hans-Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Modern prejudice was examined as a potential predictor of overestimating proportions of minority employees in gender-typed occupations. Strength of conjunction error was considered as an indicator of distorted perceptions of these proportions. Furthermore, we investigated whether the association between modern prejudice and strength of conjunction error was weaker for gender-untypical than for gender-typical targets.\\ud Modern prejudice was considered as a predictor of overestimations of blac...

  13. Intravenous pharmacokinetics, oral bioavailability, dose proportionality and in situ permeability of anti-malarial lumefantrine in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahajuddin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the wide spread use of lumefantrine, there is no study reporting the detailed preclinical pharmacokinetics of lumefantrine. For the development of newer anti-malarial combination(s and selection of better partner drugs, it is long felt need to understand the detailed preclinical pharmacokinetics of lumefantrine in preclinical experimental animal species. The focus of present study is to report bioavailability, pharmacokinetics, dose linearity and permeability of lumefantrine in rats. Methods A single dose of 10, 20 or 40 mg/kg of lumefantrine was given orally to male rats (N = 5 per dose level to evaluate dose proportionality. In another study, a single intravenous bolus dose of lumefantrine was given to rats (N = 4 at 0.5 mg/kg dose following administration through the lateral tail vein in order to obtain the absolute oral bioavailability and clearance parameters. Blood samples were drawn at predetermined intervals and the concentration of lumefantrine and its metabolite desbutyl-lumefantrine in plasma were determined by partially validated LC-MS/MS method. In-situ permeability study was carried in anaesthetized rats. The concentration of lumefantrine in permeability samples was determined using RP-HPLC. Results For nominal doses increasing in a 1:2:4 proportion, the Cmax and AUC0-∞ values increased in the proportions of 1:0.6:1.5 and 1:0.8:1.8, respectively. For lumefantrine nominal doses increasing in a 1:2:4 proportion, the Cmax and the AUC0-t values for desbutyl-lumefantrine increased in the proportions of 1:1.45:2.57 and 1:1.08:1.87, respectively. After intravenous administration the clearance (Cl and volume of distribution (Vd of lumefantrine in rats were 0.03 (± 0.02 L/h/kg and 2.40 (± 0.67 L/kg, respectively. Absolute oral bioavailability of lumefantrine across the tested doses ranged between 4.97% and 11.98%. Lumefantrine showed high permeability (4.37 × 10-5 cm/s in permeability study. Conclusions The

  14. Evaluation of maxillary anterior teeth and their relation to the golden proportion in malaysian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Marzok Maan Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The maxillary anterior teeth are important in achieving pleasing dental aesthetics. Various methods are used to measure the size and form of them, including the golden proportion between their perceived widths, and the width-to-height ratio, referred to as the golden standard. The purpose of this study was conducted to evaluate whether consistent relationships exist between tooth width and height of the clinical crown dimensions; and to investigate the occurrence of the golden proportion of the maxillary anterior teeth. Methods Dental casts of the maxillary arches were made in this cross-sectional study from MAHSA University College students who met the inclusion criteria. The 49 participants represented the Malaysian population main ethnics. The dimensions of the anterior teeth and the perceived width of anterior teeth viewed from front were measured using a digital caliper. Results Comparison of the perceived width ratio of lateral to central incisor and canine to lateral incisor with the golden proportion of 0.618 revealed there were a significant statistical difference (p  Conclusions The golden proportion was not found to exist between the perceived widths of maxillary anterior teeth. No golden standard were detected for the width-to-height proportions of maxillary incisors. Specific population characteristics and perception of beauty must be considered. However, ethnicity has no association with the proportions of maxillary anterior teeth.

  15. Estimation of aquifer scale proportion using equal area grids: assessment of regional scale groundwater quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belitz, Kenneth; Jurgens, Bryant C.; Landon, Matthew K.; Fram, Miranda S.; Johnson, Tyler D.

    2010-01-01

    The proportion of an aquifer with constituent concentrations above a specified threshold (high concentrations) is taken as a nondimensional measure of regional scale water quality. If computed on the basis of area, it can be referred to as the aquifer scale proportion. A spatially unbiased estimate of aquifer scale proportion and a confidence interval for that estimate are obtained through the use of equal area grids and the binomial distribution. Traditionally, the confidence interval for a binomial proportion is computed using either the standard interval or the exact interval. Research from the statistics literature has shown that the standard interval should not be used and that the exact interval is overly conservative. On the basis of coverage probability and interval width, the Jeffreys interval is preferred. If more than one sample per cell is available, cell declustering is used to estimate the aquifer scale proportion, and Kish's design effect may be useful for estimating an effective number of samples. The binomial distribution is also used to quantify the adequacy of a grid with a given number of cells for identifying a small target, defined as a constituent that is present at high concentrations in a small proportion of the aquifer. Case studies illustrate a consistency between approaches that use one well per grid cell and many wells per cell. The methods presented in this paper provide a quantitative basis for designing a sampling program and for utilizing existing data.

  16. The effect of different proportions of astragaloside and curcumin on DM model of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Mingsan; Liu, Jing; Wang, Tan; Liang, Xue; Bai, Ming

    2017-05-01

    This paper aims to study the effects of different proportion of astragaloside and curcumin on STZ induced Diabetes Mellitus (DM) model of mice, and to select a better proportion of active components. Its ultimate purpose is to lay a basis for the follow-up research on astragaloside-curcumin capsule. Increase-decrease baseline geometric proportion design method and comprehensive performance evaluation utilised to study the effect of different proportion of astragaloside and curcumin on DM mice models, which have an intravenous tail injection of STZ. The proportions of the two components are 10:0, 8:2, 7:3, 6:4, 5:5, 4:6, 3:7, 2:8, 0:10 respectively. And we will screen out the optimal composition. Blood glycated serum protein (GSP), hepatic glycogen and insulin tested to observe pathological changes in the pancreas. The mice DM model was copied successfully. Compared with the model group, groups treated with the metformin and with different proportions of astragaloside and curcumin help lower the blood glucose levels and GSP levels, increase glycogen stores of model mice by different degrees, and avoid pathological changes of pancreas in the model mice. The ratio of 3:7 was selected as the optimal one, based on the comprehensive performance evaluation method, followed by the ratio of 4:6. The optimal proportion of DM models is 3:7, followed by 4:6. The ratio of total astragaloside and curcumin can lower blood glucose levels, GSP levels, promote the formation of glycogen, and improve the pathological changes of pancreas in the model mice.

  17. Gaussian Process Autoregression for Simultaneous Proportional Multi-Modal Prosthetic Control With Natural Hand Kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiloyannis, Michele; Gavriel, Constantinos; Thomik, Andreas A C; Faisal, A Aldo

    2017-10-01

    Matching the dexterity, versatility, and robustness of the human hand is still an unachieved goal in bionics, robotics, and neural engineering. A major limitation for hand prosthetics lies in the challenges of reliably decoding user intention from muscle signals when controlling complex robotic hands. Most of the commercially available prosthetic hands use muscle-related signals to decode a finite number of predefined motions and some offer proportional control of open/close movements of the whole hand. Here, in contrast, we aim to offer users flexible control of individual joints of their artificial hand. We propose a novel framework for decoding neural information that enables a user to independently control 11 joints of the hand in a continuous manner-much like we control our natural hands. Toward this end, we instructed six able-bodied subjects to perform everyday object manipulation tasks combining both dynamic, free movements (e.g., grasping) and isometric force tasks (e.g., squeezing). We recorded the electromyographic and mechanomyographic activities of five extrinsic muscles of the hand in the forearm, while simultaneously monitoring 11 joints of hand and fingers using a sensorized data glove that tracked the joints of the hand. Instead of learning just a direct mapping from current muscle activity to intended hand movement, we formulated a novel autoregressive approach that combines the context of previous hand movements with instantaneous muscle activity to predict future hand movements. Specifically, we evaluated a linear vector autoregressive moving average model with exogenous inputs and a novel Gaussian process ( ) autoregressive framework to learn the continuous mapping from hand joint dynamics and muscle activity to decode intended hand movement. Our approach achieves high levels of performance (RMSE of 8°/s and ). Crucially, we use a small set of sensors that allows us to control a larger set of independently actuated degrees of freedom of a hand

  18. Proportional evaluation of anterior cruciate ligament footprint size and knee bony morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriuchishima, Takanori; Ryu, Keinosuke; Aizawa, Shin; Fu, Freddie H

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to reveal the correlation in size between the native anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) footprint and the femoral intercondylar notch and the tibia plateau, and to calculate the proportion in size between the ACL footprint and knee bony morphology. Twenty-six non-paired human cadaver knees were used. All soft tissues around the knee were resected except the ACL. The ACL was cut in the middle, and the femoral bone was cut at the most proximal point of the femoral notch. The ACL was carefully dissected, and the periphery of the ACL insertion site was outlined on both the femoral and tibial sides. An accurate lateral view of the femoral condyle and an axial view of the tibial plateau were photographed with a digital camera, and the images were downloaded to a personal computer. The size of the femoral and tibial ACL footprints and the area of the lateral wall of the intercondylar notch and the tibia plateau were measured with Image J software (National Institution of Health). The sizes of the native femoral and tibial ACL footprints were 69.8 ± 25 and 133.8 ± 31.3 mm(2), respectively. The areas of the lateral wall of the intercondylar notch and the tibia plateau were 390.5 ± 70.5 and 2,281.7 ± 377.3 mm(2), respectively. The femoral ACL footprint area and the area of the lateral wall of the femoral intercondylar notch (Pearson's correlation coefficient = 0.603, p = 0.001), and the tibial ACL footprint area and the area of the tibia plateau (Pearson's correlation coefficient = 0.452, p = 0.02) both showed significant correlation. The femoral ACL footprint was 17.8 ± 4.9 %, the size of the lateral wall of the femoral intercondylar notch, and the tibial ACL footprint was 5.9 ± 1.3 %, the size of the tibia plateau. For clinical relevance, the femoral ACL footprint is approximately 18 %, the size of the intercondylar notch, and the tibial ACL footprint is approximately 6 %, the size of the tibia plateau. It might be possible to predict the

  19. A comparison of different methods to estimate species proportions by area in mixed stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald F. Dirnberger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: This paper presents the most appropriate ways to estimate the species proportions by area in mixed stands of Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst. and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. by comparing stand level and individual tree level approaches. It also investigates whether different ways of describing species proportions by area can result in different judgments on the over- or under-yielding of species in mixtures.Area of the study: Three triplets of pure and mixed stands of Norway spruce and European beech in three locations in the northeast of Austria are investigated. The three locations differ considerably in slope, bedrock and soil type as well as in site index.Material and Methods: In all 9 plots the coordinates of all trees, their dbh, height, height to the crown base and five year increment were measured. The potentially available areas of individual trees are calculated by Voronoi- diagrams and potential densities are estimated from the comparable pure stands, yield tables, and published equations for maximum basal area and Reineke’s maximum density line.Main results: The species proportions estimated by the individual tree approach with leaf area as growth characteristic gave the best fit with the stand approach with the most appropriate, regional maximum basal area equations. By using various definitions of species proportions, in the worst case the mixing effects on individual species can be seriously over- or underestimated while the mixing effects on the total increment is only negligibly affected.Research highlightsMeasures of species proportions by area are needed for comparing growth per hectare of a species in a mixed stand with that of the same species in a pure standSpecies proportions at the stand level are based on estimates of the species’ potential densities, either in terms of maximum basal area or of maximum stand density indexSpecies proportions at the tree level are derived from the area

  20. Statistical inference for Hardy-Weinberg proportions in the presence of missing genotype information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graffelman, Jan; Sánchez, Milagros; Cook, Samantha; Moreno, Victor

    2013-01-01

    In genetic association studies, tests for Hardy-Weinberg proportions are often employed as a quality control checking procedure. Missing genotypes are typically discarded prior to testing. In this paper we show that inference for Hardy-Weinberg proportions can be biased when missing values are discarded. We propose to use multiple imputation of missing values in order to improve inference for Hardy-Weinberg proportions. For imputation we employ a multinomial logit model that uses information from allele intensities and/or neighbouring markers. Analysis of an empirical data set of single nucleotide polymorphisms possibly related to colon cancer reveals that missing genotypes are not missing completely at random. Deviation from Hardy-Weinberg proportions is mostly due to a lack of heterozygotes. Inbreeding coefficients estimated by multiple imputation of the missings are typically lowered with respect to inbreeding coefficients estimated by discarding the missings. Accounting for missings by multiple imputation qualitatively changed the results of 10 to 17% of the statistical tests performed. Estimates of inbreeding coefficients obtained by multiple imputation showed high correlation with estimates obtained by single imputation using an external reference panel. Our conclusion is that imputation of missing data leads to improved statistical inference for Hardy-Weinberg proportions.

  1. Effects of Varying Proportions of Glass on Reflectance Spectra of HED Polymict Breccias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, P. C.; Reddy, V; LeCorre, L.; Cloutis, E. A.; Mann, P.; Le, L.

    2014-01-01

    Some meteorites contain significant amounts of glass, which, in most cases, probably results from impact processes on parent bodies.. Yamato 82202 is an example of one of the unequilibrated eucrites that contains significant proportions of impact glass distributed as veins throughout the meteorite. In other cases, fragments of glass are distributed throughout polymict breccias. For example, the polymict eucrite EET 87509 contains rare angular fragments of devitrified glass. Proportions of glass in most of these meteorites and in lithic clasts within these meteorites may vary locally from small amounts (less than one percent) to much larger amounts (subequal proportions of glass and mineral material). For example, some fragments within the South African polymict eucrite Macibini contain approximately 50% glass. The presence of these variable proportions of meteorite glass confirm the increased recognition that impact processes played an important role in the histories of asteroidal bodies. This study attempts to quantify the effects of a glass component on reflectance spectra by analyzing in the laboratory mixtures of varying proportions of a well-characterized HED polymict breccia and glass derived by melting a bulk sample of that breccia.

  2. The proportion of married couples who divorce: past patterns and current prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskey, J

    1996-01-01

    This article provides estimates of the proportions of marriages which ended in divorce for the different groups of couples who have married since the 1950s. Over one quarter of all couples who married in the late 1970s and early 1980s had divorced by the end of 1994. As well as giving the overall proportion of couples married in a given year who subsequently divorced, estimates are provided of the corresponding proportions for different subsets of those couples--according to each partner's marital status before marriage, and age at marriage. For some of the higher risk groups--bachelors and spinsters who married as teenagers and divorced men and women who remarried in their early twenties--the proportions who had divorced by 1994 had reached over 40 per cent, and in some cases just over 50 per cent, amongst those who had married between the mid-1960s and the mid-1970s. Finally, a life table analysis is carried out to estimate the proportion of marriages which would end in divorce were the duration--specific divorce rates to remain unchanged at their 1993/94 levels. On this basis, two in five marriages would ultimately end in divorce; just under one half of couples would celebrate their silver wedding, whilst the average length of marriage would be 26 years.

  3. Non-hospital environment contamination with Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: proportion meta-analysis and features of antibiotic resistance and molecular genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jialing; Lin, Dongxin; Xu, Ping; Zhang, Ting; Ou, Qianting; Bai, Chan; Yao, Zhenjiang

    2016-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), survives in dry conditions and can persist for long periods on surfaces touched by humans. Studies that estimate the proportions and characteristics of S. aureus and MRSA contamination in non-hospital environments are lacking. Therefore, we conducted a proportion meta-analysis and reviewed the features of antibiotic resistance and molecular genetics. Articles published between January 2005 and December 2015 that studied proportions of S. aureus and MRSA contamination in non-hospital environments were retrieved from the Medline database, Ovid database and Science Direct database. All statistics were analyzed by STATA 14.1. Twenty-nine articles were included. The overall proportions of S. aureus and MRSA contamination were 41.1% (95%CI 29-54%) and 8.6% (95%CI 5-13%), respectively. The proportion of MRSA contamination increased over time. From the articles, the proportion of Panton-Valentine Leukociden (PVL) genes among MRSA isolates was 54.5%, and the proportion of the qac gene was 100.0%. Distribution of the multilocus sequence type (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of MRSA indicated that MRSA strains were from both hospitals and communities. The overall proportions of S. aureus and MRSA contamination in non-hospital environments were high. The outcomes of antibiotic resistance and high proportions of PVL genes indicated that the antibiotic resistance of S. aureus and MRSA were notable. According to the different distributions of MLST and SCCmec of MRSA, we can infer that cross-circulation is within hospitals, communities, and livestock. The results also show that the risk from the MRSA strains was cross-transmitted among the population. High proportions of the qac gene of MRSA might indicate that current disinfection of MRSA has not been achieved, and it might be better to further identify the efficiency of the sterilization processes in a non

  4. The Lisbon Treaty and the New Dimensions of the Principles of Proportionality and Subsidiarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilica NEGRUT

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The general objective of the paper was constituted on an extremely present subject of real interest. Using the content analysis thorough a descriptive documentary research this study aims atidentifying the new dimensions of the principles of proportionality and subsidiarity after the Lisbon Treaty. For this end, an analysis of the specific objectives was performed: the concept ofproportionality, the evolution of subsidiarity and the new valences of the two principles in the framework of the modifications introduces by the adoption of the Lisbon Treaty. We assert thus thatin virtue of these modifications, the application of the principles of proportionality and subsidiarity has the purpose of maintaining the institutional balance, as the subsidiarity establishes which of the competencies belongs to the state or community institutions and the proportionality indicates the dimensions of applying the legislative measures.

  5. An imaging gas scintillation proportional counter for use in X-ray astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailey, C. J.; Ku, W. H.-M.; Vartanian, M. H.

    1983-01-01

    An imaging gas scintillation proportional counter (GSPC) has been constructed for use in X-ray astronomy. The IGSPC consists of a gas scintillation proportional counter (GSPC) with a 1 micron polypropylene window coupled to a multiwire proportional counter (MWPC) via a calcium fluoride window. The MWPC, filled with a mixture of argon, methane, and tetrakis (dimethylamino) ethylene, detects the UV photons emitted by the xenon gas in the GSPC. The measured energy resolution is 17.0 percent (fwhm) and 8.0 percent (fwhm) at 1.5 keV and 5.9 keV, respectively. The measured position resolution is 1.9 mm (fwhm) and 0.9 mm (fwhm) at 1.5 and 5.9 keV, respectively. Possible astrophysical observations which can be performed with an IGSPC at the focal plane of a grazing incidence telescope are also discussed.

  6. A plasticity model with yield surface distortion for non proportional loading

    CERN Document Server

    François, Marc Louis Maurice

    2010-01-01

    In order to enhance the modeling of metallic materials behavior in non proportional loadings, a modification of the classical elastic-plastic models including distortion of the yield surface is proposed. The new yield criterion uses the same norm as in the classical von Mises based criteria, and a "distorted stress" Sd replacing the usual stress deviator S. The obtained yield surface is then ?egg-shaped? similar to those experimentally observed and depends on only one new material parameter. The theory is built in such a way as to recover the classical one for proportional loading. An identification procedure is proposed to obtain the material parameters. Simulations and experiments are compared for a 2024 T4 aluminum alloy for both proportional and nonproportional tension-torsion loading paths.

  7. Method of technological control of proportional electromagnets for control systems of their production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankin, A. M.; Lankin, M. V.; Lankina, M. Y.

    2017-02-01

    This article describes the algorithm of the method of technological control of proportional solenoids to control their production process. An important element in the process of production of proportional solenoids is to identify deviations from the nominal mode of its occurrence. This situation shows the relevance of developing a method of technological control of proportional solenoids providing information on process control in a short time. The proposed algorithm consists of four steps: measuring the dynamic characteristics of the magnetization of electromagnet testing, the use of principal component analysis to reduce the dimension of the analyzed information, the classification of products by the condition and sub-standards, the definition of the numerical values of the manufacturing process variations using a calibration method. This approach allows us to determine the type and the degree of impairment of the mode of the process that will lead to effective management of the production process of the electromagnetic actuators.

  8. Sexually dimorphic proportions of the harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) skeleton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galatius, Anders

    2005-01-01

    compared with males. Measurements of the skull and flipper bones show negative allometry, whereas those of the bones of the body generally show positive allometry. There are no statistically significant intersexual differences in allometry except for the pelvic bones, where the males show stronger positive...... allometry. Throughout the range of individual sizes, females have significantly larger skulls and shorter vertebral columns than males for similarly sized individuals. In fully grown specimens, the condylobasal length of females makes up a smaller proportion of total length, and the vertebrae make up...... a larger proportion as compared with males. As these characters show negative and positive allometry, respectively, it is suggested that males finish their development at an earlier stage than females, retaining more paedomorphic proportions of the skeleton. Paedomorphosis in fully grown males relative...

  9. Statistical power to detect violation of the proportional hazards assumption when using the Cox regression model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Peter C

    2018-01-01

    The use of the Cox proportional hazards regression model is widespread. A key assumption of the model is that of proportional hazards. Analysts frequently test the validity of this assumption using statistical significance testing. However, the statistical power of such assessments is frequently unknown. We used Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the statistical power of two different methods for detecting violations of this assumption. When the covariate was binary, we found that a model-based method had greater power than a method based on cumulative sums of martingale residuals. Furthermore, the parametric nature of the distribution of event times had an impact on power when the covariate was binary. Statistical power to detect a strong violation of the proportional hazards assumption was low to moderate even when the number of observed events was high. In many data sets, power to detect a violation of this assumption is likely to be low to modest.

  10. Simulation and experiment research on the proportional pressure control of water-assisted injection molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hua; Chen, Yinglong; Zhang, Zengmeng; Yang, Huayong

    2012-05-01

    Water-assisted injection molding (WAIM), a newly developed fluid-assisted injection molding technology has drawn more and more attentions for the energy saving, short cooling circle time and high quality of products. Existing research for the process of WAIM has shown that the pressure control of the injecting water is mostly important for the WAIM. However, the proportional pressure control for the WAIM system is quite complex due to the existence of nonlinearities in the water hydraulic system. In order to achieve better pressure control performance of the injecting water to meet the requirements of the WAIM, the proportional pressure control of the WAIM system is investigated both numerically and experimentally. A newly designed water hydraulic system for WAIM is first modeled in AMEsim environment, the load characteristics and the nonlinearities of water hydraulic system are both considered, then the main factors affecting the injecting pressure and load flow rate are extensively studied. Meanwhile, an open-loop model-based compensation control strategy is employed to regulate the water injection pressure and a feedback proportional integrator controller is further adopted to achieve better control performance. In order to verify the AMEsim simulation results WAIM experiment for particular Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) parts is implemented and the measured experimental data including injecting pressure and flow rate results are compared with the simulation. The good coincidence between experiment and simulation shows that the AMEsim model is accurate, and the tracking performance of the load pressure indicates that the proposed control strategy is effective for the proportional pressure control of the nonlinear WAIM system. The proposed proportional pressure control strategy and the conclusions drawn from simulation and experiment contribute to the application of water hydraulic proportional control and WAIM technology.

  11. Coaptation Triangle and Golden Proportion in mitral valve anatomy. Does nature play with geometry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deorsola, Luca; Bellone, Alessandra

    2018-01-01

    The Coaptation Triangle, or Tenting Area, can be identified on long-axis 2D images. Its assessment is a routine practice during echocardiographic mitral evaluation. The Golden Proportion is a particular geometric ratio between two segments. Its value is an irrational number, commonly rounded to 0.618 and showing unique geometrical/mathematical properties. Interestingly, its presence has been documented in an extremely variable number of natural settings. Hypothesizing the presence of the Golden Proportion in normal mitral anatomy, we examined the Coaptation Triangle of healthy valves to investigate such a theory. A total of 41 healthy adults, with normal mitral valves, underwent 2D echocardiography. Adequate images were chosen and loaded into custom software. Firstly, the Coaptation Triangle was manually drawn by the operator. Then, a second Coaptation Triangle, with the same base, but based on Golden Proportion, was automatically built by the software. Eventually, the two triangles were analyzed and compared. All retrieved measurements were investigated for differences and correlations. Ratios close to the Golden Proportion were found in several locations of the manually drawn Coaptation Triangle. On the other hand, comparing the manually drawn Coaptation Triangle with the automatically built one, no significant differences were revealed, and very strong correlations were demonstrated. The Golden Proportion appears present in the geometry of normal mitral valves. Studying such an aspect and identifying disruption in anatomical proportions could improve early diagnosis of mitral alterations, and allows a more standardized follow-up and help surgeons to plan a repair strategy, particularly quantifying the needed surgical modifications. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Proportion of illness acquired by foodborne transmission for nine enteric pathogens in Australia: an expert elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vally, Hassan; Glass, Kathryn; Ford, Laura; Hall, Gillian; Kirk, Martyn D; Shadbolt, Craig; Veitch, Mark; Fullerton, Katie E; Musto, Jennie; Becker, Niels

    2014-09-01

    Estimates of the burden of illness acquired from food inform public health policy and prioritize interventions. A key component of such estimates is the proportion of illnesses that are acquired by foodborne transmission. In view of the shortage of requisite data, these proportions are commonly obtained through a process known as expert elicitation. We report findings from an elicitation process used to assess the importance of the foodborne transmission route for nine pathogens in Australia, circa 2010. Eleven experts were asked to estimate the proportion of illness acquired by five transmission routes: food, environmental, water, person, and zoonotic, together with a 90% certainty interval for foodborne transmission. Foodborne estimates and intervals from each expert were combined using both modified triangular and Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) distributions, in @Risk version 6, to generate final distributions from which median estimates and 95% Credible Intervals (CrI) were calculated. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) was the only pathogen believed to have an important zoonotic transmission route, while norovirus, hepatitis A virus, non-STEC pathogenic E. coli, and Shigella spp. were all thought to be primarily spread from person to person. Foodborne transmission was the main route for Clostridium perfringens (98%, CrI: 84-100), Listeria monocytogenes (98%, CrI: 86-100), nontyphoidal Salmonella spp. (72%, CrI: 50-87), and Campylobacter spp. (77%, CrI: 60-90). Foodborne estimates using the modified triangular distribution had wider CrI than these calculated using the PERT distribution. Foodborne proportions for most pathogens in this study were the same or lower than those estimated circa 2000 in Australia, with the greatest decline for non-STEC pathogenic E. coli. Inclusion of certainty intervals from experts helps to quantify the precision of foodborne proportions. A decline in estimates of the foodborne proportion for common

  13. Canons of Proportion and the Laws of Nature: Observations on a Permanent and Unresolved Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Curti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The mind of the artist always seems to oscillate between two poles: on one side, reality as represented by nature in all its aspects, and on the other, the dream of absolute perfection. This is the fundamental problem of the eternal conflict between the laws of nature and the canon of aesthetic proportions, which presents itself in different, though often related, guises. This article identifies, through explorations of thinkers from Vitruvius, to Galileo, to Le Corbusier, the problematic knots of a phenomenon that the champions of ideal proportions have always had to face and often to hide, even from themselves, when confronted with the evidence of facts.

  14. Robust fractional-order proportional-integral observer for synchronization of chaotic fractional-order systems

    KAUST Repository

    N U+02BC Doye, Ibrahima

    2018-02-13

    In this paper, we propose a robust fractional-order proportional-integral U+0028 FOPI U+0029 observer for the synchronization of nonlinear fractional-order chaotic systems. The convergence of the observer is proved, and sufficient conditions are derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities U+0028 LMIs U+0029 approach by using an indirect Lyapunov method. The proposed U+0028 FOPI U+0029 observer is robust against Lipschitz additive nonlinear uncertainty. It is also compared to the fractional-order proportional U+0028 FOP U+0029 observer and its performance is illustrated through simulations done on the fractional-order chaotic Lorenz system.

  15. Simultaneous measurement of tritium and radiocarbon by ultra-low-background proportional counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Emily; Aalseth, Craig; Alexander, Tom; Back, Henning; Day, Anthony; Hoppe, Eric; Keillor, Martin; Moran, Jim; Overman, Cory; Panisko, Mark; Seifert, Allen

    2017-08-01

    Use of ultra-low-background capabilities at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory provide enhanced sensitivity for measurement of low-activity sources of tritium and radiocarbon using proportional counters. Tritium levels are nearly back to pre-nuclear test backgrounds (~2-8 TU in rainwater), which can complicate their dual measurement with radiocarbon due to overlap in the beta decay spectra. We present results of single-isotope proportional counter measurements used to analyze a dual-isotope methane sample synthesized from ~120mg of H2O and present sensitivity results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Fractional Variational Iteration Method for Solving Fractional Partial Differential Equations with Proportional Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brajesh Kumar Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with an alternative approximate analytic solution to time fractional partial differential equations (TFPDEs with proportional delay, obtained by using fractional variational iteration method, where the fractional derivative is taken in Caputo sense. The proposed series solutions are found to converge to exact solution rapidly. To confirm the efficiency and validity of FRDTM, the computation of three test problems of TFPDEs with proportional delay was presented. The scheme seems to be very reliable, effective, and efficient powerful technique for solving various types of physical models arising in science and engineering.

  17. Even-order self-adjoint boundary value problems for proportional derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas R. Anderson

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, even order self-adjoint differential equations incorporating recently introduced proportional derivatives, and their associated self-adjoint boundary conditions, are discussed. Using quasi derivatives, a Lagrange bracket and bilinear functional are used to obtain a Lagrange identity and Green's formula; this also leads to the classification of self-adjoint boundary conditions. Next we connect the self-adjoint differential equations with the theory of Hamiltonian systems and (n,n-disconjugacy. Specific formulas of Green's functions for two and four iterated proportional derivatives are also derived.

  18. Low-energy gamma-ray spectroscopy using an X-ray-escape gated proportional counter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregers Hansen, P.; Nielsen, H.L.; Williams, E.T.

    1965-01-01

    The utility of a gas-filled proportional counter in low-energy γ spectroscopy is greatly increased if it is operated in coincidence with an escaping fluorescent X-ray. An apparatus, having an efficiency greater than 10% of singles, is described and several examples are given. An efficiency curve...

  19. The role of surprising events in a math game on proportional reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, P.; van Oostendorp, H.; ter Vrugte, Judith; de Jong, Anthonius J.M.; Van der Cruysse, S.; Elen, J.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines whether surprising events can be used to stimulate students’ playful learning in a GBL environment in the domain of proportional reasoning. The assumed effect of surprise is that unexpected events interrupt an expectation and therefore triggers the player to evaluate the new

  20. Miniature proportional control valve with top-mounted piezo bimorph actuator with millisecond response time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, Maarten; Brouwer, Dannis Michel; Lötters, Joost Conrad; Wiegerink, Remco J.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate the realization of a micro control valve with a top-mounted piezoelectric bimorph actuator, to obtain a high-bandwidth proportional control valve for gases in the range of several grams per hour. Dynamic fluidic and mechanical characterization shows that the valve is

  1. The Non-Parametric Identification of the Mixed Proportional Hazards Competing Risks Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbring, J.H.; Berg, van den G.J.

    2000-01-01

    We prove identification of dependent competing risks models in whicheach risk has a mixed proportional hazard specification with regressors, and the risks are dependent by way of the unobserved heterogeneity, or frailty, components. We show that the conditions for non-parametric identification given

  2. A Multi-Objective Approach to Visualize Proportions and Similarities Between Individuals by Rectangular Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrizosa, Emilio; Guerrero, Vanesa; Morales, Dolores Romero

    In this paper we address the problem of visualizing the proportions and the similarities attached to a set of individuals. We represent this information using a rectangular map, i.e., a subdivision of a rectangle into rectangular portions so that each portion is associated with one individual, th...

  3. Single-chip mass flow controller with integrated Coriolis flow sensor and proportional control valve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenesteijn, Jarno; Alveringh, Dennis; Groen, Maarten; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lötters, Joost Conrad

    2016-01-01

    We have designed, fabricated and tested the, to our knowledge, first ever single-chip mass flow controller with an integrated Coriolis mass flow sensor and a proportional control valve. A minimum internal volume is obtained, because the complete fluid path is integrated in a single chip. We

  4. Proportional reasoning ability of school leavers aspiring to higher education in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Frith

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability to reason about numbers in relative terms is essential for quantitative literacy, which is necessary for studying academic disciplines and for critical citizenship. However, the ability to reason with proportions is known to be difficult to learn and to take a long time to develop. To determine how well higher education applicants can reason with proportions, questions requiring proportional reasoning were included in one version of the National Benchmark Test as unscored items. This version of the National Benchmark Test was taken in June 2014 by 5 444 learners countrywide who were intending to apply to higher education institutions. The multiple choice questions varied in terms of the structure of the problem, the context in which they were situated and complexity of the numbers, but all involved only positive whole numbers. The percentage of candidates who answered any particular question correctly varied from 25% to 82%. Problem context and structure affected the performance, as expected. In addition, problems in which the answer was presented as a mathematical expression, or as a sentence in which the reasoning about the relative sizes of fractions was explained, were generally found to be the most difficult. The performance on those questions in which the answer was a number or a category (chosen as a result of reasoning about the relative sizes of fractions was better. These results indicate that in learning about ratio and proportion there should be a focus on reasoning in various contexts and not only on calculating answers algorithmically.

  5. Eighth Grade In-Service Teachers' Knowledge of Proportional Reasoning and Functions: A Secondary Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    A secondary data analysis was conducted using a large dataset from a study related to online professional development for eighth grade teachers of mathematics. Using this data, the paper provides a snapshot of the current state of teachers' knowledge related to proportional reasoning and functions. The paper also considers how teachers' knowledge…

  6. Seventh Grade Students' Problem Solving Success Rates on Proportional Reasoning Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelen, Mustafa Serkan; Artut, Perihan Dinç

    2016-01-01

    This research was conducted to investigate 7th grade students' problem solving success rates on proportional reasoning problems and whether these success rates change with different problem types. 331 randomly selected students of grade seven participated in this study. A problem test which contains three different types of missing value (direct…

  7. Women and wages worldwide : How the national proportion of working women brings underpayment into the organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Vliert, E.; van der Vegt, G.S.

    Many employees are underpaid relative to their country's level of wealth. In agreement with social identity theory principles extended to the national level, our 59-nation study uncovered that this form of wealth-referenced underpayment is associated with the proportion of working women. In

  8. Reduced-rank hazard regression for modelling non-proportional hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perperoglou, Aris; le Cessie, Saskia; van Houwelingen, Hans C

    2006-08-30

    The Cox proportional hazards model is the most common method to analyse survival data. However, the proportional hazards assumption might not hold. The natural extension of the Cox model is to introduce time-varying effects of the covariates. For some covariates such as (surgical)treatment non-proportionality could be expected beforehand. For some other covariates the non-proportionality only becomes apparent if the follow-up is long enough. It is often observed that all covariates show similar decaying effects over time. Such behaviour could be explained by the popular (gamma-) frailty model. However, the (marginal) effects of covariates in frailty models are not easy to interpret. In this paper we propose the reduced-rank model for time-varying effects of covariates. Starting point is a Cox model with p covariates and time-varying effects modelled by q time functions (constant included), leading to a pxq structure matrix that contains the regression coefficients for all covariate by time function interactions. By reducing the rank of this structure matrix a whole range of models is introduced, from the very flexible full-rank model (identical to a Cox model with time-varying effects) to the very rigid rank one model that mimics the structure of a gamma-frailty model, but is easier to interpret. We illustrate these models with an application to ovarian cancer patients. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. A Mixture Proportional Hazards Model with Random Effects for Response Times in Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranger, Jochen; Kuhn, Jörg-Tobias

    2016-01-01

    In this article, a new model for test response times is proposed that combines latent class analysis and the proportional hazards model with random effects in a similar vein as the mixture factor model. The model assumes the existence of different latent classes. In each latent class, the response times are distributed according to a…

  10. Beyond beauty : reexamining architectural proportion in the Basilicas of San Lorenzo and Santo Spirito in Florence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, Matthew A.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation reexamines the problem of architectural proportion in the basilica of San Lorenzo in Florence following a rigorous new methodology that combines comprehensive measurements and other observations with documentary evidence, in order to identify the intentions of the basilica’s

  11. Decision-Tree Models of Categorization Response Times, Choice Proportions, and Typicality Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafond, Daniel; Lacouture, Yves; Cohen, Andrew L.

    2009-01-01

    The authors present 3 decision-tree models of categorization adapted from T. Trabasso, H. Rollins, and E. Shaughnessy (1971) and use them to provide a quantitative account of categorization response times, choice proportions, and typicality judgments at the individual-participant level. In Experiment 1, the decision-tree models were fit to…

  12. Evaluation of a depth proportional intake device for automatic pumping samplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand E. Eads; Robert B. Thomas

    1983-01-01

    Abstract - A depth proportional intake boom for portable pumping samplers was used to collect suspended sediment samples in two coastal streams for three winters. The boom pivots on the stream bed while a float on the downstream end allows debris to depress the boom and pass without becoming trapped. This equipment modifies point sampling by maintaining the intake...

  13. Photometric study of divine proportion and its correlation with facial attractiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Lazzari Marques Peron

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate if there is correlation between perception of facial esthetic and divine proportion, verifying if most attractive faces are closer to and less attractive faces are more distant to this proportion. METHODS: Standard facial photographs (frontal and lateral in natural head position were taken of a sample of 85 Brazilian Caucasian women, with mean age of 23 years and 9 months. The photographs were evaluated by 5 orthodontists, 5 artists and 5 laymen and were classified, according to their subjective analysis of facial esthetic, in pleasant, acceptable and not pleasant. Frontal photographs were evaluated by divine proportion analysis using the computerized method. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: According to subjective analysis the sample consisted 18.8% of pleasant, 70.6% of acceptable and 10.6% of not pleasant faces. After statistical analysis, a lack of agreement was verified in esthetic facial preferences among the three groups of observers. It was also possible to verify that in this research there was no correlation between perception of facial beauty and divine proportion.

  14. A novel Tissue-Equivalent Proportional Counter based on a Gas Electron Multiplier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farahmand, M.

    2004-01-01

    Ionising radiation causes a wide variety of effects in biological targets. In experimental microdosimetry these effects are studied by investigating the statistical distribution of energy deposition events at the microscopic level employing a Tissue-Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC). A TEPC is

  15. Using Dynamic Geometry Software for Teaching Conditional Probability with Area-Proportional Venn Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radakovic, Nenad; McDougall, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    This classroom note illustrates how dynamic visualization can be used to teach conditional probability and Bayes' theorem. There are two features of the visualization that make it an ideal pedagogical tool in probability instruction. The first feature is the use of area-proportional Venn diagrams that, along with showing qualitative relationships,…

  16. Proportion of Deaths and Clinical Features in Bundibugyo Ebola Virus Infection, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnon, Eileen C.; Wamala, Joseph; Okware, Sam; Cannon, Deborah L.; Reed, Zachary; Towner, Jonathan S.; Tappero, Jordan W.; Lutwama, Julius; Downing, Robert; Nichol, Stuart T.; Ksiazek, Thomas G.; Rollin, Pierre E.

    2010-01-01

    The first known Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) outbreak caused by Bundibugyo Ebola virus occurred in Bundibugyo District, Uganda, in 2007. Fifty-six cases of EHF were laboratory confirmed. Although signs and symptoms were largely nonspecific and similar to those of EHF outbreaks caused by Zaire and Sudan Ebola viruses, proportion of deaths among those infected was lower (≈40%). PMID:21122234

  17. Relatedness Proportion Effects in Semantic Categorization: Reconsidering the Automatic Spreading Activation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, Bianca; Kinoshita, Sachiko

    2014-01-01

    Semantic priming effects at a short prime-target stimulus onset asynchrony are commonly explained in terms of an automatic spreading activation process. According to this view, the proportion of related trials should have no impact on the size of the semantic priming effect. Using a semantic categorization task ("Is this a living…

  18. Evaluation of various anthropometric proportions in Indian beautiful faces: A photographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saaransh Kalra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The subject of beauty has been the topic of much debate throughout history, and methods for the evaluation of beauty have been the focus of many research projects. The evaluation of beauty is influenced by factors which include various linear measurements, angles, ratios, and proportions. We evaluated several ratios in Indian Population after locating various landmarks on beautiful Indian faces. Aims and Objectives: The aim of the present study was to evaluate various facial proportions of Indian beauties using their frontal photographs in natural head position to establish anthropometric norms in beautiful Indian females. To evaluate whether these values satisfy golden and silver proportions. To compare these values with Caucasian anthropometric norms. Materials and Methods: Frontal photographs of 30 female celebrities were downloaded from the internet. Photographs of only those Indian beauties that have been declared winners of either national or international beauty contests by a designated panel of judges were included in this study. Hardcopy of these photographs was taken in 5 inch by 3.5 inch format, all the measurements done and ratios calculated. Results: Measurements were tabulated and values for various ratios were calculated to establish norms. Coefficient of variation was also evaluated. Conclusion: All the ratios were found to be consistent than others which made it possible to assess beauty objectively rather than arbitrarily. Most of the values did not match the golden and silver proportion. In comparison with Caucasian population, we found that there is significant difference in most of the values.

  19. Neocortical calretinin neurons in primates: increase in proportion and microcircuitry structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domagoj eDžaja

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this mini review we first point at the expansion of associative cortical areas in primates as well as at the intrinsic changes in the structure of the cortical column. There is a huge increase in proportion of glutamatergic cortical projecting neurons located in the upper cortical layers (II/III. In addition, inside this group a novel class of associative neurons becomes recognized that is important for both, inter-areal and intra-areal columnar integration. By overviewing the literature data we found that there might be also a 50% increase in proportion of neocortical GABAergic neurons between primates and rodents, principally reflecting a 4 to 5 fold increase in proportion of calretinin interneurons. In primates calretinin interneurons might represent 15% of the total neuron number in the upper layers of high order associative areas. Evaluating data about functional properties of their connectivity we hypothesize that an exponential increase in proportion of calretinin interneurons might lead to supra-linear growth in memory capacity of the associative neocortical network. An open question is do we have some new calretinin interneuron subtypes which might substantially change micro-circuitry structure of the primate cerebral cortex.

  20. Understanding Decimal Proportions: Discrete Representations, Parallel Access, and Privileged Processing of Zero

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Sashank; Karl, Stacy R.

    2013-01-01

    Much of the research on mathematical cognition has focused on the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9, with considerably less attention paid to more abstract number classes. The current research investigated how people understand decimal proportions--rational numbers between 0 and 1 expressed in the place-value symbol system. The results…

  1. Proportional Derivative Control with Inverse Dead-Zone for Pendulum Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio, José de Jesús; Zamudio, Zizilia; Pacheco, Jaime; Mújica Vargas, Dante

    2013-01-01

    A proportional derivative controller with inverse dead-zone is proposed for the control of pendulum systems. The proposed method has the characteristic that the inverse dead-zone is cancelled with the pendulum dead-zone. Asymptotic stability of the proposed technique is guaranteed by the Lyapunov analysis. Simulations of two pendulum systems show the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

  2. Effects of Seed Proportion and Planting Pattern on Dry Matter Yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Panicum coloratum (PC) and Stylosanthes guianensis (SG) mixed pasture was established to assess the effect of seed proportion and planting pattern on Dry Matter Yield (DMY), compatibility and nutrient content of the mixed stand. Seeds of PC and SG were mixed as 50%PC+50% SG and 25% PC+75% SG and sown in ...

  3. Preservice Middle and High School Mathematics Teachers' Strategies When Solving Proportion Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arican, Muhammet

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate eight preservice middle and high school mathematics teachers' solution strategies when solving single and multiple proportion problems. Real-world missing-value word problems were used in an interview setting to collect information about preservice teachers' (PSTs) reasoning about proportional…

  4. TACI: a code for interactive analysis of neutron data produced by a tissue equivalent proportional counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummings, F.M.

    1984-06-01

    The TEPC analysis code (TACI) is a computer program designed to analyze pulse height data generated by a tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC). It is written in HP BASIC and is for use on an HP-87XM personal computer. The theory of TEPC analysis upon which this code is based is summarized.

  5. Two Perspectives on Proportional Relationships: Extending Complementary Origins of Multiplication in Terms of Quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Sybilla; Izsák, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we present a mathematical analysis that distinguishes two distinct quantitative perspectives on ratios and proportional relationships: variable number of fixed quantities and fixed numbers of variable parts. This parallels the distinction between measurement and partitive meanings for division and between two meanings for…

  6. Proportional derivative based stabilizing control of paralleled grid converters with cables in renewable power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2014-01-01

    consisting in LCL filters and cables. Both grid and converter current controls are analyzed. The frequency region, within which the system may be destabilized, is identified by means of the impedance-based stability analysis and frequency-domain passivity theory. A proportional derivative control strategy...

  7. Maxillary anterior tooth dimensions and proportions in an Irish young adult population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Condon, M

    2011-07-01

    This study was undertaken in a young Irish population to determine the dimensions and ratios of the six maxillary anterior teeth. One hundred and nine Irish subjects (age 18-25 inclusive) had irreversible hydrocolloid impressions made of their maxillary dentition poured in type V stone. Clinical crown dimensions were measured with a digital calliper. The stone casts were digitally photographed in a standardised manner enabling calculation of various ratios between the maxillary anterior teeth. Sexual dimorphism existed for various tooth dimensions; most notably canine teeth were in the region of 0·8 mm longer and 0·6 mm wider in males. Central and lateral incisors were found to be 0·5 mm wider in males. It is, therefore, recommended that dimensional tooth guidelines should be given for each of the sexes and not on a population basis. With regard to tooth proportion ratios, no significant differences were found between genders or the left and right sides for any of the measurements or ratios measured. The digitally recorded tooth proportions were similar for both sexes, and the Golden Proportion guidelines could only be applied to the lateral incisor\\/central incisor widths (0·618). Identified width proportions for the canine\\/central incisor were 0·58 and for canine\\/lateral incisor 0·89.

  8. Requirements for efficient cell-type proportioning: regulatory timescales, stochasticity and lateral inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeuty, B.; Kaneko, K.

    2016-04-01

    The proper functioning of multicellular organisms requires the robust establishment of precise proportions between distinct cell types. This developmental differentiation process typically involves intracellular regulatory and stochastic mechanisms to generate cell-fate diversity as well as intercellular signaling mechanisms to coordinate cell-fate decisions at tissue level. We thus surmise that key insights about the developmental regulation of cell-type proportion can be captured by the modeling study of clustering dynamics in population of inhibitory-coupled noisy bistable systems. This general class of dynamical system is shown to exhibit a very stable two-cluster state, but also metastability, collective oscillations or noise-induced state hopping, which can prevent from timely and reliably reaching a robust and well-proportioned clustered state. To circumvent these obstacles or to avoid fine-tuning, we highlight a general strategy based on dual-time positive feedback loops, such as mediated through transcriptional versus epigenetic mechanisms, which improves proportion regulation by coordinating early and flexible lineage priming with late and firm commitment. This result sheds new light on the respective and cooperative roles of multiple regulatory feedback, stochasticity and lateral inhibition in developmental dynamics.

  9. Global asymptotic stabilization of large-scale hydraulic networks using positive proportional controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tom Nørgaard; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2014-01-01

    directional actuator constraints is addressed. The proposed solution consists of a set of decentralized positively constrained proportional control actions. The results show that the closed-loop system always has a globally asymptotically stable equilibrium point independently on the number of end...

  10. Time trend of the male proportion at birth in Brazil, 1979-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Gerusa; Costa, Luciana Scarlazzari; Koifman, Sergio

    2009-08-01

    Several studies suggest that exposure to environmental endocrine disrupters can reduce the number of male births, and therefore, the male proportion at birth (also denominated birth ratio or sex ratio at birth) can be used as a sentinel health indicator. This work aimed to analyze the trend of male births in Brazil, according to their distribution by states and capitals. An ecological descriptive time series was carried out using polynomial regression, showing a declining trend for male proportion at birth in Brazil (1979-1994), followed by an upward trend until 2004. A decline on the proportion of male births was observed in Brazil between 1979 and 1993, followed by a subsequent rise of this ratio between 1995 and 2004, wherein the mean proportion of male births in Brazil rose from 51.05 to 51.18, representing a relative increase of 0.25%. The states of São Paulo (Southwest region) and Acre (Western Amazon), as well as some capitals-Cuiabá (Western Region), Palmas (Amazon) and Rio Branco (Amazon)-showed increasing trends, which suggests the influence of socio-demographic changes. In contrast, a declining trend in the State of Ceará State (Northeast region), with a 0.35% yearly decrease was observed. As a whole, these results suggest the influence of different environmental factors (demographic changes, public health services distribution, and population exposure to endocrine disruptor substances) influencing the time trend of birth ratio in the Brazilian population during the last decades.

  11. A Matter of Balance: Motor Control is Related to Children's Spatial and Proportional Reasoning Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Andrea; Möhring, Wenke

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has shown close links between spatial and mathematical thinking and between spatial abilities and motor skills. However, longitudinal research examining the relations between motor, spatial, and mathematical skills is rare, and the nature of these relations remains unclear. The present study thus investigated the relation between children's motor control and their spatial and proportional reasoning. We measured 6-year-olds' spatial scaling (i.e., the ability to reason about different-sized spaces), their mental transformation skills, and their ability to balance on one leg as an index for motor control. One year later (N = 126), we tested the same children's understanding of proportions. We also assessed several control variables (verbal IQ and socio-economic status) as well as inhibitory control, visuo-spatial and verbal working memory. Stepwise hierarchical regressions showed that, after accounting for effects of control variables, children's balance skills significantly increased the explained variance in their spatial performance and proportional reasoning. Our results suggest specific relations between balance skills and spatial as well as proportional reasoning skills that cannot be explained by general differences in executive functioning or intelligence.

  12. Proportionality And The Limitation Clauses Of The South African Bill Of Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IM (Ig Rautenbach

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available "Proportionality" is a contemporary heavy-weight concept which has been described as an element of a globalised international grammar and as a foundational element of global constitutionalism. The article firstly describes the elements of proportionality as they are generally understood in foreign systems, namely whether the limitation pursues a legitimate aim, whether the limitation is capable of achieving this aim, whether the act impairs the right as little as possible and the so-called balancing stage when it must be determined whether the achievement of the aim outweighs the limitation imposed. The German academic Alexy (Theorie der Grundrechte (1986 developed what he called a mathematical weight formula to deal with the balancing stage. An overview is provided of how the elements of proportionality were dealt with in the text of the South African interim Constitution of 1994, the early jurisprudence of the Constitutional Court, and in the text of the final Constitution of 1996. Contemporary South African academic criticism of the use of the concept is also analysed. The article then endeavours to relate the elements of Alexy’s weight formula to both the elements of the South African general limitation clause in section 36 of the Constitution and to the appearance of such elements in the formulation of specific rights in the Bill of Rights. Although the levels of abstraction reached in the debates on the Alexy formula are so daunting that it is most unlikely that South African courts and practitioners will ever use it, certain valuable insights can be gained from it for the purposes of dealing with proportionality within the context of the limitation of rights in South Africa. Despite opposition from certain academics, proportionality is a prominent feature of the application of the limitation clauses in the South African Constitution. The elements of proportionality provides a useful tool for the application, within the context of the

  13. Bedside adjustment of proportional assist ventilation to target a predefined range of respiratory effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carteaux, Guillaume; Mancebo, Jordi; Mercat, Alain; Dellamonica, Jean; Richard, Jean-Christophe M; Aguirre-Bermeo, Hernan; Kouatchet, Achille; Beduneau, Gaetan; Thille, Arnaud W; Brochard, Laurent

    2013-09-01

    During proportional assist ventilation with load-adjustable gain factors, peak respiratory muscle pressure can be estimated from the peak airway pressure and the percentage of assistance (gain). Adjusting the gain can, therefore, target a given level of respiratory effort. This study assessed the clinical feasibility of titrating proportional assist ventilation with load-adjustable gain factors with the goal of targeting a predefined range of respiratory effort. Prospective, multicenter, clinical observational study. Intensive care departments at five university hospitals. Patients were included after meeting simple criteria for assisted mechanical ventilation. Patients were ventilated in proportional assist ventilation with load-adjustable gain factors. The peak respiratory muscle pressure, estimated in cm H2O as (peak airway pressure-positive end-expiratory pressure)×[(100-gain)/gain], was calculated from a grid at the bedside. The gain adjustment algorithm was defined to target a peak respiratory muscle pressure between 5 and 10 cm H2O. Additional recommendations were available in case of hypoventilation or hyperventilation. Fifty-three patients were enrolled. Median time spent under proportional assist ventilation with load-adjustable gain factors was 3 days (interquartile range, 1-5). Gain was adjusted 1.0 (0.7-1.8) times per day, according to the peak respiratory muscle pressure target range in 91% of cases and because of hypoventilation or hyperventilation in 9%. Thirty-four patients were ventilated with proportional assist ventilation with load-adjustable gain factors until extubation, which was successful in 32. Eighteen patients required volume assist-controlled reventilation because of clinical worsening and need for continuous sedation. One patient was intolerant to proportional assist ventilation with load-adjustable gain factors. This first study assessing the clinical feasibility of titrating proportional assist ventilation with load

  14. Ontogenetic changes in limb bone structural proportions in mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, Christopher B; Burgess, M Loring; Bromage, Timothy G; Mudakikwa, Antoine; McFarlin, Shannon C

    2013-12-01

    Behavioral studies indicate that adult mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei) are the most terrestrial of all nonhuman hominoids, but that infant mountain gorillas are much more arboreal. Here we examine ontogenetic changes in diaphyseal strength and length of the femur, tibia, humerus, radius, and ulna in 30 Virunga mountain gorillas, including 18 immature specimens and 12 adults. Comparisons are also made with 14 adult western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla), which are known to be more arboreal than adult mountain gorillas. Infant mountain gorillas have significantly stronger forelimbs relative to hind limbs than older juveniles and adults, but are nonsignificantly different from western lowland gorilla adults. The change in inter-limb strength proportions is abrupt at about two years of age, corresponding to the documented transition to committed terrestrial quadrupedalism in mountain gorillas. The one exception is the ulna, which shows a gradual increase in strength relative to the radius and other long bones during development, possibly corresponding to the gradual adoption of stereotypical fully pronated knuckle-walking in older juvenile gorillas. Inter-limb bone length proportions show a contrasting developmental pattern, with hind limb/forelimb length declining rapidly from birth to five months of age, and then showing no consistent change through adulthood. The very early change in length proportions, prior to significant independent locomotion, may be related to the need for relatively long forelimbs for climbing in a large-bodied hominoid. Virunga mountain gorilla older juveniles and adults have equal or longer forelimb relative to hind limb bones than western lowland adults. These findings indicate that both ontogenetically and among closely related species of Gorilla, long bone strength proportions better reflect actual locomotor behavior than bone length proportions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Limitations of Cox Proportional Hazards Analysis in Mortality Prediction of Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babińska Magdalena

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility of incorrect assessment of mortality risk factors in a group of patients affected by acute coronary syndrome, due to the lack of hazard proportionality in the Cox regression model. One hundred and fifty consecutive patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS and no age limit were enrolled. Univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazard analyses were performed. The proportional hazard assumptions were verified using Schoenfeld residuals, χ2 test and rank correlation coefficient t between residuals and time. In the total group of 150 patients, 33 (22.0% deaths from any cause were registered in the follow-up time period of 64 months. The non-survivors were significantly older and had increased prevalence of diabetes and erythrocyturia, longer history of coronary artery disease, higher concentrations of serum creatinine, cystatin C, uric acid, glucose, C-reactive protein (CRP, homocysteine and B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP, and lower concentrations of serum sodium. No significant differences in echocardiography parameters were observed between groups. The following factors were risk of death factors and fulfilled the proportional hazard assumption in the univariable model: smoking, occurrence of diabetes and anaemia, duration of coronary artery disease, and abnormal serum concentrations of uric acid, sodium, homocysteine, cystatin C and NT-proBNP, while in the multivariable model, the risk of death factors were: smoking and elevated concentrations of homocysteine and NT-proBNP. The study has demonstrated that violation of the proportional hazard assumption in the Cox regression model may lead to creating a false model that does not include only time-independent predictive factors.

  16. Elevated Proportions of Deleterious Genetic Variation in Domestic Animals and Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Takashi; Rubin, Carl-Johan; Carneiro, Miguel; Axelsson, Erik; Andersson, Leif; Webster, Matthew T

    2018-01-01

    A fraction of genetic variants segregating in any population are deleterious, which negatively impacts individual fitness. The domestication of animals and plants is associated with population bottlenecks and artificial selection, which are predicted to increase the proportion of deleterious variants. However, the extent to which this is a general feature of domestic species is unclear. Here, we examine the effects of domestication on the prevalence of deleterious variation using pooled whole-genome resequencing data from five domestic animal species (dog, pig, rabbit, chicken, and silkworm) and two domestic plant species (rice and soybean) compared with their wild ancestors. We find significantly reduced genetic variation and increased proportion of nonsynonymous amino acid changes in all but one of the domestic species. These differences are observable across a range of allele frequencies, both common and rare. We find proportionally more single nucleotide polymorphisms in highly conserved elements in domestic species and a tendency for domestic species to harbor a higher proportion of changes classified as damaging. Our findings most likely reflect an increased incidence of deleterious variants in domestic species, which is most likely attributable to population bottlenecks that lead to a reduction in the efficacy of selection. An exception to this pattern is displayed by European domestic pigs, which do not show traces of a strong population bottleneck and probably continued to exchange genes with wild boar populations after domestication. The results presented here indicate that an elevated proportion of deleterious variants is a common, but not ubiquitous, feature of domestic species. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  17. Proportion of US adults potentially affected by the 2014 hypertension guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navar-Boggan, Ann Marie; Pencina, Michael J; Williams, Ken; Sniderman, Allan D; Peterson, Eric D

    2014-04-09

    The new 2014 blood pressure (BP) guideline released by the panel members appointed to the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8; 2014 BP guideline) proposed less restrictive BP targets for adults aged 60 years or older and for those with diabetes and chronic kidney disease. To estimate the proportion of US adults potentially affected by recent changes in recommendations for management of hypertension. Cross-sectional, nationally representative survey. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2005 and 2010 (n = 16,372), we evaluated hypertension control and treatment recommendations for US adults. Proportion of adults estimated to meet guideline-based BP targets under the 2014 BP guideline and under the previous seventh Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC 7) guideline. The proportion of younger adults (18-59 years) with treatment-eligible hypertension under the JNC 7 guideline was 20.3% (95% CI, 19.1%-21.4%) and decreased to 19.2% (95% CI, 18.1%-20.4%) under the 2014 BP guideline. Larger declines were observed among older adults (≥60 years), decreasing from 68.9% (95% CI, 66.9%-70.8%) under JNC 7 to 61.2% (95% CI, 59.3%-63.0%) under the 2014 BP guideline. The proportion of adults with treatment-eligible hypertension who met BP goals increased slightly for younger adults, from 41.2% (95% CI, 38.1%-44.3%) under JNC 7 to 47.5% (95% CI, 44.4%-50.6%) under the 2014 BP guideline, and more substantially for older adults, from 40.0% (95% CI, 37.8%-42.3%) under JNC 7 to 65.8% (95% CI, 63.7%-67.9%) under the 2014 BP guideline. Overall, 1.6% (95% CI, 1.3%-1.9%) of US adults aged 18-59 years and 27.6% (95% CI, 25.9%-29.3%) of adults aged 60 years or older were receiving BP-lowering medication and meeting more stringent JNC 7 targets. These patients may be eligible for less stringent or no BP therapy with the 2014 BP guideline. Compared with the JNC 7 guideline, the

  18. Social Markers of Mild Cognitive Impairment: Proportion of Word Counts in Free Conversational Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Hiroko H; Mattek, Nora; Gregor, Mattie; Bowman, Molly; Seelye, Adriana; Ybarra, Oscar; Asgari, Meysam; Kaye, Jeffrey A

    2015-01-01

    Detecting early signs of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) during the pre-symptomatic phase is becoming increasingly important for costeffective clinical trials and also for deriving maximum benefit from currently available treatment strategies. However, distinguishing early signs of MCI from normal cognitive aging is difficult. Biomarkers have been extensively examined as early indicators of the pathological process for AD, but assessing these biomarkers is expensive and challenging to apply widely among pre-symptomatic community dwelling older adults. Here we propose assessment of social markers, which could provide an alternative or complementary and ecologically valid strategy for identifying the pre-symptomatic phase leading to MCI and AD. The data came from a larger randomized controlled clinical trial (RCT), where we examined whether daily conversational interactions using remote video telecommunications software could improve cognitive functions of older adult participants. We assessed the proportion of words generated by participants out of total words produced by both participants and staff interviewers using transcribed conversations during the intervention trial as an indicator of how two people (participants and interviewers) interact with each other in one-on-one conversations. We examined whether the proportion differed between those with intact cognition and MCI, using first, generalized estimating equations with the proportion as outcome, and second, logistic regression models with cognitive status as outcome in order to estimate the area under ROC curve (ROC AUC). Compared to those with normal cognitive function, MCI participants generated a greater proportion of words out of the total number of words during the timed conversation sessions (p=0.01). This difference remained after controlling for participant age, gender, interviewer and time of assessment (p=0.03). The logistic regression models showed the ROC AUC of

  19. Change in the proportion of T and B lymphocytes in human malignant neoplasia in relation to the clinical stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babusíková, O; L' Novotná; Korec, S; Schneková, K; Turková, D; Havránková, M; Plentová, K

    1975-01-01

    Formation of spontaneous (E--erythrocyte) and immune (EAC--erythrocyte, antibody, complement) rosettes of sheep red blood cells (SRBC) with peripheral blood T and B lymphocytes, respectively, was used for quantitative assessment of these lymphocytes populations in tumor patients and control subjects. Relative counts of T and B lymphocytes have been correlated with lymphocyte survival in short-term cultures using standard subtoxic doses of phytohemagglutinin (PHA). The mean values and SE in normal control subjects for E rosettes (T lymphocytes) were 72.8 +/- 1.2%, for EAC rosettes (B lymphocytes) 23.8 +/- 2.5% of lymphocyte population. The survival of lymphocytes in short-term cultures with PHA in control subjects was 55.3 +/- 1.1%. In tumor patients the counts of E, EAC rosettes and percentage of lymphocyte survival in short-term PHA cultures were dependent upon the clinical stage. In patients with localized tumors the values were similar to controls. In patients where dissemination of the tumorous process could be ascertained a decrease of T lymphocyte counts, an increase of B lymphocyte counts and a higher survival of peripheral blood lymphocytes in short-term cultures with PHA was found.

  20. Inference of human continental origin and admixture proportions using a highly discriminative ancestry informative 41-SNP panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nievergelt, Caroline M; Maihofer, Adam X; Shekhtman, Tatyana; Libiger, Ondrej; Wang, Xudong; Kidd, Kenneth K; Kidd, Judith R

    2013-07-01

    Accurate determination of genetic ancestry is of high interest for many areas such as biomedical research, personal genomics and forensics. It remains an important topic in genetic association studies, as it has been shown that population stratification, if not appropriately considered, can lead to false-positive and -negative results. While large association studies typically extract ancestry information from available genome-wide SNP genotypes, many important clinical data sets on rare phenotypes and historical collections assembled before the GWAS area are in need of a feasible method (i.e., ease of genotyping, small number of markers) to infer the geographic origin and potential admixture of the study subjects. Here we report on the development, application and limitations of a small, multiplexable ancestry informative marker (AIM) panel of SNPs (or AISNP) developed specifically for this purpose. Based on worldwide populations from the HGDP, a 41-AIM AISNP panel for multiplex application with the ABI SNPlex and a subset with 31 AIMs for the Sequenome iPLEX system were selected and found to be highly informative for inferring ancestry among the seven continental regions Africa, the Middle East, Europe, Central/South Asia, East Asia, the Americas and Oceania. The panel was found to be least informative for Eurasian populations, and additional AIMs for a higher resolution are suggested. A large reference set including over 4,000 subjects collected from 120 global populations was assembled to facilitate accurate ancestry determination. We show practical applications of this AIM panel, discuss its limitations for admixed individuals and suggest ways to incorporate ancestry information into genetic association studies. We demonstrated the utility of a small AISNP panel specifically developed to discern global ancestry. We believe that it will find wide application because of its feasibility and potential for a wide range of applications.

  1. Development and application of a two-tier diagnostic instrument to assess middle years students' proportional reasoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilton, Annette; Hilton, Geoff; Dole, Shelley

    2013-01-01

    Proportional reasoning involves the use of ratios in the comparison of quantities. While it is a key aspect of numeracy, particularly in the middle years of schooling, students do not always develop proportional reasoning naturally. Research suggests that many students do not apply proportional m...

  2. Hereditary Portfolio Optimization with Taxes and Fixed Plus Proportional Transaction Costs—Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mou-Hsiung Chang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the continuation of the paper entitled “Hereditary portfolio optimization with taxes and fixed plus proportional transaction costs I” that treats an infinite-time horizon hereditary portfolio optimization problem in a market that consists of one savings account and one stock account. Within the solvency region, the investor is allowed to consume from the savings account and can make transactions between the two assets subject to paying capital-gain taxes as well as a fixed plus proportional transaction cost. The investor is to seek an optimal consumption-trading strategy in order to maximize the expected utility from the total discounted consumption. The portfolio optimization problem is formulated as an infinite dimensional stochastic classical impulse control problem due to the hereditary nature of the stock price dynamics and inventories. This paper contains the verification theorem for the optimal strategy. It also proves that the value function is a viscosity solution of the QVHJBI.

  3. [Research on proportional control system of prosthetic hand based on FMG signals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jinhua; Yu, Hongliu; Li, Panpan; Zhao, Shengnan

    2013-02-01

    The control of prosthetic hand is always a focus in prosthesis research. For solving current problems of controlling signals of skin surface electrical signals, we applied force myography (FMG) signals in prosthetic control of this system. The control system based on FMG signals were designed, containing signal acquisition and pre-processing, prosthetic control, motor driving and so on. Two-freedom artificial hand with proportional control was proposed through acquiring two-channel FMG signals from the amputee stump. The proportional control of prosthetic hand was achieved according to the average of FMG amplitude. The results showed that the control system had a great potential to control artificial hand and to realize speed adjustment effectively. Besides, the Virtual instrument software LabVIEW is adopted to establish the FMG signal collection and calibration of experiment system.

  4. X-ray polarimetry with a conventional gas proportional counter through rise-time analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Hayashida, K; Tsunemi, H; Torii, K; Murakami, H; Ohno, Y; Tamura, K

    1999-01-01

    We have performed an experiment on the signal rise time of a Xe gas proportional counter using a polarized X-ray beam of synchrotron orbital radiation with energies from 10 to 40 keV. When the counter anode is perpendicular to the electric vector of the incident X-ray photons, the average rise time becomes significantly longer than that for the parallel case. This indicates that the conventional gas proportional counters are useful for X-ray polarimetry. The moderate modulation contrast of this rise-time polarimeter (M=0.1 for 10 keV X-rays and M=0.35 for 40 keV X-rays), with capability of the simultaneous measuring X-ray energies and the timing, would be useful for applications in X-ray astronomy and in other fields.

  5. Uniformity and transmission of proportional counter window materials for use with AXAF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, K.; Austin, G. K.; Cobuzzi, J. P.; Goddard, R.; Hughes, J. P.; Mclaughlin, E. R.; Podgorski, W. A.; Rose, V.; Roy, A. G.; Zombeck, M. V.

    1991-01-01

    The X-ray detection system used to calibrate the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) mirrors will include gas flow and sealed proportional counters. To meet the ultimate 1 percent goal of the calibration project, the transmission and uniformity of the windows must be well known for the soft X-ray wavelengths involved. Various window materials for use with proportional counters are examined for transmission at X-ray wavelengths in the range of 0.1 to 5.9 keV. These include the usual window materials (polypropylene and beryllium), as well as materials only recently employed for detector applications (polyimide and diamond). The transmission uniformity of beryllium at 1.49 keV is examined with a microchannel plate detector, producing a 'shadowgraph' of the window material illuminated with soft X-rays. This technique allows us to investigate nonuniformities on a spatial scale of about .2 mm.

  6. Balancing equity and efficiency in the Dutch basic benefits package using the principle of proportional shortfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Wetering, E J; Stolk, E A; van Exel, N J A; Brouwer, W B F

    2013-02-01

    Economic evaluations are increasingly used to inform decisions regarding the allocation of scarce health care resources. To systematically incorporate societal preferences into these evaluations, quality-adjusted life year gains could be weighted according to some equity principle, the most suitable of which is a matter of frequent debate. While many countries still struggle with equity concerns for priority setting in health care, the Netherlands has reached a broad consensus to use the concept of proportional shortfall. Our study evaluates the concept and its support in the Dutch health care context. We discuss arguments in the Netherlands for using proportional shortfall and difficulties in transitioning from principle to practice. In doing so, we address universal issues leading to a systematic consideration of equity concerns for priority setting in health care. The article thus has relevance to all countries struggling with the formalization of equity concerns for priority setting.

  7. Optimal Tuning of Amplitude Proportional Coulomb Friction Damper for Maximum Cable Damping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Felix; Høgsberg, Jan Becker; Krenk, Steen

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates numerically the optimal tuning of Coulomb friction dampers on cables, where the optimality criterion is maximum additional damping in the first vibration mode. The expression for the optimal friction force level of Coulomb friction dampers follows from the linear viscous...... damper via harmonic averaging. It turns out that the friction force level has to be adjusted in proportion to cable amplitude at damper position which is realized by amplitude feedback in real time. The performance of this adaptive damper is assessed by simulated free decay curves from which the damping...... to higher modes evoked by the amplitude proportional Coulomb friction damper which clamps the cable at its upper and lower positions. The resulting nonsinusoidal cable motion clearly violates the assumption of pure harmonic motion and explains why such dampers have to be tuned differently from optimal...

  8. Simultaneous measurement of tritium and radiocarbon by ultra-low-background proportional counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mace, Emily; Aalseth, Craig; Alexander, Tom; Back, Henning; Day, Anthony; Hoppe, Eric; Keillor, Martin; Moran, Jim; Overman, Cory; Panisko, Mark; Seifert, Allen

    2017-08-01

    Use of ultra-low-background capabilities at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory provide enhanced sensitivity for measurement of low-activity sources of tritium and radiocarbon using proportional counters. Tritium levels are nearly back to pre-nuclear test backgrounds (~2-8 TU in rainwater), which can complicate their dual measurement with radiocarbon due to overlap in the isotope’s respective energy spectra. This activity makes direct dual-isotope measurements challenging without additional chemistry to concentrate the tritium in a sample. We present results of single-isotope proportional counter measurements used to analyze a dual-isotope methane sample synthesized from ~120 mg of H2O and present sensitivity results.

  9. A two-step multiaxial racetrack filter algorithm for non-proportional load histories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Meggiolaro

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The recently proposed multiaxial racetrack filter (MRF is able to deal with general non-proportional multiaxial load histories. While only requiring a single user-defined scalar filter amplitude, the MRF is able to synchronously eliminate non-damaging events from any noisy multiaxial load history without changing the overall shape of its original path, a necessary condition to avoid introducing errors in fatigue damage assessments. The MRF procedures are optimized here by the introduction of a pre-processing “partitioning” step on the load history data, which selects candidates for the reversal points in a robust partitioning process, highly increasing the filter efficiency and decreasing its computational time. The improved MRF is evaluated through the fatigue analyses of over-sampled tension-torsion data measured in 316L stainless steel tubular specimens under non-proportional load paths.

  10. Proportional-Type Performance Recovery DC-Link Voltage Tracking Algorithm for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Kyoon Kim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a disturbance observer-based proportional-type DC-link voltage tracking algorithm for permanent magnet synchronous generators (PMSGs. The proposed technique feedbacks the only proportional term of the tracking errors, and it contains the nominal static and dynamic feed-forward compensators coming from the first-order disturbance observers. It is rigorously proved that the proposed method ensures the performance recovery and offset-free properties without the use of the integrators of the tracking errors. A wind power generation system has been simulated to verify the efficacy of the proposed method using the PSIM (PowerSIM software with the DLL (Dynamic Link Library block.

  11. Calibration methodology for proportional counters applied to yield measurements of a neutron burst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarifeño-Saldivia, Ariel, E-mail: atarifeno@cchen.cl, E-mail: atarisal@gmail.com; Pavez, Cristian; Soto, Leopoldo [Comisión Chilena de Energía Nuclear, Casilla 188-D, Santiago (Chile); Center for Research and Applications in Plasma Physics and Pulsed Power, P4, Santiago (Chile); Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Andres Bello, Republica 220, Santiago (Chile); Mayer, Roberto E. [Instituto Balseiro and Centro Atómico Bariloche, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica and Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, San Carlos de Bariloche R8402AGP (Argentina)

    2014-01-15

    This paper introduces a methodology for the yield measurement of a neutron burst using neutron proportional counters. This methodology is to be applied when single neutron events cannot be resolved in time by nuclear standard electronics, or when a continuous current cannot be measured at the output of the counter. The methodology is based on the calibration of the counter in pulse mode, and the use of a statistical model to estimate the number of detected events from the accumulated charge resulting from the detection of the burst of neutrons. The model is developed and presented in full detail. For the measurement of fast neutron yields generated from plasma focus experiments using a moderated proportional counter, the implementation of the methodology is herein discussed. An experimental verification of the accuracy of the methodology is presented. An improvement of more than one order of magnitude in the accuracy of the detection system is obtained by using this methodology with respect to previous calibration methods.

  12. Proportional counters aged anode wire recovering using an 80%CF4 + 20%CO2 gas mixture

    CERN Document Server

    Gavrilov, Gennady; Conti, Richard; Fetisov, Andrey; Maysuzenko, Dmitry; Shvecova, Natalia; Vakhtel, Victor

    2011-01-01

    A technique to recover a gas proportional counter having an aged anode wire using a glow discharge in an 80%CF4 + 20%CO2 gas mixture has been developed and tested. Studies of aging effects were carried out under sustained irradiation by an intense 90Sr -source of the straw proportional counters operated with a 60%Ar + 30%CO2 + 10%CF4 gas mixture. Special attention was paid to the aging mechanism of the anode wires. Our experience showed that using a given gas mixture the swelling of the anode wires is a typical mode of aging that leads to degradation of the gas gain. The proposed method of recovery provided a complete restoration of the gas gain and the signal amplitude in the damaged zone of the wire. SEM/XEM analysis confirmed successful cleaning WOx deposits from the wire surface. The application of this method to recover the aged gaseous detectors in real experimental conditions is discussed.

  13. The study of pervious concrete mix proportion by the method of specific surface area of aggregate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Liguang; Jiang, Dawei

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to solve the shortcoming of the mix proportion of pervious concrete. So we have done the research on the measurement of the specific surface area of aggregate, and the research on the volume change of cement after hydration, and the research on the best water-binder ratio and thickness of gelled material package. The experimental results show that the equivalent method is more accurate for measuring the specific surface area of aggregate. It can better reflect the specific surface area of aggregate. Moreover, the calculation method of the mix proportion of the cementing material can improve the utilization ratio of material and the quality of pervious concrete.

  14. Recursive proportional feedback and its use to control chaos in an electrochemical system

    CERN Document Server

    Rollins, R W; Sherard, P; Dewald, H D

    1995-01-01

    The recursive proportional feedback (RPF) algorithm for controlling chaos is described and applied to control chemical chaos observed during the electrodissolution of a rotating copper disk in a sodium acetate/acetic acid buffer. Experimental evidence is presented to indicate why the RPF method was used and the theoretical robustness of the algorithm is discussed. (This paper appears in the "Proceedings of the 2nd Conference on EXPERIMENTAL CHAOS," World Scientific Press, River Ridge, NJ, 1995)

  15. Determination of radon in water by argon purging and alpha counting with a proportional counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zikovsky, L.; Roireau, N. (Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, PQ (Canada))

    1990-01-01

    A method has been developed for the determination of radon in water. It is based on the purging of radon from water with argon, and {alpha} counting of radon and its decay products in a proportional counter. The method is characterized by a very low background (0.18 counts/min) and very low detection limit (0.02 Bq/L). It is also relatively simple, fast and interference-free. (author).

  16. Longitudinal functional additive model with continuous proportional outcomes for physical activity data

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Haocheng; Kozey-Keadle, Sarah; Kipnis, Victor; Carroll, Raymond J.

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by physical activity data obtained from the BodyMedia FIT device (www.bodymedia.com), we take a functional data approach for longitudinal studies with continuous proportional outcomes. The functional structure depends on three factors. In our three-factor model, the regression structures are specified as curves measured at various factor-points with random effects that have a correlation structure. The random curve for the continuous factor is summarized using a few important princi...

  17. A Challenge to Classical Facial Proportionality Studies: Conventional Profile and 3d Photography Versus Silhouettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    treatment as children , there is a need to get more data on how adults’ facial and soft tissues mature and age through the years to enhance future appearance...noted that esthetics can be made scientific ( Rickets 1982). There are divine proportions that can be applied to faces which are a major contributor to...the first healthcare providers to diagnose and treat esthetic problems in growing children and monitor these children through their childhood years

  18. Reduced Th22 cell proportion and prevention of atopic dermatitis in infants following maternal probiotic supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rø, A D B; Simpson, M R; Rø, T B; Storrø, O; Johnsen, R; Videm, V; Øien, T

    2017-08-01

    In the randomized, controlled study Probiotics in the Prevention of Allergy among Children in Trondheim (ProPACT), maternal probiotic supplementation reduced the incidence of atopic dermatitis (AD) in the offspring. In the current study, we hypothesized that the effect was mediated by a shift in the T helper (Th) cells in the children. To examine whether Th cell proportions were affected by maternal probiotic supplementation and thus could mediate the preventive effect of probiotics on AD. A total of 415 pregnant women were randomized to ingest a combination of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG), Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb-12 (Bb-12) and Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 (La-5) or placebo, and their offspring were assessed for AD during the first 2 years of life. Peripheral blood collected at 3 months of age was analysed for regulatory T cells (n=140) and Th subsets (n=77) including Th1, Th2, Th9, Th17 and Th22. The proportion of Th22 cells was reduced in children in the probiotic group compared to the placebo group (median 0.038% vs 0.064%, P=.009). The difference between the probiotic and placebo groups was also observed in the children who did not develop AD during the 2-year follow-up. The proportion of Th22 cells was increased in children who developed AD compared to the children who did not develop AD (0.090% vs 0.044%, Ppreventive effect of probiotics was partially mediated through the reduction in Th22 cells. Perinatal maternal probiotic supplementation with a combination of LGG, Bb-12 and La-5 reduced the proportion of Th22 cells in 3-month-old children. This may partially explain the preventive effect of probiotics on AD. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Enhanced learning of proportional math through music training and spatial-temporal training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziano, A B; Peterson, M; Shaw, G L

    1999-03-01

    It was predicted, based on a mathematical model of the cortex, that early music training would enhance spatial-temporal reasoning. We have demonstrated that preschool children given six months of piano keyboard lessons improved dramatically on spatial-temporal reasoning while children in appropriate control groups did not improve. It was then predicted that the enhanced spatial-temporal reasoning from piano keyboard training could lead to enhanced learning of specific math concepts, in particular proportional math, which is notoriously difficult to teach using the usual language-analytic methods. We report here the development of Spatial-Temporal Math Video Game software designed to teach fractions and proportional math, and its strikingly successful use in a study involving 237 second-grade children (age range six years eight months-eight years five months). Furthermore, as predicted, children given piano keyboard training along with the Math Video Game training scored significantly higher on proportional math and fractions than children given a control training along with the Math Video Game. These results were readily measured using the companion Math Video Game Evaluation Program. The training time necessary for children on the Math Video Game is very short, and they rapidly reach a high level of performance. This suggests that, as predicted, we are tapping into fundamental cortical processes of spatial-temporal reasoning. This spatial-temporal approach is easily generalized to teach other math and science concepts in a complementary manner to traditional language-analytic methods, and at a younger age. The neural mechanisms involved in thinking through fractions and proportional math during training with the Math Video Game might be investigated in EEG coherence studies along with priming by specific music.

  20. Design of a new tissue-equivalent proportional counter based on a gas electron multiplier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahmand, M. E-mail: m.farahmand@iri.tudelft.nl; Bos, A.J.J.; Huizenga, J.; De Nardo, L.; Eijk, C.W.E. van

    2003-08-21

    By employing a Gas Electron Multiplier a new type of mini multi-element Tissue-Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC) has been designed and constructed. In this paper, we describe the design of this novel counter. The first pulse height measurements with this counter for both methane- and propane-based Tissue Equivalent gases are presented. These results show promising properties for application of this novel type TEPC in microdosimetric measurements.

  1. Estimation of false discovery proportion in multiple testing: From normal to chi-squared test statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Lilun; Zhang, Chunming

    2017-01-01

    Multiple testing based on chi-squared test statistics is common in many scientific fields such as genomics research and brain imaging studies. However, the challenges of designing a formal testing procedure when there exists a general dependence structure across the chi-squared test statistics have not been well addressed. To address this gap, we first adopt a latent factor structure ([14]) to construct a testing framework for approximating the false discovery proportion ($\\mathrm{FDP}$) for ...

  2. EMERGENCE, GROWTH AND PRODUCTION OF SESAME UNDER SALT STRESS AND PROPORTIONS OF NITRATE AND AMMONIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADAAN SUDARIO DIAS

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In arid and semi - arid regions, the quality of irrigation water varies in geographic terms and during the year, and the occurrence of water with high concentrations of salts is common. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the emergence, growth and production of sesame, cultivar CNPA G3, irrigated with saline water and fertilized with N of different carrier proportions by the ratio of nitrate and ammonium ( NO 3 - - N and NH 4 + - N in an experiment conducted in lysimeters arranged in a greenhouse in the municipality of Campina Grande - PB, Brazil. The treatments were distributed into randomized blocks using a 5 × 5 factorial scheme relative to levels of irrigation water salinity (ECw; 0.6, 1.2, 1.8, 2.4 and 3.0 dS m - 1 and five proportions of NO 3 - - N/NH 4 + - N (200/0; 150/50; 100/100; 50/150 and 0/200 mg of N kg - 1 , with three replicates. The increase in ECw compromised the emergence, growth and production of sesame, cultivar CNPA G3, and the production components were the most sensitive variables. The highest growth in diameter was obtained with the proportion of 200/0 mg kg - 1 of NO 3 - - N /NH 4 + - N . An ECw level of 3.0 dS m - 1 and fertilization with 0/200 mg kg - 1 of NO 3 - - N /NH 4 + - N promoted deleterious effects on the total mass of sesame fruits and mass of seeds. The interaction between water salinity levels and NO 3 - /NH 4 + proportions significantly affected the number of leaves (at 50 and 70 days after sowing, the total mass of fruits and the mass of seeds.

  3. Secondary power-producing cell. [electrodes contain same two elements in different proportions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, A.K.

    1971-10-26

    This cell consists of an anode and a cathode containing the same two elements in different proportions and an electrolyte which contains ions of the element which is to be transported through it. The electrodes consist of chromium, iron, lithium, sodium, cadmium, copper, or zinc and phosphorus, selenium, tellurium, sulfur, arsenic, or nitrogen. A method to heat the cathode in the regeneration cycle to transfer the electronegative component to the anode is provided. (RWR)

  4. Numerical solution of neutral functional-differential equations with proportional delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Giyas Sakar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, homotopy analysis method is improved with optimal determination of auxiliary parameter by use of residual error function for solving neutral functional-differential equations (NFDEs with proportional delays. Convergence analysis and error estimate of method are given. Some numerical examples are solved and comparisons are made with the existing results. The numerical results show that the homotopy analysis method with residual error function is very effective and simple.

  5. Partial proportional odds model-an alternate choice for analyzing pedestrian crash injury severities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasidharan, Lekshmi; Menéndez, Mónica

    2014-11-01

    The conventional methods for crash injury severity analyses include either treating the severity data as ordered (e.g. ordered logit/probit models) or non-ordered (e.g. multinomial models). The ordered models require the data to meet proportional odds assumption, according to which the predictors can only have the same effect on different levels of the dependent variable, which is often not the case with crash injury severities. On the other hand, non-ordered analyses completely ignore the inherent hierarchical nature of crash injury severities. Therefore, treating the crash severity data as either ordered or non-ordered results in violating some of the key principles. To address these concerns, this paper explores the application of a partial proportional odds (PPO) model to bridge the gap between ordered and non-ordered severity modeling frameworks. The PPO model allows the covariates that meet the proportional odds assumption to affect different crash severity levels with the same magnitude; whereas the covariates that do not meet the proportional odds assumption can have different effects on different severity levels. This study is based on a five-year (2008-2012) national pedestrian safety dataset for Switzerland. A comparison between the application of PPO models, ordered logit models, and multinomial logit models for pedestrian injury severity evaluation is also included here. The study shows that PPO models outperform the other models considered based on different evaluation criteria. Hence, it is a viable method for analyzing pedestrian crash injury severities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Divine proportion shape preservation and the fractal nature of cluster-cluster aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, C. M.; Oh, C.

    1998-12-01

    We present a restricted hierarchial model of cluster-cluster aggregation which allows for an analytical calculation of the fractal dimensions in excellent agreement with those found in Nature and simulations. We argue that this agreement is a consequence of the self-preserving cluster shape common to all models and Nature. This shape determines the fractal dimension and in our model is described by d-dimensional generalizations of the Fibonacci series and the divine proportion.

  7. High proportion of smaller ranged hummingbird species coincides with ecological specialization across the Americas.

    OpenAIRE

    Sonne, J; Martín González, AM; Maruyama, PK; Sandel, B.; Vizentin-Bugoni, J; Schleuning, M.; Abrahamczyk, S.; Alarcón, R.; Araujo, AC; Araújo, FP; Mendes de Azevedo, S; Baquero, AC; Cotton, PA; Ingversen, TT; Kohler, G.

    2016-01-01

    Ecological communities that experience stable climate conditions have been speculated to preserve more specialized interspecific associations and have higher proportions of smaller ranged species (SRS). Thus, areas with disproportionally large numbers of SRS are expected to coincide geographically with a high degree of community-level ecological specialization, but this suggestion remains poorly supported with empirical evidence. Here, we analysed data for hummingbird resource specialization,...

  8. A distributional approach to obtain adjusted comparisons of proportions of a population at risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odile Sauzet

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dichotomisation of continuous data has statistical drawbacks such as loss of power but may be useful in epidemiological research to define high risk individuals. Methods We extend a methodology for the presentation of comparison of proportions derived from a comparison of means for a continuous outcome to reflect the relationship between a continuous outcome and covariates in a linear (mixed model without losing statistical power. The so called “distributional method” is described and using perinatal data for illustration, results from the distributional method are compared to those of logistic regression and to quantile regression for three different outcomes. Results Estimates obtained using the distributional method for the comparison of proportions are consistently more precise than those obtained using logistic regression. For one of the three outcomes the estimates obtained from the distributional method and from logistic regression disagreed highlighting that the relationships between outcome and covariate differ conceptually between the two models. Conclusion When an outcome follows the required condition of distribution shift between exposure groups, the results of a linear regression model can be followed by the corresponding comparison of proportions at risk. This dual approach provides more precise estimates than logistic regression thus avoiding the drawback of the usual dichotomisation of continuous outcomes.

  9. A novel nonparametric confidence interval for differences of proportions for correlated binary data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Chongyang; Cao, Yingshu; Zhou, Lizhi; Tan, Ming T; Chen, Pingyan

    2016-11-16

    Various confidence interval estimators have been developed for differences in proportions resulted from correlated binary data. However, the width of the mostly recommended Tango's score confidence interval tends to be wide, and the computing burden of exact methods recommended for small-sample data is intensive. The recently proposed rank-based nonparametric method by treating proportion as special areas under receiver operating characteristic provided a new way to construct the confidence interval for proportion difference on paired data, while the complex computation limits its application in practice. In this article, we develop a new nonparametric method utilizing the U-statistics approach for comparing two or more correlated areas under receiver operating characteristics. The new confidence interval has a simple analytic form with a new estimate of the degrees of freedom of n - 1. It demonstrates good coverage properties and has shorter confidence interval widths than that of Tango. This new confidence interval with the new estimate of degrees of freedom also leads to coverage probabilities that are an improvement on the rank-based nonparametric confidence interval. Comparing with the approximate exact unconditional method, the nonparametric confidence interval demonstrates good coverage properties even in small samples, and yet they are very easy to implement computationally. This nonparametric procedure is evaluated using simulation studies and illustrated with three real examples. The simplified nonparametric confidence interval is an appealing choice in practice for its ease of use and good performance. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Proportioning of Lightweight Concrete by the Inclusions of Expanded Polystyrene Beads (EPS and Foam Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eethar Thanon Dawood

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper illustrates the performance of lightweight concrete using various amounts of expanded polystyrene beads (EPS and different amounts of foam agent to produce lightweight concrete. The objective of this paper is to produce lightweight concrete with good workability and strength, by different mix proportion of foam agent (0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1, 1.2 kg/m3 and varying water cement ratio (w/c depending on the flow. Besides, various proportions using different percentages of EPS in order of volume fractions are used. The flow range used in the study is 110-130%. Each mix proportion is tested for compressive strength, modulus of rupture, density and voids ratio. The results gives acceptable ranges of strength for lightweight concrete produced by the inclusions of EPS beads and foam concrete. Therefore, the lightweight concrete produced in this work can be used for structural applications like multistory building frames, floors, bridges and prestressed or precast elements. 

  11. Education level and chronic liver disease by aetiology: A proportional mortality study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedeli, Ugo; Avossa, Francesco; Goldoni, Carlo Alberto; Caranci, Nicola; Zambon, Francesco; Saugo, Mario

    2015-12-01

    Data are lacking on mortality from chronic liver diseases of different aetiology by education level. To investigate the association between education level and mortality from alcoholic, viral, and non-viral/non-alcoholic chronic liver disease. Proportional mortality was investigated in 2011-2013 in the Veneto Region (Italy). Odds ratios were estimated by conditional logistic regression with deaths from liver cirrhosis, liver cancer, and viral hepatitis as cases, and all other deaths as controls. Disease aetiology was determined from all conditions mentioned in the death certificate. Overall chronic liver disease proportional mortality was higher in males (OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.18-1.60) and females (OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.29-2.30) with primary education than in subjects with higher educational level. The risk for alcohol-related and non-viral/non-alcohol-related disease significantly increased with lower education in both genders. Proportional mortality analysis of multiple causes of death records showed an association between education and chronic liver diseases with alcoholic and non-viral/non-alcoholic aetiology. Copyright © 2015 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation and visualization of multiaxial fatigue behavior under random non-proportional loading condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Morishita

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In cyclic multiaxial stress/strain condition under nonproportional loading in which principal direction of stress/strain are changed in a cycle, it becomes difficult to analyze stress/strain ranges because of complexity of multiaxial stress/strain states depending on time in cycles. In order to evaluate stress/strain simply and suitably under non-proportional loading, Itoh and Sakane have proposed a method called as IS-method and a strain parameter for life evaluation under non-proportional loading NP. In the method, 6-components of stress/strain are converted to an equivalent stress/strain indicating the amplitude and the direction of principal stress/strain as a function of time as well as an intensity of loading nonproportionality fNP. Based on IS-method, the authors also have developed a tool which enables to analyze multiaxial stress/strain condition with the nonproportionality of loading history and evaluate failure life under nonproportional multiaxial loading. The tool indicates the analyzed results on monitor and users can understand visually not only variation of the stress/strain conditions but also non-proportionality during the cycle, which helps the design of material strength.

  13. Rate Adaptive Based Resource Allocation with Proportional Fairness Constraints in OFDMA Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhendong Yin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA, which is widely used in the wireless sensor networks, allows different users to obtain different subcarriers according to their subchannel gains. Therefore, how to assign subcarriers and power to different users to achieve a high system sum rate is an important research area in OFDMA systems. In this paper, the focus of study is on the rate adaptive (RA based resource allocation with proportional fairness constraints. Since the resource allocation is a NP-hard and non-convex optimization problem, a new efficient resource allocation algorithm ACO-SPA is proposed, which combines ant colony optimization (ACO and suboptimal power allocation (SPA. To reduce the computational complexity, the optimization problem of resource allocation in OFDMA systems is separated into two steps. For the first one, the ant colony optimization algorithm is performed to solve the subcarrier allocation. Then, the suboptimal power allocation algorithm is developed with strict proportional fairness, and the algorithm is based on the principle that the sums of power and the reciprocal of channel-to-noise ratio for each user in different subchannels are equal. To support it, plenty of simulation results are presented. In contrast with root-finding and linear methods, the proposed method provides better performance in solving the proportional resource allocation problem in OFDMA systems.

  14. An array of low-background 3He proportional counters for theSudbury Neutrino Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amsbaugh, J.F.; Anaya, J.M.; Banar, J.; Bowles, T.J.; Browne,M.C.; Bullard, T.V.; Burritt, T.H.; Cox-Mobrand, G.A.; Dai, X.; H.Deng,X.; Di Marco, M.; Doe, P.J.; Dragowsky, M.R.; Duba, C.A.; Duncan, F.A.; Earle, E.D.; Elliott, S.R.; Esch, E.-I.; Fergani, H.; Formaggio, J.A.; Fowler, M.M.; Franklin, J.E.; Geissbuehler, P.; Germani, J.V.; Goldschmidt, A.; Guillian, E.; Hallin, A.L.; Harper, G.; Harvey, P.J.; Hazama, R.; Heeger, K.M.; Heise, J.; Hime, A.; Howe, M.A.; Huang, M.; Kormos, L.L.; Kraus, C.; Krauss, C.B.; Law, J.; Lawson, I.T.; Lesko,K.T.; Loach, J.C.; Majerus, S.; Manor, J.; McGee, S.; Miknaitis, K.K.S.; Miller, G.G.; Morissette, B.; Myers, A.; Oblath, N.S.; O' Kee, H.M.; Ollerhead, R.W.; Peeters, S.J.M.; Poon, A.W.P.; Prior, G.; Reitzner,S.D.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R.G.H.; Skensved, P.; Smith, A.R.; Smith,M.W.E.; Steiger, T.D.; Stonehill,L.C.; Thornewell, P.M.; Tolich, N.; VanDevender, B.A.; VanWechel, T.D.; Wall, B.L.; Tseung, H.W.C.; Wendland,J.; West, N.; Wilhelmy, J.B.; Wilkerson, J.F.; Wouters, J.M.

    2007-02-01

    An array of Neutral-Current Detectors (NCDs) has been builtin order to make a unique measurement of the total active ux of solarneutrinos in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO). Data in the thirdphase of the SNO experiment were collected between November 2004 andNovember 2006, after the NCD array was added to improve theneutral-current sensitivity of the SNO detector. This array consisted of36 strings of proportional counters lled with a mixture of 3He and CF4gas capable of detecting the neutrons liberated by the neutrino-deuteronneutral current reaction in the D2O, and four strings lled with a mixtureof 4He and CF4 gas for background measurements. The proportional counterdiameter is 5 cm. The total deployed array length was 398 m. The SNO NCDarray is the lowest-radioactivity large array of proportional countersever produced. This article describes the design, construction,deployment, and characterization of the NCD array, discusses theelectronics and data acquisition system, and considers event signaturesand backgrounds.

  15. A large area imaging gas scintillation proportional counter for use in X-ray astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, W. H.-M.; Lum, K. S.; Vartanian, M. H.

    1984-01-01

    A large area (200 sq cm), broad bandwidth (0.1-70 keV), imaging gas scintillation proportional counter (IGSPC) has been constructed for use in X-ray astronomy. The IGSPC consists of a high pressure xenon gas scintillation proportional counter (GSPC) coupled to a multi-wire proportional counter (MWPC) via a calcium fluoride window. THe MWPC, filled with a mixture of argon, methane, and tetrakis (dimethylamino) ethylene, detects the UV photons emitted by the xenon gas in the GSPC. The detector has a measured energy resolution of 8.0 percent (FWHM) and 4.3 percent (FWHM) at 5.9 keV and 22.1 keV, respectively. The predicted spatial resolution of the detector is less than 1 mm (FWHM) between 3-22 keV and 37-60 keV. A method to determine the three-dimensional location of detected X-rays is described. In addition, a combination of discrimination schemes designed to reduce the non-X-ray background in the IGSPC by more than two orders of magnitude is discussed.

  16. New Stability Criteria for High-Order Neural Networks with Proportional Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chang-Jin; Li, Pei-Luan

    2017-03-01

    This paper is concerned with high-order neural networks with proportional delays. The proportional delay is a time-varying unbounded delay which is different from the constant delay, bounded time-varying delay and distributed delay. By the nonlinear transformation {y}i(t)={u}i({{{e}}}t){{ }}(i=1,2,\\ldots ,n), we transform a class of high-order neural networks with proportional delays into a class of high-order neural networks with constant delays and time-varying coefficients. With the aid of Brouwer fixed point theorem and constructing the delay differential inequality, we obtain some delay-independent and delay-dependent sufficient conditions to ensure the existence, uniqueness and global exponential stability of equilibrium of the network. Two examples with their simulations are given to illustrate the theoretical findings. Our results are new and complement previously known results. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 61673008 and 11261010, and Project of High-level Innovative Talents of Guizhou Province ([2016]5651)

  17. Rate Adaptive Based Resource Allocation with Proportional Fairness Constraints in OFDMA Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhendong; Zhuang, Shufeng; Wu, Zhilu; Ma, Bo

    2015-09-25

    Orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA), which is widely used in the wireless sensor networks, allows different users to obtain different subcarriers according to their subchannel gains. Therefore, how to assign subcarriers and power to different users to achieve a high system sum rate is an important research area in OFDMA systems. In this paper, the focus of study is on the rate adaptive (RA) based resource allocation with proportional fairness constraints. Since the resource allocation is a NP-hard and non-convex optimization problem, a new efficient resource allocation algorithm ACO-SPA is proposed, which combines ant colony optimization (ACO) and suboptimal power allocation (SPA). To reduce the computational complexity, the optimization problem of resource allocation in OFDMA systems is separated into two steps. For the first one, the ant colony optimization algorithm is performed to solve the subcarrier allocation. Then, the suboptimal power allocation algorithm is developed with strict proportional fairness, and the algorithm is based on the principle that the sums of power and the reciprocal of channel-to-noise ratio for each user in different subchannels are equal. To support it, plenty of simulation results are presented. In contrast with root-finding and linear methods, the proposed method provides better performance in solving the proportional resource allocation problem in OFDMA systems.

  18. Informing outdoor smokefree policy: methods for measuring the proportion of people smoking in outdoor public areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, George; Russell, Marie; Jenkin, Gabrielle; Patel, Vimal; Wilson, Nick

    2013-03-01

    To advance the design and implementation of outdoor smokefree area policies, we aimed to develop simple, low-cost methods for measuring smoking in a variety of public places. Two methods were developed and were used by solo observers during March 2011-February 2012 to measure the proportion of people smoking at a variety of sites. Both methods performed well (n=5553 people observed); the first at 58 sites in the UK and New Zealand (n=3191 observed); the second at 33 sites in New Zealand (n=2362 observed), with significant differences found between the smoking at types of sites and between countries. For the two countries combined, the proportions of people smoking (amongst those over 12 years) in children's play areas was significantly lower compared to all the other sites combined (risk ratio=0.39; 95%CI: 0.20 to 0.76; p=0.002). Solo observers can establish the proportion of people smoking in a range of outdoor sites. Such methods can inform outdoor smokefree area policymaking by providing baseline and post-policy data to enable location targeting and policy evaluation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Estimation Method of Path-Selecting Proportion for Urban Rail Transit Based on AFC Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the successful application of automatic fare collection (AFC system in urban rail transit (URT, the information of passengers’ travel time is recorded, which provides the possibility to analyze passengers’ path-selecting by AFC data. In this paper, the distribution characteristics of the components of travel time were analyzed, and an estimation method of path-selecting proportion was proposed. This method made use of single path ODs’ travel time data from AFC system to estimate the distribution parameters of the components of travel time, mainly including entry walking time (ewt, exit walking time (exwt, and transfer walking time (twt. Then, for multipath ODs, the distribution of each path’s travel time could be calculated under the condition of its components’ distributions known. After that, each path’s path-selecting proportion can be estimated. Finally, simulation experiments were designed to verify the estimation method, and the results show that the error rate is less than 2%. Compared with the traditional models of flow assignment, the estimation method can reduce the cost of artificial survey significantly and provide a new way to calculate the path-selecting proportion for URT.

  20. An array of low-background $^3$He proportional counters for the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Amsbaugh, J F; Banar, J C; Bowles, T J; Browne, M C; Bullard, T V; Burritt, T H; Cox-Mobrand, G A; Dai, X; Deng, H; Di Marco, M; Doe, P J; Dragowsky, M R; Duba, C A; Duncan, F A; Earle, E D; Elliott, S R; Esch, E -I; Fergani, H; Formaggio, J A; Fowler, M M; Franklin, J E; Geissbühler, P; Germani, J V; Goldschmidt, A; Guillian, E; Hallin, A L; Harper, G; Harvey, P J; Hazama, R; Heeger, K M; Heise, J; Hime, A; Howe, M A; Huang, M; Kormos, L L; Kraus, C V; Krauss, C B; Law, J; Lawson, I T; Lesko, K T; Loach, J C; Majerus, S; Manor, J; McGee, S; Miknaitis, K K S; Miller, G G; Morissette, B; Myers, A; Oblath, N S; O'Keeffe, H M; Ollerhead, R W; Peeters, S J M; Poon, A W P; Prior, G; Reitzner, S D; Rielage, K; Robertson, R G H; Skensved, P; Smith, A R; Smith, M W E; Steiger, T D; Stonehill, L C; Thornewell, P M; Tolich, N; VanDevender, B A; Van Wechel, T D; Wall, B L; Tseung, H Wan Chan; Wendland, J; West, N; Wilhelmy, J B; Wilkerson, J F; Wouters, J M

    2007-01-01

    An array of Neutral-Current Detectors (NCDs) has been built in order to make a unique measurement of the total active flux of solar neutrinos in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO). Data in the third phase of the SNO experiment were collected between November 2004 and November 2006, after the NCD array was added to improve the neutral-current sensitivity of the SNO detector. This array consisted of 36 strings of proportional counters filled with a mixture of $^3$He and CF$_4$ gas capable of detecting the neutrons liberated by the neutrino-deuteron neutral current reaction in the D$_2$O, and four strings filled with a mixture of $^4$He and CF$_4$ gas for background measurements. The proportional counter diameter is 5 cm. The total deployed array length was 398 m. The SNO NCD array is the lowest-radioactivity large array of proportional counters ever produced. This article describes the design, construction, deployment, and characterization of the NCD array, discusses the electronics and data acquisition sys...

  1. High proportion of smaller ranged hummingbird species coincides with ecological specialization across the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín González, Ana M.; Maruyama, Pietro K.; Sandel, Brody; Vizentin-Bugoni, Jeferson; Schleuning, Matthias; Abrahamczyk, Stefan; Alarcón, Ruben; Araujo, Andréa C.; Araújo, Francielle P.; Mendes de Azevedo, Severino; Baquero, Andrea C.; Cotton, Peter A.; Ingversen, Tanja Toftemark; Kohler, Glauco; Lara, Carlos; Guedes Las-Casas, Flor Maria; Machado, Adriana O.; Machado, Caio Graco; Maglianesi, María Alejandra; Moura, Alan Cerqueira; Nogués-Bravo, David; Oliveira, Genilda M.; Oliveira, Paulo E.; Ornelas, Juan Francisco; Rodrigues, Licléia da Cruz; Rosero-Lasprilla, Liliana; Rui, Ana Maria; Sazima, Marlies; Timmermann, Allan; Varassin, Isabela Galarda; Wang, Zhiheng; Watts, Stella; Fjeldså, Jon; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Rahbek, Carsten; Dalsgaard, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Ecological communities that experience stable climate conditions have been speculated to preserve more specialized interspecific associations and have higher proportions of smaller ranged species (SRS). Thus, areas with disproportionally large numbers of SRS are expected to coincide geographically with a high degree of community-level ecological specialization, but this suggestion remains poorly supported with empirical evidence. Here, we analysed data for hummingbird resource specialization, range size, contemporary climate, and Late Quaternary climate stability for 46 hummingbird–plant mutualistic networks distributed across the Americas, representing 130 hummingbird species (ca 40% of all hummingbird species). We demonstrate a positive relationship between the proportion of SRS of hummingbirds and community-level specialization, i.e. the division of the floral niche among coexisting hummingbird species. This relationship remained strong even when accounting for climate, furthermore, the effect of SRS on specialization was far stronger than the effect of specialization on SRS, suggesting that climate largely influences specialization through species' range-size dynamics. Irrespective of the exact mechanism involved, our results indicate that communities consisting of higher proportions of SRS may be vulnerable to disturbance not only because of their small geographical ranges, but also because of their high degree of specialization. PMID:26842573

  2. Application of orthogonal test method in mix proportion design of recycled lightweight aggregate concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhanshan; An, Le; Zhang, Yijing; Yuan, Jie

    2017-03-01

    Recycled lightweight aggregate concrete was made with construction waste and ceramsite brick mainly including brick. Using the orthogonal test method, the mix proportion of recycled lightweight aggregate concrete was studied, and the Influence regularity and significance of water binder ratio, fly ash, sand ratio, the amount of recycled aggregate proportion on the compressive strength of concrete, the strong influence of mass ratio, slump expansion degree was studied. Through the mean and range analysis of the test results, the results show that the water binder ratio has the greatest influence on the 28d intensity of recycled lightweight aggregate concrete. Secondly, the fly ash content, the recycled aggregate replacement rate and the sand ratio have little influence. For the factors of expansion: the proportion of fly ash = water binder ratio sand >sand rate> recycled aggregate replacement rate. When the content of fly ash is about 30%, the expanded degree of recycled lightweight aggregate concrete is the highest, and the workability of that is better and the strength of concrete with 28d and 56d are the highest. When the content of brickbat is about 40% brick particles, the strength of concrete reaches the highest.

  3. The equivalence of two phylogenetic biodiversity measures: the Shapley value and Fair Proportion index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Klaas

    2013-11-01

    Most biodiversity conservation programs are forced to prioritise species in order to allocate their funding. This paper contains a mathematical proof that provides biological support for one common approach based on phylogenetic indices. Phylogenetic trees describe the evolutionary relationships between a group of taxa. Two indices for computing the distinctiveness of each taxon in a phylogenetic tree are considered here-the Shapley value and the Fair Proportion index. These indices provide a measure of the importance of each taxon for overall biodiversity and have been used to prioritise taxa for conservation. The Shapley value is the biodiversity contribution a taxon is expected to make if all taxa are equally likely to become extinct. This interpretation makes it appealing to use the Shapley value in biodiversity conservation applications. The Fair Proportion index lacks a convenient interpretation, however it is significantly easier to calculate and understand. It has been empirically observed that there is a high correlation between the two indices. This paper shows the mathematical basis for this correlation and proves that as the number of taxa increases, the indices become equivalent. Consequently in biodiversity prioritisation the simpler Fair Proportion index can be used whilst retaining the appealing interpretation of the Shapley value.

  4. Morpho-functional relationship between muscular architecture and proportion of myofiber types in ovine antebrachial musculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Toshihiro; Watanabe, Kouichi

    2012-01-01

    The antebrachium of domestic animals supports the trunk against gravity and generates propulsive force. The antigravity action of antebrachium is attributed to the contraction of flexor muscles of the carpal and digital joints. Mammalian skeletal muscles consist of myofibers, which are histochemically classified into type I, type IIA, and type IIB myofibers, of which composition reflects the proportional involvement of the muscle in varying function, such as posture maintenance and locomotion. The physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA), which are calculated from muscle volume, myofiber length, and pennation angle, reflects the maximum force of muscle. In the present study, we evaluated the PCSA of myofiber types in the antebrachial musculature and determined the magnitude of contribution from individual muscles toward varying actions of carpal and digital joints. The extensor carpi ulnaris and flexor digitorum superficialis muscles possessed a large proportional PCSA of type I myofibers, indicating the role for these muscles in maintaining a standing posture. The additional force required for walking/running was primarily provided by the flexor digitorum profundus caput humerale and extensor carpi radialis muscles. The proportional PCSA of myofiber types reflected the force generated for varying muscular function and provided insights into the dynamics of carpal and digital joints.

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTROLLED PITCH NANO ARRAYS FOR APPLICATION IN NANO SCALE BASED PROPORTIONAL COUNTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sexton, L.; Serkiz, S.; Siegfried, M.

    2010-06-07

    Proportional counters (PCs) are a type of gas-filled radiation detection device capable of distinguishing between a wide range of radiation types and energies. In this application, however, these devices are limited by high power consumption and high bias potentials required to operate in the proportional detection regime. Previous work performed with a single carbon nanotube (CNT) anode has shown that nanoscale-based PCs can operate at bias potentials of 10V rather than the 1000V range required for PCs. ''Proof of concept'' experiments with a single CNT as the anode exhibit a small detection volume and consequently required long count times (24 hrs). To make this a practical detector technology (i.e., decrease the count time), the effective detection volume has to be increased. Experimental data and electric field modeling show that if the pitch (spacing between individual nanotubes) of the arrays is too small, the electric field of the individual nanostructure will collapse and the nanoscale array will behaved as a single macro-scale field with the associated high bias potential required to reach the proportional region. Electric-field modeling of the affect of nanostructure pitch on the electric field distribution of these arrays predicted that a pitch of about two-and-a-times the height of the nanostructure was required to retain the nanoscale electric field. In this work, we report on the fabrication and electrical property testing of nanoscale arrays with a range of controlled pitches.

  6. Terminal attack trajectories of peregrine falcons are described by the proportional navigation guidance law of missiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brighton, Caroline H; Thomas, Adrian L R; Taylor, Graham K

    2017-12-19

    The ability to intercept uncooperative targets is key to many diverse flight behaviors, from courtship to predation. Previous research has looked for simple geometric rules describing the attack trajectories of animals, but the underlying feedback laws have remained obscure. Here, we use GPS loggers and onboard video cameras to study peregrine falcons, Falco peregrinus , attacking stationary targets, maneuvering targets, and live prey. We show that the terminal attack trajectories of peregrines are not described by any simple geometric rule as previously claimed, and instead use system identification techniques to fit a phenomenological model of the dynamical system generating the observed trajectories. We find that these trajectories are best-and exceedingly well-modeled by the proportional navigation (PN) guidance law used by most guided missiles. Under this guidance law, turning is commanded at a rate proportional to the angular rate of the line-of-sight between the attacker and its target, with a constant of proportionality (i.e., feedback gain) called the navigation constant ( N ). Whereas most guided missiles use navigation constants falling on the interval 3 ≤ N ≤ 5, peregrine attack trajectories are best fitted by lower navigation constants (median N drones designed to remove other drones from protected airspace. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  7. High proportion of smaller ranged hummingbird species coincides with ecological specialization across the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonne, Jesper; Martín González, Ana M; Maruyama, Pietro K; Sandel, Brody; Vizentin-Bugoni, Jeferson; Schleuning, Matthias; Abrahamczyk, Stefan; Alarcón, Ruben; Araujo, Andréa C; Araújo, Francielle P; Mendes de Azevedo, Severino; Baquero, Andrea C; Cotton, Peter A; Ingversen, Tanja Toftemark; Kohler, Glauco; Lara, Carlos; Guedes Las-Casas, Flor Maria; Machado, Adriana O; Machado, Caio Graco; Maglianesi, María Alejandra; Moura, Alan Cerqueira; Nogués-Bravo, David; Oliveira, Genilda M; Oliveira, Paulo E; Ornelas, Juan Francisco; Rodrigues, Licléia da Cruz; Rosero-Lasprilla, Liliana; Rui, Ana Maria; Sazima, Marlies; Timmermann, Allan; Varassin, Isabela Galarda; Wang, Zhiheng; Watts, Stella; Fjeldså, Jon; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Rahbek, Carsten; Dalsgaard, Bo

    2016-02-10

    Ecological communities that experience stable climate conditions have been speculated to preserve more specialized interspecific associations and have higher proportions of smaller ranged species (SRS). Thus, areas with disproportionally large numbers of SRS are expected to coincide geographically with a high degree of community-level ecological specialization, but this suggestion remains poorly supported with empirical evidence. Here, we analysed data for hummingbird resource specialization, range size, contemporary climate, and Late Quaternary climate stability for 46 hummingbird-plant mutualistic networks distributed across the Americas, representing 130 hummingbird species (ca 40% of all hummingbird species). We demonstrate a positive relationship between the proportion of SRS of hummingbirds and community-level specialization, i.e. the division of the floral niche among coexisting hummingbird species. This relationship remained strong even when accounting for climate, furthermore, the effect of SRS on specialization was far stronger than the effect of specialization on SRS, suggesting that climate largely influences specialization through species' range-size dynamics. Irrespective of the exact mechanism involved, our results indicate that communities consisting of higher proportions of SRS may be vulnerable to disturbance not only because of their small geographical ranges, but also because of their high degree of specialization. © 2016 The Author(s).

  8. Proportional and Integral Thermal Control System for Large Scale Heating Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Van Tran

    2015-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Armstrong Flight Research Center (Edwards, California) Flight Loads Laboratory is a unique national laboratory that supports thermal, mechanical, thermal/mechanical, and structural dynamics research and testing. A Proportional Integral thermal control system was designed and implemented to support thermal tests. A thermal control algorithm supporting a quartz lamp heater was developed based on the Proportional Integral control concept and a linearized heating process. The thermal control equations were derived and expressed in terms of power levels, integral gain, proportional gain, and differences between thermal setpoints and skin temperatures. Besides the derived equations, user's predefined thermal test information generated in the form of thermal maps was used to implement the thermal control system capabilities. Graphite heater closed-loop thermal control and graphite heater open-loop power level were added later to fulfill the demand for higher temperature tests. Verification and validation tests were performed to ensure that the thermal control system requirements were achieved. This thermal control system has successfully supported many milestone thermal and thermal/mechanical tests for almost a decade with temperatures ranging from 50 F to 3000 F and temperature rise rates from -10 F/s to 70 F/s for a variety of test articles having unique thermal profiles and test setups.

  9. Scale effects and morphological diversification in hindlimb segment mass proportions in neognath birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbourne, Brandon M

    2014-01-01

    In spite of considerable work on the linear proportions of limbs in amniotes, it remains unknown whether differences in scale effects between proximal and distal limb segments has the potential to influence locomotor costs in amniote lineages and how changes in the mass proportions of limbs have factored into amniote diversification. To broaden our understanding of how the mass proportions of limbs vary within amniote lineages, I collected data on hindlimb segment masses - thigh, shank, pes, tarsometatarsal segment, and digits - from 38 species of neognath birds, one of the most speciose amniote clades. I scaled each of these traits against measures of body size (body mass) and hindlimb size (hindlimb length) to test for departures from isometry. Additionally, I applied two parameters of trait evolution (Pagel's λ and δ) to understand patterns of diversification in hindlimb segment mass in neognaths. All segment masses are positively allometric with body mass. Segment masses are isometric with hindlimb length. When examining scale effects in the neognath subclade Land Birds, segment masses were again positively allometric with body mass; however, shank, pedal, and tarsometatarsal segment masses were also positively allometric with hindlimb length. Methods of branch length scaling to detect phylogenetic signal (i.e., Pagel's λ) and increasing or decreasing rates of trait change over time (i.e., Pagel's δ) suffer from wide confidence intervals, likely due to small sample size and deep divergence times. The scaling of segment masses appears to be more strongly related to the scaling of limb bone mass as opposed to length, and the scaling of hindlimb mass distribution is more a function of scale effects in limb posture than proximo-distal differences in the scaling of limb segment mass. Though negative allometry of segment masses appears to be precluded by the need for mechanically sound limbs, the positive allometry of segment masses relative to body mass may

  10. Pharmacokinetics and dose proportionality of fentanyl effervescent buccal tablets in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Mona; Tempero, Kenneth; Kirby, Mary; Thompson, Jeffrey

    2005-01-01

    Fentanyl effervescent buccal tablets (FEBT) are designed to enhance the rate and efficiency of fentanyl absorption through the buccal mucosa. This study was undertaken to characterise the pharmacokinetics and assess the dose proportionality of FEBT in healthy volunteers within the potential therapeutic dose range. Twenty-five healthy adults (mean age 33 years) completed a single-dose, randomised, open-label, four-dose, four-period, crossover study of FEBT. They were administered FEBT 200, 500, 810 or 1080microg. The subjects in this study were not opioid tolerant; therefore, naltrexone was administered to block any opioid receptor-mediated effects of fentanyl. Venous blood samples for measurement of serum fentanyl concentrations were obtained over 36 hours following dosing. Adverse events were recorded throughout the study. The pharmacokinetics of FEBT were characterised by an absorption phase with a median time to reach maximum serum concentration (tmax) of 0.75-0.99 hours that was consistent irrespective of dose. Mean serum fentanyl concentrations exhibited a biexponential decline from peak after FEBT 200 and 500microg doses and a triexponential decline after FEBT 810 and 1080microg doses. The maximum serum concentration (Cmax) of fentanyl was proportional up to and including the 810microg dose. The increase in Cmax was 20% less than proportional at the 1080microg dose. Systemic exposure to fentanyl, as measured by the area under the serum concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity (AUCinfinity), increased proportionally with increasing doses of FEBT (200-1080microg). No serious adverse events were reported during the study. The pharmacokinetics of FEBT were characterised by a high early fentanyl concentration as a result of absorption across the buccal mucosa of the oral cavity, which results in bypassing first-pass metabolism. This high early tmax contributed to enhanced early systemic fentanyl exposure. Maximum concentration and AUCinfinity of FEBT

  11. Equivalent Mortar Volume (EMV method for proportioning recycled aggregate concrete: Validation under the Spanish context and its adaptation to Bolomey methodology for concrete proportioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez, C.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A new method for proportioning recycled aggregates concrete (RAC is used to check its feasibility under the Spanish context. First, an extensive experimental campaign has been done, with the purpose of check and analyze the applicability of the EMV method with two Spanish recycled concrete aggregates (RCA. The aim of the second part of the investigation, was to elaborate an adaptation of the EMV method to Bolomey methodology (1, using a 20% weight replacement of coarse natural aggregates (NA for RCA, and so, with this, comply with the Spanish Instruction for Structural Concrete (EHE 2008. Slump, air content, fresh and hardened densities, compressive strength and modulus of elasticity were determined and analyzed, in order to check the concrete properties. Finally, it was observed that, the EMV method is viable, and its adaptation, results in concrete mixes with similar or better properties than the natural aggregate concrete and RAC conventionally prepared.El nuevo método para el diseño de hormigón con árido reciclado (HAR es usado para comprobar su posibilidad de uso bajo el contexto español. Primeramente, se realiza una extensa campaña experimental, para analizar las posibilidades de su aplicación, usando dos áridos reciclados de hormigón (ARH españoles. En la segunda etapa se elabora una adaptación del método a la metodología propuesta por Bolomey (1, con 20% de reemplazo en peso de árido grueso natural (AN por ARH, para así cumplir con las recomendaciones estipuladas en la Instrucción de Hormigón Estructural (EHE 2008. Para determinar y analizar las propiedades del hormigón, se llevaron a cabo ensayos de asentamiento, contenido de aire, densidades, módulo elástico y resistencias a compresión. Finalmente, se concluye que el uso del nuevo método es viable, y que su adaptación produce hormigones con similares o mejores características que los elaborados para hormigón con árido convencional (HAC y HAR convencionales.

  12. Differences in fat content and fatty acid proportions among colostrum, transitional, and mature milk from women delivering very preterm, preterm, and term infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moltó-Puigmartí, Carolina; Castellote, Ana Isabel; Carbonell-Estrany, Xavier; López-Sabater, M Carmen

    2011-02-01

    Human milk composition changes according to gestational age and stage of lactation, but infants fed banked human milk often receive pooled milk. We studied the changes in fat content and fatty acid proportions throughout lactation in very preterm, preterm, and full term milk, and the differences among gestational age groups. Samples from women delivering before 30 (n = 10), between 30 and 37 (n = 10), and between 38 and 42 (n = 23) weeks of gestation were analyzed. Fat content was higher in very preterm than in preterm and full term samples (p milk, medium-chain saturated fatty acid proportions were highest in the very preterm group, and decreased with gestational age (p milk obtained at different gestational ages and stages of lactation may impact preterm infants' health. Therefore they could be taken into account when feeding newborns banked human milk and when designing infant formulas or human milk fortifiers. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  13. Foodborne proportion of gastrointestinal illness: estimates from a Canadian expert elicitation survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravel, André; Davidson, Valerie J; Ruzante, Juliana M; Fazil, Aamir

    2010-12-01

    The study used a structured expert elicitation survey to derive estimates of the foodborne attributable proportion for nine illnesses caused by enteric pathogens in Canada. It was based on a similar study conducted in the United States and focused on Campylobacter, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica, Shigella spp., Vibrio spp., Yersinia enterocolitica, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Norwalk-like virus. For each pathogen, experts were asked to provide their best estimate and low and high limits for the proportion of foodborne illness relative to total cases. In addition, they provided background information with regard to food safety experience, including self-evaluated expertise for each pathogen on a 5-point scale. A snowball approach was used to identify 152 experts within Canada. The experts' background details were summarized using descriptive statistics. Factor analysis was used to determine whether the variability in best estimates was related to self-assessed level of expertise or other background information. Cluster analysis followed by beta function fitting was undertaken on best estimates from experts who self-evaluated their expertise 3 or higher. In parallel, Monte Carlo resampling was run using triangular distributions based on each expert's best estimate and its limits. Sixty-six experts encompassing various academic backgrounds, fields of expertise, and experiences relevant to food safety provided usable data. Considerable variation between experts in their estimated foodborne attributable proportions was observed over all diseases, without any relationship to the expert's background. Uncertainty about their estimate (measured by the low and high limits) varied between experts and between pathogens as well. Both cluster analysis and Monte Carlo resampling clearly indicated disagreement between experts for Campylobacter, E. coli O157, L. monocytogenes, Salmonella, Vibrio, and Y. enterocolitica. In the

  14. Proportion of adults fasting for lipid testing relative to guideline changes in Alberta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Irene; Viczko, Jeannine; Naugler, Christopher

    2017-04-01

    Guidelines have historically recommended measuring lipid profile tests in a fasting state. However, in April 2011 and 2014, the Canadian city of Calgary and its province of Alberta, respectively, have changed their lipid guidelines to allow testing for individuals in any fasting state; several years prior to the release of the 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society and Hypertension Canada guidelines. The purpose of this study was to document the proportion of individuals in Calgary who fasted for a lipid encounter in relation to the change in various guidelines and policies. Counts were collected each month per gender from January 1, 2010 to June 30, 2016 for community-based adults ≥18years old who fasted (≥8h) or did not fast (fasting state. The proportion of adults who fasted declined from 98.59%±0.379% (mean±SD) in 2010 to 41.65%±1.295% (mean±SD) in 2016. However, a marked decline in the proportion of adults fasting for a lipid encounter was not observed until February 2015, which coincided with the release of Alberta's Toward Optimized Practice Clinical Practice Guidelines. This documentation of individuals fasting for a lipid encounter may assist other jurisdictions in Canada with the new nonfasting lipid guideline changes. We recommend releasing provincial clinical practice guidelines, in addition to laboratory bulletins and continuing medical education presentations, regarding the new nonfasting lipid recommendations in other jurisdictions to ensure community patients are aware of this change. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Density, proportion, and dendritic coverage of retinal ganglion cells of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus jacchus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.L. Gomes

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available We performed a quantitative analysis of M and P cell mosaics of the common-marmoset retina. Ganglion cells were labeled retrogradely from optic nerve deposits of Biocytin. The labeling was visualized using horseradish peroxidase (HRP histochemistry and 3-3'diaminobenzidine as chromogen. M and P cells were morphologically similar to those found in Old- and New-World primates. Measurements were performed on well-stained cells from 4 retinas of different animals. We analyzed separate mosaics for inner and outer M and P cells at increasing distances from the fovea (2.5-9 mm of eccentricity to estimate cell density, proportion, and dendritic coverage. M cell density decreased towards the retinal periphery in all quadrants. M cell density was higher in the nasal quadrant than in other retinal regions at similar eccentricities, reaching about 740 cells/mm² at 2.5 mm of temporal eccentricity, and representing 8-14% of all ganglion cells. P cell density increased from peripheral to more central regions, reaching about 5540 cells/mm² at 2.5 mm of temporal eccentricity. P cells represented a smaller proportion of all ganglion cells in the nasal quadrant than in other quadrants, and their numbers increased towards central retinal regions. The M cell coverage factor ranged from 5 to 12 and the P cell coverage factor ranged from 1 to 3 in the nasal quadrant and from 5 to 12 in the other quadrants. These results show that central and peripheral retinal regions differ in terms of cell class proportions and dendritic coverage, and their properties do not result from simply scaling down cell density. Therefore, differences in functional properties between central and peripheral vision should take these distinct regional retinal characteristics into account.

  16. Characterization of a mid-sized Li foil multi-wire proportional counter neutron detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Kyle A., E-mail: knelson1@ksu.edu [S.M.A.R.T. Laboratory, Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States); Kusner, Michael R. [Saint-Gobain Crystals, Hiram, OH 44234 (United States); Montag, Benjamin W. [S.M.A.R.T. Laboratory, Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States); Mayhugh, Michael R. [Saint-Gobain Crystals, Hiram, OH 44234 (United States); Schmidt, Aaron J.; Wayant, Clayton D.; Shultis, J. Kenneth; Ugorowski, Philip B.; McGregor, Douglas S. [S.M.A.R.T. Laboratory, Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States)

    2014-10-21

    A 550 cm{sup 2} thermal neutron detector was constructed with five parallel sheets of 75 µm thick {sup 6}Li foil (95% enrichment) spaced 1.63 cm apart. Anode wire banks containing a plurality of anode wires were strung on both sides of each foil, six banks in total. The chamber was backfilled with P-10 proportional gas and over-pressured to 1.1, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.8 atm (111, 151, 202, and 284 kPa). The design was tailored to allow the products from the {sup 6}Li(n,t){sup 4}He reaction to escape both sides of the Li foil simultaneously, thereby, allowing for concurrent measurement in the proportional gas. The measured intrinsic thermal neutron detection efficiency of the detector with normal incident thermal neutrons to the foil sheets was 53.8±0.20%. When the detector was angled (55° from normal) such that a 0.5 cm diameter thermal neutron beam intersected all of the foil layers, the intrinsic thermal neutron detection efficiency increased to 58.6±0.21%. A {sup 252}Cf neutron source positioned at a distance of 2.0 m yielded an absolute neutron detection efficiency of 0.73 cps ng{sup −1}. The gamma-ray rejection ratio (GRR) was 7.67×10{sup –9} as measured from a {sup 60}Co source for an exposure rate of 40 mR hr{sup −1}. Theoretical pulse-height spectra obtained with MCNP6 agreed well with experimental data and allowed pulse-height spectra and discriminator settings to be energy-calibrated. These results demonstrate the potential for the Li foil multi-wire proportional counter (MWPC) as a viable {sup 3}He neutron detector replacement.

  17. Characterization of a mid-sized Li foil multi-wire proportional counter neutron detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Kyle A.; Kusner, Michael R.; Montag, Benjamin W.; Mayhugh, Michael R.; Schmidt, Aaron J.; Wayant, Clayton D.; Shultis, J. Kenneth; Ugorowski, Philip B.; McGregor, Douglas S.

    2014-10-01

    A 550 cm2 thermal neutron detector was constructed with five parallel sheets of 75 μm thick 6Li foil (95% enrichment) spaced 1.63 cm apart. Anode wire banks containing a plurality of anode wires were strung on both sides of each foil, six banks in total. The chamber was backfilled with P-10 proportional gas and over-pressured to 1.1, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.8 atm (111, 151, 202, and 284 kPa). The design was tailored to allow the products from the 6Li(n,t)4He reaction to escape both sides of the Li foil simultaneously, thereby, allowing for concurrent measurement in the proportional gas. The measured intrinsic thermal neutron detection efficiency of the detector with normal incident thermal neutrons to the foil sheets was 53.8±0.20%. When the detector was angled (55° from normal) such that a 0.5 cm diameter thermal neutron beam intersected all of the foil layers, the intrinsic thermal neutron detection efficiency increased to 58.6±0.21%. A 252Cf neutron source positioned at a distance of 2.0 m yielded an absolute neutron detection efficiency of 0.73 cps ng-1. The gamma-ray rejection ratio (GRR) was 7.67×10-9 as measured from a 60Co source for an exposure rate of 40 mR hr-1. Theoretical pulse-height spectra obtained with MCNP6 agreed well with experimental data and allowed pulse-height spectra and discriminator settings to be energy-calibrated. These results demonstrate the potential for the Li foil multi-wire proportional counter (MWPC) as a viable 3He neutron detector replacement.

  18. What proportion of patients with chronic heart failure are eligible for sacubitril-valsartan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicori, Pierpaolo; Urbinati, Alessia; Shah, Parin; MacNamara, Alexandra; Kazmi, Syed; Dierckx, Riet; Zhang, Jufen; Cleland, John G F; Clark, Andrew L

    2017-06-01

    The PARADIGM-HF trial showed that sacubitril-valsartan, an ARB-neprilysin inhibitor, is more effective than enalapril for some patients with heart failure (HF). It is uncertain what proportion of patients with HF would be eligible for sacubitril-valsartan in clinical practice. Between 2001 and 2014, 6131 patients consecutively referred to a community HF clinic with suspected HF were assessed. The criteria required to enter the randomized phase of PARADIGM-HF, including symptoms, NT-proBNP, and current treatment with or without target doses of ACE inhibitors or ARBs, were applied to identify the proportion of patients eligible for sacubitril-valsartan. Recognizing the diversity of clinical opinion and guideline recommendations concerning this issue, entry criteria were applied singly and in combination. Of 1396 patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (≤40%, HFrEF) and contemporary measurement of NT-proBNP, 379 were on target doses of an ACE inhibitor or ARB at their initial visit and, of these, 172 (45%) fulfilled the key entry criteria for the PARADIGM-HF trial. Lack of symptoms (32%) and NT-proBNP <600 ng/L (49%) were common reasons for failure to fulfil criteria. A further 122 patients became eligible during follow-up (n = 294, 21%). However, if background medication and doses were ignored, then 701 (50%) were eligible initially and a further 137 became eligible during follow-up. Of patients with HFrEF referred to a clinic such as ours, only 21% fulfilled the PARADIGM-HF randomization criteria, on which the ESC Guidelines are based; this proportion rises to 60% if background medication is ignored. © 2017 The Authors. European Journal of Heart Failure © 2017 European Society of Cardiology.

  19. Constant proportion harvest policies: dynamic implications in the Pacific halibut and Atlantic cod fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubu, Abdul-Aziz; Li, Nianpeng; Conrad, Jon M; Zeeman, Mary-Lou

    2011-07-01

    Overfishing, pollution and other environmental factors have greatly reduced commercially valuable stocks of fish. In a 2006 Science article, a group of ecologists and economists warned that the world may run out of seafood from natural stocks if overfishing continues at current rates. In this paper, we explore the interaction between a constant proportion harvest policy and recruitment dynamics. We examine the discrete-time constant proportion harvest policy discussed in Ang et al. (2009) and then expand the framework to include stock-recruitment functions that are compensatory and overcompensatory, both with and without the Allee effect. We focus on constant proportion policies (CPPs). CPPs have the potential to stabilize complex overcompensatory stock dynamics, with or without the Allee effect, provided the rates of harvest stay below a threshold. If that threshold is exceeded, CPPs are known to result in the sudden collapse of a fish stock when stock recruitment exhibits the Allee effect. In case studies, we analyze CPPs as they might be applied to Gulf of Alaska Pacific halibut fishery and the Georges Bank Atlantic cod fishery based on harvest rates from 1975 to 2007. The best fit models suggest that, under high fishing mortalities, the halibut fishery is vulnerable to sudden population collapse while the cod fishery is vulnerable to steady decline to zero. The models also suggest that CPP with mean harvesting levels from the last 30 years can be effective at preventing collapse in the halibut fishery, but these same policies would lead to steady decline to zero in the Atlantic cod fishery. We observe that the likelihood of collapse in both fisheries increases with increased stochasticity (for example, weather variability) as predicted by models of global climate change. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Proportion of Never-Smoker Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients at Three Diverse Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelosof, Lorraine; Ahn, Chul; Gao, Ang; Horn, Leora; Madrigales, Alejandra; Cox, Joan; McGavic, Dauphne; Minna, John D; Gazdar, Adi F; Schiller, Joan

    2017-01-01

    Approximately 10% to 15% of lung cancer cases in the United States occur in never smokers, but there has been much debate about whether this rate is increasing. To determine whether the proportion of never smokers among lung cancer cases is increasing, we conducted a retrospective study using registries from The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Parkland Hospital, and Vanderbilt University. Registries were queried for demographic information from 1990 to 2013 including sex, age, stage, and self-reported smoking history. Ten thousand five hundred ninety-three non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) case patients and 1510 small cell lung cancer (SCLC) case patients were captured, and logistic regression analysis was performed. All statistical tests were two-sided. The proportion of never-smoker NSCLC patients increased from 8.0% in the years 1990 to 1995 to 14.9% in 2011 to 2013 (P never smokers among SCLC case patients (1.5% in 1990-1995 to 2.5% in 2011-2013, P = .36) or squamous cell NSCLC case patients did not statistically significantly change during this period. This study demonstrates an increasing proportion of NSCLC patients who have never smoked in a large, diverse patient population between 1990 and 2013. Given that this increase appears independent of sex, stage, and race/ethnicity and also occurred in our county hospital, this trend is unlikely due to changes in referral patterns and suggests that the actual incidence of lung cancer in never smokers is increasing. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Proportion and clinical features of never-smokers with non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jaeyoung; Choi, Sun Mi; Lee, Jinwoo; Lee, Chang-Hoon; Lee, Sang-Min; Kim, Dong-Wan; Yim, Jae-Joon; Kim, Young Tae; Yoo, Chul-Gyu; Kim, Young Whan; Han, Sung Koo; Park, Young Sik

    2017-02-08

    The proportion of never-smokers with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is increasing, but that in Korea has not been well addressed in a large population. We aimed to evaluate the proportion and clinical features of never-smokers with NSCLC in a large single institution. We analyzed clinical data of 1860 consecutive patients who were newly diagnosed with NSCLC between June 2011 and December 2014. Of the 1860 NSCLC patients, 707 (38.0%) were never-smokers. The proportions of women (83.7% vs. 5.6%) and adenocarcinoma (89.8% vs. 44.9%) were higher among never-smokers than among ever-smokers. Significantly more never-smokers were diagnosed at a younger median age (65 vs. 68 years, P never-smokers, whereas Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog mutations (5.8% vs. 9.6%, P = 0.021) were less frequently encountered in never-smokers than in ever-smokers. Never-smokers showed longer survival after adjusting for the favorable effects of younger age, female sex, adenocarcinoma histology, better performance status, early stage disease, being asymptomatic at diagnosis, received antitumor treatment, and the presence of driver mutations (hazard ratio, 0.624; 95% confidence interval, 0.460-0.848; P = 0.003). More than one-third of the Korean patients with NSCLC were never-smokers. NSCLC in never-smokers had different clinical characteristics and major driver mutations and resulted in longer overall survival compared with NSCLC in ever-smokers.

  2. The changes in proportion of blood cells in autointoxication caused by peritonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuligin А.V.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of the study is the improvement of assessment of intoxication in these patients by defining the relationship between mutual proportions of blood cells and the outcome of treatment. Materials and methods. We have performed an analysis of 80 cases of peritonitis, having studied their count of blood cells and the degree of autointoxication and the outcomes. Results. The most effective technique of assessment is use of the formula (Er>

  3. Simulations of electron avalanches in an ultra-low-background proportional counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, John W.; Aalseth, Craig; Dion, Michael P.; Overman, Cory; Seifert, Allen; VanDevender, Brent

    2016-02-01

    New classes have been added to the simulation package Garfield++ to import the potential and electric field solutions generated by ANSYS R MaxwellTM v.16. Using these tools we report results on the simulation of electron avalanches and induced signal waveforms in comparison to experimental data of the ultra-lowbackground gas proportional counters being developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Furthermore, an improved mesh search algorithm based on Delaunay triangulation was implemented and provided at least a three order of magnitude time savings when compared to the built-in point-location search class of Garfield++.

  4. Lookback Option Pricing with Fixed Proportional Transaction Costs under Fractional Brownian Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiao-Jiao; Zhou, Shengwu; Zhang, Yan; Han, Miao; Wang, Fei

    2014-01-01

    The pricing problem of lookback option with a fixed proportion of transaction costs is investigated when the underlying asset price follows a fractional Brownian motion process. Firstly, using Leland's hedging method a partial differential equation satisfied by the value of the lookback option is derived. Then we obtain its numerical solution by constructing a Crank-Nicolson format. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed form is verified through a numerical example. Meanwhile, the impact of transaction cost rate and volatility on lookback option value is discussed. PMID:27433525

  5. Comparison of differential transformation method with adomian decomposition method for functional differential equations with proportional delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebenda, Josef; Šmarda, Zdeněk

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we will introduce two methods to obtain the numerical solutions for functional differential equations with proportional delays. The first method is the differential transformation method (DTM) and the second method is Adomian decomposition method (ADM). Moreover, we will make comparison between the solutions obtained by the two methods. Consequently, the results of our system tell us the two methods can be alternative ways for solution of the linear and nonlinear functional differential and integro-differential equations. New formulas for DTM were proven for these types of equations.

  6. Proportional Derivative Active Force Control for “X” Configuration Quadcopter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niam Tamami

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper present a control method “x” configuration quadcopter. The control method used PDAFC (Proportional Derivative Active Force Control. PD is used to stabilize quadcopter, and AFC is used to reject uncertainty disturbance (e.g. wind by estimate disturbance torque value of quadcopter. By adding PD with AFC, better result is obtained, AFC can minimize uncertainty disturbance effect. The sensitivity toward uncertainty disturbance can be set from sensitivity constant to get best performance of disturbance rejection. Stability analysis of PDAFC was evaluated by Lyapunov stability theory.

  7. A semi-parametric generalization of the Cox proportional hazards regression model: Inference and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Devarajan, Karthik; Ebrahimi, Nader

    2011-01-01

    The assumption of proportional hazards (PH) fundamental to the Cox PH model sometimes may not hold in practice. In this paper, we propose a generalization of the Cox PH model in terms of the cumulative hazard function taking a form similar to the Cox PH model, with the extension that the baseline cumulative hazard function is raised to a power function. Our model allows for interaction between covariates and the baseline hazard and it also includes, for the two sample problem, the case of two...

  8. Fast transimpedance preamplifier for a boron-coated multiwire proportional chamber neutron detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Zhang; Haiyang, Yan; Jie, Zhang; Zhijia, Sun; Ping, Cao; Qi, An; Jian, Gong

    2016-10-01

    A low-noise and fast preamplifier is needed for the new boron-coated multiwire proportional chamber (MWPC) neutron detector with a delay line readout system to improve position resolution. A transimpedance preamplifier with a rise time of 30ns, a signal-to-noise ratio higher than 40dB, and an automatic gain control function are designed to meet the aforementioned requirements. On the other hand, we also compare it to commercial preamplifiers. Then, the advantages and disadvantages of commercial and in-house preamplifiers are analyzed. The preamplifier is used and tested on a MWPC neutron detector, and results are presented.

  9. Experimental research on a boron-coated multi-wire proportional chamber neutron detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Wang, Yan-Feng; Wang, Xiao-Hu; Tu, Xiao-qing; Zhou, Jian-Rong; Yang, Bo; Sun, Zhi-Jia; Cao, Ping; An, Qi; Gong, Jian

    2017-06-01

    A boron-coated multi-wire proportional chamber (MWPC) neutron detector coupled with a delay line readout system has been investigated to possibly replace the 3He neutron detector. MWPC worked on the gas flow mode with Ar/ CO2 (90%/10%) and its readout system was based on the time-to-digital converter. The detection efficiency for a neutron wavelength of 0.247 nm was approximately 3.5%, and the spatial resolution was 5 mm. Other experimental results, such as gain and counting rate plateau, were also obtained.

  10. What proportion of patients with chronic heart failure are eligible for sacubitril-valsartan?

    OpenAIRE

    Pellicori, Pierpaolo; Urbinati, Alessia; Shah, Parin; MacNamara, Alexandra; Kazmi, Syed; Dierckx, Riet; Zhang, Jufen; Cleland, John G.F.; Clark, Andrew L.

    2017-01-01

    Aims:\\ud \\ud The PARADIGM-HF trial showed that sacubitril–valsartan, an ARB–neprilysin inhibitor, is more effective than enalapril for some patients with heart failure (HF). It is uncertain what proportion of patients with HF would be eligible for sacubitril–valsartan in clinical practice.\\ud Methods and results:\\ud \\ud Between 2001 and 2014, 6131 patients consecutively referred to a community HF clinic with suspected HF were assessed. The criteria required to enter the randomized phase of PA...

  11. Search for magnetic monopoles using proportional counters filled with helium gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, C.; Higashi, S.; Hiraoka, N.; Maruyama, A.; Ozaki, S.; Tsuji, K.

    1985-01-01

    Slow magnetic monopoles in cosmic rays have been searched at sea level with the detector which consists of seven layers of proportional counters filled with a mixture of He + 20% CH4. The velocities and the energy losses of the incident particles are measured. The upper limit of flux for the monopoles in the velocity range of 1 x 0.001 Beta 4 x 0.001 is 2.78 x 10 to the minus 12th power square centimeters sr sec of 90% confidence level.

  12. A comparative review of estimates of the proportion unchanged genes and the false discovery rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broberg Per

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the analysis of microarray data one generally produces a vector of p-values that for each gene give the likelihood of obtaining equally strong evidence of change by pure chance. The distribution of these p-values is a mixture of two components corresponding to the changed genes and the unchanged ones. The focus of this article is how to estimate the proportion unchanged and the false discovery rate (FDR and how to make inferences based on these concepts. Six published methods for estimating the proportion unchanged genes are reviewed, two alternatives are presented, and all are tested on both simulated and real data. All estimates but one make do without any parametric assumptions concerning the distributions of the p-values. Furthermore, the estimation and use of the FDR and the closely related q-value is illustrated with examples. Five published estimates of the FDR and one new are presented and tested. Implementations in R code are available. Results A simulation model based on the distribution of real microarray data plus two real data sets were used to assess the methods. The proposed alternative methods for estimating the proportion unchanged fared very well, and gave evidence of low bias and very low variance. Different methods perform well depending upon whether there are few or many regulated genes. Furthermore, the methods for estimating FDR showed a varying performance, and were sometimes misleading. The new method had a very low error. Conclusion The concept of the q-value or false discovery rate is useful in practical research, despite some theoretical and practical shortcomings. However, it seems possible to challenge the performance of the published methods, and there is likely scope for further developing the estimates of the FDR. The new methods provide the scientist with more options to choose a suitable method for any particular experiment. The article advocates the use of the conjoint information

  13. Complete synchronization of uncertain chaotic systems via a single proportional adaptive controller: A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Israr, E-mail: iak-2000plus@yahoo.com; Saaban, Azizan Bin, E-mail: azizan.s@uum.edu.my; Ibrahim, Adyda Binti, E-mail: adyda@uum.edu.my [School of Quantitative Sciences, College of Arts & Sciences, UUM (Malaysia); Shahzad, Mohammad, E-mail: dmsinfinite@gmail.com [College of Applied Sciences Nizwa, Ministry of Higher Education, Sultanate of Oman (Oman)

    2015-12-11

    This paper addresses a comparative computational study on the synchronization quality, cost and converging speed for two pairs of identical chaotic and hyperchaotic systems with unknown time-varying parameters. It is assumed that the unknown time-varying parameters are bounded. Based on the Lyapunov stability theory and using the adaptive control method, a single proportional controller is proposed to achieve the goal of complete synchronizations. Accordingly, appropriate adaptive laws are designed to identify the unknown time-varying parameters. The designed control strategy is easy to implement in practice. Numerical simulations results are provided to verify the effectiveness of the proposed synchronization scheme.

  14. Comparison of SOI Microdosimeter and Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter Measurements at the CERF Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopovich, Dale A.; Reinhard, Mark I.; Taylor, Graeme C.; Hands, Alex; Rosenfeld, Anatoly B.

    2012-10-01

    The CERN-EU High Energy Reference Field (CERF) facility is used in the calibration of neutron dosimeters for radiation protection applications in aviation and high energy physics. A comparison of the facility's microdosimetric spectra obtained with a new Silicon on Insulator (SOI) Microdosimeter and a HAWK Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC) is presented. Experimental data obtained with both devices indicates the presence of a small charged particle flux within the neutron dominated field which makes a non negligible contribution to the dose equivalent.

  15. Basic performance of a pressurized backgammon-type position-sensitive proportional counter for thermal neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horiguchi, T.; Itoh, T.; Ito, S. E-mail: shinito@msa.kindai.ac.jp; Yamamoto, T.; Miyasaka, T.; Sakai, J.; Shibata, K.; Masuda, Y.; Okumura, A.; Niwa, T

    2004-08-21

    A position-sensitive proportional counter with the backgammon position-reading method has been developed for thermal neutron detection. The use of a thin solid layer of {sup 10}B and a high-pressure counting gas of 6-atm Ar+10%CH{sub 4} has enabled us to obtain the position resolution well below 1.0 mm. Moreover, it was clearly revealed that the deterioration and/or the splitting of position-peak structure, observed in some conditions, originated in the strong correlational behavior between position information and avalanche size. It is explained qualitatively that this phenomenon is caused by the effect of self-induced space charge.

  16. High proportion of smaller ranged hummingbird species coincides with ecological specialization across the Americas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Jesper; Martín González, Ana M.; Maruyama, Pietro K.

    2016-01-01

    with a high degree of community-level ecological specialization, but this suggestion remains poorly supported with empirical evidence. Here, we analysed data for hummingbird resource specialization, range size, contemporary climate, and Late Quaternary climate stability for 46 hummingbird-plant mutualistic...... networks distributed across the Americas, representing 130 hummingbird species (ca 40% of all hummingbird species). We demonstrate a positive relationship between the proportion of SRS of hummingbirds and community-level specialization, i.e. the division of the floral niche among coexisting hummingbird...

  17. The Standard Error of a Proportion for Different Scores and Test Length.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Walker

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines Smith's (2003 proposed standard error of a proportion index..associated with the idea of reliability as sufficiency of information. A detailed table..indexing all of the standard error values affiliated with assessments that range from 5 to..100 items, where students scored as low as 50% correct and 50% incorrect to as high as..95% correct and 5% incorrect, calculated in increments of 1 percentage point, is..presented, along with distributional qualities. Examples using this measure for classroom..teachers and higher education instructors of assessment are provided.

  18. Parameter estimation for stochastic diffusion process with drift proportional to Weibull density function

    OpenAIRE

    Hammou Elotmany; M'HAMED EDDAHBI

    2015-01-01

    Hammou El-otmany, M'hamed Eddahbi Facult{\\'e} des Sciences et Techniques Marrakech-Maroc Laboratoire de m{\\'e}thodes stochastiques appliqu{\\'e}e a la finance et actuariat (LaMsaFA) Abstract. In the present paper we propose a new stochastic diffusion process with drift proportional to the Weibull density function defined as X $\\epsilon$ = x, dX t = $\\gamma$ t (1 -- t $\\gamma$+1) -- t $\\gamma$ X t dt + $\\sigma$X t dB t , t \\textgreater{} 0, with parameters $\\gamma$ \\textgreater{} 0 and $\\sigma$...

  19. In vitro investigation of head and neck cancer stem cell proportions and their changes following X-ray irradiation as a function of HPV status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Paul; Wilson, Puthenparampil; Li, Yanrui; Marcu, Loredana G; Staudacher, Alexander H; Brown, Michael P; Bezak, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Some head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) have a distinct aetiology, which depends on the presence of oncogenic human papilloma virus (HPV). Also, HNSCC contains cancer stem cells (CSCs) that have greater radioresistance and capacity to change replication dynamics in response to irradiation compared to non-clonogenic cells. Since there is limited data on CSCs in HNSCC as a function of HPV status, better understanding of their radiobiology may enable improved treatment outcome. Baseline and post-irradiation changes in CSC proportions were investigated by flow cytometry in a HPV-negative (UM-SCC-1) and a HPV-positive (UM-SCC-47) HNSCC cell line, using fluorescent staining with CD44/ALDH markers. CSC proportions in both irradiated and unirradiated cultures were compared for the two cell lines at various times post-irradiation. To assess repopulation of CSCs, untreated cultures were depleted of CD44+/ALDH+ cells and re-cultured for 3 weeks before flow cytometry analysis. CSC proportions in untreated cell lines were 0.57% (UM-SCC-1) and 2.87% (UM-SCC-47). Untreated cell lines depleted of CD44+/ALDH+ repopulated this phenotype to a mean of 0.15% (UM-SCC-1) and 6.76% (UM-SCC-47). All UM-SCC-47 generations showed elevated CSC proportions after irradiation, with the most significant increase at 2 days post-irradiation. The highest elevation in UM-SCC-1 CSCs was observed at 1 day post-irradiation in the 2nd generation and at 3 days after irradiation in the 3rd generation. When measured after 10 days, only the 3rd generation of UM-SCC-1 showed elevated CSCs. CSC proportions in both cell lines were elevated after exposure and varied with time post irradiation. UM-SCC-47 displayed significant plasticity in repopulating the CSC phenotype in depleted cultures, which was not seen in UM-SCC-1.

  20. The Cognitive Social Network in Dreams: Transitivity, Assortativity, and Giant Component Proportion Are Monotonic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hye Joo; Schweickert, Richard; Xi, Zhuangzhuang; Viau-Quesnel, Charles

    2016-04-01

    For five individuals, a social network was constructed from a series of his or her dreams. Three important network measures were calculated for each network: transitivity, assortativity, and giant component proportion. These were monotonically related; over the five networks as transitivity increased, assortativity increased and giant component proportion decreased. The relations indicate that characters appear in dreams systematically. Systematicity likely arises from the dreamer's memory of people and their relations, which is from the dreamer's cognitive social network. But the dream social network is not a copy of the cognitive social network. Waking life social networks tend to have positive assortativity; that is, people tend to be connected to others with similar connectivity. Instead, in our sample of dream social networks assortativity is more often negative or near 0, as in online social networks. We show that if characters appear via a random walk, negative assortativity can result, particularly if the random walk is biased as suggested by remote associations. Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  1. Proportions of Atlantic sailfish (Istiophorus platypterus and spearfish (Tetrapturus pfluegeri caught in tuna longline fisheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Maria Medeiros-Silva

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The reliability of estimations of catches of pelagic longline fisheries is especially worrying in the case of non-target species such as the sailfish (Istiophorus platypterus and spearfish (Tetrapturus pfluegeri, because they are often recorded aggregated in onboard maps. For this reason, generalized linear models were used to identify a number of important explanatory variables and their effect on sailfish and spearfish proportions. The response variable (number of sailfish in the aggregate capture is assumed as binomial using the logit link function. The explanatory variables used were foram year, qrt (quarter, fleet, de (distance from equator and d (distance from areas above sea level. The selected models showed that the equatorial and coastal regions presented higher densities or catchabilities of sailfish when compared to spearfish, as in the case for fleets of China Taipei and the United States. The lowest mean proportion of sailfish [sailfish/(sailfish + spearfish] of the third quarter were driven mostly by the low estimations calculated for Japan and Brazil.

  2. Positron imaging with multiwire proportional chamber-gamma converter hybrid detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, D.Y.H.

    1976-09-01

    A large area positron camera was developed using multiwire proportional chambers as detectors and electromagnetic delay lines for coordinate readout. Honeycomb structured gamma converters made of lead are coupled to the chambers for efficient gamma detection and good spatial resolution. Two opposing detectors, each having a sensitive area of 48 cm x 48 cm, are operated in coincidence for the detection of annihilation gammas (511 keV) from positron emitters. Detection efficiency of 4.2 percent per detector and spatial resolution of 6 to 7 mm FWHM at the mid-plane were achieved. The present camera operates at a maximum count rate of 24 K counts/min, limited by accidental coincidence. The theory for the gamma converter is presented along with a review of the operation of the multiwire proportional chamber and delay line readout. Calculated gamma converter efficiencies are compared with the measured results using a prototype test chamber. The characteristics of the positron camera system is evaluated, and the performance is shown to be consistent with calculation.

  3. Imaging micro-well proportional counters fabricated with masked UV laser ablation

    CERN Document Server

    Deines-Jones, P; Crawford, H; Hunter, S D

    2002-01-01

    The micro-well detector is a gas-proportional counter similar to the CAT (Bartol et al., J. Phys. III 6 (1996) 337) and WELL detectors (Bellazzini et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 423 (1999) 125). The micro-well is a cylindrical hole formed in the polymer substrate of commercially fabricated copper-clad flexible printed circuit board by UV laser ablation. The micro-wells are drilled at GSFC's UV laser-ablation facility. The cathode is a metal annulus that surrounds the opening of the well. The anode is a metal pad that fills the bottom of the well. Advantages of this topology include intrinsic two-dimensional sensing, thick robust electrodes, and large localized image charge on the cathodes. We have fabricated 5 cmx5 cm micro-well detectors with segmented anodes (1-d) and with both anodes and cathodes segmented (2-d), and have demonstrated: - stable, proportional operation at gas gains in excess of 30,000 in Ar- and Xe-based gases; - FWHM energy resolution of 20% at 6 keV in P-10; - preliminary 1-d spatial re...

  4. A proposal simulated annealing algorithm for proportional parallel flow shops with separated setup times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helio Yochihiro Fuchigami

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the problem of minimizing makespan on two parallel flow shops with proportional processing and setup times. The setup times are separated and sequence-independent. The parallel flow shop scheduling problem is a specific case of well-known hybrid flow shop, characterized by a multistage production system with more than one machine working in parallel at each stage. This situation is very common in various kinds of companies like chemical, electronics, automotive, pharmaceutical and food industries. This work aimed to propose six Simulated Annealing algorithms, their perturbation schemes and an algorithm for initial sequence generation. This study can be classified as “applied research” regarding the nature, “exploratory” about the objectives and “experimental” as to procedures, besides the “quantitative” approach. The proposed algorithms were effective regarding the solution and computationally efficient. Results of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA revealed no significant difference between the schemes in terms of makespan. It’s suggested the use of PS4 scheme, which moves a subsequence of jobs, for providing the best percentage of success. It was also found that there is a significant difference between the results of the algorithms for each value of the proportionality factor of the processing and setup times of flow shops.

  5. Longitudinal functional additive model with continuous proportional outcomes for physical activity data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haocheng; Kozey-Keadle, Sarah; Kipnis, Victor; Carroll, Raymond J

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by physical activity data obtained from the BodyMedia FIT device (www.bodymedia.com), we take a functional data approach for longitudinal studies with continuous proportional outcomes. The functional structure depends on three factors. In our three-factor model, the regression structures are specified as curves measured at various factor-points with random effects that have a correlation structure. The random curve for the continuous factor is summarized using a few important principal components. The difficulties in handling the continuous proportion variables are solved by using a quasilikelihood type approximation. We develop an efficient algorithm to fit the model, which involves the selection of the number of principal components. The method is evaluated empirically by a simulation study. This approach is applied to the BodyMedia data with 935 males and 84 consecutive days of observation, for a total of 78, 540 observations. We show that sleep efficiency increases with increasing physical activity, while its variance decreases at the same time.

  6. [Retrospective research on proportion of HIV related death causes in nine counties in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xing; Wang, Ning; Wang, Lu; Qin, Qian-qian; Wang, Li-yan; Li, Dong-min; Wang, Lan; Wang, Yan-he; Ding, Guo-wei; Ding, Zheng-wei

    2008-12-01

    To investigate the proportion of HIV related death cause, and its years of potential life lost (YPLL) and work years of potential life lose (WYPLL) in project counties. According to the protocol of the third national death causes surveillance and HIV related death causes surveillance, retrospective study was implemented including baseline investigation of deaths' name list, demography information, door-to-door interview and death causes deduction in Gejiu, Ruili and Longchuan county in Yunnan province, Yangdong county in Guangdong province, Luzhai county in Guangxi zhuang Autonomous Region, Weishi and Zhecheng county in Henan province, Xishui county in Hubei province and Gu'an county in Hebei province. The study was conducted among nine counties located in seven provinces. A total of 118 719 cases were included, raw mortality was 5.83 per thousand, 2002 death cases were related to HIV, which contributed 1.67% of total deaths. The average age of HIV death was 38.03 yearsow, which was earlier than the non-HIV-related life-span (63.10 years). The YPLL and WYPLL of HIV death was 33.80 years and 20.50 years, respectively, which had contributed the second highest average YPLL. HIV has an important proportion among all death causes, and has contributed severe average YPLL and WYPLL.

  7. An upper-limb power-assist exoskeleton using proportional myoelectric control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhichuan; Zhang, Kejun; Sun, Shouqian; Gao, Zenggui; Zhang, Lekai; Yang, Zhongliang

    2014-04-10

    We developed an upper-limb power-assist exoskeleton actuated by pneumatic muscles. The exoskeleton included two metal links: a nylon joint, four size-adjustable carbon fiber bracers, a potentiometer and two pneumatic muscles. The proportional myoelectric control method was proposed to control the exoskeleton according to the user's motion intention in real time. With the feature extraction procedure and the classification (back-propagation neural network), an electromyogram (EMG)-angle model was constructed to be used for pattern recognition. Six healthy subjects performed elbow flexion-extension movements under four experimental conditions: (1) holding a 1-kg load, wearing the exoskeleton, but with no actuation and for different periods (2-s, 4-s and 8-s periods); (2) holding a 1-kg load, without wearing the exoskeleton, for a fixed period; (3) holding a 1-kg load, wearing the exoskeleton, but with no actuation, for a fixed period; (4) holding a 1-kg load, wearing the exoskeleton under proportional myoelectric control, for a fixed period. The EMG signals of the biceps brachii, the brachioradialis, the triceps brachii and the anconeus and the angle of the elbow were collected. The control scheme's reliability and power-assist effectiveness were evaluated in the experiments. The results indicated that the exoskeleton could be controlled by the user's motion intention in real time and that it was useful for augmenting arm performance with neurological signal control, which could be applied to assist in elbow rehabilitation after neurological injury.

  8. Identifying topologically associating domains and subdomains by Gaussian Mixture model And Proportion test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenbao; He, Bing; Tan, Kai

    2017-09-14

    The spatial organization of the genome plays a critical role in regulating gene expression. Recent chromatin interaction mapping studies have revealed that topologically associating domains and subdomains are fundamental building blocks of the three-dimensional genome. Identifying such hierarchical structures is a critical step toward understanding the three-dimensional structure-function relationship of the genome. Existing computational algorithms lack statistical assessment of domain predictions and are computationally inefficient for high-resolution Hi-C data. We introduce the Gaussian Mixture model And Proportion test (GMAP) algorithm to address the above-mentioned challenges. Using simulated and experimental Hi-C data, we show that domains identified by GMAP are more consistent with multiple lines of supporting evidence than three state-of-the-art methods. Application of GMAP to normal and cancer cells reveals several unique features of subdomain boundary as compared to domain boundary, including its higher dynamics across cell types and enrichment for somatic mutations in cancer.Spatial organization of the genome plays a crucial role in regulating gene expression. Here the authors introduce GMAP, the Gaussian Mixture model And Proportion test, to identify topologically associating domains and subdomains in Hi-C data.

  9. Operation reliability assessment for cutting tools by applying a proportional covariate model to condition monitoring information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Gaigai; Chen, Xuefeng; Li, Bing; Chen, Baojia; He, Zhengjia

    2012-09-25

    The reliability of cutting tools is critical to machining precision and production efficiency. The conventional statistic-based reliability assessment method aims at providing a general and overall estimation of reliability for a large population of identical units under given and fixed conditions. However, it has limited effectiveness in depicting the operational characteristics of a cutting tool. To overcome this limitation, this paper proposes an approach to assess the operation reliability of cutting tools. A proportional covariate model is introduced to construct the relationship between operation reliability and condition monitoring information. The wavelet packet transform and an improved distance evaluation technique are used to extract sensitive features from vibration signals, and a covariate function is constructed based on the proportional covariate model. Ultimately, the failure rate function of the cutting tool being assessed is calculated using the baseline covariate function obtained from a small sample of historical data. Experimental results and a comparative study show that the proposed method is effective for assessing the operation reliability of cutting tools.

  10. Electronic discrimination of the effective thickness of proportional counters. [Gamma camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borkowski, C.J.; Kopp, M.K.

    1976-01-01

    A new method of electronic discrimination of the effective thickness of proportional counters was developed and tested and applied in a proportional counter camera to adjust its effective aperture, i.e., the combination of counter efficiency and spatial resolution, without changing the pinhole aperture, the collimator, or the distance between the subject and camera. The discriminator virtually divides the thickness of the electronic drift volume of the camera into two regions and separates the photons detected in each region. Thus, two sets of data are acquired and displayed simultaneously during an exposure: one with good spatial resolution (less than 2 mm fwhm) using photons detected in the drift volume close to the entrance window, and one with high detection efficiency (greater than 50 percent for 60-keV photons) but poorer resolution (approximately 5 mm fwhm) using all detected photons. Simultaneous acquisition of two sets of data with different apertures reduces the exposure time in applications, such as nuclear medicine, where a sequence of images often is required to select the optimum aperture for different portions of radioisotope distribution images.

  11. Allergenicity of Artemisia contained in bee pollen is proportional to its mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonotte-Varly, C

    2015-11-01

    Bee product mugwort is identified as being at the origin of allergic accidents but the biological potency of Artemisia contained in bee pollen is not well known. In this experiment, Artemisia mass was identified in bee pollen mass and after having calculated the proportion of Artemisia using the bee pollen melissopalynology spectrum. Skin reactivity to Artemisia was assessed by measuring wheal diameters (W) from skin prick tests using three serial dilutions of bee pollen on 11 allergic patients to Artemisia, in order to calculate the relationship between Artemisia mass (Massartemisia) in bee pollen and skin reactivity. The dose-response power regression curve (Wartemisia)=3.328 (Massartemisia)0.297 (R2=0.9947) and the linear function Log10 (Wartemisia)=0.297 (Log10 (Massartemisia)+0.520 (R=0.9974)) were established using a bee pollen sample with 0.246 mg of Artemisia pollen per mg. Mugwort allergens seem to be little or not altered by bee secretions and bee pollen retains its allergenic capacity. To our knowledge this is the first time it has been shown that skin reactivity of patients allergic to mugwort is proportional to the absolute mugwort mass contained in the bee pollen.

  12. Effect of UV irradiation on the proportion of organic chloramines in total chlorine in subsequent chlorination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tian-Yang; Lin, Yi-Li; Xu, Bin; Xia, Sheng-Ji; Tian, Fu-Xiang; Gao, Nai-Yun

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the changes of chlorine species and proportion of organic chloramines during the chlorination process after UV irradiation pretreatment in drinking water. It was found that the UV pretreatment could enhance the percentage of organic chloramines by increasing free chlorine consumption in the chlorination of raw waters. The percentage of organic chloramines in total chlorine increased with UV intensity and irradiation time in raw waters. However, for the humic acid synthesized water, the percentage of organic chloramines increased first and then decreased with the increase of UV irradiation time. The value of SUVA declined in both raw and humic acid synthesized waters over the UV irradiation time, which indicated that the decomposition of aromatic organic matter by UV could be a contributor to the increase of free chlorine consumption and organic chloramine proportion. The percentage of organic chloramines during chlorination of raw waters after 30-min UV irradiation pretreatment varied from 20.2% to 41.8%. Total chlorine decreased obviously with the increase of nitrate concentration, but the percentage of organic chloramines increased and was linearly correlated to nitrate concentration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Self-oscillation of standing spin wave in ring resonator with proportional-integral-derivative control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, B.; Urazuka, Y.; Chen, H.; Oyabu, S.; Otsuki, H.; Tanaka, T., E-mail: t-tanaka@ed.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Matsuyama, K. [ISEE, Kyushu University, Motooka 744, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2014-05-07

    We report on numerical analysis on self-oscillation of standing spin wave excited in a nanostructured active ring resonator, consists of a ferromagnetic nanowire with perpendicular anisotropy. The confined resonant modes are along the nanowire length. A positive feedback with proportional-integral-derivative gain control was adopted in the active ring. Stable excitation of the 1st order standing spin wave has been demonstrated with micromagnetic simulations, taking into account the thermal effect with a random field model. The stationary standing spin wave with a pre-determined set variable of precession amplitude was attained within 20 ns by optimizing the proportional-integral-derivative gain control parameters. The result indicates that a monochromatic oscillation frequency f{sub osc} is extracted from the initial thermal fluctuation state and selectively amplified with the positive feedback loop. The obtained f{sub osc} value of 5.22 GHz practically agrees with the theoretical prediction from dispersion relation of the magneto static forward volume wave. It was also confirmed that the f{sub osc} change due to the temperature rise can be compensated with an external perpendicular bias field H{sub b}. The observed quick compensation time with an order of nano second suggests the fast operation speed in the practical device application.

  14. Calibration of an ultra-low-background proportional counter for measuring 37Ar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, A.; Aalseth, C. E.; Bonicalzi, R. M.; Bowyer, T. W.; Day, A. R.; Fuller, E. S.; Haas, D. A.; Hayes, J. C.; Hoppe, E. W.; Humble, P. H.; Keillor, M. E.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Mace, E. K.; McIntyre, J. I.; Merriman, J. H.; Miley, H. S.; Myers, A. W.; Orrell, J. L.; Overman, C. T.; Panisko, M. E.; Williams, R. M.

    2013-08-01

    An ultra-low-background proportional counter design has been developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) using clean materials, primarily electro-chemically-purified copper. This detector, along with an ultra-low-background counting system (ULBCS), was developed to complement a new shallow underground laboratory (30 meters water-equivalent) at PNNL. The ULBCS design includes passive neutron and gamma shielding, along with an active cosmic-veto system. This system provides a capability for making ultra-sensitive measurements to support applications like age-dating soil hydrocarbons with 14C/3H, age-dating of groundwater with 39Ar, and soil-gas assay for 37Ar to support On-Site Inspection (OSI). On-Site Inspection is a key component of the verification regime for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Measurements of radionuclides created by an underground nuclear explosion are valuable signatures of a Treaty violation. For OSI, the 35-day half-life of 37Ar, produced from neutron interactions with calcium in soil, provides both high specific activity and sufficient time for inspection before decay limits sensitivity. This work describes the calibration techniques and analysis methods developed to enable quantitative measurements of 37Ar samples over a broad range of proportional counter operating pressures. These efforts, along with parallel work in progress on gas chemistry separation, are expected to provide a significant new capability for 37Ar soil gas background studies.

  15. The development of high-efficiency cathode converters for a multiwire proportional chamber positron camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, P K; Bateman, J E; Ott, R J; Leach, M O

    1986-01-01

    A high-efficiency cathode converter for 511-keV photons has been developed for incorporation into a multiwire proportional chamber (MWPC) positron camera. The converter consists of a honeycomb pattern produced in a 1-mm-thick lead sheet to leave lead walls with a thickness of approximately 60 micron. The converter also serves as the cathode of an MWPC, the gap between the converter and the anode wire plane being 2.5 mm. This small gap results in a high secondary electron extraction efficiency without the need for additional drift voltages. Measurements of the efficiencies of a plane converter and of two types of structured converters in a single section MWPC are described and the efficiency is found to increase in proportion to the converter surface area. This result justifies the use of a simple theoretical model whereby an extrapolation to the efficiency of a detector consisting of a stack of 20 MWPC sections, each section having two converters, is made. The efficiency of this proposed system is calculated to be 17% for 511-keV photons.

  16. Atomic Theory and Multiple Combining Proportions: The Search for Whole Number Ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usselman, Melvyn C; Brown, Todd A

    2015-04-01

    John Dalton's atomic theory, with its postulate of compound formation through atom-to-atom combination, brought a new perspective to weight relationships in chemical reactions. A presumed one-to-one combination of atoms A and B to form a simple compound AB allowed Dalton to construct his first table of relative atomic weights from literature analyses of appropriate binary compounds. For such simple binary compounds, the atomic theory had little advantages over affinity theory as an explanation of fixed proportions by weight. For ternary compounds of the form AB2, however, atomic theory made quantitative predictions that were not deducible from affinity theory. Atomic theory required that the weight of B in the compound AB2 be exactly twice that in the compound AB. Dalton, Thomas Thomson and William Hyde Wollaston all published within a few years of each other experimental data that claimed to give the predicted results with the required accuracy. There are nonetheless several experimental barriers to obtaining the desired integral multiple proportions. In this paper I will discuss replication experiments which demonstrate that only Wollaston's results are experimentally reliable. It is likely that such replicability explains why Wollaston's experiments were so influential.

  17. Proportional crosstalk correction for the segmented clover at iThemba LABS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucher, T. D.; Noncolela, S. P.; Lawrie, E. A.; Dinoko, T. R. S.; Easton, J. L.; Erasmus, N.; Lawrie, J. J.; Mthembu, S. H.; Mtshali, W. X.; Shirinda, O.; Orce, J. N.

    2017-11-01

    Reaching new depths in nuclear structure investigations requires new experimental equipment and new techniques of data analysis. The modern γ-ray spectrometers, like AGATA and GRETINA are now built of new-generation segmented germanium detectors. These most advanced detectors are able to reconstruct the trajectory of a γ-ray inside the detector. These are powerful detectors, but they need careful characterization, since their output signals are more complex. For instance for each γ-ray interaction that occurs in a segment of such a detector additional output signals (called proportional crosstalk), falsely appearing as an independent (often negative) energy depositions, are registered on the non-interacting segments. A failure to implement crosstalk correction results in incorrectly measured energies on the segments for two- and higher-fold events. It affects all experiments which rely on the recorded segment energies. Furthermore incorrectly recorded energies on the segments cause a failure to reconstruct the γ-ray trajectories using Compton scattering analysis. The proportional crosstalk for the iThemba LABS segmented clover was measured and a crosstalk correction was successfully implemented. The measured crosstalk-corrected energies show good agreement with the true γ-ray energies independent on the number of hit segments and an improved energy resolution for the segment sum energy was obtained.

  18. Wolf (Canis lupus Generation Time and Proportion of Current Breeding Females by Age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L David Mech

    Full Text Available Information is sparse about aspects of female wolf (Canis lupus breeding in the wild, including age of first reproduction, mean age of primiparity, generation time, and proportion of each age that breeds in any given year. We studied these subjects in 86 wolves (113 captures in the Superior National Forest (SNF, Minnesota (MN, during 1972-2013 where wolves were legally protected for most of the period, and in 159 harvested wolves from throughout MN wolf range during 2012-2014. Breeding status of SNF wolves were assessed via nipple measurements, and wolves from throughout MN wolf range, by placental scars. In the SNF, proportions of currently breeding females (those breeding in the year sampled ranged from 19% at age 2 to 80% at age 5, and from throughout wolf range, from 33% at age 2 to 100% at age 7. Excluding pups and yearlings, only 33% to 36% of SNF females and 58% of females from throughout MN wolf range bred in any given year. Generation time for SNF wolves was 4.3 years and for MN wolf range, 4.7 years. These findings will be useful in modeling wolf population dynamics and in wolf genetic and dog-domestication studies.

  19. Wolf (Canis lupus) Generation Time and Proportion of Current Breeding Females by Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L David; Barber-Meyer, Shannon M; Erb, John

    2016-01-01

    Information is sparse about aspects of female wolf (Canis lupus) breeding in the wild, including age of first reproduction, mean age of primiparity, generation time, and proportion of each age that breeds in any given year. We studied these subjects in 86 wolves (113 captures) in the Superior National Forest (SNF), Minnesota (MN), during 1972-2013 where wolves were legally protected for most of the period, and in 159 harvested wolves from throughout MN wolf range during 2012-2014. Breeding status of SNF wolves were assessed via nipple measurements, and wolves from throughout MN wolf range, by placental scars. In the SNF, proportions of currently breeding females (those breeding in the year sampled) ranged from 19% at age 2 to 80% at age 5, and from throughout wolf range, from 33% at age 2 to 100% at age 7. Excluding pups and yearlings, only 33% to 36% of SNF females and 58% of females from throughout MN wolf range bred in any given year. Generation time for SNF wolves was 4.3 years and for MN wolf range, 4.7 years. These findings will be useful in modeling wolf population dynamics and in wolf genetic and dog-domestication studies.

  20. Diminishing proportional risk of sudden death with advancing age: implications for prevention of sudden death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahn, Andrew D; Connolly, Stuart J; Roberts, Robin S; Gent, Michael

    2004-05-01

    Advances in primary and secondary prevention of sudden death have led to a wide array of potentially beneficial therapies. Identification of patients most likely to benefit would be of use when considering costly interventions such as an implantable defibrillator. We sought to determine the effect of advancing age on the mode of death in the Amiodarone Trialists Metanalysis. Patients (n = 6252; age, 61.2+/-10.5 years; 83% men) were included in an analysis of predictors of sudden death (SD) and all-cause death (ACD), based on baseline variables at enrollment. Patients were divided into 5 age groups: 80 years. During a mean of 16.8+/-10.3 months of follow-up, there were 1023 deaths, with an annual overall mortality rate of 11.7%. Both sudden death and nonsudden death rates increased with age, although the increase of nonsudden death with age was more dramatic. The overall proportion of death that was sudden (SD/ACD ratio) was 0.41, falling from 0.51 before age 50 years to 0.26 after age 80 years (P =.002 for trend). The SD/ACD ratio was not affected by sex, New York Heart Association Class, or left ventricular ejection fraction. Although the incidence of sudden death increases with age, the proportion of death that is sudden diminishes markedly. This finding may influence the yield of interventions targeted at prevention of sudden death.

  1. The use of sublingual fentanyl for breakthrough pain by using doses proportional to opioid basal regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercadante, Sebastiano; Prestia, Giovanna; Casuccio, Alessandra

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to prospectively assess the efficacy and safety of sublingual fentanyl (SLF) in doses proportional to opioid doses used for background analgesia for the treatment of BTP of cancer patients. A sample of patients admitted to an acute palliative care unit, presenting breakthrough pain (BTP) episodes and receiving stable doses of opioids for background pain was selected to assess the efficacy and safety of SLF used in doses proportional to the basal opioid regimen used for the management of BTP. For each patient, data from four consecutive episodes were collected. For each episode, nurses collected changes in pain intensity and adverse effects when pain got severe (T0), and 5, 10, and 15 minutes after SLF was given (T15). Seventy patients were recruited for the study. The mean age was 61.7 (±11.5). Forty-one patients were males. A total of 173 episodes of BTP were recorded (mean 2.5 episodes/patient). In 19 events, documentation regarding changes in pain intensity was incomplete. Of the 154 evaluable episodes, 143 were successfully treated (92%). Mean doses of SLF were 637 µg (SD 786), and 51 patients (72.8%) received SLF doses ≥800 µg. When compared to younger adult patients, older patients received significantly lower doses of SLF (p opioid regimen. Pain intensity significantly decreased at T5, 10 and T15 (p opioid regimen for the management of BTP is safe and effective in clinical practice.

  2. Graphical diagnostics to check model misspecification for the proportional odds regression model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ivy; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Suesse, Thomas; Sparrow, David; Park, Sung Kyun

    2009-02-01

    The cumulative logit or the proportional odds regression model is commonly used to study covariate effects on ordinal responses. This paper provides some graphical and numerical methods for checking the adequacy of the proportional odds regression model. The methods focus on evaluating functional misspecification for specific covariate effects, but misspecification of the link function can also be dealt with under the same framework. For the logistic regression model with binary responses, Arbogast and Lin (Statist. Med. 2005; 24:229-247) developed similar graphical and numerical methods for assessing the adequacy of the model using the cumulative sums of residuals. The paper generalizes their methods to ordinal responses and illustrates them using an example from the VA Normative Aging Study. Simulation studies comparing the performance of the different diagnostic methods indicate that some of the graphical methods are more powerful in detecting model misspecification than the Hosmer-Lemeshow-type goodness-of-fit statistics for the class of models studied. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Analysis and compensation for the cascade dead-zones in the proportional control valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bing; Su, Qi; Zhang, Junhui; Lu, Zhenyu

    2017-01-01

    The four-way proportional directional control valve has been widely used as the main stage spring constant for the two-stage proportional control valve (PDV). Since a tradeoff should be made between manufacturing costs and static performance, two symmetry dead-zones are introduced in the main stage spring constant: the center dead-zone caused by the center floating position and the intermediate dead-zone caused by the intermediate position. Though the intermediate dead-zone is much smaller than the center dead-zone, it has significant effect on the dynamic position tracking performance. In this paper, the cascade dead-zones problem in a typical two-stage PDV is analyzed and a cascade dead-zones model is proposed for the main stage spring constant. Then, a cascade dead-zones inverse method is improved with gain estimation and dead-zone detection to compensate the dead-zone nonlinearity. Finally, a digital controller is designed for verification. The comparative experimental results indicate that it is effective to reduce the large position tracking error when the proposed method is applied. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Proportion of genome shared identical by descent by relatives: concept, computation, and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun-Wei Guo [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1995-06-01

    One widely used measure of genetic similarity for pairs of relatives is gene identity-by-descent (IBD) sharing. Genes that are copies of a single gene in a common ancestor of the individuals who now carry them are said to be IBD. One obvious extension of the IBD concept is IBD gene(s) shared by more than two individuals. In this paper, I further extend the gene IBD concept to the proportion of genomes shared IBD by every member of a group of relatives. Genome may refer either to the entire autosomal genome or to one or more chromosomal segments or regions with known lengths. Consideration of a genome instead of one or two loci has several advantages. I present a model to describe the cross-over process, based on the work of K.P. Donnelly. On the basis of this model, I give a mathematical definition of the proportion of genome shared IBD by relatives, or IBDP for short. Since the distribution of the IBDP is in general very difficult to determine, and since in most applications the mean and variance of the IBDP will suffice, I then provide a method for computing the first two moments of the IBDP. Applications to assessing gene survival, to genetic resemblance between two relatives, and to gene mapping are illustrated with examples. Finally, I discuss the utility of the IBDP in other areas. 34 refs., 3 figs.

  5. A major proportion of N-glycoproteins are transiently glucosylated in the endoplasmic reticulum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganan, S.; Cazzulo, J.J.; Parodi, A.J. (Instituto de Investigaciones Bioquimicas, Buenos Aires (Argentina))

    1991-03-26

    N-Linked, high-mannose-type oligosaccharides lacking glucose residues may be transiently glucosylated directly from UDP-Glc in the endoplasmic reticulum of mammalian, plant, fungal, and protozoan cells. The products formed have been identified as N-linked Glc{sub 1}Man{sub 5-9}GlcNAc{sub 2} and glucosidase II is apparently the enzyme responsible for the in vivo deglucosylation of the compounds. As newly glucosylated glycoproteins are immediately deglucosylated, it is unknown whether transient glucosylation involves all or nearly all N-linked glycoproteins or if, on the contrary, it only affects a minor proportion of them. In order to evaluate the molar proportion of N-linked oligosaccharides that are glucosylated, cells of the trypanosomatid protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi (a parasite transferring Man{sub 9}GlcNAc{sub 2} in protein N-glycosylation) were grown in the presence of ({sup 14}C)glucose and concentrations of the glucosidase II inhibitors deoxynojirimycin and castanospermine that were more than 1,000-fold higher than those required to produce a 50% inhibition of the T. cruzi enzyme. No evidence for the presence of an endomannosidase yielding GlcMan from the glucosylated compounds was obtained. As the average number of N-linked oligosaccharides per molecule in glycoproteins is higher than one, these results indicate that more than 52-33% of total glycoproteins are glucosylated and that transient glucosylation is a major event in the normal processing of glycoproteins.

  6. The Low Proportion and Associated Factors of Involuntary Admission in the Psychiatric Emergency Service in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jen-Pang; Chiu, Chih-Chiang; Yang, Tsu-Hui; Liu, Tzong-Hsien; Wu, Chia-Yi; Chou, Pesus

    2015-01-01

    Background The involuntary admission regulated under the Mental Health Act has become an increasingly important issue in the developed countries in recent years. Most studies about the distribution and associated factors of involuntary admission were carried out in the western countries; however, the results may vary in different areas with different legal and socio-cultural backgrounds. Aims The aim of this study was to investigate the proportion and associated factors of involuntary admission in a psychiatric emergency service in Taiwan. Methods The study cohort included patients admitted from a psychiatric emergency service over a two-year period. Demographic, psychiatric emergency service utilization, and clinical variables were compared between those who were voluntarily and involuntarily admitted to explore the associated factors of involuntary admission. Results Among 2,777 admitted patients, 110 (4.0%) were involuntarily admitted. Police referrals and presenting problems as violence assessed by psychiatric nurses were found to be associated with involuntary admission. These patients were more likely to be involuntarily admitted during the night shift and stayed longer in the psychiatric emergency service. Conclusions The proportion of involuntary admissions in Taiwan was in the lower range when compared to Western countries. Dangerous conditions evaluated by the psychiatric nurses and police rather than diagnosis made by the psychiatrists were related factors of involuntary admission. As it spent more time to admit involuntary patients, it was suggested that multidisciplinary professionals should be included in and educated for during the process of involuntary admission. PMID:26046529

  7. Wolf (Canis lupus) generation time and proportion of current breeding females by age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Barber-Meyer, Shannon M.; Erb, John

    2016-01-01

    Information is sparse about aspects of female wolf (Canis lupus) breeding in the wild, including age of first reproduction, mean age of primiparity, generation time, and proportion of each age that breeds in any given year. We studied these subjects in 86 wolves (113 captures) in the Superior National Forest (SNF), Minnesota (MN), during 1972–2013 where wolves were legally protected for most of the period, and in 159 harvested wolves from throughout MN wolf range during 2012–2014. Breeding status of SNF wolves were assessed via nipple measurements, and wolves from throughout MN wolf range, by placental scars. In the SNF, proportions of currently breeding females (those breeding in the year sampled) ranged from 19% at age 2 to 80% at age 5, and from throughout wolf range, from 33% at age 2 to 100% at age 7. Excluding pups and yearlings, only 33% to 36% of SNF females and 58% of females from throughout MN wolf range bred in any given year. Generation time for SNF wolves was 4.3 years and for MN wolf range, 4.7 years. These findings will be useful in modeling wolf population dynamics and in wolf genetic and dog-domestication studies.

  8. eulerAPE: drawing area-proportional 3-Venn diagrams using ellipses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micallef, Luana; Rodgers, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Venn diagrams with three curves are used extensively in various medical and scientific disciplines to visualize relationships between data sets and facilitate data analysis. The area of the regions formed by the overlapping curves is often directly proportional to the cardinality of the depicted set relation or any other related quantitative data. Drawing these diagrams manually is difficult and current automatic drawing methods do not always produce appropriate diagrams. Most methods depict the data sets as circles, as they perceptually pop out as complete distinct objects due to their smoothness and regularity. However, circles cannot draw accurate diagrams for most 3-set data and so the generated diagrams often have misleading region areas. Other methods use polygons to draw accurate diagrams. However, polygons are non-smooth and non-symmetric, so the curves are not easily distinguishable and the diagrams are difficult to comprehend. Ellipses are more flexible than circles and are similarly smooth, but none of the current automatic drawing methods use ellipses. We present eulerAPE as the first method and software that uses ellipses for automatically drawing accurate area-proportional Venn diagrams for 3-set data. We describe the drawing method adopted by eulerAPE and we discuss our evaluation of the effectiveness of eulerAPE and ellipses for drawing random 3-set data. We compare eulerAPE and various other methods that are currently available and we discuss differences between their generated diagrams in terms of accuracy and ease of understanding for real world data.

  9. Consumer acceptability of stiff porridge based on various composite flour proportions of sorghum, maize and cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangu, N T; Mtebe, K; Nzallawahe, T S

    1994-12-01

    A study was conducted to determine consumer acceptable proportions of flours in sorghum (var. serena) and maize or sorghum, maize and cassava composite flours. Breeder's serena flour extracted at 75 percent was mixed at various proportions with maize or with maize and cassava to constitute composite flours. The various composite flours were made into stiff porridge and presented to a group of panellists for sensory evaluation. The evaluation was conducted by scoring on a hedonic scale of 0-5 for poor to excellent, respectively, for the parameters colour, texture, flavour, taste and overall acceptability. The responses were analysed statistically. Alternatively the panellists were allowed to eat ad-lib any of the presented samples which appealed to them. The results demonstrated that slight incorporation (cassava composite flours the formulation of 30:40:30, respectively, was found to be most acceptable. It is suggested that at this combination of flours desirable textural characteristics of the porridge overrides other factors in contributing to its acceptability.

  10. Effects of plant density and proportion on the interaction between wheat with alexandergrass plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Bianco de Carvalho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Determination of competitive relationships among plant species requires appropriate experimental designs and method of analysis. The hypothesis of this research was that two species growing in coexistence show different growth and development due to their relative competitiveness. This research aims to measure the relative competitiveness of wheat crop compared to Alexandergrass by the interpretation of plant density and proportional effects using replacement series experiments. Monocultures were cultivated in densities of 1, 3, 5, 10 and 15 plants per pot and analyzed by regression of dry mass data. Mixture experiment was cultivated in wheat:Alexandergrass proportions of 0:6, 1:5, 2:4, 3:3, 4:2, 5:1 and 6:0 plants per pot and analyzed by graphical interpretation of growth and production characteristics. Both experiments were carried out in randomized complete block design with four replicates. Alexandergrass was more sensitive to intraspecific competition than wheat. Alexandergrass was lightly more competitive than wheat. Number and weight of spikes and number of tillers were the wheat characteristics more affected by Alexandergrass interference.

  11. Bayesian Predictive Inference of a Proportion Under a Twofold Small-Area Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandram Balgobin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We extend the twofold small-area model of Stukel and Rao (1997; 1999 to accommodate binary data. An example is the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS, in which pass-fail data for mathematics of students from US schools (clusters are available at the third grade by regions and communities (small areas. We compare the finite population proportions of these small areas. We present a hierarchical Bayesian model in which the firststage binary responses have independent Bernoulli distributions, and each subsequent stage is modeled using a beta distribution, which is parameterized by its mean and a correlation coefficient. This twofold small-area model has an intracluster correlation at the first stage and an intercluster correlation at the second stage. The final-stage mean and all correlations are assumed to be noninformative independent random variables. We show how to infer the finite population proportion of each area. We have applied our models to synthetic TIMSS data to show that the twofold model is preferred over a onefold small-area model that ignores the clustering within areas. We further compare these models using a simulation study, which shows that the intracluster correlation is particularly important.

  12. Proportion of prey consumed can be determined from faecal DNA using real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Ella; Schulte, Patricia M; Tollit, Dominic J; Deagle, Bruce E; Trites, Andrew W

    2011-05-01

    Reconstructing the diets of pinnipeds by visually identifying prey remains recovered in faecal samples is challenging because of differences in digestion and passage rates of hard parts. Analysing the soft-matrix of faecal material using DNA-based techniques is an alternative means to identify prey species consumed, but published techniques are largely nonquantitative, which limits their usefulness for some applications. We further developed and validated a real-time PCR technique using species-specific mitochondrial DNA primers to quantify the proportion of prey in the diets of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus), a pinniped species thought to be facing significant diet related challenges in the North Pacific. We first demonstrated that the proportions of prey tissue DNA in mixtures of DNA isolated from four prey species could be estimated within a margin of ∼ 12% of the percent in the mix. These prey species included herring Clupea palasii, eulachon Thaleichthyes pacificus, squid Loligo opalescens and rosethorn rockfish Sebastes helvomaculatus. We then applied real-time PCR to DNA extracted from faecal samples obtained from Steller sea lions in captivity that were fed 11 different combinations of herring, eulachon, squid and Pacific ocean perch rockfish (Sebastes alutus), ranging from 7% to 75% contributions per meal (by wet weight). The difference between the average percentage estimated by real-time PCR and the percentage of prey consumed was generally fish. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Chemical characterization of vermicompost of sewage sludge with different proportions of diatomaceous material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola M. Braga

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The pursuit for waste recovery has been the best way to contribute to environmental sustainability. The mix of sewage sludge (SS from Sewage Treatment Plant with diatomaceous material containing oil (DE, used as a filter in biofuel production, can form a substrate rich in minerals and organic matter through vermicomposting. Therefore, this study aimed to produce vermicompost using worms, Eisenia foetida, from a pre-compost (PC of sewage sludge and garden pruning residues mixed with different proportions of DE in relation to PC: 0; 7.53; 15.06; 22.59; and 30.12% v/v. The design was randomized complete blocks with five treatment replicates. The chemical characteristics of the vermicompost were analyzed after a period of four months. The proportion of up to 30.12% v/v of DE met the criteria established for agriculture uses, registration and marketing of the product as organic compost in accordance with the Normative Instructions SDA 27/2006 and 25/2009 from the Ministry of Agriculture.

  14. Baicalein decreases side population proportion via inhibition of ABCG2 in multiple myeloma cell line RPMI 8226 in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yue-Yu; Liu, Li-Ping; Qin, Jian; Zhang, Meng; Chen, Yuling; Wang, Dongmei; Li, Zhi; Tang, Jing-Zhong; Mo, Sui-Lin

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the effect of baicalein on side population in human multiple myeloma cell line RPMI 8226 and the underlying molecular mechanisms in vitro and in silico. MTT assay was applied to detect the anti-proliferation effect of baicalein. The detection of side population cells is based on the Hoechst 33342 exclusion assay technique and flow cytometric analysis. Western blotting assay was used to explore the expression of ABCG2 protein. Homology modeling and molecular docking were performed with Discovery Studio 2.1. Baicalein decreased both cell viability with IC50=168.5 μM and the proportion of SP cells in a dose-dependent manner. Correspondingly, it significantly decreased the expression level of ABCG2 protein. Baicalein also shared similar binding sites and modes with fumitremorgin C to the protein. Baicalein possessed novel anticancer properties, such as anti-proliferation and drug efflux inhibition in side population cells, which suggested its potential feature of targeting cancer stem cells of multiple myeloma. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Proportion of Population Employed in Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing in 2020

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Variable was created as part of a set of indicators that demonstrate links between the condition of natural areas and human concerns and that quantify dependencies...

  16. A model checking method for the proportional hazards model with recurrent gap time data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chiung-Yu; Luo, Xianghua; Follmann, Dean A

    2011-07-01

    Recurrent events are the natural outcome in many medical and epidemiology studies. To assess covariate effects on the gaps between consecutive recurrent events, the Cox proportional hazards model is frequently employed in data analysis. The validity of statistical inference, however, depends on the appropriateness of the Cox model. In this paper, we propose a class of graphical techniques and formal tests for checking the Cox model with recurrent gap time data. The building block of our model checking method is an averaged martingale-like process, based on which a class of multiparameter stochastic processes is proposed. This maneuver is very general and can be used to assess different aspects of model fit. Numerical simulations are conducted to examine finite-sample performance, and the proposed model checking techniques are illustrated with data from the Danish Psychiatric Central Register.

  17. What Proportion of Terminally Ill and Dying People Require Specialist Palliative Care Services?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna M. Wilson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, around 55 million people die each year worldwide. That number is expected to increase rapidly with accelerating population aging. Despite growth in the number of palliative care specialists and specialist services in most countries, the prospect of an increasing number of terminally ill and dying persons is daunting. This paper attempts to answer the question: what proportion of terminally ill and dying persons require specialist palliative care services? To address this question and highlight which persons require specialist palliative care, the current state of access to specialist palliative care services and specialists in Canada and other countries is highlighted, along with available evidence-based information on specialist services utilization and the care needs of terminally ill and dying persons. Current evidence and information gaps reveal that this question cannot be answered now, but it should be answered in advance of a crisis of unmet end-of-life care needs with the rising death toll.

  18. The interpretation of Huntington's thesis of clash of civilizations as a tribal conflict of global proportions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedeljković Zoran D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The author of this paper attempted the interpretation of Huntington's thought that the clash of civilizations is tribal conflict of global proportions. In the first interpretation of the conflict, we think of civilization as a tribe in conflict with the other tribes, they mutually perceive each other as barbarians, denouncing each other's civilizational identity. In the second interpretation, the clash of civilizations is perceived as a clash of postmodern immigrant groups (tribes with the dominant culture of the local population within a state. In the age of the universal conflict, we see Huntington's pessimistic view of the social world and the temporary man, whom we characterize as a synthesis of immigrants, migrants and foreigners, as a kind of personification of the spirit of the times of postmodern twenty-first century.

  19. Proportional chambers of the barrel hadron calorimeter of the L3 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arefiev, A.; Azemoon, T.; Bachmann, U.; Ball, R.C.; Boehlen, W.E.; Capell, M.; Chen, C.; Chen, H.S.; Chumakov, M.; Galaktionov, Yu.

    1989-02-01

    The design and the mass production of the proportional wire chambers for the barrel part of the uranium-gas sampling hadron calorimeter of the L3 detector at the CERN Large Electron-Positron storage ring (LEP) are described. The chambers meet the specific requirements arising from the limited space available to the calorimeter, the radioactivity of uranium, and the physics criteria of good energy and position resolution for incident hadrons. The mass production techniques employed ensured that all of the 371664 chamber cells have uniform response (with 5% accuracy) to ionizing particles. Over 8000 chambers of the same design, in 53 different sizes, were manufactured and tested at the ITEP (Moscow), at the University of Michigan (Ann Arbor) and at the IHEP (Beijing).

  20. Classroom racial proportion: influence on self-concept and social competence in Zimbabwean adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpofu, Elias; Thomas, Kenneth R

    2006-03-01

    The authors measured self-concept and social competence relationships in 372 Zimbabwean adolescents (41% Black, 59% White) who attended classrooms in which they were either a racial minority or a racial majority (M age = 12.95 years, SD = 1.47). The authors used self-, peer-, and teacher-rating scale sociometric measures of social competence and a multidimensional measure of self-concept. The regression analysis predicted self-concept from social competence measures. Teacher-rated social competence predicted physical appearance self-concept in the Black adolescents and reading self-concept in White adolescents in White-majority classrooms. Self-rated social competence and peer-rated social competence predicted school self-concept in Black adolescents attending Black-majority classrooms. The authors concluded that classroom racial proportions influence aspects of social perception of Black and White adolescents.

  1. Analytical design of fractional-order proportional-integral controllers for time-delay processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Truong Nguyen Luan; Lee, Moonyong

    2013-09-01

    A new design method of fractional-order proportional-integral controllers is proposed based on fractional calculus and Bode's ideal transfer function for a first-order-plus-dead-time process model. It can be extended to be applied to various dynamic models. Tuning rules were analytically derived to cope with both set-point tracking and disturbance rejection problems. Simulations of a broad range of processes are reported, with each simulated controller being tuned to have a similar degree of robustness in terms of resonant peak to other reported controllers. The proposed controller consistently showed improved performance over other similar controllers and established integer PI controllers. Copyright © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Frequency domain indirect identification of AMB rotor systems based on fictitious proportional feedback gain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Hyeong Joon [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Soongsil University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chan Jung [Dept. of Mechanical Design Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan(Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    It is very difficult to directly identify an unstable system with uncertain dynamics from frequency domain input-output data. Hence, in these cases, closed-loop frequency responses calculated using a fictitious feedback could be more identifiable than open-loop data. This paper presents a frequency domain indirect identification of AMB rotor systems based on a Fictitious proportional feedback gain (FPFG). The closed-loop effect due to the FPFG can enhance the detectability of the system by moving the system poles, and significantly weigh the target mode in the frequency domain. The effectiveness of the proposed identification method was verified through the frequency domain identification of active magnetic bearing rotor systems.

  3. Generalized proportional integral control for periodic signals under active disturbance rejection approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Romero, John; Ramos, Germán A; Coral-Enriquez, Horacio

    2014-11-01

    Conventional repetitive control has proven to be an effective strategy to reject/track periodic signals with constant frequency; however, it shows poor performance in varying frequency applications. This paper proposes an active disturbance rejection methodology applied to a large class of uncertain flat systems for the tracking and rejection of periodic signals, in which the possibilities of the generalized proportional integral (GPI) observer-based control to address repetitive control problems are studied. In the proposed scheme, model uncertainties and external disturbances are lumped together in a general additive disturbance input that is estimated and rejected on-line. An illustrative case study of mechatronic nature is considered. Experimental results show that the proposed GPI observer-based control successfully rejects periodic disturbances even under varying speed conditions. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Forest inventory using multistage sampling with probability proportional to size. [Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Lee, D. C. L.; Hernandezfilho, P.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Deassis, O. R.; Demedeiros, J. S.

    1984-01-01

    A multistage sampling technique, with probability proportional to size, for forest volume inventory using remote sensing data is developed and evaluated. The study area is located in the Southeastern Brazil. The LANDSAT 4 digital data of the study area are used in the first stage for automatic classification of reforested areas. Four classes of pine and eucalypt with different tree volumes are classified utilizing a maximum likelihood classification algorithm. Color infrared aerial photographs are utilized in the second stage of sampling. In the third state (ground level) the time volume of each class is determined. The total time volume of each class is expanded through a statistical procedure taking into account all the three stages of sampling. This procedure results in an accurate time volume estimate with a smaller number of aerial photographs and reduced time in field work.

  5. A semi-parametric generalization of the Cox proportional hazards regression model: Inference and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devarajan, Karthik; Ebrahimi, Nader

    2011-01-01

    The assumption of proportional hazards (PH) fundamental to the Cox PH model sometimes may not hold in practice. In this paper, we propose a generalization of the Cox PH model in terms of the cumulative hazard function taking a form similar to the Cox PH model, with the extension that the baseline cumulative hazard function is raised to a power function. Our model allows for interaction between covariates and the baseline hazard and it also includes, for the two sample problem, the case of two Weibull distributions and two extreme value distributions differing in both scale and shape parameters. The partial likelihood approach can not be applied here to estimate the model parameters. We use the full likelihood approach via a cubic B-spline approximation for the baseline hazard to estimate the model parameters. A semi-automatic procedure for knot selection based on Akaike's Information Criterion is developed. We illustrate the applicability of our approach using real-life data.

  6. A proportional integral estimator-based clock synchronization protocol for wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenlun; Fu, Minyue

    2017-11-01

    Clock synchronization is an issue of vital importance in applications of WSNs. This paper proposes a proportional integral estimator-based protocol (EBP) to achieve clock synchronization for wireless sensor networks. As each local clock skew gradually drifts, synchronization accuracy will decline over time. Compared with existing consensus-based approaches, the proposed synchronization protocol improves synchronization accuracy under time-varying clock skews. Moreover, by restricting synchronization error of clock skew into a relative small quantity, it could reduce periodic re-synchronization frequencies. At last, a pseudo-synchronous implementation for skew compensation is introduced as synchronous protocol is unrealistic in practice. Numerical simulations are shown to illustrate the performance of the proposed protocol. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Improving the gas gain monitoring system in multiwire proportional chambers for MUON detector of LHCb experiment.

    CERN Document Server

    Ruvinskaia, Ekaterina

    2016-01-01

    The gas gain monitoring system in multi-wire proportional chambers for MUON detector of LHCb has been constructed and commissioned. It includes an online- monitoring, tools for analysis the archived data and an alarm system on the quality of the gas mixture. Finally, it will be implemented in the main ECS of LHCb for MUON detector and as a part of safety system of LHCb as a permanent online monitor of the quality of the gas mixture in MWPCs. The main advantage of this setup is a monitoring of Gas Gain (GG) in MWPCs with radioactive sources independently from the presence of beam at LHC. It also provides an option for prompt reaction in case of a problem with the gas.

  8. Novel Harmonic Regularization Approach for Variable Selection in Cox’s Proportional Hazards Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge-Jin Chu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Variable selection is an important issue in regression and a number of variable selection methods have been proposed involving nonconvex penalty functions. In this paper, we investigate a novel harmonic regularization method, which can approximate nonconvex Lq  (1/2proportional hazards model using microarray gene expression data. The harmonic regularization method can be efficiently solved using our proposed direct path seeking approach, which can produce solutions that closely approximate those for the convex loss function and the nonconvex regularization. Simulation results based on the artificial datasets and four real microarray gene expression datasets, such as real diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DCBCL, the lung cancer, and the AML datasets, show that the harmonic regularization method can be more accurate for variable selection than existing Lasso series methods.

  9. Analytical Evaluation of the Performance of Proportional Fair Scheduling in OFDMA-Based Wireless Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed H. Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an analytical evaluation of the performance of proportional fair (PF scheduling in Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiple Access (OFDMA wireless systems. OFDMA represents a promising multiple access scheme for transmission over wireless channels, as it combines the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM modulation and subcarrier allocation. On the other hand, the PF scheduling is an efficient resource allocation scheme with good fairness characteristics. Consequently, OFDMA with PF scheduling represents an attractive solution to deliver high data rate services to multiple users simultaneously with a high degree of fairness. We investigate a two-dimensional (time slot and frequency subcarrier PF scheduling algorithm for OFDMA systems and evaluate its performance analytically and by simulations. We derive approximate closed-form expressions for the average throughput, throughput fairness index, and packet delay. Computer simulations are used for verification. The analytical results agree well with the results from simulations, which show the good accuracy of the analytical expressions.

  10. On the modeling of uplink inter-cell interference based on proportional fair scheduling

    KAUST Repository

    Tabassum, Hina

    2012-10-03

    We derive a semi-analytical expression for the uplink inter-cell interference (ICI) assuming proportional fair scheduling (with a maximum normalized signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) criterion) deployed in the cellular network. The derived expression can be customized for different models of channel statistics that can capture path loss, shadowing, and fading. Firstly, we derive an expression for the distribution of the locations of the allocated user in a given cell. Then, we derive the distribution and moment generating function of the uplink ICI from one interfering cell. Finally, we determine the moment generating function of the cumulative uplink ICI from all interfering cells. The derived expression is utilized to evaluate important network performance metrics such as outage probability and fairness among users. The accuracy of the derived expressions is verified by comparing the obtained results to Monte Carlo simulations. © 2012 IEEE.

  11. Isothermal magnetostatic atmospheres. III - Similarity solutions with current proportional to the magnetic potential squared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, G. M.

    1988-09-01

    An investigation of a family of isothermal magnetostatic atmospheres with one ignorable coordinate corresponding to a uniform gravitational field in a plane geometry is carried out. The distributed current in the model J is directed along the x-axis where x is the horizontal ignorable coordinate. The current J is taken proportional to the square of the magneto-static potential A and falls off exponentially with distance vertical to the base with an e-folding distance equal to the gravitational scale height. A range of solution examples are displayed depending on the four free parameters in the solutions. Three of these parameters determine the source currents for the potential field solution of the family, whereas the fourth parameter determines the magnitude of the distributed current. The solutions illustrate the contribution of the anisotropic J × B force (B, magnetic field induction), the gravitational force, and gas pressure gradient to the force balance.

  12. Study on the Ingredient Proportions and After-Treatment of Laser Sintering Walnut Shell Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueqiang Yu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To alleviate resource shortage, reduce the cost of materials consumption and the pollution of agricultural and forestry waste, walnut shell composites (WSPC consisting of walnut shell as additive and copolyester hot melt adhesive (Co-PES as binder was developed as the feedstock of selective laser sintering (SLS. WSPC parts with different ingredient proportions were fabricated by SLS and processed through after-treatment technology. The density, mechanical properties and surface quality of WSPC parts before and after post processing were analyzed via formula method, mechanical test and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, respectively. Results show that, when the volume fraction of the walnut shell powder in the WSPC reaches the maximum (40%, sintered WSPC parts have the smallest warping deformation and the highest dimension precision, although the surface quality, density, and mechanical properties are low. However, performing permeating resin as the after-treatment technology could considerably increase the tensile, bending and impact strength by 496%, 464%, and 516%, respectively.

  13. Alpha–beta monitoring system based on pair of simultaneous Multi-Wire Proportional Counters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wengrowicz, U.; Amidan, D. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); NRC-Negev, P.O. Box 9001, Beer-Sheva 84190 (Israel); Orion, I. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2016-08-11

    A new approach for a simultaneous alpha–beta Multi-wire Proportional Counter (MWPC) is presented. The popular approach for alpha–beta monitoring systems consists of a large area MWPC using noble gas flow such as Argon Methane. This method of measurement is effective but requires large-scale and expensive maintenance due to the needs of gas flow control and periodic replacements. In this work, a pair of simultaneous MWPCs for alpha–beta measuring is presented. The developed detector consists of a sealed gas MWPC sensor for beta particles, behind a free air alpha sensor. This approach allows effective simultaneous detection and discrimination of both alpha and beta radiation without the maintenance cost noble gas flow required for unsealed detectors.

  14. Alpha-beta monitoring system based on pair of simultaneous Multi-Wire Proportional Counters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wengrowicz, U.; Amidan, D.; Orion, I.

    2016-08-01

    A new approach for a simultaneous alpha-beta Multi-wire Proportional Counter (MWPC) is presented. The popular approach for alpha-beta monitoring systems consists of a large area MWPC using noble gas flow such as Argon Methane. This method of measurement is effective but requires large-scale and expensive maintenance due to the needs of gas flow control and periodic replacements. In this work, a pair of simultaneous MWPCs for alpha-beta measuring is presented. The developed detector consists of a sealed gas MWPC sensor for beta particles, behind a free air alpha sensor. This approach allows effective simultaneous detection and discrimination of both alpha and beta radiation without the maintenance cost noble gas flow required for unsealed detectors.

  15. An Optimal Allocation Model of Public Transit Mode Proportion for the Low-Carbon Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linjun Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Public transit has been widely recognized as a potential way to develop low-carbon transportation. In this paper, an optimal allocation model of public transit mode proportion (MPMP has been built to achieve the low-carbon public transit. Optimal ratios of passenger traffic for rail, bus, and taxi are derived by running the model using typical data. With different values of traffic demand, construction cost, travel time, and accessibilities, MPMP can generate corresponding optimal ratios, benefiting decision impacts analysis and decision makers. Instead of considering public transit as a united system, it is separated into units in this paper. And Shanghai is used to test model validity and practicality.

  16. Stabilizing Gyroscopic Modes in Magnetic-Bearing-Supported Flywheels by Using Cross-Axis Proportional Gains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gerald V.; Kascak, Albert F.; Jansen, Ralph H.; Dever, Timothy P.; Duffy, Kirsten P.

    2006-01-01

    For magnetic-bearing-supported high-speed rotating machines with significant gyroscopic effects, it is necessary to stabilize forward and backward tilt whirling modes. Instability or low damping of these modes can prevent the attainment of desired shaft speed. We show analytically that both modes can be stabilized by using cross-axis proportional gains and high- and low-pass filters in the magnetic bearing controller. Furthermore, at high shaft speeds, where system phase lags degrade the stability of the forward-whirl mode, a phasor advance of the control signal can partially counteract the phase lag. In some range of high shaft speed, the derivative gain for the tilt modes (essential for stability for slowly rotating shafts) can be removed entirely. We show analytically how the tilt eigenvalues depend on shaft speed and on various controller feedback parameters.

  17. New method to estimate the sample size for calculation of a proportion assuming binomial distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo, Adriana; Muniesa, Ana; Ferreira, Chelo; de Blas, Ignacio

    2013-10-01

    Nowadays the formula to calculate the sample size for estimate a proportion (as prevalence) is based on the Normal distribution, however it would be based on a Binomial distribution which confidence interval was possible to be calculated using the Wilson Score method. By comparing the two formulae (Normal and Binomial distributions), the variation of the amplitude of the confidence intervals is relevant in the tails and the center of the curves. In order to calculate the needed sample size we have simulated an iterative sampling procedure, which shows an underestimation of the sample size for values of prevalence closed to 0 or 1, and also an overestimation for values closed to 0.5. Attending to these results we proposed an algorithm based on Wilson Score method that provides similar values for the sample size than empirically obtained by simulation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Time-zero fission-fragment detector based on low-pressure multiwire proportional chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Assamagan, Ketevi A; Bayatyan, G L; Carlini, R; Danagulyan, S; Eden, T; Egiyan, K; Ent, R; Fenker, H; Gan, L; Gasparian, A; Grigoryan, N K; Greenwood, Z; Gueye, P; Hashimoto, O; Johnston, K; Keppel, C; Knyazyan, S; Majewski, S; Margaryan, A; Margaryan, Yu L; Marikian, G G; Martoff, J; Mkrtchyan, H G; Parlakyan, L; Sato, Y; Sawafta, R; Simicevic, N; Tadevosyan, V; Takahashi, T; Tang, L; Vartanian, G S; Vulcan, W; Wells, S; Wood, S

    1999-01-01

    A time-zero fission fragment (FF) detector, based on the technique of low-pressure multiwire proportional chambers (LPMWPC), has been designed and constructed for the heavy hypernuclear lifetime experiment (E95-002) at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. Its characteristics and the method of time-zero reconstruction were investigated using fission fragments from a sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf spontaneous fission source. The influence of the ionization energy loss was also studied. It is shown that Heptane, Hexane, and Isobutane gases at a pressure of 1-2 Torr are all suitable for such a FF detector. As desired by experiment, a timing resolution of about 200 ps (FWHM) for a chamber size of 21x21 cm sup 2 was achieved.

  19. Power grid enhanced resilience using proportional and derivative control with delayed feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongmo, Eric Donald; Colet, Pere; Woafo, Paul

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the resilience of an elementary electricity system (machine-generator) under proportional and derivative (PD) control when subject to large perturbations. A particular attention is paid to small power grids, representative of power grid structure in some developing countries. The considered elementary electricity system consists of a consumer (machine), a power plant (generator) and a transmission line. Both Runge-Kutta and Newton methods are used to solve the dynamical equations and the characteristic equations for stability. It is found that the controller increases the resilience of the system. We also show that time delays associated to the feedback loop of the controller have a negative impact on the performance. It is also shown that the asymmetry due to energy demand of different consumers to power plant increases the stability of the system.

  20. Quantifying emphysema extent from weakly labeled CT scans of the lungs using label proportions learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørting, Silas Nyboe; Petersen, Jens; Wille, Mathilde

    2016-01-01

    Quantification of emphysema extent is important in diagnosing and monitoring patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Several studies have shown that emphysema quantification by supervised texture classification is more robust and accurate than traditional densitometry. Current...... techniques require highly time consuming manual annotations of patches or use only weak labels indicating overall disease status (e.g, COPD or healthy). We show how visual scoring of regional emphysema extent can be exploited in a learning with label proportions (LLP) framework to both predict presence...... of emphysema in smaller patches and estimate regional extent. We evaluate performance on 195 visually scored CT scans and achieve an intraclass correlation of 0.72 (0.65–0.78) between predicted region extent and expert raters. To our knowledge this is the first time that LLP methods have been applied...

  1. Development and Characterization of Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter for Radiation Monitoring in International Space Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uk-Won Nam

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC can measure the Linear Energy Transfer (LET spectrum and calculate the equivalent dose for the complicated radiation field in space. In this paper, we developed and characterized a TEPC for radiation monitoring in International Space Station (ISS. The prototype TEPC which can simulate a 2 μm of the site diameter for micro-dosimetry has been tested with a standard alpha source (241Am, 5.5 MeV. Also, the calibration of the TEPC was performed by the 252Cf neutron standard source in Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS. The determined calibration factor was kf = 3.59×10-7 mSv/R.

  2. Semiparametric bayes' proportional odds models for current status data with underreporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lianming; Dunson, David B

    2011-09-01

    Current status data are a type of interval-censored event time data in which all the individuals are either left or right censored. For example, our motivation is drawn from a cross-sectional study, which measured whether or not fibroid onset had occurred by the age of an ultrasound exam for each woman. We propose a semiparametric Bayesian proportional odds model in which the baseline event time distribution is estimated nonparametrically by using adaptive monotone splines in a logistic regression model and the potential risk factors are included in the parametric part of the mean structure. The proposed approach has the advantage of being straightforward to implement using a simple and efficient Gibbs sampler, whereas alternative semiparametric Bayes' event time models encounter problems for current status data. The model is generalized to allow systematic underreporting in a subset of the data, and the methods are applied to an epidemiologic study of uterine fibroids. © 2010, The International Biometric Society.

  3. Relatively low proportion of dystrophin gene deletions in Israeili Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shomrat, R.; Gluck, E.; Legum, C.; Shiloh, Y. [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel)

    1994-02-15

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) are allelic disorders caused by mutations in the X-linked dystrophin gene. The most common mutations in western populations are deletions that are spread non-randomly throughout the gene. Molecular analysis of the dystrophin gene structure by hybridization of the full length cDNA to Southern blots and by PCR in 62 unrelated Israeli male DMD/BMD patients showed deletions in 23 (37%). This proportion is significantly lower than that found in European and North American populations (55-65%). Seventy-eight percent of the deletions were confined to exons 44-52, half of these exons 44-45, and the remaining 22% to exons 1 and 19. There was no correlation between the size of the deletion and the severity of the disease. All the deletions causing frameshift resulted in the DMD phenotypes. 43 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  4. Particle tracking in kaon electroproduction with cathode-charge sampling in multi-wire proportional chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Achenbach, P; Bernauer, J C; Böhm, R; Bosnar, D; Bösz, M; Debenjak, L; Distler, M O; Esser, A; Friščić, I; de la Paz, M Gómez Rodríguez; Makek, M; Merkel, H; Müller, U; Nungesser, L; Pochodzalla, J; Potokar, M; Majos, S Sánchez; Schlimme, B S; Širca, S; Weinriefer, M; 10.1016/j.nima.2011.03.039

    2011-01-01

    Wire chambers are routinely operated as tracking detectors in magnetic spectrometers at high-intensity continuous electron beams. Especially in experiments studying reactions with small cross-sections the reaction yield is limited by the background rate in the chambers. One way to determine the track of a charged particle through a multi-wire proportional chamber (MWPC) is the measurement of the charge distribution induced on its cathodes. In practical applications of this read-out method, the algorithm to relate the measured charge distribution to the avalanche position is an important factor for the achievable position resolution and for the track reconstruction efficiency. An algorithm was developed for operating two large-sized MWPCs in a strong background environment with multiple-particle tracks. Resulting efficiencies were determined as a function of the electron beam current and on the signal amplitudes. Because of the different energy-losses of pions, kaons, and protons in the momentum range of the s...

  5. Derivation of a simple analytical expression of the gain of pure argon filled CAT proportional counters

    CERN Document Server

    Chaplier, G; Megtert, S

    2000-01-01

    In previous publications, we described the intrinsic properties of CAT detectors, formed as a unique or a collection of individual single holes (gas proportional pixel detector). In our last paper, we have shown that the calculated gain of the avalanche along the electric field lines was dependent on the distance of photon absorption with respect to the symmetry axis of a single hole. On the contrary, the measured gain did not follow this dependence and it was suggested that the gain of the detector was similar to the one measured along the hole symmetry axis, irrespective of the shape of the off-axis electric field lines. We present here a simple calculation of the on-axis gain of such structures that corresponds to the measurements and takes into account the detector geometry.

  6. SAX Low-Energy Gas Scintillation Proportional Counter (LE-GSPC): calibration and system performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Didier D. E.; Bavdaz, Marcos; Peacock, Anthony J.; Vacanti, Giuseppe; Parmar, Arvind N.

    1995-10-01

    The low energy gas scintillation proportional counter (LE-GSPC) is an imaging x-ray spectrometer. It is one of the narrow field instruments on board the SAX satellite and covers the lower energy range from 0.1 to 10 keV. The low energy response of the detector is achieved by using a driftless gas cell and a thin multilayer polyimide foil as entrance window. The overall design of the imaging GSPC for space application is described. Using unit level and system level calibration data, acquired at a synchrotron and a long beam x-ray source, the capabilities both in terms of energy and position resolution are discussed. The overall efficiency of the instrument which includes the mirror's effective area, the entrance windows' transparencies, the detector's efficiency and electronics deadtime are reviewed. Background rejection issues and the experiment's consequent sensitivity to the measurement of cosmic x- ray source spectra are addressed.

  7. Proportional integral derivative, modeling and ways of stabilization for the spark plasma sintering process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manière, Charles; Lee, Geuntak; Olevsky, Eugene A.

    The stability of the proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control of temperature in the spark plasma sintering (SPS) process is investigated. The PID regulations of this process are tested for different SPS tooling dimensions, physical parameters conditions, and areas of temperature control. It is shown that the PID regulation quality strongly depends on the heating time lag between the area of heat generation and the area of the temperature control. Tooling temperature rate maps are studied to reveal potential areas for highly efficient PID control. The convergence of the model and experiment indicates that even with non-optimal initial PID coefficients, it is possible to reduce the temperature regulation inaccuracy to less than 4 K by positioning the temperature control location in highly responsive areas revealed by the finite-element calculations of the temperature spatial distribution.

  8. CATS, a low pressure multiwire proportional chamber for secondary beam tracking at GANIL

    CERN Document Server

    Ottini-Hustache, S; Auger, F; Musumarra, A; Alamanos, N; Cahan, B; Gillibert, A; Lagoyannis, A; Maillard, O; Pollacco, E; Sida, J L; Riallot, M

    1999-01-01

    A beam detector system, CATS (Chambre A Trajectoires de Saclay), was designed to provide event-by-event particle tracking in experiments with radioactive beams at GANIL. It consists of two low pressure multiwire proportional chambers with one plane of anode wires placed between two cathode planes (active area: 70x70 mm sup 2), respectively segmented into 28 vertical or horizontal strips (2.54 mm wide). The anode wires deliver a time signal allowing a time of flight measurement with an accuracy between 440 ps and 1.2 ns, depending on the energy loss of incident particles in the detector. The cathode strips are individually read out and the position of incoming particles is reconstructed using a charge centroid finding algorithm. A spatial resolution of 400 mu m (700 mu m) was achieved during in beam experiment, with a counting rate of 1.5x10 sup 5 (10 sup 6) particles per second. (author)

  9. Proportion of types I and III collagen in longissimus collagen from bulls and steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burson, D E; Hunt, M C; Unruh, J A; Dikeman, M E

    1986-08-01

    The proportion of types I and III intramuscular collagen in longissimus muscles of Simmental bulls (n = 8) and steers (n = 8) 17 mo of age was studied. Longissimus samples taken 7 d after slaughter were evaluated for total collagen, types I and III collagen, heat-soluble collagen, sensory panel traits and Warner-Bratzler shear force. Intramuscular collagen (IMC) was isolated and digested with cyanogen bromide, and peptides were resolved by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Percentage of type III IMC was calculated from the total of types I and III collagen as determined from the peak area of densitometric scans of the cyanogen bromide peptides alpha 1(I)CB8 and alpha 1(III)CB8. Longissimus muscles from steers had lower (P less than .05) Warner-Bratzler shear values, less (P less than .05) sensory panel-detectable connective tissue and more (P less than .05) tender panel ratings for muscle fiber tenderness and overall tenderness. Muscles from steers had more (P less than .05) heat-soluble collagen than those from bulls, but no differences (P greater than .05) were found for total collagen and percentage of type III collagen. Some intramuscular-collagen characteristics may have contributed to the less tender muscle of bulls. However, the proportion of types I and III collagen did not account entirely for the tenderness difference between steer and bull muscles. Because there were differences in collagen solubility in muscles from steers and bulls, other collagen characteristics such as crosslinking or fiber size may have been more important than collagen type.

  10. Statistical properties of proportional residual energy intake as a new measure of energetic efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Pouya

    2017-08-01

    Traditional ratio measures of efficiency, including feed conversion ratio (FCR), gross milk efficiency (GME), gross energy efficiency (GEE) and net energy efficiency (NEE) may have some statistical problems including high correlations with milk yield. Residual energy intake (REI) or residual feed intake (RFI) is another criterion, proposed to overcome the problems attributed to the traditional ratio criteria, but it does not account for production or intake levels. For example, the same REI value could be considerable for low producing and negligible for high producing cows. The aim of this study was to propose a new measure of efficiency to overcome the problems attributed to the previous criteria. A total of 1478 monthly records of 268 lactating Holstein cows were used for this study. In addition to FCR, GME, GEE, NEE and REI, a new criterion called proportional residual energy intake (PREI) was calculated as REI to net energy intake ratio and defined as proportion of net energy intake lost as REI. The PREI had an average of -0·02 and range of -0·36 to 0·27, meaning that the least efficient cow lost 0·27 of her net energy intake as REI, while the most efficient animal saved 0·36 of her net energy intake as less REI. Traditional ratio criteria (FCR, GME, GEE and NEE) had high correlations with milk and fat corrected milk yields (absolute values from 0·469 to 0·816), while the REI and PREI had low correlations (0·000 to 0·069) with milk production. The results showed that the traditional ratio criteria (FCR, GME, GEE and NEE) are highly influenced by production traits, while the REI and PREI are independent of production level. Moreover, the PREI adjusts the REI magnitude for intake level. It seems that the PREI could be considered as a worthwhile measure of efficiency for future studies.

  11. Using both cases and controls for testing hardy-weinberg proportions in a genetic association study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Shete, Sanjay

    2010-01-01

    Assessment of the Hardy-Weinberg proportion (HWP) in controls has been widely used as a quality control measure in case-control association studies. However, when the disease being studied is common, controls might not represent the general population, which could result in inaccurate HWP test results. Such results could lead investigators to discard important single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that could potentially be causal. In this paper, we showed the inappropriateness of the HWP test in controls and proposed a mixture HWP (mHWP) exact test using a mixture sample that mimics the general population. The mHWP exact test estimates HWP in a mixture sample that is a combination of both cases and controls proportional to the prevalence of disease. We implemented a re-sampling procedure to construct mixture samples and then obtained the empirical p value of HWP in the general population. Simulation studies were performed to investigate the performance of the proposed mHWP exact test. The method was also applied to a genetic association study of obesity. The results showed that the mHWP exact test is more likely than either the traditional HWP method in controls or the likelihood-based approach to keep causal SNPs for further analysis when the disease is more common. The mHWP exact test using a mixture sample is a better HWP test for case-control genetic association studies than the traditional HWP in controls or the likelihood-based approach, and it will improve our ability to keep causal SNPs in the case-control genetic association studies. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. An Upper-Limb Power-Assist Exoskeleton Using Proportional Myoelectric Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhichuan Tang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We developed an upper-limb power-assist exoskeleton actuated by pneumatic muscles. The exoskeleton included two metal links: a nylon joint, four size-adjustable carbon fiber bracers, a potentiometer and two pneumatic muscles. The proportional myoelectric control method was proposed to control the exoskeleton according to the user’s motion intention in real time. With the feature extraction procedure and the classification (back-propagation neural network, an electromyogram (EMG-angle model was constructed to be used for pattern recognition. Six healthy subjects performed elbow flexion-extension movements under four experimental conditions: (1 holding a 1-kg load, wearing the exoskeleton, but with no actuation and for different periods (2-s, 4-s and 8-s periods; (2 holding a 1-kg load, without wearing the exoskeleton, for a fixed period; (3 holding a 1-kg load, wearing the exoskeleton, but with no actuation, for a fixed period; (4 holding a 1-kg load, wearing the exoskeleton under proportional myoelectric control, for a fixed period. The EMG signals of the biceps brachii, the brachioradialis, the triceps brachii and the anconeus and the angle of the elbow were collected. The control scheme’s reliability and power-assist effectiveness were evaluated in the experiments. The results indicated that the exoskeleton could be controlled by the user’s motion intention in real time and that it was useful for augmenting arm performance with neurological signal control, which could be applied to assist in elbow rehabilitation after neurological injury.

  13. What proportion of international travellers acquire a travel-related illness? A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelo, Kristina M; Kozarsky, Phyllis E; Ryan, Edward T; Chen, Lin H; Sotir, Mark J

    2017-09-01

    As international travel increases, travellers may be at increased risk of acquiring infectious diseases not endemic in their home countries. Many journal articles and reference books related to travel medicine cite that between 22-64% of international travellers become ill during or after travel; however, this information is minimal, outdated and limited by poor generalizability. We aim to provide a current and more accurate estimate of the proportion of international travellers who acquire a travel-related illness. We identified studies via PubMed or travel medicine experts, published between January 1, 1976-December 31, 2016 that included the number of international travellers acquiring a travel-related illness. We excluded studies that focused on a single disease or did not determine a rate based on the total number of travellers. We abstracted information on traveller demographics, trip specifics, study enrollment and follow-up and number of ill travellers and their illnesses. Of 743 studies, nine met the inclusion criteria. The data sources were from North America (four studies) and Europe (five studies). Most travellers were tourists, the most frequent destination regions were Asia and Africa, and the median trip duration ranged from 8-21 days. Six studies enrolled participants at the travellers' pre-travel consultation. All studies collected data through either extraction from the medical record, weekly diaries, or pre- and post-travel questionnaires. Data collection timeframes varied by study. Between 6-87% of travellers became ill across all studies. Four studies provided the best estimate: between 43-79% of travellers who frequently visited developing nations (e.g. India, Tanzania, and Kenya) became ill; travellers most frequently reported diarrhoea. This is the most comprehensive assessment available on the proportion of international travellers that develop a travel-related illness. Additional cohort studies would provide needed data to more precisely

  14. Forearm articular proportions and the antebrachial index in Homo sapiens, Australopithecus afarensis and the great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Frank L'Engle; Cunningham, Deborah L; Amaral, Lia Q

    2015-12-01

    When hominin bipedality evolved, the forearms were free to adopt nonlocomotor tasks which may have resulted in changes to the articular surfaces of the ulna and the relative lengths of the forearm bones. Similarly, sex differences in forearm proportions may be more likely to emerge in bipeds than in the great apes given the locomotor constraints in Gorilla, Pan and Pongo. To test these assumptions, ulnar articular proportions and the antebrachial index (radius length/ulna length) in Homo sapiens (n=51), Gorilla gorilla (n=88), Pan troglodytes (n=49), Pongo pygmaeus (n=36) and Australopithecus afarensis A.L. 288-1 and A.L. 438-1 are compared. Intercept-adjusted ratios are used to control for size and minimize the effects of allometry. Canonical scores axes show that the proximally broad and elongated trochlear notch with respect to size in H. sapiens and A. afarensis is largely distinct from G. gorilla, P. troglodytes and P. pygmaeus. A cluster analysis of scaled ulnar articular dimensions groups H. sapiens males with A.L. 438-1 ulna length estimates, while one A.L. 288-1 ulna length estimate groups with Pan and another clusters most closely with H. sapiens, G. gorilla and A.L. 438-1. The relatively low antebrachial index characterizing H. sapiens and non-outlier estimates of A.L. 288-1 and A.L. 438-1 differs from those of the great apes. Unique sex differences in H. sapiens suggest a link between bipedality and forearm functional morphology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Estimating the proportion of studies missing for meta-analysis due to publication bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formann, Anton K

    2008-09-01

    A potential problem with meta-analysis concerns missing studies due to publication bias. This paper focuses on one subtype of publication bias, namely selection bias (studies with unfavorable outcomes tend to be suppressed), wherein the main interest is in determining the proportion of unpublished studies. As in the well-known trim and fill method, the key assumption is that studies with quantitative outcomes extremely unfavorable for the treatment are not published. Along with the assumption of a normal distribution for the complete set of published and unpublished studies, the proportion of unpublished studies is estimated by the degree of truncation from a left-truncated normal distribution. In addition, the mean and variance of this distribution are obtained in order to provide useful information regarding the mean effect of a treatment vs. a control, and the variance of this effect when controlling for truncation. The degree of truncation can be considered under two hypotheses: the true mean equals the estimated mean or the true mean is equal to zero. The uncorrected degree of truncation was found to be overestimated, but this bias was reduced when correcting for chance truncation. To incorporate additional information, weighted analysis was proposed. Instead of unweighted mean and variance of the published outcomes, their weighted analogues were used for analysis, with the weights expressing varying credibility across studies entering the meta-analysis. One hypothetical and three empirical examples illustrated the approach. The new method is very simple and its results are comparable to other meta-analytic methods. However, in contrast to existing methods, it can be applied to the study-specific outcomes alone.

  16. The critical proportion of immune individuals needed to control hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospina, Juan; Hincapié-Palacio, Doracelly

    2016-05-01

    We estimate the critical proportion of immunity (Pc) to control hepatitis B in Medellin - Colombia, based on a random population survey of 2077 individuals of 6-64 years of age. The force of infection (Fi) was estimated according to empirical data of susceptibility by age S(a), assuming a quadratic expression. Parameters were estimated by adjusting data to a nonlinear regression. Fi was defined by -(ds(a)/da)/s(a) and according to the form of the empirical curve S(a) we assume a quadratic expression given by S(a)= Ea2+Ba+C. Then we have the explicit expression for the accumulated Fi by age given by F(a) = -a(Ea+B)/c. The expression of average infection age A is obtained as A = L + EL3/(3C)+BL2/(2C) and the basic reproductive number R0 is obtained as R0 = 1 + 6C/(6C+2EL2+3BL). From the las result we obtain the Pc given by Pc= 6C/(12C+2EL2+3BL). Numerical simulations were performed with the age-susceptibility proportion and initial values (a=0.02, b=20, c=100), obtaining an adjusted coefficient of multiple determination of 64.83%. According to the best estimate, the algebraic expressions for S(a) and the Fi were derived. Using the result of Fi, we obtain A = 30, L =85; R0 CI 95%: 1.42 - 1.64 and Pc: 0-0.29. These results indicate that at the worst case, to maintain control of the disease should be immunes at least 30% of susceptible individuals. Similar results were obtained by sex and residential area.

  17. The association between social factors and body length proportions in Polish schoolchildren from Lower Silesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozieł Sławomir

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Many studies worldwide have shown that social factors are significantly associated with growth in childhood. However, very few researchers studied influence of social factors on body length proportions. The aim of the present study was the assessment how urbanization level, sibship size and parental education may affect body length proportions in schoolchildren. 325 boys and 335 girls aged 7-18 years were measured in schools in Wrocław, two small towns and villages around these towns. Height, sitting height, leg length , and lower leg length were measured in all children, then relative lengths (in relation to height were calculated: leg, femur, lower leg, estimated leg and lower leg length to leg length ratio. Height was standardized on age using LMS parameters for CDC 2002 year cohort. Other indices were standardized on age by using residuals variance derived from linear regressions. Four-way analysis of variance was used for height and each index, where independent variables were four social factors. Except for father’s education in boys, no other social factor was significant associated with height. Urbanization level significantly differed almost all indices, whereas father’s education level was significantly associated with relative leg length in girls and estimated leg length in both sexes. Our study has shown that the segments of lower limb seems to be more sensitive than height to the effect of social factors. In Lower Silesia, the level of urbanization is still related to differences in environmental conditions, enough to significantly affect growth of children, especially within the segments of lower limbs.

  18. Learning from label proportions in brain-computer interfaces: Online unsupervised learning with guarantees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Thibault; Schmid, Konstantin; Müller, Klaus-Robert; Tangermann, Michael; Kindermans, Pieter-Jan

    2017-01-01

    Objective Using traditional approaches, a brain-computer interface (BCI) requires the collection of calibration data for new subjects prior to online use. Calibration time can be reduced or eliminated e.g., by subject-to-subject transfer of a pre-trained classifier or unsupervised adaptive classification methods which learn from scratch and adapt over time. While such heuristics work well in practice, none of them can provide theoretical guarantees. Our objective is to modify an event-related potential (ERP) paradigm to work in unison with the machine learning decoder, and thus to achieve a reliable unsupervised calibrationless decoding with a guarantee to recover the true class means. Method We introduce learning from label proportions (LLP) to the BCI community as a new unsupervised, and easy-to-implement classification approach for ERP-based BCIs. The LLP estimates the mean target and non-target responses based on known proportions of these two classes in different groups of the data. We present a visual ERP speller to meet the requirements of LLP. For evaluation, we ran simulations on artificially created data sets and conducted an online BCI study with 13 subjects performing a copy-spelling task. Results Theoretical considerations show that LLP is guaranteed to minimize the loss function similar to a corresponding supervised classifier. LLP performed well in simulations and in the online application, where 84.5% of characters were spelled correctly on average without prior calibration. Significance The continuously adapting LLP classifier is the first unsupervised decoder for ERP BCIs guaranteed to find the optimal decoder. This makes it an ideal solution to avoid tedious calibration sessions. Additionally, LLP works on complementary principles compared to existing unsupervised methods, opening the door for their further enhancement when combined with LLP. PMID:28407016

  19. Prognostic Significance of the Proportion of Tall Cell Components in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yasuhiro; Hirokawa, Mitsuyoshi; Miyauchi, Akira; Higashiyama, Takuya; Kihara, Minoru; Miya, Akihiro

    2017-03-01

    Tall cell variant (TCV) of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) shows a poorer prognosis than conventional PTC. The World Health Organization (WHO) classification defines TCV as the tall cell component (TCC) in ≥50% of PTC lesions. We investigated whether and how the proportion of TCC affects the prognosis of patients with PTC with TCC. Seventy patients with TCC in ≥30% of their PTC lesions and 210 age- and gender-matched controls with no TCC who underwent locally curative surgery at Kuma Hospital (2006-2014) were enrolled. The 70 PTC patients were divided into two categories: TCC ≥50% (TCC-major, n = 19) and TCC 30-49% (TCC-minor, n = 51). We performed univariate and multivariate analyses of the relationships between disease-free survival (DFS) and variables including the TCC proportion in 276 patients who had no distant metastases at surgery (median follow-up 64 months). In the univariate analysis, TCC-major, TCC-minor, old age (≥65 years), clinical node metastasis, significant extrathyroid extension (Ex), and high Ki-67 labeling index (≥5%) significantly affected the DFS. In the multivariate analysis, TCC-major and Ex independently affected the DFS, but TCC-minor did not. In an analysis excluding TCC-major patients, TCC-minor was not an independent prognostic factor for DFS. Studies or larger patient series with longer follow-ups are necessary, but we speculate that in PTC with TCC, TCC-major significantly and independently affects the DFS, whereas TCC-minor does not. Our findings indicate that the WHO definition of TCV is appropriate and that the prognostic impact of TCC-minor is limited.

  20. Proportion of beneficiaries and factors affecting Janani Suraksha Yojana direct cash transfer scheme in Puducherry, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Rajarajan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY direct benefit transfer scheme was launched in the year 2013 in India and there is a paucity of information affecting it. The study aimed to assess the proportion of eligible beneficiaries utilizing JSY direct cash benefit transfer in Puducherry and to identify its barriers and facilitating factors. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted from January to March 2015 among 152 eligible JSY beneficiaries residing in rural and urban field practice areas of a tertiary care institution in Puducherry, India. Data were collected using a pretested semi structured questionnaire and presented as proportion or percentages. Results: About 144 beneficiaries participated in the study with a response rate of 94.7%. About 46% (66 of them availed cash transfer benefit. The mean time of receiving the benefit is 95.8 days (interquartile range 60–120 days. Among those who have not received (78, about 49 (62.8% had not applied and 29 (37.18% filled applications were rejected due to various reasons. About 77.1% (111 of beneficiaries were informed about JSY scheme through health workers. About 52.1% (75/144 still preferred direct bank transfer through the bank. The reasons for not availing benefits includes not having a bank account (24.3%, followed by not having Aadhaar number (9.7%, 11.8% had no ration card, and 13.8% stayed in their mother house. Conclusion: Majority of the beneficiaries did not receive direct cash transfer benefits in urban area than rural area and there is a need to simplify the procedures to improve the uptake of services to this group.