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Sample records for human potential intake

  1. Potential human health risk assessment of heavy metals intake via ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potential human health risk assessment of heavy metals intake via consumption of some leafy vegetables obtained from four market in Lagos Metropolis, Nigeria. ... This result reflected the risk associated with exposure for the period of life expectancy considered, and the inhabitants are highly exposed to health risks ...

  2. Effect of amphetamine on human macronutrient intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltin, R W; Kelly, T H; Fischman, M W

    1995-11-01

    Six male subjects participated in a 15-day residential study examining the effects of amphetamine on macronutrient intake. During the first 11 days, carbohydrate intake was manipulated by providing lunch meals high (155 g) or low (25 g) in carbohydrate. Subjects received oral d-amphetamine (5, 10 mg/70 kg, BID) or placebo. Total daily caloric intake was similar under both lunch conditions (approximately 3400/Kcal), but carbohydrate contributed more energy under the high-carbohydrate condition. Both doses of amphetamine decreased total caloric intake to approximately 2600 Kcal, by decreasing the number of eating bouts, without affecting macronutrient selection. During the last four days subjects received a higher daily dose of amphetamine (30 mg/70 kg in four doses) or placebo, and were allowed to self-select lunch. Although 30 mg amphetamine decreased intake of all macronutrients, the relative contribution of carbohydrate to total caloric intake was increased from 54% to 62%, while the contribution of fat was decreased from 32% to 26% and the contribution of protein was decreased from 14% to 12%. Thus, at a high dose, amphetamine altered the relative contribution of specific macronutrients to total caloric intake.

  3. Normal range of human dietary sodium intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarron, David A; Kazaks, Alexandra G; Geerling, Joel C

    2013-01-01

    The recommendation to restrict dietary sodium for management of hypertensive cardiovascular disease assumes that sodium intake exceeds physiologic need, that it can be significantly reduced, and that the reduction can be maintained over time. In contrast, neuroscientists have identified neural...... circuits in vertebrate animals that regulate sodium appetite within a narrow physiologic range. This study further validates our previous report that sodium intake, consistent with the neuroscience, tracks within a narrow range, consistent over time and across cultures....

  4. Appetite and Energy Intake in Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lone Brinkmann

    ratings of prospective food consumption between lunch and dinner, and after dinner than the participants who received artificial sweetener supplements. Both groups had a high energy intake during the test day, but the sucrose supplements induced a higher energy intake, compared with the artificial...... chocolate. Ratings of the desire to eat something sweet, salty, fatty, and savoury were all lower after consumption of the dark chocolate than after the milk chocolate. The results suggest that it could be beneficial to use dark chocolate as a substitute for milk chocolate. In summary, these results suggest...

  5. Organic and inorganic micropollutants in Adriatic seafood: contamination levels and evaluation of human potential intake; Microinquinanti organici ed inorganici in specie marine eduli del mare Adriatico: livelli di presenza e stima dell`assunzione potenziale da parte dell`uomo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cubadda, F; Stacchini, P; Baldini, M [Istituto Superiore di Sanita` , Rome (Italy). Lab. Alimenti

    1998-06-01

    Review the state of the art on the chemical contamination of seafood and on the human intake of contaminants through these commodities in the Adriatic area. Scientific literature on the levels of inorganic (i.e. cadmium, chromium, mercury, lead) and organic (i.e. pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) contaminants as well as studies on potential health hazard related to Adriatic seafood consumption were examined. Where sufficient data were available, an evaluation of the average potential intake was carried out through the correlation between contamination levels in marine organisms and seafood consumption. The results of this study did not show any risk for the average consumer related to the consumption of Adriatic seafood. Nevertheless it is essential to carefully evaluate the potential risk to which some population groups, especially high consumers of local seafood, are exposed. For this purpose, it is necessary to obtain additional data on the content of contaminants in the main seafood products and on the levels of consumption by the Adriatic coastal populations. [Italiano] Si propone di fare il punto sullo stato dell`arte in materia di contaminazione chimica delle specie marine eduli e di assunzione di contaminanti da parte dell`uomo mediante tali alimenti nell`are adriatica. A tal fine e` stata presa in esame la letteratura scientifica concernente i livelli di presenza di contaminanti inorganici (cadmio, cromo, mercurio, piombo) e organici (pesticidi, policlorobifenili, diossine, idrocarburi policiclici aromatici), nonche` gli studi relativi al problema del rischio sanitario associato al consumo di prodotti della pesca nel Mare Adriatico. Nel caso dei contaminanti per i quali esiste una sufficiente base di dati si e` proceduto ad una stima dell`assunzione media potenziale calcolata mediante la correlazione dei livelli di presenza negli organismi marini con dati di consumo alimentare. In base ai risultati ottenuti

  6. Antioxidant capacity of plasma after red wine intake in Human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gianmmanco

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Antioxidant effects after consumption of red wine have been investigated in several studies but results are contradictory and the difference in the plasma antioxidant capacity (AC after intake of red wine between women and men has never been studies. This work purpose is manifold: to ascertain whether red wine intake modifies the human plasma AC; to study the behaviour of plasma AC of women in comparison with men and finally to investigate on the plasma uric acid concentration and its relationships with the plasma AC after red wine intake.

  7. Solution of human respiratory tract model for chronic inhalation intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadar, Minal Y.; Singh, I.S.; Rao, D.D.; Pradeepkumar, K.S.

    2014-01-01

    For the radiation workers of fuel reprocessing and fuel fabrication plants, inhalation is one of the major routes of intake of internal contamination. In case of routine monitoring which would result in lung activity above detection limit, it is assumed that intake has occurred at the midpoint of monitoring interval so that underestimation introduced by the unknown time of intake is less than a factor of three. In the plants, chronic intakes of 239 Pu are possible if low levels of 239 Pu activities remain undetected. In ICRP-78, the retention values are given as a function of time for continuous chronic inhalation of 239 Pu at 1.71 Bq/day that would result in Committed Effective Dose (CED) of 20 mSv. Retention values (R) are not given for inhalation intake at any other rate. Therefore, Human Respiratory Tract Model (HRTM) is solved for continuous chronic inhalation at 1 Bq/day rate for type M compounds of 239 Pu to estimate R as a function of time. These values will be useful in estimating intake from lung activity measurements in case of chronic intakes

  8. Impacts of daily intakes on the isomeric profiles of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Guoqiang; Wang, Zhi; Zhou, Lianqiu; Du, Pin; Luo, Xiaoxiao; Wu, Qiannian; Zhu, Lingyan

    2016-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been well studied in human daily intake for assessment of potential health risks. However, little is known about the isomeric compositions of PFASs in daily intake and their impacts on isomeric profiles in humans. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of PFASs with isomeric analysis in various human exposure matrices including foodstuffs, tap water and indoor dust. Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and/or perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) were predominant in these exposure matrices collected in Tianjin, China. In fish and meat, linear (n-) PFOA was enriched with a percentage of 92.2% and 99.6%, respectively. Although n-PFOS was higher in fish (84.8%) than in technical PFOS (ca. 70%), it was much lower in meat (63.1%) and vegetables (58.5%). Dietary intake contributed >99% of the estimated daily intake (EDI) for the general population. The isomeric profiles of PFOA and PFOS in human serum were predicted based on the EDI and a one-compartment, first-order pharmacokinetic model. The isomeric percentage of n-PFOA in the EDI (98.6%) was similar to that in human serum (predicted: 98.2%, previously measured: 99.7%) of Tianjin residents. The results suggest direct PFOA intake plays an important role in its isomeric compositions in humans. For PFOS, the predicted n-PFOS (69.3%) was much higher than the previously measured values (59.2%) in human serum. This implies that other factors, such as indirect exposure to PFOS precursors and multiple excretion pathways, may contribute to the lower percentage of n-PFOS in humans than of technical PFOS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Aspartame Intake Relates to Coronary Plaque Burden and Inflammatory Indices in Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Leangelo N; Sanchez, Laura R; Hubbard, Jane; Lee, Hang; Looby, Sara E; Srinivasa, Suman; Zanni, Markella V; Stanley, Takara L; Lo, Janet; Grinspoon, Steven K; Fitch, Kathleen V

    2017-01-01

    Dietary sweeteners may contribute to metabolic dysregulation and cardiovascular disease (CVD), but this has not been assessed in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). One hundred twenty-four HIV-infected and 56 non-HIV-infected participants, without history of known coronary artery disease were included. Dietary intake was assessed using a 4-day food record. Coronary plaque was determined using cardiac computed tomography angiography. Human immunodeficiency virus-infected participants had significantly greater intake of dietary sweeteners, including total sugar ( P = .03) and added sugar ( P = .009); intake of aspartame (artificial sweetener) was greater among aspartame consumers with HIV versus non-HIV consumers ( P = .03). Among HIV-infected participants, aspartame intake was significantly associated with coronary plaque ( P = .002) and noncalcified plaque ( P = .007) segments, as well as markers of inflammation/immune activation (monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A 2 ), which may contribute to increased atherogenesis. In multivariable regression modeling, aspartame remained an independent predictor of plaque in HIV. In contrast, among non-HIV-infected participants, no sweetener type was shown to relate to plaque characteristics. We demonstrate increased intake of dietary sweeteners and a potential novel association between aspartame intake, plaque burden, and inflammation in HIV. Our data suggest that aspartame may contribute to CVD risk in HIV. Further studies should address potential mechanisms by which aspartame may contribute to increased plaque burden and cardiovascular benefits of dietary strategies targeting aspartame intake in HIV. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  10. Potential antiproliferative activity of polyphenol metabolites against human breast cancer cells and their urine excretion pattern in healthy subjects following acute intake of a polyphenol-rich juice of grumixama (Eugenia brasiliensis Lam.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, L L; Costa, G R; Dörr, F A; Ong, T P; Pinto, E; Lajolo, F M; Hassimotto, N M A

    2017-06-21

    The bioavailability and metabolism of anthocyanins and ellagitannins following acute intake of grumixama fruit, native Brazilian cherry, by humans, and its in vitro antiproliferative activity against breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231) were investigated. A single dose of grumixama juice was administered to healthy women (n = 10) and polyphenol metabolites were analyzed in urine and plasma samples collected over 24 h. The majority of the metabolites circulating and excreted in urine were phenolic acids and urolithin conjugates, the gut microbiota catabolites of both classes of polyphenols, respectively. According to pharmacokinetic parameters, the subjects were divided into two distinct groups, high and low urinary metabolite excretors. The pool of polyphenol metabolites found in urine samples showed a significant inhibition of cell proliferation and G2/M cell cycle arrest in MDA-MB-231 cells. Our findings demonstrate the large interindividual variability concerning the polyphenol metabolism, which possibly could reflect in health promotion.

  11. Water intake and consumption in sheep differing in growth potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (water intake&g weight gain) than the Dorper and Mutton Merino, respectively. By means of ... To avoid obesity they were exercised ... Body weights, weight gain, means for cumulative feed and ..... water loss, may provide a logical explanation.

  12. Sodium intake status in United States and potential reduction modeling: an NHANES 2007-2010 analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Sanjiv; Fulgoni, Victor L; Spence, Lisa; Samuel, Priscilla

    2015-11-01

    Limiting dietary sodium intake has been a consistent dietary recommendation. Using NHANES 2007-2010 data, we estimated current sodium intake and modeled the potential impact of a new sodium reduction technology on sodium intake. NHANES 2007-2010 data were used to assess current sodium intake. The National Cancer Institute method was used for usual intake determination. Suggested sodium reductions using SODA-LO (®) Salt Microspheres ranged from 20% to 30% in 953 foods and usual intakes were modeled by using various reduction factors and levels of market penetration. SAS 9.2, SUDAAN 11, and NHANES survey weights were used in all calculations with assessment across gender and age groups. Current (2007-2010) sodium intake (mg/day) exceeds recommendations across all age gender groups and has not changed during the last decade. However, sodium intake measured as a function of food intake (mg/g food) has decreased significantly during the last decade. Two food categories contribute about 2/3rd of total sodium intake: "Grain Products" and "Meat, Poultry, Fish & Mixtures". Sodium reduction, with 100% market penetration of the new technology, was estimated to be 230-300 mg/day or 7-9% of intake depending upon age and gender group. Sodium reduction innovations like SODA-LO (®) Salt Microspheres could contribute to meaningful reductions in sodium intake.

  13. Estimation of risks to humans following intake of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolphin, G.W.

    1979-01-01

    The lung cancer in humans induced by plutonium intake usually starts in bronchial epithelium. The main types of lung cancer are epidermoid or squamous cell carcinoma, small cell anaplastic carcinoma, carcinoid types and bronchio-loalveolar cell carcinoma. The data on cancer in the patients given intravascular injections of Thorotrast are the only source of data from which risk estimates can be made for liver cancer. In the beagles injected with plutonium citrate, the only type of liver tumors observed in cholangiosarcoma, and if this were the case for humans, then the appropriate risk estimate is 3 times lower in human patients. Bone sarcoma and the cancer of the epithelial surfaces close to bones have been reported extensively in workers and patients exposed to radium-226 and radium-224. In the case of plutonium, it is assumed for the purpose of risk estimates that the cancer of the epithelial surfaces near bones does not occur. Plutonium passes through guts following ingestion or following the clearance of particles initially deposited in respiratory tracts. In the case of all long-lived radionuclides, lower large intestines are the region which receive the greatest dose from the activity passing through guts. It is assumed that plutonium accumulates in bone marrows through the action of macrophages engulfing the plutonium resorbed from bone surfaces. The main uncertainty in estimating the annual limit of intake probably lies in the metabolic and dosimetric models, and to a lesser extent, in the estimate of risk. (Yamashita, S.)

  14. Developing Human Resources through Actualizing Human Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    2012-01-01

    The key to human resource development is in actualizing individual and collective thinking, feeling and choosing potentials related to our minds, hearts and wills respectively. These capacities and faculties must be balanced and regulated according to the standards of truth, love and justice for individual, community and institutional development,…

  15. Urinary fructose: a potential biomarker for dietary fructose intake in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johner, S A; Libuda, L; Shi, L; Retzlaff, A; Joslowski, G; Remer, T

    2010-11-01

    Recently, urinary fructose and sucrose excretion in 24-h urine have been established experimentally as new biomarkers for dietary sugar intake in adults. Our objective was to investigate 1) whether the fructose biomarker is also applicable in free-living children and 2) for what kind of sugar it is standing for. Intakes of added and total sugar (including additional sugar from fruit and fruit juices) were assessed by 3-day weighed dietary records in 114 healthy prepubertal children; corresponding 24-h urinary fructose excretion was measured photometrically. The associations between dietary sugar intakes and urinary fructose excretion were examined using linear regression models. To determine whether one of the two sugar variables may be better associated with the urinary biomarker, the statistical Pitman's test was used. Added and total sugar correlated significantly with urinary fructose, but the linear regression indicated a weak association between intake of added sugar and urinary log-fructose excretion (β=0.0026, R(2)=0.055, P=0.01). The association between total sugar intake and log-urinary fructose (β=0.0040, R(2)=0.181, Pestimation of total sugar intake than for the estimation of added dietary sugar intake in children. However, as excreted fructose stems almost exclusively from the diet (both from food-intrinsic and added intakes), it can be assumed that urinary fructose represents a potential biomarker for total dietary fructose intake, irrespective of its source.

  16. Salivary alpha-amylase : a measure associated with satiety and subsequent food intake in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harthoorn, L.F.

    2008-01-01

    Food intake regulation in humans involves various central and peripheral mechanisms. In this study salivary -amylase was examined for functioning as a measure of satiety and food intake. In a 1.25-h session, 32 fasted subjects were given a preload of starch-based custard (849 kJ) followed by ad

  17. Iodine intake in human nutrition: a systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingibjörg Gunnarsdottir

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present literature review is a part of the NNR5 project with the aim of reviewing and updating the scientific basis of the 4th edition of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR issued in 2004. The main objective of the review is to assess the influence of different intakes of iodine at different life stages (infants, children, adolescents, adults, elderly, and during pregnancy and lactation in order to estimate the requirement for adequate growth, development, and maintenance of health. The literature search resulted in 1,504 abstracts. Out of those, 168 papers were identified as potentially relevant. Full paper selection resulted in 40 papers that were quality assessed (A, B, or C. The grade of evidence was classified as convincing, probable, suggestive, and no conclusion. We found suggestive evidence for improved maternal iodine status and thyroid function by iodine supplementation during pregnancy. Suggestive evidence was found for the relationship between improved thyroid function (used as an indicator of iodine status during pregnancy and cognitive function in the offspring up to 18 months of age. Moderately to severely iodine-deficient children will probably benefit from iodine supplementation or improved iodine status in order to improve their cognitive function, while only one study showed improved cognitive function following iodine supplementation in children from a mildly iodine-deficient area (no conclusion. No conclusions can be drawn related to other outcomes included in our review. There are no new data supporting changes in dietary reference values for children or adults. The rationale for increasing the dietary reference values for pregnant and lactating women in the NNR5 needs to be discussed in a broader perspective, taking iodine status of pregnant women in the Nordic countries into account.

  18. "Human potential" and progressive pedagogy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øland, Trine

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the cultural constructs of progressive pedagogy in Danish school pedagogy and its emerging focus on the child’s human potential from the 1920s to the 1950s. It draws on Foucault’s notion of ‘dispositifs’ and the ‘elements of history’, encircling a complex transformation......: the emergence of ‘intelligence’ and life as a biological phenomenon from the 1920s is illustrated; the emergence of ‘Black culture’, ‘Negros’ and ‘races’ from the 1930s is depicted, and the emergence of ‘national cultures’ from the 1940s – enhanced by UNESCO after World War II – is demonstrated. Although race...

  19. Polyphenol levels in human urine after intake of six different polyphenol-rich beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hideyuki; Gonthier, Marie-Paule; Manach, Claudine; Morand, Christine; Mennen, Louise; Rémésy, Christian; Scalbert, Augustin

    2005-10-01

    Dietary polyphenols are suggested to participate in the prevention of CVD and cancer. It is essential for epidemiological studies to be able to compare intake of the main dietary polyphenols in populations. The present paper describes a fast method suitable for the analysis of polyphenols in urine, selected as potential biomarkers of intake. This method is applied to the estimation of polyphenol recovery after ingestion of six different polyphenol-rich beverages. Fifteen polyphenols including mammalian lignans (enterodiol and enterolactone), several phenolic acids (chlorogenic, caffeic, m-coumaric, gallic, and 4-O-methylgallic acids), phloretin and various flavonoids (catechin, epicatechin, quercetin, isorhamnetin, kaempferol, hesperetin, and naringenin) were simultaneously quantified in human urine by HPLC coupled with electrospray ionisation mass-MS (HPLC-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry) with a run time of 6 min per sample. The method has been validated with regard to linearity, precision, and accuracy in intra- and inter-day assays. It was applied to urine samples collected from nine volunteers in the 24 h following consumption of either green tea, a grape-skin extract, cocoa beverage, coffee, grapefruit juice or orange juice. Levels of urinary excretion suggest that chlorogenic acid, gallic acid, epicatechin, naringenin or hesperetin could be used as specific biomarkers to evaluate the consumption of coffee, wine, tea or cocoa, and citrus juices respectively.

  20. Eating frequency, food intake, and weight: a systematic review of human and animal experimental studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hollie eRaynor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Eating frequently during the day, or grazing, has been proposed to assist with managing food intake and weight. This systematic review assessed the effect of greater eating frequency (EF on intake and anthropometrics in human and animal experimental studies. Studies were identified through the PubMed electronic database. To be included, studies needed to be conducted in controlled settings or use methods that carefully monitored food intake, and measure food intake or anthropometrics. Studies using human or animal models of disease states (i.e., conditions influencing glucose or lipid metabolism, aside from being overweight or obese, were not included. The 25 reviewed studies (15 human and 10 animal studies contained varying study designs, EF manipulations (1 to 24 eating occasions per day, lengths of experimentation (230 min to 28 weeks, and sample sizes (3 to 56 participants/animals per condition. Studies were organized into four categories for reporting results: 1 human studies conducted in laboratory/metabolic ward settings; 2 human studies conducted in field settings; 3 animal studies with experimental periods 1 month. Out of the 13 studies reporting on consumption, 8 (61.5% found no significant effect of EF. Seventeen studies reported on anthropometrics, with 11 studies (64.7% finding no significant effect of EF. Future, adequately powered, studies should examine if other factors (i.e., disease states, physical activity, energy balance and weight status, long-term increased EF influence the relationship between increased EF and intake and/or anthropometrics.

  1. Recording strategies and selection potential of feed intake measured using the X-ray method in rainbow trout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mäntysaari Esa A

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study examines the way long-term feed intake should be recorded accurately for selective breeding purposes, and estimates selection potential in feed intake using the X-ray method to record individual daily feed intake in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss. The analysis showed that the point estimates of daily feed intake displayed low repeatabilities (r = 0.09–0.32. This indicates that a minimum of three repeated records were needed to accurately record average feed intake at a fixed age. To effectively breed for feed intake over the whole growing period, it is necessary to determine average feed intake at different ages, since there were only moderate phenotypic and genetic correlations between average daily feed intake recorded at 140 g, 750 g and 2000 g wet mass. Heritability for average daily feed intake was low (average h2 = 0.10, indicating that modest genetic changes can be obtained in response to selection. It was concluded that selection to genetically change long-term feed intake can be successful, yet repeated observations at several life stages are needed to ensure the accuracy of feed intake estimates and the efficiency of selection.

  2. Potential Human Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals Intake via ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Gyawali et al., 2011). The concentrations of natural and synthetic ... traditional nutrients, heavy metals, pesticides and various other ... fertilizers and pesticides to soils, with a number of ..... selected brands of canned fish in Nigeria: Estimation of ...

  3. Sodium intake in US ethnic subgroups and potential impact of a new sodium reduction technology: NHANES Dietary Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulgoni, Victor L; Agarwal, Sanjiv; Spence, Lisa; Samuel, Priscilla

    2014-12-18

    Because excessive dietary sodium intake is a major contributor to hypertension, a reduction in dietary sodium has been recommended for the US population. Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2010 data, we estimated current sodium intake in US population ethnic subgroups and modeled the potential impact of a new sodium reduction technology on sodium intake. NHANES 2007-2010 data were analyzed using The National Cancer Institute method to estimate usual intake in population subgroups. Potential impact of SODA-LO® Salt Microspheres sodium reduction technology on sodium intake was modeled using suggested sodium reductions of 20-30% in 953 foods and assuming various market penetrations. SAS 9.2, SUDAAN 11, and NHANES survey weights were used in all calculations with assessment across age, gender and ethnic groups. Current sodium intake across all population subgroups exceeds the Dietary Guidelines 2010 recommendations and has not changed during the last decade. However, sodium intake measured as a function of food intake has decreased significantly during the last decade for all ethnicities. "Grain Products" and "Meat, Poultry, Fish, & Mixtures" contribute about 2/3rd of total sodium intake. Sodium reduction, using SODA-LO® Salt Microspheres sodium reduction technology (with 100% market penetration) was estimated to be 185-323 mg/day or 6.3-8.4% of intake depending upon age, gender and ethnic group. Current sodium intake in US ethnic subgroups exceeds the recommendations and sodium reduction technologies could potentially help reduce dietary sodium intake among those groups.

  4. The acute effect of D-tagatose on food intake in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buemann, B; Toubro, S; Raben, A; Blundell, J; Astrup, A

    2000-08-01

    A double-blind randomized crossover study was performed with nineteen normal-weight men to investigate the effect on subsequent ad libitum food intake of replacing 29 g sucrose with 29 g D-tagatose as sweetener to a breakfast meal. D-Tagatose is a malabsorbed stereoisomer of fructose with potential application as a bulk sweetener. Food intake was measured at lunch offered 4 h after the breakfast meal, during the afternoon with access to abundant snacks, and finally at a supper buffet 9 h after the breakfast. Energy intake at lunch and during the snacking period was similar after ingesting the two sugars, while it was 15% lower after ingesting D-tagatose than with sucrose at supper (P effects of unabsorbed D-tagatose causing distension of the gut might have mediated the acute appetite-suppressing effect. The present paper also refers to data from a preceding study in which we observed an increased self-reported energy intake after ingestion of D-tagatose compared with sucrose which, in fact, suggests a relative hyperphagic effect of D-tagatose. However, self-reported food intake may be biased by selective under-reporting and this subsequent study with a more controlled assessment of food intake was therefore conducted. This present study did not support any hyperphagic effect of D-tagatose, but rather suggests that D-tagatose may contribute to a reduced energy intake.

  5. Hunger and Satiety Mechanisms and Their Potential Exploitation in the Regulation of Food Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Tehmina; Mercer, Julian G

    2016-03-01

    Effective strategies to combat recent rises in obesity levels are limited. The accumulation of excess body fat results when energy intake exceeds that expended. Energy balance is controlled by hypothalamic responses, but these can be overridden by hedonic/reward brain systems. This override, combined with unprecedented availability of cheap, energy-dense, palatable foods, may partly explain the increase in overweight and obesity. The complexity of the processes that regulate feeding behaviour has driven the need for further fundamental research. Full4Health is an EU-funded project conceived to advance our understanding of hunger and satiety mechanisms. Food intake has an impact on and is also affected by the gut-brain signalling which controls hunger and appetite. This review describes selected recent research from Full4Health and how new mechanistic findings could be exploited to adapt and control our physiological responses to food, potentially providing an alternative solution to addressing the global problems related to positive energy balance.

  6. Habituation as a Determinant of Human Food Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Leonard H.; Temple, Jennifer L.; Roemmich, James N.; Bouton, Mark E.

    2009-01-01

    Research has shown that animals and humans habituate on a variety of behavioral and physiological responses to repeated presentations of food cues, and habituation is related to amount of food consumed and cessation of eating. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of experimental paradigms used to study habituation, integrate a…

  7. The Therapeutic Potential of Brown Adipocytes in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig ePorter

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and its metabolic consequences represent a significant clinical problem. From a thermodynamic standpoint, obesity results from a discord in energy intake and expenditure. To date, lifestyle interventions based on reducing energy intake and/or increasing energy expenditure have proved ineffective in the prevention and treatment of obesity, owing to poor long-term adherence to such interventions. Thus, an effective strategy to prevent or correct obesity is currently lacking.As the combustion engines of our cells, mitochondria play a critical role in energy expenditure. At a whole body level, approximately 80% of mitochondrial membrane potential generated by fuel oxidation is used to produce ATP, and the remaining 20% is lost through heat-producing uncoupling reactions. The coupling of mitochondrial respiration to ATP production represents an important component in whole body energy expenditure. Brown adipose tissue (BAT is densely populated with mitochondria containing the inner mitochondrial proton carrier uncoupling protein 1 (UCP. UCP1 uncouples oxidative phosphorylation, meaning that mitochondrial membrane potential is dissipated as heat. The recent re-discovery of BAT depots in adult humans has rekindled scientific interest in the manipulation of mitochondrial uncoupling reactions as a means to increase metabolic rate, thereby counteracting obesity and its associated metabolic phenotype. In this article, we discuss the evidence for the role BAT plays in metabolic rate and glucose and lipid metabolism in humans, and the potential for UCP1 recruitment in the white adipose tissue of humans. While the future holds much promise for a therapeutic role of UCP1 expressing adipocytes in human energy metabolism, particularly in the context of obesity, tissue specific strategies that activate or recruit UCP1 in human adipocytes represent an obligatory translation step for this early promise to be realized.

  8. Human population intake fractions and environmental fate factors of toxic pollutants in life cycle impact assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijbregts, M.A.J.; Struijs, Jaap; Goedkoop, Mark; Heijungs, Reinout; Jan Hendriks, A.; Van De Meent, Dik

    2005-01-01

    The present paper outlines an update of the fate and exposure part of the fate, exposure and effects model USES-LCA. The new fate and exposure module of USES-LCA was applied to calculate human population intake fractions and fate factors of the freshwater, marine and terrestrial environment for 3393

  9. Microencapsulated bitter compounds (from Gentiana lutea) reduce daily energy intakes in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mennella, Ilario; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Ferracane, Rosalia; Arlorio, Marco; Pattarino, Franco; Vitaglione, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Mounting evidence showed that bitter-tasting compounds modulate eating behaviour through bitter taste receptors in the gastrointestinal tract. This study aimed at evaluating the influence of microencapsulated bitter compounds on human appetite and energy intakes. A microencapsulated bitter

  10. Intake of Fish and Omega-3 (N-3) Fatty Acid: Effect on Humans during Actual and Simulated Weightlessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Mehta, Satish K.; Pierson, Duane L.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2009-01-01

    Space flight has many negative effects on human physiology, including bone and muscle loss. These are some of the systems on which intakes of fish and n-3 fatty acids have positive effects. These effects are likely to occur through inhibition of inflammatory cytokines (such as TNFalpha) and thus inhibition of downstream NF-KB activation. We documented this effect in a 3D cell culture model, where NF-KB activation in osteoclasts was inhibited by eicosapentaenoic acid, an n-3 fatty acid. We have extended these studies and report here (a) NF-KB expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of Space Shuttle crews on 2-wk missions, (b) the effects of n-3 fatty acid intake after 60 d of bed rest (a weightlessness analog), and (c) the effects of fish intake in astronauts after 4 to 6 mo on the International Space Station. After Shuttle flights of 2 wk, NFKB p65 expression at landing was increased (P less than 0.001). After 60 d of bed rest, higher intake of n-3 fatty acids was associated with less N-telopeptide excretion (Pearson r = -0.62, P less than 0.05). Higher consumption of fish during flight was associated with higher bone mineral density (Pearson r = -0.46, P less than 0.05). Together with our earlier findings, these data provide mechanistic cellular and preliminary human evidence of the potential for n-3 fatty acids to counteract bone loss associated with spaceflight. This study was supported by the NASA Human Research Program.

  11. Intake of Fish and Omega-3 (n-3) Fatty Acids: Effect on Humans During Actual and Simulated Weightlessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. M.; Pierson, D. L.; Mehta, S. K.; Zwart, S. R.

    2011-01-01

    Space flight has many negative effects on human physiology, including bone and muscle loss. Bone and muscle are two systems that are positively affected by dietary intake of fish and n-3 fatty acids. The mechanism is likely to be related to inhibition by n-3 fatty acids of inflammatory cytokines (such as TNF) and thus inhibition of downstream NF-kB activation. We have documented this effect in a 3-dimensional cell culture model, where NF-kB activation in osteoclasts was inhibited by eicosapentaenoic acid, an n-3 fatty acid. We have also indentified that NF-kB activation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of Space Shuttle crews. We found that after Shuttle flights of 2 wk, expression of the protein p65 (evidence of NF-kB activation) was increased at landing (P less than 0.001). When evaluating the effects of n-3 fatty acid intake on bone breakdown after 60 d of bed rest (a weightlessness analog). We found that after 60 d of bed rest, greater intake of n-3 fatty acids was associated with less N-telopeptide excretion (Pearson r = -0.62, P less than 0.05). We also evaluated the relationship of fish intake and bone loss in astronauts after 4 to 6 mo missions on the International Space Station. Higher consumption of fish during flight was associated with higher bone mineral density (Pearson r = 0.46, P less than 0.05). Together, these findings provide evidence of the cellular mechanism by which n-3 fatty acids can inhibit bone loss, and preliminary human evidence of the potential for n-3 fatty acids to counteract bone loss associated with space flight. This study was supported by the NASA Human Research Program.

  12. High molecular weight PEGylation of human pancreatic polypeptide at position 22 improves stability and reduces food intake in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thieme, V; Jolly, N; Madsen, A N

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Human pancreatic polypeptide (hPP) is known to suppress appetite and food intake, thereby representing a potential therapeutic approach against obesity and associated metabolic disorders. The aim of this study was to improve hPP stability by covalent PEGylation with diverse...... fasting-induced food intake and bioavailability. KEY RESULTS: In human epithelia and colonic mucosal preparations, activity of the modified hPP peptides depended on the core sequence and latency of the peptides was related to PEG size. Peptides modified with a 22 kDa PEG (PEG22) remained intact in blood...... plasma and on incubation with liver homogenates for more than 96 h. Finally, hPP2-36 , [K(22) (PEG22)]hPP2-36 and [K(22) (PEG22),Q(34) ]hPP significantly reduced cumulative food intake in mice over 16 h after s.c. administration. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Modification with PEG22 at position 22...

  13. Exogenous recombinant human growth hormone effects during suboptimal energy and zinc intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duro Debora

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Energy and Zinc (Zn deficiencies have been associated with nutritional related growth retardation as well as growth hormone (GH resistance. In this study, the relationship between suboptimal energy and/or Zn intake and growth in rats and their response to immunoreactive exogenous recombinant human GH (GHi, was determined. Results Rats treated with GHi and fed ad-libitum energy and Zn (100/100 had increased IGFBP-3 (p Conclusion These results suggest that GHi enhances weight gain in rats with suboptimal energy and Zn intake but does not modify energy expenditure or physical activity index. Suboptimal Zn intake did not exacerbate the reduced growth or decrease in energy expenditure observed with energy restriction.

  14. Lutein concentration in human milk during early lactation and its relationship with dietary lutein intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cena, Hellas; Castellazzi, Anna Maria; Pietri, Amedeo; Roggi, Carla; Turconi, Giovanna

    2009-10-01

    The present study aimed to estimate the lutein concentration in human milk during early lactation and its relationship with dietary lutein intake measured through the administration of a short FFQ. A cross-sectional study in which an FFQ was administered twice: on day 3 (T0) and day 30 (T1) postpartum; meanwhile two breast milk samples were collected. Maternal plasma samples were obtained at T0. The comparison of dietary lutein intakes and likewise lutein concentrations in breast milk at T0 and T1 were analysed with Student's t test. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to determine the association between dietary lutein intake and lutein concentration in milk and plasma, respectively, as well as the correlation between breast milk and plasma lutein concentrations at T0. Pavia, northern Italy. Twenty-one pregnant women, age range 24-42 years, were recruited during their last trimester on a voluntary basis. Both breast milk and plasma lutein concentrations were significantly correlated with dietary lutein intake (r = 0.86, P = 0.0001 and r = 0.94, P = 0.0001, respectively). There was a clear significant correlation between milk and plasma lutein concentrations (r = 0.87, P = 0.0001). Mature milk lutein concentration, although significantly reduced at T1 (P lutein intake (r = 0.82, P = 0.0001). Even though milk lutein concentration decreased during early lactation, it remained significantly correlated with daily lutein intake. Therefore, while awaiting further research, dietary recommendations advising intake of fresh fruit and vegetables rich in lutein, throughout the whole duration of pregnancy and lactation, are extremely useful.

  15. Does intake of trace elements through urban gardening in Copenhagen pose a risk to human health?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warming, Marlies; Hansen, Mette G.; Holm, Peter E.; Magid, Jakob; Hansen, Thomas H.; Trapp, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the potential health risk from urban gardening. The concentrations of the trace elements arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) in five common garden crops from three garden sites in Copenhagen were measured. Concentrations (mg/kg dw) of As were 0.002–0.21, Cd 0.03–0.25, Cr < 0.09–0.38, Cu 1.8–8.7, Ni < 0.23–0.62, Pb 0.05–1.56, and Zn 10–86. Generally, elemental concentrations in the crops do not reflect soil concentrations, nor exceed legal standards for Cd and Pb in food. Hazard quotients (HQs) were calculated from soil ingestion, vegetable consumption, measured trace element concentrations and tolerable intake levels. The HQs for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn do not indicate a health risk through urban gardening in Copenhagen. Exposure to Pb contaminated sites may lead to unacceptable risk not caused by vegetable consumption but by unintentional soil ingestion. - Highlights: • We measured trace metal concentrations in urban soil and vegetables. • We calculated hazard quotients (HQs) to determine the human health risk. • Consumption of urban vegetables does not result in HQs exceeding unity. • Unintentional ingestion of contaminated soil causes a risk to the human health. - Consumption of vegetables grown in Copenhagen does not pose a risk to the human health, while unintentional ingestion of contaminated soil remains a risk factor with respect to lead

  16. Perfluorinated compounds: Levels, trophic web enrichments and human dietary intakes in transitional water ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renzi, Monia; Guerranti, Cristiana; Giovani, Andrea; Perra, Guido; Focardi, Silvano E.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • PFOA/S levels in a trophic web of a heavily human-stressed lagoon are measured. • High levels were found in mussels, clams and crabs. • The principal PFCs inflow sources for the ecosystem is the river. • Biota (i.e. macroalgae proliferation) contributes to redistribute pollutants in the lagoon. • Human daily dietary intakes are below maximum tolerable levels suggested by the EFSA. -- Abstract: The results of a study on levels of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), analyzed in terms of HPLC-ESI-MS in water, sediment, macrophyte, bivalve, crustacean and fish samples, are reported here. The aim of the research is to define, for the first time, PFOA/S levels in a heavily human-stressed transitional water ecosystem (Orbetello lagoon, Italy) and evaluate trophic web enrichments and human dietary intakes. The results obtained show that: (i) levels significantly higher than those reported in the literature were found in mussels, clams and crabs; (ii) the river is a significant pollution source; (iii) although absolute levels are relatively low, macroalgae proliferation contributes to redistribute pollutants from river-affected areas throughout the entire lagoon basin; (iv) to the best of our current knowledge, water-filtering species considered in this study are the most exposed to PFOA/S pollution; (v) human daily dietary intakes of PFOA/S through Slow Food-endorsed product consumption are below maximum tolerable levels suggested by the EFSA

  17. Potential Human Health Risks of Tannery Waste-contaminated Poultry Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Latiful Bari

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions. The estimated daily intake value, THQ, along with the aggregate hazard index value, indicated a potential risk to consumers through consumption of contaminated chicken. Therefore, the study results clearly demonstrate heavy metals accumulation in chicken due to feeding SCW-based feed. The contaminated chicken further transfers these heavy metals to humans through ingestion. Hence, there is a potential human health risk through consumption of contaminated chicken meat.

  18. Phytochemicals in Human Milk and Their Potential Antioxidative Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apollinaire Tsopmo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Diets contain secondary plant metabolites commonly referred to as phytochemicals. Many of them are believed to impact human health through various mechanisms, including protection against oxidative stress and inflammation, and decreased risks of developing chronic diseases. For mothers and other people, phytochemical intake occurs through the consumption of foods such as fruits, vegetables, and grains. Research has shown that some these phytochemicals are present in the mother’s milk and can contribute to its oxidative stability. For infants, human milk (HM represents the primary and preferred source of nutrition because it is a complete food. Studies have reported that the benefit provided by HM goes beyond basic nutrition. It can, for example, reduce oxidative stress in infants, thereby reducing the risk of lung and intestinal diseases in infants. This paper summarizes the phytochemicals present in HM and their potential contribution to infant health.

  19. Age dependent values of dietary intake for assessing human exposures to environmental pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rupp, E.M.

    1980-01-01

    Detailed information concerning human food consumption patterns necessary for relating pollutant body burdens to environmental contamination levels was compiled to be used in lieu of site-specific data for calculating health impacts arising from the ingestion of food containing various levels of such pollutants as radionuclides, toxic heavy metals, insecticides and many others. This paper examines available data on human food consumption rates and estimates dietary intake rates by individuals of various ages. Ingestion parameters include intake rates of water and other beverages, milk, vegetables, fruits, meat, poultry, grain and fish. Information was analyzed from documented surveys of individuals within households and from interviews and personal communications. Although average intake rates are often the only data reported in the literature, ranges as well as averages are included in this paper whenever possible. Various results are tabulated including per capita food consumption in 1955 and 1965 and changes in per capita consumption as well as changes by urbanization. Details of milk consumption are presented by selected sex-age groups. Solid food intake is given by age group. Market basket quantities of foods consumed daily are also tabulated. (author)

  20. Increasing Dietary Phosphorus Intake from Food Additives: Potential for Negative Impact on Bone Health123

    OpenAIRE

    Takeda, Eiji; Yamamoto, Hironori; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Taketani, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    It is important to consider whether habitual high phosphorus intake adversely affects bone health, because phosphorus intake has been increasing, whereas calcium intake has been decreasing in dietary patterns. A higher total habitual dietary phosphorus intake has been associated with higher serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and lower serum calcium concentrations in healthy individuals. Higher serum PTH concentrations have been shown in those who consume foods with phosphorus additives. These fi...

  1. 'Omics analysis of low dose acetaminophen intake demonstrates novel response pathways in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jetten, Marlon J.A.; Gaj, Stan [Department of Toxicogenomics, Maastricht University, Universitiessingel 50 6229 ER Maastricht (Netherlands); Ruiz-Aracama, Ainhoa [RIKILT, Institute of Food Safety, Wageningen UR, PO Box 230, 6700 AE, Wageningen (Netherlands); Kok, Theo M. de [Department of Toxicogenomics, Maastricht University, Universitiessingel 50 6229 ER Maastricht (Netherlands); Delft, Joost H.M. van, E-mail: j.vandelft@maastrichtuniversity.nl [Department of Toxicogenomics, Maastricht University, Universitiessingel 50 6229 ER Maastricht (Netherlands); Lommen, Arjen [RIKILT, Institute of Food Safety, Wageningen UR, PO Box 230, 6700 AE, Wageningen (Netherlands); Someren, Eugene P. van [Research Group Microbiology and Systems Biology, TNO, PO Box 360 3700 AJ Zeist (Netherlands); Jennen, Danyel G.J.; Claessen, Sandra M. [Department of Toxicogenomics, Maastricht University, Universitiessingel 50 6229 ER Maastricht (Netherlands); Peijnenburg, Ad A.C.M. [RIKILT, Institute of Food Safety, Wageningen UR, PO Box 230, 6700 AE, Wageningen (Netherlands); Stierum, Rob H. [Research Group Microbiology and Systems Biology, TNO, PO Box 360 3700 AJ Zeist (Netherlands); Kleinjans, Jos C.S. [Department of Toxicogenomics, Maastricht University, Universitiessingel 50 6229 ER Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2012-03-15

    Acetaminophen is the primary cause of acute liver toxicity in Europe/USA, which led the FDA to reconsider recommendations concerning safe acetaminophen dosage/use. Unfortunately, the current tests for liver toxicity are no ideal predictive markers for liver injury, i.e. they only measure acetaminophen exposure after profound liver toxicity has already occurred. Furthermore, these tests do not provide mechanistic information. Here, 'omics techniques (global analysis of metabolomic/gene-expression responses) may provide additional insight. To better understand acetaminophen-induced responses at low doses, we evaluated the effects of (sub-)therapeutic acetaminophen doses on metabolite formation and global gene-expression changes (including, for the first time, full-genome human miRNA expression changes) in blood/urine samples from healthy human volunteers. Many known and several new acetaminophen-metabolites were detected, in particular in relation to hepatotoxicity-linked, oxidative metabolism of acetaminophen. Transcriptomic changes indicated immune-modulating effects (2 g dose) and oxidative stress responses (4 g dose). For the first time, effects of acetaminophen on full-genome human miRNA expression have been considered and confirmed the findings on mRNA level. 'Omics techniques outperformed clinical chemistry tests and revealed novel response pathways to acetaminophen in humans. Although no definitive conclusion about potential immunotoxic effects of acetaminophen can be drawn from this study, there are clear indications that the immune system is triggered even after intake of low doses of acetaminophen. Also, oxidative stress-related gene responses, similar to those seen after high dose acetaminophen exposure, suggest the occurrence of possible pre-toxic effects of therapeutic acetaminophen doses. Possibly, these effects are related to dose-dependent increases in levels of hepatotoxicity-related metabolites. -- Highlights: ► 'Omics techniques

  2. 'Omics analysis of low dose acetaminophen intake demonstrates novel response pathways in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jetten, Marlon J.A.; Gaj, Stan; Ruiz-Aracama, Ainhoa; Kok, Theo M. de; Delft, Joost H.M. van; Lommen, Arjen; Someren, Eugene P. van; Jennen, Danyel G.J.; Claessen, Sandra M.; Peijnenburg, Ad A.C.M.; Stierum, Rob H.; Kleinjans, Jos C.S.

    2012-01-01

    Acetaminophen is the primary cause of acute liver toxicity in Europe/USA, which led the FDA to reconsider recommendations concerning safe acetaminophen dosage/use. Unfortunately, the current tests for liver toxicity are no ideal predictive markers for liver injury, i.e. they only measure acetaminophen exposure after profound liver toxicity has already occurred. Furthermore, these tests do not provide mechanistic information. Here, 'omics techniques (global analysis of metabolomic/gene-expression responses) may provide additional insight. To better understand acetaminophen-induced responses at low doses, we evaluated the effects of (sub-)therapeutic acetaminophen doses on metabolite formation and global gene-expression changes (including, for the first time, full-genome human miRNA expression changes) in blood/urine samples from healthy human volunteers. Many known and several new acetaminophen-metabolites were detected, in particular in relation to hepatotoxicity-linked, oxidative metabolism of acetaminophen. Transcriptomic changes indicated immune-modulating effects (2 g dose) and oxidative stress responses (4 g dose). For the first time, effects of acetaminophen on full-genome human miRNA expression have been considered and confirmed the findings on mRNA level. 'Omics techniques outperformed clinical chemistry tests and revealed novel response pathways to acetaminophen in humans. Although no definitive conclusion about potential immunotoxic effects of acetaminophen can be drawn from this study, there are clear indications that the immune system is triggered even after intake of low doses of acetaminophen. Also, oxidative stress-related gene responses, similar to those seen after high dose acetaminophen exposure, suggest the occurrence of possible pre-toxic effects of therapeutic acetaminophen doses. Possibly, these effects are related to dose-dependent increases in levels of hepatotoxicity-related metabolites. -- Highlights: ► 'Omics techniques outperformed

  3. Effect of high sugar intake on glucose transporter and weight regulating hormones in mice and humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Ritze

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Sugar consumption has increased dramatically over the last decades in Western societies. Especially the intake of sugar-sweetened beverages seems to be a major risk for the development of obesity. Thus, we compared liquid versus solid high-sugar diets with regard to dietary intake, intestinal uptake and metabolic parameters in mice and partly in humans. METHODS: Five iso-caloric diets, enriched with liquid (in water 30% vol/vol or solid (in diet 65% g/g fructose or sucrose or a control diet were fed for eight weeks to C57bl/6 mice. Sugar, liquid and caloric intake, small intestinal sugar transporters (GLUT2/5 and weight regulating hormone mRNA expression, as well as hepatic fat accumulation were measured. In obese versus lean humans that underwent either bariatric surgery or small bowel resection, we analyzed small intestinal GLUT2, GLUT5, and cholecystokinin expression. RESULTS: In mice, the liquid high-sucrose diet caused an enhancement of total caloric intake compared to the solid high-sucrose diet and the control diet. In addition, the liquid high-sucrose diet increased expression of GLUT2, GLUT5, and cholecystokinin expression in the ileum (P<0.001. Enhanced liver triglyceride accumulation was observed in mice being fed the liquid high-sucrose or -fructose, and the solid high-sucrose diet compared to controls. In obese, GLUT2 and GLUT5 mRNA expression was enhanced in comparison to lean individuals. CONCLUSIONS: We show that the form of sugar intake (liquid versus solid is presumably more important than the type of sugar, with regard to feeding behavior, intestinal sugar uptake and liver fat accumulation in mice. Interestingly, in obese individuals, an intestinal sugar transporter modulation also occurred when compared to lean individuals.

  4. Effects of chemosignals from sad tears and postprandial plasma on appetite and food intake in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Tae Jung; Kim, Min Young; Park, Kyong Soo; Cho, Young Min

    2012-01-01

    Chemosignals from human body fluids may modulate biological functions in humans. The objective of this study was to examine whether chemosignals from human sad tears and postprandial plasma modulate appetite. We obtained fasting and postprandial plasma from male participants and sad tears and saline, which was trickled below the eyelids, from female volunteers. These samples were then randomly distributed to male participants to sniff with a band-aid containing 100 µl of each fluid on four consecutive days in a double-blind fashion. We checked appetite by a visual analogue scale (VAS) and food intake by measuring the consumption of a test meal. In addition, the serum levels of total testosterone and LH were measured. Twenty men (mean age 26.3±4.6 years) were enrolled in this study. They could not discriminate between the smell of fasting and postprandial plasma and the smell of sad tears and trickled saline. Appetite and the amount of food intake were not different between the groups. Although the VAS ratings of appetite correlated with the food intake upon sniffing fasting plasma, postprandial plasma, and trickled saline, there was no such correlation upon sniffing sad tears. In addition, the decrease in serum testosterone levels from the baseline was greater with sad tears than with the trickled saline (-28.6±3.3% vs. -14.0±5.2%; P = 0.019). These data suggest that chemosignals from human sad tears and postprandial plasma do not appear to reduce appetite and food intake. However, further studies are necessary to examine whether sad tears may alter the appetite-eating behavior relation.

  5. The Potential Impacts of OTEC Intakes on Aquatic Organisms at an OTEC Site under Development on Kauai, HI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oney, Stephen K. [OTE Corporation; Hogan, Timothy [Alden Research Laboratory; Steinbeck, John [Tenera Environmental

    2013-08-31

    Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) is a marine renewable energy technology with the potential to contribute significantly to the baseload power needs of tropical island communities and remote U.S. military installations. As with other renewable energy technologies, however, there are potential challenges to its commercialization: technological, financial, social, and environmental. Given the large volumes of seawater required to drive the electricity-producing cycle, there is potential for the intakes to negatively impact the marine resources of the source waterbody through the impingement and entrainment of marine organisms. The goal of this project was to identify feasible warm water intake designs for a land-based OTEC facility proposed for development in Port Allen, Kauai and to characterize the populations of ichthyoplankton near the proposed warm water intake location that could be at risk of entrainment. The specific objectives of this project were to: • Complete a site-specific assessment of available and feasible warm water intake technologies to determine the best intake designs for minimizing impacts to aquatic organisms at the proposed land-based OTEC site in Port Allen, Kauai. • Complete a field sampling program to collect biological data to characterize the baseline populations of ichthyoplankton near the sites being considered for the warm water intake at the proposed land-based OTEC site in Port Allen, Kauai. Various intake design options are presented with the focus on providing adequate environmental protection to the local ichthyoplankton population while providing an economically viable intake option to the OTEC developer. Further definition by NOAA and other environmental regulators is required to further refine the designs presented to meet all US regulations for future OTEC development.

  6. Body mass, energy intake, and water consumption of rats and humans during space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, C. E.; Miller, M. M.; Baer, L. A.; Moran, M. M.; Steele, M. K.; Stein, T. P.

    2002-01-01

    Alteration of metabolism has been suggested as a major limiting factor to long-term space flight. In humans and primates, a negative energy balance has been reported. The metabolic response of rats to space flight has been suggested to result in a negative energy balance. We hypothesized that rats flown in space would maintain energy balance as indicated by maintenance of caloric intake and body mass gain. Further, the metabolism of the rat would be similar to that of laboratory-reared animals. We studied the results from 15 space flights lasting 4 to 19 d. There was no difference in average body weight (206 +/- 13.9 versus 206 +/- 14.8 g), body weight gain (5.8 +/- 0.48 versus 5.9 +/- 0.56 g/d), caloric intake (309 +/- 21.0 versus 309 +/- 20.1 kcal/kg of body mass per day), or water intake (200 +/- 8.6 versus 199 +/- 9.3 mL/kg of body mass per day) between flight and ground control animals. Compared with standard laboratory animals of similar body mass, no differences were noted. The observations suggested that the negative balance observed in humans and non-human primates may be due to other factors in the space-flight environment.

  7. Impact of increasing fruit and vegetables and flavonoid intake on the human gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinder, Annett; Shen, Qing; Heppel, Susanne; Lovegrove, Julie A; Rowland, Ian; Tuohy, Kieran M

    2016-04-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown protective effects of fruits and vegetables (F&V) in lowering the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and cancers. Plant-derived dietary fibre (non-digestible polysaccharides) and/or flavonoids may mediate the observed protective effects particularly through their interaction with the gut microbiota. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake on gut microbiota, with an emphasis on the role of flavonoids, and further to explore relationships between microbiota and factors associated with CVD risk. In the study, a parallel design with 3 study groups, participants in the two intervention groups representing high-flavonoid (HF) and low flavonoid (LF) intakes were asked to increase their daily F&V intake by 2, 4 and 6 portions for a duration of 6 weeks each, while a third (control) group continued with their habitual diet. Faecal samples were collected at baseline and after each dose from 122 subjects. Faecal bacteria enumeration was performed by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH). Correlations of dietary components, flavonoid intake and markers of CVD with bacterial numbers were also performed. A significant dose X treatment interaction was only found for Clostidium leptum-Ruminococcus bromii/flavefaciens with a significant increase after intake of 6 additional portions in the LF group. Correlation analysis of the data from all 122 subjects independent from dietary intervention indicated an inhibitory role of F&V intake, flavonoid content and sugars against the growth of potentially pathogenic clostridia. Additionally, we observed associations between certain bacterial populations and CVD risk factors including plasma TNF-α, plasma lipids and BMI/waist circumference.

  8. Dose contribution from metabolized organically bound tritium after chronic tritiated water intakes in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivedi, A.; Lamothe, E.; Galeriu, D.

    2001-01-01

    Our earlier study of acute tritiated water intakes in humans has demonstrated that the dose contribution from metabolized organically bound tritium is less than 10% of the body water dose. To further demonstrate that the dose contribution from the organically bound tritium per unit intake of tritiated water is the same, regardless of whether the intake is acute (all at once) or chronic (spread over time), urine samples from six male radiation workers with chronic tritiated water intakes were collected and analyzed for tritium. These workers have a well-documented dose history and a well-controlled tritium bioassay database, providing assurance that their tritium intakes were in the form of tritiated water. Each month for a full calendar year, urine samples were collected from each exposed worker. The monthly concentration of tritium-in-urine for each exposed worker was no lower than 104 Bq L -1 but no higher than 105 Bq L -1 . These urine samples were analyzed for tritiated water and organically bound tritium to determine the ratio of these tritiated species in urine. The average ratio of tritiated water to organically bound tritium in urine for each exposed worker was 330-129 (range, 297-589). In calculating the dose to these workers, we assumed that, under steady-state conditions, the ratio of the specific activity of tritium ( 3 H activity per gH) in the organic matter and water fractions of urine is representative of the ratio of the specific activity of tritium in the organic matter and water fractions of soft tissue. A mathematical model was developed and used to estimate the dose increase from the metabolized organically bound tritium based on the ratio of tritiated water to organically bound tritium in urine. The resulting average dose from the organically bound tritium was 6.9-3.1% (range, 4.7-9.9%) of the body water dose for the six male workers, and agrees well with the value obtained from our acute tritiated water intakes study in humans. The observed

  9. How strongly does appetite counter weight loss? Quantification of the feedback control of human energy intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polidori, David; Sanghvi, Arjun; Seeley, Randy; Hall, Kevin D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To quantify the feedback control of energy intake in response to long-term covert manipulation of energy balance in free-living humans. Methods We used a validated mathematical method to calculate energy intake changes during a 52 week placebo-controlled trial in 153 patients treated with canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter inhibitor that increases urinary glucose excretion thereby resulting in weight loss without patients being directly aware of the energy deficit. We analyzed the relationship between the body weight time course and the calculated energy intake changes using principles from engineering control theory. Results We discovered that weight loss leads to a proportional increase in appetite resulting in eating above baseline by ~100 kcal/day per kg of lost weight – an amount more than 3-fold larger than the corresponding energy expenditure adaptations. Conclusions While energy expenditure adaptations are often thought to be the main reason for slowing of weight loss and subsequent regain, feedback control of energy intake plays an even larger role and helps explain why long-term maintenance of a reduced body weight is so difficult. PMID:27804272

  10. Timing of food intake impacts daily rhythms of human salivary microbiota: a randomized, crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, María Carmen; Engen, Phillip A; Bandín, Cristina; Cabrera-Rubio, Raúl; Voigt, Robin M; Green, Stefan J; Naqib, Ankur; Keshavarzian, Ali; Scheer, Frank A J L; Garaulet, Marta

    2018-04-01

    The composition of the diet (what we eat) has been widely related to the microbiota profile. However, whether the timing of food consumption (when we eat) influences microbiota in humans is unknown. A randomized, crossover study was performed in 10 healthy normal-weight young women to test the effect of the timing of food intake on the human microbiota in the saliva and fecal samples. More specifically, to determine whether eating late alters daily rhythms of human salivary microbiota, we interrogated salivary microbiota in samples obtained at 4 specific time points over 24 h, to achieve a better understanding of the relationship between food timing and metabolic alterations in humans. Results revealed significant diurnal rhythms in salivary diversity and bacterial relative abundance ( i.e., TM7 and Fusobacteria) across both early and late eating conditions. More importantly, meal timing affected diurnal rhythms in diversity of salivary microbiota toward an inverted rhythm between the eating conditions, and eating late increased the number of putative proinflammatory taxa, showing a diurnal rhythm in the saliva. In a randomized, crossover study, we showed for the first time the impact of the timing of food intake on human salivary microbiota. Eating the main meal late inverts the daily rhythm of salivary microbiota diversity which may have a deleterious effect on the metabolism of the host.-Collado, M. C., Engen, P. A., Bandín, C., Cabrera-Rubio, R., Voigt, R. M., Green, S. J., Naqib, A., Keshavarzian, A., Scheer, F. A. J. L., Garaulet, M. Timing of food intake impacts daily rhythms of human salivary microbiota: a randomized, crossover study.

  11. Biofeedback, voluntary control, and human potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, P

    1986-03-01

    This paper examines some of the philosophical and scientific relationships involving self-control, voluntary control, and psychophysiologic self-regulation. The role of biofeedback in mediating conscious and unconscious processes is explored. Demonstrations of superior voluntary control and its relationship to belief, confidence, and expectation are examined. Biofeedback demonstrates the potential of control to oneself, creating confidence in one's ability to establish enhanced and peak performance in athletics, education, and psychophysiologic therapy. Emphasis is placed on the power of images in all human functioning, and in enhancing human potential.

  12. Long-term human exposure to lead from different media and intake pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzol, Massimo; Thomsen, Marianne; Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2010-10-15

    Lead (Pb) is well known as an environmental pollutant: it can accumulate in various media, so actual lead exposure reflects both historical and present contaminations. Two main challenges then emerge: obtaining updated information to gain an overall picture of the sources of exposure, and predicting the resulting internal body exposure levels and effects that occur under long-term exposure conditions. In this paper, a modeling approach is used to meet these challenges with reference to Danish exposure conditions. Levels of lead content in various media have been coupled with data for lead intake and absorption in the human body, for both children and adults. An age-dependent biokinetic model allows then for determination of the blood lead levels resulting from chronic exposure. The study shows that the actual intake of lead is up to 27% of the Provisional Tolerable Daily Intake (PTDI) for children and around 8% for adults. It is confirmed that the critical route of exposure is via ingestion, accounting for 99% of total lead intake, while inhalation contributes only to 1% of total lead intake. The resulting lead levels in the blood after 2 years of exposure to actual contamination conditions have been estimated as up to 2.2μg/dl in children and almost 1μg/dl in adults. Impacts from lead can occur even at such levels. The role of historical and present sources to lead in the environment is discussed, and, for specific child and adult exposure scenarios, external-internal concentration relationships for the direct linkage between lead in environmental media and resulting concentrations of lead in blood are then presented. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Iodine environmental availability and human intake in oceanic islands: Azores as a case-study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linhares, Diana Paula Silva; Garcia, Patrícia Ventura; Almada, Alexandra; Ferreira, Teresa; Queiroz, Gabriela; Cruz, José Virgílio; Rodrigues, Armindo dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Iodine deficiency is the most common cause of preventable mental impairment. Although several studies have established an association between ocean proximity and iodine environmental availability, recent studies revealed an inadequate iodine intake in the Azorean islands. In this study, we aim to understand the underlying causes of iodine environmental availability in oceanic islands and its association with iodine intake in schoolchildren, using the Azores as case-study. Iodine concentration in soil and grass pasture was measured by INAA and in drinking water by spectrophotometry. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) in schoolchildren was assessed by ICP-MS in a randomized cross-sectional survey with 315 participants from S. Miguel (study group) and Sta. Maria islands (reference group). A validated diet questionnaire assessing sources of iodine was recorded. The iodine concentration in soils of the reference group was significantly higher than in the study group (58.1 ppm vs. 14.5 ppm, respectively; p = 0.001). The prevalence of schoolchildren with inadequate UIC was significantly higher in the study group than in the reference one (63.0% vs. 37.8%, respectively; p < 0.001). Chronic exposure to low iodine environmental availability was significantly associated with the exacerbation in iodine deficiency, with a risk 4.94 times higher in the study group. The differences observed in the studied islands are related with each island geomorphology (soil properties and orography) and climate, which can promote or inhibit iodine environmental availability, contributing distinctively to iodine bioavailability and human intake. These findings draw attention to an urgent need for a full investigation of Azores iodine status to apply evidence-based recommendations for iodine supplementation. - Highlights: • Iodine intake in schoolchildren differs between islands of the Azorean archipelago. • Island geomorphology and climate modulate iodine environmental availability. • In

  14. Iodine environmental availability and human intake in oceanic islands: Azores as a case-study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linhares, Diana Paula Silva, E-mail: dlinhares@uac.pt [Department of Biology, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal); CVARG, Center for Volcanology and Geological Risks Assessment, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal); Garcia, Patrícia Ventura, E-mail: patriciag@uac.pt [Department of Biology, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal); CE3C, Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Changes/Azorean Biodiversity Group, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal); Almada, Alexandra, E-mail: alexandra_almada@hotmail.com [Department of Biology, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal); Ferreira, Teresa, E-mail: teresa.jl.ferreira@azores.gov.pt [Department of Geosciences, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal); CVARG, Center for Volcanology and Geological Risks Assessment, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal); Queiroz, Gabriela, E-mail: maria.gp.queiroz@azores.gov.pt [Department of Geosciences, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal); CVARG, Center for Volcanology and Geological Risks Assessment, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal); Cruz, José Virgílio, E-mail: jvc@uac.pt [Department of Geosciences, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal); CVARG, Center for Volcanology and Geological Risks Assessment, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal); Rodrigues, Armindo dos Santos, E-mail: rodrigues@uac.pt [Department of Biology, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal); CVARG, Center for Volcanology and Geological Risks Assessment, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal)

    2015-12-15

    Iodine deficiency is the most common cause of preventable mental impairment. Although several studies have established an association between ocean proximity and iodine environmental availability, recent studies revealed an inadequate iodine intake in the Azorean islands. In this study, we aim to understand the underlying causes of iodine environmental availability in oceanic islands and its association with iodine intake in schoolchildren, using the Azores as case-study. Iodine concentration in soil and grass pasture was measured by INAA and in drinking water by spectrophotometry. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) in schoolchildren was assessed by ICP-MS in a randomized cross-sectional survey with 315 participants from S. Miguel (study group) and Sta. Maria islands (reference group). A validated diet questionnaire assessing sources of iodine was recorded. The iodine concentration in soils of the reference group was significantly higher than in the study group (58.1 ppm vs. 14.5 ppm, respectively; p = 0.001). The prevalence of schoolchildren with inadequate UIC was significantly higher in the study group than in the reference one (63.0% vs. 37.8%, respectively; p < 0.001). Chronic exposure to low iodine environmental availability was significantly associated with the exacerbation in iodine deficiency, with a risk 4.94 times higher in the study group. The differences observed in the studied islands are related with each island geomorphology (soil properties and orography) and climate, which can promote or inhibit iodine environmental availability, contributing distinctively to iodine bioavailability and human intake. These findings draw attention to an urgent need for a full investigation of Azores iodine status to apply evidence-based recommendations for iodine supplementation. - Highlights: • Iodine intake in schoolchildren differs between islands of the Azorean archipelago. • Island geomorphology and climate modulate iodine environmental availability. • In

  15. Potential of variable intake manifolds to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions in part load; Potenziale von Schaltsaugrohren zur CO{sub 2}-Reduktion in der Teillast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buehl, Heinz; Pietrowski, Herbert [Mann + Hummel GmbH, Ludwigsburg (Germany). Intake Manifolds; Kratzsch, Matthias [IAV GmbH, Berlin (Germany). Fachbereich Ottomotorenentwicklung; Guenther, Michael [IAV GmbH, Chemnitz (Germany). Abt. Verbrennung/Thermodynamik Ottomotoren

    2013-11-01

    Since the introduction of turbochargers the use of variable intake manifolds to increase performance has declined. In addition to influencing the full load characteristics, variable intake manifolds, however, offer advantages in part load. In a joint project, Mann + Hummel and IAV have examined the fuel saving potential of variable intake manifolds with two current gasoline engine concepts in the NEDC. (orig.)

  16. Flavonoids in human urine as biomarkers for intake of fruits and vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Salka E.; Freese, R.; Kleemola, P.

    2002-01-01

    Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds ubiquitously found in human diets. We have studied the association between urinary excretion of flavonoids and the intake of fruits and vegetables to evaluate the usefulness of flavonoids as a biomarker for fruit and vegetable intake. Levels of 12 dietary...... relevant flavonoids were determined by LC-MS in urine samples collected prior to an intervention study, when the subjects were on their habitual diet (n = 94), and after they had participated in an intervention study with diets either high or low in fruits, berries, and vegetables (n = 77). Both flavonoid...... glycosides and aglycones were included in the assay, but only the flavonoid aglycones were detectable. Thus, the flavonols quercetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, and tamarixetin, the dihydrochalcone phloretin, and the flavanones naringenin and hesperetin were quantified in the enzymatically hydrolyzed urine...

  17. Microencapsulated bitter compounds (from Gentiana lutea) reduce daily energy intakes in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennella, Ilario; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Ferracane, Rosalia; Arlorio, Marco; Pattarino, Franco; Vitaglione, Paola

    2016-11-10

    Mounting evidence showed that bitter-tasting compounds modulate eating behaviour through bitter taste receptors in the gastrointestinal tract. This study aimed at evaluating the influence of microencapsulated bitter compounds on human appetite and energy intakes. A microencapsulated bitter ingredient (EBI) with a core of bitter Gentiana lutea root extract and a coating of ethylcellulose-stearate was developed and included in a vanilla microencapsulated bitter ingredient-enriched pudding (EBIP). The coating masked bitterness in the mouth, allowing the release of bitter secoiridoids in the gastrointestinal tract. A cross-over randomised study was performed: twenty healthy subjects consumed at breakfast EBIP (providing 100 mg of secoiridoids) or the control pudding (CP) on two different occasions. Blood samples, glycaemia and appetite ratings were collected at baseline and 30, 60, 120 and 180 min after breakfast. Gastrointestinal peptides, endocannabinoids (EC) and N-acylethanolamines (NAE) were measured in plasma samples. Energy intakes were measured at an ad libitum lunch 3 h after breakfast and over the rest of the day (post lunch) through food diaries. No significant difference in postprandial plasma responses of gastrointestinal hormones, glucose, EC and NAE and of appetite between EBIP and CP was found. However, a trend for a higher response of glucagon-like peptide-1 after EBIP than after CP was observed. EBIP determined a significant 30 % lower energy intake over the post-lunch period compared with CP. These findings were consistent with the tailored release of bitter-tasting compounds from EBIP along the gastrointestinal tract. This study demonstrated that microencapsulated bitter secoiridoids were effective in reducing daily energy intake in humans.

  18. Student Human Potential: Going beyond the Basics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Sylvia Ann

    The expansion of human potential and the accompanying increase in self-esteem and self-actualization is the key to emotional and physical health, social relations, learning problems, self-discipline, and future survival. Self-knowledge, obtained through such measures as keeping records of moods and through biomechanical devices, can enable…

  19. Exploring the therapeutic potential of Ayahuasca: acute intake increases mindfulness-related capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Joaquim; Elices, Matilde; Franquesa, Alba; Barker, Steven; Friedlander, Pablo; Feilding, Amanda; Pascual, Juan C; Riba, Jordi

    2016-03-01

    Ayahuasca is a psychotropic plant tea used for ritual purposes by the indigenous populations of the Amazon. In the last two decades, its use has expanded worldwide. The tea contains the psychedelic 5-HT2A receptor agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), plus β-carboline alkaloids with monoamine-oxidase-inhibiting properties. Acute administration induces an introspective dream-like experience characterized by visions and autobiographic and emotional memories. Studies of long-term users have suggested its therapeutic potential, reporting that its use has helped individuals abandon the consumption of addictive drugs. Furthermore, recent open-label studies in patients with treatment-resistant depression found that a single ayahuasca dose induced a rapid antidepressant effect that was maintained weeks after administration. Here, we conducted an exploratory study of the psychological mechanisms that could underlie the beneficial effects of ayahuasca. We assessed a group of 25 individuals before and 24 h after an ayahuasca session using two instruments designed to measure mindfulness capacities: The Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) and the Experiences Questionnaire (EQ). Ayahuasca intake led to significant increases in two facets of the FFMQ indicating a reduction in judgmental processing of experiences and in inner reactivity. It also led to a significant increase in decentering ability as measured by the EQ. These changes are classic goals of conventional mindfulness training, and the scores obtained are in the range of those observed after extensive mindfulness practice. The present findings support the claim that ayahuasca has therapeutic potential and suggest that this potential is due to an increase in mindfulness capacities.

  20. Exogenous recombinant human growth hormone effects during suboptimal energy and zinc intake

    OpenAIRE

    Rising, Russell; Scaglia, Julio F; Cole, Conrad; Tverskaya, Rozalia; Duro, Debora; Lifshitz, Fima

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Energy and Zinc (Zn) deficiencies have been associated with nutritional related growth retardation as well as growth hormone (GH) resistance. In this study, the relationship between suboptimal energy and/or Zn intake and growth in rats and their response to immunoreactive exogenous recombinant human GH (GHi), was determined. Results Rats treated with GHi and fed ad-libitum energy and Zn (100/100) had increased IGFBP-3 (p < 0.05) as compared with NSS (215 ± 23 vs. 185 ± 17 ...

  1. Stable Isotope Technique to Assess Intake of Human Milk in Breastfed Infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This publication was developed by an international group of experts as an integral part of the IAEA’s efforts to contribute to the transfer of technology and knowledge in nutrition. Its aim is to assist Member States in their efforts to combat malnutrition by facilitating the use of relevant nuclear techniques. The stable (non-radioactive) isotope technique has been developed to assess intake of human milk in breastfed infants. The practical application of the stable isotope technique, based on analysis of deuterium by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), is presented in this book

  2. Assessment of Human Organism's Intake of Trace Elements from Staple Foodstuffs in Central Region of Russia

    CERN Document Server

    Gorbunov, A V; Okina, O I; Frontasyeva, M A; Gundorina, S F

    2004-01-01

    The trace element content of raw materials and foodstuffs produced from them, typical for basket of goods of residents of Central Russia, was examined. An excess of permissible levels of some trace elements was observed. This phenomenon is explained in terms of different factors such as pollution of the environment, industrial technologies, biological peculiarities of raw materials of animal and vegetable origin. An assessment of human organism's trace element intake of different food allowances is given. This study was undertaken in the framework of IAEA CRP (Contract No. 11927/R2).

  3. HUMAN POTENTIAL AS A STRATEGIC FACTOR OF REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Korobeynikov

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The article gives an insight of human potential as the strategic factor of regional development. The matter of human potential and its role in regional reproducing process is considered; regional intellectual potential as an integral part of human potential is analysed. The author outlines major directions of active social policy, aimed to develop regional human potential.

  4. Dietary intake of heavy metals from eight highly consumed species of cultured fish and possible human health risk implications in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K.M. Atique Ullah

    Full Text Available Concentrations of five heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, As and Hg in eight highly consumed cultured fish species (Labeo rohita, Clarias gariepinus, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Cyprinus capio, Puntius sarana, Oreochromis mossambicus, Pangasius pangasius and Anabas testudineus collected from four wholesale markets of Dhaka city, Bangladesh (Karwan Bazar, Mohammadpur Town Hall, Newmarket and Mirpur-1 were measured using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS in order to evaluate the potential human health risks from the consumption of fish. The estimated daily intake (EDI of all the studied heavy metals calculated on the basis of mean fish consumption of 49.5 g person−1 d−1 by Bangladeshi households indicated that no risk to people’s health with respect to the EDI of investigated heavy metals through the consumption of the fish samples. From the human health point of view, the estimation of non-carcinogenic risk indicated that intake of individual heavy metal through the consumption of fish was safe for human health, whereas, consumption of combined heavy metals suggested potential health risk to highly exposed consumers. However, the estimation of carcinogenic risk of arsenic due to the consumption of fish indicated that consumers remain at risk of cancer. Keywords: Heavy metals, Fish, Estimated daily intake, Carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk, Human health risks

  5. The potential association between fruit intake and body weight - a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alinia, Sevil; Tetens, Inge; Hels, Ole

    2009-01-01

    intake reduced body weight, five of the prospective observational studies showed that fruit consumption reduced the risk of developing overweight and obesity, and four of the cross-sectional studies found an inverse association between fruit intake and body weight. Important methodological differences......Both national and international bodies recommend an increased intake of fruits and vegetables in order to decrease the risk of overweight and obesity. However, there is a rationale to investigate the separate role of fruits. The aim of this paper was to systematically review and analyse published...... and limitations in the studies make it difficult to compare results. However, the majority of the evidence points towards a possible inverse association between fruit intake and overweight. Future intervention and prospective observational studies examining the direct and independent role of fruit in body...

  6. Association between lutein intake and lutein concentrations in human milk samples from lactating mothers in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyesook; Yi, Hyunju; Jung, Ji A; Chang, Namsoo

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to determine the lutein content of breast milk and its association with maternal lutein intake among lactating mothers in South Korea. Milk samples were obtained from 98 healthy lactating women (mean age; 32.5 ± 3.5 years). Dietary intake data were collected by a food record method for three consecutive days. Maternal lutein intake was estimated by using the lutein database. Lutein concentrations in human milk were analyzed using a high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection method. The mean values of the daily lutein intakes and breast milk lutein concentrations in lactating mothers were 4.70 ± 3.11 mg/day (median 3.87) and 3.50 ± 3.71 µg/dl (median 2.45), respectively. Breast milk lutein concentrations were positively associated with the dietary lutein intake of lactating mothers after adjustment for lactating women's age, BMI, dietary energy intake, type of breastfeeding, and infants' age (β = 0.3629, P = 0.0056). Considering that lutein in milk can be associated with dietary lutein intake, knowledge about infant requirement is needed to define the adequate lutein levels in human milk.

  7. Dietary Protein in Older Adults: Adequate Daily Intake but Potential for Improved Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle K. Cardon-Thomas

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Daily distribution of dietary protein may be important in protecting against sarcopenia, specifically in terms of per meal amounts relative to a proposed threshold for maximal response. The aims of this study were to determine total and per meal protein intake in older adults, as well as identifying associations with physical activity and sedentary behavior. Three-day food diaries recorded protein intake in 38 participants. Protein distribution, coefficient of variation (CV, and per meal amounts were calculated. Accelerometry was used to collect physical activity data as well as volume and patterns of sedentary time. Average intake was 1.14 g·kg−1·day−1. Distribution was uneven (CV = 0.67, and 79% of participants reported <0.4 g·kg−1 protein content in at least 2/3 daily meals. Protein intake was significantly correlated with step count (r = 0.439, p = 0.007 and negatively correlated with sedentary time (r = −0.456, p = 0.005 and Gini index G, which describes the pattern of accumulation of sedentary time (r = −0.421, p = 0.011. Total daily protein intake was sufficient; however, distribution did not align with the current literature; increasing protein intake may help to facilitate optimization of distribution. Associations between protein and other risk factors for sarcopenia may also inform protective strategies.

  8. Medium-chain triglycerides and conjugated linoleic acids in beverage form increase satiety and reduce food intake in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Hannah; Quinn, Paul; Clegg, Miriam E

    2016-06-01

    Both developed and developing countries are seeing increasing trends of obesity in people young and old. It is thought that satiety may play a role in the prevention of obesity by increasing satiety and reducing energy intake. We hypothesized that medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) would increase satiety and decrease food intake compared with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and a control oil. Nineteen healthy participants were tested on 3 separate occasions, where they consumed a beverage test breakfast containing (1) vegetable oil (control), (2) CLA, or (3) MCT. Participants self-requested an ad libitum sandwich buffet lunch. Time between meals, satiety from visual analog scales, energy intake at lunch, and intake for the rest of the day using weighed food diaries were measured. The results indicated that the time until a meal request was significantly different between the 3 meals (P=.016); however, there were no differences in intakes at the ad libitum lunch (P>.05). The CLA breakfast generated the greatest delay in meal time request. There was a difference between the control lipid compared with both the CLA and MCT for energy intake over the remainder of the test day and for total energy intake on the test day (P.05). Both CLA and MCT increased satiety and reduced energy intake, indicating a potential role in aiding the maintenance of energy balance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. PF-05231023, a long-acting FGF21 analogue, decreases body weight by reduction of food intake in non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, W Clayton; Zhou, Yingjiang; Talukdar, Saswata; Musante, Cynthia J

    2016-08-01

    PF-05231023, a long-acting FGF21 analogue, is a promising potential pharmacotherapy for the treatment of obesity and associated comorbidities. Previous studies have shown the potential of FGF21 and FGF21-like compounds to decrease body weight in mice, non-human primates, and humans; the precise mechanisms of action remain unclear. In particular, there have been conflicting reports on the degree to which FGF21-induced weight loss in non-human primates is attributable to a decrease in food intake versus an increase in energy expenditure. Here, we present a semi-mechanistic mathematical model of energy balance and body composition developed from similar work in mice. This model links PF-05231023 administration and washout to changes in food intake, which in turn drives changes in body weight. The model is calibrated to and compared with recently published data from cynomolgus macaques treated with PF-05231023, demonstrating its accuracy in describing pharmacotherapy-induced weight loss in these animals. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that PF-05231023 decreases body weight in cynomolgus macaques solely by a reduction in food intake, with no direct effect on energy expenditure.

  10. Increasing dietary phosphorus intake from food additives: potential for negative impact on bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Eiji; Yamamoto, Hironori; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Taketani, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    It is important to consider whether habitual high phosphorus intake adversely affects bone health, because phosphorus intake has been increasing, whereas calcium intake has been decreasing in dietary patterns. A higher total habitual dietary phosphorus intake has been associated with higher serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and lower serum calcium concentrations in healthy individuals. Higher serum PTH concentrations have been shown in those who consume foods with phosphorus additives. These findings suggest that long-term dietary phosphorus loads and long-term hyperphosphatemia may have important negative effects on bone health. In contrast, PTH concentrations did not increase as a result of high dietary phosphorus intake when phosphorus was provided with adequate amounts of calcium. Intake of foods with a ratio of calcium to phosphorus close to that found in dairy products led to positive effects on bone health. Several randomized controlled trials have shown positive relations between dairy intake and bone mineral density. In our loading test with a low-calcium, high-phosphorus lunch provided to healthy young men, serum PTH concentrations showed peaks at 1 and 6 h, and serum fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) concentrations increased significantly at 8 h after the meal. In contrast, the high-calcium, high-phosphorus meal suppressed the second PTH and FGF23 elevations until 8 h after the meal. This implies that adequate dietary calcium intake is needed to overcome the interfering effects of high phosphorus intake on PTH and FGF23 secretion. FGF23 acts on the parathyroid gland to decrease PTH mRNA and PTH secretion in rats with normal kidney function. However, increased serum FGF23 is an early alteration of mineral metabolism in chronic kidney disease, causing secondary hyperthyroidism, and implying resistance of the parathyroid gland to the action of FGF23 in chronic kidney disease. These findings suggest that long-term high-phosphorus diets may impair bone health

  11. Increasing Dietary Phosphorus Intake from Food Additives: Potential for Negative Impact on Bone Health123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Eiji; Yamamoto, Hironori; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Taketani, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    It is important to consider whether habitual high phosphorus intake adversely affects bone health, because phosphorus intake has been increasing, whereas calcium intake has been decreasing in dietary patterns. A higher total habitual dietary phosphorus intake has been associated with higher serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and lower serum calcium concentrations in healthy individuals. Higher serum PTH concentrations have been shown in those who consume foods with phosphorus additives. These findings suggest that long-term dietary phosphorus loads and long-term hyperphosphatemia may have important negative effects on bone health. In contrast, PTH concentrations did not increase as a result of high dietary phosphorus intake when phosphorus was provided with adequate amounts of calcium. Intake of foods with a ratio of calcium to phosphorus close to that found in dairy products led to positive effects on bone health. Several randomized controlled trials have shown positive relations between dairy intake and bone mineral density. In our loading test with a low-calcium, high-phosphorus lunch provided to healthy young men, serum PTH concentrations showed peaks at 1 and 6 h, and serum fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) concentrations increased significantly at 8 h after the meal. In contrast, the high-calcium, high-phosphorus meal suppressed the second PTH and FGF23 elevations until 8 h after the meal. This implies that adequate dietary calcium intake is needed to overcome the interfering effects of high phosphorus intake on PTH and FGF23 secretion. FGF23 acts on the parathyroid gland to decrease PTH mRNA and PTH secretion in rats with normal kidney function. However, increased serum FGF23 is an early alteration of mineral metabolism in chronic kidney disease, causing secondary hyperthyroidism, and implying resistance of the parathyroid gland to the action of FGF23 in chronic kidney disease. These findings suggest that long-term high-phosphorus diets may impair bone health

  12. Response of appetite and potential appetite regulators following intake of high energy nutritional supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Sadia; Gerasimidis, Konstantinos; Wright, Charlotte; Tsiountsioura, Melina; Arvanitidou, Eirini-Iro; Malkova, Dalia

    2015-12-01

    The net clinical benefit of high-energy nutritional supplements (HENSDs) consumption is lower than expected. To investigate the extent to which consumption of oral HENSD in the fasted state reduces energy intake in slim females during consecutive breakfast and lunch, and whether this relates to changes in appetite and metabolic appetite regulators. Twenty three females of 24.4 ± 2.8 years with BMI of 18.2 ± 0.8 kg/m(2) consumed HENSD (2.5 MJ) or PLACEBO (0.4 MJ) in fasted state in a single blind randomized cross-over study. Appetite and metabolic rate measurements and blood collection were conducted prior to and during 240 min after the intake of the supplements. Energy intake was recorded during ad libitum buffet breakfast and lunch served 60 min and 240 min post supplementation respectively. Energy intake during breakfast was significantly (P appetite measures were not significantly different between HENSD and PLACEBO trials. Correlations for the within participant relations between the responses of plasma hormones and appetite scores were significant (P < 0.05) for PYY and insulin but not CCK. The energy expended above resting metabolic rate was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the HENDS trial but relative increase in energy expenditure was not significantly different between the two trials. Oral high-energy nutritional supplements have a partial and relatively short lived suppressive action on energy intake and can be expected to increase net energy intake by approximately half the energy value of the supplement consumed. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Potential combined effects of maternal smoking and coffee intake on foetal death within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales-Suárez-Varela, Maria; Nohr, Ellen A; Olsen, Jørn

    2018-01-01

    on the risk of foetal (early and late) death. The study included 90 086 pregnant women, with information about their smoking habit and coffee intake in early pregnancy, and several potential confounding factors. Interaction was studied by calculating both the hazard ratio (HR) in Cox's regression (linear......Background: Several studies have linked coffee intake and smoking to foetal death, but a possible interaction between both exposures remains unknown. Methods: We studied, within the Danish National Birth Cohort, the potential interaction between smoking and coffee drinking while pregnant...... and smoothed restricted cubic spline) and the interaction contrast ratio (ICR). Results: Women who neither smoked nor drank coffee were used as the reference group. Drinking more than 3 cups/d of coffee was associated with the highest risk of foetal death, spontaneous abortion and stillbirth for all smoking...

  14. Multi-scale spatial modeling of human exposure from local sources to global intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wannaz, Cedric; Fantke, Peter; Jolliet, Olivier

    2018-01-01

    Exposure studies, used in human health risk and impact assessments of chemicals are largely performed locally or regionally. It is usually not known how global impacts resulting from exposure to point source emissions compare to local impacts. To address this problem, we introduce Pangea......, an innovative multi-scale, spatial multimedia fate and exposure assessment model. We study local to global population exposure associated with emissions from 126 point sources matching locations of waste-to-energy plants across France. Results for three chemicals with distinct physicochemical properties...... occur within a 100 km radius from the source. This suggests that, by neglecting distant low-level exposure, local assessments might only account for fractions of global cumulative intakes. We also study ~10,000 emission locations covering France more densely to determine per chemical and exposure route...

  15. FGF21 Is a Sugar-Induced Hormone Associated with Sweet Intake and Preference in Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Susanna; Sandholt, Camilla Helene; Z. Jespersen, Naja

    2017-01-01

    The liking and selective ingestion of palatable foods—including sweets—is biologically controlled, and dysfunction of this regulation may promote unhealthy eating, obesity, and disease. The hepatokine fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) reduces sweet consumption in rodents and primates, whereas...... knockout of Fgf21 increases sugar consumption in mice. To investigate the relevance of these findings in humans, we genotyped variants in the FGF21 locus in participants from the Danish Inter99 cohort (n = 6,514) and examined their relationship with a detailed range of food and ingestive behaviors....... This revealed statistically significant associations between FGF21 rs838133 and increased consumption of candy, as well as nominal associations with increased alcohol intake and daily smoking. Moreover, in a separate clinical study, plasma FGF21 levels increased acutely after oral sucrose ingestion and were...

  16. Potential link between excess added sugar intake and ectopic fat: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jiantao; Karlsen, Micaela C; Chung, Mei; Jacques, Paul F; Saltzman, Edward; Smith, Caren E; Fox, Caroline S; McKeown, Nicola M

    2016-01-01

    The effect of added sugar intake on ectopic fat accumulation is a subject of debate. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to examine the potential effect of added sugar intake on ectopic fat depots. MEDLINE, CAB Abstracts, CAB Global Health, and EBM (Evidence-Based Medicine) Reviews - Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases were searched for studies published from 1973 to September 2014. RCTs with a minimum of 6 days' duration of added sugar exposure in the intervention group were selected. The dosage of added sugar intake as a percentage of total energy was extracted or calculated. Means and standard deviations of pre- and post-test measurements or changes in ectopic fat depots were collected. Fourteen RCTs were included. Most of the studies had a medium to high risk of bias. Meta-analysis showed that, compared with eucaloric controls, subjects who consumed added sugar under hypercaloric conditions likely increased ectopic fat, particularly in the liver (pooled standardized mean difference = 0.9 [95%CI, 0.6-1.2], n = 6) and muscles (pooled SMD = 0.6 [95%CI, 0.2-1.0], n = 4). No significant difference was observed in liver fat, visceral adipose tissue, or muscle fat when isocaloric intakes of different sources of added sugars were compared. Data from a limited number of RCTs suggest that excess added sugar intake under hypercaloric diet conditions likely increases ectopic fat depots, particularly in the liver and in muscle fat. There are insufficient data to compare the effect of different sources of added sugars on ectopic fat deposition or to compare intake of added sugar with intakes of other macronutrients. Future well-designed RCTs with sufficient power and duration are needed to address the role of sugars on ectopic fat deposition. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For

  17. Thermal Harvesting Potential of the Human Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielen, Moritz; Kara, Gökhan; Unkovic, Ivana; Majoe, Dennis; Hierold, Christofer

    2018-02-01

    Thermoelectric energy harvesting of human body heat might supplement or even replace conventional energy storage in wearable devices for healthcare and the Internet of Humans. Although a number of thermal harvesters are presented in the literature, no conclusive data can be found on the amount of available thermal energy provided by different individuals and activities. We here present the results of an observational study with 56 test subjects of different ages (children, adults and elderly) and gender, performing predefined activities (sitting, walking) in varying environments (indoor, outdoor). Our study showed a statistical difference of thermal potential and skin properties between age groups, but not between genders. On average, stationary elderly test subjects produced ˜ 32% less heat flux compared to minors (mean: children = 13.9 mW/cm2, adults = 11.4 mW/cm2, elderly = 9.4 mW/cm2). This potentially correlates with an increase in thermal skin resistance with age (children = 494 cm2 K/W, adults = 549 cm2 K/W, elderly = 835 cm2 K/W). The mean harvested power varied from 12.2 μW/cm2 (elderly) to 26.2 μW/cm2 (children) for stationary, and from 20.2 μW/cm2 (elderly) to 69.5 μW/cm2 (children) for active subjects inside of a building. The findings of this study can be used to better anticipate the available energy for different usage scenarios of thermal harvesters and optimize wearable systems accordingly.

  18. Thermal Harvesting Potential of the Human Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielen, Moritz; Kara, Gökhan; Unkovic, Ivana; Majoe, Dennis; Hierold, Christofer

    2018-06-01

    Thermoelectric energy harvesting of human body heat might supplement or even replace conventional energy storage in wearable devices for healthcare and the Internet of Humans. Although a number of thermal harvesters are presented in the literature, no conclusive data can be found on the amount of available thermal energy provided by different individuals and activities. We here present the results of an observational study with 56 test subjects of different ages (children, adults and elderly) and gender, performing predefined activities (sitting, walking) in varying environments (indoor, outdoor). Our study showed a statistical difference of thermal potential and skin properties between age groups, but not between genders. On average, stationary elderly test subjects produced ˜ 32% less heat flux compared to minors (mean: children = 13.9 mW/cm2, adults = 11.4 mW/cm2, elderly = 9.4 mW/cm2). This potentially correlates with an increase in thermal skin resistance with age (children = 494 cm2 K/W, adults = 549 cm2 K/W, elderly = 835 cm2 K/W). The mean harvested power varied from 12.2 μW/cm2 (elderly) to 26.2 μW/cm2 (children) for stationary, and from 20.2 μW/cm2 (elderly) to 69.5 μW/cm2 (children) for active subjects inside of a building. The findings of this study can be used to better anticipate the available energy for different usage scenarios of thermal harvesters and optimize wearable systems accordingly.

  19. Potential weekly intake of artificial food colours by 3-14-year-old children in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, M C; Guerchon, M S; Ragazzi, S

    1992-01-01

    The Potential Weekly Intake (PWI) of artificial food colours by 3-14-year-old children living in the District of Barão Geraldo, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, was estimated on the basis of average consumption data of artificially coloured food and analytically determined colour concentration in foodstuffs ingested. Coloured food consumption data were obtained through dietary recall interviews and collection of the packages and/or labels of the coloured foods consumed during a two-week period. Colours found in the individual types of foods detected through the consumption survey were identified and determined by methods that included wool dyeing and polyamide column extractions, ascending paper chromatography and spectrophotometry. The results showed that all artificial colours used in the composition of 83 commercial food products, including jellies, juices, soft drinks, syrups and 57 different candies, were permitted for use in food in Brazil the year the survey was conducted (1986), in amounts below those prescribed by law. Statistical analysis performed to compare the PWI for different population groups demonstrated that young male children, especially from lower social classes, were most exposed to artificial colours. Comparison of the estimated potential intakes with the toxicologically Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) showed that consumption of Amaranth, Sunset Yellow, Indigotine and Tartrazine by all children in the study represented approximately 24%, 3%, 0.05% and 0.4%, of the actual ADI values, respectively.

  20. Hunger and Satiety Mechanisms and Their Potential Exploitation in the Regulation of Food Intake

    OpenAIRE

    Amin, Tehmina; Mercer, Julian G.

    2016-01-01

    Effective strategies to combat recent rises in obesity levels are limited. The accumulation of excess body fat results when energy intake exceeds that expended. Energy balance is controlled by hypothalamic responses, but these can be overridden by hedonic/reward brain systems. This override, combined with unprecedented availability of cheap, energy-dense, palatable foods, may partly explain the increase in overweight and obesity. The complexity of the processes that regulate feeding behaviour...

  1. Energy intake from human milk covers the requirement of 6-month-old Senegalese exclusively breast-fed infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agne-Djigo, Anta; Kwadjode, Komlan M.; Idohou-Dossou, Nicole; Diouf, Adama; Guiro, Amadou T.; Wade, Salimata

    2013-01-01

    Exclusive breast-feeding until 6 months is advised by the WHO as the best practice to feed infants. Yet, some studies have suggested a gap between energy requirements and the energy provided by human milk for many infants at 6 months. In order to assess the adequacy of WHO recommendations in 6-month-old Senegalese lactating infants, a comprehensive study was designed to measure human milk intake by the dose-to-the mother 2H2O turnover method. Infants energy intakes were calculated using daily breast milk intake and the energy content of milk was estimated on the basis of creamatocrit. Of the fifty-nine mother-infant pairs enrolled, fifteen infants were exclusively breast-fed (Ex) while forty-four were partially breast-fed Infants breast milk intake was significantly higher in the Ex group (993 (SD 135)g/d, n 15) compared with the Part group (828 (SD 222)g/d, n 44, P= 0.009). Breast milk energy content as well as infants growth was comparable in both groups. However, infants' energy intake from human milk was significantly higher (364 (SD 50)kJ/kg per d (2586 (SD 448)kJ/d)) in the Ex group than in the Part group (289 (SD 66)kJ/kg per d (2150 (SD 552)kJ/d), P<0.01). Compared with WHO recommendations, the results demonstrate that energy intake from breast milk was low in partially breast-fed infants while exclusively breast-fed 6-month-old Senegalese infants received adequate energy from human milk alone, the most complete food for infants. Therefore, advocacy of exclusive breast-feeding until 6 months should be strengthened.

  2. Metabolomics to Explore Impact of Dairy Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zheng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dairy products are an important component in the Western diet and represent a valuable source of nutrients for humans. However, a reliable dairy intake assessment in nutrition research is crucial to correctly elucidate the link between dairy intake and human health. Metabolomics is considered a potential tool for assessment of dietary intake instead of traditional methods, such as food frequency questionnaires, food records, and 24-h recalls. Metabolomics has been successfully applied to discriminate between consumption of different dairy products under different experimental conditions. Moreover, potential metabolites related to dairy intake were identified, although these metabolites need to be further validated in other intervention studies before they can be used as valid biomarkers of dairy consumption. Therefore, this review provides an overview of metabolomics for assessment of dairy intake in order to better clarify the role of dairy products in human nutrition and health.

  3. No influence of supplemental dietary calcium intake on the bioavailability of spinach carotenoids in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corte-Real, Joana; Guignard, Cédric; Gantenbein, Manon; Weber, Bernard; Burgard, Kim; Hoffmann, Lucien; Richling, Elke; Bohn, Torsten

    2017-06-01

    Dietary carotenoid intake, especially from fruits and vegetables, has been associated with a reduced incidence of several chronic diseases. However, its bioavailability can vary, depending on the food matrix and host factors. Recently, it has been suggested that divalent minerals negatively impinge on carotenoid bioavailability by reducing bile-salt and non-esterified fatty-acid levels in the gut, which normally aid in emulsifying carotenoids. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether supplemental Ca would negatively influence carotenoid absorption in humans. A total of twenty-five healthy, non-obese men (age: 20-46 years, BMIcarotenoids/100 g fresh weight), supplemented with 0, 500 or 1000 mg of Ca (as calcium carbonate), with each participant acting as his or her own control. Blood samples were collected at regular postprandial intervals for up to 10 h following test meal intake, and standardised lunches were served. TAG-rich lipoprotein fractions were separated and carotenoid concentrations determined. AUC for meals without supplemented Ca were 22·72 (sem 2·78) nmol×h/l (lutein), 0·19 (sem 3·90) nmol×h/l (β-carotene) and 2·80 (sem 1·75) nmol×h/l (β-cryptoxanthin). No significant influence of supplementation with either 500 or 1000 mg of supplemental Ca was found. In conclusion, Ca - the most abundant divalent mineral in the diet - given at high but physiological concentrations, does not appear to have repercussions on the bioavailability of carotenoids from a spinach-based meal.

  4. DNA methylation potential: dietary intake and blood concentrations of one-carbon metabolites and cofactors in rural African women123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez-Salas, Paula; Moore, Sophie E; Cole, Darren; da Costa, Kerry-Ann; Cox, Sharon E; Dyer, Roger A; Fulford, Anthony JC; Innis, Sheila M; Waterland, Robert A; Zeisel, Steven H; Prentice, Andrew M; Hennig, Branwen J

    2013-01-01

    Background: Animal models show that periconceptional supplementation with folic acid, vitamin B-12, choline, and betaine can induce differences in offspring phenotype mediated by epigenetic changes in DNA. In humans, altered DNA methylation patterns have been observed in offspring whose mothers were exposed to famine or who conceived in the Gambian rainy season. Objective: The objective was to understand the seasonality of DNA methylation patterns in rural Gambian women. We studied natural variations in dietary intake of nutrients involved in methyl-donor pathways and their effect on the respective metabolic biomarkers. Design: In 30 women of reproductive age (18–45 y), we monitored diets monthly for 1 y by using 48-h weighed records to measure intakes of choline, betaine, folate, methionine, riboflavin, and vitamins B-6 and B-12. Blood biomarkers of these nutrients, S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), homocysteine, cysteine, and dimethylglycine were also assessed monthly. Results: Dietary intakes of riboflavin, folate, choline, and betaine varied significantly by season; the most dramatic variation was seen for betaine. All metabolic biomarkers showed significant seasonality, and vitamin B-6 and folate had the highest fluctuations. Correlations between dietary intakes and blood biomarkers were found for riboflavin, vitamin B-6, active vitamin B-12 (holotranscobalamin), and betaine. We observed a seasonal switch between the betaine and folate pathways and a probable limiting role of riboflavin in these processes and a higher SAM/SAH ratio during the rainy season. Conclusions: Naturally occurring seasonal variations in food-consumption patterns have a profound effect on methyl-donor biomarker status. The direction of these changes was consistent with previously reported differences in methylation of metastable epialleles. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01811641. PMID:23576045

  5. Higher protein intake strategies in human milk fortification for preterms infants feeding. Auxological and neurodevelopmental outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasini, A; Neri, C; China, M C; Monti, F; Di Nicola, P; Bertino, E

    2012-01-01

    Postnatal growth restriction and failure to thrive still remain a major problem in Extremely Low Birth Weight (ELBW) infants . The goal for the nutritional care of these infants is to achieve rate of growth similar to those of the fetus in utero at the equivalent gestational age. Human milk fortified remains the best food for all these preterms. Two groups of preterm of weight 580-1250 g and gestational age 23-32 wk, were fed with different protein intake in the human/maternal milk fortified ( 3,5 g Kg-1 per day and 4,8 g Kg-1 per day in the control and intervention group respectively).The feeding tolerance, intrahospital growth, neurological outcome and anthropometric data until 12 months of corrected age, were evaluated. The protein supplemented group (PSG) showed an intrahospital highter growth rate ( mostly in head circumference, p 0,02, and length growth, p 0,04) only in the preterms with 580-980 g and 23-30 wk. In the same preterms, Griffith Development Mental Score at 3 and 12 months corrected age showed higher score than in the control group in the Performance (p 0,04) and Hearing/Language (p 0,03) items. The auxological evaluation in the postdischarge period showed in the PSG group mean z-score values for length higher than those in the control group at 9 (p 0,04) months of corrected age.

  6. Human potential development as a prerequisite of public policy efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polishchuk Iryna Viktorivna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the role of the public officers’ human potential for the efficiency of making public policy. It introduces features and criteria of human potential in the context of its development of civil service. The article designates some key directions for the development of human potential of public officers.

  7. Molecular cloning, expression analysis, and potential food intake attenuation effect of peptide YY in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Shen, Yubang; Pandit, Narayan Prasad; Fu, Jianjun; Li, Da; Li, Jiale

    2013-06-15

    The peptide YY (PYY) is a 36 amino acid peptide involved in the food intake control in vertebrates. We have cloned and characterized a PYY gene from grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus. The full-length cDNA encodes a precursor protein of grass carp PYY (gcPYY) that consists of a putative 28-amino acid signal peptide, a 36-amino acid mature peptide, an amidation-proteolytic site, and a 30-amino acid carboxy-terminal extension. The gcPYY gene is comprised of 4 exons interspaced by 3 introns as seen in PYYs from other species. Amino acid alignment and gene structure comparison indicate that the structure of PYY is well preserved throughout vertebrate phylogeny. The tissue distribution and postprandial changes in gcPYY mRNA expression were evaluated by real-time PCR, which showed that the gcPYY is expressed abundantly in the central nervous system, with significantly increased expression following a single meal. During embryogenesis, the presence of gcPYY mRNA was detected in early developing embryos, and high expression levels were observed when most larvae completed their switch from endogenous nourishment to exogenous feeding. Reduced food intake by juveniles during a single meal after giving perpheral injection of gcPYY1-36 suggests a potentially important role of PYY in the food intake attenuation in grass carp. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Preventive effect of theanine intake on stress-induced impairments of hippocamapal long-term potentiation and recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamano, Haruna; Fukura, Kotaro; Suzuki, Miki; Sakamoto, Kazuhiro; Yokogoshi, Hidehiko; Takeda, Atsushi

    2013-06-01

    Theanine, γ-glutamylethylamide, is one of the major amino acid components in green tea. On the basis of the preventive effect of theanine intake after birth on mild stress-induced attenuation of hippocamapal CA1 long-term potentiation (LTP), the present study evaluated the effect of theanine intake after weaning on stress-induced impairments of LTP and recognition memory. Young rats were fed water containing 0.3% theanine for 3 weeks after weaning and subjected to water immersion stress for 30min, which was more severe than tail suspension stress for 30s used previously. Serum corticosterone levels were lower in theanine-administered rats than in the control rats even after exposure to stress. CA1 LTP induced by a 100-Hz tetanus for 1s was inhibited in the presence of 2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate (APV), an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, in hippocampal slices from the control rats and was attenuated by water immersion stress. In contrast, CA1 LTP was not significantly inhibited in the presence of APV in hippocampal slices from theanine-administered rats and was not attenuated by the stress. Furthermore, object recognition memory was impaired in the control rats, but not in theanine-administered rats. The present study indicates the preventive effect of theanine intake after weaning on stress-induced impairments of hippocampal LTP and recognition memory. It is likely that the modification of corticosterone secretion after theanine intake is involved in the preventive effect. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Metabolomics, Nutrition, and Potential Biomarkers of Food Quality, Intake, and Health Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sébédio, Jean-Louis

    Diet, dietary patterns, and other environmental factors such as exposure to toxins are playing an important role in the prevention/development of many diseases, like obesity, type 2 diabetes, and consequently on the health status of individuals. A major challenge nowadays is to identify novel biomarkers to detect as early as possible metabolic dysfunction and to predict evolution of health status in order to refine nutritional advices to specific population groups. Omics technologies such as genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics coupled with statistical and bioinformatics tools have already shown great potential in this research field even if so far only few biomarkers have been validated. For the past two decades, important analytical techniques have been developed to detect as many metabolites as possible in human biofluids such as urine, blood, and saliva. In the field of food science and nutrition, many studies have been carried out for food authenticity, quality, and safety, as well as for food processing. Furthermore, metabolomic investigations have been carried out to discover new early biomarkers of metabolic dysfunction and predictive biomarkers of developing pathologies (obesity, metabolic syndrome, type-2 diabetes, etc.). Great emphasis is also placed in the development of methodologies to identify and validate biomarkers of nutrients exposure. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. An approach for assessing potential sediment-bound contaminant threats near the intake of a drinking water treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Anderson, William B; Huck, Peter M

    2013-01-01

    To assist in assessing a potential contaminated sediment threat near a drinking water intake in a large lake, a technique known as the fingerprint analysis of leachate contaminants (FALCON), was investigated and enhanced to help draw more statistically significant definitive conclusions. This represents the first application of this approach, originally developed by the USEPA to characterize and track leachate penetration in groundwater and contaminant migration from waste and landfill sites, in a large lake from the point-of-view of source water protection. FALCON provided valuable information regarding contaminated sediment characterization, source attribution, and transport within a surface water context without the need for knowledge of local hydrodynamic conditions, potentially reducing reliance on complicated hydrodynamic analysis. A t-test to evaluate the significance of correlations was shown to further enhance the FALCON procedure. In this study, the sensitivity of FALCON was found to be improved by using concentration data from both conserved organics and heavy metals in combination. Furthermore, data analysis indicated that it may be possible to indirectly assess the success of remediation efforts (and the corresponding need to plan for a treatment upgrade in the event of escalating contaminant concentrations) by examining the temporal change in correlation between the source and intake sediment fingerprints over time. This method has potential for widespread application in situations where conserved contaminants such as heavy metals and higher molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), are being or have previously been deposited in sediment somewhere in, or within range of, an intake protection zone. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of sodium intake on cardiovascular variables in humans during posture changes and ambulatory conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, M.; Gabrielsenm A.; Heer, M.

    2002-01-01

    and controlled laboratory conditions at the end of two consecutive 5-day periods with sodium intakes of 70 (low) and 250 (high) mmol/24 h or vice versa, respectively. Comparing high and low sodium intake, plasma volume and plasma protein concentrations were 9 and 8% higher in the seated and the supine position...

  12. Oesophageal and gastric potential difference and pH in healthy volunteers following intake of coca-cola, red wine, and alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, E; Hauge, C; Sommer, P; Mortensen, T

    1993-01-01

    Alcohol causes gastroesophageal reflux and mucosal damage in the oesophagus and the stomach. The transmucosal electrical potential difference gives information on gastric mucosal integrity and function, while the validity of oesophageal measurements have been discussed. Baseline oesophageal potential difference measurements were performed three times with an interval of at least one week. We found oesophageal potential difference measurements reliable with an acceptable reproducibility. Oesophageal and gastric potential difference and pH were measured by use of a new microelectrode principle in 10 healthy volunteers following intake of coca-cola, wine and alcohol. Oesophageal and gastric potential difference decreased after intake of 250 ml coca-cola, 250 ml 11 vol% red wine and 60 ml 43 vol% whisky. Gastric potential difference decreased after intake of 250 ml ethanol 11 vol% and 60 ml ethanol 43 vol%. Intake of red wine and whisky resulted in a significant greater gastric potential difference decrease compared to similar concentrations and volumes of ethanol. The time until the potential difference had regained baseline level was longer after intake of red wine compared to coca-cola, whisky and ethanol. Oesophageal pH decreased after intake of coca-cola and red wine, but was unchanged after whisky. Gastric pH was unchanged after intake of all the drinks. In conclusion, the gastric potential difference reduction was not correlated to alcohol concentration. Red wine seems to affect the gastric potential difference more than coca-cola, whisky and ethanol. The observed changes in oesophageal and gastric potential difference might be due to changes in Cl- secretion and/or due to a damaging effect of the additives of the beverages.

  13. Effect of the pattern of food intake on human energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verboeket-van de Venne, W P; Westerterp, K R; Kester, A D

    1993-07-01

    The pattern of food intake can affect the regulation of body weight and lipogenesis. We studied the effect of meal frequency on human energy expenditure (EE) and its components. During 1 week ten male adults (age 25-61 years, body mass index 20.7-30.4 kg/m2) were fed to energy balance at two meals/d (gorging pattern) and during another week at seven meals/d (nibbling pattern). For the first 6 d of each week the food was provided at home, followed by a 36 h stay in a respiration chamber. O2 consumption and CO2 production (and hence EE) were calculated over 24 h. EE in free-living conditions was measured over the 2 weeks with doubly-labelled water (average daily metabolic rate, ADMR). The three major components of ADMR are basal metabolic rate (BMR), diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) and EE for physical activity (ACT). There was no significant effect of meal frequency on 24 h EE or ADMR. Furthermore, BMR and ACT did not differ between the two patterns. DIT was significantly elevated in the gorging pattern, but this effect was neutralized by correction for the relevant time interval. With the method used for determination of DIT no significant effect of meal frequency on the contribution of DIT to ADMR could be demonstrated.

  14. Technology--The Extension of Human Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childress, Vincent W.

    2018-01-01

    Technology is defined differently depending on one's point of view, but in "Standards for Technological Literacy," technology is defined as "Human innovation…the generation of knowledge and processes…that solve problems and extend human capabilities" (ITEA/ITEEA 2000/2002/2007). The processes associated with the development of…

  15. A systematic review of the effect of oral glucocorticoids on energy intake, appetite, and body weight in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthon, Bronwyn S; MacDonald-Wicks, Lesley K; Wood, Lisa G

    2014-03-01

    Obesity is a serious risk factor for chronic disease, and commonly prescribed oral glucocorticoids (OCS) may be contributing to the prevalence of obesity. The objective of this review was to assess the impact of OCS on obesity in humans through effects on body weight (BW), energy intake, appetite, and body composition. An electronic search of English language peer-reviewed studies from 1973 up to March 2012 was conducted using Medline, CINAHL, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases. Original studies that addressed the effects of OCS on appetite, energy intake, BW, or body composition in adults were considered eligible. Data from 21 studies with objectively measured outcomes were extracted and assessed for quality using standardized tools. The publication year varied from 1986 to 2013, and the sample size, from 6 to 189. Energy intake was measured in 6 studies; BW, in 19 studies; energy expenditure, in 3 studies; body composition, in 6 studies; and appetite was evaluated in 3 studies. Short-term oral glucocorticoid therapy may result in small increases in energy intake but does not appear to result in increased BW, possibly due to an increase in energy expenditure. Long-term therapy may result in clinically significant weight gain. Within-subject variation due to metabolism and physical activity levels confounds the relationship. A dose-response relationship of oral glucocorticoid therapy on energy intake, appetite, BW, or body composition was not found. Additional well-designed, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials that use standardized doses of OCS and assess the effects on appetite, energy intake, BW, and composition are strongly justified to confirm the findings of this review. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Activity related energy expenditure, appetite and energy intake: potential implications for weight management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, D M; Martin, C K; Ravussin, E; Katzmarzyk, P T

    2013-08-01

    The aim was to investigate relationships between activity related energy expenditure (AREE), appetite ratings and energy intake (EI) in a sample of 40 male (26.4years; BMI 23.5kg/m(2)) and 42 female (26.9years; BMI 22.4kg/m(2)) participants. AREE was expressed as the residual value of the regression between total daily EE (by doubly labeled water) and resting EE (by indirect calorimetry). EI was measured using an ad libitum buffet meal and visual analogue scales measured subjective appetite ratings before and after the meal. AREE was divided into low, middle and high sex-specific tertiles. General linear models were used to investigate differences in appetite ratings and EI across AREE tertiles. Before the meal, males in the high AREE tertile had significantly lower desire to eat and lower prospective food consumption and higher feelings of fullness compared to those in the low tertile. Males in the middle tertile had significantly higher satiety quotients after the meal and lower EI compared to the other tertiles. No significant differences across tertiles were found in females. Sex differences in relationships between AREE, appetite ratings and EI may lead to differing patterns of EI and subsequent weight maintenance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Measurement of human potential in organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa María Fuchs Ángeles

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Companies around the world are concerned about talent management in their organizations. The concern is to retain talented employees and this may not be possible if they are not properly identified. Performance and potential evaluations become then important. Performance evaluations qualify the historical record of the employee, so their measurement is provided. However, measuring the potential performance assesses potential future charges, therefore it is not a simple task. In this paper, characteristics evaluated in potential employees and tools that are commonly used are presented. Also, the case of four companies operating in Peru is shown.

  18. Berry fruits: compositional elements, biochemical activities, and the impact of their intake on human health, performance, and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeram, Navindra P

    2008-02-13

    An overwhelming body of research has now firmly established that the dietary intake of berry fruits has a positive and profound impact on human health, performance, and disease. Berry fruits, which are commercially cultivated and commonly consumed in fresh and processed forms in North America, include blackberry ( Rubus spp.), black raspberry ( Rubus occidentalis), blueberry ( Vaccinium corymbosum), cranberry (i.e., the American cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon, distinct from the European cranberry, V. oxycoccus), red raspberry ( Rubus idaeus) and strawberry ( Fragaria x ananassa). Other berry fruits, which are lesser known but consumed in the traditional diets of North American tribal communities, include chokecherry ( Prunus virginiana), highbush cranberry ( Viburnum trilobum), serviceberry ( Amelanchier alnifolia), and silver buffaloberry ( Shepherdia argentea). In addition, berry fruits such as arctic bramble ( Rubus articus), bilberries ( Vaccinuim myrtillus; also known as bog whortleberries), black currant ( Ribes nigrum), boysenberries ( Rubus spp.), cloudberries ( Rubus chamaemorus), crowberries ( Empetrum nigrum, E. hermaphroditum), elderberries ( Sambucus spp.), gooseberry ( Ribes uva-crispa), lingonberries ( Vaccinium vitis-idaea), loganberry ( Rubus loganobaccus), marionberries ( Rubus spp.), Rowan berries ( Sorbus spp.), and sea buckthorn ( Hippophae rhamnoides), are also popularly consumed in other parts of the world. Recently, there has also been a surge in the consumption of exotic "berry-type" fruits such as the pomegranate ( Punica granatum), goji berries ( Lycium barbarum; also known as wolfberry), mangosteen ( Garcinia mangostana), the Brazilian açaí berry ( Euterpe oleraceae), and the Chilean maqui berry ( Aristotelia chilensis). Given the wide consumption of berry fruits and their potential impact on human health and disease, conferences and symposia that target the latest scientific research (and, of equal importance, the dissemination of

  19. Potential intake of phytosterols/-stanols: results of a simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, N.; Pijpers, L.; Bleeker, J.K.; Ocke, M.C.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Different doses of phytosterols/-stanols up to a maximum of 4.0 g/day have been used in human safety studies, whereas only one small-scale study investigated some detailed clinical information about consumption levels exceeding 8.6 g/day. Objective: To determine which population groups

  20. Potential effects of fat mass and fat-free mass on energy intake in different states of energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, R James; Hopkins, M; Finlayson, G S; Duarte, C; Gibbons, C; Blundell, J E

    2018-05-01

    Recently models have attempted to integrate the functional relationships of fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) with the control of human energy intake (EI). Cross-sectional evidence suggests that at or close to EB, FFM is positively related to hunger and EI, whereas FM either shows a weak negative or no association with ad libitum EI. Further analysis suggests that the effects of FFM and FM on EI may be mediated by resting metabolic rate (RMR). These studies suggest that energy turnover is associated with EI and the largest determinant of energy requirements in most humans is FFM. During chronic positive EBs both FM and FFM expand (but disproportionately so), increasing energy demands. There is little evidence that an expanding FM exerts strong negative feedback on longer term EI. However, during chronic negative EBs FM, FFM and RMR all decrease but appetite increases. Some studies suggest that proportionate loss of FFM during weight loss predicts subsequent weight regain. Taken together these lines of evidence suggest that changes in the size and functional integrity of FFM may influence appetite and EI. Increases in FFM associated with either weight gain or high levels of exercise may 'pull' EI upwards but energy deficits that decrease FFM may exert a distinct drive on appetite. The current paper discusses how FM and FFM relationships influence appetite regulation, and how size, structure and functional integrity of FFM may drive EI in humans (i) at EB (ii) during positive EB and (iii) during negative EB.

  1. Dose contribution from metabolized organically bound tritium after acute tritiated water intakes in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivedi, A.; Galeriu, D.; Richardson, R.B.

    1997-01-01

    Urine samples from eight male radiation workers who had an unplanned acute tritiated water intake were measured for tritium-in-urine up to 300 d post-exposure. During the first month or so post-exposure, these individuals increased their fluid intakes to accelerate the turnover rate of tritium in the body for dose mitigation. Their daily fluid intakes reverted to normal levels in the latter period of the study. A non-linear regressional analysis of the tritium-in-urine data showed that the average biological half-life of tritium in body water, with standard deviation, was 63 ± 1.0 d (range, 5.0-8.1 d) and 8.4 ± 2.0 d (range, 6.2-12.8 d) during the respective periods of increased fluid intake and the later period of normal fluid intake. A longer term component of tritium excretion was also observed with average biological half-life of 74 ± 18 d (range, 58-104 d), indicating the incorporation of tritium, and its retention, in the organic fractions of the body. A mathematical model was developed and used to estimate the dose increase from the metabolized organically bound tritium on the basis of the kinetics of tritium-in-urine. The model accounts for a change in the rates of urinary excretion caused by variable fluid intakes. The average dose to the body, for the eight male workers, due to the metabolized organically bound tritium was estimated to be 6.2 ± 1.3% (range, 3.5% to 8.9%) of the committed effective dose due to tritium in the body water. This value for the dose increase from organically bound tritium is in the range of the current recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, i.e., organically bound tritium incorporated into the body contributes about 10% of the dose to the body water following tritiated water intakes. (author)

  2. A review of the characteristics of dietary fibers relevant to appetite and energy intake outcomes in human intervention trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poutanen, Kaisa S; Dussort, Pierre; Erkner, Alfrun; Fiszman, Susana; Karnik, Kavita; Kristensen, Mette; Marsaux, Cyril Fm; Miquel-Kergoat, Sophie; Pentikäinen, Saara P; Putz, Peter; Slavin, Joanne L; Steinert, Robert E; Mela, David J

    2017-09-01

    Background: Many intervention studies have tested the effect of dietary fibers (DFs) on appetite-related outcomes, with inconsistent results. However, DFs comprise a wide range of compounds with diverse properties, and the specific contribution of these to appetite control is not well characterized. Objective: The influence of specific DF characteristics [i.e., viscosity, gel-forming capacity, fermentability, or molecular weight (MW)] on appetite-related outcomes was assessed in healthy humans. Design: Controlled human intervention trials that tested the effects of well-characterized DFs on appetite ratings or energy intake were identified from a systematic search of literature. Studies were included only if they reported 1 ) DF name and origin and 2 ) data on viscosity, gelling properties, fermentability, or MW of the DF materials or DF-containing matrixes. Results: A high proportion of the potentially relevant literature was excluded because of lack of adequate DF characterization. In total, 49 articles that met these criteria were identified, which reported 90 comparisons of various DFs in foods, beverages, or supplements in acute or sustained-exposure trials. In 51 of the 90 comparisons, the DF-containing material of interest was efficacious for ≥1 appetite-related outcome. Reported differences in material viscosity, MW, or fermentability did not clearly correspond to differences in efficacy, whereas gel-forming DF sources were consistently efficacious (but with very few comparisons). Conclusions: The overall inconsistent relations of DF properties with respect to efficacy may reflect variation in measurement methodology, nature of the DF preparation and matrix, and study designs. Methods of DF characterization, incorporation, and study design are too inconsistent to allow generalized conclusions about the effects of DF properties on appetite and preclude the development of reliable, predictive, structure-function relations. Improved standards for

  3. Mild cold effects on hunger, food intake, satiety and skin temperature in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langeveld, M.; Tan, C. Y.; Soeters, M. R.; Virtue, S.; Ambler, G. K.; Watson, L. P. E.; Murgatroyd, P. R.; Chatterjee, V. K.; Vidal-Puig, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mild cold exposure increases energy expenditure and can influence energy balance, but at the same time it does not increase appetite and energy intake. Objective: To quantify dermal insulative cold response, we assessed thermal comfort and skin temperatures changes by infrared

  4. Effect of carbohydrate intake on de novo lipogenesis in human adipose tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chascione, C.; Elwyn, D.H.; Davila, M.; Gil, K.M.; Askanazi, J.; Kinney, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Rates of synthesis, from [ 14 C]glucose, of fatty acids (de novo lipogenesis) and glycerol (triglyceride synthesis) were measured in biopsies of adipose tissue from nutritionally depleted patients given low- or high-carbohydrate intravenous nutrition. Simultaneously, energy expenditure and whole-body lipogenesis were measured by indirect calorimetry. Rates of whole-body lipogenesis were zero on the low-carbohydrate diet and averaged 1.6 g·kg -1 ·day -1 on the high-carbohydrate diet. In vitro rates of triglyceride synthesis increased 3-fold going from the low to the high intake; rates of fatty acid synthesis increased ∼80-fold. In vitro, lipogenesis accounted for <0.1% of triglyceride synthesis on the low intake and 4% on the high intake. On the high-carbohydrate intake, in vitro rates of triglyceride synthesis accounted for 61% of the rates of unidirectional triglyceride synthesis measured by indirect calorimetry. In vitro rates of lipogenesis accounted for 7% of whole-body lipogenesis. Discrepancies between in vitro rates of fatty acid synthesis from glucose, compared with acetate and citrate, as reported by others, suggest that in depleted patients on hypercaloric high-carbohydrate diets, adipose tissue may account for up to 40% of whole-body lipogenesis

  5. Intraduodenal infusion of a combination of tastants decreases food intake in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avesaat, M. van; Troost, F.J.; Ripken, D.; Peters, J.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Masclee, A.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Taste receptors are expressed not only in taste buds but also in the gastrointestinal tract. It has been hypothesized that these receptors may play a role in satiety and food intake. Objective: This study investigated the effect of intraduodenal tastant infusions (bitter, sweet, and

  6. Intraduodenal infusion of a combination of tastants decreases food intake in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avesaat, Van Mark; Troost, F.J.; Ripken, Dina; Peters, Jelmer; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Masclee, A.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Taste receptors are expressed not only in taste buds but also in the gastrointestinal tract. It has been hypothesized that these receptors may play a role in satiety and food intake. Objective: This study investigated the effect of intraduodenal tastant infusions (bitter, sweet, and

  7. Timing of postexercise protein intake is important for muscle hypertrophy with resistance training in elderly humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esmarck, B.; Andersen, J.L.; Olsen, S.

    2001-01-01

    1. Age-associated loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength can partly be counteracted by resistance training, causing a net synthesis of muscular proteins. Protein synthesis is influenced synergistically by postexercise amino acid supplementation, but the importance of the timing of protein intake...

  8. Clinical potentials of human pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Cristina; Serzanti, Marialaura; Consiglio, Antonella; Memo, Maurizio; Dell'Era, Patrizia

    2017-08-01

    Aging, injuries, and diseases can be considered as the result of malfunctioning or damaged cells. Regenerative medicine aims to restore tissue homeostasis by repairing or replacing cells, tissues, or damaged organs, by linking and combining different disciplines including engineering, technology, biology, and medicine. To pursue these goals, the discipline is taking advantage of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), a peculiar type of cell possessing the ability to differentiate into every cell type of the body. Human PSCs can be isolated from the blastocysts and maintained in culture indefinitely, giving rise to the so-called embryonic stem cells (ESCs). However, since 2006, it is possible to restore in an adult cell a pluripotent ESC-like condition by forcing the expression of four transcription factors with the rejuvenating reprogramming technology invented by Yamanaka. Then the two types of PSC can be differentiated, using standardized protocols, towards the cell type necessary for the regeneration. Although the use of these derivatives for therapeutic transplantation is still in the preliminary phase of safety and efficacy studies, a lot of efforts are presently taking place to discover the biological mechanisms underlying genetic pathologies, by differentiating induced PSCs derived from patients, and new therapies by challenging PSC-derived cells in drug screening.

  9. Occurrence of imidacloprid, carbendazim, and other biocides in Italian house dust: Potential relevance for intakes in children and pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salis, Severyn; Testa, Cecilia; Roncada, Paola; Armorini, Sara; Rubattu, Nicola; Ferrari, Angelo; Miniero, Roberto; Brambilla, Gianfranco

    2017-09-02

    The occurrence of pesticides intended for non-agricultural use was investigated in 206 dust samples drawn from vacuum-cleaner bags from residential flats in Italy. The multi-residue analysis targeted on 95 different active principles was performed with UPLC-MS/MS, with a Limit of Quantification (LOQ) of 0.008 μg/g dry weight. The results indicated the presence of imidacloprid (IMI) and carbendazim (CARB) in 30% and 26% of the samples, with a mean and P95 concentration between 1.6 and 39 and between 0.08 and 4.9 μg/g, respectively. Combined presence of two biocides was noted in 19.4% samples, of three biocides in 9.2% samples, of four biocides in 3.4% samples, and of five and six biocides in 0.5% and 1% samples, respectively. According to the estimated dust intake in infants/toddlers aged 6-24 months (16-100 mg d -1 ) and cats (200 mg d -1 ), it was possible to obtain risk characterization with respect to the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) for IMI of 0.060 mg/kg body weight (bw) proposed by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and the chronic Population Adjusted Dose (cPAD) of 0.019 mg/kg bw d -1 by US-EPA. Under the worst-case scenario, the presence of IMI in dust indicates potential exceedance of the cPAD in kittens, to be considered as sentinel also accounting for combined exposure. This study highlights the relevance of consumer empowerment about the responsible use of pesticides as biocidal products in indoor environment.

  10. Mild cold effects on hunger, food intake, satiety and skin temperature in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Langeveld

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Mild cold exposure increases energy expenditure and can influence energy balance, but at the same time it does not increase appetite and energy intake. Objective To quantify dermal insulative cold response, we assessed thermal comfort and skin temperatures changes by infrared thermography. Methods We exposed healthy volunteers to either a single episode of environmental mild cold or thermoneutrality. We measured hunger sensation and actual free food intake. After a thermoneutral overnight stay, five males and five females were exposed to either 18°C (mild cold or 24°C (thermoneutrality for 2.5 h. Metabolic rate, vital signs, skin temperature, blood biochemistry, cold and hunger scores were measured at baseline and for every 30 min during the temperature intervention. This was followed by an ad libitum meal to obtain the actual desired energy intake after cold exposure. Results We could replicate the cold-induced increase in REE. But no differences were detected in hunger, food intake, or satiety after mild cold exposure compared with thermoneutrality. After long-term cold exposure, high cold sensation scores were reported, which were negatively correlated with thermogenesis. Skin temperature in the sternal area was tightly correlated with the increase in energy expenditure. Conclusions It is concluded that short-term mild cold exposure increases energy expenditure without changes in food intake. Mild cold exposure resulted in significant thermal discomfort, which was negatively correlated with the increase in energy expenditure. Moreover, there is a great between-subject variability in cold response. These data provide further insights on cold exposure as an anti-obesity measure.

  11. Does dietary fluid intake affect skin hydration in healthy humans? A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdeniz, M; Tomova-Simitchieva, T; Dobos, G; Blume-Peytavi, U; Kottner, J

    2018-02-02

    Associations between daily amounts of drinking water and skin hydration and skin physiology receive increasingly attention in the daily life and in clinical practice. However, there is a lack of evidence of dermatological benefits from drinking increased amounts of water. Pubmed and Web of Science were searched without any restrictions of publication dates. References of included papers and related reviews were checked. Eligibility criteria were primary intervention and observational studies investigating the effects of fluid intake on skin properties in English, German, Spanish or Portuguese language, including subjects being healthy and 18+ years. Searches resulted in 216 records, 23 articles were read in full text, and six were included. The mean age of the samples ranged from 24 to 56 years. Overall the evidence is weak in terms of quantity and methodological quality. Disregarding the methodological limitations a slight increase in stratum corneum and "deep" skin hydration was observed after additional water intake, particularly in individuals with lower prior water consumption. Reductions of clinical signs of dryness and roughness were observed. The extensibility and elasticity of the skin increased slightly. Unclear associations were shown between water intake and transepidermal water loss, sebum content, and skin surface pH. Additional dietary water intake may increase stratum corneum hydration. The underlying biological mechanism for this possible relationship is unknown. Whether this association also exists in aged subjects is unclear. Research is needed to answer the question whether increased fluid intake decreases signs of dry skin. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Blood cells transcriptomics as source of potential biomarkers of articular health improvement: effects of oral intake of a rooster combs extract rich in hyaluronic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sánchez, J.; Bonet, M.L.; Keijer, J.; Schothorst, van E.M.; Moller, I.; Chetrit, C.; Martinez-Puig, D.; Palou, A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore peripheral blood gene expression as a source of biomarkers of joint health improvement related to glycosaminoglycan (GAG) intake in humans. Healthy individuals with joint discomfort were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention study

  13. Protein leverage effects of beef protein on energy intake in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Eveline A; Tan, Sze-Yen; Dunlop, Mandy V; Mattes, Richard D; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2014-06-01

    The protein leverage hypothesis requires specific evidence that protein intake is regulated more strongly than energy intake. The objective was to determine ad libitum energy intake, body weight changes, appetite profile, and nitrogen balance in response to 3 diets with different protein-to-carbohydrate + fat ratios over 12 consecutive days, with beef as a source of protein. A 3-arm, 12-d randomized crossover study was performed in 30 men and 28 women [mean ± SD age: 33 ± 16 y; body mass index (in kg/m²): 24.4 ± 4.0] with the use of diets containing 5%, 15%, and 30% of energy (En%) from protein, predominantly from beef. Energy intake was significantly lower in the 30En%-protein condition (8.73 ± 1.93 MJ/d) than in the 5En%-protein (9.48 ± 1.67 MJ/d) and 15En%-protein (9.30 ± 1.62 MJ/d) conditions (P = 0.001), stemming largely from lower energy intake during meals (P = 0.001). Hunger (P = 0.001) and desire to eat (P = 0.001) ratings were higher and fullness ratings were lower (P = 0.001) in the 5En%-protein condition than in the 15En%-protein and 30En%-protein conditions. Nitrogen excretion was lower in the 5En%-protein condition (4.7 ± 1.5 g/24 h; P = 0.001) and was higher in the 30En%-protein condition (15.3 ± 8.7 g/24 h; P = 0.001) compared with the 15En%-protein condition (10.0 ± 5.2 g/24 h). Nitrogen balance was maintained in the 5En%-protein condition and was positive in the 15En%- and 30En%-protein conditions (P = 0.001). Complete protein leverage did not occur because subjects did not consume to a common protein amount at the expense of energy balance. Individuals did underconsume relative to energy requirements from high-protein diets. The lack of support for protein leverage effects on a low-protein diet may stem from the fact that protein intake was sufficient to maintain nitrogen balance over the 12-d trial. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. A preliminary exploration of the potential of Eugenia uvalha Cambess juice intake to counter oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, J M M; Lage, N N; Guerra, J F C; Silva, M; Bonomo, L F; Paulino, A H S; Regis, A L R S; Pedrosa, M L; Silva, M E

    2018-03-01

    The ability of foods to aid in the prevention of chronic metabolic diseases, has recently become an area of increased interest. In addition, there is growing interest in exploring the benefits of consuming underutilized fruits as alternatives to commercially available fruits. Eugenia uvalha Cambess (uvaia) is a native fruit of Brazil with great market and phytotherapy potential. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of uvaia juice (UJ) on the levels of protein carbonyls (PCO) and antioxidant enzymes in the livers of rats fed a high-fat diet. Thirty-two female rats were randomly assigned to four groups. The rats were fed either a standard diet (group C) or a high-fat diet (group HF). In addition, groups CUJ and HFUJ were treated with UJ (2mL/day) administered via gavage for 8weeks. In our study, UJ displayed high antioxidant activity (135.14±9.74 GAE/100g). Administration of UJ caused a significantly reduced concentration of rat liver PCO (47.4%), which was associated with a 29% increase in catalase activity. A significant increase in the concentration of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) (15.04±5.08nmol/ml) and a reduction in the reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratio (GSH/GSSG) (11.30±2.68) were found in the HF group, whilst these changes were not observed in the HFUJ group (a result similar to that of group C). Our results demonstrate that UJ decreases oxidative damage by improving antioxidant efficiency and attenuating oxidative damage to proteins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Mistimed food intake and sleep alters 24-hour time-of-day patterns of the human plasma proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depner, Christopher M; Melanson, Edward L; McHill, Andrew W; Wright, Kenneth P

    2018-06-05

    Proteomics holds great promise for understanding human physiology, developing health biomarkers, and precision medicine. However, how much the plasma proteome varies with time of day and is regulated by the master circadian suprachiasmatic nucleus brain clock, assessed here by the melatonin rhythm, is largely unknown. Here, we assessed 24-h time-of-day patterns of human plasma proteins in six healthy men during daytime food intake and nighttime sleep in phase with the endogenous circadian clock (i.e., circadian alignment) versus daytime sleep and nighttime food intake out of phase with the endogenous circadian clock (i.e., circadian misalignment induced by simulated nightshift work). We identified 24-h time-of-day patterns in 573 of 1,129 proteins analyzed, with 30 proteins showing strong regulation by the circadian cycle. Relative to circadian alignment, the average abundance and/or 24-h time-of-day patterns of 127 proteins were altered during circadian misalignment. Altered proteins were associated with biological pathways involved in immune function, metabolism, and cancer. Of the 30 circadian-regulated proteins, the majority peaked between 1400 hours and 2100 hours, and these 30 proteins were associated with basic pathways involved in extracellular matrix organization, tyrosine kinase signaling, and signaling by receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-2. Furthermore, circadian misalignment altered multiple proteins known to regulate glucose homeostasis and/or energy metabolism, with implications for altered metabolic physiology. Our findings demonstrate the circadian clock, the behavioral wake-sleep/food intake-fasting cycle, and interactions between these processes regulate 24-h time-of-day patterns of human plasma proteins and help identify mechanisms of circadian misalignment that may contribute to metabolic dysregulation.

  16. Modelling approach to simulate reductions in LDL cholesterol levels after combined intake of statins and phytosterols/-stanols in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background To examine the effects on LDL cholesterol of the combined use of statins and phytosterols/-stanols, in vivo studies and clinical trials are necessary. However, for a better interpretation of the experimental data as well as to possibly predict cholesterol levels given a certain dosing regimen of statins and phytosterols/-stanols a more theoretically based approach is helpful. This study aims to construct a mathematical model to simulate reductions in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in persons who combine the use of statins with a high intake of phytosterols/-stanols, e.g. by the use of functional foods. Methods and Results The proposed model includes the cholesterol pool size in the liver and serum levels of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol. Both an additional and a multiplicative effect of phytosterol/-stanol intake on LDL cholesterol reduction were predicted from the model. The additional effect relates to the decrease of dietary cholesterol uptake reduction, the multiplicative effect relates to the decrease in enterohepatic recycling efficiency, causing increased cholesterol elimination through bile. From the model, it was demonstrated that a daily intake of 2 g phytosterols/-stanols reduces LDL cholesterol level by about 8% to 9% on top of the reduction resulting from statin use. The additional decrease in LDL cholesterol caused by phytosterol/-stanol use at the recommended level of 2 g/d appeared to be similar or even greater than the decrease achieved by doubling the statin dose. Conclusion We proposed a simplified mathematical model to simulate the reduction in LDL cholesterol after separate and combined intake of statins and functional foods acting on intestinal (re)absorption of cholesterol or bile acids in humans. In future work, this model can be extended to include more complex (regulatory) mechanisms. PMID:22018353

  17. Modelling approach to simulate reductions in LDL cholesterol levels after combined intake of statins and phytosterols/-stanols in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eussen Simone RBM

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine the effects on LDL cholesterol of the combined use of statins and phytosterols/-stanols, in vivo studies and clinical trials are necessary. However, for a better interpretation of the experimental data as well as to possibly predict cholesterol levels given a certain dosing regimen of statins and phytosterols/-stanols a more theoretically based approach is helpful. This study aims to construct a mathematical model to simulate reductions in low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol in persons who combine the use of statins with a high intake of phytosterols/-stanols, e.g. by the use of functional foods. Methods and Results The proposed model includes the cholesterol pool size in the liver and serum levels of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL cholesterol. Both an additional and a multiplicative effect of phytosterol/-stanol intake on LDL cholesterol reduction were predicted from the model. The additional effect relates to the decrease of dietary cholesterol uptake reduction, the multiplicative effect relates to the decrease in enterohepatic recycling efficiency, causing increased cholesterol elimination through bile. From the model, it was demonstrated that a daily intake of 2 g phytosterols/-stanols reduces LDL cholesterol level by about 8% to 9% on top of the reduction resulting from statin use. The additional decrease in LDL cholesterol caused by phytosterol/-stanol use at the recommended level of 2 g/d appeared to be similar or even greater than the decrease achieved by doubling the statin dose. Conclusion We proposed a simplified mathematical model to simulate the reduction in LDL cholesterol after separate and combined intake of statins and functional foods acting on intestinal (reabsorption of cholesterol or bile acids in humans. In future work, this model can be extended to include more complex (regulatory mechanisms.

  18. Eating behavior in humans, characterized by cumulative food intake curves--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerterp-Plantenga, M S

    2000-03-01

    Cumulative food intake curves have been obtained by monitoring eating from a plate, placed on a scale built into a table, and connected to a digital computer. They describe and integrate parameters of consumption of an ad lib single course meal, i.e. meal size, meal duration, eating rate, change in eating rate, bite size and bite frequency. It is concluded that they are an adequate tool for analyzing dietary and clinical interventions on meal size, because the cumulative food intake curve parameters: are stable and consistent within subjects; show a clear relationship with the subject characteristics dietary restraint and obesity; show a clear relationship with the physiological parameters satiation, diet-induced thermogenesis and body-temperature near the liver, and with the cognitive parameter: estimating forthcoming ingestion; are sensitive to instructions, clinical and dietary interventions (preloads, palatability, energy density, macronutrient composition), and to a state of negative energy balance. Because of possible compensatory post-prandial effects, it is suggested that assessment of meal size should be part of a 24 h appetite profile and food intake observation.

  19. Solubility of indium-tin oxide in simulated lung and gastric fluids: Pathways for human intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Jens Christian Østergård; Cropp, Alastair; Paradise, Diane Caroline

    2017-02-01

    From being a metal with very limited natural distribution, indium (In) has recently become disseminated throughout the human society. Little is known of how In compounds behave in the natural environment, but recent medical studies link exposure to In compounds to elevated risk of respiratory disorders. Animal tests suggest that exposure may lead to more widespread damage in the body, notably the liver, kidneys and spleen. In this paper, we investigate the solubility of the most widely used In compound, indium-tin oxide (ITO) in simulated lung and gastric fluids in order to better understand the potential pathways for metals to be introduced into the bloodstream. Our results show significant potential for release of In and tin (Sn) in the deep parts of the lungs (artificial lysosomal fluid) and digestive tract, while the solubility in the upper parts of the lungs (the respiratory tract or tracheobronchial tree) is very low. Our study confirms that ITO is likely to remain as solid particles in the upper parts of the lungs, but that particles are likely to slowly dissolve in the deep lungs. Considering the prolonged residence time of inhaled particles in the deep lung, this environment is likely to provide the major route for uptake of In and Sn from inhaled ITO nano- and microparticles. Although dissolution through digestion may also lead to some uptake, the much shorter residence time is likely to lead to much lower risk of uptake. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Anti-addiction Drug Ibogaine Prolongs the Action Potential in Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubi, Lena; Eckert, Daniel; Boehm, Stefan; Hilber, Karlheinz; Koenig, Xaver

    2017-04-01

    Ibogaine is a plant alkaloid used as anti-addiction drug in dozens of alternative medicine clinics worldwide. Recently, alarming reports of life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias and cases of sudden death associated with the ingestion of ibogaine have accumulated. Using whole-cell patch clamp recordings, we assessed the effects of ibogaine and its main metabolite noribogaine on action potentials in human ventricular-like cardiomyocytes derived from induced pluripotent stem cells. Therapeutic concentrations of ibogaine and its long-lived active metabolite noribogaine significantly retarded action potential repolarization in human cardiomyocytes. These findings represent the first experimental proof that ibogaine application entails a cardiac arrhythmia risk for humans. In addition, they explain the clinically observed delayed incidence of cardiac adverse events several days after ibogaine intake. We conclude that therapeutic concentrations of ibogaine retard action potential repolarization in the human heart. This may give rise to a prolongation of the QT interval in the electrocardiogram and cardiac arrhythmias.

  1. MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF HUMAN SPERMATOZOA: POTENTIAL FOR INFERTILITY RESEARCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon Research Conference: Mammalian Gametogenesis and Embryogenesis New London, CT, July 1-6, 2000Molecular Analysis of Human Spermatozoa: Potential for Infertility ResearchDavid Miller 1, David Dix2, Robert Reid 3, Stephen A Krawetz 3 1Reproductive ...

  2. Heavy metals in vegetables and potential risk for human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Guerra

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Ingestion of vegetables containing heavy metals is one of the main ways in which these elements enter the human body. Once entered, heavy metals are deposited in bone and fat tissues, overlapping noble minerals. Slowly released into the body, heavy metals can cause an array of diseases. This study aimed to investigate the concentrations of cadmium, nickel, lead, cobalt and chromium in the most frequently consumed foodstuff in the São Paulo State, Brazil and to compare the heavy metal contents with the permissible limits established by the Brazilian legislation. A value of intake of heavy metals in human diets was also calculated to estimate the risk to human health. Vegetable samples were collected at the São Paulo General Warehousing and Centers Company, and the heavy metal content was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. All sampled vegetables presented average concentrations of Cd and Ni lower than the permissible limits established by the Brazilian legislation. Pb and Cr exceeded the limits in 44 % of the analyzed samples. The Brazilian legislation does not establish a permissible limit for Co contents. Regarding the consumption habit of the population in the São Paulo State, the daily ingestion of heavy metals was below the oral dose of reference, therefore, consumption of these vegetables can be considered safe and without risk to human health.

  3. The Transformative Potential of Human Rights in Conflict Resolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parlevliet, M.; Fuentes Julio, C.; Drumond, P.

    2018-01-01

    This chapter discusses the relevance of considering human rights in the context of conflict resolution interventions and processes, arguing that doing so can enhance the transformative potential of such efforts. It contends that incorporating a human rights perspective in our analysis of and

  4. Perfluorinated carboxylic acids in human breast milk from Spain and estimation of infant's daily intake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motas Guzmàn, Miguel [Área de Toxicología, Universidad de Murcia, Campus de Espinardo, 30100 Murcia (Spain); Clementini, Chiara [University of Siena, Department of Physical Sciences, Earth and Environment, Via Mattioli, 4, 53100 Siena (Italy); Pérez-Cárceles, Maria Dolores; Jiménez Rejón, Sandra [Department of Legal Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Murcia & Instituto Murciano de Investigacion Biomedica (IMIB), (IMIB-VIRGEN DE LA ARRIXACA), Murcia (Spain); Cascone, Aurora; Martellini, Tania [Department of Chemistry “Ugo Schiff”, via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Guerranti, Cristiana [University of Siena, Department of Physical Sciences, Earth and Environment, Via Mattioli, 4, 53100 Siena (Italy); Bioscience Research Center, Via Aurelia Vecchia 32, 58015 Orbetello, GR (Italy); Cincinelli, Alessandra, E-mail: acincinelli@unifi.it [Department of Chemistry “Ugo Schiff”, via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    Human milk samples were collected from 67 mothers in 2014 at a Primary Care Centre in Murcia (Spain) and analyzed for perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs). Concentrations measured for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) and perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoDA) ranged from < LOQ (< 10 ng/L) to 397 ng/L with a mean concentration of 66 ± 68 ng/L and a median of 29 ng/L. The presence of these compounds was revealed in 50 samples out of 67 analyzed. Influence of number of pregnancies and food habits on PFCAs concentrations was also investigated. Statistically significant differences in PFCA levels were found when the women were divided into maternal age classes and into the categories primiparae and multiparae. A greater transfer of PFC during breastfeeding by primiparous was evidenced and thus a higher exposure to these contaminants for the first child. Moreover, it was possible to hypothesize that the content of PFCs is in general correlated to the eating habits of donors and, in particular, with the fish consumption. Finally, PFOA daily intakes and risk index (RI) were estimated for the first six months of life and we found that ingestion rates of PFOA did not exceed the tolerable daily intake (TDI) recommended by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). - Graphical abstract: Figure SI 1. Concentrations (ng/L) of PFCs recovered in 67 samples of human breast milk. - Highlights: • Perfluorinated carboxylic acids were analyzed in a set of 67 breast milk samples collected from Spanish women. • PFOA appeared as the major contributor to the total perfluorinated carboxylic acids. • PFOA concentrations were significantly higher in milk of primiparous participants. • PFOA daily intake and risk index were estimated for the firsts six month of life.

  5. Perfluorinated carboxylic acids in human breast milk from Spain and estimation of infant's daily intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motas Guzmàn, Miguel; Clementini, Chiara; Pérez-Cárceles, Maria Dolores; Jiménez Rejón, Sandra; Cascone, Aurora; Martellini, Tania; Guerranti, Cristiana; Cincinelli, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Human milk samples were collected from 67 mothers in 2014 at a Primary Care Centre in Murcia (Spain) and analyzed for perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs). Concentrations measured for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) and perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoDA) ranged from < LOQ (< 10 ng/L) to 397 ng/L with a mean concentration of 66 ± 68 ng/L and a median of 29 ng/L. The presence of these compounds was revealed in 50 samples out of 67 analyzed. Influence of number of pregnancies and food habits on PFCAs concentrations was also investigated. Statistically significant differences in PFCA levels were found when the women were divided into maternal age classes and into the categories primiparae and multiparae. A greater transfer of PFC during breastfeeding by primiparous was evidenced and thus a higher exposure to these contaminants for the first child. Moreover, it was possible to hypothesize that the content of PFCs is in general correlated to the eating habits of donors and, in particular, with the fish consumption. Finally, PFOA daily intakes and risk index (RI) were estimated for the first six months of life and we found that ingestion rates of PFOA did not exceed the tolerable daily intake (TDI) recommended by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). - Graphical abstract: Figure SI 1. Concentrations (ng/L) of PFCs recovered in 67 samples of human breast milk. - Highlights: • Perfluorinated carboxylic acids were analyzed in a set of 67 breast milk samples collected from Spanish women. • PFOA appeared as the major contributor to the total perfluorinated carboxylic acids. • PFOA concentrations were significantly higher in milk of primiparous participants. • PFOA daily intake and risk index were estimated for the firsts six month of life.

  6. Metabolomics study of human urinary metabolome modifications after intake of almond (Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb) skin polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorach, Rafael; Garrido, Ignacio; Monagas, Maria; Urpi-Sarda, Mireia; Tulipani, Sara; Bartolome, Begona; Andres-Lacueva, Cristina

    2010-11-05

    Almond, as a part of the nut family, is an important source of biological compounds, and specifically, almond skins have been considered an important source of polyphenols, including flavan-3-ols and flavonols. Polyphenol metabolism may produce several classes of metabolites that could often be more biologically active than their dietary precursor and could also become a robust new biomarker of almond polyphenol intake. In order to study urinary metabolome modifications during the 24 h after a single dose of almond skin extract, 24 volunteers (n = 24), who followed a polyphenol-free diet for 48 h before and during the study, ingested a dietary supplement of almond skin phenolic compounds (n = 12) or a placebo (n = 12). Urine samples were collected before ((-2)-0 h) and after (0-2 h, 2-6 h, 6-10 h, and 10-24 h) the intake and were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-q-TOF) and multivariate statistical analysis (principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal projection to latent structures (OPLS)). Putative identification of relevant biomarkers revealed a total of 34 metabolites associated with the single dose of almond extract, including host and, in particular, microbiota metabolites. As far as we know, this is the first time that conjugates of hydroxyphenylvaleric, hydroxyphenylpropionic, and hydroxyphenylacetic acids have been identified in human samples after the consumption of flavan-3-ols through a metabolomic approach. The results showed that this non-targeted approach could provide new intake biomarkers, contributing to the development of the food metabolome as an important part of the human urinary metabolome.

  7. Human dietary intakes of trace elements: A global literature survey mainly for the period 1970-1991: 1. Data listings and sources of information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parr, R.M.; Crawley, H.; Abdulla, M.; Iyengar, G.V.; Kumpulainen, J.

    1992-01-01

    A database has been compiled on human dietary intakes of trace elements by populations groups living in various countries. The main sources of information used were (1) publications in the open scientific literature, and (2) data submitted to the IAEA in response to a questionnaire. The database contains 1,758 intake values covering 35 elements and 47 countries. In this report the data are listed in various ways to facilitate identification of intake values for any specified country, element and population group. 4 refs, 5 tabs

  8. So Many Brands and Varieties to Choose from: Does This Compromise the Control of Food Intake in Humans?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte A Hardman

    Full Text Available The recent rise in obesity is widely attributed to changes in the dietary environment (e.g., increased availability of energy-dense foods and larger portion sizes. However, a critical feature of our "obesogenic environment" may have been overlooked - the dramatic increase in "dietary variability" (the tendency for specific mass-produced foods to be available in numerous varieties that differ in energy content. In this study we tested the hypothesis that dietary variability compromises the control of food intake in humans. Specifically, we examined the effects of dietary variability in pepperoni pizza on two key outcome variables; i compensation for calories in pepperoni pizza and ii expectations about the satiating properties of pepperoni pizza (expected satiation. We reasoned that dietary variability might generate uncertainty about the postingestive effects of a food. An internet-based questionnaire was completed by 199 adults. This revealed substantial variation in exposure to different varieties of pepperoni pizza. In a follow-up study (n= 66; 65% female, high pizza variability was associated with i poorer compensation for calories in pepperoni pizza and ii lower expected satiation for pepperoni pizza. Furthermore, the effect of uncertainty on caloric compensation was moderated by individual differences in decision making (loss aversion. For the first time, these findings highlight a process by which dietary variability may compromise food-intake control in humans. This is important because it exposes a new feature of Western diets (processed foods in particular that might contribute to overeating and obesity.

  9. So Many Brands and Varieties to Choose from: Does This Compromise the Control of Food Intake in Humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, Charlotte A; Ferriday, Danielle; Kyle, Lesley; Rogers, Peter J; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M

    2015-01-01

    The recent rise in obesity is widely attributed to changes in the dietary environment (e.g., increased availability of energy-dense foods and larger portion sizes). However, a critical feature of our "obesogenic environment" may have been overlooked - the dramatic increase in "dietary variability" (the tendency for specific mass-produced foods to be available in numerous varieties that differ in energy content). In this study we tested the hypothesis that dietary variability compromises the control of food intake in humans. Specifically, we examined the effects of dietary variability in pepperoni pizza on two key outcome variables; i) compensation for calories in pepperoni pizza and ii) expectations about the satiating properties of pepperoni pizza (expected satiation). We reasoned that dietary variability might generate uncertainty about the postingestive effects of a food. An internet-based questionnaire was completed by 199 adults. This revealed substantial variation in exposure to different varieties of pepperoni pizza. In a follow-up study (n= 66; 65% female), high pizza variability was associated with i) poorer compensation for calories in pepperoni pizza and ii) lower expected satiation for pepperoni pizza. Furthermore, the effect of uncertainty on caloric compensation was moderated by individual differences in decision making (loss aversion). For the first time, these findings highlight a process by which dietary variability may compromise food-intake control in humans. This is important because it exposes a new feature of Western diets (processed foods in particular) that might contribute to overeating and obesity.

  10. Dose from organically bound tritium after an acute tritiated water intake in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivedi, A; Richardson, R B; Galeriu, D [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada). Chalk River Nuclear Labs.

    1995-10-01

    We have analyzed the urinary excretion data from eight male workers following an acute intake of tritiated water (HTO) and assessed the dose contribution from organically bound tritium (OBT) in the body. The individuals affected increased their fluid intakes during the first month or more post-exposure, to accelerate the turnover of tritium in the body water for dose mitigation purposes. The volumes of cumulative 24 h urine samples were similar to Reference Man in the latter part of the study (100-300 d post-exposure). The workers` urine samples were analyzed for total tritium up to 300 d post-exposure. The results suggest that a measurement of the tritium activity per unit mass of organic matter in urine can provide an assessment of the specific activity of tritium in the organic fraction of the soft tissue, providing an equilibrium condition exists. A mathematical model is proposed to estimate the dose increase from the retained OBT by examining the kinetics of total tritium excretion in urine. The model accounts for the variable rates of fluid intake. The influence of measurement errors and the limited duration of the study (0-300 d post-exposure) on the OBT dose contribution was assessed through statistical analysis, while the role of direct OBT excretion in urine was estimated by using metabolic models. Based on the time series of tritium concentration in urine, the average dose increase to the workers from the metabolised OBT was calculated as 6.2 {+-} 1.3% of the HTO dose. 78 refs., 36 tabs., 11 figs.

  11. Single pyruvate intake induces blood alkalization and modification of resting metabolism in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olek, Robert A; Luszczyk, Marcin; Kujach, Sylwester; Ziemann, Ewa; Pieszko, Magdalena; Pischel, Ivo; Laskowski, Radoslaw

    2015-03-01

    Three separate studies were performed with the aim to 1) determine the effect of a single sodium pyruvate intake on the blood acid-base status in males and females; 2) compare the effect of sodium and calcium pyruvate salts and establish their role in the lipolysis rate; and 3) quantify the effect of single pyruvate intake on the resting energy metabolism. In all, 48 individuals completed three separate studies. In all the studies, participants consumed a single dose of pyruvate 0.1 g/kg 60 min before commencing the measurements. The whole blood pH, bicarbonate concentration, base excess or plasma glycerol, free fatty acids, glucose concentrations, or resting energy expenditure and calculated respiratory exchange ratio were determined. The analysis of variance for repeated measurements was performed to examine the interaction between treatment and time. The single dose of sodium pyruvate induced blood alkalization, which was more marked in the male than in the female participants. Following the ingestion of sodium or calcium pyruvate, the blood acid-base parameters were higher than in the placebo trial. Furthermore, 3-h postingestion glycerol was lower in both pyruvate trials than in placebo. Resting energy expenditure did not differ between the trials; however, carbohydrate oxidation was increased after sodium pyruvate ingestion. Pyruvate intake induced mild alkalization in a sex-dependent fashion. Moreover, it accelerated carbohydrate metabolism and delayed the rate of glycerol appearance in the blood, but had no effect on the resting energy expenditure. Furthermore, sodium salt seems to have had a greater effect on the blood buffering level than calcium salt. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Dose from organically bound tritium after an acute tritiated water intake in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivedi, A.; Richardson, R.B.; Galeriu, D.

    1995-10-01

    We have analyzed the urinary excretion data from eight male workers following an acute intake of tritiated water (HTO) and assessed the dose contribution from organically bound tritium (OBT) in the body. The individuals affected increased their fluid intakes during the first month or more post-exposure, to accelerate the turnover of tritium in the body water for dose mitigation purposes. The volumes of cumulative 24 h urine samples were similar to Reference Man in the latter part of the study (100-300 d post-exposure). The workers' urine samples were analyzed for total tritium up to 300 d post-exposure. The results suggest that a measurement of the tritium activity per unit mass of organic matter in urine can provide an assessment of the specific activity of tritium in the organic fraction of the soft tissue, providing an equilibrium condition exists. A mathematical model is proposed to estimate the dose increase from the retained OBT by examining the kinetics of total tritium excretion in urine. The model accounts for the variable rates of fluid intake. The influence of measurement errors and the limited duration of the study (0-300 d post-exposure) on the OBT dose contribution was assessed through statistical analysis, while the role of direct OBT excretion in urine was estimated by using metabolic models. Based on the time series of tritium concentration in urine, the average dose increase to the workers from the metabolised OBT was calculated as 6.2 ± 1.3% of the HTO dose. 78 refs., 36 tabs., 11 figs

  13. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in oysters from the southern coast of Korea: assessment of potential risk to human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Jong Soo; Yoo, Hyun Duk; Kim, Poong Ho; Yoon, Ho Dong; Park, Young Cheol; Lee, Tae Seek; Kwon, Ji Young; Son, Kwang Tae; Lee, Hee Jung; Ha, Kwang Soo; Shim, Kil Bo; Kim, Ji Hoe

    2015-06-01

    From 2009 to 2013, 80 oyster and 16 seawater samples were collected from the southern coast of Korea, including designated shellfish growing areas for export. The concentrations and bioaccumulation of heavy metals were determined, and a potential risk assessment was conducted to evaluate their hazards towards human consumption. The cadmium (Cd) concentration in oysters was the highest of three hazardous metals, including Cd, lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg), however, below the standards set by various countries. The metal bioaccumulation ratio in oysters was relatively high for zinc and Cd but low for Hg, Pb, arsenic, and chromium. The estimated dietary intakes of all heavy metals for oysters accounted for 0.02%-17.75% of provisional tolerable daily intake. The hazard index for all samples was far oysters do not pose an appreciable hazard to humans for the metal pollutants of study.

  14. Human-milk intake measured by administration of deuterium oxide to the mother: a comparison with the test-weighing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butte, N.F.; Wong, W.W.; Patterson, B.W.; Garza, C.; Klein, P.D.

    1988-01-01

    A comparison was made between the dose-to-the-mother deuterium-dilution method and the conventional test-weighing technique for determining human-milk intake in five exclusively breast-fed infants and in four breast-fed infants who received supplemental foods. After administration of 2 H to the mothers human milk and infant urine were sampled over 14 d and analyzed for 2 H: 1 H ratios by gas-isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. Infant total body water was determined by 18 O dilution. The test-weighing procedure was conducted for 5 d consecutively. The intake of human milk (mean +/- SD) estimated by 2 H dilution was 648 +/- 63 g/d and estimated by test-weighing was 636 +/- 84 g/d. The mean difference between the two methods was not significantly different from 0. The 2 H-dilution and test-weighing techniques provide similar estimates of human-milk intake

  15. Carotenoids: Actual knowledge on food sources, intakes, stability and bioavailability and their protective role in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maiani, Giuseppe; Castón, María Jesús Periago; Catasta, Giovina

    2009-01-01

    Carotenoids are one of the major food micronutrients in human diets and the overall objective of this review is to re-examine the role of carotenoids in human nutrition. We have emphasized the attention on the following carotenoids present in food and human tissues: -carotene, -cryptoxanthin, -ca...

  16. The human gut microbiota and virome: Potential therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpellini, Emidio; Ianiro, Gianluca; Attili, Fabia; Bassanelli, Chiara; De Santis, Adriano; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Human gut microbiota is a complex ecosystem with several functions integrated in the host organism (metabolic, immune, nutrients absorption, etc.). Human microbiota is composed by bacteria, yeasts, fungi and, last but not least, viruses, whose composition has not been completely described. According to previous evidence on pathogenic viruses, the human gut harbours plant-derived viruses, giant viruses and, only recently, abundant bacteriophages. New metagenomic methods have allowed to reconstitute entire viral genomes from the genetic material spread in the human gut, opening new perspectives on the understanding of the gut virome composition, the importance of gut microbiome, and potential clinical applications. This review reports the latest evidence on human gut "virome" composition and its function, possible future therapeutic applications in human health in the context of the gut microbiota, and attempts to clarify the role of the gut "virome" in the larger microbial ecosystem. Copyright © 2015 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Blood cells transcriptomics as source of potential biomarkers of articular health improvement: effects of oral intake of a rooster combs extract rich in hyaluronic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Juana; Bonet, M Luisa; Keijer, Jaap; van Schothorst, Evert M; Mölller, Ingrid; Chetrit, Carles; Martinez-Puig, Daniel; Palou, Andreu

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the study was to explore peripheral blood gene expression as a source of biomarkers of joint health improvement related to glycosaminoglycan (GAG) intake in humans. Healthy individuals with joint discomfort were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention study in humans. Subjects ate control yoghurt or yoghurt supplemented with a recently authorized novel food in Europe containing hyaluronic acid (65 %) from rooster comb (Mobilee™ as commercial name) for 90 days. Effects on functional quality-of-life parameters related to joint health were assessed. Whole-genome microarray analysis of peripheral blood samples from a subset of 20 subjects (10 placebo and 10 supplemented) collected pre- and post-intervention was performed. Mobilee™ supplementation reduced articular pain intensity and synovial effusion and improved knee muscular strength indicators as compared to placebo. About 157 coding genes were differentially expressed in blood cells between supplemented and placebo groups post-intervention, but not pre-intervention (p < 0.05; fold change ≥1.2). Among them, a reduced gene expression of glucuronidase-beta (GUSB), matrix metallopeptidase 23B (MMP23B), xylosyltransferase II (XYLT2), and heparan sulfate 6-O-sulfotransferase 1 (HS6ST1) was found in the supplemented group. Correlation analysis indicated a direct relationship between blood cell gene expression of MMP23B, involved in the breakdown of the extracellular matrix, and pain intensity, and an inverse relationship between blood cell gene expression of HS6ST1, responsible for 6-O-sulfation of heparan sulfate, and indicators of knee muscular strength. Expression levels of specific genes in blood cells, in particular genes related to GAG metabolism and extracellular matrix dynamics, are potential biomarkers of beneficial effects on articular health.

  18. Identification of a potential biomarker panel for the intake of the common dietary trans fat elaidic acid (trans∆9-C18:1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroager, Toke Peter; Nielsen, Lone Vendel; Bak, Steffen

    2012-01-01

    system, and the cells were maintained for seven days in serum-free medium containing 100 μM elaidic acid (trans∆9-C18:1), oleic acid (cis∆9-C18:1) or stearic acid (C18:0). The secretomes were analyzed by stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture (SILAC), difference in gel electrophoresis......Trans fatty acid intake has been correlated to an unfavorable plasma lipoprotein profile and an increased cardiovascular disease risk. The present study aimed to identify a plasma protein biomarker panel related to human intake of elaidic acid. The human liver cell line HepG2-SF was used as a model...

  19. substantiation of the standards for tritium amino acids intake by human organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhesko, T.V.; Balonov, M.I.

    1984-01-01

    Calculated values of β-irradiation tissue doses of bound tritium and tritium oxide absorbed by animals treated with different amino acids are given. The obtained dose values are compared with tritium water doses. The data obtained in animal studies are extrapolated to man in order to determine the dose equivalent to the incorporated 3 H-amino acids dose. It is assumed that the dose equivalent to 3 H-amino acids radiation is three times as high as the equivalent amount of tritium oxide. 9 mCi/yr is established as the maximum allowable blood intake of 3 H-amino acids. Due to their metabolic characteristics, air permissible concentrations of 3 H-amino acids and tritium oxide have approximately the same values. The value of 30 nCi/cm 2 is recommended as a standard for work clothing contamination with 3 H-amino acids

  20. A Review of the Impact of Dietary Intakes in Human Pregnancy on Infant Birthweight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica A. Grieger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies assessing maternal dietary intakes and the relationship with birthweight are inconsistent, thus attempting to draw inferences on the role of maternal nutrition in determining the fetal growth trajectory is difficult. The aim of this review is to provide updated evidence from epidemiological and randomized controlled trials on the impact of dietary and supplemental intakes of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, zinc, folate, iron, calcium, and vitamin D, as well as dietary patterns, on infant birthweight. A comprehensive review of the literature was undertaken via the electronic databases Pubmed, Cochrane Library, and Medline. Included articles were those published in English, in scholarly journals, and which provided information about diet and nutrition during pregnancy and infant birthweight. There is insufficient evidence for omega-3 fatty acid supplements’ ability to reduce risk of low birthweight (LBW, and more robust evidence from studies supplementing with zinc, calcium, and/or vitamin D needs to be established. Iron supplementation appears to increase birthweight, particularly when there are increases in maternal hemoglobin concentrations in the third trimester. There is limited evidence supporting the use of folic acid supplements to reduce the risk for LBW; however, supplementation may increase birthweight by ~130 g. Consumption of whole foods such as fruit, vegetables, low-fat dairy, and lean meats throughout pregnancy appears beneficial for appropriate birthweight. Intervention studies with an understanding of optimal dietary patterns may provide promising results for both maternal and perinatal health. Outcomes from these studies will help determine what sort of dietary advice could be promoted to women during pregnancy in order to promote the best health for themselves and their baby.

  1. Impact of short-term intake of red wine and grape polyphenol extract on the human metabolome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Doris M; Fuhrmann, Jens C; van Dorsten, Ferdinand A; Rein, Dietrich; Peters, Sonja; van Velzen, Ewoud J J; Hollebrands, Boudewijn; Draijer, Richard; van Duynhoven, John; Garczarek, Ursula

    2012-03-28

    Red wine and grape polyphenols are considered to promote cardiovascular health and are involved in multiple biological functions. Their overall impact on the human metabolome is not known. Therefore, exogenous and endogenous metabolic effects were determined in fasting plasma and 24 h urine from healthy male adults consuming a mix of red wine and grape juice extracts (WGM) for 4 days in a placebo-controlled, crossover study. Syringic acid, 3-hydroxyhippuric acid, pyrogallol, 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, and 3-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid were confirmed as the strongest urinary markers of WGM intake. Overall, WGM had a mild impact on the endogenous metabolism. Most noticeable were changes in several amino acids deriving from tyrosine and tryptophan. Reductions in the microbial metabolites p-cresol sulfate and 3-indoxylsulfuric acid and increases in indole-3-lactic acid and nicotinic acid were observed in urine. In plasma, tyrosine was reduced. The results suggest that short-term intake of WGM altered microbial protein fermentation and/or amino acid metabolism.

  2. Oral intake of encapsulated dried ginger root powder hardly affects human thermoregulatory function, but appears to facilitate fat utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Mayumi; Matsuzaki, Kentaro; Katakura, Masanori; Hara, Toshiko; Tanabe, Yoko; Shido, Osamu

    2015-10-01

    The present study investigated the impact of a single oral ingestion of ginger on thermoregulatory function and fat oxidation in humans. Morning and afternoon oral intake of 1.0 g dried ginger root powder did not alter rectal temperature, skin blood flow, O2 consumption, CO2 production, and thermal sensation and comfort, or induce sweating at an ambient temperature of 28 °C. Ginger ingestion had no effect on threshold temperatures for skin blood flow or thermal sweating. Serum levels of free fatty acids were significantly elevated at 120 min after ginger ingestion in both the morning and afternoon. Morning ginger intake significantly reduced respiratory exchange ratios and elevated fat oxidation by 13.5 % at 120 min after ingestion. This was not the case in the afternoon. These results suggest that the effect of a single oral ginger administration on the peripheral and central thermoregulatory function is miniscule, but does facilitate fat utilization although the timing of the administration may be relevant.

  3. High calorie, low nutrient food/beverage intake and video gaming in children as potential signals for addictive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentz, Mary Ann; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Chou, Chih Ping; Riggs, Nathaniel R

    2011-12-01

    Little is known about the co-occurrence of health risk behaviors in childhood that may signal later addictive behavior. Using a survey, this study evaluated high calorie, low nutrient HCLN intake and video gaming behaviors in 964 fourth grade children over 18 months, with stress, sensation-seeking, inhibitory control, grades, perceived safety of environment, and demographic variables as predictors. SEM and growth curve analyses supported a co-occurrence model with some support for addiction specificity. Male gender, free/reduced lunch, low perceived safety and low inhibitory control independently predicted both gaming and HCLN intake. Ethnicity and low stress predicted HCLN. The findings raise questions about whether living in some impoverished neighborhoods may contribute to social isolation characterized by staying indoors, and HCLN intake and video gaming as compensatory behaviors. Future prevention programs could include skills training for inhibitory control, combined with changes in the built environment that increase safety, e.g., implementing Safe Routes to School Programs.

  4. Reliable Quantification of the Potential for Equations Based on Spot Urine Samples to Estimate Population Salt Intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Liping; Crino, Michelle; Wu, Jason Hy

    2016-01-01

    to a standard format. Individual participant records will be compiled and a series of analyses will be completed to: (1) compare existing equations for estimating 24-hour salt intake from spot urine samples with 24-hour urine samples, and assess the degree of bias according to key demographic and clinical......BACKGROUND: Methods based on spot urine samples (a single sample at one time-point) have been identified as a possible alternative approach to 24-hour urine samples for determining mean population salt intake. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to identify a reliable method for estimating mean...... population salt intake from spot urine samples. This will be done by comparing the performance of existing equations against one other and against estimates derived from 24-hour urine samples. The effects of factors such as ethnicity, sex, age, body mass index, antihypertensive drug use, health status...

  5. In Vitro Cardiomyogenic Potential of Human Amniotic Fluid Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Guan, Xuan; Delo, Dawn M.; Atala, Anthony; Soker, Shay

    2011-01-01

    Stem cell therapy for damaged cardiac tissue is currently limited by a number of factors, including the inability to obtain sufficient cell numbers, the potential tumorigenicity of certain types of stem cells, and the possible link between stem cell therapy and the development of malignant arrhythmias. In this study, we investigated whether human amniotic fluid-derived stem (hAFS) cells could be a potential source of cells for cardiac cell therapy by testing the in vitro differentiation capab...

  6. Intake port

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendler, Edward Charles

    2005-02-01

    The volumetric efficiency and power of internal combustion engines is improved with an intake port having an intake nozzle, a venturi, and a surge chamber. The venturi is located almost halfway upstream the intake port between the intake valves and the intake plenum enabling the venturi throat diameter to be exceptionally small for providing an exceptionally high ram velocity and an exceptionally long and in turn high efficiency diffuser flowing into the surge chamber. The intake port includes an exceptionally large surge chamber volume for blow down of the intake air into the working cylinder of the engine.

  7. Dose transfer to human population of' Pichavaram mangrove through dietary intake of sea food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahul Hameed, P.; Raja, P.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the Committed Effective Dose (CED) from 210 Po and 210 Pb to the coastal population of Pichavaram Mangrove due to consumption of sea food such as prawns. lobster, crabs, gastropods, bivalves, cephalopods and fishes. The data generated during March 2002- February 2003 reveal that 210 Po and 210 Pb is non uniformly distributed with specific bioaccumulation capability. The 210 Po concentration was (16.1 - 211 Bq/kg) decisively higher in the edible muscles of the food organism while 210 Pb maintained a low level (range: 1.2-10.4 Bq/kg). The contribution of various seafood types to the total activity intake depends on both the concentration and the amount of food consumed. Shell fishes (prawns, crabs and molluscs) contributed a substantial level of alpha radiation to the public (range: 7.7 -76.0μSv/y) as compared to fishes (range: 3.9 -105.1 μSv/y). The internal dose received by the public of Pichavarm was 883.05 μSv/y from 210 Po and 152.21 μSv/y from Lead-210. (author)

  8. De-racialising intelligence, human potentiality and consciousness: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... dialectics of human potentiality and consciousness, scientific literature, and African creative gnosis to demonstrate the inherent limitations of the logic that racialises intelligence. By gnosis, this paper refers to the intellectual and creative capacities inherent in the productions of Africans and people of generally black origin.

  9. Can Nucleoli Be Markers of Developmental Potential in Human Zygotes?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fulka, Helena; Kyogoku, H.; Zatsepina, O.; Langerova, A.; Fulka, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 11 (2015), s. 663-672 ISSN 1471-4914 Grant - others:GA ČR GA13-03269S Institutional support: RVO:68378050 ; RVO:67985904 Keywords : human zygotes * developmental potential * nucleoli Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 9.292, year: 2015

  10. Determination of the therapeutic potential of human umbilical cord ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was conducted to evaluate the therapeutic potential of human umbilical cord blood, by determining their effect on bacterial pathogens which included: Streptobacillus sp, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, and Escherichia coli. Cord blood samples were obtained ...

  11. Cost-of-illness analysis reveals potential healthcare savings with reductions in type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease following recommended intakes of dietary fibre in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad eAbdullah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Consumption of fibre-rich diets is associated with favourable impacts on type 2 diabetes (T2D and cardiovascular disease (CVD, two of the most costly ailments worldwide, however the economic value of altered fibre intakes remains poorly understood. Methods: A cost-of-illness analysis was conducted to identify the percentage of adults expected to consume fibre-rich diets in Canada, estimate fibre intakes in relation to T2D and CVD reductions, and assess the potential annual savings in healthcare costs with reductions in rates of these two epidemics. Results: Non-trivial healthcare and related savings of CAD$35.9-$718.8 million in T2D costs and CAD$64.8-$1,295.7 million in CVD costs were calculated under a scenario where cereal fibre was used to increase current intakes of dietary fibre to the recommended levels of 38 g per day for men and 25 g per day for women. Each 1 g per day increase in fibre consumption resulted in annual CAD$2.6-$51.1 and $4.6-$92.1 million savings for T2D and CVD, respectively. Conclusions: Strategies to increase consumers’ knowledge of the recommended dietary fibre intakes, as part of healthy diet, and to facilitate stakeholder synergy are warranted to enable better management of costs associated with T2D and CVD in Canada.

  12. Individual differences in the learning potential of human beings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Elsbeth

    2017-01-01

    To the best of our knowledge, the genetic foundations that guide human brain development have not changed fundamentally during the past 50,000 years. However, because of their cognitive potential, humans have changed the world tremendously in the past centuries. They have invented technical devices, institutions that regulate cooperation and competition, and symbol systems, such as script and mathematics, that serve as reasoning tools. The exceptional learning ability of humans allows newborns to adapt to the world they are born into; however, there are tremendous individual differences in learning ability among humans that become obvious in school at the latest. Cognitive psychology has developed models of memory and information processing that attempt to explain how humans learn (general perspective), while the variation among individuals (differential perspective) has been the focus of psychometric intelligence research. Although both lines of research have been proceeding independently, they increasingly converge, as both investigate the concepts of working memory and knowledge construction. This review begins with presenting state-of-the-art research on human information processing and its potential in academic learning. Then, a brief overview of the history of psychometric intelligence research is combined with presenting recent work on the role of intelligence in modern societies and on the nature-nurture debate. Finally, promising approaches to integrating the general and differential perspective will be discussed in the conclusion of this review.

  13. An Assessment of the Potential Impact of Fortification of Staples and Condiments on Micronutrient Intake of Young Children and Women of Reproductive Age in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magali Leyvraz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh has experienced rapid economic growth and achieved major health improvements in the past decade, but malnutrition rates remain high. A nationally representative study conducted in 2011 assessed the dietary habits of 841 children 24–59 months old, 1428 children 6–14 years old, and 1412 nonpregnant, nonlactating women. The study’s objective was to assess dietary intakes of key micronutrients and the consumption pattern of potentially fortifiable foods, and then to model the potential impact of the fortification of key staple foods. The current intakes of several micronutrients—namely, iron, zinc, folate, vitamin A, and vitamin B12—were found to be insufficient to meet the needs of Bangladesh’s children and women. The fortification of rice with iron and zinc and edible oil with vitamin A has the potential to fill a significant part of the nutrient gap, as these are consumed widely and in significant amounts. Wheat flour and sugar are not as promising food vehicles in the Bangladeshi context, as they were consumed by a smaller portion of the population and in smaller amounts. In conclusion, fortification of rice and oil is recommended to address the large gap in micronutrient intakes.

  14. Synthetic Biology and Human Health: Potential Applications for Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karouia, Fathi; Carr, Christopher; Cai, Yizhi; Chen, Y.; Grenon, Marlene; Larios-Sanz, Maia; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Santos, Orlando

    2011-01-01

    Human space travelers experience a unique environment that affects homeostasis and physiologic adaptation. Spaceflight-related changes have been reported in the musculo-skeletal, cardiovascular, neurovestibular, endocrine, and immune systems. The spacecraft environment further subjects the traveler to noise and gravitational forces, as well as airborne chemical, microbiological contaminants, and radiation exposure. As humans prepare for longer duration missions effective countermeasures must be developed, verified, and implemented to ensure mission success. Over the past ten years, synthetic biology has opened new avenues for research and development in areas such as biological control, biomaterials, sustainable energy production, bioremediation, and biomedical therapies. The latter in particular is of great interest to the implementation of long-duration human spaceflight capabilities. This article discusses the effects of spaceflight on humans, and reviews current capabilities and potential needs associated with the health of the astronauts where synthetic biology could play an important role in the pursuit of space exploration.

  15. Dietary intake rates during infancy and childhood: a data base for estimating human exposure to environmental pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, G.; Kersting, M.

    1984-01-01

    A data base of food consumption rates for infants and children up to 14 years of age has been compiled for the purpose of evaluating the potential health hazard from ingestion of food containing various forms of environmental pollutants, e.g., radionuclides, heavy metals, and others. The analysis is based on a nutritional survey conducted in the city of Dortmund, FRG. The survey comprises data for 114 infants and 176 children. Within the framework of the study the data are discussed in terms of time-averaged daily consumption rates by individuals for various food categories, i.e., milk and milk products, meat, fish, cereals, vegetables, fruit, drinks, and related subgroups. Descriptive statistics of dietary intake rates by individuals have been tabulated for several age groups. (author)

  16. [Animals as a potential source of human fungal infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworecka-Kaszak, Bozena

    2008-01-01

    Changing environment is a reason, that many saprotrophic fungi became opportunists and in the end also maybe a pathogenic. Host specific adaptation is not so strong among fungi, so there are many common fungal pathogens for people and for animals. Animals suffering from dermatomycosis are well recognize as source of human superficial mycoses. Breeding of different exotic animals such as parrots, various Reptiles and Amphibians, miniature Rodents and keeping them as a pets in the peoples houses, have become more and more popular in the recent years. This article is shortly presenting which animals maybe a potential source of fungal infections for humans. Looking for the other mycoses as systemic mycoses, especially candidiasis or aspergilosis there are no data, which allow excluding sick animals as a source of infection for human, even if those deep mycoses have endogenic reactivation mechanism. Immunocompromised people are in high-risk group when they take care of animals. Another important source of potentially pathogenic, mostly air-born fungi may be animal use in experimental laboratory work. During the experiments is possible that laboratory workers maybe hurt and these animals and their environment, food and house boxes could be the possible source of microorganisms, pathogenic for humans or other animals. Unusual way to inoculate these potentially pathogens into the skin of laboratory personnel may cause granulomatous, local lesions on their hands.

  17. Guidance document on the derivation of maximum permissible risk levels for human intake of soil contaminants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen PJCM; Speijers GJA; CSR

    1997-01-01

    This report contains a basic step-to-step description of the procedure followed in the derivation of the human-toxicological Maximum Permissible Risk (MPR ; in Dutch: Maximum Toelaatbaar Risico, MTR) for soil contaminants. In recent years this method has been applied for a large number of compounds

  18. Maximum Permissible Risk Levels for Human Intake of Soil Contaminants: Fourth Series of Compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen PJCM; Apeldoorn ME van; Engelen JGM van; Schielen PCJI; Wouters MFA; CSR

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the human-toxicological risk assessment work done in 1996 and 1997 at RIVM's Centre for Substances and Risk Assessment within the scope of the RIVM project on soil intervention values for soil clean-up. The method used for derivation of the Maximum Permissible Risk, as

  19. Assessment of daily intake of major and trace elements by inhabitants of potential radiation protection of greater Cairo area, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, A.B.

    2005-01-01

    Concentrations of K, Ca, U, Th, Cs, Sr, I, Al, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, Ni and Cr were determined in vegetables, common foodstuffs and some animal products consumed by adult inhabitants of Greater Cairo Area. Some of these elements have chemical and biological similarity to some of the radionuclides abundantly encountered during nuclear power production and therefore data on these elements could provide important information on their biokinetic behavior. A total of 120 samples were analyzed using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS). Generally, highest contributions for the intake of micro nutrients (Cu, Mn and Ni) arise from broad bean, rice and wheat flour consumption. Meat, milk, eggs and some vegetables are the major sources of K, Ca, U, Th, Cs, Al, Cd and Pb. The medium daily intake for the adult inhabitants of greater Cairo area was found to be 1.98 g of K, 0.54 mg of Ca, 1.14 fig of U, 0.8 μg of Th, 5.2μg of Cs, 1.3 mg of Sr, 105 μg of 1, 3.2 mg of Mn, 0.9 mg of Cu, 5.7 mg of Al, 5, 2 x 10 -2 mg of Pb, 2.1x10 -3 mg of Cd, 7.7x10 -2 mg of Ni and 2.1 x 10 -2 mg of Cr. The lower daily intake of Ca, Th, Cs and I by adult inhabitants of greater Cairo area could be due to the significantly lower consumption of milk and milk products, which are rich in these elements. The significantly lower intake of calcium by adult inhabitants of greater Cairo area may lead to higher uptake of radiostrontium and could result in higher internal radiation dose. The use of highly sensitive and reliable analytical methods resulted in accurate assessment of the values recorded for thorium and uranium suggested that radiation dose from their ingestion at natural background levels, is likely to be lower than those included in ICRP data. Concerning micro nutrients, the recommended values of daily intake of Cu and Mn are conveniently supplied by the common diet; however for Cr is lower than the recommended daily allowance. Due to high metals concentrations

  20. Human factors in waste management - potential and reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.S.

    1996-01-01

    There is enormous potential for human factors contributions in the realm of waste management. The reality, however, is very different from the potential. This is particularly true for low-level and low-level mixed-waste management. The hazards are less severe; therefore, health and safety requirements (including human factors) are not as rigorous as for high-level waste. High-level waste management presents its own unique challenges and opportunities. Waste management is strongly driven by regulatory compliance. When regulations are flexible and open to interpretation and the environment is driven so strongly by regulatory compliance, standard practice is to drop open-quotes nice to haveclose quotes features, like a human factors program, to save money for complying with other requirements. The challenge is to convince decision makers that human factors can help make operations efficient and cost-effective, as well as improving safety and complying with regulations. A human factors program should not be viewed as competing with compliance efforts; in fact, it should complement them and provide additional cost-effective means of achieving compliance with other regulations. Achieving this synergy of human factors with ongoing waste management operations requires educating program and facility managers and other technical specialists about human factors and demonstrating its value open-quotes through the back doorclose quotes on existing efforts. This paper describes ongoing projects at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in support of their waste management groups. It includes lessons learned from hazard and risk analyses, safety analysis reports, job and task analyses, operating procedure development, personnel qualification/certification program development, and facility- and job-specific training program and course development

  1. Coffee intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelis, Marilyn C

    2012-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world. Its widespread popularity and availability has fostered public health concerns of the potential health consequences of regular coffee consumption. Epidemiological studies of coffee intake and certain health outcomes have been inconsistent. The precise component of coffee potentially contributing to development of these conditions also remains unclear. One step toward addressing the challenges in studying the impact coffee has on health is a better understanding of the factors contributing to its consumption and physiological effects. This chapter focuses on those factors that are genetically determined and briefly summarizes progress in applying this knowledge to epidemiological studies of coffee and disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Long-term potentiation (LTP) of human sensory-evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Ian J; McNair, Nicolas A; Hamm, Jeffrey P; Clapp, Wesley C; Mathalon, Daniel H; Cavus, Idil; Teyler, Timothy J

    2010-09-01

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) is the principal candidate synaptic mechanism underlying learning and memory, and has been studied extensively at the cellular and molecular level in laboratory animals. Inquiry into the functional significance of LTP has been hindered by the absence of a human model as, until recently, LTP has only been directly demonstrated in humans in isolated cortical tissue obtained from patients undergoing surgery, where it displays properties identical to those seen in non-human preparations. In this brief review, we describe the results of paradigms recently developed in our laboratory for inducing LTP-like changes in visual-, and auditory-evoked potentials. We describe how rapid, repetitive presentation of sensory stimuli leads to a persistent enhancement of components of sensory-evoked potential in normal humans. Experiments to date, investigating the locus, stimulus specificity, and NMDA receptor dependence of these LTP-like changes suggest that they have the essential characteristics of LTP seen in experimental animals. The ability to elicit LTP from non-surgical patients will provide a human model system allowing the detailed examination of synaptic plasticity in normal subjects and may have future clinical applications in the assessment of cognitive disorders. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. First identification of dimethoxycinnamic acids in human plasma after coffee intake by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Kornél; Redeuil, Karine; Williamson, Gary; Rezzi, Serge; Dionisi, Fabiola; Longet, Karin; Destaillats, Frédéric; Renouf, Mathieu

    2011-01-21

    There is a substantial amount of published literature on the bioavailability of various coffee components including the most abundant metabolites, caffeic and ferulic acids. Surprisingly, to date, the appearance of dimethoxycinnamic acid derivatives in humans has not been reported despite the fact that methylated form of catechol-type polyphenols could help maintain, modify or even improve their biological activities. This study reports an LC-MS method for the detection of dimethoxycinnamic acid in human plasma after treatment with an esterase. Liquid chromatography, including the combination of methanol and acetonitrile as organic eluent, was optimized to resolve all interferences and enable reliable detection and identification of 3,4-dimethoxycinnamic and 3,4-dimethoxy-dihydrocinnamic acids. In addition to the good mass accuracy achieved (better than 5 ppm), tandem mass spectrometric and co-chromatography experiments further confirmed the identity of the compounds. The optimized method was applied to analyze samples obtained immediately, 1 and 10 h after coffee ingestion. The results show that in particular 3,4-dimethoxycinnamic acid appears in high abundance (∼380 nM at 60 min) in plasma upon coffee intake, indicating that it is important to consider these derivatives in future bioavailability and bioefficacy studies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Probability for human intake of an atom randomly released into ground, rivers, oceans and air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, B L

    1984-08-01

    Numerical estimates are developed for the probability of an atom randomly released in the top ground layers, in a river, or in the oceans to be ingested orally by a human, and for an atom emitted from an industrial source to be inhaled by a human. Estimates are obtained for both probability per year and for total eventual probability. Results vary considerably for different elements, but typical values for total probabilities are: ground, 3 X 10/sup -3/, oceans, 3 X 10/sup -4/; rivers, 1.7 x 10/sup -4/; and air, 5 X 10/sup -6/. Probabilities per year are typcially 1 X 10/sup -7/ for releases into the ground and 5 X 10/sup -8/ for releases into the oceans. These results indicate that for material with very long-lasting toxicity, it is important to include the pathways from the ground and from the oceans.

  5. Does intake of trace elements through urban gardening in Copenhagen pose a risk to human health?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming, Marlies; Hansen, Mette G.; Holm, Peter E.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the potential health risk from urban gardening. The concentrations of the trace elements arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) in five common garden crops from three garden sites in Copenhagen were measured. Concentra......This study investigates the potential health risk from urban gardening. The concentrations of the trace elements arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) in five common garden crops from three garden sites in Copenhagen were measured...

  6. High Calorie, Low Nutrient Food/Beverage Intake and Video Gaming in Children as Potential Signals for Addictive Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel R. Riggs

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the co-occurrence of health risk behaviors in childhood that may signal later addictive behavior. Using a survey, this study evaluated high calorie, low nutrient HCLN intake and video gaming behaviors in 964 fourth grade children over 18 months, with stress, sensation-seeking, inhibitory control, grades, perceived safety of environment, and demographic variables as predictors. SEM and growth curve analyses supported a co-occurrence model with some support for addiction specificity. Male gender, free/reduced lunch, low perceived safety and low inhibitory control independently predicted both gaming and HCLN intake. Ethnicity and low stress predicted HCLN. The findings raise questions about whether living in some impoverished neighborhoods may contribute to social isolation characterized by staying indoors, and HCLN intake and video gaming as compensatory behaviors. Future prevention programs could include skills training for inhibitory control, combined with changes in the built environment that increase safety, e.g., implementing Safe Routes to School Programs.

  7. Potential of human health in the modern conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Dobryden

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article proves that man’s relationship to their health  in each case have varying traits under the influence of sociocultural, psychological and physiological factors  which the world outlook is created from childhood, which implies the appropriate type of behavior that is fixed through the media and social authorities. It is established that scientific knowledge should not be against a man, and should enhance the power of man over nature, but can be transformed into a powerful weapon against humanity. It is noted that science is neutral in terms of values. Will it carry a positive or negative charge to human health depends on the social and cultural markers specific historical era and behavior of the individual. It was found that in addition to the economic crisis, which requires long-term joint economic and political transformations, the most important factor and more accessible to maintaining high adaptive potential health functions at all levels is valeological literacy social subjects and, therefore, imperative the systematic distribution of hygiene recommendations is a significant component of preventive medicine. With the growth of social and technological factors with their aggressive effect on psychophysiological state of man is seen timely more  talk even not about health in general, but should talk about  potential health, which underlines  the  difficulties adaptive and protective processes and susceptibility factors and resistance to pathological changes in the human body. All the more so when we following the formal standards of medicine is unlikely, unfortunately, we be found absolutely healthy people. Under the proposed potential health understood as a set of quantitative and qualitative structural and functional characteristics of the organism, which determine the level of adaptation and protection of human capabilities in adverse conditions, internal and external environment. It is proposed to examine potential

  8. Can Nucleoli Be Markers of Developmental Potential in Human Zygotes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulka, Helena; Kyogoku, Hirohisa; Zatsepina, Olga; Langerova, Alena; Fulka, Josef

    2015-11-01

    In 1999, Tesarik and Greco reported that they could predict the developmental potential of human zygotes from a single static evaluation of their pronuclei. This was based on the distribution and number of specific nuclear organelles - the nucleoli. Recent studies in mice show that nucleoli play a key role in parental genome restructuring after fertilization, and that interfering with this process may lead to developmental failure. These studies thus support the Tesarik-Greco evaluation as a potentially useful method for selecting high-quality embryos in human assisted reproductive technologies. In this opinion article we discuss recent evidence linking nucleoli to parental genome reprogramming, and ask whether nucleoli can mirror or be used as representative markers of embryonic parameters such as chromosome content or DNA fragmentation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Attention effects at auditory periphery derived from human scalp potentials: displacement measure of potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Kazunari; Hayashi, Akiko; Sekiguchi, Takahiro; Era, Shukichi

    2006-10-01

    It is known in humans that electrophysiological measures such as the auditory brainstem response (ABR) are difficult to identify the attention effect at the auditory periphery, whereas the centrifugal effect has been detected by measuring otoacoustic emissions. This research developed a measure responsive to the shift of human scalp potentials within a brief post-stimulus period (13 ms), that is, displacement percentage, and applied it to an experiment to retrieve the peripheral attention effect. In the present experimental paradigm, tone pips were exposed to the left ear whereas the other ear was masked by white noise. Twelve participants each conducted two conditions of either ignoring or attending to the tone pips. Relative to averaged scalp potentials in the ignoring condition, the shift of the potentials was found within early component range during the attentive condition, and displacement percentage then revealed a significant magnitude difference between the two conditions. These results suggest that, using a measure representing the potential shift itself, the peripheral effect of attention can be detected from human scalp potentials.

  10. Development of the human potential in Russian and foreign countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Ivanovich Maslennikov

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article, theoretical and methodical approaches to human development in Russia and foreign countries are analyzed. The contribution of the various countries to its formation and development is revealed. The indicators showing a level of development of human potential and components forming it in the creation of gross domestic product are analyzed. The alternative options of development of education, health care and science, expenses and benefit from their commercialization are revealed. The role of the state, federal regions and local authorities in management and development of health care, education, science during periods of crises, depressions and increases of economic activity is investigated. The interrelation of levels of development of the economy and human potential, with the levels and the population living conditions are revealed. The reasons of close attention of the governments of the developed countries to human development, and also the measures undertaken on minimization of interregional disproportions in its development become clear. Mechanisms and tools of development of health care, education, science in various regions of the world, a way of use of transfers, subsidies and grants on their development are investigated

  11. Risk assessment of human intake Nickel from food, feed and water in Slovak Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Bobcek, Rastislav

    2011-01-01

    Nickel is a metal which is found in nature in the form of compounds with sulfur, arsenic and oxygen. Located in water and many foods (eg offal, soya, various fruits and vegetables, chocolate, cocoa, various kinds of nuts in foods in nickel cans ...). People receive food small amount of nickel, which is necessary for his health. It occurs in soil, air gets influence of volcanic activity. It is used in many alloys and chemical compounds. The main source of human exposure is contaminated food an...

  12. Hydrogen water intake via tube-feeding for patients with pressure ulcer and its reconstructive effects on normal human skin cells in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Pressure ulcer (PU) is common in immobile elderly patients, and there are some research works to investigate a preventive and curative method, but not to find sufficient effectiveness. The aim of this study is to clarify the clinical effectiveness on wound healing in patients with PU by hydrogen-dissolved water (HW) intake via tube-feeding (TF). Furthermore, normal human dermal fibroblasts OUMS-36 and normal human epidermis-derived cell line HaCaT keratinocytes were examined in vitro to explore the mechanisms relating to whether hydrogen plays a role in wound-healing at the cellular level. Methods Twenty-two severely hospitalized elderly Japanese patients with PU were recruited in the present study, and their ages ranged from 71.0 to 101.0 (86.7 ± 8.2) years old, 12 male and 10 female patients, all suffering from eating disorder and bedridden syndrome as the secondary results of various underlying diseases. All patients received routine care treatments for PU in combination with HW intake via TF for 600 mL per day, in place of partial moisture replenishment. On the other hand, HW was prepared with a hydrogen-bubbling apparatus which produces HW with 0.8-1.3 ppm of dissolved hydrogen concentration (DH) and −602 mV to −583 mV of oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), in contrast to reversed osmotic ultra-pure water (RW), as the reference, with DH of < 0.018 ppm and ORP of +184 mV for use in the in vitro experimental research. In in vitro experiments, OUMS-36 fibroblasts and HaCaT keratinocytes were respectively cultured in medium prepared with HW and/or RW. Immunostain was used for detecting type-I collagen reconstruction in OUMS-36 cells. And intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were quantified by NBT assay, and cell viability of HaCaT cells was examined by WST-1 assay, respectively. Results Twenty-two patients were retrospectively divided into an effective group (EG, n = 12) and a less effective group (LG, n = 10) according to

  13. Human dietary δ(15)N intake: representative data for principle food items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huelsemann, F; Koehler, K; Braun, H; Schaenzer, W; Flenker, U

    2013-09-01

    Dietary analysis using δ(15)N values of human remains such as bone and hair is usually based on general principles and limited data sets. Even for modern humans, the direct ascertainment of dietary δ(15)N is difficult and laborious, due to the complexity of metabolism and nitrogen fractionation, differing dietary habits and variation of δ(15)N values of food items. The objective of this study was to summarize contemporary regional experimental and global literature data to ascertain mean representative δ(15)N values for distinct food categories. A comprehensive data set of more than 12,000 analyzed food samples was summarized from the literature. Data originated from studies dealing with (1) authenticity tracing or origin control of food items, and (2) effects of fertilization or nutrition on δ(15)N values of plants or animals. Regional German food δ(15)N values revealed no major differences compared with the mean global values derived from the literature. We found that, in contrast to other food categories, historical faunal remains of pig and poultry are significantly enriched in (15)N compared to modern samples. This difference may be due to modern industrialized breeding practices. In some food categories variations in agricultural and feeding regimens cause significant differences in δ(15)N values that may lead to misinterpretations when only limited information is available. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Understanding of human metabolic pathways of different sub-classes of phenols from Arbutus unedo fruit after an acute intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosele, Juana I; Macià, Alba; Motilva, María-José

    2016-03-01

    Arbutus unedo is a small Mediterranean fruit, commonly named strawberry tree, which is a rich source of different sub-classes of phenolic compounds, the more representative being the gallic acid derivatives, including its mono and oligomeric forms esterified with quinic and shikimic acids. In addition, galloyl derivatives, particularly gallotannins, described in A. unedo, are part of a very selective phenolic group, present in a reduced number of plant-products. The aim of the present study is to provide a better understanding of human metabolic pathways of different sub-classes of phenols from the A. unedo fruit after an acute intake by healthy adults. Therefore, the A. unedo phenolic metabolites were studied in whole blood samples (0 to 24 h), urine (24 h) and feces (12 and 24 h). Special focus was placed on the application of dried blood spot (DBS) cards for the sample collection and for the analysis of phenolic metabolites in whole blood samples. The results of the blood analysis revealed two peaks for the maximum concentrations of the main phenolic metabolites. Furthermore, it is appropriate to highlight the application of DBS cards as an efficient and accurate way to collect blood samples in post-prandial bioavailability studies. The analysis of urine (24 h) gave a wide range of phenolic metabolites showing the extensive metabolism that A. unedo phenolic compounds underwent in the human body. The results of the study provide a relevant contribution to the understanding of the in vivo human bioavailability of phenolic compounds, especially galloyl derivatives, a singular phenolic sub-group present in the A. unedo fruit.

  15. Micronutrients intake associated with DNA damage assessed by in a human biomonitoring study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Ladeira

    2015-05-01

    Retinol was positively correlated with oxidative DNA damage in controls. The study by van Helden et al. (2009 demonstrated that vitamin A enhances OH radical formation in the Fenton reaction, showing that vitamin A can act as pro-oxidant or antioxidant, depending on the type of radicals involved, and may lead to DNA oxidative damage (Alakhras et al., 2011. Azqueta & Collins (2012 clearly distinguished between effects of vitamin A, pro-vitamin A carotenoids, and non-vitamin A carotenoids; being the latter group almost invariably reported to protect against DNA damage, whether endogenous or induced by exogenous agents, the pro-vitamin A carotenoids show a wider spectrum of effects, sometimes protecting and sometimes enhancing DNA damage. Vitamin E was found to be positively correlated with % DNA in tail. Watters et al. (2007 also found a positive association of vitamin E and oxidative DNA damage in a healthy, non-smoking population of young adults. A possible explanation for this result stems from some evidence that in the presence of copper or in smokers with a fat rich diet, vitamin E can act as a strong pro-oxidant, nevertheless it remains an unexpected result. Results found a positive correlation between iron and % DNA in tail, meaning that higher intake of iron associates with higher DNA damage. Oxidative lesions, and more specifically 8-OHdG, is one of the most prevalent lesions induced by iron containing substances (Prá et al., 2012, however the FPG biomarker was not statistically associated with iron. There is sound evidence that iron deficiency increases genome instability, among other mechanisms, by impairing enzymes involved in antioxidant and nuclei acid metabolism (Prá et al., 2012. Results presented herein found that the amount of calories ingested was negatively correlated with both biomarkers assessed by comet assay. This was somewhat unexpected, as calories restriction reduces metabolic rate and oxidative stress, meaning that lower calories

  16. Cost-of-illness analysis reveals potential healthcare savings with reductions in type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease following recommended intakes of dietary fiber in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Mohammad M. H.; Gyles, Collin L.; Marinangeli, Christopher P. F.; Carlberg, Jared G.; Jones, Peter J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are leading causes of mortality and two of the most costly diet-related ailments worldwide. Consumption of fiber-rich diets has been repeatedly associated with favorable impacts on these co-epidemics, however, the healthcare cost-related economic value of altered dietary fiber intakes remains poorly understood. In this study, we estimated the annual cost savings accruing to the Canadian healthcare system in association with reductions in T2D and CVD rates, separately, following increased intakes of dietary fiber by adults. Methods: A three-step cost-of-illness analysis was conducted to identify the percentage of individuals expected to consume fiber-rich diets in Canada, estimate increased fiber intakes in relation to T2D and CVD reduction rates, and independently assess the potential annual savings in healthcare costs associated with the reductions in rates of these two epidemics. The economic model employed a sensitivity analysis of four scenarios (universal, optimistic, pessimistic, and very pessimistic) to cover a range of assumptions within each step. Results: Non-trivial healthcare and related savings of CAD$35.9-$718.8 million in T2D costs and CAD$64.8 million–$1.3 billion in CVD costs were calculated under a scenario where cereal fiber was used to increase current intakes of dietary fiber to the recommended levels of 38 g per day for men and 25 g per day for women. Each 1 g per day increase in fiber consumption resulted in annual CAD$2.6 to $51.1 million savings for T2D and $4.6 to $92.1 million savings for CVD. Conclusion: Findings of this analysis shed light on the economic value of optimal dietary fiber intakes. Strategies to increase consumers’ general knowledge of the recommended intakes of dietary fiber, as part of healthy diet, and to facilitate stakeholder synergy are warranted to enable better management of healthcare and related costs associated with T2D and CVD in Canada. PMID

  17. Does intake of trace elements through urban gardening in Copenhagen pose a risk to human health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warming, Marlies; Hansen, Mette G; Holm, Peter E; Magid, Jakob; Hansen, Thomas H; Trapp, Stefan

    2015-07-01

    This study investigates the potential health risk from urban gardening. The concentrations of the trace elements arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) in five common garden crops from three garden sites in Copenhagen were measured. Concentrations (mg/kg dw) of As were 0.002-0.21, Cd 0.03-0.25, Cr gardening in Copenhagen. Exposure to Pb contaminated sites may lead to unacceptable risk not caused by vegetable consumption but by unintentional soil ingestion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Exploring the existence and potential underpinnings of dog-human and horse-human attachment bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Elyssa; DeAraugo, Jodi; Bennett, Pauleen; McGreevy, Paul

    2016-04-01

    This article reviews evidence for the existence of attachment bonds directed toward humans in dog-human and horse-human dyads. It explores each species' alignment with the four features of a typical attachment bond: separation-related distress, safe haven, secure base and proximity seeking. While dog-human dyads show evidence of each of these, there is limited alignment for horse-human dyads. These differences are discussed in the light of the different selection paths of domestic dogs and horses as well as the different contexts in which the two species interact with humans. The role of emotional intelligence in humans as a potential mediator for human-animal relationships, attachment or otherwise, is also examined. Finally, future studies, which may clarify the interplay between attachment, human-animal relationships and emotional intelligence, are proposed. Such avenues of research may help us explore the concepts of trust and bonding that are often said to occur at the dog-human and horse-human interface. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Intake, distribution, and metabolism of decabromodiphenyl ether and its main metabolites in chickens and implications for human dietary exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jing-Xin; Bao, Lian-Jun; Luo, Pei; Shi, Lei; Wong, Charles S.; Zeng, Eddy Y.

    2017-01-01

    Diet is considered as the most important human exposure pathway for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Metabolism and accumulation patterns of PBDEs in different growth periods of chickens are helpful for evaluating human dietary exposure, but such information is scarce. In this study, female chickens were fed with food spiked with BDE-209 at 85 mg kg −1 , and the intake, accumulation, and excretion of BDE-209 and its main metabolites in various tissues were examined. Concentrations of BDE-209 in chicken tissues increased over time in a tissue-specific manner; they were the greatest in liver and generally the lowest in breast meat during the entire exposure period. The kinetic patterns were dependent on both growth-dilution effects and accumulated concentrations of BDE-209. Tissue concentrations of ∑ 8 PBDE (sum of BDE-28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183, and 209) followed the sequence of liver > blood > skin > intestine > stomach > leg meat > breast meat. Different tissue partition coefficients and perfusion rates for blood may have resulted in different PBDE concentrations in tissues. The absorption efficiency of BDE-209 in chicken tissues followed the sequence of liver (0.15 ± 0.032%) > skin (0.14 ± 0.038%) > intestine (0.071 ± 0.021%) > breast meat (0.062 ± 0.020%) > leg meat (0.059 ± 0.016%) > stomach (0.021 ± 0.0095%), likely due in part to facilitated absorption of BDE-209 by transport proteins (P-glycoproteins). On average, 9.3 ± 1.7% of BDE-209 was excreted in feces. Estimated human average dietary intake via the consumption of chicken tissues of ∑ 8 PBDE for adults and children was 319 and 1380 ng day −1 for liver, 211 and 632 ng day −1 for leg meat, and 104 and 311 ng day −1 for breast meat from the contaminated group. Liver clearly poses the highest exposure risk for human consumption, particularly if chickens are fed with contaminated feed. - Highlights: • BDE-209 is the most abundant

  20. Analysis of copy number variations in Holstein cows identify potential mechanisms contributing to differences in residual feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yali; Bickhart, Derek M; Chung, Hoyoung; Hutchison, Jana L; Norman, H Duane; Connor, Erin E; Liu, George E

    2012-11-01

    Genomic structural variation is an important and abundant source of genetic and phenotypic variation. In this study, we performed an initial analysis of copy number variations (CNVs) using BovineHD SNP genotyping data from 147 Holstein cows identified as having high or low feed efficiency as estimated by residual feed intake (RFI). We detected 443 candidate CNV regions (CNVRs) that represent 18.4 Mb (0.6 %) of the genome. To investigate the functional impacts of CNVs, we created two groups of 30 individual animals with extremely low or high estimated breeding values (EBVs) for RFI, and referred to these groups as low intake (LI; more efficient) or high intake (HI; less efficient), respectively. We identified 240 (~9.0 Mb) and 274 (~10.2 Mb) CNVRs from LI and HI groups, respectively. Approximately 30-40 % of the CNVRs were specific to the LI group or HI group of animals. The 240 LI CNVRs overlapped with 137 Ensembl genes. Network analyses indicated that the LI-specific genes were predominantly enriched for those functioning in the inflammatory response and immunity. By contrast, the 274 HI CNVRs contained 177 Ensembl genes. Network analyses indicated that the HI-specific genes were particularly involved in the cell cycle, and organ and bone development. These results relate CNVs to two key variables, namely immune response and organ and bone development. The data indicate that greater feed efficiency relates more closely to immune response, whereas cattle with reduced feed efficiency may have a greater capacity for organ and bone development.

  1. FGF21, a liver hormone that inhibits alcohol intake in mice, increases in human circulation after acute alcohol ingestion and sustained binge drinking at Oktoberfest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Susanna; Andersen, Emilie S; Dalgaard, Niels B

    2018-01-01

    . KLB encodes β-klotho, co-receptor for the liver-derived hormone fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21). In mice, FGF21 reduces alcohol intake, and human Fgf21 variants are enriched among heavy drinkers. Thus, the liver may limit alcohol consumption by secreting FGF21. However, whether full-length, active...... plasma FGF21 (FGF21 (1-181)) levels in humans increase acutely or sub-chronically in response to alcohol ingestion is uncertain. METHODS: We recruited 10 healthy, fasted male subjects to receive an oral water or alcohol bolus with concurrent blood sampling for FGF21 (1-181) measurement in plasma...... correlated fasting FGF21 (1-181) levels in 49 healthy, non-alcoholic subjects of mixed sex with self-reports of alcohol-related behaviors, emotional responses, and problems. Finally, we characterized the effect of recombinant human FGF21 injection on ad libitum alcohol intake in mice. RESULTS: We show...

  2. Ultra-long-term human salt balance studies reveal interrelations between sodium, potassium, and chloride intake and excretion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birukov, Anna; Rakova, Natalia; Lerchl, Kathrin; Olde Engberink, Rik H. G.; Johannes, Bernd; Wabel, Peter; Moissl, Ulrich; Rauh, Manfred; Luft, Friedrich C.; Titze, Jens

    2016-01-01

    The intake of sodium, chloride, and potassium is considered important to healthy nutrition and cardiovascular disease risk. Estimating the intake of these electrolytes is difficult and usually predicated on urine collections, commonly for 24 h, which are considered the gold standard. We reported on

  3. Dietary Vitamin C Intake Reduces the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Chinese Adults: HOMA-IR and T-AOC as Potential Mediators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunling Zhou

    Full Text Available Despite growing interest in the protective role that dietary antioxidant vitamins may have in the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D, little epidemiological evidence is available in non-Western populations especially about the possible mediators underlying in this role. The present study aimed to investigate the association of vitamin C and vitamin E intakes with T2D risk in Chinese adults and examine the potential mediators. 178 incident T2D cases among 3483 participants in the Harbin People Health Study (HPHS, and 522 newly diagnosed T2D among 7595 participants in the Harbin Cohort Study on Diet, Nutrition and Chronic Non-communicable Diseases (HDNNCDS were studied. In the multivariable-adjusted logistics regression model, the relative risks (RRs were 1.00, 0.75, and 0.76 (Ptrend = 0.003 across tertiles of vitamin C intake in the HDNNCDS, and this association was validated in the HPHS with RRs of 1.00, 0.47, and 0.46 (Ptrend = 0.002. The RRs were 1.00, 0.72, and 0.76 (Ptrend = 0.039 when T2D diagnosed by haemoglobin A1c in the HDNNCDS. The mediation analysis discovered that insulin resistance (indicated by homeostasis model assessment and oxidative stress (indicated by plasma total antioxidative capacity partly mediated this association. But no association was evident between vitamin E intake and T2D. In conclusion, our research adds further support to the role of vitamin C intake in reducing the development of T2D in the broader population studied. The results also suggested that this association was partly mediated by inhibiting or ameliorating oxidative stress and insulin resistance.

  4. Contamination of food samples from Malaysia with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and estimation of human intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Yin-Hui; Chiang, Pui-Nyuk; Jaafar, Hajjaj Juharullah; Gan, Chee-Yuen; Majid, Mohamed Isa Abdul

    2014-04-01

    A total of 126 food samples, categorised into three groups (seafood and seafood products, meat and meat products, as well as milk and dairy products) from Malaysia were analysed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). The concentration of PCDD/Fs that ranged from 0.16 to 0.25 pg WHO05-TEQ g(-1) fw was found in these samples. According to the food consumption data from the Global Environment Monitoring System (GEMS) of the World Health Organization (WHO), the dietary exposures to PCDD/F from seafood and seafood products, meat and meat products, as well as milk and dairy products for the general population in Malaysia were 0.064, 0.183 and 0.736 pg WHO05-TEQ kg(-1) bw day(-1), respectively. However, the exposure was higher in seafood and seafood products (0.415 pg WHO05-TEQ kg(-1) bw day(-1)) and meat and meat products (0.317 pg WHO05-TEQ kg(-1) bw day(-1)) when the data were estimated using the Malaysian food consumption statistics. The lower exposure was observed in dairy products with an estimation of 0.365 pg WHO05-TEQ kg(-1) bw day(-1). Overall, these dietary exposure estimates were much lower than the tolerable daily intake (TDI) as recommended by WHO. Thus, it is suggested that the dietary exposure to PCDD/F does not represent a risk for human health in Malaysia.

  5. Glucosinolates in Brassica vegetables: the influence of the food supply chain on intake, bioavailability and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkerk, Ruud; Schreiner, Monika; Krumbein, Angelika; Ciska, Ewa; Holst, Birgit; Rowland, Ian; De Schrijver, Remi; Hansen, Magnor; Gerhäuser, Clarissa; Mithen, Richard; Dekker, Matthijs

    2009-09-01

    Glucosinolates (GLSs) are found in Brassica vegetables. Examples of these sources include cabbage, Brussels sprouts, broccoli, cauliflower and various root vegetables (e.g. radish and turnip). A number of epidemiological studies have identified an inverse association between consumption of these vegetables and the risk of colon and rectal cancer. Animal studies have shown changes in enzyme activities and DNA damage resulting from consumption of Brassica vegetables or isothiocyanates, the breakdown products (BDP) of GLSs in the body. Mechanistic studies have begun to identify the ways in which the compounds may exert their protective action but the relevance of these studies to protective effects in the human alimentary tract is as yet unproven. In vitro studies with a number of specific isothiocyanates have suggested mechanisms that might be the basis of their chemoprotective effects. The concentration and composition of the GLSs in different plants, but also within a plant (e.g. in the seeds, roots or leaves), can vary greatly and also changes during plant development. Furthermore, the effects of various factors in the supply chain of Brassica vegetables including breeding, cultivation, storage and processing on intake and bioavailability of GLSs are extensively discussed in this paper.

  6. Metallothioneins in human tumors and potential roles in carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherian, M. George; Jayasurya, A.; Bay, Boon-Huat

    2003-12-10

    Metallothioneins (MT) are a group of low-molecular weight, cysteine rich intracellular proteins, which are encoded by a family of genes containing at least 10 functional isoforms in human. The expression and induction of these proteins have been associated with protection against DNA damage, oxidative stress and apoptosis. Moreover, MT may potentially activate certain transcriptional factors by donating zinc. Although MT is a cytosolic protein in resting cells, it can be translocated transiently to the cell nucleus during cell proliferation and differentiation. A number of studies have shown an increased expression of MT in various human tumors of the breast, colon, kidney, liver, lung, nasopharynx, ovary, prostate, salivary gland, testes, thyroid and urinary bladder. However, MT is down-regulated in certain tumors such as hepatocellular carcinoma and liver adenocarcinoma. Hence, the expression of MT is not universal to all human tumors, but may depend on the differentiation status and proliferative index of tumors, along with other tissue factors and gene mutations. In certain tumors such as germ cell carcinoma, the expression of MT is closely related to the tumor grade and proliferative activity. Increased expression of MT has also been observed in less differentiated tumors. Thus, expression of MT may be a potential prognostic marker for certain tumors. There are few reports on the expression of the different isoforms of MT which have been analyzed by specific gene probes. They reveal that certain isoforms are expressed in specific cell types. The factors which can influence MT induction in human tumors are not yet understood. Down-regulation of MT synthesis in hepatic tumors may be related to hypermethylation of the MT-promoter or mutation of other genes such as the p53 tumor suppressor gene. In vitro studies using human cancer cells suggest a possible role for p53 and the estrogen-receptor on the expression and induction of MT in epithelial neoplastic cells

  7. Metallothioneins in human tumors and potential roles in carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherian, M. George; Jayasurya, A.; Bay, Boon-Huat

    2003-01-01

    Metallothioneins (MT) are a group of low-molecular weight, cysteine rich intracellular proteins, which are encoded by a family of genes containing at least 10 functional isoforms in human. The expression and induction of these proteins have been associated with protection against DNA damage, oxidative stress and apoptosis. Moreover, MT may potentially activate certain transcriptional factors by donating zinc. Although MT is a cytosolic protein in resting cells, it can be translocated transiently to the cell nucleus during cell proliferation and differentiation. A number of studies have shown an increased expression of MT in various human tumors of the breast, colon, kidney, liver, lung, nasopharynx, ovary, prostate, salivary gland, testes, thyroid and urinary bladder. However, MT is down-regulated in certain tumors such as hepatocellular carcinoma and liver adenocarcinoma. Hence, the expression of MT is not universal to all human tumors, but may depend on the differentiation status and proliferative index of tumors, along with other tissue factors and gene mutations. In certain tumors such as germ cell carcinoma, the expression of MT is closely related to the tumor grade and proliferative activity. Increased expression of MT has also been observed in less differentiated tumors. Thus, expression of MT may be a potential prognostic marker for certain tumors. There are few reports on the expression of the different isoforms of MT which have been analyzed by specific gene probes. They reveal that certain isoforms are expressed in specific cell types. The factors which can influence MT induction in human tumors are not yet understood. Down-regulation of MT synthesis in hepatic tumors may be related to hypermethylation of the MT-promoter or mutation of other genes such as the p53 tumor suppressor gene. In vitro studies using human cancer cells suggest a possible role for p53 and the estrogen-receptor on the expression and induction of MT in epithelial neoplastic cells

  8. Arsenic speciation in total contents and bioaccessible fractions in atmospheric particles related to human intakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Minjuan; Chen, Xunwen; Zhao, Yinge; Yu Chan, Chuen; Wang, Wei; Wang, Xuemei; Wong, Ming Hung

    2014-01-01

    Speciation of inorganic trivalent arsenicals (iAs III ), inorganic pentavalent arsenicals (iAs V ), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in total arsenic (As) content and its bioaccessible fractions contained in road dust, household air-conditioning (AC) filter dust and PM 2.5 was investigated. Inorganic As, especially iAs V , was observed as the dominant species. Physiologically based extraction test (PBET), an in-vitro gastrointestinal method, was used to estimate the oral As bioaccessibility in coarse particles and the species present in the oral bioaccessible fraction. A composite lung simulating serum was used to mimic the pulmonary condition to extract the respiratory bioaccessible As and its species in PM 2.5 . Reduction of iAs V to iAs III occurred in both in-vitro gastrointestinal and lung simulating extraction models. The inorganic As species was the exclusive species for absorption through ingestion and inhalation of atmospheric particles, which was an important exposure route to inorganic As, in addition to drinking water and food consumption. - Highlights: • Inorganic As species was the predominant species in dust and airborne particles. • Existence of iAs III in dust and airborne particles increases human health risks. • Reduction from iAs V to iAs III occurred through in-vitro gastrointestinal model. • Reduction from iAs V to iAs III occurred in the simulating pulmonary region. • Atmospheric particles were important exposure sources of inorganic As. - Atmospheric particles are important exposure sources of inorganic As, of which the bioaccessibility is dependent on the extraction phases and models used

  9. Ultra-long-term human salt balance studies reveal interrelations between sodium, potassium, and chloride intake and excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birukov, Anna; Rakova, Natalia; Lerchl, Kathrin; Engberink, Rik Hg Olde; Johannes, Bernd; Wabel, Peter; Moissl, Ulrich; Rauh, Manfred; Luft, Friedrich C; Titze, Jens

    2016-07-01

    The intake of sodium, chloride, and potassium is considered important to healthy nutrition and cardiovascular disease risk. Estimating the intake of these electrolytes is difficult and usually predicated on urine collections, commonly for 24 h, which are considered the gold standard. We reported on data earlier for sodium but not for potassium or chloride. We were able to test the value of 24-h urine collections in a unique, ultra-long-term balance study conducted during a simulated trip to Mars. Four healthy men were observed while ingesting 12 g salt/d, 9 g salt/d, and 6 g salt/d, while their potassium intake was maintained at 4 g/d for 105 d. Six healthy men were studied while ingesting 12 g salt/d, 9 g salt/d, and 6 g salt/d, with a re-exposure of 12 g/d, while their potassium intake was maintained at 4 g/d for 205 d. Food intake and other constituents were recorded every day for each subject. All urine output was collected daily. Long-term urine recovery rates for all 3 electrolytes were very high. Rather than the expected constant daily excretion related to daily intake, we observed remarkable daily variation in excretion, with a 7-d infradian rhythm at a relatively constant intake. We monitored 24-h aldosterone excretion in these studies and found that aldosterone appeared to be the regulator for all 3 electrolytes. We report Bland-Altman analyses on the value of urine collections to estimate intake. A single 24-h urine collection cannot predict sodium, potassium, or chloride intake; thus, multiple collections are necessary. This information is important when assessing electrolyte intake in individuals. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. Ultra-long–term human salt balance studies reveal interrelations between sodium, potassium, and chloride intake and excretion12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birukov, Anna; Rakova, Natalia; Lerchl, Kathrin; Engberink, Rik HG Olde; Johannes, Bernd; Wabel, Peter; Moissl, Ulrich; Rauh, Manfred; Luft, Friedrich C; Titze, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Background: The intake of sodium, chloride, and potassium is considered important to healthy nutrition and cardiovascular disease risk. Estimating the intake of these electrolytes is difficult and usually predicated on urine collections, commonly for 24 h, which are considered the gold standard. We reported on data earlier for sodium but not for potassium or chloride. Objective: We were able to test the value of 24-h urine collections in a unique, ultra-long–term balance study conducted during a simulated trip to Mars. Design: Four healthy men were observed while ingesting 12 g salt/d, 9 g salt/d, and 6 g salt/d, while their potassium intake was maintained at 4 g/d for 105 d. Six healthy men were studied while ingesting 12 g salt/d, 9 g salt/d, and 6 g salt/d, with a re-exposure of 12 g/d, while their potassium intake was maintained at 4 g/d for 205 d. Food intake and other constituents were recorded every day for each subject. All urine output was collected daily. Results: Long-term urine recovery rates for all 3 electrolytes were very high. Rather than the expected constant daily excretion related to daily intake, we observed remarkable daily variation in excretion, with a 7-d infradian rhythm at a relatively constant intake. We monitored 24-h aldosterone excretion in these studies and found that aldosterone appeared to be the regulator for all 3 electrolytes. We report Bland–Altman analyses on the value of urine collections to estimate intake. Conclusions: A single 24-h urine collection cannot predict sodium, potassium, or chloride intake; thus, multiple collections are necessary. This information is important when assessing electrolyte intake in individuals. PMID:27225435

  11. Mapping human brain networks with cortico-cortical evoked potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Corey J.; Honey, Christopher J.; Mégevand, Pierre; Entz, Laszlo; Ulbert, Istvan; Mehta, Ashesh D.

    2014-01-01

    The cerebral cortex forms a sheet of neurons organized into a network of interconnected modules that is highly expanded in humans and presumably enables our most refined sensory and cognitive abilities. The links of this network form a fundamental aspect of its organization, and a great deal of research is focusing on understanding how information flows within and between different regions. However, an often-overlooked element of this connectivity regards a causal, hierarchical structure of regions, whereby certain nodes of the cortical network may exert greater influence over the others. While this is difficult to ascertain non-invasively, patients undergoing invasive electrode monitoring for epilepsy provide a unique window into this aspect of cortical organization. In this review, we highlight the potential for cortico-cortical evoked potential (CCEP) mapping to directly measure neuronal propagation across large-scale brain networks with spatio-temporal resolution that is superior to traditional neuroimaging methods. We first introduce effective connectivity and discuss the mechanisms underlying CCEP generation. Next, we highlight how CCEP mapping has begun to provide insight into the neural basis of non-invasive imaging signals. Finally, we present a novel approach to perturbing and measuring brain network function during cognitive processing. The direct measurement of CCEPs in response to electrical stimulation represents a potentially powerful clinical and basic science tool for probing the large-scale networks of the human cerebral cortex. PMID:25180306

  12. Potential Cellular Signatures of Viral Infections in Human Hematopoietic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mikovits

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Expression profiling of cellular genes was performed using a 10,000 cDNA human gene array in order to identify expression changes following chronic infection of human hematopoietic cells with Kapsosi’s Sarcoma -associated Virus (KSHV also known as Human Herpesvirus 8 (HHV8 and Human T cell leukemia virus-1 (HTLV-1. We performed cell-free {\\it in vitro} infection of primary bone marrow derived CD34+ cells using semi-purified HHV8 and a mature IL-2 dependent T cell line, KIT 225, using highly concentrated viral stocks prepared from an infectious molecular clone of HTLV-1. Thirty days post infection, mRNA was isolated from infected cultures and uninfected controls and submitted for microarray analysis. More than 400 genes were differentially expressed more than two-fold following HHV8 infection of primary bone marrow derived CD34+ cells. Of these 400, interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4, cyclin B2, TBP-associated factor, eukaryotic elongation factor and pim 2 were up-regulated more than 3.5 fold. In contrast, less than 100 genes were differentially expressed more than two-fold following chronic infection of a mature T cell line with HTLV-1. Of these, only cdc7 was up-regulated more than 3.5 fold. These data may provide insight into cellular signatures of infection useful for diagnosis of infection as well as potential targets for therapeutic intervention.

  13. Decade of the Brain 1990--2000: Maximizing human potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-04-01

    The US Decade of the Brain offers scientists throughout the Federal Government a unique opportunity to advance and apply scientific knowledge about the brain and nervous system. During the next 10 years, scientists hope to maximize human potential through studies of human behavior, senses and communication, learning and memory, genetic/chemical alterations, and environmental interactions. Progress in these areas should lead to reductions in mortality from brain and nervous system disorders and to improvements in the quality of life. This report identifies nine research areas that could form the basis of an integrated program in the brain and behavioral sciences. A chart summarizing the Federal activities in these nine areas may be found at the back of the report. In addition, three areas that span the nine research areas -- basic research, technology and international activities -- are considered.

  14. Frizzled Receptors as Potential Therapeutic Targets in Human Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chui-Mian Zeng

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Frizzled receptors (FZDs are a family of seven-span transmembrane receptors with hallmarks of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs that serve as receptors for secreted Wingless-type (WNT ligands in the WNT signaling pathway. Functionally, FZDs play crucial roles in regulating cell polarity, embryonic development, cell proliferation, formation of neural synapses, and many other processes in developing and adult organisms. In this review, we will introduce the basic structural features and review the biological function and mechanism of FZDs in the progression of human cancers, followed by an analysis of clinical relevance and therapeutic potential of FZDs. We will focus on the development of antibody-based and small molecule inhibitor-based therapeutic strategies by targeting FZDs for human cancers.

  15. Human Milk Microbial Community Structure Is Relatively Stable and Related to Variations in Macronutrient and Micronutrient Intakes in Healthy Lactating Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Janet E; Carrothers, Janae M; Lackey, Kimberly A; Beatty, Nicola F; York, Mara A; Brooker, Sarah L; Shafii, Bahman; Price, William J; Settles, Matthew L; McGuire, Mark A; McGuire, Michelle K

    2017-09-01

    Background: The human milk microbiome has been somewhat characterized, but little is known about changes over time and relations with maternal factors such as nutrient intake. Objective: We sought to characterize the human milk microbiome and described associations with maternal nutrient intake, time postpartum, delivery mode, and body mass index (BMI; in kg/m 2 ). Methods: Milk samples ( n = 104) and 24-h diet recalls were collected 9 times from 21 healthy lactating women from day 2 to 6 mo postpartum. Women were classified by BMI as healthy weight (milk microbiome was relatively constant over time, although there were small changes in some of the lesser-abundant genera. Relative abundances of several taxa were associated with BMI, delivery mode, and infant sex. For instance, overweight and obese mothers produced milk with a higher relative abundance of Granulicatella than did healthy-weight women (1.8% ± 0.6% compared with 0.4% ± 0.2%, respectively; P milk microbiome are complex and may include maternal nutrient intake, maternal BMI, delivery mode, and infant sex. Future studies designed to investigate the relation between maternal nutrient intake and the milk microbiome should strive to also evaluate dietary supplement usage and analyze the collected milk for its nutrient content.

  16. RNA-Seq transcriptomics and pathway analyses reveal potential regulatory genes and molecular mechanisms in high- and low-residual feed intake in Nordic dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salleh, M. S.; Mazzoni, G.; Höglund, J. K.

    2017-01-01

    -throughput RNA sequencing data of liver biopsies from 19 dairy cows were used to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between high- and low-FE groups of cows (based on Residual Feed Intake or RFI). Subsequently, a profile of the pathways connecting the DEGs to FE was generated, and a list of candidate...... genes and biomarkers was derived for their potential inclusion in breeding programmes to improve FE. The bovine RNA-Seq gene expression data from the liver was analysed to identify DEGs and, subsequently, identify the molecular mechanisms, pathways and possible candidate biomarkers of feed efficiency....... On average, 57 million reads (short reads or short mRNA sequences ...

  17. Determination of the potential bioavailability of plant microRNAs using a simulated human digestion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Anna; Ferro, Valerie A; Tate, Rothwelle J

    2015-10-01

    The "dietary xenomiR hypothesis" proposes that microRNAs (miRNAs) in foodstuffs survive transit through the mammalian gastrointestinal tract and pass into cells intact to affect gene regulation. However, debate continues as to whether dietary intake poses a feasible route for such exogenous gene regulators. Understanding on miRNA levels during pretreatments of human diet is essential to test their bioavailability during digestion. This study makes the novel first use of an in vitro method to eliminate the inherent complexities and variability of in vivo approaches used to test this hypothesis. Plant miRNA levels in soybean and rice were measured during storage, processing, cooking, and early digestion using real-time PCR. We have demonstrated for the first time that storage, processing, and cooking does not abolish the plant miRNAs present in the foodstuffs. In addition, utilizing a simulated human digestion system revealed significant plant miRNA bioavailability after early stage digestion for 75 min. Attenuation of plant messenger RNA and synthetic miRNA was observed under these conditions. Even after an extensive pretreatment, plant-derived miRNA, delivered by typical dietary ingestion, has a robustness that could make them bioavailable for uptake during early digestion. The potential benefit of these regulatory molecules in pharma nutrition could be explored further. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Potential Role of Carotenoids as Antioxidants in Human Health and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Fiedor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids constitute a ubiquitous group of isoprenoid pigments. They are very efficient physical quenchers of singlet oxygen and scavengers of other reactive oxygen species. Carotenoids can also act as chemical quenchers undergoing irreversible oxygenation. The molecular mechanisms underlying these reactions are still not fully understood, especially in the context of the anti- and pro-oxidant activity of carotenoids, which, although not synthesized by humans and animals, are also present in their blood and tissues, contributing to a number of biochemical processes. The antioxidant potential of carotenoids is of particular significance to human health, due to the fact that losing antioxidant-reactive oxygen species balance results in “oxidative stress”, a critical factor of the pathogenic processes of various chronic disorders. Data coming from epidemiological studies and clinical trials strongly support the observation that adequate carotenoid supplementation may significantly reduce the risk of several disorders mediated by reactive oxygen species. Here, we would like to highlight the beneficial (protective effects of dietary carotenoid intake in exemplary widespread modern civilization diseases, i.e., cancer, cardiovascular or photosensitivity disorders, in the context of carotenoids’ unique antioxidative properties.

  19. Potential Role of Carotenoids as Antioxidants in Human Health and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedor, Joanna; Burda, Květoslava

    2014-01-01

    Carotenoids constitute a ubiquitous group of isoprenoid pigments. They are very efficient physical quenchers of singlet oxygen and scavengers of other reactive oxygen species. Carotenoids can also act as chemical quenchers undergoing irreversible oxygenation. The molecular mechanisms underlying these reactions are still not fully understood, especially in the context of the anti- and pro-oxidant activity of carotenoids, which, although not synthesized by humans and animals, are also present in their blood and tissues, contributing to a number of biochemical processes. The antioxidant potential of carotenoids is of particular significance to human health, due to the fact that losing antioxidant-reactive oxygen species balance results in “oxidative stress”, a critical factor of the pathogenic processes of various chronic disorders. Data coming from epidemiological studies and clinical trials strongly support the observation that adequate carotenoid supplementation may significantly reduce the risk of several disorders mediated by reactive oxygen species. Here, we would like to highlight the beneficial (protective) effects of dietary carotenoid intake in exemplary widespread modern civilization diseases, i.e., cancer, cardiovascular or photosensitivity disorders, in the context of carotenoids’ unique antioxidative properties. PMID:24473231

  20. Climate Change in the US: Potential Consequences for Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Nancy G.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. National Assessment identified five major areas of consequences of climate change in the United States: temperature-related illnesses and deaths, health effects related to extreme weather events, air pollution-related health effects, water- and food-borne diseases, and insect-, tick-, and rodent-borne diseases. The U.S. National Assessment final conclusions about these potential health effects will be described. In addition, a summary of some of the new tools for studying human health aspects of climate change as well as environment-health linkages through remotely sensed data and observations will be provided.

  1. Prandial states modify the reactivity of the gustatory cortex using gustatory evoked potentials in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnès eJACQUIN-PIQUES

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging studies evaluated the role of satiety on cortical taste area activity and highlighted decreased activation in the orbito-frontal cortex when food was eaten until satiation. The modulation of orbito-frontal neurons (secondary taste area by ad libitum food intake has been associated with the pleasantness of the food’s flavor. The insula and frontal operculum (primary taste area are also involved in reward processing. The aim was to compare human gustatory evoked potentials (GEP recorded in the primary and secondary gustatory cortices in a fasted state with those after food intake. Fifteen healthy volunteers were enrolled in this observational study. In each of two sessions, two GEP recordings were performed (at 11:00 am and 1:30 pm in response to sucrose gustatory stimulation, and a sucrose-gustatory threshold was determined. During one session, a standard lunch was provided between the two GEP recordings. During the other session, subjects had nothing to eat. Hunger sensation, wanting, liking and the perception of the solution’s intensity were evaluated with visual analogue scales. GEP latencies measured in the Pz (p<0.001, Cz (p<0.01, Fz (p<0.001 recordings (primary taste area were longer after lunch than in the pre-prandial condition. Fp1 and Fp2 latencies (secondary taste area tended to be longer after lunch, but the difference was not significant. No difference was observed for the sucrose-gustatory threshold regardless of the session and time. Modifications in the primary taste area activity during the post-prandial period occurred regardless of the nature of the food eaten and could represent the activity of the frontal operculum and insula, which was recently shown to be modulated by gut signals (GLP-1, CCK, ghrelin, or insulin through vagal afferent neurons or metabolic changes of the internal milieu after nutrient absorption. This trial was registered at clinicalstrials.gov as NCT

  2. Human neural tuning estimated from compound action potentials in normal hearing human volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschooten, Eric; Desloovere, Christian; Joris, Philip X.

    2015-12-01

    The sharpness of cochlear frequency tuning in humans is debated. Evoked otoacoustic emissions and psychophysical measurements suggest sharper tuning in humans than in laboratory animals [15], but this is disputed based on comparisons of behavioral and electrophysiological measurements across species [14]. Here we used evoked mass potentials to electrophysiologically quantify tuning (Q10) in humans. We combined a notched noise forward masking paradigm [9] with the recording of trans tympanic compound action potentials (CAP) from masked probe tones in awake human and anesthetized monkey (Macaca mulatta). We compare our results to data obtained with the same paradigm in cat and chinchilla [16], and find that CAP-Q10values in human are ˜1.6x higher than in cat and chinchilla and ˜1.3x higher than in monkey. To estimate frequency tuning of single auditory nerve fibers (ANFs) in humans, we derive conversion functions from ANFs in cat, chinchilla, and monkey and apply these to the human CAP measurements. The data suggest that sharp cochlear tuning is a feature of old-world primates.

  3. Potential Foraging Decisions by a Desert Ungulate to Balance Water and Nutrient Intake in a Water-Stressed Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedir, Jay V; Cain, James W; Krausman, Paul R; Allen, Jamison D; Duff, Glenn C; Morgart, John R

    2016-01-01

    Arid climates have unpredictable precipitation patterns, and wildlife managers often provide supplemental water to help desert ungulates endure the hottest, driest periods. When surface water is unavailable, the only source of water for ungulates comes from the forage they consume, and they must make resourceful foraging decisions to meet their requirements. We compared two desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) populations in Arizona, USA: a treatment population with supplemental water removed during treatment, and a control population. We examined whether sheep altered their seasonal diets without supplemental water. We calculated water and nutrient intake and metabolic water production from dry matter intake and forage moisture and nitrogen content, to determine whether sheep could meet their seasonal daily water and nutrient requirements solely from forage. Diets of sheep were higher in protein (all seasons) and moisture (autumn and winter) during treatment compared to pretreatment. During treatment, sheep diet composition was similar between the treatment and control populations, which suggests, under the climatic conditions of this study, water removal did not influence sheep diets. We estimated that under drought conditions, without any surface water available (although small ephemeral potholes would contain water after rains), female and male sheep would be unable to meet their daily water requirements in all seasons, except winter, when reproductive females had a nitrogen deficit. We determined that sheep could achieve water and nutrient balances in all seasons by shifting their total diet proportions by 8-55% from lower to higher moisture and nitrogen forage species. We elucidate how seasonal forage quality and foraging decisions by desert ungulates allow them to cope with their xeric and uncertain environment, and suggest that, with the forage conditions observed in our study area during this study period, providing supplemental water during

  4. Potential benefits of oxygen-enriched intake air in a vehicle powered by a spark-ignition engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, H. K.; Sekar, R. R.

    1994-04-01

    A production vehicle powered by a spark-ignition engine (3.1-L Chevrolet Lumina, model year 1990) was tested. The test used oxygen-enriched intake air containing 25 and 28% oxygen by volume to determine (1) if the vehicle would run without difficulties and (2) if emissions benefits would result. Standard Federal Test Procedure (FTP) emissions test cycles were run satisfactorily. Test results of catalytic converter-out emissions (emissions out of the converter) showed that both carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons were reduced significantly in all three phases of the emissions test cycle. Test results of engine-out emissions (emissions straight out of the engine, with the converter removed) showed that carbon monoxide was significantly reduced in the cold phase. All emission test results were compared with those for normal air (21% oxygen). The catalytic converter also had an improved carbon monoxide conversion efficiency under the oxygen-enriched-air conditions. Detailed results of hydrocarbon speciation indicated large reductions in 1,3-butadiene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and benzene from the engine with the oxygen-enriched air. Catalytic converter-out ozone was reduced by 60% with 25%-oxygen-content air. Although NO(x) emissions increased significantly, both for engine-out and catalytic converter-out emissions, we anticipate that they can be ameliorated in the near future with new control technologies. The automotive industry currently is developing exhaust-gas control technologies for an oxidizing environment; these technologies should reduce NO(x) emissions more efficiently in vehicles that use oxygen-enriched intake air. On the basis of estimates made from current data, several production vehicles that had low NO(x) emissions could meet the 2004 Tier 2 emissions standards with 25%-oxygen-content air.

  5. Potential Foraging Decisions by a Desert Ungulate to Balance Water and Nutrient Intake in a Water-Stressed Environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay V Gedir

    Full Text Available Arid climates have unpredictable precipitation patterns, and wildlife managers often provide supplemental water to help desert ungulates endure the hottest, driest periods. When surface water is unavailable, the only source of water for ungulates comes from the forage they consume, and they must make resourceful foraging decisions to meet their requirements. We compared two desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni populations in Arizona, USA: a treatment population with supplemental water removed during treatment, and a control population. We examined whether sheep altered their seasonal diets without supplemental water. We calculated water and nutrient intake and metabolic water production from dry matter intake and forage moisture and nitrogen content, to determine whether sheep could meet their seasonal daily water and nutrient requirements solely from forage. Diets of sheep were higher in protein (all seasons and moisture (autumn and winter during treatment compared to pretreatment. During treatment, sheep diet composition was similar between the treatment and control populations, which suggests, under the climatic conditions of this study, water removal did not influence sheep diets. We estimated that under drought conditions, without any surface water available (although small ephemeral potholes would contain water after rains, female and male sheep would be unable to meet their daily water requirements in all seasons, except winter, when reproductive females had a nitrogen deficit. We determined that sheep could achieve water and nutrient balances in all seasons by shifting their total diet proportions by 8-55% from lower to higher moisture and nitrogen forage species. We elucidate how seasonal forage quality and foraging decisions by desert ungulates allow them to cope with their xeric and uncertain environment, and suggest that, with the forage conditions observed in our study area during this study period, providing supplemental

  6. Potential foraging decisions by a desert ungulate to balance water and nutrient intake in a water-stressed environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedir, Jay V.; Cain, James W.; Krausman, Paul R.; Allen, Jamison D.; Duff, Glenn C.; Morgart, John R.

    2016-01-01

    Arid climates have unpredictable precipitation patterns, and wildlife managers often provide supplemental water to help desert ungulates endure the hottest, driest periods. When surface water is unavailable, the only source of water for ungulates comes from the forage they consume, and they must make resourceful foraging decisions to meet their requirements. We compared two desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) populations in Arizona, USA: a treatment population with supplemental water removed during treatment, and a control population. We examined whether sheep altered their seasonal diets without supplemental water. We calculated water and nutrient intake and metabolic water production from dry matter intake and forage moisture and nitrogen content, to determine whether sheep could meet their seasonal daily water and nutrient requirements solely from forage. Diets of sheep were higher in protein (all seasons) and moisture (autumn and winter) during treatment compared to pretreatment. During treatment, sheep diet composition was similar between the treatment and control populations, which suggests, under the climatic conditions of this study, water removal did not influence sheep diets. We estimated that under drought conditions, without any surface water available (although small ephemeral potholes would contain water after rains), female and male sheep would be unable to meet their daily water requirements in all seasons, except winter, when reproductive females had a nitrogen deficit. We determined that sheep could achieve water and nutrient balances in all seasons by shifting their total diet proportions by 8–55% from lower to higher moisture and nitrogen forage species. We elucidate how seasonal forage quality and foraging decisions by desert ungulates allow them to cope with their xeric and uncertain environment, and suggest that, with the forage conditions observed in our study area during this study period, providing supplemental water during

  7. Dendritic Cell Lineage Potential in Human Early Hematopoietic Progenitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Helft

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Conventional dendritic cells (cDCs are thought to descend from a DC precursor downstream of the common myeloid progenitor (CMP. However, a mouse lymphoid-primed multipotent progenitor has been shown to generate cDCs following a DC-specific developmental pathway independent of monocyte and granulocyte poiesis. Similarly, here we show that, in humans, a large fraction of multipotent lymphoid early progenitors (MLPs gives rise to cDCs, in particular the subset known as cDC1, identified by co-expression of DNGR-1 (CLEC9A and CD141 (BDCA-3. Single-cell analysis indicates that over one-third of MLPs have the potential to efficiently generate cDCs. cDC1s generated from CMPs or MLPs do not exhibit differences in transcriptome or phenotype. These results demonstrate an early imprinting of the cDC lineage in human hematopoiesis and highlight the plasticity of developmental pathways giving rise to human DCs.

  8. Potential drug development candidates for human soil-transmitted helminthiases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Olliaro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Few drugs are available for soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH; the benzimidazoles albendazole and mebendazole are the only drugs being used for preventive chemotherapy as they can be given in one single dose with no weight adjustment. While generally safe and effective in reducing intensity of infection, they are contra-indicated in first-trimester pregnancy and have suboptimal efficacy against Trichuris trichiura. In addition, drug resistance is a threat. It is therefore important to find alternatives.We searched the literature and the animal health marketed products and pipeline for potential drug development candidates. Recently registered veterinary products offer advantages in that they have undergone extensive and rigorous animal testing, thus reducing the risk, cost and time to approval for human trials. For selected compounds, we retrieved and summarised publicly available information (through US Freedom of Information (FoI statements, European Public Assessment Reports (EPAR and published literature. Concomitantly, we developed a target product profile (TPP against which the products were compared.The paper summarizes the general findings including various classes of compounds, and more specific information on two veterinary anthelmintics (monepantel, emodepside and nitazoxanide, an antiprotozoal drug, compiled from the EMA EPAR and FDA registration files.Few of the compounds already approved for use in human or animal medicine qualify for development track decision. Fast-tracking to approval for human studies may be possible for veterinary compounds like emodepside and monepantel, but additional information remains to be acquired before an informed decision can be made.

  9. Bacteriophage and their potential roles in the human oral cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Edlund

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The human oral cavity provides the perfect portal of entry for viruses and bacteria in the environment to access new hosts. Hence, the oral cavity is one of the most densely populated habitats of the human body containing some 6 billion bacteria and potentially 35 times that many viruses. The role of these viral communities remains unclear; however, many are bacteriophage that may have active roles in shaping the ecology of oral bacterial communities. Other implications for the presence of such vast oral phage communities include accelerating the molecular diversity of their bacterial hosts as both host and phage mutate to gain evolutionary advantages. Additional roles include the acquisitions of new gene functions through lysogenic conversions that may provide selective advantages to host bacteria in response to antibiotics or other types of disturbances, and protection of the human host from invading pathogens by binding to and preventing pathogens from crossing oral mucosal barriers. Recent evidence suggests that phage may be more involved in periodontal diseases than were previously thought, as their compositions in the subgingival crevice in moderate to severe periodontitis are known to be significantly altered. However, it is unclear to what extent they contribute to dysbiosis or the transition of the microbial community into a state promoting oral disease. Bacteriophage communities are distinct in saliva compared to sub- and supragingival areas, suggesting that different oral biogeographic niches have unique phage ecology shaping their bacterial biota. In this review, we summarize what is known about phage communities in the oral cavity, the possible contributions of phage in shaping oral bacterial ecology, and the risks to public health oral phage may pose through their potential to spread antibiotic resistance gene functions to close contacts.

  10. Effect of the long-term regular intake of virgin olive oil on the phenolic metabolites in human fasting plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valls, Rosa-Maria; Soler, Aranzazu; Girona, Josefa; Heras, Mercedes; Romero, Maria-Paz; Covas, Maria-Isabel; Solà, Rosa; Masana, Lluis; Motilva, Maria-Jose

    2010-09-21

    The effect of repeated consumption of virgin olive oil on endogenous phenolic metabolites of fasting plasma is unknown. For this reason, we hypothesized that regular long-term virgin olive oil intake could have an indirect protection effect on the endogenous phenols. Thus, the aim of the study was to determine the phenolic profile of human plasma in a fasting state of long-term regular virgin olive oil consumers, using the fasting plasma of non-consumers as a natural control. Forty participants living in the area of Reus (Catalonia, Spain) were selected, 20 life-long regular consumers of virgin olive oil and a natural control of 20 non-consumers, the latter being Rumanians who dislike the taste of olive oil. The diet was obtained from 3-day food records. The results showed similar phenolic composition of fasting plasmas of the two volunteer groups. Of special interest is that more of the compounds quantified showed higher concentration in fasting plasma from habitual virgin olive oil consumers. The compounds were semi-quantified using caffeic acid as the calibration standard. The quantification of fasting consumer's plasma showed higher concentration of a hydroxyflavanone type compound (2.90+/-0.04 microM vs 1.5+/-0.04 microM) and a catecholamine derivative (0.70+/-0.03 microM vs 0.56+/-0.03 microM) than the plasma of non-consumers (P<0.05). The results suggest an indirect protective mechanism of long-term regular virgin olive oil consumption related to the protection of the endogenous antioxidant system. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Lack of negative autocorrelations of daily food intake on successive days challenges the concept of the regulation of body weight in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitsky, David A; Raea Limb, Ji Eun; Wilkinson, Lua; Sewall, Anna; Zhong, Yingyi; Olabi, Ammar; Hunter, Jean

    2017-09-01

    According to most theories, the amount of food consumed on one day should be negatively related to intake on subsequent days. Several studies have observed such a negative correlation between the amount consumed on one day and the amount consumed two to four days later. The present study attempted to replicate this observation by re-examining data from a previous study where all food ingested over a 30-day observation period was measured. Nine male and seven female participants received a vegan diet prepared, dispensed, and measured in a metabolic unit. Autocorrelations were performed on total food intake consume on one day and that consumed one to five days later. A significant positive correlation was detected between the weight of food eaten on one day and on the amount consumed on the following day (r = 0.29, 95% CI [0.37, 0.20]). No correlation was found between weights of food consumed on one day and up to twelve days later (r = 0.09, 95% CI [0.24, -0.06]), (r = 0.11, 95% CI [0.26, -0.0.26]) (r = 0.02, 95% CI [0.15, -0.7]) (r = -0.08, 95% CI [0.11, -0.09]). The same positive correlation with the previous day's intake was observed at the succeeding breakfast but not at either lunch or dinner. However, the participants underestimated their daily energy need resulting in a small, but statistically significant weight loss. Daily food intake increased slightly (13 g/day), but significantly, across the 30-day period. An analysis of the previous studies revealed that the negative correlations observed by others was caused by a statistical artifact resulting from normalizing data before testing for the correlations. These results, when combined with the published literature, indicate that there is little evidence that humans precisely compensate for the previous day's intake by altering the amount consumed on subsequent days. Moreover, the small but persistent increase in food intake suggests that physiological mechanisms that affect food intake

  12. Liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry quantification of urinary proanthocyanin A2 dimer and its potential use as a biomarker of cranberry intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Jason M; Ren, Xiaobai; Zampariello, Carly; Polasky, Daniel A; McKay, Diane L; Blumberg, Jeffrey B; Chen, C-Y Oliver

    2016-01-01

    The lack of a biomarker for the consumption of cranberries has confounded the interpretation of several studies investigating the effect of cranberry products, especially juices, on health outcomes. The objectives of this pilot study were to develop a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric method for the quantification of the proanthocyanin dimer A-2 in human urine and validate urinary proanthocyanin dimer A-2 as a biomarker of cranberry intake. Five healthy, nonsmoking, premenopausal women (20-30 years of age, body mass index: 18.5-25 kg/m(2) ) were assigned to consume a cranberry beverage containing 140 mg proanthocyanin and 35 kilocalories at 237 mL/day, according to a weekly dosing schedule for 7 weeks. Eleven 24 h and morning spot urine samples each were collected from each subject. A reliable, sensitive method for the detection of proanthocyanin dimer A-2 in urine using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry was developed with a limit of quantitation of 0.25 ng/mL and a relative standard deviation of 7.26%, precision of 5.7%, and accuracy of 91.7%. While proanthocyanin dimer A-2 was quantifiable in urine, it did not appear to be excreted in a concentration that corresponded to the dosing schedule and intake of cranberry juice. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Angiogenic potential of human macrophages on electrospun bioresorbable vascular grafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, K; Sell, S A; Madurantakam, P; Bowlin, G L, E-mail: glbowlin@vcu.ed [Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23284 (United States)

    2009-06-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate macrophage interactions with electrospun scaffolds and quantify the expression of key angiogenic growth factors in vitro. This study will further help in evaluating the potential of these electrospun constructs as vascular grafts for tissue repair and regeneration in situ. Human peripheral blood macrophages were seeded in serum free media on electrospun (10 mm) discs of polydioxanone (PDO), elastin and PDO:elastin blends (50:50, 70:30 and 90:10). The growth factor secretion was analyzed by ELISA. Macrophages produced high levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and acidic fibroblast growth factor. Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta1) secretion was relatively low and there was negligible production of basic fibroblast growth factor. Therefore, it can be anticipated that these scaffolds will support tissue regeneration and angiogenesis. (communication)

  14. Potential Effects of Horizontal Gene Exchange in the Human Gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Aaron; Matthias, Torsten; Aminov, Rustam

    2017-01-01

    Many essential functions of the human body are dependent on the symbiotic microbiota, which is present at especially high numbers and diversity in the gut. This intricate host-microbe relationship is a result of the long-term coevolution between the two. While the inheritance of mutational changes in the host evolution is almost exclusively vertical, the main mechanism of bacterial evolution is horizontal gene exchange. The gut conditions, with stable temperature, continuous food supply, constant physicochemical conditions, extremely high concentration of microbial cells and phages, and plenty of opportunities for conjugation on the surfaces of food particles and host tissues, represent one of the most favorable ecological niches for horizontal gene exchange. Thus, the gut microbial system genetically is very dynamic and capable of rapid response, at the genetic level, to selection, for example, by antibiotics. There are many other factors to which the microbiota may dynamically respond including lifestyle, therapy, diet, refined food, food additives, consumption of pre- and probiotics, and many others. The impact of the changing selective pressures on gut microbiota, however, is poorly understood. Presumably, the gut microbiome responds to these changes by genetic restructuring of gut populations, driven mainly via horizontal gene exchange. Thus, our main goal is to reveal the role played by horizontal gene exchange in the changing landscape of the gastrointestinal microbiome and potential effect of these changes on human health in general and autoimmune diseases in particular.

  15. Spontaneous Food Fermentations and Potential Risks for Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Capozzi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fermented foods and beverages are a heterogeneous class of products with a relevant worldwide significance for human economy, nutrition and health for millennia. A huge diversity of microorganisms is associated with the enormous variety in terms of raw materials, fermentative behavior and obtained products. In this wide microbiodiversity it is possible that the presence of microbial pathogens and toxic by-products of microbial origin, including mycotoxins, ethyl carbamate and biogenic amines, are aspects liable to reduce the safety of the consumed product. Together with other approaches (e.g., use of preservatives, respect of specific physico-chemical parameters, starter cultures technology has been conceived to successfully dominate indigenous microflora and to drive fermentation to foresee the desired attributes of the matrix, assuring quality and safety. Recent trends indicate a general return to spontaneous food fermentation. In this review, we point out the potential risks for human health associated with uncontrolled (uninoculated food fermentation and we discuss biotechnological approaches susceptible to conciliate fermented food safety, with instances of an enhanced contribution of microbes associated to spontaneous fermentation.

  16. Potential Effects of Horizontal Gene Exchange in the Human Gut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Lerner

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Many essential functions of the human body are dependent on the symbiotic microbiota, which is present at especially high numbers and diversity in the gut. This intricate host–microbe relationship is a result of the long-term coevolution between the two. While the inheritance of mutational changes in the host evolution is almost exclusively vertical, the main mechanism of bacterial evolution is horizontal gene exchange. The gut conditions, with stable temperature, continuous food supply, constant physicochemical conditions, extremely high concentration of microbial cells and phages, and plenty of opportunities for conjugation on the surfaces of food particles and host tissues, represent one of the most favorable ecological niches for horizontal gene exchange. Thus, the gut microbial system genetically is very dynamic and capable of rapid response, at the genetic level, to selection, for example, by antibiotics. There are many other factors to which the microbiota may dynamically respond including lifestyle, therapy, diet, refined food, food additives, consumption of pre- and probiotics, and many others. The impact of the changing selective pressures on gut microbiota, however, is poorly understood. Presumably, the gut microbiome responds to these changes by genetic restructuring of gut populations, driven mainly via horizontal gene exchange. Thus, our main goal is to reveal the role played by horizontal gene exchange in the changing landscape of the gastrointestinal microbiome and potential effect of these changes on human health in general and autoimmune diseases in particular.

  17. Hepatic differentiation potential of commercially available human mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Shin-Yeu; Dai, Hui; Leong, Kam W

    2006-12-01

    The ready availability and low immunogenicity of commercially available mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) render them a potential cell source for the development of therapeutic products. With cell source a major bottleneck in hepatic tissue engineering, we investigated whether commercially available human MSC (hMSC) can transdifferentiate into the hepatic lineage. Based on previous studies that find rapid gain of hepatic genes in bone marrow-derived stem cells cocultured with liver tissue, we used a similar approach to drive hepatic differentiation by coculturing the hMSC with rat livers treated or untreated with gadolinium chloride (GdCl(3)). After a 24-hour coculture period with liver tissue injured by GdCl(3) in a Transwell configuration, approximately 34% of the cells differentiated into albumin-expressing cells. Cocultured cells were subsequently maintained with growth factors to complete the hepatic differentiation. Cocultured cells expressed more hepatic gene markers, and had higher metabolic functions and P450 activity than cells that were only differentiated with growth factors. In conclusion, commercially available hMSC do show hepatic differentiation potential, and a liver microenvironment in culture can provide potent cues to accelerate and deepen the differentiation. The ability to generate hepatocyte-like cells from a commercially available cell source would find interesting applications in liver tissue engineering.

  18. Organotin intake through fish consumption in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airaksinen, Riikka, E-mail: Riikka.Airaksinen@thl.fi [National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland); Rantakokko, Panu; Turunen, Anu W.; Vartiainen, Terttu [National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland); Vuorinen, Pekka J.; Lappalainen, Antti; Vihervuori, Aune [Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Mannio, Jaakko [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Hallikainen, Anja [Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira, Helsinki (Finland)

    2010-08-15

    Background: Organotin compounds (OTCs) are a large class of synthetic chemicals with widely varying properties. Due to their potential adverse health effects, their use has been restricted in many countries. Humans are exposed to OTCs mostly through fish consumption. Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe OTC exposure through fish consumption and to assess the associated potential health risks in a Finnish population. Methods: An extensive sampling of Finnish domestic fish was carried out in the Baltic Sea and freshwater areas in 2005-2007. In addition, samples of imported seafood were collected in 2008. The chemical analysis was performed in an accredited testing laboratory during 2005-2008. Average daily intake of the sum of dibutyltin (DBT), tributyltin (TBT), triphenyltin (TPhT) and dioctyltin (DOT) ({Sigma}OTCs) for the Finnish population was calculated on the basis of the measured concentrations and fish consumption rates. Results: The average daily intake of {Sigma}OTCs through fish consumption was 3.2 ng/kg bw day{sup -1}, which is 1.3% from the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) of 250 ng/kg bw day{sup -1} set by the European Food Safety Authority. In total, domestic wild fish accounted for 61% of the {Sigma}OTC intake, while the intake through domestic farmed fish was 4.0% and the intake through imported fish was 35%. The most important species were domestic perch and imported salmon and rainbow trout. Conclusions: The Finnish consumers are not likely to exceed the threshold level for adverse health effects due to OTC intake through fish consumption.

  19. Organotin intake through fish consumption in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airaksinen, Riikka; Rantakokko, Panu; Turunen, Anu W.; Vartiainen, Terttu; Vuorinen, Pekka J.; Lappalainen, Antti; Vihervuori, Aune; Mannio, Jaakko; Hallikainen, Anja

    2010-01-01

    Background: Organotin compounds (OTCs) are a large class of synthetic chemicals with widely varying properties. Due to their potential adverse health effects, their use has been restricted in many countries. Humans are exposed to OTCs mostly through fish consumption. Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe OTC exposure through fish consumption and to assess the associated potential health risks in a Finnish population. Methods: An extensive sampling of Finnish domestic fish was carried out in the Baltic Sea and freshwater areas in 2005-2007. In addition, samples of imported seafood were collected in 2008. The chemical analysis was performed in an accredited testing laboratory during 2005-2008. Average daily intake of the sum of dibutyltin (DBT), tributyltin (TBT), triphenyltin (TPhT) and dioctyltin (DOT) (ΣOTCs) for the Finnish population was calculated on the basis of the measured concentrations and fish consumption rates. Results: The average daily intake of ΣOTCs through fish consumption was 3.2 ng/kg bw day -1 , which is 1.3% from the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) of 250 ng/kg bw day -1 set by the European Food Safety Authority. In total, domestic wild fish accounted for 61% of the ΣOTC intake, while the intake through domestic farmed fish was 4.0% and the intake through imported fish was 35%. The most important species were domestic perch and imported salmon and rainbow trout. Conclusions: The Finnish consumers are not likely to exceed the threshold level for adverse health effects due to OTC intake through fish consumption.

  20. Effects of diets based on foods from conventional versus organic production on intake and excretion of flavonoids and markers of antioxidative defense in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grinder-Pedersen, Lisbeth; Rasmussen, Salka E.; Bügel, Susanne

    2003-01-01

    selection of more resistant varieties is of central importance to organic farming, it cannot be excluded that the observed effects originate from these differences. The food production method affected the content of the major flavonoid, quercetin, in foods and also affected urinary flavonoids and markers......Different food production methods may result in differences in the content of secondary metabolites such as polyphenolic compounds. The present study compared conventionally (CPD) and organically produced (OPD) diets in a human crossover intervention study (n = 16) with respect to the intake...... both interventions. Most markers of antioxidative defense did not differ between the diets, but intake of OPD resulted in an increased protein oxidation and a decreased total plasma antioxidant capacity compared to baseline (P

  1. Long-term visuo-gustatory appetitive and aversive conditioning potentiate human visual evoked potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Gert R.J.; Laugesen, Jakob L.; Møller, Per

    2017-01-01

    Human recognition of foods and beverages are often based on visual cues associated with flavors. The dynamics of neurophysiological plasticity related to acquisition of such long-term associations has only recently become the target of investigation. In the present work, the effects of appetitive...... and aversive visuo-gustatory conditioning were studied with high density EEG-recordings focusing on late components in the visual evoked potentials (VEPs), specifically the N2-P3 waves. Unfamiliar images were paired with either a pleasant or an unpleasant juice and VEPs evoked by the images were compared...... before and 1 day after the pairings. In electrodes located over posterior visual cortex areas, the following changes were observed after conditioning: the amplitude from the N2-peak to the P3-peak increased and the N2 peak delay was reduced. The percentage increase of N2-to-P3 amplitudes...

  2. Dietary intake of organic pollutants in children from Catalonia, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocio, A.; Falco, G.; Llobet, J.M.; Domingo, J.L. [Lab. of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Reus (Spain); Mueller, L. [SGS GmbH, Antwerpen (Belgium)

    2004-09-15

    Potential human toxicity of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is well known. Moreover, it is also well established that dietary intake is the major route of human exposure for most POPs. In recent years, concern on dietary intake of POPs and other organic environmental contaminants has notably increased. Dietary intake of these pollutants is of special interest in children populations, who in relation to their body weights consume greater quantities of food than adults. Consequently, they are more exposed to potentially toxic pollutants. In 2000, a wide survey on dietary intake of a number of organic contaminants by the general population of Catalonia Spain was carried out. The levels of the following pollutants were determined in an important number of food samples belonging to various food groups: polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PCDEs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The present study was undertaken to estimate the dietary intake of the above pollutants by children between 4 and 9 years old, as well as to assess the potential health risks derived from this intake.

  3. Phthalate Intakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Compilation of literature-reported intake values of phthalates; specifically dibutyl phthalate (DBP), bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and diisononyl phthalate (DiNP)....

  4. The role of leptin and ghrelin in the regulation of food intake and body weight in humans: a review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klok, M.D.; Jakobsdottir, S.; Drent, M.L.

    2007-01-01

    Leptin and ghrelin are two hormones that have been recognized to have a major influence on energy balance. Leptin is a mediator of long-term regulation of energy balance, suppressing food intake and thereby inducing weight loss. Ghrelin on the other hand is a fast-acting hormone, seemingly playing a

  5. Trichomonas vaginalis: pathogenicity and potential role in human reproductive failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielczarek, Ewelina; Blaszkowska, Joanna

    2016-08-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis, which colonizes the genitourinary tract of men and women, is a sexually transmitted parasite causing symptomatic or asymptomatic trichomoniasis. The host-parasite relationship is very complex, and clinical symptoms cannot likely be attributed to a single pathogenic effect. Among the many factors responsible for interactions between T. vaginalis and host tissues, contact-dependent and contact-independent mechanisms are important in pathogenicity, as is the immune response. This review focuses on the potential virulence properties of T. vaginalis and its role in female and male infertility. It highlights the association between T. vaginalis infection and serious adverse health consequences experienced by women, including infertility, preterm birth and low-birth-weight infants. Long-term clinical observations and results of in vitro experimental studies indicate that in men, trichomoniasis has been also associated with infertility through inflammatory damage to the genitourinary tract or interference with sperm function. These results contribute significantly to improving our knowledge of the role of parasitic virulence factors in the development of infection and its role in human infertility.

  6. The influence of Savannah River discharge and changing SRS cooling water requirements on the potential entrainment of ichthyoplankton at the SRS Savannah River intakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paller, M.H.

    1992-08-01

    Entrainment (i.e., withdrawal of fish larvae and eggs in cooling water) at the SRS Savannah River intakes is greatest when periods of high river water usage coincide with low river dischargeduring the spawning season. American shad and striped bass are the two species of greatest concern because of their recreational and/or commercial importance and because they produce drifting eggs and larvae vulnerable to entrainment. In the mid-reaches of the Savannah River, American shad and striped bass spawn primarily during April and May. An analysis of Savannah River discharge during April and May 1973--1989 indicated the potential for entrainment of 4--18% of the American shad and striped bass larvae and eggs that drifted past the SRS. This analysis assumed the concurrent operation of L-, K-, and P-Reactors. Additional scenarios investigated were: (1) shutting down L- and P-Reactors, and operating K-Reactor with a recycle cooling tower; and (2) shutting down L- and P-Reactors, eliminating minimum flows to Steel Creek, and operating K-Reactor with a recycle cooling tower. The former scenario reduced potential entrainment to 0.7--3.3%, and the latter scenario reduced potential entrainment to 0.20.8%. Thus, the currently favored scenario of operating K-Reactor with a cooling tower and not operating L- and P-Reactors represents a significant lessening of the impact of SRS operations

  7. A review of metabolic potential of human gut microbiome in human nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Monika; Verma, Manoj Kumar; Chauhan, Nar Singh

    2018-03-01

    The human gut contains a plethora of microbes, providing a platform for metabolic interaction between the host and microbiota. Metabolites produced by the gut microbiota act as a link between gut microbiota and its host. These metabolites act as messengers having the capacity to alter the gut microbiota. Recent advances in the characterization of the gut microbiota and its symbiotic relationship with the host have provided a platform to decode metabolic interactions. The human gut microbiota, a crucial component for dietary metabolism, is shaped by the genetic, epigenetic and dietary factors. The metabolic potential of gut microbiota explains its significance in host health and diseases. The knowledge of interactions between microbiota and host metabolism, as well as modification of microbial ecology, is really beneficial to have effective therapeutic treatments for many diet-related diseases in near future. This review cumulates the information to map the role of human gut microbiota in dietary component metabolism, the role of gut microbes derived metabolites in human health and host-microbe metabolic interactions in health and diseases.

  8. Daily intake of Jeju groundwater improves the skin condition of the model mouse for human atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Akane; Jung, Kyungsook; Matsuda, Akira; Jang, Hyosun; Kajiwara, Naoki; Amagai, Yosuke; Oida, Kumiko; Ahn, Ginnae; Ohmori, Keitaro; Kang, Kyung-goo; Matsuda, Hiroshi

    2013-03-01

    Drinking water is an important nutrient for human health. The mineral ingredients included in drinking water may affect the physical condition of people. Various kinds of natural water are in circulation as bottled water in developed countries; however, its influence on clinical conditions of patients with certain diseases has not been fully evaluated. In this study, effects of the natural groundwater from Jeju Island on clinical symptoms and skin barrier function in atopic dermatitis (AD) were evaluated. NC/Tnd mice, a model for human AD, with moderate to severe dermatitis were used. Mice were given different natural groundwater or tap water for 8 weeks from 4 weeks of age. Clinical skin severity scores were recorded every week. Scratching analysis and measurement of transepidermal water loss were performed every other week. The pathological condition of the dorsal skin was evaluated histologically. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed for cytokine expression in the affected skin. The epidermal hyperplasia and allergic inflammation were reduced in atopic mice supplied with Jeju groundwater when compared to those supplied with tap water or other kinds of natural groundwater. The increase in scratching behavior with the aggravation of clinical severity of dermatitis was favorably controlled. Moreover, transepidermal water loss that reflects skin barrier function was recovered. The early inflammation and hypersensitivity in the atopic skin was alleviated in mice supplied with Jeju groundwater, suggesting its profitable potential on the daily care of patients with skin troubles including AD. © 2013 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  9. Intake to Production Ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazaroff, William; Weschler, Charles J.; Little, John C.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Limited data are available to assess human exposure to thousands of chemicals currently in commerce. Information that relates human intake of a chemical to its production and use can help inform understanding of mechanisms and pathways that control exposure and support efforts...... to protect public health.OBJECTIVES: We introduce the intake-to-production ratio (IPR) as an economy-wide quantitative indicator of the extent to which chemical production results in human exposure.METHODS: The IPR was evaluated as the ratio of two terms: aggregate rate of chemical uptake in a human......(n-butyl) phthalate, 1,040 ppm for para-dichlorobenzene, 6,800 ppm for di(isobutyl) phthalate, 7,700 ppm for diethyl phthalate, and 8,000-24,000 ppm (range) for triclosan.CONCLUSION: The IPR is well suited as an aggregate metric of exposure intensity for characterizing population-level exposure to synthesized...

  10. Long-Term Visuo-Gustatory Appetitive and Aversive Conditioning Potentiate Human Visual Evoked Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert R. J. Christoffersen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Human recognition of foods and beverages are often based on visual cues associated with flavors. The dynamics of neurophysiological plasticity related to acquisition of such long-term associations has only recently become the target of investigation. In the present work, the effects of appetitive and aversive visuo-gustatory conditioning were studied with high density EEG-recordings focusing on late components in the visual evoked potentials (VEPs, specifically the N2-P3 waves. Unfamiliar images were paired with either a pleasant or an unpleasant juice and VEPs evoked by the images were compared before and 1 day after the pairings. In electrodes located over posterior visual cortex areas, the following changes were observed after conditioning: the amplitude from the N2-peak to the P3-peak increased and the N2 peak delay was reduced. The percentage increase of N2-to-P3 amplitudes was asymmetrically distributed over the posterior hemispheres despite the fact that the images were bilaterally symmetrical across the two visual hemifields. The percentage increases of N2-to-P3 amplitudes in each experimental subject correlated with the subject’s evaluation of positive or negative hedonic valences of the two juices. The results from 118 scalp electrodes gave surface maps of theta power distributions showing increased power over posterior visual areas after the pairings. Source current distributions calculated from swLORETA revealed that visual evoked currents rose as a result of conditioning in five cortical regions—from primary visual areas and into the inferior temporal gyrus (ITG. These learning-induced changes were seen after both appetitive and aversive training while a sham trained control group showed no changes. It is concluded that long-term visuo-gustatory conditioning potentiated the N2-P3 complex, and it is suggested that the changes are regulated by the perceived hedonic valence of the US.

  11. Distribution of heavy metals in internal organs and tissues of Korean molluscan shellfish and potential risk to human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Jong Soo; Kwon, Ji Young; Son, Kwang Tae; Choi, Woo Seok; Kim, Poong Ho; Lee, Tae Seek; Kim, Ji Hoe

    2015-09-01

    Molluscan shellfish (gastropods and bivalves) were collected from major fish markets on the Korean coast and analyzed for mercury by direct Hg analyzer and for other metals, such as cadmium, lead, chromium, silver, nickel, copper and zinc, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Distribution of heavy metals in muscles, internal organs and whole tissues were determined and a potential risk assessment was conducted to evaluate their hazard for human consumption. Heavy metals were accumulated significantly higher (P hazardous metals (Cd, Pb, and Hg) in all internal-organ samples were above the regulatory limit of Korea and the mean level in whole tissue samples of the selected gastropod species, bay scallop and comb pen shell, exceeded the limit (except in a few cases). The sum of the estimated dietary intake of Cd, Pb and Hg for each part of all tested species accounted for 1.59-16.94, 0.02-0.36, and 0.07-0.16% respectively, of the provisional tolerable daily intake adopted by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. The hazard index for each part of gastropods and bivalves was below 1.0, however, the maximum HI for internal organs of all analysed species was quite high (0.71). These results suggest that consumption of flesh after removing the internal organs of some molluscan shellfish (all gastropod species, bay scallop and comb pen shell) is a suitable way for reducing Cd exposure.

  12. Potential human health risk assessment of trace metals via the consumption of marine fish in Persian Gulf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naji, Abolfazl; Khan, Farhan R.; Hashemi, Seyed Hassan

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the concentration of trace metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in the muscle of four fish species from the Persian Gulf. Trace metals were analyzed using atomic absorption spectroscopy and consumption rates advisory for minimizing chronic systemic effects in children and adults were estimated. The metals concentrations in analyzed fish samples were lower than legal limits. Cadmium target hazard quotient values suggested that the threshold to avoid the potential risk for children health is an exposure level lower than 3 meals per week. Hazard index values based on four metals (not including Pb) for the child age class were higher than those of the adult age class, suggesting that children may suffer from a higher health risk. This study provides information about the consumption limits of certain metals, in particular Cd, necessary for minimizing potential health risks resulting from human consumption. - Highlights: • Trace metals in wild marine fish from the Persian Gulf were investigated. • Metal concentrations descended in the following order: Zn > Cu > Pb ≈ Ni > Cd > . • The Cd and Pb may be potential risk to human. • No obvious health risk from the intake of trace elements through fish consumption.

  13. NTP-CERHR monograph on the potential human reproductive and developmental effects of bisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelby, Michael D

    2008-09-01

    The National Toxicology Program (NTP) Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (CERHR) conducted an evaluation of the potential for bisphenol A to cause adverse effects on reproduction and development in humans. The CERHR Expert Panel on Bisphenol A completed its evaluation in August 2007. CERHR selected bisphenol A for evaluation because of the: widespread human exposure; public concern for possible health effects from human exposures; high production volume; evidence of reproductive and developmental toxicity in laboratory animal studies Bisphenol A (CAS RN: 80-05-7) is a high production volume chemical used primarily in the production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. Polycarbonate plastics are used in some food and drink containers; the resins are used as lacquers to coat metal products such as food cans, bottle tops, and water supply pipes. To a lesser extent bisphenol A is used in the production of polyester resins, polysulfone resins, polyacrylate resins, and flame retardants. In addition, bisphenol A is used in the processing of polyvinyl chloride plastic and in the recycling of thermal paper. Some polymers used in dental sealants and tooth coatings contain bisphenol A. The primary source of exposure to bisphenol A for most people is assumed to occur through the diet. While air, dust, and water (including skin contact during bathing and swimming) are other possible sources of exposure, bisphenol A in food and beverages accounts for the majority of daily human exposure. The highest estimated daily intakes of bisphenol A in the general population occur in infants and children. The results of this bisphenol A evaluation are published in an NTP-CERHR Monograph that includes the (1) NTP Brief and (2) Expert Panel Report on the Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity of Bisphenol A. Additional information related to the evaluation process, including the peer review report for the NTP Brief and public comments received on the draft NTP

  14. The human oral metaproteome reveals potential biomarkers for caries disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belda-Ferre, Pedro; Williamson, James; Simón-Soro, Áurea

    2015-01-01

    metabolism and immune response. We applied multivariate analysis in order to find the minimum set of proteins that better allows discrimination of healthy and caries-affected dental plaque samples, detecting seven bacterial and five human protein functions that allow determining the health status......Tooth decay is considered the most prevalent human disease worldwide. We present the first metaproteomic study of the oral biofilm, using different mass spectrometry approaches that have allowed us to quantify individual peptides in healthy and caries-bearing individuals. A total of 7771 bacterial...... and 853 human proteins were identified in 17 individuals, which provide the first available protein repertoire of human dental plaque. Actinomyces and Coryneybacterium represent a large proportion of the protein activity followed by Rothia and Streptococcus. Those four genera account for 60-90% of total...

  15. CD56 marks human dendritic cell subsets with cytotoxic potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roothans, D.; Smits, E.; Lion, E.; Tel, J.; Anguille, S.

    2013-01-01

    Human plasmacytoid and myeloid dendritic cells (DCs), when appropriately stimulated, can express the archetypal natural killer (NK)-cell surface marker CD56. In addition to classical DC functions, CD56(+) DCs are endowed with an unconventional cytotoxic capacity.

  16. Nephroprotective Potential of Human Albumin Infusion: A Narrative Review

    OpenAIRE

    Christian J. Wiedermann; Michael Joannidis

    2015-01-01

    Albumin infusion improves renal function in cirrhosis; however, mechanisms are incompletely understood. In clinical practice, human albumin is used in various intensive care unit indications to deal with a wide range of problems, from volume replacement in hypovolemic shock, or sepsis, to treatment of ascites in patients with liver cirrhosis. Against the background of the results of recent studies on the use of human albumin in septic patients, the importance of the natural colloid in these c...

  17. Double-blind,parallel group, placebo-controlledstudy of Kjellmaniella crassifoliaMiyabe (Gagomein human: The potential of Gagometoactivatethe immune system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Nishihira

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Marine brown algae, Kjellmaniella crassifolia Miyabe (Gagome is extensively harvested in Northern Japan and is known to help improve the immune system and prevent lifestyle diseases by its functional constituents, particularly the polysaccharide fucoidan. However, since most scientific findings come from animal studies, we examined its potential effectiveness in humans to raise immune functions, using small amounts of Gagome to avoid overconsumption of iodide. Methods: We set up a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial (n=30 subjects for Gagome consumption; n=30 for placebo, in which 0.8 gram/day of Gagome containing 200 mg as dietary fiber (ca. 80 mg as fucoidan was ingested for 8 weeks. The primary end-point was natural killer (NK cell activity while other immune-related biomarkers, such as immunoglobulins (IgM and IgA and cytokines (IL-12 and IFN-g were secondary end-points. Results: No adverse effects were observed during the course of the clinical trial. We found that 8-week daily Gagome intake raised NK cell activities for the group with a relatively higher baseline number of NK cells (p=0.03. We also demonstrated that Gagome intake exerted a tendency to stimulate IgA secretion. These results indicate the possibility that Gagome intake may potentiate host defense systems in human as seen in animal studies. Conclusion: In this study, we used small amounts of Gagome (0.8 g daily as an active test sample to avoid overconsumption of iodide, and found that this amount could enhance NK cell activities, particularly in the subclass with initially higher NK cell numbers. We also found an appreciable increment of IgA. With all of these facts, it seems that Gagome intake activates immune responses that contribute to the promotion of health through stimulation of the immune system.

  18. Strategies to distinguish new synthetic cannabinoid FUBIMINA (BIM-2201) intake from its isomer THJ-2201: metabolism of FUBIMINA in human hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Xingxing; Scheidweiler, Karl B; Wohlfarth, Ariane; Zhu, Mingshe; Pang, Shaokun; Huestis, Marilyn A

    Since 2013, a new drugs-of-abuse trend attempts to bypass drug legislation by marketing isomers of scheduled synthetic cannabinoids (SCs), e.g., FUBIMINA (BIM-2201) and THJ-2201. It is much more challenging to confirm a specific isomer's intake and distinguish it from its structural analog because the isomers and their major metabolites usually have identical molecular weights and display the same product ions. Here, we investigated isomers FUBIMINA and THJ-2201 and propose strategies to distinguish their consumption. THJ-2201 was scheduled in the US, Japan, and Europe; however, FUBIMINA is easily available on the Internet. We previously investigated THJ-2201 metabolism in human hepatocytes, but human FUBIMINA metabolism is unknown. We aim to characterize FUBIMINA metabolism in human hepatocytes, recommend optimal metabolites to confirm its consumption, and propose strategies to distinguish between intakes of FUBIMINA and THJ-2201. FUBIMINA (10 μM) was incubated in human hepatocytes for 3 h, and metabolites were characterized with high-resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS). We identified 35 metabolites generated by oxidative defluorination, further carboxylation, hydroxylation, dihydrodiol formation, glucuronidation, and their combinations. We recommend 5'-OH-BIM-018 (M34), BIM-018 pentanoic acid (M33), and BIM-018 pentanoic acid dihydrodiol (M7) as FUBIMINA specific metabolites. THJ-2201 produced specific metabolite markers 5'-OH-THJ-018 (F26), THJ-018 pentanoic acid (F25), and hydroxylated THJ-2201 (F13). Optimized chromatographic conditions to achieve different retention times and careful selection of specific product ion spectra enabled differentiation of isomeric metabolites, in this case FUBIMINA from THJ-2201. Our HR-MS approach should be applicable for differentiating future isomeric SCs, which is especially important when different isomers have different legal status.

  19. Compound sensory action potential in normal and pathological human nerves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Christian

    2004-01-01

    The compound sensory nerve action potential (SNAP) is the result of phase summation and cancellation of single fiber potentials (SFAPs) with amplitudes that depend on fiber diameter, and the amplitude and shape of the SNAP is determined by the distribution of fiber diameters. Conduction velocitie...... effort and attention to theory and practical detail that may be time consuming....

  20. Feeding of wheat bran and sugar beet pulp as sole supplements in high-forage diets emphasizes the potential of dairy cattle for human food supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl, P; Zebeli, Q; Zollitsch, W; Knaus, W

    2016-02-01

    Besides the widely discussed negative environmental effects of dairy production, such as greenhouse gas emissions, the feeding of large amounts of potentially human-edible feedstuffs to dairy cows is another important sustainability concern. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the effects of a complete substitution of common cereal grains and pulses with a mixture of wheat bran and sugar beet pulp in a high-forage diet on cow performance, production efficiency, feed intake, and ruminating behavior, as well as on net food production potential. Thirteen multiparous and 7 primiparous mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments in a change-over design with 7-wk periods. Cows were fed a high-forage diet (grass silage and hay accounted for 75% of the dry matter intake), supplemented with either a cereal grain-based concentrate mixture (CON), or a mixture of wheat bran and dried sugar beet pulp (WBBP). Human-edible inputs were calculated for 2 different scenarios based on minimum and maximum potential recovery rates of human-edible energy and protein from the respective feedstuffs. Dietary starch and neutral detergent fiber contents were 3.0 and 44.1% for WBBP, compared with 10.8 and 38.2% in CON, respectively. Dietary treatment did not affect milk production, milk composition, feed intake, or total chewing activity. However, chewing index expressed in minutes per kilogram of neutral detergent fiber ingested was 12% lower in WBBP compared with CON. In comparison to CON, the human-edible feed conversion efficiencies for energy and protein, defined as human-edible output per human-edible input, were 6.8 and 5.3 times higher, respectively, in WBBP under the maximum scenario. For the maximum scenario, the daily net food production (human-edible output minus human-edible input) increased from 5.4 MJ and 250 g of crude protein per cow in CON to 61.5 MJ and 630 g of crude protein in the WBBP diet. In conclusion, our data suggest

  1. Intakes and adequacy of potentially important nutrients for cognitive development among 5-year-old children in the Seychelles Child Development and Nutrition Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAfee, Alison J; Mulhern, Maria S; McSorley, Emeir M; Wallace, Julie M W; Bonham, Maxine P; Faure, Jude; Romain, Sarah; Esther, Christina; Shamlaye, Conrad F; Watson, Gene E; Myers, Gary J; Clarkson, Thomas W; Davidson, Philip W; Strain, J J

    2012-09-01

    To assess the nutritional adequacy of Seychellois children in relation to nutrients reported to be important for cognitive development. Dietary intakes were assessed by 4 d weighed food diaries and analysed using dietary analysis software (WISP version 3·0; Tinuviel Software, UK). Individual nutrient intakes were adjusted to usual intakes and, in order to investigate adequacy, were compared with the UK Estimated Average Requirements for children aged 4-6 years. Children 5 years old were followed up as part of the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study (SCDNS), located in the high-fish-consuming population of Mahé, Republic of Seychelles. Analysis was carried out on a sample of 229 children (118 boys, 111 girls). Children consumed a diet of which fortified cereal and milk products contributed the most to nutrient intakes. The majority (≥80 %) of children met requirements for several nutrients important for child development including Fe, folate and Se. Adjusted dietary intakes of Cu, Zn, iodine, niacin and vitamin A were below the Estimated Average Requirement or Recommended Nutrient Intake. Mean adjusted energy intakes (boys 4769 kJ/d (1139·84 kcal/d), girls 4759 kJ/d (1137·43 kcal/d)) were lower than the estimated energy requirement (boys 5104 kJ/d (1220 kcal/d), girls 5042 kJ/d (1205 kcal/d)) for 88 % of boys and 86 % of girls. Nutrition was adequate for most children within the SCDNS cohort. Low intakes of some nutrients (including Zn, niacin and vitamin A) could reflect nutritional database inaccuracies, but may require further investigation. The study provides valuable information on the adequacy of intakes of nutrients which could affect the growth and development of Seychellois children.

  2. Human reporter genes: potential use in clinical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serganova, Inna [Department of Neurology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10021 (United States); Ponomarev, Vladimir [Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10021 (United States); Blasberg, Ronald [Department of Neurology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10021 (United States); Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10021 (United States)], E-mail: blasberg@neuro1.mskcc.org

    2007-10-15

    The clinical application of positron-emission-tomography-based reporter gene imaging will expand over the next several years. The translation of reporter gene imaging technology into clinical applications is the focus of this review, with emphasis on the development and use of human reporter genes. Human reporter genes will play an increasingly more important role in this development, and it is likely that one or more reporter systems (human gene and complimentary radiopharmaceutical) will take leading roles. Three classes of human reporter genes are discussed and compared: receptors, transporters and enzymes. Examples of highly expressed cell membrane receptors include specific membrane somatostatin receptors (hSSTrs). The transporter group includes the sodium iodide symporter (hNIS) and the norepinephrine transporter (hNET). The endogenous enzyme classification includes human mitochondrial thymidine kinase 2 (hTK2). In addition, we also discuss the nonhuman dopamine 2 receptor and two viral reporter genes, the wild-type herpes simplex virus 1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) gene and the HSV1-tk mutant (HSV1-sr39tk). Initial applications of reporter gene imaging in patients will be developed within two different clinical disciplines: (a) gene therapy and (b) adoptive cell-based therapies. These studies will benefit from the availability of efficient human reporter systems that can provide critical monitoring information for adenoviral-based, retroviral-based and lenteviral-based gene therapies, oncolytic bacterial and viral therapies, and adoptive cell-based therapies. Translational applications of noninvasive in vivo reporter gene imaging are likely to include: (a) quantitative monitoring of gene therapy vectors for targeting and transduction efficacy in clinical protocols by imaging the location, extent and duration of transgene expression; (b) monitoring of cell trafficking, targeting, replication and activation in adoptive T-cell and stem/progenitor cell therapies

  3. Human reporter genes: potential use in clinical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serganova, Inna; Ponomarev, Vladimir; Blasberg, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    The clinical application of positron-emission-tomography-based reporter gene imaging will expand over the next several years. The translation of reporter gene imaging technology into clinical applications is the focus of this review, with emphasis on the development and use of human reporter genes. Human reporter genes will play an increasingly more important role in this development, and it is likely that one or more reporter systems (human gene and complimentary radiopharmaceutical) will take leading roles. Three classes of human reporter genes are discussed and compared: receptors, transporters and enzymes. Examples of highly expressed cell membrane receptors include specific membrane somatostatin receptors (hSSTrs). The transporter group includes the sodium iodide symporter (hNIS) and the norepinephrine transporter (hNET). The endogenous enzyme classification includes human mitochondrial thymidine kinase 2 (hTK2). In addition, we also discuss the nonhuman dopamine 2 receptor and two viral reporter genes, the wild-type herpes simplex virus 1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) gene and the HSV1-tk mutant (HSV1-sr39tk). Initial applications of reporter gene imaging in patients will be developed within two different clinical disciplines: (a) gene therapy and (b) adoptive cell-based therapies. These studies will benefit from the availability of efficient human reporter systems that can provide critical monitoring information for adenoviral-based, retroviral-based and lenteviral-based gene therapies, oncolytic bacterial and viral therapies, and adoptive cell-based therapies. Translational applications of noninvasive in vivo reporter gene imaging are likely to include: (a) quantitative monitoring of gene therapy vectors for targeting and transduction efficacy in clinical protocols by imaging the location, extent and duration of transgene expression; (b) monitoring of cell trafficking, targeting, replication and activation in adoptive T-cell and stem/progenitor cell therapies

  4. Potential use of recombinant human interleukin-6 in clinical oncology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, GJ; Willemse, PHB; Mulder, NH; Limburg, PC; deVries, EGE

    Recombinant human IL-6 (rhIL-6) is a pleiotropic cytokine with stimulatory actions on the hematopoietic system, the immune system and hepatocytes. Clinical interest in the use of this cytokine was raised because of its thrombopoietic properties and also because of its anti-tumor activity, which was

  5. Characteristics and potential functions of human milk adiponectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newburg, David S; Woo, Jessica G; Morrow, Ardythe L

    2010-02-01

    Adiponectin is a protein hormone produced by adipose tissue, whose circulating levels are inversely related to adiposity and inflammation. Adiponectin circulates as oligomers, from the low-molecular-weight trimer to the high-molecular-weight octodecamer (18 mer). Each oligomer has distinct biological activities, which include enhancement of insulin sensitivity and metabolic control and suppression of inflammation. Adiponectin occurs in human milk at higher concentrations than leptin. The adiponectin in human milk is almost entirely of the high-molecular-weight form, the form with the highest activity in controlling many types of metabolic processes. Human adiponectin fed to infant mice is transported across the intestinal mucosa into the serum. An inverse relationship between adiponectin levels in milk and adiposity (weight-for-height) of the breast-fed infant was observed and could be due to modulation of infant metabolism by milk adiponectin and may be related to the observed protection against obesity by breast-feeding. Human milk may be a medium whereby the hormonal milieu (in response to internal factors and the environment) of the mother can be used to communicate with the breast-fed infant to modify infant metabolic processes. Transmission of information from mother to infant through milk may allow adaptation to fluctuating environmental conditions. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. An in vitro human skin test for assessing sensitization potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, S S; Wang, X N; Fielding, M; Kerry, A; Dickinson, I; Munuswamy, R; Kimber, I; Dickinson, A M

    2016-05-01

    Sensitization to chemicals resulting in an allergy is an important health issue. The current gold-standard method for identification and characterization of skin-sensitizing chemicals was the mouse local lymph node assay (LLNA). However, for a number of reasons there has been an increasing imperative to develop alternative approaches to hazard identification that do not require the use of animals. Here we describe a human in-vitro skin explant test for identification of sensitization hazards and the assessment of relative skin sensitizing potency. This method measures histological damage in human skin as a readout of the immune response induced by the test material. Using this approach we have measured responses to 44 chemicals including skin sensitizers, pre/pro-haptens, respiratory sensitizers, non-sensitizing chemicals (including skin-irritants) and previously misclassified compounds. Based on comparisons with the LLNA, the skin explant test gave 95% specificity, 95% sensitivity, 95% concordance with a correlation coefficient of 0.9. The same specificity and sensitivity were achieved for comparison of results with published human sensitization data with a correlation coefficient of 0.91. The test also successfully identified nickel sulphate as a human skin sensitizer, which was misclassified as negative in the LLNA. In addition, sensitizers and non-sensitizers identified as positive or negative by the skin explant test have induced high/low T cell proliferation and IFNγ production, respectively. Collectively, the data suggests the human in-vitro skin explant test could provide the basis for a novel approach for characterization of the sensitizing activity as a first step in the risk assessment process. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. LC-QTOF/MS metabolomic profiles in human plasma after a 5-week high dietary fiber intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson-Persson, Anna; Barri, Thaer; Ulmius, Matilda

    2013-01-01

    , in a 5-week randomized controlled crossover intervention. The HF diet consisted of oat bran, rye bran, and sugar beet fiber incorporated into test food products, whereas the LF diet was made of equivalent food products to the HF diet, but without adding fibers. Blood plasma samples were collected......The objective was to investigate the alterations of plasma metabolome profiles to identify exposure and effect markers of dietary fiber intake. Subjects (n¿=¿25) aged 58.6 (1.1)¿years (mean and SD) with a body mass index of 26.6 (0.5)¿kg/m(2) were given a high fiber (HF) and a low fiber (LF) diet...

  8. The importance of using food and nutrient intake data to identify appropriate vehicles and estimate potential benefits of food fortification in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyamuhangire, William; Lubowa, Abdelrahman; Kaaya, Archileo; Kikafunda, Joyce; Harvey, Philip W J; Rambeloson, Zo; Dary, Omar; Dror, Daphna K; Allen, Lindsay H

    2013-06-01

    Concern over micronutrient inadequacies in Uganda has prompted the introduction of mass fortification. To use food intake to determine nutrient inadequacies in children aged 24 to 59 months and nonpregnant women of reproductive age, and to model the adequacy of mass fortification. Data were collected by the 24-hour recall method in three regions. Usual nutrient intakes were calculated by adjusting actual intake distribution for the intraindividual variance. The impact of fortification on intake adequacy was simulated. The nutrients with the highest prevalence of inadequate intake across regions were vitamin A (30% to 99%), vitamin B12 (32% to 100%), iron (55% to 89%), zinc (18% to 82%), and calcium (84% to 100%). According to simulations, fortification of vegetable oil and sugar with vitamin A would reduce the prevalence of vitamin A inadequacy in the Western and Northern regions; in Kampala it would eliminate vitamin A inadequacy but would cause 2% to 48% of children to exceed the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL). The proposed fortification of wheat flour would reduce the prevalence of inadequate intakes of thiamine, riboflavin, folate, and niacin in Kampala, but would have little impact in the other two regions due to low flour consumption. Micronutrient fortification of vegetable oil and sugar in all regions and of wheat flour in Kampala would reduce the prevalence of micronutrient inadequacies. However, the wheat flour formulation should be modified to better meet requirements, and the vitamin A content in sugar should be reduced to minimize the risk of high intakes. Maize flour may be suitable for targeted fortification, but prior consolidation of the industry would be required for maize flour to become a good vehicle for mass fortification.

  9. Hedgehog pathway as a potential treatment target in human cholangiocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedlinger, Dorothee; Bahra, Marcus; Boas-Knoop, Sabine; Lippert, Steffen; Bradtmöller, Maren; Guse, Katrin; Seehofer, Daniel; Bova, Roberta; Sauer, Igor M; Neuhaus, Peter; Koch, Arend; Kamphues, Carsten

    2014-08-01

    Innovative treatment concepts targeting essential signaling pathways may offer new chances for patients suffering from cholangiocarcinoma (CCC). For that, we performed a systematic molecular genetic analysis concerning the Hedgehog activity in human CCC samples and analyzed the effect of Hh inhibition on CCC cells in vitro and in vivo. Activation of the Hh pathway was analyzed in 50 human CCC samples using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The efficacy of Hh inhibition using cyclopamine and BMS-833923 was evaluated in vitro. In addition, the effect of BMS-833923, alone or in combination with gemcitabine, was analyzed in vivo in a murine subcutaneous xenograft model. Expression analysis revealed a significant activation of the Hh-signaling pathway in nearly 50% of CCCs. Hh inhibition resulted in a significant decrease in cell proliferation of CCC cells. Moreover, a distinct inhibition of tumor growth could be seen as a result of a combined therapy with BMS-833923 and gemcitabine in CCC xenografts. The results of our study suggest that the Hh pathway plays a relevant role at least in a subset of human CCC. Inhibition of this pathway may represent a possible treatment option for CCC patients in which the Hh pathway is activated. © 2014 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  10. GM-CSF production from human airway smooth muscle cells is potentiated by human serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria B. Sukkar

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that airway smooth muscle cells (ASMC actively participate in the airway inflammatory process in asthma. Interleukin–1β (IL–1β and tumour necrosis factor–α (TNF–α induce ASMC to release inflammatory mediators in vitro. ASMC mediator release in vivo, however, may be influenced by features of the allergic asthmatic phenotype. We determined whether; (1 allergic asthmatic serum (AAS modulates ASMC mediator release in response to IL–1β and TNF–α, and (2 IL–1β/TNF–α prime ASMC to release mediators in response to AAS. IL–5 and GMCSF were quantified by ELISA in culture supernatants of; (1 ASMC pre-incubated with either AAS, non-allergic non-asthmatic serum (NAS or MonomedTM (a serum substitute and subsequently stimulated with IL–1β and TNF–α and (2 ASMC stimulated with IL–1β/TNF–α and subsequently exposed to either AAS, NAS or MonomedTM. IL-1g and TNF–α induced GM-CSF release in ASMC pre-incubated with AAS was not greater than that in ASMC pre-incubated with NAS or MonomedTM. IL–1β and TNF–α, however, primed ASMC to release GM-CSF in response to human serum. GM-CSF production following IL–1β/TNF–α and serum exposure (AAS or NAS was significantly greater than that following IL–1β /TNF–α and MonomedTM exposure or IL–1β/TNF–α exposure only. Whilst the potentiating effects of human serum were not specific to allergic asthma, these findings suggest that the secretory capacity of ASMC may be up-regulated during exacerbations of asthma, where there is evidence of vascular leakage.

  11. Compound sensory action potential in normal and pathological human nerves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Christian

    2004-01-01

    The compound sensory nerve action potential (SNAP) is the result of phase summation and cancellation of single fiber potentials (SFAPs) with amplitudes that depend on fiber diameter, and the amplitude and shape of the SNAP is determined by the distribution of fiber diameters. Conduction velocities...... dispersion over increasing conduction distance is greater for the SNAP than CMAP, and demonstration of conduction block is therefore difficult. In addition, the effect of temporal dispersion on amplitude and shape is strongly dependent on the number of conducting fibers and their distribution, and......, with fiber loss or increased conduction velocity variability changes of the SNAP may be smaller than expected from normal nerve. The biophysical characteristics of sensory and motor fibers differ, and this may to some extent determine divergent pathophysiological changes in sensory and motor fibers...

  12. Autophagy Therapeutic Potential of Garlic in Human Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Lin Chu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is one of the deadliest diseases against humans. To tackle this menace, humans have developed several high-technology therapies, such as chemotherapy, tomotherapy, targeted therapy, and antibody therapy. However, all these therapies have their own adverse side effects. Therefore, recent years have seen increased attention being given to the natural food for complementary therapy, which have less side effects. Garlic 大 蒜 Dà Suàn; Allium sativum, is one of most powerful food used in many of the civilizations for both culinary and medicinal purpose. In general, these foods induce cancer cell death by apoptosis, autophagy, or necrosis. Studies have discussed how natural food factors regulate cell survival or death by autophagy in cancer cells. From many literature reviews, garlic could not only induce apoptosis but also autophagy in cancer cells. Autophagy, which is called type-II programmed cell death, provides new strategy in cancer therapy. In conclusion, we wish that garlic could be the pioneer food of complementary therapy in clinical cancer treatment and increase the life quality of cancer patients.

  13. Coding potential of the products of alternative splicing in human.

    KAUST Repository

    Leoni, Guido

    2011-01-20

    BACKGROUND: Analysis of the human genome has revealed that as much as an order of magnitude more of the genomic sequence is transcribed than accounted for by the predicted and characterized genes. A number of these transcripts are alternatively spliced forms of known protein coding genes; however, it is becoming clear that many of them do not necessarily correspond to a functional protein. RESULTS: In this study we analyze alternative splicing isoforms of human gene products that are unambiguously identified by mass spectrometry and compare their properties with those of isoforms of the same genes for which no peptide was found in publicly available mass spectrometry datasets. We analyze them in detail for the presence of uninterrupted functional domains, active sites as well as the plausibility of their predicted structure. We report how well each of these strategies and their combination can correctly identify translated isoforms and derive a lower limit for their specificity, that is, their ability to correctly identify non-translated products. CONCLUSIONS: The most effective strategy for correctly identifying translated products relies on the conservation of active sites, but it can only be applied to a small fraction of isoforms, while a reasonably high coverage, sensitivity and specificity can be achieved by analyzing the presence of non-truncated functional domains. Combining the latter with an assessment of the plausibility of the modeled structure of the isoform increases both coverage and specificity with a moderate cost in terms of sensitivity.

  14. Human Resource – Potential Factor of Organiztional Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihail Cristian Negrulescu

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available At the level of any economic system, the change brings about the modification of the internal operating method of the relations between the actors and of the work habits. In other words, the substance (main, important modifications can be shaped on each of the organizational dominant of the system at a structural, functional or cultural level, in which the main actor, the human resource, intends to be part of this equation of changes. In this context, significant is the role played by the main organization actors, a role which can be materialized either as a factor of innovation, prevention and even progress, or as a conflict promoting factor, which, in time, generates a state of abnormality, of crisis. That is why major importance must be allotted to the human resources at the level of each organisation, considering the progress focused on knowledge, experience, experiments, attitude, behaviour and competences, these implying factors of correction and efficient reaction for the administration of the organizational crises.

  15. Coding potential of the products of alternative splicing in human.

    KAUST Repository

    Leoni, Guido; Le Pera, Loredana; Ferrè , Fabrizio; Raimondo, Domenico; Tramontano, Anna

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Analysis of the human genome has revealed that as much as an order of magnitude more of the genomic sequence is transcribed than accounted for by the predicted and characterized genes. A number of these transcripts are alternatively spliced forms of known protein coding genes; however, it is becoming clear that many of them do not necessarily correspond to a functional protein. RESULTS: In this study we analyze alternative splicing isoforms of human gene products that are unambiguously identified by mass spectrometry and compare their properties with those of isoforms of the same genes for which no peptide was found in publicly available mass spectrometry datasets. We analyze them in detail for the presence of uninterrupted functional domains, active sites as well as the plausibility of their predicted structure. We report how well each of these strategies and their combination can correctly identify translated isoforms and derive a lower limit for their specificity, that is, their ability to correctly identify non-translated products. CONCLUSIONS: The most effective strategy for correctly identifying translated products relies on the conservation of active sites, but it can only be applied to a small fraction of isoforms, while a reasonably high coverage, sensitivity and specificity can be achieved by analyzing the presence of non-truncated functional domains. Combining the latter with an assessment of the plausibility of the modeled structure of the isoform increases both coverage and specificity with a moderate cost in terms of sensitivity.

  16. Human zonulin, a potential modulator of intestinal tight junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W; Uzzau, S; Goldblum, S E; Fasano, A

    2000-12-01

    Intercellular tight junctions are dynamic structures involved in vectorial transport of water and electrolytes across the intestinal epithelium. Zonula occludens toxin derived from Vibrio cholerae interacts with a specific intestinal epithelial surface receptor, with subsequent activation of a complex intracellular cascade of events that regulate tight junction permeability. We postulated that this toxin may mimic the effect of a functionally and immunologically related endogenous modulator of intestinal tight junctions. Affinity-purified anti-zonula occludens toxin antibodies and the Ussing chamber assay were used to screen for one or more mammalian zonula occludens toxin analogues in both fetal and adult human intestine. A novel protein, zonulin, was identified that induces tight junction disassembly in non-human primate intestinal epithelia mounted in Ussing chambers. Comparison of amino acids in the active zonula occludens toxin fragment and zonulin permitted the identification of the putative receptor binding domain within the N-terminal region of the two proteins. Zonulin likely plays a pivotal role in tight junction regulation during developmental, physiological, and pathological processes, including tissue morphogenesis, movement of fluid, macromolecules and leukocytes between the intestinal lumen and the interstitium, and inflammatory/autoimmune disorders.

  17. The potential for new methods to assess human reproductive genotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendelsohn, M.L.

    1987-09-01

    The immediate prospects are not good for practical methods for measuring the human heritable mutation rate. The methods discussed here range from speculative to impractical, and at best are sensitive enough only for large numbers of subjects. Given the rapid development of DNA methods and the current status of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, there is some hope that the intermediate prospects may be better. In contrast, the prospects for useful cellular-based male germinal methods seem more promising and immediate. Effective specific locus methods for sperm are already conceivable and may be practical in a few years. Obviously such methods will not predict heritable effects definitively, but they will provide direct information on reproductive genotoxicity and should contribute significantly to many current medical and environmental situations where genetic damage is suspected. 22 refs

  18. Marine carotenoids: Bioactivities and potential benefits to human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuyen, Hoang Van; Eun, Jong-Bang

    2017-08-13

    Among natural pigments, carotenoids play important roles in physiological functions. The characteristics of carotenoids and their effects on human health have been reported for a long time, but most studies have focused on carotenoids from vegetables, fruits, and other parts of higher plants. Few reports are available on carotenoids from marine sources, such as seaweeds, microalgae, and marine animals, which have attracted attention in recent decades. Hundreds of carotenoids have been identified and isolated from marine organisms and their beneficial physiological functions, such as anticancer, antiobesity, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and cardioprotective activities have been reported. The purpose of this review is to discuss the literature on the beneficial bioactivities of some of the most abundant marine carotenoids, including fucoxanthin, astaxanthin, cantaxanthin, peridinin, fucoxanthinol, and halocynthiaxanthin.

  19. Leptospirosis in Mexico: Epidemiology and Potential Distribution of Human Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Montes, Sokani; Espinosa-Martínez, Deborah V.; Ríos-Muñoz, César A.; Berzunza-Cruz, Miriam; Becker, Ingeborg

    2015-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is widespread in Mexico, yet the potential distribution and risk of the disease remain unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings We analysed morbidity and mortality according to age and gender based on three sources of data reported by the Ministry of Health and the National Institute of Geography and Statics of Mexico, for the decade 2000–2010. A total of 1,547 cases were reported in 27 states, the majority of which were registered during the rainy season, and the most affected age group was 25–44 years old. Although leptospirosis has been reported as an occupational disease of males, analysis of morbidity in Mexico showed no male preference. A total number of 198 deaths were registered in 21 states, mainly in urban settings. Mortality was higher in males (61.1%) as compared to females (38.9%), and the case fatality ratio was also increased in males. The overall case fatality ratio in Mexico was elevated (12.8%), as compared to other countries. We additionally determined the potential disease distribution by examining the spatial epidemiology combined with spatial modeling using ecological niche modeling techniques. We identified regions where leptospirosis could be present and created a potential distribution map using bioclimatic variables derived from temperature and precipitation. Our data show that the distribution of the cases was more related to temperature (75%) than to precipitation variables. Ecological niche modeling showed predictive areas that were widely distributed in central and southern Mexico, excluding areas characterized by extreme climates. Conclusions/Significance In conclusion, an epidemiological surveillance of leptospirosis is recommended in Mexico, since 55.7% of the country has environmental conditions fulfilling the criteria that favor the presence of the disease. PMID:26207827

  20. A randomized controlled trial on early physiotherapy intervention versus usual care in acute care unit for elderly: potential benefits in light of dietary intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc-Bisson, C; Dechamps, A; Gouspillou, G; Dehail, P; Bourdel-Marchasson, I

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate effects of early intensive physiotherapy during acute illness on post hospitalization activity daily living autonomy (ADL). Prospective randomized controlled trial of intensive physiotherapy rehabilitation on day 1 to 2 after admission until clinical stability or usual care. acute care geriatric medicine ward. A total of 76 acutely ill patients, acutely bedridden or with reduced mobility but who were autonomous for mobility within the previous 3 months. Patients in palliative care or with limiting mobility pathology were excluded. Mean age was 85.4 (SD 6.6) years. At admission, at clinical stability and one month later: anthropometry, energy and protein intakes, hand grip strength, ADL scores, and baseline inflammatory parameters. An exploratory principal axis analysis was performed on the baseline characteristics and general linear models were used to explore the course of ADL and nutritional variables. A 4-factor solution was found explaining 71.7% of variance with a factor "nutrition", a factor "function" (18.8% of variance) for ADL, handgrip strength, bedridden state, energy and protein intakes, serum albumin and C-reactive protein concentrations; a factor "strength" and a fourth factor . During follow-up, dietary intakes, handgrip strength, and ADL scores improved but no changes occurred for anthropometric variables. Intervention was associated only with an increase in protein intake. Better improvement in ADL was found in intervention group when model was adjusted on "function" factor items. Physical intervention programs should be proposed according to nutritional intakes with the aim of preventing illness induced disability.

  1. Improving the Clinical Pharmacologic Assessment of Abuse Potential: Part 2: Optimizing the Design of Human Abuse Potential Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Edward M

    2018-04-01

    This article discusses the conduct of a human abuse potential study as outlined in the Food and Drug Administration Final Guidance to Industry on Assessment of Abuse Potential. In addition, areas where alternative approaches should be considered are proposed. The design, end points, conduct, and interpretation of the human abuse potential study were reviewed, analyzed, and placed in the context of current scientific knowledge and best practices to mitigate regulatory risk and expedite drug development. The guidance is based on regulatory needs and current scientific practices. However, the reliability and utility of such studies can be improved with better subject selection, data collection, standardization of data collection and staff training, and a better understanding of the measurement properties of the dependent measures. The guidance provides a useful framework for conduct of human abuse potential studies. However, design assumptions, poor choice of end points, failure to consider alternate approaches, and limited experience with interpretation can result in an inadequate study or one that does not fairly represent the abuse potential of a new chemical entity. Methodologic development is needed to strengthen the regulatory framework. The Food and Drug Administration or the National Institutes on Drug Abuse could take a targeted initiative to encourage this work.

  2. Cocoa Polyphenols and Their Potential Benefits for Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Andújar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper compiles the beneficial effects of cocoa polyphenols on human health, especially with regard to cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases, metabolic disorders, and cancer prevention. Their antioxidant properties may be responsible for many of their pharmacological effects, including the inhibition of lipid peroxidation and the protection of LDL-cholesterol against oxidation, and increase resistance to oxidative stress. The phenolics from cocoa also modify the glycemic response and the lipid profile, decreasing platelet function and inflammation along with diastolic and systolic arterial pressures, which, taken together, may reduce the risk of cardiovascular mortality. Cocoa polyphenols can also modulate intestinal inflammation through the reduction of neutrophil infiltration and expression of different transcription factors, which leads to decreases in the production of proinflammatory enzymes and cytokines. The phenolics from cocoa may thus protect against diseases in which oxidative stress is implicated as a causal or contributing factor, such as cancer. They also have antiproliferative, antimutagenic, and chemoprotective effects, in addition to their anticariogenic effects.

  3. Cocoa Polyphenols and Their Potential Benefits for Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andújar, I.; Recio, M. C.; Giner, R. M.; Ríos, J. L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper compiles the beneficial effects of cocoa polyphenols on human health, especially with regard to cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases, metabolic disorders, and cancer prevention. Their antioxidant properties may be responsible for many of their pharmacological effects, including the inhibition of lipid peroxidation and the protection of LDL-cholesterol against oxidation, and increase resistance to oxidative stress. The phenolics from cocoa also modify the glycemic response and the lipid profile, decreasing platelet function and inflammation along with diastolic and systolic arterial pressures, which, taken together, may reduce the risk of cardiovascular mortality. Cocoa polyphenols can also modulate intestinal inflammation through the reduction of neutrophil infiltration and expression of different transcription factors, which leads to decreases in the production of proinflammatory enzymes and cytokines. The phenolics from cocoa may thus protect against diseases in which oxidative stress is implicated as a causal or contributing factor, such as cancer. They also have antiproliferative, antimutagenic, and chemoprotective effects, in addition to their anticariogenic effects. PMID:23150750

  4. Paleopathology of Human Tuberculosis and the Potential Role of Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerlich, Andreas G.; Lösch, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    Both origin and evolution of tuberculosis and its pathogens (Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex) are not fully understood. The paleopathological investigation of human remains offers a unique insight into the molecular evolution and spread including correlative data of the environment. The molecular analysis of material from Egypt (3000–500 BC), Sudan (200–600 AD), Hungary (600–1700 AD), Latvia (1200–1600 AD), and South Germany (1400–1800 AD) urprisingly revealed constantly high frequencies of tuberculosis in all different time periods excluding significant environmental influence on tuberculosis spread. The typing of various mycobacteria strains provides evidence for ancestral M. tuberculosis strains in Pre- to early Egyptian dynastic material (3500–2650 BC), while typical M. africanum signatures were detected in a Middle Kingdom tomb (2050–1650 BC). Samples from the New Kingdom to Late Period (1500–500 BC) indicated modern M. tuberculosis strains. No evidence was seen for M. bovis in Egyptian material while M. bovis signatures were first identified in Siberian biomaterial dating 2000 years before present. These results contraindicates the theory that M. tuberculosis evolved from M. bovis during early domestication in the region of the “Fertile Crescent,” but supports the scenario that M. tuberculosis probably derived from an ancestral progenitor strain. The environmental influence of this evolutionary scenario deserves continuing intense evaluation. PMID:19360109

  5. Extending human potential in a technical learning environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielden, Kay A.

    This thesis is a report of a participatory inquiry process looking at enhancing the learning process in a technical academic field in high education by utilising tools and techniques which go beyond the rational/logical, intellectual domain in a functional, objective world. By empathising with, nurturing and sustaining the whole person, and taking account of past patterning as well as future visions including technological advances to augment human awareness, the scene is set for depth learning. Depth learning in a tertiary environment can only happen as a result of the dynamic that exists between the dominant, logical/rational, intellectual paradigm and the experiential extension of the boundaries surrounding this domain. Any experiences which suppress the full, holistic expression of our being alienate us from the fullness of the expression and hence from depth learning. Depth learning is indicated by intrinsic motivation, which is more likely to occur in a trusting and supporting environment. The research took place within a systemic intellectual framework, where emergence is the prime characteristic used to evaluate results.

  6. The role of the business community: investing in human potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-07-01

    An economic growth rate substantially higher than the population growth rate is needed to maintain an healthy economy. In South Africa over the past decade, however, population growth has outpaced economic growth. The levels of unemployment and poverty have accordingly increased since employment opportunities are simply not created fast enough to keep up with demand. The population growth rate must be reduced to prevent total social decline. All sectors including the business sector, the public sector, churches, women's organizations, and all people must work together to prevent such a catastrophe. In particular, living standards must be improved in South Africa especially for developing groups if fertility is to be reduced. In the business sector, the majority of responsible executives in South Africa realize that improving their employees' quality of life is an investment in their own business and the key to success. Apart from in-service training and the development of industrial skills, most successful businesses also pay attention to the full spectrum of human development such as adult literacy education, primary health services, manpower development and training, housing projects, and family planning. All aspects which could improve the quality of life of employees are being addressed and there is ample evidence that such investments are paying off. Business executives are also helping change the perceptions of their employees with regard to family size. The author describes how the business sector can promote the population development program (PDP) and what the PDP benefits are for the business sector.

  7. The Human Exposure Potential from Propylene Releases to the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Morgott

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A detailed literature search was performed to assess the sources, magnitudes and extent of human inhalation exposure to propylene. Exposure evaluations were performed at both the community and occupational levels for those living or working in different environments. The results revealed a multitude of pyrogenic, biogenic and anthropogenic emission sources. Pyrogenic sources, including biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion, appear to be the primary contributors to atmospheric propylene. Despite a very short atmospheric lifetime, measurable levels could be detected in highly remote locations as a result of biogenic release. The indoor/outdoor ratio for propylene has been shown to range from about 2 to 3 in non-smoking homes, which indicates that residential sources may be the largest contributor to the overall exposure for those not occupationally exposed. In homes where smoking takes place, the levels may be up to thirty times higher than non-smoking residences. Atmospheric levels in most rural regions are typically below 2 ppbv, whereas the values in urban levels are much more variable ranging as high as 10 ppbv. Somewhat elevated propylene exposures may also occur in the workplace; especially for firefighters or refinery plant operators who may encounter levels up to about 10 ppmv.

  8. POTENTIAL PATHOPHYSIOLOGICAL MECHANISMS OF ULTRAFINE PARTICLE TOXIC EFFECTS IN HUMANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JASMINA JOVIĆ-STOŠIĆ

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and clinical studies suggested the association of the particulate matter ambient air pollution and the increased morbidity and mortality, mainly from respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. The size of particles has great influence on their toxicity, because it determines the site in the respiratory tract where they deposit. The most well established theory explaining the mechanisms behind the increased toxicity of ultrafine particles (UFP, < 0.1 µm is that it has to do with the increased surface area and/or the combination with the increased number of particles. Biological effects of UFP are also determined by their shape and chemical composition, so it is not possible to estimate their toxicity in a general way. General hypothesis suggested that exposure to inhaled particles induces pulmonary alveolar inflammation as a basic pathophysiological event, triggering release of various proinflammatory cytokines. Chronic inflammation is a very important underlying mechanism in the genesis of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. UFP can freely move through the circulation, but their effects on the secondary organs are not known yet, so more studies on recognizing toxicological endpoints of UFP are needed. Determination of UFP toxicity and the estimation of their internal and biologically active dose are necessary for the evidence based conclusions connecting air pollution by UFP and human diseases.

  9. Novel experimental results in human cardiac electrophysiology: measurement of the Purkinje fibre action potential from the undiseased human heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Norbert; Szél, Tamás; Jost, Norbert; Tóth, András; Gy Papp, Julius; Varró, András

    2015-09-01

    Data obtained from canine cardiac electrophysiology studies are often extrapolated to the human heart. However, it has been previously demonstrated that because of the lower density of its K(+) currents, the human ventricular action potential has a less extensive repolarization reserve. Since the relevance of canine data to the human heart has not yet been fully clarified, the aim of the present study was to determine for the first time the action potentials of undiseased human Purkinje fibres (PFs) and to compare them directly with those of dog PFs. All measurements were performed at 37 °C using the conventional microelectrode technique. At a stimulation rate of 1 Hz, the plateau potential of human PFs is more positive (8.0 ± 1.8 vs 8.6 ± 3.4 mV, n = 7), while the amplitude of the spike is less pronounced. The maximal rate of depolarization is significantly lower in human PKs than in canine PFs (406.7 ± 62 vs 643 ± 36 V/s, respectively, n = 7). We assume that the appreciable difference in the protein expression profiles of the 2 species may underlie these important disparities. Therefore, caution is advised when canine PF data are extrapolated to humans, and further experiments are required to investigate the characteristics of human PF repolarization and its possible role in arrhythmogenesis.

  10. CONCEPTS IN HUMAN NUTRITION AND ANIMAL FEEDING New Reference Values for nutrient intake in Germany, Austria and Switzerland (DACH-reference values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfram Günther

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In accordance to their very good collaboration through decades especially at the “3 Countries Meetings” the Nutrition Societies of Germany, Austria and Switzerland (D, A, CH decided to prepare new Reference Values for nutrient intake as a joint edition in the year 2000. The Reference Values consist of two parts: Part 1, Nutritive aspects of nutrients. Part 2, Preventive aspect of nutrient and food components. The Reference Values presented should protect almost all individuals of the respective group against potential damage to health from their diet and provide a basis for full functional capacity. In detail recommendations, estimates or guideline values are presented for the different nutrients. Total fat should not exceed 30% of energy, saturated fatty acids should not provide more than 10% of energy and polyunsaturated fatty acids 7% of energy with n-6 and n-3 fatty acids in a ratio of 5:1. Preventive aspect concern the prophylaxis of nutrition-related diseases.

  11. Human Cardiac Progenitor Spheroids Exhibit Enhanced Engraftment Potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Oltolina

    Full Text Available A major obstacle to an effective myocardium stem cell therapy has always been the delivery and survival of implanted stem cells in the heart. Better engraftment can be achieved if cells are administered as cell aggregates, which maintain their extra-cellular matrix (ECM. We have generated spheroid aggregates in less than 24 h by seeding human cardiac progenitor cells (hCPCs onto methylcellulose hydrogel-coated microwells. Cells within spheroids maintained the expression of stemness/mesenchymal and ECM markers, growth factors and their cognate receptors, cardiac commitment factors, and metalloproteases, as detected by immunofluorescence, q-RT-PCR and immunoarray, and expressed a higher, but regulated, telomerase activity. Compared to cells in monolayers, 3D spheroids secreted also bFGF and showed MMP2 activity. When spheroids were seeded on culture plates, the cells quickly migrated, displaying an increased wound healing ability with or without pharmacological modulation, and reached confluence at a higher rate than cells from conventional monolayers. When spheroids were injected in the heart wall of healthy mice, some cells migrated from the spheroids, engrafted, and remained detectable for at least 1 week after transplantation, while, when the same amount of cells was injected as suspension, no cells were detectable three days after injection. Cells from spheroids displayed the same engraftment capability when they were injected in cardiotoxin-injured myocardium. Our study shows that spherical in vivo ready-to-implant scaffold-less aggregates of hCPCs able to engraft also in the hostile environment of an injured myocardium can be produced with an economic, easy and fast protocol.

  12. The end of ignorance multiplying our human potential

    CERN Document Server

    Mighton, John

    2008-01-01

    A revolutionary call for a new understanding of how people learn. The End of Ignorance conceives of a world in which no child is left behind – a world based on the assumption that each child has the potential to be successful in every subject. John Mighton argues that by recognizing the barriers that we have experienced in our own educational development, by identifying the moment that we became disenchanted with a certain subject and forever closed ourselves off to it, we will be able to eliminate these same barriers from standing in the way of our children. A passionate examination of our present education system, The End of Ignorance shows how we all can work together to reinvent the way that we are taught. John Mighton, the author of The Myth of Ability, is the founder of JUMP Math, a system of learning based on the fostering of emergent intelligence. The program has proved so successful an entire class of Grade 3 students, including so-called slow learners, scored over 90% on a Grade 6 math test. A ...

  13. Chrono-nutrition: a review of current evidence from observational studies on global trends in time-of-day of energy intake and its association with obesity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almoosawi, S; Vingeliene, S.; Karagounis, L.G.; Pot, G.K.

    2016-01-01

    The importance of the circadian rhythm in regulating human food intake behaviour and metabolism has long been recognised. However, little is known as to how energy intake is distributed over the day in existing populations, and its potential association with obesity. The present review describes

  14. Impact of Short-Term Intake of Red Wine and Grape Polyphenol Extract on the Human Metabolome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, D.M.; Fuhrmann, J.C.; Dorsten, van F.A.; Rein, D.; Peters, S.; Velzen, van E.J.J.; Hollebrands, B.; Draijer, R.; Duynhoven, van J.P.M.; Garczarek, U.

    2012-01-01

    Red wine and grape polyphenols are considered to promote cardiovascular health and are involved in multiple biological functions. Their overall impact on the human metabolome is not known. Therefore, exogenous and endogenous metabolic effects were determined in fasting plasma and 24 h urine from

  15. Selective enrichment of n-3 fatty acids in human plasma lipid motifs following intake of marine fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plasma levels of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) are associated with a reduction in risk of cardiovascular disease and other chronic, age-related diseases like Alzheimer’s disease. In this work, we tested the hypothesis that n-3 LCPUFA fatty acids in human plasma are incorporated...

  16. Llama nanoantibodies with therapeutic potential against human norovirus diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaicoechea, Lorena; Aguilar, Andrea; Parra, Gabriel I; Bok, Marina; Sosnovtsev, Stanislav V; Canziani, Gabriela; Green, Kim Y; Bok, Karin; Parreño, Viviana

    2015-01-01

    Noroviruses are a major cause of acute gastroenteritis, but no vaccines or therapeutic drugs are available. Llama-derived single chain antibody fragments (also called VHH) are small, recombinant monoclonal antibodies of 15 kDa with several advantages over conventional antibodies. The aim of this study was to generate recombinant monoclonal VHH specific for the two major norovirus (NoV) genogroups (GI and GII) in order to investigate their potential as immunotherapy for the treatment of NoV diarrhea. To accomplish this objective, two llamas were immunized with either GI.1 (Norwalk-1968) or GII.4 (MD2004) VLPs. After immunization, peripheral blood lymphocytes were collected and used to generate two VHH libraries. Using phage display technology, 10 VHH clones specific for GI.1, and 8 specific for GII.4 were selected for further characterization. All VHH recognized conformational epitopes in the P domain of the immunizing VP1 capsid protein, with the exception of one GII.4 VHH that recognized a linear P domain epitope. The GI.1 VHHs were highly specific for the immunizing GI.1 genotype, with only one VHH cross-reacting with GI.3 genotype. The GII.4 VHHs reacted with the immunizing GII.4 strain and showed a varying reactivity profile among different GII genotypes. One VHH specific for GI.1 and three specific for GII.4 could block the binding of homologous VLPs to synthetic HBGA carbohydrates, saliva, and pig gastric mucin, and in addition, could inhibit the hemagglutination of red blood cells by homologous VLPs. The ability of Nov-specific VHHs to perform well in these surrogate neutralization assays supports their further development as immunotherapy for NoV treatment and immunoprophylaxis.

  17. A Simulation Study of the Potential Effects of Healthy Food and Beverage Substitutions on Diet Quality and Total Energy Intake in Lower Mississippi Delta Adults1,2,3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Jessica L.; Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa M.; Onufrak, Stephen J.; Zoellner, Jamie M.; Connell, Carol L.; Bogle, Margaret L.; Yadrick, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    The majority of adult diets in the United States, particularly the South, are of poor quality, putting these individuals at increased risk for chronic diseases. In this study, simulation modeling was used to determine the effects of substituting familiar, more healthful foods and beverages for less healthy ones on diet quality and total energy intake in Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) adults. Dietary data collected in 2000 for 1,689 LMD adults who participated in the Foods of Our Delta Study were analyzed. The Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005) was used to measure diet quality. The effects of substituting targeted foods and beverages with more healthful items on diet quality were simulated by replacing the targeted items’ nutrient profile with their replacements’ profile. For the single food and beverage groups, 100% replacement of grain desserts with juice-packed fruit cocktail and sugar-sweetened beverages with water resulted in the largest improvements in diet quality (4.0 and 3.8 points, respectively) and greatest decreases in total energy intake (98 and 215 kcal/d, respectively). The 100% substitution of all food and beverage groups combined resulted in a 12.0-point increase in HEI-2005 score and a decrease of 785 kcal/d in total energy intake. Community interventions designed to improve the diet of LMD adults through the use of familiar, healthy food and beverage substitutions have the potential to improve diet quality and decrease energy intake of this health disparate population. PMID:22031664

  18. Contemporary assumptions on human nature and work and approach to human potential managing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujić Dobrila

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A general problem of this research is to identify if there is a relationship between the assumption on human nature and work (Mcgregor, Argyris, Schein, Steers and Porter and a general organizational model preference, as well as a mechanism of human resource management? This research was carried out in 2005/2006. The sample consisted of 317 subjects (197 managers, 105 highly educated subordinates and 15 entrepreneurs in 7 big enterprises in a group of small business enterprises differentiating in terms of the entrepreneur’s structure and a type of activity. A general hypothesis "that assumptions on human nature and work are statistically significant in connection to the preference approach (models, of work motivation commitment", has been confirmed. A specific hypothesis have been also confirmed: ·The assumptions on a human as a rational economic being are statistically significant in correlation with only two mechanisms of traditional models, the mechanism of method work control and the working discipline mechanism. ·Statistically significant assumptions on a human as a social being are correlated with all mechanisms of engaging employees, which belong to the model of the human relations, except the mechanism introducing the adequate type of prizes for all employees independently of working results. ·The assumptions on a human as a creative being are statistically significant, positively correlating with preference of two mechanisms belonging to the human resource model by investing into education and training and making conditions for the application of knowledge and skills. The young with assumptions on a human as a creative being prefer much broader repertoire of mechanisms belonging to the human resources model from the remaining category of subjects in the pattern. The connection between the assumption on human nature and preference models of engaging appears especially in the sub-pattern of managers, in the category of young subjects

  19. Profile of plasma and urine metabolites after the intake of almond [Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb] polyphenols in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urpi-Sarda, Mireia; Garrido, Ignacio; Monagas, María; Gómez-Cordovés, Carmen; Medina-Remón, Alexander; Andres-Lacueva, Cristina; Bartolomé, Begoña

    2009-11-11

    Nut skins are considered to be a rich source of polyphenols and may be partially responsible for the numerous health effects associated with nut consumption. However, more bioavailability studies of nut skin polyphenols are needed to understand the health effects derived from nut consumption. The aim of the present study was to determine the profiles of both phase II and microbial-derived phenolic metabolites in plasma and urine samples before and after the intake of almond skin polyphenols by healthy human subjects (n = 2). Glucuronide, O-methyl glucuronide, sulfate, and O-methyl sulfate derivatives of (epi)catechin, as well as the glucuronide conjugates of naringenin and glucuronide and sulfate conjugates of isorhamnetin, were detected in plasma and urine samples after consumption of almond skin polyphenols. The main microbial-derived metabolites of flavanols, such as 5-(dihydroxyphenyl)-gamma-valerolactone and 5-(hydroxymethoxyphenyl)-gamma-valerolactone, were also detected in their glucuronide and sulfate forms. In addition, numerous metabolites derived from further microbial degradation of hydroxyphenylvalerolactones, including hydroxyphenylpropionic, hydroxyphenylacetic, hydroxycinnamic, hydroxybenzoic, and hydroxyhippuric acids, registered major changes in urine after the consumption of almond skin polyphenols. The urinary excretion of these microbial metabolites was estimated to account for a larger proportion of the total polyphenol ingested than phase II metabolites of (epi)catechin, indicating the important role of intestinal bacteria in the metabolism of highly polymerized almond skin polyphenols. To the authors' knowledge this study constitutes the most complete report of the absorption of almond skin polyphenols in humans.

  20. Reduction of coherence of the human brain electric potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novik, Oleg; Smirnov, Fedor

    Plenty of technological processes are known to be damaged by magnetic storms. But technology is controlled by men and their functional systems may be damaged as well. We are going to consider the electro-neurophysiological aspect of the general problem: men surrounded by physical fields including ones of cosmic origination. Magnetic storms’ influence had been observed for a group of 13 students (practically healthy girls and boys from 18 to 23 years old, Moscow). To control the main functional systems of the examinees, their electroencephalograms (EEG) were being registered along with electrocardiograms, respiratory rhythms, arterial blood pressure and other characteristics during a year. All of these characteristics, save for the EEG, were within the normal range for all of the examinees during measurements. According to the EEG investigations by implementation of the computer proof-reading test in absence of magnetic storms, the values of the coherence function of time series of the theta-rhythm oscillations (f = 4 - 7.9 Hz, A = 20 μV) of electric potentials of the frontal-polar and occipital areas of the head belong to the interval [0.3, 0.8] for all of the students under investigation. (As the proof-reading test, it was necessary to choose given symbols from a random sequence of ones demonstrated at a monitor and to enter the number of the symbols discovered in a computer. Everyone was known that the time for determination of symbols is unlimited. On the other hand, nobody was known that the EEG and other registrations mentioned are connected with electromagnetic geophysical researches and geomagnetic storms). Let us formulate the main result: by implementation of the same test during a magnetic storm, 5 ≤ K ≤ 6, or no later then 24 hours after its beginning (different types of moderate magnetic storms occurred, the data of IZMIRAN were used), the values of the theta-rhythm frontal - occipital coherence function of all of the students of the group under

  1. Porphyrin metabolisms in human skin commensal Propionibacterium acnes bacteria: potential application to monitor human radiation risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, M; Kuo, S; Wang, Y; Jiang, Y; Liu, Y-T; Gallo, R L; Huang, C-M

    2013-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), a Gram-positive anaerobic bacterium, is a commensal organism in human skin. Like human cells, the bacteria produce porphyrins, which exhibit fluorescence properties and make bacteria visible with a Wood's lamp. In this review, we compare the porphyrin biosynthesis in humans and P. acnes. Also, since P. acnes living on the surface of skin receive the same radiation exposure as humans, we envision that the changes in porphyrin profiles (the absorption spectra and/or metabolism) of P. acnes by radiation may mirror the response of human cells to radiation. The porphyrin profiles of P. acnes may be a more accurate reflection of radiation risk to the patient than other biodosimeters/biomarkers such as gene up-/down-regulation, which may be non-specific due to patient related factors such as autoimmune diseases. Lastly, we discuss the challenges and possible solutions for using the P. acnes response to predict the radiation risk.

  2. [Short, medium and long-term benefits of human milk intake in very-low-birth-weight infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinea Jiménez, Bibiana; Awad Parada, Yumana; Villarino Marín, Antonio; Sáenz de Pipaón Marcos, Miguel

    2017-10-24

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of human milk feeding during the first weeks of life in very low birth weight infants on weight gain at discharge, length of hospitalization, postmenstrual age at discharge and nutritional assessment, growth and neurodevelopment at two and five years. Longitudinal study of very-low-birth-weight infants (Care Unit of La Paz University Hospital, from January 1st 2009 to December 31st 2009, followed in the follow-up clinic. Their parents agreed to perform a more exhaustive anthropometric study at five years, classified according to the type of feeding at the time of discharge (exclusive human milk, formula milk or mixed). Initial hospital duration and anthropometry at discharge were evaluated. At two years of age, anthropometric data (weight, height and head circumference) were collected and neurodevelopment was assessed according to the Bayley scale of child development. Data at five years were collected prospectively. Measurements of weight, height and head circumference, waist circumference, hip, relaxed and contracted arm, thigh and middle leg, bicipital, triceps, subscapular, suprailiac and leg skin folds were performed. For patients older than five years, the Kaufman test battery for children was used. The effect of human milk on the variables of interest was investigated using a multivariate analysis correcting for gestational age and weight at birth. One hundred and fifty-two infants born in 2009 were discharged from our unit: exclusive breast milk (59), formula (55) or mixed milk (38). More detailed follow-up was carried out for 61 of them. Human milk during the first admission decreases the initial hospital stay, and is associated with a higher head circumference at two and five years, and a better score in the global and verbal cognitive area at five years. Our results suggest that maternal milk feeding during initial admission should be encouraged because it can improve neurodevelopment at five years

  3. Complete human serum maintains viability and chondrogenic potential of human synovial stem cells: suitable conditions for transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Mitsuru; Katano, Hisako; Otabe, Koji; Komori, Keiichiro; Kohno, Yuji; Fujii, Shizuka; Ozeki, Nobutake; Horie, Masafumi; Tsuji, Kunikazu; Koga, Hideyuki; Muneta, Takeshi; Sekiya, Ichiro

    2017-06-13

    In our clinical practice, we perform transplantations of autologous synovial mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for cartilage and meniscus regenerative medicine. One of the most important issues to ensuring clinical efficacy involves the transport of synovial MSCs from the processing facility to the clinic. Complete human serum (100% human serum) is an attractive candidate material in which to suspend synovial MSCs for their preservation during transport. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether complete human serum maintained MSC viability and chondrogenic potential and to examine the optimal temperature conditions for the preservation of human synovial MSCs. Human synovium was harvested from the knees of 14 donors with osteoarthritis during total knee arthroplasty. Passage 2 synovial MSCs were suspended at 2 million cells/100 μL in Ringer's solution or complete human serum at 4, 13, and 37 °C for 48 h. These cells were analyzed for live cell rates, cell surface marker expression, metabolic activity, proliferation, and adipogenic, calcification, and chondrogenic differentiation potentials before and after preservation. After preservation, synovial MSCs maintained higher live cell rates in human serum than in Ringer's solution at 4 and 13 °C. Synovial MSCs preserved in human serum at 4 and 13 °C also maintained high ratios of propidium iodide - and annexin V - cells. MSC surface marker expression was not altered in cells preserved at 4 and 13 °C. The metabolic activities of cells preserved in human serum at 4 and 13 °C was maintained, while significantly reduced in other conditions. Replated MSCs retained their proliferation ability when preserved in human serum at 4 and 13 °C. Adipogenesis and calcification potential could be observed in cells preserved in each condition, whereas chondrogenic potential was retained only in cells preserved in human serum at 4 and 13 °C. The viability and chondrogenic potential of synovial MSCs were

  4. Analysis of human reticulocyte genes reveals altered erythropoiesis: potential use to detect recombinant human erythropoietin doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlet-Marie, Emmanuelle; Audran, Michel; Lejeune, Mireille; Bonafoux, Béatrice; Sicart, Marie-Therese; Marti, Jacques; Piquemal, David; Commes, Thérèse

    2004-08-01

    Enhancement of oxygen delivery to tissues is associated with improved sporting performance. One way of enhancing oxygen delivery is to take recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo), which is an unethical and potentially dangerous practice. However, detection of the use of rHuEpo remains difficult in situations such as: i) several days after the end of treatment ii) when a treatment with low doses is conducted iii) if the rHuEpo effect is increased by other substances. In an attempt to detect rHuEpo abuse, we selected erythroid gene markers from a SAGE library and analyzed the effects of rHuEpo administration on expression of the HBB, FTL and OAZ genes. Ten athletes were assigned to the rHuEpo or placebo group. The rHuEpo group received subcutaneous injections of rHuEpo (50 UI/kg three times a week, 4 weeks; 20 UI/kg three times a week, 2 weeks). HBB, FTL and OAZ gene profiles were monitored by real time-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) quantification during and for 3 weeks after drug administration. The global analysis of these targeted genes detected in whole blood samples showed a characteristic profile of subjects misusing rHuEpo with a increase above the threshold levels. The individual analysis of OAZ mRNA seemed indicative of rHuEpo treatment. The performance-enhancing effect of rHuEpo treatment is greater than the duration of hematologic changes associated with rHuEpo misuse. Although direct electrophoretic methods to detect rHuEpo have been developed, recombinant isoforms of rHuEpo are not detectable some days after the last subcutaneous injection. To overcome these limitations indirect OFF models have been developed. Our data suggest that, in the near future, it will be possible to consolidate results achievable with the OFF models by analyzing selected erythroid gene markers as a supplement to indirect methods.

  5. Anticancer potential of Hericium erinaceus extracts against human gastrointestinal cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guang; Yu, Kai; Li, Fushuang; Xu, Kangping; Li, Jing; He, Shujin; Cao, Shousong; Tan, Guishan

    2014-04-28

    indole, pyrimidines, amino acids and derivative, three flavones, one anthraquinone, and six small aromatic compounds. HTJ5 and HTJ5A exhibited concentration-dependent cytotoxicity in vitro against liver cancer HepG2 and Huh-7, colon cancer HT-29, and gastric cancer NCI-87 cells with the IC50 in 2.50±0.25 and 2.00±0.25, 0.80±0.08 and 1.50±0.28, 1.25±0.06 and 1.25±0.05, and 5.00±0.22 and 4.50±0.14 mg/ml; respectively. For in vivo tumor xenograft studies, HTJ5 and HTJ5A showed significantly antitumor efficacy against all four xenograft models of HepG2, Huh-7, HT-29 and NCI-87 without toxicity to the host. Furthermore, HTJ5 and HTJ5A are more effective than that of 5-FU against the four tumors with less toxicity. HE extracts (HTJ5 and HTJ5A) are active against liver cancer HepG2 and Huh-7, colon cancer HT-29 and gastric cancer NCI-87 cells in vitro and tumor xenografts bearing in SCID mice in vivo. They are more effective and less toxic compared to 5-FU in all four in vivo tumor models. The compounds have the potential for development into anticancer agents for the treatment of gastrointestinal cancer used alone and/or in combination with clinical used chemotherapeutic drugs. However, further studies are required to find out the active chemical constituents and understand the mechanism of action associated with the super in vivo anticancer efficacy. In addition, future studies are needed to confirm our preliminary results of in vivo synergistic antitumor efficacy in animal models of tumor xenografts with the combination of HE extracts and clinical used anticancer drugs such as 5-FU, cisplatin and doxurubicin for the treatment of gastrointestinal cancers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Developmental potential of human oocytes reconstructed by transferring somatic cell nuclei into polyspermic zygote cytoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Yong; Chen, Xinjie; Luo, Yumei; Chen, Xiaolin; Li, Shaoying; Huang, Yulin; Sun, Xiaofang

    2009-01-01

    The generation of patient-specific nuclear transfer embryonic stem cells holds huge promise in modern regenerative medicine and cell-based drug discovery. Since human in vivo matured oocytes are not readily available, human therapeutic cloning is developing slowly. Here, we investigated for the first time whether human polyspermic zygotes could support preimplantation development of cloned embryos. Our results showed that polyspermic zygotes could be used as recipients for human somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). The preimplantation developmental potential of SCNT embryos from polyspermic zygotes was limited to the 8-cell stage. Since ES cell lines can be derived from single blastomeres, these results may have important significance for human ES cells derived by SCNT. In addition, confocal images demonstrated that all of the SCNT embryos that failed to cleave showed abnormal microtubule organization. The results of the present study suggest that polyspermic human zygotes could be used as a potential source of recipient cytoplasm for SCNT.

  7. Developmental potential of human oocytes reconstructed by transferring somatic cell nuclei into polyspermic zygote cytoplasm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Yong; Chen, Xinjie; Luo, Yumei; Chen, Xiaolin; Li, Shaoying; Huang, Yulin [Institute of Gynecology and Obstetrics, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College, Duobao Road 63, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Sun, Xiaofang, E-mail: xiaofangsun@hotmail.com [Institute of Gynecology and Obstetrics, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College, Duobao Road 63, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China)

    2009-04-24

    The generation of patient-specific nuclear transfer embryonic stem cells holds huge promise in modern regenerative medicine and cell-based drug discovery. Since human in vivo matured oocytes are not readily available, human therapeutic cloning is developing slowly. Here, we investigated for the first time whether human polyspermic zygotes could support preimplantation development of cloned embryos. Our results showed that polyspermic zygotes could be used as recipients for human somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). The preimplantation developmental potential of SCNT embryos from polyspermic zygotes was limited to the 8-cell stage. Since ES cell lines can be derived from single blastomeres, these results may have important significance for human ES cells derived by SCNT. In addition, confocal images demonstrated that all of the SCNT embryos that failed to cleave showed abnormal microtubule organization. The results of the present study suggest that polyspermic human zygotes could be used as a potential source of recipient cytoplasm for SCNT.

  8. Transient receptor potential canonical type 3 channels and blood pressure in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thilo, Florian; Baumunk, Daniel; Krause, Hans

    2009-01-01

    There is evidence that transient receptor potential canonical type 3 (TRPC3) cation channels are involved in the regulation of blood pressure, but this has not been studied using human renal tissue. We tested the hypothesis that the expression of TRPC3 in human renal tissue is associated with blood...

  9. Radioactive iodine intake through foodstuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omomo, Yoichiro

    1974-01-01

    The transition of radioactive iodine to human bodies is affected by the amount of coexisting stable iodine. The intake of stable iodine through foodstuffs was studied from the stand point of I) discussion of the literature which states the approximate amounts of stable iodine contained in environmental materials, and II) the authors' research on the consumption of foodstuffs. For example, the amounts of iodine intake of fishermen living in Kuji-cho (Ibaragi Prefecture) was estimated from I and II, and was revealed as 2704p. The national average iodine intake was about 800p indicating that the former estimated value was remarkably high. Eighty Four per cent of the 2.7 mg iodine intake was taken from marine products, indicating that marine products are important sources of iodine supply. (Tsukamoto, Y.)

  10. Mandatory Reporting of Human Trafficking: Potential Benefits and Risks of Harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Abigail

    2017-01-01

    Human trafficking, including both sex and labor trafficking, has profound consequences for the safety, health, and well-being of victims and survivors. Efforts to address human trafficking through prevention, protection, and prosecution are growing but remain insufficient. Mandatory reporting has the potential to bring victims and survivors to the attention of social service and law enforcement agencies but may discourage trafficked persons from seeking help, thereby limiting the ability of health care professionals to establish trust and provide needed care. States' experience in implementing child abuse laws can be useful in assessing the potential risks and benefits of mandatory reporting of human trafficking. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Prevalence of Hookworm infection and Strongyloidiasis in Cats and Potential Risk Factor of Human Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedionoto, Blego; Anamnart, Witthaya

    2018-02-01

    Hookworm infection and Stronyloidiasis are public health problem in the worldwide which both of them could infective in human by penetrated on skin and they have potential risk from Gastrointestinal zoonotic helminths of pets, including cats. We investigated the prevalence soil transmitted helminths infection in human and cats used modified Formal-Ether Concentration and agar plate culture. Fecal samples of 23 cats and human from Naitung and Subua Villages (area study 1), and fecal samples of 15 cats and 17 humans from Thasala Beach villages (area study 2) were collected. Result of study in area study 1 showed prevalence of infection in human was not hookworm and strongyloidiasis but 10% humans have infected Ascaris and Tricuris, and in cats have infected by hookworm 75.2% and S. strercoralis 8.5%, toxocara 13%, spirometra 13% and overall prevalence 82.5%. In area study 2 showed in human has infected by Trichuris 100% and S. stercoralis 29.4% and in cats have infected by hookworm 100% and S. strercoralis 40%, toxocora 20%, and spirometra 20%. Helminth infection found in both humans in two areas study are S. strercoralis. Hookworms were the most common helminth in cats but did not connection with infection in human, while S. strercoralis was helminth infection in cats which has potential zoonotic disease to human.

  12. Adolescent C57BL/6J mice show elevated alcohol intake, but reduced taste aversion, as compared to adult mice: a potential behavioral mechanism for binge drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstein, Sarah E; Spanos, Marina; Hodge, Clyde W

    2011-10-01

    Binge alcohol drinking during adolescence is a serious health problem that may increase future risk of an alcohol use disorder. Although there are several different procedures by which to preclinically model binge-like alcohol intake, limited-access procedures offer the advantage of achieving high voluntary alcohol intake and pharmacologically relevant blood alcohol concentrations (BACs). Therefore, in the current study, developmental differences in binge-like alcohol drinking using a limited-access cycling procedure were examined. In addition, as alcohol drinking has been negatively correlated with sensitivity to the aversive properties of alcohol, we examined developmental differences in sensitivity to an alcohol-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA). Binge-like alcohol consumption was investigated in adolescent (4 weeks) and adult (10 weeks) male C57BL/6J mice for 2 to 4 h/d for 16 days. Developmental differences in sensitivity to an alcohol-induced CTA were examined in adolescent and adult mice, with saline or alcohol (3 or 4 g/kg) repeatedly paired with the intake of a novel tastant (NaCl). Adolescent mice showed a significant increase in alcohol intake as compared to adults, with adolescents achieving higher BACs and increasing alcohol consumption over successive cycles of the binge procedure. Conversely, adolescent mice exhibited a dose-dependent reduction in sensitivity to the aversive properties of alcohol, as compared to adult mice, with adolescent mice failing to develop a CTA to 3 g/kg alcohol. Finally, extinction of an alcohol CTA was observed following conditioning with a higher dose of alcohol in adolescent, versus adult, mice. These results indicate that adolescent mice consume more alcohol, per kilogram body weight, than adults in a binge-like model of alcohol drinking and demonstrate a blunted sensitivity to the conditioned aversive effects of alcohol. Overall, this supports a behavioral framework by which heightened binge alcohol intake during

  13. Potential human factors research relating to modern technology in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketchel, J.; Fink, R.; Hanes, L.; Williges, R.; Williges, B.

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses proposed human factors research to address advanced human-machine interface technology in nuclear power plants. It relates to a current EPRI project to identify a prioritized list of specific research issues that could be assessed to improve control room and other user interface areas. The project seeks to bridge the gap between the functional requirements of advanced design initiatives and the human factors research needed to support them. It seeks to identify potential benefits to be expected, as well as potential problems that might be introduced by advanced technology. It provides an organized approach to identifying human factors research needs, information already available, and measures of performance and effectiveness that might be used to assess the value of potential improvements. Those parts of the proposed plan that are subsequently approved by EPRI management and by the utility advisory committee will provide a basis for recommending research priorities

  14. Development of new versions of anti-human CD34 monoclonal antibodies with potentially reduced immunogenicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Weizhu; Wang Ling; Li Bohua; Wang Hao; Hou Sheng; Hong Xueyu; Zhang Dapeng; Guo Yajun

    2008-01-01

    Despite the widespread clinical use of CD34 antibodies for the purification of human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, all the current anti-human CD34 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are murine, which have the potential to elicit human antimouse antibody (HAMA) immune response. In the present study, we developed three new mouse anti-human CD34 mAbs which, respectively, belonged to class I, class II and class III CD34 epitope antibodies. In an attempt to reduce the immunogenicity of these three murine mAbs, their chimeric antibodies, which consisted of mouse antibody variable regions fused genetically to human antibody constant regions, were constructed and characterized. The anti-CD34 chimeric antibodies were shown to possess affinity and specificity similar to that of their respective parental murine antibodies. Due to the potentially better safety profiles, these chimeric antibodies might become alternatives to mouse anti-CD34 antibodies routinely used for clinical application

  15. Human eosinophils - potential pharmacological model applied in human histamine H4 receptor research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosicki, Marek; Kieć-Kononowicz, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Histamine and histamine receptors are well known for their immunomodulatory role in inflammation. In this review we describe the role of histamine and histamine H4 receptor on human eosinophils. In the first part of article we provide short summary of histamine and histamine receptors role in physiology and histamine related therapeutics used in clinics. We briefly describe the human histamine receptor H4 and its ligands, as well as human eosinophils. In the second part of the review we provide detailed description of known histamine effects on eosinophils including: intracellular calcium concentration flux, actin polymerization, cellular shape change, upregulation of adhesion proteins and cellular chemotaxis. We provide proofs that these effects are mainly connected with the activation of histamine H4 receptor. When examining experimental data we discuss the controversial results and limitations of the studies performed on isolated eosinophils. In conclusion we believe that studies on histamine H4 receptor on human eosinophils can provide interesting new biomarkers that can be used in clinical studies of histamine receptors, that in future might result in the development of new strategies in the treatment of chronic inflammatory conditions like asthma or allergy, in which eosinophils are involved.

  16. Dietary Intake of Competitive Bodybuilders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spendlove, Jessica; Mitchell, Lachlan; Gifford, Janelle; Hackett, Daniel; Slater, Gary; Cobley, Stephen; O'Connor, Helen

    2015-07-01

    Competitive bodybuilders are well known for extreme physique traits and extremes in diet and training manipulation to optimize lean mass and achieve a low body fat. Although many of the dietary dogmas in bodybuilding lack scientific scrutiny, a number, including timing and dosing of high biological value proteins across the day, have more recently been confirmed as effective by empirical research studies. A more comprehensive understanding of the dietary intakes of bodybuilders has the potential to uncover other dietary approaches, deserving of scientific investigation, with application to the wider sporting, and potential health contexts, where manipulation of physique traits is desired. Our objective was to conduct a systematic review of dietary intake practices of competitive bodybuilders, evaluate the quality and currency of the existing literature, and identify research gaps to inform future studies. A systematic search of electronic databases was conducted from the earliest record until March 2014. The search combined permutations of the terms 'bodybuilding', 'dietary intake', and 'dietary supplement'. Included studies needed to report quantitative data (energy and macronutrients at a minimum) on habitual dietary intake of competitive bodybuilders. The 18 manuscripts meeting eligibility criteria reported on 385 participants (n = 62 women). Most studies were published in the 1980-1990s, with three published in the past 5 years. Study methodological quality was evaluated as poor. Energy intake ranged from 10 to 24 MJ/day for men and from 4 to 14 MJ/day for women. Protein intake ranged from 1.9 to 4.3 g/kg for men and from 0.8 to 2.8 g/kg for women. Intake of carbohydrate and fat was 6 months from competition) or immediate post-competition period and lowest during competition preparation (≤6 months from competition) or competition week. The most commonly reported dietary supplements were protein powders/liquids and amino acids. The studies failed to provide

  17. Intake of branched-chain amino acids influences the levels of MAFbx mRNA and MuRF-1 total protein in resting and exercising human muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgenvik, Marcus; Apró, William; Blomstrand, Eva

    2012-03-01

    Resistance exercise and amino acids are two major factors that influence muscle protein turnover. Here, we examined the effects of resistance exercise and branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), individually and in combination, on the expression of anabolic and catabolic genes in human skeletal muscle. Seven subjects performed two sessions of unilateral leg press exercise with randomized supplementation with BCAA or flavored water. Biopsies were collected from the vastus lateralis muscle of both the resting and exercising legs before and repeatedly after exercise to determine levels of mRNA, protein phosphorylation, and amino acid concentrations. Intake of BCAA reduced (P exercising legs, respectively. The level of MuRF-1 mRNA was elevated (P exercising leg two- and threefold under the placebo and BCAA conditions, respectively, whereas MuRF-1 total protein increased by 20% (P exercising muscle. In conclusion, BCAA ingestion reduced MAFbx mRNA and prevented the exercise-induced increase in MuRF-1 total protein in both resting and exercising leg. Further-more, resistance exercise differently influenced MAFbx and MuRF-1 mRNA expression, suggesting both common and divergent regulation of these two ubiquitin ligases.

  18. The Human Proteome Project: Unlocking the Mysteries of Human Life and Unleashing Its Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    respiratory distress syndrome and multiple organ system failure, leading 11 causes of death among trauma patients . As an example, scientists at the...greater impact on humanity. In the year 2011, only the tip of the biological iceberg has revealed itself. The coming decades will usher in a biological...course of disease, identify patients at risk for diseases with a genetic link, better tailor treatment modalities and accelerate the drug development

  19. An animal model of differential genetic risk for methamphetamine intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara ePhillips

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The question of whether genetic factors contribute to risk for methamphetamine (MA use and dependence has not been intensively investigated. Compared to human populations, genetic animal models offer the advantages of control over genetic family history and drug exposure. Using selective breeding, we created lines of mice that differ in genetic risk for voluntary MA intake and identified the chromosomal addresses of contributory genes. A quantitative trait locus was identified on chromosome 10 that accounts for more than 50% of the genetic variance in MA intake in the selected mouse lines. In addition, behavioral and physiological screening identified differences corresponding with risk for MA intake that have generated hypotheses that are testable in humans. Heightened sensitivity to aversive and certain physiological effects of MA, such as MA-induced reduction in body temperature, are hallmarks of mice bred for low MA intake. Furthermore, unlike MA-avoiding mice, MA-preferring mice are sensitive to rewarding and reinforcing MA effects, and to MA-induced increases in brain extracellular dopamine levels. Gene expression analyses implicate the importance of a network enriched in transcription factor genes, some of which regulate the mu opioid receptor gene, Oprm1, in risk for MA use. Neuroimmune factors appear to play a role in differential response to MA between the mice bred for high and low intake. In addition, chromosome 10 candidate gene studies provide strong support for a trace amine associated receptor 1 gene, Taar1, polymorphism in risk for MA intake. MA is a trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1 agonist, and a non-functional Taar1 allele segregates with high MA consumption. Thus, reduced TAAR1 function has the potential to increase risk for MA use. Overall, existing findings support the MA drinking lines as a powerful model for identifying genetic factors involved in determining risk for harmful MA use. Future directions include the

  20. Potential Hazard to Human Health from Exposure to Fragments of Lead Bullets and Shot in the Tissues of Game Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain, Deborah J.; Cromie, Ruth L.; Newth, Julia; Brown, Martin J.; Crutcher, Eric; Hardman, Pippa; Hurst, Louise; Mateo, Rafael; Meharg, Andrew A.; Moran, Annette C.; Raab, Andrea; Taggart, Mark A.; Green, Rhys E.

    2010-01-01

    Background Lead is highly toxic to animals. Humans eating game killed using lead ammunition generally avoid swallowing shot or bullets and dietary lead exposure from this source has been considered low. Recent evidence illustrates that lead bullets fragment on impact, leaving small lead particles widely distributed in game tissues. Our paper asks whether lead gunshot pellets also fragment upon impact, and whether lead derived from spent gunshot and bullets in the tissues of game animals could pose a threat to human health. Methodology/Principal Findings Wild-shot gamebirds (6 species) obtained in the UK were X-rayed to determine the number of shot and shot fragments present, and cooked using typical methods. Shot were then removed to simulate realistic practice before consumption, and lead concentrations determined. Data from the Veterinary Medicines Directorate Statutory Surveillance Programme documenting lead levels in raw tissues of wild gamebirds and deer, without shot being removed, are also presented. Gamebirds containing ≥5 shot had high tissue lead concentrations, but some with fewer or no shot also had high lead concentrations, confirming X-ray results indicating that small lead fragments remain in the flesh of birds even when the shot exits the body. A high proportion of samples from both surveys had lead concentrations exceeding the European Union Maximum Level of 100 ppb w.w. (0.1 mg kg−1 w.w.) for meat from bovine animals, sheep, pigs and poultry (no level is set for game meat), some by several orders of magnitude. High, but feasible, levels of consumption of some species could result in the current FAO/WHO Provisional Weekly Tolerable Intake of lead being exceeded. Conclusions/Significance The potential health hazard from lead ingested in the meat of game animals may be larger than previous risk assessments indicated, especially for vulnerable groups, such as children, and those consuming large amounts of game. PMID:20436670

  1. Potential hazard to human health from exposure to fragments of lead bullets and shot in the tissues of game animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah J Pain

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lead is highly toxic to animals. Humans eating game killed using lead ammunition generally avoid swallowing shot or bullets and dietary lead exposure from this source has been considered low. Recent evidence illustrates that lead bullets fragment on impact, leaving small lead particles widely distributed in game tissues. Our paper asks whether lead gunshot pellets also fragment upon impact, and whether lead derived from spent gunshot and bullets in the tissues of game animals could pose a threat to human health. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Wild-shot gamebirds (6 species obtained in the UK were X-rayed to determine the number of shot and shot fragments present, and cooked using typical methods. Shot were then removed to simulate realistic practice before consumption, and lead concentrations determined. Data from the Veterinary Medicines Directorate Statutory Surveillance Programme documenting lead levels in raw tissues of wild gamebirds and deer, without shot being removed, are also presented. Gamebirds containing > or =5 shot had high tissue lead concentrations, but some with fewer or no shot also had high lead concentrations, confirming X-ray results indicating that small lead fragments remain in the flesh of birds even when the shot exits the body. A high proportion of samples from both surveys had lead concentrations exceeding the European Union Maximum Level of 100 ppb w.w. (0.1 mg kg(-1 w.w. for meat from bovine animals, sheep, pigs and poultry (no level is set for game meat, some by several orders of magnitude. High, but feasible, levels of consumption of some species could result in the current FAO/WHO Provisional Weekly Tolerable Intake of lead being exceeded. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The potential health hazard from lead ingested in the meat of game animals may be larger than previous risk assessments indicated, especially for vulnerable groups, such as children, and those consuming large amounts of game.

  2. Potential hazard to human health from exposure to fragments of lead bullets and shot in the tissues of game animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain, Deborah J; Cromie, Ruth L; Newth, Julia; Brown, Martin J; Crutcher, Eric; Hardman, Pippa; Hurst, Louise; Mateo, Rafael; Meharg, Andrew A; Moran, Annette C; Raab, Andrea; Taggart, Mark A; Green, Rhys E

    2010-04-26

    Lead is highly toxic to animals. Humans eating game killed using lead ammunition generally avoid swallowing shot or bullets and dietary lead exposure from this source has been considered low. Recent evidence illustrates that lead bullets fragment on impact, leaving small lead particles widely distributed in game tissues. Our paper asks whether lead gunshot pellets also fragment upon impact, and whether lead derived from spent gunshot and bullets in the tissues of game animals could pose a threat to human health. Wild-shot gamebirds (6 species) obtained in the UK were X-rayed to determine the number of shot and shot fragments present, and cooked using typical methods. Shot were then removed to simulate realistic practice before consumption, and lead concentrations determined. Data from the Veterinary Medicines Directorate Statutory Surveillance Programme documenting lead levels in raw tissues of wild gamebirds and deer, without shot being removed, are also presented. Gamebirds containing > or =5 shot had high tissue lead concentrations, but some with fewer or no shot also had high lead concentrations, confirming X-ray results indicating that small lead fragments remain in the flesh of birds even when the shot exits the body. A high proportion of samples from both surveys had lead concentrations exceeding the European Union Maximum Level of 100 ppb w.w. (0.1 mg kg(-1) w.w.) for meat from bovine animals, sheep, pigs and poultry (no level is set for game meat), some by several orders of magnitude. High, but feasible, levels of consumption of some species could result in the current FAO/WHO Provisional Weekly Tolerable Intake of lead being exceeded. The potential health hazard from lead ingested in the meat of game animals may be larger than previous risk assessments indicated, especially for vulnerable groups, such as children, and those consuming large amounts of game.

  3. High volume hydraulic fracturing operations: potential impacts on surface water and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrdjen, Igor; Lee, Jiyoung

    2016-08-01

    High volume, hydraulic fracturing (HVHF) processes, used to extract natural gas and oil from underground shale deposits, pose many potential hazards to the environment and human health. HVHF can negatively affect the environment by contaminating soil, water, and air matrices with potential pollutants. Due to the relatively novel nature of the process, hazards to surface waters and human health are not well known. The purpose of this article is to link the impacts of HVHF operations on surface water integrity, with human health consequences. Surface water contamination risks include: increased structural failure rates of unconventional wells, issues with wastewater treatment, and accidental discharge of contaminated fluids. Human health risks associated with exposure to surface water contaminated with HVHF chemicals include increased cancer risk and turbidity of water, leading to increased pathogen survival time. Future research should focus on modeling contamination spread throughout the environment, and minimizing occupational exposure to harmful chemicals.

  4. Assessment of the Potential for Human Resource Accounting in Venezuelan Navy Management Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    Accounting Association, 1957, op. cit, p. 6. 23. Horngren , Charles, " Cost Accounting : A Managerial Emphasis," Solutions Manual, Prentice-Hall...Model," Management Accounting , December 1977. Savich, R. S . and Ehrenreich, K. E., " Cost /Benefits Analysis of Human Resource Accounting Alternatives...A0A112 T40 NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA F/ S S / ASSESS1ENT OF THE POTENTIAL FOR HUMAN RESOURCE ACCOUNTING IN VE-ETC(Ul EC GS K FI MARN

  5. Interactions between Obesity Status and Dietary Intake of Monounsaturated and Polyunsaturated Oils on Human Gut Microbiome Profiles in the Canola Oil Multicenter Intervention Trial (COMIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuaihua Pu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Long-term dietary fatty acid intake is believed to induce changes in the human gut microbiome which might be associated with human health or obesity status; however, considerable debate remains regarding the most favorable ratios of fatty acids to optimize these processes. The objective of this sub-study of a double-blinded randomized crossover clinical study, the canola oil multi-center intervention trial (COMIT, was to investigate effects of five different novel oil blends fed for 30 days each on the intestinal microbiota in 25 volunteers with risk of metabolic syndrome. The 60 g treatments included three MUFA-rich diets: 1 conventional canola oil (Canola; 2 DHA-enriched high oleic canola oil (CanolaDHA; 3 high oleic canola oil (CanolaOleic; and two PUFA-rich diets: 4 a blend of corn/safflower oil (25:75 (CornSaff; and 5 a blend of flax/safflower oil (60:40 (FlaxSaff. Stool samples were collected at the end of each period. DNA was extracted and amplified for pyrosequencing. A total of 17 phyla and 187 genera were identified. While five novel oil treatments failed to alter bacterial phyla composition, obese participants produced a higher proportion of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes than overweight or normal weight groups (P = 0.01. Similarly at the genus level, overall bacterial distribution was highly associated with subjects’ body mass index (BMI. Treatment effects were observed between MUFA- and PUFA-rich diets, with the three MUFA diets elevating Parabacteroides, Prevotella, Turicibacter, and Enterobacteriaceae (F’s populations, while the two PUFA-rich diets favored the abundance of Isobaculum. High MUFA content feedings also resulted in an increase of Parabacteroides and a decrease of Isobaculum in obese, but not overweight subjects. Data suggest that BMI is a predominant factor in characterization of human gut microbiota profiles, and that MUFA-rich and PUFA-rich diets impact the composition of gut microbiota at lower taxonomical levels

  6. Concomitant Human Herpes Virus 6 and nivolumab-related pneumonitis: Potential pathogenetic insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Periklis G. Foukas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of immune system modulating agents, such as immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs, has revolutionized cancer treatment. Nivolumab, a human monoclonal antibody against PD-1, has emerged as an efficient treatment for various malignancies, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC; however, it is associated with important immune related side-effects, attributed to organ-specific inflammation, such as immune-mediated pneumonitis, a relatively uncommon, albeit potentially fatal adverse event. We herein present the unique case of severe interstitial pneumonitis with concomitant detection of Human Herpes Virus 6 (HHV-6 in a nivolumab treated patient with NSCLC. Potential pathogenetic mechanisms are discussed.

  7. Effects of capsaicin, green tea and CH-19 sweet pepper on appetite and energy intake in humans in negative and positive energy balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinbach, Helene Christine; Smeets, A.; Martinussen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    Summary Background & aims Bioactive ingredients have been shown to reduce appetite and energy intake. The magnitude of these effects might depend on energy balance why it was investigated how capsaicin, green tea, CH-19 sweet pepper as well as green tea and capsaicin affect appetite and energy...... intake during respectively negative and positive energy balance. Methods 27 subjects were randomized to three weeks of negative and three weeks of positive energy balance during which capsaicin, green tea, CH-19 sweet pepper, capsaicin + green tea or placebo was ingested on ten separate test days while...... the effects on appetite, energy intake, body weight and heart rate were assessed. Results CH-19 sweet pepper and a combination of capsaicin and green tea reduced energy intake during positive energy balance. Capsaicin and green tea suppressed hunger and increased satiety more during negative than during...

  8. Investigation of human body potential measured by a non-contact measuring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Norimitsu

    2016-12-07

    A human body is occasionally electrified in a room. This charged object will be a source of electrostatic accidents, including the malfunction of electronic equipment. Hence, prevention of these accidents is required. Accidents occasionally occur, even though antistatic clothes and shoes are used. One of the causes for these accidents is that there is a lack of the preventive measures. This situation occurs when using, for example, unconductive wax. In this study, human body potential (voltage) is measured using a non-contact measuring system. An investigation of the human body's voltage when using this system is conducted. The result demonstrates that the voltage of a human body wearing antistatic clothes and shoes or light clothes and slippers exceeds a malfunctioning voltage of a microelectronics device when the body walks on floors. Thus, accidents may occur even if a human body wearing the antistatic clothes walks on flooring. These results will be useful in estimating determination whether electrostatic accidents occur or not.

  9. Habitual dietary fibre intake influences gut microbiota response to an inulin-type fructan prebiotic:a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over, human intervention study

    OpenAIRE

    Healey, Genelle; Murphy, Rinki; Butts, Chrissie; Brough, Louise; Whelan, Kevin; Coad, Jane

    2018-01-01

    Dysbiotic gut microbiota have been implicated in human disease. Diet-based therapeutic strategies have been used to manipulate the gut microbiota towards a more favourable profile. However, it has been demonstrated that large inter-individual variability exists in gut microbiota response to a dietary intervention. The primary objective of this study was to investigate whether habitually low dietary fibre (LDF) v. high dietary fibre (HDF) intakes influence gut microbiota response to an inulin-...

  10. Expansion of Adult Human Pancreatic Tissue Yields Organoids Harboring Progenitor Cells with Endocrine Differentiation Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy J.M. Loomans

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Generating an unlimited source of human insulin-producing cells is a prerequisite to advance β cell replacement therapy for diabetes. Here, we describe a 3D culture system that supports the expansion of adult human pancreatic tissue and the generation of a cell subpopulation with progenitor characteristics. These cells display high aldehyde dehydrogenase activity (ALDHhi, express pancreatic progenitors markers (PDX1, PTF1A, CPA1, and MYC, and can form new organoids in contrast to ALDHlo cells. Interestingly, gene expression profiling revealed that ALDHhi cells are closer to human fetal pancreatic tissue compared with adult pancreatic tissue. Endocrine lineage markers were detected upon in vitro differentiation. Engrafted organoids differentiated toward insulin-positive (INS+ cells, and circulating human C-peptide was detected upon glucose challenge 1 month after transplantation. Engrafted ALDHhi cells formed INS+ cells. We conclude that adult human pancreatic tissue has potential for expansion into 3D structures harboring progenitor cells with endocrine differentiation potential. : In the context of β cell replacement therapy for diabetes, de Koning and colleagues describe a 3D culture platform that supports ex vivo expansion of human pancreatic tissue as organoids. These organoids harbor a subpopulation of ALDHhi cells that display proliferative capacity and can differentiate to an endocrine fate. Keywords: pancreas, organoid, human, ALDH, endocrine differentiation, beta cells, insulin, progenitor, fetal, diabetes

  11. Consumption of freshwater fish by recreational and native freshwater anglers in the upper St-Maurice (Quebec, Canada) and estimation of the intake of methylmercury in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loranger, S.; Houde, L.; Schetagne, R.

    1995-01-01

    Hydro-Quebec is planning to build two hydroelectric reservoirs in the upper Saint-Maurice River, which would flood about 80% of the surrounding area. The methylmercury (MeHg) content in freshwater fish will therefore tend to increase during the first few years. This development will have a direct impact on the amount of MeHg that the actual users of this river section are exposed to. The objective of this study is to assess the consumption of local fish of these target groups using a Monte-Carlo approach. This study is part of a larger research project aimed at assessing human exposure and the health risks related to MeHg contamination in local fish. The fish consumption rate for recreational freshwater anglers was calculated using the duration of the average annual fishing trip, the average number of catches per species, the average fish weight per species exceeding a specific length of fish usually caught, and the edible portion of fish consumed. This rate was calculated for the native communities based on the total number of meals per year per species, the average fish weight per species, and the edible portion. Based on these calculations, average intake for sport fishermen is estimated at 6.9 g/day (sd = 6.4). This value is 5 to 25 times lower on average than for other North American native communities. However, it must be pointed out that the food habits of the native population were very similar to those of non-native populations; less than 30% of the food comes from traditional sources

  12. Potential of human twin embryos generated by embryo splitting in assisted reproduction and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noli, Laila; Ogilvie, Caroline; Khalaf, Yacoub; Ilic, Dusko

    2017-03-01

    Embryo splitting or twinning has been widely used in veterinary medicine over 20 years to generate monozygotic twins with desirable genetic characteristics. The first human embryo splitting, reported in 1993, triggered fierce ethical debate on human embryo cloning. Since Dolly the sheep was born in 1997, the international community has acknowledged the complexity of the moral arguments related to this research and has expressed concerns about the potential for reproductive cloning in humans. A number of countries have formulated bans either through laws, decrees or official statements. However, in general, these laws specifically define cloning as an embryo that is generated via nuclear transfer (NT) and do not mention embryo splitting. Only the UK includes under cloning both embryo splitting and NT in the same legislation. On the contrary, the Ethics Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine does not have a major ethical objection to transferring two or more artificially created embryos with the same genome with the aim of producing a single pregnancy, stating that 'since embryo splitting has the potential to improve the efficacy of IVF treatments for infertility, research to investigate the technique is ethically acceptable'. Embryo splitting has been introduced successfully to the veterinary medicine several decades ago and today is a part of standard practice. We present here an overview of embryo splitting experiments in humans and non-human primates and discuss the potential of this technology in assisted reproduction and research. A comprehensive literature search was carried out using PUBMED and Google Scholar databases to identify studies on embryo splitting in humans and non-human primates. 'Embryo splitting' and 'embryo twinning' were used as the keywords, alone or in combination with other search phrases relevant to the topics of biology of preimplantation embryos. A very limited number of studies have been conducted in humans and non-human

  13. Variation in the Oral Processing of Everyday Meals Is Associated with Fullness and Meal Size; A Potential Nudge to Reduce Energy Intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferriday, Danielle; Bosworth, Matthew L; Godinot, Nicolas; Martin, Nathalie; Forde, Ciarán G; Van Den Heuvel, Emmy; Appleton, Sarah L; Mercer Moss, Felix J; Rogers, Peter J; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M

    2016-05-21

    Laboratory studies have demonstrated that experimental manipulations of oral processing can have a marked effect on energy intake. Here, we explored whether variations in oral processing across a range of unmodified everyday meals could affect post-meal fullness and meal size. In Study 1, female participants (N = 12) attended the laboratory over 20 lunchtime sessions to consume a 400-kcal portion of a different commercially available pre-packaged meal. Prior to consumption, expected satiation was assessed. During each meal, oral processing was characterised using: (i) video-recordings of the mouth and (ii) real-time measures of plate weight. Hunger and fullness ratings were elicited pre- and post-consumption, and for a further three hours. Foods that were eaten slowly had higher expected satiation and delivered more satiation and satiety. Building on these findings, in Study 2 we selected two meals (identical energy density) from Study 1 that were equally liked but maximised differences in oral processing. On separate days, male and female participants (N = 24) consumed a 400-kcal portion of either the "fast" or "slow" meal followed by an ad libitum meal (either the same food or a dessert). When continuing with the same food, participants consumed less of the slow meal. Further, differences in food intake during the ad libitum meal were not compensated at a subsequent snacking opportunity an hour later. Together, these findings suggest that variations in oral processing across a range of unmodified everyday meals can affect fullness after consuming a fixed portion and can also impact meal size. Modifying food form to encourage increased oral processing (albeit to a lesser extent than in experimental manipulations) might represent a viable target for food manufacturers to help to nudge consumers to manage their weight.

  14. Variation in the Oral Processing of Everyday Meals Is Associated with Fullness and Meal Size; A Potential Nudge to Reduce Energy Intake?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Ferriday

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory studies have demonstrated that experimental manipulations of oral processing can have a marked effect on energy intake. Here, we explored whether variations in oral processing across a range of unmodified everyday meals could affect post-meal fullness and meal size. In Study 1, female participants (N = 12 attended the laboratory over 20 lunchtime sessions to consume a 400-kcal portion of a different commercially available pre-packaged meal. Prior to consumption, expected satiation was assessed. During each meal, oral processing was characterised using: (i video-recordings of the mouth and (ii real-time measures of plate weight. Hunger and fullness ratings were elicited pre- and post-consumption, and for a further three hours. Foods that were eaten slowly had higher expected satiation and delivered more satiation and satiety. Building on these findings, in Study 2 we selected two meals (identical energy density from Study 1 that were equally liked but maximised differences in oral processing. On separate days, male and female participants (N = 24 consumed a 400-kcal portion of either the “fast” or “slow” meal followed by an ad libitum meal (either the same food or a dessert. When continuing with the same food, participants consumed less of the slow meal. Further, differences in food intake during the ad libitum meal were not compensated at a subsequent snacking opportunity an hour later. Together, these findings suggest that variations in oral processing across a range of unmodified everyday meals can affect fullness after consuming a fixed portion and can also impact meal size. Modifying food form to encourage increased oral processing (albeit to a lesser extent than in experimental manipulations might represent a viable target for food manufacturers to help to nudge consumers to manage their weight.

  15. Estimation of caffeine intake from analysis of caffeine metabolites in wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gracia-Lor, E.; Rousis, N.I.; Zuccato, E.; Bade, R.; Baz-Lomba, J.A.; Castrignanò, E.; Causanilles Llanes, A.; Hernández, F.; Kasprzyk-Hordern, B.; Kinyua, J.; McCall, A.-K.; van Nuijs, A.L.N.; Plósz, B.G.; Ramin, P.; Ryu, Y.; Santos, M.M.; Thomas, K.; de Voogt, P.; Yang, Z.; Castiglioni, S.

    2017-01-01

    Caffeine metabolites in wastewater were investigated as potential biomarkers for assessing caffeine intake in a population. The main human urinary metabolites of caffeine were measured in the urban wastewater of ten European cities and the metabolic profiles in wastewater were compared with the

  16. Estimation of caffeine intake from analysis of caffeine metabolites in wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gracia-Lor, Emma; Rousis, Nikolaos I.; Zuccato, Ettore

    2017-01-01

    with the human urinary excretion profile. A good match was found for 1,7-dimethyluric acid, an exclusive caffeine metabolite, suggesting that might be a suitable biomarker in wastewater for assessing population-level caffeine consumption. A correction factor was developed considering the percentage of excretion......Caffeine metabolites in wastewater were investigated as potential biomarkers for assessing caffeine intake in a population. The main human urinary metabolites of caffeine were measured in the urban wastewater of ten European cities and the metabolic profiles in wastewater were compared...... of this metabolite in humans, according to published pharmacokinetic studies. Daily caffeine intake estimated from wastewater analysis was compared with the average daily intake calculated from the average amount of coffee consumed by country per capita. Good agreement was found in some cities but further...

  17. Potential Knowledge Management Contributions to Human Performance Technology Research and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwen, Thomas M.; Kalman, Howard K.; Hara, Noriko; Kisling, Eric L.

    1998-01-01

    Considers aspects of knowledge management that have the potential to enhance human-performance-technology research and practice. Topics include intellectual capital; learning organization versus organizational learning; the importance of epistemology; the relationship of knowledge, learning, and performance; knowledge creation; socio-technical…

  18. ANALYSIS OR THE POTENTIAL SPERM BIOMARKER, SP22, IN HUMAN SEMEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    ANALYSIS OF THE POTENTIAL SPERM BIOMARKER SP22 IN HUMAN SEMEN Rebecca A. Morris Ph.D.1, Gary R. Klinefelter Ph.D.1, Naomi L. Roberts 1, Juan D. Suarez 1, Lillian F. Strader 1, Susan C. Jeffay 1 and Sally D. Perreault Ph.D.1 1 U.S. EPA / ORD / National Health a...

  19. Human Potential Seminar Outcomes as Measured by the Personal Orientation Inventory and Goal Attainment Inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paritzky, Richard; Magoon, Thomas

    1979-01-01

    Investigated human potential seminar (HPS) outcomes for the four HPS objectives (self-determination, self-affirmation, self-motivation, and regard for others) and its overall purpose, self-actualization. Ego-strength was used as a moderator variable and found to be nonsignificant. Students' status on self-affirmation, self-determination,…

  20. Snake scales, partial exposure, and the Snake Detection Theory: A human event-related potentials study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. van Strien (Jan); L.A. Isbell (Lynne A.)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractStudies of event-related potentials in humans have established larger early posterior negativity (EPN) in response to pictures depicting snakes than to pictures depicting other creatures. Ethological research has recently shown that macaques and wild vervet monkeys respond strongly to

  1. We Are Each Like the Unicorn, Unique and Rare: Human Individual Potentialities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrene Elementary School District 28, Tempe, AZ.

    The proposed gifted and talented program for grades K-8 of the Kyrene School District (Tempe, Arizona) is described. It is explained that the program is based on a philosophy emphasizing human individual potentialities. The curriculum is said to be personalized, utilizing a seminar-resource center approach. Characteristics of exceptionally…

  2. Potential genotoxic and cytotoxicity of emamectin benzoate in human normal liver cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhijie; Zhao, Xinyu; Qin, Xiaosong

    2017-10-10

    Pesticide residue inducing cancer-related health problems draw people more attention recently. Emamectin benzoate (EMB) has been widely used in agriculture around the world based on its specificity targets. Although potential risk and the molecular mechanism of EMB toxicity to human liver has not been well-characterized. Unlike well-reported toxicity upon central nervous system, potential genotoxic and cytotoxicity of EMB in human liver cell was ignored and very limited. In this study, we identify genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of EMB to human normal liver cells (QSG7701 cell line) in vitro . We demonstrate that EMB inhibited the viability of QSG7701 cells and induced the DNA damage. Established assays of cytotoxicity were performed to characterize the mechanism of EMB toxicity on QSG7701 cells. Typical chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation indicated the apoptosis of QSG7701 cells induced by EMB. And the intracellular biochemical results demonstrated that EMB-enhanced apoptosis of QSG7701 cells concurrent with generated ROS, a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, the cytochrome-c release, up regulate the Bax/Bcl-2 and the activation of caspase-9/-3. Our results of EMB induces the death of QSG7701 cells maybe via mitochondrial-mediated intrinsic apoptotic pathways would contribute to promote the awareness of EMB as an extensive used pesticide to human being effects and reveal the underlying mechanisms of potential genotoxic.

  3. "Human Potential" and Progressive Pedagogy: A Long Cultural History of the Ambiguity of "Race" and "Intelligence"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oland, Trine

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the cultural constructs of progressive pedagogy in Danish school pedagogy and its emerging focus on the child's human potential from the 1920s to the 1950s. It draws on Foucault's notion of "dispositifs" and the "elements of history," encircling a complex transformation of continuity and discontinuity of…

  4. Conduction velocity of the human spinothalamic tract as assessed by laser evoked potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruccu, G.; Iannetti, G. D.; Agostino, R.

    2000-01-01

    To study the conduction velocity of the spinothalamic tract (STT) we delivered CO2 laser pulses, evoking pinprick sensations, to the skin overlying the vertebral spinous processes at different spinal levels from C5 to T10 and recorded evoked potentials (LEPs) in 15 healthy human subjects...

  5. Evaluation of human skin tests for potential dermal irritant and contact sensitizing products: a position paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loveren H van; Jong WH de; Garssen J; LPI

    1998-01-01

    Prediction of human cutaneous irritation and sensitization in view of hazard identification has primarily relied on the use of laboratory animals. Such studies in laboratory animals have been very instrumental in the detection of potential contact sensitizing agents. There are however many

  6. Metabolomics investigation of whey intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanstrup, Jan

    syndrome are complex disorders and are not caused by a high-calorie diet and low exercise level alone. The specific nature of the nutrients, independent of their caloric value, also play a role. The question is which. In the quest to answer this question the qualitative intake of protein is of special...... and prevention of the metabolic syndrome related to obesity and diabetes. In this thesis the effects of whey intake on the human metabolome was investigated using a metabolomics approach. We demonstrated that intake of whey causes a decreased rate of gastric emptying compared to other protein sources....... Therefore this thesis will also present and discuss state-of-the-art tools for computer-assisted compound identification, including: annotation of adducts and fragments, determination of the molecular ion, in silico fragmentation, retention time mapping between analytical systems and de novo retention time...

  7. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric determination of triterpenes in human fluids: Evaluation of markers of dietary intake of olive oil and metabolic disposition of oleanolic acid and maslinic acid in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozo, Oscar J; Pujadas, Mitona; Gleeson, Sarah Biel; Mesa-García, Maria Dolores; Pastor, Antoni; Kotronoulas, Aristotelis; Fitó, Montserrat; Covas, Maria-Isabel; Navarro, José Ramón Fernández; Espejo, Juan Antonio; Sanchez-Rodriguez, Estefania; Marchal, Rosa; Calleja, Miguel Angel; de la Torre, Rafael

    2017-10-16

    Olive oil is rich in several minor components like maslinic (MA) and oleanolic (OA) acids which have cardioprotective, antitumor, and anti-inflammatory properties. In order to assess the health benefits in humans provided by the olive oil triterpenes (MA and OA), suitable analytical methods able to quantify the low concentrations expected in human fluids are required. In this study, the LC-MS/MS quantification of both OA and MA in plasma and urine has been evaluated. The plasmatic method is based on the direct determination of the analytes. The urinary detection requires more sensitivity which was reached by derivatization with 2-picolylamine. Additionally, the urinary species present after MA and OA ingestion were evaluated by the direct detection of several phase II metabolites previously synthesized. Our results showed that OA is metabolized as both sulfate and glucuronide conjugates whereas MA is mainly excreted as glucuronide. Based on this information, the method for the urinary detection of MA and OA involved an enzymatic hydrolysis. Both plasmatic and urinary methods were validated with suitable precision and accuracy at all tested levels. Required sensitivity was achieved in both matrices. Up to our knowledge, this is the first method able to quantify the low concentration levels of triterpenes present in urine. Samples from two healthy volunteers who received virgin olive oils with different triterpenes content were analyzed. Some preliminary clues on the metabolic disposition of OA and MA after olive oil intake are provided. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The effect of covert changes in energy density of preloads on subsequent ad libitum energy intake in lean and obese human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrant, M L; Royston, J P; Wloch, R T; Garrow, J S

    1982-01-01

    1. Covert changes in energy intake were made by giving preloads of disguised energy density three times daily to 14 obese and 6 lean subjects. 2. The preloads contained 2.51 MJ (600 kcal)/d on days 2 and 3 and either 3.77 MJ (900 kcal)/d or 1.26 MJ (300 kcal/d) on days 4 and 5 and 1.26 MJ (300 kcal)/d or 3.77 MJ (900 kcal)/d on days 6 and 7. The order of testing was alternated for each subject. 3. Subsequent energy intake at each meal (lunch, dinner and breakfast) was measured with an automated food-dispensing machine. 4. Overall the obese subjects ate significantly less from the machine, 3.28 +/- 1.89 MJ (785 +/- 452 kcal)/d, than the lean subjects, 6.03 +/- 1.26 MJ (1442 +/- 300 kcal)/d. 5. Both groups of subjects adjusted their energy intake in the right direction to counterbalance the effect of the preloads but the lean subjects changed their intake by an average of 0.74 MJ (176 kcal)/d compared with the obese subjects who changed their intake by an average of 0.29 MJ (70 kcal)/d. 6. Although the lean subjects were better at adjusting their energy intake than the obese subjects, regulation was still imprecise relative to the 2.51 MJ (600 kcal)/d difference in energy intake that was imposed. 7. There were no significant differences in hunger or appetite between subjects or test situations.

  9. HUMAN POTENTIAL AS A SOURCE OF ECONOMICAL DEVELOPMENT IN BEIUŞ LAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu FILIMON

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available : The present study that focuses on the human potential in Beiuş Land, seen as a source of economical development, aims at highlighting the human resource existing in this area. It constitutes the engine or the dynamic element of the economical development. Such an endeavour is necesssary and needs accomplishment, in order to support some territorial development policies, regardless of the scale they are set on. Its analysis of Beiuş Land highlighted the existence of several drawbacks of the human potential, triggered by the demographic aging process, but also by the possibilities this area offers. Depending on its evolution, it is necessary to achieve a certain level of development which should ensure its welfare status.

  10. Chondrogenic potential of physically treated bovine cartilage matrix derived porous scaffolds on human dermal fibroblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Ali; Ataollahi, Forough; Sayar, Katayoun; Pramanik, Sumit; Chong, Pan-Pan; Khalil, Alizan Abdul; Kamarul, Tunku; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular matrices have drawn attention in tissue engineering as potential biomaterials for scaffold fabrication because of their bioactive components. Noninvasive techniques of scaffold fabrication and cross-linking treatments are believed to maintain the integrity of bioactive molecules while providing proper architectural and mechanical properties. Cartilage matrix derived scaffolds are designed to support the maintenance of chondrocytes and provide proper signals for differentiation of chondroinducible cells. Chondroinductive potential of bovine articular cartilage matrix derived porous scaffolds on human dermal fibroblasts and the effect of scaffold shrinkage on chondrogenesis were investigated. An increase in sulfated glycosaminoglycans production along with upregulation of chondrogenic genes confirmed that physically treated cartilage matrix derived scaffolds have chondrogenic potential on human dermal fibroblasts. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Comparative transforming potential of different human papillomaviruses associated with non-melanoma skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massimi, Paola; Thomas, Miranda; Bouvard, Veronique; Ruberto, Irene; Campo, M. Saveria; Tommasino, Massimo; Banks, Lawrence

    2008-01-01

    It is well established that high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) that infect mucosal epithelia are the causative agents of cervical cancer. In contrast, the association of cutaneo-tropic HPV types with the development of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is less well defined. In this study, we have analysed the in vitro transforming potential of various cutaneous HPV types. Using oncogene cooperation assays with activated ras, we have shown that diverse cutaneous types, including 12, 14, 15, 24, 36 and 49, have significant transforming potential. Interestingly, most of this activity appears to be encoded by the E6 gene product. In contrast, the common HPV-10 exhibits no significant transforming potential in these assays. This difference may be a reflection of different patterns of cellular localization, with transforming E6s being nuclear and non-transforming being cytoplasmic. These results provide molecular support for a role of these viruses in the development of certain human malignancies

  12. Estimated dietary intakes of nitrates in vegetarians compared to a traditional diet in Poland and acceptable daily intakes: is there a risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitek, Marta; Anyzewska, Anna; Wawrzyniak, Agata

    2013-01-01

    Vegetarian diets, by definition, are rich in vegetables and so may have high levels of nitrates, that can elicit both positive or negative effects on the human body. Exposure to nitrates can thus be potentially higher for this population group. To estimate dietary nitrates intakes in Polish vegetarians and compare these with the Polish average. A sample of 86 vegetarians were surveyed via a questionnaire to determine nitrate intake for those adopting a vegetarian diet. Nitrate intakes for the average Pole were obtained from the Central Statistical Office. The domestic intake of nitrate, per average person, during 2000-2009, ranged from 115.5 to 133.7 mg NaNO3 with a mean of 125 mg NaNO3 of which 35.4% constituted the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI). For vegetarians, the corresponding levels ranged from 37.3 to 2054.3 mg NaNO3 with a mean intake of 340.1 mg NaNO3 of which 95.8% represented the ADI. This was almost twice more than values obtained from calculating nitrate intakes of a typical 7-day vegetarian menu; 104.5 to 277.6 mg NaNO3, with a mean 175.9 mg NaNO3 with the 49.1% making up the ADI. The nitrate intakes in the tested vegetarians were 140 to 270% higher than ones for the average Pole, however in both cases the ADI was not exceeded. Nevertheless, the higher intake of nitrates so observed in vegetarians can be hazardous to some from this population group.

  13. A Defective Interfering Influenza RNA Inhibits Infectious Influenza Virus Replication in Human Respiratory Tract Cells: A Potential New Human Antiviral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire M. Smith

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Defective interfering (DI viruses arise during the replication of influenza A virus and contain a non-infective version of the genome that is able to interfere with the production of infectious virus. In this study we hypothesise that a cloned DI influenza A virus RNA may prevent infection of human respiratory epithelial cells with infection by influenza A. The DI RNA (244/PR8 was derived by a natural deletion process from segment 1 of influenza A/PR/8/34 (H1N1; it comprises 395 nucleotides and is packaged in the DI virion in place of a full-length genome segment 1. Given intranasally, 244/PR8 DI virus protects mice and ferrets from clinical influenza caused by a number of different influenza A subtypes and interferes with production of infectious influenza A virus in cells in culture. However, evidence that DI influenza viruses are active in cells of the human respiratory tract is lacking. Here we show that 244/PR8 DI RNA is replicated by an influenza A challenge virus in human lung diploid fibroblasts, bronchial epithelial cells, and primary nasal basal cells, and that the yield of challenge virus is significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner indicating that DI influenza virus has potential as a human antiviral.

  14. Agricultural Drainage Well Intakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Locations of surface intakes for registered agriculture drainage wells according to the database maintained by IDALS. Surface intakes were located from their...

  15. The effects of fish oil and high or low linoleic acid intake on fatty acid composition of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Frøkiær, Hanne; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2008-01-01

    -supplementation on tissue fatty acid composition. Healthy young men (n 64) were randomized to capsules with FO or olive oil (control) (44 (20-56) ml/d) and to either sunflower oil and margarine (S/B) or rapeseed oil and a butter spread (R/K) to provide a high or a low 18: 2n-6 intake. Diet was measured by 4-d weighed......Dietary intake of 18: 2n-6 and 18: 3n-3 may affect endogenous production and incorporation of n-3 long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) from fish oils (FO). This double-blinded controlled 2 £ 2-factorial 8-week intervention investigates the effects of high and low 18: 2n-6 intake in combination with FO...

  16. The effects of fish oil and high or low linoleic acid intake on fatty acid composition of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, C.T.; Frøkiær, Hanne; Lauritzen, L.

    2008-01-01

    -supplementation on tissue fatty acid composition. Healthy young men (it 64) were randomized to capsules with FO or olive oil (control) (4-4 (2-0-5-6) ml/d) and to either sunflower oil and margarine (S/B) or rapeseed oil and a butter spread (R/K) to provide a high or a low 18: 2n-6 intake. Diet was measured by 4-d weighed......Dietary intake of 18: 2n-6 and 18: 3n-3 may affect endogenous production and incorporation of n-3 long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) from fish oils (170). This double-blinded controlled 2 x 2-factorial 8-week intervention investigates the effects of high and low 18: 2n-6 intake in combination with FO...

  17. No effect of human serum and erythrocytes enriched in n-3 fatty acids by oral intake on Plasmodium falciparum blood stage parasites in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abu-Zeid, Y A; Hansen, H S; Jakobsen, P H

    1993-01-01

    -s) and pre-intake erythrocyte (pre-e). Also the effect of EPA and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) on the erythrocytic growth of P. falciparum was tested using in vitro assays. The results show that both post-s and post-e had no antimalarial activity on P. falciparum. No differential antimalarial effect...... acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) of 3.5 g/d and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) of 2.5 g/d and 24 mg/d of total tocopherol. Post-intake fish oil serum (post-s) and erythrocytes (post-e) were tested in vitro for inhibitory activity against blood stages of P. falciparum compared with pre-intake serum (pre...

  18. No effect of human serum and erythrocytes enriched in n-3 fatty acids by oral intake on Plasmodium falciparum bloodstage parasites in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abu-Zeid, Y.A.; Hansen, Harald S.; Jakobsen, P.H.

    1993-01-01

    -s) and pre-intake erythrocyte (pre-e). Also the effect of EPA and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) on the erythrocytic growth of P. falciparum was tested using in vitro assays. The results show that both post-s and post-e had no antimalarial activity on P. falciparum. No differential antimalarial effect...... acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) of 3.5g/d and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) of 2.5 g/d and 24 mg/d of total tocopherol. Post-intake fish oil serum (post-s) and erythrocytes (post-e) were tested in vitro for inhibitory activity against blood stages of P. falciparum compared with pre-intake serum (pre...

  19. The Potential for Snow to Supply Human Water Demand in the Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankin, Justin S.; Viviroli, Daniel; Singh, Deepti; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.; Diffenbaugh, Noah S.

    2015-01-01

    Runoff from snowmelt is regarded as a vital water source for people and ecosystems throughout the Northern Hemisphere (NH). Numerous studies point to the threat global warming poses to the timing and magnitude of snow accumulation and melt. But analyses focused on snow supply do not show where changes to snowmelt runoff are likely to present the most pressing adaptation challenges, given sub-annual patterns of human water consumption and water availability from rainfall. We identify the NH basins where present spring and summer snowmelt has the greatest potential to supply the human water demand that would otherwise be unmet by instantaneous rainfall runoff. Using a multi-model ensemble of climate change projections, we find that these basins - which together have a present population of approx. 2 billion people - are exposed to a 67% risk of decreased snow supply this coming century. Further, in the multi-model mean, 68 basins (with a present population of more than 300 million people) transition from having sufficient rainfall runoff to meet all present human water demand to having insufficient rainfall runoff. However, internal climate variability creates irreducible uncertainty in the projected future trends in snow resource potential, with about 90% of snow-sensitive basins showing potential for either increases or decreases over the near-term decades. Our results emphasize the importance of snow for fulfilling human water demand in many NH basins, and highlight the need to account for the full range of internal climate variability in developing robust climate risk management decisions.

  20. Rye bran bread intake elevates urinary excretion of ferulic acid in humans, but does not affect the susceptibility of LDL to oxidation ex vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, H.; Tetens, I.; Let, Mette Bruni

    2004-01-01

    Background Rye bread contributes an important part of the whole grain intake in the Scandinavian diet. Ferulic acid is the major phenolic compound in rye bran and is an antioxidant in vitro and may, therefore, contribute to cardioprotective effects of whole grain consumption. Aim of study Firstly...... had no influence on lag time or propagation rate of the LDL oxidation ex vivo. Conclusions The present study demonstrated that ferulic acid from rye bran is bioavailable and that the urinary concentration of ferulic acid reflects the dietary intake of this hydroxycinnamic acid. Within the period...

  1. In-Space Assembly Capability Assessment for Potential Human Exploration and Science Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, Sharon A.; Jones, Christopher A.; Arney, Dale C.; Stillwagen, Frederic H.; Chai, Patrick R.; Hutchinson, Craig D.; Stafford, Matthew A.; Moses, Robert W.; Dempsey, James A.; Rodgers, Erica M.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Human missions to Mars present several major challenges that must be overcome, including delivering multiple large mass and volume elements, keeping the crew safe and productive, meeting cost constraints, and ensuring a sustainable campaign. Traditional methods for executing human Mars missions minimize or eliminate in-space assembly, which provides a narrow range of options for addressing these challenges and limits the types of missions that can be performed. This paper discusses recent work to evaluate how the inclusion of in-space assembly in space mission architectural concepts could provide novel solutions to address these challenges by increasing operational flexibility, robustness, risk reduction, crew health and safety, and sustainability. A hierarchical framework is presented to characterize assembly strategies, assembly tasks, and the required capabilities to assemble mission systems in space. The framework is used to identify general mission system design considerations and assembly system characteristics by assembly strategy. These general approaches are then applied to identify potential in-space assembly applications to address each challenge. Through this process, several focus areas were identified where applications of in-space assembly could affect multiple challenges. Each focus area was developed to identify functions, potential assembly solutions and operations, key architectural trades, and potential considerations and implications of implementation. This paper helps to identify key areas to investigate were potentially significant gains in addressing the challenges with human missions to Mars may be realized, and creates a foundation on which to further develop and analyze in-space assembly concepts and assembly-based architectures.

  2. Dietary patterns and nutrient intakes of a South African population ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dietary patterns and nutrient intakes of a South African population and asymptomatic people infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus: The transition health and urbanisation in South Africa (Thusa) study.

  3. Well-Being With Soul: Science in Pursuit of Human Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryff, Carol D

    2018-03-01

    This essay examines core contributions of a model of psychological well-being that has had widespread scientific impact. It drew on distant formulations to identify new dimensions and measures for assessing what it means to be well. Key themes among the more than 750 studies using the model are sketched, followed by reflections about why there has been so much interest in this eudaimonic approach to well-being. A final section looks to the future, proposing new directions to illuminate the forces that work against the realization of human potential as well as those that nurture human flourishing and self-realization.

  4. Donor cell type can influence the epigenome and differentiation potential of human induced pluripotent stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kitai; Zhao, Rui; Doi, Akiko; Ng, Kitwa; Unternaehrer, Juli; Cahan, Patrick; Hongguang, Huo; Loh, Yuin-Han; Aryee, Martin J.; Lensch, M. William; Li, Hu; Collins, James J.; Feinberg, Andrew P.; Daley, George Q.

    2012-01-01

    We compared bona-fide human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) derived from umbilical cord blood (CB) and neonatal keratinocytes (K). As a consequence of both incomplete erasure of tissue-specific methylation and aberrant de novo methylation, CB-iPSC and K-iPSC are distinct in genome-wide DNA methylation profiles and differentiation potential. Extended passage of some iPSC clones in culture didn't improve their epigenetic resemblance to ESC, implying that some human iPSC retain a residual “epigenetic memory” of their tissue of origin. PMID:22119740

  5. Human exposure to non-ionizing radiation and potential adverse health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vulevic, B.; Maric, B.; Zivkovic, D.

    1999-01-01

    The problem of protection from the non-ionizing radiation has presented an actual subject in the last twenty years both worldwide and in our country. Great attention has been paid to this problem throughout the world and there is not almost a field of human activities that disregards the effect of non-ionizing radiation to the human health.The object of this work is to point concisely, on the basis of numerous domestic and foreign referential data, to the potential adverse health effects caused by uncontrolled exposure to non-ionizing radiation. (author)

  6. Pulsatile atheroprone shear stress affects the expression of transient receptor potential channels in human endothelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thilo, Florian; Vorderwülbecke, Bernd J; Marki, Alex

    2012-01-01

    in comparison with endothelial cells grown under static conditions. There was a significant association between the expression of TRPC6 and tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA in human vascular tissue. No-flow and atheroprone flow conditions are equally characterized by an increase in the expression of tumor necrosis......The goal of the study was to assess whether pulsatile atheroprone shear stress modulates the expression of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, TRPC3, TRPC6, TRPM7, and TRPV1 mRNA, in human umbilical vascular endothelial cells. Exposure of cultured vascular endothelial cells to defined...

  7. Glyphosate: environmental contamination, toxicity and potential risks to human health via food contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Shahla Hosseini; Ogbourne, Steven M

    2016-10-01

    Glyphosate has been the most widely used herbicide during the past three decades. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) classifies glyphosate as 'practically non-toxic and not an irritant' under the acute toxicity classification system. This classification is based primarily on toxicity data and due to its unique mode of action via a biochemical pathway that only exists in a small number of organisms that utilise the shikimic acid pathway to produce amino acids, most of which are green plants. This classification is supported by the majority of scientific literature on the toxic effects of glyphosate. However, in 2005, the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) reported that glyphosate and its major metabolite, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), are of potential toxicological concern, mainly as a result of accumulation of residues in the food chain. The FAO further states that the dietary risk of glyphosate and AMPA is unlikely if the maximum daily intake of 1 mg kg(-1) body weight (bw) is not exceeded. Research has now established that glyphosate can persist in the environment, and therefore, assessments of the health risks associated with glyphosate are more complicated than suggested by acute toxicity data that relate primarily to accidental high-rate exposure. We have used recent literature to assess the possible risks associated with the presence of glyphosate residues in food and the environment.

  8. Arsenic and lead in foods: a potential threat to human health in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Saiful; Ahmed, Md Kawser; Habibullah-Al-Mamun, Md; Islam, Kazi Nazrul; Ibrahim, Md; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2014-01-01

    The non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risk of arsenic and lead to adults and children via daily dietary intake of food composites in Bangladesh was estimated. The target hazard quotients (THQs), hazard index (HI) and target carcinogenic risk (TR) were calculated to evaluate the non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health risk from arsenic and lead. Most of the individual food composites contain a considerable amount of arsenic and lead. The highest mean concentrations of arsenic were found in cereals (0.254 mg kg⁻¹ fw) and vegetables (0.250 mg kg⁻¹ fw), and lead in vegetables (0.714 mg kg⁻¹ fw) and fish (0.326 mg kg⁻¹ fw). The results showed the highest THQs of arsenic in cereals and lead in vegetables for both adults and children which exceeded the safe limit (> 1) indicating that cereals and vegetables are the main food items contributing to the potential health risk. The estimated TR from ingesting dietary arsenic and lead from most of the foods exceeded 10⁻⁶, indicating carcinogenic risks for all adult people of the study area.

  9. In vitro cardiomyogenic potential of human umbilical vein-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadivar, Mehdi; Khatami, Shohreh; Mortazavi, Yousef; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Taghikhani, Mohammad; Soleimani, Masoud

    2006-01-01

    Cardiomyocyte loss in the ischemically injured human heart often leads to irreversible defects in cardiac function. Recently, cellular cardiomyoplasty with mesenchymal stem cells, which are multipotent cells with the ability to differentiate into specialized cells under appropriate stimuli, has emerged as a new approach for repairing damaged myocardium. In the present study, the potential of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells to differentiate into cells with characteristics of cardiomyocyte was investigated. Mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from endothelial/subendothelial layers of the human umbilical cords using a method similar to that of human umbilical vein endothelial cell isolation. Isolated cells were characterized by transdifferentiation ability to adipocytes and osteoblasts, and also with flow cytometry analysis. After treatment with 5-azacytidine, the human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells were morphologically transformed into cardiomyocyte-like cells and expressed cardiac differentiation markers. During the differentiation, cells were monitored by a phase contrast microscope and their morphological changes were demonstrated. Immunostaining of the differentiated cells for sarcomeric myosin (MF20), desmin, cardiac troponin I, and sarcomeric α-actinin was positive. RT-PCR analysis showed that these differentiated cells express cardiac-specific genes. Transmission electron microscopy revealed a cardiomyocyte-like ultrastructure and typical sarcomers. These observations confirm that human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells can be chemically transformed into cardiomyocytes and can be considered as a source of cells for cellular cardiomyoplasty

  10. Intrinsic interactive reinforcement learning - Using error-related potentials for real world human-robot interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Kyoung; Kirchner, Elsa Andrea; Stefes, Arne; Kirchner, Frank

    2017-12-14

    Reinforcement learning (RL) enables robots to learn its optimal behavioral strategy in dynamic environments based on feedback. Explicit human feedback during robot RL is advantageous, since an explicit reward function can be easily adapted. However, it is very demanding and tiresome for a human to continuously and explicitly generate feedback. Therefore, the development of implicit approaches is of high relevance. In this paper, we used an error-related potential (ErrP), an event-related activity in the human electroencephalogram (EEG), as an intrinsically generated implicit feedback (rewards) for RL. Initially we validated our approach with seven subjects in a simulated robot learning scenario. ErrPs were detected online in single trial with a balanced accuracy (bACC) of 91%, which was sufficient to learn to recognize gestures and the correct mapping between human gestures and robot actions in parallel. Finally, we validated our approach in a real robot scenario, in which seven subjects freely chose gestures and the real robot correctly learned the mapping between gestures and actions (ErrP detection (90% bACC)). In this paper, we demonstrated that intrinsically generated EEG-based human feedback in RL can successfully be used to implicitly improve gesture-based robot control during human-robot interaction. We call our approach intrinsic interactive RL.

  11. Robotic Reconnaissance Missions to Small Bodies and Their Potential Contributions to Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, P. A.; Rivkin, A. S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Robotic reconnaissance missions to small bodies will directly address aspects of NASA's Asteroid Initiative and will contribute to future human exploration. The NASA Asteroid Initiative is comprised of two major components: the Grand Challenge and the Asteroid Mission. The first component, the Grand Challenge, focuses on protecting Earth's population from asteroid impacts by detecting potentially hazardous objects with enough warning time to either prevent them from impacting the planet, or to implement civil defense procedures. The Asteroid Mission involves sending astronauts to study and sample a near- Earth asteroid (NEA) prior to conducting exploration missions of the Martian system, which includes Phobos and Deimos. The science and technical data obtained from robotic precursor missions that investigate the surface and interior physical characteristics of an object will help identify the pertinent physical properties that will maximize operational efficiency and reduce mission risk for both robotic assets and crew operating in close proximity to, or at the surface of, a small body. These data will help fill crucial strategic knowledge gaps (SKGs) concerning asteroid physical characteristics that are relevant for human exploration considerations at similar small body destinations. Small Body Strategic Knowledge Gaps: For the past several years NASA has been interested in identifying the key SKGs related to future human destinations. These SKGs highlight the various unknowns and/or data gaps of targets that the science and engineering communities would like to have filled in prior to committing crews to explore the Solar System. An action team from the Small Bodies Assessment Group (SBAG) was formed specifically to identify the small body SKGs under the direction of the Human Exploration and Operations Missions Directorate (HEOMD), given NASA's recent interest in NEAs and the Martian moons as potential human destinations [1]. The action team

  12. Does low-energy sweetener consumption affect energy intake and body weight? A systematic review, including meta-analyses, of the evidence from human and animal studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogers, P.J.; Hogenkamp, P.S.; Graaf, de Kees; Higgs, S.; Lluch, A.; Ness, A.R.; Penfold, C.; Perry, R.; Putz, P.; Yeomans, M.R.; Mela, D.J.

    2016-01-01

    By reducing energy density, low-energy sweeteners (LES) might be expected to reduce energy intake (EI) and body weight (BW). To assess the totality of the evidence testing the null hypothesis that LES exposure (versus sugars or unsweetened alternatives) has no effect on EI or BW, we conducted a

  13. Assessment of imidacloprid and acetamiprid residues in okra and eggplant grown in peri-urban areas and their dietary intake in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amjad, A.; Akhtar, S.; Randhawa, M.; Binyameen, M.

    2018-01-01

    This research work was designed to estimate the gradually increasing use of insecticides on vegetables to create awareness among the consumers regarding their insecticide residues. The main aim of this study is to highlight the harmful effects of insecticides in comparison with dietary intake assessment of vegetables. In this regard, total 180 (n = 60×3) samples of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) and eggplant (Solanum melongena) comprising of 30 samples vegetable were collected from the peri-urban farming system of Multan, Faisalabad and Gujranwala to assess insecticide residues along with their dietary intake assessment. The selected samples were quantified for the insecticide residues by using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) technique equipped with UV/Visible detector. Results revealed that imidacloprid residues found in eggplant (0.226 mg Kg-1) and okra (0.176 mg Kg-1) from Multan region were greater than the residues reported from Gujranwala and Faisalabad. Out of all analyzed samples for imidacloprid and acetamaprid residues, 58% and 65% samples contained detectable residues respectively. Whereas 10% and 15% samples exceeded their maximum residue limits (MRLs) established by European Commission. Dietary intake assessment for imidacloprid and acetamiprid was calculated as per their maximum permissible intake (MPI) values i.e. 3.84 and 4.48 mg person-1day-1, respectively, which revealed that although a reasonable proportion of samples exceeded MRLs but their consumption was found within safe limit. (author)

  14. Bisphenol A (BPA) in China: a review of sources, environmental levels, and potential human health impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y Q; Wong, C K C; Zheng, J S; Bouwman, H; Barra, R; Wahlström, B; Neretin, L; Wong, M H

    2012-07-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), identified as an endocrine disruptor, is an industrially important chemical that is used as a raw material in the manufacture of many products such as engineering plastics (e.g., epoxy resins/polycarbonate plastics), food cans (i.e., lacquer coatings), and dental composites/sealants. The demand and production capacity of BPA in China have grown rapidly. This trend will lead to much more BPA contamination in the environmental media and in the general population in China. This paper reviews the current literature concerning the pollution status of BPA in China (the mainland, Hong Kong, and Taiwan) and its potential impact on human health. Due to potential human health risks from long-term exposure to BPA, body burden of the contaminant should be monitored. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Psychiatry and human rights: a difficult relationship, but with a growing potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarab, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Persons with psychosocial disabilities (mental health problems) are under the protection of the new United Nations Convention on Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD). The CRPD brings a human rights-based approach to disability: it challenges paternalistic views by emphasizing the person as a rights-holder, an active subject, and not just a passive object of care. It also represents a challenge to mainstream human rights movements and mechanisms who have long paid insufficient attention to human rights of persons with (psychosocial) disabilities. It is increasingly understood that human rights of persons with psychosocial disabilities (mental health problems) should not be seen in the narrow perspective, as if the only issue was the most controversial one, that is, deprivation of liberty. In many areas, reform-minded psychiatrists have themselves initiated human rights-friendly reforms. For instance, efforts to implement article 19 of the CRPD—independent living and inclusion in the community—are increasingly becoming part of the mainstream in mental health care. There is potential for further synergy between mental health professionals and human rights activists in looking at the whole range of civil, political, economic, and social rights listed in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights—realizing that all these rights apply also to persons with psychosocial disabilities, and working together towards removing real-life obstacles to their enjoyment.The building of bridges between the two different types of expertise should be encouraged. In this regard, psychiatry would benefit from more cooperation across borders as well as with international human rights bodies, non-governmental organizations and persons with psychosocial disabilities themselves

  16. Maximum recovery potential of human tumor cells may predict clinical outcome in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weichselbaum, R.R.; Beckett, M.

    1987-01-01

    We studied inherent radiosensitivity/resistance (D0), ability to accumulate sublethal damage (n) and repair of potentially lethal damage (PLDR) in established human tumor cell lines as well as early passage human tumor cell lines derived from patients with known outcome following radiotherapy. Survival 24 hrs after treatment of human tumor cells with X rays in plateau phase cultures is a function of initial damage (D0, n), as well as recovery over 24 hrs (PLDR). A surviving fraction greater than .1 24 hrs following treatment with 7 Gy in plateau phase cultures is associated with tumor cell types (melanoma, osteosarcoma) with a high probability of radiotherapy failure or tumor cells derived from patients who actually failed radiotherapy. Therefore, total cellular recovery following radiation may be an important determinant of radiocurability. Accurate assays of radiotherapy outcome may need to account for all these radiobiological parameters

  17. Timing, timing, timing: Fast decoding of object information from intracranial field potentials in human visual cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hesheng; Agam, Yigal; Madsen, Joseph R.; Kreiman, Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    Summary The difficulty of visual recognition stems from the need to achieve high selectivity while maintaining robustness to object transformations within hundreds of milliseconds. Theories of visual recognition differ in whether the neuronal circuits invoke recurrent feedback connections or not. The timing of neurophysiological responses in visual cortex plays a key role in distinguishing between bottom-up and top-down theories. Here we quantified at millisecond resolution the amount of visual information conveyed by intracranial field potentials from 912 electrodes in 11 human subjects. We could decode object category information from human visual cortex in single trials as early as 100 ms post-stimulus. Decoding performance was robust to depth rotation and scale changes. The results suggest that physiological activity in the temporal lobe can account for key properties of visual recognition. The fast decoding in single trials is compatible with feed-forward theories and provides strong constraints for computational models of human vision. PMID:19409272

  18. Potential antitumor therapeutic strategies of human amniotic membrane and amniotic fluid-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, N-H; Hwang, K-A; Kim, S U; Kim, Y-B; Hyun, S-H; Jeung, E-B; Choi, K-C

    2012-08-01

    As stem cells are capable of self-renewal and can generate differentiated progenies for organ development, they are considered as potential source for regenerative medicine and tissue replacement after injury or disease. Along with this capacity, stem cells have the therapeutic potential for treating human diseases including cancers. According to the origins, stem cells are broadly classified into two types: embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and adult stem cells. In terms of differentiation potential, ESCs are pluripotent and adult stem cells are multipotent. Amnion, which is a membranous sac that contains the fetus and amniotic fluid and functions in protecting the developing embryo during gestation, is another stem cell source. Amnion-derived stem cells are classified as human amniotic membrane-derived epithelial stem cells, human amniotic membrane-derived mesenchymal stem cells and human amniotic fluid-derived stem cells. They are in an intermediate stage between pluripotent ESCs and lineage-restricted adult stem cells, non-tumorigenic, and contribute to low immunogenicity and anti-inflammation. Furthermore, they are easily available and do not cause any controversial issues in their recovery and applications. Not only are amnion-derived stem cells applicable in regenerative medicine, they have anticancer capacity. In non-engineered stem cells transplantation strategies, amnion-derived stem cells effectively target the tumor and suppressed the tumor growth by expressing cytotoxic cytokines. Additionally, they also have a potential as novel delivery vehicles transferring therapeutic genes to the cancer formation sites in gene-directed enzyme/prodrug combination therapy. Owing to their own advantageous properties, amnion-derived stem cells are emerging as a new candidate in anticancer therapy.

  19. The Impact of Employee Satisfaction on the Release of Human Creative Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Damjana Dragman

    2014-01-01

    Research Question (RQ): Does employee satisfaction in the workplace affect the release of human creative potential? Purpose: Based on interviews conducted in the context of a particular department, the purpose was to determine whether employee satisfaction affects creativity and efficiency of employees. Method: A qualitative method was used as the research method, where interviews were used to obtain data. Results: The results showed that employee satisfaction in the workplace str...

  20. Potential risks of nanotechnology to humans and environment: implications and response mechanisms in Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Musee, N

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available and Nanotechnology Summer School Pretoria, South Africa, 22nd NOV? 2nd DEC 2009 Potential risks of nanotechnology to humans and the environment: implications and response mechanisms in Africa Ndeke Musee, Lucky Sikhwivhilu, Nomakhwezi Nota, Lisa Schaefer... COVISET Conference, Johannesburg, South Africa, 22-25 Nov 2011? CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za Effect of SWCNT on Eschericia coli (a) SEM image of E. Coli incubated without SWCNTs for 60 min. [Source: Kang et al. / Langmuir 2007, 23...

  1. Using metabolomics to evaluate food intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manach, Claudine; Brennan, Lorraine; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2015-01-01

    Improving dietary assessment is essential for modern nutritional epidemiology. This chapter discusses the potential of metabolomics for the identification of new biomarkers of intake and presents the first candidate biomarkers discovered using this approach. It then describes the challenges...

  2. Ground-nesting marine birds and potential for human disturbance in Glacier Bay National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimitsu, Mayumi L.; Romano, Marc D.; Piatt, John F.; Piatt, John F.; Gende, S.M.

    2004-01-01

    Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve contains a diverse assemblage of marine birds that use the area for nesting, foraging and molting. The abundance and diversity of marine bird species in Glacier Bay is unmatched in the region, due in part to the geomorphic and successional characteristics that result in a wide array of habitat types (Robards and others, 2003). The opportunity for proactive management of these species is unique in Glacier Bay National Park because much of the suitable marine bird nesting habitat occurs in areas designated as wilderness. Ground-nesting marine birds are vulnerable to human disturbance wherever visitors can access nest sites during the breeding season. Human disturbance of nest sites can be significant because intense parental care is required for egg and hatchling survival, and repeated disturbance can result in reduced productivity (Leseberg and others, 2000). Temporary nest desertion by breeding birds in disturbed areas can lead to increased predation on eggs and hatchlings by conspecifics or other predators (Bolduc and Guillemette, 2003). Human disturbance of ground-nesting birds may also affect incubation time and adult foraging success, which in turn can alter breeding success (Verhulst and others, 2001). Furthermore, human activity can potentially cause colony failure when disturbance prevents the initiation of nesting (Hatch, 2002). There is management concern about the susceptibility of breeding birds to disturbance from human activities, but little historical data has been collected on the distribution of ground-nesting marine birds in Glacier Bay. This report summarizes results obtained during two years of a three-year study to determine the distribution of ground-nesting marine birds in Glacier Bay, and the potential for human disturbance of those nesting birds.

  3. The Food and Beverage Occurrence of Furfuryl Alcohol and Myrcene-Two Emerging Potential Human Carcinogens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okaru, Alex O; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2017-03-11

    For decades, compounds present in foods and beverages have been implicated in the etiology of human cancers. The World Health Organization (WHO) International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) continues to classify such agents regarding their potential carcinogenicity in humans based on new evidence from animal and human studies. Furfuryl alcohol and β-myrcene are potential human carcinogens due to be evaluated. The major source of furfuryl alcohol in foods is thermal processing and ageing of alcoholic beverages, while β-myrcene occurs naturally as a constituent of the essential oils of plants such as hops, lemongrass, and derived products. This study aimed to summarize the occurrence of furfuryl alcohol and β-myrcene in foods and beverages using literature review data. Additionally, results of furfuryl alcohol occurrence from our own nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis are included. The highest content of furfuryl alcohol was found in coffee beans (>100 mg/kg) and in some fish products (about 10 mg/kg), while among beverages, wines contained between 1 and 10 mg/L, with 8 mg/L in pineapple juice. The content of β-myrcene was highest in hops. In conclusion, the data about the occurrence of the two agents is currently judged as insufficient for exposure and risk assessment. The results of this study point out the food and beverage groups that may be considered for future monitoring of furfuryl alcohol and β-myrcene.

  4. The Food and Beverage Occurrence of Furfuryl Alcohol and Myrcene—Two Emerging Potential Human Carcinogens?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex O. Okaru

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available For decades, compounds present in foods and beverages have been implicated in the etiology of human cancers. The World Health Organization (WHO International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC continues to classify such agents regarding their potential carcinogenicity in humans based on new evidence from animal and human studies. Furfuryl alcohol and β-myrcene are potential human carcinogens due to be evaluated. The major source of furfuryl alcohol in foods is thermal processing and ageing of alcoholic beverages, while β-myrcene occurs naturally as a constituent of the essential oils of plants such as hops, lemongrass, and derived products. This study aimed to summarize the occurrence of furfuryl alcohol and β-myrcene in foods and beverages using literature review data. Additionally, results of furfuryl alcohol occurrence from our own nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR analysis are included. The highest content of furfuryl alcohol was found in coffee beans (>100 mg/kg and in some fish products (about 10 mg/kg, while among beverages, wines contained between 1 and 10 mg/L, with 8 mg/L in pineapple juice. The content of β-myrcene was highest in hops. In conclusion, the data about the occurrence of the two agents is currently judged as insufficient for exposure and risk assessment. The results of this study point out the food and beverage groups that may be considered for future monitoring of furfuryl alcohol and β-myrcene.

  5. Evolution of the clonogenic potential of human epidermal stem/progenitor cells with age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zobiri O

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Olivia Zobiri, Nathalie Deshayes, Michelle Rathman-JosserandDepartment of Biological Research, L'Oréal Advanced Research, Clichy Cedex, FranceAbstract: A number of clinical observations have indicated that the regenerative potential and overall function of the epidermis is modified with age. The epidermis becomes thinner, repairs itself less efficiently after wounding, and presents modified barrier function recovery. In addition, the dermal papillae flatten out with increasing age, suggesting a modification in the interaction between epidermal and dermal compartments. As the epidermal regenerative capacity is dependent upon stem and progenitor cell function, it is naturally of interest to identify and understand age-related changes in these particular keratinocyte populations. Previous studies have indicated that the number of stem cells does not decrease with age in mouse models but little solid evidence is currently available concerning human skin. The objective of this study was to evaluate the clonogenic potential of keratinocyte populations isolated from the epidermis of over 50 human donors ranging from 18 to 71 years old. The data indicate that the number of epidermal cells presenting high regenerative potential does not dramatically decline with age in human skin. The authors believe that changes in the microenvironment controlling epidermal basal cell activity are more likely to explain the differences in epidermal function observed with increasing age.Keywords: skin, epidermal stem cells, aging, colony-forming efficiency test

  6. Function-blocking antibodies to human vascular adhesion protein-1: a potential anti-inflammatory therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirton, Christopher M; Laukkanen, Marja-Leena; Nieminen, Antti; Merinen, Marika; Stolen, Craig M; Armour, Kathryn; Smith, David J; Salmi, Marko; Jalkanen, Sirpa; Clark, Michael R

    2005-11-01

    Human vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) is a homodimeric 170-kDa sialoglycoprotein that is expressed on the surface of endothelial cells and functions as a semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase and as an adhesion molecule. Blockade of VAP-1 has been shown to reduce leukocyte adhesion and transmigration in in vivo and in vitro models, suggesting that VAP-1 is a potential target for anti-inflammatory therapy. In this study we have constructed mouse-human chimeric antibodies by genetic engineering in order to circumvent the potential problems involved in using murine antibodies in man. Our chimeric anti-VAP-1 antibodies, which were designed to lack Fc-dependent effector functions, bound specifically to cell surface-expressed recombinant human VAP-1 and recognized VAP-1 in different cell types in tonsil. Furthermore, the chimeric antibodies prevented leukocyte adhesion and transmigration in vitro and in vivo. Hence, these chimeric antibodies have the potential to be used as a new anti-inflammatory therapy.

  7. Measurements of daily urinary uranium excretion in German peacekeeping personnel and residents of the Kosovo region to assess potential intakes of depleted uranium (DU)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oeh, U.; Priest, N.D.; Roth, P.; Ragnarsdottir, K.V.; Li, W.B.; Hoellriegl, V.; Thirlwall, M.F.; Michalke, B.; Giussani, A.; Schramel, P.; Paretzke, H.G.

    2007-01-01

    Following the end of the Kosovo conflict, in June 1999, a study was instigated to evaluate whether there was a cause for concern of health risk from depleted uranium (DU) to German peacekeeping personnel serving in the Balkans. In addition, the investigations were extended to residents of Kosovo and southern Serbia, who lived in areas where DU ammunitions were deployed. In order to assess a possible DU intake, both the urinary uranium excretion of volunteer residents and water samples were collected and analysed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). More than 1300 urine samples from peacekeeping personnel and unexposed controls of different genders and age were analysed to determine uranium excretion parameters. The urine measurements for 113 unexposed subjects revealed a daily uranium excretion rate with a geometric mean of 13.9 ng/d (geometric standard deviation (GSD) = 2.17). The analysis of 1228 urine samples from the peacekeeping personnel resulted in a geometric mean of 12.8 ng/d (GSD = 2.60). It follows that both unexposed controls and peacekeeping personnel excreted similar amounts of uranium. Inter-subject variation in uranium excretion was high and no significant age-specific differences were found. The second part of the study monitored 24 h urine samples provided by selected residents of Kosovo and adjacent regions of Serbia compared to controls from Munich, Germany. Total uranium and isotope ratios were measured in order to determine DU content. 235 U/ 238 U ratios were within ± 0.3% of the natural value, and 236 U/ 238 U was less than 2 x 10 -7 , indicating no significant DU in any of the urine samples provided, despite total uranium excretion being relatively high in some cases. Measurements of ground and tap water samples from regions where DU munitions were deployed did not show any contamination with DU, except in one sample. It is concluded that both peacekeeping personnel and residents serving or living in the Balkans

  8. A potential pro-anagogic cell therapy with human placenta-derived mesenchymal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishishita, Toshihide; Ouchi, Kunie; Zhang, Xiaohong; Inoue, Mariko; Inazawa, Takeshi; Yoshiura, Kenta; Kuwabara, Koichiro; Nakaoka, Takashi; Watanabe, Nobukazu; Igura, Koichi; Takahashi, Tsuneo A.; Yamashita, Naohide

    2004-01-01

    Recently several strategies to treat ischemic diseases have been proposed but the ideal way has to be determined. We explored whether human placenta-derived mesenchymal cells (hPDMCs) can be used for this purpose because placenta is very rich in vessels. First, production of human vascular endothelial growth factor (hVEGF) from hPDMCs was examined. The amount of hVEGF secreted by hPDMCs was similar to the amount produced by HeLa cells. hVEGF was barely detected in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (hUVECs) or human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. hVEGF secreted from hPDMCs stimulated the proliferation of hUVECs, indicating its biological activity. Transplantation of hPDMCs to the ischemic limbs of NOD/Shi-scid mice significantly improved the blood flow of the affected limbs. Blood vessel formation was more prominently observed in the limbs of treated mice as compared to the control mice. Real-time RT-PCR revealed that hPDMCs produced hVEGF for at least 7 days after transplantation. Thus, transplantation of hPDMCs could potentially be a promising treatment for human ischemic diseases

  9. The potential application of a transcriptionally regulated oncolytic herpes simplex virus for human cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, L; Fraefel, C; Sia, K C; Newman, J P; Mohamed-Bashir, S A; Ng, W H; Lam, P Y P

    2014-01-01

    Background: Emerging studies have shown the potential benefit of arming oncolytic viruses with therapeutic genes. However, most of these therapeutic genes are placed under the regulation of ubiquitous viral promoters. Our goal is to generate a safer yet potent oncolytic herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) for cancer therapy. Methods: Using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) recombineering, a cell cycle-regulatable luciferase transgene cassette was replaced with the infected cell protein 6 (ICP6) coding region (encoded for UL39 or large subunit of ribonucleotide reductase) of the HSV-1 genome. These recombinant viruses, YE-PC8, were further tested for its proliferation-dependent luciferase gene expression. Results: The ability of YE-PC8 to confer proliferation-dependent transgene expression was demonstrated by injecting similar amount of viruses into the tumour-bearing region of the brain and the contralateral normal brain parenchyma of the same mouse. The results showed enhanced levels of luciferase activities in the tumour region but not in the normal brain parenchyma. Similar findings were observed in YE-PC8-infected short-term human brain patient-derived glioma cells compared with normal human astrocytes. intratumoural injection of YE-PC8 viruses resulted in 77% and 80% of tumour regression in human glioma and human hepatocellular carcinoma xenografts, respectively. Conclusion: YE-PC8 viruses confer tumour selectivity in proliferating cells and may be developed further as a feasible approach to treat human cancers. PMID:24196790

  10. Inhibitory effects of xylitol on gastric emptying and food intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafer, R.B.; Levine, A.S.; Marlette, J.M.; Morley, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    The authors have previously shown, using a 99m-Tc scrambled egg meal, that pentose sugars (i.e. xylose and arabinose) markedly prolong gastric emptying. Others have reported that slowing of gastric emptying may decrease appetite and thus decrease food intake. In the present study, the authors utilized the effects of xylitol (an FDA-approved pentose sugar) on gastric emptying to study the correlation between gastric emptying and food intake. Initially, gastric emptying was measured in human volunteers utilizing a standardized 99m-Tc-scrambled egg meal washed with 50 cc tap water. Results demonstrated a significant reduction in food intake (892 +- 65 kcal with water vs 654 +- 26 kcal following the ingestion of 25 gm xylitol (p<0.05). We conclude that the effect of pentose sugars in prolonging gastric emptying directly influences food intake and contributes to early satiety. The data suggest a role of xylitol as an essentially non-caloric food additive potentially important in diet control

  11. Global deposition of fallout radionuclides and their dietary intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morisawa, Shinsuke

    1993-01-01

    Japanese foods depend largely on foreign countries and domestic food supply now is no more than 30 percents if feedstuffs for live-stocks are included. Therefore not only ecological/natural but also social, e.g., human activities related, transportation of fallout radionuclides are to be taken into accounts for estimation of baseline internal irradiation dose and health risks of Japanese peoples through dietary intake of radionuclides. In this study, mathematical model is developed and examined for practical application on estimating Japanese dietary intake level of fallout strontium-90, which is accumulated in various kinds of foodstuffs and is transported to Japan associated with worldwide trades of foods, under appropriate limitations such that direct deposition on plants and seafood intake pathways are not evaluated. Deposition of strontium-90 onto the surface soil was simulated using the model, the compartment model described by a set ordinary differential equations, and the estimates were examined by comparing them with the observed data colleted and complied by the global scale environmental monitoring networks. Sensitivity analysis is also practised to find possible reduction of dietary intake of fallout radionuclides and the related potential health risks. (author)

  12. Inhibitory effects of xylitol on gastric emptying and food intake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafer, R.B.; Levine, A.S.; Marlette, J.M.; Morley, J.E.

    1985-05-01

    The authors have previously shown, using a 99m-Tc scrambled egg meal, that pentose sugars (i.e. xylose and arabinose) markedly prolong gastric emptying. Others have reported that slowing of gastric emptying may decrease appetite and thus decrease food intake. In the present study, the authors utilized the effects of xylitol (an FDA-approved pentose sugar) on gastric emptying to study the correlation between gastric emptying and food intake. Initially, gastric emptying was measured in human volunteers utilizing a standardized 99m-Tc-scrambled egg meal washed with 50 cc tap water. Results demonstrated a significant reduction in food intake (892 +- 65 kcal with water vs 654 +- 26 kcal following the ingestion of 25 gm xylitol (p<0.05). We conclude that the effect of pentose sugars in prolonging gastric emptying directly influences food intake and contributes to early satiety. The data suggest a role of xylitol as an essentially non-caloric food additive potentially important in diet control.

  13. Potential human pathogenic bacteria in a mixed urban watershed as revealed by pyrosequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Mark Ibekwe

    Full Text Available Current microbial source tracking (MST methods for water depend on testing for fecal indicator bacterial counts or specific marker gene sequences to identify fecal contamination where potential human pathogenic bacteria could be present. In this study, we applied 454 high-throughput pyrosequencing to identify bacterial pathogen DNA sequences, including those not traditionally monitored by MST and correlated their abundances to specific sources of contamination such as urban runoff and agricultural runoff from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs, recreation park area, waste-water treatment plants, and natural sites with little or no human activities. Samples for pyrosequencing were surface water, and sediment collected from 19 sites. A total of 12,959 16S rRNA gene sequences with average length of ≤400 bp were obtained, and were assigned to corresponding taxonomic ranks using ribosomal database project (RDP, Classifier and Greengenes databases. The percent of total potential pathogens were highest in urban runoff water (7.94%, agricultural runoff sediment (6.52%, and Prado Park sediment (6.00%, respectively. Although the numbers of DNA sequence tags from pyrosequencing were very high for the natural site, corresponding percent potential pathogens were very low (3.78-4.08%. Most of the potential pathogenic bacterial sequences identified were from three major phyla, namely, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes. The use of deep sequencing may provide improved and faster methods for the identification of pathogen sources in most watersheds so that better risk assessment methods may be developed to enhance public health.

  14. Dynamics of host-reservoir transmission of Ebola with spillover potential to humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berge Tsanou

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus disease (EVD is a zoonotic borne disease (i.e. disease that is spread from animals to people. Therefore human beings can be infected through direct contact with an infected animal (fruit-eating bat or great ape. It has been demonstrated that fruit-eating bats of pteropodidae family are potential reservoir of EVD. Moreover, it has been biologically shown that fruit-eating bats do not die due to EVD and bear the Ebola viruses lifelong. We develop in this paper, a mathematical model to assess the impact of the reservoir on the dynamics of EVD. Our model couples a bat-to-bat model with a human-to-human model and the indirect environmental contamination through a spillover process (i.e. process by which a zoonotic pathogen moves (regardless of transmission mode from an animal host (or environmental reservoir to a human host from bats to humans. The sub-models and the coupled models exhibit each a threshold behavior with the corresponding basic reproduction numbers being the bifurcation parameters. Existence of equilibria, their global stability are established by combining monotone operator theory, Lyapunov-LaSalle techniques and graph theory. Control strategies are assessed by using the target reproduction numbers. The efforts required to control EVD are assessed as well through S-control. The spillover event is shown to be highly detrimental to EVD by allowing the disease to switch from bats to humans even though the disease was not initially endemic in the human population. Precisely, we show that the spillover phenomenon contributes to speed up the disease outbreak. This suggests that the manipulation and consumption of fruit-bats play an important role in sustaining EVD in a given environment.

  15. Habitual dietary fibre intake influences gut microbiota response to an inulin-type fructan prebiotic: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over, human intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Genelle; Murphy, Rinki; Butts, Christine; Brough, Louise; Whelan, Kevin; Coad, Jane

    2018-01-01

    Dysbiotic gut microbiota have been implicated in human disease. Diet-based therapeutic strategies have been used to manipulate the gut microbiota towards a more favourable profile. However, it has been demonstrated that large inter-individual variability exists in gut microbiota response to a dietary intervention. The primary objective of this study was to investigate whether habitually low dietary fibre (LDF) v. high dietary fibre (HDF) intakes influence gut microbiota response to an inulin-type fructan prebiotic. In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, thirty-four healthy participants were classified as LDF or HDF consumers. Gut microbiota composition (16S rRNA bacterial gene sequencing) and SCFA concentrations were assessed following 3 weeks of daily prebiotic supplementation (Orafti® Synergy 1; 16 g/d) or placebo (Glucidex® 29 Premium; 16 g/d), as well as after 3 weeks of the alternative intervention, following a 3-week washout period. In the LDF group, the prebiotic intervention led to an increase in Bifidobacterium (P=0·001). In the HDF group, the prebiotic intervention led to an increase in Bifidobacterium (Pgut microbiota response and are therefore more likely to benefit from an inulin-type fructan prebiotic than those with LDF intakes. Future studies aiming to modulate the gut microbiota and improve host health, using an inulin-type fructan prebiotic, should take habitual dietary fibre intake into account.

  16. Reduced Dietary Sodium Intake Increases Heart Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels A; Hubeck-Graudal, Thorbjørn; Jürgens, Gesche

    2016-01-01

    Reduced dietary sodium intake (sodium reduction) increases heart rate in some studies of animals and humans. As heart rate is independently associated with the development of heart failure and increased risk of premature death a potential increase in heart rate could be a harmful side......-effect of sodium reduction. The purpose of the present meta-analysis was to investigate the effect of sodium reduction on heart rate. Relevant studies were retrieved from an updated pool of 176 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in the period 1973-2014. Sixty-three of the RCTs including 72 study...... populations reported data on heart rate. In a meta-analysis of these data sodium reduction increased heart rate with 1.65 beats per minute [95% CI: 1.19, 2.11], p heart rate. This effect was independent of baseline blood pressure. In conclusion sodium reduction...

  17. Stable Isotope Technique to Assess Intake of Human Milk in Breastfed Infants; Técnica de isótopos estables para determinar la ingesta de leche materna en lactantes amamantados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-08-15

    This publication was developed by an international group of experts as an integral part of the IAEA’s efforts to contribute to the transfer of technology and knowledge in nutrition. Its aim is to assist Member States in their efforts to combat malnutrition by facilitating the use of relevant nuclear techniques. The stable (non-radioactive) isotope technique has been developed to assess intake of human milk in breastfed infants. The practical application of the stable isotope technique, based on analysis of deuterium by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), is presented in this book.

  18. What's the risk? Identifying potential human pathogens within grey-headed flying foxes faeces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebekah Henry

    Full Text Available Pteropus poliocephalus (grey-headed flying foxes are recognised vectors for a range of potentially fatal human pathogens. However, to date research has primarily focused on viral disease carriage, overlooking bacterial pathogens, which also represent a significant human disease risk. The current study applied 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, community analysis and a multi-tiered database OTU picking approach to identify faecal-derived zoonotic bacteria within two colonies of P. poliocephalus from Victoria, Australia. Our data show that sequences associated with Enterobacteriaceae (62.8% ± 24.7%, Pasteurellaceae (19.9% ± 25.7% and Moraxellaceae (9.4% ± 11.8% dominate flying fox faeces. Further colony specific differences in bacterial faecal colonisation patterns were also identified. In total, 34 potential pathogens, representing 15 genera, were identified. However, species level definition was only possible for Clostridium perfringens, which likely represents a low infectious risk due to the low proportion observed within the faeces and high infectious dose required for transmission. In contrast, sequences associated with other pathogenic species clusters such as Haemophilus haemolyticus-H. influenzae and Salmonella bongori-S. enterica, were present at high proportions in the faeces, and due to their relatively low infectious doses and modes of transmissions, represent a greater potential human disease risk. These analyses of the microbial community composition of Pteropus poliocephalus have significantly advanced our understanding of the potential bacterial disease risk associated with flying foxes and should direct future epidemiological and quantitative microbial risk assessments to further define the health risks presented by these animals.

  19. Potential Environmental and Human Health Impacts of Rechargeable Lithium Batteries in Electronic Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Daniel Hsing Po; Chen, Mengjun; Ogunseitan, Oladele A.

    2013-01-01

    Rechargeable lithium-ion (Li-ion) and lithium-polymer (Li-poly) batteries have recently become dominant in consumer electronic products because of advantages associated with energy density and product longevity. However, the small size of these batteries, the high rate of disposal of consumer products in which they are used, and the lack of uniform regulatory policy on their disposal means that lithium batteries may contribute substantially to environmental pollution and adverse human health impacts due to potentially toxic materials. In this research, we used standardized leaching tests, life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA), and hazard assessment models to evaluate hazardous waste classification, resource depletion potential, and toxicity potentials of lithium batteries used in cellphones. Our results demonstrate that according to U.S. federal regulations, defunct Li-ion batteries are classified hazardous due to their lead (Pb) content (average 6.29 mg/L; σ = 11.1; limit 5). However, according to California regulations, all lithium batteries tested are classified hazardous due to excessive levels of cobalt (average 163 544 mg/kg; σ = 62 897; limit 8000), copper (average 98 694 mg/kg; σ = 28 734; limit 2500), and nickel (average 9525 mg/kg; σ = 11 438; limit 2000). In some of the Li-ion batteries, the leached concentrations of chromium, lead, and thallium exceeded the California regulation limits. The environmental impact associated with resource depletion and human toxicity is mainly associated with cobalt, copper, nickel, thallium, and silver, whereas the ecotoxicity potential is primarily associated with cobalt, copper, nickel, thallium, and silver. However, the relative contribution of aluminum and lithium to human toxicity and ecotoxicity could not be estimated due to insufficient toxicity data in the models. These findings support the need for stronger government policy at the local, national, and international levels to encourage recovery, recycling, and

  20. Pleasant and unpleasant odors influence hedonic evaluations of human faces: an event-related potential study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Jane Cook

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Odors can alter hedonic evaluations of human faces, but the neural mechanisms of such effects are poorly understood. The present study aimed to analyze the neural underpinning of odor-induced changes in evaluations of human faces in an odor-priming paradigm, using event-related potentials (ERPs. Healthy, young participants (N = 20 rated neutral faces presented after a three second pulse of a pleasant odor (jasmine, unpleasant odor (methylmercaptan, or no-odor control (clean air. Neutral faces presented in the pleasant odor condition were rated more pleasant than the same faces presented in the no-odor control condition, which in turn were rated more pleasant than faces in the unpleasant odor condition. Analysis of face-related potentials revealed four clusters of electrodes significantly affected by odor condition at specific time points during long-latency epochs (600−950 ms. In the 620−640 ms interval, two scalp-time clusters showed greater negative potential in the right parietal electrodes in response to faces in the pleasant odor condition, compared to those in the no-odor and unpleasant odor conditions. At 926 ms, face-related potentials showed greater positivity in response to faces in the pleasant and unpleasant odor conditions at the left and right lateral frontal-temporal electrodes, respectively. Our data shows that odor-induced shifts in evaluations of faces were associated with amplitude changes in the late (> 600 and ultra-late (> 900 ms latency epochs. The observed amplitude changes during the ultra-late epoch are consistent with a left/right hemisphere bias towards pleasant/unpleasant odor effects. Odors alter evaluations of human faces, even when there is a temporal lag between presentation of odors and faces. Our results provide an initial understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying effects of odors on hedonic evaluations.

  1. Plasma biomarker of dietary phytosterol intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaobo; Racette, Susan B; Ma, Lina; Wallendorf, Michael; Spearie, Catherine Anderson; Ostlund, Richard E

    2015-01-01

    Dietary phytosterols, plant sterols structurally similar to cholesterol, reduce intestinal cholesterol absorption and have many other potentially beneficial biological effects in humans. Due to limited information on phytosterol levels in foods, however, it is difficult to quantify habitual dietary phytosterol intake (DPI). Therefore, we sought to identify a plasma biomarker of DPI. Data were analyzed from two feeding studies with a total of 38 subjects during 94 dietary periods. DPI was carefully controlled at low, intermediate, and high levels. Plasma levels of phytosterols and cholesterol metabolites were assessed at the end of each diet period. Based on simple ordinary least squares regression analysis, the best biomarker for DPI was the ratio of plasma campesterol to the endogenous cholesterol metabolite 5-α-cholestanol (R2 = 0.785, P 0.600; P phytosterol intake. Conversely, plasma phytosterol levels alone are not ideal biomarkers of DPI because they are confounded by large inter-individual variation in absorption and turnover of non-cholesterol sterols. Further work is needed to assess the relation between non-cholesterol sterol metabolism and associated cholesterol transport in the genesis of coronary heart disease.

  2. Plasma biomarker of dietary phytosterol intake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobo Lin

    Full Text Available Dietary phytosterols, plant sterols structurally similar to cholesterol, reduce intestinal cholesterol absorption and have many other potentially beneficial biological effects in humans. Due to limited information on phytosterol levels in foods, however, it is difficult to quantify habitual dietary phytosterol intake (DPI. Therefore, we sought to identify a plasma biomarker of DPI.Data were analyzed from two feeding studies with a total of 38 subjects during 94 dietary periods. DPI was carefully controlled at low, intermediate, and high levels. Plasma levels of phytosterols and cholesterol metabolites were assessed at the end of each diet period. Based on simple ordinary least squares regression analysis, the best biomarker for DPI was the ratio of plasma campesterol to the endogenous cholesterol metabolite 5-α-cholestanol (R2 = 0.785, P 0.600; P < 0.01.The ratio of plasma campesterol to the coordinately regulated endogenous cholesterol metabolite 5-α-cholestanol is a biomarker of dietary phytosterol intake. Conversely, plasma phytosterol levels alone are not ideal biomarkers of DPI because they are confounded by large inter-individual variation in absorption and turnover of non-cholesterol sterols. Further work is needed to assess the relation between non-cholesterol sterol metabolism and associated cholesterol transport in the genesis of coronary heart disease.

  3. Melatonin: Action as antioxidant and potential applications in human disease and aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnefont-Rousselot, Dominique; Collin, Fabrice

    2010-01-01

    This review aims at describing the beneficial properties of melatonin related to its antioxidant effects. Oxidative stress, i.e., an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species and antioxidant defences, is involved in several pathological conditions such as cardiovascular or neurological disease, and in aging. Therefore, research for antioxidants has developed. However, classical antioxidants often failed to exhibit beneficial effects, especially in metabolic diseases. Melatonin has been shown as a specific antioxidant due to its amphiphilic feature that allows it to cross physiological barriers, thereby reducing oxidative damage in both lipid and aqueous cell environments. Studies on the antioxidant action of melatonin are reported, with a special mention to water gamma radiolysis as a method to produce oxygen-derived free radicals, and on structure-activity relationships of melatonin derivatives. Mass spectrometry-based techniques have been developed to identify melatonin oxidation products. Besides its ability to scavenge several radical species, melatonin regulates the activity of antioxidant enzymes (indirect antioxidant properties). Efficient detection methods confirmed the presence of melatonin in several plant products. Therapeutic potential of melatonin relies either on increasing melatonin dietary intake or on supplementation with supraphysiological dosages. Clinical trials showed that melatonin could be efficient in preventing cell damage, as well under acute (sepsis, asphyxia in newborns) as under chronic (metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, inflammation, aging). Its global action on oxidative stress, together with its rhythmicity that plays a role in several metabolic functions, lead melatonin to be of great interest for future clinical research in order to improve public health.

  4. Strategies to distinguish new synthetic cannabinoid FUBIMINA (BIM-2201) intake from its isomer THJ-2201: metabolism of FUBIMINA in human hepatocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Diao, Xingxing; Scheidweiler, Karl B.; Wohlfarth, Ariane; Zhu, Mingshe; Pang, Shaokun; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2016-01-01

    Since 2013, a new drugs-of-abuse trend attempts to bypass drug legislation by marketing isomers of scheduled synthetic cannabinoids (SCs), e.g., FUBIMINA (BIM-2201) and THJ-2201. It is much more challenging to confirm a specific isomer?s intake and distinguish it from its structural analog because the isomers and their major metabolites usually have identical molecular weights and display the same product ions. Here, we investigated isomers FUBIMINA and THJ-2201 and propose strategies to dist...

  5. Potential risk factors associated with human alveolar echinococcosis: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conraths, Franz J; Probst, Carolina; Possenti, Alessia; Boufana, Belgees; Saulle, Rosella; La Torre, Giuseppe; Busani, Luca; Casulli, Adriano

    2017-07-01

    Human alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is a severe zoonotic disease caused by the metacestode stage of Echinococcus multilocularis. AE is commonly associated with a long incubation period that may last for more than ten years. The objective of this systematic literature review was to identify and summarize the current knowledge on statistically relevant potential risk factors (PRFs) associated with AE in humans. Six bibliographic databases were searched, generating a total of 1,009 publications. Following the removal of duplicate records and the exclusion of papers that failed to meet the criteria of a previously agreed a priori protocol, 23 publications were retained; however, 6 of these did not contain data in a format that allowed their inclusion in the meta-analysis. The remaining 17 publications (6 case-control and 11 cross-sectional studies) were meta-analysed to investigate associations between AE and PRFs. Pooled odds ratios (OR) were used as a measure of effect and separately analysed for case-control and cross-sectional studies. In the case-control studies, the following PRFs for human AE showed higher odds of outcome: "dog ownership", "cat ownership", "have a kitchen garden", "occupation: farmer", "haymaking in meadows not adjacent to water", "went to forests for vocational reasons", "chewed grass" and "hunting / handling foxes". In the cross-sectional studies, the following PRFs showed higher odds of outcome: "dog ownership", "play with dogs", "gender: female", "age over 20 years", "ethnic group: Tibetan", "low income", "source of drinking water other than well or tap", "occupation: herding" and "low education". Our meta-analysis confirmed that the chance of AE transmission through ingestion of food and water contaminated with E. multilocularis eggs exists, but showed also that food- and water-borne PRFs do not significantly increase the risk of infection. This systematic review analysed international peer-reviewed articles that have over the years

  6. Potential risk factors associated with human alveolar echinococcosis: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz J Conraths

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Human alveolar echinococcosis (AE is a severe zoonotic disease caused by the metacestode stage of Echinococcus multilocularis. AE is commonly associated with a long incubation period that may last for more than ten years. The objective of this systematic literature review was to identify and summarize the current knowledge on statistically relevant potential risk factors (PRFs associated with AE in humans.Six bibliographic databases were searched, generating a total of 1,009 publications. Following the removal of duplicate records and the exclusion of papers that failed to meet the criteria of a previously agreed a priori protocol, 23 publications were retained; however, 6 of these did not contain data in a format that allowed their inclusion in the meta-analysis. The remaining 17 publications (6 case-control and 11 cross-sectional studies were meta-analysed to investigate associations between AE and PRFs. Pooled odds ratios (OR were used as a measure of effect and separately analysed for case-control and cross-sectional studies. In the case-control studies, the following PRFs for human AE showed higher odds of outcome: "dog ownership", "cat ownership", "have a kitchen garden", "occupation: farmer", "haymaking in meadows not adjacent to water", "went to forests for vocational reasons", "chewed grass" and "hunting / handling foxes". In the cross-sectional studies, the following PRFs showed higher odds of outcome: "dog ownership", "play with dogs", "gender: female", "age over 20 years", "ethnic group: Tibetan", "low income", "source of drinking water other than well or tap", "occupation: herding" and "low education". Our meta-analysis confirmed that the chance of AE transmission through ingestion of food and water contaminated with E. multilocularis eggs exists, but showed also that food- and water-borne PRFs do not significantly increase the risk of infection.This systematic review analysed international peer-reviewed articles that have over the

  7. Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Basic Research to Potential Clinical Applications in Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa de Souza Fernandez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs are derived from a direct reprogramming of human somatic cells to a pluripotent stage through ectopic expression of specific transcription factors. These cells have two important properties, which are the self-renewal capacity and the ability to differentiate into any cell type of the human body. So, the discovery of hiPSCs opens new opportunities in biomedical sciences, since these cells may be useful for understanding the mechanisms of diseases in the production of new diseases models, in drug development/drug toxicity tests, gene therapies, and cell replacement therapies. However, the hiPSCs technology has limitations including the potential for the development of genetic and epigenetic abnormalities leading to tumorigenicity. Nowadays, basic research in the hiPSCs field has made progress in the application of new strategies with the aim to enable an efficient production of high-quality of hiPSCs for safety and efficacy, necessary to the future application for clinical practice. In this review, we show the recent advances in hiPSCs’ basic research and some potential clinical applications focusing on cancer. We also present the importance of the use of statistical methods to evaluate the possible validation for the hiPSCs for future therapeutic use toward personalized cell therapies.

  8. Electrophysiological properties of computational human ventricular cell action potential models under acute ischemic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Sara; Mincholé, Ana; Quinn, T Alexander; Rodriguez, Blanca

    2017-10-01

    Acute myocardial ischemia is one of the main causes of sudden cardiac death. The mechanisms have been investigated primarily in experimental and computational studies using different animal species, but human studies remain scarce. In this study, we assess the ability of four human ventricular action potential models (ten Tusscher and Panfilov, 2006; Grandi et al., 2010; Carro et al., 2011; O'Hara et al., 2011) to simulate key electrophysiological consequences of acute myocardial ischemia in single cell and tissue simulations. We specifically focus on evaluating the effect of extracellular potassium concentration and activation of the ATP-sensitive inward-rectifying potassium current on action potential duration, post-repolarization refractoriness, and conduction velocity, as the most critical factors in determining reentry vulnerability during ischemia. Our results show that the Grandi and O'Hara models required modifications to reproduce expected ischemic changes, specifically modifying the intracellular potassium concentration in the Grandi model and the sodium current in the O'Hara model. With these modifications, the four human ventricular cell AP models analyzed in this study reproduce the electrophysiological alterations in repolarization, refractoriness, and conduction velocity caused by acute myocardial ischemia. However, quantitative differences are observed between the models and overall, the ten Tusscher and modified O'Hara models show closest agreement to experimental data. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Calibration of gamma cameras for the evaluation of accidental intakes of high-energy photon emitting radionuclides by humans based on urine samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degenhardt, A.L.; Lucena, E.A.; Reis, A.A. dos; Souza, W.O.; Dantas, A.L.A.; Dantas, B.M., E-mail: bmdantas@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Dosimetria

    2017-07-01

    The prompt response to emergency situations involving suspicion of intakes of radionuclides requires the use of simple and rapid methods of internal monitoring of the exposed individuals. The use of gamma cameras to estimate intakes and committed doses was investigated by the Centers for Disease Control and Preventions (CDC) of the USA in 2010.The present study aims to develop a calibration protocol for gamma cameras to be applied on internal monitoring based on urine samples to evaluate the incorporation of high-energy photon emitting radionuclides in emergency situations. A gamma camera available in a public hospital located in the city of Rio de Janeiro was calibrated using a standard liquid source of {sup 152}Eu supplied by the LNMRI of the IRD.'Efficiency vs Energy' curves at 10 and 30 cm were obtained. Calibration factors, Minimum Detectable Activities and Minimum Detectable Effective Doses of the gamma camera were calculated for {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co. The gamma camera evaluated in this work presents enough sensitivity to detect activities of such radionuclides at dose levels suitable to assess suspected accidental intakes. (author)

  10. Assessing the Biohazard Potential of Putative Martian Organisms for Exploration Class Human Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmflash, David; Larios-Sanz, Maia; Jones, Jeffrey; Fox, George E.; McKay, David S.

    2007-01-01

    Exploration Class missions to Mars will require precautions against potential contamination by any native microorganisms that may be incidentally pathogenic to humans. While the results of NASA's Viking biology experiments of 1976 have been generally interpreted as inconclusive for surface organisms, the possibility of native surface life has never been ruled out and more recent studies suggest that the case for biological interpretation of the Viking Labeled Release data may now be stronger than it was when the experiments were originally conducted. It is possible that, prior to the first human landing on Mars, robotic craft and sample return missions will provide enough data to know with certainty whether or not future human landing sites harbor extant life forms. However, if native life is confirmed, it will be problematic to determine whether any of its species may present a medical risk to astronauts. Therefore, it will become necessary to assess empirically the risk that the planet contains pathogens based on terrestrial examples of pathogenicity and to take a reasonably cautious approach to bio-hazard protection. A survey of terrestrial pathogens was conducted with special emphasis on those pathogens whose evolution has not depended on the presence of animal hosts. The history of the development and implementation of Apollo anticontamination protocol and recent recommendations of the NRC Space Studies Board regarding Mars were reviewed. Organisms can emerge in nature in the absence of indigenous animal hosts and both infectious and non-infectious human pathogens are theoretically possible on Mars. The prospect of Martian surface life, together with the existence of a diversity of routes by which pathogenicity has emerged on Earth, suggests that the possibility of human pathogens on Mars, while low, is not zero. Since the discovery and study of Martian life can have long-term benefits for humanity, the risk that Martian life might include pathogens should not

  11. Inter-subject variability in human atrial action potential in sinus rhythm versus chronic atrial fibrillation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Sánchez

    Full Text Available Human atrial electrophysiology exhibits high inter-subject variability in both sinus rhythm (SR and chronic atrial fibrillation (cAF patients. Variability is however rarely investigated in experimental and theoretical electrophysiological studies, thus hampering the understanding of its underlying causes but also its implications in explaining differences in the response to disease and treatment. In our study, we aim at investigating the ability of populations of human atrial cell models to capture the inter-subject variability in action potential (AP recorded in 363 patients both under SR and cAF conditions.Human AP recordings in atrial trabeculae (n = 469 from SR and cAF patients were used to calibrate populations of computational SR and cAF atrial AP models. Three populations of over 2000 sampled models were generated, based on three different human atrial AP models. Experimental calibration selected populations of AP models yielding AP with morphology and duration in range with experimental recordings. Populations using the three original models can mimic variability in experimental AP in both SR and cAF, with median conductance values in SR for most ionic currents deviating less than 30% from their original peak values. All cAF populations show similar variations in G(K1, G(Kur and G(to, consistent with AF-related remodeling as reported in experiments. In all SR and cAF model populations, inter-subject variability in I(K1 and I(NaK underlies variability in APD90, variability in I(Kur, I(CaL and I(NaK modulates variability in APD50 and combined variability in Ito and I(Kur determines variability in APD20. The large variability in human atrial AP triangulation is mostly determined by I(K1 and either I(NaK or I(NaCa depending on the model.Experimentally-calibrated human atrial AP models populations mimic AP variability in SR and cAF patient recordings, and identify potential ionic determinants of inter-subject variability in human atrial AP

  12. Survival of Potentially Pathogenic Human-Associated Bacteria in the Rhizosphere of Hydroponically Grown Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Anabelle; Garland, Jay L.; Lim, Daniel V.

    1996-01-01

    Plants may serve as reservoirs for human-associated bacteria (H-AB) in long-term space missions containing bioregenerative life support systems. The current study examined the abilities of five human-associated potential pathogens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas cepacia, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Escherichia coli, to colonize and grow in the rhizosphere of hydroponically grown wheat, a candidate crop for life support. All of these bacteria have been recovered from past NASA missions and present potential problems for future missions. The abilities of these organisms to adhere to the roots of axenic five-day-old wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Yecora rojo) were evaluated by enumeration of the attached organisms after a one hour incubation of roots in a suspension (approximately 10(exp 8 cu/ml)) of the H-AB. Results showed that a greater percentage of P. aeruginosa cells adhered to the wheat roots than the other four H-AB. Similarly incubated seedlings were also grown under attempted axenic conditions for seven days to examine the potential of each organism to proliferate in the rhizosphere (root colonization capacity). P. cepacia and P. aeruginosa showed considerable growth. E. coli and S. aureus showed no significant growth, and S. pyogenes died off in the wheat rhizosphere. Studies examining the effects of competition on the survival of these microorganisms indicated that P. aeruginosa was the only organism that survived in the rhizosphere of hydroponically grown wheat in the presence of different levels of microbial competition.

  13. Automated grouping of action potentials of human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorospe, Giann; Zhu, Renjun; Millrod, Michal A; Zambidis, Elias T; Tung, Leslie; Vidal, Rene

    2014-09-01

    Methods for obtaining cardiomyocytes from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are improving at a significant rate. However, the characterization of these cardiomyocytes (CMs) is evolving at a relatively slower rate. In particular, there is still uncertainty in classifying the phenotype (ventricular-like, atrial-like, nodal-like, etc.) of an hESC-derived cardiomyocyte (hESC-CM). While previous studies identified the phenotype of a CM based on electrophysiological features of its action potential, the criteria for classification were typically subjective and differed across studies. In this paper, we use techniques from signal processing and machine learning to develop an automated approach to discriminate the electrophysiological differences between hESC-CMs. Specifically, we propose a spectral grouping-based algorithm to separate a population of CMs into distinct groups based on the similarity of their action potential shapes. We applied this method to a dataset of optical maps of cardiac cell clusters dissected from human embryoid bodies. While some of the nine cell clusters in the dataset are presented with just one phenotype, the majority of the cell clusters are presented with multiple phenotypes. The proposed algorithm is generally applicable to other action potential datasets and could prove useful in investigating the purification of specific types of CMs from an electrophysiological perspective.

  14. Improving the Therapeutic Potential of Human Granzyme B for Targeted Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Melmer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional cancer treatments lack specificity and often cause severe side effects. Targeted therapeutic approaches are therefore preferred, including the use of immunotoxins (ITs that comprise cell-binding and cell death-inducing components to allow the direct and specific delivery of pro-apoptotic agents into malignant cells. The first generation of ITs consisted of toxins derived from bacteria or plants, making them immunogenic in humans. The recent development of human cytolytic fusion proteins (hCFP consisting of human effector enzymes offers the prospect of highly-effective targeted therapies with minimal side effects. One of the most promising candidates is granzyme B (GrB and this enzyme has already demonstrated its potential for targeted cancer therapy. However, the clinical application of GrB may be limited because it is inactivated by the overexpression in tumors of its specific inhibitor serpin B9 (PI-9. It is also highly charged, which means it can bind non-specifically to the surface of non-target cells. Furthermore, human enzymes generally lack an endogenous translocation domain, thus the endosomal release of GrB following receptor-mediated endocytosis can be inefficient. In this review we provide a detailed overview of these challenges and introduce promising solutions to increase the cytotoxic potency of GrB for clinical applications.

  15. Small heat shock proteins potentiate amyloid dissolution by protein disaggregases from yeast and humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin L Duennwald

    Full Text Available How small heat shock proteins (sHsps might empower proteostasis networks to control beneficial prions or disassemble pathological amyloid is unknown. Here, we establish that yeast sHsps, Hsp26 and Hsp42, inhibit prionogenesis by the [PSI+] prion protein, Sup35, via distinct and synergistic mechanisms. Hsp42 prevents conformational rearrangements within molten oligomers that enable de novo prionogenesis and collaborates with Hsp70 to attenuate self-templating. By contrast, Hsp26 inhibits self-templating upon binding assembled prions. sHsp binding destabilizes Sup35 prions and promotes their disaggregation by Hsp104, Hsp70, and Hsp40. In yeast, Hsp26 or Hsp42 overexpression prevents [PSI+] induction, cures [PSI+], and potentiates [PSI+]-curing by Hsp104 overexpression. In vitro, sHsps enhance Hsp104-catalyzed disaggregation of pathological amyloid forms of α-synuclein and polyglutamine. Unexpectedly, in the absence of Hsp104, sHsps promote an unprecedented, gradual depolymerization of Sup35 prions by Hsp110, Hsp70, and Hsp40. This unanticipated amyloid-depolymerase activity is conserved from yeast to humans, which lack Hsp104 orthologues. A human sHsp, HspB5, stimulates depolymerization of α-synuclein amyloid by human Hsp110, Hsp70, and Hsp40. Thus, we elucidate a heretofore-unrecognized human amyloid-depolymerase system that could have applications in various neurodegenerative disorders.

  16. PBDE levels in human milk: the situation in Germany and potential influencing factors - a controlled study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieth, B.; Mielke, H.; Ostermann, B.; Ruediger, T. [Federal Inst. for Risk Assessment, Berlin (Germany); Herrmann, T.; Paepke, O. [ERGO Forschungsgesellschaft mbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    An exponential increase of PBDE levels in breast milk from Sweden between 1972 and 1997 has been reported, which is in contrast to the continuous decline of other chlorinated POPs in breast milk. Also in blood samples from Germany, an increasing trend has been observed during the period from 1985 to 1999. The knowledge about human exposure pathways, which contribute to the PBDE body burden, is very limited. Consumption of food of animal origin, inhalation or ingestion of dust and further factors possibly influencing the PBDE levels in human matrices, like age, breast-feeding or smoking are under discussion. Only a few data on PBDE levels in breast milk from Germany have been published. To fill the data gaps, a controlled study was started in 2001 to characterise the PBDE levels in human milk from Germany with special efforts to identify and quantify deca-BDE-209. Furthermore, it was intended to verify potential factors possibly influencing PBDE levels. Two main hypotheses were proposed: (1) Are PBDE levels in breast milk from mothers consuming traditional food (omnivores) higher than those found in breast milk from mothers consuming vegetarian or vegan food? and (2) Are the PBDE levels found in human milk after a three-months period of breast-feeding lower than those detected at the beginning or does breast feeding result in a lower body burden, respectively? This paper summarises preliminary results. Further analytical data and results of data evaluation will be presented at the conference.

  17. The natural antibody repertoire of sharks and humans recognizes the potential universe of antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, Miranda K; Schluter, Samuel F; Marchalonis, John J

    2004-02-01

    In ancestral sharks, a rapid emergence in the evolution of the immune system occurred, giving jawed-vertebrates the necessary components for the combinatorial immune response (CIR). To compare the natural antibody (NAb) repertoires of the most divergent vertebrates with the capacity to produce antibodies, we isolated NAbs to the same set of antigens by affinity chromatography from two species of Carcharhine sharks and from human polyclonal IgG and IgM antibody preparations. The activities of the affinity-purified anti-T-cell receptor (anti-TCR) NAbs were compared with those of monoclonal anti-TCR NAbs that were generated from a systemic lupus erythematosus patient. We report that sharks and humans, representing the evolutionary extremes of vertebrate species sharing the CIR, have NAbs to human TCRs, Igs, the human senescent cell antigen, and to numerous retroviral antigens, indicating that essential features of the combinatorial repertoire and the capacity to recognize the potential universe of antigens is shared among all jawed-vertebrates.

  18. Potential Therapeutic Roles of Tanshinone IIA in Human Bladder Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Chun Chiu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tanshinone IIA (Tan-IIA, one of the major lipophilic components isolated from the root of Salviae Miltiorrhizae, has been found to exhibit anticancer activity in various cancer cells. We have demonstrated that Tan-IIA induces apoptosis in several human cancer cells through caspase- and mitochondria-dependent pathways. Here we explored the anticancer effect of Tan-IIA in human bladder cancer cell lines. Our results showed that Tan-IIA caused bladder cancer cell death in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Tan-IIA induced apoptosis through the mitochondria-dependent pathway in these bladder cancer cells. Tan-IIA also suppressed the migration of bladder cancer cells as revealed by the wound healing and transwell assays. Finally, combination therapy of Tan-IIA with a lower dose of cisplatin successfully killed bladder cancer cells, suggesting that Tan-IIA can serve as a potential anti-cancer agent in bladder cancer.

  19. Chemopreventive Potential of Flavonoids in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Human Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Maria Varoni

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Evidence available from nutritional epidemiology has indicated an inverse association between regular consumption of fruits and vegetables and the risk of developing certain types of cancer. In turn, preclinical studies have attributed the health-promoting effects of plant foods to some groups of phytochemicals, by virtue of their many biological activities. In this survey, we briefly examine the chemopreventive potential of flavonoids and flavonoid-rich foods in human oral carcinogenesis. Despite the paucity of data from clinical trials and epidemiological studies, in comparison to in vitro/in vivo investigations, a high level of evidence has been reported for epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG and anthocyanins. These flavonoids, abundant in green tea and black raspberries, respectively, represent promising chemopreventive agents in human oral cancer.

  20. Differential proteomics of human seminal plasma: A potential target for searching male infertility marker proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomar, Anil Kumar; Sooch, Balwinder Singh; Singh, Sarman; Yadav, Savita

    2012-04-01

    The clinical fertility tests, available in the market, fail to define the exact cause of male infertility in almost half of the cases and point toward a crucial need of developing better ways of infertility investigations. The protein biomarkers may help us toward better understanding of unknown cases of male infertility that, in turn, can guide us to find better therapeutic solutions. Many clinical attempts have been made to identify biomarkers of male infertility in sperm proteome but only few studies have targeted seminal plasma. Human seminal plasma is a rich source of proteins that are essentially required for development of sperm and successful fertilization. This viewpoint article highlights the importance of human seminal plasma proteome in reproductive physiology and suggests that differential proteomics integrated with functional analysis may help us in searching potential biomarkers of male infertility. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Human-elephant conflict in western Thailand: Socio-economic drivers and potential mitigation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteson, Kevin

    2018-01-01

    Understanding human-wildlife conflict is an important first step in the conservation of highly endangered species that can have adverse effects on human communities, such as elephants. To gain insights into variables that shape attitudes toward elephant conservation in Asia, we surveyed 410 households and 46 plantation owners in seven villages around the Salakpra Wildlife Sanctuary in western Thailand, an area of high human-elephant conflict. We sought to evaluate how past experiences with elephants (positive or negative), as well as socio-economic variables (age, income level, gender, and employment type) affect attitudes toward elephant conservation and coexistence in this area. In addition, we quantified deterrence methods currently used and identify potential mitigation strategies supported by community members. In general, less supportive attitudes toward elephant conservation and coexistence were held by individuals older than 35 years of age, those who had previously had experienced negative interactions with elephants, those with lower incomes, and those working in the agricultural sector. Conversely, those who had received benefits from living near elephants (e.g., supplemental income or feelings of pride from hosting volunteers or participating in conservation work) had more supportive views of elephant coexistence. Plantation owners reported using a variety of deterrence methods with varying success, with firecrackers being the most commonly utilized method. Community members identified several potentially beneficial mitigation strategies including forest restorations and patrol teams, adding water sources to wild elephant habitat, and education of local school and community groups. Overall, our results highlight the value of community members receiving benefits from living near elephants and suggest that special incentives may be needed for demographic groups disproportionately affected by elephants (e.g. those at lower income levels, those working in

  2. Thermoreceptive innervation of human glabrous and hairy skin: a contact heat evoked potential analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granovsky, Yelena; Matre, Dagfinn; Sokolik, Alexander; Lorenz, Jürgen; Casey, Kenneth L

    2005-06-01

    The human palm has a lower heat detection threshold and a higher heat pain threshold than hairy skin. Neurophysiological studies of monkeys suggest that glabrous skin has fewer low threshold heat nociceptors (AMH type 2) than hairy skin. Accordingly, we used a temperature-controlled contact heat evoked potential (CHEP) stimulator to excite selectively heat receptors with C fibers or Adelta-innervated AMH type 2 receptors in humans. On the dorsal hand, 51 degrees C stimulation produced painful pinprick sensations and 41 degrees C stimuli evoked warmth. On the glabrous thenar, 41 degrees C stimulation produced mild warmth and 51 degrees C evoked strong but painless heat sensations. We used CHEP responses to estimate the conduction velocities (CV) of peripheral fibers mediating these sensations. On hairy skin, 41 degrees C stimuli evoked an ultra-late potential (mean, SD; N wave latency: 455 (118) ms) mediated by C fibers (CV by regression analysis: 1.28 m/s, N=15) whereas 51 degrees C stimuli evoked a late potential (N latency: 267 (33) ms) mediated by Adelta afferents (CV by within-subject analysis: 12.9 m/s, N=6). In contrast, thenar responses to 41 and 51 degrees C were mediated by C fibers (average N wave latencies 485 (100) and 433 (73) ms, respectively; CVs 0.95-1.35 m/s by regression analysis, N=15; average CV=1.7 (0.41) m/s calculated from distal glabrous and proximal hairy skin stimulation, N=6). The exploratory range of the human and monkey palm is enhanced by the abundance of low threshold, C-innervated heat receptors and the paucity of low threshold AMH type 2 heat nociceptors.

  3. A matter of identity — Phenotype and differentiation potential of human somatic stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.E.P. New

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Human somatic stem cells with neural differentiation potential can be valuable for developing cell-based therapies, including treatment of birth-related defects, while avoiding issues associated with cell reprogramming. Precisely defining the “identity” and differentiation potential of somatic stem cells from different sources, has proven difficult, given differences in sets of specific markers, protocols used and lack of side-by-side characterization of these cells in different studies. Therefore, we set to compare expression of mesenchymal and neural markers in human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs, pediatric adipose-derived stem cells (p-ADSCs in parallel with human neural stem cells (NSCs. We show that UC-MSCs at a basal level express mesenchymal and so-called “neural” markers, similar to that we previously reported for the p-ADSCs. All somatic stem cell populations studied, independently from tissue and patient of origin, displayed a remarkably similar expression of surface markers, with the main difference being the restricted expression of CD133 and CD34 to NSCs. Expression of certain surface and neural markers was affected by the expansion medium used. As predicted, UC-MSCs and p-ADSCs demonstrated tri-mesenchymal lineage differentiation potential, though p-ADSCs display superior chondrogenic differentiation capability. UC-MSCs and p-ADSCs responded also to neurogenic induction by up-regulating neuronal markers, but crucially they appeared morphologically immature when compared with differentiated NSCs. This highlights the need for further investigation into the use of these cells for neural therapies. Crucially, this study demonstrates the lack of simple means to distinguish between different cell types and the effect of culture conditions on their phenotype, and indicates that a more extensive set of markers should be used for somatic stem cell characterization, especially when developing therapeutic

  4. Age-associated variation in sensory perception of iron in drinking water and the potential for overexposure in the human population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirlohi, Susan; Dietrich, Andrea M; Duncan, Susan E

    2011-08-01

    Humans interact with their environment through the five senses, but little is known about population variability in the ability to assess contaminants. Sensory thresholds and biochemical indicators of metallic flavor perception in humans were evaluated for ferrous (Fe(2+)) iron in drinking water; subjects aged 19-84 years participated. Metallic flavor thresholds for individuals and subpopulations based on age were determined. Oral lipid oxidation and oral pH were measured in saliva as potential biochemical indicators. Individual thresholds were 0.007-14.14 mg/L Fe(2+) and the overall population threshold was 0.17 mg/L Fe(2+) in reagent water. Average thresholds for individuals younger and older than 50 years of age (grouped by the daily recommended nutritional guidelines for iron intake) were significantly different (p = 0.013); the population thresholds for each group were 0.045 mg/L Fe(2+) and 0.498 mg/L Fe(2+), respectively. Many subjects >50 and a few subjects <50 years were insensitive to metallic flavor. There was no correlation between age, oral lipid oxidation, and oral pH. Standardized olfactory assessment found poor sensitivity for Fe(2+) corresponded with conditions of mild, moderate, and total anosmia. The findings demonstrate an age-dependent sensitivity to iron indicating as people age they are less sensitive to metallic perception.

  5. Phthalate esters contamination in soils and vegetables of plastic film greenhouses of suburb Nanjing, China and the potential human health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ting Ting; Wu, Long Hua; Chen, Like; Zhang, Hai Bo; Teng, Ying; Luo, Yong Ming

    2015-08-01

    The contamination of phthalate esters (PAEs) has become a potential threat to the environment and human health because they could be easily released as plasticizers from the daily supply products, especially in polyethylene films. Concentration levels of total six PAEs, nominated as priority pollutants by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), were investigated in soils and vegetables from four greenhouse areas in suburbs of Nanjing, East China. Total PAEs concentration ranged from 930 ± 840 to 2,450 ± 710 μg kg(-1) (dry weight (DW)) in soil and from 790 ± 630 to 3,010 ± 2,130 μg kg(-1) in vegetables. Higher concentrations of PAEs were found in soils except in Suo Shi (SS) area and in vegetables, especially in potherb mustard and purple tsai-tai samples. Risk assessment mainly based on the exposures of soil ingestion and daily vegetable intake indicated that bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in the samples from Gu Li (GL) and Hu Shu (HS) exhibited the highest hazard to children less than 6-year old. Therefore, the human health risk of the PAEs contamination in soils and vegetables should greatly be of a concern, especially for their environmental estrogen analog effects.

  6. Educating restaurant owners and cooks to lower their own sodium intake is a potential strategy for reducing the sodium contents of restaurant foods: a small-scale pilot study in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sohyun; Lee, Heeseung; Seo, Dong-Il; Oh, Kwang-Hwan; Hwang, Taik Gun; Choi, Bo Youl

    2016-12-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of a sodium reduction program at local restaurants through nutrition education and examination of the health of restaurant owners and cooks. The study was a single-arm pilot intervention using a pre-post design in one business district with densely populated restaurants in Seoul, South Korea. The intervention focused on improving nutrition behaviors and psychosocial factors through education, health examination, and counseling of restaurant personnel. Forty-eight restaurant owners and cooks completed the baseline survey and participated in the intervention. Forty participants completed the post-intervention survey. The overweight and obesity prevalences were 25.6% and 39.5%, respectively, and 74.4% of participants had elevated blood pressure. After health examination, counseling, and nutrition education, several nutrition behaviors related to sodium intake showed improvement. In addition, those who consumed less salt in their baseline diet (measured with urine dipsticks) were more likely to agree that providing healthy foods to their customers is necessary. This study demonstrated the potential to reduce the sodium contents of restaurant foods by improving restaurant owners' and cooks' psychological factors and their own health behaviors. This small pilot study demonstrated that working with restaurant owners and cooks to improve their own health and sodium intake may have an effect on participation in restaurant-based sodium reduction initiatives. Future intervention studies with a larger sample size and comparison group can focus on improving the health and perceptions of restaurant personnel in order to increase the feasibility and efficacy of restaurant-based sodium reduction programs and policies.

  7. Radiological protection in two types of human activities and from potential exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Deping

    1991-01-01

    The new ICPR recommendations emphasize the distinction in radiological protection in two different types of human activities, practice and intervention. The purpose of emphases and measures for controlling or reduction of exposure for each type of activity are discussed. Potential exposure is regarded as an part of radiological protection system in this new recommendations, in a practice, it can be significantly reduced by proper prevention and mitigation measures in design and management. It is pointed out that with modern safety technology, the probability of potential exposure situations can be lowered to many orders of magnitude, even though the estimated value of probability is not accurate. Situations requiring intervention and the principles in protection are also discussed

  8. 78 FR 20672 - Literature Review Approach “Identifying Research Needs for Assessing Safe Use of High Intakes of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Literature Review Approach... Needs for Assessing Safe Use of High Intakes of Folic Acid,'' for review of the pertinent literature... folate and folic acid, screening of the literature was undertaken to identify the potential adverse...

  9. Robotic Missions to Small Bodies and Their Potential Contributions to Human Exploration and Planetary Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Paul A.; Rivkin, Andrew S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Robotic missions to small bodies will directly address aspects of NASA's Asteroid Initiative and will contribute to future human exploration and planetary defense. The NASA Asteroid Initiative is comprised of two major components: the Grand Challenge and the Asteroid Mission. The first component, the Grand Challenge, focuses on protecting Earth's population from asteroid impacts by detecting potentially hazardous objects with enough warning time to either prevent them from impacting the planet, or to implement civil defense procedures. The Asteroid Mission involves sending astronauts to study and sample a near-Earth asteroid (NEA) prior to conducting exploration missions of the Martian system, which includes Phobos and Deimos. The science and technical data obtained from robotic precursor missions that investigate the surface and interior physical characteristics of an object will help identify the pertinent physical properties that will maximize operational efficiency and reduce mission risk for both robotic assets and crew operating in close proximity to, or at the surface of, a small body. These data will help fill crucial strategic knowledge gaps (SKGs) concerning asteroid physical characteristics that are relevant for human exploration considerations at similar small body destinations. These data can also be applied for gaining an understanding of pertinent small body physical characteristics that would also be beneficial for formulating future impact mitigation procedures. Small Body Strategic Knowledge Gaps: For the past several years NASA has been interested in identifying the key SKGs related to future human destinations. These SKGs highlight the various unknowns and/or data gaps of targets that the science and engineering communities would like to have filled in prior to committing crews to explore the Solar System. An action team from the Small Bodies Assessment Group (SBAG) was formed specifically to identify the small body SKGs under the

  10. Cadmium dietary intake in the Canary Islands, Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio, C.; Hardisson, A.; Reguera, J.I.; Revert, C.; Lafuente, M.A.; Gonzalez-Iglesias, T.

    2006-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) in the human diet constitutes a potential chronic hazard to health. In the nonsmoking general population, diet is the major source of cadmium exposure; therefore, it is important to monitor the dietary intake of this heavy metal to quantify and improve the understanding of Cd accumulation in the human body. The purpose of this study was to determine the levels of Cd in a range of food and drink commonly consumed in the Canary Islands. Food samples (420) were analyzed for Cd by atomic absorption spectrometry. The most recent nutritional survey conducted for the Canarian population was used to define the food and drink groups analyzed. The measured Cd concentrations combined with the food consumption data resulted in a total Cd intake in the Canary Islands of 0.16 μg/kg of body weight/day, which is well below the respective provisional tolerable weekly intake of Cd of 1 μg/kg of body weight per day determined by the FAO/WHO. The results are also compared with values reported for other national and international communities

  11. Effect of food intake and co-administration of placebo self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems on the absorption of cinnarizine in healthy human volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Martin Lau; Holm, Rene; Abrahamsson, Bertil; Jacobsen, Jette; Kristensen, Jakob; Andersen, Jens Rikardt; Müllertz, Anette

    2016-03-10

    Positive food effects may be observed for low aqueous soluble compounds, these effects could potentially be circumvented using lipid based formulations. However, as all compounds are not chemically stable in lipid based systems, alternative dosage regimes could be investigated to evade the stability issue. The two aims for this present study were therefore; i) to investigate if a nutritional drink, Fresubin Energy®, could induce food effect in humans for the poorly soluble compound cinnarizine; and ii) to investigate if co-administration of a self-nano-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) with a conventional cinnarizine tablet could reduce the observed food-effect. A commercial conventional cinnarizine tablet was dosed to 10 healthy volunteers in a cross-over design in both fasted and fed state, with and without co-administration of a SNEDDS, with a one week wash-out period between dosing. The fed state was induced using a nutritional drink (Fresubin Energy®) and gastric emptying was assessed by administration of paracetamol as a marker. The pharmacokinetic analysis showed that the nutritional drink delayed the uptake and increased the fraction of absorbed cinnarizine, indicative of a food effect on the compound. This was in agreement with a previous dog study and indicates that the nutritional drink can be used for inducing the same level of food effect in humans. Though not statistically significant, the co-administration of SNEDDS exhibited a tendency towards a reduction of the observed food effect and an increased absorption of cinnarizine in the fasted state; based upon the individual ratios, which was not reflected in the mean data. However, the co-administration of SNEEDS in the fasted state, also induce a slower gastric emptying rate, which was observed as a delayed tmax for both cinnarizine and paracetamol. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Isolation and Multiple Differentiation Potential Assessment of Human Gingival Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Gao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to isolate human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs from the gingiva (GMSCs and confirm their multiple differentiation potentials, including the odontogenic lineage. GMSCs, periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs and dermal stem cells (DSCs cultures were analyzed for cell shape, cell cycle, colony-forming unit-fibroblast (CFU-F and stem cell markers. Cells were then induced for osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation and analyzed for differentiation markers (alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity, mineralization nodule formation and Runx2, ALP, osteocalcin (OCN and collagen I expressions for the osteogenic differentiation, and lipid vacuole formation and PPARγ-2 expression for the adipogenic differentiation. Besides, the odontogenic differentiation potential of GMSCs induced with embryonic tooth germ cell-conditioned medium (ETGC-CM was observed. GMSCs, PDLSCs and DSCs were all stromal origin. PDLSCs showed much higher osteogenic differentiation ability but lower adipogenic differentiation potential than DSCs. GMSCs showed the medial osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation potentials between those of PDLSCs and DSCs. GMSCs were capable of expressing the odontogenic genes after ETGC-CM induction. This study provides evidence that GMSCs can be used in tissue engineering/regeneration protocols as an approachable stem cell source.

  13. Regorafenib Induces Apoptosis and Inhibits Metastatic Potential of Human Bladder Carcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Fei-Ting; Sun, Cho-Chin; Wu, Chia-Hsing; Lee, Yen-Ju; Chiang, Chih-Hung; Wang, Wei-Shu

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to verify the effects of regorafenib on apoptosis and metastatic potential in TSGH 8301 human bladder carcinoma cells in vitro. Cells were treated with different concentration of regorafenib for different periods of time. Effects of regorafenib on cell viability, apoptosis pathways, metastatic potential, and expression of metastatic and anti-apoptotic proteins were evaluated with the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) assay, flow cytometry, cell migration and invasion assay, and western blotting. We found regorafenib significantly reduced cell viability, cell migration and invasion, and expression of metastatic and anti-apoptotic proteins. In addition, regorafenib significantly induced accumulation of sub-G 1 phase cells, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and expression of active caspase-3 and caspase-8. These results show that regorafenib not only induces apoptosis, but also inhibits metastatic potential in bladder cancer TSGH 8301 cells in vitro. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  14. The Impact of Biopsy on Human Embryo Developmental Potential during Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Cimadomo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis and Screening (PGD/PGS for monogenic diseases and/or numerical/structural chromosomal abnormalities is a tool for embryo testing aimed at identifying nonaffected and/or euploid embryos in a cohort produced during an IVF cycle. A critical aspect of this technology is the potential detrimental effect that the biopsy itself can have upon the embryo. Different embryo biopsy strategies have been proposed. Cleavage stage blastomere biopsy still represents the most commonly used method in Europe nowadays, although this approach has been shown to have a negative impact on embryo viability and implantation potential. Polar body biopsy has been proposed as an alternative to embryo biopsy especially for aneuploidy testing. However, to date no sufficiently powered study has clarified the impact of this procedure on embryo reproductive competence. Blastocyst stage biopsy represents nowadays the safest approach not to impact embryo implantation potential. For this reason, as well as for the evidences of a higher consistency of the molecular analysis when performed on trophectoderm cells, blastocyst biopsy implementation is gradually increasing worldwide. The aim of this review is to present the evidences published to date on the impact of the biopsy at different stages of preimplantation development upon human embryos reproductive potential.

  15. Fast detection of unexpected sound intensity decrements as revealed by human evoked potentials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike Althen

    Full Text Available The detection of deviant sounds is a crucial function of the auditory system and is reflected by the automatically elicited mismatch negativity (MMN, an auditory evoked potential at 100 to 250 ms from stimulus onset. It has recently been shown that rarely occurring frequency and location deviants in an oddball paradigm trigger a more negative response than standard sounds at very early latencies in the middle latency response of the human auditory evoked potential. This fast and early ability of the auditory system is corroborated by the finding of neurons in the animal auditory cortex and subcortical structures, which restore their adapted responsiveness to standard sounds, when a rare change in a sound feature occurs. In this study, we investigated whether the detection of intensity deviants is also reflected at shorter latencies than those of the MMN. Auditory evoked potentials in response to click sounds were analyzed regarding the auditory brain stem response, the middle latency response (MLR and the MMN. Rare stimuli with a lower intensity level than standard stimuli elicited (in addition to an MMN a more negative potential in the MLR at the transition from the Na to the Pa component at circa 24 ms from stimulus onset. This finding, together with the studies about frequency and location changes, suggests that the early automatic detection of deviant sounds in an oddball paradigm is a general property of the auditory system.

  16. Cardiometabolic Effects of Cheese Intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorning, Tanja Kongerslev

    In several countries, the dietary guidelines for preventing CVD focus on reducing the intake of saturated fat. A high cheese intake in particular may however not be associated with CVD risk, despite a high content of saturated fat. This could be due to a reduced digestibility of fat in cheese....... The aim of this PhD thesis was to investigate how the fat content of the cheese-matrix and the cheese ripening duration affect cardiometabolic risk markers and fecal fat excretion. The thesis is based on three intervention studies, two in pigs and one in humans. The results suggested that fat content...... of cheese-matrix may influence the HDL-cholesterol response, while the ripening duration may affect the level of free fatty acids and insulin in the blood. Furthermore the results showed that a diet with saturated fat in cheese or meat caused a higher HDL-cholesterol, but not LDL-cholesterol, compared...

  17. The prognostic potential and carcinogenesis of long non-coding RNA TUG1 in human cholangiocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yi; Leng, Kaiming; Li, Zhenglong; Zhang, Fumin; Zhong, Xiangyu; Kang, Pengcheng; Jiang, Xingming; Cui, Yunfu

    2017-09-12

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a fatal disease with increasing worldwide incidence and is characterized by poor prognosis due to its poor response to conventional chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play key roles in multiple human cancers, including CCA. Cancer progression related lncRNA taurine-up-regulated gene 1 (TUG1) was reported to be involved in human carcinomas. However, the impact of TUG1 in CCA is unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the expression pattern of TUG1 and evaluate its clinical significance as well as prognostic potential in CCA. In addition, the functional roles of TUG1 including cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), were evaluated after TUG1 silencing. Our data demonstrated up-regulation of TUG1 in both CCA tissues and cell lines. Moreover, overexpression of TUG1 is linked to tumor size ( p =0.005), TNM stage ( p =0.013), postoperative recurrence ( p =0.036) and overall survival ( p =0.010) of CCA patients. Furthermore, down-regulation of TUG1 following RNA silencing reduced cell growth and increased apoptosis in CCA cells. Additionally, TUG1 suppression inhibited metastasis potential in vitro by reversing EMT. Overall, our results suggest that TUG1 may be a rational CCA-related prognostic factor and therapeutic target.

  18. Human iPS Cell-Derived Germ Cells: Current Status and Clinical Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Ishii

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, fertile spermatozoa and oocytes were generated from mouse induced pluripotent (iPS cells using a combined in vitro and in vivo induction system. With regard to germ cell induction from human iPS cells, progress has been made particularly in the male germline, demonstrating in vitro generation of haploid, round spermatids. Although iPS-derived germ cells are expected to be developed to yield a form of assisted reproductive technology (ART that can address unmet reproductive needs, genetic and/or epigenetic instabilities abound in iPS cell generation and germ cell induction. In addition, there is still room to improve the induction protocol in the female germline. However, rapid advances in stem cell research are likely to make such obstacles surmountable, potentially translating induced germ cells into the clinical setting in the immediate future. This review examines the current status of the induction of germ cells from human iPS cells and discusses the clinical potential, as well as future directions.

  19. The Impact of Employee Satisfaction on the Release of Human Creative Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damjana Dragman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: Does employee satisfaction in the workplace affect the release of human creative potential? Purpose: Based on interviews conducted in the context of a particular department, the purpose was to determine whether employee satisfaction affects creativity and efficiency of employees. Method: A qualitative method was used as the research method, where interviews were used to obtain data. Results: The results showed that employee satisfaction in the workplace strongly affects their motivation at work and their effectiveness. Also personal praise from leaders influences employee satisfaction, which in turn also affect the release of human creative potential. Organization: Several factors affect employee satisfaction that is typical for the entire company. A special role is played by those who are responsible for creating a positive atmosphere within their working environment and encouraging employees towards increased creativity and efficiency. Society: Research shows that employee satisfaction significantly affects their performance. For this reason employees should create a pleasant working environment within the entire company and for good relationships with co-workers. Originality: The first such study conducted in the context of a particular department. Limitations/further research: The research study was carried out in only one department of one organization.

  20. ECM microenvironment unlocks brown adipogenic potential of adult human bone marrow-derived MSCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michelle H; Goralczyk, Anna G; Kriszt, Rókus; Ang, Xiu Min; Badowski, Cedric; Li, Ying; Summers, Scott A; Toh, Sue-Anne; Yassin, M Shabeer; Shabbir, Asim; Sheppard, Allan; Raghunath, Michael

    2016-02-17

    Key to realizing the diagnostic and therapeutic potential of human brown/brite adipocytes is the identification of a renewable, easily accessible and safe tissue source of progenitor cells, and an efficacious in vitro differentiation protocol. We show that macromolecular crowding (MMC) facilitates brown adipocyte differentiation in adult human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (bmMSCs), as evidenced by substantially upregulating uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and uncoupled respiration. Moreover, MMC also induced 'browning' in bmMSC-derived white adipocytes. Mechanistically, MMC creates a 3D extracellular matrix architecture enshrouding maturing adipocytes in a collagen IV cocoon that is engaged by paxillin-positive focal adhesions also at the apical side of cells, without contact to the stiff support structure. This leads to an enhanced matrix-cell signaling, reflected by increased phosphorylation of ATF2, a key transcription factor in UCP1 regulation. Thus, tuning the dimensionality of the microenvironment in vitro can unlock a strong brown potential dormant in bone marrow.

  1. The negative ultraslow potential, electrophysiological correlate of infarction in the human cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lückl, Janos; Lemale, Coline L; Kola, Vasilis; Horst, Viktor; Khojasteh, Uldus; Oliveira-Ferreira, Ana I; Major, Sebastian; Winkler, Maren K L; Kang, Eun-Jeung; Schoknecht, Karl; Martus, Peter; Hartings, Jed A; Woitzik, Johannes; Dreier, Jens P

    2018-06-01

    Spreading depolarizations are characterized by abrupt, near-complete breakdown of the transmembrane ion gradients, neuronal oedema, mitochondrial depolarization, glutamate excitotoxicity and activity loss (depression). Spreading depolarization induces either transient hyperperfusion in normal tissue; or hypoperfusion (inverse coupling = spreading ischaemia) in tissue at risk for progressive injury. The concept of the spreading depolarization continuum is critical since many spreading depolarizations have intermediate characteristics, as opposed to the two extremes of spreading depolarization in either severely ischaemic or normal tissue. In animals, the spreading depolarization extreme in ischaemic tissue is characterized by prolonged depolarization durations, in addition to a slow baseline variation termed the negative ultraslow potential. The negative ultraslow potential is initiated by spreading depolarization and similar to the negative direct current (DC) shift of prolonged spreading depolarization, but specifically refers to a negative potential component during progressive recruitment of neurons into cell death in the wake of spreading depolarization. We here first quantified the spreading depolarization-initiated negative ultraslow potential in the electrocorticographic DC range and the activity depression in the alternate current range after middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats. Relevance of these variables to the injury was supported by significant correlations with the cortical infarct volume and neurological outcome after 72 h of survival. We then identified negative ultraslow potential-containing clusters of spreading depolarizations in 11 patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage. The human platinum/iridium-recorded negative ultraslow potential showed a tent-like shape. Its amplitude of 45.0 (39.0, 69.4) mV [median (first, third quartile)] was 6.6 times larger and its duration of 3.7 (3.3, 5.3) h was 34.9 times longer than the negative DC

  2. Human memory CD8 T cell effector potential is epigenetically preserved during in vivo homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelsamed, Hossam A; Moustaki, Ardiana; Fan, Yiping; Dogra, Pranay; Ghoneim, Hazem E; Zebley, Caitlin C; Triplett, Brandon M; Sekaly, Rafick-Pierre; Youngblood, Ben

    2017-06-05

    Antigen-independent homeostasis of memory CD8 T cells is vital for sustaining long-lived T cell-mediated immunity. In this study, we report that maintenance of human memory CD8 T cell effector potential during in vitro and in vivo homeostatic proliferation is coupled to preservation of acquired DNA methylation programs. Whole-genome bisulfite sequencing of primary human naive, short-lived effector memory (T EM ), and longer-lived central memory (T CM ) and stem cell memory (T SCM ) CD8 T cells identified effector molecules with demethylated promoters and poised for expression. Effector-loci demethylation was heritably preserved during IL-7- and IL-15-mediated in vitro cell proliferation. Conversely, cytokine-driven proliferation of T CM and T SCM memory cells resulted in phenotypic conversion into T EM cells and was coupled to increased methylation of the CCR7 and Tcf7 loci. Furthermore, haploidentical donor memory CD8 T cells undergoing in vivo proliferation in lymphodepleted recipients also maintained their effector-associated demethylated status but acquired T EM -associated programs. These data demonstrate that effector-associated epigenetic programs are preserved during cytokine-driven subset interconversion of human memory CD8 T cells. © 2017 Abdelsamed et al.

  3. The Real Problem (Humans) and Some Potentially Effective Alternatives and New Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanlon, Edward; Capece, John

    2011-01-07

    The presentation offers a wider perspective, where on the example of Everglades’ restoration efforts, the real problem – humans – is exposed. Some potentially effective alternatives and new tools are offered and discussed. Everglades’s problems are primarily caused to human activity, whether these are related to poor water quality, land use changes or cheap short-sighted fixes. Ground rules need to be set in order to have a real discussion and seek real solutions to such problems. The difference between facts and opinions is explained, so is the difference between interests and positions. These terms are often partly coinciding in human minds, thus causing further misunderstandings in pursuing real solutions. Some confounding factors in the Everglades restoration efforts are listed, with one of the main examples being the assignment of a monetary value to all factors. Some of these factors are priceless, but not being valued easily and properly (such as water). The proposed alternative to monetary value is assigning energy as the unit of measurement. The two main methods for such alternate approach are (1) Embodied energy (Emergy) and (2) Life Cycle Analysis. Agriculturally-based ecosystems services are different from natural ecosystems services. Pursuing agriculturally-based ecosystems services (such as e.g. water storage on farms, reducing nutrients in water, using flood-tolerant crops cultivars, etc.) can develop eco-services into agricultural operations and systems, addressing everyone’s interest and benefiting the society.

  4. Carvacrol promotes angiogenic paracrine potential and endothelial differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells at low concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matluobi, Danial; Araghi, Atefeh; Maragheh, Behnaz Faramarzian Azimi; Rezabakhsh, Aysa; Soltani, Sina; Khaksar, Majid; Siavashi, Vahid; Feyzi, Adel; Bagheri, Hesam Saghaei; Rahbarghazi, Reza; Montazersaheb, Soheila

    2018-01-01

    Phenolic monoterpene compound, named Carvacrol, has been found to exert different biological outcomes. It has been accepted that the angiogenic activity of human mesenchymal stem cells was crucial in the pursuit of appropriate regeneration. In the current experiment, we investigated the contribution of Carvacrol on the angiogenic behavior of primary human mesenchymal stem cells. Mesenchymal stem cells were exposed to Carvacrol in a dose ranging from 25 to 200μM for 48h. We measured cell survival rate by MTT assay and migration rate by a scratch test. The oxidative status was monitored by measuring SOD, GPx activity. The endothelial differentiation was studied by evaluating the level of VE-cadherin and vWF by real-time PCR and ELISA analyses. The content of VEGF and tubulogenesis behavior was monitored in vitro. We also conducted Matrigel plug in vivo CAM assay to assess the angiogenic potential of conditioned media from human mesenchymal stem cells after exposure to Carvacrol. Carvacrol was able to increase mesenchymal stem cell survival and migration rate (pcells by detecting vWF and VE-cadherin expression (pmesenchymal stem cells conditioned media improved angiogenesis tube formation in vitro (pmesenchymal stem cells by modulating cell differentiation and paracrine angiogenic response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. What is the potential of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells to successfully treat human spinal cord injury?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeung Trevor M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spinal cord injury is a serious and debilitating condition, affecting millions of people worldwide. Long seen as a permanent injury, recent advances in stem cell research have brought closer the possibility of repairing the spinal cord. One such approach involves injecting oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, derived from human embryonic stem cells, into the injured spinal cord in the hope that they will initiate repair. A phase I clinical trial of this therapy was started in mid 2010 and is currently underway. Discussion The theory underlying this approach is that these myelinating progenitors will phenotypically replace myelin lost during injury whilst helping to promote a repair environment in the lesion. However, the importance of demyelination in the pathogenesis of human spinal cord injury is a contentious issue and a body of literature suggests that it is only a minor factor in the overall injury process. Summary This review examines the validity of the theory underpinning the on-going clinical trial as well as analysing published data from animal models and finally discussing issues surrounding safety and purity in order to assess the potential of this approach to successfully treat acute human spinal cord injury.

  6. Black pepper (Piper nigrum) essential oil demonstrates tissue remodeling and metabolism modulating potential in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xuesheng; Beaumont, Cody; Rodriguez, Damian; Bahr, Tyler

    2018-05-17

    Very few studies have investigated the biological activities of black pepper essential oil (BPEO) in human cells. Therefore, in the current study, we examined the biological activities of BPEO in cytokine-stimulated human dermal fibroblasts by analyzing the levels of 17 important protein biomarkers pertinent to inflammation and tissue remodeling. BPEO exhibited significant antiproliferative activity in these skin cells and significantly inhibited the production of Collagen I, Collagen III, and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1. In addition, we studied the effect of BPEO on the regulation of genome-wide expression and found that BPEO diversely modulated global gene expression. Further analysis showed that BPEO affected many important genes and signaling pathways closely related to metabolism, inflammation, tissue remodeling, and cancer signaling. This study is the first to provide evidence of the biological activities of BPEO in human dermal fibroblasts. The data suggest that BPEO possesses promising potential to modulate the biological processes of tissue remodeling, wound healing, and metabolism. Although further research is required, BPEO appears to be a good therapeutic candidate for a variety of health conditions including wound care and metabolic diseases. Research into the biological and pharmacological mechanisms of action of BPEO and its major active constituents is recommended. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. The potential pitfalls of studying adult sex ratios at aggregate levels in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollet, Thomas V; Stoevenbelt, Andrea H; Kuppens, Toon

    2017-09-19

    Human adult sex ratios have been studied extensively across the biological and social sciences. While several studies have examined adult sex ratio effects in a multilevel perspective, many studies have focused on effects at an aggregated level only. In this paper, we review some key issues relating to such analyses. We address not only nation-level analyses, but also aggregation at lower levels, to investigate whether these issues extend to lower levels of aggregation. We illustrate these issues with novel databases covering a broad range of variables. Specifically, we discuss distributional issues with aggregated measures of adult sex ratio, significance testing, and statistical non-independence when using aggregate data. Firstly, we show that there are severe distributional issues with national adult sex ratio, such as extreme cases. Secondly, we demonstrate that many 'meaningless' variables are significantly correlated with adult sex ratio (e.g. the max. elevation level correlates with sex ratio at US state level). Finally, we re-examine associations between adult sex ratios and teenage fertility and find no robust evidence for an association at the aggregate level. Our review highlights the potential issues of using aggregate data on adult sex ratios to test hypotheses from an evolutionary perspective in humans.This article is part of the themed issue 'Adult sex ratios and reproductive decisions: a critical re-examination of sex differences in human and animal societies'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  8. Steady-state visually evoked potential correlates of human body perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giabbiconi, Claire-Marie; Jurilj, Verena; Gruber, Thomas; Vocks, Silja

    2016-11-01

    In cognitive neuroscience, interest in the neuronal basis underlying the processing of human bodies is steadily increasing. Based on functional magnetic resonance imaging studies, it is assumed that the processing of pictures of human bodies is anchored in a network of specialized brain areas comprising the extrastriate and the fusiform body area (EBA, FBA). An alternative to examine the dynamics within these networks is electroencephalography, more specifically so-called steady-state visually evoked potentials (SSVEPs). In SSVEP tasks, a visual stimulus is presented repetitively at a predefined flickering rate and typically elicits a continuous oscillatory brain response at this frequency. This brain response is characterized by an excellent signal-to-noise ratio-a major advantage for source reconstructions. The main goal of present study was to demonstrate the feasibility of this method to study human body perception. To that end, we presented pictures of bodies and contrasted the resulting SSVEPs to two control conditions, i.e., non-objects and pictures of everyday objects (chairs). We found specific SSVEPs amplitude differences between bodies and both control conditions. Source reconstructions localized the SSVEP generators to a network of temporal, occipital and parietal areas. Interestingly, only body perception resulted in activity differences in middle temporal and lateral occipitotemporal areas, most likely reflecting the EBA/FBA.

  9. Invasive Lionfish (Pterois volitans): A Potential Human Health Threat for Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in Tropical Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Alison; Garcia, Ana C.; Flores Quintana, Harold A.; Smith, Tyler B.; Castillo, Bernard F.; Reale-Munroe, Kynoch; Gulli, Joseph A.; Olsen, David A.; Hooe-Rollman, Jennifer I.; Jester, Edward L. E.; Klimek, Brian J.; Plakas, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    Invasive Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois volitans) have rapidly expanded in the Western Atlantic over the past decade and have had a significant negative impact on reef fish biodiversity, habitat, and community structure, with lionfish out-competing native predators for resources. In an effort to reduce this population explosion, lionfish have been promoted for human consumption in the greater Caribbean region. This study examined whether the geographical expansion of the lionfish into a known ciguatera-endemic region can pose a human health threat for ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP). More than 180 lionfish were collected from waters surrounding the US Virgin Islands throughout 2010 and 2011. Ciguatoxin testing included an in vitro neuroblastoma cytotoxicity assay for composite toxicity assessment of sodium-channel toxins combined with confirmatory liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. A 12% prevalence rate of ciguatoxic lionfish exceeding the FDA guidance level of 0.1 µg/kg C-CTX-1 equivalents was identified in fish from the U.S. Virgin Islands, highlighting a potential consumption risk in this region. This study presents the first evidence that the invasive lionfish, pose a direct human health risk for CFP and highlights the need for awareness and research on this food safety hazard in known endemic areas. PMID:24378919

  10. Generic Assessment Criteria for human health risk assessment of potentially contaminated land in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuanyuan; Nathanail, Paul C

    2009-12-20

    Generic Assessment Criteria (GAC) are derived using widely applicable assumptions about the characteristics and behaviour of contaminant sources, pathways and receptors. GAC provide nationally consistent guidance, thereby saving money and time. Currently, there are no human health based Generic Assessment Criteria (GAC) for contaminated sites in China. Protection of human health is therefore difficult to ensure and demonstrate; and the lack of GAC makes it difficult to tell if there is potential significant risk to human health unless site-specific criteria are derived. This paper derived Chinese GAC (GAC) for five inorganic and eight organic substances for three regions in China for three land uses: urban residential without plant uptake, Chinese cultivated land, and commercial/industrial using the SNIFFER model. The SNIFFER model has been further implemented with a dermal absorption algorithm and the model default input values have been changed to reflect the Chinese exposure scenarios. It is envisaged that the modified SNIFFER model could be used to derive GAC for more contaminants, more Regions, and more land uses. Further research to enhance the reliability and acceptability of the GAC is needed in regional/national surveys in diet and working patterns.

  11. Invasive lionfish (Pterois volitans): a potential human health threat for ciguatera fish poisoning in tropical waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Alison; Garcia, Ana C; Quintana, Harold A Flores; Smith, Tyler B; Castillo, Bernard F; Reale-Munroe, Kynoch; Gulli, Joseph A; Olsen, David A; Hooe-Rollman, Jennifer I; Jester, Edward L E; Klimek, Brian J; Plakas, Steven M

    2013-12-27

    Invasive Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois volitans) have rapidly expanded in the Western Atlantic over the past decade and have had a significant negative impact on reef fish biodiversity, habitat, and community structure, with lionfish out-competing native predators for resources. In an effort to reduce this population explosion, lionfish have been promoted for human consumption in the greater Caribbean region. This study examined whether the geographical expansion of the lionfish into a known ciguatera-endemic region can pose a human health threat for ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP). More than 180 lionfish were collected from waters surrounding the US Virgin Islands throughout 2010 and 2011. Ciguatoxin testing included an in vitro neuroblastoma cytotoxicity assay for composite toxicity assessment of sodium-channel toxins combined with confirmatory liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. A 12% prevalence rate of ciguatoxic lionfish exceeding the FDA guidance level of 0.1 µg/kg C-CTX-1 equivalents was identified in fish from the U.S. Virgin Islands, highlighting a potential consumption risk in this region. This study presents the first evidence that the invasive lionfish, pose a direct human health risk for CFP and highlights the need for awareness and research on this food safety hazard in known endemic areas.

  12. Invasive Lionfish (Pterois volitans: A Potential Human Health Threat for Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in Tropical Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Robertson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Invasive Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois volitans have rapidly expanded in the Western Atlantic over the past decade and have had a significant negative impact on reef fish biodiversity, habitat, and community structure, with lionfish out-competing native predators for resources. In an effort to reduce this population explosion, lionfish have been promoted for human consumption in the greater Caribbean region. This study examined whether the geographical expansion of the lionfish into a known ciguatera-endemic region can pose a human health threat for ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP. More than 180 lionfish were collected from waters surrounding the US Virgin Islands throughout 2010 and 2011. Ciguatoxin testing included an in vitro neuroblastoma cytotoxicity assay for composite toxicity assessment of sodium-channel toxins combined with confirmatory liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. A 12% prevalence rate of ciguatoxic lionfish exceeding the FDA guidance level of 0.1 µg/kg C-CTX-1 equivalents was identified in fish from the U.S. Virgin Islands, highlighting a potential consumption risk in this region. This study presents the first evidence that the invasive lionfish, pose a direct human health risk for CFP and highlights the need for awareness and research on this food safety hazard in known endemic areas.

  13. Role of MicroRNA-1 in Human Cancer and Its Therapeutic Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Han

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While the mechanisms of human cancer development are not fully understood, evidence of microRNA (miRNA, miR dysregulation has been reported in many human diseases, including cancer. miRs are small noncoding RNA molecules that regulate posttranscriptional gene expression by binding to complementary sequences in the specific region of gene mRNAs, resulting in downregulation of gene expression. Not only are certain miRs consistently dysregulated across many cancers, but they also play critical roles in many aspects of cell growth, proliferation, metastasis, apoptosis, and drug resistance. Recent studies from our group and others revealed that miR-1 is frequently downregulated in various types of cancer. Through targeting multiple oncogenes and oncogenic pathways, miR-1 has been demonstrated to be a tumor suppressor gene that represses cancer cell proliferation and metastasis and promotes apoptosis by ectopic expression. In this review, we highlight recent findings on the aberrant expression and functional significance of miR-1 in human cancers and emphasize its significant values for therapeutic potentials.

  14. Potential Applications for Radioisotope Power Systems in Support of Human Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Robert L.; Colozza, Anthony J.; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2013-01-01

    Radioisotope power systems (RPS) for space applications have powered over 27 U.S. space systems, starting with Transit 4A and 4B in 1961, and more recently with the successful landing of the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity in August 2012. RPS enable missions with destinations far from the Sun with faint solar flux, on planetary surfaces with dense or dusty atmospheres, and at places with long eclipse periods where solar array sizes and energy storage mass become impractical. RPS could also provide an enabling capability in support of human exploration activities. It is envisioned that with the higher power needs of most human mission concepts, a high efficiency thermal-to-electric technology would be required such as the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope generator (ASRG). The ASRG should be capable of a four-fold improvement in efficiency over traditional thermoelectric RPS. While it may be impractical to use RPS as a main power source, many other applications could be considered, such as crewed pressurized rovers, in-situ resource production of propellants, back-up habitat power, drilling, any mobile or remote activity from the main base habitat, etc. This paper will identify potential applications and provide concepts that could be a practical extension of the current ASRG design in providing for robust and flexible use of RPS on human exploration missions.

  15. Human BK Polyomavirus—The Potential for Head and Neck Malignancy and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Burger-Calderon

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Members of the human Polyomaviridae family are ubiquitous and pathogenic among immune-compromised individuals. While only Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV has conclusively been linked to human cancer, all members of the polyomavirus (PyV family encode the oncoprotein T antigen and may be potentially carcinogenic. Studies focusing on PyV pathogenesis in humans have become more abundant as the number of PyV family members and the list of associated diseases has expanded. BK polyomavirus (BKPyV in particular has emerged as a new opportunistic pathogen among HIV positive individuals, carrying harmful implications. Increasing evidence links BKPyV to HIV-associated salivary gland disease (HIVSGD. HIVSGD is associated with elevated risk of lymphoma formation and its prevalence has increased among HIV/AIDS patients. Determining the relationship between BKPyV, disease and tumorigenesis among immunosuppressed individuals is necessary and will allow for expanding effective anti-viral treatment and prevention options in the future.

  16. Conserved B-cell epitopes among human bocavirus species indicate potential diagnostic targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human bocavirus species 1-4 (HBoV1-4 have been associated with respiratory and enteric infections in children. However, the immunological mechanisms in response to HBoV infections are not fully understood. Though previous studies have shown cross-reactivities between HBoV species, the epitopes responsible for this phenomenon remain unknown. In this study, we used genomic and immunologic approaches to identify the reactive epitopes conserved across multiple HBoV species and explored their potential as the basis of a novel diagnostic test for HBoVs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We generated HBoV1-3 VP2 gene fragment phage display libraries (GFPDLs and used these libraries to analyze mouse antisera against VP2 protein of HBoV1, 2, and 3, and human sera positive for HBoVs. Using this approach, we mapped four epitope clusters of HBoVs and identified two immunodominant peptides--P1 (¹MSDTDIQDQQPDTVDAPQNT²⁰, and P2 (¹⁶²EHAYPNASHPWDEDVMPDL¹⁸⁰--that are conserved among HBoV1-4. To confirm epitope immunogenicity, we immunized mice with the immunodominant P1 and P2 peptides identified in our screen and found that they elicited high titer antibodies in mice. These two antibodies could only recognize the VP2 of HBoV 1-4 in Western blot assays, rather than those of the two other parvoviruses human parvovirus B19 and human parvovirus 4 (PARV4. Based on our findings, we evaluated epitope-based peptide-IgM ELISAs as potential diagnostic tools for HBoVs IgM antibodies. We found that the P1+P2-IgM ELISA showed a higher sensitivity and specificity in HBoVs IgM detection than the assays using a single peptide. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The identification of the conserved B-cell epitopes among human bocavirus species contributes to our understanding of immunological cross-reactivities of HBoVs, and provides important insights for the development of HBoV diagnostic tools.

  17. Dietary intake of phytoestrogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker MI; SIR

    2004-01-01

    The dietary intake of phytoestrogens supposedly influences a variety of diseases, both in terms of beneficial and adverse effects. This report describes current knowledge on dietary intakes of phytoestrogens in Western countries, and briefly summarizes the evidence for health effects. The

  18. Virtual impact: visualizing the potential effects of cosmic impact in human history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masse, W Bruce [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Janecky, David R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Forte, Maurizio [UC MERCED; Barrientos, Gustavo [UNIV OF LA PLATA, ARG.

    2009-01-01

    Current models indicate that catastrophic impacts by asteroids and comets capable of killing more than one quarter of Earth's human population have occurred on average once every million years; smaller impacts, such the 1908 Tunguska impact that leveled more than 2,000 square km of Siberian forest, occur every 200-300 years. Therefore, cosmic impact likely significantly affected hominine evolution and conceivably played a role in Holocene period human culture history. Regrettably, few archaeologists are trained to appreciate the nature and potential effects of cosmic impact. We have developed a conceptual model for an extensible set of educational and research tools based on virtual reality collaborative environments to engage archaeologists and the general public on the topic of the role of cosmic impact in human history. Our initial focus is on two documented asteroid impacts in Argentina during the period of 4000 to 1000 B.C. Campo del Cicio resulted in an energy release of around 2-3 megatons (100-150 times the Hiroshima atomic weapon), and left several craters and a strewn field covering 493 km{sup 2} in northeastern Argentina. Rio Cuarto was likely more than 1000 megatons and may have devastated an area greater than 50,000 km{sup 2} in central Argentina. We are focusing on reconstructions of these events and their potential effects on contemporary hunter and gatherers. Our vinual reality tools also introduce interactive variables (e.g., impactor physical properties, climate, vegetation, topography, and social complexity) to allow researchers and students to better investigate and evaluate the factors that significantly influence cosmic impact effects.

  19. Electromechanical Assessment of Human Knee Articular Cartilage with Compression-Induced Streaming Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becher, Christoph; Ricklefs, Marcel; Willbold, Elmar; Hurschler, Christof; Abedian, Reza

    2016-01-01

    To assess the electromechanical properties of human knee articular cartilage with compression-induced streaming potentials for reliability among users and correlation with macroscopic and histological evaluation tools and sulfated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) content. Streaming potentials are induced in cartilage in response to loading when mobile positive ions in the interstitial fluid temporarily move away from negatively charged proteoglycans. Streaming potential integrals (SPIs) were measured with an indentation probe on femoral condyles of 10 human knee specimens according to a standardized location scheme. Interobserver reliability was measured using an interclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The learning curves of 3 observers were evaluated by regression analysis. At each SPI measurement location the degradation level of the tissue was determined by means of the International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) score, Mankin score, and sGAG content. The computed ICC was 0.77 (0.70-0.83) indicating good to excellent linear agreement of SPI values among the 3 users. A significant positive linear correlation of the learning index values was observed for 2 of the 3 users. Statistically significant negative correlations between SPI and both ICRS and Mankin scores were observed (r = 0.502, P < 0.001, and r = 0.255, P = 0.02, respectively). No correlation was observed between SPI and sGAG content (r = 0.004, P = 0.973). SPI values may be used as a quantitative means of cartilage evaluation with sufficient reliability among users. Due to the significant learning curve, adequate training should be absolved before routine use of the technique.

  20. A potential Human Rights Act in Queensland and inclusion of the right to health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brolan, Claire E; Herron, Lisa; Carney, Anna; Fritz, Eva M; James, Judy; Margetts, Miranda

    2018-04-01

    To identify the level of public support for a Human Rights Act for Queensland (HRAQ) and for inclusion of the right to health by participants in a public inquiry process. We reviewed the 492 written submissions to the Legal Affairs and Community Safety Committee's Inquiry into a potential HRAQ and the transcripts documenting the public hearings held by the Committee in 2016. A total of 465 written submissions were analysed; 419 (90%) were for a HRAQ. More than 80% of the 'for' submissions advocated the right to health's inclusion. At the seven public hearings, 72 persons made verbal submissions and most supported a HRAQ. Five major themes were identified in our synthesis of the public hearing transcripts. Three related specifically to health and human rights: 1) the need to consider the holistic health and human rights of Indigenous Queenslanders and Indigenous Queensland communities; 2) instilling a human rights culture in Queensland; and 3) access to health care and the underlying determinants of health. The other two themes related to the conduct of the Inquiry: 4) the importance of community participation in developing a HRAQ; and 5) concerns about the public consultation processes. This study found strong support in the majority of submissions for the Queensland Parliament to draft and enact a HRAQ, and for the inclusion of the right to health in such legislation. Implications for public health: The Queensland Parliament's enactment of a HRAQ that expressly included the right to health would increase the accountability and transparency of government health (and related) decision making and resource allocation, and would better identify and address health inequities across the state. This Act is imperative for improving the health and wellbeing of all Queenslanders, particularly rural and remote and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Queenslanders. © 2017 The Authors.

  1. Feature Extraction of Event-Related Potentials Using Wavelets: An Application to Human Performance Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trejo, Leonard J.; Shensa, Mark J.; Remington, Roger W. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the development and evaluation of mathematical models for predicting human performance from discrete wavelet transforms (DWT) of event-related potentials (ERP) elicited by task-relevant stimuli. The DWT was compared to principal components analysis (PCA) for representation of ERPs in linear regression and neural network models developed to predict a composite measure of human signal detection performance. Linear regression models based on coefficients of the decimated DWT predicted signal detection performance with half as many f ree parameters as comparable models based on PCA scores. In addition, the DWT-based models were more resistant to model degradation due to over-fitting than PCA-based models. Feed-forward neural networks were trained using the backpropagation,-, algorithm to predict signal detection performance based on raw ERPs, PCA scores, or high-power coefficients of the DWT. Neural networks based on high-power DWT coefficients trained with fewer iterations, generalized to new data better, and were more resistant to overfitting than networks based on raw ERPs. Networks based on PCA scores did not generalize to new data as well as either the DWT network or the raw ERP network. The results show that wavelet expansions represent the ERP efficiently and extract behaviorally important features for use in linear regression or neural network models of human performance. The efficiency of the DWT is discussed in terms of its decorrelation and energy compaction properties. In addition, the DWT models provided evidence that a pattern of low-frequency activity (1 to 3.5 Hz) occurring at specific times and scalp locations is a reliable correlate of human signal detection performance.

  2. Human Milk Contains Novel Glycans That Are Potential Decoy Receptors for Neonatal Rotaviruses*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ying; Lasanajak, Yi; Song, Xuezheng; Hu, Liya; Ramani, Sasirekha; Mickum, Megan L.; Ashline, David J.; Prasad, B. V. Venkataram; Estes, Mary K.; Reinhold, Vernon N.; Cummings, Richard D.; Smith, David F.

    2014-01-01

    Human milk contains a rich set of soluble, reducing glycans whose functions and bioactivities are not well understood. Because human milk glycans (HMGs) have been implicated as receptors for various pathogens, we explored the functional glycome of human milk using shotgun glycomics. The free glycans from pooled milk samples of donors with mixed Lewis and Secretor phenotypes were labeled with a fluorescent tag and separated via multidimensional HPLC to generate a tagged glycan library containing 247 HMG targets that were printed to generate the HMG shotgun glycan microarray (SGM). To investigate the potential role of HMGs as decoy receptors for rotavirus (RV), a leading cause of severe gastroenteritis in children, we interrogated the HMG SGM with recombinant forms of VP8* domains of the RV outer capsid spike protein VP4 from human neonatal strains N155(G10P[11]) and RV3(G3P[6]) and a bovine strain, B223(G10P[11]). Glycans that were bound by RV attachment proteins were selected for detailed structural analyses using metadata-assisted glycan sequencing, which compiles data on each glycan based on its binding by antibodies and lectins before and after exo- and endo-glycosidase digestion of the SGM, coupled with independent MSn analyses. These complementary structural approaches resulted in the identification of 32 glycans based on RV VP8* binding, many of which are novel HMGs, whose detailed structural assignments by MSn are described in a companion report. Although sialic acid has been thought to be important as a surface receptor for RVs, our studies indicated that sialic acid is not required for binding of glycans to individual VP8* domains. Remarkably, each VP8* recognized specific glycan determinants within a unique subset of related glycan structures where specificity differences arise from subtle differences in glycan structures. PMID:25048705

  3. The Asteroid Impact and Deflection Assessment Mission and its Potential Contributions to Human Exploration of Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Paul A.; Rivkin, Andy S.

    2014-01-01

    The joint ESA and NASA Asteroid Impact and Deflection Assessment (AIDA) mission will directly address aspects of NASA's Asteroid Initiative and will contribute to future human exploration. The NASA Asteroid Initiative is comprised of two major components: the Grand Challenge and the Asteroid Mission. The first component, the Grand Challenge, focuses on protecting Earth's population from asteroid impacts by detecting potentially hazardous objects with enough warning time to either prevent them from impacting the planet, or to implement civil defense procedures. The Asteroid Mission, involves sending astronauts to study and sample a near-Earth asteroid (NEA) prior to conducting exploration missions of the Martian system, which includes Phobos and Deimos. AIDA's primary objective is to demonstrate a kinetic impact deflection and characterize the binary NEA Didymos. The science and technical data obtained from AIDA will aid in the planning of future human exploration missions to NEAs and other small bodies. The dual robotic missions of AIDA, ESA's Asteroid Impact Monitor (AIM) and NASA's Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART), will provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration while conducting in-depth scientific examinations of the binary target Didymos both prior to and after the kinetic impact demonstration. The knowledge gained from this mission will help identify asteroidal physical properties in order to maximize operational efficiency and reduce mission risk for future small body missions. The AIDA data will help fill crucial strategic knowledge gaps concerning asteroid physical characteristics that are relevant for human exploration considerations at similar small body destinations.

  4. Radioactivity contents in dicalcium phosphate and the potential radiological risk to human populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casacuberta, N.; Masque, P.; Garcia-Orellana, J.; Bruach, J.M.; Anguita, M.; Gasa, J.; Villa, M.; Hurtado, S.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.

    2009-01-01

    Potentially harmful phosphate-based products derived from the wet acid digestion of phosphate rock represent one of the most serious problems facing the phosphate industry. This is particularly true for dicalcium phosphate (DCP), a food additive produced from either sulphuric acid or hydrochloric acid digestion of raw rock material. This study determined the natural occurring radionuclide concentrations of 12 DCP samples and 4 tricalcium phosphate (TCP) samples used for animal and human consumption, respectively. Metal concentrations (Al, Fe, Zn, Cd, Cr, As, Hg, Pb and Mg) were also determined. Samples were grouped into three different clusters (A, B, C) based on their radionuclide content. Whereas group A is characterized by high activities of 238 U, 234 U (∼10 3 Bq kg -1 ), 210 Pb (2 x 10 3 Bq kg -1 ) and 210 Po (∼800 Bq kg -1 ); group B presents high activities of 238 U, 234 U and 230 Th (∼10 3 Bq kg -1 ). Group C was characterized by very low activities of all radionuclides ( -1 ). Differences between the two groups of DCP samples for animal consumption (groups A and B) were related to the wet acid digestion method used, with group A samples produced from hydrochloric acid digestion, and group B samples produced using sulphuric acid. Group C includes more purified samples required for human consumption. High radionuclide concentrations in some DCP samples (reaching 2 x 10 3 and 10 3 Bq kg -1 of 210 Pb and 210 Po, respectively) may be of concern due to direct or indirect radiological exposure via ingestion. Our experimental results based on 210 Pb and 210 Po within poultry consumed by humans, suggest that the maximum radiological doses are 11 ± 2 μSv y -1 . While these results suggest that human health risks are small, additional testing should be conducted.

  5. Morphology-based prediction of osteogenic differentiation potential of human mesenchymal stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumiko Matsuoka

    Full Text Available Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs are widely used cell source for clinical bone regeneration. Achieving the greatest therapeutic effect is dependent on the osteogenic differentiation potential of the stem cells to be implanted. However, there are still no practical methods to characterize such potential non-invasively or previously. Monitoring cellular morphology is a practical and non-invasive approach for evaluating osteogenic potential. Unfortunately, such image-based approaches had been historically qualitative and requiring experienced interpretation. By combining the non-invasive attributes of microscopy with the latest technology allowing higher throughput and quantitative imaging metrics, we studied the applicability of morphometric features to quantitatively predict cellular osteogenic potential. We applied computational machine learning, combining cell morphology features with their corresponding biochemical osteogenic assay results, to develop prediction model of osteogenic differentiation. Using a dataset of 9,990 images automatically acquired by BioStation CT during osteogenic differentiation culture of hBMSCs, 666 morphometric features were extracted as parameters. Two commonly used osteogenic markers, alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity and calcium deposition were measured experimentally, and used as the true biological differentiation status to validate the prediction accuracy. Using time-course morphological features throughout differentiation culture, the prediction results highly correlated with the experimentally defined differentiation marker values (R>0.89 for both marker predictions. The clinical applicability of our morphology-based prediction was further examined with two scenarios: one using only historical cell images and the other using both historical images together with the patient's own cell images to predict a new patient's cellular potential. The prediction accuracy was found to be greatly enhanced

  6. Metabolic Phenotyping of Diet and Dietary Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brignardello, J; Holmes, E; Garcia-Perez, I

    Nutrition provides the building blocks for growth, repair, and maintenance of the body and is key to maintaining health. Exposure to fast foods, mass production of dietary components, and wider importation of goods have challenged the balance between diet and health in recent decades, and both scientists and clinicians struggle to characterize the relationship between this changing dietary landscape and human metabolism with its consequent impact on health. Metabolic phenotyping of foods, using high-density data-generating technologies to profile the biochemical composition of foods, meals, and human samples (pre- and postfood intake), can be used to map the complex interaction between the diet and human metabolism and also to assess food quality and safety. Here, we outline some of the techniques currently used for metabolic phenotyping and describe key applications in the food sciences, ending with a broad outlook at some of the newer technologies in the field with a view to exploring their potential to address some of the critical challenges in nutritional science. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. MicroRNA-138 is a potential regulator of memory performance in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia eSchröder

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Genetic factors underlie a substantial proportion of individual differences in cognitive functions in humans, including processes related to episodic and working memory. While genetic association studies have proposed several candidate memory genes, these currently explain only a minor fraction of the phenotypic variance. Here, we performed genome-wide screening on 13 episodic and working memory phenotypes in 1,318 participants of the Berlin Aging Study II aged 60 years or older. The analyses highlight a number of novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs associated with memory performance, including one located in a putative regulatory region of microRNA (miRNA hsa-mir-138-5p (rs9882688, P-value = 7.8x10-9. Expression quantitative trait locus analyses on next-generation RNA-sequencing data revealed that rs9882688 genotypes show a significant correlation with the expression levels of this miRNA in 309 human lymphoblastoid cell lines (P-value = 5x10-4. In silico modeling of other top-ranking GWAS signals identified an additional memory-associated SNP in the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR of DCP1B, a gene encoding a core component of the mRNA decapping complex in humans, predicted to interfere with hsa-mir-138-5p binding. This prediction was confirmed in vitro by luciferase assays showing differential binding of hsa-mir-138-5p to 3'UTR reporter constructs in two human cell lines (HEK293: P-value = 0.0470; SH-SY5Y: P-value = 0.0866. Finally, expression profiling of hsa-mir-138-5p and DCP1B mRNA in human post-mortem brain tissue revealed that both molecules are expressed simultaneously in frontal cortex and hippocampus, suggesting that the proposed interaction between hsa-mir-138-5p and DCP1B may also take place in vivo. In summary, by combining unbiased genome-wide screening with extensive in silico modeling, in vitro functional assays, and gene expression profiling, our study identified miRNA-138 as a potential molecular regulator of human memory

  8. Modeling impacts of human footprint and soil variability on the potential distribution of invasive plant species in different biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Ji-Zhong; Wang, Chun-Jing; Yu, Fei-Hai

    2017-11-01

    Human footprint and soil variability may be important in shaping the spread of invasive plant species (IPS). However, until now, there is little knowledge on how human footprint and soil variability affect the potential distribution of IPS in different biomes. We used Maxent modeling to project the potential distribution of 29 IPS with wide distributions and long introduction histories in China based on various combinations of climatic correlates, soil characteristics and human footprint. Then, we evaluated the relative importance of each type of environmental variables (climate, soil and human footprint) as well as the difference in range and similarity of the potential distribution of IPS between different biomes. Human footprint and soil variables contributed to the prediction of the potential distribution of IPS, and different types of biomes had varying responses and degrees of impacts from the tested variables. Human footprint and soil variability had the highest tendency to increase the potential distribution of IPS in Montane Grasslands and Shrublands. We propose to integrate the assessment in impacts of human footprint and soil variability on the potential distribution of IPS in different biomes into the prevention and control of plant invasion.

  9. Introducing the potential of antimicrobial materials for human and robotic spaceflight activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Claudia; Reitz, Guenther; Moeller, Ralf; Rettberg, Petra; Hans, Michael; Muecklich, Frank

    One major goal of space research is to discover past or present life on foreign planets such as Mars (Horneck et al., 2010). To detect extraterrestrial life on other planets it is important to prevent microbial contamination imported from the Earth, also known as forward contamination. Until now missions to Mars are solely progressed by robots like the Mars Science Laboratory mission with the Curiosity lander. The assembly of spacecraft components is performed in special bioburden controlled clean rooms. Nevertheless, the microbial diversity in these clean rooms is enormous (Vaishampayan et al., 2013). The propagation of microorganisms and in particular the spread of environmental and human-associated species can be facilitated through numerous exposure routes (e.g., air, personal contact, water, excretions, etc.). Besides robotic missions, on-board the International Space Station (ISS) and in (future) space vehicles for long-term journeys to special targets of astrobiological interests in the solar system, astronauts will have the unique opportunity for scientific exploration. The manned exploration of new environments (e.g. asteroids, Mars) require long-term residence in confined stations and habitats (e.g. space stations, spacecraft, vehicles). During these missions, the health of the crew members has to be protected, and the integrity of the materials and facilities should be carefully monitored (van Houdt et al., 2012). A major concern is the microbiological burden in enclosed environments, where human inhabitants are continuously exposed to potential harmful microorganisms over a long-duration, which may affect the health and performance of the human subjects (Horneck et al., 2010) in addition to potential risks by biofilm formation and biocorrosion of materials. In both scenarios, the application of antimicrobial surfaces is an encouraging approach to reduce microorganisms in a straightforward way. Antimicrobial agents and materials are characterized by

  10. Assessment of beverage intake and hydration status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissensohn, Mariela; López-Ufano, Marisa; Castro-Quezada, Itandehui; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2015-02-26

    Water is the main constituent of the human body. It is involved in practically all its functions. It is particularly important for thermoregulation and in the physical and cognitive performance. Water balance reflects water intake and loss. Intake of water is done mainly through consumption of drinking water and beverages (70 to 80%) plus water containing foods (20 to 30%). Water loss is mainly due to excretion of water in urine, faeces and sweat. The interest in the type and quantity of beverage consumption is not new, and numerous approaches have been used to assess beverage intake, but the validity of these approaches has not been well established. There is no standardized questionnaire developed as a research tool for the evaluation of water intake in the general population. Sometimes, the information comes from different sources or from different methodological characteristics which raises problems of the comparability. In the European Union, current epidemiological studies that focus exclusively on beverage intake are scarce. Biomarkers of intake are able to objectively assess dietary intake/status without the bias of self-reported dietary intake errors and also overcome the problem of intra-individual diet variability. Furthermore, some methods of measuring dietary intake used biomarkers to validate the data it collects. Biological markers may offer advantages and be able to improve the estimates of dietary intake assessment, which impact into the statistical power of the study. There is a surprising paucity of studies that systematically examine the correlation of beverages intake and hydration biomarker in different populations. A pilot investigation was developed to evaluate the comparative validity and reliability of newly developed interactive multimedia (IMM) versions compared to validated paper-administered (PP) versions of the Hedrick et al. beverage questionnaire. The study showed that the IMM appears to be a valid and reliable measure to assess

  11. Calcium intake in health maintenance – a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsti Uusi-Rasi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcium (Ca is an essential nutrient for the human body. Despite lively research, there is uncertainty about Ca requirements in terms of desirable health outcomes including an upper intake level above which the potential for harm increases. Objectives: The aim was to conduct a review to update requirements and desirable or harmful health effects of Ca on the current scientific evidence. Methods: We searched Medline and Swemed from January 2000 to December 2011 and included all systematic reviews that reported Ca supplementation or usual Ca intake on health outcomes. Meta-analyses, randomized clinical trials and cohort studies were included in the second search between May 2009 and March 2011 and an additional search covering studies till the end of 2011. This review concentrated on studies reporting independent effects of Ca, although a few recent trials report sole effects of Ca on health outcomes, most trials use Ca in combination with vitamin D vs. placebo. Results: In total, we reviewed 38 studies addressing the effects of Ca on bone, pregnancy-related outcomes, cancers, cardiovascular outcomes, obesity, and mortality. There was a lot of heterogeneity in the study protocols, which made it difficult to draw any strong conclusions. According to the literature, high Ca intake seems to have a small positive effect on bone mineral content (BMC or bone mineral density (BMD in children and postmenopausal women. We did not find any consistent evidence on the effects of Ca on bone health in premenopausal women or men. Also, the evidence that Ca supplementation reduces fracture incidence is scarce and inconsistent. Maternal diet may influence the peak bone mass of offspring but more studies are required. There was no overall effect of Ca intake on cancers. Ca was associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer and a slightly increased risk of prostate cancer in two of the three studies. No associations were found with other cancers. We

  12. In Vitro Osteogenic Potential of Green Fluorescent Protein Labelled Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Osteoprogenitors

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    Intekhab Islam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular therapy using stem cells in bone regeneration has gained increasing interest. Various studies suggest the clinical utility of osteoprogenitors-like mesenchymal stem cells in bone regeneration. However, limited availability of mesenchymal stem cells and conflicting evidence on their therapeutic efficacy limit their clinical application. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs are potentially an unlimited source of healthy and functional osteoprogenitors (OPs that could be utilized for bone regenerative applications. However, limited ability to track hESC-derived progenies in vivo greatly hinders translational studies. Hence, in this study, we aimed to establish hESC-derived OPs (hESC-OPs expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP and to investigate their osteogenic differentiation potential in vitro. We fluorescently labelled H9-hESCs using a plasmid vector encoding GFP. The GFP-expressing hESCs were differentiated into hESC-OPs. The hESC-OPsGFP+ stably expressed high levels of GFP, CD73, CD90, and CD105. They possessed osteogenic differentiation potential in vitro as demonstrated by increased expression of COL1A1, RUNX2, OSTERIX, and OPG transcripts and mineralized nodules positive for Alizarin Red and immunocytochemical expression of osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase, and collagen-I. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that fluorescently labelled hESC-OPs can maintain their GFP expression for the long term and their potential for osteogenic differentiation in vitro. In future, these fluorescently labelled hESC-OPs could be used for noninvasive assessment of bone regeneration, safety, and therapeutic efficacy.

  13. Evaluation in dogs and humans of three potential technetium-99m myocardial perfusion agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerundini, P.; Savi, A.; Gilardi, M.C.

    1986-01-01

    The biodistribution of the three cationic /sup 99m/Tc complexes [/sup 99m/Tc(TMP)6]+, [/sup 99m/Tc(POM-POM)3]+, and [/sup 99m/Tc(TBIN)6]+--where TMP represents trimethylphosphite, POM-POM represents 1,2-bis(dimethyoxyphosphino)ethane, and TBIN represents t-butylisonitrile--have been evaluated in humans and dogs. Each agent was studied in three normal volunteers at rest, while [/sup 99m/Tc(POM-POM)3]+ and [/sup 99m/Tc(TBIN)6]+ were each studied in one normal volunteer at exercise. Even though all three agents yield good myocardial images in dogs, none appear suitable for clinical use as myocardial perfusion imaging radiopharmaceuticals. In humans, [/sup 99m/Tc(TMP)6]+ and [/sup 99m/Tc(POM-POM)3]+ clear very slowly from the blood and provide myocardial images only several hours after injection. [/sup 99m/Tc(TBIN)6]+ clears rapidly from the blood, but accumulation in the lung obscures the myocardial image for the first hour after injection; at later times, activity in the liver and spleen masks the apical wall. These results correlate with the blood-binding properties of the three complexes. [/sup 99m/Tc(TMP)6]+ and [/sup 99m/Tc(POM-POM)3]+ bind tightly to the plasma of human blood, but not to the plasma of dog blood; [/sup 99m/Tc(TBIN)6]+ does not bind tightly to the plasma of either dog or human blood. Among the Tc(I) complexes studied to date in humans, [/sup 99m/Tc(TBIN)6]+ appears to be unique in biodistribution pattern, blood-binding properties, and the fact that exercise improves the ultimate myocardial image. All the Tc(I) complexes appear to undergo myocardial accumulation by a mechanism different from that utilized by Tc(III) complexes. Animal studies alone are not adequate to evaluate the potential utility of /sup 99m/Tc cationic complexes for myocardial perfusion studies

  14. Relationship between daily isoflavone intake and sleep in Japanese adults: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yufei; Niu, Kaijun; Huang, Cong; Momma, Haruki; Guan, Lei; Kobayashi, Yoritoshi; Guo, Hui; Chujo, Masahiko; Otomo, Atsushi; Nagatomi, Ryoichi

    2015-12-29

    Isoflavones comprise a class of phytoestrogens that resemble human estrogen in chemical structure, and have weak estrogenic effects. Because estrogen modulates sleep duration and quality, we hypothesized that isoflavones would have a beneficial effect on sleep status in a way similar to estrogen. We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate the relationship between daily isoflavone intake and sleep status in Japanese subjects. Our study included 1076 Japanese adults aged 20-78 years. Daily isoflavone intake was assessed using a brief self-administered diet history questionnaire, and sleep was evaluated using a self-reported questionnaire. The prevalence of regular sleep duration (7-8 h/day) and sufficient sleep quality were 13.3% and 56.2%, respectively. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, the odds ratios (95% CIs) for optimal sleep duration (7-8 h) when higher isoflavone intakes (Q2-Q4) were compared with low isoflavone intake (Q1) were Q2: 0.94 (0.53-1.56); Q3: 1.28 (0.73-2.24); and Q4: 1.84 (1.06-3.18) (p for trend = 0.013). In the final adjusted model, sufficient sleep quality across categories of isoflavone intake was Q1: 1.00 (reference); Q2: 1.30 (0.91-1.84); Q3: 1.48 (1.03-2.12); and Q4: 1.78 (1.22-2.60); (p for trend = 0.002). Higher daily isoflavone intake was positively associated with optimal sleep duration and quality in a Japanese population. This finding suggests that daily isoflavone intake may have a potentially beneficial effect on sleep status.

  15. Neuropharmacology of Human Appetite Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, Jason C. G.; Harrold, Joanne A.

    2008-01-01

    The regulation of appetite relies on the integration of numerous episodic (meal) and tonic (energy storage) generated signals in energy regulatory centres within the central nervous system (CNS). These centers provide the pharmacological potential to modify human appetite (hunger and satiety) to increase or decrease caloric intake, or to normalize…

  16. Human event-related brain potentials to auditory periodic noise stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaernbach, C; Schröger, E; Gunter, T C

    1998-02-06

    Periodic noise is perceived as different from ordinary non-repeating noise due to the involvement of echoic memory. Since this stimulus does not contain simple physical cues (such as onsets or spectral shape) that might obscure sensory memory interpretations, it is a valuable tool to study sensory memory functions. We demonstrated for the first time that the processing of periodic noise can be tapped by event-related brain potentials (ERPs). Human subjects received repeating segments of noise embedded in non-repeating noise. They were instructed to detect the periodicity inherent to the stimulation. We observed a central negativity time-locked on the periodic segment that correlated to the subjects behavioral performance in periodicity detection. It is argued that the ERP result indicates an enhancement of sensory-specific processing.

  17. Rac1 in human diseases: The therapeutic potential of targeting Rac1 signaling regulatory mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marei, Hadir; Malliri, Angeliki

    2017-07-03

    Abnormal Rac1 signaling is linked to a number of debilitating human diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular diseases and neurodegenerative disorders. As such, Rac1 represents an attractive therapeutic target, yet the search for effective Rac1 inhibitors is still underway. Given the adverse effects associated with Rac1 signaling perturbation, cells have evolved several mechanisms to ensure the tight regulation of Rac1 signaling. Thus, characterizing these mechanisms can provide invaluable information regarding major cellular events that lead to aberrant Rac1 signaling. Importantly, this information can be utilized to further facilitate the development of effective pharmacological modulators that can restore normal Rac1 signaling. In this review, we focus on the pathological role of Rac1 signaling, highlighting the benefits and potential drawbacks of targeting Rac1 in a clinical setting. Additionally, we provide an overview of available compounds that target key Rac1 regulatory mechanisms and discuss future therapeutic avenues arising from our understanding of these mechanisms.

  18. The effects of ultraviolet-A radiation on visual evoked potentials in the young human eye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, B.E.; Beacham, S.; Hanifin, J.P.; Hannon, P.; Streletz, L.; Sliney, D.; Brainard, G.C.

    1996-01-01

    A recent study from this laboratory using visual evoked potentials (VEPs) demonstrated that children's eyes are capable of detecting ultraviolet radiation. The aim of this study was to compare dose-response relationships in two age groups, 6-10 years (n=10) and 20-25 years (n=10). Under photopic viewing conditions (550 lux), exposures of monochromatic UV-A (339 nm) and visible radiation (502 nm) were correlated to VEPs. The results demonstrate that monochromatic UV-A can elicit age and dose dependent responses in the human visual system, suggesting that the eyes of children are more responsive to UV stimuli than the eyes of young adults. (au) 17 refs

  19. Insights into the ninhydrin chemiluminescent reaction and its potential for micromolar determination of human serum albumin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, M. Rodriguez [Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Oviedo, Av. Julian Claveria, 8 33006 Oviedo (Spain); Laino, R. Badia [Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Oviedo, Av. Julian Claveria, 8 33006 Oviedo (Spain); Diaz-Garcia, M.E. [Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Oviedo, Av. Julian Claveria, 8 33006 Oviedo (Spain)]. E-mail: medg@uniovi.es

    2006-06-15

    The N-terminal region of human serum albumin (HSA) has an inherent affinity for Co(II) ions. On this basis a new continuous flow method for detection of HSA has been developed taking advantage of the strong quenching effect of the albumin in the ninhydrin-H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-Co(II) chemiluminescent system. The analytical potential of the system is compared with other conventional chemiluminescent reagents. The method gives linear responses from the detection limit (0.30 {mu}M HSA) up to 6.8 {mu}M. The repeatability of the method is good (RSD=7%), it is cheap and rapid to apply and does not require the use of insoluble or expensive reagents nor sophisticated equipment.

  20. A genome-wide linkage scan for dietary energy and nutrient intakes: the Health, Risk Factors, Exercise Training, and Genetics (HERITAGE) Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collaku, Agron; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rice, Treva; Leon, Arthur S; Rao, D C; Skinner, James S; Wilmore, Jack H; Bouchard, Claude

    2004-05-01

    A poor diet is a risk factor for chronic diseases such as obesity, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and some cancers. Twin and family studies suggest that genetic factors potentially influence energy and nutrient intakes. We sought to identify genomic regions harboring genes affecting total energy, carbohydrate, protein, and fat intakes. We performed a genomic scan in 347 white sibling pairs and 99 black sibling pairs. Dietary energy and nutrient intakes were assessed by using Willett's food-frequency questionnaire. Single-point and multipoint Haseman-Elston regression techniques were used to test for linkage. These subjects were part of the Health, Risk Factors, Exercise Training, and Genetics (HERITAGE) Family Study, a multicenter project undertaken by 5 laboratories. In the whites, the strongest evidence of linkage appeared for dietary energy and nutrient intakes on chromosomes 1p21.2 (P = 0.0002) and 20q13.13 (P = 0.00007), and that for fat intake appeared on chromosome 12q14.1 (P = 0.0013). The linkage evidence on chromosomes 1 and 20 related to total energy intake rather than to the intake of specific macronutrients. In the blacks, promising linkages for macronutrient intakes occurred on chromosomes 12q23-q24.21, 1q32.1, and 7q11.1. Several potential candidate genes are encoded in and around the linkage regions on chromosomes 1p21.2, 12q14.1, and 20q13.13. These are the first reported human quantitative trait loci for dietary energy and macronutrient intakes. Further study may refine these quantitative trait loci to identify potential candidate genes for energy and specific macronutrient intakes that would be amenable to more detailed molecular studies.

  1. Iodine intake in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, K.M.; Noehr, S.B.; Laurberg, P.

    1997-01-01

    Iodine deficiency with a high frequency of goitre and, in severely affected areas, cretinism is common in some areas of the world. In Denmark the iodine intake as evaluated by urinary iodine excretion has been at a stable low level for many years, except for the part of the population now taking iodine supplementation as part of vitamin/mineral preparations. The iodine intake is lowest in the western part to the country where an epidemiological study of elderly subjects has demonstrated a high frequency of goitre and hyperthyroidism in women. This supports the suggestion of a controlled moderate increase in iodine intake via an iodine supplementation program. (au) 40 refs

  2. Multilineage potential and proteomic profiling of human dental stem cells derived from a single donor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, Rajreddy; Kumar, B. Mohana; Lee, Won-Jae; Jeon, Ryoung-Hoon; Jang, Si-Jung; Lee, Yeon-Mi; Park, Bong-Wook; Byun, June-Ho; Ahn, Chun-Seob; Kim, Jae-Won; Rho, Gyu-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Dental tissues provide an alternative autologous source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for regenerative medicine. In this study, we isolated human dental MSCs of follicle, pulp and papilla tissue from a single donor tooth after impacted third molar extraction by excluding the individual differences. We then compared the morphology, proliferation rate, expression of MSC-specific and pluripotency markers, and in vitro differentiation ability into osteoblasts, adipocytes, chondrocytes and functional hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs). Finally, we analyzed the protein expression profiles of undifferentiated dental MSCs using 2DE coupled with MALDI-TOF-MS. Three types of dental MSCs largely shared similar morphology, proliferation potential, expression of surface markers and pluripotent transcription factors, and differentiation ability into osteoblasts, adipocytes, and chondrocytes. Upon hepatogenic induction, all MSCs were transdifferentiated into functional HLCs, and acquired hepatocyte functions by showing their ability for glycogen storage and urea production. Based on the proteome profiling results, we identified nineteen proteins either found commonly or differentially expressed among the three types of dental MSCs. In conclusion, three kinds of dental MSCs from a single donor tooth possessed largely similar cellular properties and multilineage potential. Further, these dental MSCs had similar proteomic profiles, suggesting their interchangeable applications for basic research and call therapy. - Highlights: • Isolated and characterized three types of human dental MSCs from a single donor. • MSCs of dental follicle, pulp and papilla had largely similar biological properties. • All MSCs were capable of transdifferentiating into functional hepatocyte-like cells. • 2DE proteomics with MALDI-TOF/MS identified 19 proteins in three types of MSCs. • Similar proteomic profiles suggest interchangeable applications of dental MSCs

  3. Spontaneous calcium transients in human neural progenitor cells mediated by transient receptor potential channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Peter J; Hübner, Rayk; Rolfs, Arndt; Frech, Moritz J

    2013-09-15

    Calcium signals affect many developmental processes, including proliferation, migration, survival, and apoptosis, processes that are of particular importance in stem cells intended for cell replacement therapies. The mechanisms underlying Ca(2+) signals, therefore, have a role in determining how stem cells respond to their environment, and how these responses might be controlled in vitro. In this study, we examined the spontaneous Ca(2+) activity in human neural progenitor cells during proliferation and differentiation. Pharmacological characterization indicates that in proliferating cells, most activity is the result of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels that are sensitive to Gd(3+) and La(3+), with the more subtype selective antagonist Ruthenium red also reducing activity, suggesting the involvement of transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) channels. In differentiating cells, Gd(3+) and La(3+)-sensitive TRP channels also appear to underlie the spontaneous activity; however, no sub-type-specific antagonists had any effect. Protein levels of TRPV2 and TRPV3 decreased in differentiated cells, which is demonstrated by western blot. Thus, it appears that TRP channels represent the main route of Ca(2+) entry in human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs), but the responsible channel types are subject to substitution under differentiating conditions. The level of spontaneous activity could be increased and decreased by lowering and raising the extracellular K(+) concentration. Proliferating cells in low K(+) slowed the cell cycle, with a disproportionate increased percentage of cells in G1 phase and a reduction in S phase. Taken together, these results suggest a link between external K(+) concentration, spontaneous Ca(2+) transients, and cell cycle distribution, which is able to influence the fate of stem and progenitor cells.

  4. Bacteriocinogenic potential and virulence traits of Enterococcus faecium and E. faecalis isolated from human milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalkhali, Soodabeh; Mojgani, Naheed

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Human milk is a continuous supply of Lactic Acid bacteria (LAB), including enterococci with probiotic potentials. The aim of this study was to analyze two Enterococcus species, isolated from human milk for their probiotic potential, bacteriocin producing ability and virulence traits. Materials and Methods: Enterococcus faecium TA0033 and E. faecalis TA102 were tested for acid and bile tolerance, survival in simulated gastric and intestinal conditions. The antibacterial spectrum of the isolates was tested by agar well diffusion assay. The antagonistic agent was characterized by physico-chemical methods. The enterocin structural genes, virulence determinants, vancomycin resistance and biogenic amine genes, such as hdc1, hdc2, tdc, ldc and odc were also determined. Results: The tested isolates survived acidic conditions, high bile salt (1%), simulated gastric and intestinal conditions. The culture supernatant fluids of the two isolates inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella dysenteriae and Streptococcus agalactiae. The antagonistic activity was lost in the presence of proteolytic enzymes but tolerated the action of catalase, lysozyme and lipase. In contrast to enterocin TA102, enterocin TA0033 possessed bactericidal mode of action. Bacteriocin structural genes, entA and entB were present in the genome of the two isolates, while E. faecalis TA102 additionally harboured entP and bac31 genes. The phenotypic and genotypic virulence assessment studies indicated hyaluronidase (hyl) production and vancomycin resistance in E. faecalis TA102 while, none of the isolates harboured the biogenic amine genes. Conclusion: The presence of virulence genes in E. faecalis TA102 calls for careful monitoring of Enterococcus isolates for their safety parameters. PMID:29238458

  5. Autonomous growth potential of leukemia blast cells is associated with poor prognosis in human acute leukemias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakubowski Ann A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We have described a severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID mouse model that permits the subcutaneous growth of primary human acute leukemia blast cells into a measurable subcutaneous nodule which may be followed by the development of disseminated disease. Utilizing the SCID mouse model, we examined the growth potential of leukemic blasts from 133 patients with acute leukemia, (67 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL and 66 acute myeloid leukemia (AML in the animals after subcutaneous inoculation without conditioning treatment. The blasts displayed three distinct growth patterns: "aggressive", "indolent", or "no tumor growth". Out of 133 leukemias, 45 (33.8% displayed an aggressive growth pattern, 14 (10.5% displayed an indolent growth pattern and 74 (55.6% did not grow in SCID mice. The growth probability of leukemias from relapsed and/or refractory disease was nearly 3 fold higher than that from patients with newly diagnosed disease. Serial observations found that leukemic blasts from the same individual, which did not initiate tumor growth at initial presentation and/or at early relapse, may engraft and grow in the later stages of disease, suggesting that the ability of leukemia cells for engraftment and proliferation was gradually acquired following the process of leukemia progression. Nine autonomous growing leukemia cell lines were established in vitro. These displayed an aggressive proliferation pattern, suggesting a possible correlation between the capacity of human leukemia cells for autonomous proliferation in vitro and an aggressive growth potential in SCID mice. In addition, we demonstrated that patients whose leukemic blasts displayed an aggressive growth and dissemination pattern in SClD mice had a poor clinical outcome in patients with ALL as well as AML. Patients whose leukemic blasts grew indolently or whose leukemia cells failed to induce growth had a significantly longer DFS and more favorable clinical course.

  6. Multilineage potential and proteomic profiling of human dental stem cells derived from a single donor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, Rajreddy; Kumar, B. Mohana; Lee, Won-Jae; Jeon, Ryoung-Hoon; Jang, Si-Jung; Lee, Yeon-Mi [Department of Theriogenology and Biotechnology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Bong-Wook; Byun, June-Ho [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Medicine and Institute of Health Science, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-702 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Chun-Seob; Kim, Jae-Won [Department of Microbiology, Division of Life Sciences, Research Institute of Life Science, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Rho, Gyu-Jin, E-mail: jinrho@gnu.ac.kr [Department of Theriogenology and Biotechnology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Life Sciences, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-01

    Dental tissues provide an alternative autologous source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for regenerative medicine. In this study, we isolated human dental MSCs of follicle, pulp and papilla tissue from a single donor tooth after impacted third molar extraction by excluding the individual differences. We then compared the morphology, proliferation rate, expression of MSC-specific and pluripotency markers, and in vitro differentiation ability into osteoblasts, adipocytes, chondrocytes and functional hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs). Finally, we analyzed the protein expression profiles of undifferentiated dental MSCs using 2DE coupled with MALDI-TOF-MS. Three types of dental MSCs largely shared similar morphology, proliferation potential, expression of surface markers and pluripotent transcription factors, and differentiation ability into osteoblasts, adipocytes, and chondrocytes. Upon hepatogenic induction, all MSCs were transdifferentiated into functional HLCs, and acquired hepatocyte functions by showing their ability for glycogen storage and urea production. Based on the proteome profiling results, we identified nineteen proteins either found commonly or differentially expressed among the three types of dental MSCs. In conclusion, three kinds of dental MSCs from a single donor tooth possessed largely similar cellular properties and multilineage potential. Further, these dental MSCs had similar proteomic profiles, suggesting their interchangeable applications for basic research and call therapy. - Highlights: • Isolated and characterized three types of human dental MSCs from a single donor. • MSCs of dental follicle, pulp and papilla had largely similar biological properties. • All MSCs were capable of transdifferentiating into functional hepatocyte-like cells. • 2DE proteomics with MALDI-TOF/MS identified 19 proteins in three types of MSCs. • Similar proteomic profiles suggest interchangeable applications of dental MSCs.

  7. Caveolin-1 influences vascular protease activity and is a potential stabilizing factor in human atherosclerotic disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A Rodriguez-Feo

    Full Text Available Caveolin-1 (Cav-1 is a regulatory protein of the arterial wall, but its role in human atherosclerosis remains unknown. We have studied the relationships between Cav-1 abundance, atherosclerotic plaque characteristics and clinical manisfestations of atherosclerotic disease.We determined Cav-1 expression by western blotting in atherosclerotic plaques harvested from 378 subjects that underwent carotid endarterectomy. Cav-1 levels were significantly lower in carotid plaques than non-atherosclerotic vascular specimens. Low Cav-1 expression was associated with features of plaque instability such as large lipid core, thrombus formation, macrophage infiltration, high IL-6, IL-8 levels and elevated MMP-9 activity. Clinically, a down-regulation of Cav-1 was observed in plaques obtained from men, patients with a history of myocardial infarction and restenotic lesions. Cav-1 levels above the median were associated with absence of new vascular events within 30 days after surgery [0% vs. 4%] and a trend towards lower incidence of new cardiovascular events during longer follow-up. Consistent with these clinical data, Cav-1 null mice revealed elevated intimal hyperplasia response following arterial injury that was significantly attenuated after MMP inhibition. Recombinant peptides mimicking Cav-1 scaffolding domain (Cavtratin reduced gelatinase activity in cultured porcine arteries and impaired MMP-9 activity and COX-2 in LPS-challenged macrophages. Administration of Cavtratin strongly impaired flow-induced expansive remodeling in mice. This is the first study that identifies Cav-1 as a novel potential stabilizing factor in human atherosclerosis. Our findings support the hypothesis that local down-regulation of Cav-1 in atherosclerotic lesions contributes to plaque formation and/or instability accelerating the occurrence of adverse clinical outcomes. Therefore, given the large number of patients studied, we believe that Cav-1 may be considered as a novel target

  8. EGFR, HER-2 and KRAS in canine gastric epithelial tumors: a potential human model?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossella Terragni

    Full Text Available Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR or HER-1 and its analog c-erbB-2 (HER-2 are protein tyrosine kinases correlated with prognosis and response to therapy in a variety of human cancers. KRAS mediates the transduction of signals between EGFR and the nucleus, and its mutation has been identified as a predictor of resistance to anti-EGFR drugs. In human oncology, the importance of the EGFR/HER-2/KRAS signalling pathway in gastric cancer is well established, and HER-2 testing is required before initiating therapy. Conversely, this pathway has never been investigated in canine gastric tumours. A total of 19 canine gastric epithelial neoplasms (5 adenomas and 14 carcinomas were retrospectively evaluated for EGFR/HER-2 immunohistochemical expression and KRAS mutational status. Five (35.7% carcinomas were classified as intestinal-type and 9 (64.3% as diffuse-type. EGFR was overexpressed (≥ 1+ in 8 (42.1% cases and HER-2 (3+ in 11 (57.9% cases, regardless of tumour location or biological behaviour. The percentage of EGFR-positive tumours was significantly higher in the intestinal-type (80% than in the diffuse-type (11.1%, p = 0.023. KRAS gene was wild type in 18 cases, whereas one mucinous carcinoma harboured a point mutation at codon 12 (G12R. EGFR and HER-2 may be promising prognostic and therapeutic targets in canine gastric epithelial neoplasms. The potential presence of KRAS mutation should be taken into account as a possible mechanism of drug resistance. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the role of dog as a model for human gastric cancer.

  9. Human performance improvement in organizations: Potential application for the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-11-01

    This publication is primarily intended for managers and specialists in nuclear facility operating organizations working in the area of human performance improvement. It is intended to provide them with practical information they can use to improve human performance in their organizations. While some of the information provided in this publication is based upon the experience of nuclear facility operating organizations, most of it comes from human performance improvement initiatives in non-nuclear organizations and industries. The nuclear industry has a long tradition of sharing good management practices in order to foster continuous improvement. However, it is not always realized that many of the practices that are now well established initially came from non-nuclear industries and were subsequently adapted for application to nuclear power plant operating organizations. There is, therefore, good reason to periodically review non-nuclear industry practices for ideas that might have direct or indirect application to the nuclear industry in order to potentially gain benefits such as the following: new approaches to certain problem areas, insights into new or impending challenges, improvements in existing practices, benchmarking of opportunities, development of learning organizations and avoidance of collective blind spots. The preparation of this report was an activity of the project on Effective Training to Achieve Excellence in the Performance of NPP Personnel. The objective of this project is to enhance the capability of Member States to utilize proven practices developed and transferred by the IAEA for improving personnel performance. The expected outcome from this project is the increased use by organizations in Members States of proven engineering and management practices and methodologies developed and transferred by the IAEA to improve personnel performance

  10. Changes in extreme events and the potential impacts on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jesse E; Brown, Claudia Langford; Conlon, Kathryn; Herring, Stephanie; Kunkel, Kenneth E; Lawrimore, Jay; Luber, George; Schreck, Carl; Smith, Adam; Uejio, Christopher

    2018-04-01

    Extreme weather and climate-related events affect human health by causing death, injury, and illness, as well as having large socioeconomic impacts. Climate change has caused changes in extreme event frequency, intensity, and geographic distribution, and will continue to be a driver for change in the future. Some of these events include heat waves, droughts, wildfires, dust storms, flooding rains, coastal flooding, storm surges, and hurricanes. The pathways connecting extreme events to health outcomes and economic losses can be diverse and complex. The difficulty in predicting these relationships comes from the local societal and environmental factors that affect disease burden. More information is needed about the impacts of climate change on public health and economies to effectively plan for and adapt to climate change. This paper describes some of the ways extreme events are changing and provides examples of the potential impacts on human health and infrastructure. It also identifies key research gaps to be addressed to improve the resilience of public health to extreme events in the future. Extreme weather and climate events affect human health by causing death, injury, and illness, as well as having large socioeconomic impacts. Climate change has caused changes in extreme event frequency, intensity, and geographic distribution, and will continue to be a driver for change in the future. Some of these events include heat waves, droughts, wildfires, flooding rains, coastal flooding, surges, and hurricanes. The pathways connecting extreme events to health outcomes and economic losses can be diverse and complex. The difficulty in predicting these relationships comes from the local societal and environmental factors that affect disease burden.

  11. Identification and Evolutionary Analysis of Potential Candidate Genes in a Human Eating Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubadah Sabbagh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to find genes linked with eating disorders and associated with both metabolic and neural systems. Our operating hypothesis was that there are genetic factors underlying some eating disorders resting in both those pathways. Specifically, we are interested in disorders that may rest in both sleep and metabolic function, generally called Night Eating Syndrome (NES. A meta-analysis of the Gene Expression Omnibus targeting the mammalian nervous system, sleep, and obesity studies was performed, yielding numerous genes of interest. Through a text-based analysis of the results, a number of potential candidate genes were identified. VGF, in particular, appeared to be relevant both to obesity and, broadly, to brain or neural development. VGF is a highly connected protein that interacts with numerous targets via proteolytically digested peptides. We examined VGF from an evolutionary perspective to determine whether other available evidence supported a role for the gene in human disease. We conclude that some of the already identified variants in VGF from human polymorphism studies may contribute to eating disorders and obesity. Our data suggest that there is enough evidence to warrant eGWAS and GWAS analysis of these genes in NES patients in a case-control study.

  12. Event-related brain potential correlates of human auditory sensory memory-trace formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haenschel, Corinna; Vernon, David J; Dwivedi, Prabuddh; Gruzelier, John H; Baldeweg, Torsten

    2005-11-09

    The event-related potential (ERP) component mismatch negativity (MMN) is a neural marker of human echoic memory. MMN is elicited by deviant sounds embedded in a stream of frequent standards, reflecting the deviation from an inferred memory trace of the standard stimulus. The strength of this memory trace is thought to be proportional to the number of repetitions of the standard tone, visible as the progressive enhancement of MMN with number of repetitions (MMN memory-trace effect). However, no direct ERP correlates of the formation of echoic memory traces are currently known. This study set out to investigate changes in ERPs to different numbers of repetitions of standards, delivered in a roving-stimulus paradigm in which the frequency of the standard stimulus changed randomly between stimulus trains. Normal healthy volunteers (n = 40) were engaged in two experimental conditions: during passive listening and while actively